Science.gov

Sample records for observing successive generations

  1. [Procreation and the succession of generations].

    PubMed

    Souza, G A

    1994-01-01

    "This article presents a complex conceptual and methodological proposal.... The study proposes an analysis similar and complementary to the abstract models of formal demography. Specifically, the article considers the practices and strategies of procreation, as well as the subjectiveness of people as constitutive elements of a succession of generations, as observed on different analytical levels." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  2. Concluding Observations on Successful Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Mary S.

    2002-01-01

    States that most successful partnerships between community colleges and business and industry have several common elements, and that they also face certain consistent challenges that must be overcome if they are to persist and flourish. Discusses the types of challenges experienced and elements necessary for establishing a successful partnership.…

  3. Frontonasal dysostosis in two successive generations.

    PubMed

    Nevin, N C; Leonard, A G; Jones, B

    1999-11-26

    Frontonasal dysostosis (also called frontonasal "dysplasia") comprises ocular hypertelorism, median facial cleft affecting nose and/or upper lip, unilateral or bilateral cleft of the alae nasi, anterior cranium bifidum occultum, or a widow's peak. Usually it is a sporadic disorder, although a few familial cases have been reported. We describe a 2-year-old girl with anterior cranium bifidum occultum, lipoma of genu and anterior part of the corpus callosum, and hypertelorism. Her mother had a history of a nasal drip at birth caused by a defect in the cribriform plate and phenotypically, a widow's peak. This observation suggests either autosomal dominant or X-linked dominant inheritance. The family illustrates the importance of identifying mild expression of frontonasal dysostosis before genetic counseling.

  4. Defining generations in succession planning: there are four!

    PubMed

    Cadmus, Edna

    2002-12-01

    Never before have nursing leaders been faced with 4 generations of nurses working together, a turbulent health care system, and supply and demand issues. Succession planning with different generations requires a knowledge of their values and strengths. It means retaining and attracting new employees who can stabilize an organization.

  5. First Generation College Students in STEM: Counter Stories of Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Carol D.

    First-generation community college Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students have unique challenges in transferring to a four-year college. This is especially true for Latin and African American students who may experience multiple challenges, including discrimination, immigration issues and language issues, and sometimes poor academic preparation in their K-12 education. This project used a grounded theory approach to explore through an equity lens the educational journey of seven Los Medanos College students who have successfully transferred to a four-year institution were interviewed. All of these students that participated in this project were former Mathematics Engineering Science Achievement Program (MESA) students at Los Medanos College. The MESA Program is a learning community that provides academic support for "educationally and economically disadvantaged" students so they can excel in math and science, transfer to four-year institutions as majors in math-based fields, and graduate with baccalaureate degrees in STEM majors. Several intervention strategies are embedded into the program, including: counseling, mentors, a learning center, tutors, financial aid and transfer workshops, and internship and scholarship opportunities. The students were interviewed and asked several questions regarding their high school life, MESA, and community college and transfer experiences. The main theoretical framework utilized to analyze the interviews was Border Lands theory because these students created a safe space that allowed them to straddle their life at home and their life at school. Interviews with these students reveal seven successful, happy, and engaged students. Several themes emerged with respect to the importance of students' finding a major that they love, finding community, and the importance of teachers, family, and engagement in their success. The results of this project also emphasize the importance of hiring passionate teachers

  6. Dynamics of Rocky Mountain Lee Waves Observed During Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean-Day, J.; Chan, K. R.; Bowen, S. W.; Bui, T. P.; Gary, B. L.; Chan, K. Roland (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    On two days during SUCCESS, the DC-8 sampled wave clouds which formed downstream of the ridges east of the Rocky Mountains. Wave morphology for both flights is deduced from temperature and 3-dimensional wind measurements from the MMS, isentrope profiles from the MTP, and linear perturbation theory. The waves observed on 960430 are smaller and found to be decaying with altitude, while the waves sampled on 960502 are vertically propagating and consist of larger, multiple wave scales. Wave orientations are consistent with the underlying topography and regions of high ice crystal concentration. Updraft velocities were estimated from the derived wave properties and are consistent with MMS vertical winds.

  7. Tracking neural correlates of successful learning over repeated sequence observations

    PubMed Central

    Steinemann, Natalie A.; Moisello, Clara; Ghilardi, M. Felice; Kelly, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    The neural correlates of memory formation in humans have long been investigated by exposing subjects to diverse material and comparing responses to items later remembered to those forgotten. Tasks requiring memorization of sensory sequences afford unique possibilities for linking neural memorization processes to behavior, because, rather than comparing across different items of varying content, each individual item can be examined across the successive learning states of being initially unknown, newly learned, and eventually, fully known. Sequence learning paradigms have not yet been exploited in this way, however. Here, we analyze the event-related potentials of subjects attempting to memorize sequences of visual locations over several blocks of repeated observation, with respect to pre- and post-block recall tests. Over centro-parietal regions, we observed a rapid P300 component superimposed on a broader positivity, which exhibited distinct modulations across learning states that were replicated in two separate experiments. Consistent with its well-known encoding of surprise, the P300 deflection monotonically decreased over blocks as locations became better learned and hence more expected. In contrast, the broader positivity was especially elevated at the point when a given item was newly learned, i.e., started being successfully recalled. These results implicate the Broad Positivity in endogenously-driven, intentional memory formation, whereas the P300, in processing the current stimulus to the degree that it was previously uncertain, indexes the cumulative knowledge thereby gained. The decreasing surprise/P300 effect significantly predicted learning success both across blocks and across subjects. This presents a new, neural-based means to evaluate learning capabilities independent of verbal reports, which could have considerable value in distinguishing genuine learning disabilities from difficulties to communicate the outcomes of learning, or perceptual

  8. Six Years Observation After Successful Treatment of Bacterial Vaginosis

    PubMed Central

    Påhlson, Carl; Larsson, P.-G.

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The cure rate after treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV) differs in various investigations, but most studies report a cure rate of 70% after 1 month. Methods: A long-term observation study after successful treatment of BV has been undertaken. The original study was a treatment study of BV and included 50 patients. Results: We were able to identify 44 of the original 50 patients. The mean follow-up time was 6.9 years (range 4.7–9 years). During this time, 21 women (48%) had been free of BV while 23 women had had relapses. There was no difference in the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, episodes of candida vaginitis, bleeding disturbances, family planning method, development of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), or gynecological operations between women with and without relapses. The women with relapses had had a new sexual contact more often during the observation period than women without relapses. There was no difference in hydrogen peroxide production of the lactobacilli among women with or without relapses, and survival analysis shows that most relapses occur during the first year after treatment. Conclusions: If patients are successfully treated, half of the patients will stay cured indicating that treatment is of benefit. Most relapses occur during the first year. Our results indicate that the etiology of BV might have something to do with new sexual contacts. PMID:18476155

  9. GRISO: Spatial Interpolation Generator from Rainfall Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebora, Nicola; Pignone, Flavio; Silvestro, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The estimation of rainfall fields, especially its spatial distribution and position is a crucial task both for rainfall nowcasting and for modeling catchment response to rainfall. In the past years several studies on the spatialization of rainfall from raingauge were made and many mathematical methods to cope with this problem were developed. The most known is the Kriging (Matheron, 1967). A new geostatistical algorithm called GRISO (Spatial Interpolation Generator from Rainfall Observations) was implemented. The GRISO method, similar to Kriging, was developed in order that the output map maintains the observed "real" rainfall value on the raingauges position but is conditioned to reach the mean of the field far from the gauges. The main innovation is the improved computational time, the associated map of variance and above all the possibility of using more than one semivariogram for spatialize the information. The GRISO algorithm has been applied is Italy, where is available a dense network of raingauges (about 3000 stations). A validation of the GRISO method was done on a large number of Italian past events. Several statistical scores have been applied to compare it with Kriging. The new algorithm is operationally used by the Italian Civil Protection Department.

  10. Do new generation flexible ureterorenoscopes offer a higher treatment success than their predecessors?

    PubMed

    Wendt-Nordahl, Gunnar; Mut, Tuna; Krombach, Patrick; Michel, Maurice Stephan; Knoll, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    New generation flexible ureterorenoscopes offer an improved deflection mechanism and a stiffer sheath compared to their predecessors. We aimed to determine if these improvements in design lead to a higher efficacy in the treatment of nephrolithiasis. Ninety patients with upper urinary tract calculi were included into a retrospective analysis. Twenty-nine cases were treated with the conventional flexible ureterorenoscope (11274 AA, Karl Storz Endoscopy, Germany) and 61 cases were treated with the new generation device (Flex-X, Karl Storz Endoscopy). Patients' and stone characteristics, intraoperative data, treatment success and complications were retrieved from the charts and compared between the two groups. Preoperative data were comparable in both groups. Whereas stone access was also comparable (97 vs. 100%; n.s.), immediate treatment success was significantly higher for the new flexible scope (70 vs. 38%; p = 0.003). For the subgroup of lower pole stones, stone access was possible in 94 versus 100% (n.s.) and treatment success was 31 versus 69% (p = 0.0004) for the conventional and the new generation device, respectively. No major complications were observed, minor complications were comparable in both groups. Our study suggests an advantage of the new generation flexible ureterorenoscopes compared to their predecessors. They offer an increased stone free rate especially in the treatment of lower pole stones. It seems therefore advisable to switch to the latest generation flexible devices.

  11. Chronic effects of carbamazepine on life-history strategies of Ceriodaphnia dubia in three successive generations.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Kiran; Garcia, Santos N; Huggett, Duane B; DeAngelis, Donald L; La Point, Thomas W

    2013-04-01

    Trace quantities of pharmaceuticals are continuously being discharged into the environment through domestic and industrial wastewater effluents, causing concern among scientists and regulators regarding potential long-term impacts on aquatic ecosystems. These compounds and their metabolites are constantly interacting with organisms at various life-cycle stages and may differentially influence the development of embryonic, larval, juvenile, and adult stages. To understand the possible cumulative effects of exposure to carbamazepine (CBZ), a multigenerational approach was taken in which survival, reproduction, respiration, growth, brood size, and biomass of Ceriodaphnia dubia were assessed at sublethal concentrations over the course of three successive generations. CBZ exposure significantly decreased fecundity at 196.7 μg/L in the F0 and F1 generations over 2 weeks and acclimatized at 264.6 μg/L in the F2 generation. Similarly, a significant decrease of neonate dry weight was observed at the 196.7 μg/L CBZ treatment in the F1 generation, and it acclimatized at 264.6 μg/L treatment level in the F2 generation. Median time to first brood release was significantly delayed at 264.6 μg/L in the F2 generation, indicating slower maturation. Results over three successive generations are not different than what one would obtain by testing simply the F0 generation. Furthermore, the effects measured were observed at concentrations two orders of magnitude higher than are environmentally relevant, and it is unlikely that CBZ poses a substantial risk to the environment regarding the end points measured in this study. However, additional research through laboratory and field multigenerational studies may be required to understand the overall risk of CBZ to other nontarget organisms.

  12. All Eyes on Nepal - A Success Case for Integrated Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, E. L., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    When hazards are known it is not a question of if but when the disaster shock will happen and it is critical that all relevant observational data, tools and technologies be accessible and integrated by experts and volunteers to provide reliable, timely and actionable information. In this talk NASA's coordinated response to the recent Nepal "Gorkha" will be presented as a case study to highlight the opportunities and challenges. Triggered by a global seismic network and the interpretation by operational, research and response agencies, all available assets were quickly mobilized, charters activated to share data, and information gathered to assess impacts. This included assessing available data from optical and radar-based satellites and global positioning systems to baseline pre-event conditions and distinguish immediate and ongoing changes. Models and maps were generated to identify land deformation and damage proxies for communities, resources and infrastructure. Technologies facilitated national and international collaboration among public and private sector institutions to task satellites and optimize integration and processing of data from vital airborne platforms or ingest relevant new data streams. Crowd-sourced data added to the mix and provided a critical source of ground truth that blended with reports from field teams and those in communities. New levels of situational awareness were achieved through integrated data products and the reliance on relationships and new technologies that allowed for volunteers to analyze results in an unprecedented fashion. The results demonstrated how science aided by emerging technologies is changing our implementation of disaster response.

  13. Remote sensing observations of phytoplankton increases triggered by successive typhoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lei; Zhao, Hui; Pan, Jiayi; Devlin, Adam

    2016-11-01

    Phytoplankton blooms in the Western North Pacific, triggered by two successive typhoons with different intensities and translation speeds under different pre-existing oceanic conditions, were observed and analyzed using remotely sensed chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), sea surface temperature (SST), and sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) data, as well as typhoon parameters and CTD (conductivity, temperature, and depth) profiles. Typhoon Sinlaku, with relatively weaker intensity and slower translation speed, induced a stronger phytoplankton bloom than Jangmi with stronger intensity and faster translation speed (Chl-a>0.18 mg•m‒3 versus Chla<0.15 mg•m‒3) east of Taiwan Island. Translation speed may be one of the important mechanisms that affect phytoplankton blooms in the study area. Pre-existing cyclonic circulations provided a relatively unstable thermodynamic structure for Sinlaku, and therefore cold water with rich nutrients could be brought up easily. The mixed-layer deepening caused by Typhoon Sinlaku, which occurred first, could have triggered an unfavorable condition for the phytoplankton bloom induced by Typhoon Jangmi which followed afterwards. The sea surface temperature cooling by Jangmi was suppressed due to the presence of the thick upper-ocean mixed-layer, which prevented the deeper cold water from being entrained into the upper-ocean mixed layer, leading to a weaker phytoplankton augment. The present study suggests that both wind (including typhoon translation speed and intensity) and pre-existing conditions (e.g., mixedlayer depths, eddies, and nutrients) play important roles in the strong phytoplankton bloom, and are responsible for the stronger phytoplankton bloom after Sinlaku's passage than that after Jangmi's passage. A new typhooninfluencing parameter is introduced that combines the effects of the typhoon forcing (including the typhoon intensity and translation speed) and the oceanic precondition. This parameter shows that the forcing effect of

  14. Classification Objects, Ideal Observers & Generative Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olman, Cheryl; Kersten, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    A successful vision system must solve the problem of deriving geometrical information about three-dimensional objects from two-dimensional photometric input. The human visual system solves this problem with remarkable efficiency, and one challenge in vision research is to understand how neural representations of objects are formed and what visual…

  15. Training a New Generation of Biostatisticians: A Successful Consortium Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Judy M.; Ryan, Philip; Carlin, John B.; Gurrin, Lyle; Marschner, Ian

    2009-01-01

    In response to the worldwide shortage of biostatisticians, Australia has established a national consortium of eight universities to develop and deliver a Masters program in biostatistics. This article describes our successful innovative multi-institutional training model, which may be of value to other countries. We first present the issues…

  16. Can failure carefully observed become a springboard to success?

    PubMed

    Adrian, Manuella

    2012-01-01

    Since its inception, the addictions field has had a history of failure: failures in conceptualizations, in treatment, in interventions, in policies, in process as well as outcome assessment. Certain actions and activities have had a less than stellar effect which may lead to feelings of personal failure among practitioners, the tagging of processes and programs as being failures when they are not so, as well as an identification of the person being intervened with, by self and others, as being a failure or loser. This paper discusses how to define success and failure and the need to identify both the short(er) and long(er) term, as well as temporary and permanent effects, including the implications of using binary (success or failure; success and failure) and nonbinary (and in addition) categories of assessment. The need to clarify expectations and to establish goals and measurable effects are noted. Being open to accepting results which may be personally disappointing, initially, but which offer opportunities for needed changes may lead to new developments in the field and the establishment of better interventions.

  17. Mopra remote observing: a story of innovation and success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indermuehle, Balthasar T.; Edwards, Philip G.

    2010-07-01

    The Mopra Radio Telescope is a 22m single-dish radio telescope located near Siding Spring Observatory in New South Wales, Australia. Its receiver systems cover the 3mm, 7mm and 12mm bands for single-dish observing, as well as the 6/3cm and 20/13cm bands used for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). The remote location of the telescope, a good day's drive from Sydney, made it a good candidate to implement remote observing capabilities which would no longer require observers to travel to the telescope, but bring the telescope to them. In a first step this was implemented in a controlled environment three years ago. It enabled remote observing from a dedicated workstation at the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) control building some 160km away from the observatory. In a second step two years ago, remote observing was extended to allow observing from any location in the world for qualifying observers. There were a number of challenges that needed to be addressed, from telescope safety to internet and data link reliability, computer security, and providing the observers with adequate situation awareness tools. The uptake by observers has been very good with over 40% of the observing in 2009 having been executed remotely. Further, many small and unallocated time slices were able to be productively used as they would not have warranted a trip to the observatory in their own merit but were usable thanks to remote observing. This helped push the productivity of the Mopra telescope in 2009 to the highest figure in its 17 year history.

  18. Observation of Magnetic Fields Generated by Tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoj, Chandrasekharan; Maus, Stefan; Chulliat, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Tsunamis produce perturbations in the Earth's magnetic field by electromagnetic induction. Recent deployments of highly accurate magnetometers and the exceptionally deep solar minimum provided ideal conditions to observe these small signals from the tsunami resulting from the strong Chilean earthquake on 27 February 2010. Magnetic observatory measurements on Easter Island, 3500 kilometers west of the epicenter, show a periodic signal of 1 nanotesla, coincident in time with recordings from the local tide gauge. The detection of these magnetic signals represents a milestone in understanding tsunami-induced electromagnetic effects.

  19. Successful observation of Schottky signals at the Tevatron collider

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, D.A.; Lambertson, G.R.

    1989-08-01

    We have constructed a Schottky detector for the Tevatron collider in the form of a high-Q ({approx}5000) cavity which operates at roughly 2 GHz, well above the frequency at which the Tevatron's single-bunch frequency spectrum begins to roll off. Initial spectra obtained from the detector show clearly observable Schottky betatron lines, free of coherent contaminants; also seen are the common-mode'' longitudinal signals due to the offset of the beam from the detector center. The latter signals indicate that at 2 GHz, the coherent single-bunch spectrum from the detector is reduced by >80 dB; therefore, in normal collider operation, the Schottky betatron lines are >40 dB greater than their coherent counterparts. We describe how the data we have obtained give information on transverse and longitudinal emittances, synchrotron frequency, and betatron tunes, as well as reveal what may be previously unobserved phenomena. Space limitations restrict us to presenting only as much data as should be necessary to convince even the skeptical reader of the validity of the claim made in the paper's title. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Climatology of successive equatorial plasma bubbles observed by GPS ROTI over Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhari, S. M.; Abdullah, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Otsuka, Y.; Nishioka, M.; Hasbi, A. M.; Bahari, S. A.; Tsugawa, T.

    2017-02-01

    The occurrence rate of the equatorial plasma bubble (EPB) with season, solar activity, and geomagnetic conditions are investigated using long-term data sets of Malaysia Real-Time Kinematics Network (MyRTKnet) from 2008 to 2013. The rate of TEC (total electron content) change index (ROTI) in 5 min was derived from MyRTKnet data to detect the EPB with scale sizes around tens of kilometers. Then, the daily east-west cross sections of 2-D ROTI maps were used to examine the EPB features over 100°E-119°E longitudes. The EPBs tend to occur successively in one night along the observational coverage of MyRTKnet during equinoxes in high solar activity years. The perturbations in a form of wavelike structures along the observed longitudes might be responsible for the development of successive EPBs due to high growth rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) process. On the contrary, the occurrence of successive EPBs is infrequent and the occurrence day of EPB remains active during equinoctial months in low solar activity years. The small growth rate of the RTI process during low solar activity years might require a strong seed perturbation to generate the EPB structure. The occurrence probability of the EPB was found to be similar during quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions. The results imply that the strong perturbations play an important role in the development of the EPB in low solar activity years. Nonetheless, the high growth rate of the RTI could cause the successive occurrence of the EPB in high solar activity years.

  1. Choosing Success: A Paradigm for Empowering First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macias, Louis V.

    2013-01-01

    Louis V. Macias reminds us that educators' attitudes toward first-generation students have a great impact on their eventual success … or failure. Are you serving the best interests of your students with an inspirational, success-oriented mind-set that considers all of their capabilities?

  2. A Phenomenological Investigation of the Lived Experiences of Successful First Generation Hispanic College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Christina C.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological research study investigated the lived experiences of five successful first generation Hispanic college students. Participants' interviews were analyzed using Creswell's (2007) six steps for analyzing phenomenological studies. Findings from this study affirm the factors for student success in college regarding…

  3. The Challenges, Persistence, and Success of White, Working-Class, First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightweis, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This essay addresses persistence and success of an underrepresented group enrolled in college who are white, working-class first-generation students. The discussion examines these college students and the challenges they face. The discussion analyzes why first-generation college students persist while others do not. Additionally, the discussion…

  4. Observed Parenting Practices of First-Generation Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domenech Rodriguez, Melanie; Davis, Melissa R.; Rodriguez, Jesus; Bates, Scott C.

    2006-01-01

    This study used an established behavioral observation methodology to examine the parenting practices of first-generation Latino parents of children 4 to 9 years of age. The study had three central aims, to examine: (1) the feasibility of using a behavioral observation methodology with Spanish-speaking immigrant families, (2) the utility of the…

  5. Generating Synthetic Spectra for Observing the Simulated CGM and IGM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummels, Cameron B.; Egan, Hilary; Peeples, Molly S.; Silvia, Devin W.; Smith, Britton D.; Turk, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Hydrodynamical simulations can provide great insight into the behavior of many astrophysical problems. However, it can be difficult to extract the relevant quantities from these simulations for comparison against observational datasets. I will demonstrate methods for generating synthetic observations from hydrodynamical simulations using the open-source yt analysis code. Specifically, I will focus on creating realistic simulated spectra, which mimic quasar absorption line studies of the circumgalactic medium and the intergalactic medium as observed by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard HST. By producing simulated observations like those obtained with real telescopes, we can best compare theoretical models against their observational counterparts.

  6. Library design practices for success in lead generation with small molecule libraries.

    PubMed

    Goodnow, R A; Guba, W; Haap, W

    2003-11-01

    The generation of novel structures amenable to rapid and efficient lead optimization comprises an emerging strategy for success in modern drug discovery. Small molecule libraries of sufficient size and diversity to increase the chances of discovery of novel structures make the high throughput synthesis approach the method of choice for lead generation. Despite an industry trend for smaller, more focused libraries, the need to generate novel lead structures makes larger libraries a necessary strategy. For libraries of a several thousand or more members, solid phase synthesis approaches are the most suitable. While the technology and chemistry necessary for small molecule library synthesis continue to advance, success in lead generation requires rigorous consideration in the library design process to ensure the synthesis of molecules possessing the proper characteristics for subsequent lead optimization. Without proper selection of library templates and building blocks, solid phase synthesis methods often generate molecules which are too heavy, too lipophilic and too complex to be useful for lead optimization. The appropriate filtering of virtual library designs with multiple computational tools allows the generation of information-rich libraries within a drug-like molecular property space. An understanding of the hit-to-lead process provides a practical guide to molecular design characteristics. Examples of leads generated from library approaches also provide a benchmarking of successes as well as aspects for continued development of library design practices.

  7. Generation of high-titer viral preparations by concentration using successive rounds of ultracentrifugation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Viral vectors provide a method of stably introducing exogenous DNA into cells that are not easily transfectable allowing for the ectopic expression or silencing of genes for therapeutic or experimental purposes. However, some cell types, in particular bone marrow cells, dendritic cells and neurons are difficult to transduce with viral vectors. Successful transduction of such cells requires preparation of highly concentrated viral stocks, which permit a high virus concentration and multiplicity of infection (MOI) during transduction. Pseudotyping with the vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G) envelope protein is common practice for both lentiviral and retroviral vectors. The VSV-G glycoprotein adds physical stability to retroviral particles, allowing concentration of virus by high-speed ultracentrifugation. Here we describe a method report for concentration of virus from large volumes of culture supernatant by means of successive rounds of ultracentrifugation into the same ultracentrifuge tube. Method Stable retrovirus producer cell lines were generated and large volumes of virus-containing supernatant were produced. We then tested the transduction ability of virus following varying rounds of concentration by ultra-centrifugation. In a second series of experiments lentivirus-containing supernatant was produced by transient transfection of 297T/17 cells and again we tested the transduction ability of virus following multiple rounds of ultra-centrifugation. Results We report being able to centrifuge VSV-G coated retrovirus for as many as four rounds of ultracentrifugation while observing an additive increase in viral titer. Even after four rounds of ultracentrifugation we did not reach a plateau in viral titer relative to viral supernatant concentrated to indicate that we had reached the maximum tolerated centrifugation time, implying that it may be possible to centrifuge VSV-G coated retrovirus even further should it be necessary to achieve yet higher

  8. Radioactive waste acceptance team and generator interface yields successful implementation of waste acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, J.G.; Griffin, W.A.; Rast, D.M.

    1996-02-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project has developed a successful Low Level Waste Shipping Program in compliance with the Nevada Test Site Defense Waste Acceptance Criteria, Certification, and Transfer Requirements, NVO-325, Revision 1. This shipping program is responsible for the successful disposal of more than 4 million cubic feet of Low Level Waste over the past decade. The success of the Fernald Low Level Waste Shipping Program is due to the generator program staff working closely with the DOE-NV Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program Team to achieve win/win situations. The teamwork is the direct result of dedicated, proactive professionals working together toward a common objective: the safe disposition of low level radioactive waste. The growth and development of this program has many lessons learned to share with the low level waste generating community. The recognition of reciprocal interests enables consistently high annual volumes of Fernald waste disposal at the Nevada Test Site without incident. The large volumes successfully disposed serve testimony to the success of the program which is equally important to all Nevada Test Site and Fernald stakeholders. The Fernald approach to success is currently being shared with other low-level waste generators through DOE-NV sponsored outreach programs. This paper introduces examples of Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation contributions to the DOE-NV Radioactive Waste Acceptance Program outreach initiatives. These practices are applicable to other low level waste disposal programs whether federal, commercial, domestic or international.

  9. Registering parameters and granules of wave observations: IMAGE RPI success story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, I. A.; Charisi, A.; Fung, S. F.; Benson, R. F.; Reinisch, B. W.

    2015-12-01

    Modern metadata systems strive to help scientists locate data relevant to their research and then retrieve them quickly. Success of this mission depends on the organization and completeness of metadata. Each relevant data resource has to be registered; each content has to be described; each data file has to be accessible. Ultimately, data discoverability is about the practical ability to describe data content and location. Correspondingly, data registration has a "Parameter" level, at which content is specified by listing available observed properties (parameters), and a "Granule" level, at which download links are given to data records (granules). Until recently, both parameter- and granule-level data registrations were accomplished at NASA Virtual System Observatory easily by listing provided parameters and building Granule documents with URLs to the datafile locations, usually those at NASA CDAWeb data warehouse. With the introduction of the Virtual Wave Observatory (VWO), however, the parameter/granule concept faced a scalability challenge. The wave phenomenon content is rich with descriptors of the wave generation, propagation, interaction with propagation media, and observation processes. Additionally, the wave phenomenon content varies from record to record, reflecting changes in the constituent processes, making it necessary to generate granule documents at sub-minute resolution. We will present the first success story of registering 234,178 records of IMAGE Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) plasmagram data and Level 2 derived data products in ESPAS (near-Earth Space Data Infrastructure for e-Science), using the VWO-inspired wave ontology. The granules are arranged in overlapping display and numerical data collections. Display data include (a) auto-prospected plasmagrams of potential interest, (b) interesting plasmagrams annotated by human analysts or software, and (c) spectacular plasmagrams annotated by analysts as publication-quality examples of the RPI science

  10. Successive Generations in a Rat Model Respond Differently to a Constant Obesogenic Environment.

    PubMed

    Tait, Alice H; Raubenheimer, David; Green, Mark P; Cupido, Cinda L; Gluckman, Peter D; Vickers, Mark H

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that if a mother experiences a transitory perturbation to her environment during pregnancy or lactation, there are transgenerational consequences often involving a disordered metabolic phenotype in first generation offspring with recovery across subsequent generations. In contrast, little is known about the nature of the transgenerational response of offspring when a mother experiences a perturbation that is not transitory but instead persists across generations. Our study, using a rat model, subjected the parental generation to a change in environment and concomitant shift from a grain-based to obesogenic diets to generate an adipose phenotype in first generation offspring emulating a common scenario in human urbanisation and migration. We then investigated whether the obese phenotype was stable across generations when maintained in the transitioned environment, and whether dietary macronutrient balance affected the response. We found that second and third generation offspring had a reduced body fat to lean mass ratio and a reduced appetite relative to first generation offspring, irrespective of dietary macronutrient balance. The trajectory of this response is suggestive of a reduction in chronic disease risk across generations. This is one of the first studies, to our knowledge, to investigate the transgenerational response following parental transition to a persistent obesogenic environment, and to demonstrate that successive generations respond differently to this constant environment.

  11. Successive Generations in a Rat Model Respond Differently to a Constant Obesogenic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Alice H.; Raubenheimer, David; Green, Mark P.; Cupido, Cinda L.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Vickers, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that if a mother experiences a transitory perturbation to her environment during pregnancy or lactation, there are transgenerational consequences often involving a disordered metabolic phenotype in first generation offspring with recovery across subsequent generations. In contrast, little is known about the nature of the transgenerational response of offspring when a mother experiences a perturbation that is not transitory but instead persists across generations. Our study, using a rat model, subjected the parental generation to a change in environment and concomitant shift from a grain-based to obesogenic diets to generate an adipose phenotype in first generation offspring emulating a common scenario in human urbanisation and migration. We then investigated whether the obese phenotype was stable across generations when maintained in the transitioned environment, and whether dietary macronutrient balance affected the response. We found that second and third generation offspring had a reduced body fat to lean mass ratio and a reduced appetite relative to first generation offspring, irrespective of dietary macronutrient balance. The trajectory of this response is suggestive of a reduction in chronic disease risk across generations. This is one of the first studies, to our knowledge, to investigate the transgenerational response following parental transition to a persistent obesogenic environment, and to demonstrate that successive generations respond differently to this constant environment. PMID:26131906

  12. Do Community Colleges Promote Postsecondary and Labor Market Success for First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampaw, Frimpomaa; Partlo, Margaret; Hullender, Tammy; Wagner, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges are becoming the primary access point for a growing number of underrepresented and underserved students in the higher education system. First-generation college students make up a large proportion of this population, comprising about 45% of community college attendees (Nomi, 2005). Research has explored the transfer success of…

  13. The Effects of Self-Efficacy on Academic Success of First-Generation College Sophomore Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuong, Mui; Brown-Welty, Sharon; Tracz, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of self-efficacy on academic success of first-generation college sophomore students. The participants in the study consisted of college sophomores from 5 of the 23 California State University campuses. An online College Self-Efficacy Inventory was employed to measure participants' self-efficacy…

  14. The Effects of Family Leadership Orientation on Social Entrepreneurship, Generativity and Academic Success of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baloglu, Nuri

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effects of family leadership orientation on social entrepreneurship, generativity and academic education success were examined with the views of college students. The study was conducted at a state university in Central Anatolia in Turkey. 402 college students who attending at three different colleges voluntarily participated in…

  15. The Contribution of Family Members to First-Generation College Student Success: A Narrative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziemniak, Anne Elisabeth Lamkin

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that first-generation college students are educationally disadvantaged in a number of ways. While a variety of interventions have been recommended to increase the success of this population of students in higher education, little attention has been placed on the role that families can play in supporting these students,…

  16. A NEO population generation and observation simulation software tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Sven; Gelhaus, Johannes; Hahn, Gerhard; Franco, Raffaella

    One of the main targets of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program is to build a wide knowledge base about objects that can potentially harm Earth (Near-Earth Objects, NEOs). An important part of this effort is to create the Small Bodies Data Centre (SBDC) which is going to aggregate measurement data from a fully-integrated NEO observation sensor network. Until this network is developed, artificial NEO measurement data is needed in order to validate SBDC algorithms. Moreover, to establish a functioning NEO observation sensor network, it has to be determined where to place sensors, what technical requirements have to be met in order to be able to detect NEOs and which observation strategies work the best. Because of this, a sensor simulation software was needed. This paper presents a software tool which allows users to create and analyse NEO populations and to simulate and analyse population observations. It is a console program written in Fortran and comes with a Graphical User Interface (GUI) written in Java and C. The tool can be distinguished into the components ``Population Generator'' and ``Observation Simulator''. The Population Generator component is responsible for generating and analysing a NEO population. Users can choose between creating fictitious (random) and synthetic populations. The latter are based on one of two models describing the orbital and size distribution of observed NEOs: The existing socalled ``Bottke Model'' (Bottke et al. 2000, 2002) and the new ``Granvik Model'' (Granvik et al. 2014, in preparation) which has been developed in parallel to the tool. Generated populations can be analysed by defining 2D, 3D and scatter plots using various NEO attributes. As a result, the tool creates the appropiate files for the plotting tool ``gnuplot''. The tool's Observation Simulator component yields the Observation Simulation and Observation Analysis functions. Users can define sensor systems using ground- or space-based locations as well as

  17. On the reproductive success of early-generation hatchery fish in the wild

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Mark R; Ford, Michael J; Blouin, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Large numbers of hatchery salmon spawn in wild populations each year. Hatchery fish with multiple generations of hatchery ancestry often have heritably lower reproductive success than wild fish and may reduce the fitness of an entire population. Whether this reduced fitness also occurs for hatchery fish created with local- and predominantly wild-origin parents remains controversial. Here, we review recent studies on the reproductive success of such ‘early-generation’ hatchery fish that spawn in the wild. Combining 51 estimates from six studies on four salmon species, we found that (i) early-generation hatchery fish averaged only half the reproductive success of their wild-origin counterparts when spawning in the wild, (ii) the reduction in reproductive success was more severe for males than for females, and (iii) all species showed reduced fitness due to hatchery rearing. We review commonalities among studies that point to possible mechanisms (e.g., environmental versus genetic effects). Furthermore, we illustrate that sample sizes typical of these studies result in low statistical power to detect fitness differences unless the differences are substantial. This review demonstrates that reduced fitness of early-generation hatchery fish may be a general phenomenon. Future research should focus on determining the causes of those fitness reductions and whether they lead to long-term reductions in the fitness of wild populations. PMID:25469167

  18. Observation of AKR generation as a self-oscillating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseenko, Irina; Mogilevsky, Mikhail

    Auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) is a powerful natural electromagnetic radio emission in the frequency range of 30 kHz to ~ 1 MHz which is generated in the near-Earth plasma and propagated from the Earth. AKR is connected with discreet auroras and its sources are situated above the auroral ionosphere, generally, in the evening and night sectors of the magnetosphere at invariant latitudes of ~ 700 , at a height of ~ 2-10 thousand kilometers, and also in the magnetospheric cusp. AKR is generated by energetic electron beams injected from the magnetotail into the auroral zone. Currently, cyclotron maser instability at the local electron gyrofrequency is considered to be a generally recognized mechanism of AKR generation. Such instability appears in the regions with low plasma density called Calvert’s cavity where plasma frequency fpe is lower than electron gyrofrequency fсe. Auroral kilometric radiation is generally observed in the frequency range of 100 - 700 kHz, and AKR spectrum width changes slowly during several dozens of minutes. We present results of the analysis of wide-band AKR structures obtained by the POLRAD experiment on board the INTERBALL-2 satellite. These structures represent a quasiperiodic sequence of splashes which more often observed at the beginning and end of AKR radiation interval. The main properties of such splashes and their possible mechanism of generation are discussed.

  19. Internal Waves in Straits (IWISE): Observations of Wave Generation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    deployment of a 2-D array of pressure-sensor-equipped inverted echo sounders (PIES) so as to observe the generation of internal waves by tidal...east of the strait to the westernmost deployments. Fig. 1 Deployment locations of Pressure sensor equipped Inverted Echo Sounders [PIES] in South...measurements of nonlinear internal waves using the inverted echo sounder , J. Atmos. Oceanic Technology, 26, 2228−2242. David M Farmer, Li, Qiang & Jae-Hun

  20. Dust Successive Generations in Ar/SiH{sub 4} : Dust Cloud Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cavarroc, M.; Mikikian, M.; Tessier, Y.; Boufendi, L.

    2008-09-07

    Silane-based plasmas are widely used to deposit nanostructured silicon thin films or to synthesize silicon nanoparticles. Dust particle formation in Ar/SiH{sub 4} plasmas is a continuous phenomenon: as long as silane precursors are provided, new dust generations are formed. Successive generations can be monitored thanks to various electrical (V{sub dc}/3H) and optical (OES, video imaging) diagnostics. Experiments presented in this paper have been performed in a capacitively-coupled radiofrequency discharge, at low pressure (12 Pa) in an Argon/Silane mixture (92:8)

  1. Observation of Electronic Structure Minima in High-Harmonic Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Woerner, Hans Jakob; Villeneuve, D. M.; Niikura, Hiromichi; Bertrand, Julien B.; Corkum, P. B.

    2009-03-13

    We report detailed measurements of the high-harmonic spectra generated from argon atoms. The spectra exhibit a deep minimum that is shown to be independent of the laser intensity, and is thus a clear measure of the electronic structure of the atom. We show that exact field-free continuum wave functions reproduce the minimum, but plane wave and Coulomb wave functions do not. This remarkable observation suggests that electronic structure can be accurately determined in high-harmonic experiments despite the presence of the strong laser field. Our results clarify the relation between high-harmonic generation and photoelectron spectroscopy. The use of exact continuum functions also resolves the ambiguity associated with the choice of the dispersion relation.

  2. Nest guarding from observation blinds: strategy for improving Puerto Rican parrot nest success

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of 17 yr of nestguarding from observation blinds for increasing reproductive success of the endangered Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) is described. As personnel and time allowed, active nests were guarded part-time during the nest site exploration and selection s stage of the breeding cycle, and part-time to full-time when a nest contained eggs or chicks. Biologists identified nine categories of threat to the success of parrot nests. Since 1973, a minimum of 20 nests, which otherwise would have failed, successfully produced fledglings as a direct result of nest guarding and intervention. Nest success averaged 66% with nest guarding compared to an estimated 38% without guarding. Nest guarding from blinds can help maintain a wild population of a critically endangered species while other management techniques are being developed to stimulate population growth.

  3. Success and Failure in Helping SMEs. A Three-Year Observational Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewardson, Dave; Coleman, Shirley

    2003-01-01

    A 3-year observational study of a project to help small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) conducted by a British university highlighted initial contacts and working methods that were effective. Results identified why some SMEs do not make full use of facilities offered and reasons for overall success. (Contains 13 references.) (JOW)

  4. Lymnaea glabra: progressive increase in susceptibility to Fasciola hepatica through successive generations of experimentally infected snails.

    PubMed

    Rondelaud, D; Teukeng, F F Djuikwo; Vignoles, P; Dreyfuss, G

    2015-07-01

    Experimental infections of Lymnaea glabra (two populations) with Fasciola hepatica were carried out during seven successive snail generations, to determine if prevalence and intensity of snail infection increased over time through descendants of snails already infected with F. hepatica. Controls were descendants coming from uninfected parents and infected according to the same protocol. No larval forms were found in the bodies of control snails coming from uninfected parents. In contrast, prevalence and intensity of F. hepatica infection in snails originating from infected parents progressively increased from the F2 or F3 to the F6 generation of L. glabra. In another experiment carried out with the F7 generations of L. glabra and a single generation of Galba truncatula (as controls), the prevalence of F. hepatica infection and the total number of cercariae were lower in L. glabra (without significant differences between both populations). If the number of cercariae shed by infected snails was compared to overall cercarial production noted in snails containing cercariae but dying without emission, the percentage was greater in G. truncatula (69% instead of 52-54% in L. glabra). Even if most characteristics of F. hepatica infection were lower in L. glabra, prevalence and intensity of parasite infection increased with snail generation when tested snails came from infected parents. This mode of snail infection with F. hepatica suggests an explanation for cases of fasciolosis occurring in cattle-breeding farms where paramphistomosis is lacking and G. truncatula is absent.

  5. UrtheCast Second-Generation Earth Observation Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckett, K.

    2015-04-01

    UrtheCast's Second-Generation state-of-the-art Earth Observation (EO) remote sensing platform will be hosted on the NASA segment of International Space Station (ISS). This platform comprises a high-resolution dual-mode (pushbroom and video) optical camera and a dual-band (X and L) Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) instrument. These new sensors will complement the firstgeneration medium-resolution pushbroom and high-definition video cameras that were mounted on the Russian segment of the ISS in early 2014. The new cameras are expected to be launched to the ISS in late 2017 via the Space Exploration Technologies Corporation Dragon spacecraft. The Canadarm will then be used to install the remote sensing platform onto a CBM (Common Berthing Mechanism) hatch on Node 3, allowing the sensor electronics to be accessible from the inside of the station, thus limiting their exposure to the space environment and allowing for future capability upgrades. The UrtheCast second-generation system will be able to take full advantage of the strengths that each of the individual sensors offers, such that the data exploitation capabilities of the combined sensors is significantly greater than from either sensor alone. This represents a truly novel platform that will lead to significant advances in many other Earth Observation applications such as environmental monitoring, energy and natural resources management, and humanitarian response, with data availability anticipated to begin after commissioning is completed in early 2018.

  6. The Goodrich 3rd generation DB-110 system: successful flight test on the F-16 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Davis; Iyengar, Mrinal; Maver, Larry; Dyer, Gavin; Francis, John

    2007-04-01

    The 3rd Generation Goodrich DB-110 system provides users with a three (3) field-of-view high performance Airborne Reconnaissance capability that incorporates a dual-band day and nighttime imaging sensor, a real time recording and a real time data transmission capability to support long range, medium range, and short range standoff and over-flight mission scenarios, all within a single pod. Goodrich developed their 3rd Generation Airborne Reconnaissance Pod for operation on a range of aircraft types including F-16, F-15, F-18, Euro-fighter and older aircraft such as the F-4, F-111, Mirage and Tornado. This system upgrades the existing, operationally proven, 2nd generation DB-110 design with enhancements in sensor resolution, flight envelope and other performance improvements. Goodrich recently flight tested their 3rd Generation Reconnaissance System on a Block 52 F-16 aircraft with first flight success and excellent results. This paper presents key highlights of the system and presents imaging results from flight test.

  7. pyXSIM: Synthetic X-ray observations generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZuHone, John A.; Hallman, Eric. J.

    2016-08-01

    pyXSIM simulates X-ray observations from astrophysical sources. X-rays probe the high-energy universe, from hot galaxy clusters to compact objects such as neutron stars and black holes and many interesting sources in between. pyXSIM generates synthetic X-ray observations of these sources from a wide variety of models, whether from grid-based simulation codes such as FLASH (ascl:1010.082), Enzo (ascl:1010.072), and Athena (ascl:1010.014), to particle-based codes such as Gadget (ascl:0003.001) and AREPO, and even from datasets that have been created “by hand”, such as from NumPy arrays. pyXSIM can also manipulate the synthetic observations it produces in various ways and export the simulated X-ray events to other software packages to simulate the end products of specific X-ray observatories. pyXSIM is an implementation of the PHOX (ascl:1112.004) algorithm and was initially the photon_simulator analysis module in yt (ascl:1011.022); it is dependent on yt.

  8. Magnetism in galaxies - Observational overview and next generation radio telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Rainer

    2011-06-01

    The strength and structure of cosmic magnetic fields is best studied by observations of radio continuum emission, its polarization and its Faraday rotation. Fields with a well-ordered spiral structure exist in many types of galaxies. Total field strengths in spiral arms and bars are 20-30 μG and dynamically important. Strong fields in central regions can drive gas inflows towards an active nucleus. The strongest regular fields (10-15 μG) are found in interarm regions, sometimes forming ``magnetic spiral arms'' between the optical arms. The typical degree of polarization is a few % in spiral arms, but high (up to 50%) in interarm regions. The detailed field structures suggest interaction with gas flows. Faraday rotation measures of the polarization vectors reveals large-scale patterns in several spiral galaxies which are regarded as signatures of large-scale (coherent) fields generated by dynamos. - Polarization observations with the forthcoming large radio telescopes will open a new era in the observation of magnetic fields and should help to understand their origin. Low-frequency radio synchrotron emission traces low-energy cosmic ray electrons which can propagate further away from their origin. LOFAR (30-240 MHz) will allow us to map the structure of weak magnetic fields in the outer regions and halos of galaxies, in galaxy clusters and in the Milky Way. Polarization at higher frequencies (1-10 GHz), to be observed with the EVLA, MeerKAT, APERTIF and the SKA, will trace magnetic fields in the disks and central regions of galaxies in unprecedented detail. All-sky surveys of Faraday rotation measures towards a dense grid of polarized background sources with ASKAP and the SKA are dedicated to measure magnetic fields in distant intervening galaxies and clusters, and will be used to model the overall structure and strength of the magnetic field in the Milky Way.

  9. Environmental Stewardship at the Savannah River Site: Generations of Success - 13212

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, Brian B.; Bergren, Christopher L.; Gaughan, Thomas F.; Aylward, Robert S.; Guevara, Karen C.; Whitaker, Wade C.; Hennessey, Brian T.; Mills, Gary L.; Blake, John I.

    2013-07-01

    Approximately sixty years ago, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was built to produce nuclear materials. SRS production operations impacted air, soil, groundwater, ecology, and the local environment. Throughout its history, SRS has addressed these contamination issues directly and has maintained a commitment to environmental stewardship. The Site boasts many environmental firsts. Notably, SRS was the first major Department of Energy (DOE) facility to perform a baseline ecological assessment. This pioneering effort, by Ruth Patrick and the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, was performed during SRS planning and construction in the early 1950's. This unique early generation of work set the stage for subsequent efforts. Since that time, the scientists and engineers at SRS pro-actively identified environmental problems and developed and implemented effective and efficient environmental management and remediation solutions. This second generation, spanning the 1980's through the 2000's, is exemplified by numerous large and small cleanup actions to address metals and radionuclides, solvents and hydrocarbons, facility and area decommissioning, and ecological restoration. Recently, a third generation of environmental management was initiated as part of Enterprise SRS. This initiative to 'Develop and Deploy Next Generation Cleanup Technologies' formalizes and organizes the major technology matching, development, and implementation processes associated with historical SRS cleanup success as a resource to support future environmental management missions throughout DOE. The four elements of the current, third generation, effort relate to: 1) transition from active to passive cleanup, 2) in situ decommissioning of large nuclear facilities, 3) new long term monitoring paradigms, and 4) a major case study related to support for recovery and restoration of the Japanese Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant and surrounding environment. (authors)

  10. Observations of HF backscatter decay rates from HAARP generated FAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, William; Hysell, David

    2016-07-01

    Suitable experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facilities in Gakona, Alaska, create a region of ionospheric Field-Aligned Irregularities (FAI) that produces strong radar backscatter observed by the SuperDARN radar on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Creation of FAI in HF ionospheric modification experiments has been studied by a number of authors who have developed a rich theoretical background. The decay of the irregularities, however, has not been so widely studied yet it has the potential for providing estimates of the parameters of natural irregularity diffusion, which are difficult measure by other means. Hysell, et al. [1996] demonstrated using the decay of radar scatter above the Sura heating facility to estimate irregularity diffusion. A large database of radar backscatter from HAARP generated FAI has been collected over the years. Experiments often cycled the heater power on and off in a way that allowed estimates of the FAI decay rate. The database has been examined to extract decay time estimates and diffusion rates over a range of ionospheric conditions. This presentation will summarize the database and the estimated diffusion rates, and will discuss the potential for targeted experiments for aeronomy measurements. Hysell, D. L., M. C. Kelley, Y. M. Yampolski, V. S. Beley, A. V. Koloskov, P. V. Ponomarenko, and O. F. Tyrnov, HF radar observations of decaying artificial field aligned irregularities, J. Geophys. Res. , 101, 26,981, 1996.

  11. Navigating New Worlds: A Real-Time Look at How Successful and Non-Successful First-Generation College Students Negotiate Their First Semesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Erik E.

    2012-01-01

    This study of fifteen first generation American college freshmen documents their initial semester with a focus on factors and dispositions contributing to eventual success or failure. Students were identified prior to campus arrival, allowing for immediate and real-time data collection as they were experiencing the beginning of their college…

  12. Application of electrolytically generated iodine(I) to the successive determination of halides

    SciTech Connect

    Kostromin, A.I.; Vagizova, A.S.; Badretdinova, G.Z.; Abdullin, I.F.

    1986-06-10

    Conditions have been studied for the electrolytic generation of iodine(I) at a platinum electrode from RI solutions (where R is CH/sub 3/, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/, C/sub 3/H/sub 7/, C/sub 4/H/sub 9/) in a support electrolyte of 0.2 M HCkO/sub 4/ in glacial CH/sub 3/COOH. At potentials from 1.8 to 2.3 V (relative to a Ag/AgCl electrode), RI is oxidized to iodine(I) in quantitative yield with respect to current. The actual redox potentials of the I(I)/RI systems were measured. A procedure was developed for the successive coulometric titration of halide ions in a mixture.

  13. Observing preschoolers' social-emotional behavior: structure, foundations, and prediction of early school success.

    PubMed

    Denham, Susanne A; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Thayer, Sara K; Mincic, Melissa S; Sirotkin, Yana S; Zinsser, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Social-emotional behavior of 352 3- and 4-year-olds attending private child-care and Head Start programs was observed using the Minnesota Preschool Affect Checklist, Revised (MPAC-R). Goals of the investigation included (a) using MPAC-R data to extract a shortened version, MPAC-R/S, comparing structure, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and stability of both versions; and, using the shortened measure, to examine (b) age, gender, and risk status differences in social-emotional behaviors; (c) contributions of emotion knowledge and executive function to social-emotional behaviors; and (d) contributions of social-emotional behaviors to early school adjustment and kindergarten academic success. Results show that reliability of MPAC-R/S was as good, or better, than the MPAC-R. MPAC-R/S structure, at both times of observation, included emotionally negative/aggressive, emotionally regulated/prosocial, and emotionally positive/productive behaviors; MPAC-R structure was similar but less replicable over time. Age, gender, and risk differences were found. Children's emotion knowledge contributed to later emotionally regulated/prosocial behavior. Finally, preschool emotionally negative/aggressive behaviors were associated with concurrent and kindergarten school success, and there was evidence of social-emotional behavior mediating relations between emotion knowledge or executive function, and school outcomes. The importance of portable, empirically supported observation measures of social-emotional behaviors is discussed along with possible applications, teacher utilization, and implementation barriers.

  14. Observation of successive TGFs produced by the same thunderstorm systems throughout their lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursi, Alessandro; Marisaldi, Martino; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Dietrich, Stefano; Casella, Daniele; Sanò, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Since their discovery in early 1990s, Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) exhibited a clear correlation with thunderstorm activity. The elusive nature of these events and the strong absorption of gamma-rays in the lowest layers of the atmosphere dramatically limits our observation of this phenomenon: the few missions currently detecting TGFs are probably revealing just the tip of the iceberg of a much wider population. Theoretical models, radar measurements and cross-correlations with radio waves emitted by lightning strokes suggest every storm could, in principle, produce a large number of gamma flashes throughout its entire lifetime: however, observation of more TGFs from the same thunderstorm system, even after several hours, is difficult to perform, because successive passes on the same latitude region by high-inclination orbit satellites are shifted westward by ~25°. In this perspective, the AGILE mission has a privileged role, thanks to its unique quasi equatorial (2.5° inclination) orbit, that allows for the follow-up of the same geographic region on the equator at each orbital passage. In more than 8 years activity, we identify tens of cases of more TGFs coming from the same thunderstorm system, either during the same passage, or in the successive passages. We take advantage of data acquired by meteorological satellites to characterize the meteorological scenario associated to these events.

  15. The Academic Success of First-Generation African American Male College Students Attending Predominantly White Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewing, Venus

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative, correlational design was utilized in this study to examine the relationship between academic self-efficacy, racial identity, and the academic success of first-generation African American male college students at Predominantly White Institutions of higher education. The study comprised 89 first-generation African American male…

  16. Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) detection among three successive generations of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas).

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Solomieu, V; Dégremont, L; Vázquez-Juárez, R; Ascencio-Valle, F; Boudry, P; Renault, T

    2005-01-01

    Ostreid Herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) was likely detected in Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, at different stages of development. Viral infections were associated with high mortality rates in the spat and larvae. Furthermore, the persistance of OsHV-1 in asymptomatic adults was demonstrated by detection of viral DNA and proteins. In the present study, three successive generations of C. gigas (G0 and G1 parental oysters, G1 and G2 larvae) were screened for OsHV-1 by PCR. Viral DNA was detected in 2-day-old larvae, indicating that infection may take place at very early stages. Although results strengthen the hypothesis of a vertical transmission, it was not possible to predict the issue of a particular type of cross. Indeed, the detection of viral DNA in parental oysters did not systematically correspond to a productive infection or result in a successful transmission to the progeny. However, the infective status of the parents appeared to have an influence on both the infection and the survival rates of the progeny. Crosses involving an OsHV-1 infected male and a non-infected female resulted in hatching and larval survival rates statistically lower than those observed in the other types of cross. These results suggest that OsHV-1-infected females may transmit to their offspring some kind of protection or resistance against viral infection.

  17. Success Rate of MTA Pulpotomy on Vital Pulp of Primary Molars: A 3-Year Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Rishi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vital pulp therapy is a major contributor in the preservation of primary dentition after caries affliction. Introduction of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has revolutionized such treatment. Aim The aim of our study was to evaluate and correlate the effects of MTA clinically and radiographically on pulpotomized primary molars till their exfoliation or extraction followed by histological evaluation. Study design This is an observational study. Materials and methods A total of 25 teeth were selected from 5- to 8-year-old children requiring pulp therapy on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criterion. The teeth were treated by conventional pulpotomy technique under aseptic conditions using MTA and were immediately restored with stainless steel crown. The teeth were assessed postoperatively till 36 months. The exfoliated or extracted teeth were examined histologically. Results The pulpotomized teeth were vital with no adverse clinical findings during the observation period. After 3 months, one tooth showed internal resorption, but the same was not observed after 12 months. Pulp canal obliteration was seen in three cases. At the end of the study, five teeth were exfoliated and one tooth was extracted for maintaining arch symmetry. The histological examination of extracted tooth revealed the presence of healthy pulp and the area of true calcification. Remaining exfoliated teeth presented dentin bridge formation. Statistics Frequencies and percentages were used for descriptive statistics. Fisher’s exact tests were used to see the difference between clinical and radiological findings. The probability value was fixed at 5% level of significance. Conclusion The response of pulp in primary teeth to MTA was favorable in all cases from clinical and radiographic perspective, and histological evaluation confirmed the observation. How to cite this article Godhi B, Tyagi R. Success Rate of MTA Pulpotomy on Vital Pulp of Primary Molars: A 3-Year Observational Study

  18. Observed Methods for Generating Analogies in Scientific Problem Solving. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, John

    Evidence from video tapes of experts thinking aloud and using analogies in scientific problem solving is presented. Four processes appear to be important in using an analogy: (1) generating the analogy; (2) establishing confidence in the validity of the analogy relation; (3) understanding the analogous case; and (4) applying findings to the…

  19. Idea Generation in Student Writing: Computational Assessments and Links to Successful Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Muldner, Kasia; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2016-01-01

    Idea generation is an important component of most major theories of writing. However, few studies have linked idea generation in writing samples to assessments of writing quality or examined links between linguistic features in a text and idea generation. This study uses human ratings of idea generation, such as "idea fluency, idea…

  20. Effect of Adhesive Application on Sealant Success: A Clinical Study of Fifth and Seventh Generation Adhesive Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Vaibhav; Tangade, Pradeep Shankar; Tirth, Amit; Pal, Sumit Kumar; Lingesha, Chaitra Telgi; Arora, Vikram; Yadav, Vipul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the effect of fifth and seventh generation bonding agent on sealant success. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four school children aged six to nine years received sealants in four permanent molars in a split mouth design, such that each patient received sealant in the first permanent molar with fifth generation bonding agent in one arch and seventh generation bonding agent in the other arch; contra-lateral molars were sealed with sealant alone. The evaluation was carried out at baseline, three months, six months and 12 months, according to the criteria by Feigal et al, in 2000. Chi- square test was used to analyze data at P<0.05 level of significance. Results: Statistically significant differences were found for sealant retention between fifth generation and sealant group, and fifth generation and seventh generation groups; whereas, no significant difference was found for sealant retention between seventh generation and sealant group at three, six and 12 months. Conclusion: As separate etch and rinse steps are not required for seventh generation bonding agents, and almost similar results were obtained for both sealant and seventh generation groups, it can be concluded that application of sealant along with a seventh generation bonding agent may enhance sealant success and can be used for caries prevention in preventive programs. PMID:27252754

  1. How Does Measuring Generate Evidence? The Problem of Observational Grounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal, Eran

    2016-11-01

    The epistemology of measurement is an area of philosophy that studies the relationships between measurement and knowledge. One of its central aims is to explain how measurement can function as a reliable source of scientific evidence. Key to such explanation is a clear characterization of the dependence of measurement on observation, but such characterization has remained elusive. This article traces the recent historical trajectory of views on the observational grounding of measurement, clarifies the current state of the problem, and proposes new directions for progress. Specifically, I argue in favour of viewing measurement outcomes as the best predictors of observed instrument indications under a given theoretical-statistical model of the measurement process. The evidential efficacy of measurement outcomes is explained by their relatively high epistemic security, rather than by their inferential or structural closeness to observation.

  2. Establishing the next generation at work: leader generativity as a moderator of the relationships between leader age, leader-member exchange, and leadership success.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Rosing, Kathrin; Henning, Thomas; Frese, Michael

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the authors investigated leader generativity as a moderator of the relationships between leader age, leader-member exchange, and three criteria of leadership success (follower perceptions of leader effectiveness, follower satisfaction with leader, and follower extra effort). Data came from 128 university professors paired with one research assistant each. Results showed positive relationships between leader age and leader generativity, and negative relationships between leader age and follower perceptions of leader effectiveness and follower extra effort. Consistent with expectations based on leadership categorization theory, leader generativity moderated the relationships between leader age and all three criteria of leadership success, such that leaders high in generativity were better able to maintain high levels of leadership success at higher ages than leaders low in generativity. Finally, results of mediated moderation analyses showed that leader-member exchange quality mediated these moderating effects. The findings suggest that, in combination, leader age and the age-related construct of generativity importantly influence leadership processes and outcomes.

  3. Telescope Observations of Interstellar and Circumstellar Ices: Successes of and Need for Laboratory Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boogert, Adwin

    2015-08-01

    Telescope observations of dense clouds and the envelopes and disks surrounding Young Stellar Objects have revealed a large number of spectroscopic signatures caused by absorption, scattering, and sometimes emission by ices [1]. Ices play a key role in the formation and evolution of molecules in space, and some fraction may end up in planet-forming disks as building blocks of, for example,comets. Laboratory simulations are crucial in the derivation of ice abundances, in understanding the interaction between the ices and the refractory grain surfaces, in determining the formation environment and the thermal and energetic processing history of the ices. A relatively recent success story is the strong observational, laboratory, and theoretical evidence for a CO-based chemistry in high density environments, leading to, for example, large abundances of CH3OH, an important precursor to complex molecules [1, 2, 3, 4]. Despite significant progress, more work is needed on the identification of the pronounced 6.85 μm ice band. The observed profile is poorly matched with mixtures of ammonium ion (NH4+) in water [5], despite the good correlation of the observed band strength with the water column density. Also, the role of carbonaceous dust in the ices needs further study. For example, the spectroscopic identification of PAHs embedded in the ices, and their role in the ionization and further chemical evolution of the ices are not fully established [6, 7]. Laboratory work will be essential for the analysis of observations with future facilities, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, and large aperture ground-based telescopes.[1] Boogert et al. 2015. ARAA 53 (in press)[2] Cuppen et al. 2009. A&A 508, 275[3] Boogert et al. 2011. ApJ 729, 92[4] Öberg et al. 2011. ApJ 740, 109[5] Galvez et al. 2010, ApJ 724, 539[6] Bouwman et al. 2011. A&A 525, 93[7] Hardegree-Ullman et al. 2014. ApJ 784, 172

  4. The Observational Consequences of Proton-Generated Waves at Shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, Donald V.

