Science.gov

Sample records for obstruction symptom evaluation

  1. Adaptation and validation of the Dutch version of the nasal obstruction symptom evaluation (NOSE) scale.

    PubMed

    van Zijl, Floris V W J; Timman, Reinier; Datema, Frank R

    2017-06-01

    The nasal obstruction symptom evaluation (NOSE) scale is a validated disease-specific, self-completed questionnaire for the assessment of quality of life related to nasal obstruction. The aim of this study was to validate the Dutch (NL-NOSE) questionnaire. A prospective instrument validation study was performed in a tertiary academic referral center. Guidelines for the cross-cultural adaptation process from the original English language scale into a Dutch language version were followed. Patients undergoing functional septoplasty or septorhinoplasty and asymptomatic controls completed the questionnaire both before and 3 months after surgery to test reliability and validity. Additionally, we explored the possibility to reduce the NOSE scale even further using graded response models. 129 patients and 50 controls were included. Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.82) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.89) were good. The instrument showed excellent between-group discrimination (Mann-Whitney U = 85, p < 0.001) and high response sensitivity to change (Wilcoxon rank p < 0.001). The NL-NOSE correlated well with the score on a visual analog scale measuring the subjective sensation of nasal obstruction, with exception of item 4 (trouble sleeping). Item 4 provided the least information to the total scale and item 3 (trouble breathing through nose) the most, particularly in the postoperative group. The Dutch version of the NOSE (NL-NOSE) demonstrated satisfactory reliability and validity. We recommend the use of the NL-NOSE as a validated instrument to measure subjective severity of nasal obstruction in Dutch adult patients.

  2. [Symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children].

    PubMed

    Gregório, Paloma Baiardi; Athanazio, Rodrigo Abensur; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Neves, Flávia Branco Cerqueira Serra; Terse, Regina; Hora, Francisco

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the symptoms most frequently found in children with a polysomnographic diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). We evaluated 38 children consecutively referred to the sleep laboratory with suspicion of OSAHS between June of 2003 and December of 2004. The patients were submitted to a pre-sleep questionnaire and to polysomnography. The mean age was 7.8 +/- 4 years (range, 2-15 years), and 50% of the children were male. Children without apnea accounted for 7.9% of the sample. The obstructive sleep apnea observed in the remainder was mild in 42.1%, moderate in 28.9% and severe in 22.1%. Severe cases of apnea were most common among children under the age of six (pre-school age). In children with OSAHS, the most common symptoms were snoring and nasal obstruction, which were observed in 74.3 and 72.7% of the children, respectively. Excessive sleepiness and bruxism were seen in 29.4 and 34.3%, respectively, and reflux disease was seen in only 3.1%. Restless legs and difficulty in falling asleep were identified in 65 and 33%, respectively. All of the children diagnosed with severe OSAHS also presented snoring and bruxism. Snoring and nasal obstruction were the most common symptoms found in our sample of children and adolescents with OSAHS. In addition, OSAHS severity was associated with being in the lower age bracket.

  3. A pilot study evaluating a new questionnaire for prostatic symptom scoring, the SPSS, and its sensitivity as constructed to objective measures of outflow obstruction.

    PubMed

    Yano, Masataka; Kitahara, Satoshi; Yasuda, Kosaku; Yamanishi, Tomonori; Nakai, Hideo; Yanagisawa, Ryouzo; Morozumi, Makoto; Homma, Yukio

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate the extent to which our newly developed questionnaire, the Saitama Prostate Symptom Score (SPSS), for prostatic symptom scoring reflects objective findings in benign prostatic hyperplasia (clinical BPH) and to compare it with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) with regard to diagnostic sensitivity in clinical BPH. In this study, both the SPSS and the IPSS were self-administered by patients. Free uroflowmetry, a pressure-flow study and the measurement of prostatic volume were carried out. There was no significant correlation between the results of the IPSS questionnaire and the urethral obstruction grade estimated by Schaefer or Abrams-Griffiths nomograms. The total score of the SPSS was correlated with these nomograms (P = 0.0487 and P = 0.0413, respectively). There was no significant correlation between the results of the IPSS questionnaire and the total volume or transition zone volume of the prostate, whereas the total score of the SPSS correlated with the total volume of the gland and transition zone volume (P = 0.0044 and P= 0.0051, respectively). This study revealed the SPSS to correlate with objective findings satisfactorily. However, there are still several aspects of the SPSS which need to be improved upon, and the questionnaire should be studied in larger numbers of patients suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms.

  4. Differences in Symptom Severity and Quality of Life in Patients With Obstructive Defecation and Colonic Inertia.

    PubMed

    Chou, Adriana B; Cohan, Jessica N; Varma, Madhulika G

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about how obstructive defecation and colonic inertia symptoms contribute to constipation-related quality of life. We sought to characterize the differences in quality of life in patients with severe obstructive defecation and colonic inertia symptoms. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of a prospective database. Patients were enrolled at a single tertiary referral center. We included consecutive adults with severe symptoms of obstructive defecation (n = 115) or colonic inertia (n = 90) as measured by the Constipation Severity Instrument. The primary outcomes measured were the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory, Constipation-Related Quality of Life instrument, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire, and 12-item Short Form Health Survey. Although physical examination and anorectal physiology testing were similar between groups, patients with severe obstructive defecation symptoms reported worse pain, distress, and constipation-specific quality of life than patients with severe colonic inertia symptoms (all p < 0.001). Specifically, patients with severe obstructive defecation symptoms showed greater quality-of-life impairment related to eating, bathroom habits, and social functioning (all p ≤ 0.01). Furthermore, patients with severe obstructive defecation symptoms had inferior global quality of life on the 12-item Short Form Health Survey physical component score (p = 0.03) and mental component score (p = 0.06). The use of patient self-report instruments resulted in a proportion of patients with incomplete data. Quality of life was impaired in both groups of patients; however, patients with severe obstructive defecation symptoms were affected to a significantly greater extent. The fact that there were no differences in objective findings on physical examination or anorectal physiology studies highlights the importance of assessing quality of life during the evaluation and treatment of constipated patients.

  5. Prevalence of major obstructive sleep apnea syndrome symptoms in coal miners and healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kart, Levent; Dutkun, Yalçın; Altın, Remzi; Ornek, Tacettin; Kıran, Sibel

    2010-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is associated with symptoms including habitual snoring, witness apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness. Also obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is related to some occupations which are needed attention for work accident. We aimed to determine the prevalence of snoring, witnessed apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness in coal workers and healthy adults in Zonguldak city center, and also evaluate the differences between these groups. This study consisted of 423 underground coal workers and 355 individuals living in centre of Zonguldak. Study and comparison group were chosen by nonstratified randomized sampling method. Data were collected by a questionnaire that included information regarding snoring, witnessed apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness. Mean age was 43.3 ± 6.05 years in miners and 44.3 ± 11.8 years in comparison group. In miners, snoring frequency was determined as 42.6%, witnessed apneas were 4.0%, and daytime sleepiness were 4.7%. In comparison group, these symptoms were 38.6%, 4.8% and 2.8% respectively. There were no statistical differences between coal workers and comparison group in these symptoms. Also snoring prevalence was higher in smoker miners. We found that major symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in coal workers are similar to general population in Zonguldak. Further studies that constucted higher populations and with polysomnography are needed to evaluate these findings.

  6. Prospective evaluation of oral gastrografin in postoperative small bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Sorabh; Jain, Gaurav; Sewkani, Ajit; Sharma, Sandesh; Patel, Kailash; Varshney, Subodh

    2006-04-01

    Orally administered gastrografin has been used for early resolution of postoperative small bowel obstruction (POSBO) and to reduce the need for surgery in various studies. However the studies have reported conflicting results as patients with complete obstruction and equivocal diagnosis of bowel strangulation were also included. We carried out a prospective study to evaluate the efficacy of gastrografin in patients with partial adhesive small bowel obstruction. Patients with suspected strangulation, complete obstruction, obstructed hernia, bowel malignancy, and radiation enteritis were excluded. Sixty-two patients with partial adhesive small bowel obstruction were given an initial trial of conservative management of 48 h. Thirty-eight patients improved within 48 h and the other 24 were given 100 ml of undiluted gastrografin through the nasogastric tube. In 22 patients the contrast reached the colon within 24 h. In the remaining two patients the contrast failed to reach the colon and these underwent surgery. The use of gastrografin avoided surgical intervention in 91.3% (22 of 24) patients who failed conservative management of POSBO. Gastrografin also decreased the overall requirement for surgical management of POSBO from the reported rate of 25 to 30% to 3.2% (2 of 62). Use of gastrografin in patients with partial POSBO helps in resolution of symptoms and avoids the need for surgical management in the majority of patients.

  7. Changes in nasal airflow and heat transfer correlate with symptom improvement after surgery for nasal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kimbell, J S; Frank, D O; Laud, Purushottam; Garcia, G J M; Rhee, J S

    2013-10-18

    Surgeries to correct nasal airway obstruction (NAO) often have less than desirable outcomes, partly due to the absence of an objective tool to select the most appropriate surgical approach for each patient. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can be used to investigate nasal airflow, but variables need to be identified that can detect surgical changes and correlate with patient symptoms. CFD models were constructed from pre- and post-surgery computed tomography scans for 10 NAO patients showing no evidence of nasal cycling. Steady-state inspiratory airflow, nasal resistance, wall shear stress, and heat flux were computed for the main nasal cavity from nostrils to posterior nasal septum both bilaterally and unilaterally. Paired t-tests indicated that all CFD variables were significantly changed by surgery when calculated on the most obstructed side, and that airflow, nasal resistance, and heat flux were significantly changed bilaterally as well. Moderate linear correlations with patient-reported symptoms were found for airflow, heat flux, unilateral allocation of airflow, and unilateral nasal resistance as a fraction of bilateral nasal resistance when calculated on the most obstructed nasal side, suggesting that these variables may be useful for evaluating the efficacy of nasal surgery objectively. Similarity in the strengths of these correlations suggests that patient-reported symptoms may represent a constellation of effects and that these variables should be tracked concurrently during future virtual surgery planning. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among patients with systemic arterial hypertension without respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad; Pereira, Sheila Alves; Silva Júnior, José Laerte Rodrigues; de Rezende, Aline Pacheco; Castro da Costa, Adeliane; de Sousa Corrêa, Krislainy; Conde, Marcus Barreto

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often delayed until later stages of the disease. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of COPD among adults on treatment for systemic arterial hypertension independently of the presence of respiratory symptoms. This cross-sectional study included adults aged ≥40 years with tobacco/occupational exposure and systemic arterial hypertension diagnosed at three Primary Health Care facilities in Goiania, Brazil. Patients were evaluated using a standardized respiratory questionnaire and spirometry. COPD prevalence was measured considering the value of forced vital capacity and/or forced expiratory volume in 1 second <0.70. Of a total of 570 subjects, 316 (55%) met inclusion criteria and were invited to participate. Two hundred and thirty-three (73.7%) patients with arterial hypertension reported at least one respiratory symptom, while 83 (26.3%) reported no respiratory symptoms; 41 (17.6%) patients with arterial hypertension and at least one respiratory symptom, and 10 (12%) patients with arterial hypertension but no respiratory symptoms were diagnosed with COPD (P=0.24). The prevalence of COPD in people with no previous COPD diagnosis was greater among those with no respiratory symptoms (100%) than among those with respiratory symptoms (56.1%) (P=0.01). Our findings suggest that regardless of the presence of respiratory symptoms, individuals aged ≥40 years with tobacco/occupational exposure and arterial hypertension may benefit from spirometric evaluation.

  9. Symptom-reducing actions: a concept analysis in the context of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Zakrisson, Ann-Britt

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have multiple symptoms. Nursing care is based on six core competencies and one of them is person-centred care that includes the aspect of professional symptom relief. The aim was to clarify a meaning of the concept of Symptom-reducing actions in the context of COPD. Databases MEDLINE and CINAHL were searched between 1982 and February 2016 and 26 publications were found. Two dictionaries and three books were investigated. The method of Walker & Avant was followed. The use of the concept of Symptom-reducing actions may be categorized by the sub-concepts of supervision, information, and patient education. Exploration of defining attributes was symptom management, instructions, support, motivation, explanation, advice, teaching, and learning. Antecedent occurrences were related to factors that affect the patient’s level of function such as physical performance and cognitive function. Symptom-reducing actions offer a way to support patients with COPD in self-management. Symptom-reducing actions can mediate facts in a purposeful process performed by the nurse to enable the patient to take control over and manage unpleasant symptoms by a person-centred, planned process. The nurse can achieve this via supervision, information, and patient education with an integrated emotional component. Evaluating the outcomes is needed. PMID:29034812

  10. Quality of Life and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Symptoms After Pediatric Adenotonsillectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Ron B.; Parker, Portia D.; Moore, Reneé H.; Rosen, Carol L.; Giordani, Bruno; Muzumdar, Hiren; Paruthi, Shalini; Elden, Lisa; Willging, Paul; Beebe, Dean W.; Marcus, Carole L.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Redline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Data from a randomized, controlled study of adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) were used to test the hypothesis that children undergoing surgery had greater quality of life (QoL) and symptom improvement than control subjects. The objectives were to compare changes in validated QoL and symptom measurements among children randomized to undergo adenotonsillectomy or watchful waiting; to determine whether race, weight, or baseline OSAS severity influenced changes in QoL and symptoms; and to evaluate associations between changes in QoL or symptoms and OSAS severity. METHODS: Children aged 5 to 9.9 years with OSAS (N = 453) were randomly assigned to undergo adenotonsillectomy or watchful waiting with supportive care. Polysomnography, the Pediatric Quality of Life inventory, the Sleep-Related Breathing Scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, the 18-item Obstructive Sleep Apnea QoL instrument, and the modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale were completed at baseline and 7 months. Changes in the QoL and symptom surveys were compared between arms. Effect modification according to race and obesity and associations between changes in polysomnographic measures and QoL or symptoms were examined. RESULTS: Greater improvements in most QoL and symptom severity measurements were observed in children randomized to undergo adenotonsillectomy, including the parent-completed Pediatric Quality of Life inventory (effect size [ES]: 0.37), the 18-item Obstructive Sleep Apnea QoL instrument (ES: –0.93), the modified Epworth Sleepiness Scale score (ES: –0.42), and the Sleep-Related Breathing Scale of the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (ES: –1.35). Effect modification was not observed by obesity or baseline severity but was noted for race in some symptom measures. Improvements in OSAS severity explained only a small portion of the observed changes. CONCLUSIONS: Adenotonsillectomy compared with watchful waiting resulted in significantly

  11. Outcomes in children with nasolacrimal duct obstruction: Significance of persistent symptoms while stents are in place.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Gabriela M; Lueder, Gregg T

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate the correlation between persistent symptoms while stents are in place and final outcome in children with nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO). A retrospective observational case series, with medical record review that included indications for surgery, surgical procedure, presence of symptoms while stents were in place, and final outcome after stent removal. Twenty-eight children with NLDO had nasolacrimal duct stents placed in 42 eyes. Twenty-one of the 42 eyes (50%) had minimal or no signs or symptoms of NLDO while stents were in place, and 18 of 21 (86%) were symptom-free after stent removal. Twenty-one of the 42 eyes (50%) remained symptomatic while stents were in place. Eleven of these 21 eyes (52%) had good outcomes after stent removal. Ten (48%) of these patients had persistent symptoms after stent removal requiring further treatment. The prognosis for a good outcome is excellent if symptoms of NLDO resolve while stents are in place. The prognosis is poorer if symptoms of NLDO persist, but more than half of such patients still have good outcomes. Careful counseling of parents regarding these outcomes should be performed before considering additional interventions.

  12. Health Status of Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease by Symptom Level.

    PubMed

    Marvel, Jessica; Yu, Tzy-Chyi; Wood, Robert; Higgins, Victoria S; Make, Barry J

    2016-05-05

    Background: Despite receiving treatment, patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often continue to experience symptoms that impact their health status. We determined the relationship between overall symptom burden and health status, and assessed the treatments patients were receiving. Methods: Data from 3 cross-sectional surveys of U.S. patients with COPD (2011-2013) were analyzed. Patients receiving inhaled COPD treatment for ≥3 months completed the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) symptom burden and respiratory health status measure, EuroQol 5-dimension (EQ-5D-3L) general health status questionnaire, and Jenkins Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (JSEQ). CAT scores were used to identify high- (CAT ≥24) and low-symptom patients (CAT <24), who were matched using 1:1 propensity score matching with replacement. Match balance was assessed with standardized mean differences. EQ-5D-3L and JSEQ scores, and current treatment were compared between groups post-matching. Sensitivity was assessed with Rosenbaum bounds. Results: A total of 638 patients were included. Compared with low-symptom patients, high-symptom patients had worse health status and greater sleep disturbance by EQ-5D utility index (0.85 versus 0.71, respectively; p <0.0001) and JSEQ scores (3.73 versus 7.35, respectively; p <0.0001). High-symptom patients were prescribed single-maintenance bronchodilators ± inhaled corticosteroids (46.0%), triple therapy (40.5%), and short-acting therapy only (8.2%). Results were robust and insensitive to unobserved confounders. Conclusions: Increased COPD symptom burden is associated with worse general health status in patients receiving COPD treatment. High-symptom patients frequently received single inhaled medication. The results suggest that health care providers should monitor and tailor therapy, based on level of symptom burden to improve symptom control and health status.

  13. Effect of CPAP Therapy on Symptoms of Nocturnal Gastroesophageal Reflux among Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Tamanna, Sadeka; Campbell, Douglas; Warren, Richard; Ullah, Mohammad I

    2016-09-15

    Nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux (nGER) is common among patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Previous studies demonstrated that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) reduces symptoms of nGER. However, improvement in nGER symptoms based on objective CPAP compliance has not been documented. We have examined the polysomnographic characteristics of patients with nGER and OSA and looked for association of OSA severity and CPAP compliance with improvement in nGER symptoms. We interviewed 85 veterans with OSA to assess their daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness scale [ESS]) and nGER symptom frequency after their polysomnography and polysomnographic data were reviewed. At 6 months' follow-up, ESS score, nGER score, and CPAP machine compliance data were reassessed. Data from 6 subjects were dropped from final analysis due to their initiation of new medication for nGER symptom since the initial evaluation. Sixty-two of 79 (78%) patients complained of nGER symptoms during initial visit. At baseline, nGER score was correlated with sleep efficiency (r = 0.43), and BMI correlated with the severity of OSA (r = 0.41). ESS and nGER improved (p < 0.0001) in all patients after 6 months, but more significantly in CPAP compliant patients. A minimum CPAP compliance of 25% was needed to achieve any benefit in nGER improvement. Nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux is common among patients with OSA which increases sleep disruption and worsens the symptoms of daytime sleepiness. CPAP therapy may help improve the symptoms of both nocturnal acid reflux and daytime sleepiness, but adherence to CPAP is crucial to achieve this benefit. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  14. Surgery for the resolution of symptoms in malignant bowel obstruction in advanced gynaecological and gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Sarah E; Tempest, Emma; Feuer, David J

    2016-01-04

    cancer. We used data extraction forms to collect data from the studies included in the review. Two review authors extracted the data independently to reduce error. Owing to concerns about the risk of bias we decided not to conduct a meta-analysis of data and we have presented a narrative description of the study results. We planned to resolve disagreements by discussion with the third review author. In total we have identified 43 studies examining 4265 participants. The original review included 938 patients from 25 studies. The updated search identified an additional 18 studies with a combined total of 3327 participants between 1997 and June 2015. The results of these studies did not change the conclusions of the original review.No firm conclusions can be drawn from the many retrospective case series so the role of surgery in malignant bowel obstruction remains controversial. Clinical resolution varies from 26.7% to over 68%, though it is often unclear how this is defined. Despite being an inadequate proxy for symptom resolution or quality of life, the ability to feed orally was a popular outcome measure, with success rates ranging from 30% to 100%. Rates of re-obstruction varied, ranging from 0% to 63%, though time to re-obstruction was often not included. Postoperative morbidity and mortality also varied widely, although again the definition of both of these surgical outcomes differed between many of the papers. There were no data available for quality of life. The reporting of adverse effects was variable and this has been described where available. Where discussed, surgical procedures varied considerably and outcomes were not reported by specific intervention. Using the 'Risk of bias' assessment tool, most included studies were at high risk of bias for most domains. The role of surgery in malignant bowel obstruction needs careful evaluation, using validated outcome measures of symptom control and quality of life scores. Further information could include re-obstruction

  15. Laparoscopic gastropexy relieves symptoms of obstructed gastric volvulus in highoperative risk patients.

    PubMed

    Yates, Robert B; Hinojosa, Marcelo W; Wright, Andrew S; Pellegrini, Carlos A; Oelschlager, Brant K

    2015-05-01

    Operative repair of obstructive gastric volvulus is challenging. In high-operative risk patients with obstructive gastric volvulus, we perform laparoscopic reduction of gastric volvulus and anterior abdominal wall sutured gastropexy. This case series reports our experience with this operation. We reviewed the charts of all patients who presented with obstructive gastric volvulus and underwent laparoscopic gastropexy between 2007 and 2013. Eleven patients underwent laparoscopic gastropexy. Median age was 83 years (50 to 92). Six patients presented with chronic obstruction; 5 presented with acute obstruction. Median postoperative hospitalization was 2 days (1 to 39). Two patients required reoperation for displaced gastrostomy tubes. At median follow-up of 3 months (2 weeks to 57 months), all patients remained free of gastric obstructive symptoms and recurrent episodes of volvulus. Only 1 patient received nutrition via gastrostomy tube. Laparoscopic gastropexy can treat obstructed gastric volvulus in highoperative risk patients. Because of associated morbidity, gastrostomy tubes should be placed selectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Urodynamic findings in women with pelvic organ prolapse and obstructive voiding symptoms.

    PubMed

    Dain, Lena; Auslander, Ron; Rosen, Talma; Segev, Yakir; Goldschmidt, Eyal; Abramov, Yoram

    2010-11-01

    To determine whether obstructive voiding symptoms in women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse (POP) were associated with objective bladder outflow tract obstruction. We reviewed preoperative data from patients with advanced POP who underwent surgical correction at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Carmel Medical Center, Haifa, Israel, between December 1, 2005, and November 30, 2007. Obstructive voiding symptoms were recorded from Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 questionnaires. Of the 81 women aged 44-80 years who were included in the study, 40 (49.4%) reported incomplete bladder emptying preoperatively. There was no significant difference between these women and asymptomatic women in terms of demographic and clinical parameters such as age, parity, and stage of prolapse. Furthermore, there was no significant difference with regard to postvoid residual bladder volume (52.8 ± 65.8 vs 41.6 ± 41.2 mL), maximal (23.8 ± 11 vs 21.9 ± 9.6 mL/second) and average (10.3 ± 6.2 vs 9.3 ± 4 mL/second) urinary flow velocities, prevalence of increased postvoid residual volume (10.0% vs 4.8%), or obstructive urinary flow (17.5% vs 7.3%). Almost half of all women with advanced POP experienced incomplete bladder emptying; however, this symptom did not correlate with objective urodynamic bladder outflow tract obstruction. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlation between nasal obstruction symptoms and objective parameters of acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, C S; Moon, B K; Jung, D H; Min, Y G

    1998-01-01

    Acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry have been used to assess nasal airway patency objectively. We compared nasal obstruction symptoms before and after decongestion with several parameters of these objective tests. The patients assessed their nasal obstruction using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Cross-sectional areas and nasal resistance were measured by acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry before and after topical application of 1% phenylephrine solution in 32 patients with nasal obstruction symptoms. There was no significant correlation between the difference in the VAS and the difference in nasal resistance. There was also no significant correlation between the difference in the VAS and minimal cross-sectional area and cross-sectional areas at 3.3 cm (CA3.3), CA4.0 and CA6.4 from the nosepiece both in the wide and narrow sides and in both nasal cavities before and after nasal decongestion. It is concluded that rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry may have no diagnostic value in estimating the severity of nasal obstruction symptoms.

