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Sample records for obstetric brachial plexus

  1. Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Romaña, M C; Rogier, A

    2013-01-01

    Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy is considered to be the result of a trauma during the delivery, even if there remains some controversy surrounding the causes. Although most babies recover spontaneously in the first 3 months of life, a small number remains with poor recovery which requires surgical brachial plexus exploration. Surgical indications depend on the type of lesion (producing total or partial palsy) and particularly the nonrecovery of biceps function by the age of 3 months. In a global palsy, microsurgery will be mandatory and the strategy for restoration will focus first on hand reinnervation and secondarily on providing elbow flexion and shoulder stability. Further procedures may be necessary during growth in order to avoid fixed contractured deformities or to give or increase strength of important muscle functions like elbow flexion or wrist extension. The author reviews the history of obstetrical brachial plexus injury, epidemiology, and the specifics of descriptive and functional anatomy in babies and children. Clinical manifestations at birth are directly correlated with the anatomical lesion. Finally, operative procedures are considered, including strategies of reconstruction with nerve grafting in infants and secondary surgery to increase functional capacity at later ages. However, normal function is usually not recovered, particularly in total brachial plexus palsy.

  2. [Obstetric brachial plexus injury].

    PubMed

    Pondaag, Willem; van Dijk, J Gert; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Malessy, Martijn J A

    2014-01-01

    Obstetric palsy is a birth injury that occurs when the brachial plexus is damaged by traction. In the majority of patients spontaneous recovery will occur; however, in case of incomplete spontaneous recovery early neurosurgical intervention may be indicated. We present 3 case reports in this article, as well as describing the strategy favoured in our clinic. We recommend referring patients who have incomplete spontaneous recovery at the age of 1 month. At that age a good prediction of prognosis can be made by combining neurological examination with needle electromyography (EMG) of the biceps muscle.

  3. Intrauterine shoulder weakness and obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Israel; Papazian, Oscar; Shuhaiber, Hans; Yaylali, Ilker; Grossman, John A I

    2004-09-01

    Obstetrical brachial plexus injury occurs when the forces preventing the stretch of the brachial plexus are overcome by the forces stretching it. This report describes an 8-day-old male delivered by uncomplicated cesarean section with right obstetrical brachial plexus palsy and congenital arm atrophy. The patient had a history of decreased right arm movement detected by fetal ultrasound at 18 to 20 weeks of gestation. The purpose of this article is to report that stretching of brachial plexus at birth sufficient to produce a plexus injury may occur in a patient with a vulnerable plexus even in the absence of traction during delivery.

  4. Microsurgical reconstruction of obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Gu, Yu-Dong; Wang, Huan

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of obstetric brachial plexus palsy is not declining. Heavy birth weight of the infant and breech delivery are considered two important risk factors and Caesarean section delivery seems to be a protective factor. There are two clinical appearances, that is, paralysis of the upper roots and that of total roots, and Klumpke's palsy involving the C8 and T1 roots is rarely seen. Computed tomography myelography (CTM) is still the best way of visualizing nerve roots. Surgical intervention is needed for 20-25% of all patients and clinical information is decisive for the indication of surgery. Most often, a conducting neuroma of the upper trunk is encountered, and it is believed that neuroma resection followed by microsurgical reconstruction of the brachial plexus gives the best results. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2008.

  5. Arachnoid cyst masquerading as obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, Natarajan; Santhanakrishnan, Alwar Govindan; Sivakumar, Krishnaswamy

    2012-07-01

    Obstetric brachial plexus palsy is not uncommon. However, lesions masquerading as obstetric brachial plexus palsy are rare. A child with a cervicothoracic arachnoid cyst masquerading as obstetric brachial plexus palsy is presented, and the relevant literature is reviewed. A girl born by vaginal delivery at full term without any antecedent risk factors for obstetric brachial plexus palsy was noted to have decreased movements of the right upper extremity. After 7 months, there was no improvement. An MRI scan was obtained, which revealed a cervicothoracic spinal extradural arachnoid cyst. During surgery, the cyst was found to communicate with the dura at the axilla of the C-7 nerve root. The cyst was excised in toto. Six months later, there was improvement in the infant's neurological status. This case illustrates that spinal arachnoid cysts should be entertained in the differential diagnosis when a child presents with obstetric brachial plexus palsy without known antecedent risk factors for obstetric palsy.

  6. Bilateral obstetric brachial plexus paralysis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dragu, A; Horch, R E; Wirth, S; Ingianni, G

    2009-01-01

    Whereas cases of unilateral obstetric brachial plexus paralysis have been sufficiently described and discussed in the literature cases of bilateral obstetric brachial plexus paralysis are extremely rare and so far have not been mentioned and discussed satisfactorily. We present a case of bilateral obstetric brachial plexus paralysis in an 8-months-old white boy. We performed a neurotisation of the Nervus suprascapularis with the Nervus accessorius and an Oberlin procedure on both sides in two operative steps. In an early follow-up 6 months after the second operation and intensive physiotherapy the little patient was able to crawl with the active help of both arms. Bilateral obstetric brachial plexus paralysis is a very rare incidence in infants. An interdisciplinary approach including paediatrics, plastic surgeons, neurosurgeons, neurologists, radiologists and physiotherapists is essential for the success of treatment strategies in such cases.

  7. Limb preference in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lynda J-S; Anand, Praveen; Birch, Rolfe

    2005-07-01

    Brachial plexus palsy affects children differently than adults. In children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy, motor development must depend on nervous system adaptation. Previous studies report sensory plasticity in these children. This noninvasive study provides support for neural plasticity (the general ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiences) in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy by considering upper limb preference. As in the general population, we expect that 90% of children would prefer their right upper limb. However, only 17% of children affected by right obstetric brachial plexus palsy prefer the right upper limb for overall movement; children with left obstetric brachial plexus palsy did not significantly differ from the general population in upper limb preference. This study also provides the first evidence of a significant correlation between actual task performance and select obstetric brachial plexus palsy outcome measurement systems, thereby justifying the routine use of these outcome measurement systems as a reflection of the practical utility of the affected limb to the patient.

  8. [Treatment of early and late obstetric brachial plexus palsy].

    PubMed

    Degliūte, Ramune; Pranckevicius, Sigitas; Cekanauskas, Emilis; Buinauskiene, Jūrate; Kalesinskas, Romas Jonas

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review and to analyze treatment patterns of early and late obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Eighty-one children with early and late obstetric brachial plexus palsy were treated in the Department of Pediatric Orthopedics and in the Postintensive Care Unit within the period 1988-2002. Children were classified into 2 groups according to age: Ist group (67 newborns) was treated conservatively, and IInd group (14 children with late obstetric brachial plexus palsy with deformity) underwent operative treatment. Active hand movements and innervation were evaluated before and after treatment. Thirty newborns had full recovery, 32 newborns had incomplete recovery, and in 5 cases no improvement was seen. Fourteen children with late obstetric brachial plexus palsy underwent the following operations: rotation osteotomy of the humerus was performed in 10 cases, lengthening of biceps and brachialis muscle tendons--in 6 cases, transposition of triceps muscle tendon--in 1 case, transposition of pectoralis major tendon--in 3 cases and flexor carpi transposition--in 1 case. There was an improvement in active hand movements after operative treatment and rehabilitation. According to our experience, in most cases newborns recover spontaneously or after conservative treatment. Secondary reconstructive surgery of late brachial plexus palsy can improve the condition of these patients.

  9. Obstetric brachial plexus palsy: a clinical and electrophysiologic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, M S; Bhatia, M; Mehta, V S

    2002-09-01

    Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) occurs as sequelae of birth-related trauma, antenatal and parturition related complications. It is associated with varying degrees of functional disability. Electrodiagnostic studies (EDS) are an adjunctive tool and help to localise and prognosticate the outcome of OBPP. Fourteen children, presenting with OBPP to the Clinical Neurophysiology Lab, were analyzed. Details of birth history were obtained, and EDS were performed to characterize the lesion. The age ranged from one month to one year. Ten had unilateral and four bilateral brachial palsy. On EDS, five had pan-plexus, six predominantly upper plexus and three lower plexus involvement. A poor re-innervation pattern on EMG correlated with inadequate recovery. OBPP, a condition associated with considerable disability, needs to be prevented. Electrodiagnostic studies are a useful adjunctive tool for characterizing the site of injury and prognostication.

  10. Obstetric brachial plexus palsy--risk factors and predictors.

    PubMed

    Sibiński, Marcin; Synder, Marek

    2007-01-01

    Obstetric brachial plexus palsy is a rare condition occurring in about 1 per thousand of live births. It is caused most often by traction during delivery, although in some cases clear evidence of direct injury to the nerves is not present. The aim of the study was to define risk factors for obstetric brachial plexus palsy and relate the chances of recovery to the severity of the injury. Two prospective databases of patient information and clinical assessment data were used for the study. The first database contained information about pregnancy, labour, severity of injury, operative procedures and coexisting disorders of 162 children. The second comprised information about clinical assessment of the affected limb in 76 patients. The mean age of patients at last follow-up was 6 years and 9 months. High birth weight, shoulder dystocia, forceps delivery and clavicle fracture were important risk factors in obstetric brachial plexus injury. Breech delivery was not associated with a higher incidence of nerve injuries despite literature data pointing to the contrary. A Caesarean incision reduced the risk of plexus palsy but did not eliminate it completely. In Narakas group 1 patients, recovery of biceps function occurred before the age of 4 months. The vast majority of the children will have complete recovery of the affected limb. In group III and IV, return to full function is very unlikely. Our results confirm that Narakas' classification, apart from being very popular for classifying severity of the pathology, is a strong predictor of outcome.

  11. Obstetric brachial plexus palsy following routine versus difficult deliveries.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Amel A F

    2014-07-01

    Previous bio-engineering studies showed that intrapartum peak forces applied by the clinician were lower in routine deliveries than difficult deliveries. A total of 751 cases of obstetric brachial plexus palsy were included and divided into two groups: group I (248 patients) were born following routine deliveries and group II (503 patients) were born following difficult deliveries. Both groups were compared regarding the type of palsy and the rate of good/poor spontaneous motor recovery from the palsy. Group I subjects were more likely to have upper Erb palsy whereas those in group II were more likely to develop total palsy (P < .0001). The percentage of newborns with poor functional recovery was significantly higher (P < .05) in group II with regards to shoulder, wrist, and hand function. It was concluded that higher peak forces applied by the clinician in difficult deliveries affect the type of obstetric brachial plexus palsy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. Scapular deformity in obstetric brachial plexus palsy: a new finding

    PubMed Central

    Paizi, Melia

    2007-01-01

    While most obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients recover arm and hand function, the residual nerve weakness leads to muscle imbalances about the shoulder which may cause bony deformities. In this paper we describe abnormalities in the developing scapula and the glenohumeral joint. We introduce a classification for the deformity which we term Scapular Hypoplasia, Elevation and Rotation. Multiple anatomic parameters were measured in bilateral CT images and three-dimensional CT reconstruction of the shoulder girdle of 30 obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients (age range 10 months–10.6 years). The affected scapulae were found to be hypoplastic by an average of 14% while the ratio of the height to the width of the body of scapula (excluding acromion) were not significantly changed, the acromion was significantly elongated by an average of 19%. These parameters as well as subluxation of the humeral head (average 14%) and downward rotation in the scapular plane were found to correlate with the area of scapula visible over the clavicle. This finding provides a classification tool for diagnosis and objective evaluation of the bony deformity and its severity in obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients. PMID:17262175

  13. Scapular deformity in obstetric brachial plexus palsy: a new finding.

    PubMed

    Nath, Rahul K; Paizi, Melia

    2007-03-01

    While most obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients recover arm and hand function, the residual nerve weakness leads to muscle imbalances about the shoulder which may cause bony deformities. In this paper we describe abnormalities in the developing scapula and the glenohumeral joint. We introduce a classification for the deformity which we term Scapular Hypoplasia, Elevation and Rotation. Multiple anatomic parameters were measured in bilateral CT images and three-dimensional CT reconstruction of the shoulder girdle of 30 obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients (age range 10 months-10.6 years). The affected scapulae were found to be hypoplastic by an average of 14% while the ratio of the height to the width of the body of scapula (excluding acromion) were not significantly changed, the acromion was significantly elongated by an average of 19%. These parameters as well as subluxation of the humeral head (average 14%) and downward rotation in the scapular plane were found to correlate with the area of scapula visible over the clavicle. This finding provides a classification tool for diagnosis and objective evaluation of the bony deformity and its severity in obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients.

  14. Assessment of obstetric brachial plexus injury with preoperative ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Smith, Edward C; Xixis, Kathryn Idol; Grant, Gerald A; Grant, Stuart A

    2016-06-01

    Tools used in the assessment of obstetric brachial plexus injuries (OBPIs) have traditionally included electrodiagnostic studies, computerized tomography with myelography, and MRI. However, the utility of ultrasound (US) in infants for such assessment has not been extensively examined. This retrospective case series reports the preoperative brachial plexus US findings in 8 patients with OBPI and compares US with intraoperative findings. When available, the preoperative US was compared with the preoperative MRI. US revealed abnormalities in all 8 patients. Although MRI detected abnormalities in the majority of patients, US provided accurate information regarding severity and anatomic location of injury in some patients. US is a relatively inexpensive, noninvasive, painless diagnostic modality that can be used to assess OBPI. This case series suggests that US is a valuable adjunct to current diagnostic modalities. Muscle Nerve 53: 946-950, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Hypoglossal nerve transfer in obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Blaauw, Gerhard; Sauter, Ymte; Lacroix, Cyrielle L E; Slooff, Albert C J

    2006-01-01

    A cost-benefit analysis was performed of hypoglossal nerve transfer in six patients with obstetric brachial palsy taking into account the factors donor site morbidity and extent of recovery. Hypoglossal nerve transfer was employed in four children for elbow flexion only; in two patients for elbow flexion as well as for elbow extension. The transfer was part of an extended brachial plexus reconstruction for treatment of obstetric brachial plexus palsy. After a mean post-operative interval of 52 months (SD+/-8.1), two professional speech therapists investigated late donor site morbidity by analyzing elementary and communicative functions. The functional result for the arm was assessed using the Mallet scale and by performing a physical examination. Following hypoglossal nerve transfer, early donor site morbidity was significant causing great anxiety in the parents. Late donor site morbidity consisted of serious oral problems in a number of the children. They also showed clear associated movements in the arm during mouth/tongue activity. Recovery of powerful volitional elbow flexion was achieved in four cases only. We do not believe that the sacrifice of such an important function as exerted by the hypoglossal nerve is balanced by the gain demonstrated in our series.

  16. Management of Shoulder Problems Following Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Matthew; Trail, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Obstetric brachial plexus injuries are common, with an incidence of 0.42 per 1000 live births in the UK, and with 25% of patients being left with permanent disability without intervention. The shoulder is the most commonly affected joint and, as a result of the subsequent imbalance of musculature, the abnormal deforming forces cause dysplasia of the glenohumeral joint. In the growing child, this presents with changing pattern of pathology, which requires a multidisciplinary approach and a broad range of treatment modalities to optimize function. PMID:27582903

  17. Evaluation of an education day for families of children with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Ho, Emily S; Ulster, Alissa A

    2011-09-01

    Children with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy may have chronic physical impairment in their affected upper extremity. Affected children and their families may benefit from psychosocial interventions including therapeutic relationships with health professionals, meeting other families living with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy, support groups, and social work. One method of addressing psychosocial needs is through a support and education day. The purpose of this quality improvement project is to evaluate parental perceptions of a support and education day called the "Brachial Plexus Family Day." Families of children with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy who attended the Brachial Plexus Family Day completed a questionnaire to evaluate the different programs offered during the day. The families also ranked the importance of different psychosocial supports offered in the clinic. Sixty-three out of 69 families completed the questionnaire. Each program of the Brachial Plexus Family Day was rated as good or excellent by the respondents. Ninety-seven percent of respondents rated meeting other families and children with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy as helpful supports. Attending a Brachial Plexus Family day event (86%), followed by connecting with a doctor (60%), and physical or occupational therapist (59%) were the highest ranked supports reported by the families. The parents and caregivers that attended the Brachial Plexus Family Day rated the program highly. This group also valued the opportunity to connect with other families and children affected with the same condition.

  18. Histopathological basis of Horner's syndrome in obstetric brachial plexus palsy differs from that in adult brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Gang; Chen, Liang; Gu, Yu-Dong; Yu, Guang-Rong

    2008-05-01

    Although Horner's syndrome is usually taken as an absolute indicator of avulsions of the C8 and T1 ventral roots in adult brachial plexus injury, its pathological basis in obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) is unclear. We therefore examined the morphological mechanism for the presence of Horner's syndrome in brachial plexus injury in infants and adults. Some axons of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in T1 innervate the superior cervical ganglion via the C7 ventral root in infants but not in adults. Therefore, the presence of Horner's syndrome may relate in part to avulsion of the C7 root in OBPP. These findings suggest that Horner's syndrome in OBPP is not necessarily indicative of avulsions of the C8 and T1 roots, as it can occur with avulsion of the C7 root.

  19. Functional scoring system for obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Basheer, H; Zelic, V; Rabia, F

    2000-02-01

    We suggest a new scoring system that measures the upper limb function both as a unit and in separate parts. Our system was designed to study the recovery in patients with obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP). It measures active limb movements and compares them with the normal side to obtain a ratio, which is then converted to a score. Fifty-two patients with OBPP were studied with a follow-up of 2 years. The progress of the patients was monitored using the system. Thirty-seven patients (71%) achieved very good recovery, eight patients (15%) achieved a good score, and five patients (10%) achieved a poor score. Most of the recovery occurred before the age of 6 months.

  20. Comparison in obstetric management on infants with transient and persistent obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Mollberg, Margareta; Lagerkvist, Anna-Lena; Johansson, Urban; Bager, Börje; Johansson, Annika; Hagberg, Henrik

    2008-12-01

    The outcome of obstetric brachial plexus palsy depends on the severity of the lesion of the nerve fibers. The aim of the prospective study is to evaluate if differences in force used in downward traction on the fetal head correlate to the number of nerve roots affected. At final neurological examination at 18 months of age, complete neurological recovery occurred in 80 of 98 children (82%). Downward traction of the fetal head was applied more often and with greater force in the group with persistent damage. There was a significant correlation between the force used to the number of nerve roots affected. The risk of persistent obstetric brachial plexus palsy at age 18 months depended on obstetric management and increased significantly with increasing force used in downward traction of the fetal head.

  1. The analysis of the intra-surgical view of the obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Gosk, Jerzy; Rutowski, Roman; Rabczyński, Jerzy

    2005-01-01

    The surgical intervention is necessary in about 20% of all cases of the perinatal brachial plexus palsy. In this study the intra-surgical view and the applied microsurgical techniques were analysed. The clinical material consisted of 49 children with the obstetric brachial plexus palsy treated operatively, on which the following changes were found intra-surgically: compression of the brachial plexus in 21 cases and injuries with discontinuity of the elements of the brachial plexus in 28 cases. The following surgical procedures were performed: neurolysis - 31 cases, direct neurorrhaphy - 7 cases, 2 - 4 sural nerve grafting from 2 to 3 cm - 4 cases, extra-anatomical extra-plexual reconstruction - 6 cases, extra-anatomical intra-plexual reconstruction - 1 case. In all cases the intra-surgical view motivated the operative intervention. The most important problem in treatment of the obstetric brachial plexus palsy is a separate group of children who need a surgical intervention.

  2. Reliability of 3D upper limb motion analysis in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Judy; Malone, Ailish; Kiernan, Damien; Meldrum, Dara

    2017-03-01

    Kinematics, measured by 3D upper limb motion analysis (3D-ULMA), can potentially increase understanding of movement patterns by quantifying individual joint contributions. Reliability in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) has not been established.

  3. Primary and secondary shoulder reconstruction in obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Terzis, Julia K; Kokkalis, Zinon T

    2008-09-01

    In this retrospective review, the methods and outcomes in 96 children (98 extremities) with obstetric brachial plexus palsy who underwent primary reconstruction and/or palliative surgery for shoulder function were analysed. Thirty cases underwent primary reconstruction alone, 37 underwent both primary and secondary procedures, and 31 late cases underwent only palliative surgery. The mean follow-up period was 6.7 years. The mean shoulder abduction increased from 48 degrees +/-32 degrees preoperatively to 123 degrees +/-35 degrees postoperatively (average gain 75 degrees ); the mean active external rotation with the arm at the side increased from -19 degrees +/-17 degrees to 62 degrees +/-21 degrees (mean gain 81 degrees ); and the mean aggregate Mallet score improved from 8.8 points to 20.9 points, respectively. Reconstruction of both axillary and suprascapular nerves yielded improved outcomes of shoulder abduction and external rotation. Early plexus reconstruction (

  4. Obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI): Canada's national clinical practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    Coroneos, Christopher J; Voineskos, Sophocles H; Christakis, Marie K; Thoma, Achilleas; Bain, James R; Brouwers, Melissa C

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to establish an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the primary management of obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI). This clinical practice guideline addresses 4 existing gaps: (1) historic poor use of evidence, (2) timing of referral to multidisciplinary care, (3) Indications and timing of operative nerve repair and (4) distribution of expertise. Setting The guideline is intended for all healthcare providers treating infants and children, and all specialists treating upper extremity injuries. Participants The evidence interpretation and recommendation consensus team (Canadian OBPI Working Group) was composed of clinicians representing each of Canada's 10 multidisciplinary centres. Outcome measures An electronic modified Delphi approach was used for consensus, with agreement criteria defined a priori. Quality indicators for referral to a multidisciplinary centre were established by consensus. An original meta-analysis of primary nerve repair and review of Canadian epidemiology and burden were previously completed. Results 7 recommendations address clinical gaps and guide identification, referral, treatment and outcome assessment: (1) physically examine for OBPI in newborns with arm asymmetry or risk factors; (2) refer newborns with OBPI to a multidisciplinary centre by 1 month; (3) provide pregnancy/birth history and physical examination findings at birth; (4) multidisciplinary centres should include a therapist and peripheral nerve surgeon experienced with OBPI; (5) physical therapy should be advised by a multidisciplinary team; (6) microsurgical nerve repair is indicated in root avulsion and other OBPI meeting centre operative criteria; (7) the common data set includes the Narakas classification, limb length, Active Movement Scale (AMS) and Brachial Plexus Outcome Measure (BPOM) 2 years after birth/surgery. Conclusions The process established a new network of opinion leaders and researchers for further

  5. Upright MRI of glenohumeral dysplasia following obstetric brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Nath, Rahul K; Paizi, Melia; Melcher, Sonya E; Farina, Kim L

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of upright magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shoulder scanning in the diagnosis of glenohumeral deformity following obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI). Eighty-nine children (ages 0.4 to 17.9 years) with OBPI who have medial rotation contracture and reduced passive and active lateral rotation of the shoulder were evaluated via upright MRI of the affected glenohumeral joint. Qualitative impressions of glenoid form were recorded, and quantitative measurements were made of glenoid version and posterior subluxation. Glenoid version of the affected shoulder averaged -16.8 +/- 11.0 degrees (range, -55 degrees to 1 degrees ), and percentage of the humeral head anterior to the glenoid fossa (PHHA) averaged 32.6 +/- 16.5% (range, -17.8% to 52.4%). The glenoid form was normal in 43 children, convex in 19 children and biconcave in 27 children. Standard MRI protocols were used to obtain bilateral images from 14 of these patients. Among the patients with bilateral MR images, glenoid version and PHHA were significantly different between the involved and uninvolved shoulders (P<.000). Glenoid version in the involved shoulder averaged -19.0 +/- 13.1 degrees (range, -52 degrees to -3 degrees ), and PHHA averaged 29.7 +/- 18.4% (range, -16.2% to 48.7%). In the uninvolved shoulder, the average glenoid version and PHHA were -5.2 +/- 3.7 degrees (range, -12 degrees to -1 degrees ) and 47.7 +/- 3.0% (range, 43% to 54%), respectively. The relative beneficial aspects of upright MRI include lack of need for sedation, low claustrophobic potential and, most important, natural, gravity-influenced position, enabling the surgeon to visualize the true preoperative picture of the shoulder. It is an effective tool for demonstrating glenohumeral abnormalities resulting from brachial plexus injury worthy of surgical exploration.

  6. Birth weight and incidence of surgical obstetric brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Nath, Rahul K; Avila, Meera B; Melcher, Sonya E; Nath, Devin K; Eichhorn, Mitchell G; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    (1) To analyze the birth weight of obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) patients requiring one or more reconstructive surgeries and (2) to analyze whether there is any difference in the severity of the injury, and the outcome of the surgery between the macrosomic and nonmacrosomic OBPI patients. An observational cohort study was performed on 100 consecutive patients treated with surgery at the Texas Nerve and Paralysis Institute. Ninety of the 100 patients underwent the modified Quad surgery, which improves the shoulder abduction and overall shoulder function. All OBPI patients in our study were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively by evaluating video recordings of active shoulder abduction. Using a 4000 g definition of macrosomia, 52% of patients would be considered macrosomic, and using a 4500 g definition of macrosomia, 18% of patients are considered macrosomic in our study. Permanent injury occurs also in average-birth-weight children. A significant percentage (48%-82% depending on definition of macrosomia) of OBPI patients requiring major reconstructive surgery had birth weights which would put them in the "normal" birth weight category. In addition, we found that there was no significant difference in the severity of the injury, and the outcome of the modified Quad surgical procedure between macrosomic and nonmacrosomic OBPI patients. However, there was a significant improvement in shoulder movement in both macrosomic and nonmacrosomic patients after modified Quad surgery.

  7. Birth Weight and Incidence of Surgical Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K.; Avila, Meera B.; Melcher, Sonya E.; Eichhorn, Mitchell G.; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: (1) To analyze the birth weight of obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) patients requiring one or more reconstructive surgeries and (2) to analyze whether there is any difference in the severity of the injury, and the outcome of the surgery between the macrosomic and nonmacrosomic OBPI patients. Study Design: An observational cohort study was performed on 100 consecutive patients treated with surgery at the Texas Nerve and Paralysis Institute. Ninety of the 100 patients underwent the modified Quad surgery, which improves the shoulder abduction and overall shoulder function. All OBPI patients in our study were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively by evaluating video recordings of active shoulder abduction. Results: Using a 4000 g definition of macrosomia, 52% of patients would be considered macrosomic, and using a 4500 g definition of macrosomia, 18% of patients are considered macrosomic in our study. Permanent injury occurs also in average-birth-weight children. Conclusions: A significant percentage (48%-82% depending on definition of macrosomia) of OBPI patients requiring major reconstructive surgery had birth weights which would put them in the “normal” birth weight category. In addition, we found that there was no significant difference in the severity of the injury, and the outcome of the modified Quad surgical procedure between macrosomic and nonmacrosomic OBPI patients. However, there was a significant improvement in shoulder movement in both macrosomic and nonmacrosomic patients after modified Quad surgery. PMID:25987939

  8. Brachial plexus

    MedlinePlus

    The brachial plexus is a group of nerves that run from the lower neck through the upper shoulder area. ... Damage to the brachial plexus nerves can cause muscle and sensation problems that are often associated with pain in the same area. Symptoms ...

  9. Transfer of pectoral nerves to the musculocutaneous nerve in obstetric upper brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Blaauw, Gerhard; Slooff, Albert C J

    2003-08-01

    To investigate the results of transfer of pectoral nerves to the musculocutaneous nerve for treatment of obstetric brachial palsy. In 25 cases of obstetric brachial palsy (20 after breech deliveries), branches of the pectoral nerve plexus were transferred directly to the musculocutaneous nerve. For all patients, the nerve transfer was part of an extended brachial plexus reconstruction. Results were tested both clinically and with the Mallet scale, at a mean follow-up time of 70 months (standard deviation, 34.3 mo). There were two complete failures, which were attributable to disconnection of the transferred nerve endings. The results after transfer were excellent in 17 cases and fair in 5 cases. Steindler flexorplasty improved elbow flexion for three patients. Transfer of pectoral nerves to the musculocutaneous nerve for treatment of obstetric upper brachial palsy may be effective, if the specific anatomic features of the pectoral nerve plexus are sufficiently appreciated.

  10. Repair of obstetric brachial plexus palsy: results in 100 children.

    PubMed

    Birch, R; Ahad, N; Kono, H; Smith, S

    2005-08-01

    This is a prospective study of 107 repairs of obstetric brachial plexus palsy carried out between January 1990 and December 1999. The results in 100 children are presented. In partial lesions operation was advised when paralysis of abduction of the shoulder and of flexion of the elbow persisted after the age of three months and neurophysiological investigations predicted a poor prognosis. Operation was carried out earlier at about two months in complete lesions showing no sign of clinical recovery and with unfavourable neurophysiological investigations. Twelve children presented at the age of 12 months or more; in three more repair was undertaken after earlier unsuccessful neurolysis. The median age at operation was four months, the mean seven months and a total of 237 spinal nerves were repaired. The mean duration of follow-up after operation was 85 months (30 to 152). Good results were obtained in 33% of repairs of C5, in 55% of C6, in 24% of C7 and in 57% of operations on C8 and T1. No statistical difference was seen between a repair of C5 by graft or nerve transfer. Posterior dislocation of the shoulder was observed in 30 cases. All were successfully relocated after the age of one year. In these children the results of repairs of C5 were reduced by a mean of 0.8 on the Gilbert score and 1.6 on the Mallett score. Pre-operative electrodiagnosis is a reliable indicator of the depth of the lesion and of the outcome after repair. Intra-operative somatosensory evoked potentials were helpful in the detection of occult intradural (pre-ganglionic) injury.

  11. Evidence of the Effectiveness of Primary Brachial Plexus Surgery in Infants With Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy–Revisited

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A recent systematic review questioned the effectiveness of primary surgery in infants with obstetric brachial plexus palsy. At our center, the indication for primary surgery in infants with upper Erb’s obstetric palsy is the lack of active elbow flexion at age 4 months. The current study compares the outcome of motor recovery in 2 groups of infants with upper Erb’s palsy: one group (n = 9) treated surgically between age 4 and 5 months, and another group (n = 9) treated conservatively despite the lack of active elbow flexion at age 4 months. The only reason for not doing the surgery in the latter group was refusal by the parents. The scores of motor recovery were collected at the 2-year follow-up visit, and they were significantly better in the surgical group. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of primary surgery in infants with upper Erb’s obstetric palsy compared to conservative management. PMID:28596982

  12. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy: Two Single-Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buesch, Francisca Eugster

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy and receive preliminary information about functional improvements. Two patients (age 12 years) with obstetric brachial plexus palsy were included for a 126-h home-based CIMT…

  13. Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy: Two Single-Case Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buesch, Francisca Eugster

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the feasibility of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy and receive preliminary information about functional improvements. Two patients (age 12 years) with obstetric brachial plexus palsy were included for a 126-h home-based CIMT…

  14. Shoulder deformities in obstetric brachial plexus paralysis: a computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Terzis, Julia K; Vekris, Marios D; Okajima, Seiichiro; Soucacos, Panayiotis N

    2003-01-01

    Obstetric brachial plexus palsy invariably involves the upper roots. If left untreated, characteristic deformities of the shoulder are common sequelae. The most objective way to investigate these shoulder deformities is computed tomographic (CT) scanning of bilateral upper limbs. In this study, specific measurements on CT scans of bilateral upper extremities were performed in a population of patients with obstetric brachial plexus palsy before and after reconstruction (nerve repairs and secondary procedures). The measurements showed that the restoration of external rotation and the scapula stabilization procedure correct the inclination of the humeral head, improve the joint congruency significantly, and decrease the winging of the scapula, thus improving the kinetics of the shoulder. Periodic CT measurement is an objective method of measuring the changes at the shoulder joint that occur over time during the natural evolution of the obstetric brachial plexus palsy lesion and of documenting the benefits of microsurgical intervention.

  15. Pronating radius osteotomy for supination deformity in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    van Kooten, E Oscar; Ishaque, M Asad; Winters, Hay A H; Ritt, Marco J P F; van der Sluijs, Hans A

    2008-03-01

    In obstetric brachial plexus lesions, muscle imbalance caused by active supinator muscles and paralyzed pronator muscles can result in a supination position of the wrist, which, apart from cosmesis, may interfere with function. In this retrospective study, we describe the results of a pronating radius osteotomy for supination deformity of the hand in children with an obstetric brachial plexus lesion. After a mean follow-up of 23 months, all 8 patients (mean age, 9.4 years; range, 4-13 years), operated between 1998 and 2006, had improved functionally and aesthetically. All patients had improved functionally and aesthetically.

  16. Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy: lessons in functional neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Elizabeth O; Troupis, Theodore; Michalinos, Adamantios; Dimovelis, John; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2013-03-01

    Obstetrical branchial plexus paralysis is a serious and possibly disabling disorder. While thoroughly described as a clinical entity, much concerning its pathogenesis is still unknown. Basic science studies alongside with studies on functional neuroanatomy of peripheral and central nervous system and their interactions lead to deeper understanding of its pathology. Research concentrates on the consequences of branchial plexus traction to peripheral nerves and muscles function and viability and rehabilitation options. Changes obstetrical branchial plexus paralysis causes to central nervous systems organisation have been, to some extent, investigated. It seems that central nervous system is not "blind" after obstetrical branchial plexus paralysis but instead proceeds to remodelling so to adapt to new needs. Research indicates that both this entity and organism's response are much more complicated than previously believed. Current treatment options include microsurgery and palliative surgery but their improvement is possible by focusing on central nervous system. Current report discusses these topics and tries to reach useful conclusions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Shoulder function following primary axillary nerve reconstruction in obstetrical brachial plexus patients.

    PubMed

    Terzis, Julia K; Kokkalis, Zinon T

    2008-11-01

    In obstetrical brachial plexus palsy, suprascapular nerve reinnervation is a priority. For the most favorable outcomes in shoulder function, it is the authors' policy to also reconstruct the axillary nerve with intraplexus donors to the posterior cord (early cases) or directly with intraplexus or extraplexus motor donors (late cases). Between 1979 and 2003, 80 consecutive patients (82 brachial plexuses) underwent plexus exploration and nerve reconstruction for obstetrical palsy. Axillary nerve reconstruction was performed in 60 plexuses, and evaluation of the results was carried out for 55 patients (56 plexuses) with adequate follow-up (mean follow-up, 6.5 years). Overall, there were good and excellent results (>/=M3+) in 49 of 56 plexuses (87.5 percent) for the deltoid muscle, and the average postoperative muscle grade for the deltoid was 3.89 +/- 0.79. The average shoulder abduction increased from 35 +/- 31 degrees preoperatively to 109 +/- 35 degrees postoperatively (average gain, 74 degrees), and the average external rotation increased from -13 +/- 28 degrees preoperatively to 47 +/- 18 degrees postoperatively (average gain, 60 degrees). The timing of surgery and the type of paralysis significantly influenced the final outcome. Reconstruction of the axillary nerve should always be performed to maximize the final outcome of shoulder function in obstetrical brachial plexus patients. The best results were seen in early cases (

  18. Obstetric brachial plexus palsy: a birth injury not explained by the known risk factors.

    PubMed

    Backe, Bjørn; Magnussen, Elisabeth Balstad; Johansen, Ole Jakob; Sellaeg, Gerd; Russwurm, Harald

    2008-01-01

    To determine the incidence and prognosis of obstetric brachial plexus injuries and analyze associated risk factors. Analysis of prospectively collected information comprising all births from 1991 to 2000, with complete follow-up of affected children. Setting. St Olav's University Hospital, a tertiary care hospital in the middle part of Norway. Thirty thousand five hundred and seventy-four children; all were examined within 24 hours of birth and 91 were diagnosed with brachial plexus injury. We reviewed the hospital records and analyzed the data submitted from our hospital to the Medical Birth Register of Norway. Risk factors are shoulder dystocia, macrosomy, diabetes, vacuum extraction and forceps delivery. The predictive power of these variables is poor. Almost half of the plexus injuries followed spontaneous vaginal deliveries with second stage of 30 minutes or less. Two newborns were delivered by cesarean section and two were vaginal breech deliveries. In 15 children (0.5/1,000) a permanent plexus injury has been diagnosed. Compared with transient plexus impairment, risk factors for a permanent injury were high maternal body mass index, shoulder dystocia, fractured humerus and fetal asphyxia. Fracture of the clavicle was significantly more frequent when the injury was transient, possibly reflecting a protective effect. The incidence of obstetric brachial plexus injury is 0.3% and the recovery rate is 84%, resulting in 0.5 permanent injuries per 1,000 births. Plexus injury is not well predicted by known risk factors. Other etiological factors should be sought.

  19. Causes of neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Daniel T

    2011-01-01

    The causes of brachial plexus palsy in neonates should be classified according to their most salient associated feature. The causes of brachial plexus palsy are obstetrical brachial plexus palsy, familial congenital brachial plexus palsy, maternal uterine malformation, congenital varicella syndrome, osteomyelitis involving the proximal head of the humerus or cervical vertebral bodies, exostosis of the first rib, tumors and hemangioma in the region of the brachial plexus, and intrauterine maladaptation. Kaiser Wilhelm syndrome, neonatal brachial plexus palsy due to placental insufficiency, is probably not a cause of brachial plexus palsy. Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy, the most common alleged cause of neonatal brachial plexus palsy, occurs when the forces generated during labor stretch the brachial plexus beyond its resistance. The probability of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy is directly proportional to the magnitude, acceleration, and cosine of the angle formed by the direction of the vector of the stretching force and the axis of the most vulnerable brachial plexus bundle, and inversely proportional to the resistance of the must vulnerable brachial plexus bundle and of the shoulder girdle muscles, joints, and bones. Since in most nonsurgical cases neither the contribution of each of these factors to the production of the obstetrical brachial plexus palsy nor the proportion of traction and propulsion contributing to the stretch force is known, we concur with prior reports that the term of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy should be substituted by the more inclusive term of birth-related brachial plexus palsy.

  20. Obstetric brachial plexus palsy: a prospective study on risk factors related to manual assistance during the second stage of labor.

    PubMed

    Mollberg, Margareta; Wennergren, Margareta; Bager, Börje; Ladfors, Lars; Hagberg, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the association between obstetric brachial plexus palsy and obstetrical maneuvers during the second stage of delivery. Prospective population-based case control study. Cases of obstetric brachial plexus palsy were compared with a randomly selected control group with regard to obstetric management. Five or more obstetrical maneuvers were used to deliver the infants in 82% in the obstetric brachial plexus palsy group versus 1.8% in the controls. Risk factors independently associated with obstetric brachial plexus palsy were force applied when downward traction was imposed on the fetal head (odds ratio 15.2; 95% confidence interval 8.4-27.7). The incidence of obstetric brachial plexus palsy in the infants in the population was 3.3 per thousand. At 18 months of age 16.1% (incidence of 0.05%) of children had residual functional deficits and downward traction with substantial force was applied in all these cases. Forceful downward traction applied to the head after the fetal third rotation represents an important risk factor of obstetric brachial plexus palsy in vaginal deliveries in cephalic presentation.

  1. Lack of evidence of the effectiveness of primary brachial plexus surgery for infants (under the age of two years) diagnosed with obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Bialocerkowski, Andrea; Gelding, Bronwyn

    2006-12-01

    Background  Obstetric brachial plexus palsy, which occurs in 1-3 per 1000 live births, results from traction and/or compression of the brachial plexus in utero, during descent through the birth canal or during delivery. This results in a spectrum of injuries that range in extent of damage and severity and can lead to a lifelong impairment and functional difficulties associated with the use of the affected upper limb. Most infants diagnosed with obstetric brachial plexus palsy receive treatment, such as surgery to the brachial plexus, physiotherapy or occupational therapy, within the first months of life. However, there is controversy regarding the most effective form of management. This review follows on from our previous systematic review which investigated the effectiveness of primary conservative management in infants with obstetric brachial plexus palsy. This systematic review focuses on the effects of primary surgery. Objectives  The objective of this review was to systematically assess and collate all available evidence on effectiveness of primary brachial plexus surgery for infants with obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Search strategy  A systematic literature search was performed using 13 databases: TRIP, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Proquest 5000, Evidence Based Medicine Reviews, Expanded Academic ASAP, Meditext, Science Direct, the Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Proquest Digital Dissertations, Open Archives Initiative Search Engine, the Australian Digital Thesis program. Those studies that were reported in English and published between July 1992 to June 2004 were included in this review. Selection criteria  Quantitative studies that investigated the effectiveness of primary brachial plexus surgery for infants with obstetric brachial plexus palsy were eligible for inclusion into this review. This excluded studies where infants were solely managed conservatively or with pharmacological agents, or underwent surgery for the management of

  2. Extremity shortness in obstetric brachial plexus lesion and its relationship to root avulsion.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Hilmi; Demir, Sibel Ozbudak; Oktay, Fügen; Selcuk, Barin; Akyüz, Müfit

    2007-12-01

    A total of 73 patients with obstetric brachial plexus palsy and extremity shortness were evaluated clinically, electrophysiologically, and with cervical magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were separated into groups according to age and the level of lesion. The differences of the length of the humerus, ulna, radius, and the second and fifth metacarpal bones were significant between the involved and uninvolved extremities. The difference in shortness increased in relation to the age of the groups and stabilized to approximately 10% in the groups aged 4 to 8 years and 8+ years. A significant relationship was observed between bone length differences and lesion levels. Differences in bone lengths were statistically significant in patients with avulsion in the group aged 8+ years. Extremity shortness appears to be related to avulsion and the level of lesion. The effect of avulsion on extremity shortness gradually increases with age. Finally, root avulsion can be an important factor in extremity shortness of obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients.

  3. Effectiveness of primary conservative management for infants with obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Bialocerkowski, Andrea; Kurlowicz, Kirsty; Vladusic, Sharon; Grimmer, Karen

    2005-03-01

    Background  Obstetric brachial plexus palsy, a complication of childbirth, occurs in 1-3 per 1000 live births internationally. Traction and/or compression of the brachial plexus is thought to be the primary mechanism of injury and this may occur in utero, during the descent through the birth canal or during delivery. This results in a spectrum of injuries that vary in severity, extent of damage and functional use of the affected upper limb. Most infants receive treatment, such as conservative management (physiotherapy, occupational therapy) or surgery; however, there is controversy regarding the most appropriate form of management. To date, no synthesised evidence is available regarding the effectiveness of primary conservative management for obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Objectives  The objective of this review was to systematically assess the literature and present the best available evidence that investigated the effectiveness of primary conservative management for infants with obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Search strategy  A systematic literature search was performed using 14 databases: TRIP, MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, Web of Science, Proquest 5000, Evidence Based Medicine Reviews, Expanded Academic ASAP, Meditext, Science Direct, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, Proquest Digital Dissertations, Open Archives Initiative Search Engine, Australian Digital Thesis Program. Those studies that were reported in English and published over the last decade (July 1992 to June 2003) were included in this review. Selection criteria  Quantitative studies that investigated the effectiveness of primary conservative management for infants with obstetric brachial plexus palsy were eligible for inclusion in this review. This excluded studies that solely investigated the effect of primary surgery for these infants, management of secondary deformities and the investigation of the effects of pharmacological agents, such as botulinum toxin. Data collection and analysis

  4. Restoration of elbow extension after primary reconstruction in obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Terzis, Julia K; Kokkalis, Zinon T

    2010-03-01

    Elbow extension is important for the elbow joint, and it is more difficult to restore with microsurgery than elbow flexion. The purpose of this article is to describe the experience of the authors with elbow extension reconstruction in obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients. The outcomes were analyzed in relation to the type of brachial plexus lesion, timing of surgery, and the type of nerve reconstruction. Fifty-five children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy who underwent nerve reconstruction for elbow extension restoration were studied. The mean follow-up period was 6.4 years (range, 2-22 y). Reinnervation of the triceps muscle was accomplished with indirect neurotization of the posterior cord from intraplexus donors or with direct neurotization from extraplexus donors, such as the contralateral C7 and the intercostal nerves. Thirty-seven (67%) of the 55 cases showed good or excellent results (>or=M3+). The average postoperative muscle grading for the triceps was 3.34+/-0.99 compared with 1.19+/-1.29 preoperatively (P<0.0001). Patients with C5 to C7 palsy achieved significantly stronger elbow extension than those with C5 to T1 palsy. In addition, the timing of surgery significantly influenced the final outcome. Elbow extension is one of big challenges to be restored, especially in obstetric brachial plexus palsy. In early cases (within 6 mo) intraplexus reconstruction of the posterior cord can give excellent results. In later cases, or in cases of multiple avulsions, extraplexus motor donors, which selectively targeted the triceps, can give variable results.

  5. Triangle Tilt Surgery in an Older Pediatric Patient With Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K.; Amrani, Abdelouahed; Melcher, Sonya E.; Eichhorn, Mitchell G.

    2009-01-01

    Children with an obstetric brachial plexus injury have an elevated risk of long-term impairment if they do not fully recover by the age of 3 months. Persistent nerve damage leads to muscle abnormalities and progressive muscle and bone deformities. Several procedures have been described to treat this severe deformity. We have demonstrated the benefits of the triangle tilt procedure in young children with a mean age of 6.4 years (2.2 to 10.3), yet the treatment of humeral head subluxation secondary to obstetric brachial plexus injury represents a challenge in older pediatric patients. This case report demonstrates the effectiveness of triangle tilt surgery for the treatment of glenohumeral joint deformity in a 12 year old pediatric patient with left sided residual brachial plexus injury. The patient in this study showed noticeable clinical improvements, an improvement in glenohumeral joint dysplasia, and a reduction in humeral head subluxation 2 years after triangle tilt surgery. There was functional improvement 25 months after surgery. The patient's total Mallet score for shoulder function improved from 14 to 20 (of 25). In this case report, we demonstrate that the triangle tilt procedure can be used for older pediatric patients without modification. This observation has provided valuable information and is, to our knowledge, the first documented improvement of a glenohumeral joint deformity in an older pediatric patient. Future studies will be needed to determine the long-term success of triangle tilt surgery in this age group. PMID:19641599

  6. Triangle tilt surgery in an older pediatric patient with obstetric brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Nath, Rahul K; Amrani, Abdelouahed; Melcher, Sonya E; Eichhorn, Mitchell G

    2009-06-30

    Children with an obstetric brachial plexus injury have an elevated risk of long-term impairment if they do not fully recover by the age of 3 months. Persistent nerve damage leads to muscle abnormalities and progressive muscle and bone deformities. Several procedures have been described to treat this severe deformity. We have demonstrated the benefits of the triangle tilt procedure in young children with a mean age of 6.4 years (2.2 to 10.3), yet the treatment of humeral head subluxation secondary to obstetric brachial plexus injury represents a challenge in older pediatric patients. This case report demonstrates the effectiveness of triangle tilt surgery for the treatment of glenohumeral joint deformity in a 12 year old pediatric patient with left sided residual brachial plexus injury. The patient in this study showed noticeable clinical improvements, an improvement in glenohumeral joint dysplasia, and a reduction in humeral head subluxation 2 years after triangle tilt surgery. There was functional improvement 25 months after surgery. The patient's total Mallet score for shoulder function improved from 14 to 20 (of 25). In this case report, we demonstrate that the triangle tilt procedure can be used for older pediatric patients without modification. This observation has provided valuable information and is, to our knowledge, the first documented improvement of a glenohumeral joint deformity in an older pediatric patient. Future studies will be needed to determine the long-term success of triangle tilt surgery in this age group.

  7. Obstetric brachial plexus palsy: reviewing the literature comparing the results of primary versus secondary surgery.

    PubMed

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Costales, Javier Robla; Paez, Miguel Domínguez; Nizzo, Gustavo; Valbuena, Sebastian; Varone, Ernesto

    2016-03-01

    Obstetric brachial plexus injuries (OBPP) are a relatively common stretch injury of the brachial plexus that occurs during delivery. Roughly 30 % of patients will not recover completely and will need a surgical repair. Two main treatment strategies have been used: primary surgery, consisting in exploring and reconstructing the affected portions of the brachial plexus within the first few months of the patient's life, and secondary procedures that include tendon or muscle transfers, osteotomies, and other orthopedic techniques. Secondary procedures can be done as the only surgical treatment of OBPP or after primary surgery, in order to minimize any residual deficits. Two things are crucial to achieving a good outcome: (1) the appropriate selection of patients, to separate those who will spontaneously recover from those who will recover only partially or not at all; and (2) a good surgical technique. The objective of the present review is to assess the published literature concerning certain controversial issues in OBPP, especially in terms of the true current state of primary and secondary procedures, their results, and the respective roles each plays in modern-day treatment of this complex pathology. Considerable published evidence compiled over decades of surgical experience favors primary nerve surgery as the initial therapeutic step in patients who do not recover spontaneously, followed by secondary surgeries for further functional improvement. As described in this review, the results of such treatment can greatly ameliorate function in affected limbs. For best results, multi-disciplinary teams should treat these patients.

  8. Risk factors at birth for permanent obstetric brachial plexus injury and associated osseous deformities.

    PubMed

    Nath, Rahul K; Kumar, Nirupama; Avila, Meera B; Nath, Devin K; Melcher, Sonya E; Eichhorn, Mitchell G; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the most prevalent risk factors found in patients with permanent obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) to identify better predictors of injury. Methods. A population-based study was performed on 241 OBPI patients who underwent surgical treatment at the Texas Nerve and Paralysis Institute. Results. Shoulder dystocia (97%) was the most prevalent risk factor. We found that 80% of the patients in this study were not macrosomic, and 43% weighed less than 4000 g at birth. The rate of instrument use was 41% , which is 4-fold higher than the 10% predicted for all vaginal deliveries in the United States. Posterior subluxation and glenoid version measurements in children with no finger movement at birth indicated a less severe shoulder deformity in comparison with those with finger movement. Conclusions. The average birth weight in this study was indistinguishable from the average birth weight reported for all brachial plexus injuries. Higher birth weight does not, therefore, affect the prognosis of brachial plexus injury. We found forceps/vacuum delivery to be an independent risk factor for OBPI, regardless of birth weight. Permanently injured patients with finger movement at birth develop more severe bony deformities of the shoulder than patients without finger movement.

  9. Risk Factors at Birth for Permanent Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury and Associated Osseous Deformities

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K.; Kumar, Nirupama; Avila, Meera B.; Nath, Devin K.; Melcher, Sonya E.; Eichhorn, Mitchell G.; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the most prevalent risk factors found in patients with permanent obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) to identify better predictors of injury. Methods. A population-based study was performed on 241 OBPI patients who underwent surgical treatment at the Texas Nerve and Paralysis Institute. Results. Shoulder dystocia (97%) was the most prevalent risk factor. We found that 80% of the patients in this study were not macrosomic, and 43% weighed less than 4000 g at birth. The rate of instrument use was 41% , which is 4-fold higher than the 10% predicted for all vaginal deliveries in the United States. Posterior subluxation and glenoid version measurements in children with no finger movement at birth indicated a less severe shoulder deformity in comparison with those with finger movement. Conclusions. The average birth weight in this study was indistinguishable from the average birth weight reported for all brachial plexus injuries. Higher birth weight does not, therefore, affect the prognosis of brachial plexus injury. We found forceps/vacuum delivery to be an independent risk factor for OBPI, regardless of birth weight. Permanently injured patients with finger movement at birth develop more severe bony deformities of the shoulder than patients without finger movement. PMID:22518326

  10. Secondary procedures for elbow flexion restoration in late obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Terzis, Julia K; Kokkalis, Zinon T

    2010-06-01

    Even though total absence of elbow flexion in obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) is rare, weakness is a frequent problem. Numerous procedures for elbow flexion restoration in late obstetric brachial plexus palsy have been described. In this study, children with OBPP who underwent secondary reconstruction for elbow flexion restoration were studied. A retrospective review of 15 patients (16 elbows) who underwent 16 pedicled and eight free-muscle transfers for elbow flexion restoration was conducted. The mean follow-up period was 8.4 ± 2.9 years (range, 25 months to 12.2 years). The mean age at operation (elbow surgery) was 5.4 ± 1.9 years. The total arc of elbow motion was the result of the active elbow flexion less the flexion contracture. There was significant improvement in biceps muscle power from an average grading of 2.49 ± 0.80 preoperatively to 3.64 ± 0.46 postoperatively (p < 0.001). Thirteen of 16 elbows (81%) achieved good and excellent results (≥M3+); and three elbows (19%) fair results (M3- or M3). The average arc of motion was significantly improved from 36° ± 25° preoperatively to 94° ± 26° postoperatively (p < 0.001). The preoperative and postoperative average elbow flexion contracture was 10.9° ± 8.9° and 20° ± 12.2°, respectively. Pedicled and/or free-muscle transfers can significantly improve elbow flexion in late obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Choice of the procedure should be individualized and determined on the basis of the type of paralysis, availability of donor muscles, previous reconstruction, and experience of the surgeon.

  11. Shoulder and elbow kinematics during the Mallet score in obstetrical brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Herisson, Olivier; Maurel, Nathalie; Diop, Amadou; Le Chatelier, Morgane; Cambon-Binder, Adeline; Fitoussi, Franck

    2017-03-01

    The physical signs of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy range from temporary upper-limb dysfunction to a lifelong impairment and deformity in one arm. The aim of this study was to analyze the kinematics of the upper limb and to evaluate the contribution of glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy children. Six children participated in this study: 2 males and 4 females with a mean age of 11.7years. Three patients had a C5, C6 lesion and 3 had a C5, C6, C7 lesion. They were asked to perform five tasks based on the Mallet scale and the kinematic data were collected using the Fastrak electromagnetic tracking device. The scapulothoracic protraction and posterior tilt were significantly increased in the involved limb during the hand to mouth task (p=0.006 and p=0.015 respectively). The scapulothoracic Protraction/glenohumeral Elevation ratio was significantly increased in the involved limb during the hand to neck task (p=0.041) and the elevation task (p=0.015). The ratios of scapulothoracic Tilt on the three glenohumeral excursion angles were significantly increased during the hand to mouth task (p≤0.041). The scapulothoracic Mediolateral/glenohumeral Elevation ratio was significantly increased in the involved limb during the elevation task (p=0.038). The glenohumeral elevation excursion was significantly decreased in the involved limb during the hand to neck task (p<0.001) and the elevation task (p=0.0003). This study gives us information about the greater contribution of the scapulothoracic joint to shoulder motion for affected arm of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy patients compared to their unaffected arm. Kinematic analysis could be useful in shoulder motion evaluation during the Mallet score and to evaluate outcomes after surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Secondary Procedures for Elbow Flexion Restoration in Late Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kokkalis, Zinon T.

    2009-01-01

    Even though total absence of elbow flexion in obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) is rare, weakness is a frequent problem. Numerous procedures for elbow flexion restoration in late obstetric brachial plexus palsy have been described. In this study, children with OBPP who underwent secondary reconstruction for elbow flexion restoration were studied. A retrospective review of 15 patients (16 elbows) who underwent 16 pedicled and eight free-muscle transfers for elbow flexion restoration was conducted. The mean follow-up period was 8.4 ± 2.9 years (range, 25 months to 12.2 years). The mean age at operation (elbow surgery) was 5.4 ± 1.9 years. The total arc of elbow motion was the result of the active elbow flexion less the flexion contracture. There was significant improvement in biceps muscle power from an average grading of 2.49 ± 0.80 preoperatively to 3.64 ± 0.46 postoperatively (p < 0.001). Thirteen of 16 elbows (81%) achieved good and excellent results (≥M3+); and three elbows (19%) fair results (M3− or M3). The average arc of motion was significantly improved from 36° ± 25° preoperatively to 94° ± 26° postoperatively (p < 0.001). The preoperative and postoperative average elbow flexion contracture was 10.9° ± 8.9° and 20° ± 12.2°, respectively. Pedicled and/or free-muscle transfers can significantly improve elbow flexion in late obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Choice of the procedure should be individualized and determined on the basis of the type of paralysis, availability of donor muscles, previous reconstruction, and experience of the surgeon. PMID:19430848

  13. Narakas classification of obstetric brachial plexus palsy revisited.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, M M; El-Sayed, A A F; Al-Zahrani, A Y; Al-Mutairi, S A; Al-Harbi, M S; Al-Mutairi, A M; Al-Kahtani, F S

    2009-12-01

    Narakas classified babies with obstetric palsy into four groups: upper Erb's, extended Erb's, total palsy, and total palsy with a Horner. Over the last 15 years, it was noted at our obstetric palsy clinic that good spontaneous recovery in newborns with extended Erb's palsy (C5, C6, C7 injury) was more likely if they recovered active wrist extension against gravity before 2 months of age. A hypothesis was made that newborns with extended Erb's palsy (Narakas Group II) may be subclassified into two groups according to this 'early recovery of wrist extension.' In a retrospective study of 581 cases with strict inclusion criteria, the hypothesis was found to be true: patients with extended Erb's and 'early recovery of wrist extension' have significantly higher percentages of good spontaneous recovery of limb function than those with extended Erb's and 'no early recovery of wrist extension' (P<0.0001 by chi-squared test).

  14. Total obstetric brachial plexus palsy: results and strategy of microsurgical reconstruction.

    PubMed

    El-Gammal, Tarek A; El-Sayed, Amr; Kotb, Mohamed M; Ragheb, Yasser Farouk; Saleh, Waleed Riad; Elnakeeb, Ramy Mohamed; El-Sayed Semaya, Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    From 2000 to 2006, 35 infants with total obstetric brachial plexus palsy underwent brachial plexus exploration and reconstruction. The mean age at surgery was 10.8 months (range 3-60 months), and the median age was 8 months. All infants were followed for at least 2.5 years (range 2.5-7.3 years) with an average follow-up of 4.2 years. Assessment was performed using the Toronto Active Movement scale. Surgical procedures included neurolysis, neuroma excision and interposition nerve grafting and neurotization, using spinal accessory nerve, intercostals and contralateral C7 root. Satisfactory recovery was obtained in 37.1% of cases for shoulder abduction; 54.3% for shoulder external rotation; 75.1% for elbow flexion; 77.1% for elbow extension; 61.1% for finger flexion, 31.4% for wrist extension and 45.8% for fingers extension. Using the Raimondi score, 18 cases (53%) achieved a score of three or more (functional hand). The mean Raimondi score significantly improved postoperatively as compared to the preoperative mean: 2.73 versus 1, and showed negative significant correlation with age at surgery. In total, obstetrical brachial plexus palsy, early intervention is recommended. Intercostal neurotization is preferred for restoration of elbow flexion. Tendon transfer may be required to improve external rotation in selected cases. Apparently, intact C8 and T1 roots should be left alone if the patient has partial hand recovery, no Horner syndrome, and was operated early (3- or 4-months old). Apparently, intact nonfunctioning lower roots with no response to electrical stimulation, especially in the presence of Horner syndrome, should be neurotized with the best available intraplexal donor.

  15. Histopathologic study of the neuroma-in-continuity in obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Gao, Shi-chang; Gu, Yu-dong; Hu, Shao-nan; Xu, Lei; Huang, Yi-gang

    2008-06-01

    Operative treatment of traction lesions in obstetric brachial plexus palsy is still controversial. The authors analyzed the histopathology of neuroma-in-continuity of the upper trunk by study of the resected neuroma. The neuroma-in-continuity of the upper trunk was studied histopathologically in 28 children with Erb palsy who had undergone resection of the neuroma and nerve reconstruction of the plexus at the age of 3 to 11 months. The authors recorded the distribution of myelinated motor nerve fibers and the proportions of collagen and regenerating nerve fibers traveling the neuroma, analyzed the relationship between the percentage of nerve fibers across the neuroma and findings of intraoperative neurophysiologic investigations and the patient's age at surgery, and compared the number of nerve fibers in C5 and C6 proximal to the neuroma with that in their normal counterparts. In the central segment of the neuroma, the structure of the upper trunk was replaced by copious collagen and sporadic nerve fibers wrapped by an undeveloped myelin sheath, and the percentage of collagen was statistically greater than that of the normal upper trunk. The mean percentage of regenerating nerve fibers across the neuroma was 41.83 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 38.69 to 44.69 percent) and this was not statistically correlated with the outcome of intraoperative neurophysiologic investigations or the patient's age at surgery. The number of nerve fibers was statistically less in C5 and C6 proximal to the neuroma than in their normal counterparts. The nerve structure of the neuroma-in-continuity is substantially damaged in obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Its resection followed by nerve reconstruction of the plexus is favored.

  16. Elbow flexion reconstruction by Steindler flexorplasty in obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, M M

    2005-08-01

    The results of Steindler flexorplasty in nine patients with obstetric brachial plexus palsy are reported. There were 5 girls and 4 boys with a mean age of 6 (range 2-13) years. Selection criteria for the procedure included strong (at least M4) grip strength and wrist and elbow extension, as well as the presence of the "Steindler effect". Pre-operatively, elbow flexion was rated as M0 or M1 in three patients and M2 in the remaining six patients. Intra-operatively, the detached common flexor origin was advanced 5 to 7 cm and fixation was done to the anterior humerus either with direct suture to the periosteum (in younger children) or suturing into a drill hole in the humerus (in older children). Postoperatively, the elbow was immobilized in flexion and supination for 6 weeks. At a mean follow-up of 5 years, the results in eight patients were good with mean active elbow flexion against resistance of 110 degrees and a mean elbow flexion contracture of 35 degrees. The result in the remaining patient was poor (unsuccessful transfer). It is concluded that the results of the Steindler flexorplasty in obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients are good and reliable, provided patient selection is careful.

  17. Brachial Plexus Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the shoulder, arm, and hand. Brachial plexus injuries are caused by damage to those nerves. Symptoms ... sensation in the arm or hand Brachial plexus injuries can occur as a result of shoulder trauma, ...

  18. Brachial plexus (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The brachial plexus is a group of nerves that originate from the neck region and branch off to give ... movement in the upper limb. Injuries to the brachial plexus are common and can be debilitating. If ...

  19. The natural history of recovery of elbow flexion after obstetric brachial plexus injury managed without nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Hems, T E J; Savaridas, T; Sherlock, D A

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we report the outcome for spontaneous recovery of elbow flexion in obstetric brachial plexus injury managed without nerve reconstruction. Excluding those with transient paralysis, our records revealed 152 children with obstetric brachial plexus injury born before our unit routinely offered brachial plexus reconstruction. Five had had nerve repairs. Of the remainder, only one patient had insufficient flexion to reach their mouth. Elbow flexion started to recover clinically at a mean age of 4 months for Narakas Group 1, 6 months for Group 2, 8 months for Group 3 and 12 months for Group 4. The mean active range of elbow flexion, in 44 cases, was 138°. The mean isometric elbow flexion strength, in 39 patients, was 63% (range 23%-100%) of the normal side. It appears to be rare for elbow flexion not to recover spontaneously, although recovery occurs later in more severe injuries. It is doubtful if nerve reconstruction can improve elbow flexion above the likely spontaneous recovery in babies with obstetric brachial plexus injuries. II.

  20. The prognostic value of concurrent Horner syndrome in extended Erb obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Amel A F

    2014-10-01

    Horner syndrome may be seen in infants with extended Erb obstetric brachial plexus palsy. However, its prognostic value in these infants has not been previously investigated. A total of 220 infants with extended Erb palsy were included and divided into 2 groups: group I (n = 209) were infants with extended Erb palsy without Horner syndrome, and group II (n = 11) were infants with extended Erb palsy and concurrent Horner syndrome. The rate of good spontaneous recovery of elbow flexion was 59% in group I and 27% in group II, and the difference was significant (P = .038). The rate of good spontaneous recovery of wrist extension was 61% in group I and 0% in group II, and the difference as highly significant (P < .0001). Concurrent Horner syndrome in infants with extended Erb palsy may be considered as a poor prognostic sign for recovery of the sixth and seventh cervical roots. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. [Palsy of the upper limb: Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy, arthrogryposis, cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Salazard, B; Philandrianos, C; Tekpa, B

    2016-10-01

    "Palsy of the upper limb" in children includes various diseases which leads to hypomobility of the member: cerebral palsy, arthrogryposis and obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. These pathologies which differ on brain damage or not, have the same consequences due to the early achievement: negligence, stiffness and deformities. Regular entire clinical examination of the member, an assessment of needs in daily life, knowledge of the social and family environment, are key points for management. In these pathologies, the rehabilitation is an emergency, which began at birth and intensively. Splints and physiotherapy are part of the treatment. Surgery may have a functional goal, hygienic or aesthetic in different situations. The main goals of surgery are to treat: joints stiffness, bones deformities, muscles contractures and spasticity, paresis, ligamentous laxity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Extended Long-Term (5 Years) Outcomes of Triangle Tilt Surgery in Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the "extended" long-term (5 years) functional outcomes in obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) patients, who underwent triangle tilt surgery between February 2005 and January 2008. Methods: Twenty two children (9 girls and 13 boys, mean age at surgery was 5.8 years; ranging 2.1-11.8 years old), who initially presented with medial rotation contracture and scapula deformity secondary to obstetric brachial plexus injury were included in this study. Functional movements were evaluated pre-operatively, and 5 years following triangle tilt surgery by modified Mallet scale. Results: Here, we report long-term (5 years) follow-up of triangle tilt surgery for 22 OBPI patients. Upper extremity functional movements such as, external rotation (2.5±0.6 to 4.1±0.8, p<0.0001), hand-to-spine (2.6±0.6 to 3.4±1.1, p<0.005), hand-to-neck (2.7±0.7 to 4.3±0.7, p<0.0001), hand-to-mouth (2.3±0.9 (92º±33) to 4.2±0.5 (21º±16), p<0.0001), and supination (2.6±1.1 (-8.2º ±51) to 4.1±0.7 (61±32)) were significantly improved (p<0.0001), and maintained over the extended long-term (5 years). Total modified Mallet functional score was also shown to improve from 14.1±2.7 to 20.3±2.5. Conclusions: The triangle tilt surgery improved all shoulder functions significantly, and maintained over the extended long-term (5 years) in these patients. PMID:23730369

  3. The reconstructive strategy for improving elbow function in late obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Chuang, David Chwei-Chin; Hattori, Yasunori; Ma And, Hae-Shya; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2002-01-01

    Children with previously untreated obstetric brachial plexus palsy frequently have abnormal elbow function because of motor recovery with aberrant reinnervation, or because of paresis or paralysis. From 1988 to 1997 (9-year period), 62 children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy with resulting elbow deformity underwent various methods of palliative reconstruction to improve elbow function. For motor recovery with aberrant reinnervation, release of aberrantly reinnervated antagonistic muscles and augmentation of paretic muscles form the basis of surgical intervention. The surgical procedures included triceps-to-biceps transfer, biceps-to-triceps transfer, brachialis-to-triceps transfer, or combined biceps- and brachialis-to-triceps transfer. Choice of procedures was individualized and randomly determined on the basis of the degree and pattern of aberrant reinnervation between elbow flexors and extensors. In patients' motor recovery with paresis or paralysis, persistently weak elbow flexion was salvaged with a functioning free muscle transplantation or Steindler's flexorplasty, or regional shoulder muscle transfer. In addition, patients with aberrant reinnervation between shoulder abductors and elbow flexors underwent anterior deltoid-to-biceps transfer with a fascia lata graft. All patients had a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Results are assessed and discussed and a reconstructive algorithm is recommended. In general, reconstruction of elbow extension should precede that of elbow flexion. Biceps-to-triceps transfer with preservation of an intact brachialis muscle, or brachialis-to-triceps transfer with preservation of an intact biceps, allows 50 percent of these patients to achieve acceptable elbow flexion and extension in a single-stage procedure.

  4. Extended long-term (5 years) outcomes of triangle tilt surgery in obstetric brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the "extended" long-term (5 years) functional outcomes in obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) patients, who underwent triangle tilt surgery between February 2005 and January 2008. Twenty two children (9 girls and 13 boys, mean age at surgery was 5.8 years; ranging 2.1-11.8 years old), who initially presented with medial rotation contracture and scapula deformity secondary to obstetric brachial plexus injury were included in this study. Functional movements were evaluated pre-operatively, and 5 years following triangle tilt surgery by modified Mallet scale. Here, we report long-term (5 years) follow-up of triangle tilt surgery for 22 OBPI patients. Upper extremity functional movements such as, external rotation (2.5±0.6 to 4.1±0.8, p<0.0001), hand-to-spine (2.6±0.6 to 3.4±1.1, p<0.005), hand-to-neck (2.7±0.7 to 4.3±0.7, p<0.0001), hand-to-mouth (2.3±0.9 (92º±33) to 4.2±0.5 (21º±16), p<0.0001), and supination (2.6±1.1 (-8.2º ±51) to 4.1±0.7 (61±32)) were significantly improved (p<0.0001), and maintained over the extended long-term (5 years). Total modified Mallet functional score was also shown to improve from 14.1±2.7 to 20.3±2.5. The triangle tilt surgery improved all shoulder functions significantly, and maintained over the extended long-term (5 years) in these patients.

  5. Intraoperative nerve action and compound motor action potential recordings in patients with obstetric brachial plexus lesions.

