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Sample records for observed gender difference

  1. Online social support for individuals concerned with heart disease: observing gender differences.

    PubMed Central

    Bjornsdottir, G.

    1999-01-01

    Using a theoretical framework of social support, and content analysis, the content and pattern of support in messages posted in a 4-week period on a commercial health network for individuals concerned with heart disease were observed and described. Special consideration was given to identifying gender differences. PMID:10566446

  2. Prospective clinical observational study evaluating gender-associated differences of preoperative pain intensity

    PubMed Central

    Tafelski, Sascha; Kerper, Léonie F; Salz, Anna-Lena; Spies, Claudia; Reuter, Eva; Nachtigall, Irit; Schäfer, Michael; Krannich, Alexander; Krampe, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies reported conflicting results concerning different pain perceptions of men and women. Recent research found higher pain levels in men after major surgery, contrasted by women after minor procedures. This trial investigates differences in self-reported preoperative pain intensity between genders before surgery. Patients were enrolled in 2011 and 2012 presenting for preoperative evaluation at the anesthesiological assessment clinic at Charité University hospital. Out of 5102 patients completing a computer-assisted self-assessment, 3042 surgical patients with any preoperative pain were included into this prospective observational clinical study. Preoperative pain intensity (0–100 VAS, visual analog scale) was evaluated integrating psychological cofactors into analysis. Women reported higher preoperative pain intensity than men with median VAS scores of 30 (25th–75th percentiles: 10–52) versus 21 (10–46) (P < 0.001). Adjusted multiple regression analysis showed that female gender remained statistically significantly associated with higher pain intensity (P < 0.001). Gender differences were consistent across several subgroups especially with varying patterns in elderly. Women scheduled for minor and moderate surgical procedures showed largest differences in overall pain compared to men. This large clinical study observed significantly higher preoperative pain intensity in female surgical patients. This gender difference was larger in the elderly potentially contradicting the current hypothesis of a primary sex-hormone derived effect. The observed variability in specific patient subgroups may help to explain heterogeneous findings of previous studies. PMID:27399095

  3. Neurophysiological Tools to Investigate Consumer's Gender Differences during the Observation of TV Commercials

    PubMed Central

    Maglione, Anton Giulio; Wasikowska, Barbara; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Graziani, Ilenia; Trettel, Arianna

    2014-01-01

    Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers' reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate (HR) in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer's gender. PMID:25147579

  4. Neurophysiological tools to investigate consumer's gender differences during the observation of TV commercials.

    PubMed

    Vecchiato, Giovanni; Maglione, Anton Giulio; Cherubino, Patrizia; Wasikowska, Barbara; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Latuszynska, Anna; Latuszynska, Malgorzata; Nermend, Kesra; Graziani, Ilenia; Leucci, Maria Rita; Trettel, Arianna; Babiloni, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Neuromarketing is a multidisciplinary field of research whose aim is to investigate the consumers' reaction to advertisements from a neuroscientific perspective. In particular, the neuroscience field is thought to be able to reveal information about consumer preferences which are unobtainable through conventional methods, including submitting questionnaires to large samples of consumers or performing psychological personal or group interviews. In this scenario, we performed an experiment in order to investigate cognitive and emotional changes of cerebral activity evaluated by neurophysiologic indices during the observation of TV commercials. In particular, we recorded the electroencephalographic (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and heart rate (HR) in a group of 28 healthy subjects during the observation of a series of TV advertisements that have been grouped by commercial categories. Comparisons of cerebral indices have been performed to highlight gender differences between commercial categories and scenes of interest of two specific commercials. Findings show how EEG methodologies, along with the measurements of autonomic variables, could be used to obtain hidden information to marketers not obtainable otherwise. Most importantly, it was suggested how these tools could help to analyse the perception of TV advertisements and differentiate their production according to the consumer's gender.

  5. Postures, typing strategies, and gender differences in mobile device usage: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Gold, J E; Driban, J B; Thomas, N; Chakravarty, T; Channell, V; Komaroff, E

    2012-03-01

    Mobile device text messaging and other typing is rapidly increasing worldwide. A checklist was utilized to characterize joint postures and typing styles in individuals appearing to be of college age (n = 859) while typing on their mobile devices in public. Gender differences were also ascertained. Almost universally, observed subjects had a flexed neck (91.0%, n = 782), and a non-neutral typing-side wrist (90.3%, n = 776). A greater proportion of males had protracted shoulders (p < 0.01, χ(2) test), while a greater proportion of females had a typing-side inner elbow angle of <90°, particularly while standing (p = 0.03, χ(2) test). 46.1% of subjects typed with both thumbs (two hands holding the mobile device). Just over one-third typed with their right thumb (right hand holding the mobile device). No difference in typing styles between genders was found. Future research should determine whether the non-neutral postures identified may be associated with musculoskeletal disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Gender differences in depression.

    PubMed

    Sagud, M; Hotujac, Lj; Mihaljević-Peles, A; Jakovljević, M

    2002-06-01

    Depression is twice as common in women as in men, although some concern has been raised in terms of misdiagnosing depression in men. The incidence of depression in women varies during the life span. The peak incidence during childbearing years appears to be associated with cyclic hormonal changes. Women also present with reproductive -specific mood disorders: pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), depression in pregnancy, postpartal mood disorder (PDD) and perimenopausal depressive disorder. Gender differences were repeatedly observed in response to antidepressant medication. Premenopausal women appear to respond poorly and to show low tolerability to TCAs, but they tend to show greater responsiveness to the SSRIs. In contrast, men and postmenopausal women can respond equally to the TCAs and SSRIs. These differences are contributed to gender differences in pharmacokinetics of antidepressants and to the influence of menstrual cycle. These findings suggest the need for a gender-specific approach to the evaluation and management of depression.

  7. Differences in oral sexual behaviors by gender, age, and race explain observed differences in prevalence of oral human papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Cullen, Kevin; Bowie, Janice; Thorpe, Roland; Fakhry, Carole

    2014-01-01

    This study explores whether gender, age and race differences in oral sexual behavior account for the demographic distribution of oral human papillomavirus infection (HPV) and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OSCC). This analysis included 2,116 men and 2,140 women from NHANES (2009-10) who answered a behavioral questionnaire and provided an oral-rinse sample for HPV detection. Weighted prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated for sexual behaviors and oral HPV infection by gender, age-cohort (20-29, 30-44, 45-59, 60-69), and race, and contrasted with incidence rate ratios (IRR) of OSCC from SEER 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of oral sexual behavior and oral HPV16 infection. Differences in oral sexual behavior were observed by gender, age-cohort and race. Most men (85.4%) and women (83.2%) had ever performed oral sex, but men had more lifetime oral and vaginal sexual partners and higher oral HPV16 prevalence than women (each p<0.001). 60-69 year olds (yo) were less likely than 45-59 or 30-44 (yo) to have performed oral sex (72.7%, 84.8%, and 90.3%, p<0.001), although oral HPV16 prevalence was similar. Prevalence ratios (PR) of ever oral sex in men vs. women (PR = 1.03), and 45-59 vs. 30-44 year-old men (PR = 0.96) were modest relative to ratios for oral HPV16 infection (PRs = 1.3-6.8) and OSCC (IRR = 4.7-8.1). In multivariate analysis, gender, age-cohort, and race were significant predictors of oral sexual behavior. Oral sexual behavior was the primary predictor of oral HPV16 infection; once this behavior was adjusted for, age-cohort and race were no longer associated with oral HPV16. There are differences in oral sexual behaviors when considering gender, age-cohort and race which explain observed epidemiologic differences in oral HPV16 infection across these groups.

  8. Differences in Oral Sexual Behaviors by Gender, Age, and Race Explain Observed Differences in Prevalence of Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Cullen, Kevin; Bowie, Janice; Thorpe, Roland; Fakhry, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study explores whether gender, age and race differences in oral sexual behavior account for the demographic distribution of oral human papillomavirus infection (HPV) and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer (HPV-OSCC) Methods This analysis included 2,116 men and 2,140 women from NHANES (2009–10) who answered a behavioral questionnaire and provided an oral-rinse sample for HPV detection. Weighted prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated for sexual behaviors and oral HPV infection by gender, age-cohort (20–29, 30–44, 45–59, 60–69), and race, and contrasted with incidence rate ratios (IRR) of OSCC from SEER 2009. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of oral sexual behavior and oral HPV16 infection. Results Differences in oral sexual behavior were observed by gender, age-cohort and race. Most men (85.4%) and women (83.2%) had ever performed oral sex, but men had more lifetime oral and vaginal sexual partners and higher oral HPV16 prevalence than women (each p<0.001). 60–69 year olds (yo) were less likely than 45–59 or 30–44 (yo) to have performed oral sex (72.7%, 84.8%, and 90.3%, p<0.001), although oral HPV16 prevalence was similar. Prevalence ratios (PR) of ever oral sex in men vs. women (PR = 1.03), and 45–59 vs. 30–44 year-old men (PR = 0.96) were modest relative to ratios for oral HPV16 infection (PRs = 1.3–6.8) and OSCC (IRR = 4.7–8.1). In multivariate analysis, gender, age-cohort, and race were significant predictors of oral sexual behavior. Oral sexual behavior was the primary predictor of oral HPV16 infection; once this behavior was adjusted for, age-cohort and race were no longer associated with oral HPV16. Conclusion There are differences in oral sexual behaviors when considering gender, age-cohort and race which explain observed epidemiologic differences in oral HPV16 infection across these groups. PMID:24475067

  9. Gender Differences in Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diedrick, Patricia

    Gender differences in spoken and unspoken emotional expression exist and may be related to gender differences in other realms, particularly in self-esteem. This literature review investigated gender differences in communication, particularly as related to emotional expressiveness, detection of emotional responses, and self-disclosures, in relation…

  10. Gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2014-01-01

    Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research.

  11. An Experimental, Observational Investigation of Children's Responses to Peer Provocation: Developmental and Gender Differences in Middle Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.; Hurley, Jennifer C.; Johanson, Chantrelle A.; Mosley, Jennifer E.

    1999-01-01

    Observed a laboratory play session to study development of anger expression during middle childhood. Found that 8- to 12-year-olds were remarkably composed in response to taunts from a same-age, same-sex confederate and to losing a computer game for a desirable prize. Also found gender differences in negative comments and gestures, and age…

  12. Gender differences in young children’s temperament traits: Comparisons across observational and parent-report methods

    PubMed Central

    Olino, Thomas M.; Durbin, C. Emily; Klein, Daniel N.; Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Dyson, Margaret W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Evidence supporting the continuity between child temperament and adult personality traits is accumulating. One important indicator of continuity is the presence of reliable gender differences in traits across the lifespan. A substantial literature demonstrates gender differences on certain adult personality traits and recent meta-analytic work on child samples suggests similar gender differences for some broad and narrow domains of temperament. However, most existing studies of children rely only on parent-report measures. The present study investigated gender differences in temperament traits assessed by laboratory observation, maternal-report, and paternal-report measures. Methods Across three independent samples, behavioral observations, maternal-report, and paternal-report measures of temperament were collected on 463 boys and 402 girls. Results Across all three methods, girls demonstrated higher positive affect and fear and lower activity level than boys. For laboratory measures, girls demonstrated higher levels of sociability and lower levels of overall negative emotionality (NE), sadness, anger and impulsivity than boys. However, girls demonstrated higher levels of overall NE and sadness than boys when measured by maternal reports. Finally, girls demonstrated lower levels of sociability based on paternal reports. Conclusions Results are discussed in relation to past meta-analytic work and developmental implications of the findings. PMID:22924826

  13. Gender Differences in Preschool Aggression during Free Play and Structured Interactions: An Observational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Keating, Caroline F.

    2004-01-01

    We observed 48 children from rural preschools (M = 64 months old) in two different social contexts to test hypotheses about the type (relational, physical, verbal, nonverbal), contextual independence, and sociometry of girls' and boys' aggressive tactics. We predicted and generally found that (1) girls displayed more relational aggression than…

  14. Gender Differences in Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, John; Kaufman, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Research on gender differences in creativity, including creativity test scores, creative achievements, and self-reported creativity is reviewed, as are theories that have been offered to explain such differences and available evidence that supports or refutes such theories. This is a difficult arena in which to conduct research, but there is a…

  15. Gender differences in cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

    2011-07-01

    The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil [Child Neuropsychological Assessment] (Matute, Rosselli, Ardila, & Ostrosky-Solis, 2007), were analyzed. The sample included 788 monolingual children (350 boys, 438 girls) ages 5 to 16 years from Mexico and Colombia. Gender differences were observed in oral language (language expression and language comprehension), spatial abilities (recognition of pictures seen from different angles), and visual (Object Integration Test) and tactile perceptual tasks, with boys outperforming girls in most cases, except for the tactile tasks. Gender accounted for only a very small percentage of the variance (1%-3%). Gender x Age interactions were observed for the tactile tasks only. It was concluded that gender differences during cognitive development are minimal, appear in only a small number of tests, and account for only a low percentage of the score variance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Gender Differences in Strength.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyward, Vivian H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This investigation examined gender differences of 103 physically active men and women in upper and lower body strength as a function of lean body weight and the distribution of muscle and subcutaneous fat in the upper and lower limbs. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  17. [Gender differences in depression].

    PubMed

    Karger, A

    2014-09-01

    Depression is one of the most prevalent and debilitating diseases. In recent years there has been increased awareness of sex- and gender-specific issues in depression. This narrative review presents and discusses differences in prevalence, symptom profile, age at onset and course, comorbidity, biological and psychosocial factors, the impact of sexual stereotyping, help-seeking, emotion regulation and doctor-patient communication. Typically, women are diagnosed with depression twice as often as men, and their disease follows a more chronic course. Comorbid anxiety is more prevalent in women, whereas comorbid alcohol abuse is a major concern in men. Sucide rates for men are between three and five times higher compared with women. Although there are different symptom profiles in men and women, it is difficult to define a gender-specific symptom profile. Socially mediated gender roles have a significant impact on psychosocial factors associated with risk, sickness behavior and coping strategies. In general, too little attention has been paid to the definition and handling of depression and the gender-related requirements it makes on the healthcare system.

  18. Gender Related Differences in Science Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Kenneth; Garnett, Pamela

    1987-01-01

    Discusses a study which examined gender related differences in participation in science activities. Based on interpretive observations and formal interviews, gender related differences in engagement patterns were evident with the high school students. Presents six assertions and provides supporting examples of gender differences. (ML)

  19. Observed Gender Differences in African American Mother-Child Relationships and Child Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B.; Telesford, James M.; Varner, Fatima A.; Richman, Scott B.

    2012-01-01

    African American mother-child dyads (N = 99) were observed interacting on a collaborative puzzle exercise. Raters blind to the purpose of the study rated the dyads on several mother and child behaviors. Mothers of daughters were rated as more empathetic, encouraging, warm, and accepting and less negative than mothers of sons. Male children were…

  20. Gender Differences in the Presentation of Observable Risk Indicators of Problem Gambling.

    PubMed

    Delfabbro, Paul; Thomas, Anna; Armstrong, Andrew

    2017-05-11

    In many countries where gambling is legalised, there has been a strong public policy focus on the need for strategies to reduce gambling related harm. These have often included policies requiring staff in gambling venues to identify and/or assist people who might be experiencing gambling-related harm. To facilitate this process, researchers have developed visible behavioural indicators that might be used to profile potentially problematic gambling. Few of these studies have, however, examined whether such indicators or 'warning signs' might differ between men and women. In this study, we describe the results of an analysis of data drawn from 1185 fortnightly gamblers that included 338 problem gamblers as classified by the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Indicators of problem gambling were similar between males and females with a few key exceptions. Indicators reflecting emotional distress were more commonly reported by females with gambling problems, whereas problem gambling males were more likely to display aggressive behaviour towards gambling devices and others in the venue. Amongst males, signs of emotional distress as well as attempts to conceal their presence in venues from others most strongly differentiated between problem and non-problem gamblers. Amongst females, signs of anger, a decline in grooming and those attempts to access credit were the most distinguishing indicators. These findings have implications for the refinement of identification policies and practices.

  1. [Gender differences in cardiology].

    PubMed

    Hochleitner, Margarethe; Bader, Angelika

    2003-01-01

    Frequent reports of gender differences in cardiology prompted us to study the cardiological situation in Tyrol, Austria, from 1995 to 2000. Mortality statistics for heart deaths 1995: women 1008 (53.5%), men 875 (46.5%); 2000: women 1104 (58.2%), men 792 (41.8%). Coronary heart deaths 1995: women 572 (50.0%), men 571 (50.0%); 2000: women 634 (54.4%), men 531 (45.6%). Angiograms 1995: women 332 (33.9%), men 646 (66.1%); 2000: women 688 (32.5%), men 1429 (67.5%). Bypass surgery 1995: women 54 (33.0%), men 156 (67.0%); 2000: women 42 (27.5%), men 157 (72.5%). Heart deaths 1995-2000: women +9.5%, men -9.5%; coronary heart deaths 1995-2000: women +10.8%, men -7.0%. By (welcome) contrast, coronary angiograms 1995-2000: women +107.2%, men +121.2%. Bypass operations 1995-2000: women -22.2%, men +0.6%. Life expectancy 1995-2000: women +0.6%, men +0.6%. Patient age at heart death 1995-2000: women +1.8%, men +2.5%. In aggregate, we see that for decades more women than men have died a heart death, but that cardiac mortalities remain a typically "male bastion" with persistent gender differences in access to clinical cardiology. The worsening trend for women begs for awareness programs and corresponding preventive measures.

  2. [Laughter: gender differences].

    PubMed

    Mora-Ripoll, R; Ubal-López, R

    2011-01-01

    Laughter is associated to many physiological and psychological benefits. Although women laugh more than men do, the daily frequency of laughter does not seem to differ. Laughter in all its forms and manifestations is an indicator of family vitality and healthy couples. Laughter is very attractive at the interpersonal level, especially for women. Men use humor much more and laughter when it comes to discussing sensitive health issues. In women, laughter would be more associated with greater social support in relationships and as a tool to cope with stress. Inviting laughter in the doctor's office may be very useful when directing certain messages on therapeutic management. Taking into account possible gender differences in the use of humor and laughter may help to improve the relationship with the patient and optimize the clinical application of laughter in health care and education setting.

  3. Gender differences in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Angele, Martin K; Pratschke, Sebastian; Hubbard, William J; Chaudry, Irshad H

    2014-01-01

    During sepsis, a complex network of cytokine, immune, and endothelial cell interactions occur and disturbances in the microcirculation cause organ dysfunction or even failure leading to high mortality in those patients. In this respect, numerous experimental and clinical studies indicate sex-specific differences in infectious diseases and sepsis. Female gender has been demonstrated to be protective under such conditions, whereas male gender may be deleterious due to a diminished cell-mediated immune response and cardiovascular functions. Male sex hormones, i.e., androgens, have been shown to be suppressive on cell-mediated immune responses. In contrast, female sex hormones exhibit protective effects which may contribute to the natural advantages of females under septic conditions. Thus, the hormonal status has to be considered when treating septic patients. Therefore, potential therapies could be derived from this knowledge. In this respect, administration of female sex hormones (estrogens and their precursors) may exert beneficial effects. Alternatively, blockade of male sex hormone receptors could result in maintained immune responses under adverse circulatory conditions. Finally, administration of agents that influence enzymes synthesizing female sex hormones which attenuate the levels of pro-inflammatory agents might exert salutary effects in septic patients. Prospective patient studies are required for transferring those important experimental findings into the clinical arena. PMID:24193307

  4. [Gender differences in alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Avila Escribano, José Juan; González Parra, David

    2007-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol consumption in women has increased in the last few years, which suggests that alcoholism in women will also increase in the near future. Moreover, this disease shows differential characteristics in women, and knowledge of these characteristics is important so that treatment can begin as early as possible. The objective of the present study was to explore clinical differences in alcohol use disorders according to patients' gender. It was carried out with a sample of 370 patients, 325 men (87.8%) and 45 women (12.2%), with mean ages of 42.83 and 44.6 years, respectively. The patients were assessed through the Europasi interview and analytical studies with liver enzyme profiles and blood tests. The most notable results were: women began alcohol consumption significantly later than men (19.61 and 16.9 years, respectively; p < 0.008); they were significantly older than men when the consumption pattern became problematic (30.93 and 24.68 years, respectively; p < 0.003); they had been drinking for fewer years (13.26 versus 17.85 years; p < 0.02); and they drank fewer grams of alcohol (117.7 and 133.8 g., respectively; n.s.). Women scored significantly higher than men on the Europasi psychiatric scale (2.91 and 1.97, respectively; p < 0.007) and men had more legal problems than women (1.2 and 1.0, respectively; p < 0.000). In the biological tests the GGT enzyme values were higher in men (137.51) than in women (96.7), but this difference was not significant, and the VCM value was significantly higher for women (98.1) than for men (95.05). Another important finding was that the percentage of women who had sought private professional help was higher than that of men (15% versus 4.6%; p < 0.01).

  5. The effects of acupuncture on the brain networks for emotion and cognition: An observation of gender differences

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wei Qiao; Claunch, Joshua; Kong, Jian; Nixon, Erika E.; Fang, Jiliang; Li, Ming; Vangel, Mark; Hui, Kathleen Kin-Sang

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture modulates brain activity at the limbic–paralimbic–neocortical network (LPNN) and the default mode network (DMN). Since these brain networks show gender differences when mediating emotional and cognitive tasks, we thus hypothesize that women and men may also respond differently to acupuncture procedure at these brain regions. In order to test this hypothesis, we retrieved the data of 38 subjects, 19 females and 19 males, who had brain fMRI during acupuncture from previous studies and reanalyzed them based on sex status. Deactivation at the LPNN/DMN during needle manipulation of acupuncture was more extensive in females than in males, particularly in the posterior cingulate (BA31), precuneus (BA7m) and angular gyrus (BA39). The functional correlations between the right BA31 and pregenual cingulate (BA32), hippocampus or contralateral BA31 were significantly stronger in females than in males. The angular gyrus (BA39) was functionally correlated with BA31 in females; in contrast, it was anticorrelated with BA31 in males. Soreness, a major component of the psychophysical responses to needle manipulation, deqi, was correlated in intensity with deactivation of the angular gyrus in females; no such relationships were observed in males. In contrast to lesser deactivation at the LPNN/DMN networks, needle manipulation during acupuncture induced greater activation at the secondary somatosensory cortex and stronger functional connectivity with the anterior-middle cingulate (BA32/24) in males than in females. Our study suggests that brains with sex dimorphism may process the acupuncture stimulation differently between women and men. PMID:20851113

  6. The effects of acupuncture on the brain networks for emotion and cognition: an observation of gender differences.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wei Qiao; Claunch, Joshua; Kong, Jian; Nixon, Erika E; Fang, Jiliang; Li, Ming; Vangel, Mark; Hui, Kathleen Kin-Sang

    2010-11-29

    Acupuncture modulates brain activity at the limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network (LPNN) and the default mode network (DMN). Since these brain networks show gender differences when mediating emotional and cognitive tasks, we thus hypothesize that women and men may also respond differently to acupuncture procedure at these brain regions. In order to test this hypothesis, we retrieved the data of 38 subjects, 19 females and 19 males, who had brain fMRI during acupuncture from previous studies and reanalyzed them based on sex status. Deactivation at the LPNN/DMN during needle manipulation of acupuncture was more extensive in females than in males, particularly in the posterior cingulate (BA31), precuneus (BA7m) and angular gyrus (BA39). The functional correlations between the right BA31 and pregenual cingulate (BA32), hippocampus or contralateral BA31 were significantly stronger in females than in males. The angular gyrus (BA39) was functionally correlated with BA31 in females; in contrast, it was anticorrelated with BA31 in males. Soreness, a major component of the psychophysical responses to needle manipulation, deqi, was correlated in intensity with deactivation of the angular gyrus in females; no such relationships were observed in males. In contrast to lesser deactivation at the LPNN/DMN networks, needle manipulation during acupuncture induced greater activation at the secondary somatosensory cortex and stronger functional connectivity with the anterior-middle cingulate (BA32/24) in males than in females. Our study suggests that brains with sex dimorphism may process the acupuncture stimulation differently between women and men. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender differences in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Lisa M

    2007-03-01

    Because estrogen has numerous effects on dopamine neurotransmission, many researchers are interested in its possible use to either slow the progression or reduce the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). The incidence of PD is greater in men than in women. Gender differences in neurotoxicity have been observed, and basic research in experimental animals indicates that estrogen protects neurons from various forms of injury. However, the results of retrospective surveys of the neuroprotective effects of estrogen replacement in PD have been mixed, with some showing no effect on risk and others showing a reduction in risk. A mildly significant gender difference in disability and quality-of-life reporting has been noted, with women citing greater disability and reduced quality of life. Gender differences have been shown in response to treatment of PD, for example, in how levodopa is metabolized--women have greater levodopa bioavailability. In the Parkinson's Disease on Estrogen Therapy Replacement in the Menopause Years (POETRY) study, participants were found to have improved scores on the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale. Based on the POETRY results, it is hypothesized that estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) may lead to improvement in PD symptoms and provide an opportunity to reduce the dosage of antiparkinsonian medication in women.

  8. Investigating Gender Differences in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Sarah; Johnston, Rhona

    2010-01-01

    Girls consistently outperform boys on tests of reading comprehension, although the reason for this is not clear. In this review, differences between boys and girls in areas relating to reading will be investigated as possible explanations for consistent gender differences in reading attainment. The review will examine gender differences within the…

  9. Few differences in diet and health behaviors and perceptions were observed in adult urban Native American Indians by tribal association, gender, and age grouping.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tina L; Morse, Kristin L; Giraud, David W; Driskell, Judy A

    2008-12-01

    Diet and health behaviors and perceptions of adult urban Native American Indians in a large Midwestern city were evaluated for differences by tribal association, gender, and age grouping. The hypothesis was that human behavior is influenced by tribal association, gender, and age grouping in the subject population. The subjects included 33 men and 32 women, with 26 being Sioux; 22 Omaha; and 17 a combination of other tribes. The descriptive survey included two interviewer-administered 24-hour recalls. The majority of subjects were overweight or obese. Significant differences (P< .05) were observed in vitamin A and calcium intakes by tribal association. Men reported consuming significantly more (P< .05) kilocalories, vitamin C, and sodium. Over half the subjects consumed more than the recommended 20% to 35% kcal from fat, >or=10% kcal from saturated fat, and >or=300 mg cholesterol/d. Less than Estimated Average Requirements for vitamin A, vitamin C, and iron were consumed by 31%, 59%, and 6%, respectively; 79% consumed less than Adequate Intakes for calcium. Ninety-two percent consumed more than the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for sodium. Few differences were observed in the kilocalorie, vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and sodium intakes of these Native American Indians by tribal association, gender, or age grouping. Significant differences in percentages consuming alcohol were observed by gender (P< .05) and by age grouping (P< .01). A significant difference (P< .01) was observed by gender regarding the subjects' perceptions of their being alcoholics. Overall, few differences were observed in diet and health behaviors and perceptions of adult urban Native American Indians by tribal association, gender, and age grouping.

  10. Personality and gender differences in global perspective.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, David P; Long, Audrey E; McPhearson, Allante; O'Brien, Kirby; Remmert, Brooke; Shah, Seema H

    2016-03-21

    Men's and women's personalities appear to differ in several respects. Social role theories of development assume gender differences result primarily from perceived gender roles, gender socialization and sociostructural power differentials. As a consequence, social role theorists expect gender differences in personality to be smaller in cultures with more gender egalitarianism. Several large cross-cultural studies have generated sufficient data for evaluating these global personality predictions. Empirically, evidence suggests gender differences in most aspects of personality-Big Five traits, Dark Triad traits, self-esteem, subjective well-being, depression and values-are conspicuously larger in cultures with more egalitarian gender roles, gender socialization and sociopolitical gender equity. Similar patterns are evident when examining objectively measured attributes such as tested cognitive abilities and physical traits such as height and blood pressure. Social role theory appears inadequate for explaining some of the observed cultural variations in men's and women's personalities. Evolutionary theories regarding ecologically-evoked gender differences are described that may prove more useful in explaining global variation in human personality.

  11. Gender Differences in Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluacion…

  12. Gender Differences in Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardila, Alfredo; Rosselli, Monica; Matute, Esmeralda; Inozemtseva, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The potential effect of gender on intellectual abilities remains controversial. The purpose of this research was to analyze gender differences in cognitive test performance among children from continuous age groups. For this purpose, the normative data from 7 domains of the newly developed neuropsychological test battery, the Evaluacion…

  13. SEX DIFFERENCES, GENDER AND ADDICTION

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jill B.; McClellan, Michele L.; Reed, Beth Glover

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses alcohol/other drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain after exposure to drugs of abuse and whether addiction results from drug-taking experiences. The basic laboratory evidence for sex differences in addiction is discussed within the context of four types of sex/gender differences. PMID:27870394

  14. Gender differences in romantic jealousy.

    PubMed

    Pines, A M; Friedman, A

    1998-02-01

    Findings of studies of gender differences in jealousy are contradictory. In the present study, conflicting literature was addressed by distinguishing 5 dimensions of jealousy: level, trigger, experience, focus, and responses. In 4 studies, 3 in the U.S. and 1 in Israel, gender differences were explored in these 5 dimensions of romantic jealousy. Although there were no gender differences in the likelihood, frequency, duration, or intensity of jealousy, there were differences in the responses to certain jealousy-producing occasions as well as in the focus, experience, and expression of jealousy.

  15. Estrogen, testosterone, and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Dluzen, Dean E

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to gain some current perspective on the definition, bases, and trends for research associated with gender differences. To accomplish this goal an analysis on the number of citations from a 1994-2004 Medline search with the terms estrogen, testosterone, gender differences, sex differences as well as the combinations of these terms was performed. Other combinations of terms included separate searches of estrogen, testosterone, and their combination within males or females, and an analysis of gender and sex differences with the terms human and animal. The salient results from this survey include: (1) An overall greater ratio of estrogen:testosterone citations when these terms were searched alone or in combination with gender differences; (2) an overall greater ratio of testosterone:estrogen citations when these terms were combined with sex differences or conducted separately within males or females, although this trend was shifting toward decreased testosterone and increased estrogen citation numbers toward the latter years of the survey; (3) a trend for increasing numbers of estrogen and gender differences citations over the period of the survey; (4) a clear indication for the term gender differences to be associated with the search term human; and (5) a very small number of citations when the terms estrogen and testosterone were combined. Interpretations and implications of these results are discussed.

  16. Gender differences in the adverse events' profile registered in seven observational studies of a wide gender-medicine (MetaGeM) project: the MetaGeM safety analysis.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Delia; Zagni, Emanuela; Nica, Mihaela; Rizzoli, Sara; Ori, Alessandra; Bellia, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    MetaGeM is a wide gender-medicine project comprising post hoc and meta-analyses by gender of clinical outcomes, therapeutic approaches, and safety data from previously conducted observational studies to explore possible gender differences in real-life clinical settings. We report the results of the safety meta-analysis of seven MetaGeM studies, evaluating gender differences in adverse event (AE) incidence and severity. Data were collected between February 2002 and July 2013. Male and female patients were compared for the main safety variables, using Student's t-test, χ(2) test, or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. As supportive analysis, a logistic regression model was estimated to evaluate associations between gender and outcome. In total, 4,870 patients (46% females, 54% males) were included in the analysis; age was higher for females (mean ± standard deviation 61.2±18.3 years) than males (56.3±16.6 years). Overall, 264 AEs were reported (59.1% in males). There were no significant gender differences in the percentage of patients with at least one AE: 3.0% for females versus 3.9% for males, χ(2) test P>0.05. According to the logistic regression model results, no association between gender and AEs occurrence seems to exist. A statistically significant gender difference in the percentage of drug-related AEs emerged (37.6% in females vs 20.8% in males, χ(2)P=0.0039). Slightly significantly more AEs in females were addressed with treatment compared with males (78.1% vs 66.7%, χ(2)P=0.0485). Total serious AEs (SAEs) were 47 (72% in males). The frequency of patients with ≥1 SAE was 0.6% in females versus 1.2% in males (χ(2) test P=0.0246). This safety analysis on a large sample of almost 5,000 patients with different diseases and treated with a wide range of different drugs provides a useful overview on possible gender differences in drug tolerability, which may be helpful in more accurately designing future clinical trials from a gender-specific perspective.

  17. Gender differences in the adverse events’ profile registered in seven observational studies of a wide gender-medicine (MetaGeM) project: the MetaGeM safety analysis

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Delia; Zagni, Emanuela; Nica, Mihaela; Rizzoli, Sara; Ori, Alessandra; Bellia, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Background MetaGeM is a wide gender-medicine project comprising post hoc and meta-analyses by gender of clinical outcomes, therapeutic approaches, and safety data from previously conducted observational studies to explore possible gender differences in real-life clinical settings. We report the results of the safety meta-analysis of seven MetaGeM studies, evaluating gender differences in adverse event (AE) incidence and severity. Methods Data were collected between February 2002 and July 2013. Male and female patients were compared for the main safety variables, using Student’s t-test, χ2 test, or Fisher’s exact test as appropriate. As supportive analysis, a logistic regression model was estimated to evaluate associations between gender and outcome. Results In total, 4,870 patients (46% females, 54% males) were included in the analysis; age was higher for females (mean ± standard deviation 61.2±18.3 years) than males (56.3±16.6 years). Overall, 264 AEs were reported (59.1% in males). There were no significant gender differences in the percentage of patients with at least one AE: 3.0% for females versus 3.9% for males, χ2 test P>0.05. According to the logistic regression model results, no association between gender and AEs occurrence seems to exist. A statistically significant gender difference in the percentage of drug-related AEs emerged (37.6% in females vs 20.8% in males, χ2 P=0.0039). Slightly significantly more AEs in females were addressed with treatment compared with males (78.1% vs 66.7%, χ2 P=0.0485). Total serious AEs (SAEs) were 47 (72% in males). The frequency of patients with ≥1 SAE was 0.6% in females versus 1.2% in males (χ2 test P=0.0246). Conclusion This safety analysis on a large sample of almost 5,000 patients with different diseases and treated with a wide range of different drugs provides a useful overview on possible gender differences in drug tolerability, which may be helpful in more accurately designing future clinical trials

  18. Gender-based differences in cardiac diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pei-Chi; Clancy, Colleen E.

    2011-01-01

    It has been observed that the incidence of heart failure and Brugada syndrome are higher in men, while women are more likely to have QT interval prolongation and develop torsades de pointes (TdP). Over the past decade, new studies have improved our understanding of the mechanisms of abnormal repolarization and the relationship between gender differences in cardiac repolarization and presentation of clinical syndromes. Nevertheless, the causes of gender-based differences in cardiac disease are still not completely clear. This review paper briefly summarized what is currently known about gender differences in heart failure, Brugada syndrome and long QT syndrome from molecular mechanisms to clinical presentations. PMID:23554675

  19. Gender Differences of Popular Music Production in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramo, Joseph Michael

    2011-01-01

    In this case study, the author investigated how students' gender affected their participation in a secondary popular music class in which participants wrote and performed original music. Three same-gendered rock groups and two mixed-gendered rock groups were observed. Would students of different genders rehearse and compose differently? How would…

  20. Gender Differences in Moral Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris

    2007-01-01

    Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…

  1. Gender Differences in Moral Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris

    2007-01-01

    Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…

  2. Gender Differences in Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Zhixia

    2010-01-01

    Gender differences in mathematics and science have received substantial attention in the education research since the early 1980s when strong evidence for a male advantage was found in various studies. Given that mathematics is required for a variety of careers, the potential cause(s) of this disparity have generated much research, much of it…

  3. Gender Difference and Student Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.

    An exploratory study examined gender differences in writing in the essays of five male and five female freshman composition students. The findings suggest parallels between the writing and speaking behaviors of men and women students and between student writing and the work of male and female professional writers. The male students made few…

  4. Gender Difference and Student Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Elizabeth A.

    An exploratory study examined gender differences in writing in the essays of five male and five female freshman composition students. The findings suggest parallels between the writing and speaking behaviors of men and women students and between student writing and the work of male and female professional writers. The male students made few…

  5. Gender differences in addiction severity.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Mesa, Eva M; García-Portilla, Paz; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Sáiz, Pilar A; Bobes Bascarán, Teresa; Casares, María José; Fonseca, Eduardo; Al-Halabí, Susana; Bobes, Julio

    2016-06-14

    Gender has been associated with substance use disorders (SUD). However, there are few studies that have evaluated gender differences in a global and a standardized way, and with a large sample of patients with SUD. Our goal is to analyze the role of gender in addiction severity throughout multiple life domains, using the Addiction Severity Index-6 (ASI-6). A naturalistic, multicenter and prospective study was conducted. A total of 221 patients with SUD (80.1% men) were interviewed with the ASI-6. Our results indicate that the Recent Summary Scores (RSSs) of men and women are similar, with the exception of Psychiatric and Partner- Problems, where women showed higher severity (p = .017 and p = .013, respectively). Statistically significant gender differences were found in certain aspects of the ASI-6 domains: men have more problems of physical health, legal issues, and alcohol and other substance use; and woman score higher in problems of mental health, social network, subjective evaluations of SUD consequences, and treatment needs. These results should be taken into account to improve the identification, prevention, and treatment of SUD.

  6. Games Strategies: Gender Differences vs. Motivational Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gower, Linda A.; And Others

    Rapoport and Chammah's (1965) Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game research and Vinacke's (1959) parchisi board game research revealed that players used various strategies to reach their desired outcomes. The researchers ascribed the strategy variations to gender differences. A study was conducted which replicated Vinacke's parchisi board game and…

  7. Gender differences in trusting strangers: Role of the target's gender.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Na; Zhang, Jianxin

    2016-06-01

    Previous findings on gender differences in the behaviors of individuals, including trusting behaviors, are inconsistent. A criticism is that these studies neglect contextual factors. The present study aims to examine how the target's gender, as a primary context factor, influences the trusting behavior of individuals in one survey and two experimental situations. Results indicate that people tend to trust strangers of the opposite gender more than those of the same gender in mixed-gender situations. Furthermore, females trust females much more than males trust males. The results help people understand that when talking about gender differences in interpersonal situations, the gender identity of target persons should be considered. These findings are somewhat in conflict with those of previous studies conducted in Western cultures, and suggest that culture should also be explored in future studies on gender differences in interpersonal relationships.

  8. Gender differences in episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Herlitz, A; Nilsson, L G; Bäckman, L

    1997-11-01

    The relationship between gender and memory has been largely neglected by research, despite occasional studies reporting gender differences in episodic memory performance. The present study examined potential gender differences in episodic memory, semantic memory, primary memory, and priming. Five hundred thirty women and 470 men, randomly sampled from the city of Umeå, Sweden, 35-80 years of age, participated in the study. There were no differences between men and women with regard to age or education, or on a measure of global intellectual functioning. As has been demonstrated previously, men out performed women on a visuospatial task and women outperformed men on tests of verbal fluency. In addition, the results demonstrated that women consistently performed at a higher level than did men on the episodic memory tasks, although there were no differences between men and women on the tasks assessing semantic memory, primary memory, or priming. The women's higher level of performance on the episodic memory tasks could not be fully explained by their higher verbal ability.

  9. [Gender differences in dissociative disorders].

    PubMed

    Spitzer, C; Freyberger, H J

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between mental illness, on the one hand, and sex and gender, on the other hand, has received interest since the beginning of medicine in antique times. A prototypical example of a seemingly woman-specific disease is hysteria. The term itself, which is derived from the Greek word for womb, denotes a psychosexual dimension comprising the current attitude towards sexuality and the dominating gender relationship. In addition, the colourful history of hysteria indicates that illness is not exclusively determined by biological factors, but also significantly by socio-cultural influences, for example in the treatment of hysterical women. Even nowadays, there is a wide-spread belief that dissociative symptoms and disorders, which have succeeded hysteria in current classification systems, are predominantly seen in women. However, empirical studies in the general population and in different clinical samples using sound instruments have indicated that dissociative symptoms do not differ between the genders. The seemingly dominance of dissociative disorders in women may also depend on the socio-cultural context, because men with dissociative disorders usually do not enter the general health system, but rather the legal system, i.e. they can be found in jail or forensic institutions.

  10. Gender differences in substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Brady, K T; Randall, C L

    1999-06-01

    differences observed over the past 25 years become less demarcated in comparisons of younger cohorts of substance abusers in the future will be interesting. Changing societal roles and attitudes toward women, the increase in women entering the workplace, in general, and into previously male-dominated sports and professions, in particular, may influence not only opportunities to drink but also drinking culture. Some gender differences likely will remain, but other gender differences will probably also emerge. The comparison of male and female substance abusers promises to be a fruitful one for researchers. The translation if the research findings to the treatment community to improve treatment outcome for both sexes will be an equally exciting challenge for the field.

  11. Nurture affects gender differences in spatial abilities

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Moshe; Gneezy, Uri; List, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Women remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Some have argued that spatial ability differences, which represent the most persistent gender differences in the cognitive literature, are partly responsible for this gap. The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences, the evidence for nurture is tenuous, because it is difficult to compare gender differences among biologically similar groups with distinct nurture. In this study, we use a large-scale incentivized experiment with nearly 1,300 participants to show that the gender gap in spatial abilities, measured by time to solve a puzzle, disappears when we move from a patrilineal society to an adjoining matrilineal society. We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. Given that none of our participants have experience with puzzle solving and that villagers from both societies have the same means of subsistence and shared genetic background, we argue that these results show the role of nurture in the gender gap in cognitive abilities. PMID:21876159

  12. Nurture affects gender differences in spatial abilities.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Moshe; Gneezy, Uri; List, John A

    2011-09-06

    Women remain significantly underrepresented in the science, engineering, and technology workforce. Some have argued that spatial ability differences, which represent the most persistent gender differences in the cognitive literature, are partly responsible for this gap(.) The underlying forces at work shaping the observed spatial ability differences revolve naturally around the relative roles of nature and nurture. Although these forces remain among the most hotly debated in all of the sciences, the evidence for nurture is tenuous, because it is difficult to compare gender differences among biologically similar groups with distinct nurture. In this study, we use a large-scale incentivized experiment with nearly 1,300 participants to show that the gender gap in spatial abilities, measured by time to solve a puzzle, disappears when we move from a patrilineal society to an adjoining matrilineal society. We also show that about one-third of the effect can be explained by differences in education. Given that none of our participants have experience with puzzle solving and that villagers from both societies have the same means of subsistence and shared genetic background, we argue that these results show the role of nurture in the gender gap in cognitive abilities.

  13. Gender Differences in Child Aggression: Relations With Gender-Differentiated Parenting and Parents' Gender-Role Stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Endendijk, Joyce J; Groeneveld, Marleen G; van der Pol, Lotte D; van Berkel, Sheila R; Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Mesman, Judi

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the association between child gender and child aggression via parents' physical control, moderated by parents' gender-role stereotypes in a sample of 299 two-parent families with a 3-year-old child in the Netherlands. Fathers with strong stereotypical gender-role attitudes and mothers were observed to use more physical control strategies with boys than with girls, whereas fathers with strong counterstereotypical attitudes toward gender roles used more physical control with girls than with boys. Moreover, when fathers had strong attitudes toward gender roles (stereotypical or counterstereotypical), their differential treatment of boys and girls completely accounted for the gender differences in children's aggressive behavior a year later. Mothers' gender-differentiated parenting practices were unrelated to gender differences in child aggression.

  14. CHARACTERIZING GENDER DIFFERENCES IN TREATMENT SEEKERS

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ben; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2013-01-01

    Background Available evidence suggests women may be more vulnerable to the effects of chronic alcohol consumption than men. The few investigations of gender differences in treatment-seeking populations have often involved study samples restricted by selection criteria (e.g., age, education). The current study examined gender differences in a heterogeneous sample of individuals seeking treatment for a substance use disorder. We examined alcohol drinking levels, age at drinking milestones (e.g., first drink, first intoxication), and progression from milestones to alcohol problems or treatment. Additionally, family history, spousal alcoholism, and nicotine use were analyzed. Methods Participants included men (n=274) and women (n=257) in substance abuse treatment facilities. Participants completed inventories quantifying affect, intellectual ability, and drinking consequences. A family tree for substance use and personal histories for alcohol and nicotine use, including chronicity, frequency, and regularity, were collected. Results Telescoping was not observed when progression from drinking milestones to alcoholism or alcohol problems was compared between men and women. In contrast, when considered as progression to treatment, marked telescoping effects were detected, with women entering treatment more rapidly by approximately four years. Familial differences included a greater proportion of women reporting alcoholic parents (73% women; 61% men) and alcoholic spouses (58% women; 38% men). Smoking behaviors were similar between genders, however men reporting higher levels of alcohol consumption reported greater intensity of chronic smoking. Smoking and drinking behaviors were correlated among men, but not women. Rates of pre-treatment drug problems were equivalent between genders. Conclusions When contrasted with the available literature, our data were only partially supportive of gender-contingent telescoping. While women did not experience alcohol problems or

  15. Gender differences in collaboration patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaohan; Duch, Jordi; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Radicchi, Filippo; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Amaral, Luis A. N.