  18. The development of a patient-reported outcome measure for assessing nighttime symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Hareendran, Asha; Palsgrove, Andrew C; Mocarski, Michelle; Schaefer, Michael L; Setyawan, Juliana; Carson, Robyn; Make, Barry

    2013-06-25

    The assessment of symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is important for monitoring and managing the disease and for evaluating outcomes of interventions. COPD patients experience symptoms during the day and night, and symptoms experienced at night often disturb sleep. The aim of this paper is to describe methods used to develop a patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument for evaluating nighttime symptoms of COPD, and to document evidence for the content validity of the instrument. Literature review and clinician interviews were conducted to inform discussion guides to explore patients' nighttime COPD symptom experience. Data from focus groups with COPD patients was used to develop a conceptual framework and the content of a new PRO instrument. Patient understanding of the new instrument was assessed via cognitive interviews with COPD patients. The literature review confirmed that there is no instrument with evidence of content validity currently available to assess nighttime symptoms of COPD. Additionally, the literature review and clinician interviews suggested the need to understand patients' experience of specific symptoms in order to evaluate nighttime symptoms of COPD. Analyses of patient focus group data (N = 27) supported saturation of concepts and aided in development of a conceptual framework. Items were generated using patients' terminology to collect data on concepts in the framework including the occurrence and severity of COPD symptoms, use of rescue medication at night, and nocturnal awakening. Response options were chosen to reflect concepts that were salient to patients. Subsequent cognitive interviewing with ten COPD patients demonstrated that the items, response options, recall period, and instructions were understandable, relevant, and interpreted as intended. A new PRO instrument, the Nighttime Symptoms of COPD Instrument (NiSCI), was developed with documented evidence of content validity. The NiSCI is ready for empirical

  19. Development of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease morning symptom diary (COPD-MSD).

    PubMed

    Globe, Gary; Currie, Brooke; Leidy, Nancy Kline; Jones, Paul; Mannino, David; Martinez, Fernando; Klekotka, Paul; O'Quinn, Sean; Karlsson, Niklas; Wiklund, Ingela

    2016-07-16

    The morning tends to be the most difficult time of day for many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) when symptoms can limit one's ability to perform even simple activities. Morning symptoms have been linked to higher levels of work absenteeism, thereby increasing the already substantial economic burden associated with COPD. A validated patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument designed to capture morning symptoms will allow for a more comprehensive approach to the evaluation of treatment benefit in COPD clinical trials. A qualitative interview study was conducted among a sample of symptomatic adults with COPD. Concept elicitation interviews (n = 35) were conducted to identify COPD morning symptoms, followed by cognitive interviews (n = 21) to ensure patient comprehension of the items, instructions and response options of the draft COPD Morning Symptom Diary (COPD-MSD). All interview transcript data were coded using ATLAS.ti software for content analysis. Mean age of the concept elicitation and cognitive interview sample was 65.0 years (±7.5) and 62.3 years (±8.3), respectively. The study sample represented the full range of COPD severity (Global Initiative for Chronic Lung Disease [GOLD] classifications I-IV) and included a mix of racial backgrounds, employment status and educational achievement. During the concept elicitation interviews, the three most frequently reported morning symptoms were shortness of breath (n = 35/35; 100 %), phlegm/mucus (n = 31/35; 88.6 %), and cough (n = 30/35; 85.7 %). A group of clinical and instrument development experts convened to review the concept elicitation data and develop the initial 32-item draft COPD-MSD. Cognitive interviews indicated subjects found the draft COPD-MSD to be comprehensive, clear, and easy to understand. The COPD-MSD underwent minor editorial revisions and streamlining based on cognitive interviews and input from the experts to yield the final 19-item daily

  20. Respiratory symptoms are poor predictors of concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Strevens Bolmgren, Victor; Olsson, Peter; Wollmer, Per; Hesselstrand, Roger; Mandl, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Involvement of the respiratory system, in particular dry airways and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is common in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). As respiratory symptoms are also common in pSS patients and may have different etiologies, we wanted to evaluate the amount and impact of respiratory symptoms in out-patients with pSS and to assess if such symptoms are related to concomitant COPD. The St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) was used to assess respiratory symptoms. SGRQ scores were compared between 51 consecutive pSS patients, in an out-patient setting, and 80 population-based controls. The patients were also studied by pulmonary function tests and CT scans of the lungs to assess signs of obstructive airway disease, including COPD, as well as to assess signs of interstitial lung disease (ILD). 41 and 18% of pSS patients were found to have COPD and radiographic signs of ILD, respectively. pSS patients had significantly higher SGRQ scores compared to controls, but no significant differences in SGRQ scores were found between patients with and without COPD. Neither did the small group of pSS patients with ILD significantly differ in SGRQ scores in comparison to patients without ILD. Respiratory symptoms were common in pSS, but were not more common in patients with concomitant COPD. Since pulmonary involvement in pSS is associated with an increased mortality and respiratory symptoms is a poor marker for pulmonary involvement, we suggest that pulmonary function tests should be performed liberally in all pSS patients regardless of symptoms.

  1. [Respiratory symptoms and obstructive ventilatory disorder in Tunisian woman exposed to biomass].

    PubMed

    Kwas, H; Rahmouni, N; Zendah, I; Ghedira, H

    2017-04-01

    In some Tunisian cities, especially semi-urbanized, the exposure to the smoke produced during combustion of the biomass, main source of pollution of indoor air, remains prevalent among non-smoking women. To assess the relationship between exposure to biomass smoke and the presence of obstructive ventilatory disorder in the non-smoking women in semi-urban areas of Tunisia. Cross etiological study, using a questionnaire, including 140 non-smoking women responsible for cooking and/or exposed during heating by traditional means with objective measurement of their respiratory functions. We found 81 women exposed to biomass for a period of≥20 hours-years and 59 unexposed women. Exposed women reported more respiratory symptoms namely exertional dyspnea and/or chronic cough than unexposed. Of the 140 women, 14 women have an FEV/FEV6<70% of which 13 are exposed to biomass. We found a correlation between respiratory symptoms and obstructive ventilatory disorder in exposed women. The air pollution inside the home during the traditional activities of cooking and/or heating is a respiratory risk factor for non-smoking women over the age of 30 years. Exposure to biomass smoke can cause chronic respiratory symptoms and persistent obstructive ventilatory disorder that can consistent with COPD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [Respiratory symptoms and obstructive ventilatory disorder in Tunisian woman exposed to biomass].

    PubMed

    Kwas, H; Rahmouni, N; Zendah, I; Ghédira, H

    2017-06-01

    In some Tunisian cities, especially semi-urbanized, the exposure to the smoke produced during combustion of the biomass, main source of pollution of indoor air, remains prevalent among non-smoking women. To assess the relationship between exposure to biomass smoke and the presence of obstructive ventilatory disorder in the non-smoking women in semi-urban areas of Tunisia. Cross etiological study, using a questionnaire, including 140 non-smoking women responsible for cooking and/or exposed during heating by traditional means with objective measurement of their respiratory functions. We found 81 women exposed to biomass for a period > or equal to 20 hours-years and 59 unexposed women. Exposed women reported more respiratory symptoms namely exertional dyspnea and/or chronic cough than unexposed. Of the 140 women, 14 women have an FEV/FEV6 <70 % of which 13 are exposed to biomass. We found a correlation between respiratory symptoms and obstructive ventilatory disorder in exposed women. The air pollution inside the home during the traditional activities of cooking and/or heating is a respiratory risk factor for non-smoking women over the age of 30 years. Exposure to biomass smoke can cause chronic respiratory symptoms and persistent obstructive ventilatory disorder that can be consistent with COPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. The Chronic Obstructive Sialadenitis Symptoms Questionnaire to assess sialendoscopy-assisted surgery.

    PubMed

    Aubin-Pouliot, Annick; Delagnes, Elise A; Eisele, David W; Chang, Jolie L; Ryan, William R

    2016-01-01

    Introduce the Chronic Obstructive Sialadenitis Symptoms (COSS) questionnaire to quantify chronic sialadenitis symptoms and assess the impact of sialendoscopic-assisted salivary duct surgery (SASDS). Retrospective outcome symptoms questionnaire study. The COSS questionnaire assesses the severity of sialadenitis symptoms from 0 to 100. Patients who underwent SASDS from April 2006 to December 2013 completed the COSS questionnaire and the ShortForm8 Health Survey (SF-8) based on current symptoms, and reported whether they had complete, partial, or no symptomatic response to SASDS. Sixty-six of the 156 (43%) contacted patients completed the questionnaires who had had symptoms in 26 submandibular ducts and 53 parotid ducts. The mean COSS score was higher for parotid ducts (12.0; interquartile range [IQR] 1.0-20.0) than for submandibular ducts (7.6; IQR 0.5-15.0) but not significantly so (P = 0.20). Thirty-eight (60%) patients reported complete resolution of symptoms, with a mean COSS score of 4.5 (IQR 0-7). Twenty-one (33%) patients reported partial resolution, with a mean COSS score of 18.5 (IQR 11.3-22.8). Five (8%) patients reported no improvement, with a mean COSS score of 25.1 (IQR 15.2-35). Thirty-six (46%) ducts with sialoliths had a significantly lower mean COSS score (5.8; IQR 0-9.5) compared to those without sialoliths (14.2; IQR 4.5-21.5, P = 0.0004). There was no significant difference in SF-8 survey scores between these groups. The COSS questionnaire is a novel survey instrument to measure obstructive sialadenitis symptom severity that could be helpful in defining outcomes of SASDS. COSS scores under 10 correlate with complete resolution of symptoms, whereas scores between 10 and 25 correlate with partial resolution. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. Position paper on nasal obstruction: evaluation and treatment.

    PubMed

    Valero, A; Navarro, A M; Del Cuvillo, A; Alobid, I; Benito, J R; Colás, C; de Los Santos, G; Fernández Liesa, R; García-Lliberós, A; González-Pérez, R; Izquierdo-Domínguez, A; Jurado-Ramos, A; Lluch-Bernal, M M; Montserrat Gili, J R; Mullol, J; Puiggròs Casas, A; Sánchez-Hernández, M C; Vega, F; Villacampa, J M; Armengot-Carceller, M; Dordal, M T

    2018-01-01

    Nasal obstruction (NO) is defined as the subjective perception of discomfort or difficulty in the passage of air through the nostrils. It is a common reason for consultation in primary and specialized care and may affect up to 30%-40% of the population. It affects quality of life (especially sleep) and lowers work efficiency. The aim of this document is to agree on how to treat NO, establish a methodology for evaluating and diagnosing it, and define an individualized approach to its treatment. NO can be unilateral or bilateral, intermittent or persistent and may be caused by local or systemic factors, which may be anatomical, inflammatory, neurological, hormonal, functional, environmental, or pharmacological in origin. Directed study of the medical history and physical examination are key for diagnosing the specific cause. NO may be evaluated using subjective assessment tools (visual analog scale, symptom score, standardized questionnaires) or by objective estimation (active anterior rhinomanometry, acoustic rhinometry, peak nasal inspiratory flow). Although there is little correlation between the results, they may be considered complementary and not exclusive. Assessing the impact on quality of life through questionnaires standardized according to the underlying disease is also advisable. NO is treated according to its cause. Treatment is fundamentally pharmacological (topical and/or systemic) when the etiology is inflammatory or functional. Surgery may be necessary when medical treatment fails to complement or improve medical treatment or when other therapeutic approaches are not possible. Combinations of surgical techniques and medical treatment may be necessary.

  5. A Novel Intraurethral Device Diagnostic Index to Classify Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Leonardo O.; Barreiro, Guilherme C.; Prudente, Alessandro; Silva, Cleide M.; Bassani, José W. M.; D'Ancona, Carlos A. L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. Using a urethral device at the fossa navicularis, bladder pressure during voiding can be estimated by a minimal invasive technique. This study purposes a new diagnostic index for patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs). Methods. Fifty one patients presenting with LUTSs were submitted to a conventional urodynamic and a minimal invasive study. The results obtained through the urethral device and invasive classic urodynamics were compared. The existing bladder outlet obstruction index (BOOI) equation that classifies men with LUTSs was modified to allow minimal invasive measurement of isovolumetric bladder pressure in place of detrusor pressure at maximum urine flow. Accuracy of the new equation for classifying obstruction was then tested in this group of men. Results. The modified equation identified men with obstruction with a positive predictive value of 68% and a negative predictive value of 70%, with an overall accuracy of 70%. Conclusions. The proposed equation can accurately classify over 70% of men without resorting to invasive pressure flow studies. We must now evaluate the usefulness of this classification for the surgical treatment of men with LUTSs. PMID:19125194

  6. Characteristics, Causes, and Evaluation of Helicopter Particulate Visual Obstruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-10

    future full-scale testing. The thrust sources examined were a 1 in. diameter nozzle , a 4 in. diameter nozzle , and a 16 in. ducted fan. The sources...Hiller also evaluated inclining the thrust vector , and determined there was little reduction in dynamic pressure at the point of ground interaction...CHARACTERISTICS, CAUSES, AND EVALUATION OF HELICOPTER PARTICULATE VISUAL OBSTRUCTION THESIS

  7. Clinical usefulness of the two-question assessment tool for depressive symptoms in Japanese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Arimura, Yasuji; Yamazaki, Shin; Yanagi, Shigehisa; Matsumoto, Nobuhiro; Takegami, Misa; Hayashino, Yasuaki; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Nakazato, Masamitsu

    2013-02-01

    Depressive symptoms are highly prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and have been associated with poor outcomes. Developing a concise questionnaire to measure depressive symptoms in COPD patients is needed in outpatient settings. We evaluated the clinical usefulness of a concise two-question instrument to assess depressive symptoms in patients with COPD. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional analysis in patients with COPD. All patients completed a self-reported questionnaire consisting of the two-question instrument, as well as a shortened version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10) to measure depressive symptoms. Performance of the two-question instrument was evaluated using the results for CESD-10 as standard. We also measured patients' health-related quality of life using the Medical Outcomes Study 8-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-8) to determine whether the instrument was related to SF-8. Sensitivity of the two-question instrument in the detection of depressive symptoms was 73.3 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 51-95.7), specificity was 73 % (95 % CI 58.7-87.3), and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.73 (95 % CI 0.59-0.87). When study patients were divided into two groups with a cutoff of 1 point on the two-question instrument, scores for all subscales of the SF-8 except "bodily pain" were significantly lower in patients with than without depressive symptoms. This concise two-question instrument is useful as assessment of depressive symptom in patients with COPD in busy outpatient settings.

  8. Occurrence of respiratory symptoms in persons with restrictive ventilatory impairment compared with persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The PLATINO study.

    PubMed

    Nonato, Nívia L; Nascimento, Oliver A; Padilla, Rogelio P; de Oca, Maria M; Tálamo, Carlos; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Lisboa, Carmen; López, Maria V; Celli, Bartolomé; Menezes, Ana Maria B; Jardim, José R

    2015-08-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) usually complain of symptoms such as cough, sputum, wheezing, and dyspnea. Little is known about clinical symptoms in individuals with restrictive ventilatory impairment. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and type of respiratory symptoms in patients with COPD to those reported by individuals with restrictive ventilatory impairment in the Proyecto Latinoamericano de Investigacion en Obstruccion Pulmonar study. Between 2002 and 2004, individuals ≥40 years of age from five cities in Latin America performed pre and post-bronchodilator spirometry and had their respiratory symptoms recorded in a standardized questionnaire. Among the 5315 individuals evaluated, 260 (5.1%) had a restrictive spirometric diagnosis (forced vital capacity (FVC) < lower limit of normal (LLN) with forced expiratory volume in the first second to forced vital capacity ratio (FEV1/FVC) ≥ LLN; American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) 2005) and 610 (11.9%) were diagnosed with an obstructive pattern (FEV1/FVC < LLN; ATS/ERS 2005). Patients with mild restriction wheezed more ((30.8%) vs. (17.8%); p < 0.028). No difference was seen in dyspnea, cough, and sputum between the two groups after adjusting for severity stage. The health status scores for the short form 12 questionnaire were similar in restricted and obstructed patients for both physical (48.4 ± 9.4 vs. 48.3 ± 9.8) and mental (50.8 ± 10.6 vs. 50.0 ± 11.5) domains. Overall, respiratory symptoms are not frequently reported by patients with restricted and obstructed patterns as defined by spirometry. Wheezing was more frequent in patients with restricted pattern compared with those with obstructive ventilatory defect. However, the prevalence of cough, sputum production, and dyspnea are not different between the two groups when adjusted by the same severity stage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Depressive symptoms in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: biological mechanistic pathways.

    PubMed

    Chirinos, Diana A; Gurubhagavatula, Indira; Broderick, Preston; Chirinos, Julio A; Teff, Karen; Wadden, Thomas; Maislin, Greg; Saif, Hassam; Chittams, Jesse; Cassidy, Caitlin; Hanlon, Alexandra L; Pack, Allan I

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the association between depressive symptoms, as well as depressive symptom dimensions, and three candidate biological pathways linking them to Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): (1) inflammation; (2) circulating leptin; and (3) intermittent hypoxemia. Participants included 181 obese adults with moderate-to-severe OSA enrolled in the Cardiovascular Consequences of Sleep Apnea (COSA) trial. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). We assessed inflammation using C-reactive protein levels (CRP), circulating leptin by radioimmunoassay using a double antibody/PEG assay, and intermittent hypoxemia by the percentage of sleep time each patient had below 90% oxyhemoglobin saturation. We found no significant associations between BDI-II total or cognitive scores and CRP, leptin, or percentage of sleep time below 90% oxyhemoglobin saturation after controlling for relevant confounding factors. Somatic symptoms, however, were positively associated with percentage of sleep time below 90% saturation (β = 0.202, P = 0.032), but not with CRP or circulating leptin in adjusted models. Another significant predictor of depressive symptoms included sleep efficiency (β BDI Total  = -0.230, P = 0.003; β cognitive  = -0.173, P = 0.030 (β somatic  = -0.255, P = 0.001). In patients with moderate-to-severe OSA, intermittent hypoxia may play a role in somatic rather than cognitive or total depressive symptoms.

  10. Gender differences in symptoms and care delivery for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Carlos H; Raparla, Swetha; Plauschinat, Craig A; Giardino, Nicholas D; Rogers, Barbara; Beresford, Julien; Bentkover, Judith D; Schachtner-Appel, Amy; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Martinez, Fernando J; Han, MeiLan K

    2012-12-01

    Morbidity and mortality for women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are increasing, and little is known about gender differences in perception of COPD care. Surveys were administered to a convenience sample of COPD patients to evaluate perceptions about symptoms, barriers to care, and sources of information about COPD. Data on 295 female and 273 male participants were analyzed. With similar frequencies, women and men reported dyspnea and rated their health as poor/very poor. Although more women than men reported annual household income <$30,000, no significant gender differences in frequency of health insurance, physician visits, or ever having had spirometry were detected. In adjusted models (1) women were more likely to report COPD diagnostic delay (odds ratio [OR] 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-2.45, p=0.01), although anxiety (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.10-3.06, p=0.02) and history of exacerbations (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.08-2.37, p=0.01) were also significant predictors, (2) female gender was associated with difficulty reaching one's physician (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.33-4.86, p=0.004), as was prior history of exacerbations (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.21-4.20, p=0.01), and (3) female gender (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.10-4.21, p=0.02) was the only significant predictor for finding time spent with their physician as insufficient. Significant gender-related differences in the perception of COPD healthcare delivery exist, revealing an opportunity to better understand what influences these attitudes and to improve care for both men and women.

  11. Gender Differences in Symptoms and Care Delivery for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Raparla, Swetha; Plauschinat, Craig A.; Giardino, Nicholas D.; Rogers, Barbara; Beresford, Julien; Bentkover, Judith D.; Schachtner-Appel, Amy; Curtis, Jeffrey L.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Han, MeiLan K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Morbidity and mortality for women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are increasing, and little is known about gender differences in perception of COPD care. Methods Surveys were administered to a convenience sample of COPD patients to evaluate perceptions about symptoms, barriers to care, and sources of information about COPD. Results Data on 295 female and 273 male participants were analyzed. With similar frequencies, women and men reported dyspnea and rated their health as poor/very poor. Although more women than men reported annual household income <$30,000, no significant gender differences in frequency of health insurance, physician visits, or ever having had spirometry were detected. In adjusted models (1) women were more likely to report COPD diagnostic delay (odds ratio [OR] 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-2.45, p=0.01), although anxiety (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.10-3.06, p=0.02) and history of exacerbations (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.08-2.37, p=0.01) were also significant predictors, (2) female gender was associated with difficulty reaching one's physician (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.33-4.86, p=0.004), as was prior history of exacerbations (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.21-4.20, p=0.01), and (3) female gender (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.10-4.21, p=0.02) was the only significant predictor for finding time spent with their physician as insufficient. Conclusions Significant gender-related differences in the perception of COPD healthcare delivery exist, revealing an opportunity to better understand what influences these attitudes and to improve care for both men and women. PMID:23210491

  12. ASSOCIATION OF ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION WITH PULMONARY-SPECIFIC SYMPTOMS IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE*

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Todd; Palmer, Scott; Johnson, Julie; Babyak, Michael A.; Smith, Patrick; Mabe, Stephanie; Welty-Wolf, Karen; Martinu, Tereza; Blumenthal, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association of anxiety and depression with pulmonary-specific symptoms of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and to determine the extent to which disease severity and functional capacity modify this association. Method Patients (N = 162) enrolled in the INSPIRE-II study, an ongoing randomized, clinical trial of COPD patients and their caregivers who received either telephone-based coping skills training or education and symptom monitoring. Patients completed a psychosocial test battery including: Brief Fatigue Inventory, St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory. Measures of disease severity and functional capacity (i.e., FEV1 and six-minute walk test) were also obtained. Results After covariate adjustment, higher anxiety and depression levels were associated with greater fatigue levels (ps < .001, ΔR2 = 0.16 and 0.29, respectively), shortness of breath (ps < .001, ΔR2 = 0.12 and 0.10), and frequency of COPD symptoms (ps < .001, ΔR2 = 0.11 and 0.13). In addition, functional capacity was a moderator of anxiety and pulmonary-specific COPD symptoms. The association between anxiety and shortness of breath (p = 0.009) and frequency of COPD symptoms (p = 0.02) was greater among patients with lower functional capacity. Conclusions Anxiety and depression were associated with higher levels of fatigue, shortness of breath, and frequency of COPD symptoms. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the presence of anxiety and depression in COPD patients, which appears to correlate with pulmonary-specific COPD symptoms, especially in patients with lower functional capacity. Prospective design studies are needed to elucidate the causal relationships between anxiety and depression and pulmonary-specific symptoms in COPD patients. PMID:23977821

  13. Treatment of Insomnia, Insomnia Symptoms, and Obstructive Sleep Apnea During and After Menopause: Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Joshua Z.; Suh, Sooyeon A.; Dowdle, Claire L.; Nowakowski, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Understanding sleep complaints among menopausal women is an emerging area of clinical and research interest. Several recent reviews have focused on mechanisms of menopausal insomnia and symptoms. In this review, we present a discussion on the most relevant and recent publications on the treatment of sleep disorders for menopausal women, with a focus on menopause-related insomnia, insomnia symptoms, and obstructive sleep apnea. We discuss both nonpharmacological and pharmacological treatments, including cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), complementary and alternative medicine, hormone replacement therapy, sedative hypnotics, antidepressants, and continuous positive airway pressure. In addition, we briefly discuss methods and considerations of assessment of sleep disorders in menopausal women. PMID:26478725

  14. Grading Severity of Productive Cough Based on Symptoms and Airflow Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Vazquez Guillamet, Rodrigo; Petersen, Hans; Meek, Paula; Sood, Akshay; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2018-04-26

    The binary approach to the diagnosis of Chronic Bronchitis (CB) is a major barrier to the study of the disease. We investigated whether severity of productive cough can be graded using symptoms and presence of fixed airflow obstruction (FAO), and whether the severity correlates with health status, exposures injurious to the lung, biomarkers of inflammation, and measures of airway wall thickening. Findings from a cross-sectional sample of 1,422 participants from the Lovelace Smokers Cohort (LSC) were validated in 4,488 participants from the COPDGene cohort (COPDGene). Health status was based on the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Circulating CC16 levels were quantified by ELISA (LSC), and airway wall thickening was measured using computed tomography (COPDGene). FAO was defined as postbronchodilator FEV 1 /FVC <0.7. The presence and duration of productive cough and presence of FAO or wheeze were graded into Healthy Smokers, Productive Cough (PC), Chronic PC, PC with Signs of Airflow Obstruction, and Chronic PC with Signs of Airflow Obstruction. In both cohorts, higher grade of severity correlated with lower health status, greater frequency of injurious exposures, greater airway wall thickening, and lower circulating CC16 levels. Further, longitudinal follow-up suggested that disease resolution can occur at every grade of severity but is more common in groups of lower severity and least common once airway remodeling develops. Therefore, severity of productive cough can be graded based on symptoms and FAO and early intervention may benefit patients by changing the natural history of disease.