    2000-01-01

    In the largest solar energetic particle (SEP) events, acceleration takes place at shock waves driven out from the Sun by fast coronal mass ejections. Protons streaming away from strong shocks generate Alfven waves that trap particles in the acceleration region, limiting outflowing intensities but increasing the efficiency of acceleration to higher energies. Early in the events, with the shock still near the Sun, intensities at 1 AU are bounded and spectra are flattened at low energies. Elements with different charge-to-mass ratios, Q/A, differentially probe the wave spectra near shocks, producing abundance ratios that vary in space and time. An initial rise in He/H, while Fe/O declines, is a typical symptom of the non-Kolmogorov wave spectra in the largest events. Strong wave generation can cause cross-field scattering near the shock and unusually rapid reduction in anisotropies even far from the shock. At the highest energies, shock spectra steepen to form a "knee." For protons, this spectral knee can vary from approx. 10 MeV to approx. 1 GeV depending on shock conditions for wave growth. In one case, the location of the knee scales approximately as Q/A in the energy/nucleon spectra of other species.

  5. Noaa's Jpss Program: the Next Generation of Operational Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Joint Polar Satellite System is NOAA's new operational satellite program and includes the SUOMI National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) as a bridge between NOAA's operational Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellite (POES) series, which began in 1978, and the first JPSS operational satellite scheduled for launch in 2017. The NPP was completed as originally planned and launched on October 28, 2011 and carries the following five sensors: - Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) that provides advanced imaging and radiometric capabilities. - Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) that provides improved atmospheric moisture and temperature profiles in clear conditions. - Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) that provides improved atmospheric moisture and temperature profiles in cloudy conditions. - Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS) that provides improved vertical and horizontal measurements of the distribution of ozone in the Earth's atmosphere. - Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) sensor that continues precise, calibrated global measurements of the earth's radiation budget JPSS provides critical data for key NOAA product and services, which the Nation depends on. These products and services include: Weather forecasting - data from the CRIS and the ATMS are needed to forecast weather events out to 7 days. Nearly 85% of all data used in weather forecasting are from polar orbiting satellites. Environmental monitoring - data from the VIIRS are used to monitor the environment including the health of coastal ecosystems, drought conditions, hydrology, fire, smoke, dust, snow and ice, and the state of oceans, including sea surface temperature and ocean color. Climate monitoring - data from JPSS instruments, including OMPS, CERES and TSIS will provide continuity to climate data records established using NOAA POES and NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite observations. These data records provide a unified and coherent long

  6. Is Education the Pathway to Success? A Comparison of Second Generation Turkish Professionals in Sweden, France, Germany and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crul, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Education is often seen as the most important mobility channel for children of immigrants. To what extent is this true? In this article, we look at successful second generation Turkish professionals in Sweden, France, Germany and The Netherlands. What kind of pathways did they take to become a professional? Based on the large quantitative…

  7. The Parental Investment of First-Generation African American Rural College Graduates in Cultivating College Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Crystal Joi

    2013-01-01

    This basic qualitative study examines the parental investment strategies of first-generation African American rural college graduates in cultivating college student success. Extant literature has demonstrated that the role of the family is necessary to support the college student and that the investment of the parent is paramount to student…

  8. Contributing Factors to Generation 1.5 Students' Successes on the Exit State Assessment for High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderhoef, Deborah E.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological narrative study investigated the successes of eight Generation 1.5 high school seniors on the Exit state assessment in English language arts in Texas. These eight participants represented three difficult ethnic cultures, Hispanic, Pakistani and Turkish; within the Hispanic cultures the countries of Mexico and El Salvador were…

  9. Campus Employment as a High Impact Practice: Relationship to Academic Success and Persistence of First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoca, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    The double burden of spiraling costs and limited financial aid has prompted more college students to work more hours than ever. Yet, working more hours can be detrimental to students' academic success and persistence, and first-generation college students are at even higher risk. While institutions cannot control off campus employment students…

  10. Observed bodies generate object-based spatial codes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Alison; Flynn, Maria; Edmonds, Caroline J; Gardner, Mark R

    2016-09-01

    Contemporary studies of spatial and social cognition frequently use human figures as stimuli. The interpretation of such studies may be complicated by spatial compatibility effects that emerge when researchers employ spatial responses, and participants spontaneously code spatial relationships about an observed body. Yet, the nature of these spatial codes - whether they are location- or object-based, and coded from the perspective of the observer or the figure - has not been determined. Here, we investigated this issue by exploring spatial compatibility effects arising for objects held by a visually presented whole-bodied schematic human figure. In three experiments, participants responded to the colour of the object held in the figure's left or right hand, using left or right key presses. Left-right compatibility effects were found relative to the participant's egocentric perspective, rather than the figure's. These effects occurred even when the figure was rotated by 90° to the left or to the right, and the coloured objects were aligned with the participant's midline. These findings are consistent with spontaneous spatial coding from the participant's perspective and relative to the normal upright orientation of the body. This evidence for object-based spatial coding implies that the domain general cognitive mechanisms that result in spatial compatibility effects may contribute to certain spatial perspective-taking and social cognition phenomena.

  11. Experimental Observation of RF Radiation Generated by an Explosively Driven Voltage Generator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-15

    generation systems at Loki Inc. located in Rolla, Missouri. A pulse-forming network and transmitting antenna were constructed and attached to the voltage...INTRODUCTION In April 2005, several pulsed-power experiments were performed using explosively driven voltage generation systems at Loki Inc. located...Offi ce of Naval Research sponsored NRL’s participation. During the experiments, Loki Inc. was persuaded, with the permission of Dr. Altgilbers, to

  12. Using Data Known at the Time of Admission to Predict First-Generation College Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amico, Mark M.; Dika, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    The authors use data known at the time of initial enrollment to explore the first-year GPAs and second-year retention of first-generation (FGCS) and non-first-generation (non-FGCS) college students. The setting was a diverse, public, urban doctoral institution (approximately 50% FGCS and 30% minority). Multiple linear and logistic regressions run…

  13. Exploring the Experiences of Successful First-Generation Community College Students in Florida: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patron, Iliana M.

    2012-01-01

    As jobs become more competitive and demanding of specialized training, the presence of first-generation college students will continue to be a growing reality. However, unless the needs of first-generation students are addressed by educational institutions, the motivation experienced by those students to attend college will be short-lived. Even…

  14. Career Choice among Second-Generation Korean-Americans: Reflections of a Cultural Model of Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eun-Young

    1993-01-01

    Examines the pattern of career choice among 23 female and 17 male Korean-American college students in California, and analyzes how this pattern reflects their immigrant parents' cultural model of success and subsequent educational strategies. Explores the model as a family and community force, and considers its costs. (SLD)

  15. Community College Succession Planning: Preparing the Next Generation of Women for Leadership Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzebetak, Angela Kaysen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore strategies to enable community colleges to develop and cultivate women for leadership roles through succession planning. According to the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC), the pace of administrative and other key staff retirements exceeds the pace at which these positions are being…

  16. Moving Beyond Access: College Success for Low-Income, First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Jennifer; Tinto, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Given the pressure to remain competitive in the global knowledge economy, it is in the shared national interest to act to increase the number of students who not only enter college, but more importantly, earn their degrees. Changing national demographics requires a refocus of efforts on improving postsecondary access and success among populations…

  17. When Success Is the Only Option: Designing Competency-Based Pathways for Next Generation Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgis, Chris; Patrick, Susan

    2010-01-01

    This exploration into competency-based innovation at the school, district, and state levels suggests that competency-based pathways are a re-engineering of this nation's education system around learning--a re-engineering designed for success in which failure is no longer viable. This discussion draws on interviews and site visits with innovators…

  18. Shaping a Healthier Generation: Successful State Strategies to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulheron, Joyal; Vonasek, Kara

    2009-01-01

    Studies show that childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. Today, more than 23 million American children--or nearly one in every three--are overweight or obese. If childhood obesity is left unaddressed, a generation of individuals could face health, social, and economic challenges that promise to stress government…

  19. Effect of manganese and calcium deficiency on the growth and oxygen exchange of Scenedesmus intermedius cultured for successive generations.

    PubMed

    Adam, M S; Issa, A A

    2000-01-01

    The green alga Scenedesmus intermedius was grown in synchronous culture under manganese or calcium deficiency for six successive generations. The growth rate, pigment and protein contents gradually decreased in comparison with the control. In Mn-deficient cells, the rate of oxygen evolution was sharply decreased. This inhibition was restored to normal in less than 1 h (40-60 min) by adding Mn salt to the suspension medium. In Ca-deficient cells, the inhibition of photosynthesis appears to be irreversible.

  20. Remote automated multi-generational growth and observation of an animal in low Earth orbit

    PubMed Central

    Oczypok, Elizabeth A.; Etheridge, Timothy; Freeman, Jacob; Stodieck, Louis; Johnsen, Robert; Baillie, David; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J.

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate survival of humanity is dependent upon colonization of other planetary bodies. Key challenges to such habitation are (patho)physiologic changes induced by known, and unknown, factors associated with long-duration and distance space exploration. However, we currently lack biological models for detecting and studying these changes. Here, we use a remote automated culture system to successfully grow an animal in low Earth orbit for six months. Our observations, over 12 generations, demonstrate that the multi-cellular soil worm Caenorhabditis elegans develops from egg to adulthood and produces progeny with identical timings in space as on the Earth. Additionally, these animals display normal rates of movement when fully fed, comparable declines in movement when starved, and appropriate growth arrest upon starvation and recovery upon re-feeding. These observations establish C. elegans as a biological model that can be used to detect changes in animal growth, development, reproduction and behaviour in response to environmental conditions during long-duration spaceflight. This experimental system is ready to be incorporated on future, unmanned interplanetary missions and could be used to study cost-effectively the effects of such missions on these biological processes and the efficacy of new life support systems and radiation shielding technologies. PMID:22130552

  1. Remote automated multi-generational growth and observation of an animal in low Earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Oczypok, Elizabeth A; Etheridge, Timothy; Freeman, Jacob; Stodieck, Louis; Johnsen, Robert; Baillie, David; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J

    2012-03-07

    The ultimate survival of humanity is dependent upon colonization of other planetary bodies. Key challenges to such habitation are (patho)physiologic changes induced by known, and unknown, factors associated with long-duration and distance space exploration. However, we currently lack biological models for detecting and studying these changes. Here, we use a remote automated culture system to successfully grow an animal in low Earth orbit for six months. Our observations, over 12 generations, demonstrate that the multi-cellular soil worm Caenorhabditis elegans develops from egg to adulthood and produces progeny with identical timings in space as on the Earth. Additionally, these animals display normal rates of movement when fully fed, comparable declines in movement when starved, and appropriate growth arrest upon starvation and recovery upon re-feeding. These observations establish C. elegans as a biological model that can be used to detect changes in animal growth, development, reproduction and behaviour in response to environmental conditions during long-duration spaceflight. This experimental system is ready to be incorporated on future, unmanned interplanetary missions and could be used to study cost-effectively the effects of such missions on these biological processes and the efficacy of new life support systems and radiation shielding technologies.

  2. Improving lead generation success through integrated methods: transcending 'drug discovery by numbers'.

    PubMed

    Campbell, James B

    2010-12-01

    Key methodologies such as HTS and combinatorial chemistry have allowed pharmaceutical discovery to focus on identifying promising drug candidates through the use of statistics. Thus, amassing large data sets from large-scale screening campaigns of ever-increasing corporate compound collections was expected to deliver unprecedented success for the pharmaceutical industry. This feature review explores aspects of how the reliance on using numbers to drive discovery has gone awry. Building knowledge equity from the integration of multiple parallel screening assays, workstreams and data sources provides an alternative to driving discovery through statistics. Thus, a more rational approach to creating and inventing new leads and drug opportunities may be pursued.

  3. A new generation of spacecraft pyroautomatic systems as a result of a successful cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotomin, A. A.; Dushenok, S. A.; Demyanenko, D. B.; Efanov, V. V.; Gorovtsov, V. V.

    2016-12-01

    A new generation of spacecraft pyroautomatic systems is developed as a result of a long-term cooperation of NPO Lavochkin, St. Petersburg State Technological Institute (Technical University), and the Special Design and Technological Bureau (Technolog). Separation systems based on elastic explosives have proven their high efficiency and reliability in a number of Russian and international interplanetary and astrophysical space projects. Advanced devices based on new pyrotechnic compositions are developed.

  4. Experimental observation of hot tail runaway electron generation in TEXTOR disruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, L.; Koslowski, H. R.; Liang, Y.; Lvovskiy, A.; Lehnen, M.; Nicolai, D.; Pearson, J.; Rack, M.; Denner, P.; Finken, K. H.; Wongrach, K.; Wongrach

    2015-08-01

    Experimental evidence supporting the theory of hot tail runaway electron (RE) generation has been identified in TEXTOR disruptions. With higher temperature, more REs are generated during the thermal quench. Increasing the RE generation by increasing the temperature, an obvious RE plateau is observed even with low toroidal magnetic field (1.7 T). These results explain the previously found electron density threshold for RE generation.

  5. Beyond the lab: observations on the process by which science successfully informs management and policy decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, S.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific findings inform management decisions and policy products through various ways, these include: synthesis reports, white papers, in-person and web-based seminars (webinars), communication from specialized staff, and seminal peer-reviewed journal articles. Scientists are often told that if they want their science to inform management decisions and policy products that they must: clearly and simply articulate discreet pieces of scientific information and avoid attaching advocacy messages to the science; however, solely relying on these tenants does not ensure that scientific products will infuse the realms of management and policy. The process by which science successfully informs management decisions and policy products rarely begins at the time the results come out of the lab, but rather, before the research is carried out. Having an understanding of the political climate, management needs, agency research agendas, and funding limitations, as well as developing a working relationship with the intended managers and policy makers are key elements to developing the kind of science results and products that often make an impact in the management and policy world. In my presentation I will provide case-studies from California (USA) to highlight the type of coastal, ocean and climate science that has been successful in informing management decisions and policy documents, as well as provide a state-level agency perspective on the process by which this occurs.

  6. Observational constraints on atmospheric radiaitve feedbacks: absolute accuracy and next-generation observing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykema, J. A.; Hanssen, L. M.; Mekhontsev, S.; Anderson, J.

    2012-12-01

    The central role of atmospheric radiative feedbacks to understanding and projecting climate change calls for a robust observational system. Recent studies have shown the value of space-based measurements for putting quantitative constraints on a range of radiative feedback processes through a fingerprinting method applied to long-term observational records. More recent work has suggested the value of demonstrably accurate measurements to disentangle model error from observational uncertainties within reanalysis systems, potentially yielding improved representations of feedback processes within just a few years. Both of these methods rely on space-based measurements that can be objectively tested for accuracy on-orbit. A new class of mission has been proposed that incorporates the same type of empirical tests for accuracy as used in the laboratory into a space-based sensor. One example of such a mission is the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO), a new mission suggested by the 2006 National Research Council Decadal Survey. CLARREO includes three sensor types: thermal infrared, microwave, and reflected shortwave. This paper presents a laboratory demonstration of prototype systems for testing the on-orbit accuracy of a thermal infrared sensor for CLARREO. These systems utilize infrared lasers to provide monochromatic light sources to quantitatively determine the optical properties of materials. These infrared optical properties are major determinants of the on-orbit radiometric performance of a thermal infrared sensor. For this reason, reliable quantitative information (including uncertainty) that tracks any changes in relevant infrared materials over the mission lifetime is essential to objective assessment of instrument accuracy. The practicality of mid-infrared lasers for these applications is due to the availability and continued evolution of compact, high-efficiency Quantum Cascade Lasers (QCLs). These lasers can provide over 100 m

  7. Stress for invasion success? Temperature stress of preceding generations modifies the response to insecticide stress in an invasive pest insect

    PubMed Central

    Piiroinen, Saija; Lyytinen, Anne; Lindström, Leena

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to stressful environments is one important factor influencing species invasion success. Tolerance to one stress may be complicated by exposure to other stressors experienced by the preceding generations. We studied whether parental temperature stress affects tolerance to insecticide in the invasive Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Field-collected pyrethroid-resistant beetles were reared under either stressful (17°C) or favourable (23°C) insecticide-free environments for three generations. Then, larvae were exposed to pyrethroid insecticides in common garden conditions (23°C). Beetles were in general tolerant to stress. The parental temperature stress alone affected beetles positively (increased adult weight) but it impaired their tolerance to insecticide exposure. In contrast, offspring from the favourable temperature regime showed compensatory weight gain in response to insecticide exposure. Our study emphasizes the potential of cross-generational effects modifying species stress tolerance. When resistant pest populations invade benign environments, a re-application of insecticides may enhance their performance via hormetic effects. In turn, opposite effects may arise if parental generations have been exposed to temperature stress. Thus, the outcome of management practices of invasive pest species is difficult to predict unless we also incorporate knowledge of the evolutionary and recent (preceding generations) stress history of the given populations into pest management. PMID:23467574

  8. Engineering of the rose flavonoid biosynthetic pathway successfully generated blue-hued flowers accumulating delphinidin.

    PubMed

    Katsumoto, Yukihisa; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Fukui, Yuko; Brugliera, Filippa; Holton, Timothy A; Karan, Mirko; Nakamura, Noriko; Yonekura-Sakakibara, Keiko; Togami, Junichi; Pigeaire, Alix; Tao, Guo-Qing; Nehra, Narender S; Lu, Chin-Yi; Dyson, Barry K; Tsuda, Shinzo; Ashikari, Toshihiko; Kusumi, Takaaki; Mason, John G; Tanaka, Yoshikazu

    2007-11-01

    Flower color is mainly determined by anthocyanins. Rosa hybrida lacks violet to blue flower varieties due to the absence of delphinidin-based anthocyanins, usually the major constituents of violet and blue flowers, because roses do not possess flavonoid 3',5'-hydoxylase (F3'5'H), a key enzyme for delphinidin biosynthesis. Other factors such as the presence of co-pigments and the vacuolar pH also affect flower color. We analyzed the flavonoid composition of hundreds of rose cultivars and measured the pH of their petal juice in order to select hosts of genetic transformation that would be suitable for the exclusive accumulation of delphinidin and the resulting color change toward blue. Expression of the viola F3'5'H gene in some of the selected cultivars resulted in the accumulation of a high percentage of delphinidin (up to 95%) and a novel bluish flower color. For more exclusive and dominant accumulation of delphinidin irrespective of the hosts, we down-regulated the endogenous dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene and overexpressed the Irisxhollandica DFR gene in addition to the viola F3'5'H gene in a rose cultivar. The resultant roses exclusively accumulated delphinidin in the petals, and the flowers had blue hues not achieved by hybridization breeding. Moreover, the ability for exclusive accumulation of delphinidin was inherited by the next generations.

  9. Integrated Observations of Convective Clouds during MC3E - Preliminary Analysis, Successes and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollias, P.; Jensen, M. P.; Petersen, W. A.; Collis, S. M.; Giangrande, S.; North, K. W.; Borque, P.; Chandra, A.; Luke, E. P.

    2011-12-01

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) a joint field program involving NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Program and the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurements Program, was conducted in north-central Oklahoma during the April to June 2011 period. This intensive observation period used a new multi-scale observing strategy with the participation of a network of distributed sensors (both passive and active). The approach was to document in 3D not only precipitation, but also clouds, winds, and moisture in an attempt to provide a holistic view of convective clouds and their feedback with the environment. Preliminary synthesis and analysis of the observations collected from a wide variety of sensors will be presented. This includes an overview of the cloud and precipitation conditions observed during MC3E. Advancements in our ability to measure new atmospheric variables and improve the quality of traditional measurements will be highlighted. Remaining gaps in measuring key atmospheric variables and challenges associated with the synthesis of the multisensory observations and their use for model evaluation will be discussed.

  10. Observing Preschoolers' Social-Emotional Behavior: Structure, Foundations, and Prediction of Early School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Thayer, Sara K.; Mincic, Melissa S.; Sirotkin, Yana S.; Zinsser, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Social-emotional behavior of 352 3- and 4-year-olds attending private childcare and Head Start programs was observed using the Minnesota Preschool Affect Checklist, Revised (MPAC-R). Goals of the investigation included (a) using MPAC-R data to extract a shortened version, MPAC-R/S, comparing structure, internal consistency, test-retest…

  11. Analysis of Pre-Analytic Factors Affecting the Success of Clinical Next-Generation Sequencing of Solid Organ Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Goswami, Rashmi S; Singh, Rajesh R; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita

    2015-08-28

    Application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to routine clinical practice has enabled characterization of personalized cancer genomes to identify patients likely to have a response to targeted therapy. The proper selection of tumor sample for downstream NGS based mutational analysis is critical to generate accurate results and to guide therapeutic intervention. However, multiple pre-analytic factors come into play in determining the success of NGS testing. In this review, we discuss pre-analytic requirements for AmpliSeq PCR-based sequencing using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) (Life Technologies), a NGS sequencing platform that is often used by clinical laboratories for sequencing solid tumors because of its low input DNA requirement from formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue. The success of NGS mutational analysis is affected not only by the input DNA quantity but also by several other factors, including the specimen type, the DNA quality, and the tumor cellularity. Here, we review tissue requirements for solid tumor NGS based mutational analysis, including procedure types, tissue types, tumor volume and fraction, decalcification, and treatment effects.

  12. Infantile spasms and 15q11.2q13.1 chromosome duplication in two successive generations.

    PubMed

    Riikonen, Raili Sylvia; Wallden, Tiina; Kokkonen, Hannaleena

    2016-01-01

    Familial cases of West syndrome have been reported only in Japan. In that study no chromosomal analyses were made. It has been suggested that microarray analysis should be included in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with infantile spasms and developmental delay, when an evaluation for structural brain lesions and metabolic disorders reveal no abnormal findings. We report here the first case of infantile spasms and 15q11.2q13.1 chromosome duplication in two successive generations. The daughter and mother with infantile spasms, and the autistic son had the duplication. The clinical course of infantile spasms was very similar in the mother and daughter. The spasms were primarily considered to be of unknown aetiology. Chromosomal microarray analysis revealed a 6.2 Mb size 15q11.2q13.1 duplication. The duplication belongs to the 15q11q13 duplication syndrome (OMIM 608636) which when maternally derived is characterised by neuro-behavioural disorders like autism, hypotonia, cognitive deficit, language delay and epilepsy. The proportion of patients with unknown aetiology for infantile spasms will decrease when more careful chromosomal studies are made. Our report expands the phenotype of chromosome 15q duplication syndrome and is the first report of this abnormality in two successive generations of infantile spasms.

  13. Observations of an extreme storm in interplanetary space caused by successive coronal mass ejections.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying D; Luhmann, Janet G; Kajdič, Primož; Kilpua, Emilia K J; Lugaz, Noé; Nitta, Nariaki V; Möstl, Christian; Lavraud, Benoit; Bale, Stuart D; Farrugia, Charles J; Galvin, Antoinette B

    2014-03-18

    Space weather refers to dynamic conditions on the Sun and in the space environment of the Earth, which are often driven by solar eruptions and their subsequent interplanetary disturbances. It has been unclear how an extreme space weather storm forms and how severe it can be. Here we report and investigate an extreme event with multi-point remote-sensing and in situ observations. The formation of the extreme storm showed striking novel features. We suggest that the in-transit interaction between two closely launched coronal mass ejections resulted in the extreme enhancement of the ejecta magnetic field observed near 1 AU at STEREO A. The fast transit to STEREO A (in only 18.6 h), or the unusually weak deceleration of the event, was caused by the preconditioning of the upstream solar wind by an earlier solar eruption. These results provide a new view crucial to solar physics and space weather as to how an extreme space weather event can arise from a combination of solar eruptions.

  14. Telescope Observations of Interstellar and Circumstellar Ices: Successes of and Need for Laboratory Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boogert, A. C. A.

    2016-10-01

    Ices play a key role in the formation of simple and complex molecules in dense molecular clouds and in the envelopes and protoplanetary disks surrounding young stars. Some fraction of the interstellar ices may become building blocks of comets, and thus be delivered to the early Earth. Laboratory simulations have proven to be crucial in the derivation of ice abundances, in quantifying reaction rates on cold grain surfaces, in determining the thermal and energetic processing history of the ices, and in understanding the interaction between the ices and the underlying refractory grain surfaces. In this invited topical paper I will review possible ways forward in improving our knowledge of the composition of the ices, as many signatures in the interstellar spectra are still poorly identified. I will also emphasize the observed importance of thermal processing of the ices (crystallization, segregation), which likely affects the chemistry after the initial dominance of grain surface reactions. Continued laboratory work is warranted in view of the upcoming observational data from, for example, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), which is ideally suited for ices studies. For an exhaustive review on this topic I refer to Boogert, Gerakines & Whittet (2015).

  15. Extreme-Wind Observation Capability for a Next Generation Satellite Wind Scatterometer Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffelen, Ad; van Zadelhoff, Gerd Jan; Belmonte, Maria; Chang, Paul; Vachon, Paris; Lin, Chung-Chi; Accadia, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    The ocean surface vector wind information, derived from satellite-based wind scatterometer observations, is one of the essential inputs for operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) services. The local wind speed and direction are retrieved from accurate measurements of the ocean surface backscatter, performed from at least three largely-spaced satellite positions during an over-flight. As a result, each of the wind resolution cells is characterised by a set of radar backscatter coefficients which are associated with their respective observation angles in azimuth and elevation with respect to the cell. The azimuth anisotropy of the backscatter coefficient with respect to the wind direction and its magnitude as a function of the wind speed, as captured in a so-called geophysical model function (GMF), are exploited in order to retrieve a unique vector wind. The current generation of scatterometer instruments operate at C-band with a single vertical polarisation (i.e. VV), or at Ku-band with VV for the first beam and HH for the second beam. The co-polarised radar backscatter, i.e., VV and to a lesser extend HH, saturate above a wind speed of about 25 to 30 m/s, which imposes a serious limitation on the capability of the existing observation systems. Such a limitation leads, e.g., to misestimation of extreme winds, errors in storm predictions and limitations in weather prediction warnings. Recently, observations of storm events along the North American coasts by Radarsat-2 and comparisons with in-situ buoy data revealed a high sensitivity of C-band cross-polarised backscatter signal intensity (i.e. VH or HV) with high wind speeds. This prompted the ocean vector wind community to further explore the limit of the cross-polar response. Establishing a new GMF requires accurate in-situ information of the vector wind field together with collocated scatterometer observation data, but these are extremely rare at extreme winds. A more successful collocation approach

  16. Wide-area littoral discreet observation: success at the tactical edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Susan; Hughes, William; Ladas, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    In June 2011, the United States Army Research Laboratory (ARL) participated in Empire Challenge 2011 (EC-11). EC-11 was United States Joint Forces Command's (USJFCOM) annual live, joint and coalition intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) interoperability demonstration under the sponsorship of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence (USD/I). EC-11 consisted of a series of ISR interoperability events, using a combination of modeling & simulation, laboratory and live-fly events. Wide-area Littoral Discreet Observation (WALDO) was ARL's maritime/littoral capability. WALDO met a USD(I) directive that EC-11 have a maritime component and WALDO was the primary player in the maritime scenario conducted at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina. The WALDO effort demonstrated the utility of a networked layered sensor array deployed in a maritime littoral environment, focusing on maritime surveillance targeting counter-drug, counter-piracy and suspect activity in a littoral or riverine environment. In addition to an embedded analytical capability, the sensor array and control infrastructure consisted of the Oriole acoustic sensor, iScout unattended ground sensor (UGS), OmniSense UGS, the Compact Radar and the Universal Distributed Management System (UDMS), which included the Proxy Skyraider, an optionally manned aircraft mounting both wide and narrow FOV EO/IR imaging sensors. The capability seeded a littoral area with riverine and unattended sensors in order to demonstrate the utility of a Wide Area Sensor (WAS) capability in a littoral environment focused on maritime surveillance activities. The sensors provided a cue for WAS placement/orbit. A narrow field of view sensor would be used to focus on more discreet activities within the WAS footprint. Additionally, the capability experimented with novel WAS orbits to determine if there are more optimal orbits for WAS collection in a littoral environment. The demonstration objectives for WALDO at EC-11 were

  17. Soil Moisture Retrievals Using L-band Radiometer Observations in SMEX02: Successes and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosson, W. L.; Limaye, A. S.; Laymon, C. A.

    2004-05-01

    Measurements at L-band are widely considered to be optimal for soil moisture remote sensing, taking into account emitting depth and complications arising from roughness and vegetation. Although there is no operational satellite-borne L-band radiometer today, plans are underway to deploy one by the end of the decade. During the Soil Moisture Experiments in 2002 (SMEX02), the Passive and Active L and S-band (PALS) instrument was flown over the Walnut Creek Watershed in Iowa. This agricultural region was selected to facilitate testing of microwave remote sensing algorithms under conditions of highly variable and sometimes dense vegetation cover. L-band brightness temperature observations from PALS were used to retrieve near-surface soil moisture for conditions representative of the dominant corn and soybean land covers in the watershed. Sensitivities of the retrieved soil moisture to surface temperature, surface roughness and the vegetation B parameter have been evaluated for both crops. Retrievals for corn were found to be highly sensitive to the vegetation B parameter, while retrievals for soybeans were most sensitive to surface roughness. The vegetation water content of approximately 4 kg/m2 for the corn sites appears to be high enough to make soil moisture retrievals problematic, but retrievals appear relatively robust for soybeans with a vegetation water content of 0.3-0.7 kg/m2. For both corn and soybeans there is considerable overlap in the parameter spaces (combinations of surface roughness and vegetation B parameter) that yield accurate moisture retrievals for three wet days analyzed, but these parameter values do not translate well to dry conditions. This may indicate potential deficiencies in the roughness and vegetation correction algorithms for agricultural areas and raises concerns about global operational soil moisture retrieval from satellite-borne microwave sensors.

  18. Observation and Modeling of Tsunami-Generated Gravity Waves in the Earth’s Upper Atmosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-15

    Observation and modeling of tsunami -generated gravity waves in the earth’s upper atmosphere 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR...ABSTRACT Build a compatible set of models which 1) calculate the atmospheric gravity waves (GWs) excited by a tsunami , 2) propagate these GWs into...modeling of tsunami -generated gravity waves in the earth’s upper atmosphere Sharon L. Vadas NWRA/CoRA 3380 S. Mitchell Lane Boulder, CO 80301, USA phone

  19. A theory of electron cyclotron waves generated along auroral field lines observed by ground facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. S.; Yoon, Peter H.; Freund, H. P.

    1989-01-01

    A generation mechanism for radio waves in the frequency range 150 - 700 kHz observed by ground facilities is suggested in terms of an electromagnetic electron cyclotron instability driven by auroral electrons. The excited waves can propagate downward along the ambient magnetic field lines and are thus observable with ground facilities. The trapped auroral electrons are supposed to play an important role in the generation process, because they give rise to a thermal anisotropy which consequently leads to the instability. The present work is a natural extension of the theory proposed earlier by Wu et al. (1983) which was discussed in a different context but may be used to explain the observed waves originated at low altitudes. This paper presents a possible wave generation mechanism valid in the entire auroral field-line region of interest.

  20. Making Sure They Make It! Best Practices for Ensuring the Academic Success of First-Generation College Students. CIC/Walmart College Success Awards Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Kerry J.

    2013-01-01

    A baccalaureate degree is essential to success in the contemporary United States. The degree offers improved economic security and the development of capabilities such as critical thinking, effective communication, quantitative reasoning, creativity, problem solving, personal and social responsibility, and social and cultural capital. Failure to…

  1. Experimental observation of gravity-capillary solitary waves generated by a moving air-suction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Beomchan; Cho, Yeunwoo

    2016-11-01

    Gravity-capillary solitary waves are generated by a moving "air-suction" forcing instead of a moving "air-blowing" forcing. The air-suction forcing moves horizontally over the surface of deep water with speeds close to the minimum linear phase speed cmin = 23 cm/s. Three different states are observed according to forcing speed below cmin. At relatively low speeds below cmin, small-amplitude linear circular depressions are observed, and they move steadily ahead of and along with the moving forcing. As the forcing speed increases close to cmin, however, nonlinear 3-D gravity-capillary solitary waves are observed, and they move steadily ahead of and along with the moving forcing. Finally, when the forcing speed is very close to cmin, oblique shedding phenomena of 3-D gravity-capillary solitary waves are observed ahead of the moving forcing. We found that all the linear and nonlinear wave patterns generated by the air-suction forcing correspond to those generated by the air-blowing forcing. The main difference is that 3-D gravity-capillary solitary waves are observed "ahead of" the air-suction forcing, whereas the same waves are observed "behind" the air-blowing forcing. This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2014R1A1A1002441).

  2. Observations of Ionospheric ELF and VLF Wave Generation by Excitation of the Thermal Cubic Nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. C.; Fujimaru, S.; Kotovsky, D. A.; Gołkowski, M.

    2013-12-01

    Extremely-low-frequency (ELF, 3-3000 Hz) and very-low-frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) waves generated by the excitation of the thermal cubic nonlinearity are observed for the first time at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program high-frequency transmitter in Gakona, Alaska. The observed ELF and VLF field amplitudes are the strongest generated by any high frequency (HF, 3-30 MHz) heating facility using this mechanism to date. This manner of ELF and VLF generation is independent of naturally forming currents, such as the auroral electrojet current system. Time-of-arrival analysis applied to experimental observations shows that the thermal cubic ELF and VLF source region is located within the collisional D-region ionosphere. Observations are compared with the predictions of a theoretical HF heating model using perturbation theory. For the experiments performed, two X-mode HF waves were transmitted at frequencies ω1 and ω2, with |ω2-2ω1| being in the ELF and VLF frequency range. In contrast with previous work, we determine that the ELF and VLF source is dominantly produced by the interaction between collision frequency oscillations at frequency ω2-ω1 and the polarization current density associated with the lower frequency HF wave at frequency ω1. This specific interaction has been neglected in past cubic thermal nonlinearity work, and it plays a major role in the generation of ELF and VLF waves.

  3. Observations of ionospheric ELF and VLF wave generation by excitation of the thermal cubic nonlinearity.

    PubMed

    Moore, R C; Fujimaru, S; Kotovsky, D A; Gołkowski, M

    2013-12-06

    Extremely-low-frequency (ELF, 3-3000 Hz) and very-low-frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) waves generated by the excitation of the thermal cubic nonlinearity are observed for the first time at the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program high-frequency transmitter in Gakona, Alaska. The observed ELF and VLF field amplitudes are the strongest generated by any high frequency (HF, 3-30 MHz) heating facility using this mechanism to date. This manner of ELF and VLF generation is independent of naturally forming currents, such as the auroral electrojet current system. Time-of-arrival analysis applied to experimental observations shows that the thermal cubic ELF and VLF source region is located within the collisional D-region ionosphere. Observations are compared with the predictions of a theoretical HF heating model using perturbation theory. For the experiments performed, two X-mode HF waves were transmitted at frequencies ω1 and ω2, with |ω2-2ω1| being in the ELF and VLF frequency range. In contrast with previous work, we determine that the ELF and VLF source is dominantly produced by the interaction between collision frequency oscillations at frequency ω2-ω1 and the polarization current density associated with the lower frequency HF wave at frequency ω1. This specific interaction has been neglected in past cubic thermal nonlinearity work, and it plays a major role in the generation of ELF and VLF waves.

  4. Long-term propagation of tree shrew spermatogonial stem cells in culture and successful generation of transgenic offspring.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao-Hui; Yan, Lan-Zhen; Ban, Wen-Zan; Tu, Qiu; Wu, Yong; Wang, Lin; Bi, Rui; Ji, Shuang; Ma, Yu-Hua; Nie, Wen-Hui; Lv, Long-Bao; Yao, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Xu-Dong; Zheng, Ping

    2017-02-01

    Tree shrews have a close relationship to primates and have many advantages over rodents in biomedical research. However, the lack of gene manipulation methods has hindered the wider use of this animal. Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have been successfully expanded in culture to permit sophisticated gene editing in the mouse and rat. Here, we describe a culture system for the long-term expansion of tree shrew SSCs without the loss of stem cell properties. In our study, thymus cell antigen 1 was used to enrich tree shrew SSCs. RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was active in undifferentiated SSCs, but was downregulated upon the initiation of SSC differentiation. Exposure of tree shrew primary SSCs to recombinant Wnt3a protein during the initial passages of culture enhanced the survival of SSCs. Use of tree shrew Sertoli cells, but not mouse embryonic fibroblasts, as feeder was found to be necessary for tree shrew SSC proliferation, leading to a robust cell expansion and long-term culture. The expanded tree shrew SSCs were transfected with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing lentiviral vectors. After transplantation into sterilized adult male tree shrew's testes, the EGFP-tagged SSCs were able to restore spermatogenesis and successfully generate transgenic offspring. Moreover, these SSCs were suitable for the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene modification. The development of a culture system to expand tree shrew SSCs in combination with a gene editing approach paves the way for precise genome manipulation using the tree shrew.

  5. Approach of virtual observations generation of a multi-reference GPS station network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guorong

    2007-11-01

    The generation of virtual reference station observations to relay the corrections to the rover receiver for use with standard RTK software is one of important architectures of reference station networks RTK positioning. The approach of virtual observations generation based on a multi-reference GPS station network is presented in this paper. Ambiguities for the baselines in the reference network are determined firstly. The inter-reference-station differential spatially-correlated errors are estimated using highly accurate coordinates of the reference stations and resolved ambiguities. These spatially-correlated errors are interpolated among the network region as corrections. These network-generated corrections are used to correct the zero-differential observables of one reference station, which is usually the closest one to the rover (the so-called primary reference station). These corrected zero-differential observables, named virtual observations, are processed using conventional single reference station differential GPS algorithms. A test conducted using regional reference networks in Jiangsu(China) demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach to reduce the time to integer ambiguity resolution, and to increase the distance over which centimeter level accuracies can be achieved.

  6. Experimental Observation of the Blob-Generation Mechanism from Interchange Waves in a Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Podesta, M.; Fasoli, A.; Poli, F. M.; Ricci, P.; Theiler, C.; Brunner, S.; Diallo, A.; Graves, J.; Mueller, S. H.

    2008-02-08

    The mechanism for blob generation in a toroidal magnetized plasma is investigated using time-resolved measurements of two-dimensional structures of electron density, temperature, and plasma potential. The blobs are observed to form from a radially elongated structure that is sheared off by the ExB flow. The structure is generated by an interchange wave that increases in amplitude and extends radially in response to a decrease of the radial pressure scale length. The dependence of the blob amplitude upon the pressure radial scale length is discussed.

  7. Modeling the final phase of landfill gas generation from long-term observations.

    PubMed

    Tintner, Johannes; Kühleitner, Manfred; Binner, Erwin; Brunner, Norbert; Smidt, Ena

    2012-06-01

    For waste management, methane emissions from landfills and their effect on climate change are of serious concern. Current models for biogas generation that focus on the economic use of the landfill gas are usually based on first order chemical reactions (exponential decay), underestimating the long-term emissions of landfills. The presented study concentrated on the curve fitting and the quantification of the gas generation during the final degradation phase under optimal anaerobic conditions. For this purpose the long-term gas generation (240-1,830 days) of different mechanically biologically treated (MBT) waste materials was measured. In this study the late gas generation was modeled by a log-normal distribution curve to gather the maximum gas generation potential. According to the log-normal model the observed gas sum curve leads to higher values than commonly used exponential decay models. The prediction of the final phase of landfill gas generation by a fitting model provides a basis for CO(2) balances in waste management and some information to which extent landfills serve as carbon sink.

  8. Observational properties of dayside throat aurora and implications on the possible generation mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, D.-S.; Hietala, H.; Chen, X.-C.; Nishimura, Y.; Lyons, L. R.; Liu, J.-J.; Hu, H.-Q.; Yang, H.-G.

    2017-02-01

    Observational properties of throat aurora are investigated in detail by using 7 year continuous auroral observations obtained at Yellow River Station (magnetic latitude 76.24°N). From our inspection, throat aurora is often observed under the condition of stripy diffuse aurora contacting with the persistent discrete auroral oval, and the long-period throat aurora observations generally consist of intermittent subsequences of throat aurora brightening followed by poleward moving auroral form and throat aurora dimming. We also noticed that the orientation of throat aurora is aligned along the ionospheric convection flow, and its local time distribution shows clear dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By component. These observational results indicate that factors inside the magnetosphere may play important role on occurrence of throat aurora. We thus suggest that throat aurora may present the ionospheric signature of redistribution of reconnection rate on the magnetopause by cold magnetospheric plasma flowing into the reconnection site. In addition, we also found that the occurrence rate of throat aurora clearly decreases with increase of the IMF cone angle (arccos(|Bx|/B)), which is very similar with the occurrence rate of high-speed jet (HSJ) observed in magnetosheath depending on the IMF cone angle. This is suggested as that the HSJs occurred outside the magnetosphere may also play important role for generation of throat aurora by triggering magnetopause reconnection or by direct impacting. Although further studies are needed to clarify how the throat auroras are generated in detail, the relevant observations about throat aurora have presented important implications on a variety open questions, such as distribution and generation of cold plasma structures in the outer magnetosphere, magnetopause deformation, and possible relation between HSJ and reconnection.

  9. Advanced Virgo Interferometer: a Second Generation Detector for Gravitational Waves Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Agathos, M.; Allocca, A.; Astone, P.; Ballardin, G.; Barone, F.; Barsuglia, M.; Basti, A.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Belczynski, C.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blom, M.; Boer, M.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Boschi, V.; Bosi, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Branchesi, M.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brisson, V.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Canuel, B.; Carbognani, F.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Cuoco, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Dattilo, V.; Davier, M.; Day, R.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Dereli, H.; De Rosa, R.; di Fiore, L.; di Lieto, A.; di Virgilio, A.; Drago, M.; Endrőczi, G.; Fafone, V.; Farinon, S.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garufi, F.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Giazotto, A.; Gouaty, R.; Granata, M.; Groot, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Heidmann, A.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Jaranowski, P.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Kasprzack, M.; Kéfélian, F.; Kowalska, I.; Królak, A.; Kutynia, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, T. G. F.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Losurdo, G.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mangano, V.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martinelli, L.; Masserot, A.; Meacher, D.; Meidam, J.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Minenkov, Y.; Mohan, M.; Morgado, N.; Mours, B.; Nagy, M. F.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, I.; Neri, M.; Nocera, F.; Palomba, C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoletti, R.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pinard, L.; Poggiani, R.; Prijatelj, M.; Prodi, G. A.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Rapagnani, P.; Re, V.; Regimbau, T.; Ricci, F.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Romano, R.; Rosińska, D.; Ruggi, P.; Saracco, E.; Sassolas, B.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Shah, S.; Siellez, K.; Sperandio, L.; Straniero, N.; Sturani, R.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Ter Braack, A. P. M.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Travasso, F.; Vajente, G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J.; Vasúth, M.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vocca, H.; Wei, L.-W.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zendri, J.-P.

    2015-03-01

    In the last ten years great improvements have been done in the development and operation of ground based detectors for Gravitational Waves direct observation and study. The second generation detectors are presently under construction in Italy, United States and Japan with a common intent to create a worldwide network of instruments able to start a new era in astronomy and astrophysics, a century after the development of the General Relativity theory predicting the existence of Gravitational Waves. The design sensitivity of the advanced detectors will be approximately ten times better with respect to the previous generation corresponding to an increment of a factor one thousand in the observational volume of the Universe where black holes, neutron stars and other enigmatic sources of these weak signals are spread around. In this paper we present a general overview of the advanced detectors with particular emphasis on Advanced VIRGO, the largest European interferometer located at the European Gravitational Observatory (EGO) site in the Pisa countryside (Italy).

  10. Experimental observation of cumulative second-harmonic generation of lamb waves propagating in long bones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenggang; Liu, Dan; Deng, Mingxi; Ta, Dean; Wang, Weiqi

    2014-07-01

    The experimental observation of cumulative second-harmonic generation of fundamental Lamb waves in long bones is reported. Based on the modal expansion approach to waveguide excitation and the dispersion characteristics of Lamb waves in long bones, the mechanism underlying the generation and accumulation of second harmonics by propagation of the fundamental Lamb waves was investigated. An experimental setup was established to detect the second-harmonic signals of Lamb wave propagation in long bones in vitro. Through analysis of the group velocities of the received signals, the appropriate fundamental Lamb wave modes and the duration of the second-harmonic signals could be identified. The integrated amplitude of the time-domain second-harmonic signal was introduced and used to characterize the efficiency of second-harmonic generation by fundamental Lamb wave propagation. The results indicate that the second-harmonic signal generated by fundamental Lamb waves propagating in long bones can be observed clearly, and the effect was cumulative with propagation distance when the fundamental Lamb wave mode and the double-frequency Lamb wave mode had the same phase velocities. The present results may be important in the development of a new method to evaluate the status of long bones using the cumulative second harmonic of ultrasonic Lamb waves.

  11. Kilometric radio waves generated along auroral field lines observed by ground facilities - A theoretical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Wu, C. S.; Yoon, Peter H.

    1991-01-01

    A theory of generation of radio waves observed by ground-based facilities in the frequency range 150-700 kHz is discussed. This work is a continuation of an earlier discussion (Wu et al., 1989) in which it was proposed that the trapped electrons along the auroral field lines can lead to a cyclotron instability which amplifies the whistler waves observed at ground level. The objective of the present study is to investigate the propagation effect on the wave amplification and to examine whether the proposed mechanism is indeed viable.

  12. The German Earth observation programme: building on the success of TerraSAR-X and RapidEye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaadt, Peter

    2007-10-01

    In addition to five years of routine operations of SCIAMACHY on-board of ESA's ENVISAT mission, the launches of the TerraSAR-X and RapidEye missions and the beginning of both their operational phases are the major milestones for the German Space Programme in 2007 and 2008. These two missions will contribute significantly to the European GMES-Initiative and to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and enhance the knowledge about state and dynamics of the Earth's system. Both missions are implemented under public-private-partnership between government and industry, an innovative economic scheme for space mission implementation. With the TanDEM-X and the Hyperspectral EnMAP mission this efficient way of sharing competences, costs and responsibilities on one hand and benefits on the other hand will be further followed. In addition, with MetImage Germany started the development of an imaging radiometer for the European post-EPS satellite system of EUMETSAT. These five attractive missions are important contributions of the German Earth Observation Community to the global system. This investment underlines the political objective of Europe and Germany to advance the environmental agenda. In parallel technology developments for next generation Earth Observation instruments have started, namely High Resolution Wide Swath SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar), IR detectors and coolers, optical components and mechanisms for LEO and GEO and high power Mixed Garnet laser transmitters for LIDAR (Light Detecting and Ranging) applications. With these activities Germany will be able to provide future Earth Observation missions with suitable technologies as an answer to the increasing complexity of user requirements. In this paper the objectives and the strategy of the German Earth Observation Programme will be explained and the main elements, i.e. missions and technology developments as well as the plans for the future will be introduced.

  13. Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Development and Global Competitiveness of US Space Transportation Industry: Critical Success Factors Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enyinda, Chris I.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the unrelenting call in both public and private sectors fora to reduce the high cost associated with space transportation, many innovative partially or fully RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicles) designs (X-34-37) were initiated. This call is directed at all levels of space missions including scientific, military, and commercial and all aspects of the missions such as nonrecurring development, manufacture, launch, and operations. According to Wertz, tbr over thirty years, the cost of space access has remained exceedingly high. The consensus in the popular press is that to decrease the current astronomical cost of access to space, more safer, reliable, and economically viable second generation RLVs (SGRLV) must be developed. Countries such as Brazil, India, Japan, and Israel are now gearing up to enter the global launch market with their own commercial space launch vehicles. NASA and the US space launch industry cannot afford to lag behind. Developing SGRLVs will immeasurably improve the US's space transportation capabilities by helping the US to regain the global commercial space markets while supporting the transportation capabilities of NASA's space missions, Developing the SGRLVs will provide affordable commercial space transportation that will assure the competitiveness of the US commercial space transportation industry in the 21st century. Commercial space launch systems are having difficulty obtaining financing because of the high cost and risk involved. Access to key financial markets is necessary for commercial space ventures. However, public sector programs in the form of tax incentives and credits, as well as loan guarantees are not yet available. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate discussion and assess the critical success factors germane for RLVs development and US global competitiveness.

  14. Observations and Numerical Modeling of Eddy Generation in the Mediterranean Undercurrent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, N.; Ambar, I.; Kaese, R.

    2001-12-01

    In the frame of the European Union MAST III project CANIGO (Canary Islands Gibraltar Azores Observations), RAFOS floats were deployed in the Mediterranean undercurrent off south Portugal during the period from September 1997 to September 1998. An analysis of this Lagrangian approach complemented with results obtained with XBT probes and current meter data from the same project shows some of the major aspects of the flow associated with the undercurrent as well as the eddy activity related with it. Floats that stayed in the undercurrent featured a downstream deceleration and a steering by bottom topography. Three meddy formations at Cape St. Vincent could be isolated from the float data as well as the generation of dipolar structures in the Portimao Canyon, a feature not previously directly observed. The dynamical coupling of meddies and cyclones was observed for a considerable period of time. High-resolution modeling of the Mediterranean Outflow using a sigma-coordinate primitive equations ocean model (SCRUM) incorporating realistic topography and stratification reveals the adjustment of the salty plume while descending along the continental slope of the Gulf of Cadiz channeled by the topography. The model reproduces the generation of eddies in the two observed sites (cape and canyon) and the splitting of the outflow water into well-defined cores.

  15. Observations concerning the generation and propagation of Type III solar bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    A number of Type III bursts were observed during the Helios missions in which the burst exciter passed over the spacecraft, as evidenced by strong electric field fluctuations near the plasma frequency. Six of these were suitable for detailed study. Of the six events, one was ambiguous, one showed what is interpreted as a switchover from harmonic to fundamental, and the rest all generated fundamental at onset. This would be expected if both fundamental and harmonic are generated, as, at a fixed frequency, the fundamental will be generated earlier. For the event which seems to show both fundamental and harmonic emission, the frequency ratio is not exactly 2. This is explained in terms of a time delay of the fundamental, due to scattering and diffusion in the source region. A time delay of the order of 600 seconds at 1 AU and 20 kHz, and inversely proportional to frequency, is required to explain the observations. Crude estimates show that delay times at least this long may be attributed to trapping and scattering.

  16. Real-time observation of interfering crystal electrons in high-harmonic generation.

    PubMed

    Hohenleutner, M; Langer, F; Schubert, O; Knorr, M; Huttner, U; Koch, S W; Kira, M; Huber, R

    2015-07-30

    Acceleration and collision of particles has been a key strategy for exploring the texture of matter. Strong light waves can control and recollide electronic wavepackets, generating high-harmonic radiation that encodes the structure and dynamics of atoms and molecules and lays the foundations of attosecond science. The recent discovery of high-harmonic generation in bulk solids combines the idea of ultrafast acceleration with complex condensed matter systems, and provides hope for compact solid-state attosecond sources and electronics at optical frequencies. Yet the underlying quantum motion has not so far been observable in real time. Here we study high-harmonic generation in a bulk solid directly in the time domain, and reveal a new kind of strong-field excitation in the crystal. Unlike established atomic sources, our solid emits high-harmonic radiation as a sequence of subcycle bursts that coincide temporally with the field crests of one polarity of the driving terahertz waveform. We show that these features are characteristic of a non-perturbative quantum interference process that involves electrons from multiple valence bands. These results identify key mechanisms for future solid-state attosecond sources and next-generation light-wave electronics. The new quantum interference process justifies the hope for all-optical band-structure reconstruction and lays the foundation for possible quantum logic operations at optical clock rates.

  17. First-Generation, Low-Income College Students during the First Semester in Higher Education: Challenges and Successes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chhen Stewart, Lee May

    2012-01-01

    Typically, studies first-generation, low-income students have focused on the financial aid and academic preparedness to enter college and persist. These researchers have found little data about first-generation, low-income students once they enter higher education. One question largely unexplored has been why some first-generation, low-income…

  18. Characteristics of cyclone generated gravity waves observed using assimilated WRF model simulations over Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hima Bindu, H.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Yesubabu, V.; Narayana Rao, T.; Kesarkar, Amit; Naidu, C. V.

    2016-11-01

    Characteristics of gravity waves (GWs) generated due to tropical cyclone (TC) Phailin (2013) that occurred over Bay of Bengal are investigated using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model simulations from its depression stage to weakening stage (10-14 October 2013). Two types of numerical experiments are conducted with and without assimilating conventional and satellite observations using the 3-Dimentional Variational (3DVAR) technique. The results show that the experiment without assimilating any observations (control) has produced a large difference in terms of track and intensity with observed best track estimates of IMD. Similar features are noticed also in winds, reflectivity and independent GPS Radio Occultation (temperature) and radiosonde (temperature and winds) profiles. The experiment with assimilation significantly reduced the observed differences in all the above mentioned parameters. A close match of the assimilated outputs with observations prompted us to use it to identify the TC generated GW characteristics. GW perturbation components are extracted from the three day mean (4-7 October 2013) calm background atmosphere prior to the formation of depression. When compared to the control run, assimilated outputs show a clear increase in all the gravity wave parameters except the amplitudes where control run wave amplitudes are found to be stronger than the assimilated outputs. Fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis in the time domain revealed dominance of GWs with periods of 2-4 h. Band pass filtered vertical velocity perturbations for these periods showed clear downward phase propagation (0.05-0.07 ms- 1) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) at different latitude/longitude positions away from the centre of the TC revealing an upward energy propagation of generated GWs. Interestingly, an increase in GW activity during the landfall of the TC is found. FFT in the vertical domain revealed vertical wavelengths ranging from 3 to 8 km

  19. Observed 3D Structure, Generation, and Dissipation of Oceanic Mesoscale Eddies in the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Tian, Jiwei; Qiu, Bo; Zhao, Wei; Chang, Ping; Wu, Dexing; Wan, Xiuquan

    2016-04-01

    Oceanic mesoscale eddies with horizontal scales of 50–300 km are the most energetic form of flows in the ocean. They are the oceanic analogues of atmospheric storms and are effective transporters of heat, nutrients, dissolved carbon, and other biochemical materials in the ocean. Although oceanic eddies have been ubiquitously observed in the world oceans since 1960s, our understanding of their three-dimensional (3D) structure, generation, and dissipation remains fragmentary due to lack of systematic full water-depth measurements. To bridge this knowledge gap, we designed and conducted a multi-months field campaign, called the South China Sea Mesoscale Eddy Experiment (S-MEE), in the northern South China Sea in 2013/2014. The S-MEE for the first time captured full-depth 3D structures of an anticyclonic and cyclonic eddy pair, which are characterized by a distinct vertical tilt of their axes. By observing the eddy evolution at an upstream versus downstream location and conducting an eddy energy budget analysis, the authors further proposed that generation of submesoscale motions most likely constitutes the dominant dissipation mechanism for the observed eddies.

  20. Observed 3D Structure, Generation, and Dissipation of Oceanic Mesoscale Eddies in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Tian, Jiwei; Qiu, Bo; Zhao, Wei; Chang, Ping; Wu, Dexing; Wan, Xiuquan

    2016-04-14

    Oceanic mesoscale eddies with horizontal scales of 50-300 km are the most energetic form of flows in the ocean. They are the oceanic analogues of atmospheric storms and are effective transporters of heat, nutrients, dissolved carbon, and other biochemical materials in the ocean. Although oceanic eddies have been ubiquitously observed in the world oceans since 1960s, our understanding of their three-dimensional (3D) structure, generation, and dissipation remains fragmentary due to lack of systematic full water-depth measurements. To bridge this knowledge gap, we designed and conducted a multi-months field campaign, called the South China Sea Mesoscale Eddy Experiment (S-MEE), in the northern South China Sea in 2013/2014. The S-MEE for the first time captured full-depth 3D structures of an anticyclonic and cyclonic eddy pair, which are characterized by a distinct vertical tilt of their axes. By observing the eddy evolution at an upstream versus downstream location and conducting an eddy energy budget analysis, the authors further proposed that generation of submesoscale motions most likely constitutes the dominant dissipation mechanism for the observed eddies.

  1. Observed 3D Structure, Generation, and Dissipation of Oceanic Mesoscale Eddies in the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Tian, Jiwei; Qiu, Bo; Zhao, Wei; Chang, Ping; Wu, Dexing; Wan, Xiuquan

    2016-01-01

    Oceanic mesoscale eddies with horizontal scales of 50–300 km are the most energetic form of flows in the ocean. They are the oceanic analogues of atmospheric storms and are effective transporters of heat, nutrients, dissolved carbon, and other biochemical materials in the ocean. Although oceanic eddies have been ubiquitously observed in the world oceans since 1960s, our understanding of their three-dimensional (3D) structure, generation, and dissipation remains fragmentary due to lack of systematic full water-depth measurements. To bridge this knowledge gap, we designed and conducted a multi-months field campaign, called the South China Sea Mesoscale Eddy Experiment (S-MEE), in the northern South China Sea in 2013/2014. The S-MEE for the first time captured full-depth 3D structures of an anticyclonic and cyclonic eddy pair, which are characterized by a distinct vertical tilt of their axes. By observing the eddy evolution at an upstream versus downstream location and conducting an eddy energy budget analysis, the authors further proposed that generation of submesoscale motions most likely constitutes the dominant dissipation mechanism for the observed eddies. PMID:27074710

  2. The Ginger-shaped Asteroid 4179 Toutatis: New Observations from a Successful Flyby of Chang'e-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiangchuan; Ji, Jianghui; Ye, Peijian; Wang, Xiaolei; Yan, Jun; Meng, Linzhi; Wang, Su; Li, Chunlai; Li, Yuan; Qiao, Dong; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Yuhui; Zhang, Tingxin; Liu, Peng; Jiang, Yun; Rao, Wei; Li, Sheng; Huang, Changning; Ip, Wing-Huen; Hu, Shoucun; Zhu, Menghua; Yu, Liangliang; Zou, Yongliao; Tang, Xianglong; Li, Jianyang; Zhao, Haibin; Huang, Hao; Jiang, Xiaojun; Bai, Jinming

    2013-12-01

    On 13 December 2012, Chang'e-2 conducted a successful flyby of the near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis at a closest distance of 770 +/- 120 meters from the asteroid's surface. The highest-resolution image, with a resolution of better than 3 meters, reveals new discoveries on the asteroid, e.g., a giant basin at the big end, a sharply perpendicular silhouette near the neck region, and direct evidence of boulders and regolith, which suggests that Toutatis may bear a rubble-pile structure. Toutatis' maximum physical length and width are (4.75 × 1.95 km) +/-10%, respectively, and the direction of the +z axis is estimated to be (250 +/- 5°, 63 +/- 5°) with respect to the J2000 ecliptic coordinate system. The bifurcated configuration is indicative of a contact binary origin for Toutatis, which is composed of two lobes (head and body). Chang'e-2 observations have significantly improved our understanding of the characteristics, formation, and evolution of asteroids in general.