    2014-03-01

    Collaboration plays an increasingly important role in research productivity and impact. However, it remains unclear whether female and male researchers in science, technology, engineering and mathematical (STEM) disciplines differ significantly from each other in their collaboration propensity. Here, we report on an empirical analysis of the complete publication records of 3,920 faculty members in six STEM disciplines at selected top U.S. research universities. We find that while female faculty have significantly fewer co-authors over their careers, this can be fully explained by their lower number of publications. Indeed, we also find that females tend to distribute their co-authoring opportunities among their co-authors more evenly than males do. Our results suggest that females have had a greater propensity to collaborate, in order to succeed in a historically men-dominated academic world. Surprisingly, we find evidence that in molecular biology there has been a gender segregation within sub-disciplines. Female faculty in molecular biology departments tend to collaborate with smaller teams and publish in journals and fields where typical team size is smaller. Our results identify gender-specific collaborative behaviors as well as disciplines with distinct patterns. The authors thank the support from the following grants: NSF SBE 0624318, NSF IIS 0830388, and Spanish DGICYT under project FIS2010-18639.

  16. Gender Differences in E-Learning Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Francisco; Guardiola, Jorge; Rodriguez, Oscar Martin; Alonso, Miguel Angel Montero

    2012-01-01

    Student learning skills differ depending on gender. The importance of studying this situation in the classroom is that recommendations can be made taking gender into consideration. In e-learning, the roles of students and teachers change. In line with recent research, the question this paper raises is whether or not gender differences also exist…

  17. Gender differences in ophthalmologists' annual incomes.

    PubMed

    Weeks, William B; Wallace, Amy E

    2007-09-01

    To understand the association between provider gender and ophthalmologists' annual incomes. Retrospective analysis of survey data collected from ophthalmologists by the American Medical Association (AMA) between 1992 and 2001. Six hundred thirty white male and 62 white female actively practicing ophthalmologists who responded to the AMA's survey of physicians between 1992 and 2001 and who worked in an office-based practice. A linear regression model was generated to determine the association between provider gender and ophthalmologists' annual incomes after controlling for work effort, provider characteristics, and practice characteristics. Annual incomes of male and female ophthalmologists in 2004 dollars after controlling for work effort, provider characteristics, and practice characteristics. White female ophthalmologists reported having 24% fewer visits and working 5% fewer annual hours than their white male counterparts. White female ophthalmologists had practiced medicine for fewer years than white males and were more likely to be employees, as opposed to having an ownership interest in the practice, but less likely to be board certified. After adjustment for work effort, provider characteristics, and practice characteristics, white females' mean annual income was $219,194, or $55,091 (20%) lower than white males' (95% confidence interval, -$93,611 to -$16,572; P = 0.005). During the 1990s, female gender was associated with lower annual incomes among ophthalmologists. Observed differences may be attributable to factors that we were not able to measure, such as whether the clinician practice was predominantly medical or surgical. However, just as policymakers are exploring gender differences in access to and outcomes of health care, they should further explore gender-based income differences among physicians.

  18. Sex and gender differences in clinical medicine.

    PubMed

    Regitz-Zagrosek, Vera; Seeland, Ute

    2012-01-01

    Sex and gender differences in frequent diseases are more widespread than one may assume. In addition, they have significant yet frequently underestimated consequences on the daily practice of medicine, on outcomes and effects of therapies. Gender medicine is a novel medical discipline that takes into account the effects of sex and gender on the health of women and men. The major goal is to improve health and health care for both, for women as well as for men. We give in this chapter an overview on sex and gender differences in a number of clinical areas, in cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, gastroenterology and hepatology, in nephrology, autoimmune diseases, endocrinology, hematology, neurology. We discuss the preferential use of male animals in drug development, the underrepresentation of women in early and cardiovascular clinical trials, sex and gender differences in pharmacology, in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, in management and drug use. Most guidelines do not include even well-known sex and gender differences. European guidelines for the management of cardiovascular diseases in pregnancy have only recently been published. Personalized medicine cannot replace gender-based medicine. Large databases reveal that gender remains an independent risk factor after ethnicity, age, comorbidities, and scored risk factors have been taken into account. Some genetic variants carry a different risk in women and men. The sociocultural dimension of gender integrating lifestyle, environment, stress, and other variables cannot be replaced by a sum of biological parameters. Because of this prominent role of gender, clinical care algorithms must include gender-based assessment.

  19. Gender Differences in Values and Their Impact on Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglehart, Marita Rosch; Brown, Donald R.

    Gender differences in academic achievement of students in the medical school at the University of Michigan were investigated in this study. Observed achievement differences were attributed to gender differences in values which influence student motivation. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) that men place more importance on mastery-related issues,…

  20. Gender Differences in Neurodevelopment and Epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Wilson C.J.; Auger, Anthony P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The concept that the brain differs in make-up between males and females is not new. For example, it is well-established that anatomists in the nineteenth century found sex differences in human brain weight. The importance of sex differences in the organization of the brain cannot be overstated as they may directly affect cognitive functions, such as verbal skills and visio-spatial tasks in a sex-dependent fashion. Moreover, the incidence of neurological and psychiatric diseases is also highly dependent on sex. These clinical observations reiterate the importance that gender must be taken into account as a relevant possible contributing factor in order to understand the pathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gender-dependent differentiation of the brain has been detected at every levels of organization: morphological, neurochemical, and functional, and have been shown to be primarily controlled by sex differences in gonadal steroid hormone levels during perinatal development. In this review, we discuss how the gonadal steroid hormone testosterone and its metabolites, affect downstream signaling cascades, including gonadal steroid receptor activation, and epigenetic events in order to differentiate the brain in a gender-dependent fashion. PMID:23503727

  1. Explaining the gender difference in nightmare frequency.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis showed a robust gender difference in nightmare frequency of medium effect size in adolescents and young adults: Women tend to report nightmares more frequently than men. The present study, carried out in an unselected student sample, indicates that 2 factors mediate the gender difference in nightmare frequency: neuroticism and overall dream recall frequency. The effect of neuroticism on the gender difference and the finding that the gender difference in nightmare frequency emerges at an age of about 10 years suggest that gender-specific socialization processes may play an important role in explaining the gender differences in nightmare frequency in adolescents and young to middle-aged adults. This idea is supported by the previous finding that nightmare frequency is related to sex role orientation. However, longitudinal studies are necessary to validate these hypotheses.

  2. Gender Differences and Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yi; Weymouth, Christine M.; Dragseth, Kenneth

    This study examined gender issues in public education, focusing on the Edina Public Schools, Minnesota. Data gathered from district, state, national, and international sources included student enrollment, student participation in school or district programs, grades from school report cards, standardized test scores, and perceptions and attitudes…

  3. Gender Differences in Caregiving: Fact or Artifact?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Baila; Cafasso, Lynda

    1992-01-01

    Conducted meta-analysis of 14 studies to determine gender differences in caregiving stressors and burden. Found essentially no significant gender differences in functional impairment of frail care recipient or total caregiver involvement in care or in money management tasks. Female caregivers were more likely to carry out personal care and…

  4. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Possible Selves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Michele; Funk, Jeanne; Elliott, Robert; Bush Ellen Greene

    2000-01-01

    Examined gender differences in global self-esteem at adolescence by investigating the content of and gender differences within high school students' possible selves. Students completed questionnaires on hoped for and feared possible selves and on self-perception. Students were able to access and report a vast array of possible selves. Gender…

  5. Gender Differences in Altruistic Reputation: Are They Artifactual?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarbatany, Lynne; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Tested notion that observed sex differences in children's altruistic reputations that favor girls are due to sex-biased items found in peer-assessment measures. Gender-fair assessment of altruistic reputation was attempted through the use of empirically derived examples of masculine, feminine, and gender-neutral prosocial behaviors. (Author/DST)

  6. Gender Differences in International Students' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Park, Hee Sun; Kim, Wonsun

    2009-01-01

    As gender roles in the society are being rapidly redefined, female students today are showing outstanding academic prowess and pursuing higher education. The current study recruited Korean international students (n = 76) enrolled in universities in the US and examined gender differences in academic adjustment. The findings of the current study…

  7. Gender Differences in Family Dinnertime Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Natalie; Gallo, Emily; Fivush, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Family dinnertime conversations are key settings where children learn behavior regulation, narrative skills, and knowledge about the world. In this context, parents may also model and socialize gender differences in language. The present study quantitatively examines gendered language use across a family dinnertime recorded with 37 broadly…

  8. Gender Differences in Musical Instrument Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Creech, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Historically, there have been differences in the musical instruments played by boys and girls, with girls preferring smaller, higher-pitched instruments. This article explores whether these gender preferences have continued at a time when there is greater gender equality in most aspects of life in the UK. Data were collected from the 150 Music…

  9. Gender Differences in Family Dinnertime Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Natalie; Gallo, Emily; Fivush, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Family dinnertime conversations are key settings where children learn behavior regulation, narrative skills, and knowledge about the world. In this context, parents may also model and socialize gender differences in language. The present study quantitatively examines gendered language use across a family dinnertime recorded with 37 broadly…

  10. Dyad Gender Differences in Preadolescents' Creative Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strough, JoNell; Diriwachter, Rainer

    2000-01-01

    Examined how the social context of working within same- or different-sex peer dyads related to gender-typed ideas expressed in creative stories. Sixth graders collaborated to write creative stories. Boy dyads' stories included more overtly aggressive ideas and fewer prosocial story ideas than girl dyads' stories. Mixed-gender dyads' stories…

  11. Gender Differences in Musical Instrument Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Creech, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Historically, there have been differences in the musical instruments played by boys and girls, with girls preferring smaller, higher-pitched instruments. This article explores whether these gender preferences have continued at a time when there is greater gender equality in most aspects of life in the UK. Data were collected from the 150 Music…

  12. Specific learning disorder: prevalence and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Moll, Kristina; Kunze, Sarah; Neuhoff, Nina; Bruder, Jennifer; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Comprehensive models of learning disorders have to consider both isolated learning disorders that affect one learning domain only, as well as comorbidity between learning disorders. However, empirical evidence on comorbidity rates including all three learning disorders as defined by DSM-5 (deficits in reading, writing, and mathematics) is scarce. The current study assessed prevalence rates and gender ratios for isolated as well as comorbid learning disorders in a representative sample of 1633 German speaking children in 3rd and 4th Grade. Prevalence rates were analysed for isolated as well as combined learning disorders and for different deficit criteria, including a criterion for normal performance. Comorbid learning disorders occurred as frequently as isolated learning disorders, even when stricter cutoff criteria were applied. The relative proportion of isolated and combined disorders did not change when including a criterion for normal performance. Reading and spelling deficits differed with respect to their association with arithmetic problems: Deficits in arithmetic co-occurred more often with deficits in spelling than with deficits in reading. In addition, comorbidity rates for arithmetic and reading decreased when applying stricter deficit criteria, but stayed high for arithmetic and spelling irrespective of the chosen deficit criterion. These findings suggest that the processes underlying the relationship between arithmetic and reading might differ from those underlying the relationship between arithmetic and spelling. With respect to gender ratios, more boys than girls showed spelling deficits, while more girls were impaired in arithmetic. No gender differences were observed for isolated reading problems and for the combination of all three learning disorders. Implications of these findings for assessment and intervention of learning disorders are discussed.

  13. Gender differences in narcissism: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Grijalva, Emily; Newman, Daniel A; Tay, Louis; Donnellan, M Brent; Harms, P D; Robins, Richard W; Yan, Taiyi

    2015-03-01

    Despite the widely held belief that men are more narcissistic than women, there has been no systematic review to establish the magnitude, variability across measures and settings, and stability over time of this gender difference. Drawing on the biosocial approach to social role theory, a meta-analysis performed for Study 1 found that men tended to be more narcissistic than women (d = .26; k = 355 studies; N = 470,846). This gender difference remained stable in U.S. college student cohorts over time (from 1990 to 2013) and across different age groups. Study 1 also investigated gender differences in three facets of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) to reveal that the narcissism gender difference is driven by the Exploitative/Entitlement facet (d = .29; k = 44 studies; N = 44,108) and Leadership/Authority facet (d = .20; k = 40 studies; N = 44,739); whereas the gender difference in Grandiose/Exhibitionism (d = .04; k = 39 studies; N = 42,460) was much smaller. We further investigated a less-studied form of narcissism called vulnerable narcissism-which is marked by low self-esteem, neuroticism, and introversion-to find that (in contrast to the more commonly studied form of narcissism found in the DSM and the NPI) men and women did not differ on vulnerable narcissism (d = -.04; k = 42 studies; N = 46,735). Study 2 used item response theory to rule out the possibility that measurement bias accounts for observed gender differences in the three facets of the NPI (N = 19,001). Results revealed that observed gender differences were not explained by measurement bias and thus can be interpreted as true sex differences. Discussion focuses on the implications for the biosocial construction model of gender differences, for the etiology of narcissism, for clinical applications, and for the role of narcissism in helping to explain gender differences in leadership and aggressive behavior. Readers are warned against overapplying small effect sizes to perpetuate gender

  14. Gender differences in regional cerebral blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, R.E.; Gur, R.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Gender differences have been noted in neurobehavioral studies. The 133xenon inhalation method for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) can contribute to the understanding of the neural basis of gender differences in brain function. Few studies have examined gender differences in rCBF. In studies of normal subjects, women have higher rates of CBF than men, and this is related to age. Usually by the sixth decade men and women have similar flow rates. Fewer studies on rCBF in schizophrenia have examined sex differences. The pattern of higher flows for females maintains, but its correlates with gender differences in clinical as well as other parameters of brain function remain to be examined.

  15. Gender Differences in Respiratory Morbidity and Mortality of Preterm Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Townsel, Courtney Denise; Emmer, Sawyer F.; Campbell, Winston A.; Hussain, Naveed

    2017-01-01

    For the past century, researchers have underscored the “disadvantage” observed in respiratory morbidity and mortality of male newborns. In this contemporary review, we examine gender differences in preterm infant respiratory morbidity and mortality specifically appraising differences in the very low birth weight (VLBW) population as well as the late preterm (LPT) population. In the era of postnatal surfactant and antenatal corticosteroids, the gender gap in neonatal outcomes has not narrowed. Structural, physiologic, and hormonal sex differences may be at the root of this disparity. Further exploration into the origin of gender differences in respiratory morbidity and neonatal mortality will shape future therapies. These therapies may need to be gender specific to close the gender gap. PMID:28194395

  16. Gender Differences in Family Stories: Moderating Influence of Parent Gender Role and Child Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Skillman, Gemma

    2000-01-01

    Examined thematic differences in family stories told by parents according to parent and child gender, noting differences according to parent gender-type and matches between story themes and personal values related to child behavior. No significant main effects or interactions for affiliation themes existed. Interaction existed between parent…

  17. Lizard thermal biology: do genders differ?

    PubMed

    Huey, Raymond B; Pianka, Eric R

    2007-09-01

    For more than six decades, physiological ecologists have intensively studied diverse aspects of lizard thermal biology. Nevertheless, a recent review notes that prior studies have generally ignored gender differences in body temperatures, thermal sensitivity, or other aspects of thermal biology. We concur that gender differences have been ignored and should be examined: if gender differences prove common, standard protocols for studying lizard natural history, thermal physiology, and ecology will require significant modification. To help resolve this issue, we conducted a retrospective analysis of our huge data set on the thermal biology of many desert lizards (more than 11,000 individuals from 56 species in seven major clades) from Africa, Australia, and North America. Results are unambiguous: gender differences in body temperature, air temperature, and time of activity--and thus in field thermal biology--are almost always minor. In fact, mean body temperatures of males and females differ by less than 1 degrees C in 80.4% of species. For desert lizards, gender differences in thermal biology are the exception, not the rule. Nevertheless, gender differences should be examined when feasible because exceptions--though likely rare--could be biologically interesting.

  18. Gender differences in pain: does X = Y?

    PubMed

    Toomey, Matthew

    2008-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that men and women differ in their responses to pain. Women report intense pain more often than men afflicted with similar ailments. A variety of psychological, cellular, and hormonal modulations have important roles in the experience of pain. The aims of this course are to update anesthesia providers about the differences between genders in pain sensitivity and treatment and to elucidate the complex aspects of the biology of such differences. Providers need to understand and anticipate gender as a potential factor in pain response and opioid requirements. Continued research in this area may someday provide gender-specific medications for pain treatment and a better understanding of certain prevalent pain conditions between genders.

  19. Gender differences in preschool children's commentary on self and other.

    PubMed

    Sigelman, Carol K; Holtz, Kristen D

    2013-01-01

    To examine gender differences in commentary about self and others in same- and mixed-gender contexts, the authors analyzed dyadic conversations involving 78 children in 5 preschool facilities. Compared to girls talking to girls, boy talking to boys made more statements with negative connotations for others and less often pointed out self-other similarities. No gender differences were observed in mixed-gender contexts. Compared to boys talking with boys, boys talking with girls spoke more frequently of similarities and abilities. Compared to girls with girls, girls with boys less often spoke descriptively or talked of activities and possessions and more often spoke of conduct, possibly in an effort to manage boys' behavior. Overall, the findings support a social-constructivist or contextual rather than a biological perspective on early gender differences.

  20. Occupational accidents in professional dance with focus on gender differences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Classical dance comprises gender specific movement tasks. There is a lack of studies which investigate work related traumatic injuries in terms of gender specific differences in detail. Objective To define gender related differences of occupational accidents. Methods Basis for the evaluation were occupational injuries of professional dancers from three (n = 785; f: n = 358, m: n = 427) state theatres. Results The incidence rate (0.36 per year) was higher in males (m: 0.45, f: 0.29). There were gender specific differences as to the localizations of injuries, particularly the spine region (m: 17.3%, f: 9.8%, p = 0.05) and ankle joint (m: 23.7%, f: 35.5%, p = 0.003). Compared to male dancers, females sustained more injuries resulting from extrinsic factors. Significant differences could specifically be observed with dance floors (m: 8.8%, f: 15.1%, p = 0.02). There were also significant gender differences observed with movement vocabulary. Conclusion The clearly defined gender specific movement activities in classical dance are reflected in occupational accidents sustained. Organisational structures as well as work environment represent a burden likewise to male and female dancers. The presented differences support the development of gender specific injury prevention measures. PMID:24341391

  1. Occupational accidents in professional dance with focus on gender differences.

    PubMed

    Wanke, Eileen M; Arendt, Michael; Mill, Helmgard; Groneberg, David A

    2013-12-17

    Classical dance comprises gender specific movement tasks. There is a lack of studies which investigate work related traumatic injuries in terms of gender specific differences in detail. To define gender related differences of occupational accidents. Basis for the evaluation were occupational injuries of professional dancers from three (n = 785; f: n = 358, m: n = 427) state theatres. The incidence rate (0.36 per year) was higher in males (m: 0.45, f: 0.29). There were gender specific differences as to the localizations of injuries, particularly the spine region (m: 17.3%, f: 9.8%, p = 0.05) and ankle joint (m: 23.7%, f: 35.5%, p = 0.003). Compared to male dancers, females sustained more injuries resulting from extrinsic factors. Significant differences could specifically be observed with dance floors (m: 8.8%, f: 15.1%, p = 0.02). There were also significant gender differences observed with movement vocabulary. The clearly defined gender specific movement activities in classical dance are reflected in occupational accidents sustained. Organisational structures as well as work environment represent a burden likewise to male and female dancers. The presented differences support the development of gender specific injury prevention measures.

  2. [Sex and gender differences in pharmacotherapy].

    PubMed

    Regitz-Zagrosek, V

    2014-09-01

    Many drugs have act differently in women and men. Biological differences between women and men lead to sex differences in pharmacokinetics, i.e., in drug absorption, distribution in tissues, metabolism by liver enzymes, and excretion via the kidney and intestine. In addition there are sex differences in pharmacodynamics, leading to a different efficacy of drugs in women and men. The biological differences between women and men may be caused by sex-specific gene expression, by sex-specific epigenetic modifications, and finally by the effect of sex hormones. In addition, gender plays a role in drug efficacy as a sociocultural dimension that may lead to differences between women and men. Frequently drugs are only tested on animals of one sex and thereby optimized for one sex. This is based on the notion that sex differences are not important for clinical drug effects. Furthermore, to date, sex and gender differences have been underestimated in clinical studies, and phase III studies were not prospectively designed to assess sex differences in drug effects. In addition, women and men use drugs differently with respect to compliance, adherence, and self-medication with over-the-counter drugs. Further, it is known that male and female physicians treat women and men as patients differently. In conclusion, drug therapy is not yet optimized for both genders. However, there is increasing awareness that differences between women and men should be respected in order to provide optimal drugs in optimal doses for both genders.

  3. Gender differences in multitasking reflect spatial ability.

    PubMed

    Mäntylä, Timo

    2013-04-01

    Demands involving the scheduling and interleaving of multiple activities have become increasingly prevalent, especially for women in both their paid and unpaid work hours. Despite the ubiquity of everyday requirements to multitask, individual and gender-related differences in multitasking have gained minimal attention in past research. In two experiments, participants completed a multitasking session with four gender-fair monitoring tasks and separate tasks measuring executive functioning (working memory updating) and spatial ability (mental rotation). In both experiments, males outperformed females in monitoring accuracy. Individual differences in executive functioning and spatial ability were independent predictors of monitoring accuracy, but only spatial ability mediated gender differences in multitasking. Menstrual changes accentuated these effects, such that gender differences in multitasking (and spatial ability) were eliminated between males and females who were in the menstrual phase of the menstrual cycle but not between males and females who were in the luteal phase. These findings suggest that multitasking involves spatiotemporal task coordination and that gender differences in multiple-task performance reflect differences in spatial ability.

  4. Gender Interest Differences with Multimedia Learning Interfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passig, David; Levin, Haya

    1999-01-01

    This study of 90 kindergarten children examined gender differences in learning interest from different designs of multimedia interfaces. Results indicate a significant difference between boys and girls in the influence of the design of interactive multimedia stories on time on task and on level of satisfaction with the interfaces. (Author/LRW)

  5. Gender Differences and Intra-Gender Differences amongst Management Information Systems Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    Few women major in Management Information Systems (MIS). The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons for women's underrepresentation in MIS. In addition to examining gender differences, an important and novel goal of this study is to examine intra-gender differences in undergraduate students, i.e., differences among female MIS majors and…

  6. Gender Differences and Intra-Gender Differences amongst Management Information Systems Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Sylvia

    2008-01-01

    Few women major in Management Information Systems (MIS). The purpose of this paper is to examine the reasons for women's underrepresentation in MIS. In addition to examining gender differences, an important and novel goal of this study is to examine intra-gender differences in undergraduate students, i.e., differences among female MIS majors and…

  7. Gender differences in crowd perception.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Leib, Allison Y; Puri, Amrita M; Whitney, David; Peng, Kaiping

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the first impression of a crowd of faces-crowd perception-is influenced by social background and cognitive processing. Specifically, we explored whether males and females, two groups that are distinct biologically and socially, differ in their ability to extract ensemble characteristics from crowds of faces that were comprised of different identities. Participants were presented with crowds of similar faces and were instructed to scroll through a morphed continuum of faces until they found a face that was representative of the average identity of each crowd. Consistent with previous research, females were more precise in single face perception. Furthermore, the results showed that females were generally more accurate in estimating the average identity of a crowd. However, the correlation between single face discrimination and crowd averaging differed between males and females. Specifically, male subjects' ensemble integration slightly compensated for their poor single face perception; their performance on the crowd perception task was not as poor as would be expected from their single face discrimination ability. Overall, the results suggest that group perception is not an isolated or uniform cognitive mechanism, but rather one that interacts with biological and social processes.

  8. Gender differences in crowd perception

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yang; Leib, Allison Y.; Puri, Amrita M.; Whitney, David; Peng, Kaiping

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the first impression of a crowd of faces—crowd perception—is influenced by social background and cognitive processing. Specifically, we explored whether males and females, two groups that are distinct biologically and socially, differ in their ability to extract ensemble characteristics from crowds of faces that were comprised of different identities. Participants were presented with crowds of similar faces and were instructed to scroll through a morphed continuum of faces until they found a face that was representative of the average identity of each crowd. Consistent with previous research, females were more precise in single face perception. Furthermore, the results showed that females were generally more accurate in estimating the average identity of a crowd. However, the correlation between single face discrimination and crowd averaging differed between males and females. Specifically, male subjects' ensemble integration slightly compensated for their poor single face perception; their performance on the crowd perception task was not as poor as would be expected from their single face discrimination ability. Overall, the results suggest that group perception is not an isolated or uniform cognitive mechanism, but rather one that interacts with biological and social processes. PMID:26388805

  9. Gender and ethnic differences in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Eden, S V.; Meurer, W J.; Sánchez, B N.; Lisabeth, L D.; Smith, M A.; Brown, D L.; Morgenstern, L B.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Mexican Americans (MAs) comprise the largest component of the largest minority group within the United States. The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic and gender differences in the epidemiology, presentation, and outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a representative United States community. Targeted public health interventions are dependent on accurate assessments of groups at highest disease risk. Methods: All patients with nontraumatic SAH older than 44 years were prospectively identified from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2006, as part of the Brain Attack Surveillance In Corpus Christi project, an urban population-based study in southeast Texas. Risk ratios for cumulative SAH incidence comparing MAs with non Hispanic whites (NHWs) and women with men were calculated. Descriptive statistics for other clinical and demographic variables were computed overall, by gender, and by ethnicity. Results: A total of 107 patients had a SAH during the time period (7-year cumulative incidence: 11/10,000); of these, 43 were NHW (40% of cases vs 53% of the population) and 64 were MA (60% of cases vs 48% of the population). The overall age-adjusted risk ratio for SAH in MAs compared with NHWs was 1.67 (95% CI: 1.13, 2.47), and in women compared to men was 1.74 (95% CI 1.16, 2.62). Overall in-hospital mortality was 32.2%. No ethnic difference was observed for discharge disability or in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Subarachnoid hemorrhage disproportionately affects Mexican Americans and women. Public health interventions should target these groups to reduce the impact of this severe disease. GLOSSARY BASIC = Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi; GCS = Glasgow Coma Scale; ICD = International Classification of Diseases; ICH = intracerebral hemorrhage; MA = Mexican American; mRS = modified Rankin Scale; NHW = non-Hispanic white; SAH = subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:18550859

  10. Gender Differences in Alcohol and Polysubstance Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lex, Barbara W.

    This paper selectively reviews current knowledge about the effects of alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana. Highlights of the review include findings that: (1) gender differences in alcohol and polysubstance users are reflected in epidemiological, biobehavioral, and neuroendocrine factors; (2) women and men exhibit different patterns of alcohol…

  11. Gender Differences in Alcohol and Polysubstance Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lex, Barbara W.

    This paper selectively reviews current knowledge about the effects of alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana. Highlights of the review include findings that: (1) gender differences in alcohol and polysubstance users are reflected in epidemiological, biobehavioral, and neuroendocrine factors; (2) women and men exhibit different patterns of alcohol…

  12. Gender Differences in Online High School Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowes, Susan; Lin, Peiyi; Kinghorn, Brian R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that there may be differences in the ways that male and female students approach their online courses. Using data for 802 high school students enrolled in 14 online courses, this study explored gender differences in the interrelationships among online behaviors and course performance. The findings show that females…

  13. Gender Differences in Students' Mathematics Game Playing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrie, Tom; Jorgensen, Robyn

    2011-01-01

    The investigation monitored the digital game-playing behaviours of 428 primary-aged students (aged 10-12 years). Chi-square analysis revealed that boys tend to spend more time playing digital games than girls while boys and girls play quite different game genres. Subsequent analysis revealed statistically significant gender differences in terms of…

  14. Do gender differences matter to workplace bullying?

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Ling; Hsieh, Yi-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying has become an omnipresent problem in most organizations. Gender differences have recently received increasing attention in the workplace bullying domain. Integrating social dominance theory with gender role theory, this study explores whether male minority and supervisor gender are related to the incidence of workplace bullying. Data from 501 public servants employed in the tax administration institute of Taiwan was collected via a questionnaire and analyzed using hierarchical regression. Male minority reported more workplace bullying than did the female majority. Subordinates working with male supervisors had more exposure to bullying than those working with female supervisors. However, male supervisors did not exacerbate the relationship between male minority and workplace bullying, while females exposure to workplace bullying was attenuated when working with male supervisors. These findings confirm the important role of gender differences when predicting bullying at work and support the view that gender is not merely an individual antecedent of bullying, but rather acts as a social factor to influence the incidence of workplace bullying.

  15. Gender differences in the temporal voice areas

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Merle-Marie; Awwad Shiekh Hasan, Bashar; Giordano, Bruno L.; Belin, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    There is not only evidence for behavioral differences in voice perception between female and male listeners, but also recent suggestions for differences in neural correlates between genders. The fMRI functional voice localizer (comprising a univariate analysis contrasting stimulation with vocal vs. non-vocal sounds) is known to give robust estimates of the temporal voice areas (TVAs). However, there is growing interest in employing multivariate analysis approaches to fMRI data (e.g., multivariate pattern analysis; MVPA). The aim of the current study was to localize voice-related areas in both female and male listeners and to investigate whether brain maps may differ depending on the gender of the listener. After a univariate analysis, a random effects analysis was performed on female (n = 149) and male (n = 123) listeners and contrasts between them were computed. In addition, MVPA with a whole-brain searchlight approach was implemented and classification maps were entered into a second-level permutation based random effects models using statistical non-parametric mapping (SnPM; Nichols and Holmes, 2002). Gender differences were found only in the MVPA. Identified regions were located in the middle part of the middle temporal gyrus (bilateral) and the middle superior temporal gyrus (right hemisphere). Our results suggest differences in classifier performance between genders in response to the voice localizer with higher classification accuracy from local BOLD signal patterns in several temporal-lobe regions in female listeners. PMID:25126055

  16. Gender Differences in Post-Traumatic Stress.

    PubMed

    Modena, Maria Grazia; Pettorelli, Daniele; Lauria, Giulia; Giubertoni, Elisa; Mauro, Erminio; Martinotti, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    of accesses and age, with higher incidence of ACS in men (130 vs. 34, p ≤ 0.05) and aspecific chest pain in women (42 vs. 5, p ≤ 0.05). The analysis between 2012 and the standard period (2010) showed women recurring to ED in larger number with more panic attacks (124 vs. 3, p ≤ 0.01), more atrial fibrillation (120 vs. 40, p ≤ 0.01) and, as a possible consequence, more TIAs and strokes (190 vs. 25, p ≤ 0.005), more TakoTsubo (10 vs. 0, p ≤ 0.05), DVT/PE (61 vs. 3, p ≤ 0.05), and aspecific chest pain (122 vs. 5, p ≤ 0.01). The difference between men's accesses to ED was less striking, but in 2012 men reported more panic attacks (26 vs. none, p ≤ 0.05), more atrial fibrillations, TIAs, and strokes (49 vs. 13, p ≤ 0.05 and 94 vs. 18, p ≤ 0.03). In conclusion, clinical (stress induced) events recorded during and immediately after the 2012 earthquakes were quite different between women and men, although the pathophysiological mechanism was probably the same, consisting acute sympathetic nervous activation, with elevation of blood pressure and heart rate, endothelial dysfunction, platelet and hemostatic activation, increased blood viscosity, and hypercoagulation. Women, in our observation, appeared to be more sensitive and responsive to acute stress, although men also appeared to suffer from stress effects when compared with a standard period, which, nevertheless, reflects in our population the most common epidemiology of gender difference in ED accesses for cardiovascular events.

  17. Gender Differences in Post-Traumatic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Modena, Maria Grazia; Pettorelli, Daniele; Lauria, Giulia; Giubertoni, Elisa; Mauro, Erminio; Martinotti, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    difference in number of accesses and age, with higher incidence of ACS in men (130 vs. 34, p ≤ 0.05) and aspecific chest pain in women (42 vs. 5, p ≤ 0.05). The analysis between 2012 and the standard period (2010) showed women recurring to ED in larger number with more panic attacks (124 vs. 3, p ≤ 0.01), more atrial fibrillation (120 vs. 40, p ≤ 0.01) and, as a possible consequence, more TIAs and strokes (190 vs. 25, p ≤ 0.005), more TakoTsubo (10 vs. 0, p ≤ 0.05), DVT/PE (61 vs. 3, p ≤ 0.05), and aspecific chest pain (122 vs. 5, p ≤ 0.01). The difference between men's accesses to ED was less striking, but in 2012 men reported more panic attacks (26 vs. none, p ≤ 0.05), more atrial fibrillations, TIAs, and strokes (49 vs. 13, p ≤ 0.05 and 94 vs. 18, p ≤ 0.03). In conclusion, clinical (stress induced) events recorded during and immediately after the 2012 earthquakes were quite different between women and men, although the pathophysiological mechanism was probably the same, consisting acute sympathetic nervous activation, with elevation of blood pressure and heart rate, endothelial dysfunction, platelet and hemostatic activation, increased blood viscosity, and hypercoagulation. Women, in our observation, appeared to be more sensitive and responsive to acute stress, although men also appeared to suffer from stress effects when compared with a standard period, which, nevertheless, reflects in our population the most common epidemiology of gender difference in ED accesses for cardiovascular events. PMID:28289555

  18. Gender Differences in Expectations for Filial Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seelbach, Wayne C.

    1977-01-01

    Responses from 331 elderly mothers and 261 elderly fathers were compared on four indexes of filial responsibility expectations with significant gender differences being found in two of the four measures. The findings indicate that women in this cohort tend to expect more filial support than do their male counterparts. (Author)

  19. Gender Differences in the Response to Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    I use the introduction of a competitive fellowship program for graduate students to test whether men and women respond differently to competition and whether this response depends on the gender mix of the group. Men experienced a 10% increase in performance in response to the program, with the largest gains for men in departments with the most…

  20. Identifying physical activity gender differences among youth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physical activity (PA) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and reduces risk of certain chronic diseases. Many youth do not currently meet PA guidelines; evidence suggests that girls are less active than boys are at all ages. PA differences need to be understood, so that gender-specific inter...

  1. Gender Differences in the Response to Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    I use the introduction of a competitive fellowship program for graduate students to test whether men and women respond differently to competition and whether this response depends on the gender mix of the group. Men experienced a 10% increase in performance in response to the program, with the largest gains for men in departments with the most…

  2. Gender Differences in Environmental Concern and Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momsen, Janet Henshall

    2000-01-01

    Examines cross-culturally the assertion that women have a special relationship with the environment and are more motivated than men to work for environmental sustainability. Explores the discourse on ecofeminism and evaluates alternative explanations of gender differences in environmental awareness. (CMK)

  3. Gender Differences in Environmental Concern and Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Momsen, Janet Henshall

    2000-01-01

    Examines cross-culturally the assertion that women have a special relationship with the environment and are more motivated than men to work for environmental sustainability. Explores the discourse on ecofeminism and evaluates alternative explanations of gender differences in environmental awareness. (CMK)

  4. Real Gender Differences: The Feminist's Fear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunker, Barbara D.

    This paper presents a brief overview of behavioral and biological research that implicates real gender differences as a basis for stereotypical behavior patterns of men and women. A commentary follows that addresses the reactions to the findings by some feminist psychologists and by those feminists who advocate women's rights in the popular press…

  5. Gender Differences among Contributing Leadership Development Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences among contributing student leadership development resources were examined within the context of theory-based perspectives of leadership-related attributes. The findings suggest that students' increased engagement with institutional constituencies cultivates an environment conducive to students' cognitive development toward…

  6. Gender Differences in Business Faculty's Research Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yining; Zhao, Qin

    2013-01-01

    The authors use expectancy theory to evaluate gender differences in key factors that motivate faculty to conduct research. Using faculty survey data collected from 320 faculty members at 10 business schools, they found that faculty members, both men and women, who displayed higher motivation were more productive in research. Among them, pretenured…

  7. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Autobiographical Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…

  8. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Autobiographical Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…

  9. Gender Differences in Business Faculty's Research Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yining; Zhao, Qin

    2013-01-01

    The authors use expectancy theory to evaluate gender differences in key factors that motivate faculty to conduct research. Using faculty survey data collected from 320 faculty members at 10 business schools, they found that faculty members, both men and women, who displayed higher motivation were more productive in research. Among them, pretenured…

  10. Gender Differences among Contributing Leadership Development Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences among contributing student leadership development resources were examined within the context of theory-based perspectives of leadership-related attributes. The findings suggest that students' increased engagement with institutional constituencies cultivates an environment conducive to students' cognitive development toward…

  11. Gender Differences in Peace Education Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yablon, Yaacov Boaz

    2009-01-01

    Peace education programmes have become part of the school curriculum all over the world, as a way to enhance positive relationships between conflict groups. However, although gender differences are being taken into account when planning various educational programmes, this is usually not the case with peace education. The present study aimed to…

  12. Gender Differences in Peace Movement Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marullo, Sam

    Women have been believed to be peacemakers throughout the centuries. Whether this is biologically determined or a socially structured has been a matter of controversy. This study examined gender differences and the social dynamics of peace movement participation. Subjects (N=272) were members of a local nuclear freeze campaign in 1984.…

  13. Gender differences in dissociation. A dimensional approach.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Carsten; Klauer, Thomas; Grabe, Hans-Joergen; Lucht, Michael; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter; Schneider, Wolfgang; Freyberger, Harald J

    2003-01-01

    Considering that epidemiological research on dissociative disorders has suggested a 9 to 1 predominance of female cases, this study investigated the relationship between gender and dissociation using a dimensional approach. A total of 2,153 participants from different diagnostic groups completed the Dissociative Experience Scale. In order to control for the confounding effect of current psychopathology a subgroup 790 subjects additionally completed the SCL-90. We did not find any differences in the general or pathological dissociation scores. Hypothetical gender differences in dissociative psychopathology were not a function of diagnostic categories. There were no significant sex differences in the distribution of high dissociators. Our findings suggest that men and women do not generally differ in dissociative psychopathology. The implications for future investigations on the epidemiology, etiology, and psychobiology of dissociative symptoms are discussed. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Ideology and gender: observers' system justification and targets' gender as interactive predictors of citizenship expectations.

    PubMed

    Chiaburu, Dan S; Harris, T Brad; Smith, Troy A

    2014-01-01

    We integrate system justification and social role theory to explain how observers' system justification and target employees' gender interact to predict observers' expectations of targets' sportsmanship citizenship behaviors. In contrast with social role theory predictions, observers did not expect greater levels of sportsmanship from women compared to men. Yet observers expected more sportsmanship from women (a) when observers were ideologically motivated by gender-specific beliefs (gender-specific system justification; Study 1) and (b) when system justification was cued experimentally (Study 2). A heretofore-unexamined aspect, observers' ideology, modifies their expectations of sportsmanship citizenship across target genders. This has implications for system justification, social role, and organizational citizenship theoretical perspectives.

  15. Gender Differences in Access to Extension Services and Agricultural Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragasa, Catherine; Berhane, Guush; Tadesse, Fanaye; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the gender difference in access to extension services and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Approach: It looks at the case of Ethiopia, where substantial investments in the extension system have been…

  16. Gender Differences in Access to Extension Services and Agricultural Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragasa, Catherine; Berhane, Guush; Tadesse, Fanaye; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article contributes new empirical evidence and nuanced analysis on the gender difference in access to extension services and how this translates to observed differences in technology adoption and agricultural productivity. Approach: It looks at the case of Ethiopia, where substantial investments in the extension system have been…

  17. Gender and racial differences in mathematical performance.

    PubMed

    Hall, C W; Davis, N B; Bolen, L M; Chia, R

    1999-12-01

    The authors examined gender and racial differences in mathematics performance among 5th- and 8th-grade students in the United States. Math performance was assessed by scores on the math-concepts and math-computation sections of the California Achievement Test (CTB/McGraw-Hill, 1986) given at the end of the previous year. There were no significant gender differences, but in both grades, the White students scored significantly higher than the Black students. The racial differences were more pronounced in the scores for concepts than in the scores for computation. Responses to a parent questionnaire showed significant relationships between parents' self-reported math anxiety, parents' most advanced math course, and parents' education level in relation to the child's math performance. Differences in these relationships suggest that, although parents' beliefs and attitudes about math influence their child's math performance, the relationship is complex and may vary with race.

  18. Gender Differences in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Hannawa, Kevin K.; Eliason, Jonathan L.; Upchurch, Gilbert R.

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) comprise the 10th leading cause of death in Caucasian males 65–74 years of age, and accounted for nearly 16,000 deaths overall in the year 2000. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology of AAAs is an important undertaking. Clinically, multiple risk factors are associated with the development of AAAs, including increasing age, positive smoking history, and hypertension. Male gender is also a well-established risk factor for the development of an AAA with a 4:1 male to female ratio. The reason for this gender disparity is unknown. The pathogenesis of AAAs formation is complex and multifactorial. Histologically, AAAs are characterized by early chemokine driven leukocyte infiltration into the aortic wall. Subsequent destruction of elastin and collagen in the media and adventitia ensues due to excessive local production of matrix degrading enzymes, and is accompanied by smooth muscle cell loss and thinning of the aortic wall. At present, there are no medical therapies available to treat patients with aortic aneurysms, using only the crude measurement of aortic diameter as a threshold for which patients must undergo life-threatening and costly surgery. Defining the early mechanisms underlying gender-related differences in AAA formation are critical, as understanding differences in disease patterns based on gender may allow us to develop new translational approaches to the prevention and treatment of patients with aortic aneurysms. PMID:19426607

  19. Gender differences in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Hannawa, Kevin K; Eliason, Jonathan L; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) comprise the tenth leading cause of death in Caucasian males 65 to 74 years of age and accounted for nearly 16,000 deaths overall in 2000. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology of AAAs is an important undertaking. Clinically, multiple risk factors are associated with the development of AAAs, including increasing age, positive smoking history, and hypertension. Male gender is also a well-established risk factor for the development of an AAA, with a 4:1 male to female ratio. The reason for this gender disparity is unknown. The pathogenesis of AAAs formation is complex and multifactorial. Histologically, AAAs are characterized by early chemokine-driven leukocyte infiltration into the aortic wall. Subsequent destruction of elastin and collagen in the media and adventitia ensues owing to excessive local production of matrix-degrading enzymes and is accompanied by smooth muscle cell loss and thinning of the aortic wall. At present, no medical therapies are available to treat patients with aortic aneurysms, using only the crude measurement of aortic diameter as a threshold for which patients must undergo life-threatening and costly surgery. Defining the early mechanisms underlying gender-related differences in AAA formation is critical as understanding differences in disease patterns based on gender may allow us to develop new translational approaches to the prevention and treatment of patients with aortic aneurysms.

  20. Age and gender differences in adolescent and adult overarm throwing.

    PubMed

    Lorson, Kevin M; Stodden, David F; Langendorfer, Stephen J; Goodway, Jacqueline D

    2013-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine age and gender differences in throwing performance across an underexplored portion of the lifespan: middle adolescents (14-17 years old), young adults (18-25 years old), and adults (35-55 years old). Throwing performance was assessed using the body component levels from Roberton's developmental sequences for force and ball velocity that were recorded by a radar gun. Participants in each age group performed between 5 to 10 forceful overhand throws toward a target approximately 15m to 20m from the thrower. A Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test was used to determine gender differences and a Wilcoxon-Signed Ranks Test was used to determine age-group differences for each component. Gender and age-group differences in ball speed were determined by a 3 (age group) x 2 (gender) factorial analysis of variance with follow-up post-hoc tests. Young-adult men had higher body component levels and ball speed compared with the adolescent boys and adult men. Female age-group differences existed only for humerus action between young-adult and adult groups and for ball speed between young-adult and adolescent groups. Gender differences (p < .01) existed in component levels for the adolescent and young-adult groups, but not the adult groups. Gender differences in ball speed (p < .001) existed within each age group. Although these data were cross-sectional, the regressive developmental changes observed and the narrowing gender gap may eventually provide insight related to the relationships among motor skill competence, physical fitness, and physical activity across the lifespan.

  1. Gender Differences in Lunar-Related Scientific and Mathematical Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an examination on gender differences in lunar phases understanding of 123 students (70 females and 53 males). Middle-level students interacted with the Moon through observations, sketching, journalling, two-dimensional and three-dimensional modelling, and classroom discussions. These lunar lessons were adapted from the Realistic…

  2. Gender Differences in Mother-Neonate Twin Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riese, Marilyn L.

    To investigate differences in mothers' interaction patterns with their neonate twins based on birth order, relative size at birth, or gender, 37 neonate twins and their mothers were observed during the first 10 minutes of a feeding in a hospital nursery. Time-sampling recordings were made of maternal behaviors related to proximal stimulation,…

  3. Gender Differences in Lunar-Related Scientific and Mathematical Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports an examination on gender differences in lunar phases understanding of 123 students (70 females and 53 males). Middle-level students interacted with the Moon through observations, sketching, journalling, two-dimensional and three-dimensional modelling, and classroom discussions. These lunar lessons were adapted from the Realistic…

  4. Gender differences in hypertension and hypertension awareness among young adults.

    PubMed

    Everett, Bethany; Zajacova, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that men have higher levels of hypertension and lower levels of hypertension awareness than women, but it remains unclear if these differences emerge among young adults. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), this study examines gender differences in hypertension and hypertension awareness among U.S. young adults, with special focus on factors that may contribute to observed disparities (N = 14,497). Our results show that the gender disparities in hypertension status were already evident among men and women in their twenties: women were far less likely to be hypertensive compared to men (12% vs. 27%). The results also reveal very low levels of hypertension awareness among young women (32% of hypertensive women were aware of their status) and even lower levels among men (25%). Finally, this study identifies key factors that contribute to these observed gender disparities. In particular, health care use, while not related to the actual hypertension status, fully explains the gender differences in hypertension awareness. The findings thus suggest that regular medical visits are critical for improving hypertension awareness among young adults and reducing gender disparities in cardiovascular health.