    PubMed

    Pondaag, Willem; van der Veken, Lieven P A J; van Someren, Paul J; van Dijk, J Gert; Malessy, Martijn J A

    2008-11-01

    A typical finding in supraclavicular exploration of infants with severe obstetric brachial plexus lesions (OBPLs) is a neuroma-in-continuity with the superior trunk and/or a root avulsion at C-5, C-6, or C-7. The operative strategy in these cases is determined by the intraoperative assessment of the severity of the lesion. Intraoperative nerve action potential (NAP) and evoked compound motor action potential (CMAP) recordings have been shown to be helpful diagnostic tools in adults, whereas their value in the intraoperative assessment of infants with OBPLs remains to be determined. Intraoperative NAPs and CMAPs were systematically recorded from damaged and normal nerves of the upper brachial plexus in a consecutive series of 95 infants (mean age 175 days) with OBPLs. A total of 599 intraoperative NAP and 836 CMAP recordings were analyzed. The severity of the nerve lesions was graded as normal, axonotmesis, neurotmesis, or root avulsion, based on surgical, clinical, histological, and radiographic criteria. The correlation of NAP and CMAP recordings with the severity of the lesion was assessed. The specificity of an absent NAP or CMAP to predict a severe lesion (neurotmesis or avulsion) was > 0.9. However, the sensitivity of an absent NAP or CMAP for predicting a severe lesion was low (typically < 0.3). The severity of the nerve lesion was related to CMAP and NAP amplitudes. Cutoff points useful for intraoperative decision making could not be found to differentiate between lesion types in individual patients. Intraoperative NAP and CMAP recordings do not assist in decision making in the surgical treatment of infants with OBPLs. The authors' findings in infants cannot be generalized to adults.

  6. Long-term outcomes of triangle tilt surgery for obstetric brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Nath, Rahul K; Liu, Xiaomei; Melcher, Sonya E; Fan, Jilao

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term shoulder functional outcomes from a triangle tilt procedure on obstetric patients, who initially presented with medial rotation contracture and scapular deformity secondary to obstetric brachial plexus injury. We retrospectively studied long-term outcomes both functionally and anatomically in 61 patients (age ranging from 2 to 12 years). Functional movements were evaluated and scored using a modified Mallet scale at different time intervals: preoperatively, 1 year and 2 year following triangle tilt surgery. Shoulder anatomy was examined on radiologic images to evaluate the severity of shoulder deformities preoperatively and anatomical improvement after the surgery. All shoulder functional movements were significantly improved at 1 and 2 year follow-ups. Functional improvements were maintained in shoulder abduction, external rotation and hand-to-mouth movements beyond the first year, and continued in hand-to-neck and hand-to-spine movements past 2 years. Remarkable glenohumeral remodeling or reservation of glenoid congruence was observed in all patients over a mean time of 27 months postoperatively. The triangle tilt procedure, which addresses scapular and glenohumeral joint abnormalities characteristic of Erb's palsy, improves shoulder functional movements and anatomical structure in patients over the long-term.

  7. Correction of elbow flexion contracture in late obstetric brachial plexus palsy through arthrodiatasis of the elbow (Ioannina method).

    PubMed

    Vekris, Marios D; Pafilas, Dimitrios; Lykissas, Marios G; Soucacos, Panayiotis N; Beris, Alexandros E

    2010-03-01

    Inadequate elbow extension is a recognized sequela after obstetric brachial plexus injury because of muscle imbalance and adversely affects the ability to perform sufficiently most daily living activities. The various methods that have been used to correct this deformity do not offer a satisfactory outcome in the long term and show a tendency for gradual recurrence. We present a new technique of a closed gradual arthrodiatasis using a unilateral hinged elbow external fixator. The technique was applied in 10 patients with elbow flexion contracture as a sequela of brachial plexus birth palsy. Loss of elbow extension measured 55 degrees at average. With a mean device application of 8.8 weeks all patients gained full elbow extension. No major complications were noted. All patients were satisfied with the outcome. This novel technique (closed gradual arthrodiatasis of the elbow joint) has a definite role in the treatment of elbow flexion contracture in late cases of obstetric palsy, given the otherwise limited surgical options.

  8. Does primary brachial plexus surgery alter palliative tendon transfer surgery outcomes in children with obstetric paralysis?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The surgical management of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy can generally be divided into two groups; early reconstructions in which the plexus or affected nerves are addressed and late or palliative reconstructions in which the residual deformities are addressed. Tendon transfers are the mainstay of palliative surgery. Occasionally, surgeons are required to utilise already denervated and subsequently reinnervated muscles as motors. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of tendon transfers for residual shoulder dysfunction in patients who had undergone early nerve surgery to the outcomes in patients who had not. Methods A total of 91 patients with obstetric paralysis-related shoulder abduction and external rotation deficits who underwent a modified Hoffer transfer of the latissimus dorsi/teres major to the greater tubercle of the humerus tendon between 2002 and 2009 were retrospectively analysed. The patients who had undergone neural surgery during infancy were compared to those who had not in terms of their preoperative and postoperative shoulder abduction and external rotation active ranges of motion. Results In the early surgery groups, only the postoperative external rotation angles showed statistically significant differences (25 degrees and 75 degrees for total and upper type palsies, respectively). Within the palliative surgery-only groups, there were no significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative abduction and external rotation angles. The significant differences between the early surgery groups and the palliative surgery groups with total palsy during the preoperative period diminished postoperatively (p < 0.05 and p > 0.05, respectively) for abduction but not for external rotation. Within the upper type palsy groups, there were no significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative abduction and external rotation angles. Conclusions In this study, it was found that in patients with total paralysis

  9. Does primary brachial plexus surgery alter palliative tendon transfer surgery outcomes in children with obstetric paralysis?

    PubMed

    Aydın, Atakan; Biçer, Ahmet; Özkan, Türker; Mersa, Berkan; Özkan, Safiye; Yıldırım, Zeynep Hoşbay

    2011-04-13

    The surgical management of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy can generally be divided into two groups; early reconstructions in which the plexus or affected nerves are addressed and late or palliative reconstructions in which the residual deformities are addressed. Tendon transfers are the mainstay of palliative surgery. Occasionally, surgeons are required to utilise already denervated and subsequently reinnervated muscles as motors. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of tendon transfers for residual shoulder dysfunction in patients who had undergone early nerve surgery to the outcomes in patients who had not. A total of 91 patients with obstetric paralysis-related shoulder abduction and external rotation deficits who underwent a modified Hoffer transfer of the latissimus dorsi/teres major to the greater tubercle of the humerus tendon between 2002 and 2009 were retrospectively analysed. The patients who had undergone neural surgery during infancy were compared to those who had not in terms of their preoperative and postoperative shoulder abduction and external rotation active ranges of motion. In the early surgery groups, only the postoperative external rotation angles showed statistically significant differences (25 degrees and 75 degrees for total and upper type palsies, respectively). Within the palliative surgery-only groups, there were no significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative abduction and external rotation angles. The significant differences between the early surgery groups and the palliative surgery groups with total palsy during the preoperative period diminished postoperatively (p < 0.05 and p > 0.05, respectively) for abduction but not for external rotation. Within the upper type palsy groups, there were no significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative abduction and external rotation angles. In this study, it was found that in patients with total paralysis, satisfactory shoulder abduction values can

  10. Oberlin's ulnar nerve transfer to the biceps motor nerve in obstetric brachial plexus palsy: indications, and good and bad results.

    PubMed

    Noaman, Hassan Hamdy; Shiha, Anis Elsayed; Bahm, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    We present 7 children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy treated by transferring two motor fascicles out of the ulnar nerve to the biceps nerve. Three were male, and 4 were female. The left-side brachial plexus was affected in 4 patients, and the right side in 3 patients. All children had vaginal delivery; two of them presented with shoulder dystocia. The average birth weight was 4300 g (range, 3620-5500 g). Average age at time of operation was 16 months (range, 11-24 months). The indication for the operation was absent active elbow flexion with active shoulder abduction against gravity in 4 cases, and no biceps function and bad shoulder function in 3 cases. Oberlin's ulnar nerve transfer was done in 4 cases without brachial plexus exploration in those children with good shoulder function, and exploration of the brachial plexus was performed in the other 3 cases with bad shoulder function. The average follow-up was 19 months (range, 13-30 months). Five children had biceps muscle >or=M(3) with active elbow flexion against gravity, and 2 children had biceps muscle obstetric brachial plexus palsy in 1). breech delivery with avulsion of C5 and C6 nerve roots,) late presentation with good recovery of shoulder function, and 3). neuroma-in-continuity of the upper trunk with intraoperative good nerve conduction for the shoulder muscles, the same as preoperative good shoulder function but with no biceps action. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Surgical normalization of the shoulder joint in obstetric brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Nath, Rahul K; Amrani, Abdelouahed; Melcher, Sonya E; Wentz, Melissa J; Paizi, Melia

    2010-10-01

    Obstetric brachial plexus injuries (OBPI) result in bony derangements that include posterior humeral head subluxation, glenoid retroversion, and joint incongruity. Often these deformities are accompanied by scapular hypoplasia, elevation, and rotation, which further exacerbate shoulder dysfunction. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of triangle tilt surgery on glenohumeral joint anatomy in 100 OBPI patients. The triangle tilt surgery restores the distal acromioclavicular triangle from an abnormal superiorly angled position to a neutral position, thereby restoring normal glenohumeral anatomic relationships.Axial computed tomography and magnetic resonance images taken before and 12- to 38-months after surgery showed significant improvements in both posterior subluxation and glenoid version. Patients with complete posterior glenohumeral dislocation improved from 19% preoperatively, to 11% postoperatively. Glenoid shape was also improved, with 81% of patients classified as concave or flat after surgery compared with 53% before surgery.Triangle tilt surgery allows for both repositioning and remodeling of the glenohumeral joint. These anatomic improvements after triangle tilt surgery hold promise for improving shoulder function and quality of life for OBPI patients.

  12. Role of early shoulder tomography on the obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bruno Liberato de Souza; Kimura, Luiz Koiti; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; Mattar, Rames; Cho, Álvaro Baik; Oviedo, Rubén Montiel

    2015-01-01

    To demonstrate the importance of performing early shoulder tomography in patients with obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP). This series of cases retrospective study with level evidence IV was conducted by consulting 76 patient's medical records with OBPP divided into three age groups: ≤12 months, 13 to 24 months and ≥ 25 months. The patients were classified according to gender, affected side, type of paralysis according to Narakas classification, and by computed tomography, according to the Waters scale. The association between the age groups with Waters classification was statistically significant (p=0,006), showing that patients in the group aged less than 12 months and in the group aged between 12 and 24 months had a relevant correlation between the physical examination and Waters > III when compared to patients from groups aged 25 months or older. This study shows a correlation between the findings in the physical examination and severe dysplasia on the shoulder of children under 24 months of age, justifying the early tomographic shoulder exam in order to achieve a better follow-up and a consider a more aggressive approach in the treatment of OBPP affected children. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series.

  13. Living-donor nerve transplantation for global obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Scott A; Mancias, Pedro; Swinford, Rita D; Prashner, Heather R; Clifton, Jorge; Henry, Mark H

    2006-05-01

    The first reported case of live-donor nerve transplantation is presented, performed in an 8-month-old infant with global obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) and four root avulsions who had undergone prior sural nerve autografting at 3 months. Cross-chest C7 nerve transfer and temporary tacrolimus/prednisone immunosuppression were utilized. Acute rejection was prevented, with no observable complications from the immunosuppressive medications, ipsilateral deficits resulting from the use of the contralateral C7 root as a donor nerve, or untoward effects on growth and development occurring over a 2-year follow-up period. Although some return of sensory and motor responses on nerve conduction studies was documented, the failure to observe a clinically significant functional improvement in the affected limb directly attributable to the transplant may have been due to performing the procedure too late and/or inadequate follow-up. Results of additional cases performed earlier than in this patient with longer follow-up will need to be evaluated to determine whether the procedure proves to be a viable therapeutic option for treatment of global OBPP with four or five root avulsions.

  14. Bone discrepancy as a powerful indicator for early surgery in obstetric brachial plexus palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kokkalis, Zinon T.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives One of the unfortunate sequelae in obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) is upper limb length discrepancy. However, the influence of primary nerve reconstruction remains undetermined. In this study, the resultant discrepancy in children with OBPP who underwent primary reconstruction was analyzed in relation to the severity of the lesion, the timing of surgery, and the functional outcome following surgery. Methods Fifty-four patients that met the inclusion criteria were included in this study. Preoperative and postoperative bilateral scanograms were obtained to document the effect of reinnervation on bone growth. The length of the humerus, ulna, third metacarpal, third proximal phalange, and total limb length were measured and the percentage between the affected and normal side were accessed. Correlations between all the measures of limb length and measures of active motion (i.e., three different classification systems) were performed. Results Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients revealed significant correlations between limb length discrepancies and nearly all measures of active upper extremity movement. The timing of surgery and the severity of the lesion significantly influenced the resultant limb length discrepancy. Conclusions The prevention of a non-acceptable upper limb discrepancy is fundamental for both the patient and family. The extent of the resultant discrepancy appeared to be strongly related to the time between injury and surgery, degree of severity, and the outcome of surgery. Patients with better functional recoveries of the affected upper extremities showed smaller differences in limb length. PMID:22131921

  15. The Evidence for Nerve Repair in Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Pondaag, Willem; Malessy, Martijn J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Strong scientific validation for nerve reconstructive surgery in infants with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy is lacking, as no randomized trial comparing surgical reconstruction versus conservative treatment has been performed. A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify studies that compare nerve reconstruction to conservative treatment, including neurolysis. Nine papers were identified that directly compared the two treatment modalities. Eight of these were classified as level 4 evidence and one as level 5 evidence. All nine papers were evaluated in detail to describe strong and weak points in the methodology, and the outcomes from all studies were presented. Pooling of data was not possible due to differences in patient selection for surgery and outcome measures. The general consensus is that nerve reconstruction is indicated when the result of nerve surgery is assumedly better than the expected natural recovery, when spontaneous recovery is absent or severely delayed. The papers differed in methodology on how the cut-off point to select infants for nerve reconstructive surgical therapy should be determined. The justification for nerve reconstruction is further discussed. PMID:24551845

  16. The value of preoperative and intraoperative electromyography in the management of obstetric brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Chin, Kuen F; Di Mascio, Livio; Holmes, Karen; Misra, V Peter; Sinisi, Marco M

    2010-12-01

    The treatment of obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) with neuroma-in-continuity is controversial. The recent literature advocates excision of neuroma-in-continuity in OBPP and repair with nerve graft irrespective of its neurophysiological conductivity. This approach risks sacrificing the regenerating axons, and the result has not yet been proven to be superior to neurolysis alone. In this case report, the authors aim to outline their strategy of using the combination of preoperative and intraoperative clinical and neurophysiological findings to aid their decision making. The lack of upper trunk recovery and the unfavorable preoperative neurophysiological findings in a child with Narakas Group 4 OBPP at 5 months of age prompted an urgent exploration with the intention of performing neurotization. This procedure was abandoned and neurolysis was performed due to the favorable intraoperative neurophysiological findings. At 4 years of age, the child scored 12 of 15 on Mallet classification and has an excellent range of movement. No secondary operation was needed. The authors hope to highlight the idea that the surgical option for neurolysis alone should be kept open and that intraoperative electromyography can be a valuable tool to add to the surgeon's armamentarium.

  17. Triangle tilt surgery as salvage procedure for failed shoulder surgery in obstetric brachial plexus injury

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Meera B.; Karicherla, Priyanka

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The study was conducted to review the effects of triangle tilt surgery in children with OBPI (obstetric brachial plexus injury) who had previously undergone several operative procedures at other hospitals before presenting at our institute. Methods The study included a group of 48 OBPI patients who had undergone previous operative procedures at outside hospitals by other surgeons. Patients were assessed for shoulder function using their radiological reports and the modified Mallet functional scale. The same patients underwent the triangle tilt procedure at our institution and were re-evaluated for shoulder function. Results The results of the study showed an increase in Mallet scores from 11.88 points to 15.17 points (p < 0.01), improvement in PHHA (percentage of humeral head anterior to the glenoid) from 14% to 25% (p < 0.05), enhancement in glenoid version from −32° to −25° (p < 0.01), and a decrease in the SHEAR (scapular hypoplasia, elevation, and rotation) deformity after surgery. Conclusion The data obtained demonstrated that the triangle tilt procedure significantly enhanced shoulder function and glenohumeral congruity in these patients as evidenced by the improvements in Mallet scores, PHHA, glenoid version, and SHEAR deformity. PMID:20668864

  18. Role of early shoulder tomography on the obstetric brachial plexus palsy

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Bruno Liberato de Souza; Kimura, Luiz Koiti; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; Mattar, Rames; Cho, Álvaro Baik; Oviedo, Rubén Montiel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the importance of performing early shoulder tomography in patients with obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP). Methods: This series of cases retrospective study with level evidence IV was conducted by consulting 76 patient's medical records with OBPP divided into three age groups: ≤12 months, 13 to 24 months and ≥ 25 months. The patients were classified according to gender, affected side, type of paralysis according to Narakas classification, and by computed tomography, according to the Waters scale. Results: The association between the age groups with Waters classification was statistically significant (p=0,006), showing that patients in the group aged less than 12 months and in the group aged between 12 and 24 months had a relevant correlation between the physical examination and Waters > III when compared to patients from groups aged 25 months or older. Conclusion: This study shows a correlation between the findings in the physical examination and severe dysplasia on the shoulder of children under 24 months of age, justifying the early tomographic shoulder exam in order to achieve a better follow-up and a consider a more aggressive approach in the treatment of OBPP affected children. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:26327790

  19. Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy: The Mallet Grading System for Shoulder Function—Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qattan, M. M.; El-Sayed, A. A. F.

    2014-01-01

    The Mallet grading system is a commonly used functional scoring system to assess shoulder abduction/external rotation deficits in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy. One feature of the Mallet score is that each grade is translated into certain degrees of deficiencies in both shoulder abduction and external rotation. The aim of the current study is to investigate the percentage of children in which the Mallet score could not be applied because of a discrepancy between the deficiency of shoulder abduction and shoulder external rotation. The study group included 50 consecutive unoperated older children (over 5 years of age) with Erb's palsy and deficits in shoulder movements. The Mallet score could be applied in 40 cases (80%). In the remaining 10 cases (20%), the Mallet score could not be applied either because shoulder abduction had a better grade than the grade of shoulder external rotation (n = 7) or vice versa (n = 3). It was concluded that documenting the deficits in shoulder abduction and external rotation are best done separately and this can be accomplished by using other grading systems. PMID:24527447

  20. Computed tomography of the shoulders in patients with obstetric brachial plexus injuries: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K; Humphries, Andrea D

    2008-01-01

    Background Scapular hypoplasia, elevation, and rotation (SHEAR) deformity and posterior subluxation of the humeral head are common tertiary sequelae of obstetric brachial plexus injuries (OBPI). Interpretations of images from bilateral computed tomography (CT) scans of the upper extremities are critical to the diagnosis and treatment plan for patients with these bony deformities resulting from OBPI. Methods We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the accuracy of radiologic reports in the diagnosis of SHEAR or posterior subluxation of the humeral head in OBPI patients. CT studies from 43 consecutive patients over a 33-month period were used in the study. For each patient, we compared the results from the radiologic report to those from a clinical examination given by the attending surgeon and to measurements taken from the CT studies by biomedical researchers. Results A comparison of SHEAR measured from the 3-D CT images to the diagnoses from the radiologists, revealed that only 40% of the radiological reports were accurate. However, there was a direct correlation between the use of the 3-D CT images and an accurate SHEAR diagnosis by the radiologists (p < 0.0001). When posterior subluxation was measured in the affected and contralateral shoulders, 93% of the patients that had greater than a 10% difference between the two shoulders did not have their deformity diagnosed. The radiological reports diagnosed 17% of these patients with a 'normal' shoulder. Only 5% of the reports were complete, accurately diagnosing SHEAR in addition to posterior subluxation. Conclusion Due to the low incidence rate of OBPI, many radiologists may be unfamiliar with the sequelae of these injuries. It is therefore critical that radiologists are made aware of the importance of an accurate measurement and diagnosis of the SHEAR deformity. Due to their lack of completeness, the radiological reports in this study did not significantly contribute to the clinical care of the patients

  1. Recurrent brachial plexus neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Bradley, W G; Madrid, R; Thrush, D C; Campbell, M J

    1975-09-01

    The clinical, electrophysiological and pathological changes in 3 patients with recurrent attacks of non-traumatic brachial plexus neuropathy have been described. Two had recurrent attacks and a dominant family history of similar attacks, together with evidence of lesser degrees of nerve involvement outside the brachial plexus. In one patient the attacks were moderately painful, while in the other there was little or no pain. Only one showed undue slowing of motor nerve conduction during ischaemia, but in both cases the sural nerves had the changes of tomaculous neuropathy, with many sausage-shaped swellings of the myelin sheaths, and extensive segmental demyelination and remyelination. The third patient had two attacks of acute brachial plexus neuropathy which were both extremely painful. The clinical features were compatible with a diagnosis of neuralgic amuotrophy. In the second attack, there was vagus nerve involvement and the sural nerve showed evidence of healed extensive segmental demyelination. The various syndromes presenting with acute non-traumatic brachial plexus neuropathy are reviewed, and a tentative nonsological classification advanced. Most patients fall into the category of acute, painful paralysis with amyotrophy, with no family history and no evidence of lesions outside the brachial plexus. It is suggested that the term "neuralgic amyotrophy" be restricted to this group. Patients with features outside this clinical picture probably suffer from other disease entities presenting with brachial plexus neuropathy. The familial cases constitute one or more aetioliogical subgroups, differing from neuralgic amyotrophy in the frequency of recurrences, the relative freedom from pain in the attacks, the frequency of nerve lesions outside the brachial plexus, and of hypotelorism. Individual attacks of acute brachial plexus neuropathy, however, may be identical in patients with the different diseases, and further pathological and biochemical studies are

  2. Vascular endothelial growth factor gene therapy improves nerve regeneration in a model of obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Hillenbrand, Matthias; Holzbach, Thomas; Matiasek, Kaspar; Schlegel, Jürgen; Giunta, Riccardo E

    2015-03-01

    The treatment of obstetric brachial plexus palsy has been limited to conservative therapies and surgical reconstruction of peripheral nerves. In addition to the damage of the brachial plexus itself, it also leads to a loss of the corresponding motoneurons in the spinal cord, which raises the need for supportive strategies that take the participation of the central nervous system into account. Based on the protective and regenerative effects of VEGF on neural tissue, our aim was to analyse the effect on nerve regeneration by adenoviral gene transfer of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in postpartum nerve injury of the brachial plexus in rats. In the present study, we induced a selective crush injury to the left spinal roots C5 and C6 in 18 rats within 24 hours after birth and examined the effect of VEGF-gene therapy on nerve regeneration. For gene transduction an adenoviral vector encoding for VEGF165 (AdCMV.VEGF165) was used. In a period of 11 weeks, starting 3 weeks post-operatively, functional regeneration was assessed weekly by behavioural analysis and force measurement of the upper limb. Morphometric evaluation was carried out 8 months post-operatively and consisted of a histological examination of the deltoid muscle and the brachial plexus according to defined criteria of degeneration. In addition, atrophy of the deltoid muscle was evaluated by weight determination comparing the left with the right side. VEGF expression in the brachial plexus was quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore the motoneurons of the spinal cord segment C5 were counted comparing the left with the right side. On the functional level, VEGF-treated animals showed faster nerve regeneration. It was found less degeneration and smaller mass reduction of the deltoid muscle in VEGF-treated animals. We observed significantly less degeneration of the brachial plexus and a greater number of surviving motoneurons (P < 0·05) in the VEGF group. The results of

  3. Navigating the gray zone: a guideline for surgical decision making in obstetrical brachial plexus injuries.

    PubMed

    Bain, James R; Dematteo, Carol; Gjertsen, Deborah; Hollenberg, Robert D

    2009-03-01

    In the literature, the best recommendations are imprecise as to the timing and selection of infants with obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI) for surgical intervention. There is a gray zone (GZ) in which the decision as to the benefits and risks of surgery versus no surgery is not clear. The authors propose to describe this category, and they have developed a guideline to assist surgical decision-making within this GZ. The authors first performed a critical review of the medical literature to determine the existence of a GZ in other clinical publications. In those reports, 47-89% of infants with OBPI fell within such a GZ. Complete recovery in those reported patients ranged from 9 to 59%. Using a prospective inception cohort design, all infants referred to the OBPI Clinic at McMaster Children's Hospital were systematically evaluated up to 3 years of age. The Active Movement Scale scores were compared for surgical and nonsurgical groups of infants in the GZ to identify any important trends that would guide surgical decision-making. In the authors' population of infants with OBPI, 81% fell within the GZ, of whom 44% achieved complete recovery. Mean scores differed significantly between surgery and no surgery groups in terms of total Active Movement Scale score and shoulder abduction and flexion at 6 months. Elbow flexion and external rotation differed at 3 months. There is compelling evidence that there is a group of infants with OBPI in whom the assessment of the risk/benefit ratio for surgical versus nonsurgical treatment is not evident. These infants reside within what the authors have called the GZ. Based on their results, a guideline was derived to assist clinicians working with infants with OBPI to navigate the GZ.

  4. Morphometric analysis of the effect of scapula stabilization on obstetric brachial plexus paralysis patients.

    PubMed

    Terzis, Julia K; Karypidis, Dimitrios; Mendoza, Ricardo; Kokkalis, Zinon T; Diawara, Norou

    2014-09-01

    Scapular position and size deficiency is evident in obstetric brachial plexus paralysis (OBPP) patients due to the absence of balanced muscular forces acting on the scapula. Scapula stabilization (SS) procedures aim to restore a balanced musculature and anatomic position and to augment shoulder function and enhance developmental potential. Retrospective chart review of 106 patients with OBPP between March 1979 and March 2007 was performed. Forty-one female and 27 male were included in the study. In 38 patients, the paralysis was global, 13 had Erb's paralysis with C7 root involvement; in 18 patients, the lesion was limited to C5 and C6. X-rays were evaluated, and scapula dimensions were manually measured at several stages. Shoulder abduction (SA) and external rotation (SER) outcomes were also recorded. Mean improvement was 85.68° in shoulder abduction and 36.74° in shoulder external rotation. SA and SER improvement was significantly better in those who underwent SS procedures compared to those who did not (mean improvement was increased by 9.15° and 8.54°, respectively). Improvement was noted in all scapular dimensions, in all groups, postoperatively. However, the mean improvement in scapular height, big width, small width, and oblique axis discrepancies was 4.92, 14.04, 12.66, and 13.89 %, respectively, higher in patients who underwent SS procedures compared to those who did not. Dimensional discrepancies and functional outcomes are improved by SS procedures. Maximal results are attained in patients who have undergone both primary and secondary shoulder reconstruction before age 2.

  5. Improvements after mod Quad and triangle tilt revision surgical procedures in obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2016-11-18

    To compare outcomes of our revision surgical operations in obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) patients to results of conventional operative procedures at other institutions. We analyzed our OBPP data and identified 10 female and 10 male children aged 2.0 to 11.8 years (average age 6.5 years), who had prior conventional surgical therapies at other clinics. Of the 20 patients, 18 undergone triangle tilt, 2 had only mod Quad. Among 18 patients, 8 had only triangle tilt and 10 had also mod Quad as revision surgeries with us. We analyzed the anatomical improvements and functional modified Mallet statistically before and after a year post-revision operations. Pre-revision surgery average modified Mallet score was 12.0 ± 1.5. This functional score was greatly improved to 18 ± 2.3 (P < 0.0001) at least one-year after revision surgical procedures. Radiological scores (PHHA and glenoid version) were also improved significantly to 31.9 ± 13.6 (P < 0.001), -16.3 ± 11 (P < 0.0002), at least one-year after triangle tilt procedure. Their mean pre-triangle tilt (yet after other surgeon's surgeries) PHHA, glenoid version and SHEAR were 14.6 ± 21.7, -31.6 ± 19.3 and 16.1 ± 14.7 respectively. We demonstrate here, mod Quad and triangle tilt as successful revision surgical procedures in 20 OBPP patients, who had other surgical treatments at other clinics before presenting to us for further treatment.

  6. Scapular deformity in obstetric brachial plexus palsy and the Hueter-Volkmann law; a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    van Gelein Vitringa, Valerie M; van Royen, Barend J; van der Sluijs, Johannes A

    2013-03-22

    The Hueter-Volkmann law describes growth principles around joints and joint deformation. It states that decreased stress leads to increased growth and that excessive stress leads to growth retardation. Aim of this study was to test the possible results of this principle by measuring the effect of dorsal humeral head subluxation on scapular growth in children with Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Lesions (OBPL). According to the Hueter-Volkmann law, subluxation should result in decrease of growth of the dorsal length of the scapula (by increased dorsal pressure) and increase of the ventral length (decreased pressure). 58 children (mean age 20 months, range 1-88 month) with unilateral OBPL and good quality MRI of both shoulders were included. On MRI, humeral head subluxation, joint deformation, and ventral and dorsal scapular lengths were measured. Data were expressed as a ratio of the normal side. In affected scapulas both ventral and dorsal side were smaller compared to the normal side. Reduction of growth on the affected side was more marked on the dorsal side than on the ventral side (6.5 mm respectively 4.5 mm, p < 0.001). The balance of growth reduction as expressed by the ratio of ventral and dorsal length was strongly related to subluxation (R(2) = 0.33, p < 0.001) and age (R(2) = 0.19, p < 0.001). The Hueter-Volkmann law is incompletely active in subluxated shoulders in OBPL. Dorsal subluxation indeed leads to decrease of growth of the dorsal length of the scapula. However, decreased stress did not lead to increased growth of the ventral length of the scapula.

  7. Degree of Contracture Related to Residual Muscle Shoulder Strength in Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Lesions

    PubMed Central

    van Gelein Vitringa, Valerie M.; van Noort, Arthur; Ritt, Marco J. P. F.; van Royen, Barend J.; van der Sluijs, Johannes A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives  Little is known about the relation between residual muscle strength and joint contracture formation in neuromuscular disorders. This study aimed to investigate the relation between residual muscle strength and shoulder joint contractures in children with sequelae of obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL). In OBPL a shoulder joint contracture is a frequent finding. We hypothesize that residual internal and external rotator strength and their balance are related to the extent of shoulder joint contracture. Methods  Clinical assessment was performed in 34 children (mean 10.0 years) with unilateral OBPL and Narakas classes I–III. External and internal rotation strengths were measured with the shoulder in neutral position using a handheld dynamometer. Strength on the affected side was given as percentage of the normal side. Contracture was assessed by passive internal and external rotations in degrees (in 0° abduction). Mallet classification was used for active shoulder function. Results  External and internal rotation strengths on the affected side were approximately 50% of the normal side and on average both equally affected: 56% (SD 18%) respectively 51% (SD 27%); r = 0.600, p = 0.000. Residual strengths were not related to passive internal or external rotation (p > 0.200). Internal rotation strength (r =  − 0.425, p <0.05) was related to Narakas class. Mallet score was related to external and internal rotation strengths (r = 0.451 and r = 0.515, respectively; p < 0.01). Conclusion  The intuitive notion that imbalances in residual muscle strength influence contracture formation cannot be confirmed in this study. Our results are of interest for the understanding of contracture formation in OBPL. PMID:27917235

  8. Degree of Contracture Related to Residual Muscle Shoulder Strength in Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Lesions.

    PubMed

    van Gelein Vitringa, Valerie M; van Noort, Arthur; Ritt, Marco J P F; van Royen, Barend J; van der Sluijs, Johannes A

    2015-12-01

     Little is known about the relation between residual muscle strength and joint contracture formation in neuromuscular disorders. This study aimed to investigate the relation between residual muscle strength and shoulder joint contractures in children with sequelae of obstetric brachial plexus lesion (OBPL). In OBPL a shoulder joint contracture is a frequent finding. We hypothesize that residual internal and external rotator strength and their balance are related to the extent of shoulder joint contracture.  Clinical assessment was performed in 34 children (mean 10.0 years) with unilateral OBPL and Narakas classes I-III. External and internal rotation strengths were measured with the shoulder in neutral position using a handheld dynamometer. Strength on the affected side was given as percentage of the normal side. Contracture was assessed by passive internal and external rotations in degrees (in 0° abduction). Mallet classification was used for active shoulder function.  External and internal rotation strengths on the affected side were approximately 50% of the normal side and on average both equally affected: 56% (SD 18%) respectively 51% (SD 27%); r = 0.600, p = 0.000. Residual strengths were not related to passive internal or external rotation (p > 0.200). Internal rotation strength (r =  - 0.425, p <0.05) was related to Narakas class. Mallet score was related to external and internal rotation strengths (r = 0.451 and r = 0.515, respectively; p < 0.01).  The intuitive notion that imbalances in residual muscle strength influence contracture formation cannot be confirmed in this study. Our results are of interest for the understanding of contracture formation in OBPL.

  9. Three-dimensional humeral morphologic alterations and atrophy associated with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Frances T; Brochard, Sylvain; Behnam, Abrahm J; Alter, Katharine E

    2014-05-01

    Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) is a common birth injury, resulting in severe functional losses. Yet, little is known about how OBPP affects the 3-dimensional (3D) humeral morphology. Thus, the purpose of this study was to measure the 3D humeral architecture in children with unilateral OBPP. Thirteen individuals (4 female and 9 male patients; mean age, 11.8 ± 3.3 years; mean Mallet score, 15.1 ± 3.0) participated in this institutional review board approved study. A 3D T1-weighted gradient-recalled echo magnetic resonance image set was acquired for both upper limbs (involved and noninvolved). Humeral size, version, and inclination were quantified from 3D humeral models derived from these images. The involved humeral head was significantly less retroverted and in declination (medial humeral head pointed anteriorly and inferiorly) relative to the noninvolved side. Osseous atrophy was present in all 3 dimensions and affected the entire humerus. The inter-rater reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.96-1.00). This study showed that both humeral atrophy and bone shape deformities associated with OBPP are not limited to the axial plane but are 3D phenomena. Incorporating information related to these multi-planar, 3D humeral deformities into surgical planning could potentially improve functional outcomes after surgery. The documented reduction in retroversion is an osseous adaptation, which may help maintain glenohumeral congruency by partially compensating for the internal rotation of the arm. The humeral head declination is a novel finding and may be an important factor to consider when one is developing OBPP management strategies because it has been shown to lead to significant supraspinatus inefficiencies and increased required elevation forces. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  10. Improvements after mod Quad and triangle tilt revision surgical procedures in obstetric brachial plexus palsy

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare outcomes of our revision surgical operations in obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) patients to results of conventional operative procedures at other institutions. METHODS We analyzed our OBPP data and identified 10 female and 10 male children aged 2.0 to 11.8 years (average age 6.5 years), who had prior conventional surgical therapies at other clinics. Of the 20 patients, 18 undergone triangle tilt, 2 had only mod Quad. Among 18 patients, 8 had only triangle tilt and 10 had also mod Quad as revision surgeries with us. We analyzed the anatomical improvements and functional modified Mallet statistically before and after a year post-revision operations. RESULTS Pre-revision surgery average modified Mallet score was 12.0 ± 1.5. This functional score was greatly improved to 18 ± 2.3 (P < 0.0001) at least one-year after revision surgical procedures. Radiological scores (PHHA and glenoid version) were also improved significantly to 31.9 ± 13.6 (P < 0.001), -16.3 ± 11 (P < 0.0002), at least one-year after triangle tilt procedure. Their mean pre-triangle tilt (yet after other surgeon’s surgeries) PHHA, glenoid version and SHEAR were 14.6 ± 21.7, -31.6 ± 19.3 and 16.1 ± 14.7 respectively. CONCLUSION We demonstrate here, mod Quad and triangle tilt as successful revision surgical procedures in 20 OBPP patients, who had other surgical treatments at other clinics before presenting to us for further treatment. PMID:27900273

  11. Successful outcome of triangle tilt as revision surgery in a pediatric obstetric brachial plexus patient with multiple previous operations.

    PubMed

    Nath, Rahul K; Halthore, Vishnu; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) occurs during the process of labor and childbirth. OBPI has been reported to be associated with shoulder dystocia, macrosomia, and breech delivery. Its occurrence in uncomplicated delivery is possible as well. Case Presentation. The patient in the present report is a 6.5-year-old girl, who suffered a severe brachial plexus injury at birth and had many reconstructive surgical procedures at an outside brachial plexus center before presenting to us. Discussion. The traditional surgical treatments by other surgical groups were unsuccessful and therefore the patient came to our clinic for further treatment. She had triangle tilt surgery with us, as a salvage procedure. Conclusion. The OBPI patient in this study clearly showed noticeable clinical and functional improvements after triangle tilt surgical management. The posture of the arm at rest was greatly improved to a more normal position, and hand to mouth movement was improved as well. Triangle tilt surgery should be conducted as a first choice treatment for medial rotation contracture of the shoulder in OBPI patients.

  12. Successful Outcome of Triangle Tilt as Revision Surgery in a Pediatric Obstetric Brachial Plexus Patient with Multiple Previous Operations

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) occurs during the process of labor and childbirth. OBPI has been reported to be associated with shoulder dystocia, macrosomia, and breech delivery. Its occurrence in uncomplicated delivery is possible as well. Case Presentation. The patient in the present report is a 6.5-year-old girl, who suffered a severe brachial plexus injury at birth and had many reconstructive surgical procedures at an outside brachial plexus center before presenting to us. Discussion. The traditional surgical treatments by other surgical groups were unsuccessful and therefore the patient came to our clinic for further treatment. She had triangle tilt surgery with us, as a salvage procedure. Conclusion. The OBPI patient in this study clearly showed noticeable clinical and functional improvements after triangle tilt surgical management. The posture of the arm at rest was greatly improved to a more normal position, and hand to mouth movement was improved as well. Triangle tilt surgery should be conducted as a first choice treatment for medial rotation contracture of the shoulder in OBPI patients. PMID:25506033

  13. Clinical outcome of shoulder muscle transfer for shoulder deformities in obstetric brachial plexus palsy: A study of 150 cases

    PubMed Central

    Thatte, Mukund R.; Agashe, Mandar V.; Rao, Aamod; Rathod, Chasanal M.; Mehta, Rujuta

    2011-01-01

    Background: Residual muscle weakness, cross-innervation (caused by misdirected regenerating axons), and muscular imbalance are the main causes of internal rotation contractures leading to limitation of shoulder joint movement, glenoid dysplasia, and deformity in obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Muscle transfers and release of antagonistic muscles improve range of motion as well as halt or reverse the deterioration in the bony architecture of the shoulder joint. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of shoulder muscle transfer for shoulder abnormalities in obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty patients of obstetric brachial plexus palsy with shoulder deformity underwent shoulder muscle transfer along with anterior shoulder release at our institutions from 1999 to 2007. Shoulder function was assessed both preoperatively and postoperatively using aggregate modified Mallet score and active and passive range of motion. The mean duration of follow-up was 4 years (2.5–8 years). Results: The mean preoperative abduction was 45° ± 7.12, mean passive external rotation was 10° ± 6.79, the mean active external rotation was 0°, and the mean aggregate modified Mallet score was 11.2 ± 1.41. At a mean follow-up of 4 years (2.5–8 years), the mean active abduction was 120° ± 18.01, the mean passive external rotation was 80° ± 10.26, while the mean active external rotation was 45° ± 3.84. The mean aggregate modified Mallet score was 19.2 ± 1.66. Conclusions: This procedure can thus be seen as a very effective tool to treat internal rotation and adduction contractures, achieve functional active abduction and external rotation, as well as possibly prevent glenohumeral dysplasia, though the long-term effects of this procedure may still have to be studied in detail clinico-radiologically to confirm this hypothesis. Level of evidence: Therapeutic level IV PMID:21713212

  14. [Brachial plexus sleep palsy].

    PubMed

    Fourcade, G; Taieb, G; Renard, D; Labauge, P; Pradal-Prat, D

    2011-01-01

    Brachial plexus is rarely involved in "Saturday night palsy". A young man was admitted for numbness and weakness of his right upper limb after awaking from sleep. Neurophysiological studies, consistent with brachial plexopathy, revealed presence of proximal conduction blocks. Patient presented spontaneous clinical and neurophysiological improvement. Diagnosis of compressive brachial plexopathy needs to eliminate other causes of neuropathy with conduction block. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. [A case-control study on the risk factors related to obstetric brachial plexus palsy].

    PubMed

    Gao, Shi-chang; Chen, Liang; Meng, Wei; Gu, Yu-dong

    2005-09-01

    To identify the risk factors and related degrees associated to obstetric brachial plexus palsy(OBPP). A case-control study was performed. Neonatal records of thirty-one cases with OBPP and their corresponding maternal records from the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of eight hospitals in Shanghai city from 1988 to 2002 were reviewed. Four controls, all living in Shanghai were selected to match each case and were born within the same year at the same hospital. The control group also included 124 cases without OBPP. According to the uniformed data and tables used were from medical records and from pregnant women. Epidemiological study was carried out on both case group and control group. Variables for analyses would include: (1) race, age, height, family history, pre-pregnancy weight, body mass index at the pre-pregnancy (weight/height2) on those pregnant women as well as on parity of their mothers; (2) the process of delivery which includeing clinic pelvis evaluation, height of uterus, abdomen circumference,antepartum weight,body mass index before delivery, mode of delivery,the duration of active phase and 2nd stage of labor, shoulder dystocia; (3) on neonates: sex, gestational age, birth weight,affected limb, Apgar scores of 1 and 5 minutes, other birth trauma and resuscitation of infant. Statistical tests applied to these data would include Student's T test for continuous variables and chi2 analysis for discrete data. Risk calculation of OBPP was performed by univariable and multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis. 12 factors related to expsure were identified for OBPP through univariable conditional logistic regression analysis. When multivariable conditional logistic regression model at P = 0.1 was applied, four factors such as cesarean (OR = 0.060), forceps (OR = 65.237), birth weight (OR = 35.468), and pre-pregnancy body mass index (OR = 23.901) were selected. Forceps delivery,macrosomia, and increase of pre-pregnancy body mass index

  16. Improvement in abduction of the shoulder after reconstructive soft-tissue procedures in obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Nath, R K; Paizi, M

    2007-05-01

    Residual muscle weakness in obstetric brachial plexus palsy results in soft-tissue contractures which limit the functional range of movement and lead to progressive glenoid dysplasia and joint instability. We describe the results of surgical treatment in 98 patients (mean age 2.5 years, 0.5 to 9.0) for the correction of active abduction of the shoulder. The patients underwent transfer of the latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles, release of contractures of subscapularis pectoralis major and minor, and axillary nerve decompression and neurolysis (the modified Quad procedure). The transferred muscles were sutured to the teres minor muscle, not to a point of bony insertion. The mean pre-operative active abduction was 45 degrees (20 degrees to 90 degrees ). At a mean follow-up of 4.8 years (2.0 to 8.7), the mean active abduction was 162 degrees (100 degrees to 180 degrees ) while 77 (78.6%) of the patients had active abduction of 160 degrees or more. No decline in abduction was noted among the 29 patients (29.6%) followed up for six years or more. This procedure involving release of the contracted internal rotators of the shoulder combined with decompression and neurolysis of the axillary nerve greatly improves active abduction in young patients with muscle imbalance secondary to obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

  17. Obstetrical brachial plexus injury: burden in a publicly funded, universal healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Coroneos, Christopher J; Voineskos, Sophocles H; Coroneos, Marie K; Alolabi, Noor; Goekjian, Serge R; Willoughby, Lauren I; Farrokhyar, Forough; Thoma, Achilleas; Bain, James R; Brouwers, Melissa C

    2015-10-23

    OBJECT The aim of this study was to determine the volume and timing of referrals for obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI) to multidisciplinary centers in a national demographic sample. Secondarily, we aimed to measure the incidence and risk factors for OBPI in the sample. The burden of OBPI has not been investigated in a publicly funded system, and the timing and volume of referrals to multidisciplinary centers are unknown. The incidence and risk factors for OBPI have not been established in Canada. METHODS This is a retrospective cohort study. The authors used a demographic sample of all infants born in Canada, capturing all children born in a publicly funded, universal healthcare system. OBPI diagnoses and corresponding risk factors from 2004 to 2012 were identified and correlated with referrals to Canada's 10 multidisciplinary OBPI centers. Quality indicators were approved by the Canadian OBPI Working Group's guideline consensus group. The primary outcome was the timing of initial assessment at a multidisciplinary center, "good" if assessed by the time the patient was 1 month of age, "satisfactory" if by 3 months of age, and "poor" if thereafter. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to determine the OBPI incidence over the study period. Odds ratios were calculated to determine the strength of association for risk factors. RESULTS OBPI incidence was 1.24 per 1000 live births, and was consistent from 2004 to 2012. Potential biases underestimate the level of injury identification. The factors associated with a very strong risk for OBPI were humerus fracture, shoulder dystocia, and clavicle fracture. The majority (55%-60%) of OBPI patients identified at birth were not referred. Among those who were referred, the timing of assessment was "good" in 28%, "satisfactory" in 66%, and "poor" in 34%. CONCLUSIONS Shoulder dystocia was the strongest modifiable risk factor for OBPI. Most children with OBPI were not referred to multidisciplinary care. Of those who were

  18. [Operative treatment of abduction and lateral rotation limitation of shoulder in obstetric brachial plexus palsy].

    PubMed

    Jin, Guoqiang; Shi, Qilin

    2010-04-01

    To study the treatment method and effect of abduction and lateral rotation limitation of the shoulder in obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP). From February 2005 to August 2008, 11 patients with abduction and lateral rotation limitation of the shoulder in OBPP were treated with dissection of the origin of subscapular muscle, transfer of the tendons of latissimus dorsi and teres major muscle to the tendons of supraspinous and infraspinous muscles. Among them, there were 6 males and 5 females with a mean age of 6 years (1-15 years). The main clinical manifestations showed adduction, internal rotation contracture deformity of shoulder, limited active and passive external rotation and severely restricted active abduction of shoulder. The passive abduction was more than 90 degrees. According to Gilbert grading, there were 7 cases of grade 1 and 4 cases of grade 2. Based on Mallet score systems, the scores were 5 points in 3 cases, 6 points in 3 cases, and 7 points in 5 cases. The muscle strength of deltoid, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres major muscle and latissimus dorsi all reached 3-4 grades. One patient developed postoperative hematoma, wound healed after symptomatic management. Other patients achieved incision healing by first intention. All patients were followed up for 12 to 37 months (17 months on average). The active abduction and external rotation of the shoulder joints recovered obviously. The Gilbert grading were grade 2 in 1 case, grade 3 in 1 case, and grade 4 in 9 cases; the Mallet scores were 10 points in 1 case, 11 points in 2 cases, 12 points in 4 cases, 13 points in 3 cases, and 14 points in 1 case; showing significant differences when compared with those before operation (P < 0.01). The muscle strength of deltoid, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres major muscle and latissimus dorsi increased to 4-5 grades. The dissection of the origin of subscapular muscle, transfer of the tendons of latissimus dorsi and teres major muscle to the tendons of

  19. Coracoid abnormalities and their relationship with glenohumeral deformities in children with obstetric brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Nath, Rahul K; Mahmooduddin, Faiz; Liu, Xiaomei; Wentz, Melissa J; Humphries, Andrea D

    2010-10-13

    Patients with incomplete recovery from obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) usually develop secondary muscle imbalances and bone deformities at the shoulder joint. Considerable efforts have been made to characterize and correct the glenohumeral deformities, and relatively less emphasis has been placed on the more subtle ones, such as those of the coracoid process. The purpose of this retrospective study is to determine the relationship between coracoid abnormalities and glenohumeral deformities in OBPI patients. We hypothesize that coracoscapular angles and distances, as well as coracohumeral distances, diminish with increasing glenohumeral deformity, whereas coracoid overlap will increase. 39 patients (age range: 2-13 years, average: 4.7 years), with deformities secondary to OBPI were included in this study. Parameters for quantifying coracoid abnormalities (coracoscapular angle, coracoid overlap, coracohumeral distance, and coracoscapular distance) and shoulder deformities (posterior subluxation and glenoid retroversion) were measured on CT images from these patients before any surgical intervention. Paired Student t-tests and Pearson correlations were used to analyze different parameters. Significant differences between affected and contralateral shoulders were found for all coracoid and shoulder deformity parameters. Percent of humeral head anterior to scapular line (PHHA), glenoid version, coracoscapular angles, and coracoscapular and coracohumeral distances were significantly lower for affected shoulders compared to contralateral ones. Coracoid overlap was significantly higher for affected sides compared to contralateral sides. Significant and positive correlations were found between coracoscapular distances and glenohumeral parameters (PHHA and version), as well as between coracoscapular angles and glenohumeral parameters, for affected shoulders. Moderate and positive correlations existed between coracoid overlap and glenohumeral parameters for affected

  20. Coracoid Abnormalities and Their Relationship with Glenohumeral Deformities in Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with incomplete recovery from obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) usually develop secondary muscle imbalances and bone deformities at the shoulder joint. Considerable efforts have been made to characterize and correct the glenohumeral deformities, and relatively less emphasis has been placed on the more subtle ones, such as those of the coracoid process. The purpose of this retrospective study is to determine the relationship between coracoid abnormalities and glenohumeral deformities in OBPI patients. We hypothesize that coracoscapular angles and distances, as well as coracohumeral distances, diminish with increasing glenohumeral deformity, whereas coracoid overlap will increase. Methods 39 patients (age range: 2-13 years, average: 4.7 years), with deformities secondary to OBPI were included in this study. Parameters for quantifying coracoid abnormalities (coracoscapular angle, coracoid overlap, coracohumeral distance, and coracoscapular distance) and shoulder deformities (posterior subluxation and glenoid retroversion) were measured on CT images from these patients before any surgical intervention. Paired Student t-tests and Pearson correlations were used to analyze different parameters. Results Significant differences between affected and contralateral shoulders were found for all coracoid and shoulder deformity parameters. Percent of humeral head anterior to scapular line (PHHA), glenoid version, coracoscapular angles, and coracoscapular and coracohumeral distances were significantly lower for affected shoulders compared to contralateral ones. Coracoid overlap was significantly higher for affected sides compared to contralateral sides. Significant and positive correlations were found between coracoscapular distances and glenohumeral parameters (PHHA and version), as well as between coracoscapular angles and glenohumeral parameters, for affected shoulders. Moderate and positive correlations existed between coracoid overlap and

  1. Brachial plexus trauma: the morbidity of hemidiaphragmatic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Franko, O I; Khalpey, Z; Gates, J

    2008-09-01

    Phrenic nerve palsy has previously been associated with brachial plexus root avulsion; severe unilateral phrenic nerve injury is not uncommonly associated with brachial plexus injury. Brachial plexus injuries can be traumatic (gunshot wounds, lacerations, stretch/contusion and avulsion injuries) or non-traumatic in aetiology (supraclavicular brachial plexus nerve block, subclavian vein catheterisation, cardiac surgeries, or obstetric complications such as birth palsy). Despite the known association, the incidence and morbidity of a phrenic nerve injury and hemidiaphragmatic paralysis associated with traumatic brachial plexus stretch injuries remains ill-defined. The incidence of an associated phrenic nerve injury with brachial plexus trauma ranges from 10% to 20%; however, because unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis often presents without symptoms at rest, a high number of phrenic nerve injuries are likely to be overlooked in the setting of brachial plexus injury. A case report is presented of a unilateral phrenic nerve injury associated with brachial plexus stretch injury presenting with a recalcitrant left lower lobe pneumonia.

  2. [Perinatal brachial plexus palsy].

    PubMed

    Macko, Jozef

    2010-08-01

    Upper limbs palsy as a result of affliction of plexus brachialis nervous bunch is disorder, whose frequency moves among 0.42-5.1 / 1000 liveborn children. Delivery mechanism itself certain weighty, no however only cause rising paralysis. Some way paralysis rise already intrauterinne, some way then at surgical childbirth per sectionem caeseream. Brachial plexus palsy isn't benign disorder. If isn't this disorder in time diagnosed and accordingly treated, child threatens late aftermath, especially significant limitation of limbs movement with functional consequencies.

  3. Perinatal brachial plexus palsy

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, John; Watt, Joe; Olson, Jaret; Van Aerde, John

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP) is a flaccid paralysis of the arm at birth that affects different nerves of the brachial plexus supplied by C5 to T1 in 0.42 to 5.1 infants per 1000 live births. OBJECTIVES To identify antenatal factors associated with PBPP and possible preventive measures, and to review the natural history as compared with the outcome after primary or secondary surgical interventions. METHODS A literature search on randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the prevention and treatment of PBPP was performed. EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library were searched until June 2005. Key words for searches included ‘brachial plexus’, ‘brachial plexus neuropathy’, ‘brachial plexus injury’, ‘birth injury’ and ‘paralysis, obstetric’. RESULTS There were no prospective studies on the cause or prevention of PBPP. Whereas birth trauma is said to be the most common cause, there is some evidence that PBPP may occur before delivery. Shoulder dystocia and PBPP are largely unpredictable, although associations of PBPP with shoulder dystocia, infants who are large for gestational age, maternal diabetes and instrumental delivery have been reported. The various forms of PBPP, clinical findings and diagnostic measures are described. Recent evidence suggests that the natural history of PBPP is not all favourable, and residual deficits are estimated at 20% to 30%, in contrast with the previous optimistic view of full recovery in greater than 90% of affected children. There were no randomized controlled trials on nonoperative management. There was no conclusive evidence that primary surgical exploration of the brachial plexus supercedes conservative management for improved outcome. However, results from nonrandomized studies indicated that children with severe injuries do better with surgical repair. Secondary surgical reconstructions were inferior to primary intervention, but could still improve arm

  4. Intra-operative neurophysiological prediction of upper trunk recovery in obstetric brachial plexus palsy with neuroma in continuity.

    PubMed

    Chin, K F; Misra, V P; Sicuri, G M; Fox, M; Sinisi, M

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the predictive value of intra-operative neurophysiological investigations in obstetric brachial plexus injuries. Between January 2005 and June 2011 a total of 32 infants of 206 referred to our unit underwent exploration of the plexus, including neurolysis. The findings from intra-operative electromyography, sensory evoked potentials across the lesion and gross muscular response to stimulation were evaluated. A total of 22 infants underwent neurolysis alone and ten had microsurgical reconstruction. Of the former, one was lost to follow-up, one had glenoplasty and three had subsequent nerve reconstructions. Of the remaining 17 infants with neurolysis, 13 (76%) achieved a modified Mallet score > 13 at a mean age of 3.5 years (0.75 to 6.25). Subluxation or dislocation of the shoulder is a major confounding factor. The positive predictive value and sensitivity of the intra-operative EMG for C5 were 100% and 85.7%, respectively, in infants without concurrent shoulder pathology. The positive and negative predictive values, sensitivity and specificity of the three investigations combined were 77%, 100%, 100% and 57%, respectively. In all, 20 infants underwent neurolysis alone for C6 and three had reconstruction. All of the former and one of the latter achieved biceps function of Raimondi grade 5. The positive and negative predictive values, sensitivity and specificity of electromyography for C6 were 65%, 71%, 87% and 42%, respectively. Our method is effective in evaluating the prognosis of C5 lesion. Neurolysis is preferred for C6 lesions.

  5. [Analysis of risk factors for perinatal brachial plexus palsy].

    PubMed

    Gosk, Jerzy; Rutowski, Roman

    2005-04-01

    Risk factors of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy include: (1) large birth weight, (2) shoulder dystocia and prolonged second stage of labour, (3) instrumental vaginal delivery (forceps delivery, vacuum extraction), (4) diabetes mellitus and mother's obesity, (5) breech presentation, (6) delivery and infant with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy in antecedent delivery. The purpose was analysis of the classical risk factors for brachial plexus palsy based on our own clinical material. Clinical material consists of 83 children with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy treated at the Department of Trauma and Hand Surgery (surgically--54, conservatively--29). Control group consists of 56 healthy newborns. Data recorded included: birth weight, body length, head and chest circumference, Apgar test at 1 min., type of brachial palsy and side affected, type of birth, presentation, duration of delivery (II stage), age of mother, mother's diseases, parity. The infants treated surgically have had a significantly higher birth weight, body height, head and chest circumference, in compression with control group and group treated conservatively. The differences were statistically important. Shoulder dystocia occurred in 32.9% of all vaginal delivery. Instrumental vaginal delivery was observed in 11.3% and breech presentation in 4.9% cases. There were no incidences of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy recurrence. Diabetes mellitus and mother's obesity was found in 3 cases. (1) Fetal macrosomia is the important risk factor of the obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. (2) Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy may occur also in the absence of the classical risk factors.

  6. Brachial plexus palsy and shoulder dystocia: obstetric risk factors remain elusive.

    PubMed

    Ouzounian, Joseph G; Korst, Lisa M; Miller, David A; Lee, Richard H

    2013-04-01

    Shoulder dystocia (SD) and brachial plexus palsy (BPP) are complications of childbirth that can result in significant long-term sequelae. The purpose of the present study was to analyze risk factors in cases of SD and BPP. We performed a retrospective study of laboring women who delivered a singleton, term, live-born infant at the Los Angeles County + University of Southern California Medical Center from 1995 to 2004. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze risk factors among SD cases with and without BPP. Of the 13,998 deliveries that met inclusion criteria, 221 (1.6%) had SD. Of these, 42 (19.0%) had BPP. After testing for association with multiple potential risk factors, including maternal demographic variables, diabetes, hypertension, prior cesarean delivery, uterine abnormalities, induction of labor, prolonged second stage (adjusted by parity and epidural use), assisted vaginal delivery, and neonatal birth weight, no statistical association of BPP with any specific risk factor was identified. In the present study, we were unable to identify any reliable risk factors for BPP among deliveries with or without SD. SD and BPP remain unpredictable complications of childbirth. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Modified Quad surgery significantly improves the median nerve conduction and functional outcomes in obstetric brachial plexus nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nerve conduction studies or somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) have become an important tool in the investigation of peripheral nerve lesions, and is sensitive in detecting brachial plexus nerve injury, and other nerve injuries. To investigate whether the modified Quad surgical procedure improves nerve conductivity and functional outcomes in obstetric brachial plexus nerve injury (OBPI) patients. Methods All nerves were tested with direct functional electrical stimulation. A Prass probe was used to stimulate the nerves, and recording the response, the compound motor action potential (CMAP) in the muscle. SSEP monitoring was performed pre- and post modified Quad surgery, stimulating the median and ulnar nerves at the wrist, the radial nerve over the dorsum of the hand, recording the peripheral, cervical and cortical responses. All patients have had the modified Quad surgery (n = 19). The modified Quad surgery is a muscle release and transfer surgery with nerve decompressions. All patients were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively by evaluating video recordings of standardized movements, the modified Mallet scale to index active shoulder movements. Results The cervical responses were significantly lower in amplitude in the affected arm than the un-affected arm. The median nerve conduction was significantly improved from 8.04 to 9.26 (P < 0.022) post-operatively. The shoulder abduction was also significantly improved (pre-op 30° ± 23.3 to 143° ± 33.7, p < 0.0001), with a mean follow-up of 43 months after the modified Quad surgery in these patients. Conclusion Median nerve conduction, and shoulder abduction were significantly improved in OBPI children, who have undergone the modified Quad procedure with neuroplasty, internal microneurolysis and tetanic stimulation of the median nerve. PMID:23714699

  8. Modified Quad surgery significantly improves the median nerve conduction and functional outcomes in obstetric brachial plexus nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Nath, Rahul K; Kumar, Nirupuma; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Nerve conduction studies or somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) have become an important tool in the investigation of peripheral nerve lesions, and is sensitive in detecting brachial plexus nerve injury, and other nerve injuries. To investigate whether the modified Quad surgical procedure improves nerve conductivity and functional outcomes in obstetric brachial plexus nerve injury (OBPI) patients. All nerves were tested with direct functional electrical stimulation. A Prass probe was used to stimulate the nerves, and recording the response, the compound motor action potential (CMAP) in the muscle. SSEP monitoring was performed pre- and post modified Quad surgery, stimulating the median and ulnar nerves at the wrist, the radial nerve over the dorsum of the hand, recording the peripheral, cervical and cortical responses. All patients have had the modified Quad surgery (n = 19). The modified Quad surgery is a muscle release and transfer surgery with nerve decompressions. All patients were assessed preoperatively and postoperatively by evaluating video recordings of standardized movements, the modified Mallet scale to index active shoulder movements. The cervical responses were significantly lower in amplitude in the affected arm than the un-affected arm. The median nerve conduction was significantly improved from 8.04 to 9.26 (P < 0.022) post-operatively. The shoulder abduction was also significantly improved (pre-op 30° ± 23.3 to 143° ± 33.7, p < 0.0001), with a mean follow-up of 43 months after the modified Quad surgery in these patients. Median nerve conduction, and shoulder abduction were significantly improved in OBPI children, who have undergone the modified Quad procedure with neuroplasty, internal microneurolysis and tetanic stimulation of the median nerve.

  9. The role of the brachioradialis H reflex in the management and prognosis of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Kao, J T S; Sharma, S; Curtis, C G; Clarke, H M

    2003-03-01

    The H reflex was investigated to determine if it can be useful in the prognosis of obstetrical brachial plexus palsies. The H reflex is an electrically stimulated monosynaptic or oligosynaptic response which can be recorded in peripheral nerves in all muscles of infants up to approximately two years of age. It is essentially the electrophysiologic counterpart of the deep tendon reflex, and its presence indicates intact afferent and efferent axons at the particular spinal segment. Our objectives were to document the Brachioradialis H (Br H) reflex latency and amplitude in normal upper extremities of infants, to evaluate the presence or absence of the Br H reflex in obstetrical palsy neonates and infants between one and seven months of age and to determine if this test was a valid predictor of final clinical outcome. A prospective study of 109 patients was performed to measure the Br H reflex in the affected and the contralateral normal limb. The results from the abnormal limb were compared to the final clinical decision made by nine months for or against surgical intervention. In the normal limbs, a Br H latency of 10.7 +/- 0.8 msec was determined with an amplitude of 1.2 +/- 1.2 mV. The chi 2 analysis in infants from one month to seven months old revealed a strong relationship between an absent Br H reflex and little or no clinical improvement (p < 0.0001), with a sensitivity for predicting poor outcome of 85.7%. The odds ratio (with a 95% confidence interval) of a child with an absent Br H reflex not significantly improving by nine months was 8.4 times higher than if the Br H reflex was present. The false positive rate was 42% however, indicating that a significant number of patients improved clinically, despite having a nonrecordable Br H reflex at age seven months or less. The low false negative rate of 14.3% suggested that in the presence of a Br H reflex, the majority of patients recover. Therefore, the presence of the Br H reflex is a helpful test in the

  10. Developing core sets for patients with obstetric brachial plexus injury based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

    PubMed Central

    Duijnisveld, B. J.; Saraç, Ç.; Malessy, M. J. A.; Vliet Vlieland, T. P. M.; Nelissen, R. G. H. H.; Brachial Plexus Advisory Board, The ICF

    2013-01-01

    Background Symptoms of obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) vary widely over the course of time and from individual to individual and can include various degrees of denervation, muscle weakness, contractures, bone deformities and functional limitations. To date, no universally accepted overall framework is available to assess the outcome of patients with OBPI. The objective of this paper is to outline the proposed process for the development of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Sets for patients with an OBPI. Methods The first step is to conduct four preparatory studies to identify ICF categories important for OBPI: a) a systematic literature review to identify outcome measures, b) a qualitative study using focus groups, c) an expert survey and d) a cross-sectional, multicentre study. A first version of ICF Core Sets will be defined at a consensus conference, which will integrate the evidence from the preparatory studies. In a second step, field-testing among patients will validate this first version of Core Sets for OBPI. Discussion The proposed method to develop ICF Core Sets for OBPI yields a practical tool for multiple purposes: for clinicians to systematically assess and evaluate the individual’s functioning, for researchers to design and compare studies, and for patients to get more insight into their health problems and their management. PMID:23836476

  11. Restoring wrist extension in obstetric palsy of the brachial plexus by transferring wrist flexors to wrist extensors.

    PubMed

    van Alphen, N A; van Doorn-Loogman, M H; Maas, H; van der Sluijs, J A; Ritt, M J P F

    2013-01-01

    Wrist extension is essential in the development of motor skills in young children. Adequate wrist extension is important for good grip function of the hand, as a slightly extended wrist results in a better and stronger grip. This retrospective study reviews the transfer of the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) or flexor carpi radialis (FCR) to the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and/or longus (ERCL) to reconstruct wrist extension in 19 patients with obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP). The average age at surgery was 7.2 (range 4-18) years. The mean follow-up was 3 years. Preoperatively, none of the patients had active wrist extension, with an average wrist extension-lag of 37.4 (SD 15.1) degrees. Postoperatively, average active wrist extension was 9.2 (SD 25.5) degrees. Average gain in wrist extension was 46.6 (SD 28.2) degrees, however individual gain varied substantially, i.e. between 0 and 100 degrees. Two patients were unable to reach the neutral wrist position postoperatively and in two patients wrist extension did not increase. The results of the tendon transfer to provide improvement of wrist extension in OBPP were satisfactory in most patients.

  12. Morphometric analysis of the association of primary shoulder reconstruction procedures with scapular growth in obstetric brachial plexus paralysis patients.

    PubMed

    Terzis, Julia K; Karypidis, Dimitrios; Mendoza, Ricardo; Kokkalis, Zinon T; Diawara, Norou

    2014-09-01

    Obstetric brachial plexus paralysis (OBPP) has been associated with shoulder deformities, scapular growth, and shoulder function impairment. The absence of balanced muscular forces acting on the scapula has been considered responsible for scapula dysplasia and impaired growth as compared with the normal side. Scapula growth impairment may also lead to shoulder and upper extremity dysfunction. This study aims at showing the association of primary nerve reconstruction with the restoration of scapular bone growth potential. This is a retrospective review of 73 patients with OBPP who underwent primary shoulder reconstruction. Patients were categorized for assessment and analysis into group A, global paralysis; group B, Erb's palsy; and group C, Erb's palsy with C7 root involvement. Scapular posteroanterior and lateral X-rays were obtained in which four scapula dimensions were manually measured. The growth discrepancy depending on the applied treatment was investigated. The highest improvement was noted in scapular height in the Erb's palsy group who underwent simultaneous neurotization of the suprascapular and axillary nerves. The oblique axis was more improved in the Erb's palsy group while both big and small widths were more improved in the Erb's palsy with C7 root involvement group in patients who underwent concomitant neurotization of the suprascapular and the axillary nerves. Functional improvement correlated positively with growth improvement in all groups and scapular dimensions. Scapula growth and shoulder function improvement were higher in patients with Erb's palsy. Simultaneous axillary and suprascapular nerve neurotization provided the best outcome in both functional and growth restoration.

  13. Late treatment of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy by humeral rotational osteotomy and lengthening with an intramedullary elongation nail.

    PubMed

    Acan, Ahmet Emrah; Gursan, Onur; Demirkiran, Nihat Demirhan; Havitcioglu, Hasan

    2017-05-08

    To date, all the authors who have recommended external rotation osteotomy (ERO) in the late treatment of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP), have neglected upper limb length discrepancy, which is an another sequelae of OBPP. In this paper, a new technique is reported for the late treatment of OBPP patients with upper limb length discrepancy, in which both humeral external rotation osteotomy (ERO) and lengthening are applied with an intramedullary elongation nail. With this technique, upper limb function is improved through re-orientation of the shoulder arc to a more functional range, and further improvements will be seen in the appearance of the upper limb with the elimination of length discrepancy. It is also advocated that there is a potentiating effect of the humeral lengthening on shoulder movements gained by ERO when the osteotomy is applied above the deltoid insertion, as this allows more lateralized placement of the deltoid insertion. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Obstetric brachial palsy, a historical review].

    PubMed

    Collado-Vazquez, S; Jimenez-Antona, C; Carrillo, J M

    2012-11-16

    Lesions of the peripheral nerves have been known since ancient times, but there are few references to the treatments that were used in the past. AIM. To analyse obstetric brachial palsy and its treatments throughout history. There are a number of different references to the peripheral nerves and their lesions, although little is known about the treatments that were applied in the past. William Smellie first reported obstetric brachial palsy in 1764 and the term was coined by Duchenne de Boulogne in 1872. In 1877, Erb analysed four cases of obstetric brachial palsy and conducted studies on the excitation of the brachial plexus with electric currents. In 1885, Klumpke described palsy of the lower roots of the brachial plexus. In the late 19th century pathophysiology studies were carried out and at the beginning of the 20th century the first surgical interventions were performed. Today, microsurgery techniques, protocols on how to proceed, and rehabilitation treatment of this lesion are all available and offer good outcomes. Since the first clinical description of obstetric brachial palsy by Smellie and the reports of the different types of brachial palsy by Duchenne, Erb and Klumpke, many pathophysiological studies have been conducted. Notable developments have been made in conservative and surgical treatments, with very favourable recoveries being observed in children with obstetric brachial palsy.

  15. Brachial plexus injury in newborns

    MedlinePlus

    ... the brachial plexus can be affected during a difficult delivery. Injury may be caused by: The infant's head and neck pulling toward the side as the shoulders pass through the birth canal Stretching of the infant's shoulders during a ...