  15. Volumetric evaluation of pharyngeal segments in obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marcos Marques; Pereira Filho, Valfrido Antonio; Gabrielli, Mário Francisco Real; Oliveira, Talles Fernando Medeiros de; Batatinha, Júlio Américo Pereira; Passeri, Luis Augusto

    2017-01-30

    Obstructive sleep apnea occurs by recurrent collapse of the upper airway during sleep, resulting in total (apnea) or partial (hypopnea) reduction of the airflow and has intimate relation with changes in the upper airway. Cone Beam CT allows the analysis of the upper airway and its volume by three-dimensional reconstruction. To evaluate a possible correlation between the volume of the upper airway and the severity of the obstructive sleep apnea. A retrospective study was performed reviewing polysomnographic data and Cone Beam CT records of 29 patients (13 males and 16 females). The correlation between the volume of the nasopharynx, the oropharynx and the total superior pharynx with the AHI was assessed by Pearson's rank correlation coefficient. The obstructive sleep apnea severity division was: ten patients had severe, 7 had moderate, 6 had mild and 6 of them were healthy. The correlation between the nasopharynx, the oropharynx and the total superior pharynx volumes and the Apnea-Hypopnea-Index was respectively: -0.415 (p=0.025), 0.186 (p=0.334) and -0329 (p=0.089). The Spearman's rank controlled by the Body Mass Index, the age and the gender was: -0.206 (p=0.304), -0.155 (p=0.439) and 0.242 (p=0.284). There is no correlation between the volume of the airway and the obstructive sleep apnea, assessed by Apnea-Hypopnea-Index and controlled by the Body Mass Index, the age and the gender. The volume of the upper airways as an isolated parameter did not correlate to the severity of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and should be evaluated together with other factors. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. [A clinical study using octreotide in relieving gastrointestinal symptoms due to bowel obstruction in a terminally ill cancer patient].

    PubMed

    Shima, Yasuo; Yamaguchi, Kensei; Miyata, Yoshinori; Hyodo, Ichinosuke; Yagi, Yasuo; Honke, Yoshifumi

    2004-09-01

    Terminally ill cancer patients with complicated bowel obstructions often have poor quality of life (QOL) due to gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea and vomiting. Many of these patients are inoperable because of poor general conditions, and half of these patients can't be managed by conventional antiemetics. There are many reports indicating octreotide is effective for these patients. In the present study, 13 patients (5 patients without a nasogastric tube and 8 patients with) were administered octreotide at 300 microg/day by 24 hours continuous subcutaneous infusion. Among the effectively evaluable 10 cases, 6 cases (60.0%) were assessed as effective according to the efficacy criteria based on the JCOG toxicity scale. In the 6 cases who had nasogastric tubes, the nasogastric aspirates decreased from 890 ml (550-1,950) to 480 ml (180-1,790). Vomiting was successfully controlled after the removals of nasogastric tubes in 4 out of 6 cases (66.7%), regarding safety, 2 out of 13 cases (15.4%) showed an excess of liver enzymes but no clinically suspected adverse effect was observed. Octreotide is effective and well tolerated in terminally ill cancer patients with malignant bowel obstruction.

  17. Suicidal ideation and insomnia symptoms in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choi, Su Jung; Joo, Eun Yeon; Lee, Young Jun; Hong, Seung Bong

    2015-09-01

    Insomnia symptoms are prevalent in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and are important risk factors for suicidal ideation (SI). However, the significance of SI has not been clearly demonstrated in persons with both OSA and insomnia. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of SI and its relationship with insomnia symptoms, mood, and other relevant factors. A total of 117 consecutive subjects with untreated OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥5/h) participated in the study. They completed questionnaires regarding SI ([BDI-II], item 9), insomnia symptoms (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), depressive mood (modified BDI-II [mBDI-II], which excluded items on SI and sleep disturbances), dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep (DBAS), social support, and quality of life. The overall prevalence of SI was 20.5% in subjects with OSA. A total of 32 subjects (27.4%) reported significant insomnia symptoms (ISI ≥ 15). Higher SI was associated with higher scores on ISI, DBAS, and mBDI-II and lower scores on social support and quality of life questionnaires. The severity of insomnia was positively correlated with depressive mood. The relationship between SI and insomnia severity was insignificant after adjusting for depressive symptom severity. Patients with OSA may have SI and insomnia symptoms. Collinearity was observed between sleep and mood disturbances. Yet, it is remarkable to find a significant association between OSA and SI, which are additional contributions to insomnia. This study suggests the necessity of integrated approaches to SI and related factors for the comprehensive treatment of OSA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Respiratory viruses, symptoms, and inflammatory markers in acute exacerbations and stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Seemungal, T; Harper-Owen, R; Bhowmik, A; Moric, I; Sanderson, G; Message, S; Maccallum, P; Meade, T W; Jeffries, D J; Johnston, S L; Wedzicha, J A

    2001-11-01

    The effects of respiratory viral infection on the time course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation were examined by monitoring changes in systemic inflammatory markers in stable COPD and at exacerbation. Eighty-three patients with COPD (mean [SD] age, 66.6 [7.1] yr, FEV(1), 1.06 [0.61] L) recorded daily peak expiratory flow rate and any increases in respiratory symptoms. Nasal samples and blood were taken for respiratory virus detection by culture, polymerase chain reaction, and serology, and plasma fibrinogen and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined at stable baseline and exacerbation. Sixty-four percent of exacerbations were associated with a cold occurring up to 18 d before exacerbation. Seventy-seven viruses (39 [58.2%] rhinoviruses) were detected in 66 (39.2%) of 168 COPD exacerbations in 53 (64%) patients. Viral exacerbations were associated with frequent exacerbators, colds with increased dyspnea, a higher total symptom count at presentation, a longer median symptom recovery period of 13 d, and a tendency toward higher plasma fibrinogen and serum IL-6 levels. Non-respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) respiratory viruses were detected in 11 (16%), and RSV in 16 (23.5%), of 68 stable COPD patients, with RSV detection associated with higher inflammatory marker levels. Respiratory virus infections are associated with more severe and frequent exacerbations, and may cause chronic infection in COPD. Prevention and early treatment of viral infections may lead to a decreased exacerbation frequency and morbidity associated with COPD.

  19. Prevalence, Awareness and Reporting of Symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Apnoea among Hospitalized Adult Patients in Nigeria: A Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Desalu, Olufemi; Onyedum, Cajetan; Sanya, Emmanuel; Fadare, Joseph; Adeoti, Adekunle; Salawu, Fatai; Oluyombo, Rotimi; Olamoyegun, Micheal; Fawale, Micheal; Gbadegesin, Babajide; Bello, Hamzat

    2016-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is the most common form of sleep-disordered breathing in adults and children. It is associated with many adverse health consequences. The objectives this study were to determine the prevalence, awareness and reporting of symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea among hospitalized adult patients in Nigeria. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study involving 1420 adult patients admitted to general medical and surgical wards of selected hospitals from March to April 2013. A questionnaire embedded with Berlin questionnaire, Epworth sleepiness scale and questions on level of awareness and reporting of symptoms of sleep apnoea was used for data collection. One-third of the patients (33.4%) reported snoring, 16.3% had excessive daytime sleepiness, 10.0% experienced daytime fatigue, and 8.0% experienced drowsy driving. Approximately 5% reported witnessed apnoea and 18.0% had high risks for obstructive sleep apnoea. The frequency of high risk for sleep apnoea increased with age and declined after 65 years and also increased with the body mass index. Snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness and high risk for obstructive sleep apnoea were more common in patients with chronic medical conditions and who were admitted to the urban hospitals. The majority were not aware that snoring (77.3%) and excessive daytime sleepiness (65.8%) constitute a medical problem, and only 4.5% reported these symptoms to their doctors. The level of awareness and under-reporting of sleep apnoea symptoms are poor. The high prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea symptoms from this study should form the basis for screening hospitalized patients with chronic medical condition across the country.

  20. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to BTS, ERS, GOLD and ATS criteria in relation to doctor's diagnosis, symptoms, age, gender, and smoking habits.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Anne; Jonsson, Ann-Christin; Rönmark, Eva; Lundgren, Rune; Larsson, Lars-Gunnar; Lundbäck, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Guidelines and standards for diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been presented by different national and international societies, but the spirometric criteria for COPD differ between guidelines. To estimate prevalence of COPD using the guidelines of the British Thoracic Society (BTS), the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), and the American Thoracic Society (ATS). Further, to evaluate reported airway symptoms, contacts with health care providers, and physician diagnosis of COPD in relation to the respective criteria, and gender differences. In 1992 a postal questionnaire was sent to a random sample of adults aged 20-69 years, 4,851 (85%) out of 5,681 subjects responded. In 1994-1995 a random sample of the responders, 970 subjects, were invited to a structured interview and a lung function test; 666 (69%) participated. The prevalence of COPD was 7.6, 14.0, 14.1, 12.2 and 34.1% according to BTS, ERS, GOLD, clinical ATS (with symptoms or physician diagnosis), and spirometric ATS criteria, respectively. Prevalent COPD was related to age, smoking habits and family history of obstructive airway disease but not to gender. Physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis or emphysema was only reported by 16.3, 12.2, 11.0, 23.4 and 8.2% of subjects fulfilling the respective criteria, though a majority reported airway symptoms. The main determinants for prevalent COPD were age, smoking habits and spirometric criteria of COPD. Though a majority reported airway symptoms and contact with health care providers due to respiratory complaints, only a minority was diagnosed as having COPD, indicating a large underdiagnosis. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Anal Sphincters Evaluation by Endoanal Ultrasound in Obstructed Defecation.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Andreia; Macedo, Guilherme

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate anal sphincter abnormalities detected by endoanal ultrasound in obstructed defecation due to rectocele and rectal intussusception. The retrospective analysis includes 45 patients with obstructed defecation syndrome due to rectocele and/or rectal intussusception with or without fecal incontinence, and submitted to endoanal ultrasound. Ninety-three percent (n = 42) were women (mean age of 63 ± 12 years), and 47% (n = 21) of the patients had fecal incontinence. In total, 29% (n = 13) had a previous anorectal surgery, and 93% (n = 39) of the women had a previous vaginal delivery. An isolated rectal intussusception was diagnosed in 20% (n = 9) of the patients, an isolated rectocele in 24% (n = 11), and rectal intussusception and rectocele in 56% (n = 25). Thirty-six percent of patients had anal sphincter lacerations (n = 16): 12% (n = 2) had only internal laceration, 69% (n = 11) had only external laceration, and 19% (n = 3) had both. Two patients had a thinner internal anal sphincter with 0.9 and 1.2 mm, respectively. In total, 25% of the patients without fecal incontinence had an occult anal sphincter laceration, and all were women with an external sphincter laceration in the anterior quadrant and a previous vaginal delivery. In patients with obstructed defecation and fecal incontinence, 48% had sphincter lacerations. Previous anorectal surgery was a predictor of anal sphincter laceration (odds ratio [OR] 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.214-18.971; P = .025), but fecal incontinence (OR 2.7; 95% CI = 0.774-9.613; P = .119) and previous vaginal delivery (OR 1.250; 95% CI = 0.104-15.011; P = .860) were not. Endoanal ultrasound should be considered in obstructed defecation with or without fecal incontinence, especially if surgical correction is planned. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  2. Neurotology symptoms at referral to vestibular evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dizziness-vertigo is common in adults, but clinical providers may rarely diagnose vestibular impairment and referral could be delayed. To assess neurotology symptoms (including triggers) reported by patients with peripheral vestibular disease, during the year just before their referral to vestibular evaluation. Methods 282 patients with peripheral vestibular disease and 282 control subjects accepted to participate. They had no middle ear, retinal, neurological, psychiatric, autoimmune or autonomic disorders. They reported their symptoms by a standardized questionnaire along with their anxiety/depression symptoms. Results Patients were referred after months or years from the onset of their symptoms, 24% of them reported frequent falls with a long clinical evolution; 10% of them reported no vertigo but instability related to specific triggers; 86% patients and 12% control subjects reported instability when moving the head rapidly and 79% patients and 6% control subjects reported instability when changing posture. Seven out of the 9 symptoms explored by the questionnaire allowed the correct classification of circa 95% of the participants (Discriminant function analysis, p < 0.001). High blood pressure, dyslipidemia and anxiety/depression symptoms showed a mild correlation with the total score of symptoms (multiple R2 =0.18, p < 0.001). Conclusions Late referral to vestibular evaluation may underlie a history of frequent falls; some patients may not report vertigo, but instability related to specific triggers, which could be useful to prompt vestibular evaluation. High blood pressure, dyslipidemia and anxiety/depression symptoms may have a mild influence on the report of symptoms of vestibular disease in both, patients and control subjects. PMID:24279682

  3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease history assessment in Spain: a multidimensional chronic obstructive pulmonary disease evaluation. Study methods and organization.

    PubMed

    López-Campos, José Luis; Peces-Barba, Germán; Soler-Cataluña, Juan José; Soriano, Joan B; de Lucas Ramos, Pilar; de-Torres, Juan P; Marín, José M; Casanova, Ciro

    2012-12-01

    This present paper describes the method and the organization of the study known as the COPD History Assessment In SpaiN (CHAIN), whose main objective is to evaluate the long-term natural history of a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient cohort from a multidimensional standpoint and to identify clinical phenotypes, in comparison with another non-COPD control cohort. CHAIN is a multicenter, observational study of prospective cohorts carried out at 36 Spanish hospitals. Both cohorts will be followed-up during a 5-year study period with complete office visits every 12 months and telephone interviews every 6 months in order to evaluate exacerbations and the vital state of the subjects. The recruitment period for cases was between 15 January 2010 and 31 March 2012. At each annual visit, information will be collected on: (i) clinical aspects (socio-economic situation, anthropometric data, comorbidities, smoking, respiratory symptoms, exacerbations, quality of life, anxiety-depression scale, daily life activities, treatments); (ii) respiratory function (spirometry, blood gases, hyperinflation, diffusion, respiratory pressures); (iii) BODE index (main study variable); (iv) peripheral muscle function, and (v) blood work-up (including IgE and cardiovascular risk factors). In addition, a serum bank will be created for the future determination of biomarkers. The data of the patients are anonymized in a database with a hierarchical access control in order to guarantee secure information access. The CHAIN study will provide information about the progression of COPD and it will establish a network of researchers for future projects related with COPD. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Lay Consultations in Heart Failure Symptom Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Reeder, Katherine M; Sims, Jessica L; Ercole, Patrick M; Shetty, Shivan S; Wallendorf, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Lay consultations can facilitate or impede healthcare. However, little is known about how lay consultations for symptom evaluation affect treatment decision-making. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of lay consultations in symptom evaluation prior to hospitalization among patients with heart failure. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, along with logistic regression were used to characterize lay consultations in this sample. A large proportion of patients engaged in lay consultations for symptom evaluation and decision-making before hospitalization. Lay consultants provided attributions and advice and helped make the decision to seek medical care. Men consulted more often with their spouse than women, while women more often consulted with adult children. Findings have implications for optimizing heart failure self-management interventions, improving outcomes, and reducing hospital readmissions.

  5. Lay Consultations in Heart Failure Symptom Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Katherine M.; Sims, Jessica L.; Ercole, Patrick M.; Shetty, Shivan S.; Wallendorf, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Lay consultations can facilitate or impede healthcare. However, little is known about how lay consultations for symptom evaluation affect treatment decision-making. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of lay consultations in symptom evaluation prior to hospitalization among patients with heart failure. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests, along with logistic regression were used to characterize lay consultations in this sample. Results A large proportion of patients engaged in lay consultations for symptom evaluation and decision-making before hospitalization. Lay consultants provided attributions and advice and helped make the decision to seek medical care. Men consulted more often with their spouse than women, while women more often consulted with adult children. Conclusions Findings have implications for optimizing heart failure self-management interventions, improving outcomes, and reducing hospital readmissions. PMID:29399657

  6. Lower rates of symptom recurrence and surgical revision after primary compared with secondary endoscopic third ventriculostomy for obstructive hydrocephalus secondary to aqueductal stenosis in adults.

    PubMed

    Sankey, Eric W; Goodwin, C Rory; Jusué-Torres, Ignacio; Elder, Benjamin D; Hoffberger, Jamie; Lu, Jennifer; Blitz, Ari M; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is the treatment of choice for obstructive hydrocephalus; however, the success of ETV in patients who have previously undergone shunt placement remains unclear. The present study analyzed 103 adult patients with aqueductal stenosis who underwent ETV for obstructive hydrocephalus and evaluated the effect of previous shunt placement on post-ETV outcomes. METHODS This study was a retrospective review of 151 consecutive patients who were treated between 2007 and 2013 with ETV for hydrocephalus. One hundred three (68.2%) patients with aqueductal stenosis causing obstructive hydrocephalus were included in the analysis. Postoperative ETV patency and aqueductal and cisternal flow were assessed by high-resolution, gradient-echo MRI. Post-ETV Mini-Mental State Examination, Timed Up and Go, and Tinetti scores were compared with preoperative values. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed comparing the post-ETV outcomes in patients who underwent a primary (no previous shunt) ETV (n = 64) versus secondary (previous shunt) ETV (n = 39). RESULTS The majority of patients showed significant improvement in symptoms after ETV; however, no significant differences were seen in any of the quantitative tests performed during follow-up. Symptom recurrence occurred in 29 (28.2%) patients after ETV, after a median of 3.0 (interquartile range 0.8-8.0) months post-ETV failure. Twenty-seven (26.2%) patients required surgical revision after their initial ETV. Patients who received a secondary ETV had higher rates of symptom recurrence (p = 0.003) and surgical revision (p = 0.003), particularly in regard to additional shunt placement/revision post-ETV (p = 0.005). These differences remained significant after multivariate analysis for both symptom recurrence (p = 0.030) and surgical revision (p = 0.043). CONCLUSIONS Patients with obstructive hydrocephalus due to aqueductal stenosis exhibit symptomatic improvement after ETV, with a

  7. Value of gastrografin in adhesive small bowel obstruction after unsuccessful conservative treatment: a prospective evaluation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hok-Kwok; Law, Wai-Lun; Ho, Judy-Wai-Chu; Chu, Kin-Wah

    2005-06-28

    Gastrografin is a hyperosmolar water-soluble contrast medium. Besides its predictive value for the need for operative treatment, a potential therapeutic role of this agent in adhesive small bowel obstruction has been suggested. This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of gastrografin in adhesive small bowel obstruction when conservative treatment failed. Patients with adhesive small bowel obstruction were given trial conservative treatment unless there was fear of bowel strangulation. Those responded in the initial 48 h had conservative treatment continued. Patients who showed no improvement in the initial 48 h were given 100 mL of gastrografin through nasogastric tube followed by serial abdominal radiographs. Patients with the contrast appeared in large bowel within 24 h were regarded as having partial obstruction and conservative treatment was continued. Patients in which the contrast failed to reach large bowel within 24 h were considered to have complete obstruction and laparotomy was performed. Two hundred and twelve patients with 245 episodes of adhesive obstruction were included. Fifteen patients were operated on soon after admission due to fear of strangulation. One hundred and eighty-six episodes of obstruction showed improvement in the initial 48 h and conservative treatment was continued. Two patients had subsequent operations because of persistent obstruction. Forty-four episodes of obstruction showed no improvement within 48 h and gastrografin was administered. Seven patients underwent complete obstruction surgery. Partial obstruction was demonstrated in 37 other cases, obstruction resolved subsequently in all of them except one patient who required laparotomy because of persistent obstruction. The overall operative rate in this study was 10%. There was no complication that could be attributed to the use of gastrografin. The use of gastrografin in adhesive small bowel obstruction after unsuccessful conservative treatment is safe and reduces the

  8. Value of gastrografin in adhesive small bowel obstruction after unsuccessful conservative treatment: A prospective evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hok-Kwok; Law, Wai-Lun; Ho, Judy Wai-Chu; Chu, Kin-Wah

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Gastrografin is a hyperosmolar water-soluble contrast medium. Besides its predictive value for the need for operative treatment, a potential therapeutic role of this agent in adhesive small bowel obstruction has been suggested. This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of gastrografin in adhesive small bowel obstruction when conservative treatment failed. METHODS: Patients with adhesive small bowel obstruction were given trial conservative treatment unless there was fear of bowel strangulation. Those responded in the initial 48 h had conservative treatment continued. Patients who showed no improvement in the initial 48 h were given 100 mL of gastrografin through nasogastric tube followed by serial abdominal radiographs. Patients with the contrast appeared in large bowel within 24 h were regarded as having partial obstruction and conservative treatment was continued. Patients in which the contrast failed to reach large bowel within 24 h were considered to have complete obstruction and laparotomy was performed. RESULTS: Two hundred and twelve patients with 245 episodes of adhesive obstruction were included. Fifteen patients were operated on soon after admission due to fear of strangulation. One hundred and eighty-six episodes of obstruction showed improvement in the initial 48 h and conservative treatment was continued. Two patients had subsequent operations because of persistent obstruction. Forty-four episodes of obstruction showed no improvement within 48 h and gastrografin was administered. Seven patients underwent complete obstruction surgery. Partial obstruction was demonstrated in 37 other cases, obstruction resolved subsequently in all of them except one patient who required laparotomy because of persistent obstruction. The overall operative rate in this study was 10%. There was no complication that could be attributed to the use of gastrografin. CONCLUSION: The use of gastrografin in adhesive small bowel obstruction after unsuccessful

  9. Fetal tracheolaryngeal airway obstruction: prenatal evaluation by sonography and MRI

    PubMed Central

    Courtier, Jesse; Poder, Liina; Wang, Zhen J.; Westphalen, Antonio C.; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed the sonographic and MRI findings of tracheolaryngeal obstruction in the fetus. Conditions that can cause tracheolaryngeal obstruction include extrinsic causes such as lymphatic malformation, cervical teratoma and vascular rings and intrinsic causes such as congenital high airway obstruction syndrome (CHAOS). Accurate distinction of these conditions by sonography or MRI can help facilitate parental counseling and management, including the decision to utilize the ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure. PMID:20737145

  10. Symptoms of insomnia among patients with obstructive sleep apnea before and after two years of positive airway pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    Björnsdóttir, Erla; Janson, Christer; Sigurdsson, Jón F; Gehrman, Philip; Perlis, Michael; Juliusson, Sigurdur; Arnardottir, Erna S; Kuna, Samuel T; Pack, Allan I; Gislason, Thorarinn; Benediktsdóttir, Bryndis

    2013-12-01

    To assess the changes of insomnia symptoms among patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) from starting treatment with positive airway pressure (PAP) to a 2-y follow-up. Longitudinal cohort study. Landspitali--The National University Hospital of Iceland. There were 705 adults with OSA who were assessed prior to and 2 y after starting PAP treatment. PAP treatment for OSA. All patients underwent a medical examination along with a type 3 sleep study and answered questionnaires on health and sleep before and 2 y after starting PAP treatment. The change in prevalence of insomnia symptoms by subtype was assessed by questionnaire and compared between individuals who were using or not using PAP at follow-up. Symptoms of middle insomnia were most common at baseline and improved significantly among patients using PAP (from 59.4% to 30.7%, P < 0.001). Symptoms of initial insomnia tended to persist regardless of PAP treatment, and symptoms of late insomnia were more likely to improve among patients not using PAP. Patients with symptoms of initial and late insomnia at baseline were less likely to adhere to PAP (odds ratio [OR] 0.56, P = 0.007, and OR 0.53, P < 0.001, respectively). Positive airway pressure treatment significantly reduced symptoms of middle insomnia. Symptoms of initial and late insomnia, however, tended to persist regardless of positive airway pressure treatment and had a negative effect on adherence. Targeted treatment for insomnia may be beneficial for patients with obstructive sleep apnea comorbid with insomnia and has the potential to positively affect adherence to positive airway pressure.