  5. Gender Differences in Hypertension and Hypertension Awareness Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    EVERETT, BETHANY; ZAJACOVA, ANNA

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that men have higher levels of hypertension and lower levels of hypertension awareness than women, but it remains unclear if these differences emerge among young adults. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), this study examines gender differences in hypertension and hypertension awareness among U.S. young adults, with special focus on factors that may contribute to observed disparities (N = 14,497). Our results show that the gender disparities in hypertension status were already evident among men and women in their twenties: women were far less likely to be hypertensive compared to men (12% vs. 27%). The results also reveal very low levels of hypertension awareness among young women (32% of hypertensive women were aware of their status) and even lower levels among men (25%). Finally, this study identifies key factors that contribute to these observed gender disparities. In particular, health care use, while not related to the actual hypertension status, fully explains the gender differences in hypertension awareness. The findings thus suggest that regular medical visits are critical for improving hypertension awareness among young adults and reducing gender disparities in cardiovascular health. PMID:25879259

  6. Gender, Age, Social differences and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, Alessandra; Salvini, Silvana

    2017-04-01

    Climate and society evolve together in a manner that could place already vulnerable areas and their population at a greater risk to extreme weather events. While efforts have been devoted to better planning preparedness and responses to weather extremes, the interactions among various stakeholders who deal with hazard mitigation and response, and the community members, also related with gender and age differences, are not completely understood. In contrast to physical vulnerability, which arises from the potential for environmental extremes to create adverse physiological changes, social vulnerability arises from the potential for these extreme events to cause changes in people's behavior. People can vary in their potential for injury to themselves and their families. They also vary in the potential for destruction of their homes and workplaces, as well as the destruction of the transportation systems and locations for shopping and recreation they use in their daily activities. It is important to recognize that social vulnerability is not randomly distributed either demographically or geographically. In particular, the social vulnerability arising from a lack of psychological resilience, social network integration, economic assets, and political power vary across demographic groups. Some of these components of social vulnerability can be predicted by demographic characteristics such as gender, age, education, income, and ethnicity. This review explores the gender and social difference dimensions of vulnerability and adaptive capacity in relation to climate change.

  7. Unpacking the Gender Differences on Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan; Jiang, Feng; Hou, Zhenhu; Chen, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Mental health studies show that women are likely to score higher on subjective well-being and higher on depression than men. To verify this, the present study collected a sample of 5648 undergraduates in 55 universities in China. Results showed that women reported higher optimism, gratitude, subjective well-being, and depression than men, and that optimism and gratitude mediated the relationship between gender and mental health (subjective well-being and depression). By its implication, women were more likely to be optimistic and grateful, and as such they tended to experience higher subjective well-being and depression simultaneously. This also implies that gender differences on mental health could also be a dispositional issue as well as a socialization one.

  8. Gender Differences in Emotional Response: Inconsistency between Experience and Expressivity

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yaling; Chang, Lei; Yang, Meng; Huo, Meng

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in both emotional experience and expressivity. Heart rate (HR) was recorded as an indicator of emotional experience while the participants watched 16 video clips that induced eight types of emotion (sadness, anger, horror, disgust, neutrality, amusement, surprise, and pleasure). We also asked the participants to report valence, arousal, and motivation as indicators of emotional expressivity. Overall, the results revealed gender differences in emotional experience and emotional expressivity. When watching videos that induced anger, amusement, and pleasure, men showed larger decreases in HR, whereas women reported higher levels of arousal. There was no gender difference in HR when the participants watched videos that induced horror and disgust, but women reported lower valence, higher arousal, and stronger avoidance motivation than did men. Finally, no gender difference was observed in sadness or surprise, although there was one exception—women reported higher arousal when watching videos that induced sadness. The findings suggest that, when watching videos that induce an emotional response, men often have more intense emotional experiences, whereas women have higher emotional expressivity, particularly for negative emotions. In addition, gender differences depend on the specific emotion type but not the valence. PMID:27362361

  9. Gender Differences in White Matter Microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Kanaan, Richard A.; Allin, Matthew; Picchioni, Marco; Barker, Gareth J.; Daly, Eileen; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Woolley, James; McGuire, Philip K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sexual dimorphism in human brain structure is well recognised, but little is known about gender differences in white matter microstructure. We used diffusion tensor imaging to explore differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), an index of microstructural integrity. Methods A whole brain analysis of 135 matched subjects (90 men and 45 women) using a 1.5 T scanner. A region of interest (ROI) analysis was used to confirm those results where proximity to CSF raised the possibility of partial-volume artefact. Results Men had higher fractional anisotropy (FA) in cerebellar white matter and in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus; women had higher FA in the corpus callosum, confirmed by ROI. Discussion The size of the differences was substantial - of the same order as that attributed to some pathology – suggesting gender may be a potentially significant confound in unbalanced clinical studies. There are several previous reports of difference in the corpus callosum, though they disagree on the direction of difference; our findings in the cerebellum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus have not previously been noted. The higher FA in women may reflect greater efficiency of a smaller corpus callosum. The relatively increased superior longitudinal fasciculus and cerebellar FA in men may reflect their increased language lateralisation and enhanced motor development, respectively. PMID:22701619

  10. The Gender Confidence Gap in Fractions Knowledge: Gender Differences in Student Belief-Achievement Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that in many countries gender differences in mathematics achievement have virtually disappeared. Expectancy-value theory and social cognition theory both predict that if gender differences in achievement have declined there should be a similar decline in gender differences in self-beliefs. Extant literature is…

  11. The Gender Confidence Gap in Fractions Knowledge: Gender Differences in Student Belief-Achievement Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Scott, Garth; Bruce, Catherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that in many countries gender differences in mathematics achievement have virtually disappeared. Expectancy-value theory and social cognition theory both predict that if gender differences in achievement have declined there should be a similar decline in gender differences in self-beliefs. Extant literature is…

  12. Gender differences in depression across parental roles.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Kevin; Pace, Garrett T

    2015-04-01

    Prior research has focused on the relationship between parenthood and psychological well-being, with mixed results. Some studies have also addressed potential gender differences in this relationship, again yielding varied findings. One reason may be methodological choices pursued in these studies, including the lack of focus on combined parental roles (for example, biological parent and stepparent). The authors used data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1979 (N = 6,276) and multinomial treatment models to address how combined roles influence depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers. Further, they explored potential gender differences. Their results indicated that having multiple parental roles is negatively associated with psychological well-being for both men and women, whereas childlessness is more negative for women, and specific parental role combinations affect mothers and fathers differently. Within the context of changing family structure in the United States, these results have important implications for social workers and other mental health professionals-particularly with regard to screening for depression among parents, who are less likely to seek mental health counseling than childless adults.

  13. Gender Differences in Ocular Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Schmidl, Doreen; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Popa-Cherecheanu, Alina

    2015-01-01

    Gender medicine has been a major focus of research in recent years. The present review focuses on gender differences in the epidemiology of the most frequent ocular diseases that have been found to be associated with impaired ocular blood flow, such as age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Data have accumulated indicating that hormones have an important role in these diseases, since there are major differences in the prevalence and incidence between men and pre- and post-menopausal women. Whether this is related to vascular factors is, however, not entirely clear. Interestingly, the current knowledge about differences in ocular vascular parameters between men and women is sparse. Although little data is available, estrogen, progesterone and testosterone are most likely important regulators of blood flow in the retina and choroid, because they are key regulators of vascular tone in other organs. Estrogen seems to play a protective role since it decreases vascular resistance in large ocular vessels. Some studies indicate that hormone therapy is beneficial for ocular vascular disease in post-menopausal women. This evidence is, however, not sufficient to give any recommendation. Generally, remarkably few data are available on the role of sex hormones on ocular blood flow regulation, a topic that requires more attention in the future. PMID:24892919

  14. Typical dreams: stability and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Ciric, Petra; Götz, Simon; Wittmann, Lutz

    2004-11-01

    Although the variability of dream content is large, typical dream themes that occur quite often and are reported by many people can be identified (e.g., being chased, falling, flying, failing an examination, being unable to find a toilet or restroom). The present study is an investigation of the stability of the rank order of the dream themes and of gender differences in the content of dreams. The authors administered A. L. Zadra and T. A. Nielsen's (1997) Typical Dream Questionnaire to 444 participants. The findings indicated that most of the 55 dream themes occurred at least once in most of the participants' lifetimes. In addition, the correlation coefficients for the rank order of the themes were very high; that is, the relative frequencies were stable. The gender differences in the present study were in line with content analytic findings; for example, men reported dreams about physical aggression more often than did women. Overall, previous research and the present data indicate that available research results of the measurement of typical dream themes are reliable and valid. The question of the meaning of these themes or the relationship between typical dream contents and waking life experiences, however, has not yet been answered and is open to future research.

  15. Gender Differences in Sustained Attentional Control Relate to Gender Inequality across Countries.

    PubMed

    Riley, Elizabeth; Okabe, Hidefusa; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy; Esterman, Michael; DeGutis, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Sustained attentional control is critical for everyday tasks and success in school and employment. Understanding gender differences in sustained attentional control, and their potential sources, is an important goal of psychology and neuroscience and of great relevance to society. We used a large web-based sample (n = 21,484, from testmybrain.org) to examine gender differences in sustained attentional control. Our sample included participants from 41 countries, allowing us to examine how gender differences in each country relate to national indices of gender equality. We found significant gender differences in certain aspects of sustained attentional control. Using indices of gender equality, we found that overall sustained attentional control performance was lower in countries with less equality and that there were greater gender differences in performance in countries with less equality. These findings suggest that creating sociocultural conditions which value women and men equally can improve a component of sustained attention and reduce gender disparities in cognition.

  16. Gender Differences in Sustained Attentional Control Relate to Gender Inequality across Countries

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Elizabeth; Okabe, Hidefusa; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy; Esterman, Michael; DeGutis, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Sustained attentional control is critical for everyday tasks and success in school and employment. Understanding gender differences in sustained attentional control, and their potential sources, is an important goal of psychology and neuroscience and of great relevance to society. We used a large web-based sample (n = 21,484, from testmybrain.org) to examine gender differences in sustained attentional control. Our sample included participants from 41 countries, allowing us to examine how gender differences in each country relate to national indices of gender equality. We found significant gender differences in certain aspects of sustained attentional control. Using indices of gender equality, we found that overall sustained attentional control performance was lower in countries with less equality and that there were greater gender differences in performance in countries with less equality. These findings suggest that creating sociocultural conditions which value women and men equally can improve a component of sustained attention and reduce gender disparities in cognition. PMID:27802294

  17. Gender difference and laterality of sleep position.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, Hiroaki; Akita, Miwaoki

    2017-08-29

    A higher incidence in women (approximately 7:3) and a predominant involvement of the right ear (approximately 7:5) are interesting features of BPPV (benign paroxysmal positional vertigo). It is speculated that these features are related to sleep position. The first aim of this study was to compare the frequency of position shifts during sleep between men and women. The second aim was to elucidate any differences in sleep position between men and women. The third aim was to clarify the laterality of sleep position. We retrospectively selected the data of 30 males (mean, 53.1 years) and 22 females (mean, 50.6 years) diagnosed as mild or moderate obstructive sleep apnea. A position sensor was attached to the patient's anterior chest. Supine position was defined as less than 45° tilt, and lateral position was defined as more than 45° tilt. A single overnight laboratory polysomnography provided the number of position shifts, total sleep time, sleep time spent in the supine position (S), sleep time spent in the right-side-down lateral position (R), and sleep time spent in the left-side-down lateral position (L). The mean value and standard deviation of the number of position shifts per hour was 2.4±1.3 in males, and 2.3±1.1 in females. There was no significant difference between males and females. Twelve cases (40%) were lateral type (SR+L) in males. Ten cases (45%) were lateral type, and 12 (55%) were supine type in females. There was no significant difference between males and females. Seventeen cases (56.6%) were right-dominant type (R-L>0), and 13 (43.3%) were left-dominant type (R-L<0) in males. Thirteen cases (59%) were right-dominant type, and 9 (41%) were left-dominant type in females. Body position and the number of position shifts during sleep differ substantially between individuals. There is no gender difference in the frequency of position shifts. Although the supine type is more common than the lateral type, there

  18. Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Tor

    1995-01-01

    Investigates gender differences in computer use among 147 college students. Students completed a questionnaire designed to measure self-efficacy, computer anxiety, computer liking, and computer confidence. Results indicate gender differences in perceived self-efficacy in word processing and spreadsheet software. No gender differences were found in…

  19. Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy and Attitudes toward Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Tor

    1995-01-01

    Investigates gender differences in computer use among 147 college students. Students completed a questionnaire designed to measure self-efficacy, computer anxiety, computer liking, and computer confidence. Results indicate gender differences in perceived self-efficacy in word processing and spreadsheet software. No gender differences were found in…

  20. Gender differences in neural correlates of stress-induced anxiety.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dongju; Ahluwalia, Aneesha; Potenza, Marc N; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-02

    Although gender differences have been identified as a crucial factor for understanding stress-related anxiety and associated clinical disorders, the neural mechanisms underlying these differences remain unclear. To explore gender differences in the neural correlates of stress-induced anxiety, the current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain responses in 96 healthy men and women with commensurable levels of trait anxiety as they engaged in a personalized guided imagery paradigm to provoke stress and neutral-relaxing experiences. During the task, a significant gender main effect emerged, with men displaying greater responses in the caudate, cingulate gyrus, midbrain, thalamus, and cerebellum. In contrast, women showed greater responses in the posterior insula, temporal gyrus, and occipital lobe. Additionally, a significant anxiety ratings × gender interaction from whole-brain regression analyses was observed in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, left inferior parietal lobe, left temporal gyrus, occipital gyrus, and cerebellum (P < 0.05, whole-brain family-wise error corrected), with positive associations between activity in these regions and stress-induced anxiety in women, but negative associations in men, indicating that men and women differentially use neural resources when experiencing stress-induced anxiety. The findings suggest that in response to stress, there is a greater use of the medial prefrontal-parietal cortices in experiencing subjective anxiety in women, while decreased use of this circuit was associated with increased subjective anxiety states in men. The current study has implications for understanding gender-specific differences in stress-induced anxiety and vulnerability to stress-related clinical disorders, and for developing more effective treatment strategies tailored to each gender. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

  2. Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

  3. Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    , and 3) embarrassment for females and; 1) avoidant procrastination with underlying fatalism, 2) unnecessary health care and 3) uncomfortable vulnerability for males. Respondents adopted similar attitudes towards fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, and were comparable in decision stage across tests. Gender differences were neither closely tied to screening stage nor modality. Women had more consistent physician relationships, were more screening-knowledgeable and better able to articulate views on screening. Men reported less consistent physician relationships, were less knowledgeable and kept decision-making processes vague and emotionally distanced (i.e. at ‘arm’s length’). Conclusions Marked differences were observed in obstructive CRCS attitudes per gender. Females articulated reservations about CRCS-associated distress and males suppressed negative views while ambiguously procrastinating about the task of completing screening. Future interventions could seek to reduce CRCS-related stress (females) and address the need to overcome procrastination (males). PMID:23706029

  4. Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Ritvo, Paul; Myers, Ronald E; Paszat, Lawrence; Serenity, Mardie; Perez, Daniel F; Rabeneck, Linda

    2013-05-24

    females and; 1) avoidant procrastination with underlying fatalism, 2) unnecessary health care and 3) uncomfortable vulnerability for males. Respondents adopted similar attitudes towards fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, and were comparable in decision stage across tests. Gender differences were neither closely tied to screening stage nor modality. Women had more consistent physician relationships, were more screening-knowledgeable and better able to articulate views on screening. Men reported less consistent physician relationships, were less knowledgeable and kept decision-making processes vague and emotionally distanced (i.e. at 'arm's length'). Marked differences were observed in obstructive CRCS attitudes per gender. Females articulated reservations about CRCS-associated distress and males suppressed negative views while ambiguously procrastinating about the task of completing screening. Future interventions could seek to reduce CRCS-related stress (females) and address the need to overcome procrastination (males).

  5. Gender differences in navigational memory: pilots vs. nonpilots.

    PubMed

    Verde, Paola; Piccardi, Laura; Bianchini, Filippo; Guariglia, Cecilia; Carrozzo, Paolo; Morgagni, Fabio; Boccia, Maddalena; Di Fiore, Giacomo; Tomao, Enrico

    2015-02-01

    The coding of space as near and far is not only determined by arm-reaching distance, but is also dependent on how the brain represents the extension of the body space. Recent reports suggest that the dissociation between reaching and navigational space is not limited to perception and action but also involves memory systems. It has been reported that gender differences emerged only in adverse learning conditions that required strong spatial ability. In this study we investigated navigational versus reaching memory in air force pilots and a control group without flight experience. We took into account temporal duration (working memory and long-term memory) and focused on working memory, which is considered critical in the gender differences literature. We found no gender effects or flight hour effects in pilots but observed gender effects in working memory (but not in learning and delayed recall) in the nonpilot population (Women's mean = 5.33; SD= 0.90; Men's mean = 5.54; SD= 0.90). We also observed a difference between pilots and nonpilots in the maintenance of on-line reaching information: pilots (mean = 5.85; SD=0.76) were more efficient than nonpilots (mean = 5.21; SD=0.83) and managed this type of information similarly to that concerning navigational space. In the navigational learning phase they also showed better navigational memory (mean = 137.83; SD=5.81) than nonpilots (mean = 126.96; SD=15.81) and were significantly more proficient than the latter group. There is no gender difference in a population of pilots in terms of navigational abilities, while it emerges in a control group without flight experience. We found also that pilots performed better than nonpilots. This study suggests that once selected, male and female pilots do not differ from each other in visuo-spatial abilities and spatial navigation.

  6. Gender difference, sex hormones, and immediate type hypersensitivity reactions.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Mempel, M; Schober, W; Behrendt, H; Ring, J

    2008-11-01

    Gender differences in the development and prevalence of human diseases have long been recognized. Immense interest grows in the understanding of the role of sex hormones in the homeostasis of immunity. Asthma predominates in boys before puberty and this gender preference reverses after puberty and in adulthood, when adult women tend to have a more severe disease, often recalcitrant to treatment. Atopic eczema in preschool children shows insignificant gender difference or male preponderance in different studies, with more adult females suffering from atopic eczema. The limited data on the prevalence of immediate hypersensitivity to hymenoptera venom show controversial results. Discrepancy exists regarding the gender difference in food allergy, with females reporting significantly more allergic reactions in questionnaire studies. In general, adverse reactions to nonionic iodinated radiocontrast media are more commonly observed in females. The course of allergic diseases varies unpredictably during pregnancy, whereas hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women usually has a favorable influence on the course of asthma. Experiments in rodents confirm an effect of estrogens on mast cell activation and allergic sensitization, while progesterone is shown to suppress histamine release but potentiate IgE induction. Dehydroepiandrosterone may antagonize the production of Th2 cytokines but the effect of testosterone and the other androgens remains less defined. Actual data from human studies are lacking.

  7. Gender and traumatic brain injury: do the sexes fare differently?

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Jonathan J; Greenspan, Arlene I; Goldstein, Felicia C; Stringer, Anthony Y; Bushnik, Tamara; Hammond, Flora M; Novack, Thomas A; Whyte, John; Wright, David W

    2007-09-01

    To examine the relationship between gender and cognitive recovery 1 year following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients with blunt TBI were identified from the TBI Model Systems of Care National Database, multi-centre cohort study. The included patients (n = 325) were 16-45 years at injury, admitted to an acute care facility within 24 hours, received inpatient rehabilitation, had documented admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores, completed neuropsychological follow-up 1 year post-injury and did not report pre-morbid learning problems. Multivariate analyses of variance examined the unadjusted association between gender and six cognitive domains examining attention/working memory, verbal memory, language, visual analytic skills, problem-solving and motor functioning. Analyses of covariance models were constructed to determine if confounding factors biased the observed associations. Females performed significantly better than males on tests of attention/working memory and language. Males outperformed females in visual analytic skills. Gender remained significantly associated with performance in these areas when controlling for confounding variables. These results suggest a better cognitive recovery of females than males following TBI. However, future studies need to include non-TBI patients to control for possible pre-injury gender-related differences, as well as to conduct extended follow-ups to determine the stability of the observed differences.

  8. Gender differences in special needs populations.

    PubMed

    Connick, C M; Fos, P J; Barsley, R E

    2001-07-01

    The August 2000 Surgeon General's report confirmed that neglected, vulnerable populations in the United States are not adequately receiving oral health services. The silent epidemic of dental and oral diseases in population groups such as persons with MRDD and the geriatric population results in a diminished quality of life. This article presents a study and research design intended to gather data and report the results as related to the needs of a population with MRDD. The Surgeon General stated that oral health issues in relation to gender have not been explored adequately. The data that were collected add information on health, [table: see text] disease, and health practices in a neglected population, helping in part to address this important concern. The analysis of study data statistically confirmed certain differences between women and men in this special needs population. Women and men experienced a similar number of filled surfaces and missing teeth. Reports of oral pain and daily tooth cleaning were also similar. The rates of fluorosis and the need for urgent treatment differed by gender, as did the number of persons missing a combination of anterior and posterior teeth. In this population men exhibited a greater frequency of past oral injury than women and a greater burden of untreated caries. Men also exhibited a greater frequency of gingival signs, indicating a possible lack of attention to proper oral hygiene; this finding was coupled with their greater frequency of need for urgent dental treatment. Although some reasons for these findings can be postulated, more research into the causes is warranted. Those findings can then form the basis for sound policy decisions that will improve the oral health of both men and women with special needs. Barriers to improved oral health, whether they result from problems with access to providers, from attitudinal problems inherent in the providers themselves, the patient, or the patient's caretakers, or from a

  9. Parental contributions to adolescents' possessions and educational expenses: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Peters, J F

    1991-01-01

    This study explored adolescent gender differences in possessions and parental financial assistance. Eight common adolescent possessions were analyzed, as well as expected parental contributions to their children's postsecondary education. The issues of gender inequality in the home and gender differences in the process of adolescent independence are addressed.

  10. Developmental Gender Differences for Overhand Throwing in Aboriginal Australian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…

  11. Developmental Gender Differences for Overhand Throwing in Aboriginal Australian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jerry R.; Alderson, Jacqueline A.; Thomas, Katherine T.; Campbell, Amity C.; Elliott, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES greater than 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and…

  12. Gender Difference in Fatigue Index and its Related Physiology.

    PubMed

    Hanjabam, Barun; Kailashiya, Jyotsna

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue index exhibits gender difference. This study was carried out to compare fatigue index of young, national level male and female field hockey players; and to explore physiological variables contributing to this difference. We measured running-based anaerobic sprint fatigue index and selected physiological parameters in male and female players matched for age, duration of training, diet, habitual physical activity, body weight and BMI. The male hockey players showed lower resistance to repeated sprints fatigue than the female players. Body weight, BMI and power variables positively correlated to fatigue index in both sexes; while lean body mass and age in males only, and body fat % in females only were found to be correlated to fatigue index. Difference in lean body mass, body fat %, strength and anaerobic power might be responsible for gender difference in intermittent & repeated sprints fatigue index observed in studied players.

  13. [Gender differences in genetic and environmental etiology of gender role personality (BSRI)].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Shoko; Yamagata, Shinji; Shikishima, Chizuru; Ozaki, Koken; Ando, Juko

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the possible effects of genetic and environmental gender differences in effect on individual differences by using the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) with twins. A sex/gender-limitation analysis, a behavior genetics methodology was used to the following: (a) effects of gender-specific genes, (b) gender differences in quantitative genetic effects, (c) effects of gender-specific shared environment, (d) gender differences of quantitative shared environment, and (e) gender differences of quantitative nonshared environment. Participants were adolescent and adult twins, including 111 identical male pairs, 241 identical female pairs, 36 fraternal male pairs, 65 fraternal female pairs, and 58 opposite-gender pairs. The results indicated that although masculinity and femininity were explained by genetic factors to some extent, there were no significant gender differences in the genetic factors. Moreover, because our data did not support a model which explained gender differences in the effects of specific common environment factors, no evidence was found to support the prenatal hormonal hypothesis or the existence of parenting which encouraged children's gender role personality.

  14. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being: Comparing Societies with Respect to Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…

  15. Gender and Gender-Role Orientation Differences on Adolescents' Coping with Peer Stressors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washburn-Ormachea, Jill M.; Hillman, Stephen B.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo S.

    2004-01-01

    Gender and gender-role orientation differences were explored on adolescents' coping with peer stressors. Eighth-grade and ninth-grade public junior high school students (N = 285) completed the COPE, reporting the strategies they recently used to deal with a stressful peer-related situation. Measures of gender-role orientation (Bem Sex-Role…

  16. Gender Differences in Subjective Well-Being: Comparing Societies with Respect to Gender Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesch-Romer, Clemens; Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas; Tomasik, Martin J.

    2008-01-01

    These analyses explore the relationship between gender inequality and subjective well-being. The hypothesis was tested as to whether societal gender inequality is related to the size of gender differences in subjective well-being in various societies. Results come from comparative data sets (World Values Survey, involving 57 countries; OASIS…

  17. [Gender differences in resting EEG related to Eysenk's Personality Traits].

    PubMed

    Razumnikova, O M

    2004-01-01

    EEG mapping was used to study gender differences in hemispheric organization related to personality (40 male and 42 female subjects, the students 17-20 ages). The results showed, that each clearly defined personality trait (neuroticism, extraversion, psychoticizm and social conformity) characterized by special EEG pattern differenced on men and women groups. At the same time, more close interaction of gender and neuroticism was observed, but gender and extraversion were less connected. Neuroticism related patterns of coherence in the alpha2- and beta2-bands were associated with an activity changes in anterior cortex in men but posterior--in women, at that the positive correlations were observed in the beta2-band in the former case and negative ones in the second. There are two opposing tendencies of the interaction between extraversion and gender in a modulation of the resting theta-rhythm: an increase of cortex connections in men and decrease ones in women. The specificity of spatial-temporal EEG patterns in men associated mostly with a psychoticizm value but in women--with a social conformism. In either case these personality traits related to activity of frontal cortex in the left hemisphere.

  18. Gender differences in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Faro, Mònica; Sàez-Francás, Naia; Castro-Marrero, Jesús; Aliste, Luisa; Fernández de Sevilla, Tomás; Alegre, José

    2016-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a chronic condition that predominantly affects women. To date, there are few epidemiologic studies on CFS in men. The objective of the study was to assess whether there are gender-related differences in CFS, and to define a clinical phenotype in men. A prospective, cross-sectional cohort study was conducted including CFS patients at the time of diagnosis. Sociodemographic data, clinical variables, comorbid phenomena, fatigue, pain, anxiety/depression, and health quality of life, were assessed in the CFS population. A comparative study was also conducted between genders. The study included 1309 CFS patients, of which 119 (9.1%) were men. The mean age and symptoms onset were lower in men than women. The subjects included 30% single men vs. 15% single women, and 32% of men had specialist work vs. 20% of women. The most common triggering factor was an infection. Widespread pain, muscle spasms, dizziness, sexual dysfunction, Raynaud's phenomenon, morning stiffness, migratory arthralgias, drug and metals allergy, and facial oedema were less frequent in men. Fibromyalgia was present in 29% of men vs. 58% in women. The scores on physical function, physical role, and overall physical health of the SF-36 were higher in men. The sensory and affective dimensions of pain were lower in men. The clinical phenotype of the men with CFS was young, single, skilled worker, and infection as the main triggering agent. Men had less pain and less muscle and immune symptoms, fewer comorbid phenomena, and a better quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  19. Social comparison, self-stereotyping, and gender differences in self-construals.

    PubMed

    Guimond, Serge; Chatard, Armand; Martinot, Delphine; Crisp, Richard J; Redersdorff, Sandrine

    2006-02-01

    Four studies examined gender differences in self-construals and the role of social comparison in generating these differences. Consistent with previous research, Study 1 (N=461) showed that women define themselves as higher in relational interdependence than men, and men define themselves as higher in independence/agency than women. Study 2 (N=301) showed that within-gender social comparison decreases gender differences in self-construals relative to a control condition, whereas between-genders comparison increases gender differences on both relational interdependence and independence/agency. Studies 3 (N=169) and 4 (N=278) confirmed these findings and showed that changing self-construal changes gender differences in social dominance orientation. Across the 4 studies, strong evidence for the role of in-group stereotyping as mediator of the effect of gender on self-construal was observed on the relational dimension but not on the agentic dimension. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Gender differences in the perception of pungency.

    PubMed

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Noriega, G

    1985-03-01

    Males and females judged the intensity of the typical pungent stimulus CO2, presented by nose and by mouth, employing two scaling procedures: magnitude estimation and magnitude matching. The two groups differed in their perception of CO2 pungency only when it was judged in the nose. Perceived nasal pungency grew as a power function of CO2 concentration, with an exponent of 2.2 for females and 1.6 for males, and the magnitude matching test showed that, relative to their perception of sucrose sweetness, females perceived pungency more intense throughout the range studied. Perceived buccal pungency grew for both groups as the 1.1 power of CO2 concentration, and the magnitude matching test, employing again sweetness as the reference modality, revealed no intensity differences in the perception of buccal pungency between the genders. It is suggested that the susceptibility of the nasal environment to hormonal and neural influences may account for the differences in perceived pungency between males and females.

  1. Gender differences in nightmare frequency: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schredl, Michael; Reinhard, Iris

    2011-04-01

    Many studies have reported gender differences in nightmare frequency. In order to study this difference systematically, data from 111 independent studies have been included in the meta-analysis reported here. Overall, estimated effect sizes regarding the gender difference in nightmare frequency differed significantly from zero in three age groups of healthy persons (adolescents, young adults, and middle-aged adults), whereas for children and older persons no substantial gender difference in nightmare frequency could be demonstrated. There are several candidate variables like dream recall frequency, depression, childhood trauma, and insomnia which might explain this gender difference because these variables are related to nightmare frequency and show stable gender differences themselves. Systematic research studying the effect of these variables on the gender difference in nightmare frequency, though, is still lacking. In the present study it was found that women tend to report nightmares more often than men but this gender difference was not found in children and older persons. Starting with adolescence, the gender difference narrowed with increasing age. In addition, studies with binary coded items showed a markedly smaller effect size for the gender difference in nightmare frequency compared to the studies using multiple categories in a rating scale. How nightmares were defined did not affect the gender difference. In the analyses of all studies and also in the analysis for the children alone the data source (children vs. parents) turned out to be the most influential variable on the gender difference (reporting, age). Other results are also presented. Investigating factors explaining the gender difference in nightmare frequency might be helpful in deepening the understanding regarding nightmare etiology and possibly gender differences in other mental disorders like depression or posttraumatic stress disorder.

  2. An Evolutionary Psychological Perspective on Gender Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Alastair P. C.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2006-01-01

    Comments on the article by J. S. Hyde (see record EJ733581), which reviewed the results of 46 meta-analyses of studies investigating gender differences and produced results that supported the gender similarities hypothesis that men and women are similar along most psychological traits. The current authors agree with the gender similarities…

  3. An Evolutionary Psychological Perspective on Gender Similarities and Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Alastair P. C.; Shackelford, Todd K.

    2006-01-01

    Comments on the article by J. S. Hyde (see record EJ733581), which reviewed the results of 46 meta-analyses of studies investigating gender differences and produced results that supported the gender similarities hypothesis that men and women are similar along most psychological traits. The current authors agree with the gender similarities…

  4. Gender difference in mask ventilation training of anesthesia residents.

    PubMed

    Koga, Tomomichi; Kawamoto, Masashi

    2009-05-01

    To investigate whether gender difference has an effect on an anesthesia resident's ability to perform successful mask ventilation. Cohort study. Surgical operation theater of a university-affiliated hospital. 839 ASA physical status I, II, and III patients undergoing general anesthesia performed by residents. Mask ventilation was performed by 21 different anesthesia residents. Difficult mask ventilation was defined as the inability of an unassisted resident to maintain oxygen saturation, significant gas flow leakage beneath the face mask, need to increase gas flow, no perceptible chest movement, assistance required using a two-handed mask ventilation technique, or use of the oxygen flush valve more than twice. Instances of difficult mask ventilation were observed in 210 patients (25.0%), though all were adequately ventilated with a face mask. Difficult mask ventilation was observed significantly more often with female (29.8%) than male (20.0%) residents. Residents' gender was shown to be an independent risk factor for difficult mask ventilation. Gender difference has an effect on the mask ventilation learning process, as it was more difficult for female residents to provide a tight air seal in the early stage of training.

  5. Gender-related Differences in Food Craving and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hallam, Jessica; Boswell, Rebecca G.; DeVito, Elise E.; Kober, Hedy

    2016-01-01

    Food craving is often defined as a strong desire to eat. Much work has shown that it consistently and prospectively predicts eating and weight-related outcomes, contributing to the growing obesity epidemic. Although there are clear gender differences in the prevalence and health consequences of obesity, relatively little recent work has investigated gender differences in craving, or any sex-hormone-based differences as they relate to phases of the menstrual cycle. Here, we propose that gender-related differences in food craving contribute to gender-related differences in obesity. Drawing on findings in the addiction literature, we highlight ways to incorporate gender-based differences in food craving into treatment approaches, potentially improving the efficacy of obesity and weight loss treatment. Overall, this review aims to emphasize the importance of investigating gender differences in food craving, with a view towards informing the development of more effective treatments for obesity and weight loss. PMID:27354843

  6. Gender-related Differences in Food Craving and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Hallam, Jessica; Boswell, Rebecca G; DeVito, Elise E; Kober, Hedy

    2016-06-01

    Food craving is often defined as a strong desire to eat. Much work has shown that it consistently and prospectively predicts eating and weight-related outcomes, contributing to the growing obesity epidemic. Although there are clear gender differences in the prevalence and health consequences of obesity, relatively little recent work has investigated gender differences in craving, or any sex-hormone-based differences as they relate to phases of the menstrual cycle. Here, we propose that gender-related differences in food craving contribute to gender-related differences in obesity. Drawing on findings in the addiction literature, we highlight ways to incorporate gender-based differences in food craving into treatment approaches, potentially improving the efficacy of obesity and weight loss treatment. Overall, this review aims to emphasize the importance of investigating gender differences in food craving, with a view towards informing the development of more effective treatments for obesity and weight loss.

  7. Gender and Gender Role Differences in Self- and Other-Estimates of Multiple Intelligences

    PubMed Central

    Szymanowicz, Agata

    2013-01-01

    This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others’ multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in “personal” ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons’ intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones. PMID:23951949

  8. Gender and gender role differences in self- and other-estimates of multiple intelligences.

    PubMed

    Szymanowicz, Agata; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study examined participant gender and gender role differences in estimates of multiple intelligences for self, partner, and various hypothetical, stereotypical, and counter-stereotypical target persons. A general population sample of 261 British participants completed one of four questionnaires that required them to estimate their own and others' multiple intelligences and personality traits. Males estimated their general IQ slightly, but mathematic IQ significantly higher than females, who rated their social and emotional intelligence higher than males. Masculine individuals awarded themselves somewhat higher verbal and practical IQ scores than did female participants. Both participant gender and gender role differences in IQ estimates were found, with gender effects stronger in cognitive and gender role than in "personal" ability estimates. There was a significant effect of gender role on hypothetical persons' intelligence evaluations, with masculine targets receiving significantly higher intelligence estimates compared to feminine targets. More intelligent hypothetical figures were judged as more masculine and less feminine than less intelligent ones.

  9. [Failure effects and gender differences in perfectionism].

    PubMed

    Masson, A M; Cadot, M; Ansseau, M

    2003-01-01

    perfectionism are described: SOP (Self Oriented Perfectionism) related to high standards and self criticism, SPP (Socially Prescribed Perfectionism) related to the need of approval from others and fear of negative evaluation, OOP (Other-Oriented Perfectionism) reflecting a tendency to set high expectations for others and to evaluate them in a demanding way; this component is related, especially for males, to self-esteem, hostility and authoritarianism. Validity and internal consistency have been established too (30, 31, 35). The Frost and al's Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale and the Hewitt and Flett's scales are closely associated, except concerning the OOP. Because this component could provide new information, we have chosen the second scale, referring to the French translation and validation of Labrecque (45). EMP is the French name of MPS; it is a self-report questionnaire of 45 questions, in fact three subscales of 15 items rated on a 7-point Likert-type scale. MPS was administered to 617 first year students at the university of Liège (table II). Differences are considered according to gender and experience of failure i.e. the fact of repeating an academic year. We realized a component analysis with promax rotation. Among the different possibilities offered by the scree-test the choice of a 4 factor solution stresses the original structure: SOP (14 items), SPP (12 items), OOP (9 items) and anti OOP (10 items); the last one is additional but allows for respecting semantics and saturation of the items. The first aim of confirming validity and internal consistency is satisfactory. In other respects the multidimensional structure of the concept leads to consideration of a positive, adaptive perfectionism and a more negative perfectionism, facilitating psychopathology (59, 60, 61). So it seems interesting to compare the different components of MPS in order to find an eventual sex-failure effect. The evaluation of perfectionism is obvious, considering it as a personality

  10. Gender differences in experimental aortic aneurysm formation.

    PubMed

    Ailawadi, Gorav; Eliason, Jonathan L; Roelofs, Karen J; Sinha, Indranil; Hannawa, Kevin K; Kaldjian, Eric P; Lu, Guanyi; Henke, Peter K; Stanley, James C; Weiss, Stephen J; Thompson, Robert W; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2004-11-01

    It is hypothesized that a male predominance, similar to that in humans, persists in a rodent model of experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) via alterations in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Group I experiments were as follows: elastase perfusion of the infrarenal aorta was performed in male (M) and female (F) rats. At 14 days, aortas were harvested for immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and zymography. Group II experiments were the following: abdominal aorta was transplanted from F or M donors into F or M recipients. At 14 days, rodents that had undergone transplantation underwent elastase perfusion. In group III, male rats were given estradiol or sham 5 days before elastase perfusion. In group I, M rats had larger AAAs with higher frequency than did F rats. M rat aortas had more significant macrophage infiltrates and increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 production and activity. In group II, M-to-M aortic transplants uniformly developed aneurysms after elastase perfusion, whereas F-to-F aortic transplants remained resistant to aneurysm formation. F aortas transplanted into M recipients, however, lost aneurysm resistance. In group III, estradiol-treated rats demonstrated smaller aneurysms and less macrophage infiltrate and MMP-9 compared with M controls after elastase. These data provide evidence of gender-related differences in AAA development, which may reflect an estrogen-mediated reduction in macrophage MMP-9 production.

  11. Diagnosis and complications of Cushing's disease: gender-related differences.

    PubMed

    Zilio, Marialuisa; Barbot, Mattia; Ceccato, Filippo; Camozzi, Valentina; Bilora, Franca; Casonato, Alessandra; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Albiger, Nora; Daidone, Viviana; Mazzai, Linda; Mantero, Franco; Scaroni, Carla

    2014-03-01

    Cushing's disease (CD) presents a remarkable preponderance in female gender, with a female-to-male ratio of 3-8:1. The aim of this study was to evaluate gender-related differences in the presentation of CD, as regards: biochemical indices of hypercortisolism; sensitivity of diagnostic tests; clinical features and complications of disease. We retrospectively studied 84 adult patients with CD, 67 women and 17 men, evaluated at diagnosis. We compared the features of the disease between the sexes and analysed the effect of gender on CD complications, adjusted for potential confounders (age, gonadal status, BMI, urinary free cortisol values). We observed no differences between males and females as regards age at diagnosis, disease duration and BMI. Men, compared with women, presented higher urinary free cortisol values (P < 0·001) and ACTH values (P < 0·05). As regards diagnostic tests, men presented a lower ACTH response to DDAVP stimulation (P < 0·05). The pituitary tumour itself was less easily visualized by pituitary MRI in males compared with females (P < 0·05). Furthermore, some complications of disease were more frequent or more severe in men, in particular hypokalaemia (P < 0·05), hypercoagulable state and osteoporosis at lumbar spine (P < 0·01), with consequent higher risk of vertebral fractures. Male gender was found to be an independent risk factor for dyslipidaemia, severity of hypertension, lumbar osteoporosis and fractures. Although CD is less frequent in male patients, in this gender, it presents with more florid clinical manifestations and may imply more diagnostic difficulties. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Same Game, Different Rules? Gender Differences in Political Participation

    PubMed Central

    Bolzendahl, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359) using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals that women are more likely than men to have voted and engaged in ‘private’ activism, while men are more likely to have engaged in direct contact, collective types of actions and be (more active) members of political parties. Our analysis indicates that demographic and attitudinal characteristics influence participation differently among men and among women, as well as across types of participation. These results highlight the need to move toward a view of women engaging in differing types of participation and based on different characteristics. PMID:20407575

  13. Same Game, Different Rules? Gender Differences in Political Participation.

    PubMed

    Coffé, Hilde; Bolzendahl, Catherine

    2010-03-01

    We investigate gender gaps in political participation with 2004 ISSP data for 18 advanced Western democracies (N: 20,359) using linear and logistic regression models. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and political attitudes reveals that women are more likely than men to have voted and engaged in 'private' activism, while men are more likely to have engaged in direct contact, collective types of actions and be (more active) members of political parties. Our analysis indicates that demographic and attitudinal characteristics influence participation differently among men and among women, as well as across types of participation. These results highlight the need to move toward a view of women engaging in differing types of participation and based on different characteristics.

  14. Gender Differences in Financial Literacy among Hong Kong Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Kar-Ming; Wu, Alfred M.; Chan, Wai-Sum; Chou, Kee-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Using a phone survey conducted in 2012, we examined whether there is a gender difference in financial literacy among Hong Kong workers; and if such a difference exists, whether it can be explained by gender differences in sociodemographic variables, social or psychological factors, and/or the outcomes of retirement planning. Results show a gender…

  15. Gender Differences in Financial Literacy among Hong Kong Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Kar-Ming; Wu, Alfred M.; Chan, Wai-Sum; Chou, Kee-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Using a phone survey conducted in 2012, we examined whether there is a gender difference in financial literacy among Hong Kong workers; and if such a difference exists, whether it can be explained by gender differences in sociodemographic variables, social or psychological factors, and/or the outcomes of retirement planning. Results show a gender…

  16. Gender Differences in Verbal Ability: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Janet Shibley; Linn, Marcia C.