  16. A case of Klumpke's obstetric brachial plexus palsy following a Cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; El-Sayed, Amel A F

    2016-09-01

    It is generally thought that Klumpke's palsy is not seen as obstetric injury. The authors present a case of Klumpke's palsy with Horner syndrome following delivery by emergency Cesarean section. Neurolysis and nerve grafting partially corrected the paralysis.

  17. Aspects of activities and participation of 7-8 year-old children with an obstetric brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Spaargaren, Els; Ahmed, Jasmyn; van Ouwerkerk, Willem J R; de Groot, Vincent; Beckerman, Heleen

    2011-07-01

    Children with an obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) can experience problems in the performance of meaningful activities such as writing, bimanual activities, and participation in sports and leisure activities. To quantify the everyday functioning and participation of 7-8 year-old children with an OBPI, with special emphasis on writing, and to investigate associated characteristics. Parents of children with an OBPI were sent a self-report questionnaire regarding the school performance, writing abilities, bimanual hand use, and participation in sports and leisure activities of their child, assessed with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS sub-scale writing), the ABILHAND-kids, and the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). Furthermore, questions were asked about socio-demographic variables, medical history, pain, and the use of assistive devices. Fifty three questionnaires were filled in (response 61%). According to the parents, 66% of their children were almost completely recovered, and 58% had a near normal arm function. Most of the children preferred to use their non-involved hand. More than 45% of the children complained about pain, and 39.6% had difficulties with writing, which resulted in a mean developmental delay of 8 months on the VABS sub-scale. Children with writing problems significantly more often had neurosurgery, were living with a single parent, more often received assistance at school, and had a significantly lower ABILHAND-kids score, compared to children with no writing problems. Large percentages of 7-8 year-old children with an OBPI experience difficulties with writing and have musculoskeletal pain. Restrictions in participation were less pronounced. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [External rotation osteotomy of the humerus for the treatment of shoulder problems secondary to obstetric brachial plexus palsy].

    PubMed

    Akinci, Metin; Ay, Sadan; Kamiloğlu, Sinan; Erçetin, Omer

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the results of external rotation osteotomy of the humerus for the treatment of shoulder problems secondary to obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Forty children (24 boys, 16 girls; mean age 7.5 years; range 23 months to 14.8 years) underwent external rotation osteotomy of the humerus. Involvement was at the C5-6 roots in 11 patients, C5-6-7 roots in 19 patients, and at all the roots in 10 patients. Twenty-six patients had humeral head deformity and eight patients had posterior subluxation. The shoulder was ankylosed in one patient. Zancolli and Putti signs were positive in six and eight patients, respectively. The mean active shoulder abduction was 80 degrees (range 0 to 170 degrees ) and the mean internal rotation contracture was 27 degrees (range 10 degrees to 50 degrees ). Fourteen patients, all of whom were beyond five years of age, had an abduction contracture. Preoperative and postoperative functional evaluations were made with the use of the Mallet scale. Preoperatively, 35 shoulders had a score of II, five had a score of III. Osteotomies were performed in the proximal humerus in patients older than five years and in the mid-humerus in those without a contracture or younger than five years. The mean postoperative shoulder abduction was 95.7 degrees (range 30 degrees to 170 degrees ). Internal rotation contractures improved in all the patients. Abduction contractures did not resolve in two patients in whom a mid-humeral osteotomy was performed. Postoperative Mallet scores ranged from II to V in five, six, 15, and 14 shoulders, respectively. Rotation provided by the osteotomy was lost in one patient because of a humerus fracture that occurred in a traffic accident. Passive total shoulder rotation remained unchanged following surgery. Patients having better preoperative range of motion and who were at younger ages benefited the most from surgical treatment. External rotation osteotomy of the humerus must be performed at early ages before the shoulder

  19. Shoulder function and anatomy in complete obstetric brachial plexus palsy: long-term improvement after triangle tilt surgery

    PubMed Central

    Karicherla, Priyanka; Mahmooduddin, Faiz

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Untreated complete obstetric brachial plexus injury (COBPI) usually results in limited spontaneous recovery of shoulder function. Older methods used to treat COBPI have had questionable success, with very few studies being published. The purpose of the current study was to examine the results of triangle tilt surgery on shoulder function and development in COBPI individuals. Methods This study was conducted as a retrospective chart review. Inclusion criteria were COBPI patients that had undergone the triangle tilt procedure from 2005 to 2009 and were between the ages of 9 months and 12 years. COBPI was defined as permanent injury to all five nerve roots (C5–T1), with significant degradation in development and function of the hand. Twenty-five patients with a mean age of 5 (0.75–12) years were followed up clinically for more than 2 years. Results The triangle tilt procedure resulted in demonstrable clinical enhancements with appreciable improvements in shoulder function, glenoid version, and humeral head congruity. There was a significant increase in the overall Mallet score (2.4 points, p < 0.0001) following surgical correction in patients that were followed up for more than 2 years. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that COBPI patients who develop SHEAR and medial rotation contracture deformities can benefit from the triangle tilt surgery, which improves shoulder function and anatomy across a range of pediatric ages. Despite these patients presenting late for surgery in general (5 years), significant improvements were observed in their glenohumeral (GH) dysplasia and their ability to perform shoulder and arm movements following surgery. PMID:20473676

  20. Needle electromyography at 1 month predicts paralysis of elbow flexion at 3 months in obstetric brachial plexus lesions.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, J Gert; Pondaag, Willem; Buitenhuis, Sonja M; Van Zwet, Erik W; Malessy, Martijn J A

    2012-08-01

    Treatment decisions in obstetric brachial plexus lesions are often based on clinical paralysis of elbow flexion at 3 months of age, when electromyography (EMG) is misleading because motor unit potentials (MUPs) occur in clinically paralytic muscles. We investigated whether EMG at 1 week or 1 month identifies infants with flexion paralysis at 3 months, allowing early referral. Forty-eight infants (27 females, 21 males) were prospectively studied. The presence or absence of flexion paralysis at around 1 week (median 9 d; range 5-17d), 1 month (median 31 d; range 24-53 d), and 3 months of age (median 87 d; range 77-106 d) was noted for clinical (shoulder external rotation, elbow flexion, extension, and supination) and EMG parameters (denervation activity, MUPs and polyphasic MUPs in the deltoid, biceps, and triceps muscles). At 1 month, the absence of biceps MUPs had a sensitivity of 95% for later flexion paralysis, and absence of deltoid MUPs had a sensitivity of 100% for flexion paralysis; the false-positive rates for the same findings were 21% and 33% respectively. EMG at 3 months was highly misleading as MUPs were seen in 19 of 20 clinically paralytic biceps muscles. EMG at 1 month can identify severe cases of flexion paralysis for early referral EMG of the biceps at 3 months is highly misleading; the discrepancy between the EMG and clinical testing may be due to abnormal axonal branching and aberrant central motor control. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2012 Mac Keith Press.

  1. Shoulder function and anatomy in complete obstetric brachial plexus palsy: long-term improvement after triangle tilt surgery.

    PubMed

    Nath, Rahul K; Karicherla, Priyanka; Mahmooduddin, Faiz

    2010-08-01

    Untreated complete obstetric brachial plexus injury (COBPI) usually results in limited spontaneous recovery of shoulder function. Older methods used to treat COBPI have had questionable success, with very few studies being published. The purpose of the current study was to examine the results of triangle tilt surgery on shoulder function and development in COBPI individuals. This study was conducted as a retrospective chart review. Inclusion criteria were COBPI patients that had undergone the triangle tilt procedure from 2005 to 2009 and were between the ages of 9 months and 12 years. COBPI was defined as permanent injury to all five nerve roots (C5-T1), with significant degradation in development and function of the hand. Twenty-five patients with a mean age of 5 (0.75-12) years were followed up clinically for more than 2 years. The triangle tilt procedure resulted in demonstrable clinical enhancements with appreciable improvements in shoulder function, glenoid version, and humeral head congruity. There was a significant increase in the overall Mallet score (2.4 points, p < 0.0001) following surgical correction in patients that were followed up for more than 2 years. The results of this study demonstrate that COBPI patients who develop SHEAR and medial rotation contracture deformities can benefit from the triangle tilt surgery, which improves shoulder function and anatomy across a range of pediatric ages. Despite these patients presenting late for surgery in general (5 years), significant improvements were observed in their glenohumeral (GH) dysplasia and their ability to perform shoulder and arm movements following surgery.

  2. Hemi-hypoglossal nerve transfer for obstetric brachial plexus palsy: report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Al-Thunyan, Abdullah; Al-Qattan, Mohammad M; Al-Meshal, Obaid; Al-Husainan, Hanan; Al-Assaf, Assaf

    2015-03-01

    Use of the entire hypoglossal nerve for nerve transfer in obstetric palsy is not recommended because of major donor nerve morbidity in terms of feeding and speech problems. We used a hemi-hypoglossal nerve transfer for biceps reinnervation in obstetric palsy in 3 infants with multiple root avulsions. Two of the 3 infants recovered normal or near-normal elbow flexion. There was no donor nerve morbidity in terms of feeding. Speech was assessed at age 20 to 27 months and was appropriate for age, which indicates that early speech development (speech intelligibility and articulation) were not affected. However, phonological development (expected to develop by age 3 y) and full consonant development (expected to be complete by age 5 y) could not be assessed because all children were younger than age 3 years at final follow-up. Our results confirm the relative safety of using a hemi-hypoglossal nerve transfer in infants. The transfer deserves study in a larger series and with longer follow-up, particularly regarding speech development. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Tendon transfer around the shoulder in obstetric brachial plexus paralysis: clinical and computed tomographic study.

    PubMed

    El-Gammal, Tarek Abdalla; Saleh, Waleed Riad; El-Sayed, Amr; Kotb, Mohammed M; Imam, Hesham Mostafa; Fathi, Nihal Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    One hundred nine obstetrical palsy patients with defective shoulder abduction and external rotation had subscapularis release and transfer of teres major to infraspinatus with or without pedicle transfer of the clavicular head of pectoralis major to deltoid. The age at surgery averaged 67 months (11-192) and follow-up averaged 36 months (12-80). Thirty-nine cases had follow-up CT scan of both shoulders. Improvement of abduction averaged 64 degrees and that of external rotation 50 degrees, 100% and 290% gain, respectively. Both negatively correlated with the age at surgery (P < 0.001), and were significantly higher in patients operated younger than 4 years. On computed tomographic scans, the degree of glenoid retroversion positively correlated (P < 0.001) with the age at surgery, and was significantly higher in patients operated older than 4 years. The degree of posterior subluxation showed no significant difference between different ages. There was no significant difference between the operated and normal sides in patients operated younger than 4years with regard to glenoid retroversion and in those operated younger than 2 years with regard to posterior subluxation. The operation is useful for correction of defective shoulder abduction and external rotation in obstetric palsy. It is best performed before the age of 2 to get maximal improvement in motion and prevent secondary bone changes. Between the ages of 2 and 4, it also resulted in significant improvement in motion and prevented glenoid retroversion, but not posterior subluxation. After the age of 4, the improvement in motion was not significant and secondary bone changes were not prevented.

  4. Outcomes of scapula stabilization in obstetrical brachial plexus palsy: a novel dynamic procedure for correction of the winged scapula.

    PubMed

    Terzis, Julia K; Papakonstantinou, Konstantinos C

    2002-02-01

    Among the late consequences of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy is winging of the scapula, a functional and aesthetic deformity. This article introduces a novel surgical procedure for the dynamic correction of this clinical entity that involves the dynamic transfer of the contralateral trapezius muscle and/or rhomboid muscles and anchoring to the affected scapula. In more severe cases of scapula winging, the contralateral latissimus dorsi muscle may also need to be transferred to achieve dynamic scapula stabilization. The outcomes of this novel surgical procedure were analyzed in relation to the effect on abduction, external rotation, growth of the scapula, and distance of the scapula from the posterior midline. The results were analyzed in 26 patients who underwent this procedure and had adequate follow-up. The mean patient age was 6.39 years. Fourteen (54 percent) had a diagnosis of Erb palsy, and 12 (46 percent) had a diagnosis of global paralysis. All 26 patients had an additional secondary procedure performed prior to or simultaneously with the scapula stabilization procedure. In 19 patients, the contralateral trapezius was transferred and anchored to the medial border of the winged scapula alone, but in seven cases the underlying rhomboid major was transferred along with the trapezius muscle to provide sufficient scapula stabilization. In five cases in which the scapula winging was severe, the contralateral latissimus dorsi muscle was transferred at a second stage. After this procedure, all patients demonstrated improved scapula symmetry. The mean increase in abduction was 18 degrees (p < 0.001), the mean increase in external rotation was 19 degrees (p < 0.001), and the mean increase in anterior flexion was 12 degrees (p = 0.015). The improvement of the relative position of the winged scapula on the posterior thorax was analyzed by measuring the distance of the inferior angle of both scapulae from the midline, then calculating the difference between normal

  5. Assessment of triangle tilt surgery in children with obstetric brachial plexus injury using the pediatric outcomes data collection instrument.

    PubMed

    Nath, Rahul K; Avila, Meera B; Karicherla, Priyanka; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    demonstrate the functional benefits of triangle tilt surgery in patients with obstetric brachial plexus injury.

  6. Assessment of Triangle Tilt Surgery in Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury Using the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K; Avila, Meera B; Karicherla, Priyanka; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument demonstrate the functional benefits of triangle tilt surgery in patients with obstetric brachial plexus injury. PMID:22216072

  7. Free functioning gracilis transplantation for reconstruction of elbow and hand functions in late obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    El-Gammal, Tarek A; El-Sayed, Amr; Kotb, Mohamed M; Saleh, Waleed Riad; Ragheb, Yasser Farouk; Refai, Omar; Morsy, Mohamed Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    In late obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP), restoration of elbow and hand functions is a difficult challenge. The use of free functioning muscle transplantation in late OBPP was very scarcely reported. In this study, we present our experience on the use of free functioning gracilis transfer for restoration of elbow and hand functions in late cases of OBPP. Eighteen patients with late OBPP underwent free gracilis transfer for reconstruction of elbow and/or hand functions. The procedure was indicated when there was no evidence of reinnervation on EMG and in the absence of local donors. Average age at surgery was 102.5 months. Patients were evaluated using the British Medical Research Council (MRC) grading system and the Toronto Active Movement Scale. Hand function was evaluated by the Raimondi scoring system. The average follow-up was 65.8 ± 41.7 months. Contraction of the transferred gracilis started at an average of 4.5 ± 1.03 months. Average range of elbow flexion significantly improved from 30 ± 55.7 to 104 ± 31.6 degrees (P <0.001). Elbow flexion power significantly increased with an average of 3.8 grades (P = 0.000147). Passive elbow range of motion significantly decreased from an average of 147 to 117 degrees (P = 0.003). Active finger flexion significantly improved from 5 ± 8.3 to 63 ± 39.9 degrees (P < 0.001). Finger flexion power significantly increased with an average 2.7 grades (P < 0.001). Only 17% achieved useful hand (grade 3) on Raimondi hand score. Triceps reconstruction resulted in an average of M4 power and 45 degrees elbow extension. Free gracilis transfer may be a useful option for reconstruction of elbow and/or hand functions in late OBPP. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Brachial plexus injuries and dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, H S

    1988-05-01

    The brachial plexus and its associated structures demonstrate a propensity for certain disease processes not common to other areas of the nervous system. Brachial plexus disease produces a gait disturbance that may mimic musculoskeletal disease. When evaluating a case with possible traumatic brachial plexus disease, one relies heavily on historical, physical, and neurologic information when differentiating musculoskeletal disorders, although both may sometimes be present simultaneously in the same limb. With inflammatory disease, electromyography is extremely helpful, although an empiric dietary change may help confirm a suspicion. Brachial plexus surgery requires careful planning and meticulous technique. Attempts to remove malignant schwannomas have not been as successful as one would hope (Table 2). To a large extent, these dogs are treated late in the course of their disease because they are often treated for extended periods of time for musculoskeletal disease first. Early diagnosis and prompt surgical intervention would help many of these dogs. New histopathologic techniques, electrodiagnostic equipment, and radiographic techniques are helping to define peripheral nerve disease in the companion animal. These techniques will help us categorize and treat these diseases with greater success in the future.

  9. Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy: Can excision of upper trunk neuroma and nerve grafting improve function in babies with adequate elbow flexion at nine months of age?

    PubMed

    Argenta, Anne E; Brooker, Jack; MacIssac, Zoe; Natali, Megan; Greene, Stephanie; Stanger, Meg; Grunwaldt, Lorelei

    2016-05-01

    Accepted indications for exploration in obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) vary by center. Most agree that full elbow flexion against gravity at nine months of age implies high chance of spontaneous recovery and thus excludes a baby from surgical intervention. However, there are certain movements of the shoulder and forearm that may not be used frequently by the infant, but are extremely important functionally as they grow. These movements are difficult to assess in a baby and may lead to some clinicians to recommend conservative treatment, when this cohort of infants may in fact benefit substantially from surgery. A retrospective review was conducted on all infants managed surgically at the Brachial Plexus Center of a major children's hospital from 2009 to 2014. Further analysis identified five patients who had near-normal AMS scores for elbow flexion but who had weakness of shoulder abduction, flexion, external rotation, and/or forearm supination. In contrast to standard conservative management, this cohort underwent exploration, C5-6 neuroma excision, and sural nerve grafting. Data analysis was performed on this group to look for overall improvement in function. During an average follow-up period of 29 months, all patients made substantial gains in motor function of the shoulder and forearm, without loss of elbow flexion or extension, or worsening of overall outcome. In select infants with brachial plexus injuries but near-normal AMS scores for elbow flexion, surgical intervention may be indicated to achieve the best functional outcome. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Qualitative dermatoglyphic traits in brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Polovina, Svetislav; Milicić, Jasna; Cvjeticanin, Miljenko; Proloscić, Tajana Polovina

    2007-12-01

    It has been considered for many years that the cause of perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP) is excessive lateral traction applied to the fetal head at delivery, in association with anterior shoulder dystocia, but this do not explain all cases of brachial plexus palsy. The incidence found in several family members could be suggestive for inheritance with variable expression. The aim of this study was to prove early found confirmations of genetic predisposition for PBPP In the previous studies, the quantitative dermatoglyphic analysis showed some differences in digito-palmar dermatoglyphs between patients with PBPP and healthy controls. Now this qualitative analysis will try to determine hereditary of those diseases. We analyzed digito-palmar dermatoglyphics from 140 subjects (70 males and 70 females) diagnosed with PBPP and 400 phenotypically healthy adults (200 males and 200 females) from Zagreb area as control group. The results of Chi-square test showed statistically significant differences for frequencies of patterns on fingers in females between the groups observed. Statistically significant differences were found on palms in III and IV interdigital areas in both males and females and in thenar and I interdigital area only in females. As it was found in previous researches on quantitative dermatoglyphic traits, more differences are found between females with PBPP and control group, than between males. The fact, that the main presumed cause of PBPP is obstetrical trauma, it could be associated with congenital variability in formation of brachial plexus.

  11. [Complications in brachial plexus surgery].

    PubMed

    Martínez, Fernando; Pinazzo, Samantha; Moragues, Rodrigo; Suarez, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Although traumatic brachial plexus injuries are relatively rare in trauma patients, their effects on the functionality of the upper limb can be very disabling. The authors' objective was to assess the complications in a series of patients operated for brachial plexus injuries. This was a retrospective evaluation of patients operated on by the authors between August 2009 and March 2013. We performed 36 surgeries on 33 patients. The incidence of complications was 27.7%. Of these, only 1 (2.7%) was considered serious and associated with the procedure (iatrogenic injury of brachial artery). There was another serious complication (hypoxia in patients with airway injury) but it was not directly related to the surgical procedure. All other complications were considered minor (wound dehiscence, hematoma, infection). There was no mortality in our series. The complications in our series are similar to those reported in the literature. Serious complications (vascular, neural) are rare and represent less than 5% in all the different series. Given the rate of surgical complications and the poor functional perspective for a brachial plexus injury without surgery, we believe that surgery should be the treatment of choice. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. An overlooked association of brachial plexus palsy: diaphragmatic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Karabiber, Hamza; Ozkan, K Ugur; Garipardic, Mesut; Parmaksiz, Gonul

    2004-01-01

    Diaphragmatic paralysis in newborns is related to brachial plexus palsy. It can be overlooked if thorough examination isn't done. We present a two-weeks-old baby with a birth weight of 3800 grams who had a left-sided brachial plexus palsy and torticollis with an undiagnosed left diaphragmatic paralysis even though he was examined by different physicians several times. The role of physical examination, the chest x-rays of patients with brachial paralysis and the treatment modalities of diaphragmatic paralysis due to obstetrical factors are discussed.

  13. Significant improvement in nerve conduction, arm length, and upper extremity function after intraoperative electrical stimulation, neurolysis, and biceps tendon lengthening in obstetric brachial plexus patients.

    PubMed

    Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2015-04-19

    Progressive loss of extension and concomitant bony deformity of the elbow are results of persistent biceps contracture in obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) patients, if they do not fully recover. This adversely affects the growth and development and functions of the upper extremity. We have performed biceps tendon lengthening (BTL) using a Z-plasty technique on OBPI patients aged 4 years to adulthood, who had been diagnosed with biceps tendon fixed flexion contractures. Ulnar, radial, and median nerve decompression was also performed at the same sitting. Somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring was performed by stimulating the median and ulnar nerves at the wrist and the radial nerve over the dorsum of the hand and recording the peripheral, cervical, and cortical responses. Seven children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy with an average age of 11 years (8.7-14.2 years) were included in this report. Mean follow-up time was 7.4 months (4-11 months). All the patients in this report had the elbow flexion contractures greater than 30°. Mean flexion contracture was 35° (30°-45°) preoperatively, which was improved to 0°-10° postoperatively with an average follow-up of 7 (4-11) months. This surgical procedure corrected the elbow flexion contractures, about an average of 25° and an improved length almost to normal, and improved the upper extremity functions. Neurophysiological data showed significant improvement in conduction of all three nerves tested after neurolysis. Further, median and radial nerve amplitude increase was statistically significant. Statistically significant improvement in biceps length as well as nerve conduction was observed after the surgery. None of the children in our study lost biceps function, although weakness of the biceps is both a short- and long-term risk associated with biceps lengthening.

  14. Birth brachial plexus palsy: a race against time.

    PubMed

    Patra, Sambeet; Narayana Kurup, Jayakrishnan K; Acharya, Ashwath M; Bhat, Anil K

    2016-07-11

    A 5-year-old child presented to us with weakness of the left upper limb since birth. With the given history of obstetric trauma and limb examination, a diagnosis of birth brachial plexus palsy was made. Brachial plexus exploration along with microsurgery was performed at the same time which included extrinsic neurolysis of the roots and trunks and nerve transfer for better shoulder external rotation and elbow flexion. Both the movements were severely restricted previously due to co-contractures with the shoulder internal rotators and triceps. The problem of birth brachial plexus palsy is proving to be a global health burden both in developed countries and in developing countries such as India. The lack of awareness among the general public and primary healthcare providers and inadequate orthopaedic and neurosurgeons trained to treat the condition have worsened the prognosis. This case lays stress on the delayed complications in birth brachial palsy and its effective management. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Severe Brachial Plexus Injuries in American Football.

    PubMed

    Daly, Charles A; Payne, S Houston; Seiler, John G

    2016-11-01

    This article reports a series of severe permanent brachial plexus injuries in American football players. The authors describe the mechanisms of injury and outcomes from a more contemporary treatment approach in the form of nerve transfer tailored to the specific injuries sustained. Three cases of nerve transfer for brachial plexus injury in American football players are discussed in detail. Two of these patients regained functional use of the extremity, but 1 patient with a particularly severe injury did not regain significant function. Brachial plexus injuries are found along a spectrum of brachial plexus stretch or contusion that includes the injuries known as "stingers." Early identification of these severe brachial plexus injuries allows for optimal outcomes with timely treatment. Diagnosis of the place of a given injury along this spectrum is difficult and requires a combination of imaging studies, nerve conduction studies, and close monitoring of physical examination findings over time. Although certain patients may be at higher risk for stingers, there is no evidence to suggest that this correlates with a higher risk of severe brachial plexus injury. Unfortunately, no equipment or strengthening program has been shown to provide a protective effect against these severe injuries. Patients with more severe injuries likely have less likelihood of functional recovery. In these patients, nerve transfer for brachial plexus injury offers the best possibility of meaningful recovery without significant morbidity. [ Orthopedics. 2016; 39(6):e1188-e1192.].

  16. Myokymia in obstetrically related brachial plexopathy.

    PubMed

    Sclar, Gary; Maniker, Allen; Danto, Joseph

    2004-06-01

    Myokymic discharges are spontaneous bursts of semirhythmic potentials that are sometimes correlated with rippling movements of skin and muscle. They have been reported in limb muscles in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, spinal stenosis, nerve root and nerve compression, and envenomations. They commonly occur with radiation induced plexopathies (approximately 60% of patients), but have not been reported in obstetrically related brachial plexopathies. We report 2 instances of myokymia in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsies. Each child was studied twice, and it was only at the later study, when the child was 10 or 11 months of age, that these potentials were noted. This could represent ongoing recovery from lesions incurred at birth or developmental changes. The final common pathway of all causes of myokymia could be to generate axonal membrane hyperexcitability.

  17. Exposure of the retroclavicular brachial plexus by clavicle suspension for birth brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Tse, Raymond; Pondaag, Willem; Malessy, Martijn

    2014-06-01

    Surgical exploration and reconstruction of the brachial plexus requires adequate exposure beyond the zone of injury. In the case of extensive lesions, some authors advocate clavicle osteotomy for an extensile approach. Such an osteotomy introduces further morbidity and may impact upon the delicate nerve reconstruction. A new simple but effective method of clavicle elevation is described that provides access to the retroclavicular brachial plexus during exploration for birth brachial plexus palsy.

  18. Nerve Transfers in Birth Related Brachial Plexus Injuries: Where Do We Stand?

    PubMed

    Davidge, Kristen M; Clarke, Howard M; Borschel, Gregory H

    2016-05-01

    This article reviews the assessment and management of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. The potential role of distal nerve transfers in the treatment of infants with Erb's palsy is discussed. Current evidence for motor outcomes after traditional reconstruction via interpositional nerve grafting and extraplexal nerve transfers is reviewed and compared with the recent literature on intraplexal distal nerve transfers in obstetrical brachial plexus injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Obstetric brachial plexus palsy: a prospective, population-based study of incidence, recovery, and residual impairment at 18 months of age.

    PubMed

    Lagerkvist, Anna-Lena; Johansson, Urban; Johansson, Annika; Bager, Börje; Uvebrant, Paul

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the incidence of obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP), to prospectively follow the recovery process, to assess the functional outcome at 18 months of age, and to find early prognostic indicators. Of the 38 749 children born between 1999 and 2001 in western Sweden, 114 (70 males, 44 females) had an OBPP. Ninety-eight children were examined on six occasions at up to 18 months of age. Muscle strength, range of motion, hand preference, and functional abilities were noted, and the severity of the OBPP was classified. The incidence of OBPP was 2.9 per 1000 live births, and the incidence of persisting OBPP was 0.46 per 1000. At 3 months of age, the predictive value of regained elbow flexion for complete recovery was 100%, 99% of shoulder external rotation, and 96% of forearm supination. Most of the 18 children with persisting OBPP could perform functional activities but asymmetries were noted. Five children had a mild, 11 had a moderate, and two had a severe impairment. Three had undergone nerve surgery, one with a mild and two with a severe persisting impairment. Most children with an OBPP recover completely. Muscle strength at 3 months of age can be used to predict outcome.

  20. Nerve reconstruction in patients with obstetric brachial plexus injury results in worsening of glenohumeral deformity: a case-control study of 75 patients.

    PubMed

    Nath, R K; Liu, X

    2009-05-01

    Whereas a general trend in the management of obstetric brachial plexus injuries has been nerve reconstruction in patients without spontaneous recovery of biceps function by three to six months of age, many recent studies suggest this may be unnecessary. In this study, the severity of glenohumeral dysplasia and shoulder function and strength in two groups of matched patients with a C5-6 lesion at a mean age of seven years (2.7 to 13.3) were investigated. One group (23 patients) underwent nerve reconstruction and secondary operations, and the other (52 patients) underwent only secondary operations for similar initial clinical presentations. In the patients with nerve reconstruction shoulder function did not improve and they developed more severe shoulder deformities (posterior subluxation, glenoid version and scapular elevation) and required a mean of 2.4 times as many operations as patients without nerve reconstruction. This study suggests that less invasive management, addressing the muscle and bone complications, is a more effective approach. Nerve reconstruction should be reserved for those less common cases where the C5 and C6 nerve roots will not recover.

  1. Shoulder Function and Bone Mineralization in Children with Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury After Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation During Weight-Bearing Exercises.

    PubMed

    Elnaggar, Ragab Kamal

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation during weight-bearing exercises on shoulder function and bone mineral density (BMD) in children with obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI). This study was a randomized controlled trial. Forty-two children with OBPI were recruited. Their ages ranged from 3 to 5 years. They were randomly assigned either to control group (received a selected program) or study group (received the same program as the control group and neuromuscular electrical stimulation during weight bearing). Mallet grading system and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were used to evaluate shoulder function and BMD respectively at entry and after intervention (3 months later). No significant differences of the outcome measures were detected at entry. Significant differences were observed within both groups when the pre and post treatment scores within each group were compared. Finally, significant differences favoring the study group were recorded when their post treatment scores were compared. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation during weight bearing exercises is an effective and simple method to improve shoulder function and BMD in children with OBPI.

  2. Neurinomas of the brachial plexus: case report.

    PubMed

    Forte, A; Gallinaro, L S; Bertagni, A; Montesano, G; Prece, V; Illuminati, G

    1999-01-01

    Neurinomas, also referred to as neurilemmomas and schwannomas, are rare benign tumours of the peripheral nerves, a low proportion of which arise from the brachial plexus. Authors report a case of an ancient schwannoma arising from the brachial plexus. The tumour, usually asymptomatic, may cause sensory radicular symptoms, or rarely motor deficits in the involved arm. Enucleation of the tumour from the nerve without damage to any of the fascicles is the correct treatment.

  3. Long-Term Outcome of Brachial Plexus Reimplantation After Complete Brachial Plexus Avulsion Injury.

    PubMed

    Kachramanoglou, Carolina; Carlstedt, Thomas; Koltzenburg, Martin; Choi, David

    2017-07-01

    Complete brachial plexus avulsion injury is a severe disabling injury due to traction to the brachial plexus. Brachial plexus reimplantation is an emerging surgical technique for the management of complete brachial plexus avulsion injury. We assessed the functional recovery in 15 patients who underwent brachial plexus reimplantation surgery after complete brachial plexus avulsion injury with clinical examination and electrophysiological testing. We included all patients who underwent brachial plexus reimplantation in our institution between 1997 and 2010. Patients were assessed with detailed motor and sensory clinical examination and motor and sensory electrophysiological tests. We found that patients who had reimplantation surgery demonstrated an improvement in Medical Research Council power in the deltoid, pectoralis, and infraspinatous muscles and global Medical Research Council score. Eight patients achieved at least grade 3 MRC power in at least one muscle group of the arm. Improved reinnervation by electromyelography criteria was found in infraspinatous, biceps, and triceps muscles. There was evidence of ongoing innervation in 3 patients. Sensory testing in affected dermatomes also showed better recovery at C5, C6, and T1 dermatomes. The best recovery was seen in the C5 dermatome. Our results demonstrate a definite but limited improvement in motor and sensory recovery after reimplantation surgery in patients with complete brachial plexus injury. We hypothesize that further improvement may be achieved by using regenerative cell technologies at the time of repair. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transscalene brachial plexus block: a new posterolateral approach for brachial plexus block.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoang C; Fath, Erwin; Wirtz, Sebastian; Bey, Tareg

    2007-09-01

    Depending on the approach to the upper brachial plexus, severe complications have been reported. We describe a novel posterolateral approach for brachial plexus block which, from an anatomical and theoretical point of view, seems to offer advantages. Twenty-seven patients were scheduled to undergo elective major surgery of the upper arm or shoulder using this new transscalene brachial plexus block. The success rate was 85.2% for surgery. Two patients required additional analgesia with IV sufentanil. In two others, regional anesthesia was inadequate. The side effects of this technique included reversible recurrent laryngeal nerve blockade in two patients and a reversible Horner syndrome in one patient. Further studies are needed to compare the transscalene brachial plexus block with other approaches to the brachial plexus.

  5. Dermatoglyphs and brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Polovina, Svetislav; Cvjeticanin, Miljenko; Milicić, Jasna; Proloscić, Tajana Polovina

    2006-09-01

    Perinatal brachial plexus palsy (PBPP) is a handicap quite commonly encountered in daily routine. Although birth trauma is considered to be the major cause of the defect, it has been observed that PBPP occurs only in some infants born under identical or nearly identical conditions. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of genetic predisposition for PBPP. It is well known that digito-palmar dermatoglyphs can be used to determine hereditary roots of some diseases. Thus, we found it meaningful to do a study analysis of digito-palmar dermatoglyphs in this disease as well, conducting it on 140 subjects (70 males and 70 females) diagnosed with PBPP. The control group was composed of fingerprints obtained from 400 adult and phenotypically healthy subjects (200 males and 200 females) from the Zagreb area. The results of multivariate and univariate analysis of variance have shown statistically significant differences between the groups observed. In spite of lower percentage of accurately classified female subjects by discriminant analysis, the results of quantitative analysis of digito-palmar dermatoglyphs appeared to suggest a genetic predisposition for the occurrence of PBPP.

  6. Elbow Flexion Contractures in Childhood in Obstetric Brachial Plexus Lesions: A Longitudinal Study of 20 Neurosurgically Reconstructed Infants with 8-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    van der Sluijs, Maaike J; van Ouwerkerk, Willem-Jan R; van der Sluijs, Johannes A; van Royen, Barend J

    2015-12-01

     Little knowledge exists on the development of elbow flexion contractures in children with obstetrical brachial plexus lesion (OBPL). This study aims to evaluate the prognostic significance of several neuromuscular parameters in infants with OBPL regarding the later development of elbow flexion contractures.  Twenty infants with OBPL with insufficient signs of recovery in the first months of life who were neurosurgically reconstructed were included. At a mean age of 4.6 months, the following neuromuscular parameters were assessed: existence of flexion contractures, cross-sectional area (CSA) of upper arm muscles on MRI, Narakas classification, EMG results, and elbow muscle function using the Gilbert score. In childhood at follow-up at mean age of 7.7 years, we measured the amount of flexion contractures and the upper arm peak force (Newton). Statistical analysis is used to assess relations between these parameters.  Flexion contractures of greater than 10 degrees occurred in 55% of our patient group. The relation between the parameters in infancy and the flexion contractures in childhood is almost nonexistent. Only the Narakas classification was related to the development of flexion contractures in childhood (p = 0.006). Infant muscle CSA is related to childhood peak muscle force.  The role of infancy upper arm muscle hypotrophy/hypertrophy, reinnervation, and early elbow muscle function in the development of childhood elbow contractures remains unclear. In this cohort prediction of childhood flexion, contractures were not possible using infancy neuromuscular parameters. We suggest that contractures might be an adaptive process to optimize residual muscle function.

  7. Soft tissue rebalancing procedures with and without internal rotation osteotomy for shoulder deformity in children with persistent obstetric brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Sibiński, Marcin; Synder, Marek

    2010-12-01

    Children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) frequently have problems related to their shoulder. The aim of the investigation was to determine our results in treating shoulder deformity with tendon transfers and soft tissue releases with and without internal rotational osteotomy. We also evaluated the relationships between neurological status, age and selected clinical parameters. We reviewed data of 25 patients (12 girls) after latissimus dorsi and teres major tendon transfers to the rotator cuff. Internal rotation osteotomy was performed in ten children. The mean age of patients at the time of operation was 3.2 years (range from 10 months to 7.7 years). Patients were followed up for a mean of 3.8 years (minimum 2 years). Mallet score improved 4.7 points at last follow-up (p = 0.00002). No patient had shoulder function deterioration. Active and passive external rotation increased significantly after operation: p < 0.00001, p < 0.00001, respectively. Statistically significant reduction in active internal rotation was noted (p = 0.04). The other movements have not statistically changed after operation. Active internal rotation difference after internal rotation osteotomy was significantly better than without osteotomy (p = 0.03). Neurological involvement and age had neither positive nor negative influence on final range of motion and outcome. Soft tissue rebalancing procedures significantly improve shoulder function in children with persistent OBPP. Addition of internal rotational osteotomy to muscle transfers for severe cases allows maintaining of stabile joint, prevents loosening of internal rotation and does not influence other movements of the shoulder.

  8. Surgical correction of unsuccessful derotational humeral osteotomy in obstetric brachial plexus palsy: Evidence of the significance of scapular deformity in the pathophysiology of the medial rotation contracture

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Background The current method of treatment for persistent internal rotation due to the medial rotation contracture in patients with obstetric brachial plexus injury is humeral derotational osteotomy. While this procedure places the arm in a more functional position, it does not attend to the abnormal glenohumeral joint. Poor positioning of the humeral head secondary to elevation and rotation of the scapula and elongated acromion impingement causes functional limitations which are not addressed by derotation of the humerus. Progressive dislocation, caused by the abnormal positioning and shape of the scapula and clavicle, needs to be treated more directly. Methods Four patients with Scapular Hypoplasia, Elevation And Rotation (SHEAR) deformity who had undergone unsuccessful humeral osteotomies to treat internal rotation underwent acromion and clavicular osteotomy, ostectomy of the superomedial border of the scapula and posterior capsulorrhaphy in order to relieve the torsion developed in the acromio-clavicular triangle by persistent asymmetric muscle action and medial rotation contracture. Results Clinical examination shows significant improvement in the functional movement possible for these four children as assessed by the modified Mallet scoring, definitely improving on what was achieved by humeral osteotomy. Conclusion These results reveal the importance of recognizing the presence of scapular hypoplasia, elevation and rotation deformity before deciding on a treatment plan. The Triangle Tilt procedure aims to relieve the forces acting on the shoulder joint and improve the situation of the humeral head in the glenoid. Improvement in glenohumeral positioning should allow for better functional movements of the shoulder, which was seen in all four patients. These dramatic improvements were only possible once the glenohumeral deformity was directly addressed surgically. PMID:17192183

  9. Utility of ultrasound-guided injection of botulinum toxin type A for muscle imbalance in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy: Description of the procedure and action protocol.

    PubMed

    García Ron, A; Gallardo, R; Huete Hernani, B

    2017-03-24

    Obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) usually has a favourable prognosis. However, nearly one third of all severe cases have permanent sequelae causing a high level of disability. In this study, we explore the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided injection of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) and describe the procedure. We designed a prospective, descriptive study including patients with moderate to severe OBPP who were treated between January 2010 and December 2014. We gathered demographic data, type of OBPP, and progression. Treatment effectiveness was assessed with the Active Movement Scale (AMS), the Mallet classification, and video recordings. We gathered a total of 14 133 newborns, 15 of whom had OBPP (1.6 per 1000 live births). Forty percent of the cases had severe OBPP (0.4/1000), a dystocic delivery, and APGAR scores < 5; mean weight was 4038g. Mean age at treatment onset was 11.5 months. The muscles most frequently receiving BoNT-A injections were the pronator teres, subscapularis, teres major, latissimus dorsi, and pectoralis major. All the patients who completed the follow-up period (83%) experienced progressive improvements: up to 3 points on the AMS and a mean score of 19.5 points out of 25 on the Mallet classification at 2 years. Treatment improved muscle function and abnormal posture in all cases. Surgery was avoided in 3 patients and delayed in one. Adverse events were mild and self-limited. Due to its safety and effectiveness, BoNT-A may be used off-label as an adjuvant to physical therapy and/or surgery in moderate to severe OBPP. Ultrasound may increase effectiveness and reduce adverse effects. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Elbow Flexion Contractures in Childhood in Obstetric Brachial Plexus Lesions: A Longitudinal Study of 20 Neurosurgically Reconstructed Infants with 8-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    van der Sluijs, Maaike J.; van Ouwerkerk, Willem-Jan R.; van der Sluijs, Johannes A.; van Royen, Barend J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective  Little knowledge exists on the development of elbow flexion contractures in children with obstetrical brachial plexus lesion (OBPL). This study aims to evaluate the prognostic significance of several neuromuscular parameters in infants with OBPL regarding the later development of elbow flexion contractures. Methods  Twenty infants with OBPL with insufficient signs of recovery in the first months of life who were neurosurgically reconstructed were included. At a mean age of 4.6 months, the following neuromuscular parameters were assessed: existence of flexion contractures, cross-sectional area (CSA) of upper arm muscles on MRI, Narakas classification, EMG results, and elbow muscle function using the Gilbert score. In childhood at follow-up at mean age of 7.7 years, we measured the amount of flexion contractures and the upper arm peak force (Newton). Statistical analysis is used to assess relations between these parameters. Results  Flexion contractures of greater than 10 degrees occurred in 55% of our patient group. The relation between the parameters in infancy and the flexion contractures in childhood is almost nonexistent. Only the Narakas classification was related to the development of flexion contractures in childhood (p = 0.006). Infant muscle CSA is related to childhood peak muscle force. Conclusion  The role of infancy upper arm muscle hypotrophy/hypertrophy, reinnervation, and early elbow muscle function in the development of childhood elbow contractures remains unclear. In this cohort prediction of childhood flexion, contractures were not possible using infancy neuromuscular parameters. We suggest that contractures might be an adaptive process to optimize residual muscle function. PMID:27917234

  11. 3T MR tomography of the brachial plexus: structural and microstructural evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mallouhi, Ammar; Marik, Wolfgang; Prayer, Daniela; Kainberger, Franz; Bodner, Gerd; Kasprian, Gregor

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) neurography comprises an evolving group of techniques with the potential to allow optimal noninvasive evaluation of many abnormalities of the brachial plexus. MR neurography is clinically useful in the evaluation of suspected brachial plexus traumatic injuries, intrinsic and extrinsic tumors, and post-radiogenic inflammation, and can be particularly beneficial in pediatric patients with obstetric trauma to the brachial plexus. The most common MR neurographic techniques for displaying the brachial plexus can be divided into two categories: structural MR neurography; and microstructural MR neurography. Structural MR neurography uses mainly the STIR sequence to image the nerves of the brachial plexus, can be performed in 2D or 3D mode, and the 2D sequence can be repeated in different planes. Microstructural MR neurography depends on the diffusion tensor imaging that provides quantitative information about the degree and direction of water diffusion within the nerves of the brachial plexus, as well as on tractography to visualize the white matter tracts and to characterize their integrity. The successful evaluation of the brachial plexus requires the implementation of appropriate techniques and familiarity with the pathologies that might involve the brachial plexus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Systematic evaluation of brachial plexus injuries.

    PubMed

    Haynes, S

    1993-01-01

    Brachial plexus injuries offer a unique challenge to the athletic trainer because of their relatively high frequency rate in contact sports and because of the complexity of the neuroanatomy in the cervical area. During a game, athletic trainers must make a fast, accurate decision regarding a player's return to competition. It is imperative that the athletic trainer be able to quickly differentiate between minor injuries and more serious injuries warranting removal from the game and/or physician referral. A systematic approach to the evaluation of a brachial plexus injury is essential to ensure proper treatment. This paper will present a structured approach to an on-the-field assessment of brachial plexus injuries.

  13. Magnetic resonance neurography of the brachial plexus

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Vaishali; Upadhyaya, Divya Narain; Kumar, Adarsh; Pandey, Ashok Kumar; Gujral, Ratni; Singh, Arun Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is being increasingly recognised all over the world as the imaging modality of choice for brachial plexus and peripheral nerve lesions. Recent refinements in MRI protocols have helped in imaging nerve tissue with greater clarity thereby helping in the identification, localisation and classification of nerve lesions with greater confidence than was possible till now. This article on Magnetic Resonance Neurography (MRN) is based on the authors’ experience of imaging the brachial plexus and peripheral nerves using these protocols over the last several years. PMID:26424974

  14. Isolated C5-C6 avulsion in obstetric brachial plexus palsy treated by ipsilateral C7 neurotization to the upper trunk: outcomes at a mean follow-up of 9 years.

    PubMed

    Gibon, E; Romana, C; Vialle, R; Fitoussi, F

    2016-02-01

    Cervical root avulsions are the worst pattern of injury in obstetrical brachial plexus injury (OBPI). The prognosis is poor and the treatment is mainly surgical with extraplexual neurotizations or muscle transfers. We present the outcomes of a technique performed in our institution to treat C5-C6 avulsion in obstetrical brachial plexus injury. This technique consists of a total ipsilateral C7 neurotization to the upper trunk. Ten babies with isolated C5-C6 root avulsion were operated on; we were able to review nine of them at over 12 months follow-up. The shoulder and the elbow function were assessed, as well as the Mallet Score. The mean follow-up was 9.2 years (SD 5.7). After a follow-up of 6 years, elbow flexion was restored with a range of motion ⩾130° and a motor function ⩾M3 in all patients. The average Mallet score was 18.1 (SD 1.2). This approach appears to be a viable alternative to extraplexual neurotizations for the treatment of C5-C6 nerve root avulsion. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Correction of elbow flexion contracture by means of olecranon resection and anterior arthrolysis in obstetrical brachial plexus palsy sequelae.

    PubMed

    Senes, Filippo M; Catena, Nunzio; Dapelo, Emanuela; Senes, Jacopo

    2017-01-01

    The authors have developed a particular surgical technique (olecranon bone resection together with anterior elbow arthrolysis) to increase the elbow's range of motion in adolescents and young adults suffering from elbow flexion contracture in obstetrical palsy sequelae. The surgical procedure was carried out in a preliminary group of 11 patients. The original procedure included a double incision: first of all by means of a posterior approach to resect the tip of the olecranon and then another incision carried out through the anteromedial aspect of the elbow, with a view to performing the anterior capsulotomy. Preoperatively, the average clinical elbow extension was 64.9°, whereas after surgery, the value increased to 43.63°. The average DASH score was 38.27 points before surgery, whereas it decreased to 29.98 points after surgery. A statistical analysis was also carried out to confirm the outcome. The procedure is reliable, is not time-consuming, and does not lead to any major complications.

  16. Arthroscopic release of shoulder contracture secondary to obstetric brachial plexus palsy: retrospective study of 18 children with an average follow-up of 4.5 years.

    PubMed

    Breton, A; Mainard, L; De Gaspéri, M; Barbary, S; Maurice, E; Dautel, G

    2012-10-01

    Children affected by obstetric brachial plexus palsy have an internal rotation contracture of the shoulder and a deformed glenohumeral joint. In 2003, Pearl proposed doing an arthroscopic release of the shoulder to restore external rotation and allow the glenohumeral joint to remodel. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the active and passive shoulder external rotation range of motion and glenohumeral joint remodelling in children treated with arthroscopic-directed release. Between 2004 and 2010, 18 children with passive external rotation under 10° were treated with shoulder arthroscopy to release the anterior capsule and ligaments and perform a subscapularis tenotomy; no tendon transfer was performed. The average age was 4 years, 2 months. Nine children had an injury at C5C6, four had an injury at C5C6C7 and five had a complete injury. The average follow-up was 4.5 years. The clinical evaluation consisted of active and passive external rotation (ER) with elbow at the side, active internal rotation, and the modified Mallet score. One child who required an external rotation osteotomy of the proximal humerus was excluded from the clinical outcomes. An MRI was performed on both shoulders to assess glenoid retroversion, glenoid type, degree of posterior subluxation (measured by the percentage of humeral head anterior to the middle glenoid fossa) and humeral head hypoplasia. At the latest follow-up, passive ER was 58° on average and active ER was 42°. Eleven children had regained more than 30° of active ER. The average internal rotation had decreased after the release. The MRI assessment showed that the glenohumeral joint had remodelled in 66% of cases; the glenoid type had improved, the glenoid retroversion had diminished and the humeral head was recentred. Humeral head hypoplasia was found in 28% of cases. Arthroscopic release of the shoulder results in more external rotation and allows for glenohumeral joint remodelling. Tendon transfer is not always

  17. What has changed in brachial plexus surgery?

    PubMed Central

    de Rezende, Marcelo Rosa; Silva, Gustavo Bersani; de Paula, Emygdio José Leomil; Junior, Rames Mattar; de Camargo, Olavo Pires

    2013-01-01

    Brachial plexus injuries, in all their severity and complexity, have been extensively studied. Although brachial plexus injuries are associated with serious and often definitive sequelae, many concepts have changed since the 1950s, when this pathological condition began to be treated more aggressively. Looking back over the last 20 years, it can be seen that the entire approach, from diagnosis to treatment, has changed significantly. Some concepts have become better established, while others have been introduced; thus, it can be said that currently, something can always be offered in terms of functional recovery, regardless of the degree of injury. Advances in microsurgical techniques have enabled improved results after neurolysis and have made it possible to perform neurotization, which has undoubtedly become the greatest differential in treating brachial plexus injuries. Improvements in imaging devices and electrical studies have allowed quick decisions that are reflected in better surgical outcomes. In this review, we intend to show the many developments in brachial plexus surgery that have significantly changed the results and have provided hope to the victims of this serious injury. PMID:23644864

  18. Hypoplasia of the trapezius and history of ipsilateral transient neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Min, William; Price, Andrew E; Alfonso, Israel; Ramos, Lorna; Grossman, John A I

    2011-03-01

    We present two children with hypoplasia of the left trapezius muscle and a history of ipsilateral transient neonatal brachial plexus palsy without documented trapezius weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging in these patients with unilateral left hypoplasia of the trapezius revealed decreased muscles in the left side of the neck and left supraclavicular region on coronal views, decreased muscle mass between the left splenius capitis muscle and the subcutaneous tissue at the level of the neck on axial views, and decreased size of the left paraspinal region on sagittal views. Three possibilities can explain the association of hypoplasia of the trapezius and obstetric brachial plexus palsy: increased vulnerability of the brachial plexus to stretch injury during delivery because of intrauterine trapezius weakness, a casual association of these two conditions, or an erroneous diagnosis of brachial plexus palsy in patients with trapezial weakness. Careful documentation of neck and shoulder movements can distinguish among shoulder weakness because of trapezius hypoplasia, brachial plexus palsy, or brachial plexus palsy with trapezius hypoplasia. Hence, we recommend precise documentation of neck movements in the initial description of patients with suspected neonatal brachial plexus palsy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment Options for Brachial Plexus Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sakellariou, Vasileios I.; Badilas, Nikolaos K.; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos A.; Mazis, George; Kotoulas, Helias K.; Kyriakopoulos, Stamatios; Tagkalegkas, Ioannis; Sofianos, Ioannis P.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of brachial plexus injuries is rapidly growing due to the increasing number of high-speed motor-vehicle accidents. These are devastating injuries leading to significant functional impairment of the patients. The purpose of this review paper is to present the available options for conservative and operative treatment and discuss the correct timing of intervention. Reported outcomes of current management and future prospects are also analysed. PMID:24967125

  20. Finger movement at birth in brachial plexus birth palsy

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K; Benyahia, Mohamed; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the finger movement at birth is a better predictor of the brachial plexus birth injury. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study reviewing pre-surgical records of 87 patients with residual obstetric brachial plexus palsy in study 1. Posterior subluxation of the humeral head (PHHA), and glenoid retroversion were measured from computed tomography or Magnetic resonance imaging, and correlated with the finger movement at birth. The study 2 consisted of 141 obstetric brachial plexus injury patients, who underwent primary surgeries and/or secondary surgery at the Texas Nerve and Paralysis Institute. Information regarding finger movement was obtained from the patient’s parent or guardian during the initial evaluation. RESULTS: Among 87 patients, 9 (10.3%) patients who lacked finger movement at birth had a PHHA > 40%, and glenoid retroversion < -12°, whereas only 1 patient (1.1%) with finger movement had a PHHA > 40%, and retroversion < -8° in study 1. The improvement in glenohumeral deformity (PHHA, 31.8% ± 14.3%; and glenoid retroversion 22.0° ± 15.0°) was significantly higher in patients, who have not had any primary surgeries and had finger movement at birth (group 1), when compared to those patients, who had primary surgeries (nerve and muscle surgeries), and lacked finger movement at birth (group 2), (PHHA 10.7% ± 15.8%; Version -8.0° ± 8.4°, P = 0.005 and P = 0.030, respectively) in study 2. No finger movement at birth was observed in 55% of the patients in this study group. CONCLUSION: Posterior subluxation and glenoid retroversion measurements indicated significantly severe shoulder deformities in children with finger movement at birth, in comparison with those lacked finger movement. However, the improvement after triangle tilt surgery was higher in patients who had finger movement at birth. PMID:23362472

  1. Total obstetric brachial plexus palsy in children with internal rotation contracture of the shoulder, flexion contracture of the elbow, and poor hand function: improving the cosmetic appearance of the limb with rotation osteotomy of the humerus.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, Mohammad M

    2010-07-01

    Rotation osteotomy of the humerus has been described by several authors to treat the internal rotation contracture of the shoulder in Erb palsy. The main aim of the osteotomy in Erb patients is to bring the functioning hand to the face which greatly improves function. The author has performed the rotation humeral osteotomy in children with total obstetric brachial plexus palsy aiming for the improvement of the cosmetic appearance of the limb rather than improvement function. This article specifically reports on this group of patients.Over the last 15 years, the author has performed rotation humeral osteotomy in 13 children (mean age 6 years; range, 4.5-9 years) with total obstetric brachial plexus palsy aiming for improvement of the cosmetic appearance of the limb rather than improvement of function. All children had a triad of severe internal rotation contracture of the shoulder, severe flexion contracture of the elbow, and poor hand function.After a mean follow-up of 2 years following the humeral osteotomy, all patients/parents were satisfied with the result and a panel of plastic surgeons confirmed the significant improvement in aesthetics. Reasons for this improvement following the osteotomy were as follows: the child no longer needed to stand with shoulder slightly abducted, the antecubital fossa became visible in the standing position, and the forearm no longer appeared excessively pronated. Of more importance, was the improvement in elbow flexion contracture which had major contribution in improving limb appearance and the perception of length discrepancy between the affected and the contralateral normal limb.The humeral osteotomy improves the cosmetic appearance of children with total palsy and the triad of severe internal rotation contracture of the shoulder, severe flexion contracture of the elbow and poor hand function.

  2. Are all brachial plexus injuries caused by shoulder dystocia?

    PubMed

    Doumouchtsis, Stergios K; Arulkumaran, Sabaratnam

    2009-09-01

    Obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP), is an injury of the brachial plexus at childbirth affecting the nerve roots of C5-6 (Erb-Duchenne palsy-nearly 80% of cases) or less frequently the C8-T1 nerve roots (Klumpke palsy). OBPP often has medicolegal implications. In the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland the incidence is 0.42, in the United States 1.5, and in other western countries 1 to 3 per 1000 live births. Most infants with OBPP have no known risk factors. Shoulder dystocia increases the risk for OBPP 100-fold. The reported incidence of OBPP after shoulder dystocia varies widely from 4% to 40%. Other risk factors include birth weight >4 kg, maternal diabetes mellitus, obesity or excessive weight gain, prolonged pregnancy, prolonged second stage of labor, persistent fetal malposition, operative delivery, and breech extraction of a small baby. OBPP after caesarean section accounts for 1% to 4% of cases. Historically, OBPPs have been considered to result from excessive lateral traction and forceful deviation of the fetal head from the axial plane of the fetal body, usually in association with shoulder dystocia, which increases the necessary applied peak force and time to deliver the fetal shoulders. Direct compression of the fetal shoulder on the symphysis pubis may also cause injury. However a significant proportion of OBPPs occurs in utero, as according to some studies more than half of the cases are not associated with shoulder dystocia. Possible mechanisms of intrauterine injury include the endogenous propulsive forces of labor, intrauterine maladaptation, or failure of the shoulders to rotate, and impaction of the posterior shoulder behind the sacral promontory. Uterine anomalies, such as fibroids, an intrauterine septum, or a bicornuate uterus may also result in OBPP. It is not possible to reliably predict which fetuses will experience OBPP. Future research should be directed in prospective evaluation of the mechanisms of injury, to enable

  3. Changes in Spinal Cord Architecture after Brachial Plexus Injury in the Newborn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korak, Klaus J.; Tam, Siu Lin; Gordon, Tessa; Frey, Manfred; Aszmann, Oskar C.

    2004-01-01

    Obstetric brachial plexus palsy is a devastating birth injury. While many children recover spontaneously, 20-25% are left with a permanent impairment of the affected limb. So far, concepts of pathology and recovery have focused on the injury of the peripheral nerve. Proximal nerve injury at birth, however, leads to massive injury-induced…

  4. Changes in Spinal Cord Architecture after Brachial Plexus Injury in the Newborn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korak, Klaus J.; Tam, Siu Lin; Gordon, Tessa; Frey, Manfred; Aszmann, Oskar C.

    2004-01-01

    Obstetric brachial plexus palsy is a devastating birth injury. While many children recover spontaneously, 20-25% are left with a permanent impairment of the affected limb. So far, concepts of pathology and recovery have focused on the injury of the peripheral nerve. Proximal nerve injury at birth, however, leads to massive injury-induced…

  5. Lateral approach for supraclavicular brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, DK; Sahu, Anjana

    2010-01-01

    A lateral approach described by Volker Hempel and Dr. Dilip Kotharihas been further studied, evaluated and described in detail in the present study. The aim of this study was to evaluate lateral approach of supraclavicular brachial plexus block, mainly in terms of successes rate and complication rate. The study was conducted in secondary level hospital and tertiary level hospital from 2004 to 2008. It was a prospective nonrandomized open-level study. Eighty-two patients of both sexes, aged between 18 and 65 years with ASA Grade I and II scheduled to undergo elective major surgery of the upper limb below the midarm, were selected for this new lateral approach of brachial plexus block. The onset and duration of sensory and motor block, any complications and need for supplement anaesthesia were observed. Success and complication rate were calculated in percentage. Average onset and duration of sensory and motor block was calculated as mean ± SD and percentage. Out of 82 patients, 75 (92%) have got successful block with no significant complication in any case. PMID:20885867

  6. Motor Cortex Neuroplasticity Following Brachial Plexus Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Dimou, Stefan; Biggs, Michael; Tonkin, Michael; Hickie, Ian B.; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2013-01-01

    In the past decade, research has demonstrated that cortical plasticity, once thought only to exist in the early stages of life, does indeed continue on into adulthood. Brain plasticity is now acknowledged as a core principle of brain function and describes the ability of the central nervous system to adapt and modify its structural organization and function as an adaptive response to functional demand. In this clinical case study we describe how we used neuroimaging techniques to observe the functional topographical expansion of a patch of cortex along the sensorimotor cortex of a 27-year-old woman following brachial plexus transfer surgery to re-innervate her left arm. We found bilateral activations present in the thalamus, caudate, insula as well as across the sensorimotor cortex during an elbow flex motor task. In contrast we found less activity in the sensorimotor cortex for a finger tap motor task in addition to activations lateralized to the left inferior frontal gyrus and thalamus and bilaterally for the insula. From a pain perspective the patient who had experienced extensive phantom limb pain (PLP) before surgery found these sensations were markedly reduced following transfer of the right brachial plexus to the intact left arm. Within the context of this clinical case the results suggest that functional improvements in limb mobility are associated with increased activation in the sensorimotor cortex as well as reduced PLP. PMID:23966938

  7. Localization of the brachial plexus: Sonography versus anatomic landmarks.

    PubMed

    Falyar, Christian R; Shaffer, Katherine M; Perera, Robert A

    2016-09-01

    Interscalene brachial plexus blocks are performed for perioperative management of surgeries involving the shoulder. Historically, these procedures employed anatomic landmarks (AL) to determine the location of the brachial plexus as it passes between the anterior and middle scalene muscles in the neck. In this study, we compared the actual location of the brachial plexus as found with sonography (US) to the anticipated location using AL. The location of the brachial plexus was evaluated using US and AL in 96 subjects. The distance between the two locations was measured. A multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine the significance of the difference and a 2 × 2 analysis of variance was used to compare differences in gender, height, and body mass index. The brachial plexus was located on average 1.8 cm inferior (p = 0.0001) and 0.2 cm lateral (p = 0.09) to the location determined with AL. A significant difference was also associated with gender (p = 0.03), but not with height or body mass index. US is a reliable method that accurately pinpoints the roots of the brachial plexus. The brachial plexus is often located inferior to the location anticipated using AL. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:411-415, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Microanatomy of the brachial plexus roots and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Li-Yuan; Wang, Ai-Ping; Hong, Li; Chen, Sheng-Hua; Wang, Xian-Qin; Lv, Yun-Cheng; Peng, Tian-Hong

    2017-06-01

    To provide the anatomical basis of brachial plexus roots for the diagnosis and treatment of brachial plexus root avulsion injury. The morphological features of brachial plexus roots were observed and measured on 15 cervicothoracic spine of adult cadavers. The relationship of brachial plexus nerve roots and the surrounding tissues also were observed, as well as the blood supply of anterior and posterior roots of the brachial plexus. Origination of the nerve roots in the dorsal-ventral direction from the midline was fine-tuned at each level along the spinal cord. The minimum distance of the origin of the nerve root to midline was 2.2 mm at C 5, while the maximum was 3.1 mm at T 1. Inversely, the distance between the origin of the posterior root and the midline of the spinal cord gradually decreased, the maximum being 4.2 mm at C 5 and minimum 2.7 mm at T 1. Meanwhile, there was complicated fibrous connection among posterior roots of the brachial plexus. The C 5-6 nerve roots interlaced with tendons of the scalenus anterior and scalenus medius and fused with the transverse-radicular ligaments in the intervertebral foramina. However, these ligaments were not seen in C 7-8, and T 1. The blood supply of the anterior and posterior roots of the brachial plexus was from the segmental branches of the vertebral artery, deep cervical artery and ascending cervical artery, with a mean outer diameter of 0.61 mm. The systematic and comprehensive anatomic data of the brachial plexus roots provides the anatomical basis to diagnose and treat the brachial plexus root avulsion injury.

  9. Risk factors for clavicle fracture concurrent with brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Karahanoglu, Ertugrul; Kasapoglu, Taner; Ozdemirci, Safak; Fadıloglu, Erdem; Akyol, Aysegul; Demirdag, Erhan; Yalvac, E Serdar; Kandemir, N Omer

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for clavicle fracture concurrent with brachial plexus injuries. A retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary centre. The hospital records of 62,288 vaginal deliveries were evaluated retrospectively. There were 35 cases of brachial plexus injury. Of these patients, nine had brachial plexus injuries with clavicle fracture and 26 without clavicle fracture. The analysed risk factors for clavicle fracture concurrent with brachial plexus injury were gestational diabetes, labour induction and augmentation, prolonged second stage of labour, estimated foetal weight above 4000 g, birth weight above 4000 g, risky working hours, and the requirement of manoeuvres to free the impacted shoulder from behind the symphysis pubis. Labour augmentation with oxytocin increased the risk of clavicle fracture in cases of brachial plexus injury (OR 6.67; 95% CI 1.26-35.03). A birth weight higher than 4000 g also increased the risk of clavicle fracture. Risky working hours, gestational diabetes, estimated foetal weight higher than 4000 g, and requirement of shoulder dystocia manoeuvres did not increase the risk of clavicle fracture. Labour augmentation and actual birth weight higher than 4000 g were identified as risk factors for clavicle fracture in cases of brachial plexus injury.

  10. Use of intercostal nerves for different target neurotization in brachial plexus reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Lykissas, Marios G; Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis P; Korompilias, Ananstasios V; Vekris, Marios D; Beris, Alexandros E

    2013-01-01

    Intercostal nerve transfer is a valuable procedure in devastating plexopathies. Intercostal nerves are a very good choice for elbow flexion or extension and shoulder abduction when the intraplexus donor nerves are not available. The best results are obtained in obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients, when direct nerve transfer is performed within six months from the injury. Unlike the adult posttraumatic patients after median and ulnar nerve neurotization with intercostal nerves, almost all obstetric brachial plexus palsy patients achieve protective sensation in the hand and some of them achieve active wrist and finger flexion. Use in combination with proper muscles, intercostal nerve transfer can yield adequate power to the paretic upper limb. Reinnervation of native muscles (i.e., latissimus dorsi) should always be sought as they can successfully be transferred later on for further functional restoration. PMID:23878776

  11. Massive hemothorax: A rare complication after supraclavicular brachial plexus block.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shiv Kumar; Katyal, Surabhi; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Pawan

    2014-01-01

    Plexus block is the preferred anesthesia plan for upper limb surgeries. Among the known complications, hematoma formation following the vascular trauma is often occur but this complication is frequently underreported. We present a case where a massive hemothorax developed post operatively in a patient who underwent resection of giant cell tumor of the right hand radius bone followed by arthroplasty under brachial plexus block using supraclavicular approach. This case report attempts to highlight the essence of remaining vigilant postoperatively for first initial days after brachial plexus block, especially after failed or multiple attempts. Ultrasound guided technique in combination with nerve stimulator has proven to be more reliable and safer than traditional techniques.

  12. mRNA expression characteristics are different in irreversibly atrophic intrinsic muscles of the forepaw compared with reversibly atrophic biceps in a rat model of obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP).

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji-Xin; Chen, Liang; Ding, Fei; Chen, Le-Zi; Gu, Yu-Dong

    2016-04-01

    In obstetric brachial plexus palsy (OBPP), irreversible muscle atrophy occurs much faster in intrinsic muscles of the hand than in the biceps. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, mRNA expression profiles of denervated intrinsic muscles of the forepaw (IMF) and denervated biceps were determined by microarray using the rat model of OBPP where atrophy of IMF is irreversible while atrophy of biceps is reversible. Relative to contralateral control, 446 dysregulated mRNAs were detected in denervated IMF and mapped to 51 KEGG pathways, and 830 dysregulated mRNAs were detected in denervated biceps and mapped to 52 KEGG pathways. In denervated IMF, 10 of the pathways were related to muscle regulation; six with down-regulated and one with up-regulated mRNAs. The remaining three pathways had both up- and down-regulated mRNAs. In denervated biceps, 13 of the pathways were related to muscle regulation, six with up-regulated and seven with down-regulated mRNAs. Five of the pathways with up-regulated mRNAs were related to regrowth and differentiation of muscle cells. Among the 23 pathways with dysregulated mRNAs, 13 were involved in regulation of neuromuscular junctions. Our results demonstrated that mRNAs expression characteristics in irreversibly atrophic denervated IMF were different from those in reversibly atrophic denervated biceps; dysregulated mRNAs in IMF were associated with inactive pathways of muscle regulation, and in biceps they were associated with active pathways of regrowth and differentiation. Lack of self-repair potential in IMF may be a major reason why atrophy of IMF becomes irreversible much faster than atrophy of biceps after denervation.

  13. Herpetic Brachial Plexopathy: Application of Brachial Plexus Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasound-Guided Corticosteroid Injection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Gil; Chung, Sun G

    2016-05-01

    Herpes zoster, commonly known as shingles, is an infectious viral disease characterized by painful, unilateral skin blisters occurring in specific sensory dermatomes. Motor paresis is reported in 0.5% to 5% of patients. Although the mechanism of zoster paresis is still unclear, the virus can spread from the dorsal root ganglia to the anterior horn cell or anterior spinal nerve roots. It rarely involves the brachial plexus. We report a case of brachial plexitis following herpes zoster infection in which pathological lesions were diagnosed using brachial plexus magnetic resonance imaging and treated with ultrasound-guided perineural corticosteroid injection.

  14. Tolerance of the Brachial Plexus to High-Dose Reirradiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Allen M; Yoshizaki, Taeko; Velez, Maria A; Mikaeilian, Argin G; Hsu, Sophia; Cao, Minsong

    2017-05-01

    To study the tolerance of the brachial plexus to high doses of radiation exceeding historically accepted limits by analyzing human subjects treated with reirradiation for recurrent tumors of the head and neck. Data from 43 patients who were confirmed to have received overlapping dose to the brachial plexus after review of radiation treatment plans from the initial and reirradiation courses were used to model the tolerance of this normal tissue structure. A standardized instrument for symptoms of neuropathy believed to be related to brachial plexus injury was utilized to screen for toxicity. Cumulative dose was calculated by fusing the initial dose distributions onto the reirradiation plan, thereby creating a composite plan via deformable image registration. The median elapsed time from the initial course of radiation therapy to reirradiation was 24 months (range, 3-144 months). The dominant complaints among patients with symptoms were ipsilateral pain (54%), numbness/tingling (31%), and motor weakness and/or difficulty with manual dexterity (15%). The cumulative maximum dose (Dmax) received by the brachial plexus ranged from 60.5 Gy to 150.1 Gy (median, 95.0 Gy). The cumulative mean (Dmean) dose ranged from 20.2 Gy to 111.5 Gy (median, 63.8 Gy). The 1-year freedom from brachial plexus-related neuropathy was 67% and 86% for subjects with a cumulative Dmax greater than and less than 95.0 Gy, respectively (P=.05). The 1-year complication-free rate was 66% and 87%, for those reirradiated within and after 2 years from the initial course, respectively (P=.06). The development of brachial plexus-related symptoms was less than expected owing to repair kinetics and to the relatively short survival of the subject population. Time-dose factors were demonstrated to be predictive of complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Primary Brachial Plexus Tumors: Clinical Experiences of 143 Cases.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiaotian; Yang, Jianyun; Chen, Lin; Yu, Cong; Kondo, Tadashi

    2016-09-01

    Primary brachial plexus tumors are extremely rare and the treatment is challengeable. Our aim is to share the experiences in the treatment of primary brachial plexus tumors. A retrospective analysis of 143 patients with primary brachial plexus tumors was made in our department from January 2001 to December 2012. The clinical presentation of the patients, the characteristics and pathological results of the tumors and the prognosis were described. Seventy-eight males and sixty-five female were enrolled. The mean age was 48.17 years old. A palpable mass was the most common clinical presentation occurred in 129 patients. The trunks of the brachial plexus were the locations where the tumors originated with high possibility, with 68 cases. Benign tumors were composed of 119 schwannomas and 12 neurofibromas, while malignant tumors were composed of 8 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, 2 malignant granular cell tumors, 1 synovial sarcoma and 1 peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Appropriate surgical method, radiotherapy and chemotherapy were used according to the condition during operation, preoperative examinations and pathological result. The survival rate was 50.00% with a 3-year follow-up. Local recurrence happened in 7 patients. Five patients presented Metastasis. Appropriate surgical method is the key for the treatment of different brachial plexus tumors. Surgery has a great effect on the treatment of benign tumors. For malignant tumors, adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy should be used according to the pathological result. The general prognosis for malignant brachial plexus tumors is less than ideal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Morphology of brachial plexus and axillary artery in bonobo (Pan paniscus).