  11. Redefining Cut-Points for High Symptom Burden of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Classification in 18,577 Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Smid, Dionne E; Franssen, Frits M E; Gonik, Maria; Miravitlles, Marc; Casanova, Ciro; Cosio, Borja G; de Lucas-Ramos, Pilar; Marin, Jose M; Martinez, Cristina; Mir, Isabel; Soriano, Joan B; de Torres, Juan P; Agusti, Alvar; Atalay, Nart B; Billington, Julia; Boutou, Afroditi K; Brighenti-Zogg, Stefanie; Chaplin, Emma; Coster, Samantha; Dodd, James W; Dürr, Selina; Fernandez-Villar, Alberto; Groenen, Miriam T J; Guimarães, Miguel; Hejduk, Karel; Higgins, Victoria; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Horita, Nobuyuki; Houben-Wilke, Sarah; Janssen, Daisy J A; Jehn, Melissa; Joerres, Rudolf; Karch, Annika; Kelly, Julia L; Kim, Yu-Il; Kimura, Hiroshi; Koblizek, Vladimir; Kocks, Janwillem H; Kon, Samantha S C; Kwon, Namhee; Ladeira, Inês; Lee, Sang-Do; Leuppi, Joerg D; Locantore, Nicholas; Lopez-Campos, José L; D-C Man, William; Maricic, Lana; Mendoza, Laura; Miedinger, David; Mihaltan, Florin; Minami, Seigo; van der Molen, Thys; Murrells, Trevor J; Nakken, Nienke; Nishijima, Yu; Norman, Ian J; Novotna, Barbora; O'Donnell, Denis E; Ogata, Yoshitaka; Pereira, Eanes D; Piercy, James; Price, David; Pothirat, Chaicharn; Raghavan, Natya; Ringbaek, Thomas; Sajkov, Dimitar; Sigari, Naseh; Singh, Sally; Small, Mark; da Silva, Guilherme F; Tanner, Rebecca J; Tsiligianni, Ioanna G; Tulek, Baykal; Tzanakis, Nikolaos; Vanfleteren, Lowie E G W; Watz, Henrik; Webb, Katherine A; Wouters, Emiel F M; Xie, Guogang G; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Spruit, Martijn A

    2017-12-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be classified into groups A/C or B/D based on symptom intensity. Different threshold values for symptom questionnaires can result in misclassification and, in turn, different treatment recommendations. The primary aim was to find the best fitting cut-points for Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) symptom measures, with an modified Medical Research Council dyspnea grade of 2 or higher as point of reference. After a computerized search, data from 41 cohorts and whose authors agreed to provide data were pooled. COPD studies were eligible for analyses if they included, at least age, sex, postbronchodilator spirometry, modified Medical Research Council, and COPD Assessment Test (CAT) total scores. Receiver operating characteristic curves and the Youden index were used to determine the best calibration threshold for CAT, COPD Clinical Questionnaire, and St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire total scores. Following, GOLD A/B/C/D frequencies were calculated based on current cut-points and the newly derived cut-points. A total of 18,577 patients with COPD [72.0% male; mean age: 66.3 years (standard deviation 9.6)] were analyzed. Most patients had a moderate or severe degree of airflow limitation (GOLD spirometric grade 1, 10.9%; grade 2, 46.6%; grade 3, 32.4%; and grade 4, 10.3%). The best calibration threshold for CAT total score was 18 points, for COPD Clinical Questionnaire total score 1.9 points, and for St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire total score 46.0 points. The application of these new cut-points would reclassify about one-third of the patients with COPD and, thus, would impact on individual disease management. Further validation in prospective studies of these new values are needed. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Symptoms of Insomnia among Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Before and After Two Years of Positive Airway Pressure Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Björnsdóttir, Erla; Janson, Christer; Sigurdsson, Jón F.; Gehrman, Philip; Perlis, Michael; Juliusson, Sigurdur; Arnardottir, Erna S.; Kuna, Samuel T.; Pack, Allan I.; Gislason, Thorarinn; Benediktsdóttir, Bryndis

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the changes of insomnia symptoms among patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) from starting treatment with positive airway pressure (PAP) to a 2-y follow-up. Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Landspitali—The National University Hospital of Iceland. Participants: There were 705 adults with OSA who were assessed prior to and 2 y after starting PAP treatment. Intervention: PAP treatment for OSA. Measurements and Results: All patients underwent a medical examination along with a type 3 sleep study and answered questionnaires on health and sleep before and 2 y after starting PAP treatment. The change in prevalence of insomnia symptoms by subtype was assessed by questionnaire and compared between individuals who were using or not using PAP at follow-up. Symptoms of middle insomnia were most common at baseline and improved significantly among patients using PAP (from 59.4% to 30.7%, P < 0.001). Symptoms of initial insomnia tended to persist regardless of PAP treatment, and symptoms of late insomnia were more likely to improve among patients not using PAP. Patients with symptoms of initial and late insomnia at baseline were less likely to adhere to PAP (odds ratio [OR] 0.56, P = 0.007, and OR 0.53, P < 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Positive airway pressure treatment significantly reduced symptoms of middle insomnia. Symptoms of initial and late insomnia, however, tended to persist regardless of positive airway pressure treatment and had a negative effect on adherence. Targeted treatment for insomnia may be beneficial for patients with obstructive sleep apnea comorbid with insomnia and has the potential to positively affect adherence to positive airway pressure. Citation: Björnsdóttir E; Janson C; Sigurdsson JF; Gehrman P; Perlis M; Juliusson S; Arnardottir ES; Kuna ST; Pack AI; Gislason T; Benediktsdóttir B. Symptoms of insomnia among patients with obstructive sleep apnea before and after two years of positive airway

  13. Clinical Utility of a Precision Medicine Test Evaluating Outpatients with Suspected Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Ladapo, Joseph A; Budoff, Matt; Sharp, David; Zapien, Michael; Huang, Lin; Maniet, Bruce; Herman, Lee; Monane, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Identifying patients with obstructive coronary artery disease can be challenging for primary care physicians. Advances in precision medicine may help augment clinical tools and redefine the paradigm for evaluating coronary artery disease in the outpatient setting. A blood-based age/sex/gene expression score (ASGES) incorporating key features of precision medicine has shown clinical validity with a 96% negative predictive value and 89% sensitivity in estimating a symptomatic patient's current likelihood of obstructive coronary artery disease. To better characterize the clinical utility of the ASGES and measure its impact on clinician decision-making, a community-based registry was established. The prospective PRESET Registry (NCT01677156) enrolled stable, nonacute adult patients presenting with typical or atypical symptoms suggestive of obstructive coronary artery disease from 21 US primary care practices from August 2012 to August 2014. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and ASGES results (predefined as low [ASGES ≤15] or elevated [ASGES >15]) were collected, as were referrals to Cardiology or further functional/anatomic cardiac testing after ASGES testing. Patients were followed for 1 year post ASGES testing. Among the 566-patient cohort (median age 56 years), clinicians referred 26/252 (10%) of patients with low scores vs 137/314 (44%) of patients with elevated scores to Cardiology or advanced cardiac testing for further evaluation (unadjusted odds ratio 0.15, P <.0001; adjusted odds ratio after accounting for clinical covariates = 0.18, P <.0001). Data on 84 patients referred for advanced cardiac testing showed abnormal findings in 0 of 13 (0%) low ASGES and 10 of 71 (14%) elevated ASGES patients. Major adverse cardiovascular events and revascularization were noted in 3/252 (1.2%) patients with low ASGES and 14/314 (4.5%) patients with elevated ASGES score (P <.03). In this community-based cardiovascular registry, the ASGES demonstrated clinical utility

  14. A prospective evaluation of occult disorders in obstructed defecation using the 'iceberg diagram'.

    PubMed

    Pescatori, M; Spyrou, M; Pulvirenti d'Urso, A

    2006-11-01

    Surgical treatment of constipation and obstructed defecation (OD) carries frequent recurrences, as OD is an 'iceberg syndrome' characterized by 'underwater rocks' or occult diseases which may affect the outcome of surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate occult disorders in order to alert the clinician of these and minimize failures. One hundred consecutive constipated patients with OD symptoms, 81 female patients, median age 52 years, underwent perineal examination, proctoscopy, anorectal manometry, and anal/vaginal ultrasound. Anorectal physiology and imaging tests were also carried out when indicated, as well as psychological and urogynaecological consultation. Symptoms were graded using a modified 1-20 constipation score. Both evident (e.g. rectocele) and occult (e.g. anismus) diseases were prospectively evaluated using a novel 'iceberg diagram'. The type of treatment, whether conservative or surgical, was also recorded. Fifty-four (54%) patients had both mucosal prolapse and rectocele. All patients had at least two occult OD-related diseases, 66 patients had at least three: anxiety-depression, anismus and rectal hyposensation were the most frequent (66%, 44% and 33% respectively). The median constipation score was 11 (range 2-20), the median number of 'occult disorders' was 5 (range 2-8). Conservative treatment was carried out in most patients. Surgery was carried out in 14 (14%) patients. The novel 'iceberg diagram' allowed the adequate evaluation of OD-related occult diseases and better selection of patients for treatment. Most were managed conservatively, and only a minority were treated by surgery.

  15. A prospective evaluation of occult disorders in obstructed defecation using the 'iceberg diagram'.

    PubMed

    Pescatori, M; Spyrou, M; Pulvirenti d'Urso, A

    2007-06-01

    Surgical treatment of constipation and obstructed defecation (OD) carries frequent recurrences, as OD is an 'iceberg syndrome' characterized by 'underwater rocks' or occult diseases which may affect the outcome of surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate occult disorders, in order to alert the clinician of these and minimize failures. One hundred consecutive constipated patients with OD symptoms, 81 women, median age 52 years, underwent perineal examination, proctoscopy, anorectal manometry and anal/vaginal ultrasound (US). Anorectal physiology and imaging tests were also carried out when indicated, as well as psychological and urogynaecological consultations. Symptoms were graded using a modified 1-20 constipation score. Both evident (e.g. rectocele) and occult (e.g. anismus) diseases were prospectively evaluated using a novel 'iceberg diagram'. The type of treatment, whether conservative or surgical, was also recorded. Fifty-four (54%) patients had both mucosal prolapse and rectocele. All patients had at least two occult OD-related diseases, 66 patients had at least three of them: anxiety-depression, anismus and rectal hyposensation were the most frequent (66%, 44% and 33%, respectively). The median constipation score was 11 (range 2-20), the median number of 'occult disorders' was 5 (range 2-8). Conservative treatment was carried out in most cases. Surgery was carried out in 14 (14%) patients. The novel 'iceberg diagram' allowed the adequate evaluation of OD-related occult diseases and better selection of patients for treatment. Most were managed conservatively, and only a minority were treated by surgery.

  16. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Nighttime Symptoms of COPD Instrument.

    PubMed

    Mocarski, Michelle; Zaiser, Erica; Trundell, Dylan; Make, Barry J; Hareendran, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Nighttime symptoms can negatively impact the quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Nighttime Symptoms of COPD Instrument (NiSCI) was designed to measure the occurrence and severity of nighttime symptoms in patients with COPD, the impact of symptoms on nighttime awakenings, and rescue medication use. The objective of this study was to explore item reduction, inform scoring recommendations, and evaluate the psychometric properties of the NiSCI. COPD patients participating in a Phase III clinical trial completed the NiSCI daily. Item analyses were conducted using weekly mean and single day scores. Descriptive statistics (including percentage of respondents at floor/ceiling and inter-item correlations), factor analyses, and Rasch model analyses were conducted to examine item performance and scoring. Test-retest reliability was assessed for the final instrument using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Correlations with assessments conducted during study visits were used to evaluate convergent and known-groups validity. Data from 1,663 COPD patients aged 40-93 years were analyzed. Item analyses supported the generation of four scores. A one-factor structure was confirmed with factor analysis and Rasch analysis for the symptom severity score. Test-retest reliability was confirmed for the six-item symptom severity (ICC, 0.85), number of nighttime awakenings (ICC, 0.82), and rescue medication (ICC, 0.68) scores. Convergent validity was supported by significant correlations between the NiSCI, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, and Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Tool-Respiratory Symptoms scores. The results suggest that the NiSCI can be used to determine the severity of nighttime COPD symptoms, the number of nighttime awakenings due to COPD symptoms, and the nighttime use of rescue medication. The NiSCI is a reliable and valid instrument to evaluate these concepts in COPD patients in clinical

  17. Percutaneous nerve evaluation (PNE) for treatment of non-obstructive urinary retention: urodynamic changes, placebo effects, and response rates.

    PubMed

    Sharifiaghdas, Farzaneh; Mirzaei, Mahboubeh; Ahadi, Babak

    2014-03-04

    To evaluate the results of percutaneous nerve evaluation (PNE) implantation in the treatment of non-obstructive urinary retention and report the changes in the urodynamic parameters. Patients with non-obstructive urinary retention or incomplete bladder emptying were included. All patients filled a 7 days voiding diary chart and underwent PNE for one week, and the patient was asked to record the second voiding diary chart and repeat urodynamic study in this period. Then the PNE lead was removed from the S3 foramen, but the connections remained fixed in place for another 3 days to exclude the placebo effects and the third voiding diary chart was completed by the patient. The patient wasn't aware of lead removal. Success was defined as, more than 50% improvement in at least one of the urinary tract symptoms. Forty five patients with a mean age of 37.1 years (ranged 9-83 years) were treated with PNE for refractory, non-obstructive urinary retention. Of study subjects 28 complained from complete urinary retention, and 17 had incomplete emptying. Of participants, 28 (62.2%) demonstrated greater than 50% improvement in the urinary symptoms. Urodynamic data, showed a statistically significant increase in maximum flow rate (8 ± 2.2 mL/sec to 16 ± 3.6 mL/sec, P = .06) and voided volume (35 mL to 187 mL, P = .032) in the responders. Any placebo effects in PNE have not been seen. Patients with complete non obstructive urinary retention were good responders to PNE. The placebo effect in sacral nerve stimulation was negligible.

  18. A Novel Approach to Brachycephalic Syndrome. 1. Evaluation of Anatomical Intranasal Airway Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Oechtering, Gerhard U; Pohl, Sabine; Schlueter, Claudia; Lippert, Johanna P; Alef, Michaele; Kiefer, Ingmar; Ludewig, Eberhard; Schuenemann, Riccarda

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate airway obstruction due to abnormal intranasal anatomy in 3 brachycephalic dog breeds using computed tomography and rhinoscopy. Prospective clinical study. A total of 132 brachycephalic dogs (66 Pugs, 55 French Bulldogs, and 11 English Bulldogs) with severe respiratory distress due to brachycephalic syndrome. Computed tomography and anterior and posterior rhinoscopy were performed to evaluate endonasal obstruction. All dogs had abnormal conchal growth that obstructed the intranasal airways. Rostral aberrant turbinates (RAT) were common in Pugs (90.9%) but less frequent in French (56.4%) and English (36.4%) Bulldogs. Caudal aberrant turbinates (CAT) obstructing the nasopharyngeal meatus were commonly found in all breeds (66.7%). Deviation of the nasal septum was an almost consistent finding in Pugs (98.5%) but was less common in bulldogs. Obstructing turbinates had multiple points of mucosal contact responsible for obstruction of the intranasal airway. Interconchal and intraconchal mucosal contacts were evident in 91.7% of dogs. Selective breeding for short head conformation reduces the size of the nasal cavities to such an extent that intranasal structures grow aberrantly and malformed, leading to obstructed air conducting spaces. Intranasal airway obstruction of brachycephalic dogs may contribute to their exercise and heat intolerance because of impaired pulmonary ventilation and compromised thermoregulatory functions of the canine nose. Failure to address intranasal obstruction might be an explanation for lack of therapeutic success after conventional surgery for brachycephalic syndrome. Future consideration should be given to the diagnosis, management, and treatment of this newly described aspect of airway obstruction. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  19. Personality Traits and Mental Symptoms are Associated with Impact of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Patients' Daily Life.

    PubMed

    Topp, Marie; Vestbo, Jørgen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that personality traits are associated with self-reported health status in the general population. COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is increasingly used to assess health status such as the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on patients' daily life, but knowledge about the influence of personality traits on CAT score is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Big Five personality traits on CAT score and the relation between personality traits and mental symptoms with respect to their influence on CAT score. A sample of 168 patients diagnosed with COPD was consecutively recruited in a secondary care outpatient clinic. All participants completed CAT, NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the association between personality traits and CAT scores and how this association was influenced by mental symptoms. The personality traits neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness; and the mental symptoms depression and anxiety showed significant influence on CAT score when analysed in separate regression models. Identical R-square (R = 0.24) was found for personality traits and mental symptoms, but combining personality traits and mental symptoms in one regression model showed substantially reduced effect estimates of neuroticism, conscientiousness and anxiety, reflecting the strong correlations between personality traits and mental symptoms. We found that the impact of COPD on daily life measured by CAT was related to personality and mental symptoms, which illustrates the necessity of taking individual differences in personality and mental status into account in the management of COPD.

  20. Evaluation of neuromuscular activity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea using chin surface electromyography of polysomnography.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guo-ping; Ye, Jing-ying; Han, De-min; Wang, Xiao-yi; Zhang, Yu-huan; Li, Yan-ru

    2013-01-01

    It is believed that defects in upper airway neuromuscular control play a role in sleep apnea pathogenesis. Currently, there is no simple and non-invasive method for evaluating neuromuscular activity for the purpose of screening in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. This study was designed to assess the validity of chin surface electromyography of routine polysomnography in evaluating the neuromuscular activity of obstructive sleep apnea subjects and probe the neuromuscular contribution in the pathogenesis of the condition. The chin surface electromyography of routine polysomnography during normal breathing and obstructive apnea were quantified in 36 male patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The change of chin surface electromyography from normal breathing to obstructive apnea was expressed as the percent compensated electromyography value, where the percent compensated electromyography value = (normal breath surface electromyography - apnea surface electromyography)/normal breath surface electromyography, and the percent compensated electromyography values among subjects were compared. The relationship between sleep apnea related parameters and the percent compensated electromyography value was examined. The percent compensated electromyography value of the subjects varied from 1% to 90% and had a significant positive correlation with apnea hypopnea index (R(2) = 0.382, P < 0.001). Recording and analyzing chin surface electromyography by routine polysomnography is a valid way of screening the neuromuscular activity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The neuromuscular contribution is different among subjects with obstructive sleep apnea.

  1. Measures of symptoms and life quality to predict emergent use of institutional health care resources in chronic obstructive airways disease.

    PubMed

    Traver, G A

    1988-11-01

    Thirty subjects with severe chronic obstructive airways disease participated in a study to identify differences in symptoms and life quality between those with high and low emergent use of institutional health care resources. Emergent use was defined as care obtained through unscheduled, nonroutine methods of access to health care providers. There were 15 subjects in each group; the groups had similar sex distribution and were not significantly different for percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (mean 29.8%), use of home oxygen (15 of 30 subjects), or prevalence of CO2 retention (nine of 30). Symptoms and life quality were measured by using three paper and pencil tests, the Bronchitis-Emphysema Symptom Checklist, the Sickness-Impact Profile, and the Katz Adjustment Scale for relatives. Findings demonstrated consistently more symptoms and impairment of life quality in the "high emergent" group. The differences reached statistical significance for irritability, anxiety, helplessness, nervousness, peripheral sensory complaints, alienation, social interaction, and emotional behavior. Discriminant analysis provided a prediction formula that yielded 80% correct prediction for the two groups.

  2. Heart failure hospitalization in women with signs and symptoms of ischemia: A report from the women's ischemia syndrome evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Bakir, May; Nelson, Michael D; Jones, Erika; Li, Quanlin; Wei, Janet; Sharif, Behzad; Minissian, Margo; Shufelt, Chrisandra; Sopko, George; Pepine, Carl J; Merz, C Noel Bairey

    2016-11-15

    Women with signs and symptoms of ischemia, no obstructive coronary artery disease, and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction enrolled in the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) study have an unexpectedly high rate of subsequent heart failure (HF) hospitalization. We sought to verify and characterize the HF hospitalizations. A retrospective chart review was performed on 223 women with signs and symptoms of ischemia, undergoing coronary angiography for suspected coronary artery disease followed for 6±2.6years. Data were collected from a single site in the WISE study. At the time of study enrollment, the women were 57±11years of age, all had preserved left ventricular ejection fraction, and 81 (36%) had obstructive CAD (defined as >50% stenosis in at least one epicardial artery). Among the 223 patients, 25 (11%) reported HF hospitalizations, of which 14/25 (56%) had recurrent HF hospitalizations (>2 hospitalizations). Medical records were available in 13/25 (52%) women. Left ventricular ejection fraction was measured in all verified cases and was found to be preserved in 12/13 (92%). HF hospitalization was not related to obstructive CAD. Among women with signs and symptoms of ischemia undergoing coronary angiography for suspected obstructive CAD, HF hospitalization at 6-year follow-up was predominantly characterized by a preserved ejection fraction and not associated with obstructive CAD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comorbid insomnia symptoms predict lower 6-month adherence to CPAP in US veterans with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Douglas M; Sawyer, A M; Shafazand, S

    2018-03-01

    There is limited information on the association between pre-treatment insomnia symptoms and dysfunctional sleep beliefs with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence in veterans with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Our aims were to describe demographic and sleep characteristics of veterans with and without comorbid insomnia and determine whether pre-treatment insomnia symptoms and dysfunctional sleep beliefs predict CPAP use after 6 months of therapy. Hispanic veterans attending the Miami VA sleep clinic were recruited and completed the insomnia severity index, the dysfunctional sleep belief and attitude scale (DBAS), and other questionnaires. Participants were asked to return after 7 days and 1 and 6 months to repeat questionnaires and for objective CPAP adherence download. Hierarchical regression models were performed to determine adjusted associations of pre-treatment insomnia symptoms and DBAS sub-scores on 6-month mean daily CPAP use. Fifty-three participants completed the 6-month follow-up visit with a mean CPAP use of 3.4 ± 1.9 h. Veterans with comorbid insomnia had lower mean daily CPAP use (168 ± 125 vs 237 ± 108 min, p = 0.04) and lower percent daily CPAP use ≥ 4 h (32 ± 32 vs 51 ± 32%, p = 0.05) compared to participants without insomnia. In adjusted analyses, pre-treatment insomnia symptoms (early, late, and aggregated nocturnal symptoms) and sleep dissatisfaction were predictive of lower CPAP use at 6 months. Pre-treatment dysfunctional sleep beliefs were not associated with CPAP adherence. Pre-treatment nocturnal insomnia symptoms and sleep dissatisfaction predicted poorer 6- month CPAP use. Insomnia treatment preceding or concurrent with CPAP initiation may eliminate a barrier to regular use.

  4. Evaluation of peripheral auditory pathways and brainstem in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Erika; Matas, Carla Gentile; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Pedreño, Raquel Meirelles; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Sanches, Seisse Gabriela Gandolfi; Carvallo, Renata Mota Mamede

    2016-11-25

    Obstructive sleep apnea causes changes in normal sleep architecture, fragmenting it chronically with intermittent hypoxia, leading to serious health consequences in the long term. It is believed that the occurrence of respiratory events during sleep, such as apnea and hypopnea, can impair the transmission of nerve impulses along the auditory pathway that are highly dependent on the supply of oxygen. However, this association is not well established in the literature. To compare the evaluation of peripheral auditory pathway and brainstem among individuals with and without obstructive sleep apnea. The sample consisted of 38 adult males, mean age of 35.8 (±7.2), divided into four groups matched for age and Body Mass Index. The groups were classified based on polysomnography in: control (n=10), mild obstructive sleep apnea (n=11) moderate obstructive sleep apnea (n=8) and severe obstructive sleep apnea (n=9). All study subjects denied a history of risk for hearing loss and underwent audiometry, tympanometry, acoustic reflex and Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response. Statistical analyses were performed using three-factor ANOVA, 2-factor ANOVA, chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test. The significance level for all tests was 5%. There was no difference between the groups for hearing thresholds, tympanometry and evaluated Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response parameters. An association was observed between the presence of obstructive sleep apnea and changes in absolute latency of wave V (p=0.03). There was an association between moderate obstructive sleep apnea and change of the latency of wave V (p=0.01). The presence of obstructive sleep apnea is associated with changes in nerve conduction of acoustic stimuli in the auditory pathway in the brainstem. The increase in obstructive sleep apnea severity does not promote worsening of responses assessed by audiometry, tympanometry and Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de

  5. Office evaluation of male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaei, Shahin; Talab, Saman Shafaat; Zangi, Mahdi; Woo, Henry H

    2012-12-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) are one of the most common urologic disorders in men. Accurate history-taking and focused physical examination allows us to diagnose the majority of cases. A better understanding of risk factors helps us tailor our treatment and predict outcomes more accurately. Population studies are crucial in our understanding of LUTS/BPH natural history. Temporary prostatic urethral stents that are used for the management of urinary retention may also be used for evaluation of patients with detrusor hypo-contractility. The use of ultrasound to measure intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) and the Doppler study for prostate capsular artery resistive index are promising. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) examines the tissue oxygenation that may be affected by bladder outlet obstruction. The mathematical algorithm needs some fine-tuning, and its reproducibility is debatable. Serum and urinary biomarkers may help us to diagnose the disorder, and more effectively monitor patients' response to therapy. Among all, IPP is clinically more applicable at this time.

  6. The importance of side difference in nasal obstruction and rhinomanometry: a retrospective correlation of symptoms and rhinomanometry in 1000 patients.