    Analysis of 165 studies (representing the testing of 1,418,899 subjects) that reported data on gender differences in verbal ability indicated a slight female superiority in performance. The difference is so small that it appears that gender differences in verbal ability no longer exist. A major goal was also to define age trends in the pattern of…

  17. Affective and Cognitive Empathy as Mediators of Gender Differences in Cyber and Traditional Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topcu, Cigdem; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in bullying behavior among adolescents have been observed, but the reasons for the discrepancy in males' and females' bullying experiences has been the focus of few studies. This study examined the role of the cognitive and affective empathy in explaining gender differences in bullying through multiple mediation analysis. The…

  18. Spatial Rotation and Recognizing Emotions: Gender Related Differences in Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments, gender and ability (performance and emotional intelligence) related differences in brain activity--assessed with EEG methodology--while respondents were solving a spatial rotation tasks and identifying emotions in faces were investigated. The most robust gender related difference in brain activity was observed in the lower-2…

  19. Spatial Rotation and Recognizing Emotions: Gender Related Differences in Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2008-01-01

    In three experiments, gender and ability (performance and emotional intelligence) related differences in brain activity--assessed with EEG methodology--while respondents were solving a spatial rotation tasks and identifying emotions in faces were investigated. The most robust gender related difference in brain activity was observed in the lower-2…

  20. Age and Gender Differences in Depression across Adolescence: Real or "Bias"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…

  1. Gender Differences in Figural Matrices: The Moderating Role of Item Design Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    There is a heated debate on whether observed gender differences in some figural matrices in adults can be attributed to gender differences in inductive reasoning/G[subscript f] or differential item functioning and/or test bias. Based on previous studies we hypothesized that three specific item design features moderate the effect size of the gender…

  2. Gender Differences in Figural Matrices: The Moderating Role of Item Design Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendasy, Martin E.; Sommer, Markus

    2012-01-01

    There is a heated debate on whether observed gender differences in some figural matrices in adults can be attributed to gender differences in inductive reasoning/G[subscript f] or differential item functioning and/or test bias. Based on previous studies we hypothesized that three specific item design features moderate the effect size of the gender…

  3. Age and Gender Differences in Depression across Adolescence: Real or "Bias"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…

  4. Affective and Cognitive Empathy as Mediators of Gender Differences in Cyber and Traditional Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topcu, Cigdem; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in bullying behavior among adolescents have been observed, but the reasons for the discrepancy in males' and females' bullying experiences has been the focus of few studies. This study examined the role of the cognitive and affective empathy in explaining gender differences in bullying through multiple mediation analysis. The…

  5. Gender differences in pornography consumption among young heterosexual Danish adults.

    PubMed

    Hald, Gert Martin

    2006-10-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate gender differences in pornography consumption among Danish adults aged 18-30 and (2) to examine gender differences in situational, interpersonal, and behavioral characteristics of pornography consumption. A national survey study was conducted using a representative sample of 688 young heterosexual Danish adult men and women. The study found large gender differences in prevalence rates of pornography consumption and consumption patterns. Compared to women, men were exposed to pornography at a younger age, consumed more pornography as measured by time and frequency, and used pornography more often during sexual activity on their own. Gender differences in the interpersonal context of use were also evident, with women using pornography more often with a regular sexual partner than men. In turn, men were found to use pornography more often on their own or with friends (non-sexual partners) than women. For both men and women, the usual place of use was home and no significant gender difference was found in this regard. Men and women were found to vary in their preferences in pornographic materials, with men both preferring a wider range of hardcore pornography and less softcore pornography than women. Gender differences in sexual behavioral factors were limited to masturbation patterns with men masturbating more than women. Male gender, higher frequency of masturbation, lower age at first exposure, and younger age were found to account for 48.8% of the total variance of pornography consumption. The results were discussed in relation to the sociocultural environment and evolutionary theory. It is argued that gender differences in social acceptability, adherence to gender stereotypes, traditions of gender sexuality, gender norms, and mating strategies are key factors in understanding gender differences in pornography consumption.

  6. Theory of Planned Behavior explains gender difference in fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Amber S; McCully, Scout N; Gallagher, Kristel M; Updegraff, John A

    2012-12-01

    A gender difference in fruit and vegetable intake (FVI) is widely documented, but not well understood. Using data from the National Cancer Institute's Food Attitudes and Behavior Survey, we assessed the extent to which gender differences in FVI are attributable to gender differences in constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Females reported more favorable attitudes and greater perceived behavior control regarding FVI than males, and these beliefs mediated the observed gender difference. Males reported greater perceived norms for FVI, but norms did not predict FVI. Gender did not moderate the influence of TPB constructs on FVI. Thus, TPB constructs substantially explained the gender difference. Interventions targeted toward adult males may benefit by promoting favorable attitudes and perceived behavioral control over FVI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender Differences in Reading Motivation: Does Sex or Gender Identity Provide a Better Account?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah; Goodwin, Hannah; Henderson, Nikola; Wright, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in reading skill and reading motivation, investigating whether these differences could be better accounted for by sex, or by gender identity. One hundred and eighty-two primary school children (98 males) aged 8-11 completed a reading comprehension assessment, reading motivation questionnaire and a gender role…

  8. Gender Similarity or Gender Difference? Contemporary Women's and Men's Career Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmarsh, Lona; Wentworth, Diane Keyser

    2012-01-01

    Career development research has often explored gender differences in and development of career patterns (Gottfredson, 2006). Hyde's (2005) meta-analysis indicated that men and women shared more similarities than differences. Applying Hyde's gender similarities hypothesis to careers, the authors conducted a 2-stage study. Stage 1 was an analysis of…

  9. Gender Similarity or Gender Difference? Contemporary Women's and Men's Career Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmarsh, Lona; Wentworth, Diane Keyser

    2012-01-01

    Career development research has often explored gender differences in and development of career patterns (Gottfredson, 2006). Hyde's (2005) meta-analysis indicated that men and women shared more similarities than differences. Applying Hyde's gender similarities hypothesis to careers, the authors conducted a 2-stage study. Stage 1 was an analysis of…

  10. Gender Differences in Reading Motivation: Does Sex or Gender Identity Provide a Better Account?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeown, Sarah; Goodwin, Hannah; Henderson, Nikola; Wright, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sex differences in reading skill and reading motivation, investigating whether these differences could be better accounted for by sex, or by gender identity. One hundred and eighty-two primary school children (98 males) aged 8-11 completed a reading comprehension assessment, reading motivation questionnaire and a gender role…

  11. Gender and Age Differences among Teen Drivers in Fatal Crashes.

    PubMed

    Swedler, David I; Bowman, Stephen M; Baker, Susan P

    2012-01-01

    To identify age and gender differences among teen drivers in fatal crashes, we analyzed FARS data for 14,026crashes during 2007-2009. Compared with female teenagers, crashes of male teenagers were significantly more likely to involve BACs of 0.08% or more (21% vs. 12%), speeding (38% vs. 25%), reckless driving (17% vs. 14%), night driving (41% vs. 36%) and felony crashes (hit-and-run, homicide, or manslaughter) (8% vs. 6%) (all χ(2) p<0.001). Conversely, crashes of female teenagers were more likely to involve right angle ("t-bone") crashes (23% vs. 17%). Some crash characteristics associated with males and known to play a major role in crash causation also are more common in the youngest teenagers; for example, crashes of drivers age 15 or 16 were more likely than crashes of older teens to involve speeding or reckless driving. Crashes of drivers with BACs of 0.08% or higher increased with age in both genders. Some age effects differed by gender: for example, the proportion of crashes of female teens that involved speeding dropped from 38% to 22% between ages 15 and 19, while for males about 38% of crashes at each age involved speeding. The gender and age differences observed in teen drivers suggest opportunities for targeted driver training - for example, simulator training modules specifically tailored for male or female teenagers. Technology-based tools could also be developed to help parents to focus on the reckless driving tendencies of their sons. Insurance companies should consider ways to incentivize young males to drive more responsibly.

  12. Gender and Age Differences among Teen Drivers in Fatal Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Swedler, David I.; Bowman, Stephen M.; Baker, Susan P.

    2012-01-01

    To identify age and gender differences among teen drivers in fatal crashes, we analyzed FARS data for 14,026crashes during 2007–2009. Compared with female teenagers, crashes of male teenagers were significantly more likely to involve BACs of 0.08% or more (21% vs. 12%), speeding (38% vs. 25%), reckless driving (17% vs. 14%), night driving (41% vs. 36%) and felony crashes (hit-and-run, homicide, or manslaughter) (8% vs. 6%) (all χ2 p<0.001). Conversely, crashes of female teenagers were more likely to involve right angle (“t-bone”) crashes (23% vs. 17%). Some crash characteristics associated with males and known to play a major role in crash causation also are more common in the youngest teenagers; for example, crashes of drivers age 15 or 16 were more likely than crashes of older teens to involve speeding or reckless driving. Crashes of drivers with BACs of 0.08% or higher increased with age in both genders. Some age effects differed by gender: for example, the proportion of crashes of female teens that involved speeding dropped from 38% to 22% between ages 15 and 19, while for males about 38% of crashes at each age involved speeding. The gender and age differences observed in teen drivers suggest opportunities for targeted driver training – for example, simulator training modules specifically tailored for male or female teenagers. Technology-based tools could also be developed to help parents to focus on the reckless driving tendencies of their sons. Insurance companies should consider ways to incentivize young males to drive more responsibly. PMID:23169121

  13. Gender differences in math and science choices and preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkhadrawi, Amamah A.

    The purpose of this dissertation is to discover how the myth of gender differences in STEM inform the lived experiences of male and female 12th graders in one high school in Northwest Ohio. Over the years, the observed gender gap favoring males over females in STEM ability has closed, and female students have even surpassed males in some measures. The fact that girls have met and exceeded boys in many measures of STEM ability over time suggests that the historical disparity was the result of social or psychological, and not biological, differences. Even though schools have changed throughout the years to accommodate and encourage female students in STEM, there is still a persistent disparity in participation at the highest levels of STEM in education and in careers. Males still outnumber females in the more mathematical and technical sciences, such as computer science and engineering. This study applied feminist socialization theory and phenomenology as its theoretical framework. The biggest themes that informed student"s choices and preferences were as follows: intended choices follow family influence, myth persists in subtle ways, teenagers have a limited future view, and the chicken and the egg issues of personal interests versus social influence. There are clearly more factors that contribute to this gender socialization, which may be a combination of socioeconomic status and the influence of family.

  14. [Psychosocial factors and cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis: gender differences].

    PubMed

    Lopez-Alava, S; Aliri, J; Olascoaga, J; Sistiaga, A

    2017-09-01

    Being a woman increases the risk of developing multiple sclerosis, an illness where biopsychosocial factors (psychological stress, perceived social support, psychological well-being, coping strategies) may have a clinical impact. To assess how stress management is affected in remitting-relapsing multiple sclerosis and to analyze gender differences both in terms of stress management and patients' cognitive performance. 42 patients were neuropsychologically evaluated with the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests, four psychosocial questionnaires and Beck's Depression Inventory. Two main analyses were conducted: mean comparisons between men and women for clinical, neuropsychological and psychosocial variables, and a correlation analysis between the psychosocial and clinical variables of the illness in the whole sample, as well as in men and women separately. Men and women showed differences in the outbreak rate and in the attention/executive function domain. The correlation analysis revealed that the strongest correlation was between clinical and psychosocial variables when the group was divided according to gender. Any predominant coping strategy was not detected in the multiple sclerosis group, but it was observed that women had an increased tendency to self-incriminate. This study emphasizes the importance of assessing these remitting-relapsing multiple sclerosis patients both cognitively and psychosocially, differentiating them by gender.

  15. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Environmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of gender in the areas of environmental education that included environmental knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and comfort levels in the outdoors. The current study was part of a larger study designed to explore the effects of a treatment that consisted of 14 weeks of outdoor lessons conducted in the schoolyard as…

  16. Gender Differences in Victimized Homeless Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Regina Jones; Rew, Lynn; Kouzekanani, Kamiar

    2006-01-01

    Most of what we know about sexual abuse comes from efforts to examine female children victimized by men. Although some researchers have identified similarities between male and female victims of sexual abuse, few studies have examined gender-specific factors associated with sexual health practices among homeless adolescents. The aim of this study…

  17. Gender Differences in Attitudes toward Environmental Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the role of gender in the areas of environmental education that included environmental knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and comfort levels in the outdoors. The current study was part of a larger study designed to explore the effects of a treatment that consisted of 14 weeks of outdoor lessons conducted in the schoolyard as…

  18. Age and Gender Differences in Instructional Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcheir, Marcia J.

    This study examines whether students' age and/or gender impact their preferences for instructional practices thought to improve learning, and their preparation for college and performance in college. Students were asked which of 38 instructional practices they preferred, how often they experienced each practice, and how well prepared they felt in…

  19. The emergence of gender difference in depressed mood during adolescence: the role of intensified gender socialization.

    PubMed

    Wichstrøm, L

    1999-01-01

    The prevalence of depressive mood was examined in a representative and nationwide sample of approximately 12,000 Norwegian adolescents. From the age of 14, girls scored 0.5 SD above boys in depressed mood, a difference that was stable throughout the adolescent period. At the age of 12, no gender difference was found. The gender difference was due to girls becoming more depressed from 13 to 14 years of age. An extended version of the gender intensification hypothesis (J. P. Hill & M. E. Lynch, 1983) was tested as an explanation for the gender difference in depressed mood. Structural equation modeling and regression analyses showed that the gender difference could be explained, in part, by increased developmental challenges for girls--pubertal development, dissatisfaction with weight and attainment of a mature female body, and increased importance of feminine sex role identification. Depressed mood was not associated with masculinity or school change, as had been predicted.

  20. Gendered utilization differences of mental health services in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Krenawi, A; Graham, J R; Kandah, J

    2000-10-01

    A revised Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL), translated into Arabic, was distributed to a sample of 87 nonpsychotic mental health out-patients in Zarka, Jordan (male = 61, female = 26). Findings revealed no significant gendered differences, but higher responses among women in all dimensions. Regardless of gender, patients also expected and were satisfied with medicinal treatment; explained etiologies as having supernatural origins; and utilized informal community traditional healing and religious healing systems. The supernatural explanations and community healing systems varied by gender. Findings emphasize future treatment and programme development strategies that take into account the biomedical/traditional interface, culturally appropriate treatment modalities, different gendered patient needs, and the potential stigma of professional treatment.

  1. Do the Paths to STEMM Professions Differ by Gender?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Linda G.; Miller, Jon D.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we examine gender differences in factors related to science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) education and employment between the ages of 36 and 39. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth, we identified a STEMM high school talent pool. We found early gender differences in interest in…

  2. Gender Differences in Computerised and Conventional Educational Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Research has demonstrated girls outperform boys on conventional literacy tests. The present studies concern gender differences on computerised educational tests. Seventy-one children were tested using LASS Secondary and a set of seven conventional measures. No significant gender differences were found on any of the LASS Secondary modules,…

  3. Gender Differences in Saving and Spending Behaviours of Thai Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sereetrakul, Wilailuk; Wongveeravuti, Siriwan; Likitapiwat, Tanakorn

    2013-01-01

    Since males and females are raised differently by their parents (Thorne, 2003), gender roles may affect the saving and spending behaviours of male and female teenagers. The objective of this research was to study the gender differences in saving and spending behaviours of Thai students. This was an exploratory study where a questionnaire was used…

  4. Gender Differences in Mental Simulation during Sentence and Word Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassenburg, Stephanie I.; de Koning, Björn B.; de Vries, Meinou H.; Boonstra, A. Marije; van der Schoot, Menno

    2017-01-01

    Text comprehension requires readers to mentally simulate the described situation by reactivating previously acquired sensory and motor information from (episodic) memory. Drawing upon research demonstrating gender differences, favouring girls, in tasks involving episodic memory retrieval, the present study explores whether gender differences exist…

  5. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Academic Motivation and Classroom Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah P.; St Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in adolescents' academic motivation and classroom behaviour and gender differences in the extent to which motivation was associated with, and predicted, classroom behaviour. Seven hundred and fifty students (384 boys and 366 girls) aged 11--16 (M age?=?14.0, 1.59 SD) completed a questionnaire…

  6. Gender Differences in Social Support among Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Neal; Keith, Verna

    1989-01-01

    Studies exposure to life stress as an explanation for gender differences in older adults' utilization of social support. Results suggest that, as stressful events increase, elderly men and women are equally likely to become more involved in their social network, while gender differences emerge in response to chronic financial strain. (JS)

  7. Impact of Attitudes of Peers on Language Achievement: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van De Gaer, Eva; Pustjens, Heidi; Van Damme, Jan; De Munter, Agnes

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined whether gender differences in language achievement were related not only to gender differences in attitudes toward schooling but also to the attitudes toward schooling of peers (i.e., peers in classes and in schools). The authors used multilevel analysis on data compiled from a longitudinal research project in secondary…

  8. Gender Differences in Adolescents' Academic Motivation and Classroom Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah P.; St Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated gender differences in adolescents' academic motivation and classroom behaviour and gender differences in the extent to which motivation was associated with, and predicted, classroom behaviour. Seven hundred and fifty students (384 boys and 366 girls) aged 11--16 (M age?=?14.0, 1.59 SD) completed a questionnaire…

  9. Gender Differences in Saving and Spending Behaviours of Thai Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sereetrakul, Wilailuk; Wongveeravuti, Siriwan; Likitapiwat, Tanakorn

    2013-01-01

    Since males and females are raised differently by their parents (Thorne, 2003), gender roles may affect the saving and spending behaviours of male and female teenagers. The objective of this research was to study the gender differences in saving and spending behaviours of Thai students. This was an exploratory study where a questionnaire was used…

  10. Unequal Returns: Gender Differences in Initial Employment among University Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Karen D.; Lowe, Graham S.

    1993-01-01

    A study of 529 college graduates in Edmonton, Toronto, and Sudbury (Canada) 1 year after graduation found that, regardless of major, gender differences in initial employment conditions were found. Differences are attributed to gender-segregated labor market structures, union/professional association membership, and specific job conditions. Seeking…

  11. Gender Differences in Predicting Loneliness from Social Network Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Joseph; Levin, Ira

    Recent research suggesting a link between loneliness and social networks and a difference between males and females in both the quantity and quality of relationships support the view that loneliness can be predicted by gender from social network variables. In one study, two samples were used to explore gender differences. Sample 1, 97 males and 82…

  12. Adolescent Internet Usage in Taiwan: Exploring Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Yu, Shu-Fen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in adolescent Internet accessibility, motives for use, and online activities in Taiwan; 629 5th and 6th graders were surveyed. Findings revealed that the gap in gender differences with regard to Internet use has decreased in this generation. Even though the Internet is the most recent…

  13. Gender Differences in Relationship Development and Self-Disclosure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorcyca, Diane Atkinson

    This paper reviews the literature in self-disclosure and gender differences and offers some validity comments regarding the operationalization of the intimacy concept. Self-disclosure research offers two conclusions in regards to gender differences in communication. First, there is no definite indication that females self-disclose more than males.…

  14. Gender Differences in Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate gender differences in symptom endorsements of…

  15. Do the Paths to STEMM Professions Differ by Gender?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Linda G.; Miller, Jon D.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we examine gender differences in factors related to science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM) education and employment between the ages of 36 and 39. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of American Youth, we identified a STEMM high school talent pool. We found early gender differences in interest in…

  16. Understanding Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Sexual Prejudice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents' attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by…

  17. Gender Differences in Divergent Thinking?: An Investigation of Block's Gender Specialization Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rejskind, F. Gillian; And Others

    The study evaluated a theory of gender specialization by J. H. Block that postulates that gender differences in personality and cognitive functioning are closely linked, both arising from the same sex-differentiated socialization experiences. This study tested the theory as it applies to creativity in children. Subjects were 244 children in grades…

  18. [Sex and gender: Two different scientific domains to be clarified].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Juan

    2010-05-01

    Nowadays, the word sex and its related terms (sexual differences, sexual roles and stereotypes), so common not long ago, seems to have been replaced by gender and its related terms (gender differences, gender roles and stereotypes). We can sometimes find both sex and gender sharing the same space in scientific articles, although referring to different domains. In this paper, I try to explain the need for a model that can integrate both of these complex domains of sex and gender, leading to two independent, although complementary, disciplines: Sexology and Genderology. In both cases, I start from a functional standpoint, which will give meaning to both disciplines' specificities, as it is meant to link contributions from different fields of knowledge. This approach can have consequences for research, education, the experience of women, men, and ambiguous individuals, and therapy.

  19. Gender Differences in Mathematics Self-Efficacy and Back Substitution in Multiple-Choice Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, K. Shane; Ostrom, Lee; Scott, Karen Wilson

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative observational study exploring the relationship of gender to mathematics self-efficacy and the frequency of back substitution in multiple-choice assessment sampled undergraduates at a western United States parochial university. Research questions addressed: to what extent are there gender differences in mathematics self-efficacy, as…

  20. Gender differences in autoimmunity associated with exposure to environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmunity is thought to result from a combination of genetics, environmental triggers, and stochastic events. Gender is also a significant risk factor with many diseases exhibiting a female bias. Although the role of environmental triggers, especially medications, in eliciting autoimmunity is well established less is known about the interplay between gender, the environment and autoimmunity. This review examines the contribution of gender in autoimmunity induced by selected chemical, physical and biological agents in humans and animal models. Epidemiological studies reveal that environmental factors can be associated with a gender bias in human autoimmunity. However many studies show that the increased risk of autoimmunity is often influenced by occupational exposure or other gender biased activities. Animal studies, although often prejudiced by the exclusive use of female animals, reveal that gender bias can be strain specific suggesting an interaction between sex chromosome complement and background genes. This observation has important implications because it argues that within a gender biased disease there may be individuals in which gender does not contribute to autoimmunity. Exposure to environmental factors, which encompasses everything around us, adds an additional layer of complexity. Understanding how the environment influences the relationship between sex chromosome complement and innate and adaptive immune responses will be essential in determining the role of gender in environmentally-induced autoimmunity. PMID:22137891

  1. Gender differences in autoimmunity associated with exposure to environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Pollard, K Michael

    2012-05-01

    Autoimmunity is thought to result from a combination of genetics, environmental triggers, and stochastic events. Gender is also a significant risk factor with many diseases exhibiting a female bias. Although the role of environmental triggers, especially medications, in eliciting autoimmunity is well established less is known about the interplay between gender, the environment and autoimmunity. This review examines the contribution of gender in autoimmunity induced by selected chemical, physical and biological agents in humans and animal models. Epidemiological studies reveal that environmental factors can be associated with a gender bias in human autoimmunity. However many studies show that the increased risk of autoimmunity is often influenced by occupational exposure or other gender biased activities. Animal studies, although often prejudiced by the exclusive use of female animals, reveal that gender bias can be strain specific suggesting an interaction between sex chromosome complement and background genes. This observation has important implications because it argues that within a gender biased disease there may be individuals in which gender does not contribute to autoimmunity. Exposure to environmental factors, which encompasses everything around us, adds an additional layer of complexity. Understanding how the environment influences the relationship between sex chromosome complement and innate and adaptive immune responses will be essential in determining the role of gender in environmentally-induced autoimmunity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Implicit attitudes in sexuality: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Geer, James H; Robertson, Gloria G

    2005-12-01

    This study examined the role of gender in both implicit and explicit attitudes toward sexuality. Implicit attitudes are judgments or evaluations of social objects that are automatically activated, often without the individual's conscious awareness of the causation. In contrast, explicit attitudes are judgments or evaluations that are well established in awareness. As described in Oliver and Hyde's (1993) meta-analysis of self-report (explicit) data, women report greater negative attitudes toward sexuality than do men. In the current study, we used the Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS) developed by Fisher, Byrne, White, and Kelley (1988) to index explicit attitudes and the Implicit Association Test (IAT) developed by Greenwald, McGhee, and Schwartz (1998) to index implicit attitudes. Research has demonstrated that the IAT reveals attitudes that participants may be reluctant to express. Independent variables examined were participant gender, social acceptability of sexual words, and order of associated evaluations in the IAT (switching from positive to negative evaluations or the reverse). The IAT data revealed a significant Order x Gender interaction that showed that women had more negative implicit attitudes toward sexuality than did men. There was also a significant Order x Acceptability interaction, indicating that implicit attitudes were more strongly revealed when the sexual words used in the IAT were more socially unacceptable. As expected, on the SOS, women had more negative explicit attitudes toward sexuality. There was no significant correlation between explicit and implicit attitudes. These data suggest that at both automatic (implicit) and controlled (explicit) levels of attitudes, women harbor more negative feelings toward sex than do men.

  3. Gender Difference in Math Performance in the International Baccalaureate Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schantz, Ashley Lynn Overley

    2011-01-01

    For years, researchers and educators alike have studied differences in educational performance as they relate to gender. And while many subject areas have been debated, "the existence, degree, and origin of a gender gap in mathematics are highly debated" (Guiso, Monte, Sapienza & Zingales, 2008). What has not been more widely…

  4. Gender Differences in Preschoolers' and Kindergartners' Artistic Production and Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyatzis, Chris J.; Eades, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Examined sex differences in preschoolers' and kindergartners' art generation and preference. First, researchers assessed gender stereotypicality in their drawings and preferences for pictures. Both sexes drew somewhat gender stereotypical pictures. Next, when choosing coloring book pictures to color, boys chose masculine and girls chose feminine…

  5. Gender Differences in the Measurement of Creative Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Jay H., III; Gibson, Carter

    2017-01-01

    Despite significant scholarly attention, the literature on the existence and direction of gender differences in creativity has produced inconsistent findings. In the present paper, we argue that this lack of consensus may be attributable, at least in part, to gender-specific inconsistencies in the measurement of creative problem-solving. To…

  6. Gender Differences in Counselors' Attitudes toward and Attributions about Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Eve M.; Betz, Nancy E.

    1993-01-01

    Examined extent to which offender's, victim's, and counselor's gender were related to 111 counselors' attributions about and attitudes toward cases of incest. Found no significant differences as function of either victim or offender gender. Female counselors had broader definitions of incest than did male counselors and were less likely to view…

  7. Gender Differences in Comparisons and Entitlement: Implications for Comparable Worth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, Brenda

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the role of comparison processes in the persistence of the gender wage gap, its toleration by those disadvantaged by it, and resistance to comparable worth as a corrective strategy. Argues that gender segregation and undercompensation for women's jobs leads women to use different comparison standards when evaluating what they deserve.…

  8. Gender Differences in Spouse Caregiver Strain: Socialization and Role Explanations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Baila

    1990-01-01

    Examined gender differences in spouse caregiver strain among 554 spouse caregivers, using a multivariate model in which caregiver strains were a function of caregiver stressors and support resources. The effect of gender was found to be small; wives' greater experience of health strains appeared to result from situational factors and traditional…

  9. Gender Differences in Preschoolers' and Kindergartners' Artistic Production and Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyatzis, Chris J.; Eades, Julie

    1999-01-01

    Examined sex differences in preschoolers' and kindergartners' art generation and preference. First, researchers assessed gender stereotypicality in their drawings and preferences for pictures. Both sexes drew somewhat gender stereotypical pictures. Next, when choosing coloring book pictures to color, boys chose masculine and girls chose feminine…

  10. Gender Difference in Math Performance in the International Baccalaureate Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schantz, Ashley Lynn Overley

    2011-01-01

    For years, researchers and educators alike have studied differences in educational performance as they relate to gender. And while many subject areas have been debated, "the existence, degree, and origin of a gender gap in mathematics are highly debated" (Guiso, Monte, Sapienza & Zingales, 2008). What has not been more widely…

  11. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-03-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark; segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.

  12. Gender differences in the psychological impact of tsunami.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Biju; Maroky, Ami S; Math, Suresh B; John, John P; Cherian, Anish V; Girimaji, Satish C; Benegal, Vivek; Hamza, Ameer; Chaturvedi, Santosh K

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this observational study was to explore gender-related differences in psychiatric morbidity during the initial three months following the December 2004 earthquake and tsunami involving the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. There were 12,784 survivors sheltered across 74 relief camps with 4,684 displaced survivors in Port Blair and 8,100 non-displaced survivors in Car-Nicobar Island. All persons who accessed mental health assistance within the camps constituted the study sample. Diagnoses were made by qualified psychiatrists using the ICD-10. There were 475 patients: 188 (40%) men and 287 (60%) women. There were significant gender differences in terms of displacement. There were significantly higher levels of panic disorder, unspecified anxiety disorder and somatic complaints in the displaced women while the non-displaced population showed more adjustment disorder. Displacement was a significant factor in the manifestations of observed pathology. Displaced women had greater psychiatric morbidity. In addition, the fact that adjustment disorder (a self-limiting disorder form of psychopathology) was more prevalent in the non-displaced group may be a reflection of the findings of overall lesser morbidity in non-displaced women. Hence, women may have to be rehabilitated in their own habitats after major disasters.

  13. Gender differences in children's arithmetic performance are accounted for by gender differences in language abilities.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Lu, Hao; Zhao, Hui; Chen, Chuansheng; Dong, Qi; Zhou, Xinlin

    2012-03-01

    Studies have shown that female children, on average, consistently outperform male children in arithmetic. In the research reported here, 1,556 pupils (8 to 11 years of age) from urban and rural regions in the greater Beijing area completed 10 cognitive tasks. Results showed that girls outperformed boys in arithmetic tasks (i.e., simple subtraction, complex multiplication), as well as in numerosity-comparison, number-comparison, number-series-completion, choice reaction time, and word-rhyming tasks. Boys outperformed girls in a mental rotation task. Controlling for scores on the word-rhyming task eliminated gender differences in arithmetic, whereas controlling for scores on numerical-processing tasks (number comparison, numerosity estimation, numerosity comparison, and number-series completion) and general cognitive tasks (choice reaction time, Raven's Progressive Matrices, and mental rotation) did not. These results suggest that girls' advantage in arithmetic is likely due to their advantage in language processing.

  14. Gender differences in the dynamics of terminal T wave intervals.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Mikiko; Ooie, Tatsuhiko; Ou, Baiqing; Ichinose, Masashi; Yonemochi, Hidetoshi; Saikawa, Tetsunori

    2004-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate gender differences in the dynamic changes of the terminal T wave (Ta-e interval) of healthy subjects. Holter ECGs were recorded in 24 healthy volunteers (12 men aged 23 +/- 2 years). The intervals from QRS onset to the apex (QaT) and to the end of the T wave (QeT), and the interval between the apex and the end of the T wave (Ta-e) were measured. Then, the QeT/RR, QaT/RR, and Ta-e/RR relationship was evaluated by linear regression analysis in each subject. The QeT and QaT intervals were significantly longer in women than men and the slope of the QeT/RR and QaT/RR relationship was steeper in women than men. The Ta-e intervals showed a significant but weaker positive correlation with the preceding RR intervals in 7 (58.3%) men and 9 (75.0%) women. The average values of the slope and the correlation coefficient of the Ta-e/RR relationship were significantly smaller compared to those of QeT and QaT in both men and women (P < 0.0001). The slope of the Ta-e/RR relationship was significantly greater in women than men (0.025 +/- 0.009 vs 0.011 +/- 0.012, P < 0.005). However, the Ta-e intervals were significantly longer over the entire range of RR intervals in men than women (P < 0.0001). The rate-correcting formulas of Bazett and Framingham overcorrected the Ta-e intervals. The observed gender difference in the measurement and dynamics of the Ta-e interval may help to understand the mechanisms underlying the gender difference in the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias.

  15. Gender difference and specialty preference in medical career choice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Woo

    2013-03-01

    We are entering a new era of medicine in which an equal number of men and women are becoming doctors. Many factors combine in complex and poorly understood ways to influence a medical student's career and choice of specialty. This study investigated the preferences of medical students with regard to specialty and examined differences between genders. We administered a survey to medical students at the end of their third- or fourth-year clinical clerkships. In addition to demographic data and specialty choice, medical students selected factors that were importance to their choice of specialty. One hundred forty-one medical students completed the survey (81 males, 57%). For medical students who had chosen a specialty, the most common specialty was internal medicine (20.5%). Significant gender differences were observed in choosing orthopedic surgery and family medicine-17 male students chose orthopedic surgery (10.5%) versus 3.3% of female students (p=0.02), and 11 females (9.2%) were drawn toward family medicine compared with 4 male students (2.5%). More female medical students chose lower workloads (19.9%) and low-risk work (14%) than male students (p<0.05). Lifestyle and income have become more important to medical students regarding their choice of specialty. There were significant gender differences concerning the choice of medical specialty. Controllable lifestyle remains an important factor for female medical students who are choosing a specialty. We must begin to make meaningful and thoughtful changes in medical center policies that affect a balance between work and home.

  16. Gender differences in brain serotonin transporter availability in panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Maron, Eduard; Tõru, Innar; Hirvonen, Jussi; Tuominen, Lauri; Lumme, Ville; Vasar, Veiko; Shlik, Jakov; Nutt, David J; Helin, Semi; Någren, Kjell; Tiihonen, Jari; Hietala, Jarmo

    2011-07-01

    The role of the serotonin (5-HT) system in the neurobiology and treatment of panic disorder (PD) remains unproven. Previously we detected lower brain 5-HT transporter (SERT) availability in PD, but the findings were preliminary and mainly limited to female patients. The aim of this study was to assess non-displaceable brain SERT binding potential (BP (ND)) in male and female patients with PD. The SERT BP (ND) was measured in groups of patients with PD (five males and six females) and matched healthy control subjects (12 males and 12 females) using positron emission tomography (PET) and [¹¹C]MADAM tracer. SERT BP (ND) were significantly higher in 13 of 20 studied brain regions, including several cortical and raphe areas, but lower in the hippocampus in males with PD as compared with healthy males. No significant differences in SERT BP (ND) were observed between female patients and controls. The results suggest gender-dependent regional differences in brain SERT availability and converge with previous PET findings of reduced 5-HT(1A) receptor binding in similar brain areas in PD. Distinctive functioning of the 5-HT system in males and females may underlie certain gender-dependent differences in expressions of PD.

  17. Gender Differences in Cancer Susceptibility: An Inadequately Addressed Issue

    PubMed Central

    Dorak, M. Tevfik; Karpuzoglu, Ebru

    2012-01-01

    The gender difference in cancer susceptibility is one of the most consistent findings in cancer epidemiology. Hematologic malignancies are generally more common in males and this can be generalized to most other cancers. Similar gender differences in non-malignant diseases including autoimmunity, are attributed to hormonal or behavioral differences. Even in early childhood, however, where these differences would not apply, there are differences in cancer incidence between males and females. In childhood, few cancers are more common in females, but overall, males have higher susceptibility. In Hodgkin lymphoma, the gender ratio reverses toward adolescence. The pattern that autoimmune disorders are more common in females, but cancer and infections in males suggests that the known differences in immunity may be responsible for this dichotomy. Besides immune surveillance, genome surveillance mechanisms also differ in efficiency between males and females. Other obvious differences include hormonal ones and the number of X chromosomes. Some of the differences may even originate from exposures during prenatal development. This review will summarize well-documented examples of gender effect in cancer susceptibility, discuss methodological issues in exploration of gender differences, and present documented or speculated mechanisms. The gender differential in susceptibility can give important clues for the etiology of cancers and should be examined in all genetic and non-genetic association studies. PMID:23226157

  18. Gender Differences in Nonprescribed Psychostimulant Use in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tess E; DeSantis, Alan D; Martel, Michelle M

    2017-09-14

    In order to better understand the recent rise in nonprescribed use of psychostimulants on college campuses, motives, outcomes, and acceptability of nonprescribed psychostimulants have been evaluated. Despite knowledge that students use nonprescribed medical stimulants for improved academic performance and recreational use, gender differences in these motives have not been examined, despite the fact that the social construction of gender may well affect motives for use. The goal of the present study was to examine gender differences in motives, outcomes, and acceptability of nonprescribed psychostimulant use. 2716 undergraduates (1448 male) between the ages of 17 and 57 years (M = 19.43 years, SD = 1.7 years) completed an online survey examining subjective motives of nonprescribed psychostimulant use, as well as behaviors after use and moral views of nonprescribed use. Consistent with hypotheses and known gender differences in social motivation, results suggested that while females are more likely to use nonprescribed psychostimulants for reasons related to schoolwork, males are typically more likely to use psychostimulants for reasons related to partying and socializing. Additional gender differences were that males are more likely to take part in other risky behaviors after use of psychostimulants, as well as view nonprescribed use as more moral and less physically dangerous than females. Conclusions/Importance: This work suggests that there are striking gender differences in motivation and outcomes of use of nonprescribed psychostimulants, which may have implications for personalized approaches for prevention of nonprescribed psychostimulant use on campuses based on gender.

  19. The changing face of cognitive gender differences in Europe.

    PubMed

    Weber, Daniela; Skirbekk, Vegard; Freund, Inga; Herlitz, Agneta

    2014-08-12

    Cognitive gender differences and the reasons for their origins have fascinated researchers for decades. Using nationally representative data to investigate gender differences in cognitive performance in middle-aged and older populations across Europe, we show that the magnitude of these differences varies systematically across cognitive tasks, birth cohorts, and regions, but also that the living conditions and educational opportunities individuals are exposed to during their formative years are related to their later cognitive performance. Specifically, we demonstrate that improved living conditions and less gender-restricted educational opportunities are associated with increased gender differences favoring women in some cognitive functions (i.e., episodic memory) and decreases (i.e., numeracy) or elimination of differences in other cognitive abilities (i.e., category fluency). Our results suggest that these changes take place due to a general increase in women's cognitive performance over time, associated with societal improvements in living conditions and educational opportunities.

  20. The changing face of cognitive gender differences in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Daniela; Skirbekk, Vegard; Freund, Inga; Herlitz, Agneta

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive gender differences and the reasons for their origins have fascinated researchers for decades. Using nationally representative data to investigate gender differences in cognitive performance in middle-aged and older populations across Europe, we show that the magnitude of these differences varies systematically across cognitive tasks, birth cohorts, and regions, but also that the living conditions and educational opportunities individuals are exposed to during their formative years are related to their later cognitive performance. Specifically, we demonstrate that improved living conditions and less gender-restricted educational opportunities are associated with increased gender differences favoring women in some cognitive functions (i.e., episodic memory) and decreases (i.e., numeracy) or elimination of differences in other cognitive abilities (i.e., category fluency). Our results suggest that these changes take place due to a general increase in women’s cognitive performance over time, associated with societal improvements in living conditions and educational opportunities. PMID:25071201

  1. The Social Psychology of Sex and Gender: From Gender Differences to Doing Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Dicicco, Elaine C.

    2011-01-01

    The social psychology of gender has grown to become a thriving, scientifically sound research theme that encompasses a wide variety of topics and questions. The story of how this came to be has been told from a number of perspectives (e.g., Crawford & Marecek, 1989; Deaux, 1999; Rutherford, Vaughn-Blount, & Ball, 2010; Unger, 1998). In this…

  2. The Social Psychology of Sex and Gender: From Gender Differences to Doing Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Dicicco, Elaine C.

    2011-01-01

    The social psychology of gender has grown to become a thriving, scientifically sound research theme that encompasses a wide variety of topics and questions. The story of how this came to be has been told from a number of perspectives (e.g., Crawford & Marecek, 1989; Deaux, 1999; Rutherford, Vaughn-Blount, & Ball, 2010; Unger, 1998). In this…

  3. The influence of child gender role and maternal feedback to child stress on the emergence of the gender difference in depressive rumination in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cox, Stephanie J; Mezulis, Amy H; Hyde, Janet S

    2010-07-01

    Extensive research has linked a greater female tendency to ruminate about depressed feelings or mood to the gender difference in depression. However, the developmental origins of the gender difference in depressive rumination are not well understood. We hypothesized that girls and women may be more likely to ruminate because rumination represents a gender-stereotyped coping style that is associated with a more feminine gender role identity, maternal encouragement of emotion expression, and passive coping responses to stress. This study examined whether child self-reported gender role identity and observed maternal responses to child stress mediated the emergent gender difference in depressive rumination in adolescence. Maternal gender role attitudes were further hypothesized to moderate the relationship between child sex and mediating variables. Rumination and gender role identity were assessed in 316 youths and their mothers in a longitudinal study from age 11 to age 15; in addition, 153 mother-child dyads participated in an observational task at age 11 from which maternal responses to a child stressor were coded. Results indicated that greater feminine gender role identity among children and encouragement of emotion expression by mothers at age 11 significantly mediated the association between child sex and the development of depressive rumination at age 15, even after controlling for rumination at age 11. Maternal gender role attitudes significantly moderated the relationship between child sex and maternal encouragement of emotion expression, such that mothers who endorsed more traditional gender role attitudes themselves were particularly likely to encourage emotion expression in their daughters.

  4. Gender differences in stories of everyday Internet use.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Suzanne Steffan

    2003-01-01

    This study is a secondary analysis of data collected from four web-based focus groups of nurses and computer scientists who were frequent Internet users. Our aim in this secondary study was to examine gender differences and shared practices in the interpretation of narratives when using this technology. We found that women have different values than men when using the Internet. We can use this information to inform nurses of the gender values that are reflected in Internet usage to increase their understanding of the potential gender stereotyping practices that occur on a medium that is theoretically bias-free.

  5. Gender differences in rumination: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Daniel P; Whisman, Mark A

    2013-08-01

    Starting in adolescence and continuing through adulthood, women are twice as likely as men to experience depression. According to the response styles theory (RST), gender differences in depression result, in part, from women's tendency to ruminate more than men. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate gender differences in rumination in adults (k = 59; N = 14,321); additionally, an analysis of subtypes of rumination - brooding and reflection - was conducted (k = 23). Fixed effects analyses indicated that women scored higher than men in rumination (d = .24, p < .01, SEd = .02), brooding (d = .19, p < .01, SEd = .03) and reflection (d = .17, p < .01, SEd = .03); there was no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias across studies for these effect sizes. Although statistically significant, the effect sizes for gender differences in rumination were small in magnitude. Results are discussed with respect to the RST and gender differences in depression.

  6. Gender differences in pension wealth: estimates using provider data.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R W; Sambamoorthi, U; Crystal, S

    1999-06-01

    Information from pension providers was examined to investigate gender differences in pension wealth at midlife. For full-time wage and salary workers approaching retirement age who had pension coverage, median pension wealth on the current job was 76% greater for men than women. Differences in wages, years of job tenure, and industry between men and women accounted for most of the gender gap in pension wealth on the current job. Less than one third of the wealth difference could not be explained by gender differences in education, demographics, or job characteristics. The less-advantaged employment situation of working women currently in midlife carries over into worse retirement income prospects. However, the gender gap in pensions is likely to narrow in the future as married women's employment experiences increasingly resemble those of men.

  7. Gender Differences in the Relationship Between Empathy and Forgiveness

    PubMed Central

    TOUSSAINT, LOREN; WEBB, JON R.

    2007-01-01

    Much research has shown that women are more empathic than men. Yet, women and men are equally forgiving. However, it is not clear whether empathy is more important to forgiveness for men or for women. The purpose of the present study was to examine gender differences in levels of empathy and forgiveness and the extent to which the association of empathy and forgiveness differed by gender. Participants were 127 community residents who completed self-report measures of empathy and forgiveness. The present results showed that women were more empathic than men, but no gender difference for forgiveness was apparent. However, the association between empathy and forgiveness did differ by gender. Empathy was associated with forgiveness in men—but not in women. PMID:16334893

  8. Evidence that Gender Differences in Social Dominance Orientation Result from Gendered Self-Stereotyping and Group-Interested Responses to Patriarchy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Michael T.; Wirth, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have found that, compared to women, men express higher levels of social dominance orientation (SDO), an individual difference variable reflecting support for unequal, hierarchical relationships between groups. Recent research suggests that the often-observed gender difference in SDO results from processes related to gender group…

  9. Evidence that Gender Differences in Social Dominance Orientation Result from Gendered Self-Stereotyping and Group-Interested Responses to Patriarchy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Michael T.; Wirth, James H.

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have found that, compared to women, men express higher levels of social dominance orientation (SDO), an individual difference variable reflecting support for unequal, hierarchical relationships between groups. Recent research suggests that the often-observed gender difference in SDO results from processes related to gender group…

  10. Pesticide use knowledge and practices: A gender differences in Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Atreya, Kishor . E-mail: k.atreya@gmail.com

    2007-06-15

    It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions.

  11. Pesticide use knowledge and practices: a gender differences in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Atreya, Kishor

    2007-06-01

    It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only <8% individuals were found trained in Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (p<0.001), care of wind direction during spraying (p=0.032), prior knowledge on safety measures (p=0.016), reading and understanding of pesticides labels (p<0.001), awareness of the labels (p<0.001) and protective covers. Almost all respondents were aware of negative impacts of pesticide use on human health and environment irrespective of gender; however, females were at higher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions.

  12. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    PubMed

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status.

  13. [The reign of hormones and the construction of gender differences].

    PubMed

    Rohden, Fabíola

    2008-06-01

    Within the context of the theoretical debate on gender and science, the article discusses the process of redefining gender and sex differences using so-called biological or natural markers. It identifies how gender differences undergo naturalization using a logic of 'substantialization or 'materialization'. This process is exemplified in how medicine views women, promoting explanatory models of economics of the female body that are at times centered around organs like the uterus and ovaries, at other times centered on the mechanics of hormones, and, most recently, focused on genetic and neurological differences. More specifically, it follows the discovery of so-called sex hormones and its relation to a dualist perspective of gender. These powerful chemical messengers helped shaped the passage from the logic of excess surrounding sex through the late nineteenth century, to the imperative of insufficiency, prevalent since the mid-twentieth century.

  14. The effects of different gender groupings on middle school students' performance in science lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drab, Deborah D.

    Grouping students for labs in science classes is a common practice. This mixed methods quasi-experimental action research study examines homogeneous and heterogeneous gender grouping strategies to determine what gender grouping strategy is the most effective in a coeducational science classroom setting. Sixth grade students were grouped in same-gender and mixed-gender groups, alternating each quarter. Over the course of an academic year, data were collected from four sources. The teacher-researcher observed groups working during hands-on activities to collect data on student behaviors. Students completed post-lab questionnaires and an end-of-course questionnaire about their preferences and experiences in the different grouping strategies. Student scores on written lab assignments were also utilized. Data analysis focused on four areas: active engagement, student achievement, student perceptions of success and cooperative teamwork. Findings suggest that teachers may consider grouping students of different ability levels according to different gender grouping strategies to optimize learning.