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Y; Oishi, M; Shimizu, D

    2011-02-01

    A left brachial plexus and axillary artery of bonobo (Pan paniscus) were examined, and the interrelation between the brachial plexus and the axillary artery was discussed. This is the first report of the brachial plexus and the axillary artery of bonobo. The bonobo brachial plexus formed very similar pattern to that of other ape species and human. On the other hand, the branches of the bonobo axillary artery had uncommon architecture in comparison with human case. The axillary artery did not penetrate the brachial plexus and passes through all way along anterior to the brachial plexus. Only 4.9% of human forelimbs have this pattern. Moreover, the brachial artery runs through superficially anterior to branches of the brachial plexus.

  17. Acute presentation of brachial plexus schwannoma secondary to infarction.

    PubMed

    Sidani, Charif; Saraf-Lavi, Efrat; Lyapichev, Kirill A; Nadji, Mehrdad; Levi, Allan D

    2015-06-01

    Schwannomas of the brachial plexus are rare and typically present as slowly growing masses. We describe a case of a 37-year-old female who presented with acute onset of severe left upper extremity pain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a 2.3 × 2.1 cm peripherally enhancing centrally cystic lesion in the left axilla, along the cords of the left brachial plexus, with significant surrounding edema and enhancement. The mass was surgically removed. Pathology was consistent with a schwannoma with infarction. The pain completely resolved immediately after surgery.

  18. Paravertebral blockade of the brachial plexus in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Kip A; Creighton, Catherine M

    2008-11-01

    Local anesthetic techniques have the unique ability to block peripheral nociceptive input associated with surgical trauma and inflammation and to prevent sensitization of central nociceptive pathways and the development of pathologic pain. Complete neural blockade of the canine brachial plexus is difficult to achieve using the traditional axillary technique. This article describes paravertebral blockade of the brachial plexus in dogs and a new modified paravertebral technique. Both techniques are relatively easy to perform and produce complete blockade of the forelimb, including the shoulder. A review of relevant clinical anatomy and guidelines for using electrical nerve locators are also included.

  19. Permanent upper trunk plexopathy after interscalene brachial plexus block.

    PubMed

    Avellanet, Merce; Sala-Blanch, Xavier; Rodrigo, Lidia; Gonzalez-Viejo, Miguel A

    2016-02-01

    Interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) has been widely used in shoulder surgical procedures. The incidence of postoperative neural injury has been estimated to be as high as 3 %. We report a long-term neurologic deficit after a nerve stimulator assisted brachial plexus block. A 55 year-old male, with right shoulder impingement syndrome was scheduled for elective surgery. The patient was given an oral dose of 10 mg of diazepam prior to the nerve stimulator assisted brachial plexus block. The patient immediately complained, as soon as the needle was placed in the interscalene area, of a sharp pain in his right arm and he was sedated further. Twenty-four hours later, the patient complained of severe shoulder and arm pain that required an increased dose of analgesics. Severe peri-scapular atrophy developed over the following days. Electromyography studies revealed an upper trunk plexus injury with severe denervation of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus and deltoid muscles together with a moderate denervation of the biceps brachii muscle. Chest X-rays showed a diaphragmatic palsy which was not present post operatively. Pulmonary function tests were also affected. Phrenic nerve paralysis was still present 18 months after the block as was dysfunction of the brachial plexus resulting in an inability to perform flexion, abduction and external rotation of the right shoulder. Severe brachial plexopathy was probably due to a local anesthetic having been administrated through the perineurium and into the nerve fascicles. Severe brachial plexopathy is an uncommon but catastrophic complication of IBPB. We propose a clinical algorithm using ultrasound guidance during nerve blocks as a safer technique of regional anesthesia.

  20. Brachial plexus 3D reconstruction from MRI with dissection validation: a baseline study for clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Van de Velde, Joris; Bogaert, Stephanie; Vandemaele, Pieter; Huysse, Wouter; Achten, Eric; Leijnse, Joris; De Neve, Wilfried; Van Hoof, Tom

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to establish a baseline for detailed 3D brachial plexus reconstruction from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Concretely, the goal was to determine the individual brachial plexus anatomy with maximum detail and accuracy achievable, as yet irrespective of whether the methods used could be economically and practically applied in the clinical setting. Six embalmed cadavers were randomly taken for MRI imaging of the brachial plexus. Detailed two-dimensional (2D) segmentation for all brachial plexus parts was done. The 2D brachial plexus segmentations were 3D reconstructed using Mimics(®) software. Then, these 3D reconstructions were anatomically validated by dissection of the cadavers. After finalising the cadaver experiments, brachial plexus MRIs were obtained in three healthy male volunteers and the same reconstruction procedure as in vitro was followed. A procedure was developed for brachial plexus 3D reconstruction based on MRI without the use of any contrast agent. Anatomical validation of six cadaver brachial plexus reconstructions showed high correspondence with the dissected brachial plexuses. Anatomical variations of the main branches were equally present in the 3D reconstructions generated. However, there were also some differences that related to the difference between the surface anatomy of the nerve and the internal nerve structure. In vivo, it was possible to reconstruct the complete brachial plexus in such a manner that normal-appearing BPs were derived in a reproducible way. This study showed that the described procedure results in accurate and reproducible brachial plexus 3D reconstructions.

  1. The natural history and management of brachial plexus birth palsy.

    PubMed

    Buterbaugh, Kristin L; Shah, Apurva S

    2016-12-01

    Brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) is an upper extremity paralysis that occurs due to traction injury of the brachial plexus during childbirth. Approximately 20 % of children with brachial plexus birth palsy will have residual neurologic deficits. These permanent and significant impacts on upper limb function continue to spur interest in optimizing the management of a problem with a highly variable natural history. BPBP is generally diagnosed on clinical examination and does not typically require cross-sectional imaging. Physical examination is also the best modality to determine candidates for microsurgical reconstruction of the brachial plexus. The key finding on physical examination that determines need for microsurgery is recovery of antigravity elbow flexion by 3-6 months of age. When indicated, both microsurgery and secondary shoulder and elbow procedures are effective and can substantially improve functional outcomes. These procedures include nerve transfers and nerve grafting in infants and secondary procedures in children, such as botulinum toxin injection, shoulder tendon transfers, and humeral derotational osteotomy.

  2. Axillary Brachial Plexus Blockade for the Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribbers, G. M.; Geurts, A. C. H.; Rijken, R. A. J.; Kerkkamp, H. E. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome (RSD) is a neurogenic pain syndrome characterized by pain, vasomotor and dystrophic changes, and often motor impairments. This study evaluated the effectiveness of brachial plexus blockade with local anaesthetic drugs as a treatment for this condition. Three patients responded well; three did not. (DB)

  3. Recent advances in the management of brachial plexus injuries

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Prem Singh; Maurya, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Management of brachial plexus injury is a demanding field of hand and upper extremity surgery. With currently available microsurgical techniques, functional gains are rewarding in upper plexus injuries. However, treatment options in the management of flail and anaesthetic limb are still evolving. Last three decades have witnessed significant developments in the management of these injuries, which include a better understanding of the anatomy, advances in the diagnostic modalities, incorporation of intra-operative nerve stimulation techniques, more liberal use of nerve grafts in bridging nerve gaps, and the addition of new nerve transfers, which selectively neurotise the target muscles close to the motor end plates. Newer research works on the use of nerve allografts and immune modulators (FK 506) are under evaluation in further improving the results in nerve reconstruction. Direct reimplantation of avulsed spinal nerve roots into the spinal cord is another area of research in brachial plexus reconstruction. PMID:25190913

  4. Brachial plexus lesions in patients with cancer: 100 cases

    SciTech Connect

    Kori, S.H.; Foley, K.M.; Posner, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    In patients with cancer, brachial plexus signs are usually caused by tumor infiltration or injury from radiation therapy (RT). We analyzed 100 cases of brachial plexopathy to determine which clinical criteria helped differentiate tumor from radiation injury. Seventy-eight patients had tumor and 22 had radiation injury. Severe pain occurred in 80% of tumor patients but in only 19% of patients with radiation injury. The lower trunk was involved in 72% of the tumors. Seventy-eight percent of the radiation injuries affected the upper plexus (C5-6). Horner syndrome was more common in tumor, and lymphedema in radiation injury. The time from RT to onset of plexus symptoms, and the dose of RT, also differed.

  5. Massive hemothorax: A rare complication after supraclavicular brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shiv Kumar; Katyal, Surabhi; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Pawan

    2014-01-01

    Plexus block is the preferred anesthesia plan for upper limb surgeries. Among the known complications, hematoma formation following the vascular trauma is often occur but this complication is frequently underreported. We present a case where a massive hemothorax developed post operatively in a patient who underwent resection of giant cell tumor of the right hand radius bone followed by arthroplasty under brachial plexus block using supraclavicular approach. This case report attempts to highlight the essence of remaining vigilant postoperatively for first initial days after brachial plexus block, especially after failed or multiple attempts. Ultrasound guided technique in combination with nerve stimulator has proven to be more reliable and safer than traditional techniques. PMID:25886347

  6. Posterior subscapular dissection: An improved approach to the brachial plexus for human anatomy students.

    PubMed

    Hager, Shaun; Backus, Timothy Charles; Futterman, Bennett; Solounias, Nikos; Mihlbachler, Matthew C

    2014-05-01

    Students of human anatomy are required to understand the brachial plexus, from the proximal roots extending from spinal nerves C5 through T1, to the distal-most branches that innervate the shoulder and upper limb. However, in human cadaver dissection labs, students are often instructed to dissect the brachial plexus using an antero-axillary approach that incompletely exposes the brachial plexus. This approach readily exposes the distal segments of the brachial plexus but exposure of proximal and posterior segments require extensive dissection of neck and shoulder structures. Therefore, the proximal and posterior segments of the brachial plexus, including the roots, trunks, divisions, posterior cord and proximally branching peripheral nerves often remain unobserved during study of the cadaveric shoulder and brachial plexus. Here we introduce a subscapular approach that exposes the entire brachial plexus, with minimal amount of dissection or destruction of surrounding structures. Lateral retraction of the scapula reveals the entire length of the brachial plexus in the subscapular space, exposing the brachial plexus roots and other proximal segments. Combining the subscapular approach with the traditional antero-axillary approach allows students to observe the cadaveric brachial plexus in its entirety. Exposure of the brachial dissection in the subscapular space requires little time and is easily incorporated into a preexisting anatomy lab curriculum without scheduling additional time for dissection.

  7. Isolated lower brachial plexus (Klumpke) palsy with compound arm presentation: case report.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Edward P; Richardson, Randal; Tse, Raymond

    2013-08-01

    Klumpke palsy has yet to be clearly documented in the newborn, because previous reports lack any description of the obstetrical history, clinical progression, or outcome. Based on a high incidence of breach presentation in the few clinical series that report Klumpke palsy, hyperabduction with arm overhead during delivery has been the presumed mechanism. We report a child with isolated lower brachial plexus palsy and Horner syndrome who presented at birth with a vertex compound arm presentation. Recognition of this condition and details of the clinical progression and outcome are important, because guidelines for management are currently not available. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. [Modified grant method protocol for dissecting and identifying the brachial plexus].

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Takamitsu; Setsu, Tomiyoshi; Terashima, Toshio

    2004-03-01

    Dissection of the brachial plexus is an important part in the anatomical course, but it is difficult for medical students to identify individual nerves of the brachial plexus due to its complexity and numerous variations. We have recently adopted the Grant method (1991) to guide students in the successful identification of this plexus. However, according to the Grant method the part of the upper limb including the brachial plexus is dissected before the neck part, which makes it impossible to identify the roots, trunks, and cords of the brachial plexus, and to identify the nerve branches extending from the brachial plexus. Here, we propose of anatomical dissection protocol of the brachial plexus a modified Grant method for medical students and instructors. The points of the modified protocols are: (1) to dissect the brachial plexus after the dissection of the neck part, (2) to identify the nerve trunks at the scalenus gap after dissecting the lateral, medial and posterior cords. The modified Grant method can be adapted to any other dissecting protocol of the brachial plexus, and will allow students to cope with many variations of the brachial plexus when they occur.

  9. Transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells repairs brachial plexus injury: pathological and biomechanical analyses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qi; Luo, Min; Li, Peng; Jin, Hai

    2014-01-01

    A brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits by stretching the C6 nerve root. Immediately after the stretching, a suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was injected into the injured brachial plexus. The results of tensile mechanical testing of the brachial plexus showed that the tensile elastic limit strain, elastic limit stress, maximum stress, and maximum strain of the injured brachial plexuses were significantly increased at 24 weeks after the injection. The treatment clearly improved the pathological morphology of the injured brachial plexus nerve, as seen by hematoxylin eosin staining, and the functions of the rabbit forepaw were restored. These data indicate that the injection of human amniotic epithelial cells contributed to the repair of brachial plexus injury, and that this technique may transform into current clinical treatment strategies. PMID:25657737

  10. Reoperation for failed shoulder reconstruction following brachial plexus birth injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Various approaches have been developed to treat the progressive shoulder deformity in patients with brachial plexus birth palsy. Reconstructive surgery for this condition consists of complex procedures with a risk for failure. Case presentations This is a retrospective case review of the outcome in eight cases referred to us for reoperation for failed shoulder reconstructions. In each case, we describe the initial attempt(s) at surgical correction, the underlying causes of failure, and the procedures performed to rectify the problem. Results were assessed using pre- and post-operative Mallet shoulder scores. All eight patients realized improvement in shoulder function from reoperation. Conclusions This case review identifies several aspects of reconstructive shoulder surgery for brachial plexus birth injury that may cause failure of the index procedure(s) and outlines critical steps in the evaluation and execution of shoulder reconstruction. PMID:23883413

  11. Ultrasonographic evaluation of brachial plexus tumors in five dogs.

    PubMed

    Rose, Scott; Long, Craig; Knipe, Marguerite; Hornof, Bill

    2005-01-01

    Five dogs with unilateral thoracic limb lameness, neurologic deficits, muscle atrophy, and pain, or a combination of these signs, were examined using ultrasonograghy. Large, hypoechoic tubular masses that displaced vessels and destroyed the normal architecture were found in each dog. The affected axilla of each patient was then imaged with computed tomography or magnetic resonance to fully assess the extent of the masses. We describe the use of ultrasound in screening patients for brachial plexus tumors.

  12. Brachial plexus impingement: an unusual complication of bilateral breast augmentation.

    PubMed

    Berry, M G; Stanek, J J

    2008-03-01

    Breast augmentation is one of the most commonly performed aesthetic procedures, with many studies documenting the early and long-term complications that might be expected. This report describes the case of an active young woman who experienced severe pain, particularly with movement. Surgical exploration showed the cause of this pain to be impingement of the patient's lower brachial plexus by the mammary prosthesis. Such a complication has not, to the authors' knowledge, been reported previously.

  13. Spontaneous recovery of non-operated traumatic brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Lim, S H; Lee, J S; Kim, Y H; Kim, T W; Kwon, K M

    2017-06-27

    We investigated the spontaneous recovery of non-operated traumatic brachial plexus injury (BPI). A total of 25 cases of non-operated traumatic BPI were analysed by retrospective review of medical records; in all cases, consecutive electrodiagnostic studies (ES) were conducted from 1 to 4 months and 18 to 24 months post-trauma. Injury severity was assessed using a modified version of Dumitru and Wilbourn's scale (DWS) based on ES. Spontaneous recovery of brachial plexus components per subject was analysed using Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. A two-tailed Fisher's exact or Pearson's Chi-square test was used to examine the associations between initial injury severity (DWS grade 2 vs. 3, complete vs. incomplete), accompanying injury type (open vs. closed), main lesion location (supraclavicular vs. infraclavicular lesion), and spontaneous recovery. The most common cause of BPI was traffic accident (TA) (15 cases, 60%), and the most common type of TA-induced BPI was a motorcycle TA (5 cases), accounting for 20% of all injuries. The second most common type of injury was an occupational injury (6 cases, 24%). Thirty-eight (69%) of 55 injured brachial components in 25 cases had DWS grade 3 and 17 brachial components (31%) had grade 2. The DWS grade of brachial plexus components per subject significantly differed between the first and follow-up ES (p = 0.000). However, initial injury severity, accompanying injury type, and main lesion location were not statistically associated with spontaneous recovery (p > 0.05). Spontaneous recovery may be possible even in severe traumatic BPI. Multiple factors should be considered when predicting the clinical course of traumatic BPI.

  14. Brachial plexus sonography: a technique for assessing the root level.

    PubMed

    Martinoli, Carlo; Bianchi, Stefano; Santacroce, Elena; Pugliese, Francesca; Graif, Moshe; Derchi, Lorenzo E

    2002-09-01

    Our study was intended to establish a technique to assess the level of the roots of the brachial plexus using high-resolution sonography. The skeleton of a cervical spine was examined in vitro to determine whether the vertebrae may be identified individually on sonography by means of the evaluation of their transverse processes. Then 20 healthy subjects and five patients who had undergone CT of the cervical spine were evaluated sonographically, and we attempted to identify the level of individual roots of the brachial plexus using the transverse processes as landmarks. To establish the reliability of this method, a blinded review of sonograms of the paravertebral area obtained at various levels was performed independently by three examiners. In vitro, sonography was reliable in depicting the level of the C7 vertebra because of the absence of the anterior tubercle from its transverse processes. In healthy subjects, this feature allowed us to establish the level of the roots outside the spine. In our series, the C4-C7 roots were visible sonographically in all cases, whereas the C8 and T1 levels were seen, respectively, in only 16 of 20 and eight of 20 cases. All examiners correctly identified the C7 level in the blinded review of sonograms. High-resolution sonography can reveal the level of the roots of the brachial plexus on the basis of the different morphology of the transverse processes of the vertebrae. Our study has implications for confirming the exact level of pathologic roots before surgery.

  15. Post-operative brachial plexus neuropraxia: A less recognised complication of combined plastic and laparoscopic surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    This presentation is to increase awareness of the potential for brachial plexus injury during prolonged combined plastic surgery procedures. A case of brachial plexus neuropraxia in a 26-year-old obese patient following a prolonged combined plastic surgery procedure was encountered. Nerve palsy due to faulty positioning on the operating table is commonly seen over the elbow and popliteal fossa. However, injury to the brachial plexus has been a recently reported phenomenon due to the increasing number of laparoscopic and robotic procedures. Brachial plexus injury needs to be recognised as a potential complication of prolonged combined plastic surgery. Preventive measures are discussed. PMID:25593443

  16. Post-operative brachial plexus neuropraxia: A less recognised complication of combined plastic and laparoscopic surgeries.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    This presentation is to increase awareness of the potential for brachial plexus injury during prolonged combined plastic surgery procedures. A case of brachial plexus neuropraxia in a 26-year-old obese patient following a prolonged combined plastic surgery procedure was encountered. Nerve palsy due to faulty positioning on the operating table is commonly seen over the elbow and popliteal fossa. However, injury to the brachial plexus has been a recently reported phenomenon due to the increasing number of laparoscopic and robotic procedures. Brachial plexus injury needs to be recognised as a potential complication of prolonged combined plastic surgery. Preventive measures are discussed.

  17. Correlation between ultrasound imaging, cross-sectional anatomy, and histology of the brachial plexus: a review.

    PubMed

    van Geffen, Geert J; Moayeri, Nizar; Bruhn, Jörgen; Scheffer, Gert J; Chan, Vincent W; Groen, Gerbrand J

    2009-01-01

    The anatomy of the brachial plexus is complex. To facilitate the understanding of the ultrasound appearance of the brachial plexus, we present a review of important anatomic considerations. A detailed correlation of reconstructed, cross-sectional gross anatomy and histology with ultrasound sonoanatomy is provided.

  18. Structure of the brachial plexus root and adjacent regions displayed by ultrasound imaging☆

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengyi; Xia, Xun; Rong, Xiaoming; Tang, Yamei; Xu, Dachuan

    2012-01-01

    Brachial plexuses of 110 healthy volunteers were examined using high resolution color Doppler ultrasound. Ultrasonic characteristics and anatomic variation in the intervertebral foramen, interscalene, supraclavicular and infraclavicular, as well as the axillary brachial plexus were investigated. Results confirmed that the normal brachial plexus on cross section exhibited round or elliptic hypoechoic texture. Longitudinal section imaging showed many parallel linear hypo-moderate echoes, with hypo-echo. The transverse processes of the seventh cervical vertebra, the scalene space, the subclavian artery and the deep cervical artery are important markers in an examination. The display rates for the interscalene, and supraclavicular and axillary brachial plexuses were 100% each, while that for the infraclavicular brachial plexus was 97%. The region where the normal brachial plexus root traversed the intervertebral foramen exhibited a regular hypo-echo. The display rate for the C5-7 nerve roots was 100%, while those for C8 and T1 were 83% and 68%, respectively. A total of 20 of the 110 subjects underwent cervical CT scan. High-frequency ultrasound can clearly display the outline of the transverse processes of the vertebrae, which were consistent with CT results. These results indicate that high-frequency ultrasound provides a new method for observing the morphology of the brachial plexus. The C7 vertebra is a marker for identifying the position of brachial plexus nerve roots. PMID:25624836

  19. Anatomical study of prefixed versus postfixed brachial plexuses in adult human cadaver.

    PubMed

    Guday, Edengenet; Bekele, Asegedech; Muche, Abebe

    2017-05-01

    The brachial plexus is usually formed by the fusion of anterior primary rami of the fifth to eighth cervical and the first thoracic spinal nerves. Variations in the formation of the brachial plexus may occur. Variations in brachial plexus anatomy are important to radiologists, surgeons and anaesthesiologists performing surgical procedures in the neck, axilla and upper limb regions. These variations may lead to deviation from the expected dermatome distribution as well as differences in the motor innervation of muscles of the upper limb. This study is aimed to describe the anatomical variations of brachial plexus in its formation among 20 Ethiopian cadavers. Observational based study was conducted by using 20 cadavers obtained from the Department of Human Anatomy at University of Gondar, Bahir Dar, Addis Ababa, Hawasa, Hayat Medical College and St Paul Hospital Millennium Medical College. Data analysis was conducted using thematic approaches. A total of 20 cadavers examined bilaterally for the formation of brachial plexus. Of the 40 sides, 30 sides (75%) were found normal, seven sides (17.5%) prefixed, three sides (7.5%) postfixed and one side of the cadaver lacks cord formation. The brachial plexus formation in most subjects is found to be normal. Among the variants, the numbers of the prefixed brachial plexuses are greater than the postfixed brachial plexuses. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  20. Postoperative analgesia comparing levobupivacaine and ropivacaine for brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kunitaro; Tokumine, Joho; Lefor, Alan Kawarai; Moriyama, Kumi; Sakamoto, Hideaki; Inoue, Tetsuo; Yorozu, Tomoko

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: On a pharmacologic basis, levobupivacaine is expected to last longer than ropivacaine. However, most reports of these anesthetics for brachial plexus block do not suggest a difference in analgesic effect. The aim of this study is to compare the postoperative analgesic effects of levobupivacaine and ropivacaine when used for treating ultrasound-guided brachial plexus block. Methods: A total of 62 patients undergoing orthopedic surgery procedures were prospectively enrolled and randomized to receive levobupivacaine (group L, N = 31) or ropivacaine (group R, N = 31). The duration of analgesia, offset time of motor block, need for rescue analgesics, and sleep disturbance on the night of surgery were recorded. Pain score was recorded on the day of surgery, and on postoperative days 1 and 2. Results: There was no difference in the time interval until the first request for pain medication comparing the two groups (group L: 15.6 [11.4, 16.8] hours; group R: 12.5 [9.4, 16.0] hours, P = 0.32). There was no difference in the duration of motor block (group L: 12.2 [7.6, 14.4] hours; group R: 9.4 [7.9, 13.2] hours, P = 0.44), pain score (P = 0.92), need for rescue analgesics (group L: 55%; group R: 65%, P = 0.6), or rate of sleep disturbance (group L: 61%, group R: 58%, P = 1.0) on comparing the two groups. Conclusions: There was no difference in postoperative analgesia comparing levobupivacaine and ropivacaine when used for brachial plexus block. PMID:28328862

  1. Dexamethasone added to lidocaine prolongs axillary brachial plexus blockade.

    PubMed

    Movafegh, Ali; Razazian, Mehran; Hajimaohamadi, Fatemeh; Meysamie, Alipasha

    2006-01-01

    Different additives have been used to prolong regional blockade. We designed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone added to lidocaine on the onset and duration of axillary brachial plexus block. Sixty patients scheduled for elective hand and forearm surgery under axillary brachial plexus block were randomly allocated to receive either 34 mL lidocaine 1.5% with 2 mL of isotonic saline chloride (control group, n = 30) or 34 mL lidocaine 1.5% with 2 mL of dexamethasone (8 mg) (dexamethasone group, n = 30). Neither epinephrine nor bicarbonate was added to the treatment mixture. We used a nerve stimulator and multiple stimulations technique in all of the patients. After performance of the block, sensory and motor blockade of radial, median, musculocutaneous, and ulnar nerves were recorded at 5, 15, and 30 min. The onset time of the sensory and motor blockade was defined as the time between last injection and the total abolition of the pinprick response and complete paralysis. The duration of sensory and motor blocks were considered as the time interval between the administration of the local anesthetic and the first postoperative pain and complete recovery of motor functions. Sixteen patients were excluded because of unsuccessful blockade. The duration of surgery and the onset times of sensory and motor block were similar in the two groups. The duration of sensory (242 +/- 76 versus 98 +/- 33 min) and motor (310 +/- 81 versus 130 +/- 31 min) blockade were significantly longer in the dexamethasone than in the control group (P < 0.01). We conclude that the addition of dexamethasone to lidocaine 1.5% solution in axillary brachial plexus block prolongs the duration of sensory and motor blockade.

  2. Nerve transfer helps repair brachial plexus injury by increasing cerebral cortical plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guixin; Wu, Zuopei; Wang, Xinhong; Tan, Xiaoxiao; Gu, Yudong

    2014-01-01

    In the treatment of brachial plexus injury, nerves that are functionally less important are transferred onto the distal ends of damaged crucial nerves to help recover neuromuscular function in the target region. For example, intercostal nerves are transferred onto axillary nerves, and accessory nerves are transferred onto suprascapular nerves, the phrenic nerve is transferred onto the musculocutaneous nerves, and the contralateral C7 nerve is transferred onto the median or radial nerves. Nerve transfer has become a major method for reconstructing the brachial plexus after avulsion injury. Many experiments have shown that nerve transfers for treatment of brachial plexus injury can help reconstruct cerebral cortical function and increase cortical plasticity. In this review article, we summarize the recent progress in the use of diverse nerve transfer methods for the repair of brachial plexus injury, and we discuss the impact of nerve transfer on cerebral cortical plasticity after brachial plexus injury. PMID:25657729

  3. High resolution neurography of the brachial plexus by 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cejas, C; Rollán, C; Michelin, G; Nogués, M

    2016-01-01

    The study of the structures that make up the brachial plexus has benefited particularly from the high resolution images provided by 3T magnetic resonance scanners. The brachial plexus can have mononeuropathies or polyneuropathies. The mononeuropathies include traumatic injuries and trapping, such as occurs in thoracic outlet syndrome due to cervical ribs, prominent transverse apophyses, or tumors. The polyneuropathies include inflammatory processes, in particular chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, Parsonage-Turner syndrome, granulomatous diseases, and radiation neuropathy. Vascular processes affecting the brachial plexus include diabetic polyneuropathy and the vasculitides. This article reviews the anatomy of the brachial plexus and describes the technique for magnetic resonance neurography and the most common pathologic conditions that can affect the brachial plexus. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Prediction of brachial plexus stretching during shoulder dystocia using a computer simulation model.

    PubMed

    Gonik, Bernard; Zhang, Ning; Grimm, Michele J

    2003-10-01

    The purpose was to study the impact of maternal endogenous and clinician-applied exogenous delivery forces on brachial plexus stretching during a shoulder dystocia event. A computer software crash dummy model (MADYMO, version 5.4, TNO Automotive, Delft, The Netherlands) was modified on the basis of established maternal pelvis and fetal anatomic specifications. The brachial plexus was modeled as a spring, with mechanical properties that were based on previously reported experimental data. Increasing amounts of endogenous or exogenous loading forces were applied until delivery of the anterior fetal shoulder occurred. Brachial plexus deformation was assessed as percent stretch in the nerve (Change in length/Original length x 100). With lithotomy positioning, both maternal endogenous and clinician-applied exogenous delivery forces were associated with brachial plexus stretching (15.7% vs 14.0%, respectively). McRoberts positioning reduced needed loading forces for delivery and resulted in 53% less brachial plexus stretch (6.6%). Downward lateral displacement of the fetal head was associated with a 30% increase in brachial plexus stretch (18.2%) compared with axial positioning of the head (14.0%). Brachial plexus stretch varied as a result of the load required for delivery, the source of the applied force, pelvic orientation, and fetal head positioning. Maternally derived and clinician-applied delivery forces can both lead to brachial plexus deformation when shoulder dystocia is encountered. The McRoberts maneuver can reduce brachial plexus stretching. Management of fetal head position may also be important in reducing unnecessary brachial plexus stretch.

  5. Six-year incidence and some features of cases of brachial plexus injury in a tertiary referral center

    PubMed Central

    Eken, Meryem; Çınar, Mehmet; Şenol, Taylan; Özkaya, Enis; Karateke, Ateş

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To present some features and incidence of cases of brachial plexus injury in deliveries at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Zeynep Kamil Maternity and Children’s Training and Research Hospital, from January 2010 through December 2014. Materials and Methods: In total, 38.896 deliveries in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Zeynep Kamil Maternity and Children’s Training and Research Hospital, from January 2010 through December 2014 were screened from a prospectively collected database. We recorded gravidity, parity, body mass index, maternal diabetes, labor induction, gestational age at delivery, operative deliveries, malpresentations, prolonged second stage of deliveries, shoulder dystocies, clavicle and humerus fructures, estimated fetal weight, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, femur length, fetal sex, route of delivery, maternal age, and fetal anomalies. Results: There were 28 (72/100.000) cases of brachial plexus injury among 38.896 deliveries. In the 6-year study period, there were 18.363 deliveries via c-section, whereas 20.533 were vaginal deliveries. Conclusion: Sonographic fetal weight estimation and clinical examination performed by experienced obstetricians, and active appropriate management of shoulder dystocias seemed to attenuate the incidence of brachial plexus injury in the at risk population in our tertiary referral center.

  6. Rare case of a liposarcoma in the brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Kosutic, D; Gajanan, K

    2016-09-01

    Introduction A liposarcoma is a rare cancer of connective tissues that resemble fat cells under light microscopy. Case History A 73-year old female patient presented to our tertiary cancer centre with an eight-year history of a large, slow-growing painless mass in the right axilla. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lipomatous, well-circumscribed mass of dimension 30 × 16 × 10cm extending towards the right clavicle and causing deformation to the right chest wall and right breast. Surgery revealed a large tumour that had stretched all three cords of the brachial plexus. Histopathology was consistent with a diagnosis of a low-grade liposarcoma. After a period of neuropraxia, the patient returned to normal activities 4 months after surgery. Conclusions Although extremely rare, low-grade liposarcomas of the brachial plexus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a slow-growing axillary mass. Referral to a tertiary sarcoma centre is essential for an appropriate diagnosis, adequate treatment, and long-term follow-up.

  7. Rare case of a liposarcoma in the brachial plexus

    PubMed Central

    Kosutic, D; Gajanan, K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A liposarcoma is a rare cancer of connective tissues that resemble fat cells under light microscopy. Case History A 73-year old female patient presented to our tertiary cancer centre with an eight-year history of a large, slow-growing painless mass in the right axilla. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a lipomatous, well-circumscribed mass of dimension 30 × 16 × 10cm extending towards the right clavicle and causing deformation to the right chest wall and right breast. Surgery revealed a large tumour that had stretched all three cords of the brachial plexus. Histopathology was consistent with a diagnosis of a low-grade liposarcoma. After a period of neuropraxia, the patient returned to normal activities 4 months after surgery. Conclusions Although extremely rare, low-grade liposarcomas of the brachial plexus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a slow-growing axillary mass. Referral to a tertiary sarcoma centre is essential for an appropriate diagnosis, adequate treatment, and long-term follow-up. PMID:27241607

  8. Acromioclavicular joint dislocation with associated brachial plexus injury

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Charles Alexander; Blakeney, William; Zellweger, René

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 32-year-old female who sustained a left acromioclavicular (AC) joint type V injury and brachial plexus injury. The patient's AC joint injury was identified 6 days after she was involved in a motorbike accident where she sustained multiple other injuries. She required operative fixation of the AC joint using a locking compression medial proximal tibial plate. At 3 months post operatively, the patient was found to have a subluxed left shoulder as a result of an axonal injury to the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. In addition, the tibial plate had cut out. The plate was subsequently removed. At 8 months the glenohumeral articulation had been restored and the patient had clinically regained significant shoulder function. After 15 months the patient was pain free and could complete all her activities of daily living without impediment. She returned to playing competitive pool after 24 months. PMID:24855076

  9. Incidence of early posterior shoulder dislocation in brachial plexus birth palsy.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Lars B; Erichs, Kristina; Andersson, Charlotte; Thornqvist, Catharina; Backman, Clas; Düppe, Henrik; Lindqvist, Pelle; Forslund, Marianne

    2007-12-16

    Posterior dislocation of the shoulder in brachial plexus birth palsy during the first year of life is rare but the incidence increases with age. The aim was to calculate the incidence of these lesions in children below one year of age. The incidence of brachial plexus birth lesion and occurrence of posterior shoulder dislocation was calculated based on a prospective follow up of all brachial plexus patients at an age below one in Malmö municipality, Sweden, 2000-2005. The incidence of brachial plexus birth palsy was 3.8/1000 living infants and year with a corresponding incidence of posterior shoulder dislocation (history, clinical examination and x-ray) during the first year of 0.28/1000 living infants and year, i.e. 7.3% of all brachial plexus birth palsies. All children with a brachial plexus birth lesion (incidence 3.8 per thousand) should be screened, above the assessment of neurological recovery, during the first year of life for posterior dislocation of the shoulder (incidence 0.28 per thousand) since such a condition may occur in 7% of children with a brachial plexus birth lesion.

  10. High prevalence of early language delay exists among toddlers with neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kate Wan-Chu; Yang, Lynda J-S; Driver, Lynn; Nelson, Virginia S

    2014-09-01

    An association of language impairment with neonatal brachial plexus palsy has not been reported in the literature. The current treatment paradigm for neonatal brachial plexus palsy focuses on upper extremity motor recovery with little formal assessment of other aspects of development, such as language. We performed a cross-sectional pilot study to investigate early language delay prevalence in toddlers with neonatal brachial plexus palsy and potential neonatal brachial plexus palsy-related factors involved. Twenty toddlers with neonatal brachial plexus palsy were consecutively recruited (12 males and eight females; mean age, 30 months). Preschool Language Scale Score (4th edition), demographics, and socioeconomic status were collected. Neonatal brachial plexus palsy-related factors such as palsy side, treatment type, Narakas grade, muscle Medical Research Council score, and Raimondi hand score were reported. Student t test, chi-square test, or Fisher exact test were applied. Statistical significance level was established at P < 0.05. Of study participants, 30% had language delay, whereas the prevalence of language delay in the population with normal development in this age range was approximately 5-15%. We observed high language delay prevalence among toddlers with neonatal brachial plexus palsy. Although our subject sample is small, our findings warrant further study of this phenomenon. Early identification and timely intervention based on type of language impairment may be critical for improving communication outcome in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Concomitant Traumatic Spinal Cord and Brachial Plexus Injuries in Adult Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Peter C.; Pirola, Elena; Hébert-Blouin, Marie-Noëlle; Kircher, Michelle F.; Spinner, Robert J.; Bishop, Allen T.; Shin, Alexander Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Combined injuries to the spinal cord and brachial plexus present challenges in the detection of both injuries as well as to subsequent treatment. The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiology and clinical factors of concomitant spinal cord injuries in patients with a known brachial plexus injury. Methods: A retrospective review was performed on all patients who were evaluated for a brachial plexus injury in a tertiary, multidisciplinary brachial plexus clinic from January 2000 to December 2008. Patients with clinical and/or imaging findings for a coexistent spinal cord injury were identified and underwent further analysis. Results: A total of 255 adult patients were evaluated for a traumatic traction injury to the brachial plexus. We identified thirty-one patients with a combined brachial plexus and spinal cord injury, for a prevalence of 12.2%. A preganglionic brachial plexus injury had been sustained in all cases. The combined injury group had a statistically greater likelihood of having a supraclavicular vascular injury (odds ratio [OR] = 22.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.9, 271.9) and a cervical spine fracture (OR = 3.44; 95% CI = 1.6, 7.5). These patients were also more likely to exhibit a Horner sign (OR = 3.2; 95% CI = 1.5, 7.2) and phrenic nerve dysfunction (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.0, 5.8) compared with the group with only a brachial plexus injury. Conclusion: Heightened awareness for a combined spinal cord and brachial plexus injury and the presence of various associated clinical and imaging findings may aid in the early recognition of these relatively uncommon injuries. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions to Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:22258773

  12. Traction injury of the brachial plexus confused with nerve injury due to interscalene brachial block: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ferrero-Manzanal, Francisco; Lax-Pérez, Raquel; López-Bernabé, Roberto; Betancourt-Bastidas, José Ramiro; Iñiguez de Onzoño-Pérez, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Shoulder surgery is often performed with the patient in the so called "beach-chair position" with elevation of the upper part of the body. The anesthetic procedure can be general anesthesia and/or regional block, usually interscalenic brachial plexus block. We present a case of brachial plexus palsy with a possible mechanism of traction based on the electromyographic and clinical findings, although a possible contribution of nerve block cannot be excluded. We present a case of a 62 year-old female, that suffered from shoulder fracture-dislocation. Open reduction and internal fixation were performed in the so-called "beach-chair" position, under combined general-regional anesthesia. In the postoperative period complete motor brachial plexus palsy appeared, with neuropathic pain. Conservative treatment included analgesic drugs, neuromodulators, B-vitamin complex and physiotherapy. Spontaneous recovery appeared at 11 months. DISCUSION: in shoulder surgery, there may be complications related to both anesthetic technique and patient positioning/surgical maneuvers. Regional block often acts as a confusing factor when neurologic damage appears after surgery. Intraoperative maneuvers may cause eventual traction of the brachial plexus, and may be favored by the fixed position of the head using the accessory of the operating table in the beach-chair position. When postoperative brachial plexus palsy appears, nerve block is a confusing factor that tends to be attributed as the cause of palsy by the orthopedic surgeon. The beach chair position may predispose brachial plexus traction injury. The head and neck position should be regularly checked during long procedures, as intraoperative maneuvers may cause eventual traction of the brachial plexus. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Timing of surgical reconstruction for closed traumatic injury to the supraclavicular brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Birch, R

    2015-07-01

    While it is widely accepted that cases of traumatic injury to the brachial plexus benefit from early surgical exploration and repair, with results deteriorating with long delays, policies vary regarding the exact timing of intervention. This is one of a pair of review articles considering the clinical issues, investigations, and surgical factors relating to management of injuries to the supraclavicular brachial plexus, as well evidence from experimental work and clinical outcomes.In this article Professor Birch argues for early exploration of the brachial plexus as the optimum both to delineate the pathology and undertake reconstructive surgery. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Avulsion of the brachial plexus in a great horned owl (Bubo virginaus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.P.; Stauber, E.; Thomas, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Avulsion of the brachial plexus was documented in a Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). A fractured scapula was also present. Cause of these injuries was not known but was thought to be due to trauma. Differentiation of musculoskeletal injury from peripheral nerve damage can be difficult in raptors. Use of electromyography and motor nerve conduction velocity was helpful in demonstrating peripheral nerve involvement. A brachial plexus avulsion was suspected on the basis of clinical signs, presence of electromyographic abnormalities in all muscles supplied by the nerves of the brachial plexus and absence of median-ulnar motor nerve conduction velocities.

  15. Upper Limb Multifactorial Movement Analysis in Brachial Plexus Birth Injury

    PubMed Central

    Bahm, Jorg

    2016-01-01

    Multifactorial motion analysis was first established for gait and then developed in the upper extremity. Recordings of infrared light reflecting sensitive passive markers in space, combined with surface eletromyographic recordings and/or transmitted forces, allow eclectic study of muscular coordination in the upper limb. Brachial plexus birth injury is responsible for various patterns of muscle weakness, imbalance, and/or simultaneous activation, soft tissue contractures, and bone-joint deformities, leading to individual motion patterns and adaptations, which we studied by means of motion analysis tools. We describe the technical development and examination setup to evaluate motion impairment and present first clinical results. Motion analysis is a reliable objective assessment tool allowing precise pre- and postoperative multimodal evaluation of upper limb function. Level of evidence: II. PMID:28077954

  16. Surgical treatment of brachial plexus injuries in adults.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Monreal

    2005-12-01

    We carried out a retrospective review of 32 consecutive patients (30 adults and two children) with total or partial lesions of the brachial plexus who had surgical repair using nerve grafting, neurotisation, and neurolysis between January 1991 and December 2003. The outcome measures of muscular strength were correlated with the type of lesion, age, preoperative time, length and number of grafts, and time to reinnervation of the biceps. The function of the upper limb was also evaluated. There was a significant correlation between muscular strength after surgical repair and both the preoperative time and the length of the nerve graft. There was also a significant correlation between muscular strength and the number of grafts. Muscular strength was better when the neurolysis was done before six months. When neurosurgical repair and reconstructive procedures were performed, the function of the upper limb was improved.

  17. Brachial plexus injury: the London experience with supraclavicular traction lesions.

    PubMed

    Birch, Rolfe

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author details the experiences of his hospital and other London hospitals in treating brachial plexus injury. As noted, important advances have been made in methods of diagnosis and repair. Myelography was replaced by CT scan and later by MRI. Among the topics the author explores are diagnosis (including pain, the presence or absence of the Tinel sign, and the irradiation of pins and needles) and the principles of repair. The author emphasizes that it is imperative that ruptured nerves be repaired as soon as possible, with the closed traction lesion coming, in urgency, close behind reattachment of the amputated hand or repair of a great artery and a trunk nerve in the combined lesion. Finally, the article concludes that the surgeon must be actively engaged in the whole process of rehabilitation and treatment of pain. This is part of a Point-Counterpoint discussion with Dr. David G. Kline's presentation of "A Personal Experience."

  18. A giant plexiform schwannoma of the brachial plexus: case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a patient who noticed muscle weakness in his left arm 5 years earlier. On examination, a biloculate mass was observed in the left supraclavicular area, and Tinel's sign caused paresthesia in his left arm. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a continuous, multinodular, plexiform tumor from the left C5 to C7 nerve root along the course of the brachial plexus to the left brachia. Tumor excision was attempted. The median and musculocutaneous nerves were extremely enlarged by the tumor, which was approximately 40 cm in length, and showed no response to electric stimulation. We resected a part of the musculocutaneous nerve for biopsy and performed latissimus dorsi muscle transposition in order to repair elbow flexion. Morphologically, the tumor consisted of typical Antoni A areas, and immunohistochemistry revealed a Schwann cell origin of the tumor cells moreover, there was no sign of axon differentiation in the tumor. Therefore, the final diagnosis of plexiform Schwannoma was confirmed. PMID:22044580

  19. Morphometric Atlas Selection for Automatic Brachial Plexus Segmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Velde, Joris; Wouters, Johan; Vercauteren, Tom; De Gersem, Werner; Duprez, Fréderic; De Neve, Wilfried; Van Hoof, Tom

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of atlas selection based on different morphometric parameters, on the accuracy of automatic brachial plexus (BP) segmentation for radiation therapy planning. The segmentation accuracy was measured by comparing all of the generated automatic segmentations with anatomically validated gold standard atlases developed using cadavers. Methods and Materials: Twelve cadaver computed tomography (CT) atlases (3 males, 9 females; mean age: 73 years) were included in the study. One atlas was selected to serve as a patient, and the other 11 atlases were registered separately onto this “patient” using deformable image registration. This procedure was repeated for every atlas as a patient. Next, the Dice and Jaccard similarity indices and inclusion index were calculated for every registered BP with the original gold standard BP. In parallel, differences in several morphometric parameters that may influence the BP segmentation accuracy were measured for the different atlases. Specific brachial plexus-related CT-visible bony points were used to define the morphometric parameters. Subsequently, correlations between the similarity indices and morphometric parameters were calculated. Results: A clear negative correlation between difference in protraction-retraction distance and the similarity indices was observed (mean Pearson correlation coefficient = −0.546). All of the other investigated Pearson correlation coefficients were weak. Conclusions: Differences in the shoulder protraction-retraction position between the atlas and the patient during planning CT influence the BP autosegmentation accuracy. A greater difference in the protraction-retraction distance between the atlas and the patient reduces the accuracy of the BP automatic segmentation result.

  20. OCT/PS-OCT imaging of brachial plexus neurovascular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raphael, David T.; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yaoping; Chen, Zhongping; Miller, Carol; Zhou, Li

    2004-07-01

    Introduction: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows high-resolution imaging (less than 10 microns) of tissue structures. A pilot study with OCT and polarization-sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) was undertaken to image ex-vivo neurovascular structures (vessels, nerves) of the canine brachial plexus. Methods: OCT is an interferometry-based optical analog of B-mode ultrasound, which can image through non-transparent biological tissues. With approval of the USC Animal Care and Use Committee, segments of the supra- and infraclavicular brachial plexus were excised from euthanized adult dogs, and the ex-vivo specimens were placed in cold pH-buffered physiologic solution. An OCT beam, in micrometer translational steps, scanned the fixed-position bisected specimens in transverse and longitudinal views. Two-dimensional images were obtained from identified arteries and nerves, with specific sections of interest stained with hematoxylin-eosin for later imaging through a surgical microscope. Results: with the beam scan direction transverse to arteries, the resulting OCT images showed an identifiable arterial lumen and arterial wall tissue layers. By comparison, transverse beam OCT images of nerves revealed a multitude of smaller nerve bundles contained within larger circular-shaped fascicles. PS-OCT imaging was helpful in showing the characteristic birefringence exhibited by arrayed neural structures. Discussion: High-resolution OCT imaging may be useful in the optical identification of neurovascular structures during attempted regional nerve blockade. If incorporated into a needle-shaped catheter endoscope, such a technology could prevent intraneural and intravascular injections immediately prior to local anesthetic injection. The major limitation of OCT is that it can form a coherent image of tissue structures only to a depth of 1.5 - 2 mm.

  1. Pain relief from preganglionic injury to the brachial plexus by late intercostal nerve transfer.

    PubMed

    Berman, J; Anand, P; Chen, L; Taggart, M; Birch, R

    1996-09-01

    We performed intercostal nerve transfer in 19 patients to relieve pain from preganglionic injury to the brachial plexus. The procedure was successful in 16 patients at a mean of 28.6 months (12 to 68) after the injury.

  2. Contralateral Spinal Accessory Nerve Transfer: A New Technique in Panavulsive Brachial Plexus Palsy.

    PubMed

    Zermeño-Rivera, Jaime; Gutiérrez-Amavizca, Bianca Ethel

    2015-06-01

    Brachial plexus avulsion results from excessive stretching and can occur secondary to motor vehicle accidents, mainly in motorcyclists. In a 28-year-old man with panavulsive brachial plexus palsy, we describe an alternative technique to repair brachial plexus avulsion and to stabilize and preserve shoulder function by transferring the contralateral spinal accessory nerve to the suprascapular nerve. We observed positive clinical and electromyographic results in sternocleidomastoid, trapezius, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, pectoralis, triceps, and biceps, with good outcome and prognosis for shoulder function at 12 months after surgery. This technique provides a unique opportunity for patients suffering from severe brachial plexus injuries and lacking enough donor nerves to obtain shoulder stability and mobility while avoiding bone fusion and preserving functionality of the contralateral shoulder with favorable postoperative outcomes.

  3. Restoration and protection of brachial plexus injury: hot topics in the last decade.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaizhi; Lv, Zheng; Liu, Jun; Zhu, He; Li, Rui

    2014-09-15

    Brachial plexus injury is frequently induced by injuries, accidents or birth trauma. Upper limb function may be partially or totally lost after injury, or left permanently disabled. With the development of various medical technologies, different types of interventions are used, but their effectiveness is wide ranging. Many repair methods have phasic characteristics, i.e., repairs are done in different phases. This study explored research progress and hot topic methods for protection after brachial plexus injury, by analyzing 1,797 articles concerning the repair of brachial plexus injuries, published between 2004 and 2013 and indexed by the Science Citation Index database. Results revealed that there are many methods used to repair brachial plexus injury, and their effects are varied. Intervention methods include nerve transfer surgery, electrical stimulation, cell transplantation, neurotrophic factor therapy and drug treatment. Therapeutic methods in this field change according to the hot topic of research.

  4. Neuroanatomy of the brachial plexus: normal and variant anatomy of its formation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Elizabeth O; Vekris, Marios; Demesticha, Theano; Soucacos, Panayotis N

    2010-03-01

    The brachial plexus is the complex network of nerves, extending from the neck to the axilla, which supplies motor, sensory, and sympathetic fibers to the upper extremity. Typically, it is formed by the union of the ventral primary rami of the spinal nerves, C5-C8 & T1, the so-called "roots" of the brachial plexus. By examining the neural architecture of the brachial plexus, the most constant arrangement of nerve fibers can be delineated, and the most predominate variations in the neural architecture defined. A thorough understanding of the neuroanatomy of the brachial plexus, with an appreciation of the possible anatomic variations that may occur is necessary for effective clinical practice.

  5. Restoration and protection of brachial plexus injury: hot topics in the last decade

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kaizhi; Lv, Zheng; Liu, Jun; Zhu, He; Li, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Brachial plexus injury is frequently induced by injuries, accidents or birth trauma. Upper limb function may be partially or totally lost after injury, or left permanently disabled. With the development of various medical technologies, different types of interventions are used, but their effectiveness is wide ranging. Many repair methods have phasic characteristics, i.e., repairs are done in different phases. This study explored research progress and hot topic methods for protection after brachial plexus injury, by analyzing 1,797 articles concerning the repair of brachial plexus injuries, published between 2004 and 2013 and indexed by the Science Citation Index database. Results revealed that there are many methods used to repair brachial plexus injury, and their effects are varied. Intervention methods include nerve transfer surgery, electrical stimulation, cell transplantation, neurotrophic factor therapy and drug treatment. Therapeutic methods in this field change according to the hot topic of research. PMID:25374596

  6. Brachial Plexus Injury from CT-Guided RF Ablation Under General Anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Shankar, Sridhar Sonnenberg, Eric van; Silverman, Stuart G.; Tuncali, Kemal; Flanagan, Hugh L.; Whang, Edward E.

    2005-06-15

    Brachial plexus injury in a patient under general anesthesia (GA) is not uncommon, despite careful positioning and, particularly, awareness of the possibility. The mechanism of injury is stretching and compression of the brachial plexus over a prolonged period. Positioning the patient within the computed tomography (CT) gantry for abdominal or chest procedures can simulate a surgical procedure, particularly when GA is used. The potential for brachial plexus injury is increased if the case is prolonged and the patient's arms are raised above the head to avoid CT image degradation from streak artifacts. We report a case of profound brachial plexus palsy following a CT-guided radiofrequency ablation procedure under GA. Fortunately, the patient recovered completely. We emphasize the mechanism of injury and detail measures to combat this problem, such that radiologists are aware of this potentially serious complication.

  7. Investigation of brachial plexus traction lesions by peripheral and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, S J

    1979-01-01

    Peripheral, spinal and cortical somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded in 26 patients with unilateral traction injuries of the brachial plexus ganglia. Of 10 cases explored surgically the recordings correctly anticipated the major site of the lesion in eight. PMID:422958

  8. The influence of seatbelts on the types of operated brachial plexus lesions caused by car accidents.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Radek; Haninec, Pavel

    2012-08-01

    To determine whether there is a relationship between seatbelt use and type of brachial plexus injury seen in automobile accidents. Knowledge of such a relationship may help guide the surgical management of these patients. We retrospectively evaluated 43 surgical patients with brachial plexus palsy caused by car accidents. We recorded sex, age, and type of injury for each case. We also obtained data regarding the patients' position in the car at the time of the accident and whether they were wearing a seatbelt. We obtained data on 39 men and 4 women. Of the seatbelted patients, 24 (100%) had upper plexus palsy on the side where the seatbelt crossed the shoulder. Of those who were not wearing seatbelts, 17 (86%) had complete plexus injuries. We also found 1 upper and 1 lower plexus injury in the unbelted group. We found a relationship between the type of brachial plexus injury sustained by the accident victim and the use and position of the seatbelt. Complete plexus injuries were more common in those who were not wearing seatbelts. We saw upper plexus injuries for those wearing seatbelts. Information about seatbelt use may be useful in clinical practice. When treating an unbelted car accident victim with a brachial plexus injury, it is reasonable to anticipate a more serious form of the injury. Prognostic IV. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultrasound-guided posterior approach to brachial plexus for the treatment of upper phantom limb syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tognù, A; Borghi, B; Gullotta, S; White, P F

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the case is to report the clinical value of the ultrasound-guided posterior approach to the brachial plexus in the treatment of phantom limb syndrome after an upper extremity amputation. The author experienced ultrasound guidance as sole technique to localize the brachial plexus for the purpose of placing a catheter for continuous infusion of a local anesthetic in a patient where standard landmark-based nerve stimulation for placement of a continuous perineural block was not possible.

  10. Hand Sensorimotor Function in Older Children With Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Susan H; Wernimont, Cory W; Phillips, Lauren; Kern, Kathy L; Nelson, Virginia S; Yang, Lynda J-S

    2016-03-01

    Routine sensory assessments in neonatal brachial plexus palsy are infrequently performed because it is generally assumed that sensory recovery exceeds motor recovery. However, studies examining sensory function in neonatal brachial plexus palsy have produced equivocal findings. The purpose of this study was to examine hand sensorimotor function in older children with neonatal brachial plexus palsy using standard clinical and research-based measures of tactile sensibility. Seventeen children with neonatal brachial plexus palsy (mean age: 11.6 years) and 19 age-matched controls participated in the study. Functional assessments included grip force, monofilament testing, and hand dexterity (Nine-Hole Peg, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function). Tactile spatial perception involving the discrimination of pin patterns and movement-enhanced object recognition (stereognosis) were also assessed. In the neonatal brachial plexus palsy group, significant deficits in the affected hand motor function were observed compared with the unaffected hand. Median monofilament scores were considered normal for both hands. In contrast, tactile spatial perception was impaired in the neonatal brachial plexus palsy group. This impairment was seen as deficits in both pin pattern and object recognition accuracy as well as the amount of time required to identify patterns and objects. Tactile pattern discrimination time significantly correlated with performance on both functional assessment tests (P < 0.01). This study provides evidence that tactile perception deficits may accompany motor deficits in neonatal brachial plexus palsy even when measures of tactile registration (i.e., monofilament testing) are normal. These results may reflect impaired processing of somatosensory feedback associated with reductions in goal-directed upper limb use and illustrate the importance of including a broader range of sensory assessments in neonatal brachial plexus palsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  11. Prevalence of brachial plexus injuries in patients with scapular fractures: A National Trauma Data Bank review

    PubMed Central

    Chamata, Edward; Mahabir, Raman; Jupiter, Daniel; Weber, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the prevalence of brachial plexus injuries associated with scapular fractures are sparse, and are frequently limited by small sample sizes and often restricted to single-centre experience. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of brachial plexus injuries associated with scapular fractures; to determine how the prevalence varies with the region of the scapula injured; and to assess which specific nerves of the brachial plexus were involved. METHODS: The present study was a retrospective review of data from the National Trauma Data Bank over a five-year period (2007 to 2011). RESULTS: Of 68,118 patients with scapular fractures, brachial plexus injury was present in 1173 (1.72%). In patients with multiple scapular fractures, the prevalence of brachial plexus injury was 3.12%, and ranged from 1.52% to 2.22% in patients with single scapular fractures depending on the specific anatomical location of the fracture. Of the 426 injuries with detailed information on nerve injury, 208 (49%) involved the radial nerve, 113 (26.5%) the ulnar nerve, 65 (15%) the median nerve, 36 (8.5%) the axillary nerve and four (1%) the musculocutaneous nerve. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of brachial plexus injuries in patients with scapular fractures was 1.72%. The prevalence was similar across anatomical regions for single scapular fracture and was higher with multiple fractures. The largest percentage of nerve injuries were to the radial nerve. PMID:25535462

  12. [Secondary replacement operations for reconstruction of elbow joint function after lesion of the brachial plexus].

    PubMed

    Berger, A; Hierner, R; Becker, M H

    1997-07-01

    Elbow flexion plays a key role in the overall function of the upper extremity. In the case of unilateral complete brachial plexus lesion, restoration of elbow flexion will dramatically increase the patient's chances of regaining bimanual prehension. Furthermore, depending on the type of reconstruction, stability of the glenohumeral joint as well as some supination function of the forearm can be restored to a varying degree at the same time. Depending on the level of brachial plexus lesion and/or reinnervation, different reconstructive procedures are available. In order to select the best treatment option for the patient it is necessary to known the extent of the lesion of the brachial plexus and/or ventral upper arm muscles, to time the operation appropriately, to be aware of all treatment possibilities and to recall the special problems of tendon transfer for brachial plexus patients. Our concept is based on our experience with more than 1100 patients presenting a brachial plexus lesion between 1981 and 1996 and treated in our institution. There were 528 operative revisions of the brachial plexus. Some 225 patients underwent secondary muscle/tendon transfers. In 35 patients elbow flexion was reconstructed by bipolar latissimus dorsi transfer (n = 10), triceps-to-biceps transfer (n = 15), modified flexor/pronator muscle mass proximalization (n = 6) and the multiple-stage free functional muscle transfer after intercostal nerve transfer (n = 4).

  13. Prevalence of brachial plexus injuries in patients with scapular fractures: A National Trauma Data Bank review.

    PubMed

    Chamata, Edward; Mahabir, Raman; Jupiter, Daniel; Weber, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating the prevalence of brachial plexus injuries associated with scapular fractures are sparse, and are frequently limited by small sample sizes and often restricted to single-centre experience. To determine the prevalence of brachial plexus injuries associated with scapular fractures; to determine how the prevalence varies with the region of the scapula injured; and to assess which specific nerves of the brachial plexus were involved. The present study was a retrospective review of data from the National Trauma Data Bank over a five-year period (2007 to 2011). Of 68,118 patients with scapular fractures, brachial plexus injury was present in 1173 (1.72%). In patients with multiple scapular fractures, the prevalence of brachial plexus injury was 3.12%, and ranged from 1.52% to 2.22% in patients with single scapular fractures depending on the specific anatomical location of the fracture. Of the 426 injuries with detailed information on nerve injury, 208 (49%) involved the radial nerve, 113 (26.5%) the ulnar nerve, 65 (15%) the median nerve, 36 (8.5%) the axillary nerve and four (1%) the musculocutaneous nerve. The prevalence of brachial plexus injuries in patients with scapular fractures was 1.72%. The prevalence was similar across anatomical regions for single scapular fracture and was higher with multiple fractures. The largest percentage of nerve injuries were to the radial nerve.

  14. Utility of ultrasound in noninvasive preoperative workup of neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Somashekar, Deepak K; Di Pietro, Michael A; Joseph, Jacob R; Yang, Lynda J-S; Parmar, Hemant A

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasound has been utilized in the evaluation of compressive and traumatic peripheral nerve pathology. To determine whether US can provide comprehensive evaluation of the post-ganglionic brachial plexus in the setting of neonatal brachial plexus palsy and whether this information can be used to guide preoperative nerve reconstruction strategies. In this retrospective cohort study, preoperative brachial plexus ultrasonography was performed in 52 children with neonatal brachial plexus palsy who were being considered for surgery. The 33 children who had surgery compose the patient cohort. The presence and location of post-ganglionic neuromas were evaluated by US and compared to the surgical findings. US evaluation of shoulder muscle atrophy was conducted as an indirect way to assess the integrity of nerves. Finally, we correlated glenohumeral joint laxity to surgical and clinical management. Ultrasound correctly identified 21 of 25 cases of upper trunk and middle trunk neuroma involvement (84% sensitivity for each). It was 68% sensitive and 40% specific in detection of lower trunk involvement. US identified shoulder muscle atrophy in 11 of 21 children evaluated; 8 of these 11 went on to nerve transfer procedures based upon the imaging findings. US identified 3 cases of shoulder joint laxity of the 13 children evaluated. All 3 cases were referred for orthopedic evaluation, with 1 child undergoing shoulder surgery and another requiring casting. Ultrasound can provide useful preoperative evaluation of the post-ganglionic brachial plexus in children with neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

  15. Anatomical Study of the Brachial Plexus in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix Jacchus).

    PubMed

    Emura, Kenji; Arakawa, Takamitsu; Terashima, Toshio

    2017-07-01

    To elucidate the forelimb phylogeny of primates, anatomical analysis of the brachial plexus in platyrrhines is beneficial. In the present study, six brachial plexuses and the surrounding arteries of four common marmosets were dissected. In five specimens, the brachial plexus consisted of five ventral rami from the fifth cervical nerve (C5) to the first thoracic nerve (T1). In one specimen, the ventral ramus of the fourth cervical nerve joined with the brachial plexus. In five specimens, the upper trunk was composed of C5 and the sixth cervical nerve (C6). In one specimen, the ventral division of C6 merged with the ventral branch of the middle trunk to constitute the lateral cord. The seventh cervical nerve constituted the middle trunk, and the eighth cervical nerve and T1 formed the lower trunk in all specimens. The lateral cord gave rise to the musculocutaneous nerve, and the remaining component merged with the medial cord. The confluence of the lateral and medial cords immediately bifurcated into the median and ulnar nerves. These branching patterns of the musculocutaneous, median, and ulnar nerves were consistent and similar to the human counterparts. In the dorsal division, the single posterior cord as observed in the human brachial plexus was not observed. The axillary artery did not pass between the medial and lateral roots of the median nerve, and the axillary artery bifurcated into the brachial artery and the superficial brachial artery. Anat Rec, 300:1299-1306, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. MRI of the Brachial Plexus: Modified Imaging Technique Leading to a Better Characterization of Its Anatomy and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Carlos; Mailley, Kathleen; del Carpio O’Donovan, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Summary Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice for the evaluation of the brachial plexus due to its superior soft tissue resolution and multiplanar capabilities. The evaluation of the brachial plexus however represents a diagnostic challenge for the clinician and the radiologist. The imaging assessment of the brachial plexus, in particular, has been traditionally challenging due to the complexity of its anatomy, its distribution in space and due to technical factors. Herein, we describe a modified technique used in our institution for the evaluation of the brachial plexus which led to a substantial decrease in scanning time and to better visualization of all the segments of the brachial plexus from the roots to the branches, in only one or two images, facilitating therefore the understanding of the anatomy and the interpretation of the study. To our knowledge, we are the first group to describe this technique of imaging the brachial plexus. We illustrate the benefit of this modified technique with an example of a patient with a lesion in the proximal branches of the left brachial plexus that was clinically suspected but missed on conventional brachial plexus imaging for six consecutive years. In addition, we review the common and infrequent benign and malignant pathology that can affect the brachial plexus. PMID:24355190

  17. The rabbit brachial plexus as a model for nerve repair surgery--histomorphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Paweł; Kiełbowicz, Zdzisław; DziĘgiel, Piotr; Puła, Bartosz; Kuryszko, Jan; Gosk, Jerzy; Bocheńska, Aneta

    2015-02-01

    One of the most devastating injuries to the upper limb is trauma caused by the avulsion. The anatomical structure of the rabbit's brachial plexus is similar to the human brachial plexus. The aim of our study was to analyze the microanatomy and provide a detailed investigation of the rabbit's brachial plexus. The purpose of our research project was to evaluate the possibility of utilizing rabbit's plexus as a research model in studying brachial plexus injury. Studies included histomorphometric analysis of sampled ventral branches of spinal nerves C5, C6, C7, C8, and Th1, the cranial trunk, the medial part of the caudal trunk, the lateral part of the caudal trunk and peripheral nerve. Horizontal and vertical analysis was done considering following features: the axon diameter, fiber diameter and myelin sheath. The number of axons, nerve area, myelin fiber density and minimal diameter of myelin fiber, minimal axon diameter and myelin area was marked for each element. The changes between ventral branches of spinal nerves C5-Th1, trunks and peripheral nerve in which the myelin sheath, axon diameter and fiber diameter was assessed were statistically significant. It was found that the g-ratio has close value in the brachial plexus as in the peripheral nerve. The peak of these parameters was found in nerve trunks, and then decreased coherently with the nerves travelling peripherally. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Anatomic Basis for Brachial Plexus Block at the Costoclavicular Space: A Cadaver Anatomic Study.

    PubMed

    Sala-Blanch, Xavier; Reina, Miguel Angel; Pangthipampai, Pawinee; Karmakar, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The costoclavicular space (CCS), which is located deep and posterior to the midpoint of the clavicle, may be a better site for infraclavicular brachial plexus block than the traditional lateral paracoracoid site. However, currently, there is paucity of data on the anatomy of the brachial plexus at the CCS. We undertook this cadaver anatomic study to define the anatomy of the cords of the brachial plexus at the CCS and thereby establish the anatomic basis for ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block at this proximal site. The anatomy and topography of the cords of the brachial plexus at the CCS was evaluated in 8 unembalmed (cryopreserved), thawed, fresh adult human cadavers using anatomic dissection, and transverse anatomic and histological sections, of the CCS. The cords of the brachial plexus were located lateral and parallel to the axillary artery at the CCS. The topography of the cords, relative to the axillary artery and to one another, in the transverse (axial) plane was also consistent at the CCS. The lateral cord was the most superficial of the 3 cords and it was always anterior to both the medial and posterior cords. The medial cord was directly posterior to the lateral cord but medial to the posterior cord. The posterior cord was the lateral most of the 3 cords at the CCS and it was immediately lateral to the medial cord but posterolateral to the lateral cord. The cords of the brachial plexus are clustered together lateral to the axillary artery, and share a consistent relation relative to one another and to the axillary artery, at the CCS.