  3. The ginger-shaped asteroid 4179 Toutatis: new observations from a successful flyby of Chang'e-2.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiangchuan; Ji, Jianghui; Ye, Peijian; Wang, Xiaolei; Yan, Jun; Meng, Linzhi; Wang, Su; Li, Chunlai; Li, Yuan; Qiao, Dong; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Yuhui; Zhang, Tingxin; Liu, Peng; Jiang, Yun; Rao, Wei; Li, Sheng; Huang, Changning; Ip, Wing-Huen; Hu, Shoucun; Zhu, Menghua; Yu, Liangliang; Zou, Yongliao; Tang, Xianglong; Li, Jianyang; Zhao, Haibin; Huang, Hao; Jiang, Xiaojun; Bai, Jinming

    2013-12-12

    On 13 December 2012, Chang'e-2 conducted a successful flyby of the near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis at a closest distance of 770 ± 120 meters from the asteroid's surface. The highest-resolution image, with a resolution of better than 3 meters, reveals new discoveries on the asteroid, e.g., a giant basin at the big end, a sharply perpendicular silhouette near the neck region, and direct evidence of boulders and regolith, which suggests that Toutatis may bear a rubble-pile structure. Toutatis' maximum physical length and width are (4.75 × 1.95 km) ±10%, respectively, and the direction of the +z axis is estimated to be (250 ± 5°, 63 ± 5°) with respect to the J2000 ecliptic coordinate system. The bifurcated configuration is indicative of a contact binary origin for Toutatis, which is composed of two lobes (head and body). Chang'e-2 observations have significantly improved our understanding of the characteristics, formation, and evolution of asteroids in general.

  4. The Ginger-shaped Asteroid 4179 Toutatis: New Observations from a Successful Flyby of Chang'e-2

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiangchuan; Ji, Jianghui; Ye, Peijian; Wang, Xiaolei; Yan, Jun; Meng, Linzhi; Wang, Su; Li, Chunlai; Li, Yuan; Qiao, Dong; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Yuhui; Zhang, Tingxin; Liu, Peng; Jiang, Yun; Rao, Wei; Li, Sheng; Huang, Changning; Ip, Wing-Huen; Hu, Shoucun; Zhu, Menghua; Yu, Liangliang; Zou, Yongliao; Tang, Xianglong; Li, Jianyang; Zhao, Haibin; Huang, Hao; Jiang, Xiaojun; Bai, Jinming

    2013-01-01

    On 13 December 2012, Chang'e-2 conducted a successful flyby of the near-Earth asteroid 4179 Toutatis at a closest distance of 770 ± 120 meters from the asteroid's surface. The highest-resolution image, with a resolution of better than 3 meters, reveals new discoveries on the asteroid, e.g., a giant basin at the big end, a sharply perpendicular silhouette near the neck region, and direct evidence of boulders and regolith, which suggests that Toutatis may bear a rubble-pile structure. Toutatis' maximum physical length and width are (4.75 × 1.95 km) ±10%, respectively, and the direction of the +z axis is estimated to be (250 ± 5°, 63 ± 5°) with respect to the J2000 ecliptic coordinate system. The bifurcated configuration is indicative of a contact binary origin for Toutatis, which is composed of two lobes (head and body). Chang'e-2 observations have significantly improved our understanding of the characteristics, formation, and evolution of asteroids in general. PMID:24336501

  5. Observation of the controlled assembly of preclick components in the in situ click chemistry generation of a chitinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Tomoyasu; Maita, Nobuo; Gouda, Hiroaki; Koseki, Jun; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Sugawara, Akihiro; Nakano, Hirofumi; Hirono, Shuichi; Shiomi, Kazuro; Watanabe, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Hisaaki; Sharpless, K Barry; Omura, Satoshi; Sunazuka, Toshiaki

    2013-10-01

    The Huisgen cycloaddition of azides and alkynes, accelerated by target biomolecules, termed "in situ click chemistry," has been successfully exploited to discover highly potent enzyme inhibitors. We have previously reported a specific Serratia marcescens chitinase B (SmChiB)-templated syn-triazole inhibitor generated in situ from an azide-bearing inhibitor and an alkyne fragment. Several in situ click chemistry studies have been reported. Although some mechanistic evidence has been obtained, such as X-ray analysis of [protein]-["click ligand"] complexes, indicating that proteins act as both mold and template between unique pairs of azide and alkyne fragments, to date, observations have been based solely on "postclick" structural information. Here, we describe crystal structures of SmChiB complexed with an azide ligand and an O-allyl oxime fragment as a mimic of a click partner, revealing a mechanism for accelerating syn-triazole formation, which allows generation of its own distinct inhibitor. We have also performed density functional theory calculations based on the X-ray structure to explore the acceleration of the Huisgen cycloaddition by SmChiB. The density functional theory calculations reasonably support that SmChiB plays a role by the cage effect during the pretranslation and posttranslation states of selective syn-triazole click formation.

  6. Sound measurements and observations of the MOD-OA wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1982-01-01

    Sound measurements are reported for a wind velocity of about 5 m/s and a power output of about 70 kW. Both broadband and narrowband data were obtained for a range of distances and azimuth angles from the machine. Both discrete frequency and broadband components were identified. Loading harmonics at multiples of the blade passage frequency and electrical generator harmonics at multiples of the shaft speed dominated the spectrum below 100 Hz. The 10,000 Hz peak is believed to be of mechanical origin in the nacelle and the other arises from blade aerodynamic sources. Aural detection distances of about 525 m upwind and 850 downwind were observed.

  7. Sound measurements and observations of the MOD-OA wind turbine generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, K. P.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1982-02-01

    Sound measurements are reported for a wind velocity of about 5 m/s and a power output of about 70 kW. Both broadband and narrowband data were obtained for a range of distances and azimuth angles from the machine. Both discrete frequency and broadband components were identified. Loading harmonics at multiples of the blade passage frequency and electrical generator harmonics at multiples of the shaft speed dominated the spectrum below 100 Hz. The 10,000 Hz peak is believed to be of mechanical origin in the nacelle and the other arises from blade aerodynamic sources. Aural detection distances of about 525 m upwind and 850 downwind were observed.

  8. Comparison between model predictions and observations of ELF radio atmospherics generated by rocket-triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, N. A.; Moore, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Model predictions of the ELF radio atmospheric generated by rocket-triggered lightning are compared with observations performed at Arrival Heights, Antarctica. The ability to infer source characteristics using observations at great distances may prove to greatly enhance the understanding of lightning processes that are associated with the production of transient luminous events (TLEs) as well as other ionospheric effects associated with lightning. The modeling of the sferic waveform is carried out using a modified version of the Long Wavelength Propagation Capability (LWPC) code developed by the Naval Ocean Systems Center over a period of many years. LWPC is an inherently narrowband propagation code that has been modified to predict the broadband response of the Earth-ionosphere waveguide to an impulsive lightning flash while preserving the ability of LWPC to account for an inhomogeneous waveguide. ELF observations performed at Arrival Heights, Antarctica during rocket-triggered lightning experiments at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) located at Camp Blanding, Florida are presented. The lightning current waveforms directly measured at the base of the lightning channel (at the ICLRT) are used together with LWPC to predict the sferic waveform observed at Arrival Heights under various ionospheric conditions. This paper critically compares observations with model predictions.

  9. Comparison of Retention Factors between First-Generation and Second- and Third-Generation College Students and Development of the Likelihood of Success Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gerri Brown

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the retention factors between first-generation college students and second- and third-generation college students in the postsecondary educational setting. This study examined the differences in the preselected retention factors: faculty-student interaction, college mentor, academic support, residential…

  10. The Relationship of Perceived Intellectual and Social Attainment to Academic Success of First-Generation, First-Year College Students Participating in a First Generation Access Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Dyonne Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to advance understanding of perceived intellectual and social attainment gains of first-generation, first-year college students participating in First Generation Access Programs at the University of South Florida (USF), a large, public research university in Florida. Understanding the self-reported intellectual and…

  11. On the generation of the sequence of diffuse resonances observed on top side ionograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    Two different plasma wave instabilities have been invoked in earlier models for the generation of top side ionogram diffuse resonances. Arguments are presented that support the model based on the Harris instability, i.e., the instability resulting from a sounder-stimulated anisotropic electron velocity distribution. Two modifications to this model are also presented. First, it is only necessary for the instability mechanism to operate for a period of the order of milliseconds (rather than tens of milliseconds) in order to explain the observations. Second, the wave associated with the second harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency, which enters into the nonlinear wave-wave interaction process included in the model, comes from the side bands of the transmitted sounder pulse rather than from the turbulent state of the plasma caused by the pulse. The second modification provides an explanation for the variation of the time duration observed among the members of the sequence of diffuse resonances.

  12. Runoff-generated debris flows: Observations and modeling of surge initiation, magnitude, and frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kean, Jason W.; McCoy, Scott W.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Staley, Dennis M.; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2013-12-01

    during intense rainstorms plays a major role in generating debris flows in many alpine areas and burned steeplands. Yet compared to debris flow initiation from shallow landslides, the mechanics by which runoff generates a debris flow are less understood. To better understand debris flow initiation by surface water runoff, we monitored flow stage and rainfall associated with debris flows in the headwaters of two small catchments: a bedrock-dominated alpine basin in central Colorado (0.06 km2) and a recently burned area in southern California (0.01 km2). We also obtained video footage of debris flow initiation and flow dynamics from three cameras at the Colorado site. Stage observations at both sites display distinct patterns in debris flow surge characteristics relative to rainfall intensity (I). We observe small, quasiperiodic surges at low I; large, quasiperiodic surges at intermediate I; and a single large surge followed by small-amplitude fluctuations about a more steady high flow at high I. Video observations of surge formation lead us to the hypothesis that these flow patterns are controlled by upstream variations in channel slope, in which low-gradient sections act as "sediment capacitors," temporarily storing incoming bed load transported by water flow and periodically releasing the accumulated sediment as a debris flow surge. To explore this hypothesis, we develop a simple one-dimensional morphodynamic model of a sediment capacitor that consists of a system of coupled equations for water flow, bed load transport, slope stability, and mass flow. This model reproduces the essential patterns in surge magnitude and frequency with rainfall intensity observed at the two field sites and provides a new framework for predicting the runoff threshold for debris flow initiation in a burned or alpine setting.

  13. Runoff-generated debris flows: observations and modeling of surge initiation, magnitude, and frequency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kean, Jason W.; McCoy, Scott W.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Staley, Dennis M.; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Runoff during intense rainstorms plays a major role in generating debris flows in many alpine areas and burned steeplands. Yet compared to debris flow initiation from shallow landslides, the mechanics by which runoff generates a debris flow are less understood. To better understand debris flow initiation by surface water runoff, we monitored flow stage and rainfall associated with debris flows in the headwaters of two small catchments: a bedrock-dominated alpine basin in central Colorado (0.06 km2) and a recently burned area in southern California (0.01 km2). We also obtained video footage of debris flow initiation and flow dynamics from three cameras at the Colorado site. Stage observations at both sites display distinct patterns in debris flow surge characteristics relative to rainfall intensity (I). We observe small, quasiperiodic surges at low I; large, quasiperiodic surges at intermediate I; and a single large surge followed by small-amplitude fluctuations about a more steady high flow at high I. Video observations of surge formation lead us to the hypothesis that these flow patterns are controlled by upstream variations in channel slope, in which low-gradient sections act as “sediment capacitors,” temporarily storing incoming bed load transported by water flow and periodically releasing the accumulated sediment as a debris flow surge. To explore this hypothesis, we develop a simple one-dimensional morphodynamic model of a sediment capacitor that consists of a system of coupled equations for water flow, bed load transport, slope stability, and mass flow. This model reproduces the essential patterns in surge magnitude and frequency with rainfall intensity observed at the two field sites and provides a new framework for predicting the runoff threshold for debris flow initiation in a burned or alpine setting.

  14. Observation of magnetic field generation via the Weibel instability in interpenetrating plasma flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, C. M.; Fiuza, F.; Ross, J. S.; Zylstra, A. B.; Drake, R. P.; Froula, D. H.; Gregori, G.; Kugland, N. L.; Kuranz, C. C.; Levy, M. C.; Li, C. K.; Meinecke, J.; Morita, T.; Petrasso, R.; Plechaty, C.; Remington, B. A.; Ryutov, D. D.; Sakawa, Y.; Spitkovsky, A.; Takabe, H.; Park, H.-S.

    2015-02-01

    Collisionless shocks can be produced as a result of strong magnetic fields in a plasma flow, and therefore are common in many astrophysical systems. The Weibel instability is one candidate mechanism for the generation of sufficiently strong fields to create a collisionless shock. Despite their crucial role in astrophysical systems, observation of the magnetic fields produced by Weibel instabilities in experiments has been challenging. Using a proton probe to directly image electromagnetic fields, we present evidence of Weibel-generated magnetic fields that grow in opposing, initially unmagnetized plasma flows from laser-driven laboratory experiments. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations reveal that the instability efficiently extracts energy from the plasma flows, and that the self-generated magnetic energy reaches a few percent of the total energy in the system. This result demonstrates an experimental platform suitable for the investigation of a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, including collisionless shock formation in supernova remnants, large-scale magnetic field amplification, and the radiation signature from gamma-ray bursts.

  15. Simultaneous observations of storm-generated sprite and gravity wave over Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chien-Chung; Dai, Jeff; Kuo, Cheng-Ling; Huang, Tai-Yin

    2016-09-01

    We report simultaneous observations of sprite and gravity wave generated by a storm over Bangladesh. The origin of a concentric gravity wave can be traced to the storm region on 27 April 2014 over Bangladesh with a low cloud top surface temperature (175 K). After data analysis, the time period of the concentric gravity wave is found to be 8.8-8.9 min. The horizontal wavelength is found to be 50 km for red emissions ( 55 km for green emissions), and the horizontal phase velocity is 94.4 ± 31.7 m s-1 for red emissions (102.6 ± 29.4 m s-1 for green emissions). Using the dispersion relation of gravity wave, the elevation angle of wave propagation direction is found to be 53.3°. The sprite associated with the gravity wave was also recorded at 1534 UT on 27 April 2014. The initiation time of storm-generated gravity wave is estimated to be 1454 UT at which lightning activity was relatively low using lightning data. At time 1534 UT of the recorded sprite, the lightning rate was close to its maximum value. The storm-generated gravity wave could be thought as a precursor phenomenon for lightning and sprites since one of the necessary conditions for gravity wave, lightning, and sprites is strong convection inside storms.

  16. Designing a high-availability cluster for the Subaru Telescope second generation observation control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeschke, Eric; Inagaki, Takeshi

    2010-07-01

    Subaru Telescope is commissioning a second-generation Observation Control System (OCS), building upon a 10 hear history of using the first generation OCS. One of the primary lessons learned about maintaining a distributed OCS system is that the idea of individual computer nodes specialized for specific functions greatly complicates troubleshooting and failover, even with a dedicated "hot spare" for each specialized node. In contrast, the Generation 2 (Gen2) system was designed from the ground up around the principle of a High-Availability (HA) cluster, commonly used for high-traffic, mission-critical web sites. In such a cluster, nodes are not specialized, and any node can perform any function of the OCS. We describe the problems encountered in trying to troubleshoot and manage failure on the legacy OCS system and describe the architectural design of the HA cluster for the new system, including special characteristics designed for the high-altitude, remote environment of the summit of Mauna Kea, where there is a greatly increased probability of such failures. Although the focus is primarily on the hardware, we touch upon the software architecture written to take advantage of the features of the HA cluster design. Finally, we outline the advantages of the new system and show how the design greatly facilitates troubleshooting, robustness and ease of failure management. The results may be of interest to anyone designing a distributed system using COTS hardware and open-source software to withstand failure and improve manageability in a remote environment.

  17. Observation of magnetic field generation via the Weibel instability in interpenetrating plasma flows

    SciTech Connect

    Huntington, C. M.; Fiuza, F.; Ross, J. S.; Zylstra, A. B.; Drake, R. P.; Froula, D. H.; Gregori, G.; Kugland, N. L.; Kuranz, C. C.; Levy, M. C.; Li, C. K.; Meinecke, J.; Morita, T.; Petrasso, R.; Plechaty, C.; Remington, B. A.; Ryutov, D. D.; Sakawa, Y.; Spitkovsky, A.; Takabe, H.; Park, H.-S.

    2015-01-19

    Collisionless shocks can be produced as a result of strong magnetic fields in a plasma flow, and therefore are common in many astrophysical systems. The Weibel instability is one candidate mechanism for the generation of su fficiently strong fields to create a collisionless shock. Despite their crucial role in astrophysical systems, observation of the magnetic fields produced by Weibel instabilities in experiments has been challenging. Using a proton probe to directly image electromagnetic fields, we present evidence of Weibel-generated magnetic fields that grow in opposing, initially unmagnetized plasma flows from laser-driven laboratory experiments. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations reveal that the instability effi ciently extracts energy from the plasma flows, and that the self-generated magnetic energy reaches a few percent of the total energy in the system. Furthermore, this result demonstrates an experimental platform suitable for the investigation of a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, including collisionless shock formation in supernova remnants, large-scale magnetic field amplification, and the radiation signature from gamma-ray bursts.

  18. On the Generation of Multiple Atmospheric Pressure Waves Observed During Violent Volcanic Eruptions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medici, E. F.; Waite, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    One or more atmospheric pressure waves followed by a supersonic jet may be generated during the over pressurized vapor-solid-liquid mixture ejection of a violent volcanic eruption. The source of these multiple atmospheric pressure waves could have different origins. Among the physical mechanisms that could explain these behaviors are pulsating eruptions, the dynamics of shock waves, coupled pressure wave-supersonic jet interaction, or a combination of all these factors. In order to elucidate the causes of these complex fluid flow dynamics, a series of analog volcanic eruption experiments using an atmospheric shock tube were performed. During the testing, single and multiple pressure waves and the subsequent supersonic jet were generated. The controlled laboratory conditions enable studies of the most relevant variables potentially responsible for the formation of the multiple pressure waves. The tests were performed using dry, compressed nitrogen at standard room temperature that was free of particles. Yet, under this idealization of a real volcanic eruption, multiple pressure waves were observed on the high-speed video imaging and recorded on the pressure transducer. The amount of energy being released on each test was varied to achieve different discharge dynamics and the formation of single and multiple pressure waves. The preliminary experimental observations indicate a coupled pressure wave-jet interaction as source of multiple pressure waves.

  19. Extracting More Information from Passive Optical Tracking Observations for Reliable Orbit Element Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, J.; Gehly, S.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents results from a preliminary method for extracting more orbital information from low rate passive optical tracking data. An improvement in the accuracy of the observation data yields more accurate and reliable orbital elements. A comparison between the orbit propagations from the orbital element generated using the new data processing method is compared with the one generated from the raw observation data for several objects. Optical tracking data collected by EOS Space Systems, located on Mount Stromlo, Australia, is fitted to provide a new orbital element. The element accuracy is determined from a comparison between the predicted orbit and subsequent tracking data or reference orbit if available. The new method is shown to result in a better orbit prediction which has important implications in conjunction assessments and the Space Environment Research Centre space object catalogue. The focus is on obtaining reliable orbital solutions from sparse data. This work forms part of the collaborative effort of the Space Environment Management Cooperative Research Centre which is developing new technologies and strategies to preserve the space environment (www.serc.org.au).

  20. Performance Evaluation of New-Generation Pulse Oximeters in the NICU: Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Nizami, Shermeen; Greenwood, Kim; Barrowman, Nick; Harrold, JoAnn

    2015-09-01

    This crossover observational study compares the data characteristics and performance of new-generation Nellcor OXIMAX and Masimo SET SmartPod pulse oximeter technologies. The study was conducted independent of either original equipment manufacturer (OEM) across eleven preterm infants in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The SmartPods were integrated with Dräger Infinity Delta monitors. The Delta monitor measured the heart rate (HR) using an independent electrocardiogram sensor, and the two SmartPods collected arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and pulse rate (PR). All patient data were non-Gaussian. Nellcor PR showed a higher correlation with the HR as compared to Masimo PR. The statistically significant difference found in their median values (1% for SpO2, 1 bpm for PR) was deemed clinically insignificant. SpO2 alarms generated by both SmartPods were observed and categorized for performance evaluation. Results for sensitivity, positive predictive value, accuracy and false alarm rates were Nellcor (80.3, 50, 44.5, 50%) and Masimo (72.2, 48.2, 40.6, 51.8%) respectively. These metrics were not statistically significantly different between the two pulse oximeters. Despite claims by OEMs, both pulse oximeters exhibited high false alarm rates, with no statistically or clinically significant difference in performance. These findings have a direct impact on alarm fatigue in the NICU. Performance evaluation studies can also impact medical device purchase decisions made by hospital administrators.

  1. College 411: Get the Scoop. A Small Group Plan to Promote College Success for First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Christy W.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie

    2013-01-01

    First generation college students have more difficulty preparing for and succeeding in post-secondary institutions. Informed by the literature review and relevant research the school counselor presents a small group design for high school students in their junior year. This small group plan for first generation college students addresses issues of…

  2. A review of tropical cyclone-generated storm surges: Global data sources, observations, and impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Needham, Hal F.; Keim, Barry D.; Sathiaraj, David

    2015-06-01

    Tropical cyclone-generated storm surges are among the world's most deadly and destructive natural hazards. This paper provides the first comprehensive global review of tropical storm surge data sources, observations, and impacts while archiving data in SURGEDAT, a global database. Available literature has provided data for more than 700 surge events since 1880, the majority of which are found in the western North Atlantic (WNA), followed by Australia/Oceania, the western North Pacific (WNP), and the northern Indian Ocean (NIO). The Bay of Bengal (BOB) in the NIO consistently observes the world's highest surges, as this subbasin averages five surges ≥5 m per decade and has observed credible storm tide levels reaching 13.7 m. The WNP observes the highest rate of low-magnitude surges, as the coast of China averages 54 surges ≥1 m per decade, and rates are likely higher in the Philippines. The U.S. Gulf Coast observes the second highest frequency of both high-magnitude (≥5 m) and low-magnitude (≥1 m) surges. The BOB observes the most catastrophic surge impacts, as 59% of global tropical cyclones that have killed at least 5000 people occurred in this basin. The six deadliest cyclones in this region have each killed at least 140,000 people, and two events have killed 300,000. Storm surge impacts transportation, agriculture, and energy sectors in the WNA. Oceania experiences long-term impacts, including contamination of fresh water and loss of food supplies, although the highest surges in this region are lower than most other basins.

  3. Microwave Polarized Signatures Generated within Cloud Systems: SSM/I Observations Interpreted with Radiative Transfer Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prigent, Catherine; Pardo, Juan R.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Rossow, Willaim B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Special Sensor Microwave /Imager (SSM/I) observations in cloud systems are studied over the tropics. Over optically thick cloud systems, presence of polarized signatures at 37 and 85 GHz is evidenced and analyzed with the help of cloud top temperature and optical thickness extracted from visible and IR satellite observations. Scattering signatures at 85 GHz (TbV(85) less than or = 250 K) are associated with polarization differences greater than or = 6 K, approx. 50%, of the time over ocean and approx. 40% over land. In addition. over thick clouds the polarization difference at 37 GHz is rarely negligible. The polarization differences at 37 and 85 GHz do not stem from the surface but are generated in regions of relatively homogeneous clouds having high liquid water content. To interpret the observations, a radiative transfer model that includes the scattering by non-spherical particles is developed. based on the T-matrix approach and using the doubling and adding method. In addition to handling randomly and perfectly oriented particles, this model can also simulate the effect of partial orientation of the hydrometeors. Microwave brightness temperatures are simulated at SSM/I frequencies and are compared with the observations. Polarization differences of approx. 2 K can be simulated at 37 GHz over a rain layer, even using spherical drops. The polarization difference is larger for oriented non-spherical particles. The 85 GHz simulations are very sensitive to the ice phase of the cloud. Simulations with spherical particles or with randomly oriented non-spherical ice particles cannot replicate the observed polarization differences. However, with partially oriented non-spherical particles, the observed polarized signatures at 85 GHz are explained, and the sensitivity of the scattering characteristics to the particle size, asphericity, and orientation is analyzed. Implications on rain and ice retrievals are discussed.

  4. ASTER and Ground Observations of Vegetation Primary Succession and Habitat Development near Retreating Glaciers in Alaska and Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, J. S.; Leonard, G. J.; Furfaro, R.

    2011-12-01

    Like active volcanoes, glaciers are among the most dynamic components of the Earth's solid surface. All of the main surface processes active in these areas have an ability to suddenly remake or "resurface" the landscape, effectively wiping the land clean of vegetation and habitats, and creating new land surface and aqueous niches for life to colonize and develop anew. This biological and geomorphological resurfacing may remove the soil or replace it with inorganic debris layers. The topographical, hydrological, and particle size-frequency characteristics of resurfaced deglaciated landscapes typically create a high density of distinctive, juxtaposed niches where differing plant communities may become established over time. The result is commonly a high floral and faunal diversity and fecundity of life habitats. The new diverse landscape continues to evolve rapidly as ice-cored moraines thaw, lakes drain or fill in with sediment, as fluvial dissection erodes moraine ridges, as deltaic sedimentation shifts, and other processes (coupled with primary succession) take place in rapid sequence. In addition, climate dynamics which may have caused the glaciers to retreat may continue. We will briefly explore two distinctive glacial environments-(1) the maritime Copper River corridor through the Chugach Mountains (Alaska), Allen Glacier, and the river's delta; and (2) Nepal's alpine Khumbu valley and Imja Glacier. We will provide an example showing how ASTER multispectral and stereo-derived elevation data, with some basic field-based constraints and observations, can be used to make automatic maps of certain habitats, including that of the Tibetan snowcock. We will examine geomorphic and climatic domains where plant communities are becoming established in the decades after glacier retreat and how these link to the snowcock habitat and range. Snowcock species have previously been considered to have evolved in close association with glacial and tectonic history of South and

  5. HEXITEC: A Next Generation Hard X-ray Detector for Solar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Daniel; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert; Inglis, Andrew R.; Gregory, Kyle; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew; Veale, Matthew C.; Panessa, Marco

    2016-05-01

    There is an increasing demand in solar physics for high resolution X-ray spectroscopic imaging. Such observations would present ground-breaking opportunities to study the poorly understood high energy processes in the solar corona such as solar flares, coronal heating, etc. However, such observations require a new breed of solid-state detectors sensititve to high energy X-rays with fine independent pixels to subsample the point spread function (PSF) of the X-ray optics. They must also be capable of handling very high count rates as photon fluxes from solar flares often cause pileup in current detectors. The Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) has recently developed a new Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detector system, dubbed HEXITEC (High Energy X-ray Imaging Technology). It is an 80x80 array of 250 micron independent pixels sensitive in the 4--80 keV band and capable of a high full frame readout rate of 10 kHz. HEXITEC provides the smallest independently read out pixels currently available, and are well matched to the few arcsecond PSF produced by the current and next generation hard X-ray focusing optics. NASA's Goddard and Marshall Space Flight Centers are collaborating with RAL to develop these detectors for use on future space-borne hard X-ray focusing telescopes. In this poster we show the latest results on HEXITEC's imaging capability, high read out rate, and energy sensitivity and reveal it to be ideal for such future instruments. The potential observations obtained by combining HEXITEC with the next generation of X-ray focusing optics could to revolutionize our understanding of high energy processes in the solar corona.

  6. Assessing the GOANNA Visual Field Algorithm Using Artificial Scotoma Generation on Human Observers

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Luke X.; Turpin, Andrew; McKendrick, Allison M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To validate the performance of a new perimetric algorithm (Gradient-Oriented Automated Natural Neighbor Approach; GOANNA) in humans using a novel combination of computer simulation and human testing, which we call Artificial Scotoma Generation (ASG). Methods Fifteen healthy observers were recruited. Baseline conventional automated perimetry was performed on the Octopus 900. Visual field sensitivity was measured using two different procedures: GOANNA and Zippy Estimation by Sequential Testing (ZEST). Four different scotoma types were induced in each observer by implementing a novel technique that inserts a step between the algorithm and the perimeter, which in turn alters presentation levels to simulate scotomata in human observers. Accuracy, precision, and unique number of locations tested were measured, with the maximum difference between a location and its neighbors (Max_d) used to stratify results. Results GOANNA sampled significantly more locations than ZEST (paired t-test, P < 0.001), while maintaining comparable test times. Difference plots showed that GOANNA displayed greater accuracy than ZEST when Max_d was in the 10 to 30 dB range (with the exception of Max_d = 20 dB; Wilcoxon, P < 0.001). Similarly, GOANNA demonstrated greater precision than ZEST when Max_d was in the 20 to 30 dB range (Wilcoxon, P < 0.001). Conclusions We have introduced a novel method for assessing accuracy of perimetric algorithms in human observers. Results observed in the current study agreed with the results seen in earlier simulation studies, and thus provide support for performing larger scale clinical trials with GOANNA in the future. Translational Relevance The GOANNA perimetric testing algorithm offers a new paradigm for visual field testing where locations for testing are chosen that target scotoma borders. Further, the ASG methodology used in this paper to assess GOANNA shows promise as a hybrid between computer simulation and patient testing, which may allow more

  7. Identifying the Strengths, Needs, and Barriers to Student Success for First Generation, Low-Income, First Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    This participatory action research needs assessment was to empower the students in a large urban research university to explore and to identify the strengths of the program, to identify the needs, and to identify the barriers to student success during their first year of college. Using qualitative methods of Group Level Interviews (GLA) and…

  8. Succession Planning in Homeland Security - How Can We Ensure the Effective Transfer of Knowledge to a New Generation of Employees

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Postgraduate School. Brafman, O., & Beckstrom, R. A. (2006). The starfish and the spider : The unstoppable power of leaderless organizations. New York... Wolfe , R. L. (1996). Systematic succession planning: Building leadership from within. Menlo Park, CA: Crisp Publications. Zemke, R., Raines, C

  9. In situ observation of collagen thermal denaturation by second harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, C.-S.; Zhuo, Z.-Y.; Yu, J.-Y.; Chao, P.-H. G.; Chu, S.-W.

    2010-02-01

    Collagen denaturation is of fundamental importance for clinical treatment. Conventionally, the denaturation process is quantified by the shrinkage of collagen fibers, but the underlying molecular origin has not been fully understood. Since second harmonic generation (SHG) is related to the molecular packing of the triple helix in collagen fibers, this nonlinear signal provides an insight of molecular dynamics during thermal denaturation. With the aid of SHG microscopy, we found a new step in collagen thermal denaturation process, de-crimp. During the de-crimp step, the characteristic crimp pattern of collagen fascicles disappeared due to the breakage of interconnecting bonds between collagen fibrils, while SHG intensity remained unchanged, suggesting the intactness of the triple helical molecules. At higher temperature, shrinkage is observed with strongly reduced SHG intensity, indicating denaturation at the molecular level.

  10. Spectroscopic observation of jet-cooled 2,5-dichlorobenzyl radical generated by corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Eun Hye; Yoon, Young Wook; Lee, Sang Kuk

    2014-07-01

    Vibronically excited but jet-cooled 2,5-dichlorobenzyl radical was generated from 2,5-dichlorotoluene precursor in a large excess of helium carrier gas, from which the visible vibronic emission spectrum was recorded. From an analysis of the spectrum observed, it was found that the origin band shows larger shift to red than those expected from mono-substitutions, which has been discussed in terms of orientation of substituents. Also, the electronic energy of the D1 → D0 transition and vibrational mode frequencies at the ground electronic state of the 2,5-dichlorobenzyl radical were determined in comparison with the known vibrational data of precursor and ab initio calculations.

  11. Generation and Scattering of Radiation Observed by Voyager in the Outer Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, Steven R.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2003-01-01

    Excellent progress was made under this grant on the generation and scattering of the 2-3 kHz radio emissions observed by the Voyager spacecraft in the outer heliosphere. These are the most powerful radio emissions produced in our solar system, surpassing even those of Jupiter and the Sun. The widely-held hypothesis pursued is that the radiation is generated near the electron plasma frequency f(sub p) or near 2f(sub p) as a shock wave traverses the heliosheath regions and/or heliopause predicted in the interaction region between the solar wind and the local interstellar medium. (Note that f (sup 2) (sub p) is proportional to the plasma density.) The traveling shock wave is plausibly associated with a global merged interaction region (GMIR). Accordingly, this so-called GMIR model is strongly analogous to the common interpretation of type II solar radio bursts and to radio emissions associated with Earth's bow shock, with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and Earth's magnetosphere playing the role of a GMIR, respectively. Accordingly, Dr Cairns work on type II bursts, Earth's foreshock, and stochastic growth theory (not described in detail) strongly aided and complemented the research progress on the 2-3 kHz emissions described.

  12. Generation-X: An X-ray observatory designed to observe first light objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windhorst, Rogier A.; Cameron, R. A.; Brissenden, R. J.; Elvis, M. S.; Fabbiano, G.; Gorenstein, P.; Reid, P. B.; Schwartz, D. A.; Bautz, M. W.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Petre, R.; White, N. E.; Zhang, W. W.

    2006-03-01

    The new cosmological frontier will be the study of the very first stars, galaxies and black holes in the early Universe. These objects are invisible to the current generation of X-ray telescopes, such as Chandra. In response, the Generation-X ("Gen-X") Vision Mission has been proposed as a future X-ray observatory which will be capable of detecting the earliest objects. X-ray imaging and spectroscopy of such faint objects demands a large collecting area and high angular resolution. The Gen-X mission plans 100 m 2 collecting area at 1 keV (1000× that of Chandra), and with an angular resolution of 0.1″. The Gen-X mission will operate at Sun-Earth L2, and might involve four 8 m diameter telescopes or even a single 20 m diameter telescope. To achieve the required effective area with reasonable mass, very lightweight grazing incidence X-ray optics must be developed, having an areal density 100× lower than in Chandra, with mirrors as thin as 0.1 mm requiring active on-orbit figure control. The suite of available detectors for Gen-X should include a large-area high resolution imager, a cryogenic imaging spectrometer, and a grating spectrometer. We discuss use of Gen-X to observe the birth of the first black holes, stars and galaxies, and trace their cosmic evolution.

  13. Generation and effects of EMIC waves observed by the Van Allen Probes on 18 March 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Saikin, A.; Gamayunov, K. V.; Spence, H. E.; Larsen, B.; Geoffrey, R.; Smith, C. W.; Torbert, R. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Kletzing, C.

    2015-12-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves play a crucial role in particle dynamics in the Earth's magnetosphere. The free energy for EMIC wave generation is usually provided by the temperature anisotropy of the energetic ring current ions. EMIC waves can in turn cause particle energization and losses through resonant wave-particle interactions. Using measurements from the Van Allen Probes, we perform a case study of EMIC waves and associated plasma conditions observed on 18 March 2013. From 0204 to 0211 UT, the Van Allen Probe-B detected He+-band EMIC wave activity in the post-midnight sector (MLT=4.6-4.9) at very low L-shells (L=2.6-2.9). The event occurred right outside the inward-pushed plasmapause in the early recovery phase of an intense geomagnetic storm - min. Dst = -132 nT at 2100 UT on 17 March 2013. During this event, the fluxes of energetic (> 1 keV), anisotropic O+ dominate both the H+ and He+ fluxes in this energy range. Meanwhile, O+ fluxes at low energies (< 0.1 keV) are low compared to H+ and He+ fluxes in the same energy range. The fluxes of <0.1 keV He+ are clearly enhanced during the wave event, indicating a signature of wave heating. To further confirm the association of the observed plasma features with the EMIC waves, we calculate the electron minimum resonant energy (Emin) and pitch angle diffusion coefficient (Dαα) of the EMIC wave packets by using nominal ion composition, derived total ion density from the frequencies of upper hybrid resonance, and measured ambient and wave magnetic field. EMIC wave growth rates are also calculated to evaluate the role of loss-cone distributed ring current ions in the EMIC wave generation.

  14. Retrospective analysis showing the water method increased adenoma detection rate — a hypothesis generating observation

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Joseph W; Do, Lynne D; Siao-Salera, Rodelei M; Ngo, Catherine; Parikh, Dhavan A; Mann, Surinder K

    2011-01-01

    Background A water method developed to attenuate discomfort during colonoscopy enhanced cecal intubation in unsedated patients. Serendipitously a numerically increased adenoma detection rate (ADR) was noted. Objective To explore databases of sedated patients examined by the air and water methods to identify hypothesis-generating findings. Design: Retrospective analysis. Setting: VA endoscopy center. Patients: creening colonoscopy. Interventions: From 1/2000–6/2006 the air method was used - judicious air insufflation to permit visualization of the lumen to aid colonoscope insertion and water spray for washing mucosal surfaces. From 6/2006–11/2009 the water method was adopted - warm water infusion in lieu of air insufflation and suction removal of residual air to aid colonoscope insertion. During colonoscope withdrawal adequate air was insufflated to distend the colonic lumen for inspection, biopsy and polypectomy in a similar fashion in both periods. Main outcome measurements: ADR. Results The air (n=683) vs. water (n=495) method comparisons revealed significant differences in overall ADR 26.8% (183 of 683) vs. 34.9% (173 of 495) and ADR of adenomas >9 mm, 7.2% vs. 13.7%, respectively (both P<0.05, Fisher's exact test). Limitations: Non-randomized data susceptible to bias by unmeasured parameters unrelated to the methods. Conclusion Confirmation of the serendipitous observation of an impact of the water method on ADR provides impetus to call for randomized controlled trials to test hypotheses related to the water method as an approach to improving adenoma detection. Because of recent concerns over missed lesions during colonoscopy, the provocative hypothesis-generating observations warrant presentation. PMID:21686105

  15. Satellite observations of lightning-generated NOx in volcanic eruption clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carn, Simon; Krotkov, Nickolay; Pickering, Ken; Allen, Dale; Bucsela, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The generation of NO2 by lightning flashes is known to be an important source of NOx in the free troposphere, particularly in the tropics, with implications for ozone production. Although UV-visible satellite observations of lightning-generated NOx (LNOx) in thunderstorms have been previously reported, here we present the first satellite observations of LNOx generated by lightning in explosive volcanic eruption clouds (vLNOx) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard NASA's Aura satellite. To date we have identified vLNOx in operational OMI NO2 measurements (OMNO2) during the high-latitude eruptions of Okmok (Aleutian Is; July 2008), Kasatochi (Aleutian Is; August 2008), Redoubt (Alaska; March 2009) and Grimsvötn (Iceland; May 2011), although analysis of OMNO2 data for other eruptions is underway. We use World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) observations to verify the occurrence and location of lightning flashes in the volcanic eruption clouds. All the vLNOx anomalies are associated with strong UV Aerosol Index (UVAI) signals due to volcanic ash. Preliminary analysis shows that the maximum vLNOx column detected by OMI decreases linearly with time since eruption, and suggests that the vLNOx signal is transient and can be detected up to ~5-6 hours after an eruption. Detection of vLNOx is hence only possible for eruptions occurring a few hours before the daytime OMI overpass. Based on the number of lightning flashes detected by WWLLN in each eruption cloud, we also estimate the vLNOx production efficiency (moles vLNOx per flash). Preliminary estimates for the 2008 Kasatochi eruption suggest that this is significantly higher than the production efficiency in thunderstorms, but may be biased high due to the low detection efficiency of WWLLN (<10-50% of flashes detected over most regions). The measured vLNOx columns also require adjustment using an algorithm designed to retrieve LNOx from OMI, which takes the total OMI slant column NO2 and removes the

  16. Direct observation of microcontact behaviours in pattern-generation step of reverse offset printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Kanazawa, Shusuke; Yamamoto, Noritaka; Ushijima, Hirobumi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the static and dynamic aspects of the nip formed during roll-to-sheet-type reverse offset printing. First, we show that several modes of roof collapses (bottom contact defects) could be formed depending on the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) blanket thickness and pattern size. We regulate the manifestation of the defect modes driven by the local pile-up of the incompressible PDMS, as modelled by the contact mechanics formulation, together with a complementary numerical simulation. In dynamics, we first differentiate between the static nip and dynamic nip during printing, where the width is extended by the kinetically controlled adhesion of the blanket PDMS. Further, we observe that depending on the pattern structure, there was spatial deviation of the microscopic contact and subsequent separation behaviours of the cliché from a macroscopically recognizable nip, and consequently, local detachment rates were heterogeneous in the pattern-generation process of the reverse offset printing, even with a constant machine speed. In addition, we found that the parts of a pattern where the ink transfer fails in a high-speed patterning condition corresponded to the region of the locally enhanced detachment rates found during direct observation.

  17. Sharing human-generated observations by integrating HMI and the Semantic Sensor Web.

    PubMed

    Sigüenza, Alvaro; Díaz-Pardo, David; Bernat, Jesús; Vancea, Vasile; Blanco, José Luis; Conejero, David; Gómez, Luis Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Current "Internet of Things" concepts point to a future where connected objects gather meaningful information about their environment and share it with other objects and people. In particular, objects embedding Human Machine Interaction (HMI), such as mobile devices and, increasingly, connected vehicles, home appliances, urban interactive infrastructures, etc., may not only be conceived as sources of sensor information, but, through interaction with their users, they can also produce highly valuable context-aware human-generated observations. We believe that the great promise offered by combining and sharing all of the different sources of information available can be realized through the integration of HMI and Semantic Sensor Web technologies. This paper presents a technological framework that harmonizes two of the most influential HMI and Sensor Web initiatives: the W3C's Multimodal Architecture and Interfaces (MMI) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) with its semantic extension, respectively. Although the proposed framework is general enough to be applied in a variety of connected objects integrating HMI, a particular development is presented for a connected car scenario where drivers' observations about the traffic or their environment are shared across the Semantic Sensor Web. For implementation and evaluation purposes an on-board OSGi (Open Services Gateway Initiative) architecture was built, integrating several available HMI, Sensor Web and Semantic Web technologies. A technical performance test and a conceptual validation of the scenario with potential users are reported, with results suggesting the approach is sound.

  18. Parenting styles in a cultural context: observations of "protective parenting" in first-generation Latinos.

    PubMed

    Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M; Donovick, Melissa R; Crowley, Susan L

    2009-06-01

    Current literature presents four primary parenting styles: authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful. These styles provide an important shortcut for a constellation of parenting behaviors that have been characterized as consisting of warmth, demandingness, and autonomy granting. Empirically, only warmth and demandingness are typically measured. Research reporting on parenting styles in Latino samples has been equivocal leading to questions about conceptualization and measurement of parenting styles in this ethnic/cultural group. This lack of consensus may result from the chasm between concepts (e.g., authoritarian parenting) and observable parenting behaviors (e.g., warmth) in this ethnic group. The present research aimed to examine parenting styles and dimensions in a sample of Latino parents using the two usual dimensions (warmth, demandingness) and adding autonomy granting. Traditional parenting styles categories were examined, as well as additional categorizations that resulted from adding autonomy granting. Fifty first-generation Latino parents and their child (aged 4-9) participated. Parent-child interactions were coded with the Parenting Style Observation Rating Scale (P-SOS). In this sample, the four traditional parenting categories did not capture Latino families well. The combination of characteristics resulted in eight possible parenting styles. Our data showed the majority (61%) of Latino parents as "protective parents." Further, while mothers and fathers were similar in their parenting styles, expectations were different for male and female children. The additional dimensions and implications are discussed. The importance of considering the cultural context in understanding parenting in Latino families is emphasized, along with directions for future research.

  19. Sharing Human-Generated Observations by Integrating HMI and the Semantic Sensor Web

    PubMed Central

    Sigüenza, Álvaro; Díaz-Pardo, David; Bernat, Jesús; Vancea, Vasile; Blanco, José Luis; Conejero, David; Gómez, Luis Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Current “Internet of Things” concepts point to a future where connected objects gather meaningful information about their environment and share it with other objects and people. In particular, objects embedding Human Machine Interaction (HMI), such as mobile devices and, increasingly, connected vehicles, home appliances, urban interactive infrastructures, etc., may not only be conceived as sources of sensor information, but, through interaction with their users, they can also produce highly valuable context-aware human-generated observations. We believe that the great promise offered by combining and sharing all of the different sources of information available can be realized through the integration of HMI and Semantic Sensor Web technologies. This paper presents a technological framework that harmonizes two of the most influential HMI and Sensor Web initiatives: the W3C's Multimodal Architecture and Interfaces (MMI) and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) with its semantic extension, respectively. Although the proposed framework is general enough to be applied in a variety of connected objects integrating HMI, a particular development is presented for a connected car scenario where drivers' observations about the traffic or their environment are shared across the Semantic Sensor Web. For implementation and evaluation purposes an on-board OSGi (Open Services Gateway Initiative) architecture was built, integrating several available HMI, Sensor Web and Semantic Web technologies. A technical performance test and a conceptual validation of the scenario with potential users are reported, with results suggesting the approach is sound. PMID:22778643

  20. First-Generation Social and Ethnic Minority Students in Christian Universities: Student Recommendations for Successful Support of Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ecklund, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This article, the second in a two-part series, provides an overview of the literature regarding first-generation college students (FGCS), which has been largely based on studies of students in public universities. The author shares outcomes from structured dialogues with FGCS attending Christian universities. The students described how their…

  1. Continuous rainfall generation for a warmer climate using observed temperature sensitivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasko, Conrad; Sharma, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    Continuous rainfall sequences are often used as inputs in hydrologic modeling, particularly where a probabilistic assessment is required. Continuous rainfall sequences provide a means for accounting of all aspects of rainfall that produce flooding, for example, not just the design rainfall event but also the rainfall prior to the extreme rainfall event. With the advent of climate change, higher temperatures have been associated with changes in rainfall, in particular intensifying rainfall extremes with less uniform temporal patterns. Given these demonstrated changes to extreme rainfall with temperature rise, there is a need to modify continuous rainfall generators to account for current and likely future changes in temperature. In this work we propose a novel method for simulating continuous rainfall sequences for a future warmer climate by conditioning parameters on their historical sensitivity with temperature. To demonstrate the proposed technique we use a one-dimensional Neyman-Scott Rectangular Pulses model at two locations across Australia. The statistics used in the parameter estimation are conditioned on their historical sensitivity to average monthly temperature to simulate rainfall for a change in temperature. The results are validated by comparing the simulated rainfall against observations originating from differing temperatures and it is shown that the model captures the relative difference in the mean monthly rainfall and monthly maxima. Encouraged by these results we simulate rainfall for higher temperatures and capture expected changes to annual maxima and design temporal patterns for a warmer climate. While we demonstrate our methodology in the simulation of sub-daily rainfall using a specific model, the approach presented here can be applied to all weather generation schemes for projection in a warmer climate.

  2. Field observations of slush ice generated during freeze-up in arctic coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimnitz, E.; Kempema, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    In some years, large volumes of slush ice charged with sediment are generated from frazil crystals in the shallow Beaufort Sea during strong storms at the time of freeze-up. Such events terminate the navigation season, and because of accompanying hostile conditions, little is known about the processes acting. The water-saturated slush ice, which may reach a thickness of 4 m, exists for only a few days before freezing from the surface downward arrests further wave motion or pancake ice forms. Movements of small vessels and divers in the slush ice occurs only in phase with passing waves, producing compression and rarefaction, and internal pressure pulses. Where in contact with the seafloor, the agitated slush ice moves cobble-size material, generates large sediment ripples, and may possibly produce a flat rampart observed on the arctic shoreface in some years. Processes charging the slush ice with as much as 1000 m3 km-2 of sediment remain uncertain, but our field observations rule out previously proposed filtration from turbid waters as a likely mechanism. Sedimentary particles apparently are only trapped in the interstices of the slush ice rather than being held by adhesion, since wave-related internal pressure oscillations result in downward particle movement and cleansing of the slush ice. This loss of sediment explains the typical downward increase in sediment concentration in that part of the fast-ice canopy composed largely of frazil ice. The congealing slush ice in coastal water does not become fast ice until grounded ridges are formed in the stamukhi zone, one to two months after freeze-up begins. During this period of new-ice mobility, long-range sediment transport occurs. The sediment load held by the fast-ice canopy in the area between the Colville and Sagavanirktok River deltas in the winter of 1978-1979 was 16 times larger than the yearly river input to the same area. This sediment most likely was rafted from Canada, more than 400 km to the east, during

  3. Multicenter Observational Study of the First-Generation Intravenous Blood Glucose Monitoring System in Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bochicchio, Grant V.; Hipszer, Brian R.; Magee, Michelle F.; Bergenstal, Richard M.; Furnary, Anthony P.; Gulino, Angela M.; Higgins, Michael J.; Simpson, Peter C.; Joseph, Jeffrey I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current methods of blood glucose (BG) monitoring and insulin delivery are labor intensive and commonly fail to achieve the desired level of BG control. There is great clinical need in the hospital for a user-friendly bedside device that can automatically monitor the concentration of BG safely, accurately, frequently, and reliably. Methods: A 100-patient observation study was conducted at 6 US hospitals to evaluate the first generation of the Intravenous Blood Glucose (IVBG) System (Edwards Lifesciences LLC & Dexcom Inc). Device safety, accuracy, and reliability were assessed. A research nurse sampled blood from a vascular catheter every 4 hours for ≤ 72 hours and BG concentration was measured using the YSI 2300 STAT Plus Analyzer (YSI Life Sciences). The IVBG measurements were compared to YSI measurements to calculate point accuracy. Results: The IVBG systems logged more than 5500 hours of operation in 100 critical care patients without causing infection or inflammation of a vein. A total of 44135 IVBG measurements were performed in 100 patients with 30231 measurements from the subset of 75 patients used for accuracy analysis. In all, 996 IVBG measurements were time-matched with reference YSI measurements. These pairs had a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 11.61 mg/dl, a mean absolute relative difference (MARD) of 8.23%, 93% met 15/20% accuracy defined by International Organization for Standardization 15197:2003 standard, and 93.2% were in zone A of the Clarke error grid. The IVBG sensors were exposed to more than 200 different medications with no observable effect on accuracy. Conclusions: The IVBG system is an automated and user-friendly glucose monitoring system that provides accurate and frequent BG measurements with great potential to improve the safety and efficacy of insulin therapy and BG control in the hospital, potentially leading to improved clinical outcomes. PMID:26033922

  4. Three-Centimeter Doppler Radar Observations of Wingtip-Generated Wake Vortices in Clear Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, Robert E.; Mudukutore, Ashok; Wissel, Vicki L. H.; Myers, Theodore

    1997-01-01

    This report documents a high risk, high pay-off experiment with the objective of detecting, for the first time, the presence of aircraft wake vortices in clear air using X-band Doppler radar. Field experiments were conducted in January 1995 at the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) to demonstrate the capability of the 9.33 GHz (I=3 cm) radar, which was assembled using an existing nine-meter parabolic antenna reflector at VVTT and the receiver/transmitter from the NASA Airborne Windshear Radar-Program. A C-130-aircraft, equipped with wingtip smoke generators, created visually marked wake vortices, which were recorded by video cameras. A C-band radar also observed the wake vortices during detection attempts with the X-band radar. Rawinsonde data was used to calculate vertical soundings of wake vortex decay time, cross aircraft bearing wind speed, and water vapor mixing ratio for aircraft passes over the radar measurement range. This experiment was a pathfinder in predicting, in real time, the location and persistence of C-130 vortices, and in setting the flight path of the aircraft to optimize X-band radar measurement of the wake vortex core in real time. This experiment was conducted in support of the NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS).

  5. Observations of wind-generated waves on variable current. [laboratory ocean dynamics for water wave generator research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, S. R.; Huang, N. E.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory measurements utilizing a laser probe are made for the slopes of wind waves generated on both positive and negative currents at different values of fetch. The data are then processed electronically to yield an average wave-slope spectrum in frequency space with 128 degrees of freedom. These spectra are used to obtain the growth of the spectral components at various frequency bands for increasing wind and different values of fetch and current. The results indicate that the growth of these components is not monotonic with the frictional wind speed, but rather exhibits an 'overshoot' phenomena at lower values of frictional wind speed, and in addition, displays a significant effect due to current. The peak location and spectral intensity of the spectra also show strong influence by the current condition. This results in the rms surface slope value increasing with negative current and decreasing with positive current. The results agree qualitatively with some theoretical predictions. The potential use of the current-induced effects as a means for remote sensing of ocean current is also briefly discussed.

  6. Sentinel-2: next generation satellites for optical land observation from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautenschläger, G.; Gessner, R.; Gockel, W.; Haas, C.; Schweickert, G.; Bursch, S.; Welsch, M.; Sontag, H.

    2013-10-01

    The first Sentinel-2 satellites, which constitute the next generation of operational Earth observation satellites for optical land monitoring from space, are undergoing completion in the facilities at Astrium ready for launch end 2014. Sentinel-2 will feature a major breakthrough in the area of optical land observation since it will for the first time enable continuous and systematic acquisition of all land surfaces world-wide with the Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI), thus providing the basis for a truly operational service. Flying in the same orbital plane and spaced at 180°, the constellation of two satellites, designed for an in-orbit nominal operational lifetime of 7 years each, will acquire all land surfaces in only 5 days at the equator. In order to support emergency operations, the satellites can further be operated in an extended observation mode allowing to image any point on Earth even on a daily basis. MSI acquires images in 13 spectral channels from Visible-to-Near Infrared (VNIR) to Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) with a swath of almost 300 km on ground and a spatial resolution up to 10 m. The data ensure continuity to the existing data sets produced by the series of Landsat and SPOT satellites, and will further provide detailed spectral information to enable derivation of biophysical or geophysical products. Excellent geometric image quality performances are achieved with geolocation better than 16 m, thanks to an innovative instrument design in conjunction with a high-performance satellite AOCS subsystem centered around a 2-band GPS receiver, high-performance star trackers and a fiberoptic gyro. To cope with the high data volume on-board, data are compressed using a state-of-the-art wavelet compression scheme. Thanks to a powerful mission data handling system built around a newly developed very large solid-state mass memory based on flash technology, on-board compression losses will be kept to a minimum. The Sentinel-2 satellite design features a highly

  7. Generation of real-time mode high-resolution water vapor fields from GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chen; Penna, Nigel T.; Li, Zhenhong

    2017-02-01

    Pointwise GPS measurements of tropospheric zenith total delay can be interpolated to provide high-resolution water vapor maps which may be used for correcting synthetic aperture radar images, for numeral weather prediction, and for correcting Network Real-time Kinematic GPS observations. Several previous studies have addressed the importance of the elevation dependency of water vapor, but it is often a challenge to separate elevation-dependent tropospheric delays from turbulent components. In this paper, we present an iterative tropospheric decomposition interpolation model that decouples the elevation and turbulent tropospheric delay components. For a 150 km × 150 km California study region, we estimate real-time mode zenith total delays at 41 GPS stations over 1 year by using the precise point positioning technique and demonstrate that the decoupled interpolation model generates improved high-resolution tropospheric delay maps compared with previous tropospheric turbulence- and elevation-dependent models. Cross validation of the GPS zenith total delays yields an RMS error of 4.6 mm with the decoupled interpolation model, compared with 8.4 mm with the previous model. On converting the GPS zenith wet delays to precipitable water vapor and interpolating to 1 km grid cells across the region, validations with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer near-IR water vapor product show 1.7 mm RMS differences by using the decoupled model, compared with 2.0 mm for the previous interpolation model. Such results are obtained without differencing the tropospheric delays or water vapor estimates in time or space, while the errors are similar over flat and mountainous terrains, as well as for both inland and coastal areas.

  8. Generation mechanism of the slowly drifting narrowband structure in the type IV solar radio bursts observed by AMATERAS

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Y.; Nishimura, Y.; Kumamoto, A.; Ono, T.; Iwai, K.; Misawa, H.; Tsuchiya, F.

    2014-05-20

    We investigate the type IV burst event observed by AMATERAS on 2011 June 7, and reveal that the main component of the burst was emitted from the plasmoid eruption identified in the EUV images of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/AIA. We show that a slowly drifting narrowband structure (SDNS) appeared in the burst's spectra. Using statistical analysis, we reveal that the SDNS appeared for a duration of tens to hundreds of milliseconds and had a typical bandwidth of 3 MHz. To explain the mechanism generating the SDNS, we propose wave-wave coupling between Langmuir waves and whistler-mode chorus emissions generated in a post-flare loop, which were inferred from the similarities in the plasma environments of a post-flare loop and the equatorial region of Earth's inner magnetosphere. We assume that a chorus element with a rising tone is generated at the top of a post-flare loop. Using the magnetic field and plasma density models, we quantitatively estimate the expected duration of radio emissions generated from coupling between Langmuir waves and chorus emissions during their propagation in the post-flare loop, and we find that the observed duration and bandwidth properties of the SDNS are consistently explained by the proposed generation mechanism. While observations in the terrestrial magnetosphere show that the chorus emissions are a group of large-amplitude wave elements generated naturally and intermittently, the mechanism proposed in the present study can explain both the intermittency and the frequency drift in the observed spectra.

  9. Transplantation of storm-generated coral fragments to enhance Caribbean coral reefs: A successful method but not a solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, V.H.; Ward, G.

    2012-01-01

    In response to dramatic losses of reef-building corals and ongoing lack of recovery, a small-scale coral transplant project was initiated in the Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands) in 1999 and was followed for 12 years. The primary objectives were to (1) identify a source of coral colonies for transplantation that would not result in damage to reefs, (2) test the feasibility of transplanting storm-generated coral fragments, and (3) develop a simple, inexpensive method for transplanting fragments that could be conducted by the local community. The ultimate goal was to enhance abundance of threatened reef-building species on local reefs. Storm-produced coral fragments of two threatened reef-building species [Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis (Acroporidae)] and another fast-growing species [Porites porites (Poritidae)] were collected from environments hostile to coral fragment survival and transplanted to degraded reefs. Inert nylon cable ties were used to attach transplanted coral fragments to dead coral substrate. Survival of 75 reference colonies and 60 transplants was assessed over 12 years. Only 9% of colonies were alive after 12 years: no A. cervicornis; 3% of A. palmata transplants and 18% of reference colonies; and 13% of P. porites transplants and 7% of reference colonies. Mortality rates for all species were high and were similar for transplant and reference colonies. Physical dislodgement resulted in the loss of 56% of colonies, whereas 35% died in place. Only A. palmata showed a difference between transplant and reference colony survival and that was in the first year only. Location was a factor in survival only for A. palmata reference colonies and after year 10. Even though the tested methods and concepts were proven effective in the field over the 12-year study, they do not present a solution. No coral conservation strategy will be effective until underlying intrinsic and/or extrinsic factors driving high mortality rates are understood and mitigated or

  10. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession.

  11. Seizures induced by desloratadine, a second-generation antihistamine: clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Cerminara, Caterina; El-Malhany, Nadia; Roberto, Denis; Lo Castro, Adriana; Curatolo, Paolo

    2013-08-01

    Some clinical experiences indicate that H1-antihistamines, especially first-generation H1-antagonists, occasionally provoke convulsions in healthy children as well as epileptic patients. Desloratadine is a frequently used second-generation antihistamine considered to be effective and safe for the treatment of allergic diseases. We describe four children who experienced epilepsy associated with the nonsedating H(1)-antagonist desloratadine and discuss the neurophysiologic role of the central histaminergic system in seizure susceptibility. In conclusion, we recommend caution in treating epileptic patients with the histamine H(1)-antagonists, including second- and third-generation drugs that are frequently referred because they are considered to be nonsedating antihistamines.