  15. Gender differences in psychotic disorders with concurrent substance use.

    PubMed

    Caton, Carol L M; Xie, Haiyi; Drake, Robert E; McHugo, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a comparative analysis of gender differences in patients with primary psychotic disorders with concurrent substance use and in those with substance-induced psychoses. A total of 385 individuals admitted to psychiatric emergency departments with early-onset psychosis and recent substance use were interviewed at baseline and at six-month intervals for two years. Using a standardized research diagnostic assessment instrument, we classified patients at baseline into primary and substance-induced psychosis groups and analyzed the effects of gender on demographic, family, and clinical characteristics at baseline, the interaction of gender and diagnosis, and gender main effects on illness course, adjustment, and service use over the two-year follow-up period. Women had better premorbid adjustment, less misattribution of symptoms, and a later age at onset of regular drug use compared to men. Women, however, showed greater depression and histories of abuse compared to men. Men had greater arrest histories. No interactions between gender and diagnosis were significant. Both genders in the primary and substance-induced psychosis groups showed clinical and functional improvement over the follow-up period despite the overall minimal use of mental health and substance abuse treatment services. Women and men with psychosis and substance use differ on several dimensions. Our findings suggest the need for gender-specific treatment programming across both diagnostic groups.

  16. Gender differences in respiratory symptoms-Does occupation matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Dimich-Ward, Helen . E-mail: hward@interchange.ubc.ca; Camp, Patricia G.; Kennedy, Susan M.

    2006-06-15

    Little attention has been given to gender differences in respiratory health, particularly in occupational settings. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate gender differences in respiratory morbidity based on surveys of hospitality workers, radiographers, and respiratory therapists. Data were available from mail surveys of 850 hospitality industry workers (participation rate 73.9%; 52.6% female), 586 radiographers (participation rate 63.6%; 85% female), and 275 respiratory therapists (participation rate 64.1%; 58.6% female). Cross-tabulations by gender were evaluated by {chi}{sup 2} analysis and logistic regression with adjustment for personal and work characteristics. Women consistently had greater respiratory morbidity for symptoms associated with shortness of breath, whereas men usually had a higher prevalence of phlegm. There were few differences in work exposures apart from perception of exposure to ETS among hospitality workers. Gender differences in symptoms were often reduced after adjustment for personal and work characteristics but for respiratory therapists there were even greater gender disparities for asthma attack and breathing trouble. Population health findings of elevated symptoms among women were only partially supported by these occupational respiratory health surveys. The influence of differential exposures and personal factors should be considered when interpreting gender differences in health outcomes.

  17. Gender differences in social anxiety disorder: A review.

    PubMed

    Asher, Maya; Asnaani, Anu; Aderka, Idan M

    2017-08-01

    Gender differences in social anxiety disorder (SAD) have not received much empirical attention despite the large body of research on the disorder, and in contrast to significant literature about gender differences in other disorders such as depression or posttraumatic stress disorder. To address this gap, we comprehensively reviewed the literature regarding gender differences in eight domains of SAD: prevalence, clinical presentation, functioning and impairment, comorbidity, course, treatment seeking, physiological arousal, and the oxytocin system. Findings from the present review indicate that women are more likely to have SAD and report greater clinical severity. Notwithstanding, men with the disorder may seek treatment to a greater extent. According to the present review, the course of SAD seems to be similar for men and women, and findings regarding gender differences in functional impairment and comorbidity are inconclusive. We highlight areas requiring future research and discuss the findings in the context of a number of theoretical perspectives. We believe that further research and integration of scientific findings with existing theories is essential in order to increase our understanding and awareness of gender differences in SAD, thus facilitating gender-sensitive and specifically-tailored interventions for both men and women with the disorder. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Gender differences in respiratory symptoms-does occupation matter?

    PubMed

    Dimich-Ward, Helen; Camp, Patricia G; Kennedy, Susan M

    2006-06-01

    Little attention has been given to gender differences in respiratory health, particularly in occupational settings. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate gender differences in respiratory morbidity based on surveys of hospitality workers, radiographers, and respiratory therapists. Data were available from mail surveys of 850 hospitality industry workers (participation rate 73.9%; 52.6% female), 586 radiographers (participation rate 63.6%; 85% female), and 275 respiratory therapists (participation rate 64.1%; 58.6% female). Cross-tabulations by gender were evaluated by chi(2) analysis and logistic regression with adjustment for personal and work characteristics. Women consistently had greater respiratory morbidity for symptoms associated with shortness of breath, whereas men usually had a higher prevalence of phlegm. There were few differences in work exposures apart from perception of exposure to ETS among hospitality workers. Gender differences in symptoms were often reduced after adjustment for personal and work characteristics but for respiratory therapists there were even greater gender disparities for asthma attack and breathing trouble. Population health findings of elevated symptoms among women were only partially supported by these occupational respiratory health surveys. The influence of differential exposures and personal factors should be considered when interpreting gender differences in health outcomes.

  19. Gender differences in sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium loading after isoproterenol.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jarvis; Petranka, John; Yamamura, Ken; London, Robert E; Steenbergen, Charles; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2003-12-01

    Males exhibit enhanced myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury versus females under hypercontractile conditions associated with increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+. We therefore examined whether there were gender differences in SR Ca2+. We used NMR Ca2+ indicator 1,2-bis(2-amino-5,6-difluorophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid to measure SR Ca2+ in perfused rabbit hearts. Isoproterenol increased SR Ca2+ in males from a baseline of 1.13 +/- 0.07 to 1.52 +/- 0.24 mM (P < 0.05). Female hearts had basal SR Ca2+ that was not significantly different from males (1.04 +/- 0.03 mM), and addition of isoproterenol to females resulted in a time-averaged SR Ca2+ (0.97 +/- 0.07 mM) that was significantly less than in males. To confirm this difference, we measured caffeine-induced release of SR Ca2+ with fura-2 in isolated ventricular myocytes. Ca2+ release after caffeine in untreated male myocytes was 377 +/- 41 nM and increased to 650 +/- 55 nM in isoproterenol-treated myocytes (P < 0.05). Ca2+ release after caffeine addition in untreated females was 376 +/- 27 nM and increased to 503 +/- 49 nM with isoproterenol, significantly less than in male myocytes treated with isoproterenol (P < 0.05). Treatment of female myocytes with NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), resulted in higher SR Ca2+ release than that measured in females treated only with isoproterenol and was not significantly different from that measured in males with isoproterenol. Female myocytes also have significantly higher levels of neuronal NOS. This gender difference in SR Ca2+ handling may contribute to reduced ischemia-reperfusion injury observed in females.

  20. Gender differences in teacher-student interactions in science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. Gail; Wheatley, Jack

    1990-12-01

    Thirty physical science and 30 chemistry classes, which contained a total of 1332 students, were observed using the Brophy-Good Teacher-Child Dyadic Interaction System. Classroom interactions were examined for gender differences that may contribute to the underrepresentation of women in physics and engineering courses and subsequent careers. The Brophy-Good coding process allows for examination of patterns of interactions for individuals and groups of pupils. An analysis of variance of the data yielded a significant main effect for teacher praise, call outs, procedural questions, and behavioral warnings based on the sex of the student and a significant teacher-sex main effect for direct questions. Significant two-way interactions were found for the behavioral warning variable for teacher sex and subject by student sex. Female teachers warned male students significantly more than female students. Male teachers warned both genders with similar frequency. Male students also received significantly more behavioral warnings in physical science classes than female students. In chemistry classes, both male and female students received approximately the same number of behavioral warnings.

  1. Gender Differences in the Appetite Response to a Satiating Diet

    PubMed Central

    Bédard, Alexandra; Hudon, Anne-Marie; Drapeau, Vicky; Corneau, Louise; Dodin, Sylvie; Lemieux, Simone

    2015-01-01

    We examined gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) meals and determined whether there are gender differences in the change in the satiating properties of the MedDiet over time. Thirty-eight men and 32 premenopausal women consumed a 4-week isoenergetic MedDiet under controlled conditions. Visual analogue scales were used to measure perceived appetite sensations before and immediately after each meal consumed over the course of one day (Wednesday) of the first and the fourth week of intervention. Women reported greater decreases for desire to eat, hunger, and appetite score than men in response to the consumption of the MedDiet meals (gender-by-meal interactions, resp., P = 0.04, P = 0.048, and P = 0.03). Fullness and prospective food consumption responses did not significantly differ between men and women. Between the first and the fourth week of intervention, premeal prospective food consumption increased with time in men (P = 0.0007) but not in women (P = 0.84; P for gender-by-time interaction = 0.04). These results indicate gender differences in appetite sensations when exposed to the MedDiet. These results may be useful in order to have a better understanding of gender issues for body weight management. PMID:26442158

  2. Gender differences in justice evaluations: Evidence from fMRI.

    PubMed

    Dulebohn, James H; Davison, Robert B; Lee, Seungcheol Austin; Conlon, Donald E; McNamara, Gerry; Sarinopoulos, Issidoros C

    2016-02-01

    Justice research examining gender differences has yielded contrasting findings. This study enlists advanced techniques in cognitive neuroscience (fMRI) to examine gender differences in brain activation patterns in response to procedural and distributive justice manipulations. We integrate social role, information processing, justice, and neuroscience literature to posit and test for gender differences in 2 neural subsystems known to be involved in the appraisal of self-relevant events. Results indicate that the relationship between justice information processing and neural activity in areas representing these subsystems is significantly influenced by gender, with greater activation for females than males during consideration of both procedural and distributive justice information. In addition, we find evidence that gender and distributive injustice interact to influence bargaining behavior, with females rejecting ultimatum game offers more frequently than males. Results also demonstrate activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and ventral striatum brain regions during procedural justice evaluation is associated with offer rejection in females, but not in males. Managerial implications based on the study's support for gender differences in justice perceptions are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Gender differences in cardiovascular disease and comorbid depression.

    PubMed Central

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria

    2007-01-01

    Although gender is increasingly perceived as a key determinant in health and illness, systematic gender studies in medicine are still lacking. For a long time, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been seen as a “male” disease, due to men's higher absolute risk compared with women, but the relative risk in women of CVD morbidity and mortality is actually higher: Current knowledge points to important gender differences in age of onset, symptom presentation, management, and outcome, as well as traditional and psychosocial risk factors. Compared with men, CVD risk in women is increased to a greater extent by some traditional factors (eg, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity,) and socioeconomic and psychosocial factors also seem to have a higher impact on CVD in women. With respect la differences in CVD management, a gender bias in favor of men has to be taken into account, in spite of greater age and higher comorbidity in women, possibly contributing to a poorer outcome. Depression has been shown to be an independent risk factor and consequence of CVD; however, concerning gender differences, The results have been inconsistent. Current evidence suggests that depression causes a greater increase in CVD incidence in women, and that female CVD patients experience higher levels of depression than men. Gensier aspects should be more intensively considered, both in further research on gender differences in comorbid depresion, and in cardiac treatment and rehabilitation, with the goal of making secondary prevention more effective. PMID:17506227

  4. Gender identity and recalled gender related childhood play-behaviour in adult individuals with different forms of intersexuality.

    PubMed

    Richter-Appelt, Hertha; Discher, Christine; Gedrose, Benjamin

    2005-09-01

    The concept of intersexuality subsumes a wide variety of phenomena with very specific underlying causes. In all these cases, an untypical development takes place during the prenatal sex differentiation process becoming clinically manifest, either at, or soon after birth or at the time of puberty. It subsumes conditions in which biological sexual characteristics (e.g. chromosomal sex, gonadal sex, hormonal sex, morphological sex) differ from each other and one person cannot easily be assigned to one sex. One of the main goals of medical treatment of persons with intersex-syndroms is the development of a stable gender identity. Over the last few years, sex (and gender) assignment of persons with different forms of intersexuality has become a much discussed topic. An interesting--and very obviously observable--variable that was brought in connection with sex assignment is gender related childhood play behaviour. The purpose of the presented study is to examine 37 persons with different forms of intersexuality (disturbances of androgen biosynthesis, partial and complete androgen insensitivity, gonadal dysgenesis with 46,XY and congenital adrenal hyperplasia with 46,XX) with regard to gender identity and gender role behaviour in childhood. Not all subjects in the study group had developed a clear female or male gender identity. In contrast to previous studies, some persons with CAIS did not recall distinguished female childhood play behaviour and these persons did not show a clear female gender identity. In contrast to results from other studies, the CAH-affected girls in this study did not seem to recall masculinized behaviour. Further research is needed to guarantee better psychosexual development with good quality of life in individuals with intersexuality.

  5. Gender differences in determinants and consequences of health and illness.

    PubMed

    Vlassoff, Carol

    2007-03-01

    This paper uses a framework developed for gender and tropical diseases for the analysis of non-communicable diseases and conditions in developing and industrialized countries. The framework illustrates that gender interacts with the social, economic and biological determinants and consequences of tropical diseases to create different health outcomes for males and females. Whereas the framework was previously limited to developing countries where tropical infectious diseases are more prevalent, the present paper demonstrates that gender has an important effect on the determinants and consequences of health and illness in industrialized countries as well. This paper reviews a large number of studies on the interaction between gender and the determinants and consequences of chronic diseases and shows how these interactions result in different approaches to prevention, treatment, and coping with illness. Specific examples of chronic diseases are discussed in each section with respect to both developing and industrialized countries.

  6. Gender Differences in Determinants and Consequences of Health and Illness

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses a framework developed for gender and tropical diseases for the analysis of non-communicable diseases and conditions in developing and industrialized countries. The framework illustrates that gender interacts with the social, economic and biological determinants and consequences of tropical diseases to create different health outcomes for males and females. Whereas the framework was previously limited to developing countries where tropical infectious diseases are more prevalent, the present paper demonstrates that gender has an important effect on the determinants and consequences of health and illness in industrialized countries as well. This paper reviews a large number of studies on the interaction between gender and the determinants and consequences of chronic diseases and shows how these interactions result in different approaches to prevention, treatment, and coping with illness. Specific examples of chronic diseases are discussed in each section with respect to both developing and industrialized countries. PMID:17615903

  7. Gender equality and smoking: a theory-driven approach to smoking gender differences in Spain.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Usama; Beltrán, Paula; Fernández, Esteve; Navas-Acien, Ana; Bolumar, Francisco; Franco, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    The intersection between gender and class can aid in understanding gender differences in smoking. To analyse how changes in gender inequality relate to differences in smoking prevalence by gender, education and birth cohort in Spain over the past five decades (1960-2010). The Gender Inequality Index (GII) was calculated in 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2010. GII ranges from 0 to 1 (1=highest inequality) and encompasses three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and labour market. Estimates of female and male smoking prevalence were reconstructed from representative National Health Surveys and stratified by birth cohort and level of education. We calculated female-to-male smoking ratios from 1960 to 2010 stratified by education and birth cohort. Gender inequality in Spain decreased from 0.65 to 0.09 over the past 50 years. This rapid decline was inversely correlated (r=-0.99) to a rising female-to-male smoking ratio. The youngest birth cohort of the study (born 1980-1990) and women with high education levels had similar smoking prevalences compared with men. Women with high levels of education were also the first to show a reduction in smoking prevalence, compared with less educated women. Gender inequality fell significantly in Spain over the past 50 years. This process was accompanied by converging trends in smoking prevalence for men and women. Smoking prevalence patterns varied greatly by birth cohort and education levels. Countries in earlier stages of the tobacco epidemic should consider gender-sensitive tobacco control measures and policies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Exercise intensity and gender difference of 3 different salsa dancing conditions.

    PubMed

    Emerenziani, G P; Guidetti, L; Gallotta, M C; Franciosi, E; Buzzachera, C F; Baldari, C

    2013-04-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the difference in exercise intensity (METs), energy cost (EE) and gender difference between a typical salsa lesson (TSL), rueda de casino lesson (RCL), and salsa dancing at a night club (SDN). Subjects performed 1 pre-testing session and 3 testing conditions. During the pre-testing session height, weight and V˙O2max were assessed. During the testing conditions all subjects performed 3 different kinds of salsa dance. Heart rate was assessed during each dance condition. The exercise intensity of the 3 salsa dancing conditions was moderate ranging from 3.9 to 5.5 METs. A significant difference between genders for HRpeak (P=0.01), max%HRR (P=0.006) and mean EE (P=0.02) were observed. Significant gender×condition interactions for HRpeak (P=0.03), mean %HRR (P=0.02), mean METs (P=0.02) and mean EE (P=0.02) were found. In addition, a significant main effect for each condition was found in all variables (P<0.01). Our results showed that the exercise intensities of all 3 salsa dancing conditions were moderate. Findings showed some significant differences in exercise intensity between males and females and within conditions. Salsa dancing could be useful in achieving a significant training effect in people who have a low level of fitness.

  9. Gender differences in anaerobic power tests.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, J L; Salm, P C

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the differences in anaerobic power between males and females could be accounted for by differences in body composition, strength, and neuromuscular function. A total of 82 untrained men and 99 women took part in the study. Body composition, somatotype, isometric strength, neuromuscular function were measured, and four anaerobic power tests performed. The men were significantly different from the women on all strength, power, and neuromuscular measurements except reaction time and on all anthropometric and somatotype dimensions except ectomorphy. Strength and anthropometric dimensions were similarly related to anaerobic power values within each sex. Relative fat (%fat) exerted different degrees of influence on sprint and jump performances in each sex. Removing the influence of anthropometric, strength, and neuromuscular differences by analysis of covariance reduced, but did not remove, the significant differences between the sexes. Therefore, factors other than lean body mass, leg strength, and neuromuscular function may be operating in short-term, explosive power performances to account for the differences between the sexes. The task-specific nature of anaerobic power tests and the relatively large influence of anthropometric factors on power production were confirmed.

  10. Patterns and causes of gender differences in smoking.

    PubMed

    Waldron, I

    1991-01-01

    In the early twentieth century in the United States and other Western countries, women were much less likely than men to smoke cigarettes, due in part to widespread social disapproval of women's smoking. During the mid-twentieth century, growing social acceptance of women's smoking contributed to increased smoking adoption by women. Increased social acceptance of women's smoking was part of a general liberalization of norms concerning women's behavior, reflecting increasing equality between the sexes. These historical trends were due in part to increases in women's employment. However, in the contemporary period employment appears to have little or no effect on women's smoking. Sex role norms and general expectations concerning gender-appropriate behavior have had a variety of effects on gender differences in smoking. First, general characteristics of traditional sex roles, including men's greater social power and generally greater restrictions on women's behavior, contributed to widespread social pressures against women's smoking. Second, traditional sex role norms and expectations have fostered gender differences in personal characteristics and experiences which influence smoking adoption. For example, rebelliousness has been more expected and accepted for males, and greater rebelliousness among adolescent males has contributed to greater smoking adoption by males. Finally, certain aspects of sex roles have contributed to gender differences in appraisal of the costs and benefits of smoking. For example, physical attractiveness is emphasized more for females and the contemporary beauty ideal is very slender, so females are more likely to view weight control as a benefit of smoking. Several other hypotheses concerning the causes of gender differences in smoking are not supported by the available evidence. For example, it appears that women's generally greater concern with health has not contributed significantly to gender differences in the prevalence of smoking

  11. Gender differences in life expectancy among kibbutz members.

    PubMed

    Leviatan, U; Cohen, J

    1985-01-01

    A literature review of findings reveals that the life expectancy (LE) of females is longer than that of males and that a strong relationship exists between LE and gender differences in LE. The arguments of biological vs societal reasons for such gender differences are presented and the kibbutz society is offered as a setting to test the rivaling hypotheses. It is argued that the kibbutz society offers more similar roles for both genders than outside the kibbutz and therefore the gender differences in LE should be reduced in comparison to what is expected, given the very high LE of kibbutz members. Statistical data of the kibbutz population between the years 1975-1980 are analyzed and the results support the following conclusions: female members have higher LE but the difference is much less than expected on the basis of a regression analysis of data from 73 societies; the difference is smaller due to the relatively higher gain in LE by males; the gender differences are even smaller at age 50 compared to LE differences at birth. The Discussion section dwells upon interpretations of the findings and argues against alternative interpretations that assume selection processes for the kibbutz population. Suggestions for further studies are also made.

  12. Differences in students' perceived classroom experiences by instructor gender, student gender, and persistence in STEM courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowlkes, Carol

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are growing and have lucrative job opportunities for college graduates. However, the number of students in STEM majors and the number of those who persist in those majors is declining; there is also a growing gender gap in STEM graduates. This study investigated three perceived classroom experiences in STEM courses and the nature of differences in these experiences by student gender, instructor gender, and by those who persisted or did not persist in STEM majors. A factorial MANOVA was the statistical method by which the differences were explored. The statistical analysis revealed non-significant mean differences in three-way interaction, all two-way interactions, and all main effects. There were not gendered differences in students' perceptions of the opportunities for hands-on learning, the instructor cares about students' success, and the instructor encourages students' contributions. Further research is proposed to continue examination of this topic with a larger data set that is consistent with the literature regarding the population of STEM students and the number of STEM persisters, and the male-gendered nature of STEM fields.

  13. Religion and Education Gender Gap: Are Muslims Different?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajj, Mandana; Panizza, Ugo

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses individual-level data and a differences-in-differences estimation strategy to test whether the education gender gap of Muslims is different from that of Christians. In particular, the paper uses data for young Lebanese and shows that, other things equal, girls (both Muslim and Christian) tend to receive more education than boys and…

  14. Exploring international gender differences in mathematics self-concept

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Amy D.; Penner, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides an international perspective on mathematics by examnnng mathematics self-concept, achievement, and the desire to enter a career involving mathematics among eighth graders in 49 countries. Using data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, this study shows that self-concept in mathematics is more closely related to the desire to enter a career using mathematics than achievement is. Further, while gender differences in mathematics self-concept are smaller in more egalitarian countries, both girls and boys have lower mathematics self-concepts and less interest in mathematics careers in these countries. These findings reveal a policy paradox: policies aimed at training the next generation of STEM professionals often highlight the need to close the gender gap, but countries with smaller gender gaps have fewer boys and girls interested in mathematics-intensive careers. We conclude by highlighting the importance of disentangling instrumental and expressive aspects of gender inequality in STEM fields. PMID:27840545

  15. Who Gets Promoted? Gender Differences in Science and Engineering Academia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Kristen

    Using a nationally representative sample of doctoral academic scientists and engineers, this study examines gender differences in the likelihood of having tenure and senior faculty ranks after controlling for academic age, field, doctoral origins, employing educational institution, productivity, postdoctoral positions, work activities, and family characteristics. Logistic regressions show that many of these controls are significant; that biology and employment at comprehensive universities have a gender-specific advantage for women; and that postdoctoral positions, teaching instead of doing administrative work, and having children have a gender-specific disadvantage. Although the statistical methods employed here do not reveal the exact nature of how gender inequities in science and engineering careers arise, the author suggests that they exist.

  16. Exploring international gender differences in mathematics self-concept.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Amy D; Penner, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an international perspective on mathematics by examnnng mathematics self-concept, achievement, and the desire to enter a career involving mathematics among eighth graders in 49 countries. Using data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, this study shows that self-concept in mathematics is more closely related to the desire to enter a career using mathematics than achievement is. Further, while gender differences in mathematics self-concept are smaller in more egalitarian countries, both girls and boys have lower mathematics self-concepts and less interest in mathematics careers in these countries. These findings reveal a policy paradox: policies aimed at training the next generation of STEM professionals often highlight the need to close the gender gap, but countries with smaller gender gaps have fewer boys and girls interested in mathematics-intensive careers. We conclude by highlighting the importance of disentangling instrumental and expressive aspects of gender inequality in STEM fields.

  17. Gender differences in pathways to care for early psychosis.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Manuela; Flora, Nina; Anderson, Kelly K; Haughton, Asante; Tuck, Andrew; Archie, Suzanne; Kidd, Sean; McKenzie, Kwame

    2016-03-28

    Gender is a critical demographic determinant in first-episode psychosis research. We used data from the ACE Pathways to Care Project, which examined pathways to care in African-origin, Caribbean-origin and European-origin participants, to investigate the role of gender in pathways to early intervention programmes. A qualitative approach was used to examine gender differences in the routes to care. We conducted four focus groups and four individual in-depth interviews with 25 service users of early intervention services from African-origin, Caribbean-origin and European-origin populations. Gender stereotypes negatively influence the first service contact for women, and the early phase of the help seeking process for men. Women reported trying to seek care. However, family members and service providers often questioned their calls for help. Men described having difficulties in talking about their symptoms, as the act of seeking help was perceived as a sign of weakness by peers. The findings of this study suggest that gender stereotypes shape the journey to specialized care in different ways for men and women. Awareness of the impact that gender stereotypes have when a young person is seeking care for psychosis could help to promote a shift in attitudes among health-care providers and the provision of more compassionate and patient-centred care during this critical time. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Stereotype Threat and Gender Differences in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunny, Cijy Elizabeth; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Clark, Lauren; Marchand, Gwen

    2017-01-01

    Stereotype threat theory (STT) offers one explanation for achievement differences in math and science for both women and minority students. Specifically, STT posits that the perceived risk of confirming a negative stereotype about an individual's identity group acts as a psychological burden that negatively impacts performance. This study examined…

  19. Gender Induced Differences in Naval Fitness Reports

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    not typically seek to show their positional superiority with perks ; they are more concerned with not emphasizing the inferiority of their subordinates...446-454. 69 27. Dobbins, Gregory H. and Platz, Stephanie J., "Sex Differences in Leadership: How Real are They?", Academy of Management Review, Vol. 11

  20. Gender Differences within Perceptions of Virtual Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Vernon, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Virtual communities are quickly becoming the standard mode of interaction in educational and professional contexts. However, the literature fails to accurately address the possibility of differences in the perceptions of these communities related to sex. Two-hundred and twenty-six students from a medium-sized university in the Mid-Atlantic United…

  1. Gender-Related Differences in Neonatal Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Emese; Kompagne, Hajnalka; Orvos, Hajnalka; Pal, Attila

    2007-01-01

    Socio-emotional behaviour is in part sex-related in humans, although the contribution of the biological and socio-cultural factors is not yet known. This study explores sex-related differences during the earliest communicative exchange, the neonatal imitation in 43 newborn infants (3-96 hours old) using an index finger extension imitative gesture.…

  2. Gender Differences during Recess in Elementary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twarek, Linda S.; George, Halley S.

    A study examined the differences in what boys and girls choose, or are free to choose, to do on the playground during recess. Given the apparent problem that boys dominate the playground area, leaving girls on the perimeter, it was hypothesized that girls engage in passive, non-competitive, small group activities, whereas boys engage in…

  3. Gender Differences in Resilience of Academic Deans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the difference in the levels of resilience characteristics between male and female deans within a state university system. Resilience is the ability to operate in a changing environment while consistently maintaining one's effectiveness. This quantitative study utilized the survey, Personal…

  4. Gender-Related Differences in Neonatal Imitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Emese; Kompagne, Hajnalka; Orvos, Hajnalka; Pal, Attila

    2007-01-01

    Socio-emotional behaviour is in part sex-related in humans, although the contribution of the biological and socio-cultural factors is not yet known. This study explores sex-related differences during the earliest communicative exchange, the neonatal imitation in 43 newborn infants (3-96 hours old) using an index finger extension imitative gesture.…

  5. Gender Differences in Using Social Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazman, S. Guzin; Usluel, Yasemin Kocak

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine individuals' usage purposes of social networks with a focus on the possible differences between females and males. Facebook, which is one the most popular and being most widely used social network, is investigated in this study. The study group consisted of 870 Facebook users who responded to an online…

  6. How Gender Differences in Academic Engagement Relate to Students' Gender Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessels, Ursula; Heyder, Anke; Latsch, Martin; Hannover, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gender differences in educational outcomes encompass many different areas. For example, in some educational settings, boys lag behind girls on indicators of educational success, such as leaving certificates and type of school attended. In studies testing performance, boys typically show lower competence in reading compared with girls,…

  7. How Gender Differences in Academic Engagement Relate to Students' Gender Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessels, Ursula; Heyder, Anke; Latsch, Martin; Hannover, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gender differences in educational outcomes encompass many different areas. For example, in some educational settings, boys lag behind girls on indicators of educational success, such as leaving certificates and type of school attended. In studies testing performance, boys typically show lower competence in reading compared with girls,…

  8. Gender differences in ethical perceptions of business practices: a social role theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Franke, G R; Crown, D F; Spake, D F

    1997-12-01

    This study presents a meta-analysis of research on gender differences in perceptions of ethical decision making. Data from more than 20,000 respondents in 66 samples show that women are more likely than men to perceive specific hypothetical business practices as unethical. As suggested by social role theory (A. H. Eagly, 1987), the gender difference observed in precareer (student) samples declines as the work experience of samples increases. Social role theory also accounts for greater gender differences in nonmonetary issues than in monetary issues. T. M. Jones's (1991) issue-contingent model of moral intensity helps explain why gender differences vary across types of behavior. Contrary to expectations, differences are not influenced by the sex of the actor or the target of the behavior and do not depend on whether the behavior involves personal relationships or action vs. inaction.

  9. Gender differences in worksite health promotion activities.

    PubMed

    Spilman, M A

    1988-01-01

    A model of intentional health-related behaviors was tested to predict men's and women's participation in six worksite health promotion programs. The model was best at predicting participation in programs that treat unhealthy conditions or behaviors. It was least successful at predicting participation in programs than can appeal to both those with 'health risks' and to health 'maximizers'. Women had higher rates of participation than men in three of the four 'treatment' programs, and they participated in more programs. In every program type, the factors that influence women's participation were different from those affecting men; and women with children showed different patterns of influence from women without children. The patterns of influence are consistent with two sources for women's greater concern with treating poor health: their nurturant role responsibilities, and a particular emphasis by the medical profession on women and women's concerns.

  10. Gender vs. Sex: What's the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, John D.

    2012-01-01

    As a parent, sociologist, and educator, the author often seems to see the world differently from others. While some see a public policy debate as a football game between winners and losers, he sees it as a vital way to create a good society. While some see education as a means to an end, he sees it as a goal in and of itself. Some see gender…

  11. Gender vs. Sex: What's the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carl, John D.

    2012-01-01

    As a parent, sociologist, and educator, the author often seems to see the world differently from others. While some see a public policy debate as a football game between winners and losers, he sees it as a vital way to create a good society. While some see education as a means to an end, he sees it as a goal in and of itself. Some see gender…

  12. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender differences and gender similarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for International Student Assessment 2006 data of Korean 15-year-old students were analysed. The results of the study showed that girls had lower levels of science intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs, and science-career pursuit (SCP) as well as their parents' values in science less than boys. Gender similarities, rather than gender differences, existed in patterns of causal relationship among home environments, motivations, and SCP. The results showed positive effects for parents' higher value in science and SES on motivations, SCP, and for intrinsic and instrumental motivations on SCP for girls and boys. These results provide implications for educational interventions to decrease gender differences in science motivations and SCP, and to decrease adolescents' gender stereotypes.

  13. Sex and gender differences in HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Griesbeck, Morgane; Scully, Eileen; Altfeld, Marcus

    2016-08-01

    The major burden of the human immunodeficiency (HIV) type 1 pandemic is nowadays carried by women from sub-Saharan Africa. Differences in the manifestations of HIV-1 infection between women and men have been long reported, and might be due to both socio-economic (gender) and biological (sex) factors. Several studies have shown that women are more susceptible to HIV-1 acquisition than men. Following HIV-1 infection, women have lower viral loads during acute infection and exhibit stronger antiviral responses than men, which may contribute to differences in the size of viral reservoirs. Oestrogen receptor signalling could represent an important mediator of sex differences in HIV-1 reservoir size and may represent a potential therapeutic target. Furthermore, immune activation, a hallmark of HIV-1 infection, is generally higher in women than in men and could be a central mechanism in the sex difference observed in the speed of HIV-1 disease progression. Here, we review the literature regarding sex-based differences in HIV-1 infection and discuss how a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms could improve preventive and therapeutic strategies. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  14. Gender Differences in C - reactive protein and Muscle Strengthening Activity

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Michael R.; Johnson, Tammie M.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Ford, Earl S.; Boyer, William R.; Churilla, James R.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We sought to examine the gender differences between C-reactive protein (CRP) and muscle strengthening activity (MSA) in U.S. adults (≥20 years of age). METHODS The sample (n=9,135) included participants in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Three categories of reported MSA participation were created: no MSA (referent group), some MSA (≥1 to <2 days/week), and meeting the 2008 Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) recommendation (≥2 days/week). The dependent variable was elevated CRP (>3 to 10 mg/L). RESULTS Gender stratified analysis revealed significantly lower odds of having elevated CRP for women reporting some MSA (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.45–0.83, P=0.0023), or volumes of MSA meeting the DHHS recommendation (OR 0.66; 95% CI 0.54–0.82, P=0.0004). Significantly lower odds of men having elevated CRP was observed in those reporting MSA volumes meeting the recommendation (OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.61–0.88, P=0.0011). Following adjustment for WC these odds remained significant in men but not women. CONCLUSIONS Women reporting any MSA were found to have lower odds of having elevated CRP when compared to those reporting no MSA prior to adjustment for WC. Significantly lower odds in men were only observed in those meeting the recommendation. These results suggest that WC may mediate the associations between MSA and CRP and this relationship may be stronger in women. PMID:26963135

  15. Gender and Role Differences in Couples' Communication During Cancer Survivorship.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jung-won; Paek, Min-so; Shon, En-jung

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with cancer and their partners often experience communication difficulties. However, questions still remain regarding the influence of gender and role in cancer survivor-partner communication within couples. The current study intended to examine the communication patterns in breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer survivor-partner couples during cancer survivorship and whether gender and role differences in couples communication exist. The dominant-less dominant method of sequential mixed design was used. Ten couples who were recruited from the University Hospital registry in Cleveland, Ohio, participated in both mail surveys and individual interviews. Family and cancer-related communication was assessed in the quantitative phase. Both male survivors and partners demonstrated better family communication scores compared with their female counterparts, whereas there were no gender differences in the cancer-related communication scores. In the qualitative phase, 3 major themes were identified: (1) selective sharing of cancer-related issues, (2) initiation of cancer-related communication, and (3) emotional reaction in communication. The patterns associated with these themes differed between the male survivor-female partner and female survivor-male partner couples. This study provides new knowledge about family and cancer-related communication. Our findings highlight the importance of understanding different perspectives in the quality of communication by gender and role. Exploring couples' communication patterns by gender and role stimulates the research and the development of effective consumer-centered communication interventions. The findings provide assessment tools to inform dyadic communication patterns for clinical and scientific purposes.

  16. Gender differences in behavioural changes induced by latent toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Lindová, Jitka; Novotná, Martina; Havlícek, Jan; Jozífková, Eva; Skallová, Anna; Kolbeková, Petra; Hodný, Zdenek; Kodym, Petr; Flegr, Jaroslav

    2006-12-01

    There is growing evidence that the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii modifies behaviour of its intermediate hosts, including humans, where it globally infects about 20-60% of the population. Although it is considered asymptomatic in its latent stage, it was previously found to have remarkable and gender different effects on the personality factors A (warmth), G (rule consciousness), L (vigilance, mistrust) and Q3 (self-control, self-image) from Cattell's 16PF Questionnaire. We performed a double blind experiment testing 72 and 142 uninfected men and women, respectively, and 20 and 29 infected men and women, respectively, in order to verify these gender differences using behavioural experiments. Our composite behavioural variables Self-Control and Clothes Tidiness (analogue to the 16PF factors G--conscientiousness and Q3--self-control) showed a significant effect of the toxoplasmosis-gender interaction with infected men scoring significantly lower than uninfected men and a trend in the opposite direction in women. The effect of the toxoplasmosis-gender interaction on our composite behavioural variable Relationships (analogue to factor A--warmth) approached significance; infected men scored significantly lower than uninfected men whereas there was no difference in women. In the composite behavioural variable Mistrust (analogue to factor L), the pattern was affected by environment (rural versus urban). Possible interpretations of the gender differences are discussed.

  17. Gender equality and gender differences: parenting, habitus, and embodiment (the 2008 Porter lecture).

    PubMed

    Doucet, Andrea

    2009-05-01

    Drawing on a four-year research project on Canadian primary caregiving fathers, as well two recent projects on the first year of parenting, this article highlights several theoretical and substantive issues in the study of gender equality and gender differences in parenting. First, I call for shifts from a focus on domestic tasks toward domestic and community-based responsibilities. Second, I argue that the political terrain underpinning the study of mothering and fathering calls for clarity on how researchers interpret the constant interplay between equality and differences. Third, while there has been some change over time, parental responsibilities remain gendered because they are deeply rooted in habitus and embodiment across specific spatial and temporal contexts.

  18. Male-to-female gender dysphoria: Gender-specific differences in resting-state networks.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Benjamin; Junger, Jessica; Pauly, Katharina; Neulen, Josef; Neuschaefer-Rube, Christiane; Frölich, Dirk; Mingoia, Gianluca; Derntl, Birgit; Habel, Ute

    2017-05-01

    Recent research found gender-related differences in resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies examining the differences in rs-FC between men, women, and individuals who report a discrepancy between their anatomical sex and their gender identity, i.e. gender dysphoria (GD). To address this important issue, we present the first fMRI study systematically investigating the differences in typical resting-state networks (RSNs) and hormonal treatment effects in 26 male-to-female GD individuals (MtFs) compared with 19 men and 20 women. Differences between male and female control groups were found only in the auditory RSN, whereas differences between both control groups and MtFs were found in the auditory and fronto-parietal RSNs, including both primary sensory areas (e.g. calcarine gyrus) and higher order cognitive areas such as the middle and posterior cingulate and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Overall, differences in MtFs compared with men and women were more pronounced before cross-sex hormonal treatment. Interestingly, rs-FC between MtFs and women did not differ significantly after treatment. When comparing hormonally untreated and treated MtFs, we found differences in connectivity of the calcarine gyrus and thalamus in the context of the auditory network, as well as the inferior frontal gyrus in context of the fronto-parietal network. Our results provide first evidence that MtFs exhibit patterns of rs-FC which are different from both their assigned and their aspired gender, indicating an intermediate position between the two sexes. We suggest that the present study constitutes a starting point for future research designed to clarify whether the brains of individuals with GD are more similar to their assigned or their aspired gender.

  19. Gender Differences in Cooperation: Experimental Evidence on High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Molina, J. Alberto; Giménez-Nadal, J. Ignacio; Cuesta, José A.; Gracia-Lazaro, Carlos; Moreno, Yamir; Sanchez, Angel

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of cooperation among unrelated human subjects is a long-standing conundrum that has been amply studied both theoretically and experimentally. Within the question, a less explored issue relates to the gender dependence of cooperation, which can be traced back to Darwin, who stated that "women are less selfish but men are more competitive". Indeed, gender has been shown to be relevant in several game theoretical paradigms of social cooperativeness, including prisoner's dilemma, snowdrift and ultimatum/dictator games, but there is no consensus as to which gender is more cooperative. We here contribute to this literature by analyzing the role of gender in a repeated Prisoners' Dilemma played by Spanish high-school students in both a square lattice and a heterogeneous network. While the experiment was conducted to shed light on the influence of networks on the emergence of cooperation, we benefit from the availability of a large dataset of more 1200 participants. We applied different standard econometric techniques to this dataset, including Ordinary Least Squares and Linear Probability models including random effects. All our analyses indicate that being male is negatively associated with the level of cooperation, this association being statistically significant at standard levels. We also obtain a gender difference in the level of cooperation when we control for the unobserved heterogeneity of individuals, which indicates that the gender gap in cooperation favoring female students is present after netting out this effect from other socio-demographics factors not controlled for in the experiment, and from gender differences in risk, social and competitive preferences. PMID:24367608

  20. Understanding Gender Differences in Early Adolescents’ Sexual Prejudice

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Jessieka; Ghavami, Negin; Wittig, Michele A.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on social dominance theory and the contact hypothesis, we developed and tested a two-mediator model for explaining gender differences in early adolescents’ attitudes toward gay males and lesbians. Data from more than 400 ninth graders were analyzed. As predicted, gender differences in attitudes toward gay males were partially explained by social dominance orientation (SDO) and knowing a gay male. Gender differences in attitudes toward lesbians were partially mediated by SDO, while knowing a lesbian was not a mediating variable. Beyond their mediating roles, both SDO and knowing a member of the target group each significantly added to the prediction of attitudes toward each target group. Implications for policies to reduce victimization of sexual minorities in schools are discussed. PMID:20191095

  1. Gender differences when touching something gross: unpleasant? No. Disgusting? Yes!

    PubMed

    Skolnick, Alexander J

    2013-01-01

    While many studies find women self-report higher disgust sensitivity than men, few studies have examined gender differences with behavioral tasks in senses other than vision. On a haptic task, we tested the hypothesis that women would report greater disgust but not greater unpleasantness than men. Forty-four undergraduates (29 women) touched 8 out-of-sight stimuli with sensory (unpleasantness) and emotional (disgust) responses recorded. The stimuli consisted of 2 neutral, 2 pleasant, and 4 unpleasant (3 disgust-evoking) objects. No gender differences were found for reporting stimuli unpleasantness. In contrast, women rated their disgust significantly higher than men when touching the high disgust-evoking objects. Unpleasantness of the stimuli correlated with disgust to the objects, but disgust sensitivity (Disgust Scale-Revised) was not a strong predictor of disgust responses. Besides differentiating unpleasantness from disgust, this was also the first study to show gender differences in a disgust-evoking haptic task.

  2. Dialectal and gender differences in nasalance for a Mandarin population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha-Kyung; Yu, Xiao-meng; Cao, Yan-jing; Liu, Xiao-ming; Huang, Zhao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are dialectal and gender related differences in nasalance of main Mandarin vowels and three sentences in 400 Chinese normal adults. The mean nasalance score difference for dialect and gender was significant (p < .001) in all speech materials. For different dialects, the average nasalance scores show that Chongqing > Beijing > Shanghai > Guangzhou for the nasal sentence, oro-nasal sentence, /a/, /i/ and /u/. In addition, the average nasalance scores of females were higher than those of males for all speech materials in all dialects. The clinical significance of this study can be helpful in making nasalance clinical decisions for Chinese people with cleft palate, hearing disorders and dysarthria with resonance disorders. It also shows the theoretical and socio-cultural features for linguists considering dialects and gender.

  3. Gender differences in working memory networks: A BrainMap meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Ashley C.; Laird, Angela R.; Robinson, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Gender differences in psychological processes have been of great interest in a variety of fields. While the majority of research in this area has focused on specific differences in relation to test performance, this study sought to determine the underlying neurofunctional differences observed during working memory, a pivotal cognitive process shown to be predictive of academic achievement and intelligence. Using the BrainMap database, we performed a meta-analysis and applied activation likelihood estimation to our search set. Our results demonstrate consistent working memory networks across genders, but also provide evidence for gender-specific networks whereby females consistently activate more limbic (e.g., amygdala and hippocampus) and prefrontal structures (e.g., right inferior frontal gyrus), and males activate a distributed network inclusive of more parietal regions. These data provide a framework for future investigation using functional or effective connectivity methods to elucidate the underpinnings of gender differences in neural network recruitment during working memory tasks. PMID:25042764

  4. Gender differences among children with autism spectrum disorder: differential symptom patterns.

    PubMed

    Baker, Sidney M; Milivojevich, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    The gender ratio among children in the autism spectrum of more than four boys to every girl is widely recognized. The authors present an analysis of gender differences among 79 482 symptoms and strengths in 1495 boys and 336 girls aged 2 to 18 years from parent-identified autistic children reported to a structurally novel anonymous parent-entered online database, Autism360. The data reveal differences that provide previously undetected clues to gender differences in immune and central nervous system and gastrointestinal functional disturbances. Together with published observations of male/female differences in inflammation, oxidative stress, and detoxication, these findings open doors to research focusing on gender physiology as clues to etiologic factors in autism. This study exemplifies a research method based on a large, detailed, patient-entered, structured data set in which patterns of individual illness and healing may answer collective questions about prevention and treatment.

  5. Gender Differences Among Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Differential Symptom Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Milivojevich, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The gender ratio among children in the autism spectrum of more than four boys to every girl is widely recognized. The authors present an analysis of gender differences among 79 482 symptoms and strengths in 1495 boys and 336 girls aged 2 to 18 years from parent-identified autistic children reported to a structurally novel anonymous parent-entered online database, Autism360. The data reveal differences that provide previously undetected clues to gender differences in immune and central nervous system and gastrointestinal functional disturbances. Together with published observations of male/female differences in inflammation, oxidative stress, and detoxication, these findings open doors to research focusing on gender physiology as clues to etiologic factors in autism. This study exemplifies a research method based on a large, detailed, patient-entered, structured data set in which patterns of individual illness and healing may answer collective questions about prevention and treatment. PMID:24416704

  6. Gender Differences in Burnout: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvanova, Radostina K.; Muros, John P.

    2010-01-01

    The literature on male-female differences in burnout has produced inconsistent results regarding the strength and direction of this relationship. Lack of clarity on gender differences in organizationally relevant phenomena, such as work burnout, frequently generates ungrounded speculations that may (mis)inform organizational decisions. To address…

  7. Re/imagining Higher Education Pedagogies: Gender, Emotion and Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Penny Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article explores work published in "Teaching in Higher Education" that critically engages complex questions of difference and emotion in higher education pedagogies. It considers the ways that difference is connected to gender and misrecognition, and is experienced at the level of emotion, often through symbolic forms of violence…

  8. Urban/Rural and Gender Differences among Canadian Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Trinder, Krista M.; Gokavi, Tara N.