  19. Bilateral Brachial Plexus Home Going Catheters After Digital Amputation for Patient With Upper Extremity Digital Gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A; Seif, John; Guirguis, Maged; Zaky, Sherif; Mounir-Soliman, Loran

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral nerve catheter placement is used to control surgical pain. Performing bilateral brachial plexus block with catheters is not frequently performed; and in our case sending patient home with bilateral brachial plexus catheters has not been reported up to our knowledge. Our patient is a 57 years old male patient presented with bilateral upper extremity digital gangrene on digits 2 through 4 on both sides with no thumb involvement. The plan was to do the surgery under sequential axillary blocks. On the day of surgery a right axillary brachial plexus block was performed under ultrasound guidance using 20 ml of 0.75% ropivacaine. Patient was taken to the OR and the right fingers amputation was carried out under mild sedation without problems. Left axillary brachial plexus block was then done as the surgeon was closing the right side, two hours after the first block was performed. The left axillary block was done also under ultrasound using 20 ml of 2% mepivacaine. The brachial plexus blocks were performed in a sequential manner. Surgery was unremarkable, and patient was transferred to post anesthetic care unit in stable condition. Over that first postoperative night, the patient complained of severe pain at the surgical sites with minimal pain relief with parentral opioids. We placed bilateral brachial plexus catheters (right axillary and left infra-clavicular brachial plexus catheters). Ropivacaine 0.2% infusion was started at 7 ml per hour basal rate only with no boluses on each side. The patient was discharged home with the catheters in place after receiving the appropriate education. On discharge both catheters were connected to a single ON-Q (I-flow Corporation, Lake Forest, CA) ball pump with a 750 ml reservoir using a Y connection and were set to deliver a fixed rate of 7 ml for each catheter. The brachial plexus catheters were removed by the patient on day 5 after surgery without any difficulty. Patient's postoperative course was otherwise unremarkable

  20. Above Elbow Amputation Under Brachial Plexus Block at Supraclavicular and Interscalene Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Hassan; Yadagiri, Manjula; Macrosson, Duncan; Majeed, Amer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The brachial plexus block is a commonly performed procedure in the anesthetic practice today. It is performed for analgesia as well as anesthesia for upper limb procedures. It has been used for amputation and replantation surgeries of the upper limb. Case presentation: We present the case of a 68-year-old gentleman who had brachial plexus block at supraclavicular and interscalene levels as the sole anesthetic for undergoing above elbow amputation. He was deemed to be very high risk for a general anesthetic as he suffered from severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and a very poor exercise tolerance (NYHA Class III). The supraclavicular brachial plexus block was supplemented with an interscalene brachial plexus block due to inadequate surgical anesthesia encountered with the former. The procedure was successfully completed under regional anesthesia. Conclusions: The brachial plexus block can be performed at different levels in the same patient to achieve desired results, while employing sound anatomical knowledge and adhering to the maximum safe dose limit of the local anesthetic. PMID:26705518

  1. Phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve for the repair of brachial plexus injury: electrophysiological characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Xun-cheng; Zou, Yi; Li, Su-rong; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Phrenic nerve transfer is a major dynamic treatment used to repair brachial plexus root avulsion. We analyzed 72 relevant articles on phrenic nerve transfer to repair injured brachial plexus that were indexed by Science Citation Index. The keywords searched were brachial plexus injury, phrenic nerve, repair, surgery, protection, nerve transfer, and nerve graft. In addition, we performed neurophysiological analysis of the preoperative condition and prognosis of 10 patients undergoing ipsilateral phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve in our hospital from 2008 to 201 3 and observed the electromyograms of the biceps brachii and motor conduction function of the musculocutaneous nerve. Clinically, approximately 28% of patients had brachial plexus injury combined with phrenic nerve injury, and injured phrenic nerve cannot be used as a nerve graft. After phrenic nerve transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve, the regenerated potentials first appeared at 3 months. Recovery of motor unit action potential occurred 6 months later and became more apparent at 12 months. The percent of patients recovering ‘excellent’ and ‘good’ muscle strength in the biceps brachii was 80% after 18 months. At 12 months after surgery, motor nerve conduction potential appeared in the musculocutaneous nerve in seven cases. These data suggest that preoperative evaluation of phrenic nerve function may help identify the most appropriate nerve graft in patients with an injured brachial plexus. The functional recovery of a transplanted nerve can be dynamically observed after the surgery. PMID:25883637

  2. Case Report: Ultrasound-Guided Infraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block for a Case with Posterior Elbow Dislocation.

    PubMed

    Akay, Sinan; Eksert, Sami; Kaya, Murtaza; Keklikci, Kenan; Kantemir, Ali

    2017-08-01

    The interest in regional anesthesia procedures for the management of upper-extremity emergencies has increased. Toward that end, supraclavicular, interscalene, or infraclavicular approaches, with or without ultrasound guidance, are used for brachial plexus nerve blocks. Although many studies have reported on the use of ultrasound-guided supraclavicular and interscalene brachial plexus blocks for upper-extremity dislocations, very few studies have reported on the use of ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus blocks. We present an adult patient with posterior elbow dislocation that is treated with reduction after applying an ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block. Additionally, we describe the infraclavicular block in detail and demonstrate the technique using images. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Based on our experience, the ultrasound-guided infraclavicular block is a fast, safe, and efficient anesthesia technique that can be an excellent alternative to sedoanalgesia and other brachial plexus blocks for the management of elbow dislocations in the emergency department. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute brachial plexus neuropathy with involvement of cranial nerves IX, X, XI and XII.

    PubMed

    Zuberbuhler, Paz; León Cejas, Luciana V; Binaghi, Daniela; Reisin, Ricardo C

    2013-11-15

    Acute brachial plexus neuropathy is characterized by acute onset of shoulder girdle and arm pain, followed by weakness of the shoulder and arm muscles. It affects primarily nerves of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus and the long thoracic nerve. Cranial nerve involvement is an infrequent association and implies a diagnostic challenge. We report a unique case of acute brachial plexus neuropathy with involvement of the cranial nerves IX, X, XI and XII. Fifty six year-old woman who developed acute dysphonia, dysphagia and left shoulder pain, followed, six days later, by left arm weakness. Needle examination showed only fibrillation potentials and positive sharp waves in the left deltoid muscle. MRI of the brachial plexus shows enlargement of the trunks, cords and terminal branches, with mild gadolinium enhancement. This case illustrates the unique presentation of neuralgic amyotrophy with involvement of nerves outside the brachial plexus, and the importance of MRI for diagnosis, in the absence of electrophysiologic involvement. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Compromising abnormalities of the brachial plexus as displayed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Collins, J D; Shaver, M L; Disher, A C; Miller, T Q

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance images (MRI) of brachial plexus anatomy bilaterally, not possible by plain radiographs or CT, were presented to the Vascular Surgery, Neurology, and the Neurosurgery departments. Patients were requested for MRI of their brachial plexus. They were referred for imaging and the imaging results were presented to the faculty and housestaff. Our technique was accepted and adopted to begin referrals for MRI evaluation of brachial plexopathy. Over 175 patients have been studied. Eighty-five patients were imaged with the 1.5 Tesla magnet (Signa; General Electric Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI) 3-D reconstruction MRI. Coronal, transverse (axial), oblique transverse, and sagittal plane T1-weighted and selected T2-weighted pulse sequences were obtained at 4-5 mm slice thickness, 40-45 full field of view, and a 512 x 256 size matrix. Saline water bags were used to enhance the signal between the neck and the thorax. Sites of brachial plexus compromise were demonstrated. Our technique with 3-D reconstruction increased the definition of brachial plexus pathology. The increased anatomical definition enabled the vascular surgeons and neurosurgeons to improve patient care. Brachial plexus in vivo anatomy as displayed by MRI, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and 3-D reconstruction offered an opportunity to augment the teaching of clinical anatomy to medical students and health professionals. Selected case presentations (bodybuilder, anomalous muscle, fractured clavicle, thyroid goiter, silicone breast implant rupture, and cervical rib) demonstrated compromise of the brachial plexus displayed by MRI. The MRI and 3-D reconstruction techniques, demonstrating the bilateral landmark anatomy, increased the definition of the clinical anatomy and resulted in greater knowledge of patient care management.

  5. A cadaveric microanatomical study of the fascicular topography of the brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sumit; Prasad, G Lakshmi; Lalwani, Sanjeev

    2016-08-01

    OBJECT Mapping of the fascicular anatomy of the brachial plexus could provide the nerve surgeon with knowledge of fascicular orientation in spinal nerves of the brachial plexus. This knowledge might improve the surgical outcome of nerve grafting in brachial plexus injuries by anastomosing related fascicles and avoiding possible axonal misrouting. The objective of this study was to map the fascicular topography in the spinal nerves of the brachial plexus. METHODS The entire right-sided brachial plexus of 25 adult male cadavers was dissected, including all 5 spinal nerves (C5-T1), from approximately 5 mm distal to their exit from the intervertebral foramina, to proximal 1 cm of distal branches. All spinal nerves were tagged on the cranial aspect of their circumference using 10-0 nylon suture for orientation. The fascicular dissection of the C5-T1 spinal nerves was performed under microscopic magnification. The area occupied by different nerve fascicles was then expressed as a percentage of the total cross-sectional area of a spinal nerve. RESULTS The localization of fascicular groups was fairly consistent in all spinal nerves. Overall, 4% of the plexus supplies the suprascapular nerve, 31% supplies the medial cord (comprising the ulnar nerve and medial root of the median nerve [MN]), 27.2% supplies the lateral cord (comprising the musculocutaneous nerve and lateral root of the MN), and 37.8% supplies the posterior cord (comprising the axillary and radial nerves). CONCLUSIONS The fascicular dissection and definitive anatomical localization of fascicular groups is feasible in plexal spinal nerves. The knowledge of exact fascicular location might be translatable to the operating room and can be used to anastomose related fascicles in brachial plexus surgery, thereby avoiding the possibility of axonal misrouting and improving the results of plexal reconstruction.

  6. Fracture Dislocation of Shoulder with Brachial Plexus Palsy: A Case Report and Review of Management Options.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Sameer; Kasha, Srinivas; Yeggana, Srinivas

    2017-01-01

    Injuries causing fracture dislocation of shoulder and brachial plexus palsy are extremely rare. As per authors' knowledge, three part fracture of proximal humerus with shoulder dislocation and brachial plexus palsy has not been reported in the literature. A 53 year old female sustained a three part fracture of right proximal humerus along with dislocation of shoulder joint and brachial plexus palsy following a fall from a flight of stairs. Fracture was managed by plating of proximal humerus and brachial palsy was followed up with electrodiagnostic studies and regular physiotherapy. Fracture united by three months and patient had near complete recovery of brachial palsy. Authors have discussed diagnostic modalities and management options in the article. Clinician should always look for clinical evidence of brachial plexus injury in patients with anterior shoulder dislocation. Signs of nerve injury with shoulder fracture dislocation are easily overlooked or incorrectly attributed to pain due to bony injury. Subsequent loss of shoulder function in elderly is often thought to be due to immobilization and stiffness. Clinical suspicion can help in diagnosing the often missed neurological injuries and can help in improving outcomes.

  7. Fracture Dislocation of Shoulder with Brachial Plexus Palsy: A Case Report and Review of Management Options

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Sameer; Kasha, Srinivas; Yeggana, Srinivas

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Injuries causing fracture dislocation of shoulder and brachial plexus palsy are extremely rare. As per authors’ knowledge, three part fracture of proximal humerus with shoulder dislocation and brachial plexus palsy has not been reported in the literature. Case presentation: A 53 year old female sustained a three part fracture of right proximal humerus along with dislocation of shoulder joint and brachial plexus palsy following a fall from a flight of stairs. Fracture was managed by plating of proximal humerus and brachial palsy was followed up with electrodiagnostic studies and regular physiotherapy. Fracture united by three months and patient had near complete recovery of brachial palsy. Authors have discussed diagnostic modalities and management options in the article. Conclusion: Clinician should always look for clinical evidence of brachial plexus injury in patients with anterior shoulder dislocation. Signs of nerve injury with shoulder fracture dislocation are easily overlooked or incorrectly attributed to pain due to bony injury. Subsequent loss of shoulder function in elderly is often thought to be due to immobilization and stiffness. Clinical suspicion can help in diagnosing the often missed neurological injuries and can help in improving outcomes. PMID:28819602

  8. Hand Function in Children with an Upper Brachial Plexus Birth Injury: Results of the Nine-Hole Peg Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immerman, Igor; Alfonso, Daniel T.; Ramos, Lorna E.; Grossman, Leslie A.; Alfonso, Israel; Ditaranto, Patricia; Grossman, John A. I.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate hand function in children with Erb upper brachial plexus palsy. Method: Hand function was evaluated in 25 children (eight males; 17 females) with a diagnosed upper (C5/C6) brachial plexus birth injury. Of these children, 22 had undergone primary nerve reconstruction and 13 of the 25 had undergone…

  9. Hand Function in Children with an Upper Brachial Plexus Birth Injury: Results of the Nine-Hole Peg Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Immerman, Igor; Alfonso, Daniel T.; Ramos, Lorna E.; Grossman, Leslie A.; Alfonso, Israel; Ditaranto, Patricia; Grossman, John A. I.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate hand function in children with Erb upper brachial plexus palsy. Method: Hand function was evaluated in 25 children (eight males; 17 females) with a diagnosed upper (C5/C6) brachial plexus birth injury. Of these children, 22 had undergone primary nerve reconstruction and 13 of the 25 had undergone…

  10. [Ipsilateral brachial plexus C7 root transfer. Presentation of a case and a literature review].

    PubMed

    Vergara-Amador, Enrique; Ramírez, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    The C7 root in brachial plexus injuries has been used since 1986, since the first description by Gu at that time. This root can be used completely or partially in ipsilateral or contralateral lesions of the brachial plexus. A review of the literature and the case report of a 21-month-old girl with stab wounds to the neck and section of the C5 root of the right brachial plexus are presented. A transfer of the anterior fibres of the ipsilateral C7 root was performed. At 9 months there was complete recovery of abduction and external rotation of the shoulder. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  11. Different Learning Curves for Axillary Brachial Plexus Block: Ultrasound Guidance versus Nerve Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Luyet, C.; Schüpfer, G.; Wipfli, M.; Greif, R.; Luginbühl, M.; Eichenberger, U.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the learning of the skills needed to perform ultrasound- or nerve stimulator-guided peripheral nerve blocks. The aim of this study was to compare the learning curves of residents trained in ultrasound guidance versus residents trained in nerve stimulation for axillary brachial plexus block. Ten residents with no previous experience with using ultrasound received ultrasound training and another ten residents with no previous experience with using nerve stimulation received nerve stimulation training. The novices' learning curves were generated by retrospective data analysis out of our electronic anaesthesia database. Individual success rates were pooled, and the institutional learning curve was calculated using a bootstrapping technique in combination with a Monte Carlo simulation procedure. The skills required to perform successful ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block can be learnt faster and lead to a higher final success rate compared to nerve stimulator-guided axillary brachial plexus block. PMID:21318138

  12. Brachial plexus palsy following a training run with a heavy backpack.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Robert; Sheena, Y; Simpson, C; Power, D

    2014-12-01

    A 23-year-old male British soldier developed a progressive sensory loss and weakness in his right arm during a 12 km training run with a load of approximately 70 kg. There was no recovery of his symptoms within 3 months and both MRI and USS did not demonstrate a site of compression within the brachial plexus. An infraclavicular brachial plexus exploration was performed 11 months after injury that indicated an ischaemic neuropathy with post-injury fibrosis. Injuries of the brachial plexus secondary to carrying a heavy backpack during prolonged periods of exercise are rare, particularly in the infraclavicular region. Cases such as this highlight that training regimens within the military population should be appraised due to the risk of similar injuries occurring. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Effect of Addition of Fentanyl to Xylocaine Hydrochloride in Brachial Plexus Block by Supraclavicular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Paluvadi, Venkata Raghavendra; Manne, Venkata Sesha Sai Krishna

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to quantitatively compare the effects of 1.5% xylocaine with 1.5% xylocaine and fentanyl (1 μg/kg) mixture for supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients between the age group of 20–60 and scheduled for upper limb surgery were divided into two groups (xylocaine group and xylocaine plus fentanyl group). After performing supraclavicular brachial plexus block, an assessment was made for onset of analgesia, duration and degree of analgesia, block intensity, and for any other side effects. Results: Mean duration of analgesia is Group I is 2.1 h and in Group II is 8.1 h; a four-fold increase in duration of analgesia. Conclusion: Addition of fentanyl to xylocaine for supraclavicular brachial plexus block has no significant effect on onset or quality of analgesia, but duration of analgesia is significantly prolonged. PMID:28298769

  14. The importance of the preoperative clinical parameters and the intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring in brachial plexus surgery.

    PubMed

    Flores, Leandro Pretto

    2011-08-01

    The study aims to demonstrate the impact of some preoperative clinical parameters on the functional outcome of patients sustaining brachial plexus injuries, and to trace some commentaries about the use of intraoperative monitoring techniques. A retrospective study one hundred cases of brachial plexus surgery. The analysis regarding postoperative outcomes was performed by comparing the average of the final result of the surgery for each studied cohort. Direct electrical stimulation was used in all patients, EMG in 59%, SEPs in 37% and evoked NAPs in 19% of the cases. Patients in whom the motor function of the hand was totally or partially preserved before surgery, and those in whom surgery was delayed less than 6 months demonstrated significant (p<0.05) better outcomes. The preoperative parameters associated to favorable outcomes in reconstruction of the brachial plexus are a good post-traumatic status of the hand and a short interval between injury and surgery.

  15. Brachial plexus surgery: the role of the surgical technique for improvement of the functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Flores, Leandro Pretto

    2011-08-01

    The study aims to demonstrate the techniques employed in surgery of the brachial plexus that are associated to evidence-based improvement of the functional outcome of these patients. A retrospective study of one hundred cases of traumatic brachial plexus injuries. Comparison between the postoperative outcomes associated to some different surgical techniques was demonstrated. The technique of proximal nerve roots grafting was associated to good results in about 70% of the cases. Significantly better outcomes were associated to the Oberlin's procedure and the Sansak's procedure, while the improvement of outcomes associated to phrenic to musculocutaneous nerve and the accessory to suprascapular nerve transfer did not reach statistical significance. Reinnervation of the hand was observed in less than 30% of the cases. Brachial plexus surgery renders satisfactory results for reinnervation of the proximal musculature of the upper limb, however the same good outcomes are not usually associated to the reinnervation of the hand.

  16. Sensory outcomes following brachial plexus birth palsy: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Corkum, Joseph P; Kuta, Victoria; Tang, David T; Bezuhly, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) affects approximately 1.5 in 1000 live births and can lead to significant functional impairment and reduced quality of life. To date, studies have focused on grading motor function and strength to assess patient outcomes, with less attention paid to sensory recovery. The authors aimed to systematically review the current literature on sensory outcomes following BPBP. A systematic review of the best evidence available assessing sensory outcomes following BPBP was conducted. Two independent reviewers used a predefined search strategy to query Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases. Articles written in English reporting sensory outcomes in patients with BPBP, such as tactile sensation, pain, and proprioception, were included for review. A kappa score was calculated to ensure reviewer agreement. Twenty-nine reports with 1647 cases were included. Tactile sensation was most frequently assessed (75.9%), followed by pain (44.8%) and proprioception (17.2%). Among all cases included in the analysis, 75.8% of articles were found to have patients with suboptimal results in sensory outcomes. The majority of articles (86.2%) were case series or case reports; no level 1 or 2 evidence studies were identified. Sensory outcomes are underreported following BPBP, and significant deficits and neuropathic pain are not uncommon and likely underappreciated in this patient population. The current report underscores the need for prospective studies that look beyond motor recovery alone and evaluate sensory outcomes following BPBP. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Does C5 or C6 Radiculopathy Affect the Signal Intensity of the Brachial Plexus on Magnetic Resonance Neurography?

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Tae Gyu; Kim, In-Soo; Son, Eun Seok

    2016-01-01

    Patients with C5 or C6 radiculopathy complain of shoulder area pain or shoulder girdle weakness. Typical idiopathic neuralgic amyotrophy (INA) is also characterized by severe shoulder pain, followed by paresis of shoulder girdle muscles. Recent studies have demonstrated that magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) of the brachial plexus and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the shoulder in patients with INA show high signal intensity (HSI) or thickening of the brachial plexus and changes in intramuscular denervation of the shoulder girdle. We evaluated the value of brachial plexus MRN and shoulder MRI in four patients with typical C5 or C6 radiculopathy. HSI of the brachial plexus was noted in all patients and intramuscular changes were observed in two patients who had symptoms over 4 weeks. Our results suggest that HSI or thickening of the brachial plexus and changes in intramuscular denervation of the shoulder girdle on MRN and MRI may not be specific for INA. PMID:27152289

  18. Motor evoked potentials after transcranial magnetic stimulation support hypothesis of coexisting central mechanism in obstetric brachial palsy.

    PubMed

    Colon, A J; Vredeveld, J W; Blaauw, G

    2007-02-01

    Six infants with obstetric brachial palsy, ranging from 4 to 7 months of age, were investigated. One was suspected of having extensive brachial plexus lesions and five were suspected of having a unilateral lesion of both roots C5 and C6. All were referred to our center to investigate the possibility for reconstructive surgery. In all infants, even at this age, transcranial magnetic stimulation resulted in motor evoked potentials (MEP) in the biceps (in one, in the brachioradial) muscles. Averaging could not be done because of the intraindividual variation in latency. The MEP was easier to recognize if evoked when the infant had the arm bent. In all five infants suspected of upper brachial plexus lesion with avulsion of both roots C5 and C6 and/or complete rupture of the upper trunk, proven in four, an MEP on the lesioned side could be evoked. Combined with earlier investigations showing (almost) normal EMG and somatosensory evoked potentials in infants with upper plexus lesion, this leads us to the conclusion that the paralysis of these infants cannot only be attributed to the peripheral axonal damage alone but that central plasticity must also play an important role. As this is a slow process, some infants might not yet be able to use the paralytic muscles. Some theoretic issues are discussed.

  19. Impaired growth of denervated muscle contributes to contracture formation following neonatal brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Sia; Peterson, Elizabeth; Kim, Annie; Wylie, Christopher; Cornwall, Roger

    2011-03-02

    The etiology of shoulder and elbow contractures following neonatal brachial plexus injury is incompletely understood. With use of a mouse model, the current study tests the novel hypothesis that reduced growth of denervated muscle contributes to contractures following neonatal brachial plexus injury. Unilateral brachial plexus injuries were created in neonatal mice by supraclavicular C5-C6 nerve root excision. Shoulder and elbow range of motion was measured four weeks after injury. Fibrosis, cross-sectional area, and functional length of the biceps, brachialis, and subscapularis muscles were measured over four weeks following injury. Muscle satellite cells were cultured from denervated and control biceps muscles to assess myogenic capability. In a comparison group, shoulder motion and subscapularis length were assessed following surgical excision of external rotator muscles. Shoulder internal rotation and elbow flexion contractures developed on the involved side within four weeks following brachial plexus injury. Excision of the biceps and brachialis muscles relieved the elbow flexion contractures. The biceps muscles were histologically fibrotic, whereas fatty infiltration predominated in the brachialis and rotator cuff muscles. The biceps and brachialis muscles displayed reduced cross-sectional and longitudinal growth compared with the contralateral muscles. The upper subscapularis muscle similarly displayed reduced longitudinal growth, with the subscapularis shortening correlating with internal rotation contracture. However, excision of the external rotators without brachial plexus injury caused no contractures or subscapularis shortening. Myogenically capable satellite cells were present in denervated biceps muscles despite impaired muscle growth in vivo. Injury of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus leads to impaired growth of the biceps and brachialis muscles, which are responsible for elbow flexion contractures, and impaired growth of the subscapularis

  20. Frontal slab composite magnetic resonance neurography of the brachial plexus: implications for infraclavicular block approaches.

    PubMed

    Raphael, David T; McIntee, Diane; Tsuruda, Jay S; Colletti, Patrick; Tatevossian, Ray

    2005-12-01

    Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is an imaging method by which nerves can be selectively highlighted. Using commercial software, the authors explored a variety of approaches to develop a three-dimensional volume-rendered MRN image of the entire brachial plexus and used it to evaluate the accuracy of infraclavicular block approaches. With institutional review board approval, MRN of the brachial plexus was performed in 10 volunteer subjects. MRN imaging was performed on a GE 1.5-tesla magnetic resonance scanner (General Electric Healthcare Technologies, Waukesha, WI) using a phased array torso coil. Coronal STIR and T1 oblique sagittal sequences of the brachial plexus were obtained. Multiple software programs were explored for enhanced display and manipulation of the composite magnetic resonance images. The authors developed a frontal slab composite approach that allows single-frame reconstruction of a three-dimensional volume-rendered image of the entire brachial plexus. Automatic segmentation was supplemented by manual segmentation in nearly all cases. For each of three infraclavicular approaches (posteriorly directed needle below midclavicle, infracoracoid, or caudomedial to coracoid), the targeting error was measured as the distance from the MRN plexus midpoint to the approach-targeted site. Composite frontal slabs (coronal views), which are single-frame three-dimensional volume renderings from image-enhanced two-dimensional frontal view projections of the underlying coronal slices, were created. The targeting errors (mean +/- SD) for the approaches-midclavicle, infracoracoid, caudomedial to coracoid-were 0.43 +/- 0.67, 0.99 +/- 1.22, and 0.65 +/- 1.14 cm, respectively. Image-processed three-dimensional volume-rendered MNR scans, which allow visualization of the entire brachial plexus within a single composite image, have educational value in illustrating the complexity and individual variation of the plexus. Suggestions for improved guidance during

  1. Prevention of brachial plexus injury-12 years of shoulder dystocia training: an interrupted time-series study.

    PubMed

    Crofts, J F; Lenguerrand, E; Bentham, G L; Tawfik, S; Claireaux, H A; Odd, D; Fox, R; Draycott, T J

    2016-01-01

    To investigate management and outcomes of incidences of shoulder dystocia in the 12 years following the introduction of an obstetric emergencies training programme. Interrupted time-series study comparing management and neonatal outcome of births complicated by shoulder dystocia over three 4-year periods: (i) Pre-training (1996-99), (ii) Early training (2001-04), and (iii) Late training (2009-12). Southmead Hospital, Bristol, UK, with approximately 6000 births per annum. Infants and their mothers who experienced shoulder dystocia. A bi-monthly multi-professional 1-day intrapartum emergencies training course, that included a 30-minute practical session on shoulder dystocia management, commenced in 2000. Neonatal morbidity (brachial plexus injury, humeral fracture, clavicular fracture, 5-minute Apgar score <7) and documented management of shoulder dystocia (resolution manoeuvres performed, traction applied, head-to-body delivery interval). Compliance with national guidance improved with continued training. At least one recognised resolution manoeuvre was used in 99.8% (561/562) of cases of shoulder dystocia in the late training period, demonstrating a continued improvement from 46.3% (150/324, P < 0.001) pre-training, and 92% (241/262, P < 0.001) in the early training period. In parallel there was reduction in the brachial plexus injury at birth (24/324 [7.4%, P < 0.01], pre-training, 6/262 [2.3%] early training, and 7/562 [1.3%] late training. There are significant benefits to long-term, embedded training programmes with improvements in both management and outcomes. A decade after the introduction of training there were no cases of brachial plexus injury lasting over 12 months in 562 cases of shoulder dystocia. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Timing of surgical reconstruction for closed traumatic injury to the supraclavicular brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Hems, T E J

    2015-07-01

    While it is widely accepted that cases of traumatic injury to the brachial plexus benefit from early surgical exploration and repair, with results deteriorating with long delays, policies vary regarding the exact timing of intervention. This is one of a pair of review articles considering the clinical issues, investigations, and surgical factors relating to management of injuries to the supraclavicular brachial plexus, as well as evidence from experimental work and clinical outcomes.In this article Mr Hems outlines when waiting may be advantageous, allowing for further investigation to help clarify the extent of the injury and thus the best surgical options. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Quality of life following traumatic brachial plexus injury: A questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Gray, Beverley

    2016-08-01

    There is limited qualitative research available that explores the impact of a traumatic brachial plexus injury on patients and their quality of life experiences. This paper builds upon previous work on this subject by this author. Patients were selected from those who were on the database for the Scottish National Brachial Plexus Injury Service between 2011 and 2013. The World Health Organization (WHO) Quality of Life (QoL) - BREF questionnaire was used and 47 questionnaires were distributed with 22 returned. Findings included patients' ratings of their quality of life, physical and psychological health along with their perceived satisfaction with social relationships. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. The current role of diagnostic imaging in the preoperative workup for refractory neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Somashekar, Deepak K; Wilson, Thomas J; DiPietro, Michael A; Joseph, Jacob R; Ibrahim, Mohannad; Yang, Lynda J-S; Parmar, Hemant A

    2016-08-01

    Despite recent improvements in perinatal care, the incidence of neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) remains relatively common. CT myelography is currently considered to be the optimal imaging modality for evaluating nerve root integrity. Recent improvements in MRI techniques have made it an attractive alternative to evaluate nerve root avulsions (preganglionic injuries). We demonstrate the utility of MRI for the evaluation of normal and avulsed spinal nerve roots. We also show the utility of ultrasound in providing useful preoperative evaluation of the postganglionic brachial plexus in patients with NBPP.

  5. Microcomputed tomography characterization of shoulder osseous deformity after brachial plexus birth palsy: a rat model study.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongyu; Barnwell, Jonathan; Tan, Josh; Koman, L Andrew; Smith, Beth P

    2010-11-03

    Shoulder deformities are common secondary sequelae associated with brachial plexus birth palsy. The aim of the present study was to characterize three-dimensional glenohumeral deformity associated with brachial plexus birth palsy with use of microcomputed tomography scanning in a recently developed animal model. Brachial plexus birth palsy was produced by a right-sided neurotomy of the C5 and C6 nerve roots in seven five-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats. Microcomputed tomography scanning was performed when the rats were four months of age. Glenoid size, version, and inclination; humeral head size; and acromion-glenoid distance were measured. Normal shoulders of age-matched rats (n = 9) served as controls. Statistical analysis was performed with use of the unpaired two-tailed Student t test. There were significant increases in glenoid retroversion (-7.6° ± 4.9° compared with 3.6° ± 2.1°; p = 0.038) and glenoid inclination (38.7° ± 7.3° compared with 11.2° ± 1.9°; p = 0.015) in the shoulders with simulated brachial plexus birth palsy in comparison with the normal, control shoulders. The glenohumeral joints were more medialized in the joints with simulated brachial plexus birth palsy as reflected by the acromion-glenoid distance measurement; however, the difference was not significant (3.20 ± 0.51 compared with 2.40 ± 0.18 mm; p = 0.12). Although the mean humeral head height and width measurements, on the average, were smaller in the brachial plexus birth palsy shoulders as compared with the normal, control shoulders, only the measurement of humeral head height was significantly different between the two groups (4.25 ± 2.02 compared with 4.97 ± 0.11 mm [p = 0.008] and 3.56 ± 0.27 compared with 4.19 ± 0.17 mm [p = 0.056], respectively). In this animal model, rats with simulated brachial plexus birth palsy developed gross architectural joint distortion characterized by increased glenoid retroversion and inclination. In addition, humeral heads tended to be

  6. Brachial plexus injury in two red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Shell, L; Richards, M; Saunders, G

    1993-01-01

    Two red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), found near Deltaville, Virginia (USA), were evaluated because of inability to use a wing. Results of needle electromyographic studies of the affected wing muscles in both hawks were compatible with denervation. On euthanasia, one hawk had extensive axon and myelin loss with multifocal perivascular lymphocytic inflammation of its brachial plexus and radial nerve. Demyelination and axon loss in the dorsal white matter of the spinal cord on the affected side also were found at the origin of the brachial plexus. The other hawk's wing had not returned to functional status > 2 yr after injury.

  7. Types and severity of operated supraclavicular brachial plexus injuries caused by traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Radek; Waldauf, Petr; Haninec, Pavel

    2012-07-01

    Brachial plexus injuries occur in up to 5% of polytrauma cases involving motorcycle accidents and in approximately 4% of severe winter sports injuries. One of the criteria for a successful operative therapy is the type of lesion. Upper plexus palsy has the best prognosis, whereas lower plexus palsy is surgically untreatable. The aim of this study was to evaluate a group of patients with brachial plexus injury caused by traffic accidents, categorize the injuries according to type of accident, and look for correlations between type of palsy (injury) and specific accidents. A total of 441 brachial plexus reconstruction patients from our department were evaluated retrospectively(1993 to 2011). Sex, age, neurological status, and the type and cause of injury were recorded for each case. Patients with BPI caused by a traffic accident were assessed in detail. Traffic accidents were the cause of brachial plexus injury in most cases (80.7%). The most common type of injury was avulsion of upper root(s) (45.7%) followed by rupture (28.2%), complete avulsion (16.9%) and avulsion of lower root(s) (9.2%). Of the patients, 73.9% had an upper,22.7% had a complete and only 3.4% had a lower brachial plexus palsy. The main cause was motorcycle accidents(63.2%) followed by car accidents (23.5%), bicycle accidents(10.7%) and pedestrian collisions (3.1%) (p<0.001).Patients involved in car accidents had a higher percentage of lower avulsion (22.7%) and a lower percentage of upper avulsion (29.3%), whereas cyclists had a higher percentage of upper avulsion (68.6%) based on the data from the entire group of patients (p<0.001). Lower plexus palsy was significantly increased in patients after car accidents (9.3%,p<0.05). In the two main groups (car and motorcycle accidents),significantly more upper and fewer lower palsies were present. In the bicycle accident group, upper palsy was the most common (89%). Study results indicate that the most common injury was an upper plexus palsy. It was

  8. Development of a novel experimental rat model for neonatal pre-ganglionic upper brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Hidenobu; Ikeda, Tomoaki; Mishima, Kenichi; Yoshikawa, Tetsuya; Aoo, Naoya; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Fujiwara, Michihiro; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu; Nakano, Shinichi; Wakisaka, Shinichiro

    2002-09-15

    A neonatal upper brachial plexus injury, referred to as Erb's palsy, is a serious obstetric problem. Some surgical methods are used to treat this injury, but they are inadequate. To seek new treatments for Erb's palsy, we used a model for cervical preganglionic root transection in neonate rats and evaluated the behavioral and histological compatibility of this model with Erb's palsy. Two groups were used in this study. In the group, receiving the Erb operation, the left anterior and posterior roots of spinal vertebra C5-C7 were transected at the preganglionic level, and the results were compared with those of a group that received a sham operation. In the group, receiving the Erb operation, walking difficulties and behavioral abnormalities were observed. These observations were noted on the side where the transection took place, and the problems were attributed to proximal muscle weakness in the forelimb. Additionally, the forepaw grip was not impaired. Furthermore, in this group, the number of anterior horn cells in the cervical cord on the transected side was significantly lower than that on the contralateral side (P < 0.001). The results of this study indicate that the model fulfills the criteria for the clinical symptoms of Erb's palsy and that it may also serve as a new method for enabling treatment of the condition.

  9. Decreased rates of shoulder dystocia and brachial plexus injury via an evidence-based practice bundle.

    PubMed

    Sienas, Laura E; Hedriana, Herman L; Wiesner, Suzanne; Pelletreau, Barbara; Wilson, Machelle D; Shields, Laurence E

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate whether a standardized approach to identify pregnant women at risk for shoulder dystocia (SD) is associated with reduced incidence of SD and brachial plexus injury (BPI). Between 2011 and 2015, prospective data were collected from 29 community-based hospitals in the USA during implementation of an evidence-based practice bundle, including an admission risk assessment, required "timeout" before operative vaginal delivery (OVD), and low-fidelity SD drills. All women with singleton vertex pregnancies admitted for vaginal delivery were included. Rates of SD, BPI, OVD, and cesarean delivery were compared between a baseline period (January 2011-September 2013) and an intervention period (October 2013-June 2015), during which there was a system-wide average bundle compliance of 90%. There was a significant reduction in the incidence of SD (17.6%; P=0.028), BPI (28.6%; P=0.018), and OVD (18.0%; P<0.001) after implementation of the evidence-based practice bundle. There was a nonsignificant reduction in primary (P=0.823) and total (P=0.396) cesarean rates, but no association between SD drills and incidence of BPI. Implementation of a standard evidence-based practice bundle was found to be associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of SD and BPI. Utilization of low-fidelity drills was not associated with a reduction in BPI. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  10. Effects of shoulder dystocia training on the incidence of brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Inglis, Steven R; Feier, Nikolaus; Chetiyaar, Jyothi B; Naylor, Margaret H; Sumersille, Melanie; Cervellione, Kelly L; Predanic, Mladen

    2011-04-01

    We sought to determine whether implementation of shoulder dystocia training reduces the incidence of obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI). After implementing training for maternity staff, the incidence of OBPI was compared between pretraining and posttraining periods using both univariate and multivariate analyses in deliveries complicated by shoulder dystocia. The overall incidence of OBPI in vaginal deliveries decreased from 0.40% pretraining to 0.14% posttraining (P < .01). OBPI after shoulder dystocia dropped from 30% to 10.67% posttraining (P < .01). Maternal body mass index (P < .01) and neonatal weight (P = .02) decreased and head-to-body delivery interval increased in the posttraining period (P = .03). Only shoulder dystocia training remained associated with reduced OBPI (P = .02) after logistic regression analysis. OBPI remained less in the posttraining period (P = .01), even after excluding all neonates with birthweights >2 SD above the mean. Shoulder dystocia training was associated with a lower incidence of OBPI and the incidence of OBPI in births complicated by shoulder dystocia. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Variations in brachial plexus with respect to concomitant accompanying aberrant arm arteries.

    PubMed

    Claassen, Horst; Schmitt, Oliver; Wree, Andreas; Schulze, Marko

    2016-11-01

    Variations in the brachial plexus are the rule rather than the exception. This fact is of special interest for the anesthetist when planning axillary block of brachial plexus. 167 cadaver arms were evaluated for variations in brachial plexus, with focus on the cords of the plexus, the loop of the median nerve, and the course of the median, musculocutaneous, ulnar, axillary and radial nerves. In addition, concomitant arterial variations were recorded. In 167 arms, variations were detected in 60 cases (36%). With 46 arms (28%) most variations concern the median nerve, followed by 13 cases (8%) which involved the musculocutaneous nerve. Ulnar, axillary and radial nerve variations were rare, amounting to 1.2% for each nerve. In median nerve conditions with a shifted loop of median nerve (12%), a hidden position of the loop or a hidden course of the beginning median nerve (8%) and a doubled loop of median nerve (17%) were observed. In musculocutaneous nerve conditions with a non-perforated coracobrachialis (1.8%), a doubled origin of the nerve (1.2%) and a giving back of branches to the median nerve (1.8%) were noted. Variations in ulnar, axillary and radial nerves concerned lower than normal diameters. It must be stressed that cases which showed a hidden position or a doubled expression of the loop of the median nerve, a hidden course of its beginning and variable interconnections between musculocutaneous and median nerves are of special interest for anesthetists and surgeons. Hence, it is important to note that variations of arm arteries can be associated with brachial plexus variations. For example, a common trunk of axillary artery followed by a hidden loop and course of the median nerve may result in incomplete axillary block of brachial plexus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Successful outcome of modified quad surgical procedure in preteen and teen patients with brachial plexus birth palsy.

    PubMed

    Nath, Rahul K; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the outcome of modified Quad procedure in preteen and teen patients with brachial plexus birth palsy. We have previously demonstrated a significant improvement in shoulder abduction, resulting from the modified Quad procedure in children (mean age 2.5 years; range, 0.5-9 years) with obstetric brachial plexus injury. We describe in this report the outcome of 16 patients (6 girls and 10 boys; 7 preteen and 9 teen) who have undergone the modified Quad procedure for the correction of the shoulder function, specifically abduction. The patients underwent transfer of the latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles, release of contractures of subscapularis pectoralis major and minor, and axillary nerve decompression and neurolysis (the modified Quad procedure). Mean age of these patients at surgery was 13.5 years (range, 10.1-17.9 years). The mean preoperative total Mallet score was 14.8 (range, 10-20), and active abduction was 84° (range, 20°-140°). At a mean follow-up of 1.5 years, the mean postoperative total Mallet score increased to 19.7 (range, 13-25, P < .0001), and the mean active abduction improved to 132° (range, 40°-180°, P < .0003). The modified Quad procedure greatly improves not only the active abduction but also other shoulder functions in preteen and teen patients, as this outcome is the combined result of decompression and neurolysis of the axillary nerve and the release of the contracted internal rotators of the shoulder.

  13. Human amniotic epithelial cell transplantation for the repair of injured brachial plexus nerve: evaluation of nerve viscoelastic properties

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hua; Yang, Qi; Ji, Feng; Zhang, Ya-jie; Zhao, Yan; Luo, Min

    2015-01-01

    The transplantation of embryonic stem cells can effectively improve the creeping strength of nerves near an injury site in animals. Amniotic epithelial cells have similar biological properties as embryonic stem cells; therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells can repair peripheral nerve injury and recover the creeping strength of the brachial plexus nerve. In the present study, a brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits using the C6 root avulsion method. A suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was repeatedly injected over an area 4.0 mm lateral to the cephal and caudal ends of the C6 brachial plexus injury site (1 × 106 cells/mL, 3 μL/injection, 25 injections) immediately after the injury. The results showed that the decrease in stress and increase in strain at 7,200 seconds in the injured rabbit C6 brachial plexus nerve were mitigated by the cell transplantation, restoring the viscoelastic stress relaxation and creep properties of the brachial plexus nerve. The forepaw functions were also significantly improved at 26 weeks after injury. These data indicate that transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells can effectively restore the mechanical properties of the brachial plexus nerve after injury in rabbits and that viscoelasticity may be an important index for the evaluation of brachial plexus injury in animals. PMID:25883625

  14. Human amniotic epithelial cell transplantation for the repair of injured brachial plexus nerve: evaluation of nerve viscoelastic properties.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hua; Yang, Qi; Ji, Feng; Zhang, Ya-Jie; Zhao, Yan; Luo, Min

    2015-02-01

    The transplantation of embryonic stem cells can effectively improve the creeping strength of nerves near an injury site in animals. Amniotic epithelial cells have similar biological properties as embryonic stem cells; therefore, we hypothesized that transplantation of amniotic epithelial cells can repair peripheral nerve injury and recover the creeping strength of the brachial plexus nerve. In the present study, a brachial plexus injury model was established in rabbits using the C6 root avulsion method. A suspension of human amniotic epithelial cells was repeatedly injected over an area 4.0 mm lateral to the cephal and caudal ends of the C6 brachial plexus injury site (1 × 10(6) cells/mL, 3 μL/injection, 25 injections) immediately after the injury. The results showed that the decrease in stress and increase in strain at 7,200 seconds in the injured rabbit C6 brachial plexus nerve were mitigated by the cell transplantation, restoring the viscoelastic stress relaxation and creep properties of the brachial plexus nerve. The forepaw functions were also significantly improved at 26 weeks after injury. These data indicate that transplantation of human amniotic epithelial cells can effectively restore the mechanical properties of the brachial plexus nerve after injury in rabbits and that viscoelasticity may be an important index for the evaluation of brachial plexus injury in animals.

  15. A Novel Approach to Brachial Plexus Catheter Management: A Brachial Plexus Test Dose for Phrenic Nerve Paralysis and Patient-Controlled, Demand-Only Dosing for a Patient With Extreme Obesity.

    PubMed

    Meier, Adam W; Lin, Shin-E; Hanson, Neil A; Auyong, David B

    2016-09-15

    A 53-year-old woman with extreme obesity (body mass index = 82 kg/m) presented for an open reduction and internal fixation of the proximal humerus. This report describes the novel management of her continuous brachial plexus catheter in the setting of her comorbidities. Phrenic nerve paralysis from brachial plexus blocks can cause clinically significant dyspnea in obese patients. Brachial plexus catheters can be used effectively for these patients with some modification to routine management. We detail our use of a short-acting chloroprocaine test dose for phrenic paralysis and demand-only dosing to provide effective analgesia while avoiding respiratory complications associated with these blocks.

  16. Cost analysis of brachial plexus injuries: variability of compensation by insurance companies before and after surgery.

    PubMed

    Felici, N; Zaami, S; Ciancolini, G; Marinelli, E; Tagliente, D; Cannatà, C

    2014-04-01

    Traumatic paralysis of the brachial plexus is an extremely disabling pathology. The type of trauma most frequently suffered by this group of patients is due to motorcycle injuries. It therefore affects a population of young patients. In the majority of cases, these patients receive compensation for permanent damage from insurance companies. Surgery of the brachial plexus enables various forms of functional recovery, depending on the number of roots of the brachial plexus involved in the injury. The aim of this study is to compare the functional deficit and the extent of the related compensation before and after surgical intervention, and to evaluate the saving in economic terms (understood as the cost of compensation paid by insurance companies) obtainable through surgical intervention. The authors analysed the functional recovery obtained through surgery in 134 patients divided into 4 groups on the basis of the number of injured roots. The levels of compensation payable to the patient before surgical intervention, and 3 years after, were then compared. The results showed that the saving obtainable through surgical treatment of brachial plexus injuries may exceed 65% of the economic value of the compensation that would have been attributable to the same patients if they had not undergone surgical treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Luxation de l’épaule compliquée de paralysie du plexus brachial

    PubMed Central

    Lukulunga, Loubet Unyendje; Moussa, Abdou Kadri; Mahfoud, Mustapha; EL Bardouni, Ahmed; Berrada, Mohamed Saleh; El Yaacoubi, Moradh

    2014-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent l'observation d'une paralysie totale du plexus brachial survenue trois mois après un épisode de luxation antéro-interne sous coracoïdienne associée à une fracture du trochiter chez une patiente âgée de 88 ans. PMID:25426187

  18. Reanimation of elbow extension with intercostal nerves transfers in total brachial plexus palsies.

    PubMed

    Goubier, Jean-Noël; Teboul, Frédéric; Khalifa, Heba

    2011-01-01

    Restoration of flexion in the elbow is the priority in the management of brachial plexus injuries. Current techniques of reconstructions, combining both nerve grafting and nerve transfer, allow more extensive repair, with additional targets: shoulder, elbow extension, hand. The transfer of intercostal nerves onto the nerve of the triceps long head is used to restore elbow extension. The aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the results of this procedure, in total brachial plexus palsies with uninjured C5 and C6 roots. Eleven patients with total brachial plexus injury were reviewed 24 months in average after intercostal nerves transfer. The average age of the patients was twenty-nine years. The average time to surgery after occurrence of the injury was 5 months. Triceps re-innervation and strength of elbow extension were evaluated. The averaged time required for triceps re-innervation after intercostal nerve transfer was 9 months. Seven patients achieved M4 elbow extension according to the Medical Research Council grading system. Two patients achieved M3 elbow extension. Two patients had poor results (M2 and M0). Transfer of intercostal nerves onto the nerve of the triceps long head is a reliable procedure for the restoration of elbow extension in total brachial plexus palsy. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Robot-Assisted Surgery of the Shoulder Girdle and Brachial Plexus

    PubMed Central

    Facca, Sybille; Hendriks, Sarah; Mantovani, Gustavo; Selber, Jesse C.; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    New developments in the surgery of the brachial plexus include the use of less invasive surgical approaches and more precise techniques. The theoretical advantages of the use of robotics versus endoscopy are the disappearance of physiological tremor, three-dimensional vision, high definition, magnification, and superior ergonomics. On a fresh cadaver, a dissection space was created and maintained by insufflation of CO2. The supraclavicular brachial plexus was dissected using the da Vinci robot (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA). A segment of the C5 nerve root was grafted robotically. A series of eight clinical cases of nerve damage around the shoulder girdle were operated on using the da Vinci robot. The ability to perform successful microneural repair was confirmed in both the authors' clinical and experimental studies, but the entire potential of robotically assisted microneural surgery was not realized during these initial cases because an open incision was still required. Robotic-assisted surgery of the shoulder girdle and brachial plexus is still in its early stages. It would be ideal to have even finer and more suitable instruments to apply fibrin glue or electrostimulation in nerve surgery. Nevertheless, the prospects of minimally invasive techniques would allow acute and subacute surgical approach of traumatic brachial plexus palsy safely, without significant and cicatricial morbidity. PMID:24872778

  20. Mononeuritis multiplex with brachial plexus neuropathy coincident with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Kidron, D; Barron, S A; Mazliah, J

    1989-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection has been associated with a variety of neurologic complications involving the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system and muscle. We present a patient who developed a previously unreported complication: mononeuritis multiplex. This consisted of a severe brachial plexus neuropathy with contralateral cervical monoradiculopathy.

  1. Bilateral brachial plexus blocks in a patient of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy with hypertensive crisis

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Rohini V Bhat; Hegde, Harihar V; Santhosh, MCB; Roopa, S; Deshpande, Shrinivas S; Rao, P Raghavendra

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is a challenge to anesthesiologists due to the complex pathophysiology involved and various perioperative complications associated with it. We present a 50-year-old man, a known case of HOCM, who successfully underwent emergency haemostasis, and debridement of the traumatically amputated right upper limb and the contused lacerated wound on the left forearm under bilateral brachial plexus blocks. His co-morbidities included hypertension (in hypertensive crisis) and diabetes mellitus. He was full stomach and also had an anticipated difficult airway. The management included invasive pressure monitoring and labetalol infusion for emergent control of blood pressure. The regional anaesthesia technique required careful consideration to the dosage of local anaesthetics and staggered performance of brachial plexus blocks on each of the upper limbs to avoid local anaesthetic toxicity. Even though bilateral brachial plexus blocks are rarely indicated, it seemed to be the most appropriate anaesthetic technique in our patient. With careful consideration of the local anaesthetic toxicity and meticulous technique, bilateral brachial plexus blocks can be successfully performed in those patients where general anaesthesia is deemed to be associated with higher risk. PMID:23716772

  2. Cross-chest radial nerve transfer in brachial plexus injuries. Experimental and anatomical basis.

    PubMed

    Bertelli, J A; Guizoni, M F; Dos Santos, A R; Calixto, J B; Duarte, H E

    1999-01-01

    Brachial plexus avulsion injuries are devastating injuries to the upper limb, and nerve transfer remains the only option in reconstruction. Despite the encouraging results concerning recovery of shoulder and elbow function, no option is available for treatment of the paralytic hand. In rats, we sectioned the radial nerve in the elbow region and transferred it across the chest to reinnervate the lesioned contralateral medial cord of the brachial plexus. Rats were then evaluated for motor and sensory recovery, electrophysiologically, behaviorally and morphologically. Forepaw functional recovery was estimated to be 90%. In cadavers, the radial nerve and profunda brachii artery were dissected. It was observed that the radial nerve vascularized by the profunda brachii artery was able to reach the contralateral brachial plexus distal to the shoulder region without nerve grafts. After sectioning the radial nerve, sensory loss is minimal and motor palsy can be easily restored by tendon transfers. The results of tendon transfer for radial nerve palsy are better than for any other nerve. Cross-chest radial nerve transfer might be of clinical interest in the reconstruction of hand function in entire injury to the brachial plexus.

  3. Brachial plexus compression due to subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm from internal jugular vein catheterization

    PubMed Central

    Mol, T. N.; Gupta, A.; Narain, U.

    2017-01-01

    Internal jugular vein (IJV) catheterization has become the preferred approach for temporary vascular access for hemodialysis. However, complications such as internal carotid artery puncture, vessel erosion, thrombosis, and infection may occur. We report a case of brachial plexus palsy due to compression by right subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm as a result of IJV catheterization in a patient who was under maintenance hemodialysis. PMID:28356671

  4. Valproic acid protects neurons and promotes neuronal regeneration after brachial plexus avulsion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Wu, Dianxiu; Li, Rui; Zhu, Xiaojuan; Cui, Shusen

    2013-01-01

    Valproic acid has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects and promote neurite outgrowth in several peripheral nerve injury models. However, whether valproic acid can exert its beneficial effect on neurons after brachial plexus avulsion injury is currently unknown. In this study, brachial plexus root avulsion models, established in Wistar rats, were administered daily with valproic acid dissolved in drinking water (300 mg/kg) or normal water. On days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 28 after avulsion injury, tissues of the C5–T1 spinal cord segments of the avulsion injured side were harvested to investigate the expression of Bcl-2, c-Jun and growth associated protein 43 by real-time PCR and western blot assay. Results showed that valproic acid significantly increased the expression of Bcl-2 and growth associated protein 43, and reduced the c-Jun expression after brachial plexus avulsion. Our findings indicate that valproic acid can protect neurons in the spinal cord and enhance neuronal regeneration following brachial plexus root avulsion. PMID:25206605

  5. Palpation- and ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blockade in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Anderson F; Strain, George M; Rademacher, Nathalie; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Tully, Thomas N

    2013-01-01

    To compare palpation-guided with ultrasound-guided brachial plexus blockade in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Prospective randomized experimental trial. Eighteen adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) weighing 252-295 g. After induction of anesthesia with isoflurane, parrots received an injection of lidocaine (2 mg kg(-1)) in a total volume of 0.3 mL at the axillary region. The birds were randomly assigned to equal groups using either palpation or ultrasound as a guide for the brachial plexus block. Nerve evoked muscle potentials (NEMP) were used to monitor effectiveness of brachial plexus block. The palpation-guided group received the local anesthetic at the space between the pectoral muscle, triceps, and supracoracoideus aticimus muscle, at the insertion of the tendons of the caudal coracobrachial muscle, and the caudal scapulohumeral muscle. For the ultrasound-guided group, the brachial plexus and the adjacent vessels were located with B-mode ultrasonography using a 7-15 MHz linear probe. After location, an 8-5 MHz convex transducer was used to guide injections. General anesthesia was discontinued 20 minutes after lidocaine injection and the birds recovered in a padded cage. Both techniques decreased the amplitude of NEMP. Statistically significant differences in NEMP amplitudes, were observed within the ultrasound-guided group at 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after injection and within the palpation-guided group at 10, 15, and 20 minutes after injection. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. No effect on motor function, muscle relaxation or wing droop was observed after brachial plexus block. The onset of the brachial plexus block tended to be faster when ultrasonography was used. Brachial plexus injection can be performed in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and nerve evoked muscle potentials were useful to monitor the effects on nerve conduction in this avian species. Neither technique produced an effective block at the

  6. Unusual Branching Pattern of the Lateral Cord of the Brachial Plexus Associated with Neurovascular Compression

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Hitendra K.; Singh, Shikha; Suri, Rajesh K.

    2017-01-01

    The brachial plexus consists of a network of nerves that innervates the upper limbs and its musculature. We report a rare formation of the lateral cord of the brachial plexus observed during the dissection of a 47-year-old male cadaver at the Department of Anatomy, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College, New Delhi, India, in 2016. The lateral cord was exceptionally long with twin lateral pectoral nerves and twin lateral roots of the median nerve. The proximal lateral root of the median nerve was thin in comparison to the medial root of the median nerve. The distal lateral root of the median nerve was thicker and followed an unusual course through the coracobrachialis muscle. In the lower third of the arm, the median nerve and the brachial artery—along with its vena comitans—spanned through the brachialis muscle. Surgeons, anaesthesiologists, radiologists and anatomists should be aware of such anatomical variations as they may result in neurovascular compression. PMID:28417040

  7. Our experience with triceps nerve reconstruction in patients with brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Terzis, Julia K; Barmpitsioti, Antonia

    2012-05-01

    Although elbow extension is facilitated by gravity, triceps muscle provides elbow joint stability; in patients with brachial plexus injuries stable elbow is necessary for obtaining useful hand function. This study presents the senior author's experience with triceps nerve reconstruction and the functional results in patients with brachial plexus injuries. Outcomes were analyzed in relation to denervation time, severity score, length of the interposition nerve graft and donor nerves used. One hundred and sixty two patients with brachial plexus injury had triceps nerve neurotization and elbow extension recovery between 1978 and 2006. The mean patient's age was 25.45 ± 9.90 years and the mean denervation time was 16.90 ± 26.95 months. Two hundred and thirty two motor donors were used in 156 patients; 6 patients underwent neurolysis; 86 intercostal nerves were transferred in 41 patients. Interposition nerve grafts were used in 130 patients. Results were good or excellent in 31.65% of patients. The age of patients and the severity of the brachial plexus lesion are among the factors that significantly influenced functional results. Intraplexus motor donors are always preferable achieving better functional outcomes than extraplexus donors. Intercostal nerves and the posterior division of contralateral C7 proved preferred donors for elbow extension restoration in multiple avulsions. Although it is difficult to restore strong elbow extension, triceps nerve reconstruction is suggested in brachial plexus management, since it provides elbow stability. Satisfactory elbow extension strength was restored in young patients with high severity score. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Double muscle transfer for upper extremity reconstruction following complete avulsion of the brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Doi, K; Kuwata, N; Muramatsu, K; Hottori, Y; Kawai, S

    1999-11-01

    Recent interest in reconstruction of the upper limb following brachial plexus injuries has focused on the restoration of prehension following complete avulsion of the brachial plexus. The authors use free muscle transfers for reconstruction of the upper limb to resolve the difficult problems in complete avulsion of the brachial plexus. This article describes the authors' updated technique--the double free muscle procedure. Reconstruction of prehension to achieve independent voluntary finger and elbow flexion and extension by the use of double free muscle and multiple nerve transfers following complete avulsion of the brachial plexus (nerve roots C5 to T1) is presented. The procedure involves transferring the first free muscle, neurotized by the spinal accessory nerve for elbow flexion and finger extension, a second free muscle transfer reinnervated by the fifth and sixth intercostal nerves for finger flexion, and neurotization of the triceps brachii via its motor nerve by the third and fourth intercostal motor nerves to extend and stabilize the elbow. Restoration of hand sensibility is obtained via the suturing of sensory rami from the intercostal nerves to the median nerve. Secondary reconstruction, including arthrodesis of the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb and glenohumeral joint, and tenolysis of the transferred muscle and distal tendons, improve the functional outcome. Based on the long-term result, selection of the patient, donor muscle, and donor motor nerve were indicated. Most patients were able to achieve prehensile functions such as holding a can and lifting a heavy box. This double free muscle transfer has provided prehension for patients with complete avulsion of the brachial plexus and has given them new hope to be able to use their otherwise useless limbs.

  9. Comparison of Outside Versus Inside Brachial Plexus Sheath Injection for Ultrasound-Guided Interscalene Nerve Blocks.

    PubMed

    Maga, Joni; Missair, Andres; Visan, Alex; Kaplan, Lee; Gutierrez, Juan F; Jain, Annika R; Gebhard, Ralf E

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasound-guided interscalene brachial plexus blocks are commonly used to provide anesthesia for the shoulder and proximal upper extremity. Some reviews identify a sheath that envelops the brachial plexus as a potential tissue plane target, and current editorials in the literature highlight the need to establish precise and reproducible injection targets under ultrasound guidance. We hypothesize that an injection of a local anesthetic inside the brachial plexus sheath during ultrasound-guided interscalene nerve blocks will result in enhanced procedure success and provide a consistent tissue plane target for this approach with a reproducible and characteristic local anesthetic spread pattern. Sixty patients scheduled for shoulder surgery with a preoperative interscalene block for postoperative pain management were enrolled in this prospective randomized observer-blinded study. Each patient was randomly assigned to receive a single-shot interscalene block either inside or outside the brachial plexus sheath. The rate of complete motor and sensory blocks of the axillary nerve territory 10 minutes after local anesthetic injection for the inside group was 70% versus 37% for the outside group (P < .05). At all measurement intervals beyond 10 minutes, however, neither group showed a statistically significant difference in complete sensory blockade. The incidence rates of transient paresthesia during needle passage were 6.7% for the outside group and 96.7% for the inside group (P < .05). Except for faster onset, this prospective randomized trial did not find any advantages to performing an interscalene block inside the brachial plexus sheath. There was a higher incidence of transient paresthesia when injections were performed inside compared to outside the sheath. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  10. Pathogenesis and management of deformities of the elbow, wrist, and hand in late neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Sebastin, Sandeep J; Chung, Kevin C

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) has remained relatively stable despite awareness of the problem and improved obstetric techniques. Deformities of the forearm and hand can result either from untreated NBPP or following early microsurgical nerve reconstruction. These deformities include limb length discrepancy, flexion contracture of the elbow, supination or pronation contractures of the forearm, ulnar deviation of the wrist, and varying types of finger paralysis. The treatment options for these deformities consist of soft tissue releases, corrective osteotomies, tendon transfers, joint fusions, and/or free muscle transfers. Rehabilitation and physical therapy treatment are critical after these procedures. This article reviews the pathogenesis of the common deformities seen in a late presentation of NBPP, the assessment of these children, and provides a reconstructive strategy for the management of this difficult problem.

  11. Radiation dose to the brachial plexus in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy: An increased risk of an excessive dose to the brachial plexus adjacent to gross nodal disease

    PubMed Central

    FENG, GUOSHENG; LU, HEMING; LIANG, YUAN; CHEN, HUASHENG; SHU, LIUYANG; LU, SHUI; ZHU, JIANFANG; GAO, WEIWEI

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the dose to the brachial plexus in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Twenty-eight patients were selected and the brachial plexus was delineated retrospectively. Brachial plexus adjacent/not adjacent to nodes were defined and abbreviated as BPAN and BPNAN, respectively. Dose distribution was recalculated and a dose-volume histogram was generated based on the original treatment plan. The maximum dose to the left brachial plexus was 59.12–78.47 Gy, and the percentage of patients receiving the maximum dose exceeding 60, 66 and 70 Gy was 96.4, 57.1 and 25.0%, respectively; the maximum dose to the right brachial plexus was 59.74–80.31 Gy, and the percentage of patients exposed to a maximum dose exceeding 60, 66 and 70 Gy was 96.4, 64.3 and 39.3%, respectively. For the left brachial plexus, the maximum doses to the BPANs and the BPNANs were 72.84±3.91 and 64.81±3.47 Gy, respectively (p<0.001). For the right brachial plexus, the maximum doses to the BPANs and the BPNANs were 72.91±4.74 and 64.91±3.52 Gy, respectively (p<0.001). The difference between the left BPANs and the left BPNANs was statistically significant not only for V60 (3.60 vs. 1.01 cm3, p=0.028) but also for V66 (1.26 vs. 0.11 cm3, p=0.046). There were significant differences in V60 (3.68 vs. 1.16 cm3, p<0.001) and V66 (1.83 vs. 1.23 cm3, p=0.012) between the right BPANs and the right BPNANs. In conclusion, a large proportion of patients were exposed to the maximum dose to the brachial plexus exceeding the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group-recommended restraints when the brachial plexus was not outlined. The BPANs are at a significantly higher risk of receiving an excessive radiation dose when compared to the BPNANs. A further study is underway to test whether brachial plexus contouring assists in the dose reduction to the brachial plexus for IMRT optimization. PMID:22970028

  12. Diagnostic Value and Surgical Implications of the 3D DW-SSFP MRI On the Management of Patients with Brachial Plexus Injuries.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ben-Gang; Yang, Jian-Tao; Yang, Yi; Wang, Hong-Gang; Fu, Guo; Gu, Li-Qiang; Li, Ping; Zhu, Qing-Tang; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Zhu, Jia-Kai

    2016-10-26

    Three-dimensional diffusion-weighted steady-state free precession (3D DW-SSFP) of high-resolution magnetic resonance has emerged as a promising method to visualize the peripheral nerves. In this study, the application value of 3D DW-SSFP brachial plexus imaging in the diagnosis of brachial plexus injury (BPI) was investigated. 33 patients with BPI were prospectively examined using 3D DW-SSFP MR neurography (MRN) of brachial plexus. Results of 3D DW-SSFP MRN were compared with intraoperative findings and measurements of electromyogram (EMG) or somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) for each injured nerve root. 3D DW-SSFP MRN of brachial plexus has enabled good visualization of the small components of the brachial plexus. The postganglionic section of the brachial plexus was clearly visible in 26 patients, while the preganglionic section of the brachial plexus was clearly visible in 22 patients. Pseudomeningoceles were commonly observed in 23 patients. Others finding of MRN of brachial plexus included spinal cord offset (in 16 patients) and spinal cord deformation (in 6 patients). As for the 3D DW-SSFP MRN diagnosis of preganglionic BPI, the sensitivity, the specificity and the accuracy were respectively 96.8%, 90.29%, and 94.18%. 3D DW-SSFP MRN of brachial plexus improve visualization of brachial plexus and benefit to determine the extent of injury.

  13. Diagnostic Value and Surgical Implications of the 3D DW-SSFP MRI On the Management of Patients with Brachial Plexus Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ben-Gang; Yang, Jian-Tao; Yang, Yi; Wang, Hong-Gang; Fu, Guo; Gu, Li-Qiang; Li, Ping; Zhu, Qing-Tang; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Zhu, Jia-Kai

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional diffusion-weighted steady-state free precession (3D DW-SSFP) of high-resolution magnetic resonance has emerged as a promising method to visualize the peripheral nerves. In this study, the application value of 3D DW-SSFP brachial plexus imaging in the diagnosis of brachial plexus injury (BPI) was investigated. 33 patients with BPI were prospectively examined using 3D DW-SSFP MR neurography (MRN) of brachial plexus. Results of 3D DW-SSFP MRN were compared with intraoperative findings and measurements of electromyogram (EMG) or somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) for each injured nerve root. 3D DW-SSFP MRN of brachial plexus has enabled good visualization of the small components of the brachial plexus. The postganglionic section of the brachial plexus was clearly visible in 26 patients, while the preganglionic section of the brachial plexus was clearly visible in 22 patients. Pseudomeningoceles were commonly observed in 23 patients. Others finding of MRN of brachial plexus included spinal cord offset (in 16 patients) and spinal cord deformation (in 6 patients). As for the 3D DW-SSFP MRN diagnosis of preganglionic BPI, the sensitivity, the specificity and the accuracy were respectively 96.8%, 90.29%, and 94.18%. 3D DW-SSFP MRN of brachial plexus improve visualization of brachial plexus and benefit to determine the extent of injury. PMID:27782162

  14. Early post-operative results after repair of traumatic brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Mohammad-Reda, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Treatment options for traumatic brachial plexus injuries include nerve grafting, or neurotization. The type of lesion and the reconstructive procedures affect functional results and postoperative pain relief. A total number of twenty five patients suffering from post-traumatic brachial plexus injury were included in the study. The patients underwent exploration and primary repair of the affected plexus, based on case by case policy. Spinal accessory nerve transfer to suprascapular nerve procedure regained 78.95% of functional muscle power, 10.50% of non functional muscle power and only 10.5 % of non innervated muscle. The Oberlin procedure regained 83.33% with elbow flexion muscle power, 16.67% with non functional muscle power. Intercostal nerve transfer to musculocutaneous nerve regained 62.5% with functional muscle power, 25% with non functional muscle power and only 12.5 % with non innervated muscle. The shoulder, elbow and wrist extension functions were significantly improved early post-operatively. In addition, the post-operative improvement of shoulder, elbow and wrist extension functions had significant negative correlations with the pre-operative elapsed time, and accompanied by a significant positive correlation with post-operative follow up period. Early intervention for traumatic brachial plexus palsy is recommended to get good results with pain relief.

  15. Gross anatomy of the brachial plexus in the giant Anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla).

    PubMed

    Souza, P R; Cardoso, J R; Araujo, L B M; Moreira, P C; Cruz, V S; Araujo, E G

    2014-10-01

    Ten forelimbs of five Myrmecophaga tridactyla were examined to study the anatomy of the brachial plexus. The brachial plexuses of the M. tridactyla observed in the present study were formed by the ventral rami of the last four cervical spinal nerves, C5 through C8, and the first thoracic spinal nerve, T1. These primary roots joined to form two trunks: a cranial trunk comprising ventral rami from C5-C7 and a caudal trunk receiving ventral rami from C8-T1. The nerves originated from these trunks and their most constant arrangement were as follows: suprascapular (C5-C7), subscapular (C5-C7), cranial pectoral (C5-C8), caudal pectoral (C8-T1), axillary (C5-C7), musculocutaneous (C5-C7), radial (C5-T1), median (C5-T1), ulnar (C5-T1), thoracodorsal (C5-C8), lateral thoracic (C7-T1) and long thoracic (C6-C7). In general, the brachial plexus in the M. tridactyla is similar to the plexuses in mammals, but the number of rami contributing to the formation of each nerve in the M. tridactyla was found to be larger than those of most mammals. This feature may be related to the very distinctive anatomical specializations of the forelimb of the anteaters. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Anatomical Variations of Brachial Plexus in Adult Cadavers; A Descriptive Study

    PubMed Central

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Chabok, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh; Samini, Fariborz; Alijani, Babak; Behzadnia, Hamid; Firozabadi, Fariborz Ayati; Reihanian, Zoheir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Variations of the brachial plexus are common and a better awareness of the variations is of crucial importance to achieve successful results in its surgical procedures. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anatomical variations of the brachial plexus in adult cadavers. Methods: Bilateral upper limbs of 32 fresh cadavers (21 males and 11 females) consecutively referred to Guilan legal medicine organization from November 2011 to September 2014, were dissected and the trunks, cords and terminal nerves were evaluated. Results: Six plexuses were prefixed in origin. The long thoracic nerve pierced the middle scalene muscle in 6 cases in the supra clavicular zone. The suprascapular nerve in 7 plexuses was formed from posterior division of the superior trunk. Five cadavers showed anastomosis between medial brachial cutaneous nerve and T1 root in the infra clavicular zone. Terminal branches variations were the highest wherein the ulnar nerve received a communicating branch from the lateral cord in 3 cases. The median nerve was formed by 2 lateral roots from lateral cord and 1 medial root from the medial cord in 6 cadavers. Some fibers from C7 root came to the musculocutaneous nerve in 8 cadavers. Conclusion: The correlation analysis between the variations and the demographic features was impossible due to the small sample size. The findings of the present study suggest a meta-analysis to assess the whole reported variations to obtain a proper approach for neurosurgeons. PMID:27517072

  17. The role of elective amputation in patients with traumatic brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Andrés A; Kircher, Michelle F; Spinner, Robert J; Bishop, Allen T; Shin, Alexander Y

    2016-03-01

    Despite undergoing complex brachial plexus, surgical reconstructions, and rehabilitation, some patients request an elective amputation. This study evaluates the role of elective amputation after brachial plexus injury. A retrospective chart review was performed for all the 2140 patients with brachial plexus injuries treated with elective amputation between 1999 and 2012 at a single institution. Analysis was conducted on the potential predisposing factors for amputation, amputation level, and postamputation complications. Patients were evaluated using pre- and postamputation Disabilities of the Shoulder, Arm, and hand scores in addition to visual analog pain scores. The following three conditions were observed in all nine patients who requested an elective amputation: (1) Pan-plexus injury; (2) non-recovery (mid-humeral amputation) or elbow flexion recovery only (forearm amputation) 1 year after all other surgical options were performed; and (3) at least one chronic complication (chronic infection, nonunion fractures, full-thickness burns, chronic neck pain with arm weight, etc.). Pain improvement was found in five patients. Subjective patient assessments and visual analog pain scores before and after amputation did not show a statistically significant improvement in Disabilities of the Shoulder, Arm, and Hand Scores. However, four patients reported that their shoulder pain felt "better" than it did before the amputation, and two patients indicated they were completely cured of chronic pain after surgery. Elective amputation after brachial plexus injury should be considered as an option in the above circumstances. When the informed and educated decision is made, patients can have satisfactory outcomes regarding amputation. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Extensive somatosensory innervation in infants with obstetric brachial palsy.