  12. A successive-steady-state approach to integrated surface-subsurface modelling for runoff generation on the field scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appels, W. M.; Bogaart, P. W.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.

    2012-04-01

    runoff generation. In the saturated zone only horizontal flow occurs. Radial flow towards the ditches is accounted for via a ditch entry resistance. With this model it is possible to efficiently analyse, with adequate accuracy, the relations between the various compartments. In this presentation we describe the model structure, and present applications to both instructive hypothetical cases and real-work field-scale applications. Issues regarding upscaling of towards catchment and regional scales are discussed.

  13. Using ground-level cosmic ray observations for automatically generating predictions of hazardous energetic particle levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, Lev; Pustil'Nik, Lev; Sternlieb, Abraham; Zukerman, Igor

    It is well known that in periods of great flare energetic particle (FEP) ground events, fluxes of energetic particles can be so big that memory of computers and other electronics in space may be damaged, and satellite and spacecraft operations can be seriously degraded. In these periods it is necessary to switch off some part of electronics for a few hours to protect computer memories. The problem is how to forecast exactly these dangerous phenomena. We show that exact forecasts can be made by using high-energy particles (few GeV/nucleon and higher) whose transportation from the Sun is characterized by much bigger diffusion coefficients than lower energy particles. High-energy particles arrive from the Sun much earlier (8-20 minutes after acceleration and escaping into solar wind) than the lower energy particles that damage electronics (about 30-60 minutes later). We describe here the principles and operation of automated programs ``FEP-Search-1 min'', ``FEP-Search-2 min'',and ``FEPSearch-5 min'', developed and checked in the Emilio Segre' Observatory (ESO) of the Israel Cosmic Ray Center (2025 m above sea level, Rc =10.8 GV). The determination of increasing flux is made by comparison with the intensity, averaged from 120 to 61 minutes, prior to the current one-minute data. For each minute of data the program ``FEP-Search-1 min'' is run. If the result is negative (no simultaneous increase in both channels of total intensity >= 2.5 σ1, where σ1 is the standard deviation for one minute of observation in one channel [for ESO σ1=1.4 %), start the program ``FEP-Search-2 min'', using two minute averages with σ2 = σ1 /√2, and so on. If any positive result is obtained, the ``FEP-Search'' programs check the next minute of data. If the result is again positive, automatically run the on-line the programs ``FEP-Collect'' and ``FEP-Research'' that determine the expected flux and spectrum and generate automatic alerts. These programs are described in Dorman and Zukerman

  14. Observation-Consistent Input and Whitecapping Dissipation in a Model for Wind-Generated Surface Waves: Description and Simple Calculations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Oceanogr., 14,1271-1285. Longuet-Higgins, M. S., and R. W. Stewart, 1960: Changes in the form of short gravity waves on long waves and tidal currents...SEPTEMBER 2012 ROGERS ET AL. 1329 Observation-Consistent Input and Whitecapping Dissipation in a Model for Wind-Generated Surface Waves ...wind-input and wind-breaking dissipation for phase-averaged spectral models of wind-generated surface waves is presented. Both are based on recent

  15. Variance Analysis of Wind and Natural Gas Generation under Different Market Structures: Some Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, B.; Jenkin, T.; Lipowicz, D.; Arent, D. J.; Cooke, R.

    2012-01-01

    Does large scale penetration of renewable generation such as wind and solar power pose economic and operational burdens on the electricity system? A number of studies have pointed to the potential benefits of renewable generation as a hedge against the volatility and potential escalation of fossil fuel prices. Research also suggests that the lack of correlation of renewable energy costs with fossil fuel prices means that adding large amounts of wind or solar generation may also reduce the volatility of system-wide electricity costs. Such variance reduction of system costs may be of significant value to consumers due to risk aversion. The analysis in this report recognizes that the potential value of risk mitigation associated with wind generation and natural gas generation may depend on whether one considers the consumer's perspective or the investor's perspective and whether the market is regulated or deregulated. We analyze the risk and return trade-offs for wind and natural gas generation for deregulated markets based on hourly prices and load over a 10-year period using historical data in the PJM Interconnection (PJM) from 1999 to 2008. Similar analysis is then simulated and evaluated for regulated markets under certain assumptions.

  16. Experimental observation of a magnetic-turbulence threshold for runaway-electron generation in the TEXTOR tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zeng, L; Koslowski, H R; Liang, Y; Lvovskiy, A; Lehnen, M; Nicolai, D; Pearson, J; Rack, M; Jaegers, H; Finken, K H; Wongrach, K; Xu, Y; Textor Team

    2013-06-07

    Magnetic turbulence is observed at the beginning of the current quench in intended TEXTOR disruptions. Runaway electron (RE) suppression has been experimentally found at magnetic turbulence larger than a certain threshold. Below this threshold, the generated RE current is inversely proportional to the level of magnetic turbulence. The magnetic turbulence originates from the background plasma and the amplitude depends strongly on the toroidal magnetic field and plasma electron density. These results explain the previously found toroidal field threshold for RE generation and have to be considered in predictions for RE generation in ITER.

  17. Assessing the risk of observing multiple generations of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) cases given an imported case.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, H; Miyamatsu, Y; Chowell, G; Saitoh, M

    2015-07-09

    To guide risk assessment, expected numbers of cases and generations were estimated, assuming a case importation of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Our analysis of 36 importation events yielded the risk of observing secondary transmission events at 22.7% (95% confidence interval: 19.3–25.1). The risks of observing generations 2, 3 and 4 were estimated at 10.5%, 6.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Countries at risk should be ready for highly variable outcomes following an importation of MERS.

  18. Experimental observation of acoustic emissions generated by a pulsed proton beam from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Kevin C.; Solberg, Timothy D.; Avery, Stephen; Vander Stappen, François; Janssens, Guillaume; Prieels, Damien; Bawiec, Christopher R.; Lewin, Peter A.; Sehgal, Chandra M.

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To measure the acoustic signal generated by a pulsed proton spill from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron. Methods: An electronic function generator modulated the IBA C230 isochronous cyclotron to create a pulsed proton beam. The acoustic emissions generated by the proton beam were measured in water using a hydrophone. The acoustic measurements were repeated with increasing proton current and increasing distance between detector and beam. Results: The cyclotron generated proton spills with rise times of 18 μs and a maximum measured instantaneous proton current of 790 nA. Acoustic emissions generated by the proton energy deposition were measured to be on the order of mPa. The origin of the acoustic wave was identified as the proton beam based on the correlation between acoustic emission arrival time and distance between the hydrophone and proton beam. The acoustic frequency spectrum peaked at 10 kHz, and the acoustic pressure amplitude increased monotonically with increasing proton current. Conclusions: The authors report the first observation of acoustic emissions generated by a proton beam from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron. When modulated by an electronic function generator, the cyclotron is capable of creating proton spills with fast rise times (18 μs) and high instantaneous currents (790 nA). Measurements of the proton-generated acoustic emissions in a clinical setting may provide a method for in vivo proton range verification and patient monitoring.

  19. What climate changes could be observed by two generations of Poles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwed, M.

    2010-09-01

    For many years, numerous scientific papers in different disciplines have been published on different aspects of the global warming. The issue of climate change and its impacts has become certainly a "fashionable" research area. In Poland, for example, the issue was tackled by one of the greatest hydro-climatological research projects, namely: "Extreme meteorological and hydrological events in Poland (the evaluation of forecasting events and their effects on human environment)". However, for several years, and certainly since 2007, when Al Gore, former U.S. vice-president, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) won the Nobel Peace Prize, this topic has started to be increasingly more frequently raised by the Polish media. The average Polish citizen increasingly more often learns from the press, radio and television about the global warming. There are also those skeptical of the climate change who loudly express their opinions in the media. Can the average Pole not get lost in the thicket of information? Can they refer to their own memory or the memory of their parents or grandparents on issues of climate change? How is the typical summer or winter perceived the previous generations? Is it possible to observe such changes without reference to extreme events? This article is to try to answer the question whether the average Pole could see climate change, most simply understood as changes in the thermal conditions and precipitations. If yes, then what seasons or months see the biggest changes. Which parts of the country witness the biggest changes? The starting point of the analysis are the 58-years time series of real monthly temperature and precipitation in the period of 1951-2008 for 20 stations across Poland. However, they will not be analyzed in more detail. In order to smooth the data sequences and thus to reject the short-term fluctuations, the long-term moving averages in different sequences (individual months, seasons and years) will be

  20. Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfrich, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Helfrich addresses two perspectives from which to think about observation in the classroom: that of the teacher observing her classroom, her group, and its needs, and that of the outside observer coming into the classroom. Offering advice from her own experience, she encourages and defends both. Do not be afraid of the disruption of outside…

  1. Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joosten, Albert Max

    2016-01-01

    Joosten begins his article by telling us that love and knowledge together are the foundation for our work with children. This combination is at the heart of our observation. With this as the foundation, he goes on to offer practical advice to aid our practice of observation. He offers a "List of Objects of Observation" to help guide our…

  2. Navigating the transition to college: First-generation undergraduates negotiate identities and search for success in STEM and non-STEM fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussey, Season Shelly

    2009-12-01

    Historically, racial and ethnic minority students from low income backgrounds have faced unequal access to colleges and universities. Recently, both K-12 and higher education institutions, specifically the University of California, in response to Proposition 209, have made efforts to increase access and opportunities for all students. Similarly, female minority students are underrepresented in selected science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) majors and careers. Using a qualitative research design, this study investigates how first generation, low income, underrepresented minority students who graduated from an innovative college preparatory high school enact coping strategies that they were explicitly taught to achieve success within the context of university science and math courses. The presence of a unique, college-prep high school on the campus of UC San Diego, which accepts exclusively low-income students through a randomized lottery system, creates an unusual opportunity to study the transition from high school to college for this population, a cohort of underrepresented students who were taught similar academic coping strategies for success in college. This study aims to understand how students develop their college-going, academic identities within the context of their colleges and universities. Furthermore, this study intends to understand the phenomenon of "transition to college" as a lived experience of first-generation, low income, minority students, who all share a similar college preparatory, high school background. The main research questions are: (1) How do underrepresented students experience the transition from a college preparatory high school to college? (2) How are students developing their college-going, academic identities in the context of their educational institutions? and (3) What factors support or constrain student participation and success in college science courses? Twenty-eight students participated in this study. Based on

  3. Experimental observation of multistability and dynamic attractors in silicon central pattern generators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Le; Nogaret, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We report on the multistability of chaotic networks of silicon neurons and demonstrate how spatiotemporal sequences of voltage oscillations are selected with timed current stimuli. A three neuron central pattern generator was built by interconnecting Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with mutually inhibitory links mimicking gap junctions. By systematically varying the timing of current stimuli applied to individual neurons, we generate the phase lag maps of neuronal oscillators and study their dependence on the network connectivity. We identify up to six attractors consisting of triphasic sequences of unevenly spaced pulses propagating clockwise and anticlockwise. While confirming theoretical predictions, our experiments reveal more complex oscillatory patterns shaped by the ratio of the pulse width to the oscillation period. Our work contributes to validating the command neuron hypothesis.

  4. Experimental observation of multistability and dynamic attractors in silicon central pattern generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Le; Nogaret, Alain

    2015-11-01

    We report on the multistability of chaotic networks of silicon neurons and demonstrate how spatiotemporal sequences of voltage oscillations are selected with timed current stimuli. A three neuron central pattern generator was built by interconnecting Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with mutually inhibitory links mimicking gap junctions. By systematically varying the timing of current stimuli applied to individual neurons, we generate the phase lag maps of neuronal oscillators and study their dependence on the network connectivity. We identify up to six attractors consisting of triphasic sequences of unevenly spaced pulses propagating clockwise and anticlockwise. While confirming theoretical predictions, our experiments reveal more complex oscillatory patterns shaped by the ratio of the pulse width to the oscillation period. Our work contributes to validating the command neuron hypothesis.

  5. Dendritic cells (DCs) can be successfully generated from leukemic blasts in individual patients with AML or MDS: an evaluation of different methods.

    PubMed

    Kremser, Andreas; Dressig, Julia; Grabrucker, Christine; Liepert, Anja; Kroell, Tanja; Scholl, Nina; Schmid, Christoph; Tischer, Johanna; Kufner, Stefanie; Salih, Helmut; Kolb, Hans Jochem; Schmetzer, Helga

    2010-01-01

    Myeloid-leukemic cells (AML, MDS, CML) can be differentiated to leukemia-derived dendritic cell [DC (DCleu)] potentially presenting the whole leukemic antigen repertoire without knowledge of distinct leukemia antigens and are regarded as promising candidates for a vaccination strategy. We studied the capability of 6 serum-free DC culture methods, chosen according to different mechanisms, to induce DC differentiation in 137 cases of AML and 52 cases of MDS. DC-stimulating substances were cytokines ("standard-medium", "MCM-Mimic", "cytokine-method"), bacterial lysates ("Picibanil"), double-stranded RNA ["Poly (I:C)"] or a cytokine bypass method ("Ca-ionophore"). The quality/quantity of DC generated was estimated by flow cytometry studying (co) expressions of "DC"antigens, costimulatory, maturation, and blast-antigens. Comparing these methods on average 15% to 32% DC, depending on methods used, could be obtained from blast-containing mononuclear cells (MNC) in AML/MDS cases with a DC viability of more than 60%. In all, 39% to 64% of these DC were mature; 31% to 52% of leukemic blasts could be converted to DCleu and DCleu-proportions in the suspension were 2% to 70% (13%). Average results of all culture methods tested were comparable, however not every given case of AML could be differentiated to DC with 1 selected method. However performing a pre-analysis with 3 DC-generating methods (MCM-Mimic, Picibanil, Ca-ionophore) we could generate DC in any given case. Functional analyses provided proof, that DC primed T cells to antileukemia-directed cytotoxic cells, although an anti-leukemic reaction was not achieved in every case. In summary our data show that a successful, quantitative DC/DCleu generation is possible with the best of 3 previously tested methods in any given case. Reasons for different functional behaviors of DC-primed T cells must be evaluated to design a practicable DC-based vaccination strategy.

  6. Recombinant TSH Stimulated Remnant Ablation Therapy in Thyroid Cancer: The Success Rate Depends on the Definition of Ablation Success—An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N. A.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Muller Kobold, Anneke C.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Plukker, John T. M.; Bisschop, Peter H.; de Klerk, John M.; Al Younis, Imad; Lips, Paul; Smit, Jan W.; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; Links, Thera P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) are treated with (near)-total thyroidectomy followed by remnant ablation. Optimal radioiodine-131 (131I) uptake is achieved by withholding thyroid hormone (THW), pretreatment with recombinant human Thyrotropin Stimulating Hormone (rhTSH) is an alternative. Six randomized trials have been published comparing THW and rhTSH, however comparison is difficult because an uniform definition of ablation success is lacking. Using a strict definition, we performed an observational study aiming to determine the efficacy of rhTSH as preparation for remnant ablation. Patients and Methods Adult DTC patients with, tumor stage T1b to T3, Nx, N0 and N1, M0 were included in a prospective multicenter observational study with a fully sequential design, using a stopping rule. All patients received remnant ablation with 131I using rhTSH. Ablation success was defined as no visible uptake in the original thyroid bed on a rhTSH stimulated 150 MBq 131I whole body scan (WBS) 9 months after remnant ablation, or no visible uptake in the original thyroid bed on a post therapeutic WBS when a second high dose was necessary. Results After interim analysis of the first 8 patients, the failure rate was estimated to be 69% (90% confidence interval (CI) 20-86%) and the inclusion of new patients had to be stopped. Final analysis resulted in an ablation success in 11 out of 17 patients (65%, 95% CI 38-86%). Conclusion According to this study, the efficacy of rhTSH in the preparation of 131I ablation therapy is inferior, when using a strict definition of ablation success. The current lack of agreement as to the definition of successful remnant ablation, makes comparison between different ablation strategies difficult. Our results point to the need for an international consensus on the definition of ablation success, not only in routine patient’s care but also for scientific reasons. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Registration NTR2395 PMID

  7. First Observational Support for Overlapping Reionized Bubbles Generated by a Galaxy Overdensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellano, M.; Dayal, P.; Pentericci, L.; Fontana, A.; Hutter, A.; Brammer, G.; Merlin, E.; Grazian, A.; Pilo, S.; Amorin, R.; Cristiani, S.; Dickinson, M.; Ferrara, A.; Gallerani, S.; Giallongo, E.; Giavalisco, M.; Guaita, L.; Koekemoer, A.; Maiolino, R.; Paris, D.; Santini, P.; Vallini, L.; Vanzella, E.; Wagg, J.

    2016-02-01

    We present an analysis of deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) multi-band imaging of the BDF field specifically designed to identify faint companions around two of the few Lyα emitting galaxies spectroscopically confirmed at z ˜ 7. Although separated by only 4.4 proper Mpc these galaxies cannot generate H ii regions large enough to explain the visibility of their Lyα lines, thus requiring a population of fainter ionizing sources in their vicinity. We use deep HST and VLT-Hawk-I data to select z ˜ 7 Lyman break galaxies around the emitters. We select six new robust z ˜ 7 LBGs at Y ˜ 26.5-27.5 whose average spectral energy distribution is consistent with the objects being at the redshift of the close-by Lyα emitters. The resulting number density of z ˜ 7 LBGs in the BDF field is a factor of approximately three to four higher than expected in random pointings of the same size. We compare these findings with cosmological hydrodynamic plus radiative transfer simulations of a universe with a half neutral IGM: we find that indeed Lyα emitter pairs are only found in completely ionized regions characterized by significant LBG overdensities. Our findings match the theoretical prediction that the first ionization fronts are generated within significant galaxy overdensities and support a scenario where faint, “normal” star-forming galaxies are responsible for reionization.

  8. Observing and predicting the spatial-temporal pattern of runoff generation processes from the watershed to the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiler, M.

    2012-12-01

    Runoff generation processes are the key to understand and predict watershed dynamics and behaviour under current as well as under changing conditions. A variety of approaches have been developed to observe these processes at the plot scale (e.g. infiltration and sprinkling experiments), the hillslope scale (soil moisture and piezometer networks and trenching) and the watershed scale (hydrograph separation with stable isotopes and natural tracers). However, predicting the four major runoff generation mechanisms (infiltration excess, saturation excess, subsurface flow and deep percolation) without detailed observation in ungauged watershed is still a challenge, but a prerequisite to track water flow pathways and to make adequate prediction for hydrological extremes. Methods have been developed to map dominant runoff generation processes in the field and with digital maps, however, these methods are often static and do not consider the temporal dynamics of runoff generation processes frequently observed with the various experimental approaches. The recently developed parsimonious rainfall-runoff model DROGen can bridge the gap between across spatial scales in ungauged watersheds since parameters are not calibrated. The model incorporates high-resolution GIS data (1m resolution DEM, land-use, impervious surfaces), hydro-geological and pedological data as well as information about the effect of macropores and preferential flow pathways on runoff generation processes with a comprehensive knowledge base from various field observations and experiments. The model was applied to over 6500 meso-scale watershed in the State of Baden-Württemberg in Germany and 15 gauged watersheds were selected for detailed model evaluation. The evaluation was done with field-mapping of runoff generation processes for direct comparison with the simulated pattern of runoff processes for different types of precipitation (high intensity and short duration / low intensity and long duration) and

  9. Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kripalani, Lakshmi A.

    2016-01-01

    The adult who is inexperienced in the art of observation may, even with the best intentions, react to a child's behavior in a way that hinders instead of helping the child's development. Kripalani outlines the need for training and practice in observation in order to "understand the needs of the children and...to understand how to remove…

  10. Challenges to Lake Superior's Condition, Assessment, and Management: A Few Observations Across a Generation of Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selected comparisons of water quality and biological properties in lakewide samplings of 1970s and 2005/2006 provide a simple illustration of significant changes within Lake Superior in the last three decades. Observations of warmed surface layers, increased nitrate and increase...

  11. Multistation observations of the azimuth, polarization, and frequency dependence of ELF/VLF waves generated by electrojet modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxworth, A. S.; Gołkowski, M.; Cohen, M. B.; Moore, R. C.; Chorsi, H. T.; Gedney, S. D.; Jacobs, R.

    2015-10-01

    Modulated ionospheric heating experiments are performed with the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program facility in Gakona, Alaska, for the purpose of generating extremely low frequency (ELF) and very low frequency (VLF) waves. Observations are made at three different azimuths from the heating facility and at distances from 37 km to 99 km. The polarization of the observed waves is analyzed in addition to amplitude as a function of modulation frequency and azimuth. Amplitude and eccentricity are observed to vary with both azimuth and distance from the heating facility. It is found that waves radiated at azimuths northwest of the facility are generated by a combination of modulated Hall and Pedersen currents, while waves observed at other azimuths are dominated by modulated Hall currents. We find no evidence for vertical currents contributing to ground observations of ELF/VLF waves. Observed amplitude peaks near multiples of 2 kHz are shown to result from vertical resonances in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide, and variations of the frequency of these resonances can be used to determine the D region ionosphere electron density profile in the vicinity of the HF heater.

  12. Electromagnetically generated extracorporeal shockwaves for fragmentation of extra-and intrahepatic bile duct stones: indications, success and problems during a 15 months clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Staritz, M; Rambow, A; Grosse, A; Hurst, A; Floth, A; Mildenberger, P; Goebel, M; Junginger, T; Hohenfellner, R; Thelen, M

    1990-02-01

    Electromagnetically generated extracorporeal shock waves (without waterbath) were applied after intravenous premedication with 10-15 mg diazepam and 100 mg tramadol in the treatment of 33 patients (aged 32 to 91 years) with multiple intrahepatic stones (n = 4) or huge common bile duct stones (n = 29, 18-30 mm in diameter), which could not be removed by conventional endoscopy. Stone disintegration was achieved in 70% of common bile duct stones and in all intrahepatic concrements after 800-7500 discharges, which were applied during one (n = 21), two (n = 6) or three sessions (n = 6). Apart from mild fleabite-like petechiae at the side of shock wave transmission no other side effects were observed for a total of 51 procedures. We believe electromagnetically generated shock waves are safe, easy to apply, and relatively effective in the therapy of common bile duct and intrahepatic stones.

  13. 4th generation of the 1st level surface detector trigger in the Pierre Auger Observator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szadkowski, Z.

    The proposal of a new 4th generation of the Front-End with the advanced 1st level triggers for the Infill Array of the Pierre Auger Observatory and for the Auger North is described. Newest FPGA chips offer much higher capacity of logic registers and memories, as well as DSP blocks. The calibration channel, previously supported by an external dual-port RAM, has been fully implemented into FPGA chip, through a large internal memory. In turn DSP blocks allowed on implementation of much more sophisticated spectral trigger algorithms. A single chip simplified board design, newer architecture of FPGA reduced resouces utilization and power consumption. Higher sampling in the new Front- End in comparison with previous 40 MHz designs as well as free resources for new detection algotithms can be a good platform for CR radio detection technique at Auger enhancing a duty cycle for the detection of UHECR’s.

  14. Observation of Self-Generated Flows in Tokamak Plasmas with Lower-Hybrid-Driven Current

    SciTech Connect

    Ince-Cushman, A.; Rice, J. E.; Reinke, M.; Greenwald, M.; Wallace, G.; Parker, R.; Fiore, C.; Hughes, J. W.; Bonoli, P.; Shiraiwa, S.; Hubbard, A.; Wolfe, S.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Marmar, E.; Bitter, M.; Wilson, J.; Hill, K.

    2009-01-23

    In Alcator C-Mod discharges lower hybrid waves have been shown to induce a countercurrent change in toroidal rotation of up to 60 km/s in the central region of the plasma (r/a{approx}<0.4). This modification of the toroidal rotation profile develops on a time scale comparable to the current redistribution time ({approx}100 ms) but longer than the energy and momentum confinement times ({approx}20 ms). A comparison of the co- and countercurrent injected waves indicates that current drive (as opposed to heating) is responsible for the rotation profile modifications. Furthermore, the changes in central rotation velocity induced by lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) are well correlated with changes in normalized internal inductance. The application of LHCD has been shown to generate sheared rotation profiles and a negative increment in the radial electric field profile consistent with a fast electron pinch.

  15. Observation of Wakefield Generation in Left-Handed Band of Metamaterial-Loaded Waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Antipov, S.; Spentzouris, L.; Liu, W.; Gai, W.; Power, J. G.

    2009-01-22

    We report on a design of a TM-mode based metamaterial-loaded waveguide. Network analyzer measurements demonstrated a left-handed propagation region for the TM11 mode at around 10 GHz. A beamline experiment was performed with the metamaterial-loaded waveguide. In this experiment, a 6 MeV electron beam passes through the waveguide and generates a wakefield, via the Cherenkov radiation mechanism. We detected a signal in the left-handed frequency band at 10 GHz. This is an indirect demonstration of reverse Cherenkov radiation as discussed in several papers. Cherenkov radiation in artificially constructed materials (metamaterials, MTM) can provide unusual, engineered features that can be advantageous for particle detector design.

  16. FIRST OBSERVATIONAL SUPPORT FOR OVERLAPPING REIONIZED BUBBLES GENERATED BY A GALAXY OVERDENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Castellano, M.; Pentericci, L.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Grazian, A.; Pilo, S.; Amorin, R.; Giallongo, E.; Guaita, L.; Paris, D.; Dayal, P.; Hutter, A.; Brammer, G.; Koekemoer, A.; Cristiani, S.; Dickinson, M.; Ferrara, A.; Gallerani, S.; Giavalisco, M.; Maiolino, R.; and others

    2016-02-10

    We present an analysis of deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) multi-band imaging of the BDF field specifically designed to identify faint companions around two of the few Lyα emitting galaxies spectroscopically confirmed at z ∼ 7. Although separated by only 4.4 proper Mpc these galaxies cannot generate H ii regions large enough to explain the visibility of their Lyα lines, thus requiring a population of fainter ionizing sources in their vicinity. We use deep HST and VLT-Hawk-I data to select z ∼ 7 Lyman break galaxies around the emitters. We select six new robust z ∼ 7 LBGs at Y ∼ 26.5–27.5 whose average spectral energy distribution is consistent with the objects being at the redshift of the close-by Lyα emitters. The resulting number density of z ∼ 7 LBGs in the BDF field is a factor of approximately three to four higher than expected in random pointings of the same size. We compare these findings with cosmological hydrodynamic plus radiative transfer simulations of a universe with a half neutral IGM: we find that indeed Lyα emitter pairs are only found in completely ionized regions characterized by significant LBG overdensities. Our findings match the theoretical prediction that the first ionization fronts are generated within significant galaxy overdensities and support a scenario where faint, “normal” star-forming galaxies are responsible for reionization.

  17. Convectively Generated Meso-Scale Gravity Waves in ER-2 Observations During CRYSTAL-FACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Alexander, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The MMS and MTP data from ER-2 observations during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign are analyzed to retrieve meso-scale gravity wave information at the aircraft flight level. For a given flight segment, the S-transform is used to locate small-scale (10-25 km) gravity wave events. The Stokes method and the MTP method are then used to determine the horizontal propagation directions, and the vertical scales of the wave events, respectively. Other wave parameters, such as horizontal scales, group velocities, can also be derived. From the estimated propagation directions, group velocities, and the ground-based radar reflectivity observations, some wave events are traced back to convectively active regions, suggesting convection as the source of the waves.

  18. Improving Aerosol and Visibility Forecasting Capabilities Using Current and Future Generations of Satellite Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    observations alone. With the use of MODIS cloud products, which have additional channels that are sensitive to thin cirrus clouds , we have developed a cloud ...occurring over the high latitude southern hemispheric oceans. Globally averaged, our study shows that thin cirrus cloud contamination introduces a...includes the careful examination of uncertainties in satellite aerosol products in relation to cloud contamination, aerosol microphysical bias, and

  19. Improving Aerosol and Visibility Forecasting Capabilities Using Current and Future Generations of Satellite Observations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-27

    of the study period, a 3-D CALIOP DA scheme, which is coupled with 2D aerosol optical depth ( AOD ) assimilation using MODIS and MISR aerosol data, has...with the support of this project) has been developed by using the variance in radiances within an artificial light source to retrieve AOD (McHardy et... AOD ) data and lidar vertical aerosol extinction profiles from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIOP) has been

  20. SEQ-POINTER: Next generation, planetary spacecraft remote sensing science observation design tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, Jeffrey S.

    1994-01-01

    Since Mariner, NASA-JPL planetary missions have been supported by ground software to plan and design remote sensing science observations. The software used by the science and sequence designers to plan and design observations has evolved with mission and technological advances. The original program, PEGASIS (Mariners 4, 6, and 7), was re-engineered as POGASIS (Mariner 9, Viking, and Mariner 10), and again later as POINTER (Voyager and Galileo). Each of these programs were developed under technological, political, and fiscal constraints which limited their adaptability to other missions and spacecraft designs. Implementation of a multi-mission tool, SEQ POINTER, under the auspices of the JPL Multimission Operations Systems Office (MOSO) is in progress. This version has been designed to address the limitations experienced on previous versions as they were being adapted to a new mission and spacecraft. The tool has been modularly designed with subroutine interface structures to support interchangeable celestial body and spacecraft definition models. The computational and graphics modules have also been designed to interface with data collected from previous spacecraft, or on-going observations, which describe the surface of each target body. These enhancements make SEQ POINTER a candidate for low-cost mission usage, when a remote sensing science observation design capability is required. The current and planned capabilities of the tool will be discussed. The presentation will also include a 5-10 minute video presentation demonstrating the capabilities of a proto-Cassini Project version that was adapted to test the tool. The work described in this abstract was performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. Observation of far-field Mach waves generated by the 2001 Kokoxili supershear earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallée, M.; Dunham, Eric M.

    2012-03-01

    Regional surface wave observations offer a powerful tool for determining source properties of large earthquakes, especially rupture velocity. Supershear ruptures, being faster than surface wave phase velocities, create far-field surface wave Mach cones along which waves from all sections of the fault arrive simultaneously and, over a sufficiently narrow frequency band, in phase. We present the first observation of far-field Mach waves from the major Kokoxili earthquake (Tibet, 2001/11/14, Mw 7.9) and confirm that ground motion amplitudes are indeed enhanced on the Mach cone. Theory predicts that on the Mach cone, bandpassed surface wave seismograms from a large supershear rupture will be identical to those from much smaller events with similar focal mechanisms, with an amplitude ratio equal to the ratio of the seismic moments of the two events. Cross-correlation of 15-25 s Love waves from the Kokoxili event with those from a much smaller (Mw 5) foreshock indicates a high degree of similarity (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.8 to 0.95) in waveforms recorded at stations near the far-field Mach cone. This similarity vanishes away from the Mach cone. These observations provide further evidence for supershear propagation of the Kokoxili rupture, and demonstrate how this simple waveform correlation procedure can be used to identify supershear ruptures.

  2. Upstream-generated Pc3 ULF wave signatures observed near the Earth's cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeoman, T. K.; Wright, D. M.; Engebretson, M. J.; Lessard, M. R.; Pilipenko, V. A.; Kim, H.

    2012-03-01

    Pc3 pulsations (frequency ˜20-100 mHz) which originate in the ion foreshock upstream of the Earth's bow shock due to the interaction between reflected ions and the solar wind are frequently observed in ground-based pulsation magnetometer data. Previous studies have noted increased Pc3 wave power in the vicinity of the dayside cusp and inferred that the upstream waves gained entry via the cusp, although more recent studies have revealed a more complex picture. Here, we examine Pc3 wave power near local noon observed by search coil magnetometers at three closely-spaced stations on Svalbard, during times when an extended interval of HF radar backscatter indicative of the cusp is detected by the Hankasalmi SuperDARN radar. The location of the equatorward edge of the HF radar cusp may then be directly compared with the Pc3 wave power measured at three latitudes as the cusp migrates across the stations on a statistical basis. These observations are more consistent with wave entry to the magnetosphere along closed field lines equatorward of the cusp via the ionospheric transistor mechanism of Engebretson et al. (1991a), or weakly coupled fast and Alfvén wave modes, which then map to the low-latitude boundary layer or outer magnetosphere, rather than with wave entry into the magnetosphere via the cusp proper or exterior cusp.

  3. Dynamic Characteristics of X-pinch Experiments Conducted in a Small Capacitive Generator:Refractive Optical Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepúlveda, Adolfo; Pavez, Cristian; Pedreros, José; Avaria, Gonzalo; San Martín, Patricio; Soto, Leopoldo

    2016-05-01

    Among the dense plasmas configurations of interest for applications as a portable intense source of X-rays, the X-pinches are the most attractive by their brightness, source size, short duration and space localization, being particularly reproducible when they are conducted with fast pulsed power generators. In recent time, several characteristics of the dynamics and emission have been reproduced in compact generators (typically capacitive generators) of low current rise-rate (less than 0.5 kA/ns). In this work, a preliminary characterization of the dynamic of X-pinch plasma conducted in a small capacitive generator is reported. In order to obtain the plasma dynamics and quantitative information of the plasma density, the dark field Schlieren technique and interferometry were implemented. The experiments were carried out on the multipurpose generator (1.2 μF, 345 J, 47.5 nH, T/4=375 ns and Z = 0.2 Ω in short circuit) capable to produce currents up to 122 kA with 500 ns quarter period, when a charging voltage of 24 kV and metallic X-pinches are used as load. The electrical behavior of the discharge and the X-ray emission are monitored with a Rogowski coil and filtered PIN diodes respectively. For the refractive optical diagnostics a 532 nm frequency- doubled Nd-YAG laser was used. As from a single Schlieren record per shot, a sequence with the time evolution of the plasma is constructed. From the images, a similar dynamic of X- pinches conducted in fast generators of high current is observed, where structures such as coronal plasma, plasma flares and plasma jets are identified. The plasma dynamics observed from a VUV gated pinhole image system is compared with registered dynamic with refractive optical techniques.

  4. Observation of a spark channel generated in water with shock wave assistance in plate-to-plate electrode configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Stelmashuk, V.

    2014-01-15

    When a high voltage pulse with an amplitude of 30 kV is applied to a pair of disk electrodes at a time when a shock wave is passing between them, an electrical spark is generated. The dynamic changes in the spark morphology are studied here using a high-speed framing camera. The primary result of this work is the provision of experimental evidence of plasma instability that was observed in the channel of the electric spark.

  5. Observations of E region irregularities generated at auroral latitudes by a high-power radio wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djuth, F. T.; Jost, R. J.; Noble, S. T.; Gordon, W. E.; Stubbe, P.

    1985-01-01

    The initial results of a series of observations made with the high-power HF heating facility near Tromso, Norway are reported. During these experiments, attention was focused on the production of artificial geomagnetic field-aligned irregularities (AFAIs) in the auroral E region by HF waves. A mobile 46.9-MHz radar was used to diagnose the formation of AFAIs having spatial scales of 3.2 across geomagnetic field lines. The dynamic characteristics of the AFAIs are discussed within the context of current theoretical work dealing with the natural production of AFAIs in the ionosphere.

  6. Experimental observations of transport of picosecond laser generated electrons in a nail-like target

    SciTech Connect

    Pasley, J.; Wei, M.; Shipton, E.; Chen, S.; Ma, T.; Beg, F. N.; Alexander, N.; Stephens, R.; MacPhee, A. G.; Hey, D.; Le Pape, S.; Patel, P.; Mackinnon, A.; Key, M.; Offermann, D.; Link, A.; Chowdhury, E.; Van-Woerkom, L.; Freeman, R. R.

    2007-12-15

    The transport of relativistic electrons, generated by the interaction of a high intensity (2x10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}) laser, has been studied in a nail-like target comprised of a 20 {mu}m diameter solid copper wire, coated with {approx}2 {mu}m of titanium, with an 80 {mu}m diameter hemispherical termination. A {approx}500 fs, {approx}200 J pulse of 1.053 {mu}m laser light produced by the Titan Laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was focused to a {approx}20 {mu}m diameter spot centered on the flat face of the hemisphere. K{sub {alpha}} fluorescence from the Cu and Ti regions was imaged together with extreme ultraviolet (XUV) emission at 68 and 256 eV. Results showed a quasiexponential decline in K{sub {alpha}} emission along the wire over a distance of a few hundred microns from the laser focus, consistent with bulk Ohmic inhibition of the relativistic electron transport. Weaker K{sub {alpha}} and XUV emission on a longer scale length showed limb brightening suggesting a transition to enhanced transport at the surface of the wire.

  7. Observation of tendon repair in animal model using second-harmonic-generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, Eiji; Minamikawa, Takeo; Sato, Katsuya; Takahashi, Mitsuhiko; Yasui, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Tendon rupture is a trauma difficult to recover the condition before injury. In previous researches, tensile test and staining method have been widely used to elucidate the mechanism of the repair process from the viewpoints of the mechanical property and the histological findings. However, since both methods are destructive and invasive, it is difficult to obtain both of them for the same sample. If both the mechanical property and the histological findings can be obtained from the same sample, one may obtain new findings regarding mechanisms of tendon repairing process. In this paper, we used second-harmonic-generation (SHG) microscopy, showing high selectivity and good image contrast to collagen molecules as well as high spatial resolution, optical three-dimensional sectioning, deep penetration, and without additional staining. Since SHG light intensity sensitively reflects the structural maturity of collagen molecule and its aggregates, it will be a good indicator for the repairing degree of the ruptured tendon. From comparison of SHG images between the 4-weeks-repaired tendon and the sound tendon in the animal model, we confirmed that SHG light intensity of the repaired tendon was significantly lower than that of the sound tendon, indicating that the collagen structure in the repaired tendon is still immature. Furthermore, we performed both SHG imaging and the tensile test for the same sample, and confirmed a correlation between them. This result shows a potential of SHG light for an indicator of the histological and mechanical recovery of the ruptured tendon.

  8. Stochastic generation of flood events to extend observed hydrological series by combining a copula model with hydrometeorological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requena, Ana; Flores, Isabel; Mediero, Luis; Garrote, Luis

    2013-04-01

    A multivariate flood frequency analysis is required for designing some structures like dams. Multivariate copula models are usually used to obtain joint return periods of the flood variables. There exist several families of copulas and a selection procedure is required to find the copula that best fits the observations. Moreover, observed hydrological series are usually short and the fit of the right tail of the copula remains highly uncertain. In this work, a procedure to extend short observed series is proposed by the use of both hydrometeorological modelling and a copula model to generate synthetic hydrographs. The procedure takes synthetic rainstorms events generated by the RainSim software as input. The RIBS rainfall-runoff model is used to simulate the hydrological processes in the basin. The procedure was tested in the Santillana reservoir in Spain, were both RainSim and RIBS models were calibrated prior to this study. A sensitivity analysis was conducted in order to find the minimum synthetic length that makes the copula selection process robust enough. As computational time of hydrometeorological modelling is not negligible, the extended record from modelling results could be re-extended by the fitted copula, reducing the computation time. This final extended hydrological series can be used to improve flood risk assessment studies. Key words: Stochastic generation, copulas, rainfall-runoff modelling Session: HS7.15 - Hydroclimatic stochastics Convener: S. Grimaldi Co-Conveners: A. A. Carsteanu, D. Koutsoyiannis, X. L. Wang and S. M. Papalexiou

  9. HEXITEC: A next generation hard X-ray Detector for Solar Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panessa, M.; Christe, S.; Shih, A.; Gaskin, J.; Wilson, M. D.; Seller, P.; Baumgartner, W.; Inglis, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    High angular resolution HXR optics require detectors with a large number of fine pixels in order to adequately sample the telescope point spread function (PSF) over the entire field of view. Recent developments at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) have resulted in a new hard X-ray (HXR) detector system with the smallest independent pixels currently available, 250 microns. This matches perfectly with the best angular resolution currently achievable by HXR focusing optics which is about 5 arcsec (FWHM). For a SMEX mission with a 15 meter focal length each pixel would cover an angular size of about 3 arcsec thereby subsampling the PSF. Dubbed HEXITEC, for High Energy X-Ray Imaging Technology, this Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), can be bonded to 1- or 2- mm-thick Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) or Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT) which provide high efficiency in the HXR region, good energy resolution, low background, low power, and low sensitivity to radiation damage. For solar observations, the ability to handle high counting rates is also extremely desirable. This ASIC can read each pixel 10,000 times per second. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been working with RAL over the past few years to develop these detectors to be used with HXR focusing telescopes. We present recent progress on this development effort and its capabilities as applied to solar observations.

  10. Direct observation of adakite melts generated in the lower continental crust, Fiordland, New Zealand.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, J.; Daczko, N.; Clarke, G.; Pearson, N.; Klepeis, K.

    2003-04-01

    Adakite igneous rocks have a distinctive chemistry that links them to melting of a mafic source at high pressure (P > 1.2 - 1.5 GPa; e.g. Peacock et al. 1994). They have been attributed to melting of subducted oceanic crust (Kay, 1978; Defant and Drummond, 1990) or melting of the crustal roots of thick continental arcs (Atherton and Petford, 1993). We report the first direct evidence for the generation of adakite melts in mafic lower continental crust. The Pembroke Granulite represents the deepest crust (P = 12 - 14 kbar , T = 750 - 800^oC; Daczko et al. 2001) in an exhumed Cretaceous arc in the South Island of New Zealand (Clarke et al., 2000). The Pembroke Granulite has the bulk chemistry, assemblage, and partial melting textures involving peritectic garnet, to be the source region for an adakite melt. The partial melting textures form the source for numerous trondhjemitic vein-filled fractures, which we suggest were the initial conduit for the adakite melt as it migrated away from its source. LA-ICMPS point analyses of minerals in the dioritic gneiss host rock, partial melting textures, and trondhjemitic veins of the Pembroke Granulite are consistent with this interpretation. The originally overlying Separation Point Batholith contains rocks of adakitic composition thought to have been formed through melting in a continental arc (Muir et al., 1995; 1998); the melts formed in the Pembroke Granulite are texturally, compositionally, geochemically, and structurally consistent with being the source of the Separation Point adakites. References: Atherton, M. P. and Petford, N.: Generation of sodium-rich magmas from newly underplated basaltic crust. Nature, 362, 144--146, 1993. Clarke, G. L., Klepeis, K. A. and Daczko, N. R.: Cretaceous high-P granulites at Milford Sound, New Zealand: their metamorphic history and emplacement in a convergent margin setting. J. Metamorphic Geol., 18, 359--374, 2000. Daczko, N. R., Klepeis, K. A. and Clarke, G. L.: Evidence of Early

  11. Observational Studies of Earthquake Preparation and Generation to Mitigate Seismic Risks in Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrheim, R. J.; Ogasawara, H.; Nakatani, M.; Milev, A.; Cichowicz, A.; Kawakata, H.; Yabe, Y.; Murakami, O.; Naoi, M. M.; Moriya, H.; Satoh, T.

    2011-12-01

    We provide a status report on a 5-year project to monitor in-situ fault instability and strong motion in South African gold mines. The project has two main aims: (1) To learn more about earthquake preparation and generation mechanisms by deploying dense arrays of high-sensitivity sensors within rock volumes where mining is likely to induce significant seismic activity. (2) To upgrade the South African national surface seismic network in the mining districts. This knowledge will contribute to efforts to upgrade schemes of seismic hazard assessment and to limit and mitigate the seismic risks in deep mines. As of 31 July 2011, 46 boreholes totalling 1.9 km in length had been drilled at project sites at Ezulwini, Moab-Khotsong and Driefontein gold mines. Several dozen more holes are still to be drilled. Acoustic emission sensors, strain- and tiltmeters, and controlled seismic sources are being installed to monitor the deformation of the rock mass, the accumulation of damage during the preparation phase, and changes in dynamic stress as the rupture front propagates. These data will be integrated with measurements of stope closure, stope strong motion, seismic data recorded by the mine-wide network, and stress modelling. Preliminary results will be reported at AGU meeting. The project is endorsed by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and the South African government. It is funded by the JST-JICA program for Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable development (SATREPS, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), the Council for Geoscience, the University of the Witwatersrand and the Department of Science and Technology. The contributions of Seismogen CC, OHMS Ltd, AnglogoldAshanti Rock Engineering Applied Research Group, First Uranium, the Gold Fields Seismic Department and the Institute of Mine Seismology are gratefully acknowledged.

  12. DNA alterations and effects on growth and reproduction in Daphnia magna during chronic exposure to gamma radiation over three successive generations.

    PubMed

    Parisot, Florian; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Plaire, Delphine; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Alonzo, Frédéric

    2015-06-01

    This study examined chronic effects of external Cs-137 gamma radiation on Daphnia magna exposed over three successive generations (F0, F1 and F2) to environmentally relevant dose rates (ranging from 0.007 to 35.4 mGy h(-1)). Investigated endpoints included survival, growth, reproduction and DNA alterations quantified using random-amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Results demonstrated that radiation effects on survival, growth and reproduction increased in severity from generation F0 to generation F2. Mortality after 21 days at 35.4 mGy h(-1) increased from 20% in F0 to 30% in F2. Growth was affected by a slight reduction in maximum length at 35.4 mGy h(-1) in F0 and by reductions of 5 and 13% in growth rate, respectively, at 4.70 and 35.4 mGy h(-1) in F2. Reproduction was affected by a reduction of 19% in 21 day-fecundity at 35.4 mGy h(-1) in F0 and by a delay of 1.9 days in brood release as low as 0.070 mGy h(-1) in F2. In parallel, DNA alterations became significant at decreasing dose rates over the course of F0 (from 4.70 mGy h(-1) at hatching to 0.007 mGy h(-1) after ∼21 days) and from F0 to F2 (0.070 mGy h(-1) at hatching to 0.007 mGy h(-1) after ∼21 days), demonstrating their rapid accumulation in F0 daphnids and their transmission to offspring generations. Transiently more efficient DNA repair leading to some recovery at the organism level was suggested in F1, with no effect on survival, a slight reduction of 12% in 21 day-fecundity at 35.4 mGy h(-1) and DNA alterations significant at highest dose rates only. The study improved our understanding of long term responses to low doses of radiation at the molecular and organismic levels in a non-human species for a better radioprotection of aquatic ecosystems.

  13. Generating wind fields that honour point observations and physical conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlabing, Dirk; Bárdossy, András

    2015-04-01

    Wind exhibits a strong spatial and temporal variability. In the application of lake modelling, these features are important for simulating water flows and stratification correctly, as mean and variance of wind speed determine the input of momentum into the lake. This makes a mere interpolation of point measurements an unsuitable method for producing model input. Additionally to concrete point measurements, more subtle aspects of wind fields are to be reproduced. It follows from the fact that wind vectors represent moving air that a wind field has to be divergency-free in order to be mass-conservative. Further, a temporal sequence of wind fields has to comply with the Navier-Stokes equation in order to conserve momentum. All these constraints can be met by representing the conditioned wind field as a linear combination of unconditioned, normally distributed random fields that individually possess the same spatial covariance structuref as observed wind fields. The aim of having the same covariance structure in the conditioned wind field is formulated as an optimization problem with respect to the weights used in the linear combination. With the help of Quadratic Programming (QP) and exploiting the convexity of the problem, feasible solutions can easily be found. In this QP problem, observations become linear constraints. Conservation laws can be incorporated by introducing control volumes in a similar fashion as they are used in fluid mechanics. Budgets of flows through these control volumes become integral conditions in the QP problem. The applicability of the approach will be shown using an artificial example and real-world data measured on shore and on a moving boat on Lake Constance.

  14. Observation-based source terms in the third-generation wave model WAVEWATCH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieger, Stefan; Babanin, Alexander V.; Erick Rogers, W.; Young, Ian R.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements collected during the AUSWEX field campaign, at Lake George (Australia), resulted in new insights into the processes of wind wave interaction and whitecapping dissipation, and consequently new parameterizations of the input and dissipation source terms. The new nonlinear wind input term developed accounts for dependence of the growth on wave steepness, airflow separation, and for negative growth rate under adverse winds. The new dissipation terms feature the inherent breaking term, a cumulative dissipation term and a term due to production of turbulence by waves, which is particularly relevant for decaying seas and for swell. The latter is consistent with the observed decay rate of ocean swell. This paper describes these source terms implemented in WAVEWATCH III ®and evaluates the performance against existing source terms in academic duration-limited tests, against buoy measurements for windsea-dominated conditions, under conditions of extreme wind forcing (Hurricane Katrina), and against altimeter data in global hindcasts. Results show agreement by means of growth curves as well as integral and spectral parameters in the simulations and hindcast.

  15. Earth Observation oriented teaching materials development based on OGC Web services and Bashyt generated reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanut, T.; Gorgan, D.; Giuliani, G.; Cau, P.

    2012-04-01

    Creating e-Learning materials in the Earth Observation domain is a difficult task especially for non-technical specialists who have to deal with distributed repositories, large amounts of information and intensive processing requirements. Furthermore, due to the lack of specialized applications for developing teaching resources, technical knowledge is required also for defining data presentation structures or in the development and customization of user interaction techniques for better teaching results. As a response to these issues during the GiSHEO FP7 project [1] and later in the EnviroGRIDS FP7 [2] project, we have developed the eGLE e-Learning Platform [3], a tool based application that provides dedicated functionalities to the Earth Observation specialists for developing teaching materials. The proposed architecture is built around a client-server design that provides the core functionalities (e.g. user management, tools integration, teaching materials settings, etc.) and has been extended with a distributed component implemented through the tools that are integrated into the platform, as described further. Our approach in dealing with multiple transfer protocol types, heterogeneous data formats or various user interaction techniques involve the development and integration of very specialized elements (tools) that can be customized by the trainers in a visual manner through simple user interfaces. In our concept each tool is dedicated to a specific data type, implementing optimized mechanisms for searching, retrieving, visualizing and interacting with it. At the same time, in each learning resource can be integrated any number of tools, through drag-and-drop interaction, allowing the teacher to retrieve pieces of data of various types (e.g. images, charts, tables, text, videos etc.) from different sources (e.g. OGC web services, charts created through Bashyt application, etc.) through different protocols (ex. WMS, BASHYT API, FTP, HTTP etc.) and to display

  16. Probing turbulent, magnetized star formation with ALMA observations and next-generation AREPO simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Mocz, Philip; Burkhart, Blakesley K.; Miquel Girart, Josep; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Cortes, Paulo; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lai, Shih-Ping; Hernquist, Lars; Springel, Volker

    2017-01-01

    The first polarization data from ALMA have been delivered, and are both expanding and confounding our understanding of the role of magnetic fields in low-mass star formation. Here I will show the highest resolution and highest sensitivity polarization images ever made of a Class 0 protostellar source. These new ALMA observations of the source, known as Ser-emb 8, achieve 140 AU resolution, allowing us to probe polarization -- and thus magnetic field orientation -- in the innermost regions surrounding the protostar. The collapse of strongly magnetized dense gas is predicted to pinch the magnetic field into an hourglass shape that persists down to scales <100 AU. However, in contrast with more than 50 years of theory, the ALMA data definitively rule out an hourglass morphology and instead reveal a chaotic magnetic field that has not been inherited from the field in the interstellar medium surrounding the source. We have simulated the star formation process with cutting-edge, moving-mesh AREPO simulations on scales from a million AU (5 pc) down to 60 AU. We find that only in the case of a very strong magnetic field (~100 microgauss on 5 pc scales) is the field direction preserved from cloud to disk scales. When the field is weak, turbulence in the interstellar gas shapes the field on large scales, and the forming star system re-shapes the field again on small scales, divorcing the field from its history on larger scales. We conclude that this is what has happened in Ser-emb 8. The main distinction from the strong-field star formation model is that in the weak-field case it is turbulence -- not the magnetic field -- that shapes the material that forms the protostar.

  17. Transient Phase of Ice Observed by Sum Frequency Generation at the Water/Mineral Interface During Freezing.

    PubMed

    Lovering, Kaitlin A; Bertram, Allan K; Chou, Keng C

    2017-02-16

    We observed a transient noncentrosymmetric phase of ice at water/mineral interfaces during freezing, which enhanced the intensity of the IR-visible sum frequency generation intensity by up to 20-fold. The lifetime of the transient phase was several minutes. Since the most stable form of ice, hexagonal and cubic ice, are centrosymmetric, our study suggests the transient existence of stacking-disordered ice during the freezing process at water/mineral interfaces. Stacking-disordered ice, which has only been observed in bulk ice at temperatures lower than -20 °C, is a random mixture of layers of hexagonal ice and cubic ice. However, the transient phase at the ice/mineral interface was observed at temperatures as high as -1 °C. It suggests that the mineral surface may play a role in promoting and stabilizing the formation of stacking-disordered ice at the interface.

  18. Threshold of wave generation on Titan’s lakes and seas: Effect of viscosity and implications for Cassini observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Newman, Claire; Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2010-06-01

    Motivated by radar and near-infrared data indicating that Titan's polar lakes are extremely smooth, we consider the conditions under which a lake surface will be ruffled by wind to form capillary waves. We evaluate laboratory data on wind generation and derive, without scaling for surface tension effects, a threshold for pure methane/ethane of ˜0.5-1 m/s. However, we compute the physical properties of predicted Titan lake compositions using the National Institute for Standards Technology (NIST) code and note that dissolved amounts of C3 and C4 compounds are likely to make Titan lakes much more viscous than pure ethane or methane, even without allowing for suspended particulates which would increase the viscosity further. Wind tunnel experiments show a strong dependence of capillary wave growth on liquid viscosity, and this effect may explain the apparent absence so far of waves, contrary to prior expectations that generation of gravity waves by wind should be easy on Titan. On the other hand, we note that winds over Titan lakes predicted with the TitanWRF Global Circulation Model indicate radar observations so far have in any case been when winds have been low (˜0.5-0.7 m/s), possibly below the wave generation threshold, while peak winds during summer may reach 1-2 m/s. Thus observations of Titan's northern lakes during the coming years by the Cassini Solstice mission offer the highest probability of observing wind-roughening of lake surfaces, while observations of Ontario Lacus in the south will likely continue to show it to be flat and smooth.

  19. Analysis of time-of-arrival observations performed during ELF/VLF wave generation experiments at HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimaru, S.; Moore, R. C.

    2011-06-01

    Modulated high frequency (HF) heating of the lower ionosphere in the presence of auroral electrojet currents has become an important method for generating electromagnetic waves in the extremely-low frequency (ELF) and very-low frequency (VLF) bands. Recent research efforts focus on improving the efficiency of ELF/VLF wave generation. One method to do so involves the spatial mapping of modulated currents that result from HF heating for comparison with HF heating models. As a first step toward providing a spatial map of the modulated ionospheric currents, we introduce time-of-arrival (TOA) observations performed during a series of experimental research campaigns conducted at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) in Gakona, Alaska. The TOA method provides a measurement of the ELF/VLF amplitude and phase detected at a ground-based receiver as a function of time, and this information may be used to estimate the distribution of ELF/VLF source currents within the HF heated region. In an effort to test and improve the TOA method, the University of Florida conducted ELF/VLF wave generation experiments using the HAARP HF transmitter under varying ionospheric conditions and using various transmission formats. In this paper, we summarize our experimental results and compare observations with the predictions of a theoretical model.

  20. Demand generation and social mobilisation for integrated community case management (iCCM) and child health: Lessons learned from successful programmes in Niger and Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Alyssa B; Martin, Sandrine; Cerveau, Teresa; Wetzler, Erica; Berzal, Rocio

    2014-01-01

    Aim We present the approaches used in and outcomes resulting from integrated community case management (iCCM) programmes in Niger and Mozambique with a strong focus on demand generation and social mobilisation. Methods We use a case study approach to describe the programme and contextual elements of the Niger and Mozambique programmes. Results Awareness and utilisation of iCCM services and key family practices increased following the implementation of the Niger and Mozambique iCCM and child survival programmes, as did care–seeking within 24 hours and care–seeking from appropriate, trained providers in Mozambique. These approaches incorporated interpersonal communication activities and community empowerment/participation for collective change, partnerships and networks among key stakeholder groups within communities, media campaigns and advocacy efforts with local and national leaders. Conclusions iCCM programmes that train and equip community health workers and successfully engage and empower community members to adopt new behaviours, have appropriate expectations and to trust community health workers’ ability to assess and treat illnesses can lead to improved care–seeking and utilisation, and community ownership for iCCM. PMID:25520800

  1. Success rate and risk factors for failure of empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole in patients with hematological malignancies: a multicenter, prospective, open-label, observational study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jeong; Cheong, June-Won; Min, Yoo Hong; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Dong-Gun; Lee, Je-Hwan; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Yang Soo; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Park, Jinny; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Hoon-Gu; Kim, Byung Soo; Ryoo, Hun-Mo; Jang, Jun Ho; Kim, Min Kyoung; Kang, Hye Jin; Cho, In Sung; Mun, Yeung Chul; Jo, Deog-Yeon; Kim, Ho Young; Park, Byeong-Bae; Kim, Jin Seok

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the success rate of empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole and evaluated risk factors for predicting the failure of empirical antifungal therapy. A multicenter, prospective, observational study was performed in patients with hematological malignancies who had neutropenic fever and received empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole at 22 centers. A total of 391 patients who had abnormal findings on chest imaging tests (31.0%) or a positive result of enzyme immunoassay for serum galactomannan (17.6%) showed a 56.5% overall success rate. Positive galactomannan tests before the initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy (P=0.026, hazard ratio [HR], 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-4.69) and abnormal findings on the chest imaging tests before initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy (P=0.022, HR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.11-3.71) were significantly associated with poor outcomes for the empirical antifungal therapy. Eight patients (2.0%) had premature discontinuation of itraconazole therapy due to toxicity. It is suggested that positive galactomannan tests and abnormal findings on the chest imaging tests at the time of initiation of the empirical antifungal therapy are risk factors for predicting the failure of the empirical antifungal therapy with itraconazole. (Clinical Trial Registration on National Cancer Institute website, NCT01060462).

  2. Evaluating Inuence of Power Output Fluctuation of Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems on LFC based on Multiple Observation of Insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagawa, Shigeyuki; Kato, Takeyoshi; Tabata, Akimori; Suzuoki, Yasuo

    A large-scale installation of a photovoltaic power generation system (PV system) may cause some diculties in the operation of electric power systems. Taking into account a smoothing effect of power outputs of PV systems by dispersed installation, this paper discusses the LFC (Load Frequency Control) capacity for power output fluctuation of PV systems based on the insolation data simultaneously observed at 5 points around Nagoya, Japan. The main results are (1) the frequency deviation might not exceed the tolerance (0.05Hz)when the installed PV system is 2% of system capacity, which is Japan’s target value toward 2010, (2) when the larger capacity of PV system is installed, the frequency deviation would be larger than 0.05Hz, and the capacity of LFC generator must be increased, (3) the frequency deviation due to the installation of PV system might be larger in holiday with smaller electricity demand than in weekday.

  3. Ling's Adsorption Theory as a Mechanism of Membrane Potential Generation Observed in Both Living and Nonliving Systems.

    PubMed

    Tamagawa, Hirohisa; Funatani, Makoto; Ikeda, Kota

    2016-01-26

    The potential between two electrolytic solutions separated by a membrane impermeable to ions was measured and the generation mechanism of potential measured was investigated. From the physiological point of view, a nonzero membrane potential or action potential cannot be observed across the impermeable membrane. However, a nonzero membrane potential including action potential-like potential was clearly observed. Those observations gave rise to a doubt concerning the validity of currently accepted generation mechanism of membrane potential and action potential of cell. As an alternative theory, we found that the long-forgotten Ling's adsorption theory was the most plausible theory. Ling's adsorption theory suggests that the membrane potential and action potential of a living cell is due to the adsorption of mobile ions onto the adsorption site of cell, and this theory is applicable even to nonliving (or non-biological) system as well as living system. Through this paper, the authors emphasize that it is necessary to reconsider the validity of current membrane theory and also would like to urge the readers to pay keen attention to the Ling's adsorption theory which has for long years been forgotten in the history of physiology.