    2010-01-01

    Although cultural and subcultural differences during the transition to adulthood have been examined, important factors like rural/urban upbringing and gender differences among Canadian emerging adults have been neglected. The present study explored developmentally significant tasks including criteria for adulthood, beliefs about religiosity, and…

  9. Men, Women and War: Gender Differences in Attitudes towards War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zur, O.; And Others

    This study showed that war does have an appeal to both men and women, but that appeal is different and is related to the set of moral concerns that are unique to each gender. To assess the different aspects of men's and women's attitudes towards war, a 48-item Likert-type scale was constructed and administered to 148 students. Results showed that…

  10. Gender Differences in Reasons to Quit Smoking among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struik, Laura L.; O'Loughlin, Erin K.; Dugas, Erika N.; Bottorff, Joan L.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed…

  11. Gender Differences in STEM Related Advanced Placement Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine differences between boys and girls in their performance on STEM related AP exams. Specifically, gender differences were examined for the following STEM related AP exams: Calculus AB, Calculus BC, Physics B, Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism, Physics C: Mechanics, Chemistry, and Computer Science…

  12. Re/imagining Higher Education Pedagogies: Gender, Emotion and Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Penny Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article explores work published in "Teaching in Higher Education" that critically engages complex questions of difference and emotion in higher education pedagogies. It considers the ways that difference is connected to gender and misrecognition, and is experienced at the level of emotion, often through symbolic forms of violence…

  13. Exploring Cross-National Differences in Gender Gaps in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Langen, Annemarie; Bosker, Roel; Dekkers, Hetty

    2006-01-01

    Although the participation rates of females in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (or STEM) education is poor in most Western countries, considerable differences across countries exist as well. This may be due to differences in the so-called gender achievement gaps, that is, delays of one sex with respect to the other. The variation…

  14. Urban/Rural and Gender Differences among Canadian Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Trinder, Krista M.; Gokavi, Tara N.

    2010-01-01

    Although cultural and subcultural differences during the transition to adulthood have been examined, important factors like rural/urban upbringing and gender differences among Canadian emerging adults have been neglected. The present study explored developmentally significant tasks including criteria for adulthood, beliefs about religiosity, and…

  15. Gender Differences in STEM Related Advanced Placement Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jill B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine differences between boys and girls in their performance on STEM related AP exams. Specifically, gender differences were examined for the following STEM related AP exams: Calculus AB, Calculus BC, Physics B, Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism, Physics C: Mechanics, Chemistry, and Computer Science…

  16. Gender Differences in Expectations of Self and Future Partner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    1992-01-01

    Investigated expectations that 131 single female and 103 male college students had for themselves and their future marital partners. Genders did not differ on expectations for personal success but did differ on expectations for success of future marital partner. Women expected more success for future husbands than men expected for wives.…

  17. Residual Wage Differences by Gender: Bounding the Estimates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellariou, Chris N.; Patrinos, Harry A.

    1996-01-01

    Uses data from the 1986 Canadian labor market activity survey file to derive estimates of residual gender wage gap differences. Investigates these estimates' dependence on experimental design and on assumptions about discrimination-free wage structures. Residual differences persist, even after restricting the sample to a group of highly motivated,…

  18. Gender Differences in Reasons to Quit Smoking among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struik, Laura L.; O'Loughlin, Erin K.; Dugas, Erika N.; Bottorff, Joan L.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that many adolescents who smoke want to quit, but little is known about why adolescents want to quit and if reasons to quit differ across gender. The objective of this study was to determine if reasons to quit smoking differ in boys and girls. Data on the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting (ARFQ) scale were collected in mailed…

  19. Gender Differences in French Undergraduates' Academic Plans and Wage Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnard, Claire; Giret, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    Gender differences in wage expectations may affect investment in human capital and increase inequalities in the labour market. Our research based on a survey of first-year students at a French university aims to focus on expectations at the beginning of the career. Our results show that anticipated earnings differ significantly between men and…

  20. Gender Differences in French Undergraduates' Academic Plans and Wage Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnard, Claire; Giret, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    Gender differences in wage expectations may affect investment in human capital and increase inequalities in the labour market. Our research based on a survey of first-year students at a French university aims to focus on expectations at the beginning of the career. Our results show that anticipated earnings differ significantly between men and…

  1. Cultural and Gender Differences in Spatial Ability of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Alice Seok Hoon; Tan, Lee Choo

    This study reports on cultural and gender differences in the spatial abilities of children based on the Water Level Task. The Piagetian theory of age-related developmental differences in performance on the Water Level Task was explored with Chinese and Malay children living in Singapore. Results indicate that children in this study did not perform…

  2. Gender Differences in Expectations of Self and Future Partner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    1992-01-01

    Investigated expectations that 131 single female and 103 male college students had for themselves and their future marital partners. Genders did not differ on expectations for personal success but did differ on expectations for success of future marital partner. Women expected more success for future husbands than men expected for wives.…

  3. Gender differences in scientific collaborations: Women are more egalitarian than men.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Eduardo B; Araújo, Nuno A M; Moreira, André A; Herrmann, Hans J; Andrade, José S

    2017-01-01

    By analyzing a unique dataset of more than 270,000 scientists, we discovered substantial gender differences in scientific collaborations. While men are more likely to collaborate with other men, women are more egalitarian. This is consistently observed over all fields and regardless of the number of collaborators a scientist has. The only exception is observed in the field of engineering, where this gender bias disappears with increasing number of collaborators. We also found that the distribution of the number of collaborators follows a truncated power law with a cut-off that is gender dependent and related to the gender differences in the number of published papers. Considering interdisciplinary research, our analysis shows that men and women behave similarly across fields, except in the case of natural sciences, where women with many collaborators are more likely to have collaborators from other fields.

  4. Gender differences in scientific collaborations: Women are more egalitarian than men

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Eduardo B.; Araújo, Nuno A. M.; Moreira, André A.; Herrmann, Hans J.; Andrade, José S.

    2017-01-01

    By analyzing a unique dataset of more than 270,000 scientists, we discovered substantial gender differences in scientific collaborations. While men are more likely to collaborate with other men, women are more egalitarian. This is consistently observed over all fields and regardless of the number of collaborators a scientist has. The only exception is observed in the field of engineering, where this gender bias disappears with increasing number of collaborators. We also found that the distribution of the number of collaborators follows a truncated power law with a cut-off that is gender dependent and related to the gender differences in the number of published papers. Considering interdisciplinary research, our analysis shows that men and women behave similarly across fields, except in the case of natural sciences, where women with many collaborators are more likely to have collaborators from other fields. PMID:28489872

  5. Developmental gender differences for overhand throwing in Aboriginal Australian children.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jerry R; Alderson, Jacqueline A; Thomas, Katherine T; Campbell, Amity C; Elliott, Bruce C

    2010-12-01

    In a review of 46 meta-analyses of gender differences, overhand throwing had the largest gender difference favoring boys (ES > 3.0). Expectations for gender-specific performances may be less pronounced in female Australian Aborigines, because historical accounts state they threw for defense and hunting. Overhand throwing velocities and kinematics were recorded in 30 female and male Aboriginal Australian children 6-10 years old. Results indicated the Aboriginal girls and boys were more similar in horizontal ball velocities than U.S. girls and boys. Throwing kinematics between girls and boys were also more similar in Australian Aborigines than U.S. children. Aboriginal girls threw with greater velocities than U.S., German, Japanese, and Thai girls, while the boys were similar across cultures.

  6. Gender and age related differences in foot morphology.

    PubMed

    Tomassoni, Daniele; Traini, Enea; Amenta, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    This study has assessed age-related changes of foot morphology for developing appropriate footwear with particular reference to the elderly. Anatomical parameters such as foot length, circumference and height and ankle length, circumference and height were assessed in a sample of males (n=577) and females (n=528) divided into three age groups. The groups included young-adult, aged between 20 and 25 years; adult, aged between 35 and 55 years; and old, aged between 65 and 70 years individuals. In terms of gender differences, in young-adult individuals the sex-related morphological differences observed, are just related to a significantly lower length of foot in females. In adult subjects morphological parameters investigated were significantly lower in females even after normalization for foot length. In old individuals, no differences of the parameters were found after normalization for foot length. Comparative analysis of morphometric data between young-adult and adult individuals revealed that the instep length was smaller in adults. The opposite was observed for the great toe and medial foot arch height. Length of ankle was higher in adult than in young-adult individuals, whereas ankle circumference and height were smaller. In old vs adult individuals foot circumference showed the most relevant age-related differences. Feet anatomy presents specific characteristics in different ages of life. The ideal footwear should take into account these characteristics. This is true primarily for the elderly for minimizing the risk of falls or of other problems related to inappropriate footwear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender Differences and Gender Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for…

  8. Is terror gender-blind? Gender differences in reaction to terror events.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Zahava; Gelkopf, Marc; Bleich, Avraham

    2005-12-01

    This study examines gender differences in posttraumatic vulnerability in the face of the terror attacks that occurred during the Al-Aqsa Intifada. In addition, the contribution of level of exposure, sense of safety, self-efficacy, and coping strategies is assessed. Participants were 250 men and 262 women, who constitute a representative sample of Israel's adult population. Data were collected via a structured questionnaire consisting of 51 items that were drawn from several questionnaires widely used in the study of trauma. The findings indicate that women endorsed posttraumatic and depressive symptoms more than men and that, generally, their odds of developing posttraumatic stress symptoms are six times higher than those of men. Results also revealed that women's sense of safety and self-efficacy are lower than men's and that there are gender differences in coping strategies in the face of terror. Gender differences in vulnerability to terror may be attributable to a number of factors, among these are women's higher sense of threat and lower self-efficacy, as well as their tendency to use less effective coping strategies than men. Level of exposure to terror was ruled out as a possible explanation for the gender differences in vulnerability.

  9. Home and Motivational Factors Related to Science-Career Pursuit: Gender Differences and Gender Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Jongho; Lee, Hyunjoo; McCarthy-Donovan, Alexander; Hwang, Hyeyoung; Yim, Sonyoung; Seo, EunJin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences exist in the mean levels of and relations between adolescents' home environments (parents' view of science, socio-economic status (SES)), motivations (intrinsic and instrumental motivations, self-beliefs), and pursuit of science careers. For the purpose, the Programmed for…

  10. Metabolic Risks among College Students: Prevalence and Gender Differences.

    PubMed

    Huang, Terry T-K; Shimel, Aaron; Lee, Rebecca E; Delancey, William; Strother, Myra L

    2007-12-01

    Little is known about the rate of metabolic dysfunction and gender differences in late adolescence or early adulthood. We report here the prevalence of and gender differences in components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a college sample. Three hundred students (2/3 female) with no prior diagnosis of illness from the University of Kansas, Lawrence, participated in a cross-sectional measurement of weight, height, fasting blood, and 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Prevalence of metabolic risks was determined using the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III, World Health Organization or International Diabetes Federation criteria. Gender differences in both continuous and dichotomous metabolic variables were tested. The prevalence of MetS was low, but the rate of having at least one abnormal component ranged from 26% to 40%. Different criteria identified different individuals with the MetS. Prevalence was high for low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (24%), impaired fasting glucose (9%), and hypertriglyceridemia (9%). Fasting insulin was useful in capturing at-risk individuals in addition to ATP-III criteria. Males were more obese, hypertensive, and hypertriglyceridemic than females, but all 9 cases of impaired glucose tolerance were female. The college age and setting are a unique opportunity to monitor and intervene on early risk factors of chronic disease. Undiagnosed metabolic dysfunction is high and problematic in this age group. Unique gender differences in glucose metabolism warrant further research and should be considered in the design of intervention strategies.

  11. Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

    2014-12-22

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this "gender paradox" in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others' or one's own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one's ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth.

  12. Antecedents and sex/gender differences in youth suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Anne E; Boyle, Michael H; Bridge, Jeffrey A; Sinyor, Mark; Links, Paul S; Tonmyr, Lil; Skinner, Robin; Bethell, Jennifer M; Carlisle, Corine; Goodday, Sarah; Hottes, Travis Salway; Newton, Amanda; Bennett, Kathryn; Sundar, Purnima; Cheung, Amy H; Szatmari, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death in youth globally; however, there is uncertainty about how best to intervene. Suicide rates are typically higher in males than females, while the converse is true for suicide attempts. We review this “gender paradox” in youth, and in particular, the age-dependency of these sex/gender differences and the developmental mechanisms that may explain them. Epidemiologic, genetic, neurodevelopmental and psychopathological research have identified suicidal behaviour risks arising from genetic vulnerabilities and sex/gender differences in early adverse environments, neurodevelopment, mental disorder and their complex interconnections. Further, evolving sex-/gender-defined social expectations and norms have been thought to influence suicide risk. In particular, how youth perceive and cope with threats and losses (including conforming to others’ or one’s own expectations of sex/gender identity) and adapt to pain (through substance use and help-seeking behaviours). Taken together, considering brain plasticity over the lifespan, these proposed antecedents to youth suicide highlight the importance of interventions that alter early environment(s) (e.g., childhood maltreatment) and/or one’s ability to adapt to them. Further, such interventions may have more enduring protective effects, for the individual and for future generations, if implemented in youth. PMID:25540727

  13. Gender differences in response to competition with same-gender coworkers: A relational perspective.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Young; Kesebir, Selin; Pillutla, Madan M

    2016-06-01

    We take a relational perspective to explain how women and men may differently experience competition with their same-gender coworkers. According to gender socialization research, the female peer culture values harmony and the appearance of equality, whereas hierarchical ranking is integral to the male peer culture. As competition dispenses with equality and creates a ranking hierarchy, we propose that competition is at odds with the norms of female (but not male) peer relationships. On this basis, we predicted and found in 1 correlational study and 3 experiments that women regard competition with their same-gender coworkers as less desirable than men do, and that their relationships with each other suffer in the presence of competition. We discuss the implications of these findings for women's career progression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. [Gender differences in the use of tumour markers].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Campoy, E E; Mérida-De la Torre, F J; Martos-Crespo, F; Plebani, M

    2015-01-01

    Gender is one of the factors that can influence the use of health resources. The use of tumour markers is widespread, due to the importance of these in monitoring cancer development. The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of gender on the use of tumour markers, and to investigate whether there are differences in their use. A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study, with a 2-year follow-up, was conducted in the catchment area of the University Hospital of Padua. An analysis was performed on 23,059 analytical requests for tumour markers. A descriptive and frequency analysis was performed on all variables. The statistical analysis was performed using Chi squared, Student t and Mann-Whitney U to test for significance. The number of requests for women (1.5) was lower than men (1.6). In patients with tumour pathology, the number of requests was higher than in patients without tumour disease. In the analysis by disease and gender, the difference remained significant. As regards the number of tumour markers per request, the difference between genders was also significant: 2.13 in males versus 2.85 in women. Similar results were obtained when requests for tumour markers linked to gender-related diseases were eliminated. There are differences in the use of tumour markers by gender with the number of requests for male patients being higher than for females. However, the number of tumour markers per request is greater in women than in men. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Gender differences in the disposition and toxicity of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Vahter, Marie . E-mail: Marie.Vahter@imm.ki.se; Akesson, Agneta; Liden, Carola; Ceccatelli, Sandra; Berglund, Marika

    2007-05-15

    There is increasing evidence that health effects of toxic metals differ in prevalence or are manifested differently in men and women. However, the database is small. The present work aims at evaluating gender differences in the health effects of cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury and arsenic. There is a markedly higher prevalence of nickel-induced allergy and hand eczema in women compared to men, mainly due to differences in exposure. Cadmium retention is generally higher in women than in men, and the severe cadmium-induced Itai-itai disease was mainly a woman's disease. Gender differences in susceptibility at lower exposure are uncertain, but recent data indicate that cadmium has estrogenic effects and affect female offspring. Men generally have higher blood lead levels than women. Lead accumulates in bone and increased endogenous lead exposure has been demonstrated during periods of increased bone turnover, particularly in women in pregnancy and menopause. Lead and mercury, in the form of mercury vapor and methylmercury, are easily transferred from the pregnant women to the fetus. Recent data indicate that boys are more susceptible to neurotoxic effects of lead and methylmercury following exposure early in life, while experimental data suggest that females are more susceptible to immunotoxic effects of lead. Certain gender differences in the biotransformation of arsenic by methylation have been reported, and men seem to be more affected by arsenic-related skin effect than women. Experimental studies indicate major gender differences in arsenic-induced cancer. Obviously, research on gender-related differences in health effects caused by metals needs considerable more focus in the future.

  16. Differences in Gender Norms Between Countries: Are They Valid? The Issue of Measurement Invariance.

    PubMed

    Weziak-Bialowolska, Dorota

    The values and attitudes towards gender roles are often investigated and compared from a cross-country perspective without the proper statistical treatment of the measurement invariance (MI) assessment. This implies that the conclusions based on composite scales of gender norms, gender role attitudes or gender egalitarianism, to name only a few, may be questionable. In this study, we address this lack by investigating the cross-country MI properties of the Gender Equality Scale (GES) based on World Value Survey data. We use multi-group confirmatory factor analysis with and without alignment to determine the configural, weak, strong and strict MI. The results show that the concept of gender equality is not comparable across all countries involved in the survey. In particular, it seems to differ between Western Europe and Central and Eastern Europe. We claim that only selected Central and Eastern European countries exhibit a configural MI but fail to show full weak MI and definitely fail to show full strong and full strict MI. However, under the aligned measurement framework, we succeeded in showing that for these countries, comparisons of the country rankings with respect to the GES are valid provided that a correction for non-invariance of certain factor loadings and/or intercepts is applied. Our study shows that the most egalitarian gender role attitudes measured by the GES are observed in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania and Croatia. They are significantly higher than the gender equality attitudes recorded in the lowest scoring countries Poland, Slovakia, Albania and Romania.

  17. Gender Differences in Academic Achievement: Is Writing an Exception to the Gender Similarities Hypothesis?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew R; Scheiber, Caroline; Hajovsky, Daniel B; Schwartz, Bryanna; Kaufman, Alan S

    2015-01-01

    The gender similarities hypothesis by J. S. Hyde ( 2005 ), based on large-scale reviews of studies, concludes that boys and girls are more alike than different on most psychological variables, including academic skills such as reading and math (J. S. Hyde, 2005 ). Writing is an academic skill that may be an exception. The authors investigated gender differences in academic achievement using a large, nationally stratified sample of children and adolescents ranging from ages 7-19 years (N = 2,027). Achievement data were from the conormed sample for the Kaufman intelligence and achievement tests. Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause, and multigroup mean and covariance structure models were used to test for mean differences. Girls had higher latent reading ability and higher scores on a test of math computation, but the effect sizes were consistent with the gender similarities hypothesis. Conversely, girls scored higher on spelling and written expression, with effect sizes inconsistent with the gender similarities hypothesis. The findings remained the same after controlling for cognitive ability. Girls outperform boys on tasks of writing.

  18. Educational differences in cancer mortality among women and men: a gender pattern that differs across Europe

    PubMed Central

    Menvielle, G; Kunst, A E; Stirbu, I; Strand, B H; Borrell, C; Regidor, E; Leclerc, A; Esnaola, S; Bopp, M; Lundberg, O; Artnik, B; Costa, G; Deboosere, P; Martikainen, P; Mackenbach, J P

    2008-01-01

    We used longitudinal mortality data sets for the 1990s to compare socioeconomic inequalities in total cancer mortality between women and men aged 30–74 in 12 different European populations (Madrid, Basque region, Barcelona, Slovenia, Turin, Switzerland, France, Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland) and to investigate which cancer sites explain the differences found. We measured socioeconomic status using educational level and computed relative indices of inequality (RII). We observed large variations within Europe for educational differences in total cancer mortality among men and women. Three patterns were observed: Denmark, Norway and Sweden (significant RII around 1.3–1.4 among both men and women); France, Switzerland, Belgium and Finland (significant RII around 1.7–1.8 among men and around 1.2 among women); Spanish populations, Slovenia and Turin (significant RII from 1.29 to 1.88 among men; no differences among women except in the Basque region, where RII is significantly lower than 1). Lung, upper aerodigestive tract and breast cancers explained most of the variations between gender and populations in the magnitude of inequalities in total cancer mortality. Given time trends in cancer mortality, the gap in the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality between gender and between European populations will probably decrease in the future. PMID:18283307

  19. School Subject Preferences: Age and Gender Differences Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Ann; Comber, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study that focused on the school subject preferences of 11-12 year old girls (n=144) and boys (n=218) and 15-16 year old girls (n=269) and boys (n=300). Reports that there are gender differences in subject preference, while more traditional subjects were favored. (CMK)

  20. Perceptions on Gender-Based Differences in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aziz, Fakhra; Kalsoom, Qudsia; Quraishi, Uzma; Hasan, Sibte

    2017-01-01

    This descriptive, qualitative study aimed at identifying disparities in perceptions of males and females regarding gender-based differences in educational leadership. Data were gathered purposively from 20 renowned male and female educationists having a long experience of leadership in various institutes of Pakistan. An open-ended questionnaire…

  1. Gender Differences in Positive Social-Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Natalie; Ravitch, N. Kathryn; Tom, Karalyn; Merrell, Kenneth W.; Wesley, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated gender differences of children and adolescents on positive social and emotional competencies using a new strength-based measure of positive social-emotional attributes and resilience--the Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales (SEARS) cross-informant system. Caregivers, teachers, and students in grades kindergarten through…

  2. Gender Differences in Mental Well-Being: A Decomposition Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, David

    2010-01-01

    The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is frequently used as a measure of mental well-being. A consistent pattern across countries is that women report lower levels of mental well-being, as measured by the GHQ. This paper applies decomposition techniques to Irish data for 1994 and 2000 to examine the factors lying behind the gender differences in…

  3. Gender Differences among Israeli Adolescents in Residential Drug Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The use of licit and illicit drugs is considered to be primarily a male problem. Numerous studies, however, question the extent of gender differences. This article reports on last 30 day drug use and related problem behaviour among male and female youth prior to residential treatment. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 95 male and…

  4. Gender Differences in Delinquent Behavior among Korean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hun-Soo; Kim, Hyun-Sil

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined gender differences in the rate, type, and relevant variables underlying delinquent behavior among South Korean adolescents. Although female delinquency is increasing and becoming more violent in South Korea, the rate of delinquent behavior was found to be much lower among female than among male adolescents and female…

  5. Gender Differences in Game Behaviour in Invasion Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, David; Garcia-Lopez, Luis M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous research has revealed the existence of gender differences in physical education. Most descriptive studies show that boys are more physically active than girls, have greater self-perception of enjoyment and competence in physical education, attach more importance to sports and participation in them and demonstrate higher game…

  6. Gender Differences in Keeping Secrets from Parents in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keijsers, Loes; Branje, Susan J. T.; Frijns, Tom; Finkenauer, Catrin; Meeus, Wim

    2010-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined adolescent gender differences in the developmental changes and relational correlates of secrecy from parents. For 4 successive years, starting in the second year of junior high (mean age at Time 1 = 13.2 years, SD = 0.51), 149 male and 160 female Dutch adolescents reported on secrecy from their parents and…

  7. Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy among Latino College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, J. Derek

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the changes in self-efficacy among Latinos during the freshman year in a highly selective institution. Results indicate that gender differences exist during this period. Males rate themselves high in self-efficacy at the beginning of the year, while females rate themselves low. An interaction effect occurs at the end of the…

  8. Gender Differences and Styles in the Use of Digital Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanno, Philip; Kommers, P. A. M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports work in progress investigating gender differences and styles in the use of digital games amongst advanced level biology students. It is an elaboration on previous work exploring the relationship between cognitive style and academic performance in Maltese students taking biology at advanced level. In this previous work the…

  9. Gender Differences in Research Patterns among PhD Economists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbezat, Debra A.

    2006-01-01

    This study is based on a 1996 survey of PhD economists working in the academic and nonacademic sectors since 1989. Despite a raw gender difference in all types of research output, the male dummy variable proves statistically significant in predicting only one publication measure. In a full sample and faculty subsample, number of years since…

  10. Gender Differences in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Sexual Coercion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Glenn, Shannon A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in responses to sexual coercive experiences in mixed-sex (male-female) relationships. Participants were 112 women and 28 men who had experienced sexual coercion and completed measures of cognitive (attributions to self, attributions to the coercer, internal attributions) and affective (guilt, shame)…

  11. Examination of Preschool Teachers' Biased Perception on Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyun, Eunsook; Tyler, Mike

    Using the theoretical framework of hermeneutics and guided by the conceptual framework of Developmentally and Culturally Appropriate Practice, two studies examined how preschool teachers perceive young children's gender differences in relation to the pedagogical considerations. Participants in Study 1 were 121 early childhood educators attending…

  12. Gender Differences in Perceptions of Studying for the GCSE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Lynne; Hallam, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This study explored gender differences in perceptions of studying for the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). The sample comprised 644 pupils drawn from eight schools in Outer London, UK. The schools encompassed pupils who could be regarded as high, middle and low achievers drawn from co-educational and single-sex schools. Pupils…

  13. Item Type and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) as a function of item and response types. Accordingly, 86 male and 109 female undergraduate students completed the MRT without time limits. Responses were coded as reflecting two correct (CC), one correct and one wrong (CW), two wrong (WW), one correct and one blank…

  14. Gender Differences in Children's Experience of Musical Performance Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Charlene

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine musical performance anxiety in children, with a focus on potential gender differences. Twenty-six sixth-grade students performing in a piano recital were monitored continuously on measures of heart rate and behaviour. Participants were interviewed in the months prior to the recital and they completed the…

  15. Adolescents: Differences in Friendship Patterns Related to Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mjaavatn, Per Egil; Frostad, Per; Pijl, Sip Jan

    2016-01-01

    Based on a survey of 123 Norwegian students aged 14-15 (grade 10) this article will discuss possible gender differences in peer relations, social position and friendship criteria. The students filled in a questionnaire that included sociometry and questions on friendship criteria, self-esteem and social support. We found significant gender…

  16. Item Type and Gender Differences on the Mental Rotations Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences on the Mental Rotations Test (MRT) as a function of item and response types. Accordingly, 86 male and 109 female undergraduate students completed the MRT without time limits. Responses were coded as reflecting two correct (CC), one correct and one wrong (CW), two wrong (WW), one correct and one blank…

  17. Poles Apart? Gender Differences in Proposals for Sexuality Education Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa

    2008-01-01

    Are young women and men's preferences for sexuality education content poles apart? This article explores gender differences in senior school students' suggestions for issues sexuality education should cover. Findings are analysed in relation to debate about mixed and single sex classrooms and boys' perceived disinterest in lessons. It is argued…

  18. Mathematics Education in Lebanon: Gender Differences in Attitudes and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.; Chartouny, Madona

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in students' mathematics achievement and in their attitudes toward mathematics. Another purpose was to examine mathematics teachers' beliefs and their perceptions of their male and female students' ability. The sample consisted of 692 students (353 girls, 339 boys) between the ages of…

  19. Sex Differences in Conformity: Status and Gender Role Interpretations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; Chrvala, Carole

    1986-01-01

    Examines status and gender role explanations of the tendency for women to conform more than men in group pressure settings. Analysis of age and sex differences revealed that older females were significantly more conforming than older males when under surveillance and when subjects formed impressions of group members' likability. Among younger…

  20. Bedroom Design and Decoration: Gender Differences in Preference and Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall M.; Taylor, Denise E.; Dick, Andrew J.; Singh, Archana; Cook, Jerry L.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined gender differences in niche-building preference and activity among 238 8th and 9th grade boys and girls. A questionnaire was developed to measure both the actual and preferred bedroom content, bedroom design activity, and the level of perceived influence by the immediate and extended family, friends, and social…

  1. Gender-Related Differences on Open and Closed Assessment Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Johnston

    2002-01-01

    The use of short assessment tasks can provide valuable information about undergraduates' knowledge and understanding. However, it is known that there are gender-related differences in performance on certain types of objective tests, both among school pupils and university undergraduates. This article focuses on undergraduate learning, using a…

  2. Status and Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Descriptions of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closson, Leanna M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined gender and status differences among sixth through eighth grade early adolescents' (N = 387) descriptions of what it means to be popular. More boys than girls specified being "cool", "athletic", "funny", and "defiant/risky", whereas more girls than boys identified wearing nice "clothing", being "attractive", "mean", "snobby",…

  3. Gender Differences in Coping with Involuntary White Collar Job Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eby, Lillian T.; Buch, Kimberly

    Corporate restructuring has resulted in involuntary job loss for a significant number of white collar workers. This study investigated gender differences in reaction to involuntary job loss and tested a model of career gorwth through job loss. Former clients, 456 males and 62 females, of a nationwide outplacement firm completed a questionnaire…

  4. Gender Differences in Faculty Development: A Faculty Needs Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seritan, Andreea L.; Iosif, Ana-Maria; Hyvonen, Shelby; Lan, Mei-Fang; Boyum, Kathleen; Hilty, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated professional development needs of faculty in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the University of California (UC) Davis, while also exploring any existing differences according to gender and academic rank. Methods: An online survey was sent to 75 faculty members, and 41 responses (17 women,…

  5. Gender Differences in Game Behaviour in Invasion Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, David; Garcia-Lopez, Luis M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous research has revealed the existence of gender differences in physical education. Most descriptive studies show that boys are more physically active than girls, have greater self-perception of enjoyment and competence in physical education, attach more importance to sports and participation in them and demonstrate higher game…

  6. Explaining Gender Differences in Earnings in the Microenterprise Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Susana M.; Pagan, Jose A.

    Chapter 5 in "The Economics of Gender in Mexico," presents a study analyzed male-female differences in earnings in rural and urban microenterprises in Mexico. Data were gathered from surveys of 1,944 households in 54 rural communities and 11,461 microenterprise owners in 34 urban areas. Findings indicate that female-headed…

  7. Adolescents: Differences in Friendship Patterns Related to Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mjaavatn, Per Egil; Frostad, Per; Pijl, Sip Jan

    2016-01-01

    Based on a survey of 123 Norwegian students aged 14-15 (grade 10) this article will discuss possible gender differences in peer relations, social position and friendship criteria. The students filled in a questionnaire that included sociometry and questions on friendship criteria, self-esteem and social support. We found significant gender…

  8. Sexually Explicit Media, Gender Differences, and Evolutionary Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malamuth, Neil M.

    1996-01-01

    Notes that media scholars often resist the use of the evolutionary paradigm. Discusses two problems: an overly simplistic view of evolutionary models; and a distrust of ideological implications. Develops an evolutionary model proposing that gender differences in the consumption of sexually explicit media is, in part, the result of inherited…

  9. Gender Differences in Academic Motivation of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerezo Rusillo, Maria Teresa; Casanova Arias, Pedro Felix

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: The following study examines gender differences existing in various cognitive-motivational variables (causal attributions, academic goals, academic self-concept and use of significant learning strategies) and in performance attained in school subjects of Language Arts and Mathematics. Method: For this purpose, a sample of 521…

  10. Gender Differences in School Achievement: A Within-Class Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Barneron, Meir; Kassim, Suhad

    2014-01-01

    Relying on the results of the achievement tests in mathematics, science, native language (Hebrew/Arabic) and English, administered to 1430 5th-grade co-educational classes in Israel, this study examines the between-class variability of the within-class mean score gender differences and its class and school correlates. The four main results of the…

  11. Status and Gender Differences in Early Adolescents' Descriptions of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Closson, Leanna M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined gender and status differences among sixth through eighth grade early adolescents' (N = 387) descriptions of what it means to be popular. More boys than girls specified being "cool", "athletic", "funny", and "defiant/risky", whereas more girls than boys identified wearing nice "clothing", being "attractive", "mean", "snobby",…

  12. Gender Differences among Israeli Adolescents in Residential Drug Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The use of licit and illicit drugs is considered to be primarily a male problem. Numerous studies, however, question the extent of gender differences. This article reports on last 30 day drug use and related problem behaviour among male and female youth prior to residential treatment. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 95 male and…

  13. Political Efficacy in Adolescence: Development, Gender Differences, and Outcome Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Watermann, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The present study focuses on political efficacy in terms of students' competence self-perceptions related to the domain of politics. The investigation addresses the mean level development and longitudinal relations to outcome variables including gender differences. Drawing on a sample of N = 2,504 German students, political efficacy, along with…

  14. Skin Picking in Turkish Students: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…

  15. Gender Differences in Inference Generation by Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Virginia; Seipel, Ben; Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Carlson, Sarah E.; Rapp, David N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a…

  16. College Student Beliefs about Women: Some Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeely, Andrea; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty

    2005-01-01

    Three-hundred-and-twenty six undergraduates at a large south-eastern university completed a confidential anonymous 74-item questionnaire designed to assess beliefs about men, women, and relationships held by university students. This study focused on the data regarding gender differences in beliefs about women. Men were significantly more likely…

  17. Gender Differences in Attitudes towards Learning Oral Skills Using Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harb, Jibrel; Abu Bakar, Nadzrah; Krish, Pramela

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a quantitative study on gender differences in attitudes when learning oral skills via technology. The study was conducted at Tafila Technical University, Jordan, with 70 female and 30 male students, to find out if female students are better and faster in learning a language than male. Specifically, it seeks to investigate…

  18. Gender Differences in School Achievement: A Within-Class Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Barneron, Meir; Kassim, Suhad

    2014-01-01

    Relying on the results of the achievement tests in mathematics, science, native language (Hebrew/Arabic) and English, administered to 1430 5th-grade co-educational classes in Israel, this study examines the between-class variability of the within-class mean score gender differences and its class and school correlates. The four main results of the…

  19. Age and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Homework Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…

  20. Gender Differences in Inference Generation by Fourth-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Virginia; Seipel, Ben; Broek, Paul; McMaster, Kristen L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; Carlson, Sarah E.; Rapp, David N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there are gender differences among elementary school-aged students in regard to the inferences they generate during reading. Fourth-grade students (130 females; 126 males) completed think-aloud tasks while reading one practice and one experimental narrative text. Females generated a larger number and a…

  1. Skin Picking in Turkish Students: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calikusu, Celal; Kucukgoncu, Suat; Tecer, Ozlem; Bestepe, Emrem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence, characteristics, triggers, and consequences of skin picking (SP) in a sample of Turkish university students, with an emphasis on gender differences. A total of 245 students from two universities in Turkey were assessed by using the Skin Picking Inventory. In total, 87.8% of the students…

  2. Adolescent Internet usage in Taiwan: exploring gender differences.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Huang; Yu, Shu-Fen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in adolescent Internet accessibility, motives for use, and online activities in Taiwan; 629 5th and 6th graders were surveyed. Findings revealed that the gap in gender differences with regard to Internet use has decreased in this generation. Even though the Internet is the most recent form of major media in the world, it has become the second most important medium as perceived by boys and girls. No gender difference was found in adolescents' motives for using the Internet. The ranking of relative importance of motives for adolescents going online was searching for information, followed by socializing, and boredom avoidance for both boys and girls. However, a gender difference in online activities seems to persist. Searching for homework information and playing games were the most popular online activities for all adolescents. However, while girls tended to view the Internet more as a means of searching for information and e-mailing friends, boys tended to use it more for playing games and down-loading software.

  3. Differences in Gender Performance on Competitive Physics Selection Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kate; Low, David; Verdon, Matthew; Verdon, Alix

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated gender differences in performance over the past eight years on the Australian Science Olympiad Exam (ASOE) for physics,which is taken by nearly 1000 high school students each year. The ASOE, run by Australian Science Innovations (ASI), is the initial stage of the process of selection of teams to represent Australia at the…

  4. Differences in Gender Performance on Competitive Physics Selection Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kate; Low, David; Verdon, Matthew; Verdon, Alix

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated gender differences in performance over the past eight years on the Australian Science Olympiad Exam (ASOE) for physics,which is taken by nearly 1000 high school students each year. The ASOE, run by Australian Science Innovations (ASI), is the initial stage of the process of selection of teams to represent Australia at the…

  5. Age and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Homework Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…

  6. Biological Gender Differences in Students' Errors on Mathematics Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Christie; Root, Melissa M.; Koriakin, Taylor; Choi, Dowon; Luria, Sarah R.; Bray, Melissa A.; Sassu, Kari; Maykel, Cheryl; O'Rourke, Patricia; Courville, Troy

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated developmental gender differences in mathematics achievement, using the child and adolescent portion (ages 6-19 years) of the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Third Edition (KTEA-3). Participants were divided into two age categories: 6 to 11 and 12 to 19. Error categories within the Math Concepts & Applications…

  7. Gender Differences in Displacement Cost: Evidence and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Thomas F.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Canadian displaced worker data show that predisplacement wages rise at about the same rate, but women lose more from displacement than men and loss increases with tenure. Results do not support the hypothesis that women accumulate less job-specific human capital; gender differences in job search may be a cause. (SK)

  8. Participation in Class and in Online Discussions: Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspi, Avner; Chajut, Eran; Saporta, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Gender differences between participation in face-to-face and web-based classroom discussions were examined, by comparing the men-women actual participation ratio to the men-women attendance (or login) ratio. It was found that men over-proportionally spoke at the face-to-face classroom whereas women over-proportionally posted messages in the…

  9. Gender Differences in the Socialization of Preschoolers' Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Wyatt, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Preschoolers' socialization of emotion and its contribution to emotional competence is likely to be highly gendered. In their work, the authors have found that mothers often take on the role of emotional gatekeeper in the family, and fathers act as loving playmates, but that parents' styles of socialization of emotion do not usually differ for…

  10. Gender Differences in Cognition among Older Adults in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yuqing; McArdle, John J.; Smith, James P.; Zhao, Yaohui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the CHARLS Pilot survey respondents are 45 years and older in two quite distinct provinces--Zhejiang, a high-growth industrialized province on the…

  11. Developmental Changes and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Perceptions of Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This five-wave study aims to investigate the development of adolescents' perceptions of support, negative interaction, and power in best friendships from ages 12 to 20 years. Furthermore, gender differences and linkages between the three dimensions are explored. A total of 593 early adolescents (53.6% boys) and 337 middle adolescents (43.3% boys)…

  12. Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy among Latino College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, J. Derek

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the changes in self-efficacy among Latinos during the freshman year in a highly selective institution. Results indicate that gender differences exist during this period. Males rate themselves high in self-efficacy at the beginning of the year, while females rate themselves low. An interaction effect occurs at the end of the…

  13. Street Children in Nairobi: Gender Differences in Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aptekar, Lewis; Ciano-Federoff, Lynda M.

    1999-01-01

    Gender differences among street children in Nairobi suggest familial function, and development and mental-health outcomes. Male children are taught coping skills by their mothers early on to take up street life to support their family. Female children, expected to remain at home and learn to become women, turn to street life as the result of…

  14. Clinical gender differences among adult pathological gamblers seeking treatment.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; González-Ortega, Itxaso; de Corral, Paz; Polo-López, Rocío

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the gender-related differences in demographics, gambling measures, psychological functioning, and motivation for therapy in an outpatient sample of pathological gamblers seeking treatment. Participants in this multisite study included 103 adult outpatients (51 women and 52 men) meeting current DSM-IV-TR criteria for PG. Logistic regression was used to examine if gender was related together to categorical and continuous independent variables. Female gamblers were older than men and more likely to be divorced or widowed and to have a lower annual income. Women became more dependent on bingo and men on slot machines. Gambling motivation and the course of illness for both sexes were also different. Female gamblers were more anxious and with a poorer self-esteem than male gamblers and more affected by depressive symptoms; in turn, men were more impulsive and higher sensation seekers than women and more affected by drug/alcohol abuse. The 68.6% of female gamblers reported being victims of intimate partner violence. There were no gender differences about the motivation for treatment. Future research should examine gambling behaviors and psychological functioning and suggest treatment approaches to address specific goals according to these gender-related differences.

  15. Explaining Gender Differences in Earnings in the Microenterprise Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Susana M.; Pagan, Jose A.

    Chapter 5 in "The Economics of Gender in Mexico," presents a study analyzed male-female differences in earnings in rural and urban microenterprises in Mexico. Data were gathered from surveys of 1,944 households in 54 rural communities and 11,461 microenterprise owners in 34 urban areas. Findings indicate that female-headed…

  16. Gender Differences in Academic Motivation of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerezo Rusillo, Maria Teresa; Casanova Arias, Pedro Felix

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: The following study examines gender differences existing in various cognitive-motivational variables (causal attributions, academic goals, academic self-concept and use of significant learning strategies) and in performance attained in school subjects of Language Arts and Mathematics. Method: For this purpose, a sample of 521…

  17. Mathematics Education in Lebanon: Gender Differences in Attitudes and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.; Chartouny, Madona

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in students' mathematics achievement and in their attitudes toward mathematics. Another purpose was to examine mathematics teachers' beliefs and their perceptions of their male and female students' ability. The sample consisted of 692 students (353 girls, 339 boys) between the ages of…

  18. Gender Differences and Styles in the Use of Digital Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanno, Philip; Kommers, P. A. M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports work in progress investigating gender differences and styles in the use of digital games amongst advanced level biology students. It is an elaboration on previous work exploring the relationship between cognitive style and academic performance in Maltese students taking biology at advanced level. In this previous work the…

  19. Gender Differences in Mental Well-Being: A Decomposition Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, David

    2010-01-01

    The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) is frequently used as a measure of mental well-being. A consistent pattern across countries is that women report lower levels of mental well-being, as measured by the GHQ. This paper applies decomposition techniques to Irish data for 1994 and 2000 to examine the factors lying behind the gender differences in…

  20. Biological Gender Differences in Students' Errors on Mathematics Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Christie; Root, Melissa M.; Koriakin, Taylor; Choi, Dowon; Luria, Sarah R.; Bray, Melissa A.; Sassu, Kari; Maykel, Cheryl; O'Rourke, Patricia; Courville, Troy

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated developmental gender differences in mathematics achievement, using the child and adolescent portion (ages 6-19 years) of the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement-Third Edition (KTEA-3). Participants were divided into two age categories: 6 to 11 and 12 to 19. Error categories within the Math Concepts & Applications…

  1. Gender Differences in Processing Speed: A Review of Recent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2011-01-01

    A review of recent large-scale studies on gender differences in processing speed and on the cognitive factors assumed to affect processing speed was performed. It was found that females have an advantage in processing speed tasks involving digits and alphabets as well as in rapid naming tasks while males are faster on reaction time tests and…

  2. Gender Differences in Processing Speed: A Review of Recent Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2011-01-01

    A review of recent large-scale studies on gender differences in processing speed and on the cognitive factors assumed to affect processing speed was performed. It was found that females have an advantage in processing speed tasks involving digits and alphabets as well as in rapid naming tasks while males are faster on reaction time tests and…

  3. Gender Differences in Research Patterns among PhD Economists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbezat, Debra A.

    2006-01-01

    This study is based on a 1996 survey of PhD economists working in the academic and nonacademic sectors since 1989. Despite a raw gender difference in all types of research output, the male dummy variable proves statistically significant in predicting only one publication measure. In a full sample and faculty subsample, number of years since…

  4. Solving Graphics Tasks: Gender Differences in Middle-School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrie, Tom; Diezmann, Carmel M.

    2011-01-01

    The capacity to solve tasks that contain high concentrations of visual-spatial information, including graphs, maps and diagrams, is becoming increasingly important in educational contexts as well as everyday life. This research examined gender differences in the performance of students solving graphics tasks from the Graphical Languages in…

  5. Developmental Changes and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Perceptions of Friendships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan J. T.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2009-01-01

    This five-wave study aims to investigate the development of adolescents' perceptions of support, negative interaction, and power in best friendships from ages 12 to 20 years. Furthermore, gender differences and linkages between the three dimensions are explored. A total of 593 early adolescents (53.6% boys) and 337 middle adolescents (43.3% boys)…

  6. Gender Differences in the Recall of Performance Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Sylvia; Langenfeld, Kelly

    This study tested whether gender differences in recall of performance feedback exist. Participants were 88 female and 68 male undergraduate students enrolled in introductory psychology courses at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside. They were presented with eight comments each (evaluative feedback) for both an English paper and a computer…

  7. Development of Gender Differences in Children's Responses to Animated Entertainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Mary Beth; Green, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Examined gender differences in children's responses to animated scenes from action adventure and sad films and to animated previews of a prototypical male versus female movie. Girls were more likely than boys to report and express sadness regarding sad segments. Intensities of sadness increased with age. Emotional responses to action adventure…

  8. Gender Differences in Cognition among Older Adults in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yuqing; McArdle, John J.; Smith, James P.; Zhao, Yaohui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Study (HRS), the CHARLS Pilot survey respondents are 45 years and older in two quite distinct provinces--Zhejiang, a high-growth industrialized province on the…

  9. Bedroom Design and Decoration: Gender Differences in Preference and Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall M.; Taylor, Denise E.; Dick, Andrew J.; Singh, Archana; Cook, Jerry L.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined gender differences in niche-building preference and activity among 238 8th and 9th grade boys and girls. A questionnaire was developed to measure both the actual and preferred bedroom content, bedroom design activity, and the level of perceived influence by the immediate and extended family, friends, and social…

  10. Gender Differences in Positive Social-Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Natalie; Ravitch, N. Kathryn; Tom, Karalyn; Merrell, Kenneth W.; Wesley, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated gender differences of children and adolescents on positive social and emotional competencies using a new strength-based measure of positive social-emotional attributes and resilience--the Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales (SEARS) cross-informant system. Caregivers, teachers, and students in grades kindergarten through…

  11. Beliefs about Men: Gender Differences among Colleges Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, David; Zusman, Marty; McNeely, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Three-hundred-and-twenty six undergraduates at a large south-eastern university completed a confidential anonymous 74-item questionnaire designed to assess beliefs about men, women, and relationships held by university students. This study focused on the data regarding gender differences in beliefs about men. Women were significantly more likely…

  12. Gender differences in identity development: an examination of longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Streitmatter, J

    1993-01-01

    Longitudinal data from 105 junior high school students were analyzed to examine the relationship between gender and identity development over time. Analysis of variance, t tests, and analysis of covariance were employed. Taken collectively, results indicated that patterns of change over time were similar for males and females; as the students aged, they grew in psychosocial maturity regardless of gender. These results are consistent with other work using Eriksonian-based assessment instruments. Gilligan, using ethnographic methodology and a framework at odds with Erikson's, has proposed a very different interpretation of development across gender. Perhaps the two methodologies and the concomitant findings should be considered in a complementary fashion in view of the complex societal forces imposed upon females as they progress in their identity development.