    PubMed

    Colon, A J; Vredeveld, J W; Blaauw, G; Slooff, A C J; Richards, R

    2003-01-01

    In the pre-operative screening of infants with obstetric brachial palsy (OBP), the results of routine electromyography are often overly optimistic when compared to the peri-operative findings. This prompted us to include investigation of the sensory innervation of these infants using the N20 (the first cortical response to a peripheral stimulation) of the somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP). Three to seven months after birth, SSEP were recorded at the skull after stimulation of the thumb and middle finger in infants with obstetric rupture of the upper trunk or avulsion of roots C5, C6, or C7, and in whom no clinical improvement of motor function was observed in the biceps brachii and deltoid muscles. In most infants, a normal N20 could be evoked, indicating the existence of peripheral sensory pathways. From the thumb, these sensory pathways would necessarily bypass the upper trunk and dorsal roots of spinal nerves C5 and C6, and from the middle finger bypass the middle trunk and dorsal root C7, before extending into the dorsal column and projecting toward the thalamus and cerebral cortex. These data suggest that in infancy the segmental sensory innervation of the hand is more diverse than is described in most textbooks. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Dorsal Scapular Artery Variations and Relationship to the Brachial Plexus, and a Related Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Case

    PubMed Central

    Verenna, Anne-Marie A.; Alexandru, Daniela; Karimi, Afshin; Brown, Justin M.; Bove, Geoffrey M.; Daly, Frank J.; Pastore, Anthony M.; Pearson, Helen E.; Barbe, Mary F.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Knowledge of the relationship of the dorsal scapular artery (DSA) with the brachial plexus is limited. Objective We report a case of a variant DSA path, and revisit DSA origins and under-investigated relationship with the plexus in cadavers. Methods The DSA was examined in a male patient and 106 cadavers. Results In the case, we observed an unusual DSA compressing the lower plexus trunk, that resulted in intermittent radiating pain and paresthesia. In the cadavers, the DSA originated most commonly from the subclavian artery (71%), with 35% from the thyrocervical trunk. Nine sides of eight cadavers (seven females) had two DSA branches per side, with one branch from each origin. The most typical DSA path was a subclavian artery origin before passing between upper and middle brachial plexus trunks (40% of DSAs), versus between middle and lower trunks (23%), or inferior (4%) or superior to the plexus (1%). Following a thyrocervical trunk origin, the DSA passed most frequently superior to the plexus (23%), versus between middle and lower trunks (6%) or upper and middle trunks (4%). Bilateral symmetry in origin and path through the brachial plexus was observed in 13 of 35 females (37%) and 6 of 17 males (35%), with the most common bilateral finding of a subclavian artery origin and a path between upper and middle trunks (17%). Conclusion Variability in the relationship between DSA and trunks of the brachial plexus has surgical and clinical implications, such as diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome. PMID:28077957

  20. Restoration of elbow flexion after brachial plexus injury: the role of nerve and muscle transfers.

    PubMed

    Gutowski, K A; Orenstein, H H

    2000-11-01

    Brachial plexus trauma results in a variable loss of upper extremity function. The restoration of this function requires elbow flexion of adequate strength and range of motion. A proper evaluation of brachial plexus lesions is a prerequisite to any reconstructive procedure, and appropriate guidelines are presented. One option for restoring elbow flexion is a nerve transfer. The best results with this procedure are obtained in young patients treated within 6 months of injury. Another option is a free or pedicled muscle transfer, which should be considered in older patients or patients treated more than 6 months after an injury. Muscle transfers may also be used to augment the results of nerve transfer procedures. Choices and clinical results of donor nerves and muscle for transfer are discussed, and an algorithm for treatment is presented.

  1. A Case of Horner's Syndrome following Ultrasound-Guided Infraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block

    PubMed Central

    Walid, Trabelsi; Mondher, Belhaj Amor; Mohamed Anis, Lebbi; Mustapha, Ferjani

    2012-01-01

    Horner's syndrome results from paralysis of the ipsilateral sympathetic cervical chain (stellate ganglion) caused by surgery, drugs (mainly high concentrations of local anesthetics), local compression (hematoma or tumor), or inadequate perioperative positioning of the patient. It occurs in 100% of the patients with an interscalene block of the brachial plexus and can also occur in patients with other types of supraclavicular blocks.In this case report, we presented a case of Horner's syndrome after performing an ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block with 15 mL of bupivacaine 0.5%. It appeared 40 minutes after the block with specific triad (ptosis, miosis, and exophtalmia) and quickly disappears within 2 hours and a half without any sequelae. Horner's syndrome may be described as an unpleasant side effect because it has no clinical consequences in itself. For this reason anesthesiologists should be aware of this syndrome, and if it occurs patients should be reassured and monitored closely. PMID:22957277

  2. A Case of Horner's Syndrome following Ultrasound-Guided Infraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block.

    PubMed

    Walid, Trabelsi; Mondher, Belhaj Amor; Mohamed Anis, Lebbi; Mustapha, Ferjani

    2012-01-01

    Horner's syndrome results from paralysis of the ipsilateral sympathetic cervical chain (stellate ganglion) caused by surgery, drugs (mainly high concentrations of local anesthetics), local compression (hematoma or tumor), or inadequate perioperative positioning of the patient. It occurs in 100% of the patients with an interscalene block of the brachial plexus and can also occur in patients with other types of supraclavicular blocks.In this case report, we presented a case of Horner's syndrome after performing an ultrasound-guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block with 15 mL of bupivacaine 0.5%. It appeared 40 minutes after the block with specific triad (ptosis, miosis, and exophtalmia) and quickly disappears within 2 hours and a half without any sequelae. Horner's syndrome may be described as an unpleasant side effect because it has no clinical consequences in itself. For this reason anesthesiologists should be aware of this syndrome, and if it occurs patients should be reassured and monitored closely.

  3. Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve injury after brachial plexus block: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mi Jin; Byun, Ha Young; Lee, Chang Hee; Moon, Seung Won; Oh, Min-Kyun; Shin, Heesuk

    2013-12-01

    Medial antebrachial cutaneous (MABC) nerve injury associated with iatrogenic causes has been rarely reported. Local anesthesia may be implicated in the etiology of such injury, but has not been reported. Two patients with numbness and painful paresthesia over the medial aspect of the unilateral forearm were referred for electrodiagnostic study, which revealed MABC nerve lesion in each case. The highly selective nature of the MABC nerve injuries strongly suggested that they were the result of direct nerve injury by an injection needle during previous brachial plexus block procedures. Electrodiagnostic studies can be helpful in evaluating cases of sensory disturbance after local anesthesia. To our knowledge, these are the first documented cases of isolated MABC nerve injury following ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

  4. Ultrasound guided therapeutic injections of the cervical spine and brachial plexus

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Recent applications in ultrasound imaging include ultrasound assessment and ultrasound guided therapeutic injections of the spine and brachial plexus. Discussion: Ultrasound is an ideal modality for these regions as it allows accurate safe and quick injection of single or multiple sites. It has the added advantages of lack of ionising radiation, and can be done without requiring large expensive radiology equipment. Conclusion: Brachial plexus pathology may be present in patients presenting for shoulder symptoms where very little is found at imaging the shoulder. It is important to understand the anatomy and normal variants that may exist to be able to recognise when pathology is present. When pathology is demonstrated it is easy to do a trial of therapy with ultrasound guided injection of steroid around the nerve lesion. This review will outline the normal anatomy and variants and common pathology, which can be amenable to ultrasound guided injection of steroid. PMID:28191203

  5. Multiple unilateral variations in medial and lateral cords of brachial plexus and their branches

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Shivi; Kumar, Ashwani; Mehta, Vandana; Suri, Rajesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    During routine dissection of the upper extremity of an adult male cadaver, multiple variations in branches of medial and lateral cords of brachial plexus were encountered. Three unique findings were observed. First, intercordal neural communications between the lateral and medial cords were observed. Second, two lateral pectoral nerves and one medial pectoral nerve were seen to arise from the lateral and medial cord respectively. The musculocutaneous nerve did not pierce the coracobrachialis. Finally, the ulnar nerve arose by two roots from the medial cord. Knowledge of such variations is of interest to anatomists, radiologists, neurologists, anesthesiologists, and surgeons. The aim of our study is to provide additional information about abnormal brachial plexus and its clinical implications. PMID:24693486

  6. Respiratory distress in a one-month-old child suffering brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Héritier, Odile; Vasseur Maurer, Sabine; Reinberg, Olivier; Cotting, Jacques; Perez, Marie-Hélène

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a one-month-old girl presenting with respiratory and growth failure due to diaphragmatic paralysis associated with left brachial plexus palsy after forceps delivery. Despite continuous positive pressure ventilation and nasogastric feeding, the situation did not improve and a laparoscopic diaphragmatic plication had to be performed. When dealing with a child born with brachial plexus palsy, one must think of this possible association and if necessary proceed to the complementary radiological examinations. The treatment must avoid complications like feeding difficulties and failure to thrive, respiratory infections or atelectasis. It includes intensive support and a good evaluation of the prognosis of the lesion to decide the best moment for a surgical therapy.

  7. Sensory Evaluation of the Hands in Children with Brachial Plexus Birth Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmgren, Tove; Peltonen, Jari; Linder, Tove; Rautakorpi, Sanna; Nietosvaara, Yrjana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine sensory changes of the hand in brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI). Ninety-five patients (43 females, 52 males) comprising two age groups, 6 to 8 years (mean age 7y 6mo) and 12 to 14 years (mean age 13y 2mo), were included. Sixty-four had upper (cervical [C] 5-6), 19 upper and middle (C5-7), and 12 had total…

  8. Targeted fascicular biopsy of the brachial plexus: rationale and operative technique.

    PubMed

    Laumonerie, Pierre; Capek, Stepan; Amrami, Kimberly K; Dyck, P James B; Spinner, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Nerve biopsy is useful in the management of neuromuscular disorders and is commonly performed in distal, noncritical cutaneous nerves. In general, these procedures are diagnostic in only 20%-50%. In selected cases in which preoperative evaluation points toward a more localized process, targeted biopsy would likely improve diagnostic yield. The authors report their experience with targeted fascicular biopsy of the brachial plexus and provide a description of the operative technique. METHODS All cases of targeted biopsy of the brachial plexus biopsy performed between 2003 and 2015 were reviewed. Targeted nerve biopsy was performed using a supraclavicular, infraclavicular, or proximal medial arm approach. Demographic data and clinical presentation as well as the details of the procedure, adverse events (temporary or permanent), and final pathological findings were recorded. RESULTS Brachial plexus biopsy was performed in 74 patients (47 women and 27 men). The patients' mean age was 57.7 years. All patients had abnormal findings on physical examination, electrodiagnostic studies, and MRI. The overall diagnostic yield of biopsy was 74.3% (n = 55). The most common diagnoses included inflammatory demyelination (19), breast carcinoma (17), neurolymphomatosis (8), and perineurioma (7). There was a 19% complication rate; most of the complications were minor or transient, but 4 patients (5.4%) had increased numbness and 3 (4.0%) had additional weakness following biopsy. CONCLUSIONS Targeted fascicular biopsy of the brachial plexus is an effective diagnostic procedure, and in highly selected cases should be considered as the initial procedure over nontargeted, distal cutaneous nerve biopsy. Using MRI to guide the location of a fascicular biopsy, the authors found this technique to produce a higher diagnostic yield than historical norms as well as providing justification for definitive treatment.

  9. Sensory Evaluation of the Hands in Children with Brachial Plexus Birth Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmgren, Tove; Peltonen, Jari; Linder, Tove; Rautakorpi, Sanna; Nietosvaara, Yrjana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine sensory changes of the hand in brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI). Ninety-five patients (43 females, 52 males) comprising two age groups, 6 to 8 years (mean age 7y 6mo) and 12 to 14 years (mean age 13y 2mo), were included. Sixty-four had upper (cervical [C] 5-6), 19 upper and middle (C5-7), and 12 had total…

  10. Vibration sensation as an indicator of surgical anesthesia following brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Seema; Sidhu, Gurkaran Kaur; Sood, Dinesh; Grewal, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Background: Local anesthetic instillation in close vicinity to nerves anywhere in body blocks sensations in the same order as in central neuraxial blockade. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of vibration sense as criteria to determine the onset of surgical anesthesia following brachial plexus block and its correlation with loss of sensory and motor power. Materials and Methods: This prospective study included fifty patients of American Society of Anaesthesiologist physical status I and II, aged between 18 and 45 years, undergoing elective upper limb surgery under brachial plexus block by supraclavicular approach. The baseline values of vibration sense perception using 128 Hz Rydel–Seiffer tuning fork, motor power using formal motor power of wrist flexion and wrist extension, and sensory score by pinprick method were recorded preoperatively and every 5 min after giving block till the onset of complete surgical anesthesia. Results: The mean ± standard deviation of time (in minutes) for sensory, motor, and vibration block was 13.33 ± 3.26, 21.10 ± 3.26, and 25.50 ± 2.02, respectively (P < 0.05). Although all the patients achieved complete sensory and motor block after 25 min, 14% of the patients still had vibration sensations intact and 100% of the patients achieved complete sensory, motor, and vibration block after 30 min. Conclusions: Vibration sense serves as a reliable indicator for the onset of surgical anesthesia following brachial plexus block. Vibration sense testing with 128 Hz Rydel–Seiffer tuning fork along with motor power assessment should be used as an objective tool to assess the onset of surgical anesthesia following brachial plexus block. PMID:27833488

  11. Radial to axillary nerve neurotization for brachial plexus injury in children: a combined case series.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Eli, Ilyas M; Shah, Manish N; Bradley, Nadine; Stutz, Christopher M; Park, Tae Sung; Wellons, John C

    2014-11-01

    Axillary nerve palsy, isolated or as part of a more complex brachial plexus injury, can have profound effects on upper-extremity function. Radial to axillary nerve neurotization is a useful technique for regaining shoulder abduction with little compromise of other neurological function. A combined experience of this procedure used in children is reviewed. A retrospective review of the authors' experience across 3 tertiary care centers with brachial plexus and peripheral nerve injury in children (younger than 18 years) revealed 7 cases involving patients with axillary nerve injury as part of an overall brachial plexus injury with persistent shoulder abduction deficits. Two surgical approaches to the region were used. Four infants (ages 0.6, 0.8, 0.8, and 0.6 years) and 3 older children (ages 8, 15, and 17 years) underwent surgical intervention. No patient had significant shoulder abduction past 15° preoperatively. In 3 cases, additional neurotization was performed in conjunction with the procedure of interest. Two surgical approaches were used: posterior and transaxillary. All patients displayed improvement in shoulder abduction. All were able to activate their deltoid muscle to raise their arm against gravity and 4 of 7 were able to abduct against resistance. The median duration of follow-up was 15 months (range 8 months to 5.9 years). Radial to axillary nerve neurotization improved shoulder abduction in this series of patients treated at 3 institutions. While rarely used in children, this neurotization procedure is an excellent option to restore deltoid function in children with brachial plexus injury due to birth or accidental trauma.

  12. Familial long thoracic nerve palsy: a manifestation of brachial plexus neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Phillips, L H

    1986-09-01

    Long thoracic nerve palsy causes weakness of the serratus anterior muscle and winging of the scapula. It is usually traumatic in origin. Isolated long thoracic nerve palsy has not been recognized as the major manifestation of familial brachial plexus neuropathy, but I have studied the syndrome in four members of three generations of one family. One individual suffered an episode of facial paresis. The inheritance pattern was autosomal dominant.

  13. Newborn brachial plexus injuries: The twisting and extension of the fetal head as contributing causes.

    PubMed

    Sandmire, H; Morrison, J; Racinet, C; Hankins, G; Pecorari, D; Gherman, R

    2008-02-01

    The exact mechanism of the causation of brachial plexus injury (BPI) has long been a matter of controversy. It is our opinion that the twisting and the extension of the fetal head, during the labour and delivery process, will increase the stretching of the neck, thus contributing to the labour forces as the cause of BPI. Our opinions are offered to other researchers and readers for their consideration of how the labour forces can cause BPI.

  14. Clinical impact of magnetic resonance neurography in patients with brachial plexus neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Stephen; Wadhwa, Vibhor; Manthuruthil, Christine; Cheng, Jonathan; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2016-11-01

    To study the impact of brachial plexus MR neurography (MRN) in the diagnostic thinking and therapeutic management of patients with suspected plexopathy. MRN examinations of adult brachial plexuses over a period of 18 months were reviewed. Relevant data collection included-patient demographics, clinical history, pre-imaging diagnostic impression, pre-imaging treatment plan, post-imaging diagnosis, post-imaging treatment plan, surgical notes and electrodiagnostic (ED) results. Impact of imaging on the pre-imaging clinical diagnosis and therapeutic management were classified as no change, mild change or substantial change. Final sample included 121 studies. The common aetiologies included inflammatory in 31 (25.6%) of 121 patients, trauma in 29 (23.9%) of 121 patients and neoplastic in 26 (21.5%) of 121 patients. ED tests were performed in 47 (38.8%) of 121 patients and these showed concordance with MRN findings in 31 (66.0%) of 47 patients. Following MRN, there was change in the pre-imaging clinical impression for 91 (75.2%) of 121 subjects, with a mild change in diagnosis in 57 (47.1%) of 121 patients and a substantial change in 34 (28.0%) of 121 patients. 19 (15.7%) of 121 patients proceeded to therapies that would not have been performed in the same manner without the information obtained from MRN. MRN of the brachial plexus significantly impacts clinical decision-making and should be routinely performed in suspected brachial plexopathy. Advances in knowledge: MRN significantly impacts the diagnostic thinking and therapeutic management of patients with suspected brachial plexopathy. MRN not only provides concordant information to ED tests in majority of cases, but also supplements with additional diagnostic data in patients who are ED negative.

  15. Surgical outcomes of the brachial plexus lesions caused by gunshot wounds in adults

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The management of brachial plexus injuries due to gunshot wounds is a surgical challenge. Better surgical strategies based on clinical and electrophysiological patterns are needed. The aim of this study is to clarify the factors which may influence the surgical technique and outcome of the brachial plexus lesions caused by gunshot injuries. Methods Two hundred and sixty five patients who had brachial plexus lesions caused by gunshot injuries were included in this study. All of them were male with a mean age of 22 years. Twenty-three patients were improved with conservative treatment while the others underwent surgical treatment. The patients were classified and managed according to the locations, clinical and electrophysiological findings, and coexisting lesions. Results The wounding agent was shrapnel in 106 patients and bullet in 159 patients. Surgical procedures were performed from 6 weeks to 10 months after the injury. The majority of the lesions were repaired within 4 months were improved successfully. Good results were obtained in upper trunk and lateral cord lesions. The outcome was satisfactory if the nerve was intact and only compressed by fibrosis or the nerve was in-contunuity with neuroma or fibrosis. Conclusion Appropriate surgical techniques help the recovery from the lesions, especially in patients with complete functional loss. Intraoperative nerve status and the type of surgery significantly affect the final clinical outcome of the patients. PMID:19627573

  16. Double Distal Intraneural Fascicular Nerve Transfers for Lower Brachial Plexus Injuries.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongyu; Reynolds, Michael; Satteson, Ellen; Nazir, Omar; Petit, James; Smith, Beth P

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate outcomes following transfer of the supinator motor branch of the radial nerve (SMB) to the posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) and the pronator teres motor branch of median (PTMB) to the anterior interosseous nerve (AIN) in patients with lower brachial plexus injuries. Since December 2010, 4 patients have undergone combined transfer of the SMB to PIN and PTMB to AIN for lower brachial plexus palsies. The study was prospectively designed, and the patients were followed for 4 years to monitor their functional improvement. One patient failed to return after his 4-month postoperative visit. The other 3 patients all regained M4 thumb and finger extension, and 2 recovered M4 thumb and finger flexion at the final evaluation, a mean 30 months after the nerve transfer surgeries. Combined transfer of the SMB to PIN and PTMB to AIN may lead to successful recovery of digital extrinsic flexion and extension in lower brachial plexus injuries. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Brachial Plexus in the Pampas Fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus): a Descriptive and Comparative Analysis.

    PubMed

    de Souza Junior, Paulo; da Cruz de Carvalho, Natan; de Mattos, Karine; Abidu Figueiredo, Marcelo; Luiz Quagliatto Santos, André

    2017-03-01

    Twenty thoracic limbs of ten Lycalopex gymnocercus were dissected to describe origin and distribution of the nerves forming brachial plexuses. The brachial plexus resulted from the connections between the ventral branches of the last three cervical nerves (C6, C7, and C8) and first thoracic nerve (T1). These branches connected the suprascapular, subscapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial, median and ulnar nerves to the intrinsic musculature and connected the brachiocephalic, thoracodorsal, lateral thoracic, long thoracic, cranial pectoral and caudal pectoral nerves to the extrinsic musculature. The C7 ventral branches contribute most to the formation of the nerves (62.7%), followed by C8 (58.8%), T1 (40.0%) and C6 (24.6%). Of the 260 nerves dissected, 69.2% resulted from a combination of two or three branches, while only 30.8% originated from a single branch. The origin and innervation area of the pampas fox brachial plexus, in comparison with other domestic and wild species, were most similar to the domestic dog and wild canids from the neotropics. The results of this study can serve as a base for comparative morphofunctional analysis involving this species and development of nerve block techniques. Anat Rec, 300:537-548, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Electrophysiologic evidence of polyneuropathy in a cat with signs of bilateral brachial plexus neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Paul M; Harcourt-Brown, Thomas R; Jeffery, Nick D; Granger, Nicolas

    2009-01-15

    A 2-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat was examined because of bilateral thoracic limb weakness of acute onset. Clinical signs included muscle atrophy, paresis, depressed spinal reflexes, hyperesthesia of the thoracic limbs, and reduced jaw muscle tone. Pelvic limb reflexes were normal. Results of a neurologic examination were suggestive of multifocal lesions involving both brachial plexuses and the trigeminal nerves. Abnormal nerve conduction across the brachial plexus and delayed late potentials were found on electrodiagnostic testing, and diffuse subclinical involvement of other regions of the peripheral nervous system was confirmed on the basis of abnormal electromyographic findings for the masticatory muscles and conduction block of the peroneal nerve. No specific treatments were given, and neurologic signs resolved within a month. A relapse occurred 2 months after the first episode, with clinical signs affecting both the pelvic and the thoracic limbs on this occasion. Again, the condition resolved without specific treatment, and 13 months after the initial episode, the cat reportedly was normal. Findings suggested that brachial plexus neuropathy can be a multifocal disease in cats, even if clinically apparent neurologic deficits are initially subtle or absent, and that electrodiagnostic techniques can be used to identify subclinical involvement of the peripheral nerves.

  19. Results of ulnar nerve neurotization to biceps brachii muscle in brachial plexus injury

    PubMed Central

    Rezende, Marcelo Rosa De; Rabelo, Neylor Teofilo Araújo; Silveira, Clóvis Castanho; Petersen, Pedro Araújo; Paula, Emygdio José Leomil De; Mattar, Rames

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors influencing the results of ulnar nerve neurotization at the motor branch of the brachii biceps muscle, aiming at the restoration of elbow flexion in patients with brachial plexus injury. METHODS: 19 patients, with 18 men and 1 woman, mean age 28.7 years. Eight patients had injury to roots C5-C6 and 11, to roots C5-C6-C7. The average time interval between injury and surgery was 7.5 months. Four patients had cervical fractures associated with brachial plexus injury. The postoperative follow-up was 15.7 months. RESULTS: Eight patients recovered elbow flexion strength MRC grade 4; two, MRC grade 3 and nine, MRC <3. There was no impairment of the previous ulnar nerve function. CONCLUSION: The surgical results of ulnar nerve neurotization at the motor branch of brachii biceps muscle are dependent on the interval between brachial plexus injury and surgical treatment, the presence of associated fractures of the cervical spine and occipital condyle, residual function of the C8-T1 roots after the injury and the involvement of the C7 root. Signs of reinnervation manifested up to 3 months after surgery showed better results in the long term. Level of Evidence: IV, Case Series. PMID:24453624

  20. Non-Sedated Rapid Volumetric Proton Density MRI Predicts Neonatal Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy Functional Outcome.

    PubMed

    Shen, Peter Y; Nidecker, Anna E; Neufeld, Ethan A; Lee, Paul S; James, Michelle A; Bauer, Andrea S

    2017-03-01

    The current prognostic biomarker of functional outcome in brachial plexus birth palsy is serial clinical examination throughout the first 6 months of age. This can delay surgical treatment and prolong parental anxiety in neonates who will recover spontaneously. A potentially superior biomarker is a volumetric proton density MRI performed at clinical presentation and within the first 12 weeks of life, providing a high spatial and contrast resolution examination in 4 minutes. Nine neonates ranging in age from 4 to 9 weeks who presented with brachial plexus birth palsy were enrolled. All subjects underwent non-sedated 3 Tesla MRI with Cube Proton Density MRI sequence at the same time as their initial clinical visit. Serial clinical examinations were conducted at routine 4 week intervals and the functional performance scores were recorded. MRI findings were divided into pre-ganglionic and post-ganglionic injuries and a radiological scoring system (Shriners Radiological Score) was developed for this study. Proton Density MRI was able to differentiate between pre-ganglionic and post-ganglionic injuries. Radiological scores (Shriners Radiological Score) correlated better with functional performance at 6 months of age (P = .022) than the initial clinical examinations (Active Movement Scale P = .213 and Toronto P = .320). Rapid non-sedated volumetric Cube Proton Density MRI protocol performed at initial clinical presentation can accurately grade severity of brachial plexus birth palsy injury and predict functional performance at 6 months of age. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  1. Selective ultrasound guided pectoral nerve targeting in breast augmentation: How to spare the brachial plexus cords?

    PubMed

    Desroches, Jean; Grabs, Ursula; Grabs, Detlev

    2013-01-01

    Subpectoral breast augmentation surgery under regional anesthesia requires the selective neural blockade of the medial and lateral pectoral nerves to diminish postoperative pain syndromes. The purpose of this cadaver study is to demonstrate a reliable ultrasound guided approach to selectively target the pectoral nerves and their branches while sparing the brachial plexus cords. After evaluating the position and appearance of the pectoral nerves in 25 cadavers (50 sides), a portable ultrasound machine was used to guide the injection of 10 ml of 0.2% aqueous methylene blue solution in the pectoral region on both sides of three Thiel's embalmed cadavers using a single entry point-triple injection technique. This technique uses a medial to lateral approach with the entry point just medial to the pectoral minor muscle and three subsequent infiltrations: (1) deep lateral part of the pectoralis minor muscle, (2) between the pectoralis minor and major muscles, and (3) between the pectoralis major muscle and its posterior fascia under ultrasound visualization. Dissection demonstrates that the medial and lateral pectoral nerves were well stained while leaving the brachial plexus cords unstained. We show that 10 ml of an injected solution is sufficient to stain all the medial and lateral pectoral nerve branches without a proximal extension to the cords of the brachial plexus. Copyright © 2012 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. [Percutaneous catheterization of the newborn: control of pain and easy insertion with brachial plexus block].

    PubMed

    Pignotti, M S; Messeri, A; Calamandrei, M; Donzelli, G P

    2000-01-01

    The increasingly prolonged survival of extremely premature infants who required long-term venous access means that this is often a major problem in modern neonatal unit. The insertion of central venous catheters has become an established practice and the development of silastic catheters inserted by newer percutaneous techniques through a peripheral vein is, now, the choice technique in awake non sedated critically-ill infants. Such technique has an high percentage of failure. We have undertaken a retrospective study to determine whether the brachial plexus block performed via the axillary approach could improve the success rate for the insertion of central venous catheter from a peripheral vein of the upper limb in infants minimizing physical and emotional stress to the neonates. Data from 157 low and very low birthweight infants, submitted or not submitted to the axillary block, were examined. The failure rate for the insertion of the central venous catheter was 27% without using the brachial plexus block vs. 9% in the patients that underwent the block. Use of the brachial plexus block via the axillary route, although retrospectively evaluated, improves the success rate and the pain control for the insertion of small diameter central venous silicon catheter from a peripheral vein of the upper limb in low and very low birthweight infants.

  3. Triceps brachii reinnervation in primary reconstruction of the adult brachial plexus: experience in 25 cases.

    PubMed

    Flores, Leandro Pretto

    2011-10-01

    Elbow flexion and shoulder abduction are the primary goals in brachial plexus surgery; however, reinnervation of the triceps is also an objective to be considered, as restoration of elbow extension improves the stabilization of the elbow and can provide a more powerful grasp. This study aims to demonstrate the author's experience with restoration of elbow extension function in cases of brachial plexus surgery in adults. Records of 25 patients sustaining traumatic brachial plexus injuries who were treated surgically with reinnervation of the triceps were reviewed. Nine techniques were employed, including posterior cord reconstruction and nerve transfers using donors such as the ipsilateral C7 root, phrenic nerve, medial pectoral nerve, intercostal nerves, the spinal accessory nerve, and a motor fascicle of the ulnar nerve. The targeted structure was the radial nerve or the branch to the long head of the triceps. Twenty-one subjects (83%) obtained triceps reinnervation, and good results (M3 or better) were observed in 19 cases (76%). M4 grade was noted in 36% of the cases, M3 grade in 40%, M2 grade in 8%, M1 grade in 8%, and M0 grade in 8% of the patients. The best outcomes were observed in the cases presenting a C5 to C7 palsy and those in which the nerve to the triceps was chosen as the transfer target. Reinnervation of the triceps can be achieved in most patients if adequate donor and recipient nerves are carefully selected based on an individual case-specific decision.

  4. [Differential diagnostics of diseases of the brachial plexus].

    PubMed

    Ritter, C; Wunderlich, G; Macht, S; Schroeter, M; Fink, G R; Lehmann, H C

    2014-02-01

    Progressive, atrophic, asymmetrically distributed flaccid paresis of arm and hand muscles represents a frequent symptom of neuromuscular diseases that can be attributed to injury of the arm nerves, the plexus or the cervical roots. A timely and exact diagnosis is mandatory; however, the broad spectrum of differential diagnoses often represents a diagnostic challenge. A large variety of neuromuscular disorders need to be considered, encompassing autoimmune mediated inflammatory neuropathic conditions, such as multifocal motor neuropathy, as well as chronic degenerative and nerve compression disorders. This review provides an overview of the most frequent disorders of the upper plexus and cervical roots and summarizes the characteristic clinical features as well as electrodiagnostic and laboratory test results. In addition the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance imaging and sonography is discussed.

  5. Successful Outcome of Modified Quad Surgical Procedure in Preteen and Teen Patients with Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Rahul K.; Somasundaram, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the outcome of modified Quad procedure in preteen and teen patients with brachial plexus birth palsy. Background: We have previously demonstrated a significant improvement in shoulder abduction, resulting from the modified Quad procedure in children (mean age 2.5 years; range, 0.5–9 years) with obstetric brachial plexus injury. Methods: We describe in this report the outcome of 16 patients (6 girls and 10 boys; 7 preteen and 9 teen) who have undergone the modified Quad procedure for the correction of the shoulder function, specifically abduction. The patients underwent transfer of the latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles, release of contractures of subscapularis pectoralis major and minor, and axillary nerve decompression and neurolysis (the modified Quad procedure). Mean age of these patients at surgery was 13.5 years (range, 10.1–17.9 years). Results: The mean preoperative total Mallet score was 14.8 (range, 10–20), and active abduction was 84° (range, 20°–140°). At a mean follow-up of 1.5 years, the mean postoperative total Mallet score increased to 19.7 (range, 13–25, P < .0001), and the mean active abduction improved to 132° (range, 40°–180°, P < .0003). Conclusion: The modified Quad procedure greatly improves not only the active abduction but also other shoulder functions in preteen and teen patients, as this outcome is the combined result of decompression and neurolysis of the axillary nerve and the release of the contracted internal rotators of the shoulder. PMID:23308301

  6. Biceps Brachii Long Head Overactivity Associated with Elbow Flexion Contracture in Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Sheffler, Lindsey C.; Lattanza, Lisa; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; James, Michelle A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The etiology of elbow flexion contracture in children with brachial plexus birth palsy remains unclear. We hypothesized that the long head of the biceps brachii muscle assists with shoulder stabilization in children with brachial plexus birth palsy and that overactivity of the long head during elbow and shoulder activity is associated with an elbow flexion contracture. Methods: Twenty-one patients with brachial plexus birth palsy-associated elbow flexion contracture underwent testing with surface electromyography. Twelve patients underwent repeat testing with fine-wire electromyography. Surface electrodes were placed on the muscle belly, and fine-wire electrodes were inserted bilaterally into the long and short heads of the biceps brachii. Patients were asked to perform four upper extremity tasks: elbow flexion-extension, hand to head, high reach, and overhead ball throw. The mean duration of muscle activity in the affected limb was compared with that in the contralateral, unaffected limb, which was used as a control. Three-dimensional motion analysis, surface dynamometry, and validated function measures were used to evaluate upper extremity kinematics, elbow flexor-extensor muscle imbalance, and function. Results: The mean activity duration of the long head of the biceps brachii muscle was significantly higher in the affected limb as compared with the contralateral, unaffected limb during hand-to-head tasks (p = 0.02) and high-reach tasks (p = 0.03). No significant differences in mean activity duration were observed for the short head of the biceps brachii muscle between the affected and unaffected limbs. Isometric strength of elbow flexion was not significantly higher than that of elbow extension in the affected limb (p = 0.11). Conclusions: Overactivity of the long head of the biceps brachii muscle is associated with and may contribute to the development of elbow flexion contracture in children with brachial plexus birth palsy. Elbow flexion

  7. Biceps brachii long head overactivity associated with elbow flexion contracture in brachial plexus birth palsy.

    PubMed

    Sheffler, Lindsey C; Lattanza, Lisa; Sison-Williamson, Mitell; James, Michelle A

    2012-02-15

    The etiology of elbow flexion contracture in children with brachial plexus birth palsy remains unclear. We hypothesized that the long head of the biceps brachii muscle assists with shoulder stabilization in children with brachial plexus birth palsy and that overactivity of the long head during elbow and shoulder activity is associated with an elbow flexion contracture. Twenty-one patients with brachial plexus birth palsy-associated elbow flexion contracture underwent testing with surface electromyography. Twelve patients underwent repeat testing with fine-wire electromyography. Surface electrodes were placed on the muscle belly, and fine-wire electrodes were inserted bilaterally into the long and short heads of the biceps brachii. Patients were asked to perform four upper extremity tasks: elbow flexion-extension, hand to head, high reach, and overhead ball throw. The mean duration of muscle activity in the affected limb was compared with that in the contralateral, unaffected limb, which was used as a control. Three-dimensional motion analysis, surface dynamometry, and validated function measures were used to evaluate upper extremity kinematics, elbow flexor-extensor muscle imbalance, and function. The mean activity duration of the long head of the biceps brachii muscle was significantly higher in the affected limb as compared with the contralateral, unaffected limb during hand-to-head tasks (p = 0.02) and high-reach tasks (p = 0.03). No significant differences in mean activity duration were observed for the short head of the biceps brachii muscle between the affected and unaffected limbs. Isometric strength of elbow flexion was not significantly higher than that of elbow extension in the affected limb (p = 0.11). Overactivity of the long head of the biceps brachii muscle is associated with and may contribute to the development of elbow flexion contracture in children with brachial plexus birth palsy. Elbow flexion contracture may not be associated with an elbow

  8. Use of intercostal nerves for neurotization of the musculocutaneous nerve in infants with birth-related brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, H; Shibata, T; Matsui, Y; Yasui, N

    2001-03-01

    The use of intercostal nerves (ICNs) for the neurotization of the musculocutaneous nerve (MCN) in adult patients with traumatic brachial plexus palsy has been well described. However, its use for brachial plexus palsy in infants has rarely been reported. The authors surgically created 31 ICN-MCN communications for birth-related brachial plexus palsy and present the surgical results. Thirty-one neurotizations of the MCN, performed using ICNs, were conducted in 30 patients with birth-related brachial plexus palsy. In most cases other procedures were combined to reconstruct all upper-extremity function. The mean patient age at surgery was 5.8 months and the mean follow-up period was 5.2 years. Intercostal nerves were transected 1 cm distal to the mammary line and their stumps were transferred to the axilla, where they were coapted directly to the MCN. Two ICNs were used in 26 cases and three ICNs in five cases. The power of the biceps muscle of the arm was rated Grade M4 in 26 (84%) of 31 patients. In the 12 patients who underwent surgery when they were younger than 5 months of age, all exhibited a grade of M4 (100%) in their biceps muscle power. These results are better than those previously reported in adults. Neurotization of the MCN by surgically connecting ICNs is a safe, reliable, and effective procedure for reconstruction of the brachial plexus in patients suffering from birth-related palsy.

  9. Blockade of the brachial plexus abolishes activation of specific brain regions by electroacupuncture at LI4: a functional MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Weidong; Jiang, Wei; He, Jingwei; Liu, Songbin; Wang, Zhaoxin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to test the hypothesis that electroacupuncture (EA) at acupuncture point LI4 activates specific brain regions by nerve stimulation that is mediatied through a pathway involving the brachial plexus. Methods Twelve acupuncture naive right-handed volunteers were allocated to receive three sessions of EA at LI4 in a random different order (crossover): (1) EA alone (EA); EA after injection of local anaesthetics into the deltoid muscle (EA+LA); and (3) EA after blockade of the brachial plexus (EA+NB). During each session, participants were imaged in a 3 T MRI scanner. Brain regions showing change in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal (activation) were identified. Subjective acupuncture sensation was quantified after functional MRI scanning was completed. Results were compared between the three sessions for each individual, and averaged. Results Blockade of the brachial plexus inhibited acupuncture sensation during EA. EA and EA+LA activated the bilateral thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum and left putamen, whilst no significant activation was observed during EA+NB. The BOLD signal of the thalamus correlated significantly with acupuncture sensation score during EA. Conclusions Blockade of the brachial plexus completely abolishes patterns of brain activation induced by EA at LI4. The results suggest that EA activates specific brain regions through stimulation of the local nerves supplying the tissues at LI4, which transmit sensory information via the brachial plexus. Trial registration number ChiCTR-OO-13003389. PMID:26464415

  10. Comparison between Conventional and Ultrasound-Guided Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block in Upper Limb Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Honnannavar, Kiran Abhayakumar; Mudakanagoudar, Mahantesh Shivangouda

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Brachial plexus blockade is a time-tested technique for upper limb surgeries. The classical approach using paresthesia technique is a blind technique and may be associated with a higher failure rate and injury to the nerves and surrounding structures. To avoid some of these problems, use of peripheral nerve stimulator and ultrasound techniques were started which allowed better localization of the nerve/plexus. Ultrasound for supraclavicular brachial plexus block has improved the success rate of the block with excellent localization as well as improved safety margin. Hence, this study was planned for comparing the efficacy of conventional supraclavicular brachial plexus block with ultrasound-guided technique. Subjects and Methods: After obtaining the Institutional ethical committee approval and patient consent total of 60 patients were enrolled in this prospective randomized study and were randomly divided into two groups: US (Group US) and C (Group C). Both groups received 0.5% bupivacaine. The amount of local anesthetic injected calculated according to the body weight and was not crossing the toxic dosage (injection bupivacaine 2 mg/kg). The parameters compared between the two groups were lock execution time, time of onset of sensory and motor block, quality of sensory and motor block success rates were noted. The failed blocks were supplemented with general anesthesia. Results: Demographic data were comparable in both groups. The mean time taken for the procedure to administer a block by eliciting paresthesia is less compared to ultrasound, and it was statistically significant. The mean time of onset of motor block, sensory blockade, the duration of sensory and motor blockade was not statistically significant. The success rate of the block is more in ultrasound group than conventional group which was not clinically significant. The incidence of complications was seen more in conventional method. Conclusion: Ultrasound guidance is the safe and

  11. [Evaluation of brachial plexus fascicles involvement on infraclavicular block: unfixed cadaver study].

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Luiz Carlos Buarque de; Lima, Jacqueline Silva Brito; Ramalho, Jeane da Rosa Oiticica; Leite, Amanda Lira Dos Santos; Silva, Alberson Maylson Ramos da

    2015-01-01

    This study shows how occurs the diffusion of the anesthetic into the sheath through the axiliary infraclavicular space and hence prove the efficacy of the anesthetic block of the brachial plexus, and may thereby allow a consolidation of this pathway, with fewer complications, previously attached to the anesthesia. 33 armpits of adult cadavers were analyzed and unfixed. We injected a solution of neoprene with latex dye in the infraclavicular space, based on the technique advocated by Gusmão et al., and put the corpses in refrigerators for three weeks. Subsequently, the specimens were thawed and dissected, exposing the axillary sheath along its entire length. Was demonstrated involvement of all fasciculus of the plexus in 51.46%. In partial involvement was 30.30%, and 18.24% of cases the acrylic was located outside the auxiliary sheath involving no issue. The results allow us to establish the infraclavicular as an effective and easy way to access plexus brachial, because the solution involved the fascicles in 81.76% partially or totally, when was injected inside the axillary sheath. We believe that only the use of this pathway access in practice it may demonstrate the efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of brachial plexus fascicles involvement on infraclavicular block: unfixed cadaver study.

    PubMed

    de Gusmão, Luiz Carlos Buarque; Lima, Jacqueline Silva Brito; Ramalho, Jeane da Rosa Oiticica; Leite, Amanda Lira dos Santos; da Silva, Alberson Maylson Ramos

    2015-01-01

    This study shows how the diffusion of the anesthetic into the sheath occurs through the axillary infraclavicular space and hence proves the efficacy of the anesthetic block of the brachial plexus, and may thereby allow a consolidation of this pathway, with fewer complications, previously attached to the anesthesia. 33 armpits of adult cadavers were analyzed and unfixed. We injected a solution of neoprene with latex dye in the infraclavicular space, based on the technique advocated by Gusmão et al., and put the corpses in refrigerators for three weeks. Subsequently, the specimens were thawed and dissected, exposing the axillary sheath along its entire length. Was demonstrated involvement of all fasciculus of the plexus in 51.46%. In partial involvement was 30.30%, 18.24% of cases the acrylic was located outside the auxiliary sheath involving no issue. The results allow us to establish the infraclavicular as an effective and easy way to access plexus brachial, because the solution involved the fascicles in 81.76% partially or totally, when it was injected inside the axillary sheath. We believe that only the use of this pathway access in practice it may demonstrate the efficiency. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. [Ultrasound-guided axillary block: anatomical variations of terminal branches of the brachial plexus in relation to the brachial artery].

    PubMed

    Silva, M G; Sala-Blanch, X; Marín, R; Espinoza, X; Arauz, A; Morros, C

    2014-01-01

    To describe the distribution of the terminal branches of the brachial plexus at the axillary level and define distribution patterns after ultrasound evaluation. Fifty volunteers underwent ultrasound bilateral axillary brachial plexus scanning exploration. Nerve distribution around the humeral artery was described and the distance between each nerve and the center of the artery was measured. The distance and relationship between the ulnar nerve and the humeral vein were also recorded. The median nerve was located in the anterolateral quadrant (-29±40°) and at a mean distance of 2.1±0.9mm from the artery (85%). The ulnar nerve was found at 53±26° and at 4.2±2.1mm from the artery in the anteromedial quadrant (90%), anterolateral to the vein in 46% of cases, and deep to it in 54%. The radial nerve was at 122±38° and at 3.3±1.7mm from the artery in the posteromedial quadrant (86%). The musculocutaneous nerve was found at -103±22° and 9.3±5.6mm from the artery in the posterolateral quadrant (90%) and in the anterolateral quadrant (-55±16°) at 4.8±2.7mm (10%). There were no differences regarding laterality, gender or overweight patients. Our results allow defining four different anatomical patterns, two based in the position of the musculocutaneous nerve and two based on the disposition of the ulnar nerve with respect to the humeral vein. These patterns were not related to laterality, gender or body weight. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Long term follow-up results of dorsal root entry zone lesions for intractable pain after brachial plexus avulsion injuries.

    PubMed

    Chen, H J; Tu, Y K

    2006-01-01

    Brachial plexus avulsion injury is one of the major complications after traffic, especially motorcycle accidents and machine injuries. Intractable pain and paralysis of the affected limbs are the major neurological deficits. During the past 18 years, we have encountered and treated more than 500 cases with brachial plexus avulsion injuries. Dorsal root entry zone lesions (DREZ) made by thermocoagulation were performed for intractable pain in 60 cases. Forty cases were under regular follow-up for 5-18 years. In early postoperative stage, the pain relief rate was excellent or good in 32 cases (80%). The pain relief rate dropped to 60% in 5 year follow-up period and only 9 cases (50%) had excellent or good result in 10 year follow-up. Reconstructive procedures were performed in almost all patients in the last 10 years. Dorsal root entry zone lesion is an effective procedure for pain control after brachial plexus avulsion injuries.

  15. Bionic reconstruction to restore hand function after brachial plexus injury: a case series of three patients.

    PubMed

    Aszmann, Oskar C; Roche, Aidan D; Salminger, Stefan; Paternostro-Sluga, Tatjana; Herceg, Malvina; Sturma, Agnes; Hofer, Christian; Farina, Dario

    2015-05-30

    Brachial plexus injuries can permanently impair hand function, yet present surgical reconstruction provides only poor results. Here, we present for the first time bionic reconstruction; a combined technique of selective nerve and muscle transfers, elective amputation, and prosthetic rehabilitation to regain hand function. Between April 2011, and May 2014, three patients with global brachial plexus injury including lower root avulsions underwent bionic reconstruction. Treatment occurred in two stages; first, to identify and create useful electromyographic signals for prosthetic control, and second, to amputate the hand and replace it with a mechatronic prosthesis. Before amputation, the patients had a specifically tailored rehabilitation programme to enhance electromyographic signals and cognitive control of the prosthesis. Final prosthetic fitting was applied as early as 6 weeks after amputation. Bionic reconstruction successfully enabled prosthetic hand use in all three patients. After 3 months, mean Action Research Arm Test score increased from 5·3 (SD 4·73) to 30·7 (14·0). Mean Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure score improved from 9·3 (SD 1·5) to 65·3 (SD 19·4). Mean Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand score improved from 46·5 (SD 18·7) to 11·7 (SD 8·42). For patients with global brachial plexus injury with lower root avulsions, who have no alternative treatment, bionic reconstruction offers a means to restore hand function. Austrian Council for Research and Technology Development, Austrian Federal Ministry of Science, Research & Economy, and European Research Council Advanced Grant DEMOVE. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of the DEKA Arm for amputees with brachial plexus injury: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Fantini, Christopher; Latlief, Gail; Phillips, Samuel; Sasson, Nicole; Sepulveda, Eve

    2017-01-01

    Objective Patients with upper limb amputation and brachial plexus injuries have high rates of prosthesis rejection. Study purpose is to describe experiences of subjects with transhumeral amputation and brachial plexus injury, who were fit with, and trained to use, a DEKA Arm. Methods This was a mixed-methods study utilizing qualitative (e.g. interview, survey) and quantitative data (e.g. self-report and performance measures). Subject 1, a current prosthesis user, had a shoulder arthrodesis. Subject 2, not a prosthesis user, had a subluxed shoulder. Both were trained in laboratory and participated in a trial of home use. Descriptive analyses of processes and outcomes were conducted. Results Subject 1 was fitted with the transhumeral configuration (HC) DEKA Arm using a compression release stabilized socket. He had 12 hours of prosthetic training and participated in all home study activities. Subject 1 had improved dexterity and prosthetic satisfaction with the DEKA Arm and reported better quality of life (QOL) at the end of participation. Subject 2 was fit with the shoulder configuration (SC) DEKA Arm using a modified X-frame socket. He had 30 hours of training and participated in 3 weeks of home activities. He reported less functional disability at the end of training as compared to baseline, but encountered personal problems and exacerbation of PTSD symptoms and withdrew from home use portion at 3 weeks. Both subjects reported functional benefits from use, and expressed a desire to receive a DEKA Arm in the future. Discussion This paper reported on two different strategies for prosthetic fitting and their outcomes. The advantages and limitations of each approach were discussed. Conclusion Use of both the HC and SC DEKA Arm for patients with TH amputation and brachial plexus injury was reported. Lessons learned may be instructive to clinicians considering prosthetic choices for future cases. PMID:28628623

  17. Use of the DEKA Arm for amputees with brachial plexus injury: A case series.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Fantini, Christopher; Latlief, Gail; Phillips, Samuel; Sasson, Nicole; Sepulveda, Eve

    2017-01-01

    Patients with upper limb amputation and brachial plexus injuries have high rates of prosthesis rejection. Study purpose is to describe experiences of subjects with transhumeral amputation and brachial plexus injury, who were fit with, and trained to use, a DEKA Arm. This was a mixed-methods study utilizing qualitative (e.g. interview, survey) and quantitative data (e.g. self-report and performance measures). Subject 1, a current prosthesis user, had a shoulder arthrodesis. Subject 2, not a prosthesis user, had a subluxed shoulder. Both were trained in laboratory and participated in a trial of home use. Descriptive analyses of processes and outcomes were conducted. Subject 1 was fitted with the transhumeral configuration (HC) DEKA Arm using a compression release stabilized socket. He had 12 hours of prosthetic training and participated in all home study activities. Subject 1 had improved dexterity and prosthetic satisfaction with the DEKA Arm and reported better quality of life (QOL) at the end of participation. Subject 2 was fit with the shoulder configuration (SC) DEKA Arm using a modified X-frame socket. He had 30 hours of training and participated in 3 weeks of home activities. He reported less functional disability at the end of training as compared to baseline, but encountered personal problems and exacerbation of PTSD symptoms and withdrew from home use portion at 3 weeks. Both subjects reported functional benefits from use, and expressed a desire to receive a DEKA Arm in the future. This paper reported on two different strategies for prosthetic fitting and their outcomes. The advantages and limitations of each approach were discussed. Use of both the HC and SC DEKA Arm for patients with TH amputation and brachial plexus injury was reported. Lessons learned may be instructive to clinicians considering prosthetic choices for future cases.

  18. Postoperative analgesic efficacy of different volumes and masses of ropivacaine in posterior brachial plexus block.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Bruno Salome; Cruvinel, Marcos Guilherme Cunha; Carneiro, Fabiano Soares; Lago, Flavio; Silva, Yerkes Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of posterior brachial plexus block for shoulder surgeries is demonstrated by different authors. However, there is no consensus on the ideal mass and volume of local anesthetic to be employed. The objetive of this study was to compare different volumes and masses of ropivacaine in posterior brachial plexus block in arthroscopic surgeries of the shoulder. Sixty patients > 18 years, physical status ASA I and II, scheduled for unilateral arthroscopic surgeries of the shoulder were randomly placed in three groups: A (10 mL to 0.5%), B (20 mL to 0.5%), C (5 mL to 1%). The block was performed with a 22G needle of 100 mm connected to neurostimulator, in a point 3 cm lateral to the midpoint of C6 and C7 interspace, being injected the solution corresponding to each group. The postoperative pain was evaluated at the recovery room and within the first 24 hours of the postoperative period. The groups were compared on length of time until the first complaint of pain, visual numeric scale (VNS) score and morphine consumption within the first 24 hours. There was no statistically significant difference between the three groups related to age, weight and height. There was no difference in length of time until the first complaint of pain, VNS scores over three and morphine consumption in the postoperative period between the groups. This study concluded that 5 mL of 1% ropivacaine promoted analgesic efficacy similar to 10 mL or 20 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine in the posterior brachial plexus block using neurostimulator. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Association of clonidine and ropivacaine in brachial plexus block for shoulder arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Faria-Silva, Raphael; de Rezende, Daniel Câmara; Ribeiro, Juarez Mundim; Gomes, Telmo Heleno; Oliveira, Braulio Antônio Maciel Faria Mota; Pereira, Fábio Maciel R; de Almeida Filho, Ildeu Afonso; de Carvalho Junior, Antônio Enéas Rangel

    2016-01-01

    Arthroscopy for shoulder disorders is associated with severe and difficult to control pain, postoperatively. The addition of clonidine to local anesthetics for peripheral nerve block has become increasingly common, thanks to the potential ability of this drug to reduce the mass of local anesthetic required and to prolonging analgesia postoperatively. The present study aimed to evaluate the success of brachial plexus block for arthroscopic rotator cuff surgery using local anesthetic with or without clonidine. 53 patients of both genders, between 18 and 70 years old, American Society of Anesthesiologists I or II, who were scheduled to undergo arthroscopic shoulder surgery were selected. Patients were then randomized into two groups. The verbal numerical pain scale and the presence of motor block were obtained in the post-anesthetic recovery room and 6, 12, 18 and 24h postoperatively. The association of clonidine (0.15mg) to a solution of 0.33% ropivacaine (30mL) in brachial plexus block for shoulder arthroscopy has not diminished the visual numeric pain scale values, nor the need for opioid rescue postoperatively. There was a lower incidence of nausea/vomiting postoperatively and a significant motor block time prolongation in the group of patients who received clonidine as adjuvant. The use of brachial plexus block with local anesthetic for analgesic postoperative control is well established in the literature. The addition of clonidine in the dose proposed for prolongation of the analgesic effect and reduction of opioid rescue proved unhelpful. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Anatomic Variation of Subclavian Artery Visualized on Ultrasound-Guided Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Arunima; Banerjee, Sumantra Sarathi

    2014-01-01

    Use of ultrasonography for performance of nerve and plexus blocks has made the process simpler and safer. However, at times, variant anatomy of the visualized structures can lead to failure of blocks or complications such as intravascular injections. This is especially true in case of novice operators. We report a case of a variant branch of subclavian artery, possibly the dorsal scapular artery passing through the brachial plexus nerve bundles in the supraclavicular area. Since this variation in anatomy was visualized in the scout scan prior to the performance of the block, it was possible to avoid any accidental puncture. Hence, a thorough knowledge of the ultrasound anatomy is important in order to identify various aberrations and variations. It is also prudent to perform a preliminary scan, prior to performance of the block to localize the target area and avoid any inadvertent complications. PMID:25143765

  1. [Significance of sensory evoked potentials in determination of the level of brachial plexus injuries].

    PubMed

    Bojović, V; Berisavac, I; Rasulic, L

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to show the highlights of electrophysiological diagnostics, i.e. its potentials in level diagnostics of traumatic disfunction of brachial plexus (BP). In that manner we have analyzed the results of electrophysiological research, made on 53 patients with different levels and grades of traumatic lesion of brachial plexus. We have also analyzed the authors' opinions and points of view who have contributed in solving these problems. Brachial plexus is a complex, vulnerable nerve structure that is often, in life, exposed to direct or indirect influence of mechanical force. Preserved integrity of bone structures of a shoulder protects BP from longitudinal forces, which are the most common causes of injury of this structure. Traction mechanism of the injury is always up to date in the cases of fractures and dislocation of the skeleton in this region. In the early childhood, mechanical injuries of brachial plexus are caused by distocia in the second delivery period, while in adulthood most common injuries are caused by sudden and intensive forces, which cause disfunction of plexus by traction mechanism (dislocation of a shoulder and clavicular fracture) and by direct action (stabing and piercing injuries). Slowly progressive, expansive, degenerative and inflammatory processes of neighbouring organs are causing the disfunction of the plexus as well. Traction actions are aimed mostly at radiculars as a vulnerable structure that is placed between relatively mobile shoulder joint and rigid cervical part of vertebral column. Complex anatomical structure and mutual overlapping of radicular motor and sensitive innervation of muscles and dermatoms, make the diagnostics of disfunction of this periphery nerve structure very difficult and complicated. Disfunction of neighboring bone, vascular and muscle elements as well as the nearness of vital organs, which complicates even more the diagnostics. Taking into account the general analysis of all

  2. Effect of dexamethasone in low volume supraclavicular brachial plexus block: A double-blinded randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Alarasan, Arun Kumar; Agrawal, Jitendre; Choudhary, Bhanu; Melhotra, Amrita; Uike, Satyendre; Mukherji, Arghya

    2016-01-01

    With the use of ultrasound, a minimal effective volume of 20 ml has been described for supraclavicular brachial plexus block. However achieving a long duration of analgesia with this minimal volume remains a challenge. We aimed to determine the effect of dexamethasone on onset and duration of analgesia in low volume supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each. Group C received saline (2 ml) + 20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine and Group D received dexamethasone (8 mg) + 20 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Hemodynamic variables and visual analog scale (VAS) score were noted at regular intervals until 450 min. The onset and duration of sensory and motor block were measured. The incidence of "Halo" around brachial plexus was observed. Student's t-test and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis. The onset of sensory and motor block was significantly earlier in dexamethasone group (10.36 ± 1.99 and 12 ± 1.64) minutes compared to control group (12.9 ± 2.23 and 18.03 ± 2.41) minutes. The duration of sensory and motor block was significantly prolonged in dexamethasone group (366 ± 28.11 and 337.33 ± 28.75) minutes compared to control group (242.66 ± 26.38 and 213 ± 26.80) minutes. The VAS score was significantly lower in dexamethasone group after 210 min. "Halo" was present around the brachial plexus in all patients in both the groups. Dexamethasone addition significantly increases the duration of analgesia in patients receiving low volume supraclavicular brachial plexus block. No significant side-effects were seen in patients receiving dexamethasone as an adjunct.

  3. Limited glenohumeral cross-body adduction in children with brachial plexus birth palsy: a contributor to scapular winging.

    PubMed

    Russo, Stephanie A; Loeffler, Bryan J; Zlotolow, Dan A; Kozin, Scott H; Richards, James G; Ashworth, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 1 of every 1000 live births results in life-long impairments because of a brachial plexus injury. The long-term sequelae of persistent injuries include glenohumeral joint dysplasia and glenohumeral internal rotation and adduction contractures. Scapular winging is also common, and patients and their families often express concern regarding this observed scapular winging. It is difficult for clinicians to adequately address these concerns without a satisfying explanation for why scapular winging occurs in children with brachial plexus birth palsy. This study examined our proposed theory that a glenohumeral cross-body abduction contracture leads to the appearance of scapular winging in children with residual brachial plexus birth palsy. Sixteen children with brachial plexus injuries were enrolled in this study. Three-dimensional locations of markers placed on the thorax, scapula, and humerus were recorded in the hand to mouth Mallet position. The unaffected limbs served as a control. Scapulothoracic and glenohumeral cross-body adduction angles were compared between the affected and unaffected limbs. The affected limbs demonstrated significantly greater scapulothoracic and significantly smaller glenohumeral cross-body adduction angles than the unaffected limbs. The affected limbs also exhibited a significantly lower glenohumeral cross-body adduction to scapulothoracic cross-body adduction ratio. The results of this study support the theory that brachial plexus injuries can lead to a glenohumeral cross-body abduction contracture. Affected children demonstrated increased scapulothoracic cross-body adduction that is likely a compensatory mechanism because of decreased glenohumeral cross-body adduction. These findings are unique and better define the etiology of scapular winging in children with brachial plexus injuries. This information can be relayed to patients and their families when explaining the appearance of scapular winging. Level II.

  4. Nerve transfers in brachial plexus birth palsies: indications, techniques, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kozin, Scott H

    2008-11-01

    The advent of nerve transfers has greatly increased surgical options for children who have brachial plexus birth palsies. Nerve transfers have considerable advantages, including easier surgical techniques, avoidance of neuroma resection, and direct motor and sensory reinnervation. Therefore, any functioning nerve fibers within the neuroma are preserved. Furthermore, a carefully selected donor nerve results in little or no clinical deficit. However, some disadvantages and unanswered questions remain. Because of a lack of head-to-head comparison between nerve transfers and nerve grafting, the window of opportunity for nerve grafting may be missed, which may degrade the ultimate outcome. Time will tell the ultimate role of nerve transfer or nerve grafting.

  5. Successful management of complex regional pain syndrome type 1 using single injection interscalene brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Fallatah, Summayah M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1 of the upper limb is a painful and debilitating condition. Interscalene brachial plexus block (ISB) in conjugation with other modalities was shown to be a feasible therapy with variable success. We reported a case of CRPS type 1 as diagnosed by International Association for the Study of Pain criteria in which pharmacological approaches failed to achieve adequate pain relief and even were associated with progressive dysfunction of the upper extremity. Single injection ISB, in combination with physical therapy and botulinum toxin injection, was successful to alleviate pain with functional restoration. PMID:25422619

  6. Glenohumeral abduction contracture in children with unresolved neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Eismann, Emily A; Little, Kevin J; Laor, Tal; Cornwall, Roger

    2015-01-21

    Following neonatal brachial plexus palsy, the Putti sign-obligatory tilt of the scapula with brachiothoracic adduction-suggests the presence of glenohumeral abduction contracture. In the present study, we utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify this glenohumeral abduction contracture and evaluate its relationship to shoulder joint deformity, muscle atrophy, and function. We retrospectively reviewed MRIs of the thorax and shoulders obtained before and after shoulder rebalancing surgery (internal rotation contracture release and external rotation tendon transfer) for twenty-eight children with unresolved neonatal brachial plexus palsy. Two raters measured the coronal positions of the scapula, thoracic spine, and humeral shaft bilaterally on coronal images, correcting trigonometrically for scapular protraction on axial images. Supraspinatus, deltoid, and latissimus dorsi muscle atrophy was assessed, blinded to other measures. Correlations between glenohumeral abduction contracture and glenoid version, humeral head subluxation, passive external rotation, and Mallet shoulder function before and after surgery were performed. MRI measurements were highly reliable between raters. Glenohumeral abduction contractures were present in twenty-five of twenty-eight patients, averaging 33° (range, 10° to 65°). Among those patients, abductor atrophy was present in twenty-three of twenty-five, with adductor atrophy in twelve of twenty-five. Preoperatively, greater abduction contracture severity correlated with greater Mallet global abduction and hand-to-neck function. Abduction contracture severity did not correlate preoperatively with axial measurements of glenohumeral dysplasia, but greater glenoid retroversion was associated with worse abduction contractures postoperatively. Surgery improved passive external rotation, active abduction, and hand-to-neck function, but did not change the abduction contracture. A majority of patients with persistent shoulder weakness

  7. Ultrasound-guided supraclavicular approach for regional anesthesia of the brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Kapral, S; Krafft, P; Eibenberger, K; Fitzgerald, R; Gosch, M; Weinstabl, C

    1994-03-01

    We prospectively studied 40 patients (ASA grades I-III) undergoing surgery of the forearm and hand, to investigate the use of ultrasonic cannula guidance for supraclavicular brachial plexus block and its effect on success rate and frequency of complications. Patients were randomized into Group S (supraclavicular paravascular approach; n = 20) and Group A (axillary approach; n = 20). Ultrasonographic study of the plexus sheath was done. After visualization of the anatomy, the plexus sheath was penetrated using a 24-gauge cannula. Plexus block was performed using 30 mL bupivacaine 0.5%. Onset of sensory and motor block of the radial, ulnar, and median nerves was recorded in 10-min intervals for 1 h. Satisfactory surgical anesthesia was attained in 95% of both groups. In Group A, 25% showed an incomplete sensory block of the musculocutaneous nerve, whereas all patients in Group S had a block of this nerve. Complete sensory block of the radial, median, and ulnar nerves was attained after an average of 40 min without a significant difference between the two groups. Because of the direct ultrasonic view of the cervical pleura, we had no cases of pneumothorax. An accidental puncture of subclavian or axillary vessels, as well as neurologic damage, was avoided in all cases. An ultrasonography-guided approach for supraclavicular block combines the safety of axillary block with the larger extent of block of the supraclavicular approach.

  8. Outcome Following Spinal Accessory to Suprascapular (Spinoscapular) Nerve Transfer in Infants with Brachial Plexus Birth Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Ruchelsman, David E.; Ramos, Lorna E.; Alfonso, Israel; Price, Andrew E.; Grossman, Agatha

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the value of distal spinal accessory nerve (SAN) transfer to the suprascapular nerve (SSN) in children with brachial plexus birth injuries in order to better define the application and outcome of this transfer in these infants. Over a 3-year period, 34 infants with brachial plexus injuries underwent transfer of the SAN to the SSN as part of the primary surgical reconstruction. Twenty-five patients (direct repair, n = 20; interposition graft, n = 5) achieved a minimum follow-up of 24 months. Fourteen children underwent plexus reconstruction with SAN-to-SSN transfer at less than 9 months of age, and 11 underwent surgical reconstruction at the age of 9 months or older. Mean age at the time of nerve transfer was 11.6 months (range, 5–30 months). At latest follow-up, active shoulder external rotation was measured in the arm abducted position and confirmed by review of videos. The Gilbert and Miami shoulder classification scores were utilized to report shoulder-specific functional outcomes. The effects of patient age at the time of nerve transfer and the use of interpositional nerve graft were analyzed. Overall mean active external rotation measured 69.6°; mean Gilbert score was 4.1 and the mean Miami score was 7.1, corresponding to overall good shoulder functional outcomes. Similar clinical and shoulder-specific functional outcomes were obtained in patients undergoing early (<9 months of age, n = 14) and late (>9 months of age, n = 11) SAN-to-SSN transfer and primary plexus reconstruction. Nine patients (27%) were lost to follow-up and are not included in the analysis. Optimum results were achieved following direct transfer (n = 20). Results following the use of an interpositional graft (n = 5) were rated satisfactory. No patient required a secondary shoulder procedure during the study period. There were no postoperative complications. Distal SAN-to-SSN (spinoscapular) nerve transfer is a reliable

  9. Follow-up 26 years after dorsal root entry zone thermocoagulation for brachial plexus avulsion and phantom limb pain.

    PubMed

    Tomycz, Nestor D; Moossy, John J

    2011-01-01

    Brachial plexus avulsion and limb amputation are often associated with intractable chronic pain. Dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) thermocoagulation is an effective surgical treatment for upper-extremity deafferentation pain. The authors describe the clinical follow-up and imaging in a patient who underwent DREZ thermocoagulation 26 years ago for postamputation phantom limb syndrome with associated brachial plexus avulsion. This patient continues to have successful pain control without phantom limb sensation and has never experienced a recurrence of his left upper-extremity pain syndrome. This report lends credibility to the notion that, among ablative neurosurgical pain operations, DREZ thermocoagulation may provide the greatest durability of pain control.

  10. Axillary artery injury combined with delayed brachial plexus palsy due to compressive hematoma in a young patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Axillary artery injury in the shoulder region following blunt trauma without association with either shoulder dislocation or fracture of the humeral neck has been previously reported. Axillary artery injury might also be accompanied with brachial plexus injury. However, delayed onset of brachial plexus palsy caused by a compressive hematoma associated with axillary injury after blunt trauma in the shoulder region has been rarely reported. In previous reports, this condition only occurred in old patients with sclerotic vessels. We present a case of a young patient who suffered axillary artery injury associated with brachial plexus palsy that occurred tardily due to compressive hematoma after blunt trauma in the shoulder region without association of either shoulder dislocation or humeral neck fracture. Case presentation A 16-year-old male injured his right shoulder in a motorbike accident. On initial physical evaluation, the pulses on the radial and ulnar arteries in the affected arm were palpable. Paralysis developed later from 2 days after the injury. Functions in the right arm became significantly impaired. Angiography showed complete occlusion of the axillary artery. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a mass measuring 4 × 5 cm that was suspected to be a hematoma compressing the brachial plexus in a space between the subscapular muscle and the pectoralis minor muscle. Surgery was performed on the third day after injury. In intraoperative observations, the axillary artery was occluded with thrombus along 5 cm; a subscapular artery was ruptured; the brachial plexus was compressed by the hematoma. After evacuation of the hematoma, neurolysis of the brachial plexus, and revascularization of the axillary artery, the patient had an excellent functional recovery of the affected upper limb, postoperatively. Conclusion Surgeons should be aware that axillary artery injuries may even occur in young people after severe blunt trauma in the shoulder region

  11. The Prevalence, Rate of Progression, and Treatment of Elbow Flexion Contracture in Children with Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Sheffler, Lindsey C.; Lattanza, Lisa; Hagar, Yolanda; Bagley, Anita; James, Michelle A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Elbow flexion contracture is a well-known complication of brachial plexus birth palsy that adversely affects upper-extremity function. The prevalence, risk factors, and rate of progression of elbow flexion contracture associated with brachial plexus birth palsy have not been established, and the effectiveness of nonoperative treatment involving nighttime splinting or serial casting has not been well studied. Methods: The medical records of 319 patients with brachial plexus birth palsy who had been seen at our institution between 1992 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with an elbow flexion contracture (≥10°). The chi-square test for trend and the Kaplan-Meier estimator were used to evaluate risk factors for contracture, including age, sex, and the extent of brachial plexus involvement. Longitudinal models were used to estimate the rate of contracture progression and the effectiveness of nonoperative treatment. Results: An elbow flexion contracture was present in 48% (152) of the patients with brachial plexus birth palsy. The median age of onset was 5.1 years (range, 0.25 to 14.8 years). The contracture was ≥30° in 36% (fifty-four) of these 152 patients and was accompanied by a documented radial head dislocation in 6% (nine). The prevalence of contracture increased with increasing age (p < 0.001) but was not significantly associated with sex or with the extent of brachial plexus involvement. The magnitude of the contracture increased by 4.4% per year before treatment (p < 0.01). The magnitude of the contracture decreased by 31% when casting was performed (p < 0.01) but thereafter increased again at the same rate of 4.4% per year. The magnitude of the contracture did not improve when splinting was performed but the rate of increase thereafter decreased to <0.1% per year (p = 0.04). Conclusions: The prevalence of elbow flexion contracture in children with brachial plexus birth palsy may be greater than clinicians perceive

  12. The prevalence, rate of progression, and treatment of elbow flexion contracture in children with brachial plexus birth palsy.