    PubMed

    Thulesius, H L; Cervin, A; Jessen, M

    2012-02-01

    The correlation between subjective and objective outcomes of nasal obstruction is still a matter of controversy. The aim of this study was to determine the minimal level of side difference in nasal airway resistance (NAR measured by Broms'v(2)) between the two nasal cavities, which could be discerned subjectively by the patient on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Nasal airway resistance was calculated from rhinomanometric measurements of nasal airflow and transnasal pressure after decongestion of the nasal mucosa. A retrospective study. ENT department, Vaxjo Central Hospital, Sweden. We studied 1000 active anterior rhinomanometries from patients with nasal obstructions. We compared the side difference of nasal airway resistance with the side difference of VAS estimated immediately prior to the rhinomanometry. Each measurement was performed after nasal decongestion. When the difference in nasal airway resistance between the two nasal cavities was larger than 20° (Broms'v(2)) or R(2) > 0.36 Pa/cm(3) /s, we found a significant correlation between side differences of the objective measurement and the subjective assessment (VAS). With a nasal airway resistance side difference over 20°, an additional 20° difference corresponded to a 0.9 centimetre average VAS change. The more obstructed side of the nose could be determined by VAS in 823 (82.3%) of 1000 patients. Yet, 177 (17.7%) patients had a paradoxical sensation of nasal obstruction with the low resistance side of the nose experienced as the most congested side. A significant correlation between the side differences of nasal airway resistance and VAS can serve as a supplement to rhinoscopy in decisions about nasal surgery. This study also showed that in 17.7% of patients, there was a negative correlation between subjective and objective evaluations of nasal airway resistance. But in this group, the nasal airway resistance side difference was mostly under 20°. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Urethral obstruction after anti-incontinence surgery in women: evaluation, methodology, and surgical results.

    PubMed

    Austin, P; Spyropoulos, E; Lotenfoe, R; Helal, M; Hoffman, M; Lockhart, J L

    1996-06-01

    To evaluate a group of women with voiding dysfunction and a low maximum flow rate (MFR) (less than or equal to 12 mL/s) after surgery for stress urinary incontinence (SUI); to establish diagnostic parameters indicating obstruction in an attempt to determine treatment selection; and to evaluate preliminary surgical results. Eighteen women who underwent anti-incontinence surgery for SUI were diagnosed as having infravesical obstruction (IO). Thirteen women (group A [72%]) presented with clinically predominant symptoms of urgency, frequency, intermittency, and a variable vesical residual volume (RV), and five (group B [28%]) had as their most significant symptoms a high vesical RV and urinary tract infection that had been managed with intermittent catheterization (IC). The diagnosis of IO, suspected after clinical history, was established after physical examination and cystoscopic, cystographic and urodynamic investigations. Bladder instability was demonstrated in 6 group A patients (46%) and 1 group B patient (20%) (P = NS). Mean MFRs were 8.07 and 7.2 mL/s, respectively, in both groups (P = NS). Mean maximal voiding pressures (MVPs) were 20.23 and 5 cm H20, and mean RVs were 57.46 and 174 mL, respectively; both differences were statistically very significant (P <0.01 and P <0.001, respectively). High to normal MVPs occurred in 2 patients overall (11%). Bladder neck overcorrection, midurethral distortion, and postsurgical cystocele were demonstrated in both groups in 11 (85%), 0, and 2 (15%) patients in group A and 3 (60%), 2 (40%), and 3 (60%) patients in group B, respectively (P = NS). Patients in group A were treated surgically with cystourethrolysis and a repeated, less obstructive anti-incontinence operation. In group B 2 women (40%) had a similar surgical procedure; 1 (20%) underwent isolated urethrolysis; and 2 (40%) are currently maintained with IC. Among these 18 patients with voiding dysfunction after anti-incontinence surgery, a primary diagnosis of IO was

  8. Symptom burden and self-management in persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Bringsvor, Heidi B; Skaug, Knut; Langeland, Eva; Oftedal, Bjørg Frøysland; Assmus, Jörg; Gundersen, Doris; Osborne, Richard H; Bentsen, Signe Berit

    2018-01-01

    Self-management is crucial for effective COPD management. This study aimed at identifying associations between self-management and sociodemographic characteristics, clinical characteristics, and symptom burden in people with COPD. In this cross-sectional study with 225 participants diagnosed with COPD grades II-IV, multiple linear regression analysis was conducted, using sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and symptom burden (COPD Assessment Test) as the independent variables and the eight self-management domains of the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) as the outcome variables. Higher symptom burden was significantly associated with worse scores in all self-management domains ( p <0.003), except for self-monitoring and insight ( p =0.012). Higher disease severity ( p =0.004) and numbers of comorbidities ( p <0.001) were associated with more emotional distress, and women scored higher than men on positive and active engagement in life ( p =0.001). Higher score in pack-years smoking was associated with lower score in health-directed activities ( p =0.006) and self-monitoring and insight ( p <0.001), and participation in organized physical training was associated with higher score in health-directed activities ( p <0.001). The final models explained 3.7%-31.7% of variance (adjusted R 2 ) across the eight heiQ scales. A notable finding of this study was that higher symptom burden was associated with worse scores in all self-management domains, except for self-monitoring and insight. In addition, sex, disease severity, comorbidity, pack-years smoking, and participation in organized physical training were associated with one or two self-management domains. The study contributes to improved understanding of self-management in COPD. However, the explained variance levels indicate that more research needs to be done to uncover what else explains self-management domains in COPD.

  9. Evaluation of two techniques of partial urethral obstruction in the male rat model of bladder outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Melman, Arnold; Tar, Moses; Boczko, Judd; Christ, George; Leung, Albert C; Zhao, Weixin; Russell, Robert G

    2005-11-01

    To perform a comparison to determine which of two methods of partial urethral ligation produces the most consistent outcome and fewest side effects. Such a study has not been previously reported. Partial urethral ligation is a means of causing reproducible bladder outlet obstruction. In the male rat model, partial urethral obstruction can be performed either by perineal incision and bulbous urethral ligation or retropubic incision and midprostatic obstruction. Fifteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Five were selected for bulbous urethral obstruction through a perineal incision, five for midprostatic obstruction using a retropubic approach, and five for a sham operation through a perineal incision. The operative time was shorter and morbidity lower with the perineal approach compared with the retropubic approach. Inflammation or infection, or both, were seen in the prostate, bladder, proximal urethra, ureters, and kidneys in the rats in which a midprostatic obstruction was performed. The proximal urethra and prostate were mildly inflamed in those rats that underwent bulbous obstruction. Sham-operated rats exhibited mild prostatitis only. The perineal approach to the bulbous urethra is the method of choice for creating a partial urethral obstruction model of bladder outlet obstruction in the male rat.

  10. Evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Urbano, Jessica Julioti; Santos, Israel Reis; Silva, Anderson Soares; Perez, Eduardo Araújo; Souza, Ângela Honda; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Jardim, José Roberto; Insalaco, Giuseppe; Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco; Stirbulov, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between sleep disorders and bronchiectasis has not been well described. We hypothesize that, due to the irreversible dilatation of the bronchi, the presence of secretions, and airflow obstruction, patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis may be predisposed to hypoxemia during sleep, or to symptoms that may lead to arousal. A cross-sectional observational study was performed involving 49 patients with a clinical diagnosis of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB). All patients underwent clinical evaluation, spirometry, and polysomnography, and were evaluated for the presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The mean age of the participants was 50.3 ± 13.6 years; 51.1% of patients were male and had a mean body mass index of 23.8 ± 3.4 kg/m2. The mean total sleep time (TST) was 325.15 ± 64.22 min with a slight reduction in sleep efficiency (84.01 ± 29.2%). Regarding sleep stages, stage 1 sleep and REM sleep were abnormal. OSA was present in 40.82% of the patients. The mean arousal index was 5.6 ± 2.9/h and snoring was observed in 71.43% of the patients. The oxygen desaturation index (ODI) was 14.35 ± 15.36/h, mean minimum oxygen saturation (SpO2 nadir) was 83.29 ± 7.99%, and mean TST with an SpO2 less than 90% was 30.21 ± 60.48 min. EDS was exhibited by 53.06% of the patients and 55.1% were at high risk of developing OSA. The patients infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa had higher apnea-hypopnea indices, ODI, and TST with SpO2 < 90%, and lower values of SpO2 nadir. Adult patients with clinically stable NCFB, especially those infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, display EDS and a high prevalence of OSA, associated with considerable oxygen desaturation during sleep. PMID:28972989

  11. Evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Faria Júnior, Newton Santos; Urbano, Jessica Julioti; Santos, Israel Reis; Silva, Anderson Soares; Perez, Eduardo Araújo; Souza, Ângela Honda; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Jardim, José Roberto; Insalaco, Giuseppe; Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco; Stirbulov, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between sleep disorders and bronchiectasis has not been well described. We hypothesize that, due to the irreversible dilatation of the bronchi, the presence of secretions, and airflow obstruction, patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis may be predisposed to hypoxemia during sleep, or to symptoms that may lead to arousal. A cross-sectional observational study was performed involving 49 patients with a clinical diagnosis of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB). All patients underwent clinical evaluation, spirometry, and polysomnography, and were evaluated for the presence of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The mean age of the participants was 50.3 ± 13.6 years; 51.1% of patients were male and had a mean body mass index of 23.8 ± 3.4 kg/m2. The mean total sleep time (TST) was 325.15 ± 64.22 min with a slight reduction in sleep efficiency (84.01 ± 29.2%). Regarding sleep stages, stage 1 sleep and REM sleep were abnormal. OSA was present in 40.82% of the patients. The mean arousal index was 5.6 ± 2.9/h and snoring was observed in 71.43% of the patients. The oxygen desaturation index (ODI) was 14.35 ± 15.36/h, mean minimum oxygen saturation (SpO2 nadir) was 83.29 ± 7.99%, and mean TST with an SpO2 less than 90% was 30.21 ± 60.48 min. EDS was exhibited by 53.06% of the patients and 55.1% were at high risk of developing OSA. The patients infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa had higher apnea-hypopnea indices, ODI, and TST with SpO2 < 90%, and lower values of SpO2 nadir. Adult patients with clinically stable NCFB, especially those infected by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, display EDS and a high prevalence of OSA, associated with considerable oxygen desaturation during sleep.

  12. Defibrotide for the treatment of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome: evaluation of response to therapy and patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Coutsouvelis, John; Avery, Sharon; Dooley, Michael; Kirkpatrick, Carl; Spencer, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    Defibrotide is an agent used to treat sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS/VOD) in patients undergoing haemopoietic stem cell transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of defibrotide used within institutional guidelines for the treatment of SOS/VOD in patients undergoing haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Data for 23 patients was retrospectively reviewed to evaluate the effectiveness of defibrotide and the utility of response criteria to direct therapy as specified within institution guidelines. Patients met institutional criteria for a diagnosis of SOS/VOD based on predominantly Baltimore criteria and received defibrotide. Stabilisation or improvement in symptoms and biochemical markers was required for continuation of therapy with defibrotide. Overall, 14 patients responded to therapy. Survival at day 100 post HSCT was 70%. Median serum (total) bilirubin concentrations in all evaluable patients had decreased at days 5 and 10 (p < 0.001). There was a proportional reduction in median weight of 4% by day 5 and 6.6% by day 10 (p < 0.001). On cessation of defibrotide, there was a decrease in the proportion of patients exhibiting hepatomegaly (p = 0.02), ascites (p < 0.01) and requiring oxygen supplementation (p < 0.01), with 70% survival at day 100 post HSCT. Defibrotide to treat SOS/VOD and continued based on attainment of early response was effective management of this condition. Defibrotide should be considered in any consensus protocol providing guidance on the management of SOS/VOD, with future studies considered to assess appropriate time points for response to therapy during treatment.

  13. Effect of Heated Humidification on CPAP Therapy Adherence in Subjects With Obstructive Sleep Apnea With Nasopharyngeal Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Soudorn, Chuleekorn; Muntham, Dittapol; Reutrakul, Sirimon; Chirakalwasan, Naricha

    2016-09-01

    The addition of heated humidification to CPAP has been shown to improve nasal adverse effects in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, current data regarding improvement in CPAP adherence is conflicting. Furthermore, there are no data from a tropical climate area with a high humidity level. In this prospective randomized crossover study conducted in Thailand, subjects with moderate to severe OSA with nasopharyngeal symptoms post-split-night study were enrolled in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive CPAP with or without heated humidification for 4 weeks and then crossed over. Information on CPAP adherence, quality of life assessed by the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, nasopharyngeal symptoms assessed by a modified XERO questionnaire, and bedroom ambient humidity and temperature data were obtained. Data were collected on 20 subjects with OSA during the period of January to December 2014. Although the addition of heated humidification appeared to improve average hours of use for all days when compared with conventional CPAP, the difference was not statistically significant (CPAP with heated humidification = 4.6 ± 1.7 h/night; conventional CPAP = 4.0 ± 1.7 h/night, P = .1). However, the addition of heated humidification improved CPAP adherence on the days of use (5.5 ± 1.5 h/night) compared with conventional CPAP (5.2 ± 1.4 h/night), P = .033. Quality of life was also improved according to the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire score (median 17.6 [interquartile range 3.5]) in the heated humidification group compared with conventional CPAP group (median 17.6 [interquartile range 4.5]), P = .046. Significant reduction in the dry throat/sore throat symptom was noted only when CPAP with heated humidification was used. Even in a tropical climate area, CPAP adherence and quality of life appeared to improve when heated humidification was employed in subjects with moderate to severe OSA with nasopharyngeal symptoms

  14. Decline in air pollution and change in prevalence in respiratory symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Schikowski, Tamara; Ranft, Ulrich; Sugiri, Dorothee; Vierkötter, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas; Harth, Volker; Krämer, Ursula

    2010-08-22

    While adverse effects of exposure to air pollutants on respiratory health are well studied, little is known about the effect of a reduction in air pollutants on chronic respiratory symptoms and diseases. We investigated whether different declines in air pollution levels in industrialised and rural areas in Germany were associated with changes in respiratory health over a period of about 20 years. We used data from the SALIA cohort study in Germany (Study on the influence of Air pollution on Lung function, Inflammation and Aging) to assess the association between the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic respiratory symptoms and the decline in air pollution exposure. In 1985-1994, 4874 women aged 55-years took part in the baseline investigation. Of these, 2116 participated in a questionnaire follow-up in 2006 and in a subgroup of 402 women lung function was tested in 2008-2009. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to estimate the effect of a reduction in air pollution on respiratory symptoms and diseases. Ambient air concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic size < 10 microm (PM10) declined in average by 20 microg/m3. Prevalence of chronic cough with phlegm production and mild COPD at baseline investigation compared to follow-up was 9.5% vs. 13.3% and 8.6% vs. 18.2%, respectively. A steeper decline of PM10 was observed in the industrialized areas in comparison to the rural area, this was associated with a weaker increase in prevalence of respiratory symptoms and COPD. Among women who never smoked, the prevalence of chronic cough with phlegm and mild COPD was estimated at 21.4% and 39.5%, respectively, if no air pollution reduction was assumed, and at 13.3% and 17.5%, respectively, if air pollution reduction was assumed. We concluded that parallel to the decline of ambient air pollution over the last 20 years in the Ruhr area the age-related increase in chronic respiratory diseases and symptoms appears to

  15. Gluten-free diet may improve obstructive sleep apnea-related symptoms in children with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Yerushalmy-Feler, Anat; Tauman, Riva; Derowe, Ari; Averbuch, Eran; Ben-Tov, Amir; Weintraub, Yael; Weiner, Dror; Amir, Achiya; Moran-Lev, Hadar; Cohen, Shlomi

    2018-02-07

    Enlarged tonsils and adenoids are the major etiology of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children. Lymphatic hyperplasia is common to both OSA and celiac disease. We aimed to investigate the effect of a gluten-free diet on OSA symptoms in children with celiac disease. Children with celiac disease aged 2-18 years were prospectively recruited before the initiation of a gluten-free diet. Children with negative celiac serology who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopies for other indications served as controls. All participants completed a validated OSA-related symptoms questionnaire and the pediatric sleep questionnaire (PSQ) at baseline and 6 months later. Thirty-four children with celiac disease (mean age 6.6 ± 3.5 years) and 24 controls (mean age 7.3 ± 4.6 years, P = 0.5) were recruited. There were no significant differences in gender, body mass index or season at recruitment between the two groups. The rate of positive PSQ scores was higher (more OSA-related symptoms) in the control group compared to the celiac group, both at recruitment and at the 6-month follow-up (33.3% vs. 11.8%, P = 0.046, and 16.7% vs. 0, P = 0.014, respectively). PSQ scores improved significantly in both groups at the 6-month follow-up (P < 0.001 for both). Improvement was significantly higher in the celiac group compared to controls (0.1 ± 0.09 vs.0.06 ± 0.06, respectively, P = 0.04). Children with celiac disease had fewer OSA-related symptoms than controls, but the degree of improvement following the initiation of a gluten-free diet was significantly higher. These findings suggest that a gluten-free diet may improve OSA-related symptoms in children with celiac disease.

  16. Evaluation of a respiratory symptom diary for clinical studies of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Elizabeth Dansie; O'Quinn, Sean; Leidy, Nancy Kline; Murray, Lindsey; Vernon, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    There are no validated patient diaries for evaluating respiratory symptoms in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). To evaluate the performance properties of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Evaluating Respiratory Symptoms™ (E-RS™: COPD) measure in patients with IPF. Concept elicitation and cognitive interviews were conducted with IPF patients to evaluate content validity, including comprehensiveness, relevance, and interpretability of E-RS™ items in this patient population. Secondary analyses of IPF clinical study data were performed to evaluate the scoring structure of the tool. With modifications, reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the instrument (E-RS™: IPF) were evaluated. Qualitative interviews (n = 30) were conducted. During the elicitation interviews (n = 20), concept saturation for IPF respiratory symptoms was achieved; all respiratory symptoms covered by the E-RS™ were endorsed by ≥ 30% of the sample. During cognitive interviews (n = 10), all participants found the items interpretable and relevant. Factor analyses conducted via secondary analysis of IPF clinical study data identified no total score and four symptom scales: Chest, Breathlessness, Cough, and Sputum. Reliability of each scale was high (internal consistency [α] >0.85); 2-day reproducibility (ICC >0.88). Validity was supported through significant (P < 0.0001) relationships with the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the University of California, San Diego Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (UCSD-SOBQ), and other variables. The scales were responsive to change when evaluated using SGRQ Symptoms, UCSD-SOBQ, and Patient Global Impression of Change as anchors (P < 0.01 to P < 0.0001). The E-RS™: IPF is a valid, reliable, and responsive tool for evaluating respiratory symptoms in patients with IPF. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Improvement in Renal Function and Symptoms of Patients Treated with Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty for Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction with Less Than 20% Split Renal Function.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Morihiro; Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Fujita, Tetsuo; Iwamura, Masatsugu

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of laparoscopic pyeloplasty (LPP) for lower functioning kidney, we investigated the outcome of this procedure for patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction with decreased renal function, defined as less than 20% split renal function. Between October 1998 and June 2015, we performed transperitoneal dismembered LPP in 224 patients. Among them, 15 patients with less than 20% split renal function were included in this study. Patient characteristics, perioperative split renal functions, complications, and surgical outcomes were retrospectively investigated. Fourteen of 15 patients had preoperative symptoms, including flank pain in 13 patients and gross hematuria in 1 patient. Preoperative 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) renogram revealed no response to diuretic injection and median split renal function was 16.5%. Median operative time and blood loss were 170 minutes and 20 mL, respectively. There were no complications during the perioperative period. Postoperative MAG3 renogram at 6 and 12 months after the operation revealed significantly increased split renal function (median: 23.8% and 23.7%, p = 0.001 and 0.008, respectively) and response to diuretic injection in all patients. Preoperative symptoms disappeared and no recurrence was seen during the follow-up period for all patients except for one who experienced flank pain again 4 months after the surgery. He subsequently underwent open pyeloplasty, and flank pain disappeared soon after. LPP for patients with low split renal function and flank pain significantly improved symptoms and split renal functions. Although the long-term clinical effects of LPP are unknown, we recommend performing LPP before considering nephrectomy for patients with lower functioning kidney.

  18. Sleep hygiene and its association with daytime sleepiness, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in patients with mild obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Ahm; Paek, Joon-Hyun; Han, Su-Hyun

    2015-12-15

    To investigate the direct and indirect associations of sleep hygiene with daytime sleepiness, depressive symptoms, and quality of life (QoL), in newly diagnosed, untreated patients with mild obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Data were collected from adults with mild OSA. The Sleep Hygiene Index (SHI), Sleep Problems Index-1 (SPI-1) of the Medical Outcomes Study-Sleep Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health survey (SF-36) were used to evaluate patients. To determine the indirect and direct associations between SHI and disease outcomes, the Sobel test and multiple linear regression analyses were used, respectively. When we evaluated the direct associations, we excluded 3 items of the original SHI which were more reflective of general health rather than sleep-specific habits and environments. In total, 260 patients with mild OSA participated in this study. The average age, AHI, and SHI scores were 49.1 years (SD 12.5), 9.3/h (SD 2.9), and 24.7 (SD 6.0), respectively. Here, ≥ 10% of participants indicated poor sleep hygiene behaviors on 7 of 13 items. Young age and men were associated with higher SHI scores (both p<0.01). The 13-item SHI scores were indirectly related to ESS, BDI, and SF-36 scores via SPI-1 (all p<0.05). The 10-item SHI scores were related to ESS (p=0.049) and SF-36 (p=0.001), but not to BDI, independently of SPI-1 or other confounding factors in mild OSA patients. Age, sex, AHI, and body mass index were not related to ESS, BDI, or total SF-36 scores. Sleep hygiene is indirectly related to daytime sleepiness, depressive symptoms, QoL via sleep quality and also related to daytime sleepiness and QoL independent of sleep quality in mild OSA patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Male bladder outlet obstruction: Time to re-evaluate the definition and reconsider our diagnostic pathway? ICI-RS 2015.

    PubMed

    Rademakers, Kevin; Drake, Marcus J; Gammie, Andrew; Djurhuus, Jens C; Rosier, Peter F W M; Abrams, Paul; Harding, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in the male is dependent on measurements of pressure and flow made during urodynamic studies. The procedure of urodynamics and the indices used to delineate BOO are well standardized largely as a result of the work of the International Continence Society. The clinical utility of the diagnosis of BOO is however, less well defined and there are several shortcomings and gaps in the currently available medical literature. Consequently the International Consultation on Incontinence Research Society (ICI-RS) held a think tank session in 2015 entitled "Male bladder outlet obstruction: Time to re-evaluate the definition and reconsider our diagnostic pathway?" This manuscript details the discussions that took place within that think tank setting out the pros and cons of the current definition of BOO and exploring alternative clinical tests (alone or in combination) which may be useful in the future investigation of male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. The think tank panel concluded that pressure-flow studies remain the diagnostic gold-standard for BOO although there is still a lack of high quality evidence. Newer, less invasive, investigations have shown promise in terms of diagnostic accuracy for BOO but similar criticisms can be levelled against these tests. Therefore, the think tank suggests further research with regard to these alternative indicators to determine their clinical utility. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Patient centred care for the medical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms in patients with benign prostatic obstruction: a key point to improve patients' care - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    De Nunzio, Cosimo; Presicce, Fabrizio; Lombardo, Riccardo; Trucchi, Alberto; Bellangino, Mariangela; Tubaro, Andrea; Moja, Egidio

    2018-06-26

    Even though evidence based medicine, guidelines and algorithms still represent the pillars of the management of chronic diseases (i.e: hypertension, diabetes mellitus), a patient centred approach has been recently proposed as a successful strategy, in particular to improve drug adherence. Aim of the present review is to evaluate the unmet needs in LUTS/BPH management and the possible impact of a patient centered approach in this setting. A National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) PubMed search for relevant articles published from January 2000 until December 2016 was performed by combining the following MESH terms: patients centred medicine, patient centered care, person centered care, patient centered outcomes, value based care, shared decision making, male, Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia, treatment. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA). All studies reporting on patient centred approach, shared decision making and evidence-based medicine were included in the review. All original article, reviews, letters, congress abstracts, and editorials comments were included in the review. Studies reporting single case reports, experimental studies on animal models and studies not in English were not included in the review. Overall 751 abstracts were reviewed, out of them 87 full texts were analysed resulting in 36 papers included. The evidence summarised in this systematic review confirmed how a patient centred visit may improve patient's adherence to medication. Although a patient centred model has been rarely used in urology, management of Low Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) and Benign Prostatic Obstruction (BPO) may represent the perfect ground to experiment and improve this approach. Notwithstanding all the innovations in LUTS/BPO medical treatment, the real life picture is far from ideal. Recent evidence shows a dramatical low drug adherence and satisfaction to medical treatment in

  1. Evaluation and management of pediatric nasal obstruction: A survey of practice patterns.

    PubMed

    Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Stewart, Michael G; Ward, Robert F; April, Max M

    2016-07-01

    Inferior turbinate (IT) hypertrophy and adenoid hypertrophy are both causes of pediatric nasal obstruction. The purpose of this survey was to study nasal obstruction evaluation and management among pediatric otolaryngologists with respect to IT and adenoid hypertrophy. A questionnaire with embedded clinical videos was sent electronically to American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology members. A total of 435 questionnaires were sent, and 75 were completed. Respondents were presented with scenarios that involved a 7-year-old child with nasal obstruction unresponsive to medical therapy, and the respondents were asked to choose a surgical plan, either IT reduction, adenoidectomy, or combined IT reduction and adenoidectomy. Three questions described the extent of IT and adenoid obstruction in text form, although three questions included a video of the child's nasal endoscopy. In questions with perceived or stated IT hypertrophy, the respondents chose to perform IT reduction significantly more frequently when the perceived or stated adenoid hypertrophy was less severe (p < 0.0001 for video and p = 0.039 for written questions). The decision to perform IT reduction in children is inversely related to the extent of adenoid hypertrophy. Future studies on pediatric IT surgery should include objective descriptions of the IT and adenoid in study subjects.