  4. Multiple-Station Observation of Frequency Dependence and Polarization Characteristics of ELF/VLF waves generated via Ionospheric Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxworth, A. S.; Golkowski, M.; Cohen, M.; Moore, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Generation of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Very Low Frequency (VLF) signals through ionospheric modification has been practiced for many years. Heating the lower ionosphere with high power HF waves allows for modulation of natural current systems. Our experiments were carried out at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, USA. In this experiment, the ionosphere was heated with a vertical amplitude modulating signal and the modulation frequency was changed sequentially within an array of 40 frequencies followed by a frequency ramp. The observed magnetic field amplitude and polarization of the generated ELF/VLF signals were analyzed for multiple sites and as a function of modulation frequency. Our three observation sites: Chistochina, Paxson and Paradise are located within 36km (azimuth 47.7°), 50.2km (azimuth -20°) and 99km (azimuth 80.3°) respectively. We show that the peak amplitudes observed as a function of frequency result from vertical resonance in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and can be used to diagnose the D-region profile. Polarization analysis showed that out of the three sites Paxson shows the highest circularity in the magnetic field polarization, compared to Chistochina and Paradise which show highly linear polarizations. The experimental results were compared with a theoretical simulation model results and it was clear that in both cases, the modulated Hall current dominates the observed signals at Chistochina and Paradise sites and at Paxson there is an equal contribution from Hall and Pedersen currents. The Chistochina site shows the highest magnetic field amplitudes in both experimental and simulation environments. Depending upon the experimental and simulation observations at the three sites, a radiation pattern for the HAARP ionospheric heater can be mapped

  5. Succession planning.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Thomas E

    2006-03-01

    This article provides the reader with an appreciation of the diverse elements that go into a buy-sell, affiliation, or merger situation for veterinary practices. In the changing market place of American veterinary medicine, old paradigms no longer hold comfort. The generational differences are briefly explored herein as well as the new economic realities. A few examples are offered to illustrate just how much variability exists in the current business of veterinary medicine and the subsequent practice transitions needed to enhance value. Functioning models are explored, as well as affiliation and merger options. Practice valuation is discussed in general terms, referencing the cutting-edge factors. The six-point summary provides almost all practices a solid operational base for daily operations and succession planning.

  6. Direct observation of bulk second-harmonic generation inside a glass slide with tightly focused optical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianghui; Fardad, Shima; Das, Susobhan; Salandrino, Alessandro; Hui, Rongqing

    2016-04-01

    Bulk second-harmonic generation (SHG) inside glass slides is directly detected unambiguously without interference from surface contributions. This is enabled by tightly focused and highly localized ultrashort laser pulses. The theoretical calculations based on vector diffraction theory and the phenomenological model of SHG inside centrosymmetric materials agree well with the measured far-field SHG radiation patterns for different polarization states of the fundamental beam. The results indicate that the observed bulk SHG is predominantly related to the bulk parameter δ' and originates from the three-dimensional field gradient in the focal region.

  7. Observation of two polytypes of MoS2 ultrathin layers studied by second harmonic generation microscopy and photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishina, E.; Sherstyuk, N.; Lavrov, S.; Sigov, A.; Mitioglu, A.; Anghel, S.; Kulyuk, L.

    2015-03-01

    Second harmonic generation (SHG) of a high intensity was found in MoS2 flakes of different thicknesses exfoliated on a silicon substrate. Reduction of the SHG intensity was observed only for a small portion of flakes, for both very thin and quite thick ones. This was attributed to the presence of polytypism, i.e., of 3R non-centrosymmetric and 2H centrosymmetric polytypes, in a source bulk crystal grown by the chemical vapor transport technique. The presence of two polytypes in the sample was confirmed by the spectral structure of the photoluminescence of bound excitons observed in flakes at low temperature. Absolute values of nonlinear susceptibility of MoS2 flakes of different thicknesses were estimated.

  8. Assimilation of Smos Observations to Generate a Prototype SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root-Zone Soil Moisture Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Crow, Wade T.; Koster, Randal D.; Kimball, John

    2012-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP; [1]) mission is being implemented by NASA for launch in October 2014. The primary science objectives of SMAP are to enhance understanding of land surface controls on the water, energy and carbon cycles, and to determine their linkages. Moreover, the high-resolution soil moisture mapping provided by SMAP has practical applications in weather and seasonal climate prediction, agriculture, human health, drought and flood decision support. The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS; [2]) mission was launched by ESA in November 2009 and has since been observing L-band (1.4 GHz) upwelling passive microwaves. In this paper we describe our use of SMOS brightness temperature observations to generate a prototype of the planned SMAP Level 4 Surface and Root-zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) product [5].

  9. Generation, Diffraction and Radiation of Subsonic Flexural Waves on Membranes and Plates: Observations of Structural and Acoustical Wavefields.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matula, Thomas John

    Electromagnetic acoustic wave transducers (EMATs) are described for generating low-frequency tone bursts on metalized membranes in air and elastic plates in water. Bursts on the membrane have phase velocities much less than the speed of sound in the surrounding air and are accompanied by plane evanescent waves. The frequency and time-domain responses of the EMAT and the dependence on gap spacing between the coupling coil and the membrane were studied. Wave -number selective optical and capacitive probes were used to measure the wave properties. Versions of these transducers are insensitive to long wavelength motion of the membrane. Diffraction of the burst by a sharp edge in air was observed as a function of the gap between the membrane and a razor edge. The scattered pressure decreases exponentially with increasing gap as expected from an approximate analysis of edge diffraction of evanescent waves. In related work an EMAT is used to generate 28 kHz tone bursts of bending waves on an aluminum plate. The bursts propagate down into water where the surrounding wavefield is probed. Observations described indicate that there occurs a branching of energy as the wave crosses the air-water interface. Radiation from subsonic flexural plate waves due to the discontinuity in fluid -loading is observed. It is partially analogous to the transition radiation of fast charged particles crossing a dielectric interface. The angular radiation pattern resembles that of a line quadrupole. Near the interface there exists an interference between the two energy branches in water that produces a series of pressure nulls. The pressure nulls are associated with a pi phase change in the wavefield and are indicators of wavefront dislocations. A computation of the wavefield in an unbounded fluid due to a line-moment excitation of a plate is comparable with the null pattern observed but differs in certain details.

  10. Observations of amplitude saturation in ELF/VLF wave generation by modulated HF heating of the auroral electrojet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. C.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.

    2006-06-01

    We present detailed observations of the onset of amplitude saturation in ELF/VLF waves generated via modulated HF heating of naturally-forming, large-scale current systems, such as the auroral electrojet. Broadband ELF/VLF measurements at a ground-based receiver located near the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska, exhibit variations in signal amplitude which are qualitatively consistent with a hard-limiting approximation of the saturation process. A method to approximate the saturation curve as a function of HF power from experimental data is presented, and the results indicate that a ~5-10% reduction in generated ELF signal amplitude is typical at the maximum radiated HF power level (771 kW) for modulation frequencies between 1225 Hz and 3365 Hz. For HF transmissions using sinusoidal amplitude modulation, the saturation dominantly affects the second harmonic of the generated ELF/VLF signal, with amplitudes on average 16% lower than expected at the maximum HF power level.

  11. A Novel Controller Design for the Next Generation Space Electrostatic Accelerometer Based on Disturbance Observation and Rejection.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyin; Bai, Yanzheng; Hu, Ming; Luo, Yingxin; Zhou, Zebing

    2016-12-23

    The state-of-the-art accelerometer technology has been widely applied in space missions. The performance of the next generation accelerometer in future geodesic satellites is pushed to 8 × 10 - 13 m / s 2 / H z 1 / 2 , which is close to the hardware fundamental limit. According to the instrument noise budget, the geodesic test mass must be kept in the center of the accelerometer within the bounds of 56 pm / Hz 1 / 2 by the feedback controller. The unprecedented control requirements and necessity for the integration of calibration functions calls for a new type of control scheme with more flexibility and robustness. A novel digital controller design for the next generation electrostatic accelerometers based on disturbance observation and rejection with the well-studied Embedded Model Control (EMC) methodology is presented. The parameters are optimized automatically using a non-smooth optimization toolbox and setting a weighted H-infinity norm as the target. The precise frequency performance requirement of the accelerometer is well met during the batch auto-tuning, and a series of controllers for multiple working modes is generated. Simulation results show that the novel controller could obtain not only better disturbance rejection performance than the traditional Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controllers, but also new instrument functions, including: easier tuning procedure, separation of measurement and control bandwidth and smooth control parameter switching.

  12. A Novel Controller Design for the Next Generation Space Electrostatic Accelerometer Based on Disturbance Observation and Rejection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongyin; Bai, Yanzheng; Hu, Ming; Luo, Yingxin; Zhou, Zebing

    2016-01-01

    The state-of-the-art accelerometer technology has been widely applied in space missions. The performance of the next generation accelerometer in future geodesic satellites is pushed to 8×10−13m/s2/Hz1/2, which is close to the hardware fundamental limit. According to the instrument noise budget, the geodesic test mass must be kept in the center of the accelerometer within the bounds of 56 pm/Hz1/2 by the feedback controller. The unprecedented control requirements and necessity for the integration of calibration functions calls for a new type of control scheme with more flexibility and robustness. A novel digital controller design for the next generation electrostatic accelerometers based on disturbance observation and rejection with the well-studied Embedded Model Control (EMC) methodology is presented. The parameters are optimized automatically using a non-smooth optimization toolbox and setting a weighted H-infinity norm as the target. The precise frequency performance requirement of the accelerometer is well met during the batch auto-tuning, and a series of controllers for multiple working modes is generated. Simulation results show that the novel controller could obtain not only better disturbance rejection performance than the traditional Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controllers, but also new instrument functions, including: easier tuning procedure, separation of measurement and control bandwidth and smooth control parameter switching. PMID:28025534

  13. Development, Application, and Transition of Aerosol and Trace Gas Products Derived from Next-Generation Satellite Observations to Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berndt, Emily; Naeger, Aaron; Zavodsky, Bradley; McGrath, Kevin; LaFontaine, Frank

    2016-01-01

    NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has a history of successfully transitioning unique observations and research capabilities to the operational weather community to improve short-term forecasts. SPoRTstrives to bridge the gap between research and operations by maintaining interactive partnerships with end users to develop products that match specific forecast challenges, provide training, and assess the products in the operational environment. This presentation focuses on recent product development, application, and transition of aerosol and trace gas products to operations for specific forecasting applications. Recent activities relating to the SPoRT ozone products, aerosol optical depth composite product, sulfur dioxide, and aerosol index products are discussed.

  14. Observation of tsunami-generated ionospheric signatures over Hawaii caused by the 16 September 2015 Illapel earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grawe, Matthew A.; Makela, Jonathan J.

    2017-01-01

    Tsunamis generate internal gravity waves (IGWs) that propagate vertically into the atmosphere and can create detectable signatures in the ionosphere. These signatures have consistently been observed in the presence of a tsunami for over a decade in the total electron content and for over 5 years in the 630.0 nm airglow. Here we show perturbations appearing in filtered GPS-derived total electron content (TEC) and 630.0 nm airglow above Hawaii during the passing of the tsunami induced by the 16 September 2015 earthquake in Illapel, Chile. We report measurements of IGW parameters from both observation methodologies using a combination of prior methods and a newly developed method that uses a Gabor filter bank. A previously developed geometric model that takes into account the assumed posture of tsunami-induced IGWs in the geomagnetic field and the observation geometry is shown to predict fairly well the expected location of the observation in the sky. Results of the Gabor filtering technique are also compared to previously published results for the 11 March 2011 Tohoku event. An overall comparison between all of the tsunami-induced signatures that have appeared in both the 630.0 nm airglow and TEC above Hawaii to date is provided.

  15. Comparison of Pd/D co-deposition and DT neutron generated triple tracks observed in CR-39 detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Mosier-Boss, P. A.; Dea, J. Y.; Forsley, L. P. G.; Morey, M. S.; Tinsley, J. R.; Hurley, J. P.; Gordon, F. E.

    2010-08-01

    Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs), such as CR-39, have been used to detect energetic charged particles and neutrons. Of the neutron and charged particle interactions that can occur in CR-39, the one that is the most easily identifiable is the carbon breakup reaction. The observation of a triple track, which appears as three alpha particle tracks breaking away from a center point, is diagnostic of the 12C(n, n')3α carbon breakup reaction. Such triple tracks have been observed in CR-39 detectors that have been used in Pd/D co-deposition experiments. In this communication, triple tracks in CR-39 detectors observed in Pd/D co-deposition experiments are compared with those generated upon exposure to a DT neutron source. It was found that both sets of tracks were indistinguishable. Both symmetric and asymmetric tracks were observed. Using linear energy transfer (LET) curves and track modeling, the energy of the neutron that created the triple track can be estimated.

  16. Addressing the Achilles' Heel in the HIV Care Continuum for the Success of a Test-and-Treat Strategy to Achieve an AIDS-Free Generation

    PubMed Central

    Nachega, Jean B.; Uthman, Olalekan A.; del Rio, Carlos; Mugavero, Michael J.; Rees, Helen; Mills, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical models and recent data from ecological, observational, and experimental studies show that antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective for both treatment and prevention of HIV, validating the treatment as prevention (TasP) approach. Data from a variety of settings, including resource-rich and -limited sites, show that patient attrition occurs at each stage of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment cascade, starting with the percent unaware of their HIV infection in a population and linkage to care after diagnosis, assessment of ART readiness, receipt of ART, and finally long-term virologic suppression. Therefore, in order to implement TasP, we must first define practical and effective linkage to care, acceptability of treatment, and adherence and retention monitoring strategies, as well as the cost-effectiveness of such strategies. Ending this pandemic will require the combination of political will, resources, and novel effective interventions that are not only feasible and cost effective but also likely to be used in combination across successive steps on the HIV treatment cascade. PMID:24926028

  17. Observations of Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs) Over the United States Associated With the Tsunami Generated by the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duly, T. M.; Azeem, I.; Crowley, G.; Vadas, S.; Makela, J. J.; Reynolds, A.

    2015-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake generated a massive tsunami off the Pacific coast of Japan which in turn forced intense atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) that were seen in GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) data and airglow measurements as traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) signatures as far away as Hawaii. What is unknown is how far these TIDs traveled after being launched by the tsunami and the role of the underlying neutral atmosphere on their propagation characteristics. For the first time, we show that TIDs associated with the Tohoku tsunami were observed in GPS TEC data for several hours over the west coast of the US and as far inland as Colorado. The results presented here show a range of TIDs generated by gravity wave packets propagating into the ionosphere from below. We present results indicating the presence of TIDs with periods ranging from 15 to 30 minutes, and horizontal wavelengths from 150 km to 400 km. The azimuth of the observed TID wave train was 121.8 ± 1.8° (angle measured in degrees east of north), which matches the azimuth of the tsunami near the Pacific coast of the US. The observed period of the TIDs was one of the spectral components of the tsunami wave packet as it approached the Pacific coast of the US. These results suggest that the tsunami was the source of the TIDs over the US. Additionally, the TID periods and horizontal wavelengths clearly vary in longitude. These variations agree with theoretical gravity wave results concerning propagation and dissipation in the thermosphere.

  18. A Rapid Prototyping Look at NASA's Next Generation Earth-Observing Satellites; Opportunities for Global Change Research and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, L.; Young, D. F.; Parker, P. A.; Eckman, R. S.

    2006-12-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences Program extends the results of Earth Science Division (ESD) research and knowledge beyond the scientific and research communities to contribute to national priority applications with societal benefits. The Applied Sciences Program focuses on, (1) assimilation of NASA Earth-science research results and their associated uncertainties to improve decision support systems and, (2) the transition of NASA research results to evolve improvements in future operational systems. The broad range of Earth- science research results that serve as inputs to the Applied Sciences Program are from NASA's Research and Analysis Program (R&A) within the ESD. The R&A Program has established six research focus areas to study the complex processes associated with Earth-system science; Atmospheric Composition, Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems, Climate Variability and Change, Earth Surface and Interior, Water and Energy Cycle, and Weather. Through observations-based Earth-science research results, NASA and its partners are establishing predictive capabilities for future projections of natural and human perturbations on the planet. The focus of this presentation is on the use of research results and their associated uncertainties from several of NASA's nine next generation missions for societal benefit. The newly launched missions are, (1) CloudSat, and (2) CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations), both launched April 28, 2006, and the planned next generation missions include, (3) the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), (4) the Global Precipitation Mission (GPM), (5) the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM), (6) Glory, for measuring the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols and total solar irradiance for long-term climate records, (7) Aquarius, for measuring global sea surface salinity, (8) the Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM), and (9) the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) for measuring long-term climate trends and global

  19. Success rate of IR midazolam sedation in combination with C-CLAD in pediatric dental patients—a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Baniel, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the success rate of intra-rectal (IR) midazolam in combination with nitrous oxide/oxygen (N2O) sedation in young uncooperative dental patients when the local anesthesia is delivered by a computerized controlled local anesthetic delivery (C-CLAD). Study Design. This observational study consisted of 219 uncooperative children (age: 4.3 ± 1.69 y) who received IR midazolam (0.4 mg/kg) and N2O to complete their dental treatment. Measured variables included: child’s pain disruptive behavior during delivery of anesthesia by C-CLAD (CHEOP Scale), child behavior during treatment (Houpt scale), dental procedure performed, and side effects that appeared during treatment. Results. There was a high level of cooperation (mean score: 6.69 ± 2.1) during administration of local anesthesia. Good-to-excellent behavior was shown by 87% of the children during treatment. Planned treatment was completed by 184 (92%) patients. No statistically significant changes were noticed in the oxygen saturation levels before and after treatment. Children with side effects included 3 (1.3%) with nistagmus, 5 (2.3%) with diplopia, and 18 (8.2%) with hiccups. Three consecutive sedations decreased the overall behavior score by 5.7% compared to the first appointment (p < .05). Conclusions. IR midazolam-N2O sedation in combination with C-CLAD is very effective for delivery of dental treatment to young uncooperative children. PMID:24688838

  20. The fate of cetacean carcasses in the deep sea: observations on consumption rates and succession of scavenging species in the abyssal north-east Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Jones, E. G.; Collins, M. A.; Bagley, P. M.; Addison, S.; Priede, I. G.

    1998-01-01

    The fate of cetacean carcasses in the deep sea was investigated using autonomous deep-sea lander vehicles incorporating time-lapse camera systems, fish and amphipod traps. Three lander deployments placed cetacean carcasses at depths of 4000 to 4800 m in the north-east Atlantic for periods of 36 h, 152 h and 276 h before being recovered. The photographic sequences revealed that carcasses were rapidly consumed by fish and invertebrate scavengers with removal rates ranging from 0.05 to 0.4 kg h-1. In the longest experiment the carcass was skeletonized within five days. In each deployment, approximately an hour after emplacement, the grenadier Coryphaenoides (Nematonurus) armatus and large numbers of lysianassid amphipods had arrived at the food-fall. The initially high numbers of grenadiers declined once the majority of the bait had been consumed and a variety of other fish and invertebrates were then observed, some taking up residence at the site. None of the fish species appeared to consume the carcass directly, but preyed upon amphipods instead. Funnel traps recovered with the carcass indicated a succession in the species composition of amphipods, with the specialist necrophages such as Paralicella spp. being replaced by more generalist feeders of the Orchomene species complex.

  1. Success rate of IR midazolam sedation in combination with C-CLAD in pediatric dental patients-a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazi, Malka; Baniel, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the success rate of intra-rectal (IR) midazolam in combination with nitrous oxide/oxygen (N2O) sedation in young uncooperative dental patients when the local anesthesia is delivered by a computerized controlled local anesthetic delivery (C-CLAD). Study Design. This observational study consisted of 219 uncooperative children (age: 4.3 ± 1.69 y) who received IR midazolam (0.4 mg/kg) and N2O to complete their dental treatment. Measured variables included: child's pain disruptive behavior during delivery of anesthesia by C-CLAD (CHEOP Scale), child behavior during treatment (Houpt scale), dental procedure performed, and side effects that appeared during treatment. Results. There was a high level of cooperation (mean score: 6.69 ± 2.1) during administration of local anesthesia. Good-to-excellent behavior was shown by 87% of the children during treatment. Planned treatment was completed by 184 (92%) patients. No statistically significant changes were noticed in the oxygen saturation levels before and after treatment. Children with side effects included 3 (1.3%) with nistagmus, 5 (2.3%) with diplopia, and 18 (8.2%) with hiccups. Three consecutive sedations decreased the overall behavior score by 5.7% compared to the first appointment (p < .05). Conclusions. IR midazolam-N2O sedation in combination with C-CLAD is very effective for delivery of dental treatment to young uncooperative children.

  2. An algorithm to generate input data from meteorological and space shuttle observations to validate a CH4-CO model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, L. K.; Yamanis, J.

    1981-01-01

    Objective procedures to analyze data from meteorological and space shuttle observations to validate a three dimensional model were investigated. The transport and chemistry of carbon monoxide and methane in the troposphere were studied. Four aspects were examined: (1) detailed evaluation of the variational calculus procedure, with the equation of continuity as a strong constraint, for adjustment of global tropospheric wind fields; (2) reduction of the National Meteorological Center (NMC) data tapes for data input to the OSTA-1/MAPS Experiment; (3) interpolation of the NMC Data for input to the CH4-CO model; and (4) temporal and spatial interpolation procedures of the CO measurements from the OSTA-1/MAPS Experiment to generate usable contours of the data.

  3. High-speed observation of bubble cloud generation near a rigid wall by second-harmonic superimposed ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Shin; Yasuda, Jun; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2013-08-01

    Cavitation bubbles are known to accelerate therapeutic effects of ultrasound. Although negative acoustic pressure is the principle factor of cavitation, positive acoustic pressure has a role for bubble cloud formation at a high intensity of focused ultrasound when cavitation bubbles provide pressure release surfaces converting the pressure from highly positive to negative. In this study, the second-harmonic was superimposed onto the fundamental acoustic pressure to emphasize either peak positive or negative pressure. The peak negative and positive pressure emphasized waves were focused on a surface of an aluminum block. Cavitation bubbles induced near the block were observed with a high-speed camera by backlight and the size of the cavitation generation region was measured from the high-speed images. The negative pressure emphasized waves showed an advantage in cavitation inception over the positive pressure emphasized waves. In the sequence of the negative pressure emphasized waves immediately followed by the positive pressure emphasized waves, cavitation bubbles were generated on the block by the former waves and the cavitation region were expanded toward the transducer in the latter waves with high reproducibility. The sequence demonstrated its potential usefulness in enhancing the effects of therapeutic ultrasound at a high acoustic intensity.

  4. A multichannel time-of-flight system for observation of energetic ions of multispecies generated from relativistic laser plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Matsukado, K.; Fujimoto, M.; Takahashi, H.; Kawada, Y.; Ohsuka, S.; Aoshima, S.

    2010-02-15

    A multichannel time-of-flight (TOF) system was constructed to observe the ions generated from relativistic laser plasma, where the ions have polychromatic energies and multiple species. The TOF system is composed of a ten-channel scintillation detector array and an electromagnet that generates a magnetic field of 0-1.24 T. The magnet field enables us to analyze protons, deuterons, and full-stripped carbon ions to 50, 25, and 150 MeV, respectively. The system experimentally identified protons of 0.27-1.6 MeV energy and ions of a half specific charge (deuterons of 0.3-0.8 MeV and full-stripped carbons of 1.8-4.8 MeV). The measured TOF values agree well with the calculated values within the designed accuracy; {+-}2.5 ns for protons and {+-}5 ns for the others (d or C{sup 6+}) on each detector channel. Comparison of ion numbers detected by a track detector (CR-39) and the TOF system enabled us to obtain the number of ions detected on each scintillation counter with less than 16% error.

  5. A Road Map for the Generation of a Near-Infrared Guide Star Catalog for Thirty Meter Telescope Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Smitha; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Sivarani, T.; Simard, Luc; Anupama, G. C.; Gillies, Kim; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Reddy, B. Eswar

    2016-09-01

    The near-infrared instruments in the upcoming Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be assisted by a multi conjugate Adaptive Optics (AO) system. For the efficient operation of the AO system, during observations, a near-infrared guide star catalog which goes as faint as 22 mag in JVega band is essential and such a catalog does not exist. A methodology, based on stellar atmospheric models, to compute the expected near-infrared magnitudes of stellar sources from their optical magnitudes is developed. The method is applied and validated in JHKs bands for a magnitude range of JVega 16-22 mag. The methodology is also applied and validated using the reference catalog of PAN STARRS. We verified that the properties of the final PAN STARRS optical catalog will satisfy the requirements of TMT IRGSC and will be one of the potential sources for the generation of the final catalog. In a broader context, this methodology is applicable for the generation of a guide star catalog for any existing/upcoming near-infrared telescopes.

  6. Generation and use of observational data patterns in the evaluation of data quality for AmeriFlux and FLUXNET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorello, G.; Agarwal, D.; Poindexter, C.; Papale, D.; Trotta, C.; Ribeca, A.; Canfora, E.; Faybishenko, B.; Gunter, D.; Chu, H.

    2015-12-01

    The fluxes-measuring sites that are part of AmeriFlux are operated and maintained in a fairly independent fashion, both in terms of scientific goals and operational practices. This is also the case for most sites from other networks in FLUXNET. This independence leads to a degree of heterogeneity in the data sets collected at the sites, which is also reflected in data quality levels. The generation of derived data products and data synthesis efforts, two of the main goals of these networks, are directly affected by the heterogeneity in data quality. In a collaborative effort between AmeriFlux and ICOS, a series of quality checks are being conducted for the data sets before any network-level data processing and product generation take place. From these checks, a set of common data issues were identified, and are being cataloged and classified into data quality patterns. These patterns are now being used as a basis for implementing automation for certain data quality checks, speeding up the process of applying the checks and evaluating the data. Currently, most data checks are performed individually in each data set, requiring visual inspection and inputs from a data curator. This manual process makes it difficult to scale the quality checks, creating a bottleneck for the data processing. One goal of the automated checks is to free up time of data curators so they can focus on new or less common issues. As new issues are identified, they can also be cataloged and classified, extending the coverage of existing patterns or potentially generating new patterns, helping both improve existing automated checks and create new ones. This approach is helping make data quality evaluation faster, more systematic, and reproducible. Furthermore, these patterns are also helping with documenting common causes and solutions for data problems. This can help tower teams with diagnosing problems in data collection and processing, and also in correcting historical data sets. In this

  7. Preliminary observations of voluminous ice-rich and water-rich lahars generated during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Pierson, Thomas C.; Major, Jon J.; Scott, William E.

    2012-01-01

    juvenile andesite. We infer that the lahars generated on March 23 were initiated by a rapid succession of vent-clearing explosions that blasted through about 50–100 m of crater-filling glacier ice and snow, producing a voluminous release of meltwater from the Drift glacier. The resulting flood eroded and entrained snow, fragments of glacier and river ice, and liquid water along its flow path. Small-volume pyroclastic flows, possibly associated with destruction of a small dome or minor eruption-column collapses, may have contributed additional meltwater to the lahar. Meltwater generated by subglacial hydrothermal activity and stored beneath the Drift glacier may have been ejected or released rapidly as well. The April 4 lahar was initiated when hot dome-collapse pyroclastic flows entrained and swiftly melted snow and ice, and incorporated additional rock debris from the Drift glacier. The peak discharge of the April 4 lahar was in the range of 60,000–160,000 m3s-1. For comparison, the largest lahar of the 1989–90 eruption had a peak discharge of about 80,000 m3s-1. Lahars generated by the 2009 eruption led to significant channel aggradation in the lower Drift River valley and caused extensive inundation at an oil storage and transfer facility located there. The April 4, 2009, lahar was 6–30 times larger than the largest meteorological floods known or estimated in the Drift River drainage.

  8. Ten years of OMI observations: scientific highlights and impacts on the new generation of UV/VIS satellite instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levelt, Pieternel; Veefkind, Pepijn; Bhartia, Pawan; Joiner, Joanna; Tamminen, Johanna; OMI Science Team

    2014-05-01

    On July 15, 2004 Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) was successfully launched from the Vandenberg military air force basis in California, USA, on NASA's EOS-Aura spacecraft. OMI is the first of a new generation of UV/VIS nadir solar backscatter imaging spectrometers, which provides nearly global coverage in one day with an unprecedented spatial resolution of 13 x 24 km2. OMI measures solar irradiance and Earth radiances in the wavelength range of 270 to 500 nm with a spectral resolution of about 0.5 nm. OMI is designed and built by the Netherlands and Finland and is also a third party mission of ESA. The major step that was made in the OMI instrument compared to its predecessors is the use of 2-dimensional detector arrays (CCDs) in a highly innovative small optical design. These innovations enable the combination of a high spatial resolution and a good spectral resolution with daily global coverage. OMI measures a range of trace gases (O3, NO2, SO2, HCHO, BrO, OClO, H2O), clouds and aerosols. Albeit OMI is already 5 years over its design lifetime, the instrument is still fully operational. The successor of OMI is TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) on the Copernicus Sentinel-5 precursor mission, planned for launch in 2015. OMI's unique capabilities rely in measuring tropospheric trace gases with a small footprint and daily global coverage. The unprecedented spatial resolution of the instrument revealed for the first time tropospheric pollution maps on a daily basis with urban scale resolution leading to improved air quality forecasts. The OMI measurements also improve our understanding of air quality and the interaction between air quality and climate change by combining measurements of air pollutants and aerosols. In recent years the data are also used for obtaining high-resolution global emission maps using inverse modelling or related techniques, challenging the bottom-up inventories based emission maps. In addition to scientific research, OMI also

  9. An Algorithm to Generate Deep-Layer Temperatures from Microwave Satellite Observations for the Purpose of Monitoring Climate Change. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Mitchell D.; Fleming, Henry E.

    1994-01-01

    An algorithm for generating deep-layer mean temperatures from satellite-observed microwave observations is presented. Unlike traditional temperature retrieval methods, this algorithm does not require a first guess temperature of the ambient atmosphere. By eliminating the first guess a potentially systematic source of error has been removed. The algorithm is expected to yield long-term records that are suitable for detecting small changes in climate. The atmospheric contribution to the deep-layer mean temperature is given by the averaging kernel. The algorithm computes the coefficients that will best approximate a desired averaging kernel from a linear combination of the satellite radiometer's weighting functions. The coefficients are then applied to the measurements to yield the deep-layer mean temperature. Three constraints were used in deriving the algorithm: (1) the sum of the coefficients must be one, (2) the noise of the product is minimized, and (3) the shape of the approximated averaging kernel is well-behaved. Note that a trade-off between constraints 2 and 3 is unavoidable. The algorithm can also be used to combine measurements from a future sensor (i.e., the 20-channel Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)) to yield the same averaging kernel as that based on an earlier sensor (i.e., the 4-channel Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU)). This will allow a time series of deep-layer mean temperatures based on MSU measurements to be continued with AMSU measurements. The AMSU is expected to replace the MSU in 1996.

  10. Observation of the atomic structure of ß'-SiAlON using three generations of high resolution electron microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorel, A.; Ciston, J.; Bartel, T.; Song, C.-Y.; Dahmen, U.

    2013-04-01

    The structure of a ß‧-SiAlON (Si5.6Al0.4O0.4N7.6) has been observed using three generations of unique high resolution microscopes spanning over three decades of development in instrumentation - the Atomic Resolution Microscope (ARM), the One Angstrom Microscope (OAM) and the Transmission Electron Aberration-corrected Microscope (TEAM). The information limits of these microscopes are 0.16, 0.08 and 0.05 nm respectively. Observations along ⟨0 0 0 1⟩ at Scherzer defocus for each microscope demonstrate a drastic increase in structural information. Images taken on TEAM show clearly resolved atomic columns whereas the ARM images were only indirectly related to the structure. Nevertheless, the loss of the six-fold symmetry associated with the O/N and Al/Si substitutions was already visible on images taken on the ARM, and an associated ∼25 pm displacement of the O substituting for N in some of the 2c Wyckoff positions of the SiN unit cell was measured on exit wave reconstructions obtained from through focal series on the OAM. This paper illustrates how progress in instrumentation impacts our analysis and understanding of materials.

  11. Comparison Between Tsunami Signals Generated by Different Source Models and the Observed Data of the Illapel 2015 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calisto, Ignacia; Miller, Matthew; Constanzo, Iván

    2016-04-01

    A major interplate earthquake occurred on September 16th, 2015, near Illapel, central Chile. This event generated a tsunami of moderate height, however, one which caused significant near field damage. In this study, we model the tsunami produced by some rapid and preliminary fault models with the potential to be calculated within tens of minutes of the event origin time. We simulate tsunami signals from two different heterogeneous slip models, a homogeneous source based on parameters from the global CMT Project, and furthermore we used plate coupling data from GPS observations to construct a heterogeneous fault based on a priori knowledge of the subduction zone. We compare the simulated signals with the observed tsunami at tide gauges located along the Chilean coast and at offshore DART buoys. For this event, concerning rapid response, the homogeneous source and coupling model represent the tsunami at least as well as the heterogeneous sources. We suggest that the initial heterogeneous fault models could be better constrained with continuous GPS measurements in the rupture area, and additionally DART records directly in front of the rupture area, to improve the tsunami simulation based on quickly calculated models for near coastal areas. Additionally, in terms of tsunami modeling, the source estimated from prior plate coupling information in this case is representative of the event that later occurs; placing further importance on the need to monitor subduction zones with GPS.

  12. Acoustic waves generated from seismic surface waves: propagation properties determined from Doppler sounding observations and normal-mode modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artru, Juliette; Farges, Thomas; Lognonné, Philippe

    2004-09-01

    Since 1960, experiments have shown that perturbations of the ionosphere can occur after earthquakes, by way of dynamic coupling between seismic surface waves and the atmosphere. The atmospheric wave is amplified exponentially while propagating upwards due to the decrease of density, and interaction with the ionospheric plasma leads to clearly identified signals on both ground-based or satellite ionospheric measurements. In 1999 and 2000, after an upgrade of the HF Doppler sounder, the Commisariat à l'Énergie Atomique systematically recorded these effects in the ionosphere with the Francourville (France) network, by measuring vertical oscillations of ionospheric layers with the Doppler technique. Normal-mode theory extended to a solid Earth with an atmosphere allows successful modelling of such signals, even if this 1-D approach is probably too crude, especially in the solid Earth, where 20 s surface waves see large lateral variations in the crust. The combination of observations and simulations provides a new tool to determine acoustic gravity wave propagation characteristics from the ground to ionospheric height. Observed velocity and amplification of the atmospheric waves show good agreement from the ground up to moderate sounding altitudes (140-150 km); however, at higher altitudes the propagation speed is found to be much smaller than predicted and attenuation is underestimated. This shows that the standard formalism of acoustic gravity waves in the atmosphere cannot efficiently describe propagation in the ionized atmosphere. Further work is needed to characterize the propagation of acoustic waves in this altitude range: we believe that seismic waves can provide a well-constrained source for such study.

  13. A Generation of Challenge: Pathways to Success for Urban Youth. A Policy Study of the Levitan Youth Policy Network. Policy Issues Monograph 97-03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sum, Andrew; Mangum, Stephen; deJesus, Edward; Walker, Gary; Gruber, David; Pines, Marion; Spring, William

    This report refers to a generation under challenge, meaning the 18-to-24-year-olds who have recently come of age in the United States. A significant part of this generation has fallen victim to a neglected past and may be overwhelmed by its future. The report argues for an integrated and comprehensive service delivery system that can make a…

  14. Observation of propagating femtosecond light pulse train generated by an integrated array illuminator as a spatially and temporally continuous motion picture.

    PubMed

    Yamagiwa, Masatomo; Komatsu, Aya; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Kubota, Toshihiro

    2005-05-02

    We observed a propagating femtosecond light pulse train generated by an integrated array illuminator as a spatially and temporally continuous motion picture. To observe the light pulse train propagating in air, light-in-flight holography is applied. The integrated array illuminator is an optical device for generating an ultrashort light pulse train from a single ultrashort pulse. The experimentally obtained pulse width and pulse interval were 130 fs and 19.7 ps, respectively. A back-propagating femtosecond light pulse train, which is the -2 order diffracted light pulse from the array illuminator and which is difficult to observe using conventional methods, was observed.

  15. Direct Observation of Landau Level Resonance and Mass Generation in Dirac Semimetal Cd3As2 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiang; Cheng, Peihong; Zhang, Longqiang; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Junyong; Liu, Yanwen; Sun, Qingqing; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, David Wei; Hu, Zhigao; Wan, Xiangang; Yan, Hugen; Li, Zhiqiang; Xiu, Faxian

    2017-03-02

    Three-dimensional topological Dirac semimetals have hitherto stimulated unprecedented research interests as a new class of quantum materials. Breaking certain types of symmetries has been proposed to enable the manipulation of Dirac fermions, and that was soon realized by external modulations such as magnetic fields. However, an intrinsic manipulation of Dirac states, which is more efficient and desirable, remains a significant challenge. Here, we report a systematic study of quasi-particle dynamics and band evolution in Cd3As2 thin films with controlled chromium (Cr) doping by both magneto-infrared spectroscopy and electrical transport. We observe the √B relation of inter-Landau-level resonance in Cd3As2, an important signature of ultrarelativistic massless state inaccessible in previous optical experiments. A crossover from quantum to quasi-classical behavior makes it possible to directly probe the mass of Dirac fermions. Importantly, Cr doping allows for a Dirac mass acquisition and topological phase transition enabling a desired dynamic control of Dirac fermions. Corroborating with the density-functional theory calculations, we show that the mass generation can be explained by the explicit C4 rotation symmetry breaking and the resultant Dirac gap engineering through Cr substitution for Cd atoms. The manipulation of the system symmetry and Dirac mass in Cd3As2 thin films provides a tuning knob to explore the exotic states stemming from the parent phase of Dirac semimetals.

  16. Observations of the coupling efficiency of VLF lightning-generated whistlers into the low-latitude plasmasphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, A. R.; Holzworth, R. H., II; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Heelis, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    The C/NOFS satellite [de La Beaujardiere, 2004] has provided a vast archive of multi-sensor data on the low-latitude ionosphere/plasmasphere since 2008. As part of the project, the VEFI payload [Pfaff et al., 2010] has recorded the 3-D electric field from DC through 16 kHz with high fidelity. The relative calibrations track between the three E-field antennas with sufficient accuracy and stability to allow retrieval of the wave polarization for a wide range of lightning-generated whistler waves [Jacobson et al., 2014]. The wave polarization in turn allows retrieval of the wavevector (within a sign ambiguity), which in turn allows an inverse-raytrace of the whistler raypath from the satellite to the ionospheric entry point. We will compare the raytrace predictions with ground-truth from the WWLLN global lightning-monitoring system [Lay et al., 2004; Rodger et al., 2005; Rodger et al., 2004]. In addition to providing location and time of lightning strokes, WWLLN provides an estimate of the radiated radio energy in the whistler passband [Hutchins et al., 2012]. Finally, the CINDI payload [Heelis et al., 2009] on C/NOFS provides ion composition at the satellite, permitting the index of refraction to be inferred. We will compare these estimates to the Poynting fluence density observed by VEFI, thereby providing a direct test of the coupling of lightning radio energy into plasmaspheric whistlers.

  17. Is There Such a Thing as Too Much of a Good Thing when It Comes to Education? Reexamining First Generation Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allegro, Mary Lou; Kerns, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    Data mining and statistical analyses at a less selective institution reveal that the relationships between parents' educational level and some first year success indicators are not linear. Specifically, students who report that either parent or guardian(s) have an educational level beyond a baccalaureate degree or do not report parent education…

  18. The Observation of SAR, Optical and Altimeter Data to Study the Generation of Internal Wave in Tsushima Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvelyna, Y.; Oshima, M.

    2006-07-01

    This study proposes D iscr eet Mey er wavelet tr ansform and spectr al reflectan ce analysis for internal w ave detection in ERS1/2 and ASTER imag es data over the Tsushima Strait, Jap an, during 1993-2004 period. The wavelet tr ansform of imag e w as successfully der ived the intern al wav e f eature with h igher w avelet coeff icien t than sea surf ace, i.e. between 2-4.59 times, on horizon tal and vertical d etail coefficient at level 2-5, incr eased the detection probability over 80%. The intern al w ave is modeled using Co mbined Korteweg the Vries (combKdV) model. Non linier speed of in ternal wave is calculated about 85 cm-1. Th e altimetry data products from Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 data are used to predict th e internal wav e gener ation. Th e observation results show th e propagation of in ternal w aves wer e varied between N W-SW at eastern channel and N-SW at western channel of Tsush ima Strait, p arallel to the direction of the geostrophic curren t. A t NE coast off Tsushima Island, the direction is on S/SE dir ection. I t is suggested th at th e internal wav es w ere sourced from south co ast off Tsush ima Island and south coast off the Japan Sea. They w ere possib ly tid ally gen erated and formed due to bathymetr ic change.

  19. Vorticity Field from Successive Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The two-dimensional version of the Terminal Area Simulation System (TASS) was used to numerically simulate the interaction of wake vortices from closely separated aircraft. The aircraft parameters and separations are taken from observed data at an actual airport. The wake vortices are generated near the runway threshold for four successive aircraft. The ambient conditions are characterized by light crosswinds and stable stratification. This movie shows the time sequence of the vorticity field from the successive wake vortices. Apparent are the interactions between each pair of successive wake vortices and the ground.

  20. DisasterHub: A mobile application for enabling crowd generated data fusion in Earth Observation disaster management services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsironis, Vassilis; Herekakis, Themistocles; Tsouni, Alexia; Kontoes, Charalampos Haris

    2016-04-01

    The rapid changes in climate over the last decades, together with the explosion of human population, have shaped the context for a fragile biosphere, prone to natural and manmade disasters that result in massive flows of environmental immigrants and great disturbances of ecosystems. The magnitude of the latest great disasters have shown evidence for high quality Earth Observation (EO) services as it regards disaster risk reduction and emergency support (DRR & EMS). The EO community runs ambitious initiatives in order to generate services with direct impact in the biosphere, and intends to stimulate the wider participation of citizens, enabling the Openness effect through the Open Innovation paradigm. This by its turn results in the tremendous growth of open source software technologies associated with web, social media, mobile and Crowdsourcing. The Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing of National Observatory of Athens has developed, in the framework of the BEYOND Centre of Excellence for EO-based monitoring of Natural Disasters (http://www.beyond-eocenter.eu), a rich ecosystem of Copernicus compliant services addressing diverse hazardous phenomena caused from climate and weather extremes (fires, floods, windstorms, heat waves), atmospheric disturbances (smoke, dust, ozone, UV), and geo-hazards (earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes). Several services are delivered in near-real time to the public and the institutional authorities at national and regional level in southeastern Europe. Specific ones have been recognized worldwide for their innovation and operational aspects (e.g. FIREHUB was awarded the first prize as Best Service Challenge in the Copernicus Masters Competition, 2014). However, a communication gap still exists between the BEYOND ecosystem and those directly concerned by the natural disasters, the citizens and emergency response managers. This disruption of information flow between interested parties is addressed

  1. Quantifying the VNIR Effects of Nanophase Iron Generated through the Space Weathering of Silicates: Reconciling Modeled Data with Laboratory Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legett, C., IV; Glotch, T. D.; Lucey, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    Space weathering is a diverse set of processes that occur on the surfaces of airless bodies due to exposure to the space environment. One of the effects of space weathering is the generation of nanophase iron particles in glassy rims on mineral grains due to sputtering of iron-bearing minerals. These particles have a size-dependent effect on visible and near infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra with smaller diameter particles (< 50 nm) causing both reddening and darkening of the spectra with respect to unweathered material (Britt-Pieters particle behavior), while larger particles (> 300 nm) darken without reddening. Between these two sizes, a gradual shift between these two behaviors occurs. In this work, we present results from the Multiple Sphere T-Matrix (MSTM) scattering model in combination with Hapke theory to explore the particle size and iron content parameter spaces with respect to VNIR (700-1700 nm) spectral slope. Previous work has shown that the MSTM-Hapke hybrid model offers improvements over Mie-Hapke models. Virtual particles are constructed out of an arbitrary number of spheres, and each sphere is assigned a refractive index and extinction coefficient for each wavelength of interest. The model then directly solves Maxwell's Equations at every wave-particle interface to predict the scattering, extinction and absorption efficiencies. These are then put into a simplified Hapke bidirectional reflectance model that yields a predicted reflectance. Preliminary results show an area of maximum slopes for iron particle diameters < 80 nm and iron concentrations of ~1-10wt% in an amorphous silica matrix. Further model runs are planned to better refine the extent of this region. Companion laboratory work using mixtures of powdered aerogel and nanophase iron particles provides a point of comparison to modeling efforts. The effects on reflectance and emissivity values due to particle size in a nearly ideal scatterer (aerogel) are also observed with comparisons to

  2. Observations on the removal of brood inoculated with Tropilaelaps mercedesae (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) and the mite’s reproductive success in Apis mellifera colonies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study assessed the response of Apis mellifera to brood deliberately infested with Tropilaelaps mercedesae. The reproductive success of T. mercedesae in mite-inoculated and naturally infested brood was also compared. The presence of T. mercedesae inside brood cells significantly affected brood ...

  3. Keys to Successful Diabetes Self-Management for Uninsured Patients: Social Support, Observational Learning, and Turning Points A Safety Net Providers’ Strategic Alliance Study

    PubMed Central

    Hanahan, Melissa A.; Werner, James J.; Tomsik, Phillip; Weirich, Stephen A.; Reichsman, Ann; Navracruz, Lisa; Clemons-Clark, Terri; Cella, Peggi; Terchek, Joshua; Munson, Michelle R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine how medically uninsured patients with limited material resources successfully manage diabetes. Methods Clinicians at 5 safety net practices enrolled uninsured adult patients (N=26) with prior diagnosis of diabetes for 6 months or longer. Patients were interviewed about enabling factors, motivations, resources, and barriers. Chart reviews and clinician surveys supplemented interview data. Interview, survey, and chart review data were analyzed and findings were summarized. Results Two distinct groups of patients were investigated: 1) “successful,” defined as those with an HbA1c of ≤7% or a recent improvement of at least 2% (n=17); and 2) “unsuccessful,” defined as patients with HbA1c of ≥9% (n=9) without recent improvement. In comparison to unsuccessful patients, successful patients more often reported having friends or family with diabetes, sought information about the disease, used evidence-based self-management strategies, held an accurate perception of their own disease control, and experienced “turning point” events that motivated increased efforts in disease management. Conclusions Uninsured safety net patients who successfully managed diabetes learned from friends and family with diabetes and leveraged disease-related events into motivational turning points. It may be beneficial for clinicians to incorporate social learning and motivational enhancement into diabetes interventions to increase patients’ motivation for improved levels of self-management. PMID:21671529

  4. Grit under Duress: Stress, Strengths, and Academic Success Among Non-Citizen and Citizen Latina/o First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Colleen R.; Espino, Michelle M.; Goldthrite, Antoinette; Morin, Molly F.; Weston, Lynsey; Hernandez, Pamela; Fuhrmann, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Undocumented Latina/o college students face obstacles and stressors; their stressful experiences and academic strengths merit empirical attention. This cross-sectional, mixed-methods study explored stress, depression, grit, and grade point average (GPA) of 84 non-citizen, Latina/o first-generation college students with a comparison group of 180…

  5. Successful Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, R.

    2012-12-01

    In an observational science, it is not possible to test hypotheses through controlled laboratory experiments. One can test parts of the system in the lab (as is done routinely with infrared spectroscopy of greenhouse gases), but the collective behavior cannot be tested experimentally because a star or planet cannot be brought into the lab; it must, instead, itself be the lab. In the case of anthropogenic global warming, this is all too literally true, and the experiment would be quite exciting if it weren't for the unsettling fact that we and all our descendents for the forseeable future will have to continue making our home in the lab. There are nonetheless many routes though which the validity of a theory of the collective behavior can be determined. A convincing explanation must not be a"just-so" story, but must make additional predictions that can be verified against observations that were not originally used in formulating the theory. The field of Earth and planetary climate has racked up an impressive number of such predictions. I will also admit as "predictions" statements about things that happened in the past, provided that observations or proxies pinning down the past climate state were not available at the time the prediction was made. The basic prediction that burning of fossil fuels would lead to an increase of atmospheric CO2, and that this would in turn alter the Earth's energy balance so as to cause tropospheric warming, is one of the great successes of climate science. It began in the lineage of Fourier, Tyndall and Arrhenius, and was largely complete with the the radiative-convective modeling work of Manabe in the 1960's -- all well before the expected warming had progressed far enough to be observable. Similarly, long before the increase in atmospheric CO2 could be detected, Bolin formulated a carbon cycle model and used it to predict atmospheric CO2 out to the year 2000; the actual values come in at the high end of his predicted range, for

  6. Northeast storms ranked by wind stress and wave-generated bottom stress observed in Massachusetts Bay, 1990-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, B.; Sherwood, C.R.; Dalyander, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Along the coast of the northeastern United States, strong winds blowing from the northeast are often associated with storms called northeasters, coastal storms that strongly influence weather. In addition to effects caused by wind stress, the sea floor is affected by bottom stress associated with these storms. Bottom stress caused by orbital velocities associated with surface waves integrated over the duration of a storm is a metric of storm strength at the sea floor. Near-bottom wave-orbital velocities calculated by using measurements of significant wave height and dominant wave period and the parametric spectral method described in Wiberg and Sherwood [Wiberg, P.L., Sherwood, C.R. Calculating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from surface wave parameters. Computers in Geosciences, in press] compared well with observations in Massachusetts Bay. Integrated bottom-wave stress (called IWAVES), calculated at 30 m water depth, and a companion storm-strength metric, integrated surface wind stress at 10 m (called IWINDS), are used to provide an overview of the strength, frequency, and timing of large storms in Massachusetts Bay over a 17-year period from January 1990 through December 2006. These new metrics reflect both storm duration and intensity. Northeast storms were the major cause of large waves in Massachusetts Bay because of the long fetch to the east: of the strongest 10% of storms (n=38) ranked by IWAVES, 22 had vector-averaged wind stress from the northeast quadrant. The Blizzard of December 1992, the Perfect Storm of October 1991, and a December 2003 storm were the strongest three storms ranked by IWAVES and IWINDS, and all were northeasters. IWAVES integrated over the winter season (defined as October-May) ranged by about a factor of 11; the winters with the highest integrated IWAVES were 1992-1993 and 2004-2005 and the winter with the lowest integrated IWAVES was 2001-2002. May 2005 was the only month in the 17-year record that two of the nine

  7. PAHs and the Diffuse Interstellar Bands. What have we Learned from the New Generation of Laboratory and Observational Studies?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important and ubiquitous component of carbon-bearing materials in space. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands (UIR bands) and PAH spectral features are now being used as new probes of the ISM. PAHs are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). In the model dealing with the interstellar spectral features, PAHs are present as a mixture of radicals, ions and neutral species. PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge for laboratory astrophysics is to reproduce (in a realistic way) the physical conditions that exist in the emission and/or absorption interstellar zones, An extensive laboratory program has been developed at NASA Ames to characterize the physical and chemical properties of PAHs in astrophysical environments and to describe how they influence the radiation and energy balance in space and the interstellar chemistry. In particular, laboratory experiments provide measurements of the spectral characteristics of interstellar PAH analogs from the ultraviolet and visible range to the infrared range for comparison with astronomical data. This paper will focus on the recent progress made in the laboratory to measure the direct absorption spectra of neutral and ionized PAHs in the gas phase in the near-W and visible range in astrophysically relevant environments. These measurements provide data on PAHs and nanometer-sized particles that can now be directly compared to astronomical observations. The harsh physical conditions of the IS medium - characterized by a low temperature, an absence of collisions and strong V W radiation fields - are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions are formed from the neutral

  8. Experimental observation of increased threshold electric field for runaway generation due to synchrotron radiation losses in the FTU tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Solis, Jose Ramon; Sanchez, Raul; Esposito, Basilio

    2010-01-01

    The threshold electric field for runaway generation has been investigated during runaway suppression experiments by means of electron-cyclotron-resonance heating in the flattop phase of FTU discharges. Runaway suppression has been experimentally found to occur at electric fields substantially larger than those predicted by the relativistic collisional theory of runaway generation, E{sub R} = n{sub e}e{sup 3}ln{Lambda}/4{pi}{var_epsilon}{sub 0}{sup 2}m{sub e}c{sup 2}. These experimental results are consistent with an increase of the critical electric field due to the electron synchrotron radiation losses. No runaway electrons are found in FTU experiments below the radiation threshold. These results support evidence for a new threshold electric field for runaway generation that accounts for the effect of the synchrotron losses, and which should be considered when making predictions on runaway generation and mitigation in devices such as ITER.

  9. Validation of Autoclave Protocols for Successful Decontamination of Category A Medical Waste Generated from Care of Patients with Serious Communicable Diseases.

    PubMed

    Garibaldi, Brian T; Reimers, Mallory; Ernst, Neysa; Bova, Gregory; Nowakowski, Elaine; Bukowski, James; Ellis, Brandon C; Smith, Chris; Sauer, Lauren; Dionne, Kim; Carroll, Karen C; Maragakis, Lisa L; Parrish, Nicole M

    2017-02-01

    In response to the Ebola outbreak in 2014, many hospitals designated specific areas to care for patients with Ebola and other highly infectious diseases. The safe handling of category A infectious substances is a unique challenge in this environment. One solution is on-site waste treatment with a steam sterilizer or autoclave. The Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) installed two pass-through autoclaves in its biocontainment unit (BCU). The JHH BCU and The Johns Hopkins biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) clinical microbiology laboratory designed and validated waste-handling protocols with simulated patient trash to ensure adequate sterilization. The results of the validation process revealed that autoclave factory default settings are potentially ineffective for certain types of medical waste and highlighted the critical role of waste packaging in successful sterilization. The lessons learned from the JHH validation process can inform the design of waste management protocols to ensure effective treatment of highly infectious medical waste.

  10. Achieving high treatment success for multidrug-resistant TB in Africa: initiation and scale-up of MDR TB care in Ethiopia—an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Meressa, Daniel; Hurtado, Rocío M; Andrews, Jason R; Diro, Ermias; Abato, Kassim; Daniel, Tewodros; Prasad, Paritosh; Prasad, Rebekah; Fekade, Bekele; Tedla, Yared; Yusuf, Hanan; Tadesse, Melaku; Tefera, Dawit; Ashenafi, Abraham; Desta, Girma; Aderaye, Getachew; Olson, Kristian; Thim, Sok; Goldfeld, Anne E

    2015-01-01

    Background In Africa, fewer than half of patients receiving therapy for multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB) are successfully treated, with poor outcomes reported for HIV-coinfected patients. Methods A standardised second-line drug (SLD) regimen was used in a non-governmental organisation–Ministry of Health (NGO-MOH) collaborative community and hospital-based programme in Ethiopia that included intensive side effect monitoring, adherence strategies and nutritional supplementation. Clinical outcomes for patients with at least 24 months of follow-up were reviewed and predictors of treatment failure or death were evaluated by Cox proportional hazards models. Results From February 2009 to December 2014, 1044 patients were initiated on SLD. 612 patients with confirmed or presumed MDR TB had ≥24 months of follow-up, 551 (90.0%) were confirmed and 61 (10.0%) were suspected MDR TB cases. 603 (98.5%) had prior TB treatment, 133 (21.7%) were HIV coinfected and median body mass index (BMI) was 16.6. Composite treatment success was 78.6% with 396 (64.7%) cured, 85 (13.9%) who completed treatment, 10 (1.6%) who failed, 85 (13.9%) who died and 36 (5.9%) who were lost to follow-up. HIV coinfection (adjusted HR (AHR): 2.60, p<0.001), BMI (AHR 0.88/kg/m2, p=0.006) and cor pulmonale (AHR 3.61, p=0.003) and confirmed MDR TB (AHR 0.50, p=0.026) were predictive of treatment failure or death. Conclusions We report from Ethiopia the highest MDR TB treatment success outcomes so far achieved in Africa, in a setting with severe resource constraints and patients with advanced disease. Intensive treatment of adverse effects, nutritional supplementation, adherence interventions and NGO-MOH collaboration were key strategies contributing to success. We argue these approaches should be routinely incorporated into programmes. PMID:26506854

  11. Role of generation, architecture, pH and ionic strength on successful siRNA delivery and transfection by hybrid PPV-PAMAM dendrimers.

    PubMed

    Pavan, G M; Monteagudo, S; Guerra, J; Carrión, B; Ocaña, V; Rodríguez-Lopez, J; Danani, A; Pérez-Martínez, F C; Ceña, V

    2012-01-01

    Small interfering RNA (siRNA) constitutes an excellent way of knocking down genes. However, it requires the use of delivery systems to reach the target cells, especially to neuronal cells. Dendrimers are one of the most widely used synthetic nanocarriers for siRNA delivery. However, due to the complexity of the dendrimer-siRNA interactions, when a new dendritic carrier is designed it is difficult to predict its efficiency to bind and to deliver siRNA. At the same time it is not easy to understand the origin of eventual limited functionalities. We have modeled the interactions between two dendrimers (TDG-G1 and TDG-G2) and siRNA using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The results were compared to experimental physico-chemical parameters such as siRNA complexation, complex stability, size, and zeta potentials and biological effects such as down-regulation of a specific RNA expression in cortical neurons in culture. Data indicate that the combination of rigid core and flexible branches guarantees strong siRNA binding, which is important to have a good transfection profile. However, the successful nanocarrier for siRNA delivery (TDG-G1) is identified not only by a high affinity for siRNA, but by a favorable equilibrium between a strong binding and the ability to release siRNA to exert its biological action. The conditions under which the dendriplex is formed are also relevant for transfection efficiency and biological activity.

  12. Bird Migration Echoes Observed by Polarimetric Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minda, Haruya; Furuzawa, Fumie A.; Satoh, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Kenji

    A C-band polarimetric radar on Okinawa Island successfully observed large-scale bird migrations over the western Pacific Ocean. The birds generated interesting polarimetric signatures. This paper describes the signatures and speculates bird behavior.

  13. Real-time observation of coherent acoustic phonons generated by an acoustically mismatched optoacoustic transducer using x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, A. I. H.; Andreasson, B. P.; Enquist, H.; Jurgilaitis, A.; Larsson, J.

    2015-11-14

    The spectrum of laser-generated acoustic phonons in indium antimonide coated with a thin nickel film has been studied using time-resolved x-ray diffraction. Strain pulses that can be considered to be built up from coherent phonons were generated in the nickel film by absorption of short laser pulses. Acoustic reflections at the Ni–InSb interface leads to interference that strongly modifies the resulting phonon spectrum. The study was performed with high momentum transfer resolution together with high time resolution. This was achieved by using a third-generation synchrotron radiation source that provided a high-brightness beam and an ultrafast x-ray streak camera to obtain a temporal resolution of 10 ps. We also carried out simulations, using commercial finite element software packages and on-line dynamic diffraction tools. Using these tools, it is possible to calculate the time-resolved x-ray reflectivity from these complicated strain shapes. The acoustic pulses have a peak strain amplitude close to 1%, and we investigated the possibility to use this device as an x-ray switch. At a bright source optimized for hard x-ray generation, the low reflectivity may be an acceptable trade-off to obtain a pulse duration that is more than an order of magnitude shorter.