  13. Authoritarian and homophobic attitudes: gender and adult attachment style differences.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Barbara; Lopez, Frederick G

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relations of gender and adult attachment styles to college students' scores on several measures of authoritarian attitudes (e.g., right-wing authoritarianism, ethnocentrism, homophobia, and religious fundamentalism). A multivariate analysis of authoritarian attitudes yielded significant main and interaction effects involving students' gender and their (categorical) attachment style scores. Relative to women, men reported higher levels of homophobia, ethnocentrism, and right-wing authoritarianism. Gender differences in homophobia were additionally conditioned by participants' adult attachment styles: Men with dismissing styles evidenced the highest levels of homophobia, whereas women with dismissing styles demonstrated the lowest levels; that is, a fear of intimacy seemed to contribute to homophobic attitudes found among heterosexual men. This was the first U.S. study of the relationship between adult attachment styles and right-wing authoritarianism, and further investigation is warranted.

  14. Gender differences in body esteem among older adults.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Patricia L; Hayslip, Bert

    2006-01-01

    Ninety-five adults aged 60-91 completed measures of Body-as-Object Esteem (BOE) (i.e., appearance) and Body-as-Process Esteem (BPE) (i.e., function) to explore gender differences in body esteem among older adults. As hypothesized, a significant age by gender interaction revealed that men become more disparaging of the appearance and function of their bodies in their last decades of life, while women do not. Level of physical disability was negatively correlated with BOE, particularly for disabled women. Furthermore, as is seen across the lifespan, self-esteem is a significant predictor of BOE. Disabled participants who were older than 74 years had disproportionately low BPE scores and similarly poor global self-esteem. Whether working with older adults or studying body esteem in this population, it is vital that both dimensions of body esteem are assessed along with the impact of disability status, gender, self-esteem, and age.

  15. The contemporary face of gender differences and similarities in depression throughout adolescence: Development and chronicity.

    PubMed

    Salk, Rachel H; Petersen, Jennifer L; Abramson, Lyn Y; Hyde, Janet S

    2016-11-15

    We probe the adolescent gender difference in depression, asking two critical questions. First, most longitudinal studies of gender differences in adolescent depression date from the 1980s and 1990s, raising the need for a body of evidence on whether the developmental pattern is similar or different today. Second, despite the importance of chronicity to depression, we do not know whether there is a gender difference in the chronicity burden of the disorder. In a contemporary longitudinal sample of U.S. adolescents, depression symptoms were assessed at ages 11, 13, 15, and 18, and depression diagnoses were assessed at age 20. To capture the chronicity burden of clinical depression, we assessed for every depressive episode in an individual's lifetime and summed the total number of days spent in episode. A gender difference emerged at age 13 for depression symptoms and at ages 13-14 for diagnoses. These findings are similar to those in the 1980s and 1990s despite many social changes that have occurred. However, the magnitude of the gender difference in symptoms at ages 13 and 15 may be larger than those documented previously. Latent growth curve modeling of depression symptoms indicated that girls' symptoms accelerated early in adolescence whereas boys' symptoms accelerated later. Although more girls (24%) than boys (15%) experienced major depression or dysthymia by age 20, the chronicity burden among those with depression showed gender similarities (median=2.6% days depressed for boys and 2.4% for girls). Depression diagnoses were assessed retrospectively; however, symptom data were assessed prospectively, and symptom and diagnostic data converged. The sample was also predominantly White, limiting generalizability. In a contemporary adolescent sample we observed gender differences in depression symptoms and diagnoses beginning at age 13. We documented distinct developmental trajectories of depression for adolescent girls and boys, suggesting different developmental

  16. Gender differences in ethanol-induced behavioral sensitivity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Dlugos, Cynthia A; Brown, Shereene J; Rabin, Richard A

    2011-02-01

    Gender-related differential sensitivity to ethanol has long been recognized. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the zebrafish, an animal model used currently to study genetics and development related to a variety of human diseases, is also sensitive to pharmacologically relevant concentrations of ethanol. Sensitivity to ethanol in the zebrafish can be easily gauged with a simple nonintrusive behavioral test that measures ethanol-related alterations in schooling by determining the distance between each fish and its nearest neighbor. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of gender on the strain-specific ethanol sensitivity that we had observed previously. One hundred and sixty zebrafish of the wild-type (WT) and the long fin striped (LFS) strains were equally divided by gender for use in this study. For acute ethanol treatment, the fish were separated by gender and strain and exposed to 0.0, 0.125, 0.25 0.50, or 1.0% (vol/vol) ethanol. In the chronic study, eight fish of each strain and gender were exposed to 0.5% (vol/vol) ethanol for a period of 10 weeks and the swimming behavior tested before treatment and after each week of treatment. Results showed that female WT zebrafish displayed enhanced sensitivity to the effects of chronic ethanol exposure of increased nearest neighbor distances, whereas male and female LFS fish were not significantly affected by chronic ethanol exposure. Results of the acute ethanol study showed a dose-dependent effect in both strains and a gender effect that needs to be further investigated before enhanced female sensitivity to acute ethanol can be verified.

  17. Differences in gender performance on competitive physics selection tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Kate; Low, David; Verdon, Matthew; Verdon, Alix

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] We have investigated gender differences in performance over the past eight years on the Australian Science Olympiad Exam (ASOE) for physics, which is taken by nearly 1000 high school students each year. The ASOE, run by Australian Science Innovations (ASI), is the initial stage of the process of selection of teams to represent Australia at the Asian and International Physics Olympiads. Students taking the exam are generally in their penultimate year of school and selected by teachers as being high performing in physics. Together with the overall differences in facility, we have investigated how the content and presentation of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) affects the particular answers selected by male and female students. Differences in the patterns of responses by male and female students indicate that males and females might be modeling situations in different ways. Some strong patterns were found in the gender gaps when the questions were categorized in five broad dimensions: content, process required, difficulty, presentation, and context. Almost all questions saw male students performing better, although gender differences were relatively small for questions with a more abstract context. Male students performed significantly better on most questions with a concrete context, although notable exceptions were found, including two such questions where female students performed better. Other categories that showed consistently large gaps favoring male students include questions with projectile motion and other two-dimensional motion or forces content, and processes involving interpreting diagrams. Our results have important implications, suggesting that we should be able to reduce the gender gaps in performance on MCQ tests by changing the way information is presented and setting questions in contexts that are less likely to favor males over females. This is important as MCQ tests are

  18. Gender-related differences in individuals seeking treatment for kleptomania.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N

    2008-03-01

    Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for prevention and treatment strategies. Few empirical investigations have been performed in kleptomania, particularly with respect to gender-related influences. From 2001--2007, 95 adult subjects (n=27 [28.4%] males) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-defined kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics, including symptom severity, comorbidity, and functional impairment, to identify gender-related differences. Men and women showed substantial symptom severity and functional impairment. Compared with affected men, women with kleptomania were more likely to be married (47.1% vs 25.9%; P=.039), have a later age at shoplifting onset (20.9 vs 14 years of age; P=.001), steal household items (P<.001), hoard stolen items (P=.020), and have an eating disorder (P=.017) and less likely to steal electronic goods (P<.001) and have another impulse-control disorder (P=.018). Kleptomania is similarly associated with significant impairment in women and men. Gender-related differences in clinical features and co-occurring disorders suggest that prevention and treatment strategies incorporate gender considerations.

  19. Gender-Related Differences in Individuals Seeking Treatment for Kleptomania

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Understanding variations in disease presentation in men and women is clinically important as differences may reflect biological and sociocultural factors and have implications for prevention and treatment strategies. Few empirical investigations have been performed in kleptomania, particularly with respect to gender-related influences. Method From 2001 to 2007, 95 adult subjects (n=27 [28.4%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and functional impairment to identify gender-related differences. Results Men and women both showed substantial symptom severity and functional impairment. Compared to affected men, women with kleptomania were more likely to be married (47.1% compared to 25.9%; p=.039), have a later age at shoplifting onset (20.9 compared to 14 years; p=.001), steal household items (p<.001), hoard stolen items (p=.020), and have an eating disorder (p=.017) and less likely to steal electronic goods (p<.001) and have another impulse control disorder (p=.018). Conclusions Kleptomania is similarly associated with significant impairment in women and men. Gender-related differences in clinical features and co-occurring disorders suggest that prevention and treatment strategies incorporate gender considerations. PMID:18323758

  20. Putting It on the Table: A Mini-Course on Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croker, Denise L.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a high school mini-course called "Gender Bender" (a survey course of the contemporary literature on gender differences) that studied gender issues that were troubling high school students. Describes how the course discussed gender and schooling; gender roles in society; images in the media; dating, marriage, and divorce; and…

  1. Gender Differences in Motor Skills of the Overarm Throw

    PubMed Central

    Gromeier, Michael; Koester, Dirk; Schack, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, the qualitative and quantitative throwing performance of male and female athletes (6 to 16 years of age) was analyzed. The goal of this study was to assess whether there were gender based qualitative and quantitative differences in throwing performance of young athletes, throughout three different age bands (childhood, pubescence, and adolescence). Furthermore, we explored whether all components of the throwing movement are equally affected by gender differences. Focus was placed on five essential components of action: trunk, forearm, humerus, stepping, and backswing. Therefore, children and adolescents (N = 96) were invited to throw three times from three different distances, while aiming at a target placed at shoulder height. The participants were aspiring athletes, competitive in the sport handball. For analyzing the quality of movement the component approach of Halverson and Roberton (1984) was used. The throwing accuracy was noted and used to evaluate the quantitative performance of the throwing movement. Throughout three different age bands, no statistically significant difference was found between genders in throwing accuracy, i.e., quantitative performance. Regarding the qualitative evaluation of the throwing movement, male and female athletes differed significantly. The component approach yielded higher scores for male than for female participants. As expected, with increasing age qualitative and quantitative performance of male and female athletes improved. These results suggest that there are gender-specific differences in qualitative throwing performance, but not necessarily in quantitative throwing performance. Exploration shows that differences in the qualitative throwing performance were seen in specific components of action. Male and female athletes demonstrated similar movement patterns in humerus and forearm actions, but differed in trunk, stepping, and backswing actions. PMID:28261142

  2. Delayed auditory feedback effects during reading and conversation tasks: gender differences in fluent adults.

    PubMed

    Corey, David M; Cuddapah, Vishnu Anand

    2008-12-01

    Delayed auditory feedback (DAF) impacts the speech fluency of normally fluent males more than that of normally fluent females. Understanding this gender difference may contribute to our understanding of gender differences in the prevalence of developmental stuttering. To characterize this gender difference in fluent people, DAF-induced dysfluency was measured in 20 male and 21 female young adults during oral reading and conversation tasks. Stutter-like dysfluencies (SLDs), articulation errors, interjections, reading errors, and speech rate were measured for both speech tasks as the participant spoke without feedback, with non-delayed feedback, and with DAF presented with 5 delay intervals (14 conditions total). DAF induced SLDs (but not other dysfluencies) more frequently during conversation than reading, and this effect was significantly greater for males than females (Gender x Task x Feedback interaction). Males also produced significantly more reading errors than females. DAF reduced speaking rate significantly more while reading than conversing (Task x Feedback interaction). DAF significantly decreased the frequency of interjections and increased the frequency of articulation errors; however, no Gender effects on these variables were observed. Although significant order effects indicated improved fluency across trials, covariance analysis suggested that order effects could not explain other results. After reading this article, the reader will be able to (1) Discuss developmental stuttering (DS) and gender differences in DS prevalence. (2) Define delayed auditory feedback (DAF). (3) Evaluate the evidence that gender is linked to DAF effects on fluent people. (4) Summarize the results of new research designed to assess sex differences in DAF effects on speech fluency in normally fluent adults. (5) Evaluate the degree to which evidence from the literature indicating that individual differences in attentional control may help us understand gender difference in DAF

  3. Gender differences in stress response: Role of developmental and biological determinants

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rohit; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Gupta, Chandra Shekhar

    2011-01-01

    Stress response is associated with manifestations of various psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders. Hence, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms that influence this association. Moreover, men and women tend to react differently with stress–both psychologically and biologically. These differences also need to be studied in order to have a better understanding in the gender difference observed for many disorders, which are likely to be contributed by the gender difference in stress reactivity and responses. Such an understanding would have a significant impact on our understanding about how adult health is set during early life and how adult disease could be prevented in men and women. PMID:22969173

  4. Gender Differences and Leadership Contention: A Case Study in the Rhetoric of Social Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bonnie; Benson, Thomas W.

    The purpose of this investigation was to describe behaviors observed as comprising leadership contention and gender differences in groups. As defined in this study, leadership contention differs from leadership in that it is comprised of behaviors individuals derive from their beliefs about what leaders do and is also specifically concerned with a…

  5. Gender Differences in Career Decision Making: The Content and Structure of Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gati, Itamar; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined three facets of career preferences so as to identify possible sources of the observed differences in the career choices of women and men. Analysis of the career-related preferences of 2,000 young adults revealed only small gender differences in the relative importance of the aspects. Other findings are also considered. (RJM)

  6. Behavioural and Cognitive Sex/Gender Differences in Autism Spectrum Condition and Typically Developing Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Laura; Mandy, William; Petrides, K. V.

    2017-01-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing…

  7. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Smoking and Smoking Cessation in a Population of Young Adult Air Force Recruits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Kenneth D.; Vander Weg, Mark W.; Kovach, Kristen Wood; Klesges, Robert C.; DeBon, Margaret W.; Haddock, C. Keith; Talcott, G. Wayne; Lando, Harry A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated gender and ethnic differences in smoking and smoking cessation among young adult military recruits. Surveys administered at the start of basic training indicated that whites (especially white females) and Native Americans were more likely to smoke than other ethnic groups. Gender differences were not observed in cessation rates, which…

  8. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Smoking and Smoking Cessation in a Population of Young Adult Air Force Recruits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Kenneth D.; Vander Weg, Mark W.; Kovach, Kristen Wood; Klesges, Robert C.; DeBon, Margaret W.; Haddock, C. Keith; Talcott, G. Wayne; Lando, Harry A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated gender and ethnic differences in smoking and smoking cessation among young adult military recruits. Surveys administered at the start of basic training indicated that whites (especially white females) and Native Americans were more likely to smoke than other ethnic groups. Gender differences were not observed in cessation rates, which…

  9. Coping strategies: gender differences and development throughout life span.

    PubMed

    Meléndez, Juan Carlos; Mayordomo, Teresa; Sancho, Patricia; Tomás, José Manuel

    2012-11-01

    Development during life-span implies to cope with stressful events, and this coping may be done with several strategies. It could be useful to know if these coping strategies differ as a consequence of personal characteristics. This work uses the Coping with Stress Questionnaire with this aim using a sample of 400 participants. Specifically, the effects of gender and age group (young people, middle age and elderly), as well as its interaction on coping strategies is studied. With regard to age, on one hand, it is hypothesised a decrement in the use of coping strategies centred in problem solving and social support seeking as age increases. On the other hand, the use of emotional coping is hypothesised to increase with age. With respect to gender, it is hypothesised a larger use of emotional coping and social support seeking within women, and a larger use of problem solving within men. A MANOVA found significant effects for the two main effects (gender and age) as well as several interactions. Separate ANOVAs allowed us to test for potential differences in each of the coping strategies measured in the CAE. These results partially supported the hypotheses. Results are discussed in relation to scientific literature on coping, age and gender.

  10. Integrating Gender and Group Differences into Bridging Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, Serkan; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2010-08-01

    The main goal of this study was to integrate gender and group effect into bridging strategy in order to assess the effect of bridging analogy-based instruction on sophomore students' misconceptions in Newton's Third Law. Specifically, the authors developed and benefited from anchoring analogy diagnostic test to merge the effect of group and gender into the strategy. Newton's third law misconception test, attitude scale toward Newton's third law, and classroom observation checklists were the other measuring tools utilized throughout this quasi-experimental study. The researchers also developed or used several teaching/learning materials such as gender and group splitted concept diagrams, lesson plans, gender splitted frequency tables, make sense scales, PowerPoint slides, flash cards, and demonstrations. The convenience sample of the study chosen from the accessible population involved 308 students from two public universities. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that the bridging strategy had a significant effect on students' misconceptions in Newton's third law whereas it had no significant effect on students' attitudes toward Newton's third law.

  11. Gender Differences in Metabolic Disorders and Related Diseases in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii-Leprfa Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Takeshi; Katsuda, Yoshiaki; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Kimura, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Leprfa (SDT fatty) rat is a novel type 2 diabetic model wherein both male and female rats develop glucose and lipid abnormalities from a young age. In this study, we investigated gender differences in abnormalities and related complications in SDT fatty rats. Food intake was higher in males compared to female rats; however, body weight was not different between genders. Progression of diabetes, including increases in blood glucose and declines in blood insulin, was observed earlier in male rats than in females, and diabetic grade was more critical in male rats. Blood lipids tended to increase in female rats. Gonadal dysfunction was observed in both male and female rats with aging. Microangiopathies, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and osteoporosis, were seen in both genders, and pathological grade and progression were more significant in males. Qualitative and quantitative changes were observed for metabolic disease gender differences in SDT fatty rats. The SDT fatty rat is a useful model for researching gender differences in metabolic disorders and related diseases in diabetes with obesity. PMID:24892034

  12. Gender Differences in Scholarly Productivity Within Academic Gynecologic Oncology Departments

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Emily K.; Blake, Rachel A.; Emerson, Jenna B.; Svider, Peter; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Raker, Christina; Robison, Katina; Stuckey, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate whether there is a gender difference in scholarly productivity among academic gynecologic oncologists. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, the academic rank and gender of gynecologic oncology faculty in the United States were determined from online residency and fellowship directories and departmental web sites. Each individual’s h-index and years of publication were determined from Scopus (a citation database of peer-reviewed literature). The h-index is a quantification of an author’s scholarly productivity that combines the number of publications with the number of times the publications have been cited. We generated descriptive statistics and compared rank, gender, and productivity scores. RESULTS Five hundred seven academic faculty within 137 U.S. teaching programs were identified. Of these, 215 (42%) were female and 292 (58%) were male. Men had significantly higher median h-indices than women, 16 compared with 8, respectively (P<.001). Women were more likely to be of junior academic rank with 63% of assistant professors being female compared with 20% of full professors. When stratifying h-indices by gender and academic rank, men had significantly higher h-indices at the assistant professor level (7 compared with 5, P<.001); however, this difference disappeared at the higher ranks. Stratifying by the years of active publication, there was no significant difference between genders. CONCLUSION Female gynecologic oncologists at the assistant professor level had lower scholarly productivity than men; however, at higher academic ranks, they equaled their male counterparts. Women were more junior in rank, had published for fewer years, and were underrepresented in leadership positions. PMID:26551177

  13. Gender differences among Alaska Native people seeking alcohol withdrawal treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bear, Ursula Running; Beals, Janette; Novins, Douglas K.; Manson, Spero M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Few studies focus on gender differences among patients who utilize detoxification services; even fewer focus on detoxification for Alaska Native people. This analysis focused on gender differences at admission among a sample of Alaska Native patients seeking alcohol withdrawal treatment. Methods The sample included 383 adult Alaska Native patients admitted to an inpatient alcohol detoxification unit during 2006 and 2007. Logistic regression was used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted associations with gender. Results Women were 88% more likely to have stable housing than men (odds ratio [OR] = 1.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.15, 3.05, P = .01). Women were 87% less likely to be seasonal workers (OR = 0.13, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.48, P = .003) and 50% less likely than men to be seeking employment (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.29, 0.84, P = .01) at admission. Women had more than 5 times the odds of having children in the home at admission (OR = 5.64, 95% CI = 3.03, 10.56, P < .001) and almost 3 times the odds of experiencing physical abuse than men (OR = 2.96, 95% CI = 1.31, 6.66, P = .01). Additionally, women were 50% less likely to accept a referral to substance abuse treatment following detoxification (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.30, 0.83, P = .01). Conclusions The study found significant differences based upon gender. For instance, women are in need of services that accommodate women with children and services that address histories of physical abuse. Conversely, men are in need of housing and employment opportunities. Post detoxification follow-up, case management, and transition to care should include gender as a factor in treatment planning. PMID:26731436

  14. Israel 2000: immigration and gender differences in alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2005-01-01

    The present study addresses the association between immigration from the former Soviet Union (FSU) and gender and alcohol consumption among a representative sample of young adults in Israel 2000. Previous studies that were conducted on FSU immigrants to Israel indicate higher consumption than that of resident Israelis and immigrants of earlier periods. The current study aims to assess alcohol consumption among FSU and resident Israelis five years later to determine whether the discrepancy in alcohol consumption stays consistent or reduces. In addition, gender differences in alcohol consumption among the Israeli society were examined as well, as a special case of socio-culture differences. The data came from the 2000 national survey of drinking in Israel. Of 5,004 Jewish Israelis, 532 were immigrants from the FSU who arrived since 1989, and 4,472 were resident Israelis. The FSU group was compared with resident Israelis, and males were compared to females on several drinking variables. Logistic regression was the principal method of analysis. Demographics and cultural variables as main effects or in interaction with FSU and gender were controlled. The FSU group was significantly more likely to report drinking in the last twelve months plus drinking in the last thirty days than resident Israelis. Women's reported drinking in the last twelve months was one fourth of men's and during the past thirty days was one fifth of men's. Further investigation on the associations between the success of FSU acculturation in the Israeli society and drinking patterns as well as attitudes toward women and gender differences in alcohol consumption may provide explanations for gender and immigration gaps in alcohol consumption.

  15. Gender-related differences in outcome for melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Scoggins, Charles R; Ross, Merrick I; Reintgen, Douglas S; Noyes, R Dirk; Goydos, James S; Beitsch, Peter D; Urist, Marshall M; Ariyan, Stephan; Sussman, Jeffrey J; Edwards, Michael J; Chagpar, Anees B; Martin, Robert C G; Stromberg, Arnold J; Hagendoorn, Lee; McMasters, Kelly M

    2006-05-01

    To better understand the factors associated with the well-established gender difference in survival for patients with melanoma. Gender is an important factor in patients with cutaneous melanoma. Male patients have a worse outcome when compared with females. The reasons for this difference are poorly understood. This prospective multi-institutional study included patients aged 18 to 70 years with melanomas > or =1.0 mm Breslow thickness. Wide excision and sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy was performed in all patients. Clinicopathologic factors, including gender, were assessed and correlated with disease-free survival (DFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS), and overall survival (OS). A total of 3324 patients were included in the covariate analyses; 1829 patients had follow-up data available and were included in the survival analyses. Median follow-up was 30 months. On univariate analysis, men (n = 1906) were more likely than women to be older than 60 years (P < 0.0001), have thicker melanomas (P < 0.0001), have primary tumor regression (P = 0.0054), ulceration (P < 0.0001), and axial primary tumor location (P < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, age (P = 0.0002), thickness (P < 0.0001), ulceration (P = 0.015), and location (P < 0.0001) remained significant in the model. There was no difference in the rate of SLN metastasis between men and women (P = 0.37) on multivariate analysis. When factors affecting survival were considered, the prognosis was worse for men as validated by lower DFS (P = 0.0005), DDFS (P < 0.0001), and OS (P < 0.0001). Male gender is associated with a greater incidence of unfavorable primary tumor characteristics without an increased risk for nodal metastasis. Nonetheless, gender is an independent factor affecting survival.

  16. Asymmetries in Gender-Related Familiarity with Different Semantic Categories. Data from Normal Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gainotti, Guido; Spinelli, Pietro; Scaricamazza, Eugenia; Marra, Camillo

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms subsuming the brain organization of categories and the corresponding gender related asymmetries are controversial. Some authors believe that the brain organization of categories is innate, whereas other authors maintain that it is shaped by experience. According to these interpretations, gender-related asymmetries should respectively be inborn or result from the influence of social roles. In a previous study, assessing the familiarity of young students with different 'biological' and 'artefact' categories, we had observed no gender-related difference on any of these categories. Since these data could be due to the fact that our students belonged to a generation in which the traditional social roles have almost completely disappeared, we predicted that gender-related asymmetries should be found in older men and women. The familiarity of young and elderly men and women with various semantic categories was, therefore, studied presenting in the verbal and pictorial modality different kinds of living and artefact categories. Results confirmed the hypothesis, because elderly women showed a greater familiarity for flowers and elderly men for animals. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis assuming that gender-related asymmetries for different semantic categories is due to the influence of gender-related social roles. PMID:23242352

  17. Asymmetries in gender-related familiarity with different semantic categories. Data from normal adults.

    PubMed

    Gainotti, Guido; Spinelli, Pietro; Scaricamazza, Eugenia; Marra, Camillo

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms subsuming the brain organization of categories and the corresponding gender related asymmetries are controversial. Some authors believe that the brain organization of categories is innate, whereas other authors maintain that it is shaped by experience. According to these interpretations, gender-related asymmetries should respectively be inborn or result from the influence of social roles. In a previous study, assessing the familiarity of young students with different 'biological' and 'artefact' categories, we had observed no gender-related difference on any of these categories. Since these data could be due to the fact that our students belonged to a generation in which the traditional social roles have almost completely disappeared, we predicted that gender-related asymmetries should be found in older men and women. The familiarity of young and elderly men and women with various semantic categories was, therefore, studied presenting in the verbal and pictorial modality different kinds of living and artefact categories. Results confirmed the hypothesis, because elderly women showed a greater familiarity for flowers and elderly men for animals. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis assuming that gender-related asymmetries for different semantic categories is due to the influence of gender-related social roles.

  18. Gender differences in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Caso, Valeria; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Corea, Francesco; Ageno, Walter; Alberti, Andrea; Lanari, Alessia; Micheli, Sara; Bertolani, Luca; Venti, Michele; Palmerini, Francesco; Billeci, Antonia M R; Comi, Giancarlo; Previdi, Paolo; Silvestrelli, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    Stroke has a greater effect on women than men owing to the fact that women have more stroke events and are less likely to recover. Age-specific stroke rates are higher in men; however, because of women's longer life expectancy and the much higher incidence of stroke at older ages, women have more stroke events than men overall. The aims of this prospective study in consecutive patients were to assess whether there are gender differences in stroke risk factors, treatment or outcome. Consecutive patients with ischemic stroke were included in this prospective study at four study centers. Disability was assessed using a modified Rankin Scale score (>or=3 indicating disabling stroke) in both genders at 90 days. Outcomes and risk factors in both genders were compared using the chi(2) test. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify any independent predictors of outcome. A total of 1136 patients were included in this study; of these, 494 (46%) were female. Women were statistically older compared with men: 76.02 (+/- 12.93) and 72.68 (+/- 13.27) median years of age, respectively. At admission, females had higher NIH Stroke Scale scores compared with males (9.4 [+/- 6.94] vs 7.6 [+/- 6.28] for men; p = 0.0018). Furthermore, females tended to have more cardioembolic strokes (153 [30%] vs 147 [23%] for men; p = 0.004). Males had lacunar and atherosclerotic strokes more often (146 [29%] vs 249 [39%] for men; p = 0.002, and 68 [13%] vs 123 [19%] for men; p = 0.01, respectively). The mean modified Rankin Scale score at 3 months was also significantly different between genders, at 2.5 (+/- 2.05) for women and 2.1 (+/- 2.02) for men (p = 0.003). However, at multivariate analysis, female gender was not an indicator for negative outcome. It was concluded that female gender was not an independent factor for negative outcome. In addition, both genders demonstrated different stroke pathophysiologies. These findings should be taken into account when diagnostic workup and

  19. Gender differences in reward and punishment for monetary and social feedback in children: An ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yuchen; Song, Yan; Xiao, Xue; Huang, Wanyi; Li, Yanfang

    2017-01-01

    Gender differences in feedback processing have been observed among adolescents and adults through event-related potentials. However, information on whether and how this feedback processing is affected by feedback valence, feedback type, and individual sensitivity in reward/punishment among children remains minimal. In this study, we used a guessing game task coupled with electroencephalography to investigate gender differences in feedback processing, in which feedback to reward and punishment was presented in the context of monetary and social conditions. Results showed that boys were less likely to switch their response after punishment, had generally less feedback-related negativity (FRN) amplitude, and longer FRN latency in monetary and punishment conditions than girls. Moreover, FRN for monetary punishment, which is related to individual difference in reward sensitivity, was observed only in girls. The study provides gender-specific evidence for the neural processing of feedback, which may offer educational guidance for appropriate feedback for girls and boys. PMID:28346515

  20. Bedroom design and decoration: gender differences in preference and activity.

    PubMed

    Jones, Randall M; Taylor, Denise E; Dick, Andrew J; Singh, Archana; Cook, Jerry L

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined gender differences in niche-building preference and activity among 238 8th and 9th grade boys and girls. A questionnaire was developed to measure both the actual and preferred bedroom content, bedroom design activity, and the level of perceived influence by the immediate and extended family, friends, and social institutions. Gender differences were identified for preference, activity, and influence in bedroom design and decoration. Girls and boys differed in the type of items contained in their bedrooms. Girls' rooms contained stuffed animals and pictures of people, including themselves, more frequently than the boys' rooms. In contrast, boys' rooms contained sports-related items, and things for building or that they had built themselves. Although bedroom design activity for both boys and girls was influenced by older teens, friends, media, and popular culture, boys (but not girls) were also influenced by their mothers, fathers, girlfriends, and activities such as sports, Boy or Girl Scouts, and music lessons.

  1. Gender Differences in the Careers of Former Postdoctoral Fellows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnert, Gerhard

    2004-03-01

    The Project Access study examined the careers of men and women who had received prestigious postdoctoral fellowships and thus were presumably of about equal promise at the start of their professional careers. Had the women scientists in this elite group overcome a threshold beyond which they proceeded on equal footing with their male counterparts; or did a glass ceiling impede their careers? We found gender differences in career outcomes in the group we studied (699 questionnaires, 200 interviews), but these differences varied considerably by scientific discipline. Moreover, the career disparities for women, as a group, appear now to result chiefly from a series of subtle but identifiable and sometimes counterintuitive impediments as well as from slight gender differences in socialization. Each disadvantage by itself may be small, but in their accumulation they significantly influence women's careers.

  2. Drug gastrointestinal absorption in rat: Strain and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Oltra-Noguera, Davinia; Mangas-Sanjuan, Victor; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Colon-Useche, Sarin; González-Álvarez, Marta; Bermejo, Marival

    2015-10-12

    Predictive animal models of intestinal drug absorption are essential tools in drug development to identify compounds with promising biopharmaceutical properties. In situ perfusion absorption studies are routinely used in the preclinical setting to screen drug candidates. The objective of this work is to explore the differences in magnitude and variability on intestinal absorption associated with rat strain and gender. Metoprolol and Verapamil absorption rate coefficients were determined using the in situ closed loop perfusion model in four strains of rats and in both genders. Strains used were Sprague-Dawley, Wistar-Han, Wistar-Unilever, Long-Evans and CD∗IGS. In the case of Metoprolol only CD∗IGS and Wistar Unilever showed differences between males and females. For Verapamil, Wistar Han and Sprague-Dawley strains do not show differences between male and female rats. That means that in these strains permeability data from male and female could be combined. In male rats, which are commonly used for permeability estimation, there were differences for Metoprolol permeability between Sprague-Dawley (with lower permeability values) and the other strains, while for Verapamil Sprague-Dawley and Wistar-Han showed the lower permeability values. In conclusion, the selection of rat's strain and gender for intestinal absorption experiments is a relevant element during study design and data from different strains may not be always comparable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gender differences in the incentive salience of adult and infant faces.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Amanda C; Xiao, Dengke; Sprengelmeyer, Reiner; Perrett, David I

    2013-01-01

    Facial appearance can motivate behaviour and elicit activation of brain circuits putatively involved in reward. Gender differences have been observed for motivation to view beauty in adult faces--heterosexual women are motivated by beauty in general, while heterosexual men are motivated to view opposite-sex beauty alone. Although gender differences have been observed in sensitivity to infant cuteness, infant faces appear to hold equal incentive salience among men and women. In the present study, we investigated the incentive salience of attractiveness and cuteness in adult and infant faces, respectively. We predicted that, given alternative viewing options, gender differences would emerge for motivation to view infant faces. Heterosexual participants completed a "pay-per-view" key-press task, which allowed them to control stimulus duration. Gender differences were found such that infants held greater incentive salience among women, although both sexes differentiated infant faces based on cuteness. Among adult faces, men exerted more effort than women to view opposite-sex faces. These findings suggest that, contrary to previous reports, gender differences do exist in the incentive salience of infant faces as well as opposite-sex faces.

  4. Gender differences in rehabilitation outcomes among older Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Luk, James Ka Hay; Chiu, Patrick Ka Chun; Chu, Leung Wing

    2011-01-01

    Although gender differences have been demonstrated in cardiac and stroke rehabilitation, it remains unclear whether there are gender differences in geriatric rehabilitation. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between gender and rehabilitation outcomes. We studied 1795 patients in two convalescence hospitals in Hong Kong. We defined absolute functional and motor gains as Barthel Index (BI) efficacy and Elderly Mobility Scale (EMS) efficacy while BI and EMS efficiency were efficacy divided by the length of stay. Satisfactory motor and functional outcomes were defined as discharge EMS ≥ 15 and BI ≥ 75. Compared with men, women had higher BI but lower EMS on admission and discharge. EMS and BI efficacy and efficiency were similar in both sexes. Female gender was a significant negative predictor for satisfactory motor outcome (p=0.0002) but a positive predictor for functional outcome (p=0.0007). Other predictors for satisfactory motor outcome were: age (p<0.001); urinary incontinence (p=0.0049); living at home (p=0.0056); admission EMS (p<0.001); admission BI (p=0.044). Other predictors for satisfactory functional outcome were: age (p=0.009); infection other than chest (p=0.047); urinary incontinence (p<0.001); Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) (p=0.0004); admission EMS (p=0.005); BI (p<0.001). Women achieved a better functional outcome but a poorer motor outcome on discharge. Female gender was a positive predictor for functional outcome but a negative factor for motor outcome. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gender differences in excessive daytime sleepiness among Japanese workers.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yuriko; Minowa, Masumi

    2003-02-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is serious concern in the workplace with respect to errors, accidents, absenteeism, reduced productivity and impaired personal or professional life. Previous community studies found a female preponderance of EDS, however, there is little research on EDS and gender in occupational settings. We examined the gender differences in prevalence and risk factors of EDS among employees working at a telecommunications company in the Tokyo metropolitan area. Our outcome measure of EDS was the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A self-administered questionnaire on health and sleep including ESS was distributed to 5,571 workers between December 1999 and January 2000, and 5,072 responses were returned (91.0%). A total of 4,722 full-time, non-manual and non-shift employees aged 20-59 were used for analysis (3,909 men and 813 women). Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied for examining the gender differences in the prevalence and risk factors of EDS. The prevalence rates of EDS were 13.3% for women and 7.2% for men (P<0.001). We identified that deprived nocturnal sleep, an irregular sleep-wake schedule and depression were the risk factors of EDS for both genders, and being married worked as a protective factor against EDS for men alone. It is obvious that a ban on overtime work and a provision of mental health hygiene are the general strategies for reducing EDS at worksites. In the case of women, we suggest the formation of effective strategies for improving women's status at home and in the workplace must also be a solution for the prevention of EDS (e.g. promoting gender equality in the division of labor at home and strengthening family care policies for working women).

  6. Gender differences in factors associated with sexual intercourse among Estonian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Part, Kai; Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Karro, Helle

    2011-06-01

    To examine factors associated with early sexual intercourse among 15 to 16-year-old adolescents by gender. The data were collected from a random sample of Estonian basic schools' ninth grade pupils in 1999 using self-completed questionnaires. A multivariate logistic regression analysis for boys and girls was used to test for associations between sexual intercourse, and personal gender role-related attitudes, attitudes towards sexual intercourse, pubertal timing, smoking status and experience of drunkenness. Of the respondents, 14.6% of boys and 13.1% of girls had experienced sexual intercourse. Traditional gender role-related attitudes were associated with sexual intercourse among girls, but not among boys. Smoking and experience of drunkenness was strongly associated with sexual intercourse for both genders. Gender differences in the association between gender role-related attitudes and early sexual intercourse were observed among 15 to 16-year-olds in Estonia. Smoking and experience of drunkenness were strongly related to sexual intercourse for both genders.

  7. Gender differences in feelings and knowledge about stroke.

    PubMed

    Itzhaki, Michal; Melnikov, Semyon; Koton, Silvia

    2016-10-01

    To examine gender differences in knowledge and feelings about stroke among ≥40 years old population. Knowledge of stroke is consistently found to be poor among both genders in general populations, however, it has been reported to be better among women than men. Gender differences in feelings about stroke in the general population have not been examined. Data were collected from a convenience sample using semi-structured personal interviews. Participants were representative of Israeli sub-populations aged ≥40 with no history of stroke. Knowledge of stroke was studied with quantitative methods while constant comparative analysis was used for the qualitative data analysis of feelings evoked by stroke. One hundred and seventy-seven participants were interviewed, 79/177 (44·6%) men and 98/177 (55·4%) women. Rates of self-reported hypertension [33/79 (41·8%) men, 25/98 (25·5%) women] and current smoking [29/79 (36·7%) men, 18/98 (18·4%) women] were significantly higher in men than women. Over 50% men and women mentioned one-side sudden weakness or paralysis as a stroke symptom, however, other stroke symptoms were not recognised by most participants. Education was associated with the number of identified stroke signs. Knowledge of stroke-warning signs was better in women. The main feelings expressed by both genders were fear of dying and disability, self-concern about survival, blaming fate and self-accusation. Stroke knowledge is poor among men and women. Higher level of education is a predictor of stroke knowledge among both genders. Gender-specific differences in stroke risk factors and feelings about stroke in different sub-populations should be taken into account to improve prevention of stroke through education programmes. Health education on stroke prevention should be tailored to population groups differing in level of education. Health promotion recommendations should be provided by nurses with regard to beliefs of both men and women regarding

  8. Gender differences in carpal height ratio in a taiwanese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yung-Cheng; Tseng, Ying-Chi; Chang, Hsio-Yun; Wang, Yu-Jen; Chen, Chi-Jen; Wu, Der Yang

    2010-02-01

    To discover whether there is a significant difference in carpal height ratio (CHR) between men and women aged 20 to 50 years. We retrospectively reviewed 261 cases of normal plain wrist radiographs and measured the CHR using the Picture Achieving and Communication System. Each case was then stratified by gender and age (20-29, 30-39, and 40-50 y). The mean CHR was 0.52 +/- 0.03 for men (range, 0.43-0.59), 0.50 +/- 0.03 for women (range, 0.43-0.57), and 0.51 +/- 0.03 for the total population (range, 0.43-0.59). The difference in CHR between men and women was statistically significant (p<.01). However, there was no significant difference (p=.13) among age groups in either men or women. We recommend using gender-specific norms (ie, 0.52 +/- 0.03 for men and 0.50 +/- 0.03 for women, respectively) for CHR. Without gender specification, a subtle abnormality may be overlooked in men, and there may be an overdiagnosis of carpal disorder in women. Further investigations are needed to look into possible racial differences, because our study is based on a homogeneous ethnic Chinese population. Copyright 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Gender differences in disordered eating and its correlates.

    PubMed

    Elgin, J; Pritchard, M

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine gender differences in the prevalence of disordered eating and body dissatisfaction as well as examine gender differences in several risk factors: mass media, self-esteem and perfectionism. Three hundred fifty-three undergraduates completed surveys about their body dissatisfaction, disordered eating habits, exposure to and influence of mass media, self-esteem and perfectionistic tendencies. As expected, women experienced more symptoms of disordered eating as well as body dissatisfaction than did their male counterparts. There were also gender differences in the risk factors. For women, mass media, self-esteem, and perfectionism related to disordered eating behaviors, whereas for men, only perfectionism and mass media related to disordered eating behaviors. For women, mass media and self-esteem related to body image dissatisfaction, whereas for men, mass media and perfectionism related to body image dissatisfaction. The results of the present study indicate that risk factors for disordered eating and body dissatisfaction for men and women may be different, which has implications for understanding the etiology of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating and for possible treatment interventions.

  10. Premarital sexual standards and sociosexuality: gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Susan; Treger, Stanislav; Sakaluk, John K

    2013-11-01

    In this article, we present results from a "cohort-longitudinal" analysis of sexual attitudes and behaviors based on a large sample of young adults (N = 7,777) obtained from a university setting over a 23-year period. We investigated gender, ethnicity, and cohort differences in sexual permissiveness, endorsement of the double standard, and sociosexuality. Compared to women, men had more permissive attitudes, particularly about sex in casual relationships, endorsed the double standard to a greater degree, and had a more unrestricted sociosexuality. Black men were generally more permissive than White, Hispanic, and Asian men, whereas ethnic differences were not found among women. Participants from the 1995-1999 cohort were slightly less permissive than those from the 1990-1994 and 2005-2012 cohorts. Although prior meta-analytic studies (e.g., Petersen & Hyde, 2010) found reduced gender differences in sexuality over time, our cohort analyses suggest that gender differences in sexual permissiveness have not changed over the past two decades among college students.

  11. Is there a gender difference in concussion incidence and outcomes?

    PubMed

    Dick, R W

    2009-05-01

    To determine if there is a gender difference in the incidence and outcomes of sport concussion. Critical literature review of sport concussion by gender. PubMed and major sports medicine journals were reviewed using the keywords concussion and gender. Articles included in this paper were English prospective surveillance that included concussion as an injury option conducted over the past 10 years, involved data collected by qualified medical personnel (athletic trainers/therapists or medical doctors) and used injury rates as opposed to raw counts. Only data from sports (soccer, basketball and ice hockey) where actions, equipment and most rules were similar between genders were reviewed. For the PubMed search, using "concussion" and "gender" as keywords, there were 51 articles. Ten studies (four in football (soccer), four in basketball and two in ice hockey, including high school, college and professional athletes) were included in the incidence portion of the paper. Nine of the studies showed higher absolute injury rates for female concussion compared to their male counterparts with four of them reaching statistical significance. Five of the studies (two football (soccer), two basketball and one ice hockey) examined concussion mechanism and in all cases, males had a higher absolute percent of player contact concussions while females had a higher absolute percentage of surface or ball contact concussion episodes. Two brain injury and four sport concussion outcome papers were reviewed. Traumatic brain injury outcome was shown to be worse in females than in males for a majority of measured variables; females also are shown to have different baseline and post-concussion outcomes on neuropsychological testing. After evaluating multiple years of concussion data in comparable sports, the evidence indicates that female athletes may be at greater risk for concussion than their male counterparts. There also is some evidence that gender differences exist in outcomes of

  12. A multidimensional Rasch analysis of gender differences in PISA mathematics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Wilson, Mark; Paek, Insu

    2008-01-01

    Since the 1970s, much attention has been devoted to the male advantage in standardized mathematics tests in the United States. Although girls are found to perform equally well as boys in math classes, they are consistently outperformed on standardized math tests. This study compared the males and females in the United States, all 15-year-olds, by their performance on the PISA 2003 mathematics assessment. A multidimensional Rasch model was used for item calibration and ability estimation on the basis of four math domains: Space and Shape, Change and Relationships, Quantity, and Uncertainty. Results showed that the effect sizes of performance differences are small, all below .20, but consistent, in favor of boys. Space and Shape displayed the largest gender gap, which supports the findings from many previous studies. Quantity showed the least amount of gender difference, which may be explained by the hypothesis that girls perform better on tasks that they are familiar with through classroom practice.