  2. Respiratory symptoms, lung function decrement and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in pre-menopausal Indian women exposed to biomass smoke.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sayali; Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Siddique, Shabana; Banerjee, Madhuchanda; Bhattacharya, Purba; Lahiri, Twisha; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2014-12-01

    The impact of chronic exposure to smoke from biomass burning on respiratory health has been examined. Six-hundred and eighty-one non-smoking women (median age 35 years) from eastern India who cook exclusively with biomass (wood, dung and crop residues) and 438 age-matched women from similar neighborhood who cook with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) were examined. Pulmonary function test was done by spirometry. The concentrations of particulate matter having diameter of < 10 µm (PM10) and < 2.5 µm (PM2.5) in indoor air was measured by real-time aerosol monitor. Compared with LPG users, biomass users had greater prevalence of upper (50.9 versus 28.5%) and lower respiratory symptoms (71.8 versus 30.8%) and dyspnea (58.4 versus 19.9%). They showed reduction in all parameters measured by spirometer especially in mid-expiratory volume. PM10 and PM2.5 concentration in biomass using kitchen were 2-3-times more than LPG-using kitchen, and the decline in spirometry values was positively associated PM10 and PM2.5 levels in indoor air after controlling education, family income and kitchen location as potential confounders. Overall, 29.7% of biomass users and 16.4% of LPG users had deficient lung function, and restrictive type of deficiency was predominant. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was diagnosed in 4.6% of biomass and 0.9% of LPG users. Women who predominantly used dung cake and did not possess separate kitchen had poorer lung function. Cumulative exposure to biomass smoke causes lung function decrement and facilitates COPD development even in non-smoking and relatively young pre-menopausal women.

  3. Evaluation of 3D airway imaging of obstructive sleep apnea with cone-beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Takumi; Enciso, Reyes; Memon, Ahmed; Mah, James K; Clark, Glenn T

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluates the use of cone-beam Computer Tomography (CT) for imaging the upper airway structure of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) patients. The total airway volume and the anteroposterior dimension of oropharyngeal airway showed significant group differences between OSA and gender-matched controls, so if we increase sample size these measurements may distinguish the two groups. We demonstrate the utility of diagnosis of anatomy with the 3D airway imaging with cone-beam Computed Tomography.

  4. Gallbladder Polyp Mimicking an Obstructive Calculus

    PubMed Central

    Bass, James; Fegelman, Ronald H.

    1978-01-01

    The second documented case of obstructing polyp of the gallbladder—an extremely rare lesion—is presented. Symptoms were indistinguishable from those of acute obstructive cholecystitis. The mechanism of obstruction is hypothesized. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:702555

  5. Systematic Review of the Performance of Noninvasive Tests in Diagnosing Bladder Outlet Obstruction in Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Malde, Sachin; Nambiar, Arjun K; Umbach, Roland; Lam, Thomas B; Bach, Thorsten; Bachmann, Alexander; Drake, Marcus J; Gacci, Mauro; Gratzke, Christian; Madersbacher, Stephan; Mamoulakis, Charalampos; Tikkinen, Kari A O; Gravas, Stavros

    2017-03-01

    Several noninvasive tests have been developed for diagnosing bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) in men to avoid the burden and morbidity associated with invasive urodynamics. The diagnostic accuracy of these tests, however, remains uncertain. To systematically review available evidence regarding the diagnostic accuracy of noninvasive tests in diagnosing BOO in men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) using a pressure-flow study as the reference standard. The EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central, Google Scholar, and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal databases were searched up to May 18, 2016. All studies reporting diagnostic accuracy for noninvasive tests for BOO or detrusor underactivity in men with LUTS compared to pressure-flow studies were included. Two reviewers independently screened all articles, searched the reference lists of retrieved articles, and performed the data extraction. The quality of evidence and risk of bias were assessed using the QUADAS-2 tool. The search yielded 2774 potentially relevant reports. After screening titles and abstracts, 53 reports were retrieved for full-text screening, of which 42 (recruiting a total of 4444 patients) were eligible. Overall, the results were predominantly based on findings from nonrandomised experimental studies and, within the limits of such study designs, the quality of evidence was typically moderate across the literature. Differences in noninvasive test threshold values and variations in the urodynamic definition of BOO between studies limited the comparability of the data. Detrusor wall thickness (median sensitivity 82%, specificity 92%), near-infrared spectroscopy (median sensitivity 85%, specificity 87%), and the penile cuff test (median sensitivity 88%, specificity 75%) were all found to have high sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing BOO. Uroflowmetry with a maximum flow rate of <10ml/s was reported to have lower median

  6. High-resolution impedance manometry parameters enhance the esophageal motility evaluation in non-obstructive dysphagia patients without a major Chicago Classification motility disorder

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, DA; Omari, T; Lin, Z; Rommel, N; Starkey, K; Kahrilas, PJ; Tack, J; Pandolfino, JE

    2016-01-01

    Background High-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM) allows evaluation of esophageal bolus retention, flow, and pressurization. We aimed to perform a collaborative analysis of HRIM metrics to evaluate patients with non-obstructive dysphagia. Methods 14 asymptomatic controls (58% female; ages 20 – 50) and 41 patients (63% female; ages 24 – 82), 18 evaluated for dysphagia, 23 for reflux (‘non-dysphagia patients’), with esophageal motility diagnoses of normal motility or ineffective esophageal motility were evaluated with HRIM and a global dysphagia symptom score (Brief Esophageal Dysphagia Questionnaire). HRIM were analyzed to assess Chicago Classification metrics, automated pressure-flow metrics, the esophageal impedance integral (EII) ratio, and the bolus flow time (BFT). Key Results Significant symptom-metric correlations were detected only with basal EGJ pressure, EII ratio, and BFT. The EII ratio, BFT, and impedance ratio differed between controls and dysphagia patients, while the EII ratio in the upright position was the only measure that differentiated dysphagia from non-dysphagia patients. Conclusions & Inferences The EII ratio and BFT appear to offer an improved diagnostic evaluation in patients with non-obstructive dysphagia without a major esophageal motility disorder. Bolus retention as measured with the EII ratio appears to carry the strongest association with dysphagia, and thus may aid in the characterization of symptomatic patients with otherwise normal manometry. PMID:27647522

  7. High-resolution impedance manometry parameters enhance the esophageal motility evaluation in non-obstructive dysphagia patients without a major Chicago Classification motility disorder.

    PubMed

    Carlson, D A; Omari, T; Lin, Z; Rommel, N; Starkey, K; Kahrilas, P J; Tack, J; Pandolfino, J E

    2017-03-01

    High-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM) allows evaluation of esophageal bolus retention, flow, and pressurization. We aimed to perform a collaborative analysis of HRIM metrics to evaluate patients with non-obstructive dysphagia. Fourteen asymptomatic controls (58% female; ages 20-50) and 41 patients (63% female; ages 24-82), 18 evaluated for dysphagia and 23 for reflux (non-dysphagia patients), with esophageal motility diagnoses of normal motility or ineffective esophageal motility, were evaluated with HRIM and a global dysphagia symptom score (Brief Esophageal Dysphagia Questionnaire). HRIM was analyzed to assess Chicago Classification metrics, automated pressure-flow metrics, the esophageal impedance integral (EII) ratio, and the bolus flow time (BFT). Significant symptom-metric correlations were detected only with basal EGJ pressure, EII ratio, and BFT. The EII ratio, BFT, and impedance ratio differed between controls and dysphagia patients, while the EII ratio in the upright position was the only measure that differentiated dysphagia from non-dysphagia patients. The EII ratio and BFT appear to offer an improved diagnostic evaluation in patients with non-obstructive dysphagia without a major esophageal motility disorder. Bolus retention as measured with the EII ratio appears to carry the strongest association with dysphagia, and thus may aid in the characterization of symptomatic patients with otherwise normal manometry. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Prospective evaluation of oral gastrografin(®) in the management of postoperative adhesive small bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Nasrin; Mohammadpour, Reza Ali; Khoshnood, Peyman; Ahmadi, Amirhossein; Assadpour, Sara

    2013-06-01

    Oral Gastrografin®, a hyperosmolar water-soluble contrast medium, may have a therapeutic effect in adhesive small bowel obstruction. However, findings are still conflicting, as some authors did not find a therapeutic advantage. So, this prospective, randomized, and clinical trial study was designed to determine the value of Gastrografin in adhesive small bowel obstruction. The primary end points were the evaluation of the operative rate reduction and shortening the hospital stay after the use of Gastrografin. A total of 84 patients were randomized into two groups: the control group received conventional treatment, whereas the study group received in addition of 100 mL Gastrografin meal. Patients were followed up within 4 days after admission, and clinical and radiological (if needed) improvements were evaluated. Although the results showed that Gastrografin can decrease the need for surgical management by 14.5 %, no statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups (P = 0.07). Nevertheless, the length of hospital stay revealed a significant reduction from 4.67 ± 1.18 days to 2.69 ± 1.02 days (P = 0.00). The use of Gastrografin in adhesive small bowel obstruction is safe and reduces the length of hospital stay. As a result, the cost of hospital bed occupancy is reduced. Hence, if there was no indication of emergency surgery, administration of oral Gastrografin as a nonoperative treatment in adhesive small bowel obstruction is also recommended.

  9. Evaluating How Post-Bronchodilator Vital Capacities Affect the Diagnosis of Obstruction in Pulmonary Function Tests.

    PubMed

    Blagev, Denitza P; Sorenson, Dean; Linares-Perdomo, Olinto; Bamberg, Stacy; Hegewald, Matthew; Morris, Alan H

    2016-11-01

    Although the ratio of FEV 1 to the vital capacity (VC) is universally accepted as the cornerstone of pulmonary function test (PFT) interpretation, FVC remains in common use. We sought to determine what the differences in PFT interpretation were when the largest measured vital capacity (VC max ) was used instead of the FVC. We included 12,238 consecutive PFTs obtained for routine clinical care. We interpreted all PFTs first using FVC in the interpretation algorithm and then again using the VC max , obtained either before or after administration of inhaled bronchodilator. Six percent of PFTs had an interpretive change when VC max was used instead of FVC. The most common changes were: new diagnosis of obstruction and exclusion of restriction (previously suggested by low FVC without total lung capacity measured by body plethysmography). A nonspecific pattern occurred in 3% of all PFT interpretations with FVC. One fifth of these 3% produced a new diagnosis of obstruction with VC max . The largest factors predicting a change in PFT interpretation with VC max were a positive bronchodilator response and the administration of a bronchodilator. Larger FVCs decreased the odds of PFT interpretation change. Surprisingly, the increased numbers of PFT tests did not increase odds of PFT interpretation change. Six percent of PFTs have a different interpretation when VC max is used instead of FVC. Evaluating borderline or ambiguous PFTs using the VC max may be informative in diagnosing obstruction and excluding restriction. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  10. EAU Guidelines on the Assessment of Non-neurogenic Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms including Benign Prostatic Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Gratzke, Christian; Bachmann, Alexander; Descazeaud, Aurelien; Drake, Marcus J; Madersbacher, Stephan; Mamoulakis, Charalampos; Oelke, Matthias; Tikkinen, Kari A O; Gravas, Stavros

    2015-06-01

    only in individual patients for specific indications before surgery or when evaluation of the pathophysiology underlying LUTS is warranted. These guidelines provide evidence-based practical guidance for assessment of non-neurogenic male LUTS. An extended version is available online (www.uroweb.org/guidelines). This article presents a short version of European Association of Urology guidelines for non-neurogenic male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The recommended tests should be able to distinguish between uncomplicated male LUTS and possible differential diagnoses and to evaluate baseline parameters for treatment. The guidelines also define the clinical profile of patients to provide the best evidence-based care. An algorithm was developed to guide physicians in using appropriate diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluating and treating neurobehavioral symptoms in professional American football players

    PubMed Central

    Possin, Katherine L.; Hess, Christopher P.; Huang, Eric J.; Grinberg, Lea T.; Nolan, Amber L.; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I.; Ghosh, Pia M.; Lanata, Serggio; Merrilees, Jennifer; Kramer, Joel H.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Miller, Bruce L.; Yaffe, Kristine; Rabinovici, Gil D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the aftermath of multiple high-profile cases of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in professional American football players, physicians in clinical practice are likely to face an increasing number of retired football players seeking evaluation for chronic neurobehavioral symptoms. Guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of these patients are sparse. Clinical criteria for a diagnosis of CTE are under development. The contribution of CTE vs other neuropathologies to neurobehavioral symptoms in these players remains unclear. Here we describe the experience of our academic memory clinic in evaluating and treating a series of 14 self-referred symptomatic players. Our aim is to raise awareness in the neurology community regarding the different clinical phenotypes, idiosyncratic but potentially treatable symptoms, and the spectrum of underlying neuropathologies in these players. PMID:26336629

  12. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for the evaluation of liver fibrosis after biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun Joo; Chang, Eun Young; Lee, Hye Sun; Hong, Jung Hwa; Park, Gyuri; Kim, Hyun Gi; Kim, Myung-Joon; Lee, Mi-Jung

    2015-03-07

    To investigate perfusion change in contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) to evaluate liver fibrosis based on biliary obstruction using an animal model. New Zealand white rabbits (3-4 kg) underwent bile duct ligation to form a biliary obstruction model. We performed liver CEUS and laboratory tests on the day before the operation (day 0) and every 7 postoperative days until the rabbits were sacrificed. After CEUS, signal intensity of liver parenchyma with a time-intensity curve was analyzed. Perfusion parameters were automatically calculated from region-of-interests, including peak signal intensity, mean transit time, area under the curve and time to peak. Histological grades of liver fibrosis were assessed according to the Metavir score system immediately after sacrifice. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the association between liver fibrosis grades and perfusion parameters for statistical analysis. The perfusion parameters were measured on the last day and the difference between day 0 and the last day were evaluated. From the nine rabbits, histological grades of liver fibrosis were grade 1 in one rabbit, grade 2 and 3 in three rabbits each, and grade 4 in two rabbits. Among the four CEUS parameters, only the peak signal intensity measured on the last day demonstrated a significant association with liver fibrosis grades (OR = 1.392, 95%CI: 1.114-1.741, P = 0.004). The difference in peak signal intensity between day 0 and the last day also demonstrated an association with liver fibrosis (OR = 1.191, 95%CI: 0.999-1.419, P = 0.051). The other parameters tested, including mean transit time, area under the curve, and time to peak, showed no significant correlation with liver fibrosis grades. This animal study demonstrates that CEUS can be used to evaluate liver fibrosis from biliary obstruction using peak signal intensity as a parameter.

  13. A rare case of large isolated internal iliac artery aneurysm with ureteral obstruction and hydronephrosis: Compression symptoms are limitation for endovascular procedures.

    PubMed

    Nenezic, Dragoslav; Tanaskovic, Slobodan; Gajin, Predrag; Ilijevski, Nenad; Novakovic, Aleksandra; Radak, Djordje

    2015-04-01

    In this report, we aim to present a rare case of isolated internal iliac artery aneurysm with associated left ureteric obstruction and consequent hydronephrosis. A 66-year-old male patient was admitted for occasional pain in the lower back that appeared one month earlier. CT arteriography revealed isolated internal iliac artery (diameter 99 mm) with ureteral obstruction, hydroureter and left kidney hydronephrosis occurrence. Aneurysm was resected, after six months the patient was doing well. Bearing in mind that 77% of the patients with isolated internal iliac artery have symptoms caused by aneurysmal compression on adjacent organs, we wanted to highlight that despite the amazing expansion of endovascular procedures in the last decades, its therapeutic effect in isolated internal iliac artery's treatment is to a great extent limited since compression symptoms cannot be solved. Open surgery remains the gold standard for isolated internal iliac artery's treatment considering significant limitations of endovascular procedures due to the inability to eliminate problems caused by compression. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Evaluation of obstructive sleep apnea in obese patients scheduled for bariactric surgery.

    PubMed

    Lopes Neto, José Maurício; Brandão, Leandro Ortega; Loli, Alessandra; Leite, Celso Vieira de Souza; Weber, Silke Anna Theresa

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the frequency of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in obese patients scheduled for bariatric surgery and their identification for risk of OSA by Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) and excessive daytime sleepiness by Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Fifty nine patients were evaluated by BQ and ESS. Out of these individuals, 35 performed a full-night sleep study using a type 3 portable monitoring (PM). The questionnaire results were compared for gender and BMI. The presence and severity of OSA was correlated with gender and both questionnaires. 94.75% of the respondents presented high risk for OSA by BQ and 59.65% presented positivity by ESS. Taking into account the AHI> 5 per hour for OSA diagnosis, all of them presented OSA, average AHI of 45.31 ± 26.3 per hour and 68.6% have severe OSA (AHI>30). The male patients had a higher AHI (p<0.05). There was a positive correlation between the positivity in both questionnaires as well as the severity of OSA measured by AHI (p<0.05). The frequency and severe obstructive sleep apnea in the studied group is high. The Berlin Questionnaire and Epworth Sleepiness Scale had a positive correlation with the diagnosis of OSA in the group studied.

  15. Beliefs and Attitudes Toward Obstructive Sleep Apnea Evaluation and Treatment Among Blacks

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Raphael; McKenzie, Sharon; Taylor, Tonya; Olafiranye, Oladipupo; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jean-Louis, Girardin

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although blacks are at higher risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), they are not as likely as their white counterparts to receive OSA evaluation and treatment. This study assessed knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes towards OSA evaluation and treatment among blacks residing in Brooklyn, New York. Methods Five focus groups involving 39 black men and women (aged ≥18 years) were conducted at the State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn to ascertain barriers preventing or delaying OSA evaluation and treatment. Results Misconceptions about sleep apnea were a common theme that emerged from participants’ responses. Obstructive sleep apnea was often viewed as a type of insomnia, an age-related phenomenon, and as being caused by certain bedtime activities. The major theme that emerged about barriers to OSA evaluation was unfamiliarity with the study environment. Barriers were categorized as: problems sleeping in a strange and unfamiliar environment, unfamiliarity with the study protocol, and fear of being watched while sleeping. Barriers to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment adoption were related to the confining nature of the device, discomfort wearing a mask while they slept, and concerns about their partner’s perceptions of treatment. Conclusion Results of this study suggest potential avenues for interventions to increase adherence to recommended evaluation and treatment of OSA. Potential strategies include reducing misconceptions about OSA, increasing awareness of OSA in vulnerable communities, familiarizing patients and their partners with laboratory procedures used to diagnose and treat OSA. We propose that these strategies should be used to inform the development of culturally and linguistically tailored sleep apnea interventions to increase awareness of OSA among blacks who are at risk for OSA and associated comorbidities. PMID:23560353

  16. Comparison of intravesical prostatic protrusion, prostate volume and serum prostatic-specific antigen in the evaluation of bladder outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kok Bin; Ho, Henry; Foo, Keong Tatt; Wong, Michael Yuet Chen; Fook-Chong, Stephanie

    2006-12-01

    The aims of this study were to define the relationship between intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate volume (PV) and to determine which one of them is the best predictor of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) due to benign prostatic enlargement. A prospective study of 114 male patients older than 50 years examined between November 2001 and 2002 was performed. They were evaluated with digital rectal examination, International Prostate Symptoms Score, PSA, uroflowmetry, postvoid residual urine measurement, IPP and PV using transabdominal ultrasound scan. Statistical analysis included scatter plot with Spearman's correlation coefficients and nominal logistic regression Prostate volume, IPP and PSA showed parallel correlation. Although all three indices had good correlation with BOO index, IPP was the best. The Spearman rho correlation coefficients were 0.314, 0.408 and 0.507 for PV, PSA and IPP, respectively. Using receiver-operator characteristic curves, the areas under the curve for PV, PSA and IPP were 0.637, 0.703 and 0.772, respectively. The positive predictive values of PV, PSA and IPP were 65%, 68% and 72%, respectively. Using a nominal regression model, IPP remained the most significant independent index to determine BOO. All three non-invasive indices correlate with one another. The study showed that IPP is a better predictor for BOO than PSA or PV.

  17. Evaluation of dermal symptoms in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Razi, Ahad; Golforoushan, Farideh; Nejad, Amir Bahrami Shahla Babaee; Goldust, Mohamad

    2013-06-01

    Many symptoms arise in thyroid diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dermal symptoms in hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. In this cross sectional study, 120 patients with hyperthyroidism and 50 patients suffering from hypothyroidism were studied. Cutaneous, hair and nail clinical symptoms were studied and registered in a special questionnaire. Mean age of patients suffering from hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were 38.24 +/- 14.45 and 25.86 +/- 14.69 years old. Dry and Coarse/rough skin were the most prevalent manifestations in the skin involvement in hypothyroidism since softness was the most prevalent ones in hyperthyroidism. Fragileness was the most prevalent symptom in patients with nail involvement in hypothyroidism since soft skin was the most prevalent ones in hyperthyroidism. Coarse/rough skin was observed more in patients with hair involvement in hypothyroidism since the most prevalent ones was separation of nail from its bed in hyperthyroidism. High prevalence of skin, hair and nail symptoms in thyroid patients, early diagnosis of the signs may be helpful in premature diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases.

  18. Evaluation of visual field parameters in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Demir, Helin Deniz; Inönü, Handan; Kurt, Semiha; Doruk, Sibel; Aydın, Erdinc; Etikan, Ilker

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on retina and optic nerve. Thirty-eight patients with COPD and 29 healthy controls, totally 67 subjects, were included in the study. Visual evoked potentials (VEP) and visual field assessment (both standard achromatic perimetry (SAP) and short-wavelength automated perimetry (SWAP)) were performed on each subject after ophthalmological, neurological and pulmonary examinations. Mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD) and corrected pattern standard deviation (CPSD) were significantly different between patient and control groups as for both SAP and SWAP measurements (p = 0.001, 0.019, 0.009 and p = 0.004,0.019, 0.031, respectively). Short-term fluctuation (SF) was not statistically different between the study and the control groups (p = 0.874 and 0.694, respectively). VEP P100 latencies were significantly different between patients with COPD and the controls (p = 0.019). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a systemic disease, and hypoxia in COPD seems to affect the retina and the optic nerve. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  19. α1-Blockers in Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Suggestive of Benign Prostatic Obstruction: Is Silodosin Different?

    PubMed

    Roehrborn, Claus G; Cruz, Francisco; Fusco, Ferdinando

    2017-01-01

    Available α1-blockers (ABs) have different profiles of receptor selectivity. Silodosin exhibits the highest selectivity for the α 1A adrenergic receptor. This pharmacological feature couples with a singular urodynamic and clinical profile. The magnitude of bladder outlet obstruction improvement in patients receiving silodosin is higher if compared to other ABs. From a clinical point of view, current evidence suggests an advantage in favor of silodosin in terms of nocturia improvement and cardiovascular safety. The incidence of ejaculatory dysfunction with silodosin is higher compared to other Abs.