  14. Direct observation of hexamethylbenzenium radical cations generated during zeolite methanol-to-olefin catalysis: an ESR study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Jung; Jang, Hoi-Gu; Lee, Jun Kyu; Min, Hyung-Ki; Hong, Suk Bong; Seo, Gon

    2011-09-07

    The generation of hexamethylbenzenium radical cations as the key reaction intermediate in chabazite-type molecular sieve acids (i.e., H-SAPO-34 and H-SSZ-13) during the methanol-to-olefin process has been directly evidenced by ESR spectroscopy.

  15. Project Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meredith, Larry D.

    Project Success consists of after-school, weekend, and summer educational programs geared toward minority and disadvantaged students to increase their numbers seeking postsecondary education from the Meadville, Pennsylvania area. The project is funded primarily through the Edinboro University of Pennsylvania, whose administration is committed to…

  16. A Study on the Observation of Direct Lightning Current through the Wind Turbine Generator System in the Coast of the Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiraishi, Yasuhiro; Otsuka, Takahiro; Matsuura, Hideki

    As clean energy that solves energy resources, many wind turbine generator systems have developed up to now, in Japan. The generation capacity of wind power is above 1 million kW, and the construction also continues from now on. The wind turbine generator systems are built in the good place of the wind condition, and those many are built on the coast of the Japan Sea. However, the coast of the Japan Sea is known as a place with much winter lightning, and wind turbine generator systems also often suffer the damage by winter lightning. The authors observed the lightning current that strikes through the wind turbine generator systems directly, in order to establish on the lightning protection of them. The authors acquired dozens of data as a result of observation in Akita Japan for 17 months. Based on these data, some considerations were performed about the performance of winter lightning that struck through the wind turbine generator systems. As the result of consideration, we found some interesting knowledge following sentence. It made clear anew that the tower which is a place of high position from the ground and on the windward has much number of lightning flash and many total flash charges. The lightning stroke current divided the tower pipe and ground leads. About 70% of the observed lightning current flowed to the tower pipe, and about 30% is divided into two grounding leads connected to the leg of tower. All of steep current that is on a wave front flow a tower side, it dose not flow to a grounding leads side. The distributions of lightning parameters between our observation results and past one are in good conformity.

  17. Waste Generator Instructions: Key to Successful Implementation of the US DOE's 435.1 for Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions (LA-UR-12-24155) - 13218

    SciTech Connect

    French, David M.; Hayes, Timothy A.; Pope, Howard L.; Enriquez, Alejandro E.; Carson, Peter H.

    2013-07-01

    In times of continuing fiscal constraints, a management and operation tool that is straightforward to implement, works as advertised, and virtually ensures compliant waste packaging should be carefully considered and employed wherever practicable. In the near future, the Department of Energy (DOE) will issue the first major update to DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management. This update will contain a requirement for sites that do not have a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste certification program to use two newly developed technical standards: Contact-Handled Defense Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions and Remote-Handled Defense Transuranic Waste Packaging Instructions. The technical standards are being developed from the DOE O 435.1 Notice, Contact-Handled and Remote-Handled Transuranic Waste Packaging, approved August 2011. The packaging instructions will provide detailed information and instruction for packaging almost every conceivable type of transuranic (TRU) waste for disposal at WIPP. While providing specificity, the packaging instructions leave to each site's own discretion the actual mechanics of how those Instructions will be functionally implemented at the floor level. While the Technical Standards are designed to provide precise information for compliant packaging, the density of the information in the packaging instructions necessitates a type of Rosetta Stone that translates the requirements into concise, clear, easy to use and operationally practical recipes that are waste stream and facility specific for use by both first line management and hands-on operations personnel. The Waste Generator Instructions provide the operator with step-by-step instructions that will integrate the sites' various operational requirements (e.g., health and safety limits, radiological limits or dose limits) and result in a WIPP certifiable waste and package that can be transported to and emplaced at WIPP. These little known but widely productive Waste

  18. The First Observation of Memory Effects in the InfraRed (FT-IR) Measurements: Do Successive Measurements Remember Each Other?

    PubMed Central

    Nigmatullin, Raoul R.; Osokin, Sergey I.; Baleanu, Dumitru; Al-Amri, Sawsan; Azam, Ameer; Memic, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Over the past couple of decades there have been major advances in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Many applications have sprouted from these fields of research. It is essential, given the scale of the materials, to attain accurate, valid and reproducible measurements. Material properties have shown to be a function of their size and composition. Physiochemical properties of the nanomaterials can significantly alter material behavior compared to bulk counterparts. For example, metal oxide nanoparticles have found broad applications ranging from photo-catalysis to antibacterial agents. In our study, we synthesized CuO nanoparticles using well established sol-gel based methods with varying levels of Ni doping. However, upon analysis of measured infrared data, we discovered the presence of quasi-periodic (QP) processes. Such processes have previously been reported to be tightly associated with measurement memory effects. We were able to detect the desired QP process in these measurements from three highly accurate repetitive experiments performed on each Ni (1–7%) doped CuO sample. In other words, successive measurements performed in a rather short period of time remember each other at least inside a group of neighboring measurements. PMID:24722337

  19. Butterfly Pitch Angle Distributions Generated at Low L Values During March 2015 Storm: Van Allen Probe ECT Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fennell, J. F.; Kanekal, S.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Blake, J. B.; O'Brien, T. P., III; Turner, D. L.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Geoffrey, R.

    2015-12-01

    The 17 March 2015 magnetic storm was the largest storm (DST<-220 nT) in the Van Allen Probes era so far. Near the end of the main phase and during the early recovery phase of this storm the ECT MagEIS and REPT sensors observed electrons with "butterfly" type pitch angle distributions with relative minima at 90° equatorial pitch angles. The "butterfly" distributions were observed at energies that spanned the range from 32 keV to ~5 MeV. These pitch angle distributions occurred over an energy- dependent range of L-shells from L~1.5 in the inner zone out to L~3 in the slot region. In general, they occurred at the deepest L penetration point for the individual energies. We will present these observations and discuss their relationship to earlier observations and recently published simulation results.

  20. SYSTEMATIC MOTION OF FINE-SCALE JETS AND SUCCESSIVE RECONNECTION IN SOLAR CHROMOSPHERIC ANEMONE JET OBSERVED WITH THE SOLAR OPTICAL TELESCOPE/HINODE

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K. A. P.; Nishida, K.; Shibata, K.; Isobe, H.

    2012-11-20

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board Hinode allows observations with high spatiotemporal resolution and stable image quality. A {lambda}-shaped chromospheric anemone jet was observed in high resolution with SOT/Hinode. We found that several fine-scale jets were launched from one end of the footpoint to the other. These fine-scale jets ({approx}1.5-2.5 Mm) gradually move from one end of the footpoint to the other and finally merge into a single jet. This process occurs recurrently, and as time progresses the jet activity becomes more and more violent. The time evolution of the region below the jet in Ca II H filtergram images taken with SOT shows that various parts (or knots) appear at different positions. These bright knots gradually merge into each other during the maximum phase. The systematic motion of the fine-scale jets is observed when different knots merge into each other. Such morphology would arise due to the emergence of a three-dimensional twisted flux rope in which the axial component (or the guide field) appears in the later stages of the flux rope emergence. The partial appearance of the knots could be due to the azimuthal magnetic field that appears during the early stage of the flux rope emergence. If the guide field is strong and reconnection occurs between the emerging flux rope and an ambient magnetic field, this could explain the typical feature of systematic motion in chromospheric anemone jets.

  1. Systematic Motion of Fine-scale Jets and Successive Reconnection in Solar Chromospheric Anemone Jet Observed with the Solar Optical Telescope/Hinode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. A. P.; Isobe, H.; Nishida, K.; Shibata, K.

    2012-11-01

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on board Hinode allows observations with high spatiotemporal resolution and stable image quality. A λ-shaped chromospheric anemone jet was observed in high resolution with SOT/Hinode. We found that several fine-scale jets were launched from one end of the footpoint to the other. These fine-scale jets (~1.5-2.5 Mm) gradually move from one end of the footpoint to the other and finally merge into a single jet. This process occurs recurrently, and as time progresses the jet activity becomes more and more violent. The time evolution of the region below the jet in Ca II H filtergram images taken with SOT shows that various parts (or knots) appear at different positions. These bright knots gradually merge into each other during the maximum phase. The systematic motion of the fine-scale jets is observed when different knots merge into each other. Such morphology would arise due to the emergence of a three-dimensional twisted flux rope in which the axial component (or the guide field) appears in the later stages of the flux rope emergence. The partial appearance of the knots could be due to the azimuthal magnetic field that appears during the early stage of the flux rope emergence. If the guide field is strong and reconnection occurs between the emerging flux rope and an ambient magnetic field, this could explain the typical feature of systematic motion in chromospheric anemone jets.

  2. Training and Mentoring the Next Generation of Scientists and Engineers to Secure Continuity and Successes of the US DOE's Environmental Remediation Efforts - 13387

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, L.

    2013-07-01

    The DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) oversees one of the largest and most technically challenging cleanup programs in the world. The mission of DOE-EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Since 1995, Florida International University's Applied Research Center (FIU-ARC) has supported the DOE-EM mission and provided unique research capabilities to address some of these highly technical and difficult challenges. This partnership has allowed FIU-ARC to create a unique infrastructure that is critical for the training and mentoring of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) students and has exposed many STEM students to 'hands-on' DOE-EM applied research, supervised by the scientists and engineers at ARC. As a result of this successful partnership between DOE and FIU, DOE requested FIU-ARC to create the DOE-FIU Science and Technology Workforce Development Initiative in 2007. This innovative program was established to create a 'pipeline' of minority STEM students trained and mentored to enter DOE's environmental cleanup workforce. The program was designed to help address DOE's future workforce needs by partnering with academic, government and private companies (DOE contractors) to mentor future minority scientists and engineers in the research, development, and deployment of new technologies and processes addressing DOE's environmental cleanup challenges. Since its inception in 2007, the program has trained and mentored 78 FIU STEM minority students. Although, the program has been in existence for only five years, a total of 75 internships have been conducted at DOE National Laboratories, DOE sites, DOE Headquarters and field offices, and DOE contractors. Over 85 DOE Fellows have participated in the Waste Management Symposia since 2008 with a total of 68 student posters and 7 oral presentations given at WM. The DOE Fellows

  3. Observations on the removal of brood inoculated with Tropilaelaps mercedesae (Acari: Laelapidae) and the mite's reproductive success in Apis mellifera colonies.

    PubMed

    Khongphinitbunjong, Kitiphong; de Guzman, Lilia I; Buawangpong, Ninat; Rinderer, Thomas E; Frake, Amanda M; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the response of Apis mellifera to brood deliberately infested with Tropilaelaps mercedesae. The reproductive success of T. mercedesae in mite-inoculated and naturally infested brood was also compared. The presence of T. mercedesae inside brood cells significantly affected brood removal. Thai A. mellifera removed 52.6 ± 8.2 % of the brood inoculated with T. mercedesae as compared to 17.2 ± 1.8 and 5.7 ± 1.1 % removal rates for the groups of brood with their cell cappings opened and closed without mite inoculation and the control brood (undisturbed, no mite inoculation), respectively. Brood removal peaked during the second and third days post inoculation when test brood was at the prepupal stage. Overall, non-reproduction (NR) of foundress T. mercedesae was high. However, when NR was measured based on the criteria used for Varroa, the naturally infested pupae (NIP) supported the highest NR (92.8 %). Newly sealed larvae inoculated with Tropilaelaps collected from newly sealed larvae (NSL) had 78.2 % NR and those inoculated with Tropilaelaps collected from tan-bodied pupae (TBP) had 76.8 % NR. Since Tropilaelaps is known to have a short development period and nearly all progeny reach adulthood by the time of host emergence, we also used two Tropilaelaps-specific criteria to determine NR. Foundresses that did not produce progeny and those that produced only one progeny were considered NR. Using these two criteria, NR decreased tremendously but showed similar trends with means of 65, 40 and 33 % for NIP, NSL and TBP, respectively. High NR in the NIP group may indicate increased hygienic behavior in Thai A. mellifera colonies. The removal of infested prepupae or tan-bodied pupae will likely decrease the reproductive potential of Tropilaelaps. Our study suggests that brood removal may be one of the resistance mechanisms towards T. mercedesae by naturally adapted Thai A. mellifera.

  4. Observation of cone and rod photoreceptors in normal subjects and patients using a new generation adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope

    PubMed Central

    Merino, David; Duncan, Jacque L.; Tiruveedhula, Pavan; Roorda, Austin

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the capability of a new generation adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) to resolve cones and rods in normal subjects, and confirm our findings by comparing cone and rod spacing with published histology measurements. Cone and rod spacing measurements are also performed on AOSLO images from two different diseased eyes, one affected by achromatopsia and the other by acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). The potential of AOSLO technology in the study of these and other retinal diseases is illustrated. PMID:21833357

  5. The Success of Thread-embedding Therapy in Generating Hair Re-growth in Mice Points to Its Possibly Having a Similar Effect in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyun Jong; Lee, Dong-Jin; Kwon, Kang; Seo, Hyung-Sik; Jeong, Han-Sol; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Ha, Ki-Tae; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Jang, Yong-Suk; Lee, Byung-Wook; Kim, Byung Joo; Jung, Myeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Recently, thread-embedding therapy (TET) has been widely applied in Korean medicine for cosmetic purposes such as reducing skin wrinkles. An inserted thread was reported to have induced continuous stimulation, followed by support for connective tissue regeneration. However, the potential role of TET in hairgrowth has not yet been reported. Methods: We designed this study to evaluate whether TET has a hair-growth-promoting effect. C57 black 6 (C57BL/6) mice were divided into three groups: normal saline-treated, minoxidil-treated, and thread-embedded groups. Normal saline or 5% minoxidil was topically sprayed on the dorsal skin of the mice once a day for 16 days. Medical threads were embedded into the dorsal skin of the mice in a single application. Hair growth activity was evaluated by using dermoscopic and microscopic observations. Sections of the dorsal skin were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Expressions of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7), and fibroblast growth factor-5 (FGF-5) were detected by using immunohistochemical staining. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was adopted to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of FGF-7 and FGF-5. Results: TET enhanced anagen development in the hair follicles of C57BL/6 mice. The expressions of BrdU and PCNA, both of which imply active cellular proliferation, were increased by using TET. Moreover, TET increased the expression of FGF-7, an anagen-inducing growth factor, while decreasing the expression of FGF-5, an anagen-cessation growth factor, both at the protein and the mRNA levels. Conclusion: TET enhanced hair re-growth in C57BL/6 mice. TET regulated the expressions of anagen-associated growth factors and activated the proliferation of hair follicular cells in depilated skin lesions. Considering its long-lasting effect, TET may be a good alternative therapeutic for the treatment of alopecia

  6. Successful integration efforts in water quality from the integrated Ocean Observing System Regional Associations and the National Water Quality Monitoring Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ragsdale, R.; Vowinkel, E.; Porter, D.; Hamilton, P.; Morrison, R.; Kohut, J.; Connell, B.; Kelsey, H.; Trowbridge, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS??) Regional Associations and Interagency Partners hosted a water quality workshop in January 2010 to discuss issues of nutrient enrichment and dissolved oxygen depletion (hypoxia), harmful algal blooms (HABs), and beach water quality. In 2007, the National Water Quality Monitoring Council piloted demonstration projects as part of the National Water Quality Monitoring Network (Network) for U.S. Coastal Waters and their Tributaries in three IOOS Regional Associations, and these projects are ongoing. Examples of integrated science-based solutions to water quality issues of major concern from the IOOS regions and Network demonstration projects are explored in this article. These examples illustrate instances where management decisions have benefited from decision-support tools that make use of interoperable data. Gaps, challenges, and outcomes are identified, and a proposal is made for future work toward a multiregional water quality project for beach water quality.

  7. Three observational differences for binary black holes detections with second- and third-generation gravitational-wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Salvatore

    2016-12-01

    Advanced gravitational-wave observatories, such as LIGO and Virgo, will detect hundreds of gravitational-wave signals emitted by binary black holes in the next few years. The collection of detected sources is expected to have certain properties. It is expected that a selection bias will exist toward higher-mass systems, that most events will be oriented with their angular momentum pointing to or away from Earth, and that quiet events will be much more numerous than loud events. In this paper, we show how all these assumptions are only true for existing detectors and do not have any universality. Using a network of proposed third-generation gravitational-wave detectors, we show how each of these assumptions must be revised, and we discuss several consequences on the characterization of the sources.

  8. Lightning-Generated Whistler Waves Observed by Probes On The Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System Satellite at Low Latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzworth, R. H.; McCarthy, M. P.; Pfaff, R. F.; Jacobson, A. R.; Willcockson, W. L.; Rowland, D. E.

    2011-01-01

    Direct evidence is presented for a causal relationship between lightning and strong electric field transients inside equatorial ionospheric density depletions. In fact, these whistler mode plasma waves may be the dominant electric field signal within such depletions. Optical lightning data from the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite and global lightning location information from the World Wide Lightning Location Network are presented as independent verification that these electric field transients are caused by lightning. The electric field instrument on C/NOFS routinely measures lightning ]related electric field wave packets or sferics, associated with simultaneous measurements of optical flashes at all altitudes encountered by the satellite (401.867 km). Lightning ]generated whistler waves have abundant access to the topside ionosphere, even close to the magnetic equator.

  9. Numerical simulation and observations of very severe cyclone generated surface wave fields in the north Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirisha, P.; Remya, P. G.; Balakrishnan Nair, T. M.; Rao, B. Venkateswara

    2015-12-01

    Accurate wave forecast is most needed during tropical cyclones as it has adverse effects on the entire marine activities. The present work evaluates the performance of a wave forecasting system under very severe cyclonic conditions for the Indian Ocean. The wave model results are validated separately for the deep water and shallow water using in-situ observations. Satellite altimeter observations are also utilized for validation purpose. The results show that the model performance is accurate (SI < 26% and correlation > 0.9) and consistent during very severe cyclones (categories 4 and 5). The power of the cyclone waves which hit in the eastern Indian coastal region is also analysed and it reveals that the coastal region which lies on the right side of the cyclone track receives high amount wave energy throughout the cyclone period. The study also says that the abnormal waves mostly present on the right side of the track.

  10. JAMSTEC Compact Arctic Drifter (J-CAD): A new Generation drifting buoy to observe the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatakeyama, Kiyoshi; Hosono, Masuo; Shimada, Koji; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nishino, Shigeto

    The Arctic Ocean is one of the most sensitive regions to the earth environment changes. Japan Marine Science and Technology Center developed a new drift buoy to observe the Arctic Ocean. The name of the buoy is J-CAD (JAMSTEC Compact Arctic Drifter). From 1991 to 1993, JAMSTEC developed Ice-Ocean Environmental Buoy (IOEB) as a buoy to observe the Arctic Ocean in cooperation with Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The J-CAD is the buoy, which adopted the latest technology based on the knowledge and experience of IOEB development. The J-CAD was designed and developed by JAMSTEC and made by a Canadian Company MetOcean. JAMSTEC did design and development, and a Canadian company Met-Ocean made the J-CAD. It acquires meteorological and oceanographic data of the Arctic Ocean, and transmits the data that it measured via satellite. It dose also store the data inside its memory. An Inductive Modem system, which was developed by Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc. in the United States, was adopted in the underwater transmission system that data on each ocean sensor were collected. An ORBCOMM communication system was adopted for the satellite data transmission. J-CAD-1 was installed at 89°41'N 130°20'W on April 24, 2000, and the observation was started. August 1st was the day when 100 days have passed since the J-CAD-1 was installed on the North Pole. And now, the distance J-CAD-1 has covered exceeds 400 km, and it has transmitted data more than 500 k byte. A part of the data is introduced to the public in the homepage (http://w3.jamstec.go.jp: 8338) of the Arctic research group of JAMSTEC.

  11. N-H stretching modes around 3300 wavenumber from peptide backbones observed by chiral sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Li; Wang, Zhuguang; Yan, Elsa C Y

    2014-09-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the molecular origin of the chiral sum frequency generation (SFG) signals of proteins and peptides at interfaces in the N-H stretching vibrational region. The N-H stretching can be a probe for investigating structural and functional properties of proteins, but remains technically difficult to analyze due to the overlapping with the O-H stretching of water molecules. Chiral SFG spectroscopy offers unique tools to study the N-H stretching from proteins at interfaces without interference from the water background. However, the molecular origin of the N-H stretching signals of proteins is still unclear. This work provides a justification of the origin of chiral N-H signals by analyzing the vibrational frequencies, examining chiral SFG theory, studying proton (hydrogen/deuterium) exchange kinetics, and performing optical control experiments. The results demonstrate that the chiral N-H stretching signals at ~3300 cm(-1) originate from the amide group of the protein backbones. This chiral N-H stretching signal offers an in situ, real-time, and background-free probe for interrogating the protein structures and dynamics at interfaces at the molecular level.

  12. Unexpected Generation and Observation of a T-Shaped Complex of H_{2}C_{2}\\cdotsAgCCH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, N. R.; Stephens, S. L.; Mizukami, W.; Tew, D. P.; Legon, A. C.

    2013-06-01

    An experiment to probe species generated within a supersonically-expanding jet consisting of SF_{6}, Ag, C_{2}H_{2} and argon by broadband rotational spectroscopy revealed the existence of a T-shaped complex of hitherto unknown origin. Empirical tests revealed that this complex requires the presence of C_{2}H_{2} and Ag within the gas sample. While the intensity of the associated transitions are enhanced by the presence of SF_{6}, theoretical calculations and empirical tests implied that the identified complex is H_{2}C_{2}\\cdotsAgCCH rather than the original target of the experiment, H_{2}C_{2}\\cdotsAgF. This deduction is now supported by evidence acquired through experiments exploiting ^{13}C-enriched isotopic samples. Transitions have been assigned for the H_{2}^{13}C_{2}\\cdotsAg^{13}C^{13}CH isotopologue. Data acquired from each isotopologue allows determination of the rotational constants (B}_{0}, C}_{0}) and centrifugal distortion constant, Δ_J}. The data are consistent with a T-shaped complex in which the Ag atom of AgCCH binds to electrons within the {π}-orbitals of ethyne. Preliminary determinations of bond lengths will be presented. Experiments are in progress to measure the spectra of deuterated isotopologues.

  13. High-quality seamless DEM generation blending SRTM-1, ASTER GDEM v2 and ICESat/GLAS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Linwei; Shen, Huanfeng; Zhang, Liangpei; Zheng, Xianwei; Zhang, Fan; Yuan, Qiangqiang

    2017-01-01

    The absence of a high-quality seamless global digital elevation model (DEM) dataset has been a challenge for the Earth-related research fields. Recently, the 1-arc-second Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM-1) data have been released globally, covering over 80% of the Earth's land surface (60°N-56°S). However, voids and anomalies still exist in some tiles, which has prevented the SRTM-1 dataset from being directly used without further processing. In this paper, we propose a method to generate a seamless DEM dataset blending SRTM-1, ASTER GDEM v2, and ICESat laser altimetry data. The ASTER GDEM v2 data are used as the elevation source for the SRTM void filling. To get a reliable filling source, ICESat GLAS points are incorporated to enhance the accuracy of the ASTER data within the void regions, using an artificial neural network (ANN) model. After correction, the voids in the SRTM-1 data are filled with the corrected ASTER GDEM values. The triangular irregular network based delta surface fill (DSF) method is then employed to eliminate the vertical bias between them. Finally, an adaptive outlier filter is applied to all the data tiles. The final result is a seamless global DEM dataset. ICESat points collected from 2003 to 2009 were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, and to assess the vertical accuracy of the global DEM products in China. Furthermore, channel networks in the Yangtze River Basin were also extracted for the data assessment.

  14. Observation of Charge Inversion of an Ionic Liquid at the Solid Salt-Liquid Interface by Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Peñalber, Chariz Y; Baldelli, Steven

    2012-04-05

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy of the ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide [BMIM][DCA], in contact with two different solid salt surfaces, BaF2(111) single crystal and solid NaCl{100}, are discussed in this Letter. This investigation describes the nature of an ionic liquid-(solid) salt interface using SFG, contributing a new understanding to the molecular-level interactions involved in salts, which are conceptually similar compounds (of purely ionic character) but of different physical properties (liquid versus solid at room temperature). Results show the presence of [BMIM](+) at the NaCl{100} surface and [DCA](-) at the BaF2(111) surface. [BMIM](+) cations adhere closely via Coulombic interactions to the negatively charged NaCl{100} surface, while [DCA](-) anions subsequently have a strong electrostatic affinity to the positively charged BaF2(111) surface. Ions of the ionic liquid adsorb to the solid salt surface to form a Helmholtz-like electric double layer.

  15. International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry - Delivering high-quality products and embarking on observations of the next generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nothnagel, A.; Artz, T.; Behrend, D.; Malkin, Z.

    2016-09-01

    The International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) regularly produces high-quality Earth orientation parameters from observing sessions employing extensive networks or individual baselines. The master schedule is designed according to the telescope days committed by the stations and by the need for dense sampling of the Earth orientation parameters (EOP). In the pre-2011 era, the network constellations with their number of telescopes participating were limited by the playback and baseline capabilities of the hardware (Mark4) correlators. This limitation was overcome by the advent of software correlators, which can now accommodate many more playback units in a flexible configuration. In this paper, we describe the current operations of the IVS with special emphasis on the quality of the polar motion results since these are the only EOP components which can be validated against independent benchmarks. The polar motion results provided by the IVS have improved continuously over the years, now providing an agreement with IGS results at the level of 20-25 μ as in a WRMS sense. At the end of the paper, an outlook is given for the realization of the VLBI Global Observing System.

  16. Observation of Arabian and Saharan Dust in Cyprus with a New Generation of the Smart Raman Lidar Polly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelmann, Ronny; Ansmann, Albert; Bühl, Johannes; Heese, Birgit; Baars, Holger; Althausen, Dietrich; Marinou, Eleni; Amiridis, Vassilis; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Vrekoussis, Mihalis

    2016-06-01

    The atmospheric science community demands for autonomous and quality-assured vertically resolved measurements of aerosol and cloud properties. Aiming this goal, TROPOS developed the fully automated multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar Polly since over 10 years [1, 2]. In cooperation with different partner research institutes the system was improved continuously. Our latest lidar developments include aside the "3+2" measurements also a near-range receiver to measure aerosol extinction and backscatter down to 120 m above the lidar, a water-vapor channel, and measurements of the linear depolarization at two wavelengths. The latest system was built in cooperation with the National Observatory of Athens (NOA). Its first campaign however was performed at the Cyprus Institute of Nicosia from March to April 2015, aiming specifically at the observation of ice nuclei with in-situ and lidar remote sensing techniques in the framework of BACCHUS [3, 4].

  17. Phase matching considerations in second harmonic generation from tissues: Effects on emission directionality, conversion efficiency and observed morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaComb, Ronald; Nadiarnykh, Oleg; Townsend, Sallie S.; Campagnola, Paul J.

    2008-04-01

    We present a heuristic treatment which relates SHG image intensities, signal directionality, and observed morphology to the physical structure of collagen and cellulose fibrillar tissues. The SHG creation model is based upon relaxed phase matching conditions which account for dispersion, randomness, and axial momentum contributions from the media, and includes a mathematical treatment which relates SHG conversion efficiency to fibril diameter and packing through the inclusion of potential intensity amplification resultant from quasi-phase matching (QPM). A direct consequence of this theory is that SHG in biological tissues is not strictly a coherent process, and that the forward directed SHG has a longer coherence length than the backward component, Through this treatment, we show that the emission directionality and also conversion efficiency do not arise solely from the fibril size but also depend on packing density and order of the inter-fibril structure. We demonstrate these principles in comparing the SHG response in normal and Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) skin. We show that the observed directionality and decreased relative intensity in the diseased state is consistent with phase matching conditions arising from the decreased fibril size and more random assembly. We further use this theory to explain the differences in morphology seen in forward and backward collected SHG in fibrillar tissues (e.g., collagenous and cellulosic). Specifically, we attribute segmented appearance to destructive interference between small fibrils separated by less than the coherence length. We suggest the approach based on relaxed phasematching conditions is general in predicting the SHG response in tissues and may be broadly applicable in interpreting the SHG contrast for diagnostic applications.

  18. Bangladesh becomes "success story".

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    The State Minister for Health and Family of Bangladesh, Dr. Mohammed Amanullah, highlighted some of the successes being achieved by his country in lowering fertility and improving the lives of the people since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Some of these successes include practical measures to eliminate violence against women; introduction of a quota for women in public sector employment; and launching of the Health and Population Sector Program to provide a one-stop, full range of essential reproductive health, family planning and child health services through an integrated delivery mechanism. Moreover, the Minister informed the Forum participants that their success is attributable to many factors which include support from the government, from non-governmental organizations, civil society, mass media, religious and other community leaders, intersectoral collaboration, microcredit and income-generation activities.

  19. Relationships between atmospheric circulation indices and rainfall in Northern Algeria and comparison of observed and RCM-generated rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taibi, S.; Meddi, M.; Mahé, G.; Assani, A.

    2017-01-01

    This work aims, as a first step, to analyze rainfall variability in Northern Algeria, in particular extreme events, during the period from 1940 to 2010. Analysis of annual rainfall shows that stations in the northwest record a significant decrease in rainfall since the 1970s. Frequencies of rainy days for each percentile (5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 95th, and 99th) and each rainfall interval class (1-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-50, and ≥50 mm) do not show a significant change in the evolution of daily rainfall. The Tenes station is the only one to show a significant decrease in the frequency of rainy days up to the 75th percentile and for the 10-20-mm interval class. There is no significant change in the temporal evolution of extreme events in the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles. The relationships between rainfall variability and general atmospheric circulation indices for interannual and extreme event variability are moderately influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Mediterranean Oscillation. Significant correlations are observed between the Southern Oscillation Index and annual rainfall in the northwestern part of the study area, which is likely linked with the decrease in rainfall in this region. Seasonal rainfall in Northern Algeria is affected by the Mediterranean Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation in the west. The ENSEMBLES regional climate models (RCMs) are assessed using the bias method to test their ability to reproduce rainfall variability at different time scales. The Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques (CNRM), Czech Hydrometeorological Institute (CHMI), Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETHZ), and Forschungszentrum Geesthacht (GKSS) models yield the least biased results.

  20. Direct Spectroscopic Observation of the Structural Origin of Peroxide Generation from Co-Based Pyrolyzed Porphyrins for ORR Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegelbauer,J.; Olson, T.; Pylypenko, S.; Alamgir, F.; Jaye, C.; Atanassov, P.; Mukerjee, S.

    2008-01-01

    Pyrolyzed transition metal based porphyrins present an attractive alternative to state of the art Pt-based electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications based on their comparatively low cost. Unfortunately, the large array of precursors and synthetic strategies has led to considerable ambiguity regarding the specific structure/property relationships that give rise to their activity for oxygen reduction. Specifically, considerable debate exists in actual chemical structure of the pyrolyzed reaction centers, and their relationship to membrane-damaging peroxide yield. In this manuscript a comprehensive electrochemical and spectroscopic study of pyrolyzed CoTMPP produced via a self-templating process is presented. The resulting electrocatalysts are not carbon-supported, but are highly porous self-supported pyropolymers. Rotating ring disk electrode measurements showed that the materials pyrolyzed at 700 C exhibited the highest performance, whereas pyrolysis at 800 C resulted in a significant increase in the peroxide yield. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Co L and K edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) studies confirm that the majority of the Co-N4 active site has broken down to Co-N2 at 800 C. Application of ?{mu} analysis (an X-ray absorption near-edge structure difference technique) to the in situ Co K edge EXAFS data allowed for direct spectroscopic observation of the geometry of Oads on the pyropolymer active sites. The specific geometrical adsorption of molecular oxygen with respect to the plane of the Co-Nx moieties highly influences the oxygen reduction reaction pathway. The application of the ?{mu} technique to other transition metal based macrocycle electrocatalyst systems is expected to provide similarly detailed information.

  1. Errors generated by a point-of-care CD4+ T-lymphocyte analyser: a retrospective observational study in nine countries

    PubMed Central

    Metcalf, Carol; Piriou, Erwan; Gueguen, Monique; Maman, David; Chaillet, Pascale; Cox, Vivian; Rumaney, Maryam B; Tunggal, Syanness; Kosack, Cara; Roberts, Teri

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the proportion of invalid results generated by a CD4+ T-lymphocyte analyser used by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) in field projects and identify factors associated with invalid results. Methods We collated 25 616 CD4+ T-lymphocyte test results from 39 sites in nine countries for the years 2011 to 2013. Information about the setting, user, training, sampling technique and device repair history were obtained by questionnaire. The analyser performs a series of checks to ensure that all steps of the analysis are completed successfully; if not, an invalid result is reported. We calculated the proportion of invalid results by device and by operator. Regression analyses were used to investigate factors associated with invalid results. Findings There were 3354 invalid test results (13.1%) across 39 sites, for 58 Alere PimaTM devices and 180 operators. The median proportion of errors per device and operator was 12.7% (interquartile range, IQR: 10.3–19.9) and 12.1% (IQR: 7.1–19.2), respectively. The proportion of invalid results varied widely by country, setting, user and device. Errors were not associated with settings, user experience or the number of users per device. Tests performed on capillary blood samples were significantly less likely to generate errors compared to venous whole blood. Conclusion The Alere Pima CD4+ analyser generated a high proportion of invalid test results, across different countries, settings and users. Most error codes could be attributed to the operator, but the exact causes proved difficult to identify. Invalid results need to be factored into the implementation and operational costs of routine CD4+ T-lymphocyte testing. PMID:26478626

  2. Observation of beat oscillation generation by coupled waves associated with parametric decay during radio frequency wave heating of a spherical tokamak plasma.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Oosako, Takuya; Takase, Yuichi; Ejiri, Akira; Watanabe, Osamu; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Adachi, Yuuki; Tojo, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kurashina, Hiroki; Yamada, Kotaro; An, Byung Il; Kasahara, Hiroshi; Shimpo, Fujio; Kumazawa, Ryuhei; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Matsuzawa, Haduki; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Hanashima, Kentaro; Kakuda, Hidetoshi; Sakamoto, Takuya; Wakatsuki, Takuma

    2010-06-18

    We present an observation of beat oscillation generation by coupled modes associated with parametric decay instability (PDI) during radio frequency (rf) wave heating experiments on the Tokyo Spherical Tokamak-2. Nearly identical PDI spectra, which are characterized by the coexistence of the rf pump wave, the lower-sideband wave, and the low-frequency oscillation in the ion-cyclotron range of frequency, are observed at various locations in the edge plasma. A bispectral power analysis was used to experimentally discriminate beat oscillation from the resonant mode for the first time. The pump and lower-sideband waves have resonant mode components, while the low-frequency oscillation is exclusively excited by nonlinear coupling of the pump and lower-sideband waves. Newly discovered nonlocal transport channels in spectral space and in real space via PDI are described.

  3. Fast and Efficient Fragment-Based Lead Generation by Fully Automated Processing and Analysis of Ligand-Observed NMR Binding Data.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chen; Frommlet, Alexandra; Perez, Manuel; Cobas, Carlos; Blechschmidt, Anke; Dominguez, Santiago; Lingel, Andreas

    2016-04-14

    NMR binding assays are routinely applied in hit finding and validation during early stages of drug discovery, particularly for fragment-based lead generation. To this end, compound libraries are screened by ligand-observed NMR experiments such as STD, T1ρ, and CPMG to identify molecules interacting with a target. The analysis of a high number of complex spectra is performed largely manually and therefore represents a limiting step in hit generation campaigns. Here we report a novel integrated computational procedure that processes and analyzes ligand-observed proton and fluorine NMR binding data in a fully automated fashion. A performance evaluation comparing automated and manual analysis results on (19)F- and (1)H-detected data sets shows that the program delivers robust, high-confidence hit lists in a fraction of the time needed for manual analysis and greatly facilitates visual inspection of the associated NMR spectra. These features enable considerably higher throughput, the assessment of larger libraries, and shorter turn-around times.

  4. Observation of the generation and evolution of long-lived runaway electron beams during major disruptions in the HuanLiuqi-2A tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. P.; Liu, Yi; Yuan, G. L.; Isobe, M.; Chen, Z. Y.; Cheng, J.; Ji, X. Q.; Song, X. M.; Yang, J. W.; Song, X. Y.; Li, X.; Deng, W.; Li, Y. G.; Xu, Y.; Sun, T. F.; Ding, X. T.; Yan, L. W.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.; Liu, Y.; HL-2A Team

    2012-03-01

    In an experimental study of the runaway electron generation during major disruptions in the HuanLiuqi-2A (commonly referred to as HL-2A) [L. W. Yan, Nucl. Fusion 51, 094016 (2011)] tokamak, detailed time and space resolved x-ray images of the long-lived runaway electron beam in flight have been observed and these allow a detailed analysis of the generation and evolution of the disruption produced runaway electron beam in a major disruption, where the conversion efficiency of pre-disruption plasma current into runaway current is up to 55% on HL-2A tokamak. Moreover, a delay of about 7 ms between the start of the disruption and the formation of runaway electron beam has been found. With the aid of the Equilibrium FIT (EFIT) code, magnetic configuration reconstruction has made possible a detailed observation of the magnetic flux geometry evolution during major disruptions. The EFIT magnetic configuration reconstructions show that the delay is due to the transient strong deformation of the magnetic configuration in the initial stage of the current quench, which may provide a possibility of suppressing or mitigating the runaway electron beam during this period by massive gas injection or other methods.

  5. Lower hybrid frequency range waves generated by ion polarization drift due to electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves: Analysis of an event observed by the Van Allen Probe B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Boardsen, S.; Krivorutsky, E. N.; Engebretson, M. J.; Sibeck, D.; Chen, S.; Breneman, A.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze a wave event that occurred near noon between 07:03 and 07:08 UT on 23 February 2014 detected by the Van Allen Probes B spacecraft, where waves in the lower hybrid frequency range (LHFR) and electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are observed to be highly correlated, with Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.86. We assume that the correlation is the result of LHFR wave generation by the ions' polarization drift in the electric field of the EMIC waves. To check this assumption the drift velocities of electrons and H+, He+, and O+ ions in the measured EMIC wave electric field were modeled. Then the LHFR wave linear instantaneous growth rates for plasma with these changing drift velocities and different plasma compositions were calculated. The time distribution of these growth rates, their frequency distribution, and the frequency dependence of the ratio of the LHFR wave power spectral density (PSD) parallel and perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field to the total PSD were found. These characteristics of the growth rates were compared with the corresponding characteristics of the observed LHFR activity. Reasonable agreement between these features and the strong correlation between EMIC and LHFR energy densities support the assumption that the LHFR wave generation can be caused by the ions' polarization drift in the electric field of an EMIC wave.

  6. Possible generation mechanisms for Pc1 pearl structures in the ionosphere based on 6 years of ground observations in Canada, Russia, and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Chae-Woo; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Connors, Martin; Schofield, Ian; Poddelsky, Igor; Shevtsov, Boris

    2016-05-01

    We investigate pearl structures (amplitude modulations) of Pc1 pulsations simultaneously observed at Athabasca (ATH, 54.7°N, 246.7°E, L = 4.3) in Canada, Magadan (MGD, 60.1°N, 150.7°E, L = 2.6) in Russia, and Moshiri (MOS, 44.4°N, 142.3°E, L = 1.5) in Japan. From 6 years of ground observations, from 2008 to 2013, we selected 84 Pc1 events observed simultaneously at the longitudinally separated stations (ATH and MGD) and 370 events observed at the latitudinally separated stations (MGD and MOS), all with high coherence (>0.7) of Pc1 waveforms. We calculated the cross-correlation coefficient (similarity: r) for the Pc1 pearl structures and found that more than half of the events in both pairs had low similarity (r < 0.7), indicating that most Pc1 waves exhibit different pearl structures at different stations. We found that high-similarity Pc1 pearl structures (r > 0.7) at the longitudinally separated stations are concentrated from 6 to 15 UT when both stations are in the nighttime. The similarity of Pc1 pearl structures tends to show a negative correlation with the standard deviation of the polarization angle in both pairs. The observed repetition period of Pc1 pearl structures has a clear positive correlation with the repetition period estimated from Pc1 bandwidth by assuming beating of different frequencies. From these results, we suggest that ionospheric beating effect could be a dominant process for the generation of Pc1 pearl structures. Beating processes in the ionosphere with a spatially distributed ionospheric source can cause the different shapes of Pc1 pearl structures at different observation points during ionospheric duct propagation.

  7. Observing system simulation experiments to evaluate the expected added-value of a new generation IASI satellite instrument for lower tropospheric ozone analyses and forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphin, Pierre; Sellitto, Pasquale; Dufour, Gaëlle; Coman, Adriana; Forêt, Gilles; Eremenko, Maxim; Cuesta, Juan; Gaubert, Benjamin; Beekmann, Matthias; Peuch, Vincent-Henri; Flaud, Jean-Marie

    2013-04-01

    Tropospheric ozone can adversely impact human health, climate and the ecosystem. Monitoring and legislation are implemented to regulate its concentrations. Air quality (AQ) monitoring from space starts to be regarded as a useful tool to complement with in situ measurements and regional chemical transport models (rCTM) to draw a more comprehensive picture of pollution processes. Important progresses in the field of tropospheric ozone sounding from space have been accomplished during the last decade, especially with thermal infrared (TIR) space-borne instruments. It is now possible to observe tropospheric ozone concentrations from space with a reasonable accuracy. However, limitations remain with the current observation systems in particular to observe ozone in the lowermost troposphere. IASI-NG, that will be part of the EPS-SG (EUMETSAT Polar System-Second Generation) programme, is expected to improve the observation capabilities of AQ in terms of ozone in the lower troposphere. Observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) are powerful tools to quantify the added-value of future missions. An OSSE is composed of different elements: (1) one reference atmosphere, usually given by model simulations (the Nature Run); (2) an optimized observation simulator, providing the pseudo-observations; (3) an independent description of the atmosphere (the Control Run); (4) an assimilation system, providing the Assimilation Run. We conduct relative OSSEs, aimed at comparing the contribution of one possible configuration of IASI-NG (IASI-NG/IRS2) and the present IASI instrument, used as a baseline. The spectral resolution and the radiometric noise in the ozone spectral region, for IASI-NG/IRS2, are twice better than for IASI. IASI-NG/IRS2 pseudo-observations are processed using a comprehensive simulator based on the radiative transfer model KOPRA and the KOPRAFIT inversion module. The Nature Run is given by the CTM MOCAGE model, the Control Run is produced with the CHIMERE CTM, and

  8. A next generation Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO-100) for IR/optical observations of the rise phase of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossan, B.; Park, I. H.; Ahmad, S.; Ahn, K. B.; Barrillon, P.; Brandt, S.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Chen, P.; Choi, H. S.; Choi, Y. J.; Connell, P.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; De La Taille, C.; Eyles, C.; Hermann, I.; Huang, M.-H. A.; Jung, A.; Jeong, S.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, Y. W.; Lee, J.; Lim, H.; Linder, E. V.; Liu, T.-C.; Lund, N.; Min, K. W.; Na, G. W.; Nam, J. W.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Ripa, J.; Reglero, V.; Rodrigo, J. M.; Smoot, G. F.; Suh, J. E.; Svertilov, S.; Vedenkin, N.; Wang, M.-Z.; Yashin, I.; Zhao, M. H.

    2012-09-01

    The Swift Gamma-ray Burst (GRB) observatory responds to GRB triggers with optical observations in ~ 100 s, butcannot respond faster than ~ 60 s. While some rapid-response ground-based telescopes have responded quickly, thenumber of sub-60 s detections remains small. In 2013 June, the Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory-Pathfinder is expected tobe launched on the Lomonosov spacecraft to investigate early optical GRB emission. Though possessing uniquecapability for optical rapid-response, this pathfinder mission is necessarily limited in sensitivity and event rate; here wediscuss the next generation of rapid-response space observatory instruments. We list science topics motivating ourinstruments, those that require rapid optical-IR GRB response, including: A survey of GRB rise shapes/times,measurements of optical bulk Lorentz factors, investigation of magnetic dominated (vs. non-magnetic) jet models,internal vs. external shock origin of prompt optical emission, the use of GRBs for cosmology, and dust evaporation inthe GRB environment. We also address the impacts of the characteristics of GRB observing on our instrument andobservatory design. We describe our instrument designs and choices for a next generation space observatory as a secondinstrument on a low-earth orbit spacecraft, with a 120 kg instrument mass budget. Restricted to relatively modest mass,power, and launch resources, we find that a coded mask X-ray camera with 1024 cm2 of detector area could rapidlylocate about 64 GRB triggers/year. Responding to the locations from the X-ray camera, a 30 cm aperture telescope witha beam-steering system for rapid (~ 1 s) response and a near-IR camera should detect ~ 29 GRB, given Swift GRBproperties. The additional optical camera would permit the measurement of a broadband optical-IR slope, allowingbetter characterization of the emission, and dynamic measurement of dust extinction at the source, for the first time.

  9. Observing Exoplanets with High Dispersion Coronagraphy. I. The Scientific Potential of Current and Next-generation Large Ground and Space Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji; Mawet, Dimitri; Ruane, Garreth; Hu, Renyu; Benneke, Björn

    2017-04-01

    Direct imaging of exoplanets presents a formidable technical challenge owing to the small angular separation and high contrast between exoplanets and their host stars. High Dispersion Coronagraphy (HDC) is a pathway to achieve unprecedented sensitivity to Earth-like planets in the habitable zone. Here, we present a framework to simulate HDC observations and data analyses. The goal of these simulations is to perform a detailed analysis of the trade-off between raw star light suppression and spectral resolution for various instrument configurations, target types, and science cases. We predict the performance of an HDC instrument at Keck observatory for characterizing directly imaged gas-giant planets in near-infrared bands. We also simulate HDC observations of an Earth-like planet using next-generation ground-based (TMT) and spaced-base telescopes (HabEx and LUVOIR). We conclude that ground-based ELTs are more suitable for HDC observations of an Earth-like planet than future space-based missions owing to the considerable difference in collecting area. For ground-based telescopes, HDC observations can detect an Earth-like planet in the habitable zone around an M-dwarf star at 10‑4 star light suppression level. Compared to the 10‑7 planet/star contrast, HDC relaxes the star light suppression requirement by a factor of 103. For space-based telescopes, detector noise will be a major limitation at spectral resolutions higher than 104. Considering detector noise and speckle chromatic noise, R = 400 (1600) is the optimal spectral resolutions for HabEx (LUVOIR). The corresponding star light suppression requirement to detect a planet with planet/star contrast = 6.1× {10}-11 is relaxed by a factor of 10 (100) for HabEx (LUVOIR).

  10. A statistical approach for rain class evaluation using Meteosat Second Generation-Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricciardelli, E.; Cimini, D.; Di Paola, F.; Romano, F.; Viggiano, M.

    2013-11-01

    Precipitation measurements are essential for short term hydrological and long term climate studies. Operational networks of rain gauges and weather radars provide fairly accurate rain rate measurements, but they leave large areas uncovered. Because of this, satellite remote sensing is a useful tool for the detection and characterization of the raining areas in regions where this information remains missing. This study exploits the Meteosat Second Generation - Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (MSG-SEVIRI) observations to evaluate the rain class at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The Rain Class Evaluation from Infrared and Visible (RainCEIV) observations technique is proposed. The purpose of RainCEIV is to supply continuous monitoring of convective as well as of stratiform rainfall events. It applies a supervised classifier to the spectral and textural features of infrared and visible MSG-SEVIRI images to classify the cloudy pixels as non rainy, light to moderate rain, or heavy to very heavy rain. The technique considers in input also the water vapour channels brightness temperatures differences for the MSG-SEVIRI images acquired 15/30/45 min before the time of interest. The rainfall rates used in the training phase are obtained with the Precipitation Estimation at Microwave frequencies (PEMW), an algorithm for rain rate retrievals based on Atmospheric Microwave Sounder Unit (AMSU)-B observations. The results of RainCEIV have been validated against radar-derived rainfall measurements from the Italian Operational Weather Radar Network for some case studies limited to the Mediterranean area. The dichotomous assessment shows that RainCEIV is able to detect rainy areas with an accuracy of about 91%, a Heidke skill score of 56%, a Bias score of 1.16, and a Probability of Detection of rainy areas of 66%.

  11. A statistical approach for rain intensity differentiation using Meteosat Second Generation-Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricciardelli, E.; Cimini, D.; Di Paola, F.; Romano, F.; Viggiano, M.

    2014-07-01

    This study exploits the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG)-Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) observations to evaluate the rain class at high spatial and temporal resolutions and, to this aim, proposes the Rain Class Evaluation from Infrared and Visible observation (RainCEIV) technique. RainCEIV is composed of two modules: a cloud classification algorithm which individuates and characterizes the cloudy pixels, and a supervised classifier that delineates the rainy areas according to the three rainfall intensity classes, the non-rainy (rain rate value < 0.5 mm h-1) class, the light-to-moderate rainy class (0.5 mm h-1 ≤ rain rate value < 4 mm h-1), and the heavy-to-very-heavy-rainy class (rain rate value ≥ 4 mm h-1). The second module considers as input the spectral and textural features of the infrared and visible SEVIRI observations for the cloudy pixels detected by the first module. It also takes the temporal differences of the brightness temperatures linked to the SEVIRI water vapour channels as indicative of the atmospheric instability strongly related to the occurrence of rainfall events. The rainfall rates used in the training phase are obtained through the Precipitation Estimation at Microwave frequencies, PEMW (an algorithm for rain rate retrievals based on Atmospheric Microwave Sounder Unit (AMSU)-B observations). RainCEIV's principal aim is that of supplying preliminary qualitative information on the rainy areas within the Mediterranean Basin where there is no radar network coverage. The results of RainCEIV have been validated against radar-derived rainfall measurements from the Italian Operational Weather Radar Network for some case studies limited to the Mediterranean area. The dichotomous assessment related to daytime (nighttime) validation shows that RainCEIV is able to detect rainy/non-rainy areas with an accuracy of about 97% (96%), and when all the rainy classes are considered, it shows a Heidke skill score of 67% (62%), a bias

  12. Uncertainties in successive measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distler, Jacques; Paban, Sonia

    2013-06-01

    When you measure an observable, A, in quantum mechanics, the state of the system changes. This, in turn, affects the quantum-mechanical uncertainty in some noncommuting observable, B. The standard uncertainty relation puts a lower bound on the uncertainty of B in the initial state. What is relevant for a subsequent measurement of B, however, is the uncertainty of B in the postmeasurement state. We re-examine this problem, both in the case where A has a pure point spectrum and in the case where A has a continuous spectrum. In the latter case, the need to include a finite detector resolution, as part of what it means to measure such an observable, has dramatic implications for the result of successive measurements. Ozawa, [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.67.042105 67, 042105 (2003)] proposed an inequality satisfied in the case of successive measurements. Among our results, we show that his inequality is ineffective (can never come close to being saturated). For the cases of interest, we compute a sharper lower bound.

  13. Comprehensive detection and identification of bacterial DNA in the blood of patients with sepsis and healthy volunteers using next-generation sequencing method - the observation of DNAemia.

    PubMed

    Gosiewski, T; Ludwig-Galezowska, A H; Huminska, K; Sroka-Oleksiak, A; Radkowski, P; Salamon, D; Wojciechowicz, J; Kus-Slowinska, M; Bulanda, M; Wolkow, P P

    2017-02-01

    Blood is considered to be a sterile microenvironment, in which bacteria appear only periodically. Previously used methods allowed only for the detection of either viable bacteria with low sensitivity or selected species of bacteria. The Next-Generation Sequencing method (NGS) enables the identification of all bacteria in the sample with their taxonomic classification. We used NGS for the analysis of blood samples from healthy volunteers (n = 23) and patients with sepsis (n = 62) to check whether any bacterial DNA exists in the blood of healthy people and to identify bacterial taxonomic profile in the blood of septic patients. The presence of bacterial DNA was found both in septic and healthy subjects; however, bacterial diversity was significantly different (P = 0.002) between the studied groups. Among healthy volunteers, a significant predominance of anaerobic bacteria (76.2 %), of which most were bacteria of the order Bifidobacteriales (73.0 %), was observed. In sepsis, the majority of detected taxa belonged to aerobic or microaerophilic microorganisms (75.1 %). The most striking difference was seen in the case of Actinobacteria phyla, the abundance of which was decreased in sepsis (P < 0.001) and Proteobacteria phyla which was decreased in the healthy volunteers (P < 0.001). Our research shows that bacterial DNA can be detected in the blood of healthy people and that its taxonomic composition is different from the one seen in septic patients. Detection of bacterial DNA in the blood of healthy people may suggest that bacteria continuously translocate into the blood, but not always cause sepsis; this observation can be called DNAemia.

  14. Objective assessment of multimodality optical coherence tomography and second-harmonic generation image quality of ex vivo mouse ovaries using human observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welge, Weston A.; DeMarco, Andrew T.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Rice, Photini S.; Barton, Jennifer K.; Kupinski, Matthew A.

    2014-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is particularly deadly because it is usually diagnosed after it has begun to spread. Transvaginal sonography (TVS) is the most common imaging screening technique. However, routine use of TVS has not reduced ovarian cancer mortality. The superior resolution of optical imaging techniques may make them attractive alternatives to TVS. We have previously identified features of ovarian cancer using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and secondharmonic generation (SHG) microscopy (with collagen as the targeted fluorophore). OCT provides a gross anatomical image of the ovary while SHG provides a closer look at a particular region. Knowing these anatomical features, we sought to investigate the diagnostic potential of OCT and SHG. We conducted a fully crossed, multi-reader, multi-case study using seven human observers. Each observer classified 44 ex vivo mouse ovaries as normal or abnormal from OCT, SHG, and simultaneous, co-registered OCT and SHG images and provided a confidence rating on a three-point ordinal scale. We determined the average receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, area under the ROC curves (AUC), and other quantitative figures of merit. The results show that OCT has diagnostic potential with an average AUC of 0.91 +/- 0.03. The average AUC for SHG was less promising at 0.71 +/- 0.06. Interestingly, the average AUC for simultaneous, co-registered OCT and SHG was not significantly different from OCT alone. This suggests that collagen may not be a useful fluorophore for ovarian cancer screening. The high performance of OCT warrants further investigation.

  15. Training the next generation of Space and Earth Science Engineers and Scientists through student design and development of an Earth Observation Nanosatellite, AlbertaSat-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, B. A.; Bottoms, J.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation addresses the design and developmental process of a Nanosatellite by an interdisciplinary team of undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Alberta. The Satellite, AlbertaSat-1, is the University of Alberta's entry in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CDSC); an initiative to entice Canadian students to contribute to space and earth observation technologies and research. The province of Alberta, while home to a few companies, is very limited in its space industry capacity. The University of Alberta reflects this fact, where one of the major unifying foci of the University is oil, the provinces greatest resource. For students at the U of A, this lack of focus on astronautical, aerospace and space/earth observational research limits their education in these industries/disciplines. A fully student operated project such as AlbertaSat-1 provides this integral experience to almost every discipline. The AlbertaSat-1 team is comprised of students from engineering, physics, chemistry, earth and atmospheric science, business, and computer science. While diverse in discipline, the team is also diverse in experience, spanning all levels from 1st year undergraduate to experienced PhD. Many skill sets are required and the diverse group sees that this is covered and all opinions voiced. Through immersion in the project, students learn quickly and efficiently. The necessity for a flawless product ensures that only the highest quality of work is presented. Students participating must research and understand their own subsystem as well as all others. This overall system view provides the best educational tool, as students are able to see the real impacts of their work on other subsystems. As the project is completely student organized, the participants gain not only technical engineering, space and earth observational education, but experience in operations and financial management. The direct exposure to all aspects of the space and earth

  16. Untangling Performance from Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yucesoy, Burcu; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    Fame, popularity and celebrity status, frequently used tokens of success, are often loosely related to, or even divorced from professional performance. This dichotomy is partly rooted in the difficulty to distinguish performance, an individual measure that captures the actions of a performer, from success, a collective measure that captures a community's reactions to these actions. Yet, finding the relationship between the two measures is essential for all areas that aim to objectively reward excellence, from science to business. Here we quantify the relationship between performance and success by focusing on tennis, an individual sport where the two quantities can be independently measured. We show that a predictive model, relying only on a tennis player's performance in tournaments, can accurately predict an athlete's popularity, both during a player's active years and after retirement. Hence the model establishes a direct link between performance and momentary popularity. The agreement between the performance-driven and observed popularity suggests that in most areas of human achievement exceptional visibility may be rooted in detectable performance measures. This research was supported by Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) under agreement FA9550-15-1-0077.

  17. The Equatorial Annual Oscillation (EAO) as Upper Atmosphere Pacemaker for Generating the Large Solar Cycle Modulation of the QBO in the Stratosphere: Model Simulations and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Lee, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Very large solar cycle (SC) variations are observed in the zonal winds and temperatures of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). The effect is too large to be produced by the small SC variations of the solar flux in the lower stratosphere. Dynamical downward coupling must be involved, and we present a review of the mechanism that emerged from studies with the Numerical Spectral Model (NSM). In the NSM, the QBO is generated with parameterized gravity waves and planetary waves. For a SC period of 10 years, the applied heat source varies exponentially with altitude: 0.2% (surface), 2% (50 km), 20% (100 km and above). With that solar forcing, the model reproduces qualitatively the SC modulations of the QBO zonal winds around the equator and temperature variations extending to high latitudes. The QBO is spawned in the lower mesosphere by a hemispherically symmetric equatorial annual oscillation (EAO) of the zonal wind velocities. Though small in magnitude, the SC modulation of the EAO is large. Like the symmetric QBO, the EAO extends into the lower atmosphere under the influence of, and amplified by, wave mean flow interactions. The amplitude modulations of the QBO and EAO are in phase with the imposed SC heat source. Essentially, the EAO provides the pathway and pacemaker for the SC modulation of the QBO - and wave interactions amplify the oscillations as they propagate down into the lower atmosphere. Analysis of NCEP temperature and zonal wind data (1958 to 2006) produces the hemispherically symmetric equatorial annual oscillation (EAO), and it contains spectral signatures with periods around 11 years. Moving windows of 44 years show that below 20 km the 11-year modulation of the EAO is phase locked to the SC. The spectral features from the 48-year data record reveal modulation signatures of 9.6 and 12 years, which produce EAO variations that mimic in limited altitude regimes the varying maxima and minima of the 10.7 cm solar index. In the lower stratosphere, the 40

  18. The Relation of Fear of Failure, Procrastination and Self-Efficacy to Academic Success in College for First and Non First-Generation Students in a Private Non-Selective Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Elizabeth Moores

    2013-01-01

    First-generation students enroll in college expecting to be the first in their families to obtain a bachelor's degree, yet historically; the number of these students who graduate with four-year degrees is much lower than their non first-generation peers (Nunez & Cuccara-Alamin; Choy, 2001; Glenn, 2008). Limited research exists on the…

  19. Hydrology Domain Cyberinfrastructures: Successes, Challenges, and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsburgh, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Anticipated changes to climate, human population, land use, and urban form will alter the hydrology and availability of water within the water systems on which the world's population relies. Understanding the effects of these changes will be paramount in sustainably managing water resources, as well as maintaining associated capacity to provide ecosystem services (e.g., regulating flooding, maintaining instream flow during dry periods, cycling nutrients, and maintaining water quality). It will require better information characterizing both natural and human mediated hydrologic systems and enhanced ability to generate, manage, store, analyze, and share growing volumes of observational data. Over the past several years, a number of hydrology domain cyberinfrastructures have emerged or are currently under development that are focused on providing integrated access to and analysis of data for cross-domain synthesis studies. These include the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) Hydrologic Information System (HIS), the Critical Zone Observatory Information System (CZOData), HyroShare, the BiG CZ software system, and others. These systems have focused on sharing, integrating, and analyzing hydrologic observations data. This presentation will describe commonalities and differences in the cyberinfrastructure approaches used by these projects and will highlight successes and lessons learned in addressing the challenges of big and complex data. It will also identify new challenges and opportunities for next generation cyberinfrastructure and a next generation of cyber-savvy scientists and engineers as developers and users.