    PubMed

    Sheffler, Lindsey C; Lattanza, Lisa; Hagar, Yolanda; Bagley, Anita; James, Michelle A

    2012-03-07

    Elbow flexion contracture is a well-known complication of brachial plexus birth palsy that adversely affects upper-extremity function. The prevalence, risk factors, and rate of progression of elbow flexion contracture associated with brachial plexus birth palsy have not been established, and the effectiveness of nonoperative treatment involving nighttime splinting or serial casting has not been well studied. The medical records of 319 patients with brachial plexus birth palsy who had been seen at our institution between 1992 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients with an elbow flexion contracture (≥10°). The chi-square test for trend and the Kaplan-Meier estimator were used to evaluate risk factors for contracture, including age, sex, and the extent of brachial plexus involvement. Longitudinal models were used to estimate the rate of contracture progression and the effectiveness of nonoperative treatment. An elbow flexion contracture was present in 48% (152) of the patients with brachial plexus birth palsy. The median age of onset was 5.1 years (range, 0.25 to 14.8 years). The contracture was ≥30° in 36% (fifty-four) of these 152 patients and was accompanied by a documented radial head dislocation in 6% (nine). The prevalence of contracture increased with increasing age (p < 0.001) but was not significantly associated with sex or with the extent of brachial plexus involvement. The magnitude of the contracture increased by 4.4% per year before treatment (p < 0.01). The magnitude of the contracture decreased by 31% when casting was performed (p < 0.01) but thereafter increased again at the same rate of 4.4% per year. The magnitude of the contracture did not improve when splinting was performed but the rate of increase thereafter decreased to <0.1% per year (p = 0.04). The prevalence of elbow flexion contracture in children with brachial plexus birth palsy may be greater than clinicians perceive. The prevalence increased with patient age but

  13. Biceps Tendon Lengthening Surgery for Failed Serial Casting Patients With Elbow Flexion Contractures Following Brachial Plexus Birth Injury

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Assessment of surgical outcomes of biceps tendon lengthening (BTL) surgery in obstetric brachial plexus injury (OBPI) patients with elbow flexion contractures, who had unsuccessful serial casting. Background: Serial casting and splinting have been shown to be effective in correcting elbow flexion contractures in OBPI. However, the possibilities of radial head dislocations and other complications have been reported in serial casting and splinting. Literature indicates surgical intervention when such nonoperative techniques and range-of-motion exercises fail. Here, we demonstrated a significant reduction of the contractures of the affected elbow and improvement in arm length to more normal after BTL in these patients, who had unsuccessful serial casting. Methods and Patients: Ten OBPI patients (6 girls and 4 boys) with an average age of 11.2 years (4-17.7 years) had BTL surgery after unsuccessful serial casting. Results: Mean elbow flexion contracture was 40° before and 37° (average) after serial casting. Mean elbow flexion contracture was reduced to 8° (0°-20°) post-BTL surgical procedure with an average follow-up of 11 months. This was 75% improvement and statistically significant (P < .001) when compared to 7% insignificant (P = .08) improvement after serial casting. Conclusion: These OBPI patients in our study had 75% significant reduction in elbow flexion contractures and achieved an improved and more normal length of the affected arm after the BTL surgery when compared to only 7% insignificant reduction and no improvement in arm length after serial casting. PMID:27648115

  14. Pressure-specified sensory device versus electrodiagnostic testing in brachial plexus upper trunk injury.

    PubMed

    Nath, Rahul Kumar; Bowen, Margaret Elaine; Eichhorn, Mitchell George

    2010-05-01

    Brachial plexus upper trunk injury is associated with winged scapula owing to the close anatomical course of the long thoracic nerve and upper trunk. Needle electromyography is a common diagnostic test for this injury; however, it does not detect injury in most patients with upper trunk damage. The pressure-specified sensory device may be an alternative to needle electromyography. Thirty patients with winged scapula and upper trunk injury were evaluated with needle electromyography (EMG) and pressure-specified sensory device (PSSD) tests. EMG testing of the biceps muscle was compared with PSSD testing of the dorsal hand skin (C6 damage), and EMG testing of the deltoid and spinati muscles was compared with PSSD testing of the deltoid skin (C5 damage). PSSD pressure values were significantly higher on the affected arm. On the basis of published and calculated threshold values the PSSD was found to be significantly more sensitive than EMG. The PSSD tests consistently identified injuries that were not detected by needle EMG tests. These findings provide strong evidence that the PSSD is more effective than needle EMG in the detection of brachial plexus upper trunk injury.

  15. Factors related to the psychosocial functioning of youth with neonatal brachial plexus injuries.

    PubMed

    Mentrikoski, Janelle M; Duncan, Christina L; Melanson, Andrea; Louden, Emily; Allgier, Allison; Michaud, Linda; Rinaldi, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Owing to the possible visible nature and functional impairments associated with neonatal brachial plexus injuries (NBPI), the current study investigated the relations of injury severity, social support, and coping strategies to social difficulties and self-concept in youth with NBPI. 88 children (aged 10-17 years) with NBPI and their parent(s) were recruited from a national organization and two brachial plexus clinics. Participants completed a variety of questionnaires during their scheduled clinic visits. More social support from classmates was associated with better self-concept and fewer social difficulties. Less frequent use of negative coping strategies was associated with better self-concept and fewer social difficulties and was a significant moderator of the relation between injury severity and self-concept. Clinicians who work with children with NBPI should consider peer support and coping strategies when promoting the psychosocial functioning of these youth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Intercostal nerve transfer to the biceps motor branch in complete traumatic brachial plexus injuries.

    PubMed

    Cho, Alvaro Baik; Iamaguchi, Raquel Bernardelli; Silva, Gustavo Bersani; Paulos, Renata Gregorio; Kiyohara, Leandro Yoshinobu; Sorrenti, Luiz; de Menezes, Klícia de Oliveira Costa Riker Teles; de Rezende, Marcelo Rosa; Wei, Teng Hsiang; Mattar Júnior, Rames

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to critically evaluate our results of two intercostal nerve transfers directly to the biceps motor branch in complete traumatic brachial plexus injuries. From January 2007 to November 2012, 19 patients were submitted to this type of surgery, but only 15 of them had a follow-up for ≥2 years and were included in this report. The mean interval from trauma to surgery was 6.88 months (ranging from 3 to 9 months). Two intercostals nerves were dissected and transferred directly to the biceps motor branch. The mean follow-up was 38.06 months (ranging from 24 to 62 months). Ten patients (66.6%) recovered an elbow flexion strength ≥M3. Four of them (26.66%) recovered a stronger elbow flexion ≥M4. One patient (6.25%) recovered an M2 elbow flexion and four patients (26.66%) did not regain any movement. We concluded that two intercostal nerve transfers to the biceps motor branch is a procedure with moderate results regarding elbow flexion recovery, but it is still one of the few options available in complete brachial plexus injuries, especially in five roots avulsion scenario. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Variations of Cords of Brachial Plexus and Branching Pattern of Nerves Emanating From Them.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajani

    2017-03-01

    Brachial plexus is complex network of nerves, formed by joining and splitting of ventral rami of spinal nerves C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1 forming trunks, divisions, and cords. The nerves emerging from trunks and cords innervate the upper limb and to some extent pectoral region. Scanty literature describes the variations in the formation of cords and nerves emanating from them. Moreover, the variations of cords of brachial plexus and nerves emanating from them have iatrogenic implications in the upper limb and pectoral region. Hence study has been carried out. Twenty-eight upper limbs and posterior triangles from 14 cadavers fixed in formalin were dissected and rare and new variations of cords were observed. Most common variation consisted of formation of posterior cord by fusion of posterior division of upper and middle trunk and lower trunk continued as medial cord followed by originating of 2 pectoral nerves from anterior divisions of upper and middle trunk. Other variations include anterior division of upper trunk continued as lateral cord and pierced the coracobrachialis, upper and middle trunk fused to form common cord which divided into lateral and posterior cords, upper trunk gave suprascapular nerve and abnormal lateral pectoral nerve and formation of median nerve by 3 roots. These variations were analyzed for diagnostic and clinical significance making the study relevant for surgeons, radiologists in arresting failure patients and anatomists academically in medical education.

  18. Pan-brachial plexus neuropraxia following lightning: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Patnaik, Ashis; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar; Jha, Menka

    2015-01-01

    Neurological complications following lightning are rare and occur in form of temporary neurological deficits of central origin. Involvement of peripheral nervous system is extremely rare and only a few cases have been described in the literature. Isolated unilateral pan-brachial plexus neuropraxia has never been reported in the literature. Steroids have long been used for treatment of neuropraxia. However, their use in lightning neural injury is unique and requires special mention. We report a rare case of lightning-induced unilateral complete flaccid paralysis along with sensory loss in a young patient. Lightning typically causes central nervous involvement in various types of motor and sensory deficit. Surprisingly, the nerve conduction study showed the involvement of peripheral nervous system involvement. Steroids were administered and there was significant improvement in neurological functions within a short span of days. Patients' functions in the affected limb were normal in one month. Our case was interesting since it is the first such case in the literature where lightning has caused such a rare instance of unilateral pan-brachial plexus lesion. Such cases when seen, raises the possibility of more common central nervous system pathology rather than peripheral involvement. However, such lesions can be purely benign forms of peripheral nerve neuropraxia, which can be managed by steroid treatment without leaving any long-term neurological deficits.

  19. Pan-brachial plexus neuropraxia following lightning: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Patnaik, Ashis; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar; Jha, Menka

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neurological complications following lightning are rare and occur in form of temporary neurological deficits of central origin. Involvement of peripheral nervous system is extremely rare and only a few cases have been described in the literature. Isolated unilateral pan-brachial plexus neuropraxia has never been reported in the literature. Steroids have long been used for treatment of neuropraxia. However, their use in lightning neural injury is unique and requires special mention. Case Description: We report a rare case of lightning-induced unilateral complete flaccid paralysis along with sensory loss in a young patient. Lightning typically causes central nervous involvement in various types of motor and sensory deficit. Surprisingly, the nerve conduction study showed the involvement of peripheral nervous system involvement. Steroids were administered and there was significant improvement in neurological functions within a short span of days. Patients’ functions in the affected limb were normal in one month. Conclusion: Our case was interesting since it is the first such case in the literature where lightning has caused such a rare instance of unilateral pan-brachial plexus lesion. Such cases when seen, raises the possibility of more common central nervous system pathology rather than peripheral involvement. However, such lesions can be purely benign forms of peripheral nerve neuropraxia, which can be managed by steroid treatment without leaving any long-term neurological deficits. PMID:25883854

  20. [Characteristics of mepivacaine axillary brachial plexus block performed at 2800 m of altitude].

    PubMed

    Fuzier, R; Fourcade, O; Fuzier, V; Gonzalez, H; Albert, N; Riviere, D; Capdevila, X

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility and pharmacodynamic profile of axillary brachial plexus nerve blocks performed in high altitude. A prospective study was performed in healthy volunteers. Ten male volunteers received 20 ml of 1.5% mepivacaine on radial and median nerves (total 40 ml), first at altitude of 150 then at 2877 m. Onset and offset times for sensory, motor and sympathetic blocks were recorded. Blood was sampled up to 60 min after injection to measure plasma concentrations of mepivacaine. At 150 and 2877 m of altitude, onset times for blocks were similar. Duration of sensory and motor blocks was not different at low and high altitude (193+/-35 min and 180+/-47 min; and 237+/-32 min and 217+/-44 min, respectively). Plasma mepivacaine concentrations were significantly lower at 20 minutes in high altitude (p<0.05). At higher altitude, one patient showed clinical signs of neurological toxicity, with plasma concentrations of mepivacaine ranging from 0.94 to 1.21 mug/ml. At altitude of 2877 m, axillary brachial plexus block with 1.5% mepivacaine is feasible, with onset and offset times for sensory and motor effects similar to those performed at 150 m.

  1. Dexamethasone added to mepivacaine prolongs the duration of analgesia after supraclavicular brachial plexus blockade.

    PubMed

    Parrington, Simon J; O'Donnell, Dermot; Chan, Vincent W S; Brown-Shreves, Danielle; Subramanyam, Rajeev; Qu, Melody; Brull, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Corticosteroids have been used successfully to prolong the duration of local anesthetic action after peripheral nerve and epidural blockade. We hypothesized that the addition of dexamethasone to mepivacaine would prolong the duration of analgesia after ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block for patients undergoing upper-limb surgery. After Federal Health Department and institutional review board approval, 45 adult patients undergoing elective hand or forearm surgery under supraclavicular brachial plexus blockade were randomized to receive either 30 mL mepivacaine 1.5% plus dexamethasone 8 mg (4 mg/mL), or 30 mL mepivacaine 1.5% plus 2 mL normal saline. The primary outcome measure was duration of analgesia. Secondary outcomes included onset times of sensory and motor blockade, pain and satisfaction scores, analgesic consumption, and block-related complications. Patient characteristics were similar between groups. The median duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in the Dexamethasone group (332 mins; interquartile range, 225-448 mins) compared with the Normal Saline group (228 mins; interquartile range, 207-263 mins; P = 0.008). The onset times of sensory and motor block were similar between the groups. Complications were minor and transient and did not differ between groups at 2 weeks postoperatively. The addition of dexamethasone to mepivacaine prolongs the duration of analgesia but does not reduce the onset of sensory and motor blockade after ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block compared with mepivacaine alone.

  2. Isolated latissimus dorsi transfer to restore shoulder external rotation in adults with brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Singh, V K; Jeyaseelan, L; Sinisi, M; Fox, M

    2013-05-01

    In adults with brachial plexus injuries, lack of active external rotation at the shoulder is one of the most common residual deficits, significantly compromising upper limb function. There is a paucity of evidence to address this complex issue. We present our experience of isolated latissimus dorsi (LD) muscle transfer to achieve active external rotation. This is a retrospective review of 24 adult post-traumatic plexopathy patients who underwent isolated latissimus dorsi muscle transfer to restore external rotation of the shoulder between 1997 and 2010. All patients were male with a mean age of 34 years (21 to 57). All the patients underwent isolated LD muscle transfer using a standard technique to correct external rotational deficit. Outcome was assessed for improvement in active external rotation, arc of movement, muscle strength and return to work. The mean improvement in active external rotation from neutral was 24° (10° to 50°). The mean increase in arc of rotation was 52° (38° to 55°). Mean power of the external rotators was 3.5 Medical Research Council (MRC) grades (2 to 5). A total of 21 patients (88%) were back in work by the time of last follow up. Of these, 13 had returned to their pre-injury occupation. Isolated latissimus dorsi muscle transfer provides a simple and reliable method of restoring useful active external rotation in adults with brachial plexus injuries with internal rotational deformity.

  3. Shoulder tendon transfer options for adult patients with brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Elhassan, Bassem; Bishop, Alan; Shin, Alexander; Spinner, Robert

    2010-07-01

    Enhancement of upper-extremity function, specifically shoulder function, after brachial plexus injury requires a good understanding of nerve repair and transfer, with their expected outcome, as well as shoulder anatomy and biomechanics enabling the treating surgeon to use available functioning muscles around the shoulder for transfer, to improve shoulder function. Surgical treatment should address painful shoulder subluxation in addition to improvement of function. The literature focuses on improving shoulder abduction, but improving shoulder external rotation should take priority because this function, even if isolated, will allow patients to position their hand in front of their body. With a functional elbow and hand, patients will be able to do most activities of daily living. The lower trapezius has been shown to be a good transfer to restore external rotation of the shoulder. Other parts of the trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboids, and, when available, the latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major, teres major, biceps, triceps, and serratus anterior muscles can all be used to replace the rotator cuff and deltoid muscle function. To optimize the results, a close working relationship is required between surgeons reconstructing brachial plexus injury and shoulder specialists.

  4. Tick paralysis with atypical presentation: isolated, reversible involvement of the upper trunk of brachial plexus

    PubMed Central

    Engin, A; Elaldi, N; Bolayir, E; Dokmetas, I; Bakir, M

    2006-01-01

    Tick paralysis is a disease that occurs worldwide. It is a relatively rare but potentially fatal condition. The only way to establish the diagnosis is to carefully search for the tick paralysis. It is caused by a neurotoxin secreted by engorged female ticks. Tick paralysis generally begins in the lower extremities and ascends symmetrically to involve the trunk, upper extremities and head within a few hours. Although early‐onset prominent bulbar palsy and isolated facial weakness without generalised paralysis are rare, there is no report in the English literature concerning isolated, reversible involvement of the upper trunk of brachial plexus caused by tick bite. We report a case of isolated, reversible involvement of the upper trunk of brachial plexus as a variant of tick paralysis. Diagnosis was confirmed with needle electromyography and nerve conduction examination. Within 2 weeks, the patient was fully recovered. The purpose of presenting this case is to remind clinicians that tick paralysis should be considered even in cases with atypical neurological findings admitted to the emergency department. PMID:16794084

  5. Tick paralysis with atypical presentation: isolated, reversible involvement of the upper trunk of brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Engin, A; Elaldi, N; Bolayir, E; Dokmetas, I; Bakir, M

    2006-07-01

    Tick paralysis is a disease that occurs worldwide. It is a relatively rare but potentially fatal condition. The only way to establish the diagnosis is to carefully search for the tick paralysis. It is caused by a neurotoxin secreted by engorged female ticks. Tick paralysis generally begins in the lower extremities and ascends symmetrically to involve the trunk, upper extremities and head within a few hours. Although early-onset prominent bulbar palsy and isolated facial weakness without generalised paralysis are rare, there is no report in the English literature concerning isolated, reversible involvement of the upper trunk of brachial plexus caused by tick bite. We report a case of isolated, reversible involvement of the upper trunk of brachial plexus as a variant of tick paralysis. Diagnosis was confirmed with needle electromyography and nerve conduction examination. Within 2 weeks, the patient was fully recovered. The purpose of presenting this case is to remind clinicians that tick paralysis should be considered even in cases with atypical neurological findings admitted to the emergency department.

  6. Outcomes associated with a structured prenatal counseling program for shoulder dystocia with brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Daly, Mary Veronica; Bender, Christina; Townsend, Kathryn E; Hamilton, Emily F

    2012-08-01

    We examined outcomes that were associated with a novel program to identify patients who are at high risk for shoulder dystocia with brachial plexus injury. The program included a checklist of key risk factors and a multifactorial algorithm to estimate risk of shoulder dystocia with brachial plexus injury. We examined rates of cesarean delivery and shoulder dystocia in 8767 deliveries by clinicians who were enrolled in the program and in 11,958 patients of clinicians with no access to the program. Key risk factors were identified in 1071 of 8767 mothers (12.2%), of whom 40 of 8767 women (0.46%) had results in the high-risk category. The rate of primary cesarean delivery rate was stable (21.2-20.8%; P = .57). Shoulder dystocia rates fell by 56.8% (1.74-0.75%; P = .002). The rates of shoulder dystocia and cesarean birth showed no changes in the group with no access to the program. With the introduction of this program, overall shoulder dystocia rates fell by more than one-half with no increase in the primary cesarean delivery rate. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Perineural administration of dexmedetomidine in combination with ropivacaine prolongs axillary brachial plexus block.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Chang-Song; Shi, Jing-Hui; Sun, Bo; Liu, Shu-Jie; Li, Peng; Li, En-You

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis that adding dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine prolongs axillary brachial plexus block. Forty-five patients of ASA I~II and aged 25-60 yr who were scheduled for elective forearm and hand surgery were randomly divided into 3 equal groups and received 40 ml of 0.33% ropivacaine + 1 ml dexmedetomidine (50 μg) (Group DR1), 40 ml of 0.33% ropivacaine + 1 ml dexmedetomidine (100 μg) (group DR2) or 40 ml of 0.33% ropivacaine + 1 ml saline (group R) in a double-blind fashion. The onset and duration of sensory and motor blocks and side effects were recorded. The demographic data and surgical characteristics were similar in each group. Sensory and motor block onset times were the same in the three groups. Sensory and motor blockade durations were longer in group DR2 than in group R (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the sensory blockade duration between group DR1 and group R. Bradycardia, hypertension and hypotension were not observed in group R and occurred more often in group DR2 than in group DR1. Dexmedetomidine added to ropivacaine for an axillary brachial plexus block prolongs the duration of the block. However, dexmedetomidine may also lead to side effects such as bradycardia, hypertension, and hypotension.

  8. Reanimation of elbow extension with medial pectoral nerve transfer in partial injuries to the brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Flores, Leandro Pretto

    2013-03-01

    Recent advancements in operative treatment of the brachial plexus authorized more extensive repairs and, currently, elbow extension can be included in the rank of desirable functions to be restored. This study aims to describe the author's experience in using the medial pectoral nerve for reinnervation of the triceps brachii in patients sustaining C5-7 palsies of the brachial plexus. This is a retrospective study of the outcomes regarding recovery of elbow extension in 12 patients who underwent transfer of the medial pectoral nerve to the radial nerve or to the branch of the long head of the triceps. The radial nerve was targeted in 3 patients, and the branch to the long head of the triceps was targeted in 9. Grafts were used in 6 patients. Outcomes assessed as Medical Research Council Grades M4 and M3 for elbow extension were noted in 7 (58%) and 5 (42%) patients, respectively. The medial pectoral nerve is a reliable donor for elbow extension recovery in patients who have sustained C5-7 nerve root injuries.

  9. Experimental study of brachial plexus and vessel compression: evaluation of combined central and peripheral electrodiagnostic approach

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chaoqun; Xu, Jianguang; Chen, Jie; Li, Shulin; Cao, Yu; Zhu, Yi; Xu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Introduction We sought to investigate the reliability of a new electrodiagnostic method for identifying Electrodiagnosis of Brachial Plexus & Vessel Compression Syndrome (BPVCS) in rats that involves the application of transcranial electrical stimulation motor evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) combined with peripheral nerve stimulation compound muscle action potentials (PNS-CMAPs). Results The latencies of the TES-MEP and PNS-CMAP were initially elongated in the 8-week group. The amplitudes of TES-MEP and PNS-CMAP were initially attenuated in the 16-week group. The isolateral amplitude ratio of the TES-MEP to the PNS-CMAP was apparently decreased, and spontaneous activities emerged at 16 weeks postoperatively. Materials and Methods Superior and inferior trunk models of BPVCS were created in 72 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats that were divided into six experimental groups. The latencies, amplitudes and isolateral amplitude ratios of the TES-MEPs and PNS-CMAPs were recorded at different postoperative intervals. Conclusions Electrophysiological and histological examinations of the rats’ compressed brachial plexus nerves were utilized to establish preliminary electrodiagnostic criteria for BPVCS. PMID:28881588

  10. Electrostimulation with or without ultrasound-guidance in interscalene brachial plexus block for shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Salem, Mohamed H; Winckelmann, Jörg; Geiger, Peter; Mehrkens, Hans-Hinrich; Salem, Khaled H

    2012-08-01

    In a prospective controlled trial to compare conventional interscalene brachial plexus block (ISBPB) using anatomic landmarks and electro-stimulation with a combined technique of ultrasound guidance followed by nerve stimulation, 60 patients were randomized into 2 matched equal groups: Group A using nerve stimulation (NS) alone and Group B using the combination of ultrasound and NS. The time to detect the plexus (3.9 ± 4 min in Group A and 3.3 ± 1.4 min in Group B) was not significantly different. We needed to reposition the needle once (n = 13) or twice (n = 4) in Group B. First-shot motor response was achieved in all but one patient in Group A; here we were only able to locate the plexus by use of ultrasound. None of the patients needed general anaesthesia. There were no significant differences between postoperative pain, motor power, or patient's satisfaction. ISBPB seems similarly effective using electro-stimulation and ultrasound if performed by experienced anesthesiologists.

  11. Prevalence of Neuropathic Pain in Patients with Traumatic Brachial Plexus Injury: A Multicenter Prospective Hospital-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Ciaramitaro, Palma; Padua, Luca; Devigili, Grazia; Rota, Eugenia; Tamburin, Stefano; Eleopra, Roberto; Cruccu, Giorgio; Truini, Andrea

    2017-03-03

    Prevalence and clinical characteristics of neuropathic pain due to traumatic brachial plexus injury. Observational epidemiological study. Hospital-based multicenter study. One hundred seven prospectively enrolled patients with brachial plexus injury. All the patients underwent clinical examination and neurophysiological testing for a definitive diagnosis of the brachial plexus lesion. The DN4 questionnaire was used to identify neuropathic pain, and the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI) to evaluate the different symptoms of neuropathic pain. The SF36 questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to assess quality of life and mood disturbances in patients with neuropathic pain. Of the 107 enrolled patients, 74 had pain (69%); neuropathic pain, as assessed by means of the DN4, was identified in 60 (56%) of these patients. According to the NPSI, the most frequent and severe pain type was the spontaneous burning pain. Clinical and neurophysiological findings showed that pain is unrelated to age but is associated with the severity of peripheral nerve damage. The SF36 questionnaire and BDI showed that neuropathic pain impairs quality of life and causes depression. Our study provides information on the prevalence, characteristics, and variables associated with neuropathic pain due to traumatic brachial plexus injuries that might provide a basis for improving the clinical management of this condition.

  12. A comparative study of brachial plexus sonography and magnetic resonance imaging in chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy and multifocal motor neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Goedee, H S; Jongbloed, B A; van Asseldonk, J-T H; Hendrikse, J; Vrancken, A F J E; Franssen, H; Nikolakopoulos, S; Visser, L H; van der Pol, W L; van den Berg, L H

    2017-10-01

    To compare the performance of neuroimaging techniques, i.e. high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), when applied to the brachial plexus, as part of the diagnostic work-up of chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). Fifty-one incident, treatment-naive patients with CIDP (n = 23) or MMN (n = 28) underwent imaging of the brachial plexus using (i) a standardized MRI protocol to assess enlargement or T2 hyperintensity and (ii) bilateral HRUS to determine the extent of nerve (root) enlargement. We found enlargement of the brachial plexus in 19/51 (37%) and T2 hyperintensity in 29/51 (57%) patients with MRI and enlargement in 37/51 (73%) patients with HRUS. Abnormal results were only found in 6/51 (12%) patients with MRI and 12/51 (24%) patients with HRUS. A combination of the two imaging techniques identified 42/51 (83%) patients. We found no association between age, disease duration or Medical Research Council sum-score and sonographic nerve size, MRI enlargement or presence of T2 hyperintensity. Brachial plexus sonography could complement MRI in the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected CIDP and MMN. Our results indicate that combined imaging studies may add value to the current diagnostic consensus criteria for chronic inflammatory neuropathies. © 2017 EAN.

  13. Comparison between isotropic linear-elastic law and isotropic hyperelastic law in the finite element modeling of the brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Perruisseau-Carrier, A; Bahlouli, N; Bierry, G; Vernet, P; Facca, S; Liverneaux, P

    2017-04-03

    Augmented reality could help the identification of nerve structures in brachial plexus surgery. The goal of this study was to determine which law of mechanical behavior was more adapted by comparing the results of Hooke's isotropic linear elastic law to those of Ogden's isotropic hyperelastic law, applied to a biomechanical model of the brachial plexus. A model of finite elements was created using the ABAQUS(®) from a 3D model of the brachial plexus acquired by segmentation and meshing of MRI images at 0°, 45° and 135° of shoulder abduction of a healthy subject. The offset between the reconstructed model and the deformed model was evaluated quantitatively by the Hausdorff distance and qualitatively by the identification of 3 anatomical landmarks. In every case the Hausdorff distance was shorter with Ogden's law compared to Hooke's law. On a qualitative aspect, the model deformed by Ogden's law followed the concavity of the reconstructed model whereas the model deformed by Hooke's law remained convex. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that the behavior of Ogden's isotropic hyperelastic mechanical model was more adapted to the modeling of the deformations of the brachial plexus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Analgesic Effects and Neuropathology Changes of Electroacupuncture on Curing a Rat Model of Brachial Plexus Neuralgia Induced by Cobra Venom.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Qian, Xiao-Yan; An, Jian-Xiong; Liu, Cai-Cai; Jiang, Yi-De; Cope, Doris K; Williams, John P

    2016-03-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) is widely applied to treat neuropathic pain. Brachial plexus neuralgia (BPN) is a common form of chronic persistent pain. Few studies have evaluated the analgesic effects and mechanism of EA using the novel animal model of BPN. To observe the curative effects of repeated EA on curing BPN induced by administration of cobra venom to the lower trunk of the right brachial plexus. Controlled animal study. Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Medicine & Critical Care Medicine, Aviation General Hospital of China Medical University. Sixty-six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were equally and randomly divided into the following groups: normal control (NC), brachial plexus neuralgia (BPN), BPN with sham EA stimulation, BPN with EA stimulation starting on postoperative day 1 (EA1), and BPN with EA stimulation starting on postoperative day 12 (EA12). The BPN model was established by administration of cobra venom to the lower trunk of the right brachial plexus. On postoperative day 1 or day 12, EA (constant aquare wave, 2 Hz and 100 Hz alternating frequencies, intensities ranging from 1 - 1.5 - 2 mA) was applied to the right "Shousanli" (LI10) and "Quchi" (LI11) acupoints for 30 minutes, once every other day for 12 times in both groups. Mechanical withdrawal thresholds (MWT) were tested with von Frey filaments. Video recordings were conducted to analyze the spontaneous exploratory behaviors. Moreover, the organizational and structural alterations of the right brachial plexus and cervical cord (C8-T1) were examined via light and electron microscopy. Following the production of the BPN model, the MWT of both ipsilateral and contralateral paws demonstrated a profound decrease (P < 0.05). But after EA interventions, the MWT showed a significant increase (P < 0.05). In comparison to the EA12 group, the analgesic effects of the EA1 group were more significant, and similar results were observed in exploratory behaviors. However, grooming behaviors did not

  15. Comparison Between Ultrasound-Guided Supraclavicular and Interscalene Brachial Plexus Blocks in Patients Undergoing Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Taeha; Kil, Byung Tae; Kim, Jong Hae

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although supraclavicular brachial plexus block (SCBPB) was repopularized by the introduction of ultrasound, its usefulness in shoulder surgery has not been widely reported. The objective of this study was to compare motor and sensory blockades, the incidence of side effects, and intraoperative opioid analgesic requirements between SCBPB and interscalene brachial plexus block (ISBPB) in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (ISBPB group: n = 47; SCBPB group: n = 46). The side effects of the brachial plexus block (Horner's syndrome, hoarseness, and subjective dyspnea), the sensory block score (graded from 0 [no cold sensation] to 100 [intact sensation] using an alcohol swab) for each of the 5 dermatomes (C5–C8 and T1), and the motor block score (graded from 0 [complete paralysis] to 6 [normal muscle force]) for muscle forces corresponding to the radial, ulnar, median, and musculocutaneous nerves were evaluated 20 min after the brachial plexus block. Fentanyl was administered in 50 μg increments when the patients complained of pain that was not relieved by the brachial plexus block. There were no conversions to general anesthesia due to a failed brachial plexus block. The sensory block scores for the C5 to C8 dermatomes were significantly lower in the ISBPB group. However, the percentage of patients who received fentanyl was comparable between the 2 groups (27.7% [ISBPB group] and 30.4% [SCBPB group], P = 0.77). SCBPB produced significantly lower motor block scores for the radial, ulnar, and median nerves than did ISBPB. A significantly higher incidence of Horner's syndrome was observed in the ISBPB group (59.6% [ISBPB group] and 19.6% [SCBPB group], P < 0.001). No patient complained of subjective dyspnea. Despite the weaker degree of sensory blockade provided by SCBPB in comparison to ISBPB, opioid analgesic requirements are similar during arthroscopic shoulder surgery under

  16. [Current concepts in perinatal brachial plexus palsy. Part 2: late phase. Shoulder deformities].

    PubMed

    Dogliotti, Andrés Alejandro

    2011-10-01

    The incidence of obstetric brachial palsy is high and their sequelaes are frequent. Physiotherapy, microsurgical nerve reconstruction and secondary corrections are used together to improve the shoulder function. The most common posture is shoulder in internal rotation and adduction, because of the antagonist weakness. The muscle forces imbalance over the osteoarticular system, will result in a progressive glenohumeral joint deformity which can be recognized with a magnetic resonance image. Tendon transfers of the internal rotators towards the external abductor/rotator muscles, has good results, but has to be combined with antero-inferior soft-tissue releases, if passive range of motion is limited.

  17. Blockade of the brachial plexus abolishes activation of specific brain regions by electroacupuncture at LI4: a functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Gu, Weidong; Jiang, Wei; He, Jingwei; Liu, Songbin; Wang, Zhaoxin

    2015-12-01

    Our aim was to test the hypothesis that electroacupuncture (EA) at acupuncture point LI4 activates specific brain regions by nerve stimulation that is mediatied through a pathway involving the brachial plexus. Twelve acupuncture naive right-handed volunteers were allocated to receive three sessions of EA at LI4 in a random different order (crossover): (1) EA alone (EA); EA after injection of local anaesthetics into the deltoid muscle (EA+LA); and (3) EA after blockade of the brachial plexus (EA+NB). During each session, participants were imaged in a 3 T MRI scanner. Brain regions showing change in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal (activation) were identified. Subjective acupuncture sensation was quantified after functional MRI scanning was completed. Results were compared between the three sessions for each individual, and averaged. Blockade of the brachial plexus inhibited acupuncture sensation during EA. EA and EA+LA activated the bilateral thalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum and left putamen, whilst no significant activation was observed during EA+NB. The BOLD signal of the thalamus correlated significantly with acupuncture sensation score during EA. Blockade of the brachial plexus completely abolishes patterns of brain activation induced by EA at LI4. The results suggest that EA activates specific brain regions through stimulation of the local nerves supplying the tissues at LI4, which transmit sensory information via the brachial plexus. ChiCTR-OO-13003389. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Brachial Plexus-Associated Neuropathy After High-Dose Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Hall, William H.; Li, Judy; Beckett, Laurel; Farwell, D. Gregory; Lau, Derick H.; Purdy, James A.

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To identify clinical and treatment-related predictors of brachial plexus-associated neuropathies after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Three hundred thirty patients who had previously completed radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer were prospectively screened using a standardized instrument for symptoms of neuropathy thought to be related to brachial plexus injury. All patients were disease-free at the time of screening. The median time from completion of radiation therapy was 56 months (range, 6-135 months). One-hundred fifty-five patients (47%) were treated by definitive radiation therapy, and 175 (53%) were treated postoperatively. Radiation doses ranged from 50 to 74 Gy (median, 66 Gy). Intensity-modulated radiation therapy was used in 62% of cases, and 133 patients (40%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Forty patients (12%) reported neuropathic symptoms, with the most common being ipsilateral pain (50%), numbness/tingling (40%), motor weakness, and/or muscle atrophy (25%). When patients with <5 years of follow-up were excluded, the rate of positive symptoms increased to 22%. On univariate analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with brachial plexus symptoms: prior neck dissection (p = 0.01), concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.01), and radiation maximum dose (p < 0.001). Cox regression analysis confirmed that both neck dissection (p < 0.001) and radiation maximum dose (p < 0.001) were independently predictive of symptoms. Conclusion: The incidence of brachial plexus-associated neuropathies after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer may be underreported. In view of the dose-response relationship identified, limiting radiation dose to the brachial plexus should be considered when possible.

  19. Functioning free muscle transfer for the restoration of elbow flexion in brachial plexus injury patients.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Emmanuel P; Montales, Tristram D

    2016-11-01

    Restoration of elbow function in traumatic brachial plexus injury patients remains the priority in the reconstruction of the involved extremity. In cases of complete nerve root injuries and in delayed cases, the only option for elbow reconstruction is the functional free muscle transfer. The purpose of this paper was to present the clinical outcomes and complications of functioning free muscle transfers using the gracilis muscle for the restoration of elbow flexion in brachial plexus injury patients in a tertiary institution from January 1, 2005 to January 31, 2014. A retrospective review of all patients who had functioning free muscle transfers for elbow flexion was done with a minimum of 12 months follow-up. Outcome measures were elbow flexion in terms of range of motion in degrees, muscle strength of the transferred muscle, VAS (visual analogue scale) for pain, postoperative DASH scores and complications of the procedure. There were 39 males and three females. The average age at the time of surgery was 28.6 (SD, 8.5) years. The average delay to surgery was 16 months (range, 3-120 months). The flap success rate for viability was achieved in 38 of 42 patients. The average follow-up for the 38 patients was 30 months (range, 12-103 months, SD 19 months). Success rate of at least M3/5 muscle strength was achieved in 37 of 42 patients with an average range of elbow flexion of 107° (SD, 20.4°). The average post-operative VAS for pain was 3.6 (SD, 3.0). The average post-operative DASH score was 43.09 (SD, 14.9). There were a total of 10 minor complications and five major complications. Functioning free muscle transfer using the gracilis muscle was a reliable procedure in the restoration of elbow flexion in patients with incomplete brachial plexus injury treated beyond 6 months from the time of injury and in patients with complete injuries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of clonidine as an adjuvant to brachial plexus block and its comparison with tramadol

    PubMed Central

    Kelika, Prakash; Arun, Jamkar Maya

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: It has been reported that clonidine when used as an additive in a dose of 90 μg in adults increases the duration of peripheral nerve blocks. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of clonidine in brachial plexus blocks and to compare it with tramadol. Material and Methods: Ninety patients posted for upper limb orthopedic surgery were divided randomly into three groups. 40 mL of local anesthetic solution was prepared using 15 mL of 2% lignocaine-adrenaline-sodium bicarbonate solution, 15 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine, and 10 mL distilled water. Patients received a supraclavicular brachial plexus block with 0.7 mL/kg of this solution to which either 1 mg/kg tramadol, 1 μg/kg clonidine, or 1.5 μg/kg clonidine was added. The onset and duration of sensory and motor block and the duration of postoperative analgesia were recorded. Pulse rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, saturation, sedation, and any side effect were monitored. Results were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance F-test and unpaired t-test. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the onset of both the sensory and motor components of the block with the fastest onset seen when clonidine was used in a dose of 1.5 μg/kg. The block also lasted statistically significantly longer with clonidine as compared with tramadol although there was no statistically significant increase in the duration of the block when a higher dose of clonidine was used. The time for rescue analgesia was the longest in patients who received 1.5 μg/kg of clonidine (491.8 ± 33.9 min). This duration was also statistically significant. Patients who received tramadol reported a statistically significant higher incidence of nausea. Conclusion: Clonidine in a dose of 1.5 μg/kg body weight provided the fastest onset of sensory as well as motor block and the longest duration of postoperative analgesia and thus is a good additive to local anesthetic solutions for brachial

  1. Evaluation of clonidine as an adjuvant to brachial plexus block and its comparison with tramadol.

    PubMed

    Kelika, Prakash; Arun, Jamkar Maya

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that clonidine when used as an additive in a dose of 90 μg in adults increases the duration of peripheral nerve blocks. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of clonidine in brachial plexus blocks and to compare it with tramadol. Ninety patients posted for upper limb orthopedic surgery were divided randomly into three groups. 40 mL of local anesthetic solution was prepared using 15 mL of 2% lignocaine-adrenaline-sodium bicarbonate solution, 15 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine, and 10 mL distilled water. Patients received a supraclavicular brachial plexus block with 0.7 mL/kg of this solution to which either 1 mg/kg tramadol, 1 μg/kg clonidine, or 1.5 μg/kg clonidine was added. The onset and duration of sensory and motor block and the duration of postoperative analgesia were recorded. Pulse rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, saturation, sedation, and any side effect were monitored. Results were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance F-test and unpaired t-test. There was a statistically significant difference in the onset of both the sensory and motor components of the block with the fastest onset seen when clonidine was used in a dose of 1.5 μg/kg. The block also lasted statistically significantly longer with clonidine as compared with tramadol although there was no statistically significant increase in the duration of the block when a higher dose of clonidine was used. The time for rescue analgesia was the longest in patients who received 1.5 μg/kg of clonidine (491.8 ± 33.9 min). This duration was also statistically significant. Patients who received tramadol reported a statistically significant higher incidence of nausea. Clonidine in a dose of 1.5 μg/kg body weight provided the fastest onset of sensory as well as motor block and the longest duration of postoperative analgesia and thus is a good additive to local anesthetic solutions for brachial plexus blocks.

  2. [A case of subacute necrotizing lymphadenitis complicated with brachial plexus neuritis].

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, A; Araki, E; Arakawa, K; Kikuchi, H; Iwaki, T; Yamada, T; Kira, J

    1998-01-01

    A 22-year-old female noted a low grade fever and swelling of the cervical lymph nodes in May 1997, and later developed a dry cough. She was diagnosed to have interstitial pneumonitis, and then administration of corticosteroids alleviated her symptoms. On February 6, 1998, however, a high fever recurred and her swollen cervical lymph node on the right side was biopsied on February 9, 1998. A histological examination revealed an increased number of histiocytes and karyorrhexis of the lymphocytes in the paracortical areas, and she was therefore diagnosed to have histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis. She could not fully elevate her arm on February 16, 1998. On admission, her cervical lymph node was swollen on the left side. A neurological examination revealed a marked weakness of the right deltoid muscle, moderate weakness of the right latissimus dorsi, triceps and brachioradialis muscles and also a mild weakness of the serratus anterior, supra- and infra-spinatus, and biceps brachii muscles. The muscle power of the other muscles were normal and no muscle atrophy was evident. Winging of the right scapula was observed. The deep tendon reflexes were normal in all four limbs, and her sensation was also normal. No cerebellar sign was found. The Jackson, Spurling, Allen, Morley and Adson tests were all negative. ESR was mildly elevated to 18 mm/hr, but CRP was negative. RF, ANA and anti-SS-A and SS-B antibodies were positive, whereas LE-test, direct and indirect Coombs tests and other autoantibodies were negative. Needle EMG disclosed fasciculation potentials in the right triceps muscle and polyphasic waves in the right deltoid muscle. MRI showed gadolinium-enhancement of the right brachial plexus. Although an abnormal accumulation of gallium was detected in the right parotid and bilateral submandibular glands, no sicca symptoms were found and the Schirmer test findings were normal. Oral prednisolone (50 mg/day with gradual tapering) alleviated both her symptoms and the

  3. Postoperative monitoring in free muscle transfers for reconstruction in brachial plexus injuries.

    PubMed

    Dodakundi, Chaitanya; Doi, Kazuteru; Hattori, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Soutetsu; Yonemura, Hiroshi; Fujihara, Yuki

    2012-03-01

    Free gracilis transfers are done for reanimation of the upper limb in traumatic total brachial plexus palsy. Because of buried nature of the free muscle and monitoring skin flap in the axillary or infraclavicular region, it is always a tricky situation for continuous and repeated monitoring to assess vascular status. Critical ischemia times vary between the muscle and monitoring skin flap because of which signs of ischemic changes in the monitoring skin flap are always delayed with respect to the muscle. We describe a novel method that uses the principle of evoked potentials from the muscle to assess the vascular status of the free muscle and detects vascular compromise early before the skin changes are apparent.

  4. Risk factors for brachial plexus injury in a large cohort with shoulder dystocia.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Katherine A; Snowden, Jonathan M; Cheng, Yvonne W; Caughey, Aaron B

    2016-11-01

    To examine birthweight and other predictors of brachial plexus injury (BPI) among births complicated by shoulder dystocia. A retrospective cohort study of term births complicated by shoulder dystocia in California between 1997 and 2006. Birthweight at time of delivery was stratified into 500-g intervals. Women were further stratified by diabetes status, parity, and race/ethnicity. The perinatal outcome of BPI was assessed. This study included 62,762 deliveries complicated by shoulder dystocia, of which 3168 (5 %) resulted in BPI. The association between birthweight and BPI remained significant regardless of confounders. Each increasing birthweight interval was associated with an increasing risk of BPI compared with 3000-3499-g birthweight. Race/ethnicity, diabetes, and parity were also independently associated with BPI. Increasing birthweight increases the risk of BPI among births with shoulder dystocia, independent of advanced maternal age, race, parity, gestational diabetes, or operative vaginal delivery.

  5. Hypotensive bradycardic events during shoulder arthroscopic surgery under interscalene brachial plexus blocks

    PubMed Central

    Song, Seok Young

    2012-01-01

    Sudden, profound hypotensive and bradycardic events (HBEs) have been reported in more than 20% of patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy in the sitting position. Although HBEs may be associated with the adverse effects of interscalene brachial plexus block (ISBPB) in the sitting position, the underlying mechanisms responsible for HBEs during the course of shoulder surgery are not well understood. The basic mechanisms of HBEs may be associated with the underlying mechanisms responsible for vasovagal syncope, carotid sinus hypersensitivity or orthostatic syncope. In this review, we discussed the possible mechanisms of HBEs during shoulder arthroscopic surgery, in the sitting position, under ISBPB. In particular, we focused on the relationship between HBEs and various types of syncopal reactions, the relationship between HBEs and the Bezold-Jarisch reflex, and the new contributing factors for the occurrence of HBEs, such as stellate ganglion block or the intraoperative administration of intravenous fentanyl. PMID:22474545

  6. Double free-muscle transfer to restore prehension following complete brachial plexus avulsion.

    PubMed

    Doi, K; Sakai, K; Kuwata, N; Ihara, K; Kawai, S

    1995-05-01

    Restoration of finger flexion and extension as well as elbow flexion and extension with a double free-muscle and multiple nerve transfers following complete avulsion of the brachial plexus (nerve roots C5 to T1) is reported. The procedure combines (1) free-muscle transfer with reinnervation by the spinal accessory nerve to achieve elbow flexion and finger extension, (2) free-muscle transfer with reinnervation by the fifth and sixth intercostal nerves to restore finger flexion, (3) third and fourth intercostal motor nerve transfer to the triceps brachi to extend and stabilize the elbow, (4) nerve transfer of the supraclavicular nerve or nerve transfer of the sensory rami of the intercostal nerves to the median nerve to restore hand sensibility, and (5) glenohumeral arthrodesis. Seven of 10 patients recovered elbow function and finger flexion and extension. Five patients reported use of their hand in activities of daily living.

  7. Reconstruction of finger and elbow function after complete avulsion of the brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Doi, K; Sakai, K; Kuwata, N; Ihara, K; Kawai, S

    1991-09-01

    Simultaneous reconstruction of elbow and finger function with free muscle and nerve transfers after complete avulsion of the brachial plexus (nerve roots C5 to T1) and its long-term results are presented. The basic procedure combined free or vascular pedicle latissimus dorsi muscle transfer with reinnervation by the spinal accessory nerve to obtain elbow and finger flexion, intercostal nerve transfer of the radial nerve to activate elbow and wrist extensors, and suture of the supraclavicular nerve or intercostal sensory rami to the median nerve to restore hand sensibility. Six patients had some or all of these procedures. Postoperative follow-up ranged from 2 to 5 years. Elbow function was restored completely, and some finger flexion was achieved in all cases, although a dynamic splint was necessary to straighten the digits. Patients have continued to improve in grasp power and finger control. This procedure appears to be promising for the restoration of basic hand function in severely handicapped patients.

  8. Restoration of elbow flexion in root lesions of brachial plexus injuries.

    PubMed

    Nagano, A; Ochiai, N; Okinaga, S

    1992-09-01

    A retrospective review of 87 patients with loss of elbow flexion secondary to root injuries of the brachial plexus was carried out. Results of nerve grafting, direct nerve transfer with the intercostal nerve, or tendon transfer were analyzed, and treatment recommendations were developed. Nerve transfer provided good or excellent results for injuries that included avulsion of the C5 and/or C6 roots. Nerve grafts were used successfully in cases of single or combined ruptures of C5 and C6. Tendon transfers provided good or excellent results in C5-C6 or C5-C7 avulsions, where nerve grafting was not possible and transferable muscles had good strength. Somatosensory evoked potentials were necessary to demonstrate nerve root avulsions in cases in which the roots appeared ruptured on visual inspection.

  9. Attenuation of brain grey matter volume in brachial plexus injury patients.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yechen; Liu, Hanqiu; Hua, Xuyun; Xu, Jian-Guang; Gu, Yu-Dong; Shen, Yundong

    2016-01-01

    Brachial plexus injury (BPI) causes functional changes in the brain, but the structural changes resulting from BPI remain unknown. In this study, we compared grey matter volume between nine BPI patients and ten healthy controls by means of voxel-based morphometry. This was the first study of cortical morphology in BPI. We found that brain regions including the cerebellum, anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral inferior, medial, superior frontal lobe, and bilateral insula had less grey matter in BPI patients. Most of the affected brain regions of BPI patients are closely related to motor function. We speculate that the loss of grey matter in multiple regions might be the neural basis of the difficulties in the motor rehabilitation of BPI patients. The mapping result might provide new target regions for interventions of motor rehabilitation.

  10. Clinical Assessment of the Infant and Child Following Perinatal Brachial Plexus Injury

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Susan V.; DeMatteo, Carol

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN Literature review INTRODUCTION After perinatal brachial plexus injury (PBPI), clinicians play an important role in injury classification as well as the assessment of recovery and secondary conditions. Early assessment guides the initial plan of care and influences follow-up and long-term outcome. PURPOSE To review methods used to assess, classify and monitor the extent and influence of PBPI with an emphasis on guidelines for clinicians. METHODS We use The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) model to provide a guide to assessment after PBPI for rehabilitation clinicians. DISCUSSION With information gained from targeted assessments, clinicians can design interventions to increase the opportunities infants and children have for optimal recovery and to attain skills that allow participation in areas of interest. PMID:25840493

  11. Adult Peripheral Nerve Disorders—Nerve Entrapment, Repair, Transfer and Brachial Plexus Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Ida K.; Mackinnon, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Learning Objectives After reviewing this article the reader should be able to: 1. Describe the pathophysiologic bases for nerve injury and how it applies to patient evaluation and management. 2. Realize the wide variety of injury patterns and associated patient complaint and physical findings associated with peripheral nerve pathology. 3. Evaluate and recommend further tests to aid in defining the diagnosis. 4. Specify treatment options and potential risks and benefits. Summary Peripheral nerve disorders comprise a gamut of problems ranging from entrapment neuropathy, to direct open traumatic injury and closed brachial plexus injury. The pathophysiology of injury defines the patient symptoms, exam findings and treatment options and is critical to accurate diagnosis and treatment. Goals of treatment include management of often associated pain and improvement of sensory and motor function. Understanding peripheral nerve anatomy is critical to adopting novel nerve transfer procedures, which may provide superior options for a variety of injury patterns. PMID:21532404

  12. SHOULDER STRENGTH PROFILES IN CHILDREN WITH AND WITHOUT BRACHIAL PLEXUS PALSY

    PubMed Central

    BROCHARD, SYLVAIN; ALTER, KATHARINE; DAMIANO, DIANE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We characterized bilateral shoulder strength and the balance of antagonist/agonist muscle pairs in children with brachial plexus palsy (BPP) and with typical development (TD). Methods In 15 children with unilateral BPP and 11 with TD, bilateral maximal isometric shoulder strength in flexion/extension, internal/external rotation, and abduction/adduction was recorded using a hand-held dynamometer. Correlation between strength and active range of motion were evaluated using the Mallet score. Results Children with BPP had strength asymmetry in all muscles, whereas children with TD had significant strength asymmetry for flexors and abductors. In children with BPP, extensors and external rotators were the weakest muscles, leading to sagittal and transverse plane muscle imbalances. Higher strength values were related to better active range of motion. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of documenting shoulder strength profiles in children with BPP which may help predict deformity development. PMID:24307245

  13. Multimodality imaging of peripheral neuropathies of the upper limb and brachial plexus.

    PubMed

    Linda, Dorota Dominika; Harish, Srinivasan; Stewart, Brian G; Finlay, Karen; Parasu, Naveen; Rebello, Ryan Paul

    2010-09-01

    The peripheral nerves of the upper limb are affected by a number of entrapment and compression neuropathies. These discrete syndromes involve the brachial plexus as well as the musculocutaneous, axillary, suprascapular, ulnar, radial, and median nerves. Clinical examination and electrophysiologic studies are the traditional mainstay of diagnostic work-up; however, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging provide spatial information regarding the affected nerve and its surroundings, often assisting in narrowing the differential diagnosis and guiding treatment. Imaging is particularly valuable in complex cases with discrepant nerve function test results. Familiarity with the clinical features of various peripheral neuropathies of the upper extremity, the relevant anatomy, and the most common sites and causes of nerve entrapment assists in diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Contribution of denervated muscle to contractures after neonatal brachial plexus injury: not just muscle fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Sia; Liangjun, Hu; Tuttle, Lori J; Weekley, Holly; Christopher, Wylie; Lieber, Richard L; Cornwall, Roger

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the contribution of muscle fibrosis to elbow flexion contractures in a murine model of neonatal brachial plexus injury (NBPI). Four weeks after NBPI, biceps and brachialis fibrosis were assessed histologically and compared with the timing of contracture development and the relative contribution of each muscle to contractures. Modulus of elasticity and hydroxyproline (collagen) content were measured and correlated with contracture severity. The effect of halofuginone antifibrotic therapy on fibrosis and contractures was investigated. Elbow contractures preceded muscle fibrosis development. The brachialis was less fibrotic than the biceps, yet contributed more to contractures. Modulus and hydroxyproline content increased in both elbow flexors, but neither correlated with contracture severity. Halofuginone reduced biceps fibrosis but did not reduce contracture severity. Contractures after NBPI cannot be explained solely by muscle fibrosis, arguing for investigation of alternate pathophysiologic targets for contracture prevention and treatment. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Resection of Primary Brachial Plexus Tumor via a Modified Supraclavicular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tschoe, Christine; Holsapple, James W.; Binello, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors are generally considered curable lesions, and surgical resection is recommended as the primary line of treatment. When these tumors occur in the brachial plexus, they are most frequently accessed via the supraclavicular approach. Traditional descriptions of this approach have included either transection of sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle fibers or disarticulation of the clavicular head of the SCM muscle. This report presents a simple and easy-to-adapt modification of the supraclavicular approach that offers greater preservation of the SCM muscle. The modification primarily consists of the creation of an intramuscular window between the sternal and clavicular heads of the SCM via the splitting and dilation SCM muscle fibers. This technique minimizes the disruption of SCM muscle tissue compared with previous descriptions and may be associated with improved postoperative pain and return to function. PMID:25083372

  16. [Brachial plexus compression from supraclavicular encapsulated fat necrosis. A case report].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Páez, Miguel; de Miguel-Pueyo, Luis; Marín-Salido, Esteban José; Carrasco-Brenes, Antonio; Martín-Gallego, Alvaro; Arráez-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 44-year-old male, lacking clinical history of previous illness, who had surgery at our hospital to treat a mass in the supraclavicular space. The patient presented with a 1-month progressive distal paresis of the left arm. The histo-pathological examination of the mass revealed an encapsulated fat necrosis. Fat necrosis is characterised by cystic architecture, encapsulation with fat necrosis within, and inflammatory infiltration of its walls. Neural structure compression secondary to this tumour mass is very rare. Fat necrosis is more frequent in the lower limbs, in areas exposed to trauma. This article is the first report of brachial plexus compression due to supraclavicular fat necrosis.

  17. Optimal axon counts for brachial plexus nerve transfers to restore elbow flexion.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Joseph J; Byun, David J; Khair, Mahmoud M; Rosenblatt, Lauren; Lee, Steve K; Wolfe, Scott W

    2015-01-01

    Nerve transfer surgery has revolutionized the management of traumatic brachial plexus injures. However, the optimal size ratio of donor to recipient nerve has yet to be elucidated. The authors investigated the axon count ratios of ulnar and median fascicular transfers to restore elbow flexion. The authors hypothesized that donor nerve axon counts would be correlated with historical success of various nerve transfers used to restore elbow flexion. Ten cadaveric specimens were used for a histomorphologic analysis of fascicular nerve transfers. Review of previously published axon counts and clinical results following transfer to the musculocutaneous nerve to restore elbow flexion was performed for the following donor nerves: medial pectoral, spinal accessory, intercostal, thoracodorsal, ulnar, and median fascicular. The average number of fascicles identified was 7.9 in the ulnar nerve and 8.0 in the median nerve. The mean fascicular axon count was 1318 for the ulnar nerve and 1860 for the median nerve. Mean recipient nerve axon count was 1826 for the musculocutaneous biceps branch and 1840 for the brachialis branch. A significant correlation between axon count and clinical results of transfers to restore elbow flexion was observed. Donor-to-recipient nerve axon count ratios below 0.7:1 were associated with a decreased likelihood of a successful outcome. In nerve transfers to restore elbow flexion, an appropriate size match between donor and recipient nerves appears to be a factor affecting clinical success. These data support a donor-to-recipient axon count ratio greater than 0.7:1 as the goal for brachial plexus nerve transfers to restore elbow flexion.

  18. A Thematic Analysis of Online Discussion Boards for Brachial Plexus Injury.

    PubMed

    Morris, Marie T; Daluiski, Aaron; Dy, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Patients with brachial plexus injury (BPI) and their family members contribute to Internet discussion groups dedicated to BPI. We hypothesized that a thematic analysis of posts from BPI Internet discussion groups would reveal common themes related to the BPI patient experience, providing topics for patient education and counseling. Internet discussion boards were identified using the search term "brachial plexus injury support group" in Google, Bing, and Yahoo! search engines. Two discussion boards had substantially more posts than other Web sites and were chosen for analyses. Posts from January 1, 2015, through January 1, 2016, were examined. Using an iterative and established process, 2 investigators (M.T.M. and C.J.D) independently analyzed each post using thematic analysis in 3 steps (open coding, axial coding, and selective coding) to determine common themes. In this process, each post was reviewed 3 times. A total of 328 posts from the 2 leading discussion boards were analyzed. Investigators reached a consensus on themes for all posts. One central theme focused on emotional aspects of BPI. Four other central themes regarding information support were identified: BPI disease, BPI treatment, recovery after BPI treatment, and process of seeking care for BPI. Examination of posts on Internet support groups for BPI revealed recurring concerns, questions, and opinions of patients and their family members. The most common themes related to disease information, treatment, recovery, and the emotional element of BPI. These findings provide a helpful starting point in refining topics for patient education and support that are targeted on patients' interests and concerns. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Minimum effective concentration of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block guided by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Alexandre; Ferraro, Leonardo Henrique Cunha; Rezende, André Hosoi; Sadatsune, Eduardo Jun; Falcão, Luiz Fernando dos Reis; Tardelli, Maria Angela

    2015-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in regional anesthesia allows reducing the dose of local anesthetic used for peripheral nerve block. The present study was performed to determine the minimum effective concentration (MEC90) of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block. Patients undergoing hand surgery were recruited. To estimate the MEC90, a sequential up-down biased coin method of allocation was used. The bupivacaine dose was 5 mL for each nerve (radial, ulnar, median, and musculocutaneous). The initial concentration was 0.35%. This concentration was changed by 0.05% depending on the previous block; a blockade failure resulted in increased concentration for the next patient; in case of success, the next patient could receive or reduction (0.1 probability) or the same concentration (0.9 probability). Surgical anesthesia was defined as driving force ≤ 2 according to the modified Bromage scale, lack of thermal sensitivity and response to pinprick. Postoperative analgesia was assessed in the recovery room with numeric pain scale and the amount of drugs used within 4h after the blockade. MEC90 was 0.241% [R(2): 0.978, confidence interval: 0.20-0.34%]. No patient, with successful block, reported pain after 4h. This study demonstrated that ultrasound guided axillary brachial plexus block can be performed with the use of low concentration of local anesthetics, increasing the safety of the procedure. Further studies should be conducted to assess blockade duration at low concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. C8 cross transfer for the treatment of caudal brachial plexus avulsion in three dogs.

    PubMed

    Moissonnier, Pierre; Carozzo, Claude; Thibaut, Jean-Laurent; Escriou, Catherine; Hidalgo, Antoine; Blot, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the cervical nerve 8 cross-transfer technique (C8CT) as a part of surgical treatment of caudal brachial plexus avulsion (BPA) in the dog. Case series. Client-owned dogs suspected to have caudal BPA based on neurological examination and electrophysiological testing (n = 3). The distal stump of the surgically transected contralateral C8 ventral branch (donor) was bridged to the proximal stump of the avulsed C8 ventral branch (recipient) and secured with 9-0 polypropylene suture under an operating microscope. A carpal panarthrodesis was performed on the injured limb after C8CT. Surgical exploration confirmed avulsion of nerve roots C7, C8, and T1 in all cases. There was no evidence of an iatrogenic effect on the donor forelimb. Gradual improvement in function of the affected forelimb occurred in all dogs, with eventual recovery of voluntary elbow extension. Reinnervation was evident in EMG recordings 6 months postoperatively in all three dogs. Stimulation of the donor C8 ventral branch led to motor evoked potentials in the avulsed side triceps brachialis and radial carpus extensor muscles. Variable functional outcome was observed in the 3 dogs during clinical evaluation 3-4 years after surgery. Digital abrasion wounds, distal interphalangeal infectious arthritis, and self-mutilation necessitated distal phalanx amputation of digits 3 and 4 in 2 dogs. C8CT provided partial reconnection of the donor C8 ventral branch to the avulsed brachial plexus in the 3 dogs of this series. Reinnervation resulted in active elbow extension and promoted functional recovery in the affected limb. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  1. Comparative evaluation of ropivacaine and ropivacaine with dexamethasone in supraclavicular brachial plexus block for postoperative analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Palaria, Urmila; Sinha, Ajay K.; Punera, D. C.; Pandey, Vijita

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mixing of various adjuvants has been tried with local anesthetics in an attempt to prolong anesthesia from peripheral nerve blocks but have met with inconclusive success. More recent studies indicate that 8 mg dexamethasone added to perineural local anesthetic injections augment the duration of peripheral nerve block analgesia. Aims: Evaluating the hypothesis that adding dexamethasone to ropivacaine significantly prolongs the duration of analgesia in supraclavicular brachial plexus block compared with ropivacaine alone. Patients and Methods: It was a randomized, prospective, and double-blind clinical trial. Eighty patients of ASA I and II of either sex, aged 16-60 years, undergoing elective upper limb surgeries were equally divided into two groups and given supraclavicular nerve block. Group R patients (n = 40) received 30 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine with distilled water (2 ml)-control group whereas Group D patients (n = 40) received 30 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine with 8 mg dexamethasone (2 ml)-study group. The primary outcome was measured as duration of analgesia that was defined as the interval between the onset of sensory block and the first request for analgesia by the patient. The secondary outcome included maximum visual analogue scale (VAS), total analgesia consumption, surgeon satisfaction, and side effects. Results: Group R patients required first rescue analgesia earlier (557 ± 58.99 min) than those of Group D patients (1179.4 ± 108.60 min), which was found statistically significant in Group D (P < 0.000). The total dose of rescue analgesia was higher in Group R as compared to Group D, which was statistically significant (P < 0.00). Conclusion: Addition of dexamethasone (8 mg) to ropivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus approach significantly and safely prolongs motor blockade and postoperative analgesia (sensory) that lasted much longer than that produced by local anesthetic alone. PMID:25886227

  2. Does Brachial Plexus Blockade Result in Improved Pain Scores After Distal Radius Fracture Fixation? A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Galos, David K; Taormina, David P; Crespo, Alexander; Ding, David Y; Sapienza, Anthony; Jain, Sudheer; Tejwani, Nirmal C

    2016-05-01

    Distal radius fractures are very common injuries and surgical treatment for them can be painful. Achieving early pain control may help improve patient satisfaction and improve functional outcomes. Little is known about which anesthesia technique (general anesthesia versus brachial plexus blockade) is most beneficial for pain control after distal radius fixation which could significantly affect patients' postoperative course and experience. We asked: (1) Did patients receiving general anesthesia or brachial plexus blockade have worse pain scores at 2, 12, and 24 hours after surgery? (2) Was there a difference in operative suite time between patients who had general anesthesia or brachial plexus blockade, and was there a difference in recovery room time? (3) Did patients receiving general anesthesia or brachial plexus blockade have higher narcotic use after surgery? (4) Do patients receiving general anesthesia or brachial plexus blockade have higher functional assessment scores after distal radius fracture repair at 6 weeks and 12 weeks after surgery? A randomized controlled study was performed between February, 2013 and April, 2014 at a multicenter metropolitan tertiary-care referral center. Patients who presented with acute closed distal radius fractures (Orthopaedic Trauma Association 23A-C) were potentially eligible for inclusion. During the study period, 40 patients with closed, displaced, and unstable distal radius fractures were identified as meeting inclusion criteria and offered enrollment and randomization. Three patients (7.5%), all with concomitant injuries, declined to participate at the time of randomization as did one additional patient (2.5%) who chose not to participate, leaving a final sample of 36 participants. There were no dropouts after randomization, and analyses were performed according to an intention-to-treat model. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups, general anesthesia or brachial plexus blockade, and among the 36 patients

  3. Dose–Volume Modeling of Brachial Plexus-Associated Neuropathy After Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Findings From a Prospective Screening Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Daly, Megan E.; Cui, Jing; Hall, William H.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Phillips, Theodore L.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Purdy, James A.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Data from a prospective screening protocol administered for patients previously irradiated for head-and-neck cancer was analyzed to identify dosimetric predictors of brachial plexus-associated neuropathy. Methods and Materials: Three hundred fifty-two patients who had previously completed radiation therapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were prospectively screened from August 2007 to April 2013 using a standardized self-administered instrument for symptoms of neuropathy thought to be related to brachial plexus injury. All patients were disease-free at the time of screening. The median time from radiation therapy was 40 months (range, 6-111 months). A total of 177 patients (50%) underwent neck dissection. Two hundred twenty-one patients (63%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Fifty-one patients (14%) reported brachial plexus-related neuropathic symptoms with the most common being ipsilateral pain (50%), numbness/tingling (40%), and motor weakness and/or muscle atrophy (25%). The 3- and 5-year estimates of freedom from brachial plexus-associated neuropathy were 86% and 81%, respectively. Clinical/pathological N3 disease (P<.001) and maximum radiation dose to the ipsilateral brachial plexus (P=.01) were significantly associated with neuropathic symptoms. Cox regression analysis revealed significant dose–volume effects for brachial plexus-associated neuropathy. The volume of the ipsilateral brachial plexus receiving >70 Gy (V70) predicted for symptoms, with the incidence increasing with V70 >10% (P<.001). A correlation was also observed for the volume receiving >74 Gy (V74) among patients treated without neck dissection, with a cutoff of 4% predictive of symptoms (P=.038). Conclusions: Dose–volume guidelines were developed for radiation planning that may limit brachial plexus-related neuropathies.

  4. [Neurological complication after a vertical infraclavicular brachial plexus block. Case report of possible differential diagnoses of a neurological deficit].

    PubMed

    Ehrenberg, R; Bucher, M; Graf, B

    2009-08-01

    A 72-year-old man with an obliteration of the brachial artery received a vertical infraclavicular block (VIP) for vascular surgery but 20 h after the operation a complete paresis of the affected extremity occurred. A new vascular obliteration could be excluded. During the diagnostic examination the patient noticed a snapping noise in the cervical column when moving his head and an abrupt recovery of the neurological deficits occurred. The radiological diagnostic provided no indication of cerebral ischemia or lesions of the brachial plexus. An additional diagnostic finding was a profound herniated vertebral disc with compression of the myelon. Fortunately, the neurological deficits completely returned to normal.