  20. Effects of Heated Humidification and Topical Steroids on Compliance, Nasal Symptoms, and Quality of Life in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Using Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Silke; Doherty, Liam S.; Nolan, Geraldine M.; McNicholas, Walter T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Nasal side effects are common in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) starting on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. We tested the hypothesis that heated humidification or nasal topical steroids improve compliance, nasal side effects and quality of life in this patient group. Methods: 125 patients with the established diagnosis of OSAS (apnea/hypopnea index ≥ 10/h), who tolerated CPAP via a nasal mask, and who had a successful CPAP titration were randomized to 4 weeks of dry CPAP, humidified CPAP or CPAP with additional topical nasal steroid application (fluticasone, GlaxoWellcome). Groups were similar in all demographic variables and in frequency of nasal symptoms at baseline. Outcome measures were objective compliance, quality of life (short form 36), subjective sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale score) and nasal symptoms such as runny, dry or blocked nose, sneezing and headaches; all variables assessed using a validated questionnaire and by direct interview. Results: There was no difference in compliance between groups after 4 weeks (dry: 5.21 ± 1.66 h/night, fluticasone: 5.66 ± 1.68, humidifier: 5.21 ± 1.84; p = 0.444). Quality of life and subjective sleepiness improved in all groups, but there were no differences in the extent of improvement. Nasal Symptoms were less frequently reported in the humidifier group (28%) than in the remaining groups (dry: 70%, fluticasone: 53%, p = 0.002). However, the addition of fluticasone resulted in increased frequency of sneezing. Conclusion: The addition of a humidifier, but not nasal steroids decreases the frequency of nasal symptoms in unselected OSAS patients initiating CPAP therapy; however compliance and quality of life remain unaltered. Citation: Ryan S; Doherty LS; Nolan GM; McNicholas WT. Effects of heated humidification and topical steroids on compliance, nasal symptoms, and quality of life in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome using nasal

  1. Evaluation Of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptoms Amongst Warsaw University Students.

    PubMed

    Niemyjska, Sylwia; Ukleja, Anna; Ławiński, Michał

    2015-05-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) belongs to functional gastrointestinal disorders and is characterized by abdominal pain and change in stool consistency and/or bowel habits. Etiological factors include gastrointestinal peristalsis disturbances, visceral hypersensitivity, chronic inflammation of the mucous membrane, dysbacteremia, intestinal infections, psychosomatic and nutritional factors. Gastrointestinal motility disturbances in case of IBS are manifested by the inhibition of the intestinal passage, which favors the development of constipation or occurrence of diarrhea. The aim of the study was to evaluate IBS symptoms and demonstrate the relationship between physical activity and place of residence amongst Warsaw University students. The study was conducted in march, 2014 using a specific questionnaire, amongst Warsaw University students. The study group comprised 120 female patients, aged between 19 and 27 years (M=23.43; SD=1.29). The chi-square test was used for analysis, p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The BMI of investigated patients ranged between 16.30-31.22 kg/m2 (M=21.27; SD=2.71). The majority of respondents (76.6%) weighed within the normal limits. Abdominal pain or discomfort occurred more frequently in the group of students who considered their physical activity as low. In case of respondents with a low physical activity bowel movement disorders and stool continence changes occurred more often, as compared to those with moderate physical activity. The most common symptom was rectal tenesmus, the least common-presence of mucous in the stool. Analysis showed that students with low physical activity were more frequently absent from school/work, due to abdominal symptoms. The respondents with moderate activity more often considered their abdominal symptoms, being associated with stress. IBS symptoms are common amongst Warsaw University students. In case of respondents with low physical activity, abdominal pain or discomfort occurred

  2. Retrospectively evaluated preinjury personality traits influence postconcussion symptoms.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Kit-Man; Tsai, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Wei-Chi; Yang, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Sheng-Jean

    2016-01-01

    Postconcussion symptoms (PCS) are not uncommon following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Personality traits have always been viewed as one of the most important explanations for persistent postconcussion symptoms (PPCS). Unfortunately, studies on the association between preinjury personality traits and the PPCS are still limited. This study thus aimed to examine the relationship between the preinjury personality and PCS in patients with mTBI. A total of 106 participants including 53 healthy participants were recruited. All participants complete the modified Checklist of Postconcussion Symptoms and the Health, Personality, & Habit Scale. Participants were evaluated within 4 weeks and at 4 months, respectively, after injury. The results showed patients reported significantly more PCS than healthy participants did within 4 weeks postinjury. A significant positive association between PCS and retrospectively evaluated preinjury personality was found. Specifically, patients who reported that their preinjury personality was depressive or anxious-related presented more PCS. This study might be the first to directly demonstrate that preinjury personality traits are closely linked to PCS reporting in patients with mTBI. Importantly, PCS reporting might be associated with different personality traits at different periods after injuries, and thus, a careful evaluation for personality characteristics is merited after mTBI.

  3. Severe metabolic alkalosis due to pyloric obstruction: case presentation, evaluation, and management.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Meredith; Gunawardane, Manjula; Cowan, Mark J

    2006-12-01

    A 46-year-old man presented to the emergency room with severe metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia, and respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. The cause of his acid-base disorder was initially unclear. Although alkalosis is common in the intensive care unit, metabolic alkalosis of this severity is unusual, carries a very high mortality rate, and requires careful attention to the pathophysiology and differential diagnosis to effectively evaluate and treat the patient. A central concept in the diagnosis of metabolic alkalosis is distinguishing chloride responsive and chloride nonresponsive states. Further studies are then guided by the history and physical examination in most cases. By using a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis, we were able to determine that a high-grade gastric outlet obstruction was the cause of the patients' alkalosis and to offer effective therapy for his condition. A literature review and algorithm for the diagnosis and management of metabolic alkalosis are also presented.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-operative evaluation of obstructive epiphora: true-FISP and VIBE vs gadolinium.

    PubMed

    Somma, Francesco; d'Agostino, Vincenzo; Tortora, Fabio; Serra, Nicola; Sorrentino, Gerardo; Piscitelli, Valeria; Somma, Andrea; Gamerra, Mario

    2017-02-01

    To assess unenhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the preoperative evaluation of obstructive epiphora in patients undergoing dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) and in particular, to evaluate the efficacy of this technique in the detection of the exact level of obstruction occurring in the naso-lachrymal duct (NLD). The correct identification and characterization of the NLD and its obstructions lead to a more effective surgery, preventing recurrent dacryocystitis after the surgical treatment. From January 2009 to December 2014, 127 obstructive epiphoras were diagnosed and treated in 127 patients (35 M, 92 F; mean age 60.7 ± 7.48 years, range 42-75 years) with endoscopic DCR, in a IRB-approved protocol. To precisely define the morphology of the NLD and the site of obstruction, some of these patients (67/127) underwent unenhanced 1.5-T MR with TrueFISP and VIBE sequences, while the remaining (60/127) underwent Gadolinium-enhanced 1.5-T MR. Afterwards, surgery checked the real site of obstruction in both groups of patients (enhanced and unenhanced MR), with surgical outcomes matched with previous MR reports. In all cases, unenhanced MRI was able to detect the exact site of obstruction along the NLD, allowing a correct planning of surgical endoscopic procedures. On the contrary, enhanced MRI wrongly diagnosed six patients with proximal stenosis (6/60, 10.0%) as intermediate NLD obstruction. Unenhanced MRI was found to be more accurate than enhanced MRI with a statistical significant difference (p value = 0.0256) and obviously cheaper and easier to perform. All imaging reports were verified with surgery. The correct identification of the level of obstruction allowed successful surgery in around 73% (93/127) of patients, who had no recurrence during 6-month follow-up. In patients with epiphora, unenhanced MR showed to be highly reliable and even more effective than enhanced MR in the preoperative characterization of NLD stenosis, with no need of performing complex

  5. Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of midventricular obstruction in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    MacLea, H B; Boon, J A; Bright, J M

    2013-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is heterogeneous in both people and cats, with variability in the distribution of hypertrophy, hemodynamic characteristics, and Doppler echocardiographic findings. To document the Doppler echocardiographic characteristics of midventricular obstruction in some cats with HCM. Eight cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Retrospective case series. The medical records of cats presenting to the cardiology service at Colorado State University between February 2009 and January 2012 were reviewed. All cats had a physical examination; Doppler systolic blood pressure measurement; and transthoracic two-dimensional (2D), M-mode, and Doppler echocardiography were performed. A more thorough evaluation of the echocardiographic images and measurements was performed. Cats included in this study had echocardiograms of adequate quality to confirm the diagnosis of midventricular obstruction by documentation of left midventricular concentric hypertrophy; a midventricular turbulent Doppler color flow pattern; and high velocity, late-peaking flow at the area of turbulence. Cats with evidence of systemic hypertension defined as a systolic Doppler blood pressure of greater than 170 mmHg were excluded. All 8 cats had left ventricular hypertrophy at the level of the papillary muscles; left, midventricular hypertrophy; and in 4/8 cats there was apical hypertrophy or basilar hypertrophy of the interventricular septum. Color flow Doppler revealed turbulent flow in 8/8 cats and spectral Doppler (continuous and pulsed wave) revealed increased flow velocities and late-peaking flow profiles at the level of the left midventricle. Two of 8 cats had a bifid midventricular flow profile in which there was a midsystolic decline in left ventricular velocities with elevated velocities extending into early diastole. The peak left ventricular outflow velocity in all 8 cats was normal. A variant of HCM characterized by hypertrophy at the level of the papillary muscles with

  6. An Economic Evaluation of Home Versus Laboratory-Based Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Richard D.; Kapur, Vishesh K.; Redline-Bruch, Julie; Rueschman, Michael; Auckley, Dennis H.; Benca, Ruth M.; Foldvary-Schafer, Nancy R.; Iber, Conrad; Zee, Phyllis C.; Rosen, Carol L.; Redline, Susan; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    evaluation of home versus laboratory-based diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2015;38(7):1027–1037. PMID:26118558

  7. [Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrom during pregnancy: prevalence of main symptoms and relationship with Pregnancy Induced-Hypertension and Intra-Uterine Growth Retardation].

    PubMed

    Calaora-Tournadre, D; Ragot, S; Meurice, J C; Pourrat, O; D'Halluin, G; Magnin, G; Pierre, F

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the frequency of main symptoms of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrom (OSAS) and their relationship with Pregnancy Induced-Hypertension (PIH) as well as Intrauterine Growth Retardation (IGR) as suggested by recent studies. Four hundred (and) thirty-eight enquiry forms completed during post-partum period were analysed, after exclusion of multiple pregnancies. Collected data were demographic characteristics, obstetrical events, sleep disorders during last trimester, screening of snoring and vigilance troubles with an Epworth score. Forty-five percentages of the patients reported to have habitual snoring during pregnancy. Among these, 85% were non-snorers before pregnancy. Daytime somnolence concerned 84,5% of the population with an Epworth score significatively increased (P<0,0001). The prevalence of PIH was found to be 4,5%, with two apparently independent risk factors: the body mass index (OR=1,1) and an association between snoring and increased vigilance trouble (OR=2,6). No statistical difference was found concerning IGR. SAS symptoms are frequent during pregnancy and snoring appears to be linked with PIH. However, polysomnographic data are not yet sufficient to explain pathophysiological mechanisms and find relevant diagnostic markers during pregnancy.

  8. The role of intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) in the evaluation and treatment of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO).

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tricia L C; Teo, Jonathan S M; Foo, K T

    2016-04-01

    Intravesical prostatic protrusion (IPP) may be an underutilized modality for the assessment of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). Pressure flow studies or urodynamics have long been the gold standard for the evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in men but are invasive, time-consuming and costly. Potentially, IPP may be a useful adjunct prior to performing urodynamics. Measurement of IPP is taken in the sagittal view, using the transabdominal ultrasound. It is the vertical height from the tip of the protrusion to the base of the prostate. This technique was previously described. We reviewed previous publications that studied the accuracy, positive predictive value and clinical use of IPP. In addition, we noted the comments regarding the challenges of using this technique. IPP has been shown to have a positive predictive value of 72% for BOO. It has been calculated to have an area under curve (AUC) value of 0.71 and 0.84 in some stuies. Clinically, it may be used to predict the outcome of a trial without catheter following acute retention of urine. Patients with higher IPP grade were noted to have a higher risk of clinical progression. Studies have also shown that men with higher IPP are poorer responders to medical treatment such as α-blockers. Compared to other modalities, the advantage of IPP in assessing BOO may be its easy applicability and non-invasive nature. Therefore, there is a consideration for a larger role of IPP in bedside assessment and management of BOO in daily practice. Neurourol. Urodynam. 35:535-537, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Air travel and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a new algorithm for pre-flight evaluation.

    PubMed

    Edvardsen, Anne; Akerø, Aina; Christensen, Carl C; Ryg, Morten; Skjønsberg, Ole H

    2012-11-01

    The reduced pressure in the aircraft cabin may cause significant hypoxaemia and respiratory distress in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Simple and reliable methods for predicting the need for supplemental oxygen during air travel have been requested. To construct a pre-flight evaluation algorithm for patients with COPD. In this prospective, cross-sectional study of 100 patients with COPD referred to hypoxia-altitude simulation test (HAST), sea level pulse oximetry at rest (SpO(2 SL)) and exercise desaturation (SpO(2 6MWT)) were used to evaluate whether the patient is fit to fly without further assessment, needs further evaluation with HAST or should receive in-flight supplemental oxygen without further evaluation. HAST was used as the reference method. An algorithm was constructed using a combination of SpO(2 SL) and SpO(2 6MWT). Categories for SpO(2 SL) were >95%, 92-95% and <92%, the cut-off value for SpO(2 6MWT) was calculated as 84%. Arterial oxygen pressure (PaO(2 HAST)) <6.6 kPa was the criterion for recommending supplemental oxygen. This algorithm had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 80% when tested prospectively on an independent sample of patients with COPD (n=50). Patients with SpO(2 SL) >95% combined with SpO(2 6MWT) ≥84% may travel by air without further assessment. In-flight supplemental oxygen is recommended if SpO(2 SL)=92-95% combined with SpO(2 6MWT) <84% or if SpO(2 SL) <92%. Otherwise, HAST should be performed. The presented algorithm is simple and appears to be a reliable tool for pre-flight evaluation of patients with COPD.

  10. The connection between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease symptoms and hyperinflation and its impact on exercise and function.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Christopher B

    2006-10-01

    Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) has served as an important diagnostic measurement of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but has not been found to correlate with patient-centered outcomes such as exercise tolerance, dyspnea, or health-related quality of life. It has not helped us understand why some patients with severe FEV1 impairment have better exercise tolerance compared with others with similar FEV1 values. Hyperinflation, or air trapping caused by expiratory flow limitation, causes operational lung volumes to increase and even approach the total lung capacity (TLC) during exercise. Some study findings suggest that a dyspnea limit is reached when the end-inspiratory lung volume encroaches within approximately 500 mL of TLC. The resulting limitation in daily physical activity establishes a cycle of decline that includes physical deconditioning (elevated blood lactic acid levels at lower levels of exercise) and worsening dyspnea. Hyperinflation is reduced by long-acting bronchodilators that reduce airways resistance. The deflation of the lungs, in turn, results in an increased inspiratory capacity. For example, the once-daily anticholinergic bronchodilator tiotropium increases inspiratory capacity, 6-minute walk distance, and cycle exercise endurance time, and it decreases isotime fatigue or dyspnea. Pulmonary rehabilitation and oxygen therapy both reduce ventilatory requirements and improve breathing efficiency, thereby reducing hyperinflation and improving exertional dyspnea. Thus, hyperinflation is directly associated with patient-centered outcomes such as dyspnea and exercise limitation. Furthermore, therapeutic interventions--including pharmacotherapy and lung volume--reduction surgery--that reduce hyperinflation improve these outcomes.

  11. Bladder outlet obstruction in women: definition and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Groutz, A; Blaivas, J G; Chaikin, D C

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of bladder outlet obstruction in women is unknown and most probably has been underestimated. Moreover, there are no standard definitions for the diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction in women. Our study was conducted to define as well as to examine the clinical and urodynamic characteristics of bladder outlet obstruction among women referred for evaluation of voiding symptoms. Bladder outlet obstruction was defined as a persistent, low, maximum "free" flow rate of <12 mL/s in repeated non-invasive uroflow studies, combined with high detrusor pressure at a maximum flow (p(det.Q)(max) >20 cm H(2)O) during detrusor pressure-uroflow studies. A urodynamic database of 587 consecutive women identified 38 (6.5%) women with bladder outlet obstruction. The mean age of the patients was 63.9 +/- 17.5 years. The mean maximum "free" flow, voided volume, and residual urinary volume were 9.4 +/-3.9 mL/s, 144. 9 +/- 72.7 mL, and 86.1 +/- 98.8 mL, respectively. The mean p(det. Q)(max) was 37.2 +/- 19.2 cm H(2)O. Previous anti-incontinence surgery and severe genital prolapse were the most common etiologies, accounting for half of the cases. Other, less common, etiologies included urethral stricture (13%), primary bladder neck obstruction (8%), learned voiding dysfunction (5%), and detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia (5%). Symptomatology was defined as mixed obstructive and irritative in 63% of the patients, isolated irritative in 29%, and isolated obstructive in other 8%. In conclusion, bladder outlet obstruction in women appears to be more common than was previously recognized, occurring in 6.5% of our patients. Micturition symptoms relevant to bladder outlet obstruction are non-specific, and a full urodynamic evaluation is essential in making the correct diagnosis and formulating a treatment plan.

  12. A lifetime Markov model for the economic evaluation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Menn, Petra; Leidl, Reiner; Holle, Rolf

    2012-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. It has serious health effects and causes substantial costs for society. The aim of the present paper was to develop a state-of-the-art decision-analytic model of COPD whereby the cost effectiveness of interventions in Germany can be estimated. To demonstrate the applicability of the model, a smoking cessation programme was evaluated against usual care. A seven-stage Markov model (disease stages I to IV according to the GOLD [Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease] classification, states after lung-volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation, death) was developed to conduct a cost-utility analysis from the societal perspective over a time horizon of 10, 40 and 60 years. Patients entered the cohort model at the age of 45 with mild COPD. Exacerbations were classified into three levels: mild, moderate and severe. Estimation of stage-specific probabilities (for smokers and quitters), utilities and costs was based on German data where possible. Data on effectiveness of the intervention was retrieved from the literature. A discount rate of 3% was applied to costs and effects. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was used to assess the robustness of the results. The smoking cessation programme was the dominant strategy compared with usual care, and the intervention resulted in an increase in health effects of 0.54 QALYs and a cost reduction of &U20AC;1115 per patient (year 2007 prices) after 60 years. In the probabilistic analysis, the intervention dominated in about 95% of the simulations. Sensitivity analyses showed that uncertainty primarily originated from data on disease progression and treatment cost in the early stages of disease. The model developed allows the long-term cost effectiveness of interventions to be estimated, and has been adapted to Germany. The model suggests that the smoking cessation programme evaluated was more effective than

  13. EAU guidelines on the treatment and follow-up of non-neurogenic male lower urinary tract symptoms including benign prostatic obstruction.

    PubMed

    Oelke, Matthias; Bachmann, Alexander; Descazeaud, Aurélien; Emberton, Mark; Gravas, Stavros; Michel, Martin C; N'dow, James; Nordling, Jørgen; de la Rosette, Jean J

    2013-07-01

    To present a summary of the 2013 version of the European Association of Urology guidelines on the treatment and follow-up of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). We conducted a literature search in computer databases for relevant articles published between 1966 and 31 October 2012. The Oxford classification system (2001) was used to determine the level of evidence for each article and to assign the grade of recommendation for each treatment modality. Men with mild symptoms are suitable for watchful waiting. All men with bothersome LUTS should be offered lifestyle advice prior to or concurrent with any treatment. Men with bothersome moderate-to-severe LUTS quickly benefit from α1-blockers. Men with enlarged prostates, especially those >40ml, profit from 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) that slowly reduce LUTS and the probability of urinary retention or the need for surgery. Antimuscarinics might be considered for patients who have predominant bladder storage symptoms. The phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor tadalafil can quickly reduce LUTS to a similar extent as α1-blockers, and it also improves erectile dysfunction. Desmopressin can be used in men with nocturia due to nocturnal polyuria. Treatment with an α1-blocker and 5-ARI (in men with enlarged prostates) or antimuscarinics (with persistent storage symptoms) combines the positive effects of either drug class to achieve greater efficacy. Prostate surgery is indicated in men with absolute indications or drug treatment-resistant LUTS due to benign prostatic obstruction. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the current standard operation for men with prostates 30-80ml, whereas open surgery or transurethral holmium laser enucleation is appropriate for men with prostates >80ml. Alternatives for monopolar TURP include bipolar TURP and transurethral incision of the prostate (for glands <30ml) and laser treatments. Transurethral microwave therapy and transurethral needle ablation are effective

  14. Eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation in diagnosing exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Pernille M; Rasmussen, Niels

    2013-11-01

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions (EILOs) cause exercise-related respiratory symptoms (ERRS) and are important differential diagnoses to exercise-induced asthma. The diagnostic method for EILOs includes provocation to induce the obstruction followed by a verification of the obstruction and the degree thereof. The objective of the present study was to examine if a eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) test could induce laryngeal obstructions laryngoscopically identical in subtypes and development as seen during an exercise test. EVH and exercise testing with continuous laryngoscopy were performed during a screening of two national athletic teams (n = 67). The laryngoscopic recordings were examined for usability, abnormalities and maximal supraglottic and glottic obstruction using two currently available methods (Eilomea and CLE-score). The participants were asked questions on ERRS, and whether the symptoms experienced during each provocation matched those experienced during regular training. A total of 39 completed both tests. There were no significant differences in subtypes and development thereof, the experience of symptoms, and specificity and sensitivity between the methods. Significantly more recordings obtained during the exercise test were usable for evaluation primarily due to resilient mucus on the tip of the fiber-laryngoscope in the EVH test. Only recordings of six athletes from both provocation methods were usable for evaluation using the Eilomea method (high-quality demand). Amongst these, a linear correlation was found for the glottic obstruction. EVH tests can induce EILOs. However, the present test protocol needs adjustments to secure better visualisation of the larynx during provocation.

  15. Three-dimensional Evaluation of Nasal Surgery in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dan-Mo; Han, De-Min; Nicolas, Busaba; Hu, Chang-Long; Wu, Jun; Su, Min-Min

    2016-03-20

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder and is characterized by airway collapse at multiple levels of upper airway. The effectiveness of nasal surgery has been discussed in several studies and shows a promising growing interest. In this study, we intended to evaluate the effects of nasal surgery on the upper airway dimensions in patients with OSA using three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of cone-beam computed tomography (CT). Twelve patients with moderate to severe OSA who underwent nasal surgery were included in this study. All patients were diagnosed with OSA using polysomnography (PSG) in multi sleep health centers associated with Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and the Partners Health Care from May 31, 2011 to December 14, 2013. The effect of nasal surgery was evaluated by the examination of PSG, subjective complains, and 3D reconstructed CT scan. Cross-sectional area was measured in eleven coronal levels, and nasal cavity volume was evaluated from anterior nasal spine to posterior nasal spine. The thickness of soft tissue in oral pharynx region was also measured. Five out of the 12 patients were successfully treated by nasal surgery, with more than 50% drop of apnea-hypopnea index. All the 12 patients showed significant increase of cross-sectional area and volume postoperatively. The thickness of soft tissue in oral pharynx region revealed significant decrease postoperatively, which decreased from 19.14 ± 2.40 cm 2 and 6.11 ± 1.76 cm 2 to 17.13 ± 1.91 cm 2 and 5.22 ± 1.20 cm 2 . Nasal surgery improved OSA severity as measured by PSG, subjective complaints, and 3D reconstructed CT scan. 3D assessment of upper airway can play an important role in the evaluation of treatment outcome.

  16. Evaluating treatment of obstructive sleep apnea comorbid with insomnia disorder using an incomplete factorial design

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Megan R.; Turner, Arlener D.; Wyatt, James K.; Fogg, Louis F.; Ong, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic insomnia disorder is a prevalent condition and a significant proportion of these individuals also have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). These two sleep disorders have distinct pathophysiology and are managed with different treatment approaches. High comorbidity rates have been a catalyst for emerging studies examining multidisciplinary treatment for OSA comorbid with insomnia disorder. In this article, we describe a randomized clinical trial of Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) and Positive Airway Pressure (PAP) for OSA. Participants are randomized to receive one of three treatment combinations. Individuals randomized to treatment Arm A receive sequential treatment beginning with CBT-I followed by PAP, in treatment Arm B CBT-I and PAP are administered concurrently. These treatment arms are compared to a control condition, treatment Arm C, where individuals receive PAP alone. Adopting an incomplete factorial study design will allow us to evaluate the efficacy of multidisciplinary treatment (Arms A & B) versus standard treatment alone (Arm C). In addition, the random allocation of individuals to the two different combined treatment sequences (Arm A and Arm B) will allow us to understand the benefits of the sequential administration of CBT-I and PAP relative to concurrent treatment of PAP and CBT-I. These findings will provide evidence of the clinical benefits of treating insomnia disorder in the context of OSA. PMID:26733360

  17. Angioscopy Is Useful In The Evaluation Of Chronic Pulmonary Arterial Obstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shure, Deborah; Gregoratos, Gabriel; Moser, Kenneth M.

    1984-10-01

    We have previously described a fiberoptic angioscope for diagnostic use in the right heart and pulmonary arteries. The instrument has a 4 mm 0.D., a proximal flexion control lever, and a 0.8 mm inner channel used to inflate a polyurethane balloon attached to the distal end of the instrument. A conventional xenon light source provides illumination. The instrument is inserted through a right jugular venotomy and passed into the right heart and pulmonary arteries using direct vision and fluoroscopic guidance. The procedure has been performed in 4 patients with pulmonary hypertension suspected to be caused by chronic pulmonary emboli. Chronic emboli were found in two patients and central (resectable) emboli could be distinguished from peripheral ones. The third patient had normal pulmonary arterial intima and a final diagnosis of primary pulmonary hypertension was made. The fourth patient had extrinsic compression of pulmonary arteries by enlarged mediastinal nodes secondary to fibrosing mediastinitis. No complications occurred. We conclude that angioscopy appears to be useful in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected chronic obstruction of the pulmonary arteries.