  20. Attitudes of Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendarvis, Faye

    This document investigates the attitudes of successful individuals, citing the achievement of established goals as the criteria for success. After offering various definitions of success, the paper focuses on the importance of self-esteem to success and considers ways by which the self-esteem of students can be improved. Theories of human behavior…

  1. Iridium: failures & successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, CarissaBryce; Beard, Suzette

    2001-03-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the Iridium business venture in terms of the challenges faced, the successes achieved, and the causes of the ultimate failure of the venture — bankruptcy and system de-orbit. The paper will address technical, business, and policy issues. The intent of the paper is to provide a balanced and accurate overview of the Iridium experience, to aid future decision-making by policy makers, the business community, and technical experts. Key topics will include the history of the program, the objectives and decision-making of Motorola, the market research and analysis conducted, partnering strategies and their impact, consumer equipment availability, and technical issues — target performance, performance achieved, technical accomplishments, and expected and unexpected technical challenges. The paper will use as sources trade media and business articles on the Iridium program, technical papers and conference presentations, Wall Street analyst's reports, and, where possible, interviews with participants and close observers.

  2. Leadership Succession and Successful Leadership: The Case of Laura Martinez

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza, Encarnacion, Jr.; Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth; Merchant, Betty

    2011-01-01

    This case study follows the work of principal Laura Martinez as moving from leading Stevens Elementary for 9 years, and now opening a new P-8th grade academy in the same south Texas urban, inner-city district. The purpose of this case study was to observe successful leadership and the principal's strategies both in her previous and present school,…

  3. Interstellar PAH in the Laboratory and in Space. What have we Learned from the New Generation of Laboratory and Observational Studies?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important and ubiquitous component of carbon-bearing materials in space. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands (UIR bands) and PAH spectral features are now being used as new probes of the ISM. PAHs are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). In the model dealing with the interstellar spectral features, PAHs are present as a mixture of radicals, ions and neutral species. PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge for laboratory astrophysics is to reproduce (in a realistic way) the physical conditions that exist in the emission and/or absorption interstellar zones. An extensive laboratory program has been developed at NASA Ames to assess the physical and chemical properties of PAHs in such environments and to describe how they influence the radiation and energy balance in space and the interstellar chemistry. In particular, laboratory experiments provide measurements of the spectral characteristics of interstellar PAH analogs from the ultraviolet and visible range to the infrared range for comparison with astronomical data. This paper will focus on the recent progress made in the laboratory to measure the direct absorption spectra of neutral and ionized PAHs in the gas phase in the near-UV and visible range in astrophysically relevant environments. These measurements provide data on PAHs and nanometer-sized particles that can now be directly compared to astronomical observations. The harsh physical conditions of the IS medium - characterized by a low temperature, an absence of collisions and strong VUV radiation fields - are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions are formed from the neutral precursors in

  4. Biosphere reserves: Attributes for success.

    PubMed

    Van Cuong, Chu; Dart, Peter; Hockings, Marc

    2017-03-01

    Biosphere reserves established under the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program aim to harmonise biodiversity conservation and sustainable development. Concerns over the extent to which the reserve network was living up to this ideal led to the development of a new strategy in 1995 (the Seville Strategy) to enhance the operation of the network of reserves. An evaluation of effectiveness of management of the biosphere reserve network was called for as part of this strategy. Expert opinion was assembled through a Delphi Process to identify successful and less successful reserves and investigate common factors influencing success or failure. Ninety biosphere reserves including sixty successful and thirty less successful reserves in 42 countries across all five Man and the Biosphere Program regions were identified. Most successful sites are the post-Seville generation while the majority of unsuccessful sites are pre-Seville that are managed as national parks and have not been amended to conform to the characteristics that are meant to define a biosphere reserve. Stakeholder participation and collaboration, governance, finance and resources, management, and awareness and communication are the most influential factors in the success or failure of the biosphere reserves. For success, the biosphere reserve concept needs to be clearly understood and applied through landscape zoning. Designated reserves then need a management system with inclusive good governance, strong participation and collaboration, adequate finance and human resource allocation and stable and responsible management and implementation. All rather obvious but it is difficult to achieve without commitment to the biosphere reserve concept by the governance authorities.

  5. Teaching Succession with Forests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    1982-01-01

    Suggesting advantages of using forests to teach succession, briefly outlines procedures for gathering evidence of succession including numbers, ages, and sizes of trees. Five plot studies conducted by students at the University of Victoria are also described. (DC)

  6. An Examination of Black Male First-Generation College Students' Reports of the Social Supports that Have Buffering Effects on Their School-Related Stress and Help Them Achieve Academic Success in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Anthony C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory, case study of Black male first-generation college students at Carthen College was three-fold. First, it was designed to elicit participants' descriptions of the stress they experienced related to school and being a student. Second, the study aimed to describe and then rate how important that source of support was…

  7. Generative Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyles, Dan Allen

    Educational research has identified how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) practice and education have underperforming metrics in racial and gender diversity, despite decades of intervention. These disparities are part of the construction of a culture of science that is alienating to these populations. Recent studies in a social science framework described as "Generative Justice" have suggested that the context of social and scientific practice might be modified to bring about more just and equitable relations among the disenfranchised by circulating the value they and their non-human allies create back to them in unalienated forms. What is not known are the underlying principles of social and material space that makes a system more or less generative. I employ an autoethnographic method at four sites: a high school science class; a farm committed to "Black and Brown liberation"; a summer program geared towards youth environmental mapping; and a summer workshop for Harlem middle school students. My findings suggest that by identifying instances where material affinity, participatory voice, and creative solidarity are mutually reinforcing, it is possible to create educational contexts that generate unalienated value, and circulate it back to the producers themselves. This cycle of generation may help explain how to create systems of justice that strengthen and grow themselves through successive iterations. The problem of lack of diversity in STEM may be addressed not merely by recruiting the best and the brightest from underrepresented populations, but by changing the context of STEM education to provide tools for its own systematic restructuring.

  8. Success in Science, Success in Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Mariann R.

    2016-08-25

    This is a series of four different scientific problems which were resolved through collaborations. They are: "Better flow cytometry through novel focusing technology", "Take Off®: Helping the Agriculture Industry Improve the Viability of Sustainable, Large-Production Crops", "The National Institutes of Health's Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study (MIDAS)", and "Expanding the capabilities of SOLVE/RESOLVE through the PHENIX Consortium." For each one, the problem is listed, the solution, advantages, bottom line, then information about the collaboration including: developing the technology, initial success, and continued success.

  9. The Extended Family and Children's Educational Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Mads Meier

    2012-01-01

    Research on family background and educational success focuses almost exclusively on two generations: parents and children. This study argues that the extended family contributes significantly to the total effect of family background on educational success. Analyses using the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study show that, net of family factors shared by…

  10. ELF waves generated by modulated HF heating of the auroral electrojet and observed at a ground distance of ˜4400 km

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R. C.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.; Kennedy, E. J.

    2007-05-01

    We present calibrated measurements of ELF waves generated by modulated HF heating of the auroral electrojet by the High frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) HF transmitter in Gakona, Alaska, and detected after propagating more than 4400 km in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide to Midway Atoll. The magnitude of the 2125 Hz wave received at Midway Atoll is consistent with the radiation from a horizontal dipole located at the altitude of the maximum Hall conductivity variation (created by modulated HF heating) and radiating ˜4-32 W. The HF-ELF conversion efficiency at HAARP is thus estimated to be ˜0.0004-0.0032% for the 2125 Hz wave generated using sinusoidal amplitude modulation.

  11. Success in Primary School. Success in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2010

    2010-01-01

    A quality education system is not measured solely by national test scores, but by whether all students are successful in primary school. This simply stated goal is surprisingly difficult to achieve where substantial numbers of children are at risk of failing to complete a primary education. This paper explores the challenges and the diverse…

  12. Assessing redox potential of a native tree from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest: a successful evaluation of oxidative stress associated to a new power generation source of an oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Marisia Pannia; Pedroso, Andrea Nunes Vaz; Domingos, Marisa

    2016-04-15

    The antioxidant responses in saplings of Tibouchina pulchra (a native tree from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest) exposed around an oil refinery in the city of Cubatão (SE Brazil), varied during the exchange of its power generation source, from boilers fueled with oil to a thermoelectric fueled with natural gas. The redox potential changed in response to an interaction of air pollution and meteorological parameters, indicating that the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance was not reached after the exchange of the power generation system. The gain in environmental quality in the region was not achieved as expected due the technological modernization, at least relative to oxidative stressors. These conclusions were based on results of analyses of enzymatic antioxidants: superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR); non-enzymatic antioxidants: reduced, oxidized and total ascorbic acid (AsA, DHA, totAA) and glutathione (GSH, GSSG, totG), their redox state (AsA/totAA and GSH/totG) and an indicator of lipid peroxidation (MDA). We also applied exploratory multivariate statistics in order to verify if the temporal sequence of changes in the plant redox capacity coincided with changes in the profile of air pollution, climatic conditions or with their interactions and if the environmental benefits that would supposedly be promoted by the mentioned exchange of power generation system were achieved in the region.

  13. [Carry forward the successes].

    PubMed

    1983-02-27

    Achievements of the National Publicity Month on Family Planning in China came about for the following reasons: the Party Central Committee and the State Council formulated correct principles and policies and party committees and governments at all levels strengthened their leadership; the people, particularly the peasants, responded enthusiastically to the calls and actively began to practice family planning; and all relevant departments along with the staff in family planning and medical units actively participated in the work. Recognizing the achievements of the publicity month, it is necessary to acknowledge the fact that work in family planning continues to be a longterm and arduous effort. China is entering a 15-year period of peak fertility. Each year 20 million couples will be entering the marriage and fertility age, and the slightest relaxation in birth planning will result in great swells in population and irrevocable consequences. Efforts cannot be relaxed. It is essential to keep up the momentum generated by the publicity month and to expand achievements. An important experience gained in the publicity month is that all localities should form 3 contingents of people: a publicity contingent; a technical contingent; and an activist continent. Their efforts are the guarantee to success in family planning. Thus far, China has trained 15 million publicity workers and 750,000 technical personnel. Large numbers of activists have also emerged from among the people. It is important to continue to educate the people. Experience shows that an effective method is to demonstrate possible results with specific calculations and make comparisons. Explaining Chinese realities and possible consequences without family planning should help the peasants to understand the relationship between family planning and the future of China. Publicity and education must be integrated with implementation of birth control measures. Specific guidance on how to practice birth control must

  14. EFFICIENCY OF PREPARED BAITS OF LONE OR/AND ADMIXED FOUR BOTANICAL OILS ON THE VIABILITY OF SUCCESSIVE RAISED GENERATIONS OF AGROTIS IPSILON (HUFNAGEL) (INSECTA: LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) AFTER TREATING THE PARENT ONES.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, H A; El-Sayed, Nagda A; El-Kady, Magda B; Tayeb, E H; Mourad, A K; Kordy, A M; Henaidy, Zeinab M

    2014-01-01

    The present study is initiated to determine the toxic and delayed effects of four botanical oils on the greasy cutworm A. ipsilon, aiming to attain an alternative environmentally safe and effective phytochemicals against the insect-pest. Four botanical oils (camphor, red basil, menthol and rose oil) were added at rates of 0.5 and 1.0% (v/w). The tested oils were added alone, and/or admixed at proportional rate of 1:1 in the prepared baits against the exposed 4th instar till the 6th instar larvae of the insect. The study was run under the laboratory higrothermic conditions of 25±2°C and 65±5% R.H. The results showed that the tested baits of camphor, red basil and menthol oils at concentration rates of 0.5 and 1.0% (v/w) adversely affected the inspected parameters of fitness components of the treated individuals of parent (p) generation. They gave more or less fewer numbers of weak unviable adult-moths, which were either sterile or they laid few numbers of infertile eggs and died before the induction of (F1) progeny. That failure could be elucidated by the rapid occurrence of drastic effects on the biological performance of both the influenced sexes of adult-moths along the period of parent's development. Finally it ended by the inhibited induction of (F1) progeny. A delayed effect of the prepared baits of rose oil at 0.5 and 1.0% (v/w), was assessed on the following raised F1, F2, F3 and F4 generations after parent's treatment. The delayed effect was detected as less efficient latent effect on each of these consequently raised generations; characterized by the gradual decrease of the number of alive immatures and adult-moths. The effect was recorded as gradual increase of dead and malformed individuals and adult-moths. In addition to the gradual decrease of deposited and/or hatched eggs up to the 4th generation, which ended by the complete failure of the development. That failure could be also attributed to the cumulated effects of the induced recessive lethal

  15. SDO Onboard Ephemeris Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Kevin E.; Liu, Kuo-Chia

    2008-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft is a sun-pointing, semi-autonomous satellite that will allow nearly continuous observations of the Sun with a continuous science data downlink. The science requirements for this mission necessitate very strict sun-pointing requirements, as well as continuous ground station connectivity through high gain antennas (HGAs). For SDO s onboard attitude control system to successfully point the satellite at the Sun and the HGAs at the ground stations with the desired accuracy, in addition to the need for accurate sensors it must have good onboard knowledge of the ephemerides of the Sun, the spacecraft, and the ground station. This paper describes the minimum force models necessary for onboard ephemeris generation in support of an attitude control system. The forces that were considered include the Sun s point mass, Moon s point mass, solar radiation pressure (SRP), and the Earth s gravity with varying degree and order of terms of the geopotential.

  16. Towards understanding magnetic field generation in relativistic shocks with GRB afterglow observations and the GRB radiation mechanism with photospheric simulations and the X-ray flare radiation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Rodolfo

    2015-12-01

    In this thesis, we present three projects on open questions in the Gammaray Burst (GRB) field. In the first project, we used X-ray and optical observations to determine the amount of amplification of the ISM magnetic field needed to explain the GRB afterglow observations. We determined that mild amplification is required, at a level stronger than shock-compression but weaker than predicted by the Weibel mechanism. In the second project, we present a Monte Carlo code we wrote from scratch to perform realistic simulations of the photospheric process, one of the mechanisms considered to explain the GRB gamma-ray emission. We determined that photospheric emission can explain the GRB gamma-ray spectrum above the peak-energy if the photons are taken to have a temperature much smaller than the electron temperature and if the interactions between photons and electrons take place at a large optical depth. In the third project, we used multi-wavelength observations to constrain the X-ray flare radiation mechanism. We determined that synchrotron from a Poynting jet and the Photospheric process are the best candidates to explain the X-ray flare observations.

  17. The relationship between the success rate of empirical antifungal therapy with intravenous itraconazole and clinical parameters, including plasma levels of itraconazole, in immunocompromised patients receiving itraconazole oral solution as prophylaxis: a multicenter, prospective, open-label, observational study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cheong, June-Won; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Park, Jinny; Mun, Yeung-Chul; Kang, Hye Jin; Yi, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Je-Hwan; Kim, Yang Soo; Ryoo, Hun-Mo; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Ho Young; Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Dong-Gun; Kim, Hoon-Gu; Kim, Hawk; Joo, Young-Don; Min, Yoo Hong

    2014-01-01

    To identify the role of therapeutic drug monitoring of itraconazole (ITZ) in the setting of empirical antifungal therapy with intravenous (IV) ITZ, we performed a multicenter, prospective study in patients with hematological malignancies who had received antifungal prophylaxis with ITZ oral solution (OS). We evaluated the plasma levels of ITZ and hydroxy (OH) ITZ both before initiation of IV ITZ and on days 5-7 of IV ITZ. A total of 181 patients showed an overall success rate of 68.0 %. Prolonged baseline neutropenia and accompanying cardiovascular comorbidity were significantly associated with poor outcomes of the empirical antifungal therapy (P = 0.005 and P = 0.001, respectively). A significantly higher trough plasma level of OH ITZ per body weight was found in the patients who achieved success with empirical antifungal therapy (P = 0.036). There were no significant correlations between plasma concentrations of ITZ/OH ITZ (baseline or trough levels) and toxicities. Seven patients had a discontinuation of ITZ therapy due to toxicity. This study demonstrated that IV ITZ as empirical antifungal therapy was effective and therapeutic drug monitoring was helpful to estimate the outcome of empirical antifungal therapy in patients receiving antifungal prophylaxis with ITZ OS. To predict the outcome of empirical antifungal therapy with IV ITZ, we should evaluate baseline clinical characteristics and also perform the therapeutic drug monitoring of both ITZ and OH ITZ.

  18. EPA Lean Government Initiative: How to Replicate Lean Successes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Lean Replication Primer describes how EPA Offices and Regions can identify and adapt successful practices from previous Lean projects to “replicate” their successes and generate further improvements.

  19. Successive passaging of the scrapie strains, ME7-ha and 139A-ha, generated by the interspecies transmission of mouse-adapted strains into hamsters markedly shortens the incubation times, but maintains their molecular and pathological properties.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qi; Xiao, Kang; Zhang, Bao-Yun; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Li-Na; Chen, Cao; Gao, Chen; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2015-04-01

    As a type of zoonotic disease, prion diseases may be transmitted naturally and experimentally among species. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the mouse-adapted scrapie strains, ME7 (ME7-mo) and 139A (139A-mo), can overcome the species barrier and induce experimental scrapie when inoculated into Golden hamsters and generated 2 new hamster-adapted strains, ME7 (ME7-ha) and 139A (139A-ha). In the present study, in order to assess the infectivity and other molecular and neuropathological properties of the newly formed scrapie agents, ME7-ha and 139A-ha were further intracerebrally inoculated into hamsters. Compared with infection with 1st passage strains, the incubation times and clinical courses of infection with 2nd passage strains were markedly shorter, which were quite comparable with those of the mice infected with their parent mouse strains. The glycosylation patterns of brain PrP(Sc) in the animals infected with the 2nd passage of those 2 strains maintained similar features as those in the animals infected with the 1st passage of those strains, with predominantly diglycosylated PrP(Sc). Neuropathological assays revealed comparable spongiform degeneration and microglia proliferation in the brain tissues from the infected mice and hamsters, but markedly more plaque-like deposits of PrP(Sc) and more severe astrogliosis in the brains of the hamster. These data indicate that the strains, ME7-ha 1st and 139A-ha 1st generated by interspecies infection can passage in the new host hamster and stably maintain their molecular and neuropathological characteristics.

  20. Successful Community Development Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thomas G.

    This paper sketches several successful community economic development programs that have implications for rural education. Case studies are used to discuss community characteristics that contribute to development success. In Virginia, a Community Certification Program offers statewide business recruitment services to communities that meet program…

  1. Student Success Center Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs For the Future, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Student Success Center Toolkit" is a compilation of materials organized to assist Student Success Center directors as they staff, launch, operate, and sustain Centers. The toolkit features materials created and used by existing Centers, such as staffing and budgeting templates, launch materials, sample meeting agendas, and fundraising…

  2. USAR Recruiting Success Factors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    recruiters. Conventional multi. * variate statistical techniques have not prov ed-adequate in identifying successful recruiters, largely because of the...statistical techniques to the problem of identifying the relative importance of factors affecting recruiter success. Me t hod This study applies a...recruiters; background characteristics, suggestions about recruiter training, the value of various prospecting and selling techniques , workload, attitudes

  3. Success in Library School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrill, Rose Mary; Rinehart, Constance

    1979-01-01

    Data on admission characteristics and performance in library school were collected for students entering the A.M.L.S. program at the University of Michigan. Success measures--completion of degree, G.P.A., and amount of time required to complete degree--showed little relation to admission variables in determining success. (Author/MBR)

  4. Measuring Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Christopher; Bensimon, Estela Mara; Dowd, Alicia C.; Kleiman, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Student success is at the heart of both institutional effectiveness and the community college mission, yet measuring such success at community colleges is problematic. This article highlights three efforts to grapple with this problem--a multistate work group of system- and state-level policymakers to create an improved set of student success…

  5. Principal Experiences of Succession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Farla Gay

    2015-01-01

    This multiple case study explored the experiences of school principals and the usefulness of Peters' (2011) succession planning model. Ten purposefully selected principals from varying grade levels were interviewed; none reported a formal succession plan, and all had been assistant principals. The study concluded the assistant principal position…

  6. The Successful Retardate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albizu-Miranda, Carlos; And Others

    To study the prevalence of mental retardation in Puerto Rico, the proportional distribution of successful retardates, and the processes accounting for success and failure, a random sample of 4,771 adults between the ages of 23 and 49 was screened by the Stanford Binet Form L and a vocabulary test. From this sample, the estimated retardation rate…

  7. Examining Management Success Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quatrano, Louis A.

    The derivation of a model of management success potential in hospitals or health services administration is described. A questionnaire developed to assess management success potential in health administration students was voluntarily completed by approximately 700 incoming graduate students in 35 university health services administration programs…

  8. Momentum and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunz, William

    2008-01-01

    Success begets success and opportunity begets opportunity. This principle is something that the author sees at work in his own life. One example of opportunities begetting opportunities is the experience he had at the Academy of Science and Technology to practice his programming skills. The Academy served as a great training ground for what would…

  9. Striving for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills-Novoa, Beverly; Coughlin, Eileen V.

    1994-01-01

    Features a self-assessment tool which encourages college campuses to look at the success factors needed to undergird alcohol and other drug prevention programs. Self-assessment based on characteristics of successful programs provides a strategic planning method, evaluation tool, and the needed benchmarks to ensure progress. Provides examples of…

  10. PSAT and AP Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palin, Raymond J.

    2001-01-01

    Through evaluation of 73 eleventh-grade students over three years, explores the extent to which standardized test scores and other academic factors predict success on the Advanced Placement (AP) exam in U.S. history. Finds that standardized scores, grade point average, and anticipated college majors are closely related to AP success. (CMK)

  11. Student Success. March 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Student Success" is EPI's occasional e-magazine dedicated to the discussion of retaining students in higher education. Over the course of the next issues of "Student Success," the Educational Policy Institute (EPI) will explore three questions about retention on our college campuses. Part I will look at the barriers to student retention, both…

  12. Fear of Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, Steve

    Fear of success in a group of high school students (N=127) was studied, with research findings supporting the following generalizations: (1) high school students with an intermediate level of self-esteem have greater fear of success than those with high and low levels of self-esteem; (2) high school students with BSRI (Bem Sex Role Inventory)…

  13. Changes in the first-pass success rate with the GlideScope video laryngoscope and direct laryngoscope: a ten-year observational study in two academic emergency departments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon Ki; Kang, Hyunggu; Choi, Hyuk Joong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the success rate of the GlideScope video laryngoscope (GVL) and direct laryngoscope (DL) over ten years in two academic emergency departments. Methods We used adult intubation data using DL and GVL collected from airway management registries at two academic emergency departments. We analyzed changes in first-pass success (FPS) rate by device and operator training level. We conducted a multivariate logistic regression analysis to predict the FPS according to time period. Results Over the study period (2006 to 2010, season I; 2013-2015, season II) the DL usage rate dropped from 91.6% to 45.0% while the GVL usage rate increased from 8.4% to 55.4%. The FPS rate using DL also declined from 90.8% in 2007 to 75.5% in 2015. On the other hand, the FPS rate using GVL increased from 87.8% to 95.2%. With DL, all operators’ FPS rate declined by approximately 10% in season II compared to season I. The FPS rate with GVL was significantly higher in the providers of postgraduate year over 3 years (P=0.043). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed an adjusted odds ratio for GVL FPS of 0.799 during season I (P=0.274). However, the adjusted odds ratio for GVL FPS was 3.744 during season II (P<0.001). Conclusion We found that the FPS rates of GVL have slightly increased but DL’s FPS rate has significantly decreased during the last ten years. PMID:28168228

  14. Observation of the interference between the intramolecular IR-visible and visible-IR processes in the doubly resonant sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy of Rhodamine 6G adsorbed at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Deng, Gang-Hua; Guo, Yuan; Wang, Hong-fei

    2009-05-28

    Using the picosecond visible light at 532.1 nm and infrared light at 2800-3100 cm(-1), we observed the interference between the intramolecular IR-visible and visible-IR processes in the doubly resonant sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy of Rhodamine 6G adsorbed at the air/water interface. The interference phenomenon exists for both the C-H stretching vibrations in the 2800-3100 cm(-1) region and the skeleton vibrations in the 1450-1700 cm(-1) region. The relative strength of the visible-IR process at different wavelengths is the result of the electronic structure of the molecule. This is the first direct observation of the visible-IR sum frequency generation process in the electronically excited state of a model molecular system.

  15. Observational Evidence Against Mountain-Wave Generation of Ice Nuclei as a Prerequisite for the Formation of Three Solid Nitric Acid Polar Stratospheric Clouds Observed in the Arctic in Early December 1999

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagan, Kathy L.; Tabazadeh, Azadeh; Drdla, Katja; Hervig, Mark E.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Browell, Edward V.; Legg, Marion J.; Foschi, Patricia G.

    2004-01-01

    A number of recently published papers suggest that mountain-wave activity in the stratosphere, producing ice particles when temperatures drop below the ice frost point, may be the primary source of large NAT particles. In this paper we use measurements from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instruments on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar-orbiting satellites to map out regions of ice clouds produced by stratospheric mountain-wave activity inside the Arctic vortex. Lidar observations from three DC-8 flights in early December 1999 show the presence of solid nitric acid (Type Ia or NAT) polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). By using back trajectories and superimposing the position maps on the AVHRR cloud imagery products, we show that these observed NAT clouds could not have originated at locations of high-amplitude mountain-wave activity. We also show that mountain-wave PSC climatology data and Mountain Wave Forecast Model 2.0 (MWFM-2) raw hemispheric ray and grid box averaged hemispheric wave temperature amplitude hindcast data from the same time period are in agreement with the AVHRR data. Our results show that ice cloud formation in mountain waves cannot explain how at least three large scale NAT clouds were formed in the stratosphere in early December 1999.

  16. Nonlinear optical second harmonic generation in ZnS quantum dots and observation on optical properties of ZnS/PMMA nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kole, A. K.; Gupta, S.; Kumbhakar, P.; Ramamurthy, P. C.

    2014-02-01

    ZnS quantum dots (QDs) of different sizes are synthesized by a simple chemical co-precipitation method at room temperature, by varying pH value of the reaction mixture. Samples are characterized by an X-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, etc. Linear optical properties, including UV-visible absorption and photoluminescence emission characteristics, of as-prepared QDs are measured. Size dependent nonlinear optical property, such as second harmonic generation (SHG) of 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser fundamental radiation in the synthesized ZnS QDs, is reported for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, by using the standard Kurtz-Perry powder method. In order to study the possibility of the synthesized ZnS QDs in different device applications ZnS/PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) nanocomposites are also synthesized. The presence of weak chemical interaction between the polymer matrix and ZnS QDs is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermal properties of the nanocomposites are studied by differential scanning calorimetry and thermo-gravimetric analysis techniques, which show that the composites are stable up to ~300 °C temperature.

  17. Synthesis of an anionically chargeable, high-molar-mass, second-generation dendronized polymer and the observation of branching by scanning force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kasëmi, Edis; Zhuang, Wei; Rabe, Jürgen P; Fischer, Karl; Schmidt, Manfred; Colussi, Martin; Keul, Helmut; Yi, Ding; Cölfen, Helmut; Schlüter, A Dieter

    2006-04-19

    An efficient synthesis of a methacrylate-based, second-generation (G2) dendronized macromonomer and its free radical polymerization to the corresponding high-molar-mass G2 dendronized polymer are described. The molar mass is determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), light-scattering, and analytical ultracentrifugation and compared with values estimated from a scanning force microscopy (SFM) contour lengths analysis of individualized polymer strands on mica. The polymer carries terminal tert-butyl-protected carboxyl groups, the degree of deprotection of which with trifluoroacetic acid is quantified by NMR spectroscopy using the highest molar mass sample. SFM imaging of both protected (noncharged) and unprotected (charged) dendronized polymers on solid substrates reveals mostly linear chains but also some with main-chain branches. The nature of these branches is investigated and the degree roughly estimated to which they are formed. Finally, a synthetic model experiment is described which sheds some light on the aspect of whether chain transfer, a process that could lead to covalent branching, is of importance in the synthesis of the present dendronized polymers.

  18. The Second-generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer. I. First-light Observation of a Highly Lensed Local-ulirg Analog at High-z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Parshley, Stephen; Nikola, Thomas; Stacey, Gordon J.; Schoenwald, Justin; Higdon, James L.; Higdon, Sarah J. U.; Verma, Aprajita; Riechers, Dominik; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven; Menten, Karl M.; Güsten, Rolf; Weiß, Axel; Irwin, Kent; Cho, Hsiao M.; Niemack, Michael; Halpern, Mark; Amiri, Mandana; Hasselfield, Matthew; Wiebe, D. V.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2014-01-01

    We recently commissioned our new spectrometer, the second-generation z(Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2) on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope. ZEUS-2 is a submillimeter grating spectrometer optimized for detecting the faint and broad lines from distant galaxies that are redshifted into the telluric windows from 200 to 850 μm. It uses a focal plane array of transition-edge sensed bolometers, the first use of these arrays for astrophysical spectroscopy. ZEUS-2 promises to be an important tool for studying galaxies in the years to come because of its synergy with Atacama Large Millimeter Array and its capabilities in the short submillimeter windows that are unique in the post-Herschel era. Here, we report on our first detection of the [C II] 158 μm line with ZEUS-2. We detect the line at z ~ 1.8 from H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 with a line flux of (6.44 ± 0.42) × 10-18 W m-2. Combined with its far-IR luminosity and a new Herschel-PACS detection of the [O I] 63 μm line, we model the line emission as coming from a photo-dissociation region with far-ultraviolet radiation field, G ~ 2 × 104 G 0, gas density, n ~ 1 × 103 cm-3 and size between ~0.4 and 1 kpc. On the basis of this model, we conclude that H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 is a high-redshift analog of a local ultra-luminous IR galaxy; i.e., it is likely the site of a compact starburst caused by a major merger. Further identification of these merging systems is important for constraining galaxy formation and evolution models.

  19. Modeling of fast neutral-beam-generated ion effects on MHD-spectroscopic observations of resistive wall mode stability in DIII-D plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Turco, F. Hanson, J. M.; Navratil, G. A.; Turnbull, A. D.

    2015-02-15

    Experiments conducted at DIII-D investigate the role of drift kinetic damping and fast neutral beam injection (NBI)-ions in the approach to the no-wall β{sub N} limit. Modelling results show that the drift kinetic effects are significant and necessary to reproduce the measured plasma response at the ideal no-wall limit. Fast neutral-beam ions and rotation play important roles and are crucial to quantitatively match the experiment. In this paper, we report on the model validation of a series of plasmas with increasing β{sub N}, where the plasma stability is probed by active magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) spectroscopy. The response of the plasma to an externally applied field is used to probe the stable side of the resistive wall mode and obtain an indication of the proximity of the equilibrium to an instability limit. We describe the comparison between the measured plasma response and that calculated by means of the drift kinetic MARS-K code [Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 112503 (2008)], which includes the toroidal rotation, the electron and ion drift-kinetic resonances, and the presence of fast particles for the modelled plasmas. The inclusion of kinetic effects allows the code to reproduce the experimental results within ∼13% for both the amplitude and phase of the plasma response, which is a significant improvement with respect to the undamped MHD-only model. The presence of fast NBI-generated ions is necessary to obtain the low response at the highest β{sub N} levels (∼90% of the ideal no-wall limit). The toroidal rotation has an impact on the results, and a sensitivity study shows that a large variation in the predicted response is caused by the details of the rotation profiles at high β{sub N}.

  20. Real Time In Situ Observations of Equiaxed Dendrite Coherency in Al-Cu Alloys Using High-Brilliance, 3rd Generation Synchrotron Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Andrew G.; Browne, David J.; Mirihanage, Wajira U.; Mathiesen, Ragnvald H.

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade synchrotron X-ray sources have fast become the tool of choice for performing in-situ high resolution imaging during alloy solidification. This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign carried out at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, using a Bridgman furnace, to monitor phenomena during solidification of Al-Cu alloys - specifically the onset of equiaxed dendrite coherency. Conventional experimental methods for determining coherency involve measuring the change in viscosity or measuring the change in thermal conductivity across the solidifying melt Conflicts arise when comparing the results of these experimental techniques to find a relationship between cooling rate and coherency fraction. It has been shown that the ratio of average velocity to the average grain diameter has an inversely proportional relationship to coherency fraction. In-situ observation therefore makes it possible to measure these values directly from acquired images sequences and make comparisons with published results.

  1. Successful grant writing.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Gerard H; Holloway, John W

    2012-03-01

    Obtaining research funding is central to the research process. However many (clinician-) scientists receive little, or no, training in the process of writing a successful grant application. In an era of reductions in research budgets and application success rates, the ability to construct a well presented, clear, articulate proposal is becoming more important than ever. Obtaining grants is a method to achieve your long term research goals. If you are able to formulate these long term goals, it is relevant to explore the market and investigate all potential grant opportunities. Finally, we will provide an outline of key elements of successful research grants.

  2. First observations of the fourth generation synthetic halocarbons HFC-1234yf, HFC-1234ze(E), and HCFC-1233zd(E) in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Martin K; Reimann, Stefan; Hill, Matthias; Brunner, Dominik

    2015-03-03

    Halogenated alkenes are a class of anthropogenic substances, which replace ozone-depleting substances and long-lived greenhouse gases in the foam-blowing, refrigeration, and solvent sectors. We report the first multiyear atmospheric measurements of the hydrofluorocarbons HFC-1234yf (2,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene, CF3CF═CH2), and HFC-1234ze(E) (E-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoroprop-1-ene trans-CF3CH═CHF), and the hydrochlorofluorocarbon HCFC-1233zd(E) (E-1-chloro-3,3,3-trifluoroprop-1-ene trans-CF3CH═CHCl) from the high altitude observatory at Jungfraujoch and from urban Dubendorf (Switzerland). When observations started in 2011 HFC-1234yf was undetectable at Jungfraujoch (mole fractions <0.003 ppt, parts-per-trillion, 10(-12)) but since then the percentage of measurements with detectable mole fractions has steadily increased to 4.5% in 2014. By contrast, in 2014 HFC-1234ze(E) was detectable in half of our samples at Jungfraujoch and in all samples at Dubendorf demonstrating the wide use of this compound within the air mass footprints of the stations. Our back trajectory analysis for the Jungfraujoch observations suggests high emission strength of HFC-1234ze(E) in the Belgium/Netherlands region. HCFC-1233zd(E) is present at very low mole fractions (typically <0.03 ppt) at both stations, and features pronounced seasonality and a general absence of pollution events during our 2013-2014 measurements. This is indicative of the presence of significant emissions from source locations outside the footprints of the two stations. Based on a simple one-box model calculation we estimate globally increasing HCFC-1233zd(E) emissions from 0.2 Gg yr(-1) in 2013 to 0.5 Gg yr(-1) for 2014.

  3. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth Defects ART and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  4. Goodbye Career, Hello Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komisar, Randy

    2000-01-01

    Success in today's economy means throwing out the old career rules. The "noncareer" career is driven by passion for the work and has the fluidity and flexibility needed in the contemporary workplace. (JOW)

  5. SUCCESS Data and Information

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-11-19

    ... SUbsonic aircraft: Contrail & Clouds Effects Special Study ( SUCCESS ) is a NASA field program using ... aircraft and ground based measurements to investigate the effects of subsonic aircraft on contrails, cirrus clouds and atmospheric ...

  6. MICA sounding rocket observations of conductivity-gradient-generated auroral ionospheric responses: Small-scale structure with large-scale drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, K. A.; Hampton, D. L.; Zettergren, M.; Bekkeng, T. A.; Conde, M.; Fernandes, P. A.; Horak, P.; Lessard, M.; Miceli, R.; Michell, R.; Moen, J.; Nicolls, M.; Powell, S. P.; Samara, M.

    2015-11-01

    A detailed, in situ study of field-aligned current (FAC) structure in a transient, substorm expansion phase auroral arc is conducted using electric field, magnetometer, and electron density measurements from the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling in the Alfvén Resonator (MICA) sounding rocket, launched from Poker Flat, AK. These data are supplemented with larger-scale, contextual measurements from a heterogeneous collection of ground-based instruments including the Poker Flat incoherent scatter radar and nearby scanning doppler imagers and filtered all-sky cameras. An electrostatic ionospheric modeling case study of this event is also constructed by using available data (neutral winds, electron precipitation, and electric fields) to constrain model initial and boundary conditions. MICA magnetometer data are converted into FAC measurements using a sheet current approximation and show an up-down current pair, with small-scale current density and Poynting flux structures in the downward current channel. Model results are able to roughly recreate only the large-scale features of the field-aligned currents, suggesting that observed small-scale structures may be due to ionospheric feedback processes not encapsulated by the electrostatic model. The model is also used to assess the contributions of various processes to total FAC and suggests that both conductance gradients and neutral dynamos may contribute significantly to FACs in a narrow region where the current transitions from upward to downward. Comparison of Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar versus in situ electric field estimates illustrates the high sensitivity of FAC estimates to measurement resolution.

  7. Generating single attosecond pulses via spatial filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaarde, Mette B.; Schafer, Kenneth J.

    2006-11-01

    The first observation of isolated attosecond pulses by Hentschel [Nature414, 509 (2001)] resulted from an experiment that left the exact mechanism of their generation unresolved. A complete simulation of the experiment reveals the reason for its success: single pulses were efficiently isolated from two or more generated pulses by spatial filtering in the far field. Our explanation suggests a new, simple paradigm for the production of isolated attosecond bursts. We show that this method can be used, in conjunction with carrier-envelope phase stabilization, to select single attosecond pulses by use of 10fs driving pulses.

  8. A Generational Approach to Understanding Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coomes, Michael D.; DeBard, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This chapter establishes the conceptual framework for understanding the Millennial generation by presenting a theoretical model of generational succession that demonstrates the value of studying how the values of one generation interact with and are influenced by others.

  9. Wetland reclamation by accelerating succession

    SciTech Connect

    Rushton, B.T.

    1988-01-01

    This research analyzed mechanisms and processes for accelerating natural succession in order to restore soils and forests on clay setting areas left from phosphate mining in central Florida. Field measurements of succession on unreclaimed clay ponds showed wet sites dominated by dense stands of small shrubby willows even after 60 years with succession arrested because of a shortage of seeds for later stage trees. For drier sites an orderly procession of pioneer wetland trees colonized when wetland seed sources were within 20 meters. The first woody species were willows, myrtles, and baccharis followed in 5 to 10 years by red maple and elm. Oaks colonized slightly drier elevations. Hackberry, cherry, and sweetgum were also found. Experiments in which 3000 seedlings of 11 species were planted in six clay settling areas demonstrated succession can be accelerated. After the first growing season, results suggest that mixed swamp vegetation typical of floodplains may be the most suitable forested wetland community for settling pond reclamation. Percent survival was best for Carolina ash, American elm, and red maple. Some alluvial floodplain species were intermediate in success with 74% survival for baldcypress, 61% for sweetgum, and 61% for laurel oak. Trees from bayheads had the least survival with 52% for swampbay and 41% for loblolly bay. Poorest survival for all species planted (39%) was swamp tupelo. Floodplain species which required fairly dry conditions had poor survival, i.e., southern magnolia (53%) and cabbage palm (43%). Planted tree seedlings were more cost effective than placing seeds on the ground and covering them with litter. A simulation model with hydrologic regimes and outside seeding was used to summarize the operation of the successional system. Simulation that suggested trends for a longer time period than those observed in the field trials are yet to be confirmed.

  10. EMR: roadmap for success.

    PubMed

    Hertlein, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Selecting a vendor for an electronic medical record system can be a time-consuming and challenging project; however, the rewards of an automated, nearly paperless system can be very beneficial. Creating a plan and following that plan will help ensure a successful implementation that can lead to user satisfaction and a positive return on investment.

  11. Success Stories Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douthitt, Frieda; And Others

    This packet contains the stories of 20 successful alumni of Ohio's secondary vocational programs and postsecondary technical schools. They have been reproduced as loose-leaf camera-ready art. Suggested uses for these one-page biographies with accompanying photograph include the following: illustrations for use in speeches; reproduction of complete…

  12. Slump with Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Glass slumping is one of those projects that gives students a feeling of success and accomplishment. Glass slumping looks difficult to produce, and it often leaves others wondering how it is created. Slumping glass can provide dramatic results. Slumping refers to glass that, when heated, softens and conforms to the shape of a mold. Elementary…

  13. International Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    This article, with a focus on North American postsecondary education, identifies international students as a strategic enrollment management institutional priority; presents themes in the international student retention, satisfaction, and success research literature; and describes related best practices. It also presents the findings from an…

  14. Five Keys to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peddy, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    The first year as a principal is filled with self-doubt. As one already knows, there is no book or guide that can fully prepare someone for what the principal's position entails. All first-year principals have to learn by doing. In this article, the author discusses five keys to success that will guide and help first-year principals with the…

  15. Cultivating Models of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starace, Melissa D.

    2012-01-01

    Community colleges are often viewed as the gateway to higher education as well as institutions that can rapidly prepare students to enter the workforce. Yet, in spite of widespread acclaim for their effectiveness and success, community colleges have done very little to garner volunteer and financial support from their alumni. Admittedly, many…

  16. ACT and College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleyaert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    What is the relationship between ACT scores and success in college? For decades, admissions policies in colleges and universities across the country have required applicants to submit scores from a college entrance exam, most typically the ACT (American College Testing) or SAT (Scholastic Aptitude Test). This requirement suggests that high school…

  17. Enhancing Drug Court Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschenes, Elizabeth Piper; Ireland, Connie; Kleinpeter, Christine B.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of enhanced drug court services in a large county in Southern California. These enhanced services, including specialty counseling groups, educational/employment resources, and increased Residential Treatment (RT) beds, were designed to increase program retention and successful completion (graduation) of drug court.…

  18. Student Success. September 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Student Success" is EPI's occasional e-magazine dedicated to the discussion of retaining students in higher education. This is the third of three parts in the Institutional Strategies Series. The first article in the March issue outlined the barriers to student retention, both from the extant literature and also from interviews and surveys…

  19. Determinants of project success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, D. C.; Baker, B. N.; Fisher, D.

    1974-01-01

    The interactions of numerous project characteristics, with particular reference to project performance, were studied. Determinants of success are identified along with the accompanying implications for client organization, parent organization, project organization, and future research. Variables are selected which are found to have the greatest impact on project outcome, and the methodology and analytic techniques to be employed in identification of those variables are discussed.

  20. Ensuring Students' Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oblinger, James L.

    2006-01-01

    James L. Oblinger, Chancellor of North Carolina State University, argues that higher education must continually evolve new methods of teaching and learning to support students' lifelong skills and impending careers. Part of ensuring students' success lies in finding alternative learning models, such as the Student-Centered Activities for Large…

  1. Linear Equations: Equivalence = Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baratta, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    The ability to solve linear equations sets students up for success in many areas of mathematics and other disciplines requiring formula manipulations. There are many reasons why solving linear equations is a challenging skill for students to master. One major barrier for students is the inability to interpret the equals sign as anything other than…

  2. The Cult of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senechal, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Success has meant wealth, virtue, excellence, wisdom, personal contentment, or any combination of these, but its definition has flattened over time, particularly in the past few decades. A combination of economic anxiety, aggressive advertising, ubiquitous ratings, and verbal vagueness has led to an emphasis on the external aspects of…

  3. Pathways to School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Pittsburgh Office of Child Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, the University of Pittsburgh Office of Child Development began implementing a multi-year school readiness project in several area schools. Evidence from both research and the field point to several key elements that foster school readiness and create pathways to school success for all children. This paper presents components of a…

  4. CTE Credentialing Certifies Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2011-01-01

    According to "Webster's Dictionary", a credential is something that gives a title to credit or confidence. The certificates and diplomas earned in career and technical education (CTE) are providing students with both the credits to help them find success in the workplace or in further education, as well as the confidence of knowing they have the…

  5. Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, David C.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of characteristics of 12 average and 12 superior small business people in three developing nations (India, Malawi, and Ecuador) found proactive qualities such as initiative and assertiveness, achievement orientation, and commitment to others characteristic of successful entrepreneurs. Other expected qualities (self-confidence,…

  6. FOCUS: Sustainable Mathematics Successes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mireles, Selina V.; Acee, Taylor W.; Gerber, Lindsey N.

    2014-01-01

    The FOCUS (Fundamentals of Conceptual Understanding and Success) Co-Requisite Model Intervention (FOCUS Intervention) for College Algebra was developed as part of the Developmental Education Demonstration Projects (DEDP) in Texas. The program was designed to use multiple services, courses, and best practices to support student completion of a…

  7. Celebrating Successful Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Dan; Case, Pauline

    2008-01-01

    The Machine Tool Program at Cowley College in Arkansas City, Kansas, is preparing students to become future leaders in the machining field, and the school recognizes the importance of sharing and celebrating those stories of success with the public to demonstrate the effectiveness of career and technical education (CTE) programs. Cowley College is…

  8. Planning for College Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kenneth M.; And Others

    Planning for College Success (PCS) is a six-hour workshop which is required for all applicants to Des Moines Area Community College's (DMACC's) career education programs. The Career Life Planning counselors who conduct the workshop help participants: (1) assess their basic academic strengths and weaknesses through self-scored diagnostic tests; (2)…

  9. Programmed for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, April

    1995-01-01

    College alumni associations can use new events management software for effective, innovative event planning. Possible applications are illustrated in the cases of three universities. Information is provided on planning time, budget, hardware and software used, software uses, evidence of event success, and lessons learned. Planning considerations…

  10. Measuring strategic success.

    PubMed

    Gish, Ryan

    2002-08-01

    Strategic triggers and metrics help healthcare providers achieve financial success. Metrics help assess progress toward long-term goals. Triggers signal market changes requiring a change in strategy. All metrics may not move in concert. Organizations need to identify indicators, monitor performance.

  11. Mindfulness and Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness has long been practiced in Eastern spiritual traditions for personal improvement, and educators and educational institutions have recently begun to explore its usefulness in schools. Mindfulness training can be valuable for helping students be more successful learners and more connected members of an educational community. To determine…

  12. Successful School Composting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahar, Rhea Dawn

    2001-01-01

    School composting programs that have met the challenges inherent in long-term composting have several traits in common: a supportive educational program, schoolwide participation, and a consistent maintenance program. Examines the elements of success, offers examples of incorporating composting into the curriculum, and describes three methods of…

  13. SuccessMaker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of SuccessMaker, a computer-based reading program that uses literature-based activities to focus on comprehension, vocabulary, phonics, and writing. Intended for use with students in prekindergarten through grade 8, the curriculum challenges students to apply knowledge from literature, content-area reading and…

  14. Building Successful Cleaning Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how to build a successful cleaning process in order to most effectively maintain school facilities, explaining that the cleaning processes used plays a critical role in productivity. Focuses on: developing a standardized system; making sure that employees have the right tools for the work they perform; training employees; tracking and…

  15. Leading to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.; Bradbury, Leslie U.

    2009-01-01

    Teacher mentoring has its unique challenges that are often associated with the teachers' content specialties. For this reason, the involvement and support of school leaders is essential to teachers' mentoring success. Regardless of content specialty, all teachers face challenges that should be considered when organizing and implementing mentoring.…

  16. High voltage generator

    DOEpatents

    Schwemin, A. J.

    1959-03-17

    A generator for producing relatively large currents at high voltages is described. In general, the invention comprises a plurality of capacitors connected in series by a plurality of switches alternately disposed with the capacitors. The above-noted circuit is mounted for movement with respect to contact members and switch closure means so that a load device and power supply are connected across successive numbers of capacitors, while the other capacitors are successively charged with the same power supply.

  17. HIGH VOLTAGE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Schwemin, A.J.

    1959-03-17

    A generator is presented for producing relatively large currents at high voltages. In general, the invention comprises a plurality of capacitors connected in series by a plurality of switches alternately disposed with the capacitors. The circuit is mounted for movement with respect to contact members and switch closure means so that a load device and power supply are connected across successive numbers of capacitors, while the other capacitors are successively charged with the same power supply.

  18. Succession Planning for Community Colleges: A Study of Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMaster, Susan Marie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to apply best practices for succession planning to community colleges. Succession planning is relevant to management practices in community colleges because there is a surge in retirements in higher education from the "baby boomer" generation. Community colleges need to implement a succession plan to ensure…

  19. Generational Approaches to Political Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Neal E.

    1976-01-01

    Evaluates two models of generational political research: the lineage model in which generations are defined in terms of biological succession within family units, and the cohort model, in which generations are defined in terms of the common and unique life experiences (and socialization) of individuals born and raised in a particular time period.…

  20. Fighting HIV/AIDS: is success possible?

    PubMed Central

    Okware, S.; Opio, A.; Musinguzi, J.; Waibale, P.

    2001-01-01

    The fight against HIV/AIDS poses enormous challenges worldwide, generating fears that success may be too difficult or even impossible to attain. Uganda has demonstrated that an early, consistent and multisectoral control strategy can reduce both the prevalence and the incidence of HIV infection. From only two AIDS cases in 1982, the epidemic in Uganda grew to a cumulative 2 million HIV infections by the end of 2000. The AIDS Control Programme established in 1987 in the Ministry of Health mounted a national response that expanded over time to reach other relevant sectors under the coordinating role of the Uganda AIDS Commission. The national response was to bring in new policies, expanded partnerships, increased institutional capacity for care and research, public health education for behaviour change, strengthened sexually transmitted disease (STD) management, improved blood transfusion services, care and support services for persons with HIV/AIDS, and a surveillance system to monitor the epidemic. After a decade of fighting on these fronts, Uganda became, in October 1996, the first African nation to report declining trends in HIV infection. Further decline in prevalence has since been noted. The Medical Research Council (UK) and the Uganda Virus Research Institute have demonstrated declining HIV incidence rates in the general population in the Kyamulibwa in Masaka Districts. Repeat knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and practice studies have shown positive changes in the priority prevention indicators. The data suggest that a comprehensive national response supported by strong political commitment may be responsible for the observed decline. Other countries in sub-Saharan Africa can achieve similar results by these means. Since success is possible, anything less is unacceptable. PMID:11799443

  1. Giving Ourselves Ourselves: A Story about Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinlay, Neil W.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author uses a personal story to challenge the definition of success--introducing Ann, who comes in last in a swimming competition, but wins after all. He has drawn on his years as a swim coach to generate a series of stories exploring the emotional side of learning and the role of compassion in teaching that too often lie…

  2. Fostering Successful Intellectual Styles for Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual styles refer to people's preferred ways of processing information and dealing with tasks. Individuals who have a propensity for using a wide range of styles--always including creativity-generating styles--are said to possess successful intellectual styles. The author argues that teachers should and can encourage creativity among…

  3. Small(pox) success?

    PubMed

    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle

    2011-02-01

    The 30th anniversary of the World Health Organization's (WHO) official certification of smallpox eradication was marked by a slew of events hailing the campaign's dramatic tale of technological and organizational triumph against an ancient scourge. Yet commemorations also serve as moments of critical reflection. This article questions the acclaim showered upon smallpox eradication as the single greatest public health success in history. It examines how and why smallpox eradication and WHO's concurrent social justice-oriented primary health care approach (following from the Declaration of Alma-Ata) became competing paradigms. It synthesizes critiques of eradication's shortcomings and debunks some of the myths surrounding the global eradication campaign as a public health priority and necessity, and as a Cold War victory of cooperation. The article concludes with thoughts on integrating technical and social-political aspects of health within the context of welfare states as the means to achieving widespread and enduring global public health success.

  4. Hypopituitarism and successful pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xue; Yuan, Qing; Yao, Yanni; Li, Zengyan; Zhang, Huiying

    2014-01-01

    Hypopituitarism is a disorder characterized by the deficiency of one or more of the hormones secreted by the pituitary gland. Hypopituitarism patients may present the symptoms of amenorrhea, poor pregnancy potential, infertility, and no production of milk after delivery. Successful pregnancy in hypopituitarism patient is rare because hypopituitarism is associated with an increased risk of pregnancy complications, such as abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, placental abruption, premature birth, and postpartum hemorrhage. Hypopituitarism during pregnancy and perinatal period should be managed carefully. The hormone levels should be restored to normal before pregnancy. GH and HMG-hCG are combined to improve follicular growth and the success rate of pregnancy. Hypopituitary patients must be closely monitored as changes may need to be made to their medications, and serial ultrasound measurements are also necessary for fetal growth assessment. PMID:25663963

  5. USAF Inorganic Coating Successes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Successes Elizabeth Berman, Ph.D. Air Force Research Laboratory Materials and Manufacturing Directorate Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB...Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate,WPAFB,OH,45433 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND...public release; distribution is unlimited. AFRL Approach • Identify legal requirements restricting material use – Review current U.S. regulations

  6. Building on Success.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Undaunted by what could be a challenging 2017 Texas legislative session, TMA is poised to build on significant successes medicine achieved over the past two legislative sessions, including reforming the state's Medicaid program and expanding graduate medical education opportunities. TMA will defend the patient-physician relationship against a backdrop of some potentially big shifts for Texas, such as a major review of the state's health professions licensing boards.

  7. Predicting Commissary Store Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    authorized shoppers , who include active duty, reserve and retired military members as well as National Guard members and their families (Defense...that make any retail store successful: the number of shoppers , the price differential between a store and its competition, and the number of...benefits is more efficient and could save significant taxpayer dollars. Dearing (1984) analyzed perceptions of commissary shoppers with regard to the

  8. Functional overlap of top-down emotion regulation and generation: an fMRI study identifying common neural substrates between cognitive reappraisal and cognitively generated emotions.

    PubMed

    Otto, Benjamin; Misra, Supriya; Prasad, Aditya; McRae, Kateri

    2014-09-01

    One factor that influences the success of emotion regulation is the manner in which the regulated emotion was generated. Recent research has suggested that reappraisal, a top-down emotion regulation strategy, is more effective in decreasing self-reported negative affect when emotions were generated from the top-down, versus the bottom-up. On the basis of a process overlap framework, we hypothesized that the neural regions active during reappraisal would overlap more with emotions that were generated from the top-down, rather than from the bottom-up. In addition, we hypothesized that increased neural overlap between reappraisal and the history effects of top-down emotion generation would be associated with increased reappraisal success. The results of several analyses suggested that reappraisal and emotions that were generated from the top-down share a core network of prefrontal, temporal, and cingulate regions. This overlap is specific; no such overlap was observed between reappraisal and emotions that were generated in a bottom-up fashion. This network consists of regions previously implicated in linguistic processing, cognitive control, and self-relevant appraisals, which are processes thought to be crucial to both reappraisal and top-down emotion generation. Furthermore, individuals with high reappraisal success demonstrated greater neural overlap between reappraisal and the history of top-down emotion generation than did those with low reappraisal success. The overlap of these key regions, reflecting overlapping processes, provides an initial insight into the mechanism by which generation history may facilitate emotion regulation.

  9. Succession and survival in psychotherapy organizations.

    PubMed

    Khaleelee, Olya

    2008-11-01

    This paper examines the world of psychotherapy by applying a systemic and psychodynamic understanding of the family business as a way of understanding the dilemmas and challenges of leadership succession. Oedipal factors are explored as an important theme within the succession process. This exploration is set within the context of what function psychotherapy has performed in society over the last thirty years. The hypothesis is that the first generation of leaders aimed to provide containment for the individual citizen at a time of failed dependency in society. The suggestion is that this gave way to the primary task for the second generation, which has been to focus on the therapist in training. The challenge for the third generation is to develop a meaningful role for psychotherapy today and to ensure survival at a time when other shorter therapies such as CBT are gaining ascendancy over longer term psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

  10. Successful product realization strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peeples, John; Boulton, William R.

    1995-01-01

    Product realization is the process of defining, designing, developing, and delivering products to the market. While the main thrust of this JTEC panel was to conduct a complete investigation of the state of Japanese low-cost electronic packaging technologies, it is very difficult to totally separate the development of technology and products from the product realization process. Japan's electronics firms adhere to a product realization strategy based on a strong customer focus, a consistent commitment to excellence in design, and a cost-effective approach to technology commercialization. The Japanese product-pull strategy has been a successful driver and influencing factor in every aspect of the product development cycle.

  11. Generational diversity.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Linda W

    2010-01-01

    Generational diversity has proven challenges for nurse leaders, and generational values may influence ideas about work and career planning. This article discusses generational gaps, influencing factors and support, and the various generational groups present in today's workplace as well as the consequences of need addressing these issues. The article ends with a discussion of possible solutions.

  12. The Succession of Lineage Roles as Families Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Carolyn J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Studied the succession of roles adopted from generation to generation as patterned in relation to the family life course, changes in health and dependency of various generations and factors such as family size, birth order, and sex. Proposes a conceptual framework for an analysis of aging and the family. (Author)

  13. Raising a "Green Generation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger-Ferraro, Susan

    2010-01-01

    These days, "going green" is at the forefront of conversation in political, entertainment, and corporate circles. Yet to truly impact change, future generations must carry the torch of transformation. To ensure success, adults need to begin the practices with the fertile minds of young children in early education. Practicing sustainability is not…

  14. Managing Generational Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansoorian, Andrew; Good, Pamela; Samuelson, Dave

    2003-01-01

    School leaders who recognize the differing needs of baby boomers and Generation X can create an organization where all employees are working from their strengths. Successful personnel leaders provide boomers with lots of public recognition and opportunities for input, while letting X-ers know that their ideas will be evaluated on merit, not on…

  15. The Success-Breeds-Success Phenomenon and Bibliometric Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tague, Jean

    1981-01-01

    Describes success-breeds-success phenomenon by single and multiple-urn models, and shows that these models lead to a negative binomial distribution for the total number of successes and to a Zipf-Mandelbrot law for the number of sources contributing a specified number of successes. Ten references are cited. (FM)

  16. Modeling of fast neutral-beam-generated ion effects on MHD-spectroscopic observations of resistive wall mode stability in DIII-D plasmas [Modeling of fast neutral-beam-generated ion effects on MHD spectroscopic observations of RWM stability in DIII-D plasmas

    DOE PAGES

    Turco, Francesca; Turnbull, Alan D.; Hanson, Jeremy M.; ...