  5. Long thoracic nerve neurotization for restoration of shoulder function in C5-7 brachial plexus preganglionic injuries: case report.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tetsuya; Doi, Kazuteru; Hattori, Yasunori; Hoshino, Shushi; Sakamoto, Soutetsu; Arakawa, Yuichiro

    2010-09-01

    C5-7 brachial plexus preganglionic injuries are usually associated with complete paralysis of the long thoracic nerve. This makes it difficult to provide satisfactory shoulder function by neurotizing only the suprascapular nerve, compared with C5 and C6 preganglionic injuries, in which the long thoracic nerve is spared. We present a case report of a 21-year-old man who sustained a C5-7 brachial plexus preganglionic injury and obtained excellent shoulder function by intercostal nerve transfer to the long thoracic nerve in addition to neurotization of the suprascapular nerve. Our report emphasizes the importance of restoring the activity of the long thoracic nerve. Copyright 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bilateral variations of brachial plexus involving the median nerve and lateral cord: An anatomical case study with clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Butz, James J; Shiwlochan, Devina G; Brown, Kevin C; Prasad, Alathady M; Murlimanju, Bukkambudhi V; Viswanath, Srikanteswara

    2014-01-01

    During the routine dissection of upper limbs of a Caucasian male cadaver, variations were observed in the brachial plexus. In the right extremity, the lateral cord was piercing the coracobrachialis muscle. The musculocutaneous nerve and lateral root of the median nerve were observed to be branching inferior to the lower attachment of coracobrachialis muscle. The left extremity exhibited the passage of the median nerve through the flat tendon of the coracobrachialis muscle near its distal insertion into the medial surface of the body of humerus. A variation in the course and branching of the nerve might lead to variant or dual innervation of a muscle and, if inappropriately compressed, could result in a distal neuropathy. Identification of these variants of brachial plexus plays an especially important role in both clinical diagnosis and surgical practice.

  7. The brachial plexus branches to the pectoral muscles in adult rats: morphological aspects and morphometric normative data.

    PubMed

    Riva, Nilo; Domi, Teuta; Lopez, Ignazio Diego; Triolo, Daniela; Fossaghi, Andrea; Dina, Giorgia; Podini, Paola; Comi, Giancarlo; Quattrini, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Animal models provide an important tool to investigate the pathogenesis of neuromuscular disorders. In the present study, we analyze fiber composition of the brachial plexus branches to the pectoral muscles: the medial anterior thoracic nerve (MATN) and the lateral anterior thoracic nerve (LATN). The morphological and morphometric characteristics and the percentage of motor fibers within each nerve are here reported, adding information to microscopic anatomy knowledge of the rat brachial plexus. As control, we employed the quadriceps nerve, commonly used for the evaluation of motor fibers at hindlimbs. We demonstrated that the MATN and the LATN are predominantly composed of large motor fibers and therefore could be employed to evaluate the peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement at forelimbs in neurological diseases models, predominantly affecting the motor fiber compartment.

  8. The brachial plexus branches to the pectoral muscles in adult rats: morphological aspects and morphometric normative data

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Nilo; Domi, Teuta; Lopez, Ignazio Diego; Triolo, Daniela; Fossaghi, Andrea; Dina, Giorgia; Podini, Paola; Comi, Giancarlo; Quattrini, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Animal models provide an important tool to investigate the pathogenesis of neuromuscular disorders. In the present study, we analyze fiber composition of the brachial plexus branches to the pectoral muscles: the medial anterior thoracic nerve (MATN) and the lateral anterior thoracic nerve (LATN). The morphological and morphometric characteristics and the percentage of motor fibers within each nerve are here reported, adding information to microscopic anatomy knowledge of the rat brachial plexus. As control, we employed the quadriceps nerve, commonly used for the evaluation of motor fibers at hindlimbs. We demonstrated that the MATN and the LATN are predominantly composed of large motor fibers and therefore could be employed to evaluate the peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement at forelimbs in neurological diseases models, predominantly affecting the motor fiber compartment. PMID:23087618

  9. Elective cesarean section to prevent anal incontinence and brachial plexus injuries associated with macrosomia--a decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Culligan, Patrick J; Myers, John A; Goldberg, Roger P; Blackwell, Linda; Gohmann, Stephan F; Abell, Troy D

    2005-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the cost-effectiveness of a policy of elective C-section for macrosomic infants to prevent maternal anal incontinence, urinary incontinence, and newborn brachial plexus injuries. We used a decision analytic model to compare the standard of care with a policy whereby all primigravid patients in the United States would undergo an ultrasound at 39 weeks gestation, followed by an elective C-section for any fetus estimated at > or =4500 g. The following clinical consequences were considered crucial to the analysis: brachial plexus injury to the newborn; maternal anal and urinary incontinence; emergency hysterectomy; hemorrhage requiring blood transfusion; and maternal mortality. Our outcome measures included (1) number of brachial plexus injuries or cases of incontinence averted, (2) incremental monetary cost per 100,000 deliveries, (3) expected quality of life of the mother and her child, and (4) "quality-adjusted life years" (QALY) associated with the two policies. For every 100,000 deliveries, the policy of elective C-section resulted in 16.6 fewer permanent brachial plexus injuries, 185.7 fewer cases of anal incontinence, and cost savings of $3,211,000. Therefore, this policy would prevent one case of anal incontinence for every 539 elective C-sections performed. The expected quality of life associated with the elective C-section policy was also greater (quality of life score 0.923 vs 0.917 on a scale from 0.0 to 1.0 and 53.6 QALY vs 53.2). A policy whereby primigravid patients in the United States have a 39 week ultrasound-estimated fetal weight followed by C-section for any fetuses > or =4500 g appears cost effective. However, the monetary costs in our analysis were sensitive to the probability estimates of urinary incontinence following C-section and vaginal delivery and the cost estimates for urinary incontinence, vaginal delivery, and C-section.

  10. Sensory restoration by lateral antebrachial cutaneous to ulnar nerve transfer in children with global brachial plexus injuries

    PubMed Central

    Ruchelsman, David E.; Price, Andrew E.; Valencia, Herbert; Ramos, Lorna E.

    2010-01-01

    Selective peripheral nerve transfers represent an emerging reconstructive strategy in the management of both pediatric and adult brachial plexus and peripheral nerve injuries. Transfer of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve of the forearm into the distal ulnar nerve is a useful means to restore sensibility to the ulnar side of the hand when indicated. This technique is particularly valuable in the management of global brachial plexus birth injuries in children for which its application has not been previously reported. Four children ages 4 to 9 years who sustained brachial plexus birth injury with persistent absent sensibility on the unlar aspect of the hand underwent transfer of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve to the distal ulnar nerve. In three patients, a direct transfer with a distal end-to-side repair through a deep longitudinal neurotomy was performed. In a single patient, an interposition nerve graft was required. Restoration of sensibility was evaluated by the “wrinkle test.” PMID:22131917

  11. Magnetic stimulation of the radial nerve in dogs and cats with brachial plexus trauma: a report of 53 cases.

    PubMed

    Van Soens, Iris; Struys, Michel M; Polis, Ingeborgh E; Bhatti, Sofie F; Van Meervenne, Sofie A; Martlé, Valentine A; Nollet, Heidi; Tshamala, Mulenda; Vanhaesebrouck, An E; Van Ham, Luc M

    2009-10-01

    Brachial plexus trauma is a common clinical entity in small animal practice and prognostic indicators are essential early in the course of the disease. Magnetic stimulation of the radial nerve and consequent recording of the magnetic motor evoked potential (MMEP) was examined in 36 dogs and 17 cats with unilateral brachial plexus trauma. Absence of deep pain perception (DPP), ipsilateral loss of panniculus reflex, partial Horner's syndrome and a poor response to MMEP were related to the clinical outcome in 29 of the dogs and 13 of the cats. For all animals, a significant difference was found in MMEP between the normal and the affected limb. Absence of DPP and unilateral loss of the panniculus reflex were indicative of an unsuccessful outcome in dogs. Additionally, the inability to evoke a MMEP was associated with an unsuccessful outcome in all animals. It was concluded that magnetic stimulation of the radial nerve in dogs and cats with brachial plexus trauma may provide an additional diagnostic and prognostic tool.

  12. [Addition of sodium bicarbonate and/or clonidine to mepivacaine: influence on axillary brachial plexus block characteristics].

    PubMed

    Contreras-Domínguez, V; Carbonell-Bellolio, P; Sanzana Salamanca, E; Ojeda-Grecie, A

    2006-11-01

    The axillary brachial plexus block is a frequently performed anesthetic technique. Adding a variety of coadjuvant drugs has been shown to improve results. This study evaluated the addition of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and/or clonidine to mepivacaine for performing the block. Sixty patients between 18 and 70 years old, ASA 1-3 in stable condition received axillary brachial plexus blocks in a randomized controlled study. Four groups of 15 patients each were formed: group I (control group) received 40 mL of 1% mepivacaine with adrenaline plus 5 mL of saline; group II, 40 mL of 1% mepivacaine with adrenaline plus 4 mL of NaHCO3 and 1 mL of saline; group III, 40 mL of 1% mepivacaine with 150 microg of clonidine plus 4mL of saline; and group IV, 40 mL of 1% mepivacaine with adrenaline plus 4 mL of NaHCO3 and 150 microg of clonidine. The onset time was significantly shorter in groups 2 and 4. The duration of the block was longer in group 3 and the analgesic effect was significantly better. Adding NaHCO3 to mepivacaine shortens the time of onset of an axillary brachial plexus block. Including clonidine prolongs the duration of anesthesia and analgesia. The addition of both NaHCO3 and clonidine shortens time to onset but does not prolong duration of anesthesia or analgesia.

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the canine brachial plexus in 18 dogs.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Susan; Ehrhart, E J; Gall, David; Klopp, Lisa; Gavin, Patrick; Tucker, Russ; Bagley, Rod; Kippenes, Hege; DeHaan, Constance; Pedroia, Vince; Partington, Beth; Olby, Natasha

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations from 18 dogs with a histologically confirmed peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST) of the brachial plexus were assessed retrospectively. Almost half (8/18) had a diffuse thickening of the brachial plexus nerve(s), six of which extended into the vertebral canal. The other 10/18 dogs had a nodule or mass in the axilla (1.2-338 cm3). Seven of those 10 masses also had diffuse nerve sheath thickening, three of which extended into the vertebral canal. The majority of tumors were hyperintense to muscle on T2-weighted images and isointense on T1-weighted images. Eight of 18 PNSTs had only minimal to mild contrast enhancement and many (13/18) enhanced heterogeneously following gadolinium DTPA administration. Transverse plane images with a large enough field of view (FOV) to include both axillae and the vertebral canal were essential, allowing in-slice comparison to detect lesions by asymmetry of structures. Higher resolution, smaller FOV, multiplanar examination of the cervicothoracic spine was important for appreciating nerve root and foraminal involvement. Short tau inversion recovery, T2-weighted, pre and postcontrast T1-weighted pulse sequences were all useful. Contrast enhancement was critical to detecting subtle diffuse nerve sheath involvement or small isointense nodules, and for accurately identifying the full extent of disease. Some canine brachial plexus tumors can be challenging to detect, requiring a rigorous multiplanar multi-pulse sequence MRI examination.

  14. Unusual and Unique Variant Branches of Lateral Cord of Brachial Plexus and its Clinical Implications- A Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Padur, Ashwini Aithal; Shanthakumar, Swamy Ravindra; Shetty, Surekha Devadas; Prabhu, Gayathri Sharath; Patil, Jyothsna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adequate knowledge on variant morphology of brachial plexus and its branches are important in clinical applications pertaining to trauma and surgical procedures of the upper extremity. Aim Current study was aimed to report variations of the branches of the lateral cord of brachial plexus in the axilla and their possible clinical complications. Materials and Methods Total number of 82 upper limbs from 41 formalin embalmed cadavers was dissected. Careful observation was made to note the formation and branching pattern of lateral cord. Meticulous inspection for absence of branches, presence of additional or variant branches and presence of abnormal communications between its branches or with branches of other cords was carried out. Results In the present study, we noted varied branching pattern of lateral cord in 6 out of 82 limbs (7%). In one of the limb, the median nerve was formed by three roots; two from lateral cord and one from medial cord. Two limbs had absence of lateral pectoral nerve supplemented by medial pectoral nerves. One of which had an atypical ansa pectoralis. In 2 upper limbs, musculocutaneous nerve was absent and in both cases it was supplemented by median nerve. In one of the limb, coracobrachialis had dual nerve supply by musculocutaneous nerve and by an additional branch from the lateral cord. Conclusion Variations of brachial plexus and its branches could pose both intraoperative and postoperative complications which eventually affect the normal sensory and motor functions of the upper limb. PMID:27190783

  15. Detection of neurovascular structures using injection pressure in blockade of brachial plexus in rat.

    PubMed

    Vucković, Ilvana; Hadzić, Admir; Dilberović, Faruk; Kulenović, Amela; Mornjaković, Zakira; Zulić, Irfan; Divanović, Kucuk-Alija; Kapur, Eldan; Cosović, Esad; Voljevica, Alma

    2005-08-01

    In the last few decades there has been a great development of regional anesthesia; all the postulates are defined and all the techniques of usage are perfected. However, like any other medical procedure, the block of brachial plexus carries a risk of certain unwanted complications, like possible intraneural and intravascular injections. The reason for great discrepancy between the injury of brachial plexus and other periphery nerves while performing the nerve blockade is the frequent usage of this block, but also the specific proximity of neurovascular structures in axilla. The purpose of this work is to determine the values of pressures which appear in para-neural, intraneural and intravascular injection applications of local anesthetic, and to compare those values in order to avoid cases of intraneural and intravascular injections in clinical practice with consequential complications. In experimental study there have been used 12 Wistar rats of both genders. After anesthesia with ether and mid-humoral access to the neurovascular structures in axilla, the injection of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine was performed with the help of automatic syringe charge. The needle was at first placed para-neural, and then also intraneural and intravascular. During every application the pressure values were monitored using the manometer, and then they were analyzed by special software program. All para-neural injections resulted with the pressure between 13,96-27,92 kPa. The majority of intraneural injections were combined with the injection pressure greater than 69,8 kPa, while the intravascular injections were combined with injection pressure less than 6,98 kPa. Based on the available data it can be noticed that so far none of the methods of prevention from unwanted complications of regional anesthesia can insure the avoidance of intraneural and intravascular injection of local anesthetic. Based on our research it is obvious that the measuring of pressure during the nerve

  16. Evaluation of an ultrasound-guided technique for axillary brachial plexus blockade in cats.

    PubMed

    Ansón, Agustina; Laredo, Francisco G; Gil, Francisco; Soler, Marta; Belda, Eliseo; Agut, Amalia

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate and refine an ultrasound (US)-guided technique to block the brachial plexus (BP) at the level of the axillary space in live cats. Methods Eight adult experimental cats were enrolled into the study. The animals were sedated and positioned in dorsal recumbency with the limb to be blocked abducted 90º. The US transducer was placed in the axillary region and a non-traumatic peripheral nerve block needle was inserted in-plane with respect to the transducer, medial to the BP up to the level of the axillary artery. Lidocaine 1% (0.4 ml/kg) was injected as the needle was being progressively withdrawn in a caudal-to-cranial direction. The efficacy of the block was confirmed by evaluation of the motor and sensory functions of the blocked forelimb. Motor blockade was assessed observing the position of the blocked leg on standing and walking patterns. Sensory blockade was evaluated by the stimulation of mechanical nociceptors in the dermatomes supplied by the four major sensory nerves of the distal thoracic limb. Results The BP was successfully located by US in all cases. The achieved BP block was complete in six cats (75%) and partial in the remaining two cats (25%). All animals recovered uneventfully from the sedation and the BP blocks. Conclusions and relevance The US-guided block at the axillary space evaluated in this study is a feasible, reproducible and safe technique to block the BP plexus in experimental live cats.

  17. Long-term clinical outcomes of spinal accessory nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve in patients with brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Alijani, Babak; Andalib, Sasan

    2016-09-01

    For the reconstruction of brachial plexus lesions, restoration of elbow flexion and shoulder function is fundamental and is achieved by dual nerve transfers. Shoulder stabilization and movement are crucial in freedom of motion of the upper extremity. In patients with C5-C6 brachial plexus injury, spinal accessory nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve and a fascicle of ulnar nerve to musculocutaneous nerve (dual nerve transfer) are carried out for restoration of shoulder abduction and elbow flexion, respectively. In the present study, we evaluated the long-term clinical outcomes of spinal accessory nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve for restoration of shoulder abduction in patients with brachial plexus palsy undergoing a dual nerve transfer. In the present retrospective review, 22 consecutive subjects with upper brachial plexus palsy were assessed. All of the subjects underwent spinal accessory nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve and a dual nerve transfer from the ulnar nerve to the biceps branch and from the median nerve to the brachialis branch of the musculocutaneous nerve simultaneously. All of the subjects were followed up for 18 to 24 months (average, 21.7 months) for assessing the recovery of the shoulder abduction and motor function. Spinal accessory nerve transfer to the suprascapular nerve showed a motor function recovery of M3 and M4 in 13.6 and 63.6% of the subjects, respectively. However, 22.7 % of the subjects remained with a motor function of M2. The mean of shoulder abduction reached 55.55 ± 9.95° (range, 40-72°). Altogether, good functional results regained in 17 out of 22 the subjects (77.2 %). Linear regression analysis showed that advanced age was a predictor of low motor functional grade. The evidence from the present study suggests that transferring spinal accessory nerve to the suprascapular nerve for restoring shoulder abduction is an effective and reliable treatment with high success rate in patients with brachial

  18. High prevalence of cranial asymmetry exists in infants with neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Megan; Gorbutt, Kimberly A; Peethambaran, Ammanath; Yang, Lynda; Nelson, Virginia S; Chang, Kate Wan-Chu

    2016-11-30

    This study aimed to: 1) evaluate the prevalence of cranial asymmetry (positional plagiocephaly) in infants with neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP); 2) examine the association of patient demographics, arm function, and NBPP-related factors to positional plagiocephaly; and 3) determine percentage of spontaneous recovery from positional plagiocephaly and its association with arm function. Infants < 1 year of age with NBPP and no previous exposure to plagiocephaly cranial remolding therapy or surgical intervention were recruited for this prospective cross-sectional study. Positional plagiocephaly (diagonal difference) measurements were captured using a fiberglass circumferential mold of the cranium. Included infants were divided into 2 groups: 1) those with positional plagiocephaly at most recent evaluation (plagio group), including infants with resolved positional plagiocephaly (plagio-resolved subgroup); and 2) those who never had positional plagiocephaly (non-plagio group). Standard statistics were applied. Eighteen of 28 infants (64%) had positional plagiocephaly. Delivery type might be predictive for plagiocephaly. Infants in the non-plagio group exhibited more active range of motion than infants in the plagio group. All other factors had no significant correlations. A high prevalence of positional plagiocephaly exists among the NBPP population examined. Parents and physicians should encourage infants to use their upper extremities to change position and reduce chance of cranial asymmetry.

  19. Increased brain activation during motor imagery suggests central abnormality in Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsy.

    PubMed

    Anguelova, Galia V; Rombouts, S A R B; van Dijk, J Gert; Buur, Pieter F; Malessy, Martijn J A

    2017-10-01

    Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsy (NBPP) may lead to permanent impairment of arm function. As NBPP occurs when central motor programs develop, these may be ill-formed. We studied elbow flexion and motor imagery with fMRI to search for abnormal motor programming. We compared the cortical activity of adults with conservatively treated NBPP to that of healthy individuals stratified for hand dominance, using fMRI BOLD tasks of elbow flexion and motor imagery of flexion. Additionally, resting-state networks and regional gray matter volume were studied. Sixteen adult NBPP patients (seven men; median age 29 years) and sixteen healthy subjects (seven men, median age 27 years) participated. Cortical activation was significantly higher in patients during flexion imagery compared to healthy individuals and it increased with lesion extent and muscle weakness. The contralateral and ipsilateral premotor cortex, and the contralateral motor cortex showed stronger activity during imagined flexion in the right-handed NBPP subjects compared to healthy individuals. Activity patterns during actual flexion did not differ between groups. No differences in resting-state network connectivity or gray matter amount were found between the groups. NBPP affected imagined but not actual elbow flexion, suggesting an impairment of motor planning which would indicate abnormal motor programming in NBPP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  20. [Brachial plexus palsy in adults with radicular lesions, general concepts, diagnostic approach and results ].

    PubMed

    Oberlin, C

    2003-12-01

    In post-traumatic brachial plexus lesions in adults, early repair will necessitate a variety of nerve grafting and nerve transfer procedures. In complete palsies, a graft is performed from a radicular stump, using intercostal nerve transfers, partial cross C7 transfer, and the distal spinal accessory nerve. This will provide elbow flexion and extension in 75% of cases, and shoulder abduction or rotation in 50% of cases. In the upper type palsies, ulnar-biceps transfer is the standard procedure. Grafting from a ruptured cervical root, when available, is performed to reanimate the shoulder. In C5 C6 and C7 palsies, extension of the wrist and fingers is provided by tendon transfers. In chronic palsies, elbow flexion and extension loss is treated by means of free muscle transfers, (latissimus dorsi or gracilis) combined with nerve transfers (intercostals or spinal accessory). Secondary procedures are routinely necessary following recovery of elbow flexion. For the shoulder-humeral shaft osteotomy or fusion, for the hand-cosmetic fusion of the wrist and distal radio-ulnar joint in the prone position, or palliative treatment in case of partial recovery. For such weak "plexic hands", we have developed a specific hierarchical functional scale, useful for surgical decisions.

  1. [A case of brachial plexus neuropathy who presented with acute paralysis of the hand after sleep].

    PubMed

    Iijima, Makiko; Okuma, Yasuyuki; Ohizumi, Hideki; Fujishima, Kenji; Goto, Keigo; Mizuno, Yoshikuni

    2002-09-01

    We report a 46-year-old woman who presented with acute paresis of the right hand and arm. She was well until when she noted a paresis and dysesthesia in her right hand in the morning. Neurological examination revealed weakness in the muscles which were supplied by lower cervical segments, with increased deep tendon reflexes in the right arm. Allen's test and Wright's test were positive. The nerve conduction studies disclosed a reduced CMAPs more severely by right median than ulnar nerve stimulation. The frequency and amplitude of the F waves was also reduced. Needle electromyogram showed a mild neurogenic pattern in the right hand muscles. Digital subtraction angiography revealed a tapering of the subclavian artery when the right arm was abducted. She underwent decompression surgery. A remarkable improvement of the symptoms was observed after surgery. Our patient suggests that brachial plexus neuropathy should be considered in the acute paresis of the hand after sleep, and that surgical procedure would lead to a successful outcome.

  2. Balance Impairments after Brachial Plexus Injury as Assessed through Clinical and Posturographic Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Lidiane; Lemos, Thiago; Silva, Débora C.; de Oliveira, José M.; Guedes Corrêa, José F.; Tavares, Paulo L.; Oliveira, Laura A.; Rodrigues, Erika C.; Vargas, Claudia D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether a sensorimotor deficit of the upper limb following a brachial plexus injury (BPI) affects the upright balance. Design: Eleven patients with a unilateral BPI and 11 healthy subjects were recruited. The balance assessment included the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the number of feet touches on the ground while performing a 60 s single-leg stance and posturographic assessment (eyes open and feet placed hip-width apart during a single 60 s trial). The body weight distribution (BWD) between the legs was estimated from the center of pressure (COP) lateral position. The COP variability was quantified in the anterior-posterior and lateral directions. Results: BPI patients presented lower BBS scores (p = 0.048) and a higher frequency of feet touches during the single-leg stance (p = 0.042) compared with those of the healthy subjects. An asymmetric BWD toward the side opposite the affected arm was shown by 73% of BPI patients. Finally, higher COP variability was observed in BPI patients compared with healthy subjects for anterior-posterior (p = 0.020), but not for lateral direction (p = 0.818). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that upper limb sensorimotor deficits following BPI affect body balance, serving as a warning for the clinical community about the need to prevent and treat the secondary outcomes of this condition. PMID:26834610

  3. Imaging assessment of glenohumeral dysplasia secondary to brachial plexus birth palsy*

    PubMed Central

    Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete; Dalto, Vitor Faeda; Crema, Michel Daoud; Waters, Peter M.; Gregio-Junior, Everaldo; Mazzer, Nilton; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess imaging parameters related to the morphology of the glenohumeral joint in children with unilateral brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP), in comparison with those obtained for healthy shoulders. Materials and Methods We conducted a retrospective search for cases of unilateral BPBP diagnosed at our facility. Only patients with a clinical diagnosis of unilateral BPBP were included, and the final study sample consisted of 10 consecutive patients who were assessed with cross-sectional imaging. The glenoid version, the translation of the humeral head, and the degrees of glenohumeral dysplasia were assessed. Results The mean diameter of the affected humeral heads was 1.93 cm, compared with 2.33 cm for those of the normal limbs. In two cases, there was no significant posterior displacement of the humeral head, five cases showed posterior subluxation of the humeral head, and the remaining three cases showed total luxation of the humeral head. The mean glenoid version angle of the affected limbs (90-α) was -9.6º, versus +1.6º for the normal, contralateral limbs. Conclusion The main deformities found in this study were BPBP-associated retroversion of the glenoid cavity, developmental delay of the humeral head, and posterior translation of the humeral head. PMID:27403013

  4. High prevalence of early language delay exists among toddlers with neonatal brachial plexus palsy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kate Wan-Chu; Yang, Lynda J-S.; Driver, Lynn; Nelson, Virginia S.

    2016-01-01

    AIM Association of language impairment with neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) has not been reported in the literature. The current treatment paradigm for NBPP focuses on upper extremity motor recovery with little formal assessment of other aspects of development, such as language. We performed a cross-sectional pilot study to investigate early language delay prevalence in toddlers with NBPP and potential NBPP-related factors involved. METHOD Twenty toddlers with NBPP were consecutively recruited (12 males, 8 females; mean age 30 mos). Preschool Language Scale Score (4th edition), demographics, and socioeconomic status were collected. NBPP-related factors such as palsy side, treatment type, Narakas grade, muscle MRC score, and Raimondi hand score were reported. Student t test, chi-square, or Fisher exact test were applied. Statistical significance level was established at p<0.05. RESULTS Of study participants, 30% were diagnosed with language delay, while the prevalence of language delay in the population with normal development in this age range was approximately 5-15%. INTERPRETATION We observed high language delay prevalence among toddlers with NBPP. Although our subject sample is small, our findings warrant further study of this phenomenon. Early identification and timely intervention based on type of language impairment may be critical for improving communication outcome in this population. PMID:25160543

  5. Motion Necessary to Achieve Mallet Internal Rotation Positions in Children With Brachial Plexus Birth Palsy.

    PubMed

    Russo, Stephanie A; Kozin, Scott H; Zlotolow, Dan A; Nicholson, Kristen F; Richards, James G

    2017-08-18

    Upper extremity function in children with brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) is assessed with clinical tests such as the Mallet classification, which uses a hand to spine position to assess shoulder internal rotation, or the modified Mallet classification, which adds an additional internal rotation task (hand to belly). Children with BPBP frequently have difficulty performing the hand to spine task. This study compared scapulothoracic and glenohumeral (GH) parameters associated with successful completion of the hand to spine and hand to belly modified Mallet positions. Motion capture measurement of 32 children with BPBP was performed in hand on spine, internal rotation (hand to belly), hand to mouth, and maximal humerothoracic extension positions. Modified Mallet scores were determined by a hand surgeon. Children with better hand to spine performance demonstrated significantly greater GH extension and a nonsignificant trend toward increased GH internal rotation compared with children with scores <3. Children with better internal rotation position performance demonstrated significantly greater GH internal rotation and no significant difference in GH extension. Hand on spine and internal rotation Mallet scores moderately correlated (Pearson r=0.469); however, 54% of children who could place their palms flat on their bellies could not reach behind their backs. Successfully reaching behind one's back requires both internal rotation and extension, representing a multiplanar motion. The hand to belly performance is less affected by extension and should be considered for internal rotation assessment, particularly for children undergoing surgical intervention that may affect internal rotation. Level II.

  6. Serial casting for elbow flexion contractures in neonatal brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Duijnisveld, B J; Steenbeek, D; Nelissen, R G H H

    2016-09-02

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of serial casting of elbow flexion contractures in neonatal brachial plexus palsy. A prospective consecutive cohort study was performed with a median follow-up of 5 years. Forty-one patients with elbow flexion contractures ≥ 30° were treated with serial casting until the contracture was ≤ 10°, for a maximum of 8 weeks. Range of motion, number of recurrences and patient satisfaction were recorded and analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank and Cox regression tests. Passive extension increased from a median of -40° (IQR -50 to -30) to -15° (IQR -10 to -20, p < 0.001). Twenty patients showed 37 recurrences. The baseline severity of passive elbow extension had a hazard ratio of 0.93 (95% CI 0.89 to 0.96, p < 0.001) for first recurrence. Median patient satisfaction was moderate. Four patients showed loss of flexion mobility and in two patients serial casting had to be prematurely replaced by night splinting due to complaints. Serial casting improved elbow flexion contractures, although recurrences were frequent. The severity of elbow flexion contracture is a predictor of recurrence. We recommend more research on muscle degeneration and determinants involved in elbow flexion contractures to improve treatment strategies and prevent side-effects.

  7. Brain Reorganization in Patients with Brachial Plexus Injury: A Longitudinal Functional MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Hayashi, Naoto; Tajiri, Yasuhito; Satake, Yoshirou; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess plastic changes of the sensorimotor cortex (SMC) in patients with traumatic brachial plexus injury (BPI) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty patients with traumatic BPI underwent fMRI using blood oxygen level-dependent technique with echo-planar imaging before the operation. Sixteen patients underwent their second fMRI at approximately one year after injury. The subjects performed two tasks: a flexion-extension task of the affected elbow and a task of the unaffected elbow. After activation, maps were generated, the number of significantly activated voxels in SMC contralateral to the elbow movement in the affected elbow task study (Naf) and that in the unaffected task study (Nunaf) were counted. An asymmetry index (AI) was calculated, where AI = (Naf − Nunaf)/(Naf + Nunaf). Ten healthy volunteers were also included in this fMRI study. The AI of the first fMRI of the patients with BPI was significantly lower than that of the healthy subjects (P = 0.035). The AI of the second fMRI significantly decreased compared with that of the first fMRI (P = 0.045). Brain reorganization associates with peripheral nervous changes after BPI and after operation for functional reconstruction. PMID:22623904

  8. Perineural versus intravenous dexamethasone as adjuncts to local anaesthetic brachial plexus block for shoulder surgery.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, D M; Ivancic, M G; Hattrup, S J; Renfree, K J; Watkins, A R; Hentz, J G; Gorlin, A W; Spiro, J A; Trentman, T L

    2016-04-01

    This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared the effect of perineural with intravenous dexamethasone, both administered concomitantly with interscalene brachial plexus block for shoulder surgery. Patients received 8 mg dexamethasone mixed with ropivacaine in the block injection (n = 42), 8 mg dexamethasone intravenously at the time of the block (n = 37), or intravenous saline (n = 41) at the time of the block. Perineural and intravenous dexamethasone resulted in prolonged mean (SD) duration of block to 16.9 (5.2) h and 18.2 (6.4) h, respectively, compared with 13.8 (3.8) h for saline (p = 0.001). Mean (SD) opioid consumption (morphine equivalents) during the first 24 h after postanaesthesia recovery arrival was 12.2 (9.3) mg in the perineural dexamethasone, 17.1 (15.9) mg in the intravenous dexamethasone and 24.1 (14.3) mg in the saline groups (p = 0.001). Dexamethasone via either route reduced anti-emetic use (p = 0.046). There was no effect on patient satisfaction. These results suggest that both perineural and intravenous dexamethasone are useful adjuncts to ropivacaine interscalene block, with the intravenous route preferred as this avoids the possibility of neural toxicity of dexamethasone.

  9. [Macrosomia, shoulder dystocia and elongation of the brachial plexus: what is the role of caesarean section?

    PubMed

    Kehila, Mehdi; Derouich, Sadok; Touhami, Omar; Belghith, Sirine; Abouda, Hassine Saber; Cheour, Mariem; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis

    2016-01-01

    The delivery of a macrosomic infant is associated with a higher risk for maternofoetal complications. Shoulder dystocia is the most feared fetal complication, leading sometimes to a disproportionate use of caesarean section. This study aims to evaluate the interest of preventive caesarean section. We conducted a retrospective study of 400 macrosomic births between February 2010 and December 2012. We also identified cases of infants with shoulder dystocia occurred in 2012 as well as their respective birthweight. Macrosomic infants weighed between 4000g and 4500g in 86.25% of cases and between 4500 and 5000 in 12.25% of cases. Vaginal delivery was performed in 68% of cases. Out of 400 macrosomic births, 9 cases with shoulder dystocia were recorded (2.25%). All of these cases occurred during vaginal delivery. The risk for shoulder dystocia invaginal delivery has increased significantly with the increase in birth weight (p <10-4). The risk for elongation of the brachial plexus was 11 per thousand vaginal deliveries of macrosomic infants. This risk was not correlated with birthweight (p = 0.38). The risk for post-traumatic sequelae was 0.71%. Shoulder dystocia affectd macrosoic infants in 58% of cases. Shoulder dystocia is not a complication exclusively associated with macrosomia. Screening for risky deliveries and increasing training of obstetricians on maneuvers in shoulder dystocia seem to be the best way to avoid complications.

  10. Effect of nerve localization using a pen device on the success of axillary brachial plexus block.

    PubMed

    Saracoglu, Seçkin; Bigat, Zekiye; Ertugrul, Fatma; Karsli, Bilge; Kayacan, Nurten

    2014-04-01

    The effectiveness of axillary brachial plexus block (ABPB) performed using peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) alone was compared with PNS preceded by nerve localization using a pen device, enabling nerve mapping without puncturing the skin. Patients undergoing unilateral hand or forearm surgery suitable for ABPB were randomly assigned to receive either PNS alone (pen - group) or PNS preceded by nerve localization using a pen device (pen + group). Parameters related to the block procedure and patient comfort were assessed. Thirty patients were included in each group. The block performance time was longer in the pen + group than the pen - group despite a reduced number of needle insertions. The complete block rate was higher and intraoperative analgesic usage lower in the pen + group compared with the pen - group. Patient satisfaction and complication rates were similar in the two groups. The pen device seems to be a helpful addition to PNS for ABPB, with improved results in terms of block success and patient comfort, but further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  11. Reduced functional connectivity within the primary motor cortex of patients with brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Fraiman, D; Miranda, M F; Erthal, F; Buur, P F; Elschot, M; Souza, L; Rombouts, S A R B; Schimmelpenninck, C A; Norris, D G; Malessy, M J A; Galves, A; Vargas, C D

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at the effects of traumatic brachial plexus lesion with root avulsions (BPA) upon the organization of the primary motor cortex (M1). Nine right-handed patients with a right BPA in whom an intercostal to musculocutaneous (ICN-MC) nerve transfer was performed had post-operative resting state fMRI scanning. The analysis of empirical functional correlations between neighboring voxels revealed faster correlation decay as a function of distance in the M1 region corresponding to the arm in BPA patients as compared to the control group. No differences between the two groups were found in the face area. We also investigated whether such larger decay in patients could be attributed to a gray matter diminution in M1. Structural imaging analysis showed no difference in gray matter density between groups. Our findings suggest that the faster decay in neighboring functional correlations without significant gray matter diminution in BPA patients could be related to a reduced activity in intrinsic horizontal connections in M1 responsible for upper limb motor synergies.

  12. The clinical characteristics of neuropathic pain in patients with total brachial plexus avulsion: A 30-case study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yingjie; Liu, Peixi; Rui, Jing; Zhao, Xin; Lao, Jie

    2016-08-01

    Neuropathic pain in patients with total brachial plexus avulsion has always been a sophisticated problem in clinical practice. For further researches on objective diagnosis, alleviation or even cure of neuropathic pain, we need to conclude the basic clinical features including pain intensity, distribution, type and possible risk factors. Thirty cases of patients with total brachial plexus avulsion were included and their baseline information was collected. Pain was evaluated by Present Pain Index using a visual analog scale; Douleur Neuropathique 4 was used for screening neuropathic pain. For more detailed pain description, the Neuropathic Pain Symptoms Inventory questionnaire and a picture showing the exact pain district were both fulfilled by all the eligible participants. The relationship between neuropathic pain and basic information, injury conditions, accompanied conditions and quality of life was tested. All the participants were male in both groups. The neuropathic pain group contained 22 patients (73.33%) with the mean age of 30.18±9.47; while 29.00±7.95 in the other group. Patients with neuropathic pain presented variously in pain degree, location, type and time phase, according to the results of the Neuropathic Pain Symptoms Inventory questionnaire. Nevertheless, most pain distributed on the region of hand. Among several related factors, alcohol abuse may be possible risk factors of neuropathic pain (p=0.03). Quality of life was significantly affected by pain (p<0.01). Neuropathic pain in patients with total brachial avulsion was characterized with heterogeneity in pain distribution, intensity, type and also time phase. Bad life habits might be risk factors associated with neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain might affect quality of life of the patients with total brachial plexus avulsion remarkably. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A stab wound to the axilla illustrating the importance of brachial plexus anatomy in an emergency context: a case report.

    PubMed

    Casal, Diogo; Cunha, Teresa; Pais, Diogo; Iria, Inês; Angélica-Almeida, Maria; Millan, Gerardo; Videira-Castro, José; Goyri-O'Neill, João

    2017-01-04

    Although open injuries involving the brachial plexus are relatively uncommon, they can lead to permanent disability and even be life threatening if accompanied by vascular damage. We present a case report of a brachial plexus injury in which the urgency of the situation precluded the use of any ancillary diagnostic examinations and forced a rapid clinical assessment. We report a case of a Portuguese man who had a stabbing injury at the base of his left axilla. On observation in our emergency room an acute venous type of bleeding was present at the wound site and, as a result of refractory hypotension after initial management with fluids administered intravenously, he was immediately carried to our operating room. During the course of transportation, we observed that he presented hypoesthesia of the medial aspect of his arm and forearm, as well as of the ulnar side of his hand and of the palmar aspect of the last three digits and of the dorsal aspect of the last two digits. Moreover, he was not able to actively flex the joints of his middle, ring, and small fingers or to adduct or abduct all fingers. Exclusively relying on our anatomical knowledge of the axillary region, the site of the stabbing wound, and the physical neurologic examination, we were able to unequivocally pinpoint the place of the injury between the anterior division of the lower trunk of his brachial plexus and the proximal portion of the following nerves: ulnar, medial cutaneous of his arm and forearm, and the medial aspect of his median nerve. Surgery revealed a longitudinal laceration of the posterior aspect of his axillary vein, and confirmed a complete section of his ulnar nerve, his medial brachial and antebrachial cutaneous nerves, and an incomplete section of the ulnar aspect of his median nerve. All structures were repaired microsurgically. Three years after the surgery he showed a good functional outcome. We believe that this case report illustrates the relevance of a sound anatomical

  14. A Systematic Review of Outcomes of Contralateral C7 for the Treatment of Traumatic Brachial Plexus Injury: Part 1-Overall outcomes of contralateral C7 transfer for traumatic brachial plexus injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang; Chang, Kate W.-C.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Contralateral C7 (CC7) transfer has been used for treating traumatic brachial plexus injury. However, the effectiveness of CC7 transfer remains a subject of debate. We performed a systematic review to study the overall outcomes of CC7 transfer to different recipient nerves in traumatic brachial plexus injuries. Methods A literature search was conducted using PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify original articles related to CC7 transfer for traumatic brachial plexus injury. The data extracted were study/ patient characteristics, and objective outcomes of CC7 transfer to the recipient nerves. We normalized modifications of MRC and other outcome measures into an MRC-based outcome scale for comparisons. Results Thirty-nine studies were identified. The outcomes were categorized based on the three major recipient nerves: median, musculocutaneous, and radial/triceps nerves. Regarding overall functional recovery, 11% of patients achieved MRC grade M4 wrist flexion and 38% achieved M3. Grade M4 finger flexion was achieved by 7% of patients whereas 36% achieved M3. Finally, 56% of patients achieved ≥S3 sensory recovery in the median nerve territories. In the musculocutaneous nerve group, 38% of patients regained elbow flexor strength to M4 and 37% regained to M3. In the radial/triceps nerve group, 25% regained elbow or wrist extension strength to an MRC grade M4 and 25% regained to M3. Conclusions Outcome measures in the included studies were not consistently reported to uncover true patient-related benefits from the CC7 transfer. Reliable and validated outcome instruments should be applied to critically evaluate patients undergoing CC7 transfer. PMID:26397253

  15. Anatomical architecture of the brachial plexus in the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) with special reference to the derivation and course of its unique branches.

    PubMed

    Yoshitomi, S; Kawashima, T; Murakami, K; Takayanagi, M; Inoue, Y; Aoyagi, R; Sato, F

    2012-08-01

    The anatomy of the brachial plexus in the common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), which has not been previously reported, was first examined bilaterally in a newborn hippopotamus. Our observations clarified the following: (1) the brachial plexus comprises the fifth cervical (C5) to first thoracic (T1) nerves. These formed two trunks, C5-C6 and C7-T1; in addition, the axillary artery passed in between C6 and C7, (2) unique branches to the brachialis muscle and those of the lateral cutaneous antebrachii nerves ramified from the median nerve, (3) nerve fibre analysis revealed that these unique nerve branches from the median nerve were closely related and structurally similar to the musculocutaneous (MC) nerve; however, they had changed course from the MC to the median nerve, and (4) this unique branching pattern is likely to be a common morphological feature of the brachial plexus in amphibians, reptiles and certain mammals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Oberlin transfer and partial radial to axillary nerve neurotization to repair an explosive traumatic injury to the brachial plexus in a child: case report.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph H; Garber, Sarah T; McCormick, Don E; Eskandari, Ramin; Walker, Marion L; Rizk, Elias; Tubbs, R Shane; Wellons, John C

    2013-11-01

    Explosive injuries to the pediatric brachial plexus are exceedingly rare and as such are poorly characterized in the medical literature. Herein, we describe an 8-year-old who was struck in the neck by a piece of shrapnel and suffered multiple vascular injuries in addition to a suspected avulsion of the cervical 5 and 6 ventral rami. The patient had a complete upper brachial plexus palsy and failed to demonstrate any clinical improvement at 6-months follow-up. He was taken to the operating from for a partial ulnar to musculocutaneous nerve neurotization as well as a partial radial to axillary nerve neurotization. The patient's motor exam improved from a Medical Research Council scale 1 to 4+ for biceps brachii and 0 to 4 deltoid function with greater than 90° of shoulder abduction. This outcome supports complex neurotization techniques as viable treatment options for persistent motor deficits following an upper brachial plexus injury in older, non-infant age, children.

  17. Direct cord implantation in brachial plexus avulsions: revised technique using a single stage combined anterior (first) posterior (second) approach and end-to-side side-to-side grafting neurorrhaphy

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The superiority of a single stage combined anterior (first) posterior (second) approach and end-to-side side-to-side grafting neurorrhaphy in direct cord implantation was investigated as to providing adequate exposure to both the cervical cord and the brachial plexus, as to causing less tissue damage and as to being more extensible than current surgical approaches. Methods The front and back of the neck, the front and back of the chest up to the midline and the whole affected upper limb were sterilized while the patient was in the lateral position; the patient was next turned into the supine position, the plexus explored anteriorly and the grafts were placed; the patient was then turned again into the lateral position, and a posterior cervical laminectomy was done. The grafts were retrieved posteriorly and side grafted to the anterior cord. Using this approach, 5 patients suffering from complete traumatic brachial plexus palsy, 4 adults and 1 obstetric case were operated upon and followed up for 2 years. 2 were C5,6 ruptures and C7,8T1 avulsions. 3 were C5,6,7,8T1 avulsions. C5,6 ruptures were grafted and all avulsions were cord implanted. Results Surgery in complete avulsions led to Grade 4 improvement in shoulder abduction/flexion and elbow flexion. Cocontractions occurred between the lateral deltoid and biceps on active shoulder abduction. No cocontractions occurred after surgery in C5,6 ruptures and C7,8T1 avulsions, muscle power improvement extended into the forearm and hand; pain disappeared. Limitations include spontaneous recovery despite MRI appearance of avulsions, fallacies in determining intraoperative avulsions (wrong diagnosis, wrong level); small sample size; no controls rule out superiority of this technique versus other direct cord reimplantation techniques or other neurotization procedures; intra- and interobserver variability in testing muscle power and cocontractions. Conclusion Through providing proper exposure to the brachial plexus

  18. Cerebral Reorganization in Patients with Brachial Plexus Birth Injury and Residual Shoulder Problems

    PubMed Central

    Björkman, Anders; Weibull, Andreas; Svensson, Hampus; Dahlin, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The functional outcome after a brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) is based on changes in the peripheral nerve and in the central nervous system. Most patients with a BPBI recover, but residual deficits in shoulder function are not uncommon. The aim of this study was to determine cerebral activation patterns in patients with BPBI and also residual symptoms from the shoulder. In seven patients (six females and one male, aged 17–23 years) with a BPBI and residual shoulder problems (Mallet score IV or lower), the cerebral response to active movement of the shoulder and elbow of the injured and healthy arm was monitored using functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T. Movements, i.e., shoulder rotation or elbow flexion and extension, of the injured side resulted in a more pronounced and more extended activation of the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex compared to the activation seen after moving the healthy shoulder and elbow. In addition, moving the shoulder or elbow on the injured side resulted in increased activation in ipsilateral primary sensorimotor areas an also increased activation in associated sensorimotor areas, in both hemispheres, located further posterior in the parietal lobe, which are known to be important for integration of motor tasks and spatial aspects of motor control. Thus, in this preliminary study based on a small cohort, patients with BPBI and residual shoulder problems show reorganization in sensorimotor areas in both hemispheres of the brain. The increased activation in ipsilateral sensorimotor areas and in areas that deal with both integration of motor tasks and spatial aspects of motor control in both hemispheres indicates altered dynamics between the hemispheres, which may be a cerebral compensation for the injury. PMID:28066323

  19. Comparative study of phrenic and intercostal nerve transfers for elbow flexion after global brachial plexus injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuzhou; Lao, Jie; Zhao, Xin

    2015-04-01

    Global brachial plexus injuries (BPIs) are devastating events frequently resulting in severe functional impairment. The widely used nerve transfer sources for elbow flexion in patients with global BPIs include intercostal and phrenic nerves. The aim of this study was to compare phrenic and intercostal nerve transfers for elbow flexion after global BPI. A retrospective review of 33 patients treated with phrenic and intercostal nerve transfer for elbow flexion in posttraumatic global root avulsion BPI was carried out. In the phrenic nerve transfer group, the phrenic nerve was transferred to the anterolateral bundle of the anterior division of the upper trunk (23 patients); in the intercostal nerve transfer group, three intercostal nerves were coapted to the anterolateral bundles of the musculocutaneous nerve. The British Medical Research Council (MRC) grading system, angle of elbow flexion, and electromyography (EMG) were used to evaluate the recovery of elbow flexion at least 3 years postoperatively. The efficiency of motor function in the phrenic nerve transfer group was 83%, while it was 70% in the intercostal nerve transfer group. The two groups were not statistically different in terms of the MRC grade (p=0.646) and EMG results (p=0.646). The outstanding rates of angle of elbow flexion were 48% and 40% in the phrenic and intercostal nerve transfer groups, respectively. There was no significant difference of outstanding rates in the angle of elbow flexion between the two groups. Phrenic nerve transfer had a higher proportion of good prognosis for elbow flexion than intercostal nerve transfer, but the effective and outstanding rate had no significant difference for biceps reinnervation between the two groups according to MRC grading, angle of elbow flexion, and EMG. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Coordination and Balance in Children with Birth-Related Brachial Plexus Injury: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Bucevska, Marija; Verchere, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: Most children with severe birth-related brachial plexus injury (BRBPI) have some functional impairment, but information on the impact of BRBPI on coordination and balance is limited. The study's purpose was to determine whether children with BRBPI exhibit deficits in body coordination and balance. Method: A prospective cohort study involving 39 children with BRBPI aged 5–15 years was conducted. Range of motion, strength, active movement, and balance and coordination motor skills were assessed using the Bruininks–Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2), and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children—Second Edition (MABC-2). A self-report measure of physical disability, the Activities Scale for Kids—Performance Version (ASKp), was also administered. Results: Participants scored a mean of 44.72 on the BOT-2 Body Coordination composite subtest; scores can range from 20 to 80. Eleven participants (28.2%) scored below average on this test. Participants scored a mean of 7.3 on the Balance subtest of the MABC-2; scores can range from 1 to 19. Twenty-six participants (66.7%) scored below average on this test. Of 38 participants, 25 (65.8%) had an ASKp score indicating some level of disability (<95/100); we found a statistically significant difference in balance (p=0.007) between these 25 participants and those without disability (ASKp score 95–100). Conclusions: The majority of our study population scored in the categories of at risk or significant difficulty for balance on the MABC-2. Balance rehabilitation may be a valuable treatment adjunct for children with BRBPI. PMID:25931660

  1. An Anatomically Validated Brachial Plexus Contouring Method for Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Velde, Joris; Audenaert, Emmanuel; Speleers, Bruno; Vercauteren, Tom; Mulliez, Thomas; Vandemaele, Pieter; Achten, Eric; Kerckaert, Ingrid; D'Herde, Katharina; De Neve, Wilfried; Van Hoof, Tom

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To develop contouring guidelines for the brachial plexus (BP) using anatomically validated cadaver datasets. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were used to obtain detailed visualizations of the BP region, with the goal of achieving maximal inclusion of the actual BP in a small contoured volume while also accommodating for anatomic variations. Methods and Materials: CT and MRI were obtained for 8 cadavers positioned for intensity modulated radiation therapy. 3-dimensional reconstructions of soft tissue (from MRI) and bone (from CT) were combined to create 8 separate enhanced CT project files. Dissection of the corresponding cadavers anatomically validated the reconstructions created. Seven enhanced CT project files were then automatically fitted, separately in different regions, to obtain a single dataset of superimposed BP regions that incorporated anatomic variations. From this dataset, improved BP contouring guidelines were developed. These guidelines were then applied to the 7 original CT project files and also to 1 additional file, left out from the superimposing procedure. The percentage of BP inclusion was compared with the published guidelines. Results: The anatomic validation procedure showed a high level of conformity for the BP regions examined between the 3-dimensional reconstructions generated and the dissected counterparts. Accurate and detailed BP contouring guidelines were developed, which provided corresponding guidance for each level in a clinical dataset. An average margin of 4.7 mm around the anatomically validated BP contour is sufficient to accommodate for anatomic variations. Using the new guidelines, 100% inclusion of the BP was achieved, compared with a mean inclusion of 37.75% when published guidelines were applied. Conclusion: Improved guidelines for BP delineation were developed using combined MRI and CT imaging with validation by anatomic dissection.

  2. Preoperative interscalene brachial plexus block aids in perioperative temperature management during arthroscopic shoulder surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Se Hun; Lee, Wonjin; Park, JaeGwan; Kim, Myoung-hun; Cho, Kwangrae; Lee, Jeong Han; Cheong, Soon Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypothermia is common during arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia, and anesthetic-impaired thermoregulation is thought to be the major cause of hypothermia. This prospective, randomized, double-blind study was designed to compare perioperative temperature during arthroscopic shoulder surgery with interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) followed by general anesthesia vs. general anesthesia alone. Methods Patients scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery were randomly allocated to receive IBPB followed by general anesthesia (group GB, n = 20) or general anesthesia alone (group GO, n = 20), and intraoperative and postoperative body temperatures were measured. Results The initial body temperatures were 36.5 ± 0.3℃ vs. 36.4 ± 0.4℃ in group GB vs. GO, respectively (P = 0.215). The body temperature at 120 minutes after induction of anesthesia was significantly higher in group GB than in group GO (35.8 ± 0.3℃ vs. 34.9 ± 0.3℃; P < 0.001). The body temperatures at 60 minutes after admission to the post-anesthesia care unit were 35.8 ± 0.3℃ vs. 35.2 ± 0.2℃ in group GB vs. GO, respectively (P < 0.001). The concentrations of desflurane at 0, 15, and 120 minutes after induction of anesthesia were 6.0 vs. 6.0% (P = 0.330), 5.0 ± 0.8% vs. 5.8 ± 0.4% (P = 0.001), and 3.4 ± 0.4% vs. 7.1 ± 0.9% (P < 0.001) in group GB vs. GO, respectively. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that preoperative IBPB could reduce both the intraoperative concentration of desflurane and the reduction in body temperature during and after arthroscopic shoulder surgery. PMID:27482313

  3. [Randomized prospective study of three different techniques for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block].

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Leonardo Henirque Cunha; Takeda, Alexandre; Sousa, Paulo César Castello Branco de; Mehlmann, Fernanda Moreira Gomes; Junior, Jorge Kiyoshi Mitsunaga; Falcão, Luiz Fernando Dos Reis

    2017-06-23

    Randomized prospective study comparing two perivascular techniques with the perineural technique for ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block (US-ABPB). The primary objective was to verify if these perivascular techniques are noninferior to the perineural technique. 240 patients were randomized to receive the techniques: below the artery (BA), around the artery (AA) or perineural (PN). The anesthetic volume used was 40mL of 0.375% bupivacaine. All patients received a musculocutaneous nerve blockade with 10mL. In BA technique, 30mL were injected below the axillary artery. In AA technique, 7.5mL were injected at 4 points around the artery. In PN technique, the median, ulnar, and radial nerves were anesthetized with 10mL per nerve. Confidence interval analysis showed that the perivascular techniques studied were not inferior to the perineural technique. The time to perform the blockade was shorter for the BA technique (300.4±78.4sec, 396.5±117.1sec, 487.6±172.6sec, respectively). The PN technique showed a lower latency time (PN - 655.3±348.9sec; BA -1044±389.5sec; AA-932.9±314.5sec), and less total time for the procedure (PN-1132±395.8sec; BA -1346.2±413.4sec; AA 1329.5±344.4sec). TA technique had a higher incidence of vascular puncture (BA - 22.5%; AA - 16.3%; PN - 5%). The perivascular techniques are viable alternatives to perineural technique for US-ABPB. There is a higher incidence of vascular puncture associated with the BA technique. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  4. [Minimum effective concentration of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block guided by ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Takeda, Alexandre; Ferraro, Leonardo Henrique Cunha; Rezende, André Hosoi; Sadatsune, Eduardo Jun; Falcão, Luiz Fernando Dos Reis; Tardelli, Maria Angela

    2015-01-01

    The use of ultrasound in regional anesthesia allows reducing the dose of local anesthetic used for peripheral nerve block. The present study was performed to determine the minimum effective concentration (MEC90) of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block (ABPB). Patients undergoing hand surgery were recruited. To estimate the MEC90, a sequential up-down biased coin method of allocation was used. The bupivacaine dose was 5mL for each nerve (radial, ulnar, median, and musculocutaneous). The initial concentration was 0.35%. This concentration was changed by 0.05% depending on the previous block: a blockade failure resulted in increased concentration for the next patient; in case of success, the next patient could receive or reduction (0.1 probability) or the same concentration (0.9 probability). Surgical anesthesia was defined as driving force ≤ 2 according to the modified Bromage scale, lack of thermal sensitivity and response to pinprick. Postoperative analgesia was assessed in the recovery room with numeric pain scale and the amount of drugs used within 4hours after the blockade. MEC90 was 0.241% [R2: 0.978, confidence interval: 0.20%-0.34%]. No successful block patient reported pain after 4hours. This study demonstrated that ultrasound guided ABPB can be performed with the use of low concentration of local anesthetics, increasing the safety of the procedure. Further studies should be conducted to assess blockade duration at low concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Differences in Brain Adaptive Functional Reorganization in Right and Left Total Brachial Plexus Injury Patients.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun-Tao; Liu, Han-Qiu; Xu, Jian-Guang; Gu, Yu-Dong; Shen, Yun-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Total brachial plexus avulsion injury (BPAI) results in the total functional loss of the affected limb and induces extensive brain functional reorganization. However, because the dominant hand is responsible for more cognitive-related tasks, injuries on this side induce more adaptive changes in brain function. In this article, we explored the differences in brain functional reorganization after injuries in unilateral BPAI patients. We applied resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning to 10 left and 10 right BPAI patients and 20 healthy control subjects. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), which is a resting-state index, was calculated for all patients as an indication of the functional activity level of the brain. Two-sample t-tests were performed between left BPAI patients and controls, right BPAI patients and controls, and between left and right BPAI patients. Two-sample t-tests of the ALFF values revealed that right BPAIs induced larger scale brain reorganization than did left BPAIs. Both left and right BPAIs elicited a decreased ALFF value in the right precuneus (P < 0.05, Alphasim corrected). In addition, right BPAI patients exhibited increased ALFF values in a greater number of brain regions than left BPAI patients, including the inferior temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, calcarine sulcus, and fusiform gyrus. Our results revealed that right BPAIs induced greater extents of brain functional reorganization than left BPAIs, which reflected the relatively more extensive adaptive process that followed injuries of the dominant hand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Blood pressure response to combined general anaesthesia/interscalene brachial plexus block for outpatient shoulder arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Shoulder surgery is often performed in the beach-chair position, a position associated with arterial hypotension and subsequent risk of cerebral ischaemia. It can be performed under general anaesthesia or with an interscalene brachial plexus block, each of which has specific advantages but also specific negative effects on blood pressure control. It would be worthwhile to combine the advantages of the two, but the effects of the combination on the circulation are not well investigated. We studied blood pressure, heart rate, and incidence of adverse circulatory events in patients undergoing shoulder surgery in general anaesthesia with or without an interscalene block. Methods Prospective, randomised, blinded study in outpatients (age 18 to 80 years) undergoing shoulder arthroscopy. General anaesthesia was with propofol/opioid, interscalene block with 40 ml 1% mepivacaine. Hypotension requiring treatment was defined as a mean arterial pressure <60 mmHg or a systolic pressure <80% of baseline; relevant bradycardia was a heart rate <50 bpm with a decrease in blood pressure. Results Forty-two patients had general anaesthesia alone, 41 had general anaesthesia plus interscalene block. The average systolic blood pressure under anaesthesia in the beach-chair position was 114 ± 7.3 vs. 116 ± 8.3 mmHg (p = 0.09; all comparisons General vs. General-Regional). The incidence of a mean arterial pressure under 60 mmHg or a decrease in systolic pressure of more than 20% from baseline was 64% vs. 76% (p = 0.45). The number of patients with a heart rate lower than 50 and a concomitant blood pressure decrease was 8 vs. 5 (p = 0.30). Conclusion One can safely combine interscalene block with general anaesthesia for surgery in the beach-chair position in ASA I and II patients. Clinical trial number DRKS00005295. PMID:25002832

  7. Expectations and limitations due to brachial plexus injury: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Carol A; Lee, Steve K; Dy, Christopher J; Landers, Zoe A; Model, Zina; Wolfe, Scott W

    2015-12-01

    This study described physical and psychosocial limitations associated with adult brachial plexus injuries (BPI) and patients' expectations of BPI surgery. During in-person interviews, preoperative patients were asked about expectations of surgery and preoperative and postoperative patients were asked about limitations due to BPI. Postoperative patients also rated improvement in condition after surgery. Data were analyzed with qualitative and quantitative techniques. Ten preoperative and 13 postoperative patients were interviewed; mean age was 37 years, 19 were men, all were employed/students, and most injuries were due to trauma. Preoperative patients cited several main expectations, including pain-related issues, and improvement in arm movement, self-care, family interactions, and global life function. Work-related expectations were tailored to employment type. Preoperative and postoperative patients reported that pain, altered sensation, difficulty managing self-care, becoming physically and financially dependent, and disability in work/school were major issues. All patients reported making major compensations, particularly using the uninjured arm. Most reported multiple mental health effects, were distressed with long recovery times, were self-conscious about appearance, and avoided public situations. Additional stresses were finding and paying for BPI surgery. Some reported BPI impacted overall physical health, life priorities, and decision-making processes. Four postoperative patients reported hardly any improvement, four reported some/a good deal, and five reported a great deal of improvement. BPI is a life-altering event affecting physical function, mental well-being, financial situation, relationships, self-image, and plans for the future. This study contributes to clinical practice by highlighting topics to address to provide comprehensive BPI patient-centered care.

  8. Cortical plasticity after brachial plexus injury and repair: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Dhananjaya I; Indira Devi, B; Bharti, Komal; Panda, Rajanikant

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE The authors aimed to understand the alterations of brain resting-state networks (RSNs) in patients with pan-brachial plexus injury (BPI) before and after surgery, which might provide insight into cortical plasticity after peripheral nerve injury and regeneration. METHODS Thirty-five patients with left pan-BPI before surgery, 30 patients after surgery, and 25 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). The 30 postoperative patients were subdivided into 2 groups: 14 patients with improvement in muscle power and 16 patients with no improvement in muscle power after surgery. RSNs were extracted using independent component analysis to evaluate connectivity at a significance level of p < 0.05 (familywise error corrected). RESULTS The patients with BPI had lower connectivity in their sensorimotor network (SMN) and salience network (SN) and greater connectivity in their default mode network (DMN) before surgery than the controls. Connectivity of the left supplementary motor cortex in the SMN and medial frontal gyrus and in the anterior cingulate cortex in the SN increased in patients whose muscle power had improved after surgery, whereas no significant changes were noted in the unimproved patients. There was a trend toward reduction in DMN connectivity in all the patients after surgery compared with that in the preoperative patients; however, this result was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study highlight the fact that peripheral nerve injury, its management, and successful treatment cause dynamic changes within the brain's RSNs, which includes not only the obvious SMN but also the higher cognitive networks such as the SN and DMN, which indicates brain plasticity and compensatory mechanisms at work.

  9. Correlation between clinical findings and CT scan parameters for shoulder deformities in birth brachial plexus palsy.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Praveen; Burgess, Tanya; Sabapathy, S Raja; Venkataramani, Hari; Ilayaraja, Venkatachalam

    2013-08-01

    The shoulder is the most common site of secondary deformities after birth brachial plexus palsy. The severity and the pattern of deformity vary in patients and have implications for clinical decision making. This study aimed to find the correlation between clinical findings and computed tomography (CT) scan parameters for these deformities. This prospective study included 75 patients aged 3 to 23 years. The clinical parameters included age, extent of involvement (nerve roots affected), degree of shoulder abduction, active and passive external rotation, and Mallet score. These were correlated with 3 CT scan parameters: elevation of the scapula above the clavicle, relative glenoid version, and percentage of the humeral head anterior to the scapular line. There was a significant correlation between lack of active and passive external rotation and relative glenoid version and humeral head subluxation. There was a significant correlation between active abduction and elevation of the scapula above the clavicle. There was no significant correlation between age or Mallet score with any of the CT scan parameters. These results suggest that presence of active and passive external rotation beyond 10° is associated with significantly lesser shoulder deformity irrespective of the degree of shoulder abduction. Hence, a patient with more than 10° external rotation does not need a screening CT scan evaluation regardless of the degree of shoulder abduction present. Conversely, a lack of external rotation beyond 10° strongly suggests relative glenoid retroversion and posterior subluxation of the humeral head and should be considered a clinical indicator of shoulder deformation. Diagnostic II. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of 3 therapeutic taping configurations for children with brachial plexus birth palsy.

    PubMed

    Russo, Stephanie A; Zlotolow, Dan A; Chafetz, Ross S; Rodriguez, Luisa M; Kelly, Devin; Linamen, Holly; Richards, James G; Lubahn, John D; Kozin, Scott H

    2017-04-25

    Cross-sectional clinical measurement study. Scapular winging is a frequent complaint among children with brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP). Therapeutic taping for scapular stabilization has been reported to decrease scapular winging. This study aimed to determine which therapeutic taping construct was most effective for children with BPBP. Twenty-eight children with BPBP participated in motion capture assessment with 4 taping conditions: (1) no tape, (2) facilitation of rhomboid major and rhomboid minor, (3) facilitation of middle and lower trapezius, and (4) facilitation of rhomboid major, rhomboid minor, and middle and lower trapezius (combination of both 2 and 3, referred to as combined taping). The participants held their arms in 4 positions: (1) neutral with arms by their sides, (2) hand to mouth, (3) hand to belly, and (4) maximum crossbody adduction (CBA). The scapulothoracic, glenohumeral and humerothoracic (HT) joint angles and joint angular displacements were compared using multivariate analyses of variance with Bonferroni corrections. Scapular winging was significantly decreased in both the trapezius and combined taping conditions in all positions compared with no tape. Rhomboids taping had no effect. Combined taping reduced HT CBA in the CBA position. Rhomboid taping cannot be recommended for treatment of children with BPBP. Both trapezius and combined taping approaches reduced scapular winging, but HT CBA was limited with combined taping. Therefore, therapeutic taping of middle and lower trapezius was the most effective configuration for scapular stabilization in children with BPBP. Resting posture improved, but performance of the positions was not significantly improved. Level II. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Glenohumeral Dysplasia in Neonatal Brachial Plexus Palsy.

    PubMed

    Eismann, Emily A; Laor, Tal; Cornwall, Roger

    2016-01-20

    Existing quantitative measurements of glenohumeral dysplasia in children with unresolved neonatal brachial plexus palsy (NBPP) have been mostly limited to the axial plane. The purpose of this study was to describe the three-dimensional (3D) pathoanatomy of glenohumeral dysplasia using 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reformations. 3D MRI reformations of the scapula, glenoid labrum, and proximal part of the humerus were created from a volume-acquisition proton-density-weighted MRI sequence of both the affected and the unaffected shoulder of seventeen children less than six years of age with unresolved NBPP who had not undergone shoulder surgery. Glenoid retroversion and posterior humeral head displacement were measured on axial 2D images. Humeral head displacement in all planes, labral circumference, glenoid retroversion, glenoid declination, and scapular morphometric values were measured on 3D reformations. Contiguity of the humeral head with the labrum and the shape of the glenoid were classified. Measurements were compared between the affected and unaffected sides. On 3D evaluation, the humeral head was completely posteriorly translated in ten patients but was never outside the glenoid labrum. Instead, in these patients, the humeral head was eccentrically articulating with the dysplastic glenoid and was contained by a posteriorly elongated labrum. Glenoid dysplasia was not limited to the axial plane. Less declination of the glenoid in the coronal plane correlated with greater 3D glenoid retroversion. Glenoid retroversion resulted from underdevelopment of the posterior aspect of the glenoid rather than overdevelopment of the anterior aspect of the glenoid. 3D measurements of greater glenoid retroversion and less declination correlated with 2D measurements of glenoid retroversion and posterior humeral head displacement. Posterior humeral head displacement in NBPP should not be considered a simple "dislocation." Glenohumeral dysplasia is not limited to the axial

  12. Supraclavicular brachial plexus block: Comparison of varying doses of dexmedetomidine combined with levobupivacaine: A double-blind randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Nallam, Srinivasa Rao; Chiruvella, Sunil; Karanam, Swetha

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: The ideal dose of dexmedetomidine for brachial plexus block is a matter of debate. This study was carried out to evaluate 50 μg or 100 μg of dexmedetomidine added to 0.5% levobupivacaine, with regard to the duration of analgesia. Our study also sought to assess the onset and duration of sensorimotor blockade, haemodynamic effects, sedation and adverse effects. Methods: One hundred adult patients undergoing upper limb surgeries under supraclavicular brachial plexus block were randomly allocated into two groups. Group LD50 received 29 ml of 0.5% levobupivacaine plus 50 μg of dexmedetomidine diluted in 1 ml of normal saline. Group LD100 received 29 ml of 0.5% levobupivacaine plus 100 μg of dexmedetomidine diluted in 1 ml of normal saline. Duration of analgesia was the primary outcome. Onset and duration of sensorimotor blockade, haemodynamic variables, sedation score, and adverse effects were secondary outcomes. The data were analysed with Students' t-test and Chi-square test. Results: The onset of sensory block and motor block was 14.82 ± 3.8 min and 19.75 ± 6.3 min, respectively, in group LD50, while it was 11.15 ± 1.7 min and 14.3 ± 4.2 min, respectively, in group LD100. The duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in group LD100 (1033.6 ± 141.6 vs. 776.4 ± 138.6 min; P = 0.001). The incidence of bradycardia and sedation was observed in significantly more patients in group LD100. Significantly fewer patients in group LD100 required rescue analgesia. Conclusion: The 100 μg dose of dexmedetomidine in brachial plexus block hastens the onset and prolongs the duration of sensorimotor blockade and analgesia, but with higher incidence of bradycardia and sedation. PMID:28405041

  13. A comparative study of clonidine and dexmedetomidine as an adjunct to bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Archana; Sharma, Khushboo; Somvanshi, Mukesh; Samal, Rajib Lochan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Various additives are mixed with local anesthetic agents to increase the quality of block in regional anesthesia. We compared clonidine and dexmedetomidine as an adjunct to bupivacaine in supraclavicular brachial plexus block with respect to the onset and duration of sensory and motor block and duration of analgesia. Material and Methods: Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists Grades I and II patients scheduled for various orthopedic surgeries of the upper limb under supraclavicular brachial plexus block were divided into two equal groups in a randomized, double-blind manner. Patients were assigned randomly to one of the two groups. In Group C (n = 30), 39 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine plus 1 ml (1 μg/kg) clonidine and in Group D (n = 30), 39 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine plus 1 ml (1 μg/kg) dexmedetomidine were given. The onset and duration of sensory and motor block, duration of analgesia, and quality of anesthesia were studied in both the groups. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the onset of sensory and motor block in both the groups. The durations of sensory and motor block were 316.67 ± 45.21 and 372.67 ± 44.48 min, respectively, in Group C, whereas they were 502.67 ± 43.7