  13. Gender differences in interpersonal complementarity within roommate dyads.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Emily B; Kurtz, John E; Markey, Patrick M

    2008-04-01

    Complementarity theory proposes specific hypotheses regarding interpersonal styles that will result in successful relationships. The present study sought to extend previous research on gender differences in complementarity through the examination of same-sex peer dyads and the use of informant reports of interpersonal style. One hundred twenty participants (30 male and 30 female roommate dyads) completed interpersonal circumplex ratings of their roommates and a relationship cohesion measure. Examinations of complementarity indicate that women reported significantly more complementarity than men within their roommate dyads. However, for men and women, the closer the dyad was to perfect complementarity in terms of dominance, the more cohesive the relationship. Results are discussed in relation to gender differences in social development.

  14. Adversity Across the Life Course of Incarcerated Parents: Gender Differences.

    PubMed

    Borja, Sharon; Nurius, Paula; Eddy, J Mark

    More than half of the 1.6 million adults in U.S. prions are parents. Despite growing knowledge regarding the life course adversities of corrections-involved populations, less is known regarding incarcerated parents per se and the implications of cumulative adversities both on their needs and those of their children. Using a gender-balanced (41% minority) sample of incarcerated parents (N=357) from a randomized controlled trial of an in-prison parent training program, this study examines differences between incarcerated mothers and fathers in their exposures to adversities across the life course. Mothers and fathers shared similar patterns of adversity exposure in their families of origin, but differed in their experiences of juvenile justice and child welfare systems involvement, as well as in their adult experiences of victimization and related adult social and mental health outcomes. Implications for gender-responsive parent support and prevention programs for their children of incarcerated mothers and fathers are discussed.

  15. Adversity Across the Life Course of Incarcerated Parents: Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Borja, Sharon; Nurius, Paula; Eddy, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    More than half of the 1.6 million adults in U.S. prions are parents. Despite growing knowledge regarding the life course adversities of corrections-involved populations, less is known regarding incarcerated parents per se and the implications of cumulative adversities both on their needs and those of their children. Using a gender-balanced (41% minority) sample of incarcerated parents (N=357) from a randomized controlled trial of an in-prison parent training program, this study examines differences between incarcerated mothers and fathers in their exposures to adversities across the life course. Mothers and fathers shared similar patterns of adversity exposure in their families of origin, but differed in their experiences of juvenile justice and child welfare systems involvement, as well as in their adult experiences of victimization and related adult social and mental health outcomes. Implications for gender-responsive parent support and prevention programs for their children of incarcerated mothers and fathers are discussed. PMID:26998189

  16. Gender differences in patellofemoral load during the epee fencing lunge.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J; Bottoms, L

    2015-01-01

    Clinical analyses have shown that injuries and pain linked specifically to fencing training/competition were prevalent in 92.8% of fencers. Patellofemoral pain is the most common chronic injury in athletic populations and females are considered to be more susceptible to this pathology. This study aimed to examine gender differences in patellofemoral contact forces during the fencing lunge. Patellofemoral contact forces were obtained from eight male and eight female club level epee fencers using an eight-camera 3D motion capture system and force platform data as they completed simulated lunges. Independent t-tests were performed on the data to determine whether gender differences in patellofemoral contact forces were present. The results show that females were associated with significantly greater patellofemoral contact force parameters in comparison with males. This suggests that female fencers may be at greater risk from patellofemoral pathology as a function of fencing training/competition.

  17. Gender differences in war-related disappearance: Croatian experiences, 2005.

    PubMed

    Jurcevic, Slavica; Allen, James; Dahl, Solveig

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess gender differences in disappeared persons and the circumstances of their disappearance. The method involved the completion of a semistructured interview and questionnaires by individuals searching for missing and disappeared persons in Croatia (1991-1995) as a part of the nationwide disappeared persons registry of the Croatian Commission for Detained and Missing Persons. A total of 6183 informants provided information on characteristics and circumstances of 2563 disappeared persons, 84% of the total number of 3052 disappeared persons. The results indicated an important gender difference in the patterns of disappearance in the Croatian war; most disappeared men were of combatant age, employed, and similar to the general population in terms of key demographic characteristics, whereas most disappeared women were rural, less educated, and elderly. This type of information was critical for guiding postconflict policy decisions, planning treatment and prevention efforts for the families of victims of human rights abuses, and holding perpetrators accountable.

  18. Gender differences in colour naming performance for gender specific body shape images.

    PubMed

    Elliman, N A; Green, M W; Wan, W K

    1998-03-01

    Males are increasingly subjected to pressures to conform to aesthetic body stereotypes. There is, however, comparatively little published research on the aetiology of male body shape concerns. Two experiments are presented, which investigate the relationship between gender specific body shape concerns and colour-naming performance. Each study comprised a between subject design, in which each subject was tested on a single occasion. A pictorial version of a modified Stroop task was used in both studies. Subjects colour-named gender specific obese and thin body shape images and semantically homogeneous neutral images (birds) presented in a blocked format. The first experiment investigated female subjects (N = 68) and the second investigated males (N = 56). Subjects also completed a self-report measure of eating behaviour. Currently dieting female subjects exhibited significant colour-naming differences between obese and neutral images. A similar pattern of colour-naming performance was found to be related to external eating in the male subjects.

  19. Using AFQT to Test for Gender Differences in Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) 1979 cohort, as well as ASVAB and AFQT data, to 21 examine the racial and gender differences in average wages by looking... wage gap , but including individual ASVAB subtests has a substantial impact on explaining that wage gap . One problem with this study is that the use of...Kanarek (2014) Building off of other studies that have focused on the correlation between the NLSY 1979, AFQT scores, and the wage gap between races and

  20. Differences in editorial board reviewer behavior based on gender.

    PubMed

    Wing, Deborah A; Benner, Rebecca S; Petersen, Rita; Newcomb, Robert; Scott, James R

    2010-10-01

    Reports indicate that there are gender-based differences in aspects of the peer-review process. This is an analysis of editorial board members' reviews of original research submissions based on gender using the web-based management program, Editorial Manager, from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2008. We evaluated recommendations of editorial board members for acceptance/rejection using a four-tier system, agreement with editor's final decision, turnaround time from review request to submission, and editors' grades of reviews on a 5-point scale. We evaluated the performance of editorial board members with advancing tenure, seeking trends in recommendations over time. We included 6062 manuscript reviews representing 5958 manuscripts; 67% were assigned to male editorial board members and 33% to females. There were 38 editorial board members (25 men, 13 women) with tenure duration from 2 to 4.9 years, and 3 editors (2 men, 1 woman) serving 7, 7, and 6 years, respectively. Women were less likely to accept or accept with minor revisions than men (p < 0.003). Median turnaround times were 14 (0-55) days for women and 10 (0-33) days for men (p < 0.001). The editors' grades assigned to women were more often than men's grades in the very good to exceptional category (p < 0.0001). There was no difference based on gender, with approximately 73% decision congruence overall with the editors' final decisions. Men rejected more manuscripts than did women with advancing tenure on the editorial board (p < 0.0001). There are differences based on gender of editorial board members' recommendations about manuscript triage, turnaround time, and editors' grades assigned. Overall, however, these differences do not affect editors' ultimate decisions about manuscript publication.

  1. Gender Differences in Insulin Resistance, Body Composition, and Energy Balance

    PubMed Central

    Geer, Eliza B.; Shen, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background Men and women differ substantially in regard to degrees of insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance. Adipose tissue distribution, in particular the presence of elevated visceral and hepatic adiposity, plays a central role in the development of insulin resistance and obesity-related complications. Objective This review summarizes published data on gender differences in insulin resistance, body composition, and energy balance, to provide insight into novel gender-specific avenues of research as well as gender-tailored treatments of insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, and obesity. Methods English-language articles were identified from searches of the PubMed database through November 2008, and by reviewing the references cited in these reports. Searches included combinations of the following terms: gender, sex, insulin resistance, body composition, energy balance, and hepatic adipose tissue. Results For a given body mass index, men were reported to have more lean mass, women to have higher adiposity. Men were also found to have more visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, whereas women had more peripheral or subcutaneous adipose tissue. These differences, as well as differences in sex hormones and adipokines, may contribute to a more insulin-sensitive environment in women than in men. When normalized to kilograms of lean body mass, men and women had similar resting energy expenditure, but physical energy expenditure was more closely related to percent body fat in men than in women. Conclusion Greater amounts of visceral and hepatic adipose tissue, in conjunction with the lack of a possible protective effect of estrogen, may be related to higher insulin resistance in men compared with women. PMID:19318219

  2. Gender differences in healthy life expectancy among Brazilian elderly.

    PubMed

    Belon, Ana Paula; Lima, Margareth G; Barros, Marilisa B A

    2014-06-06

    This study examined gender differences in healthy life expectancy (HLE) and unhealthy life expectancy (UHLE) among people aged 60 years or older living in a large Brazilian city. Based on Chiang method, abridged life tables were constructed for men and for women. To calculate HLE, the Sullivan method was applied. Estimates of the prevalence of self-rated health and self-reported functional disability (global, mild/moderate, and severe) were obtained from a population-based household survey carried out in 2008, which involved non-institutionalized individuals. Findings showed that women live longer and these extra years would be spent in good self-rated health. For example, women aged 60 would live, on average, 4 more years in good health in comparison to men. In terms of global limitations and mild/moderate limitations, no gender differences were detected for HLE. However, UHLE was statistically higher among women than among men at all ages in the global limitations and mild/moderate limitations (except for the age 80). Women at age 60, for instance, could expect to live 3.1 years longer with mild/moderate limitations compared to men. Gender differences were identified for severe limitations for either HLE or UHLE. In comparison to men, women at age 60, for example, would expect to live 2.5 and 2.0 more years without and with severe limitations. By showing that the advantage of longer life expectancy among women is not necessarily accompanied by worse health conditions, these findings add some evidence to the debate about male-female health-survival paradox. Policy efforts are necessary to reduce gender differences in the quantity and quality of years to be lived, providing equal opportunities to women and men live longer with quality of life, autonomy, and independence.

  3. Gender differences in healthy life expectancy among Brazilian elderly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined gender differences in healthy life expectancy (HLE) and unhealthy life expectancy (UHLE) among people aged 60 years or older living in a large Brazilian city. Methods Based on Chiang method, abridged life tables were constructed for men and for women. To calculate HLE, the Sullivan method was applied. Estimates of the prevalence of self-rated health and self-reported functional disability (global, mild/moderate, and severe) were obtained from a population-based household survey carried out in 2008, which involved non-institutionalized individuals. Results Findings showed that women live longer and these extra years would be spent in good self-rated health. For example, women aged 60 would live, on average, 4 more years in good health in comparison to men. In terms of global limitations and mild/moderate limitations, no gender differences were detected for HLE. However, UHLE was statistically higher among women than among men at all ages in the global limitations and mild/moderate limitations (except for the age 80). Women at age 60, for instance, could expect to live 3.1 years longer with mild/moderate limitations compared to men. Gender differences were identified for severe limitations for either HLE or UHLE. In comparison to men, women at age 60, for example, would expect to live 2.5 and 2.0 more years without and with severe limitations. Conclusions By showing that the advantage of longer life expectancy among women is not necessarily accompanied by worse health conditions, these findings add some evidence to the debate about male-female health-survival paradox. Policy efforts are necessary to reduce gender differences in the quantity and quality of years to be lived, providing equal opportunities to women and men live longer with quality of life, autonomy, and independence. PMID:24906547

  4. Shame and Gender Differences in Paths to Youth Suicide: Parents' Perspective.

    PubMed

    Werbart Törnblom, Annelie; Werbart, Andrzej; Rydelius, Per-Anders

    2015-08-01

    Risk factors, suicidal behavior, and help-seeking patterns differ between young women and men. We constructed a generic conceptual model of the processes underlying youth suicide, grounded in 78 interviews with parents in 52 consecutive cases of suicide (19 women, 33 men) identified at forensic medical autopsy and compared by sex. We found different forms of shame hidden behind gender-specific masks, as well as gender differences in their paths to suicide. Several interacting factors formed negative feedback loops. Finding no way out, the young persons looked for an "emergency exit." Signs and preparations could be observed at different times but recognized only in retrospect. Typically, the young persons and their parents asked for professional help but did not receive the help they needed. We discuss parents' experiences from the theoretical perspective on gender identity and developmental breakdown. Giving voice to the parents' tacit knowledge can contribute to better prevention and treatment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Money Affects Theory of Mind Differently by Gender.

    PubMed

    Ridinger, Garret; McBride, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM)--the ability to understand other's thoughts, intentions, and emotions--is important for navigating interpersonal relationships, avoiding conflict, and empathizing. Prior research has identified many factors that affect one's ToM ability, but little work has examined how different kinds of monetary incentives affect ToM ability. We ask: Does money affect ToM ability? If so, how does the effect depend on the structure of monetary incentives? How do the differences depend on gender? We hypothesize that money will affect ToM ability differently by gender: monetary rewards increase males' motivation to express ToM ability while simultaneously crowding out females' motivation. This prediction is confirmed in an experiment that varies the structure of monetary rewards for correct answers in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). RMET scores decrease for females and increase for males with individual payments, and this effect is stronger with competitively-structured payments. RMET scores do not significantly change when monetary earnings go to a charity. Whether money improves or hinders ToM ability, and, hence, success in social interactions, thus depends on the interaction of gender and monetary incentive structure.

  6. Money Affects Theory of Mind Differently by Gender

    PubMed Central

    Ridinger, Garret; McBride, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) ─ the ability to understand other’s thoughts, intentions, and emotions ─ is important for navigating interpersonal relationships, avoiding conflict, and empathizing. Prior research has identified many factors that affect one’s ToM ability, but little work has examined how different kinds of monetary incentives affect ToM ability. We ask: Does money affect ToM ability? If so, how does the effect depend on the structure of monetary incentives? How do the differences depend on gender? We hypothesize that money will affect ToM ability differently by gender: monetary rewards increase males’ motivation to express ToM ability while simultaneously crowding out females’ motivation. This prediction is confirmed in an experiment that varies the structure of monetary rewards for correct answers in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). RMET scores decrease for females and increase for males with individual payments, and this effect is stronger with competitively-structured payments. RMET scores do not significantly change when monetary earnings go to a charity. Whether money improves or hinders ToM ability, and, hence, success in social interactions, thus depends on the interaction of gender and monetary incentive structure. PMID:26633171

  7. Gender equality observations and actions by the European Research Council

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydin, Claudia Alves de Jesus; Farina Busto, Luis; Penny, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Women have historically been underrepresented in science. Much positive progress in attracting women to research careers has been achieved in recent years; however, the most influential and high profile positions in most countries are still predominantly occupied by men. The European Research Council (ERC), Europe's premiere funding agency for frontier research, views gender equality as an important challenge. The ERC monitors closely gender figures on every call and has taken actions to tackle gender imbalances and potential unconscious biases. The ERC talk is focused on efforts made to understand and ensure equal treatment of all candidates, with particular focus on gender balance and with specific attention to geosciences. Data and statistics collected from ERC's internationally recognised funding schemes are presented.

  8. Exploring gender differences in the working lives of UK hospital consultants.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Laura; Bloor, Karen; Spilsbury, Karen

    2015-05-01

    Internationally, increasing numbers of women are practising medicine. Gender differences in doctors' working hours, specialty choices and communication styles are well documented, but studies often neglect contextual factors such as the role of socialised gender expectations on behaviours in the workplace and the medical profession. These may be important as recent studies have reported gender differences in doctors' activity rates that cannot be explained by specialty or contracted hours, suggesting other sources of variation. This study sought to explore the working lives of hospital doctors and how their work is negotiated according to gender and context. Gender differences in the day-to-day work of hospital specialists (consultants) in the NHS were investigated using a qualitative approach, including observation and interview methods. Data were analysed inductively using qualitative observation and interview methods. Two NHS hospital trusts in England. Data were collected from 13 participants working in a variety of specialties and in a range of clinical and non-clinical settings. Various behaviours, attitudes and experiences were explored, such as doctor-patient communication, interactions with colleagues and workload. Influences at both individual and situational levels, appear to affect differentially the work of male and female doctors. Female consultants described awareness of the impact of behaviours on relationships with colleagues, and their interactions appeared to be more carefully performed. Nurses and other colleagues tend to demonstrate less cooperation with female consultants. Gender differences also exist in patient communication, feelings of work-family conflict and barriers to career progression. These variations in hospital consultants' work may have implications for both the quantity and quality of care provided by male and female consultants. This is timely and of importance to the medical workforce as the gender composition approaches

  9. Exploring gender differences in the working lives of UK hospital consultants

    PubMed Central

    Bloor, Karen; Spilsbury, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Objective Internationally, increasing numbers of women are practising medicine. Gender differences in doctors’ working hours, specialty choices and communication styles are well documented, but studies often neglect contextual factors such as the role of socialised gender expectations on behaviours in the workplace and the medical profession. These may be important as recent studies have reported gender differences in doctors’ activity rates that cannot be explained by specialty or contracted hours, suggesting other sources of variation. This study sought to explore the working lives of hospital doctors and how their work is negotiated according to gender and context. Design Gender differences in the day-to-day work of hospital specialists (consultants) in the NHS were investigated using a qualitative approach, including observation and interview methods. Data were analysed inductively using qualitative observation and interview methods. Setting Two NHS hospital trusts in England. Participants Data were collected from 13 participants working in a variety of specialties and in a range of clinical and non-clinical settings. Main outcome measures Various behaviours, attitudes and experiences were explored, such as doctor–patient communication, interactions with colleagues and workload. Results Influences at both individual and situational levels, appear to affect differentially the work of male and female doctors. Female consultants described awareness of the impact of behaviours on relationships with colleagues, and their interactions appeared to be more carefully performed. Nurses and other colleagues tend to demonstrate less cooperation with female consultants. Gender differences also exist in patient communication, feelings of work–family conflict and barriers to career progression. Conclusions These variations in hospital consultants’ work may have implications for both the quantity and quality of care provided by male and female consultants. This is

  10. Gender-based differences in the cardiovascular response to standing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotshall, Robert W.; Tsai, Pai-Feng; Frey, Mary A. B.

    1991-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses of men and women to the stand test were compared by measuring respective values for heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance during a 5-min supine and a 5-min standing test in ten subjects of each gender. It was found that, while the male and female subjects had similar heart rate values, all other responses exhibited greater changes in men than in women. While differences in the height of the subjects did not account for differences in cardiovascular responses, no mechanism responsible for these differences could be identified.

  11. Ethnic and Gender Differences in the Use of DISCOVER: A Multi-Cultural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarouphim, Ketty M.; Maker, C. June

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine ethnic and gender differences in using DISCOVER, a performance-based assessment, for identifying gifted students from diverse ethnicities. DISCOVER is an acronym which stands for Discovering Intellectual Strength and Capabilities while Observing Varied Ethnic Responses. The sample consisted of 941 boys and…

  12. Relationships between Health Status, Self Esteem and Social Support among Adolescents: Gender and Race Group Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberger, Betty H.

    To locate possible causes for the gender and race differences observed in adolescent health status, an analysis was made of the relationship between the scores of a national sample of 12- to 17-year-old adolescents on selected items of the National Center for Health Statistics' Health Examination Survey. Thirty survey items indicating social…

  13. Early Adjustment, Gender Differences, and Classroom Organizational Climate in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Brock, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    We examined gender differences in the first-grade transition, exploring child and classroom contributions to self-control and achievement in a rural sample. Teachers (n = 36) reported on children's (n = 172) initial adjustment difficulty and end-of-year self-control. Observed classroom organization and teacher-reported classroom chaos measured…

  14. Early Adjustment, Gender Differences, and Classroom Organizational Climate in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponitz, Claire Cameron; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Brock, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    We examined gender differences in the first-grade transition, exploring child and classroom contributions to self-control and achievement in a rural sample. Teachers (n = 36) reported on children's (n = 172) initial adjustment difficulty and end-of-year self-control. Observed classroom organization and teacher-reported classroom chaos measured…

  15. Temperamental Effortful Control Modulates Gender Differences in Late Positive Potentials Evoked by Affective Pictures in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhai; Suo, Tao; Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Cancan; Liao, Caizhi; Zhang, Liwei; Li, Hong

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether effort control (EC) modulates gender differences in late positive potential (LPP) evoked by affective pictures. We collected EEG data from 46 healthy adolescents while they viewed 90 affective pictures. Relative to neutral pictures, boys showed larger LPP amplitudes for positive pictures compared to girls while girls showed larger LPP amplitudes for negative pictures compared to boys. Temperamental EC in boys negatively predicted LPP amplitudes for positive pictures, whereas EC in girls negatively predicted LPP amplitudes for negative pictures. These observations increase our understanding of the relationship between EC and gender difference in electrocortical maturation.

  16. Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  17. Gender- and Age-Associated Differences in Serum Metabolite Profiles among Japanese Populations.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kosuke; Maekawa, Keiko; Kinchen, Jason M; Tanaka, Rieko; Kumagai, Yuji; Saito, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    Serum metabolites can reflect the diffusion/export of biochemicals from various organs. They can serve as biomarkers related to diseases and therapeutic efficacy/toxicity. While studies in Caucasians suggested that subject gender and age can affect circulating metabolite profiles, the Japanese population has not been surveyed. Our objective was to delineate gender- and age-associated differences in serum metabolite profiles among Japanese populations. Using a mass spectrometry-based global metabolomics approach, 516 endogenous metabolites were detected in sera from Japanese individuals. The principal component analysis identified gender as the primary component, followed by age, suggesting that these two criteria were key contributors to variations in the dataset. Gender-associated differences were observed in 31 and 25% of metabolites in the young (age 25-35) and old (ages 55-65) populations, respectively, in redox homeostasis, and in steroid and purine nucleotide metabolism pathways. Age-associated differences were observed in 24 and 23% of metabolites in men and women, respectively. No pathway was commonly highlighted. Thus, gender and age impact on metabolite profiles in the Japanese population. Our results provide useful information to explore biomarkers for clinical applications in the Japanese population and to assess the applicability of known biomarkers identified in other populations to the Japanese population.

  18. Do gender differences in running performance disappear with distance?

    PubMed

    Coast, J Richard; Blevins, Jennifer S; Wilson, Brian A

    2004-04-01

    It has been suggested that gender differences in running should disappear as distances increase, particularly past the marathon. This suggestion is primarily based on differences in fuel utilization, muscle damage following exercise, relative improvements in performance over the past decades, and on the analysis of marathon vs. ultramarathon performances of men and women. We reasoned that the best comparison of the potential of a human is by the use of world best times, which should be reasonable indicators of the effect of distance on relative performance of women and men. We compared current world best running performances at distances from 100 m to 200 km. Records as of December 2002 were obtained. T-tests analyzed speed differences between genders, and regression analysis tested the percent differences between men and women across distance. Speeds were different, with the average difference being 12.4% faster for men. There was a significant slope to the speed difference across distances in that longer distances were associated with greater differences. These results may be confounded by the reduced number of women in longer distance events. Furthermore, the proposed metabolic advantage for women because of increased fat metabolism may be masked by regular feeding during endurance races.

  19. Recalled and current gender role behavior, gender identity and sexual orientation in adults with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development.

    PubMed

    Callens, Nina; Van Kuyk, Maaike; van Kuppenveld, Jet H; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B

    2016-11-01

    The magnitude of sex differences in human brain and behavior and the respective contributions of biology versus socialization remain a topic of ongoing study in science. The preponderance of evidence attests to the notion that sexual differentiation processes are at least partially hormonally mediated, with high levels of prenatal androgens facilitating male-typed and inhibiting female-typed behaviors. In individuals with Disorders/Differences of Sex Development (DSD), hormonal profiles or sensitivities have been altered due to genetic influences, presumably affecting gender(ed) activity interests as well as gender identity development in a minority of the affected population. While continued postnatal androgen exposure in a number of DSD syndromes has been associated with higher rates of gender dysphoria and gender change, the role of a number of mediating and moderating factors, such as initial gender assignment, syndrome severity and clinical management remains largely unclear. Limited investigations of the associations between these identified influences and gendered development outcomes impede optimization of clinical care. Participants with DSD (n=123), recruited in the context of a Dutch multi-center follow-up audit, were divided in subgroups reflecting prenatal androgen exposure, genital appearance at birth and gender of rearing. Recalled childhood play and playmate preferences, gender identity and sexual orientation were measured with questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Data were compared to those of control male (n=46) and female participants (n=79). The findings support that (a) prenatal androgen exposure has large effects on (gendered) activity interests, but to a much lesser extent on sexual orientation and that (b) initial gender of rearing remains a better predictor of gender identity contentedness than prenatal androgen exposure, beyond syndrome severity and medical treatment influences. Nonetheless, 3.3% of individuals with DSD in our

  20. Gender differences in identifying emotions from auditory and visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Waaramaa, Teija

    2017-12-01

    The present study focused on gender differences in emotion identification from auditory and visual stimuli produced by two male and two female actors. Differences in emotion identification from nonsense samples, language samples and prolonged vowels were investigated. It was also studied whether auditory stimuli can convey the emotional content of speech without visual stimuli, and whether visual stimuli can convey the emotional content of speech without auditory stimuli. The aim was to get a better knowledge of vocal attributes and a more holistic understanding of the nonverbal communication of emotion. Females tended to be more accurate in emotion identification than males. Voice quality parameters played a role in emotion identification in both genders. The emotional content of the samples was best conveyed by nonsense sentences, better than by prolonged vowels or shared native language of the speakers and participants. Thus, vocal non-verbal communication tends to affect the interpretation of emotion even in the absence of language. The emotional stimuli were better recognized from visual stimuli than auditory stimuli by both genders. Visual information about speech may not be connected to the language; instead, it may be based on the human ability to understand the kinetic movements in speech production more readily than the characteristics of the acoustic cues.

  1. Gender differences in the symptoms of major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Romans, Sarah E; Tyas, Jeanette; Cohen, Marsha M; Silverstone, Trevor

    2007-11-01

    Data from the Canadian Community Health Survey 1.2 were used for a gender analysis of individual symptoms and overall rates of depression in the preceding 12 months. Major depressive disorder was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in this national, cross-sectional survey. The female to male ratio of major depressive disorder prevalence was 1.64:1, with n = 1766 having experienced depression (men 668, women 1098). Women reported statistically more depressive symptoms than men (p < 0.001). Depressed women were more likely to report "increased appetite" (15.5% vs. 10.7%), being "often in tears" (82.6% vs. 44.0%), "loss of interest" (86.9% vs. 81.1%), and "thoughts of death" (70.3% vs. 63.4%). No significant gender differences were found for the remaining symptoms. The data are interpreted against women's greater tendency to cry and to restrict food intake when not depressed. The question is raised whether these items preferentially bias assessment of gender differences in depression, particularly in nonclinic samples.

  2. Gender Differences in Behçet's Disease Associated Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Ucar-Comlekoglu, Didar; Sen, H. Nida

    2014-01-01

    Behçet's disease is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology, characterized by oral and genital ulceration, skin lesions, and uveitis as well as vascular, central nervous system, and gastrointestinal system involvement. It is prevalent in the Middle East, Mediterranean, and Eastern Asia. The aim of this review is to evaluate the gender differences in clinical manifestations of Behçet's disease, treatment responses, mortality, and morbidity. Behçet's disease has been reported to be more prevalent in males from certain geographic regions and particular ethnic groups; however, recent reports indicate more even gender distribution across the world. There are gender differences in clinical manifestations and severity of the disease. Ocular manifestations, vascular involvement, and neurologic symptoms are more frequently reported in male patients whereas oral and genital ulcers, skin lesions, and arthritis occur more frequently in female patients. The disease can have a more severe course in males, and overall mortality rate is significantly higher among young male patients. PMID:24864195

  3. Gender-related differences in the pharmacokinetics of opiates.

    PubMed

    Djurendic-Brenesel, Maja; Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Pilija, Vladimir; Tasic, Milos

    2010-01-30

    Previous studies have documented gender-related differences in a number of aspects of the pharmacology of opiates, including their analgesic activity, stimulative properties and generation of physical dependence. The current experiments were carried out with the aim to examine whether male-female differences exist in the blood and brain levels of opiates attained after their intraperitoneal injection to male and female Wistar rats. The tests were performed 5, 15, 45 and 120 min after the animal treatment with seized heroin. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed to quantitatively determine opiate alkaloids in blood and brain regions (known for their high concentration of mu-opiate receptors): cortex, brainstem, amygdala and basal ganglia. Maximal contents of opiates in blood of animals of both genders were found in the second measurement time (15 min), the values measured in the males being significantly higher, which suggests a faster passage of the opiates from blood to brain tissue in female animals. The highest content of opiates in the brain tissue of female animals was measured 15 min and with male animals 45 min after the treatment, which also indicates faster distribution of opiates from blood to brain in the female compared to male rats. The highest proportion of opiates was found in the basal ganglia of the animals of both genders. The obtained results offer the possibility of selecting this part of the brain tissue of both males and females as a representative sample for identifying and assessing contents of opiates.

  4. Gender Differences in Psychopathy Links to Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Nicole; Murphy, Brett; Verona, Edelyn

    2015-01-01

    While the relationship between psychopathic personality traits and substance use has received some attention (Hart & Hare, 1989; Smith & Newman, 1990), gender differences have not been thoroughly assessed. The current study examined whether gender modified the relationship between two criminally-relevant constructs, a) psychopathy and its factors and b) drug use. A sample of 318 participants with criminal histories and recent substance use was assessed for psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version and for illicit drug use using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. As expected, the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy were positively related to a number of drug use characteristics (symptoms, age of drug initiation, extent of drug experimentation), whereas the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor 1) showed a negative relationship with drug abuse symptoms and a positive relationship with age of first use. In terms of gender differences, analyses revealed that women showed a stronger association between Factor 1 traits and later age of initiation compared to men, and that Factor 2, and antisocial facet in particular, were more strongly related to drug abuse in women than men. These findings suggest that psychopathic traits serve as both protective (Factor 1) and risk (Factor 2) correlates of illicit drug use, and in women, Factor 1 may be especially protective in terms of initiation. These conclusions add to the growing literature on potential routes to substance use and incarceration in women. PMID:26571339

  5. Gender differences in psychopathy links to drug use.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Nicole; Murphy, Brett; Verona, Edelyn

    2016-04-01

    Although the relationship between psychopathic personality traits and substance use has received some attention (Hart & Hare, 1989; Smith & Newman, 1990), gender differences have not been thoroughly assessed. The current study examined whether gender modified the relationship between 2 criminally relevant constructs, (a) psychopathy and its factors and (b) drug use. A sample of 318 participants with criminal histories and recent substance use was assessed for psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version and for illicit drug use using the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. As expected, the impulsive-antisocial traits (Factor 2) of psychopathy were positively related to a number of drug use characteristics (symptoms, age of drug initiation, extent of drug experimentation), whereas the interpersonal-affective traits (Factor 1) showed a negative relationship with drug abuse symptoms and a positive relationship with age of first use. In terms of gender differences, analyses revealed that women showed a stronger association between Factor 1 traits and later age of initiation compared to men, and that Factor 2, and the antisocial facet in particular, were more strongly related to drug abuse in women than men. These findings suggest that psychopathic traits serve as both protective (Factor 1) and risk (Factor 2) correlates of illicit drug use, and Factor 1 may be especially protective in terms of initiation of drug use among women. These conclusions add to the growing literature on potential routes to substance use and incarceration in women. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Gender differences in knowledge and attitude towards biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Simon, Richard M

    2010-11-01

    The relationship between gender, knowledge of biotechnology, attitudes toward biotechnology, and various socio-demographic variables was investigated using the Eurobarometer 52.1. It was found that neither socio-demographics, nor differing levels of scientific knowledge could explain females' greater probability of being pessimistic toward biotechnology. After running separate models for males and females, it was discovered that, for males, more knowledge of biotechnology decreased their probability of being pessimistic about science, but for females more knowledge of biotechnology actually lead to a greater probability of being pessimistic. Further, a gender-education interaction was discovered that revealed that, for males, education and knowledge of biotechnology have independent effects on attitudes, but for females education has no effect on attitudes towards biotechnology when knowledge is controlled. The results for females complicate the deficit model of social support for science, which posits that more knowledge of science always leads to more positive attitudes.

  7. Gender Differences in Cardiovascular Disease: Hormonal and Biochemical Influences

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-López, Faustino R.; Larrad-Mur, Luis; Kallen, Amanda; Chedraui, Peter; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Atherosclerosis is a complex process characterized by an increase in vascular wall thickness owing to the accumulation of cells and extracellular matrix between the endothelium and the smooth muscle cell wall. There is evidence that females are at lower risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) as compared to males. This has led to an interest in examining the contribution of genetic background and sex hormones to the development of CVD. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of factors, including those related to gender, that influence CVD. Methods Evidence analysis from PubMed and individual searches concerning biochemical and endocrine influences and gender differences, which affect the origin and development of CVD. Results Although still controversial, evidence suggests that hormones including estradiol and androgens are responsible for subtle cardiovascular changes long before the development of overt atherosclerosis. Conclusion Exposure to sex hormones throughout an individual's lifespan modulates many endocrine factors involved in atherosclerosis. PMID:20460551

  8. Gender differences in sexual assault victimization among college students.

    PubMed

    Hines, Denise A; Armstrong, Jessica L; Reed, Kathleen Palm; Cameron, Amy Y

    2012-01-01

    College students are at particular risk for sexual assault victimization, yet research tends to focus on women as victims and men as perpetrators. The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in the prevalence, context, and predictors of sexual assault victimization among college students. Results showed that women were significantly more likely to have been sexually assaulted in a 2-month time period, but the context of victimization varied little by gender. Victimization was predicted by sexual orientation, time spent socializing and partying, and severe dating violence victimization for men and by year in school, time spent on the Internet, drinking and using drugs, and being a stalking and dating violence victim for women. Results are discussed in the context of routine activities theory and implications for prevention and future research.

  9. Gender differences in prison-based drug treatment participation.

    PubMed

    Belenko, Steven; Houser, Kimberly A

    2012-08-01

    Prisons inmates have high rates of substance abuse and associated social and health problems, and a concomitant high need for drug treatment while incarcerated. Female inmates have an even greater treatment need, yet most inmates do not participate in treatment while incarcerated. Using data from a nationally representative sample of prison inmates, this article examines the impact of gender on prison treatment participation and gender differences in the factors associated with clinical treatment participation. Females were significantly more likely to participate in prison drug treatment than males, controlling for other factors. For both males and females, severity of drug problems predicted participation in treatment. For males but not females, race was associated with prison treatment participation, and among those with drug abuse or dependence, females with co-occurring mental health problems were more likely to participate in treatment. Implications for prison assessment and treatment policies, and future research, are discussed.

  10. Humor and gender roles: does age make a difference?

    PubMed

    Vitulli, William F

    2005-08-01

    Crawford's analysis in 2003 suggests that humor interacts with gender so that traditional social norms of femininity and masculinity may be reinforced or diinished. Yet age as a covariate was not considered. Assessment of the attitudes toward humor among 72 older women (M=72.0, SD=9.8, range=51-93 years) and 24 older men (M=69.8, SD=6.8, range=59-90 years) in 1996 by Vitulli and Parman suggest ratings on a Likert-type scale (anchored by 5: strongly agree and 1: strongly disagree) in which humor and gender interact. Moreover, a post hoc Scheffé test showed a significant sex effect on the female-oriented scale. Older women perceived humor as an important quality for women, whereas older men did not. Generational differences among studies on humor and sex underscore the need for contemporary research inclusive of age measures.

  11. Describing Willow Flycatcher habitats: scale perspectives and gender differences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1992-01-01

    of either nest or song perch sites in vegetation analyses can result in misleading, or at least incomplete, descriptions of a species' habitat. Habitat interpretations for Willow Flycatchers (and perhaps for many passerines) are a function of the gender-specific behavior of the birds observed and the scale of vegetation measurement.

  12. Are Gender Differences in Spatial Ability Real or an Artifact? Evaluation of Measurement Invariance on the Revised PSVT:R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Yukiko; Yoon, So Yoon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which the observed gender differences in mental rotation ability among the 2,468 freshmen studying engineering at a Midwest public university attributed to the gender bias of a test. The Revised Purdue Spatial Visualization Tests: Visualization of Rotations (Revised PSVT:R) is a spatial test frequently used to measure…

  13. Are Gender Differences in Spatial Ability Real or an Artifact? Evaluation of Measurement Invariance on the Revised PSVT:R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maeda, Yukiko; Yoon, So Yoon

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which the observed gender differences in mental rotation ability among the 2,468 freshmen studying engineering at a Midwest public university attributed to the gender bias of a test. The Revised Purdue Spatial Visualization Tests: Visualization of Rotations (Revised PSVT:R) is a spatial test frequently used to measure…

  14. Gender Differences in Empathic Sadness towards Persons of the Same- versus Other-sex during Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Stuijfzand, Suzannah; De Wied, Minet; Kempes, Maaike; Van de Graaff, Jolien; Branje, Susan; Meeus, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Although gender differences in affective empathy are well established, evidence of gender differences in the development of affective empathy is inconsistent. Consideration of same-sex versus other-sex affective empathy may assist in elucidating these inconsistencies. Gender differences were investigated in the experience of empathic sadness towards same- versus other-sex targets. The relationships were studied cross-sectionally (N = 730) and longitudinally (N = 318) with Dutch adolescents using the empathic sadness scale of the Index of Empathy for Children and Adolescents (IECA; Bryant 1982). In both studies, female adolescents reported more empathic sadness than did male adolescents. Female targets also received more affective empathy than did male targets, and, more importantly, gender differences were observed in same-sex versus other-sex affective empathy. Specifically, in both studies male adolescents reported less empathic sadness towards same-sex than towards other-sex targets. In contrast, female adolescents reported more empathic sadness towards same-sex than towards other-sex targets in the cross-sectional study, and equal levels of empathic sadness towards both types of targets in the longitudinal study. Findings highlight the importance of considering same-sex versus other-sex affective empathy. Gender differences in same-sex and other-sex affective empathy have implications for assisting adolescents in social conflict resolution and interventions for bullying and aggressive behaviour in adolescence using empathy training.

  15. Gender and Ethnic Differences in Body Image and Opposite Sex Figure Preferences of Rural Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jones, LaShanda R.; Fries, Elizabeth; Danish, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether rural adolescents would report gender and ethnic differences in body image similar to those that have been observed in urban samples. Data were analyzed for 384 rural adolescents (57% African American, 43% Caucasian, mean age 13 yr) to determine gender and ethnic differences in body dissatisfaction, body size discrepancy, and current and ideal figure ratings. Females wanted to be smaller and reported more body dissatisfaction than did males. Caucasian females reported the most body dissatisfaction. African Americans reported larger current and ideal figure ratings than did Caucasians. African Americans preferred larger opposite sex figures than did Caucasians. Both African American and Caucasian males selected a larger female figure as ideal than was selected by females. Results demonstrated that gender and ethnic differences exist in body image for rural adolescents. This frequently overlooked population may benefit from further study. Implications of findings and limitations of the study are also discussed. PMID:18089257

  16. Gender and ethnic differences in body image and opposite sex figure preferences of rural adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jones, LaShanda R; Fries, Elizabeth; Danish, Steven J

    2007-03-01

    This study examined whether rural adolescents would report gender and ethnic differences in body image similar to those that have been observed in urban samples. Data were analyzed for 384 rural adolescents (57% African American, 43% Caucasian, mean age 13 years) to determine gender and ethnic differences in body dissatisfaction, body size discrepancy, and current and ideal figure ratings. Females wanted to be smaller and reported more body dissatisfaction than did males. Caucasian females reported the most body dissatisfaction. African Americans reported larger current and ideal figure ratings than did Caucasians. African Americans preferred larger opposite sex figures than did Caucasians. Both African American and Caucasian males selected a larger female figure as ideal than was selected by females. Results demonstrated that gender and ethnic differences exist in body image for rural adolescents. This frequently overlooked population may benefit from further study. Implications of findings and limitations of the study are also discussed.

  17. Gender differences in social support in persons with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Silke; Kendel, Friederike; Kiep, Henriette; Holtkamp, Martin; Gaus, Verena

    2015-05-01

    The present study focused on social support as a key feature of the enhancement and maintenance of mental health. So far, literature on gender differences in social support and its effects on the experience of stress in individuals with epilepsy is scarce. We hypothesized that in individuals with epilepsy, social support buffers detrimental effects of stressors (e.g., unpredictable occurrence of seizures) on mental health. Additionally, we explored the role of gender in this process. In 299 individuals with epilepsy, data from validated questionnaires on seizures in the last 3months, perceived support, social network size, and depressive symptoms were analyzed. Women reported higher depressive symptoms (t=2.51, p<.01) and higher perceived support (t=2.50, p<.01) than men. Women and men did not differ in social network size (t=-0.46, p=64), nor in experiencing seizures (χ(2)=0.07, p=.82). Regression analyses revealed no buffer effects. Perceived support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms (B=-0.49, p<.001, 95% CI [-0.67; -0.32]). With regard to depressive symptoms, social integration was slightly more beneficial for women (Bcond.=-0.06, p<.001; 95% CI [-0.09; -0.03]) than for men (Bcond.=-0.02, p=.09; 95% CI [-0.04; 0.01]). Findings present perceived support and social integration as general health resources in individuals with epilepsy regardless of previously experienced seizures. They also encourage further research on gender-specific effects in individuals with epilepsy and move towards recommendations for practitioners and gender-specific interventions. Future aims will be to enhance social integration in order to support adjustment to the chronic condition of epilepsy and to improve individuals' confidence in support interactions.

  18. [Socioeconomic inequalities and age and gender differences in cardiovascular risk factors].

    PubMed

    López-González, Ángel A; Bennasar-Veny, Miquel; Tauler, Pedro; Aguilo, Antoni; Tomàs-Salvà, Matias; Yáñez, Aina

    2015-01-01

    To describe the cardiovascular risk factors in a working population in the Balearic Islands and to examine whether differences by social class vary according to age and gender. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of active workers aged 20-65 years in the Balearic Islands. The participants were included in the study during their annual work health assessment in 2011. The following variables were collected: occupation, social class, age, gender, height, weight, smoking, blood pressure, lipid profile, and glucose levels. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using two different equations (Framingham and REGICOR). Differences by social class were observed for most cardiovascular risk factors. The pattern of these differences differed depending on age group and gender. Differences in obesity by social class increased with age in women but decreased in men. More differences in hypertension by social class were found among women than among men, with differences increasing with age in both genders. Significant differences by social class were found among women in lipid profile, and these differences increased with age, mainly for low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Inequalities in cardiovascular risk factors by social class were higher among women than among men. Some cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking and obesity showed significant inequalities from a very early age. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Gender differences in outcomes of a multimodal pain management program.

    PubMed

    Pieh, Christoph; Altmeppen, Jürgen; Neumeier, Susanne; Loew, Thomas; Angerer, Michael; Lahmann, Claas

    2012-01-01

    Although gender differences in pain and analgesia are well known, it still remains unclear whether men and women vary in response to multimodal pain treatment. This study was conducted to investigate whether men and women exhibited different outcomes after an intensive multimodal pain treatment program. The daily outpatient program consisted of individual treatment as well as group therapy, with a total amount of therapy of 117.5h per patient. Overall, 496 patients (254 women) completed the multimodal program. Pretreatment parameters for pain, disability due to pain, pain duration, and pain chronicity stage, as well as age or psychiatric comorbidities, did not differ between genders. The average pain, measured with a Numeric Rating Scale, decreased after treatment of -1.54 (±1.96) with a large effect size (ES) of .911 for the total sample. However, there were considerable differences in the benefit for women (-1.83±2.12; ES 1.045) compared with men (-1.23±1.74; ES .758). Consistently, women (ES .694) improved more in pain-related disabilities in daily life than men (ES .436). These distinctions are not due to differences in pain duration, received medication, psychiatric comorbidities, pain chronicity stage, or application for a disability pension. Therefore, gender differences not only refer to chronic pain prevalence, pain perception, or experimental pain measurement, but also seem to have a clinically relevant impact on the response to pain therapy. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An empirical study of gender differences in online gambling.

    PubMed

    McCormack, Abby; Shorter, Gillian W; Griffiths, Mark D

    2014-03-01

    Gambling has typically been considered a predominately male activity. However, recent prevalence surveys have shown greater numbers of females are now gambling. Much of the gambling literature suggests online gamblers are more likely to be male, and that problem gamblers are more likely to be male. Males and females are also likely to be gambling for different reasons and have a preference for different gambling activities. Little is known about the pattern of play among female online gamblers. The aim of this survey was to develop a better profile of female online gamblers and to examine any gender differences between males and females in terms of how and why they gamble online, their frequency of online gambling, patterns of play, as well as attitudes to online gambling. The survey was posted on 32 international online gambling websites and was completed by 975 online gamblers (including 175 female online gamblers). Chi-square tests of association were conducted to examine the association between gender and a range of variables. The results showed that females had been gambling online for a shorter duration of time than males, had much shorter online gambling sessions, different motivations for gambling online (i.e., to practice for free, to spend less money and out of boredom), and experienced online gambling differently to males, with increased feelings of guilt and shame for gambling online. This suggests there is still a stigma around gambling particularly evident among females in this study. The findings indicate that clinicians and treatment providers need to be aware of these potential gender differences in online gambling to develop appropriately tailored interventions.