    2015-02-03

    Experiments conducted at DIII-D investigate the role of drift kinetic damping and fast neutral beam injection (NBI)-ions in the approach to the no-wall βN limit. Modelling results show that the drift kinetic effects are significant and necessary to reproduce the measured plasma response at the ideal no-wall limit. Fast neutral-beam ions and rotation play important roles and are crucial to quantitatively match the experiment. In this paper, we report on the model validation of a series of plasmas with increasing βN, where the plasma stability is probed by active magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) spectroscopy. The response of the plasma to an externallymore » applied field is used to probe the stable side of the resistive wall mode and obtain an indication of the proximity of the equilibrium to an instability limit. We describe the comparison between the measured plasma response and that calculated by means of the drift kinetic MARS-K code, which includes the toroidal rotation, the electron and ion drift-kinetic resonances, and the presence of fast particles for the modelled plasmas. The inclusion of kinetic effects allows the code to reproduce the experimental results within ~13% for both the amplitude and phase of the plasma response, which is a significant improvement with respect to the undamped MHD-only model. The presence of fast NBI-generated ions is necessary to obtain the low response at the highest βN levels (~90% of the ideal no-wall limit). Finally, the toroidal rotation has an impact on the results, and a sensitivity study shows that a large variation in the predicted response is caused by the details of the rotation profiles at high βN.« less

  17. Modeling of fast neutral-beam-generated ion effects on MHD-spectroscopic observations of resistive wall mode stability in DIII-D plasmas [Modeling of fast neutral-beam-generated ion effects on MHD spectroscopic observations of RWM stability in DIII-D plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Turco, Francesca; Turnbull, Alan D.; Hanson, Jeremy M.; Navratil, Gerald A.

    2015-02-03

    Experiments conducted at DIII-D investigate the role of drift kinetic damping and fast neutral beam injection (NBI)-ions in the approach to the no-wall βN limit. Modelling results show that the drift kinetic effects are significant and necessary to reproduce the measured plasma response at the ideal no-wall limit. Fast neutral-beam ions and rotation play important roles and are crucial to quantitatively match the experiment. In this paper, we report on the model validation of a series of plasmas with increasing βN, where the plasma stability is probed by active magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) spectroscopy. The response of the plasma to an externally applied field is used to probe the stable side of the resistive wall mode and obtain an indication of the proximity of the equilibrium to an instability limit. We describe the comparison between the measured plasma response and that calculated by means of the drift kinetic MARS-K code, which includes the toroidal rotation, the electron and ion drift-kinetic resonances, and the presence of fast particles for the modelled plasmas. The inclusion of kinetic effects allows the code to reproduce the experimental results within ~13% for both the amplitude and phase of the plasma response, which is a significant improvement with respect to the undamped MHD-only model. The presence of fast NBI-generated ions is necessary to obtain the low response at the highest βN levels (~90% of the ideal no-wall limit). Finally, the toroidal rotation has an impact on the results, and a sensitivity study shows that a large variation in the predicted response is caused by the details of the rotation profiles at high βN.

  18. A metric for success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carver, Gary P.

    1994-05-01

    The federal agencies are working with industry to ease adoption of the metric system. The goal is to help U.S. industry compete more successfully in the global marketplace, increase exports, and create new jobs. The strategy is to use federal procurement, financial assistance, and other business-related activities to encourage voluntary conversion. Based upon the positive experiences of firms and industries that have converted, federal agencies have concluded that metric use will yield long-term benefits that are beyond any one-time costs or inconveniences. It may be time for additional steps to move the Nation out of its dual-system comfort zone and continue to progress toward metrication. This report includes 'Metric Highlights in U.S. History'.

  19. Fastrac Gas Generator Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nesman, Tomas E.; Dennis, Jay

    2001-01-01

    A rocket engine gas generator component development test was recently conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center. This gas generator is intended to power a rocket engine turbopump by the combustion of Lox and RP-1. The testing demonstrated design requirements for start sequence, wall compatibility, performance, and stable combustion. During testing the gas generator injector was modified to improve distribution of outer wall coolant and the igniter boss was modified to investigate the use of a pyrotechnic igniter. Expected chamber pressure oscillations at longitudinal acoustic mode were measured for three different chamber lengths tested. High amplitude discrete oscillations resulted in the chamber-alone configurations when chamber acoustic modes coupled with feed-system acoustics modes. For the full gas generator configuration, which included a turbine inlet manifold, high amplitude oscillations occurred only at off-design very low power levels. This testing led to a successful gas generator design for the Fastrac 60,000 lb thrust engine.

  20. The Next Generation BLAST Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galitzki, Nicholas; Ade, Peter A. R.; Angilè, Francesco E.; Ashton, Peter; Beall, James A.; Becker, Dan; Bradford, Kristi J.; Che, George; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Devlin, Mark J.; Dober, Bradley J.; Fissel, Laura M.; Fukui, Yasuo; Gao, Jiansong; Groppi, Christopher E.; Hillbrand, Seth; Hilton, Gene C.; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D.; Klein, Jeffrey; van Lanen, Jeff; Li, Dale; Li, Zhi-Yun; Lourie, Nathan P.; Mani, Hamdi; Martin, Peter G.; Mauskopf, Philip; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Novak, Giles; Pappas, David P.; Pascale, Enzo; Pisano, Giampaolo; Santos, Fabio P.; Savini, Giorgio; Scott, Douglas; Stanchfield, Sara; Tucker, Carole; Ullom, Joel N.; Underhill, Matthew; Vissers, Michael R.; Ward-Thompson, Derek

    The Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope for Polarimetry (BLASTPol) was a suborbital experiment designed to map magnetic fields in order to study their role in star formation processes. BLASTPol made detailed polarization maps of a number of molecular clouds during its successful flights from Antarctica in 2010 and 2012. We present the next-generation BLASTPol instrument (BLAST-TNG) that will build off the success of the previous experiment and continue its role as a unique instrument and a test bed for new technologies. With a 16-fold increase in mapping speed, BLAST-TNG will make larger and deeper maps. Major improvements include a 2.5-m carbon fiber mirror that is 40% wider than the BLASTPol mirror and 3000 polarization sensitive detectors. BLAST-TNG will observe in three bands at 250, 350, and 500 μm. The telescope will serve as a pathfinder project for microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) technology, as applied to feedhorn-coupled submillimeter detector arrays. The liquid helium cooled cryostat will have a 28-day hold time and will utilize a closed-cycle 3He refrigerator to cool the detector arrays to 270 mK. This will enable a detailed mapping of more targets with higher polarization resolution than any other submillimeter experiment to date. BLAST-TNG will also be the first balloon-borne telescope to offer shared risk observing time to the community. This paper outlines the motivation for the project and the instrumental design.

  1. Mesoscale Variability in SUCCESS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckermann, Stephen D.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of meteorological, chemical, and microphysical data from the airborne SUCCESS mission is reported. Careful analysis of the complex DC-8 flight pattern of May 2, 1996 reveals 19 linear or nearly linear flight segments within six main geographical areas, which we have analyzed. Significant mountain wave activity is revealed in the data from the MMS and MTP instruments on the DC-8, which resembles previous observations of mountain wave structures near Boulder, CO. Strong mountain-wave-induced upwelling downwind of the Rockies is noted. Turbulence is also noted in regions of the mountain wave consistent with overturning near the tropopause. Zonal winds recorded on the ER-2 are shown to consistent with mountain wave breaking at or near critical levels in the stratosphere, consistent with the strong turbulence reported by the pilot during the ER-2 flight. Those observations have been supported with spectral analyses and modeling studies. "Postcasts" of mountain wave activity on May 2, 1996, using the Naval Research Laboratory Mountain Wave Forecast Model (NRL/MWFM) predicts both strong mountain wave activity near the tropopause (as measured by the DC-8) and strong mountain-wave-induced turbulence in the stratosphere (as encountered by the ER-2). Two-dimensional simulations of fluid flow over topography reveal similar isentropic structures to observations.

  2. Overcome barriers to career success

    SciTech Connect

    Raudsepp, E.

    1983-04-01

    A test is given to determine if an engineer suffers from one of the three barriers to technical success: fear of success, fear of failure, or perfectionism. As in most such tests, the middle way is best. Successful engineers know that perfection cannot be attained, that they don't have time to worry about failure or success, and that by aiming and perservering in doing things well, success can be achieved.

  3. Low-latitude gravity wave variances in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere derived from SABER temperature observation and compared with model simulation of waves generated by deep tropical convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walterscheid, R. L.; Christensen, A. B.

    2016-10-01

    A portion of waves generated by deep convection have scales and amplitudes large enough to be detected by spaceborne instruments. We have analyzed temperature data from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics (TIMED) satellite for subtidal-scale fluctuations. Filtering was applied both vertically and horizontally to extract wave variances. We have analyzed the altitude region between 70 and 130 km and focus on the variances at equatorial latitudes for the altitude region between 70 and 120 km as a function of season, local time intervals, geographical location, and altitude. We find significant variances where convection is particularly prolific (Intertropical Convergence Zone) and at altitudes where wave trapping is known to be favored (e.g., the lower thermospheric duct). The locations of significant variances persist from year to year. Standard deviations of a few tens of kelvins are found. We have also performed simulations of the response to deep tropical convection with a time-dependent, high-resolution fully compressible dynamical model. Our simulations give wave amplitudes that agree reasonably well with the observed amplitudes and show layering that is consistent with the observations. Our main finding is that significant variations seen in TIMED/SABER temperature data have a convective wave source and are concentrated in layers where thermal ducts occur.

  4. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  5. Prerana: a success story.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Prerana-Associate CEDPA, a women- and youth-focused community organization headquartered in New Delhi, has expanded its program activities with recent grants from two leading donors, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation. CEDPA provides important support through grants from The Xerox Foundation, The Turner Foundation, World Bank, and the US Agency for International Development. Founded in 1976, Prerana--whose name means "Inspiration" in Hindi--has grown steadily as knowledge of its comprehensive community-based program has spread. The organization conducts the CEDPA Better Life Options health, education, and vocational skills programs for girls and young women, maternal and child health services, and integrated community-based family planning. A parallel Better Life Options program for boys and young men was recently started. With almost 20 years of experience in the private sector, Prerana provides training and assistance to other private organizations. Prerana's Better Life Options program received international recognition in UNFPA's "The State of World Population 1994." The publication featured an article by a young Indian woman who participated in the program and as a result was able to develop life skills, improve her self-esteem, and, with her husband, decide to delay parenthood. "This success story," said Prerana Executive Director Dr. Uma Agarwal (WIM 29), "is being repeated by many other girls who find support at Prerana."

  6. Successful modular cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadota, Kenji; Stewart, Ewan D.

    2003-07-01

    We present a modular cosmology scenario where the difficulties encountered in conventional modular cosmology are solved in a self-consistent manner, with definite predictions to be tested by observation. Notably, the difficulty of the dilaton finding its way to a precarious weak coupling minimum is made irrelevant by having eternal modular inflation at the vacuum supersymmetry breaking scale after the dilaton is stabilised. Neither this eternal inflation nor the subsequent non-slow-roll modular inflation destabilise the dilaton from its precarious minimum due to the low energy scale of the inflation and consequent small back reaction on the dilaton potential. The observed flat CMB spectrum is obtained from fluctuations in the angular component of a modulus near a symmetric point, which are hugely magnified by the roll down of the modulus to Planckian values, allowing them to dominate the final curvature perturbation. We also give precise calculations of the spectral index and its running.

  7. Impulsively generated fast coronal pulsations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwin, P. M.; Roberts, B.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid oscillations in the corona are discussed from a theoretical standpoint, developing some previous work on ducted, fast magnetoacoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium. In the theory, impulsively (e.g., flare) generated mhd (magnetohydrodynamic) waves are ducted by regions of low Alfven speed (high density) such as coronal loops. Wave propagation in such ducts is strongly dispersive and closely akin to the behavior of Love waves in seismology, Pekeris waves in oceanography and guided waves in fiber optics. Such flare-generated magnetoacoustic waves possess distinctive temporal signatures consisting of periodic, quasi-periodic and decay phases. The quasi-periodic phase possesses the strongest amplitudes and the shortest time scales. Time scales are typically of the order of a second for inhomogeneities (coronal loop width) of 1000 km and Alfven speeds of 1000/kms, and pulse duration times are of tens of seconds. Quasi-periodic signatures have been observed in radio wavelengths for over a decade and more recently by SMM. It is hoped that the theoretical ideas outlined may be successfully related to these observations and thus aid the interpretation of oscillatory signatures recorded by SMM. Such signatures may also provide a diagnostic of coronal conditions. New aspects of the ducted mhd waves, for example their behavior in smoothly varying as opposed to tube-like inhomogeneities, are currently under investigation. The theory is not restricted to loops but applied equally to open field regions.

  8. ISO successfully launched

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    ISO is a high-technology telescope facility designed and built in Europe for use by the scientific community in Europe, Japan and the USA. It will provide astronomers with an unprecedented opportunity - the only one in the next decade - to make scientific observations of a wide variety of weak infrared radiation sources such as cold gases, galaxies and stars dying and being born. ISO represents a leap forward in space technology harnessed for astronomical observation of the universe. ISO is the world's first astronomical observatory in space operating at infrared wavelengths. To observe the weakest heat sources in the universe, its four scientific instruments have to be cooled to extremely low temperatures, using superfluid helium which evaporates slowly at minus 271 or about 2 degrees above absolute zero. The scientific instruments, telescope and liquid helium are all contained in a cryostat, which has been likened to an extraordinarily well insulated thermos flask. It is the first such cryogenically cooled satellite developed in Europe and employs very advanced technologies, notably for the scientific instruments, telescope and attitude control system. ISO will be controlled from the ESA's Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany, for the first few days, until the final orbit is achieved, and then operational control will be passed to a dedicated ESA operations centre in Villafranca, Spain. The first 21/2 months of operations will be given over to commissioning the satellite and verifying the performance of the scientific instruments. The observation programme is planned to start in early February 1996. ISO's lifetime is expected to be 20 months, by the end of which the helium, steadily evaporating as it cools the cryostat, should be exhausted.

  9. Success of Taiwanese mothers in guiding adolescents.

    PubMed

    Beckert, Troy; Strom, Robert; Strom, Paris; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Shen, Yuh-Ling

    2005-01-01

    Education for parents was recently mandated in Taiwan and presents a challenge to the schools. The purpose of this study was to determine how two generations perceive parenting strengths and learning needs. Taiwanese mothers of 10- to 14-year-olds (n=209) and their adolescent children (n=201) completed the Parent Success Indicator. Generational reports were compared, and effects of independent variables were examined. The amount of time mothers spent talking to and doing things with their adolescents had the greatest influence on how both groups rated mother success. Unfavorable ratings expressed by mothers and adolescents identified topics that would be appropriate for parent education. The findings will be used by educators and researchers to support parent development in Taiwan.

  10. Succession and failure.

    PubMed

    Cespedes, Frank V; Galford, Robert M

    2004-06-01

    Norman Windom, the chairman of Tiverton Media, may not know much about the world of popular music, but he does fancy himself a careful planner and a superb judge of managerial talent. That's why he's been grooming COO Sean Kinnane, a Wharton-minted numbers man, to take over an important division, Aleph Records, and one day Tiverton itself. But Derek Solomon, Aleph's 68-year-old CEO and founder, remains a creative force and a father figure to the label's artists. What's more, he's touchy about anything that might slow down Aleph's responses to the market's ever-shifting preferences--or that might call into question his indispensability. Though Sean dutifully participates in Tiverton's broad-based and elaborate executive development plan, he senses that Aleph's future leadership structure is uncertain. As impatient as he is ambitious, he announces that he's leaving Tiverton for more suitable pastures. Several of his associates, also unsure about their fate within Aleph, are following him out the door. In one fell swoop, they've torn Norman's proud succession plan apart. What kind of plan should the board adopt going forward? Commenting on this fictional case study are Francis N. Bonsignore, a senior vice president at Marsh & McLennan; Michelle L. Buck, a clinical associate professor of management and organizations at Northwestern's Kellogg School of Management; Jon Younger, who heads leadership development at National City Corporation, a financial holding company in Cleveland; and Thomas Leppert, the chairman and CEO of the Turner Corporation, a large construction company in Dallas.

  11. Modeling fuel succession

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Brett; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Beck, Jen; van Wagtendonk, Kent A.

    2009-01-01

    Surface fuels data are of critical importance for supporting fire incident management, risk assessment, and fuel management planning, but the development of surface fuels data can be expensive and time consuming. The data development process is extensive, generally beginning with acquisition of remotely sensed spatial data such as aerial photography or satellite imagery (Keane and others 2001). The spatial vegetation data are then crosswalked to a set of fire behavior fuel models that describe the available fuels (the burnable portions of the vegetation) (Anderson 1982, Scott and Burgan 2005). Finally, spatial fuels data are used as input to tools such as FARSITE and FlamMap to model current and potential fire spread and behavior (Finney 1998, Finney 2006). The capture date of the remotely sensed data defines the period for which the vegetation, and, therefore, fuels, data are most accurate. The more time that passes after the capture date, the less accurate the data become due to vegetation growth and processes such as fire. Subsequently, the results of any fire simulation based on these data become less accurate as the data age. Because of the amount of labor and expense required to develop these data, keeping them updated may prove to be a challenge. In this article, we describe the Sierra Nevada Fuel Succession Model, a modeling tool that can quickly and easily update surface fuel models with a minimum of additional input data. Although it was developed for use by Yosemite, Sequoia, and Kings Canyon National Parks, it is applicable to much of the central and southern Sierra Nevada. Furthermore, the methods used to develop the model have national applicability.

  12. Observational astrophysics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léna, P.; Lebrun, F.; Mignard, F.

    This book is the 2nd edition of an English translation published in 1988 (45.003.105) of the French original "Astrophysique: Méthodes physiques de l'observation" published in 1986 (42.003.048). Written specifically for physicists and graduate students in astronomy, this textbook focuses on astronomical observation and on the basic physical principles that astronomers use to conceive, build and exploit their instruments at their ultimate limits in sensitivity or resolution. This second edition has been entirely restructured and almost doubled in size, in order to improve its clarity and to account for the great progress achieved in the last 15 years. It deals with ground-based and space-based astronomy and their respective fields. It presents the new generation of giant ground-based telescopes, with the new methods of optical interferometry and adaptive optics, and also the ambitious concepts behind planned space missions for the next decades. Avoiding particulars, it covers the whole of the electromagnetic spectrum and touches upon the "new astronomies" becoming possible with gravitational waves and neutrinos.

  13. Mesoscale Variability in SUCCESS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckermann, Stephen D.; Stewart, Richard W. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of meteorological, chemical and microphysical data from the airborne SUCCESS (SUbsonic aircraft Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study) mission is reported. Careful analysis of the complex DC-8 flight pattern of May 2, 1996 reveals 19 linear flight segments within six main geographical areas, which we have analyzed. Significant mountain wave activity is revealed in the data from the MMS (Meteorology Measurement System) and MTP (Microwave Temperature Profiler) instruments on the DC-8, which resembles previous observations of mountain wave structures near Boulder, Colorado. Strong mountain-wave-induced upwelling downwind of the Rockies is noted. Turbulence is also noted in regions of the mountain wave consistent with overturning near the tropopause. Zonal winds recorded on the ER-2 are shown to be consistent with mountain wave breaking at or near critical levels in the stratosphere, consistent with the strong turbulence reported by the pilot during the ER-2 flight. These observations have been supported with spectral analyses and modeling studies. 'Postcasts' of mountain wave activity on May 2, 1996 using the Naval Research Laboratory Mountain Wave Forecast Model predicts both strong mountain wave activity near the tropopause and strong mountain-wave-induced turbulence in the stratosphere.

  14. STEAM GENERATOR GROUP PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. A.; Lewis, M

    1985-09-01

    This report is a summary of progress in the Surry Steam Generator Group Project for 1984. Information is presented on the analysis of two baseline eddy current inspections of the generator. Round robin series of tests using standard in-service inspection techniques are described along with some preliminary results. Observations are reported of degradation found on tubing specimens removed from the generator, and on support plates characterized in-situ. Residual stresses measured on a tubing specimen are reported. Two steam generator repair demonstrations are described; one for antivibration bar replacement, and one on tube repair methods. Chemical analyses are shown for sludge samples removed from above the tube sheet.

  15. Gravity wave generation in the lower stratosphere due to passage of the typhoon 9426 (Orchid) observed by the MU radar at Shigaraki (34.85°N, 136.10°E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhaka, S. K.; Takahashi, M.; Shibagaki, Y.; Yamanaka, M. D.; Fukao, S.

    2003-10-01

    Intense gravity wave activities were investigated in the lower stratosphere during the typhoon 9426. Strong vertical winds were observed just a few hours before the arrival of the typhoon-center at the MU radar site. About 30 min to 1 hour after the typhoon-center had passed, a considerable reduction in vertical wind amplitude was detected. Dominant gravity waves showed time period in the range of 7-8 min, 15 min, and 40-60 min in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. In the vicinity of the central region of the typhoon, a gravity wave was observed, which was monochromatic in nature with a vertical wavelength ˜3 km between 1.5 km and 23 km height. In the lower stratosphere, the horizontal wavelength for the prominent period was detected in the range of 10-15 km (for 15 min wave period) and 25-50 km (for 40-60 min wave period). The vertical wavelength of these waves was examined from 2.5 km to 4.0 km. In the horizontal direction, the intrinsic group velocity was estimated between 9 ± 2 and 11 ± 2 m/s. Near the tropopause, the average direction of group velocity was assessed at about 20° ± 3° from the horizontal. The generation of gravity wave like features, in the lower stratosphere, is believed induced by convection, as the low temperature of the clouds indicates a deep penetration over the radar region as seen in the satellite GMS images.

  16. Wind Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  17. Leader Succession in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil; Cosgrove, Dorothy

    1985-01-01

    This paper constructs an administrator succession model specifying major school process and outcome variables. The succession literature is reviewed using the model's components which include the selection process, organizational structure, school culture, educational programs, successor actions, community, and succession effects. Strategies for…

  18. Verbal Behavior and Courtroom Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Michael G.

    1981-01-01

    Identifies characteristics of successful courtroom speech for prosecuting attorneys, defense attorneys, and accuseds using computer-based content analysis and rater judgments of verbal behaviors. Demonstrates that verbal aggression is an important factor for successful prosecutors, equivocation is important to success for defense attorneys, and…

  19. Generation X

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    service or government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT GENERATION X BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL NEIL YAMASHIRO United States Army National Guard CVI...WAR COLLEGE, CARLISLE BARRACKS, PA 17013-5050 ■"""" mimmm n USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT Generation X by LTC Neil Yamashiro COL Paul...is unlimited. 11 ABSTRACT AUTHOR: LTC Neil Yamashiro TITLE: Generation X FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 7 April 1998 PAGES: 26

  20. Successful and Unsuccessful Multicultural Supervisory Behaviors: A Delphi Poll

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressel, Jeana L.; Consoli, Andres J.; Kim, Bryan S.K.; Atkinson, Donald R.

    2007-01-01

    Using the Delphi method, university counseling center supervisors with significant experience in multicultural supervision generated and ranked elements of successful and unsuccessful multicultural supervision. Twenty-seven of 35 successful elements and 24 of 33 unsuccessful elements involved cultural considerations. Multicultural supervision was…

  1. The Advanced Helical Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, D B; Javedani, J B; Ellsworth, G F; Kuklo, R M; Goerz, D A; White, A D; Tallerico, L J; Gidding, D A; Murphy, M J; Chase, J B

    2009-10-26

    A high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) generator called the Advanced Helical Generator (AHG) has been designed, built, and successfully tested. The AHG incorporates design principles of voltage and current management to obtain a high current and energy gain. Its design was facilitated by the use of modern modeling tools as well as high precision manufacture. The result was a first-shot success. The AHG delivered 16 Mega-Amperes of current and 11 Mega-Joules of energy to a quasi-static 80 nH inductive load. A current gain of 154 times was obtained with a peak exponential rise time of 20 {micro}s. We will describe in detail the design and testing of the AHG.

  2. Generation of monoenergetic positrons

    SciTech Connect

    Hulett, L.D. Jr.; Dale, J.M.; Miller, P.D. Jr.; Moak, C.D.; Pendyala, S.; Triftshaeuser, W.; Howell, R.H.; Alvarez, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Many experiments have been performed in the generation and application of monoenergetic positron beams using annealed tungsten moderators and fast sources of /sup 58/Co, /sup 22/Na, /sup 11/C, and LINAC bremstrahlung. This paper will compare the degrees of success from our various approaches. Moderators made from both single crystal and polycrystal tungsten have been tried. Efforts to grow thin films of tungsten to be used as transmission moderators and brightness enhancement devices are in progress.

  3. Radionuclide Generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösch, F.; Knapp, F. F. (Russ)

    Radionuclide generator systems continue to play a key role in providing both diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides for various applications in nuclear medicine, oncology, and interventional cardiology. Although many parent/daughter pairs have been evaluated as radionuclide generator systems, there are a relatively small number of generators, which are currently in routine clinical and research use. Essentially every conceivable approach has been used for parent/separation strategies, including sublimation, thermochromatographic separation, solvent extraction, and adsorptive column chromatography. The most widely used radionuclide generator for clinical applications is the 99Mo/99mTc generator system, but recent years have seen an enormous increase in the use of generators to provide therapeutic radionuclides, which has paralleled the development of complementary technologies for targeting agents for therapy and in the general increased interest in the use of unsealed therapeutic radioactive sources. More recently, use of the 68Ge/68Ga generator is showing great potential as a source of positron-emitting 68Ga for positron emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging. Key advantages for the use of radionuclide generators include reasonable costs, the convenience of obtaining the desired daughter radionuclide on demand, and availability of the daughter radionuclide in high specific activity, no-carrier added form.

  4. Generative Semantics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagha, Karim Nazari

    2011-01-01

    Generative semantics is (or perhaps was) a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of George Lakoff, John R. Ross, Paul Postal and later McCawley. The approach developed out of transformational generative grammar in the mid 1960s, but stood largely in opposition to work by Noam Chomsky and his students. The nature and genesis of…

  5. Age-dependent trajectories differ between within-pair and extra-pair paternity success.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Y-H; Simons, M J P; Schroeder, J; Girndt, A; Winney, I S; Burke, T; Nakagawa, S

    2017-02-24

    Reproductive success is associated with age in many taxa, increasing in early life followed by reproductive senescence. In socially monogamous but genetically polygamous species, this generates the interesting possibility of differential trajectories of within-pair and extra-pair siring success with age in males. We investigate these relationships simultaneously using within-individual analyses with 13 years of data from an insular house sparrow (Passer domesticus) population. As expected, we found that both within- and extra-pair paternity success increased with age, followed by a senescence-like decline. However, the age trajectories of within- and extra-pair paternity successes differed significantly, with the extra-pair paternity success increasing faster, although not significantly, in early life, and showing a delayed decline by 1.5 years on average later in life compared to within-pair paternity success. These different trajectories indicate that the two alternative mating tactics should have age-dependent pay-offs. Males may partition their reproductive effort between within- and extra-pair matings depending on their current age to reap the maximal combined benefit from both strategies. The interplay between these mating strategies and age-specific mortality may explain the variation in rates of extra-pair paternity observed within and between species.

  6. Depositional controls on tidally influenced fluvial successions, Neslen Formation, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiers, M. N.; Mountney, N. P.; Hodgson, D. M.; Cobain, S. L.

    2014-08-01

    The stratigraphic architecture of marginal marine successions records the interplay of autogenic and allogenic processes, and discerning their relative role in governing the morphology of the palaeoenvironment and the architecture of the preserved sedimentary succession is not straightforward. The Campanian Neslen Formation, Mesaverde Group, Utah, is a tidally influenced fluvial succession sourced from the Sevier Orogen, which prograded eastwards into the Western Interior Seaway. Detailed mapping in three dimensions of architectural relationships between sandstone bodies has enabled documentation of lateral and vertical changes in the style of channel-body stacking and analysis of the distribution of sedimentary evidence for tidal influence. Upwards, through the succession, sandstone channel bodies become larger and more amalgamated. Laterally, the dominant style of channel bodies changes such that ribbon channel-fills are restricted to the east of the study area whereas lateral accretion deposits dominate to the west. Combined allogenic and autogenic controls gave rise to the observed stratigraphy. A temporal decrease in the rate of accommodation generation resulted in an upward increase in amalgamation of sand-bodies. Autogenic processes likely played a significant role in moderating the preserved succession: up-succession changes in the style of stacking of channelized bodies could have arisen either from progradation of a distributive fluvial system or from an upstream nodal avulsion of a major trunk channel; accumulation of tide influenced, wave dominated units likely record episodes of delta-lobe abandonment, subsidence and submergence to allow accumulation of near shore sand bars with associated washover complexes.

  7. Tracing the Origins of Success: Implications for Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Nora M.; Martin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This paper addresses the debate about the use of the term “successful aging” from a humanistic, rather than behavioral, perspective. It attempts to uncover what success, a term frequently associated with aging, is: how can it be defined and when did it first come into use? In this paper, we draw from a number of humanistic perspectives, including the historical and linguistic, in order to explore the evolution of the term “success.” We believe that words and concepts have deep implications for how concepts (such as aging) are culturally and historically perceived. Design and Methods: We take a comparative approach, turning to the etymological roots of this term in British, French, and German literature. According to the earliest entries of the term in the Oxford English Dictionary, events can have good or bad success. Another definition marks success as outcome oriented. Results: Often used in the context of war, religion, and medicine, the neutral, but often negative, use of “success” in literature of the Renaissance demonstrates the tensions that surround the word, and suggests that success is something to be approached carefully. Implications: Ignoring the ambiguous origins of success erases the fact that aging in earlier centuries echoes much of the same ambivalence with which many people discuss it today. Attending to the origins of success can help gerontologists understand the humanistic tradition behind their inquiry into what successful aging means today. PMID:24997595

  8. Energy generator

    SciTech Connect

    Krisko, P.

    1989-08-01

    The patent describes a power booster. It comprises: at least one pendulum means suspended at one end to oscillate about the point of suspension; power generating means; mass means connected to one end of the pendulum means; spring means disposed in operative cooperation with the mass means to impart energy into the pendulum means and assist the pendulum means in oscillating about the point of suspension; and energy transfer linkage means between the pendulum means and the power generating means for transferring energy between the pendulum means and the power generating means.

  9. A neural model of rule generation in inductive reasoning.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Daniel; Eliasmith, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Inductive reasoning is a fundamental and complex aspect of human intelligence. In particular, how do subjects, given a set of particular examples, generate general descriptions of the rules governing that set? We present a biologically plausible method for accomplishing this task and implement it in a spiking neuron model. We demonstrate the success of this model by applying it to the problem domain of Raven's Progressive Matrices, a widely used tool in the field of intelligence testing. The model is able to generate the rules necessary to correctly solve Raven's items, as well as recreate many of the experimental effects observed in human subjects.

  10. Success and Failure in Design

    SciTech Connect

    Petroski, Henry

    2005-12-14

    The evolution of suspension bridges will be used to illustrate the principle that designs based solely on models of success tend over time toward failures. Successful designs, on the other hand, will be shown to derive from a proper anticipation of how they can fail. This paradox of design will be shown to promote cyclic alternations between success and failure within a given genre of designed objects.

  11. Succession planning and individual development.

    PubMed

    Goudreau, Kelly A; Hardy, Jacalyn

    2006-06-01

    The authors present a framework for a succession planning and individual development initiative implemented in a Veterans Health Administration facility. Foundational strategic goals and a conceptual framework in the Veterans Affairs system provide the structure for the 3 facility-level succession planning and individual development programs. Outcomes of the programs are promising with 2 of 3 programs demonstrating clear succession planning outcomes and the other one showing positive preliminary results.

  12. Computing by Observing Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaliere, Matteo; Leupold, Peter

    Computing by Observing is a paradigm for the implementation of models of Natural Computing. It was inspired by the setup of experiments in biochemistry. One central feature is an observer that translates the evolution of an underlying observed system into sequences over a finite alphabet. We take a step toward more realistic observers by allowing them to notice only an occurring change in the observed system rather than to read the system's entire configuration. Compared to previous implementations of the Computing by Observing paradigm, this decreases the computational power; but with relatively simple systems we still obtain the language class generated by matrix grammars.

  13. SUCCESS@Seneca: Facilitating Student and Staff Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Steve; Decandia, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    SUCCESS@Seneca has teamed up with the General Arts and Science programs at Seneca's Newnham campus. The design of an integrated service delivery model addresses numerous student success and retention related activities by providing the essential connection between academics and college resources. The program focuses on the promotion and support of…

  14. Hydrogen generator

    SciTech Connect

    Adlhart, O. J.

    1985-04-23

    This disclosure relates to a replaceable cartridge hydrogen generator of the type which relies at least partially on the process of anodic corrosion to produce hydrogen. A drum contains a plurality of the cartridges.

  15. Generation Wrecked.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Noshua

    2002-01-01

    Young adults in Generation X are facing financial problems. Because of their college and credit card debt, many in worse financial shape than anyone since the Depression and have little or no retirement savings. (JOW)

  16. Vibration generators

    SciTech Connect

    Lerwill, W.E.

    1980-09-16

    Apparatus for generating vibrations in a medium, such as the ground, comprises a first member which contacts the medium, means , preferably electromagnetic, which includes two relatively movable members for generating vibrations in the apparatus and means operatively connecting the said two members to said first member such that the relatively amplitudes of the movements of said three members can be adjusted to match the impedances of the apparatus and the medium.

  17. Hydrogen Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A unit for producing hydrogen on site is used by a New Jersey Electric Company. The hydrogen is used as a coolant for the station's large generator; on-site production eliminates the need for weekly hydrogen deliveries. High purity hydrogen is generated by water electrolysis. The electrolyte is solid plastic and the control system is electronic. The technology was originally developed for the Gemini spacecraft.

  18. Next generation workforce.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    The health care industry has become a very complex business. CQsts are rising and resources such as funding and human capital are diminishing. Human capital resources are about to reach true crisis proportions. The vital workforce we have counted on is expected to begin thinning as large numbers of Boomers retire. Not only does this deplete the workforce from a pure numbers perspective, but it also affects intellectual capital and institutional memory. Generational trends and characteristics have affected the workforce environment and will continue to do so as another generation continues to enter the workforce. Generation Y, also tagged Nexter, offers core values that can bring positive changes to the health care workforce. Technology continues to change at lightning speed. Embracing new technology and using it to refine the way we do business will help deliver success. Meaningful strategic plans are needed to change the model of business delivery and employee care in our future workforce.

  19. Window generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, William K.; May, Roger A.

    1989-03-01

    The present invention relates generally to video target recognition systems and more specifically to a window generator which receives a field of video data and applies an identification code to rectangular subregions to identify distinct target areas within a given background area. The present invention comprises a window generator which provides a 6 bit target identification number for up to 63 target areas and one background area in a frame of serially scanned data. The window generator receives a field of video data from an image data source. This video data consists of digitized frames of serially scanned data similar to a conventional television screen image, which is divided horizontally in pixels, and vertically in lines. The window generator permits any given frame to be subdivided into specific rectangular subregions, which may be located anywhere on the video picture. By allowing statistics to be collected on the individual subregions (or target areas) the window generator permits local processing of video data within the specified target areas as opposed to processing of video data over the entire video field. One embodiment of the window generator is composed of: a microprocessor, a random access memory (RAM), a comparator, a line memory, two counters, an OR gate, a frame initialization circuit, and a buffer. These elements function as described below.

  20. Health promotion: challenges revealed in successful practices

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Kênia Lara; de Sena, Roseni Rosângela; Belga, Stephanie Marques Moura Franco; Silva, Paloma Morais; Rodrigues, Andreza Trevenzoli

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine successful practices of health promotion in health, education, culture, welfare and sport, leisure, identifying the elements of success and challenges in the field. METHODS A qualitative study with data obtained from in-depth analysis that included participant observation, interviews with managers, coordinators, professionals and participants from 29 practices reported as successful for promoting health in six municipalities of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, in 2011. The variables of the study were concept, dimension, dissemination and ease of access, identified in practices guided by content analysis. RESULTS The results indicate a conceptual and methodological uncertainty about health promotion as evidenced by conflicting objects and contradictory purposes. The practices differ in size, coverage and ease of access, determined by inter-sector coordination and political and financial investment. CONCLUSIONS We identified challenges to health promotion focusing on vulnerable populations, limits to financing and intersectoral partnerships. PMID:24789640

  1. Understanding generations: political economy and culture in an ageing society.

    PubMed

    Vincent, John A

    2005-12-01

    Sociological understanding of generations can be enhanced by avoiding defining them rigidly as chronological cohorts but rather linking people's accounts of their generational experience with an historically informed political economy. It then becomes possible, for example, to understand the complexity of generational politics. This paper uses data on the 'War Generation' taken from the Exeter Politics of Old Age project to link an empirically based political economy of generational inequality with a cultural sociology of generations. The 'War Generation' recognizes itself and is referred to by others in terms of a common identity. It is also an historical generation; its values, attitudes and, above all, sense of national solidarity and mutual obligation were forged in the direct experience of war. But it is also divided by divergent economic interests in property and pension rights based on the historical experience of the life course by successive groups and this segmentation can be observed in political action. The political culture of the War Generation manifests both continuity and change. Understanding these dynamics requires listening to people constructing their worlds, understanding their full range of historical experiences, and analysing the conditions for their conflicts and their cohesion.

  2. The Value of Successful MBSE Adoption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, Edith

    2016-01-01

    The value of successful adoption of Model Based System Engineering (MBSE) practices is hard to quantify. Most engineers and project managers look at the success in terms of cost. But there are other ways to quantify the value of MBSE and the steps necessary to achieve adoption. The Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been doing Model-Based Engineering (design, structural, etc.) for years, but the system engineering side has not. Since 2010, GRC has been moving from documents centric to MBSE/SysML. Project adoption of MBSE has been slow, but is steadily increasing in both MBSE usage and complexity of generated products. Sharing of knowledge of lessons learned in the implementation of MBSE/SysML is key for others who want to be successful. Along with GRC's implementation, NASA is working hard to increase the successful implementation of MBSE across all the other centers by developing guidelines, templates and libraries for projects to utilize. This presentation will provide insight into recent GRC and NASA adoption efforts, lessons learned and best practices.

  3. The future of successful aging in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of research on Alaska Natives and their views on whether or not they believe they will age successfully in their home and community. There is limited understanding of aging experiences across generations. Objective This research explores the concept of successful aging from an urban Alaska Native perspective and explores whether or not they believe they will achieve a healthy older age. Design A cultural consensus model (CCM) approach was used to gain a sense of the cultural understandings of aging among young Alaska Natives aged 50 years and younger. Results Research findings indicate that aging successfully is making the conscious decision to live a clean and healthy life, abstaining from drugs and alcohol, but some of Alaska Natives do not feel they will age well due to lifestyle factors. Alaska Natives see the inability to age well as primarily due to the decrease in physical activity, lack of availability of subsistence foods and activities, and the difficulty of living a balanced life in urban settings. Conclusions This research seeks to inform future studies on successful aging that incorporates the experiences and wisdom of Alaska Natives in hopes of developing an awareness of the importance of practicing a healthy lifestyle and developing guidelines to assist others to age well. PMID:23984300

  4. Synthetic guide star generation

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A [Castro Valley, CA; Page, Ralph H [Castro Valley, CA; Ebbers, Christopher A [Livermore, CA; Beach, Raymond J [Livermore, CA

    2008-06-10

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  5. Synthetic guide star generation

    DOEpatents

    Payne, Stephen A.; Page, Ralph H.; Ebbers, Christopher A.; Beach, Raymond J.

    2004-03-09

    A system for assisting in observing a celestial object and providing synthetic guide star generation. A lasing system provides radiation at a frequency at or near 938 nm and radiation at a frequency at or near 1583 nm. The lasing system includes a fiber laser operating between 880 nm and 960 nm and a fiber laser operating between 1524 nm and 1650 nm. A frequency-conversion system mixes the radiation and generates light at a frequency at or near 589 nm. A system directs the light at a frequency at or near 589 nm toward the celestial object and provides synthetic guide star generation.

  6. Principals' Succession and Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Dean; Brayman, Carol

    2004-01-01

    A demographic time bomb is ticking in many school jurisdictions. Up to 70 per cent of present leaders in the private and public sectors will retire within the next five to ten years as the "baby boomers" move on. While succession planning has become a major initiative in the private sector, leadership succession in education tends to hew…

  7. Primary Childhood School Success Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seagraves, Margaret C.

    The purpose of this research study was to build and pilot a psychometric instrument, the Primary Childhood School Success Scale (PCSSS), to identify behaviors needed for children to be successful in first grade. Fifty-two teacher responses were collected. The instrument had a reliability coefficient (Alpha) of 0.95, a mean of 13.26, and a variance…

  8. Success and Women's Career Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Joyce E. A.; Burgess, Jennifer R. D.

    1998-01-01

    Women still face barriers to career success and satisfaction: stereotypes, assumptions, organizational culture, human resource practices, and lack of opportunities. Despite individual and organizational strategies, many women leave to become entrepreneurs. There is a need to investigate how women define career success. (SK)

  9. Succession planning: securing the future.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Julia; Roy, Wendy

    2004-12-01

    Succession planning is an essential business strategy for healthcare organizations, given the impending retirement of the huge Baby Boomer cohort of experienced nurses. It ensures that there will be qualified candidates when key vacancies occur. The authors describe the critical elements of a succession plan and suggest ways to implement them. The model can be applied to leadership and clinical positions.

  10. Succession Planning for Library Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, Karen; Drewry, Josiah

    2015-01-01

    Detailed succession planning helps libraries pass information from one employee to the next. This is crucial in preparing for hiring, turnover, retirements, training of graduate teaching assistants in academic libraries, and other common situations. The authors of this article discuss succession planning for instruction programs in academic…

  11. Does Happiness Promote Career Success?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Julia K.; Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2008-01-01

    Past research has demonstrated a relationship between happiness and workplace success. For example, compared with their less happy peers, happy people earn more money, display superior performance, and perform more helpful acts. Researchers have often assumed that an employee is happy and satisfied because he or she is successful. In this article,…

  12. Do Universities Have "Successful" Brands?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapleo, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Branding in universities is a topical issue, but arguably few UK universities have fully developed "successful" brands in the manner of commercial organizations. This qualitative paper explores the opinions of 40 opinion formers on which UK universities have successful brands and the associations these brands have. Current literature on…

  13. A WORKABLE DEFINITION OF SUCCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The most desirable definition of success from the point of view of environmental stewardship is to treat the entire plume to MCLs. Technically, has proven impossible to attain at many sites. A less desirable definition of success is to contain the source of contamination and tr...

  14. They teach it more successfully

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Ruiz-Gallardo, Jose; Valdés, Arturo; Castaño, Santiago

    2010-05-01

    Science education has been involved in a crisis due to the way in which teachers teach future teachers (McDermott, 1990; Bernal, 2005). During generations, students have been learning sciences as something already done, based on memorizing a number of contents or formulas that always give a correct answer (CUSE, 1997). Thus, Lederman y Abd-El-Khalick (1998) considered that is difficult that future teachers feel Science as something tempting and based on empiricism, if they only learn contents. To learn Science it is required to think, to do and to talk (Pujol, 2003). In this study an experience where students are teachers is shown. 160 students from the Faculty of Education have participated. They had to make, in cooperative groups of four, several activities to eliminate typical Science conceptual mistakes in children (such as minerals and rocks as the same thing, or the proportion of the Earth flattened out at the poles). Some peer groups have to develop activities as kids, question teachers and extract activity strengths and weakness from a kid point of view. A condition of these activities is that they are not mere teacher's demonstrations. Kids have to discover by themselves the conceptual mistake throughout the proposed activity. Afterwards, teacher's groups pass to occupy children's role and vice-versa with new activities from other conceptual mistakes. The experience was tested from two different points of view: a) student's perception of the experience, and b) final exam outcomes. Results show that 95% of the students prefer to be explained by their peers than by the lecturer. As outcomes, 94% of the students that experienced with their peers these activities and explanations, answer successfully the exam questions, while in former experiences where lecturer explain the same concepts, this value decreased up to 64%. These results coincide with other experiences concluding that students have more success than the teacher to make understand concepts to their

  15. Rock mass response to strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events and blasting observed at the surface of the excavations in deep level gold mines in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milev, Alexander; Durrheim, Ray; Ogasawara, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied to characterize the rock mass response and to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instruments, especially designed for recording strong ground motions, were installed underground at a number of deep level gold mines in South Africa. The instruments were recording data at the surface of the stope hangingwalls. A maximum value of 3 m/s was measured. Therefore data were compared to the data recorded in the solid rock by the mine seismic networks to determine the site response. The site response was defined as the ratio of the peak ground velocity measured at the surface of the excavations to the peak ground velocity inferred from the mine seismic data measured in the solid rocks. The site response measured at all mines studied was found to be 9 ± 3 times larger on average. A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to extreme ground motion and derive the attenuation factors in near field. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of the ground motion was found to be proportional to the distance from the source following R^-1.1 & R^-1.7 for compact rock and R^-3.1 & R^-3.4 for more fractured rock close to the surface of the tunnel. In addition the ground motion was compared to the quasi-static deformations taking place around the underground excavations. The quasi-static deformations were measured by means of strain, tilt and closure. A good correspondence

  16. Microwave generator

    DOEpatents

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Snell, C.M.

    1987-03-31

    A microwave generator is provided for generating microwaves substantially from virtual cathode oscillation. Electrons are emitted from a cathode and accelerated to an anode which is spaced apart from the cathode. The anode has an annular slit there through effective to form the virtual cathode. The anode is at least one range thickness relative to electrons reflecting from the virtual cathode. A magnet is provided to produce an optimum magnetic field having the field strength effective to form an annular beam from the emitted electrons in substantial alignment with the annular anode slit. The magnetic field, however, does permit the reflected electrons to axially diverge from the annular beam. The reflected electrons are absorbed by the anode in returning to the real cathode, such that substantially no reflexing electrons occur. The resulting microwaves are produced with a single dominant mode and are substantially monochromatic relative to conventional virtual cathode microwave generators. 6 figs.

  17. PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Roeschke, C.W.

    1957-09-24

    An improvement in pulse generators is described by which there are produced pulses of a duration from about 1 to 10 microseconds with a truly flat top and extremely rapid rise and fall. The pulses are produced by triggering from a separate input or by modifying the current to operate as a free-running pulse generator. In its broad aspect, the disclosed pulse generator comprises a first tube with an anode capacitor and grid circuit which controls the firing; a second tube series connected in the cathode circuit of the first tube such that discharge of the first tube places a voltage across it as the leading edge of the desired pulse; and an integrator circuit from the plate across the grid of the second tube to control the discharge time of the second tube, determining the pulse length.

  18. Workforce Challenges and Retention Success Stories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, John T.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document discusses the current and future challenges in building and retaining the required workforce of scientist and engineers for NASA. Specifically, the talk reviews the current situation at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. Several programs at NASA for high school and college students to assist in inspiring the next generation of scientist and engineers are reviewed. The issue of retention of the best of the young scientists and engineers is also reviewed, with a brief review of several young engineers and their success with and for NASA.

  19. Hydrogen generator

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.R.

    1984-06-19

    A hydrogen generator decomposes water into hydrogen and oxygen, and includes an induction coil which is electrically heated to a temperature sufficient to decompose water passing therethrough. A generator coil is connected in communicating relation to the induction coil, and is positioned in a fire resistant crucible containing ferrous oxide pellets. Oxygen and hydrogen produced by decomposition of water pass through the ferrous oxide pellets where the oxygen reacts with the ferrous oxide and the hydrogen is burned to produce heat for heating a building, such as a conventional home.

  20. Solar Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Vanguard I dish-Stirling module program, initiated in 1982, produced the Vanguard I module, a commercial prototype erected by the Advanco Corporation. The module, which automatically tracks the sun, combines JPL mirrored concentrator technology, an advanced Stirling Solar II engine/generator, a low cost microprocessor-controlled parabolic dish. Vanguard I has a 28% sunlight to electricity conversion efficiency. If tests continue to prove the system effective, Advanco will construct a generating plant to sell electricity to local utilities. An agreement has also been signed with McDonnell Douglas to manufacture a similar module.

  1. Generational mentoring.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Della W

    2006-01-01

    Healthcare organizations struggle with the best way to integrate new staff members, including novice and experienced nurses returning to practice, into the organization. One way of accomplishing this integration is mentoring. Mentoring is a process of guiding the development of another person. The methods used to mentor staff members can be influenced by the generation to which they belong. Each generation typically experiences different events that shape their expectations and responses. Consideration of the influence of these events can improve the effectiveness of the mentoring process.

  2. Field experiments of success-breeds-success dynamics

    PubMed Central

    van de Rijt, Arnout; Kang, Soong Moon; Restivo, Michael; Patil, Akshay

    2014-01-01

    Seemingly similar individuals often experience drastically different success trajectories, with some repeatedly failing and others consistently succeeding. One explanation is preexisting variability along unobserved fitness dimensions that is revealed gradually through differential achievement. Alternatively, positive feedback operating on arbitrary initial advantages may increasingly set apart winners from losers, producing runaway inequality. To identify social feedback in human reward systems, we conducted randomized experiments by intervening in live social environments across the domains of funding, status, endorsement, and reputation. In each system we consistently found that early success bestowed upon arbitrarily selected recipients produced significant improvements in subsequent rates of success compared with the control group of nonrecipients. However, success exhibited decreasing marginal returns, with larger initial advantages failing to produce much further differentiation. These findings suggest a lesser degree of vulnerability of reward systems to incidental or fabricated advantages and a more modest role for cumulative advantage in the explanation of social inequality than previously thought. PMID:24778230

  3. Designing and managing successful endangered species recovery programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Tim W.; Crete, Ron; Cada, John

    1989-03-01

    Endangered species recovery is characterized by complexity and uncertainty in both its biological and organizational aspects. To improve performance in the organizational dimension, some models of organizations are briefly introduced with an emphasis on the organization as a system for processing information, i.e., for successfully dealing with the high uncertainty in the task environment. A strong task orientation,which rewards achievement of the primary goal, is suggested as ideal for this task, as is generative rationality, which encourages workers to observe, critique, and generate new ideas. The parallel organization—a flexible, participatory, problem-solving structure set up alongside traditional bureaucracies—is offered as a useful structure for meeting the demands of uncertainties encountered during recovery. Task forces and projects teams can be set up as parallel organizations. Improved managerial functions include coordinating roles to facilitate the flow and use of information; decision making to avoid “groupthink”—the defects, symptoms, and countermeasures are described; and productive, active management of the inevitable conflict. The inability of organizations to solve dilemmas, to examine their own structures and management, and to change themselves for more effective, efficient, and equitable performance is seen as the major obstacle to improved recovery programs. Some recommendations for effecting change in bureaucracies are made along with a call for case studies detailing the organizational dimensions of endangered species recovery programs.

  4. Characteristics of successful alien plants.

    PubMed

    van Kleunen, M; Dawson, W; Maurel, N

    2015-05-01

    Herbert Baker arguably initiated the search for species characteristics determining alien plant invasion success, with his formulation of the 'ideal weed'. Today, a profusion of studies has tested a myriad of traits for their importance in explaining success of alien plants, but the multiple, not always appropriate, approaches used have led to some confusion and criticism. We argue that a greater understanding of the characteristics explaining alien plant success requires a refined approach that respects the multistage, multiscale nature of the invasion process. We present a schema of questions we can ask regarding the success of alien species, with the answering of one question in the schema being conditional on the answer of preceding questions (thus acknowledging the nested nature of invasion stages). For each question, we identify traits and attributes of species we believe are likely to be most important in explaining species success, and we make predictions as to how we expect successful aliens to differ from natives and from unsuccessful aliens in their characteristics. We organize the findings of empirical studies according to the questions in our schema that they have addressed, to assess the extent to which they support our predictions. We believe that research on plant traits of alien species has already told us a lot about why some alien species become successful after introduction. However, if we ask the right questions at the appropriate scale and use appropriate comparators, research on traits may tell us whether they are really important or not, and if so under which conditions.

  5. Successful reentry: what differentiates successful and unsuccessful parolees?

    PubMed

    Bahr, Stephen J; Harris, Lish; Fisher, James K; Harker Armstrong, Anita

    2010-10-01

    In this research the authors examine the reentry of 51 parolees during the 3 years following their release from prison. The objective is to gain increased understanding of what differentiates successful parolees from those who fail. Success is defined as being discharged from parole by 3 years after release. The study examines the extent to which drug treatment, friendships, work, family bonds, and age are associated with reentry success. Contrary to expectations, it is found that closeness to mother, closeness to father, having a partner, being a parent, and education level are not associated with parole success. Those who succeed on parole are more likely to have taken a substance abuse class while in prison and on release tend to spend more time in enjoyable activities with friends. Among the employed, those that worked at least 40 hours a week are more likely to complete parole successfully. Qualitative data indicate that successful parolees had more support from family and friends and had more self-efficacy, which help them stay away from drugs and peers who use drugs. The findings are consistent with an integrated life course theory.

  6. Generation, ascent and eruption of magma on the Moon: New insights into source depths, magma supply, intrusions and effusive/explosive eruptions (Part 2: Predicted emplacement processes and observations)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, James W.; Wilson, Lionel

    2017-02-01

    We utilize a theoretical analysis of the generation, ascent, intrusion and eruption of basaltic magma on the Moon to develop new insights into magma source depths, supply processes, transport and emplacement mechanisms via dike intrusions, and effusive and explosive eruptions. We make predictions about the intrusion and eruption processes and compare these with the range of observed styles of mare volcanism, and related features and deposits. Density contrasts between the bulk mantle and regions with a greater abundance of heat sources will cause larger heated regions to rise as buoyant melt-rich diapirs that generate partial melts that can undergo collection into magma source regions; diapirs rise to the base of the anorthositic crustal density trap (when the crust is thicker than the elastic lithosphere) or, later in history, to the base of the lithospheric rheological trap (when the thickening lithosphere exceeds the thickness of the crust). Residual diapiric buoyancy, and continued production and arrival of diapiric material, enhances melt volume and overpressurizes the source regions, producing sufficient stress to cause brittle deformation of the elastic part of the overlying lithosphere; a magma-filled crack initiates and propagates toward the surface as a convex upward, blade-shaped dike. The volume of magma released in a single event is likely to lie in the range 102 km3 to 103 km3, corresponding to dikes with widths of 40-100 m and both vertical and horizontal extents of 60-100 km, favoring eruption on the lunar nearside. Shallower magma sources produce dikes that are continuous from the source region to the surface, but deeper sources will propagate dikes that detach from the source region and ascend as discrete penny-shaped structures. As the Moon cools with time, the lithosphere thickens, source regions become less abundant, and rheological traps become increasingly deep; the state of stress in the lithosphere becomes increasingly contractional

  7. Successful Implementation of Clinical Information Technology

    PubMed Central

    Hill, V.; Bruner, K.; Maciaz, G.; Saucedo, L.; Catzoela, L.; Ramirez, R.; Jacobs, W.J.; Nguyen, P.; Patel, L.; Webster, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To identify and describe the most critical strategic and operational contributors to the successful implementation of clinical information technologies, as deployed within a moderate sized system of U.S. community hospitals. Background and Setting CHRISTUS Health is a multi-state system comprised of more than 350 services and 60 hospitals with over 9 000 physicians. The Santa Rosa region of CHRISTUS Health, located in greater San Antonio, Texas is comprised of three adult community hospital facilities and one Children’s hospital each with bed capacities of 142–180. Computerized Patient Order Entry (CPOE) was first implemented in 2012 within a complex market environment. The Santa Rosa region has 2 417 credentialed physicians and 263 mid-level allied health professionals. Methods This report focuses on the seven most valuable strategies deployed by the Health Informatics team in a large four hospital CHRISTUS region to achieve strong CPOE adoption and critical success lessons learned. The findings are placed within the context of the literature describing best practices in health information technology implementation. Results While the elements described involved discrete de novo process generation to support implementation and operations, collectively they represent the creation of a new customer-centric service culture in our Health Informatics team, which has served as a foundation for ensuring strong clinical information technology adoption beyond CPOE. Conclusion The seven success factors described are not limited in their value to and impact on CPOE adoption, but generalize to – and can advance success in – varied other clinical information technology implementations across diverse hospitals. A number of these factors are supported by reports in the literature of other institutions’ successful implementations of CPOE and other clinical information technologies, and while not prescriptive to other settings, may be adapted to yield

  8. Generation Next

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    2010-01-01

    There is a shortage of accounting professors with Ph.D.s who can prepare the next generation. To help reverse the faculty deficit, the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) has created the new Accounting Doctoral Scholars program by pooling more than $17 million and soliciting commitments from more than 70 of the nation's…

  9. Why Do First-Generation Students Fail?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Sanjay S.; Newbold, John J.; O'Rourke, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have determined factors contributing to first-generation student success. This study finds that first-generation students are less involved, have less social and financial support, and do not show a preference for active coping strategies. First-generation students report less social and academic satisfaction as well as lower…

  10. Success Factors Identified by Academically Successful African-American Students of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooler, Meredith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore why some low-income minority students were academically successful in school using a three-tiered approach to research including individual student interviews, classroom observations, and photographs and follow up interviews on photographs to identify factors contributing to academic…

  11. The neurobiology of successful abstinence.

    PubMed

    Garavan, H; Brennan, K L; Hester, R; Whelan, R

    2013-08-01

    This review focuses on the neurobiological processes involved in achieving successful abstinence from drugs of abuse. While there is clinical and public health value in knowing if the deficits associated with drug use correct with abstinence, studying the neurobiology that underlies successful abstinence can also illuminate the processes that enable drug-dependent individuals to successfully quit. Here, we review studies on human addicts that assess the neurobiological changes that arise with abstinence and the neurobiological predictors of successfully avoiding relapse. The literature, while modest in size, suggests that abstinence is associated with improvement in prefrontal structure and function, which may underscore the importance of prefrontally mediated cognitive control processes in avoiding relapse. Given the implication that the prefrontal cortex may be an important target for therapeutic interventions, we also review evidence indicating the efficacy of cognitive control training for abstinence.

  12. Success Teaching Spelling with Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Mariellen

    1983-01-01

    A spelling approach which incorporates music on a cassette with spelling, pronunciation, and definition of specific words was successful in improving junior high learning disabled students' spelling performance, self-esteem, and sequential memories. (CL)

  13. SmartWay Program Successes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides success metrics and statistics about the SmartWay program and what is has done to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, climate change, and other environmental impacts of freight transportation and supply chain.

  14. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees' shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (M age = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals' perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work.

  15. Components of Successful Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Dorothy J.

    1984-01-01

    Identifies practices that ensure institutional success in industrial training, focusing on areas including institutional commitment, the president's role, institutional flexibility, instructor qualifications, needs assessment, five basic elements in program development, contracts, recognition of student achievement, evaluations, ongoing…

  16. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees’ shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (Mage = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals’ perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work. PMID:27458405

  17. Success to the Third Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Lottie L.

    2001-01-01

    Tasha Inniss, Sherry Scott Joseph, and Kimberly Weems discuss the challenges and successes of becoming the first African American women to receive doctorates in mathematics from the University of Maryland-College Park. (EV)

  18. Building a Successful Technology Cluster

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silicon Valley is the iconic cluster—a dense regional network of companies, universities, research institutions, and other stakeholders involved in a single industry. Many regions have sought to replicate the success of Silicon Valley, which has produced technological innov...

  19. Revision IPAA: strategies for success.

    PubMed

    Larson, David W

    2014-07-01

    The history of ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) is one of success with durable surgical and functional results. However, pouch failure, due to infection, mechanical, or functional disability, represents a challenge to both surgeon and patient. Practicing surgeons who deal with the revision pouch face a variety of challenges. Success requires a strategy, which includes critical planning, preparation, and surgical techniques in order that surgeons continue to provide solutions and hope to patients.

  20. Generative Models of Disfluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Timothy A.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes a generative model for representing disfluent phenomena in human speech. This model makes use of observed syntactic structure present in disfluent speech, and uses a right-corner transform on syntax trees to model this structure in a very natural way. Specifically, the phenomenon of speech repair is modeled by explicitly…