  18. Self-treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease requires more than symptom recognition - a qualitative study of COPD patients' perspectives on self-treatment.

    PubMed

    Laue, Johanna; Melbye, Hasse; Risør, Mette Bech

    2017-01-25

    Self-treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD with antibiotics and/or oral corticosteroids has emerged as a promising strategy to reduce hospitalization rates, mortality and health costs. However, for reasons little understood, the effect of self-treatment, particularly when not part of comprehensive self-management programs, remains unclear. Therefore, this study aims to get insight into the patients' perspective on self-treatment of acute exacerbations of COPD, focusing specifically on how patients decide for the right moment to start treatment with antibiotics and/or oral corticosteroids, what they consider important when making this decision and aspects which might interfere with successful implementation. We interviewed 19 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using qualitative semi-structured interviews, and applied thematic analysis for data analysis. Patients were well equipped with experiential knowledge to recognize and promptly respond to worsening COPD symptoms. Worries regarding potential adverse effects of antibiotics and oral corticosteroids played an important role in the decision to start treatment and could result in hesitation to start treatment. Although self-treatment represented a practical and appreciated option for some patients with predictable symptom patterns and treatment effect, all patients favoured assistance from a medical professional when their perceived competence reached its limits. However, a feeling of obligation to succeed with self-treatment or distrust in their doctors or the health care system could keep patients from timely help seeking. COPD patients regard self-treatment of exacerbations with antibiotics and/or oral corticosteroids as a valuable alternative. How they engage in self-treatment depends on their concerns regarding the medications' adverse effects as well as on their understanding of and preferences for self-treatment as a means of health care. Caregivers should address these perspectives in a

  19. Exposure to Indoor Particulate Matter Worsens the Symptoms and Acute Exacerbations in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients of Southwestern Taiwan: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Miao-Ching; Guo, Su-Er; Hwang, Su-Lun; Chou, Chiang-Ting; Lin, Chieh-Mo; Lin, Yu-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) can trigger adverse reactions in the respiratory system, but less is known about the effect of indoor PM. In this longitudinal study, we investigated the relationships between indoor PM and clinical parameters in patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Indoor air quality (PM2.5 and PM10 levels) was monitored in the patients’ bedroom, kitchen, living room, and front door at baseline and every two months for one year. At each home visit, the patients were asked to complete spirometry and questionnaire testing. Exacerbations were assessed by chart review and questionnaires during home visits. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis (n = 83) showed that the level of wheezing was significantly higher in patients whose living room and kitchen had abnormal (higher than ambient air quality standards in Taiwan) PM2.5 and PM10 levels. Patients who lived in houses with abnormal outdoor PM2.5 levels had higher COPD Assessment Test scores (physical domain), and those who lived in houses with abnormal PM10 levels in the living room and kitchen had higher London Chest Activity of Daily Living scores. Increased PM levels were associated with worse respiratory symptoms and increased risk of exacerbation in patients with moderate to very severe COPD. PMID:28025521

  20. Evaluation of behavioral change after adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnea in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Murata, Emi; Mohri, Ikuko; Kato-Nishimura, Kumi; Iimura, Jiro; Ogawa, Makoto; Tachibana, Masaya; Ohno, Yuko; Taniike, Masako

    2017-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may affect daily cognitive functioning in children. The aims of our study were two-fold. The first aim was to detect, using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), whether adenotonsillectomy (AT) for the treatment of OSA improved the behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The second aim was to identify characteristics for behavioral improvement following the treatment of OSA in these children with ASD. The behaviors of ASD children aged 5-14 years diagnosed as having OSA (n=30) were evaluated using CBCL before and after AT. CBCL evaluation of ASD children without OSA at two time points with the same interval served as a control (n=24). We statistically examined the two groups. In addition, we conducted a paired t-test to assess changes in CBCL Tscores between the improved group and unchanged/deteriorated group to identify characteristics that may affect behavioral changes following OSA treatment. After AT, T-scores of the CBCL scales were significantly improved in the OSA group, but no change was observed in the control. A paired t-test revealed that the improved group had significantly higher scores on the CBCL pre-AT than the unchanged/deteriorated group in ASD children with OSA after OSA treatment. Behavioral problems were significantly improved following AT in ASD children with OSA. Early detection and treatment of children with OSA is essential to prevent behavioral problems and to support mental development. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of a Decision Support System for Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Nonlinear Analysis of Respiratory Signals.

    PubMed

    Kaimakamis, Evangelos; Tsara, Venetia; Bratsas, Charalambos; Sichletidis, Lazaros; Karvounis, Charalambos; Maglaveras, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder requiring the time/money consuming polysomnography for diagnosis. Alternative methods for initial evaluation are sought. Our aim was the prediction of Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) in patients potentially suffering from OSA based on nonlinear analysis of respiratory biosignals during sleep, a method that is related to the pathophysiology of the disorder. Patients referred to a Sleep Unit (135) underwent full polysomnography. Three nonlinear indices (Largest Lyapunov Exponent, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis and Approximate Entropy) extracted from two biosignals (airflow from a nasal cannula, thoracic movement) and one linear derived from Oxygen saturation provided input to a data mining application with contemporary classification algorithms for the creation of predictive models for AHI. A linear regression model presented a correlation coefficient of 0.77 in predicting AHI. With a cutoff value of AHI = 8, the sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 71.4% in discrimination between patients and normal subjects. The decision tree for the discrimination between patients and normal had sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 60%, respectively. Certain obtained nonlinear values correlated significantly with commonly accepted physiological parameters of people suffering from OSA. We developed a predictive model for the presence/severity of OSA using a simple linear equation and additional decision trees with nonlinear features extracted from 3 respiratory recordings. The accuracy of the methodology is high and the findings provide insight to the underlying pathophysiology of the syndrome. Reliable predictions of OSA are possible using linear and nonlinear indices from only 3 respiratory signals during sleep. The proposed models could lead to a better study of the pathophysiology of OSA and facilitate initial evaluation/follow up of suspected patients OSA utilizing a practical low cost methodology. Clinical

  2. A self-management approach using self-initiated action plans for symptoms with ongoing nurse support in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and comorbidities: the COPE-III study protocol.

    PubMed

    Lenferink, Anke; Frith, Peter; van der Valk, Paul; Buckman, Julie; Sladek, Ruth; Cafarella, Paul; van der Palen, Job; Effing, Tanja

    2013-09-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) frequently coexists with other diseases. Whereas COPD action plans are currently part of usual care, they are less suitable and potentially unsafe for use in the presence of comorbidities. This study evaluates whether an innovative treatment approach directed towards COPD and frequently existing comorbidities can reduce COPD exacerbation days. We hypothesise that this approach, which combines self-initiated action plans and nurse support, will accelerate proper treatment actions and lead to better control of deteriorating symptoms. In this multicenter randomised controlled trial we aim to include 300 patients with COPD (GOLD II-IV), and with at least one comorbidity (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, anxiety and/or depression). Patients will be recruited from hospitals in the Netherlands (n = 150) and Australia (n = 150) and will be assigned to an intervention or control group. All patients will learn to complete daily symptom diaries for 12-months. Intervention group patients will participate in self-management training sessions to learn the use of individualised action plans for COPD and comorbidities, linked to the diary. The primary outcome is the number of COPD exacerbation days. Secondary outcomes include hospitalisations, quality of life, self-efficacy, adherence, patient's satisfaction and confidence, health care use and cost data. Intention-to-treat analyses (random effect negative binomial regression and random effect mixed models) and cost-effectiveness analyses will be performed. Prudence should be employed before extrapolating the use of COPD specific action plans in patients with comorbidities. This study evaluates the efficacy of tailored action plans for both COPD and common comorbidities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of success criteria based on long-term symptoms and new-onset hypertension in mandibular advancement device treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea: observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wee, Jee Hye; Lim, Jae Hyun; Gelera, January E; Rhee, Chae-Seo; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2018-05-08

    To identify adequate criteria to determine the success or failure of mandibular advancement device (MAD) treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) based on long-term symptoms and new-onset hypertension. Observational cohort study. A tertiary care hospital setting in South Korea. Patients (age >18 years) who were diagnosed with OSA by a polysomnography (PSG) or Watch peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), and who had been treated with MAD between January 2007 and December 2014 were enrolled. Patients underwent PSG or Watch PAT twice; before and 3 months after the application of MAD. The patients were categorised into success and failure groups using seven different criteria. MAD compliance, witnessed apnoea and snoring, Epworth Sleepiness Scale score and occurrence of new-onset hypertension were surveyed via telephonic interview to determine the criteria that could identify success and failure of MAD. A total of 97 patients were included. The mean follow-up duration was 60.5 months, and the mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) was 35.5/hour. Two of the seven criteria could significantly differentiate the success and failure groups based on long-term symptoms, including (1) AHI<10/hour with MAD and (2) AHI<10/hour and AHI reduction of >50% with MAD. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that one criterion of AHI<15/hour with MAD could differentiate the success and failure groups based on new-onset hypertension (p=0.035). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that the cut-off AHI for new-onset hypertension was 16.8/hour (71.4% sensitivity and 75.0% specificity). Our long-term follow-up survey for symptoms and new-onset hypertension suggested that some of the polysomnographic success criteria, that is, AHI<10/hour with MAD, AHI<10/hour and AHI reduction of >50% with MAD and AHI<15/hour with MAD may be useful in distinguishing the success group from failure one. Further prospective longitudinal studies are warranted to validate these criteria.

  4. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Devices for Out-Of-Center (OOC) Testing: Technology Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Collop, Nancy A.; Tracy, Sharon L.; Kapur, Vishesh; Mehra, Reena; Kuhlmann, David; Fleishman, Sam A.; Ojile, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    Guidance is needed to help clinicians decide which out-of-center (OOC) testing devices are appropriate for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A new classification system that details the type of signals measured by these devices is presented. This proposed system categorizes OOC devices based on measurements of Sleep, Cardiovascular, Oximetry, Position, Effort, and Respiratory (SCOPER) parameters. Criteria for evaluating the devices are also presented, which were generated from chosen pre-test and post-test probabilities. These criteria state that in patients with a high pretest probability of having OSA, the OOC testing device has a positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 5 or greater coinciding with an in-lab-polysomnography (PSG)-generated apnea hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5, and an adequate sensitivity (at least 0.825). Since oximetry is a mandatory signal for scoring AHI using PSG, devices that do not incorporate oximetry were excluded. English peer-reviewed literature on FDA-approved devices utilizing more than 1 signal was reviewed according to the above criteria for 6 questions. These questions specifically addressed the adequacy of different respiratory and effort sensors and combinations thereof to diagnose OSA. In summary, the literature is currently inadequate to state with confidence that a thermistor alone without any effort sensor is adequate to diagnose OSA; if a thermal sensing device is used as the only measure of respiration, 2 effort belts are required as part of the montage and piezoelectric belts are acceptable in this context; nasal pressure can be an adequate measurement of respiration with no effort measure with the caveat that this may be device specific; nasal pressure may be used in combination with either 2 piezoelectric or respiratory inductance plethysmographic (RIP) belts (but not 1 piezoelectric belt); and there is insufficient evidence to state that both nasal pressure and thermistor are required to adequately diagnose OSA. With

  5. Evaluation of pulse oximeter derived photoplethysmographic signals for obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Gao, He; Ma, Yan

    2017-05-01

    High prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has increased the demands for more convenient and accessible diagnostic devices other than standard in-lab polysomnography (PSG). Despite the increasing utility of photoplethysmograph (PPG), it remains understudied in underserved populations. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability of a standard pulse oximeter system with an automated analysis based on the PPG signal for the diagnosis of OSA, as compared with PSG derived measures.Consecutive out-patients with suspect OSA completed a PPG monitoring simultaneous with an overnight in-lab standard PSG. Forty-nine OSA patients (38 males, age 43.5 ± 16.9 years, BMI 26.9 ± 0.5 kg/m) were included in this study. Automated analyses were based on PPG and oximetry signals only. The PPG calculated measures were compared with PSG derived measures for agreement tests.Respiratory events index derived from PPG significantly correlated with PSG-derived apnea-hypopnea index (r = 0.935, P < .001). The calculation of total sleep time and oxygen desaturation index from PPG and PSG also significantly correlated (r = 0.418, P = .003; r = 0.933, P < .001, respectively). Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between the PPG and the PSG measures. The overall sensitivity and specificity of PPG are good, especially in moderate and severe OSA groups.The tested PPG approach yielded acceptable results compared to the gold standard PSG among moderate to severe OSA patients. A pulse oximeter system with PPG recording can be used for the diagnosis or screening of OSA in high risk population.

  6. Evaluation of pulse oximeter derived photoplethysmographic signals for obstructive sleep apnea diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Gao, He; Ma, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract High prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has increased the demands for more convenient and accessible diagnostic devices other than standard in-lab polysomnography (PSG). Despite the increasing utility of photoplethysmograph (PPG), it remains understudied in underserved populations. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability of a standard pulse oximeter system with an automated analysis based on the PPG signal for the diagnosis of OSA, as compared with PSG derived measures. Consecutive out-patients with suspect OSA completed a PPG monitoring simultaneous with an overnight in-lab standard PSG. Forty-nine OSA patients (38 males, age 43.5 ± 16.9 years, BMI 26.9 ± 0.5 kg/m2) were included in this study. Automated analyses were based on PPG and oximetry signals only. The PPG calculated measures were compared with PSG derived measures for agreement tests. Respiratory events index derived from PPG significantly correlated with PSG-derived apnea–hypopnea index (r = 0.935, P < .001). The calculation of total sleep time and oxygen desaturation index from PPG and PSG also significantly correlated (r = 0.418, P = .003; r = 0.933, P < .001, respectively). Bland–Altman plots showed good agreement between the PPG and the PSG measures. The overall sensitivity and specificity of PPG are good, especially in moderate and severe OSA groups. The tested PPG approach yielded acceptable results compared to the gold standard PSG among moderate to severe OSA patients. A pulse oximeter system with PPG recording can be used for the diagnosis or screening of OSA in high risk population. PMID:28471970

  7. Neck circumference, metabolic syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome; Evaluation of possible linkage

    PubMed Central

    Ahbab, Süleyman; Ataoğlu, Hayriye Esra; Tuna, Mazhar; Karasulu, Levent; Çetin, Faik; Temiz, Levent Ümit; Yenigün, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was performed to evaluate neck circumference (NC) and metabolic syndrome (MS) parameters in severe and non-severe (mild-moderate) obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients according to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Material/Method We enrolled 44 patients diagnosed with OSAS based on overnight polysomnography. The diagnosis of OSAS was based on AHI. Apnea is a pause of airflow for more than 10 seconds. and hypopnea is a decrease of airflow for more than 10 seconds and oxygen desaturation of 4% or greater. AHI score. per hour; below 5 normal. 5–29 mild-moderate. 30 and above were grouped as severe OSAS. Height. weight. neck circumference (NC). waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) of the patients were measured. MS was diagnosed by the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria (≥3 of the following abnormalities): 1) WC ≥94 cm for males, ≥80 cm for females; 2) arterial blood pressure ≥130/85 mmHg; 3) fasting blood glucose ≥100 mg/dl; 4) high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol <40 mg/dl in man, <50 mg/dl in women; 5) triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl. Results Mean BMI and NC were higher in severe OSAS patients compared to non-severe patients (p=0.021. p<0.001). According to ATP III criteria. 64% of severe and 61.1% of non-severe OSAS patients were MS (p=0.847). A logistic regression model displayed an association with NC as a risk factor for severe OSAS (p=0.01). but not with MS. Conclusions In this study. NC in severe OSAS patients was significantly higher than in non-severe OSAS patients. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was not correlated with OSAS severity. NC is an independent risk factor for severe OSAS. PMID:23403781

  8. Acute GI obstruction.

    PubMed

    Hucl, Tomas

    2013-10-01

    Acute gastrointestinal obstruction occurs when the normal flow of intestinal contents is interrupted. The blockage can occur at any level throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical symptoms depend on the level and extent of obstruction. Various benign and malignant processes can produce acute gastrointestinal obstruction, which often represents a medical emergency because of the potential for bowel ischemia leading to perforation and peritonitis. Early recognition and appropriate treatment are thus essential. The typical clinical symptoms associated with obstruction include nausea, vomiting, dysphagia, abdominal pain and failure to pass bowel movements. Abdominal distention, tympany due to an air-filled stomach and high-pitched bowel sounds suggest the diagnosis. The diagnostic process involves imaging including radiography, ultrasonography, contrast fluoroscopy and computer tomography in less certain cases. In patients with uncomplicated obstruction, management is conservative, including fluid resuscitation, electrolyte replacement, intestinal decompression and bowel rest. In many cases, endoscopy may aid in both the diagnostic process and in therapy. Endoscopy can be used for bowel decompression, dilation of strictures or placement of self-expandable metal stents to restore the luminal flow either as a final treatment or to allow for a delay until elective surgical therapy. When gastrointestinal obstruction results in ischemia, perforation or peritonitis, emergency surgery is required. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Validation of the Apnea Risk Evaluation System (ARES) Device Against Laboratory Polysomnography in Pregnant Women at Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Katherine M.; Waters, Kelly; Millman, Richard P.; Moore, Robin; Martin, Susan M.; Bourjeily, Ghada

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To assess the validity of using the Apnea Risk Evaluation System (ARES) Unicorder for detecting obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in pregnant women. Methods: Sixteen pregnant women, mean age (SD) = 29.8 (5.4) years, average gestational age (SD) = 28.6 (6.3) weeks, mean body mass index (SD) = 44.7 (6.9) kg/m2 with signs and symptoms of OSA wore the ARES Unicorder during one night of laboratory polysomnography (PSG). PSG was scored according to AASM 2007 criteria, and PSG AHI and RDI were compared to the ARES 1%, 3%, and 4% AHIs calculated with the ARES propriety software. Results: Median PSG AHI and PSG RDI were 3.1 and 10.3 events/h of sleep, respectively. Six women had a PSG AHI ≥ 5 events/h of sleep and 11 had a PSG RDI ≥ 5 events/h of sleep. PSG AHI and RDI were strongly correlated with the ARES AHI measures. When compared with polysomnographic diagnosis of OSA, the ARES 3% algorithm provided the best balance between sensitivity (1.0 for PSG AHI, 0.91 for PSG RDI) and specificity (0.5 for PSG AHI, 0.8 for PSG RDI) for detecting sleep disordered breathing in our sample. Conclusions: The ARES Unicorder demonstrated reasonable consistency with PSG for diagnosing OSA in this small, heterogeneous sample of obese pregnant women. Citation: Sharkey KM, Waters K, Millman RP, Moore R, Martin SM, Bourjeily G. Validation of the Apnea Risk Evaluation System (ARES) device against laboratory polysomnography in pregnant women at risk for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(5):497-502. PMID:24910550

  10. A multicenter evaluation of oral pressure therapy for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Colrain, Ian M; Black, Jed; Siegel, Lawrence C; Bogan, Richard K; Becker, Philip M; Farid-Moayer, Mehran; Goldberg, Rochelle; Lankford, D Alan; Goldberg, Andrew N; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate the impact of a novel noninvasive oral pressure therapy (OPT) (Winx®, ApniCure) system on polysomnographic measures of sleep-disordered breathing, sleep architecture, and sleep stability in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A 4-week, multicenter, prospective, open-label, randomized, crossover, first-night order of control vs treatment, single-arm trial was conducted in five American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) - accredited sleep clinics and one research laboratory. Sixty-three subjects (analysis cohort) were studied from a screening cohort of 367 subjects. The analysis cohort was 69.8% men, ages 53.6±8.9 years (mean±SD), body mass index of 32.3±4.5kg/m(2), with mild to severe OSA. At treatment initiation, subjects received random assignment to one night with and one without (control) treatment, and they were assessed again following 28 nights of treatment. Breathing and sleep architecture were assessed each night based on blind scoring by a single centralized scorer using AASM criteria. Average nightly usage across the take-home period was 6.0±1.4h. There were no severe or serious device-related adverse events (AEs). Median apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 27.5 events per hour on the control night, 13.4 events per hour on the first treatment night, and 14.8 events per hour after 28days of treatment. A clinically significant response (treatment AHI ⩽10/h and ⩽50% of control values) was seen in 20 of the 63 subjects evaluated. Rapid eye movement percentage (REM%) was significantly increased, and N1%, stage shifts to N1 sleep, overall stage shifts, total awakenings, and arousals per hour were all significantly reduced at both treatment nights compared to controls. Mean Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) was significantly reduced from 12.1 to 8.6 (Cohen d effect size, 0.68) in those untreated for two or more weeks prior to OPT study participation and remained unchanged in subjects who directly switched from continuous positive airway pressure

  11. The role of electrocardiography in evaluation of severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in daily clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Aktürk, Faruk; Bıyık, İsmail; Kocaş, Cüneyt; Ertürk, Mehmet; Yalçın, Ahmet Arif; Savaş, Ayfer Utku; Kuzer, Firuzan Pınar; Uzun, Fatih; Yıldırım, Aydın; Uslu, Nevzat; Çuhadaroğlu, Çağlar

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of chronic morbidity and mortality. Bronchial obstruction and increased pulmonary vascular resistance impairs right atrial functions. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of bronchial obstruction on p wave axis in patients with COPD and usefulness of electrocardiography (ECG) in the evaluation of the severity of COPD. Ninety five patients (64 male and 31 female) included to the study. Patients were in sinus rhythm, with normal ejection fraction and heart chamber sizes. Their respiratory function tests and 12 lead electrocardiograms were obtained at same day. Correlations with severity of COPD and ECG findings including p wave axis, p wave duration, QRS axis, QRS duration were studied. The mean age was 58 ± 12 years. Their mean p wave axis was 62 ± 18 degrees. In this study, p wave axis has demonstrated significant positive correlations with stages of COPD and QRS axis but significant negative correlations with FEV1, FEF, BMI and QRS duration. P wave axis increases with increasing stages of COPD. Verticalization of the frontal p wave axis may be an early finding of worsening of COPD before occurrences of other ECG changes of hypertrophy and enlargement of right heart chambers such as p pulmonale. Verticalization of the frontal p wave axis reflecting right atrial electrical activity and right heart strain may be a useful parameter for quick estimation of the severity of COPD in an out-patient cared.

  12. Economic evaluations of fluticasone-propionate/salmeterol combination therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a review of published studies.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M H; Borrego, M E; Kharat, A A; Marshik, P L; Mapel, D W

    2016-01-01

    This review identifies and evaluates the comprehensive reporting of peer-reviewed economic evaluations of the effectiveness of fluticasone-propionate/salmeterol combination (FSC) therapy for maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Economic evaluations were included if published in English since 2003. Evaluation categories included in the review were cost-effectiveness, cost-utility, and cost-consequence analyses. FSC is cost-effective in comparison to short-acting bronchodilators (SABDs). Cost and outcome differences between FSC and other long-acting therapies were modest. Studies exhibited large variations in populations, designs and environment, limiting the ability to draw conclusions. Many new maintenance treatments for COPD have been approved since 2010. Most have yet to be compared to older treatments like FSC. Evaluations are needed that consider costs and outcomes from a societal perspective (e.g., patients' ability to keep working) and evaluations that include subgroup analyses to investigate differential impacts according to clusters of patient characteristics.

  13. Alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, and phytotherapic compounds in men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic obstruction: A systematic review and meta-analysis of urodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Ferdinando; Creta, Massimiliano; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Gacci, Mauro; Li Marzi, Vincenzo; Finazzi Agrò, Enrico

    2018-03-31

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the urodynamic outcomes of alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists (ABs), 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs), phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5is), and phytotherapic compounds in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic obstruction (LUTS/BPO). A systematic review of PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases was performed in June 2017. We included full papers that met the following criteria: original research; English language; human studies; enrolling LUTS/BPO patients; reporting maximum urinary flow (Qmax), and detrusor pressure at maximum urinary flow (PdetQmax). The primary endpoint was variation in bladder outlet obstruction index (BOOI). Secondary endpoints were variations in Qmax and PdetQmax. Twenty-three studies involving 1044 patients were included in the final analysis. Eighteen, three, two, and one study evaluated the urodynamic outcomes of ABs, 5-ARIs, PDE5is, and phytotherapic compounds, respectively. BOOI, PdetQmax, and Qmax improved in a statistically significant manner in patients receiving ABs and in those receiving 5-ARIs. The overall pooled data showed a mean BOOI change of -15.40 (P < 0.00001) and of -10.55 (P = 0,004) for ABs and 5-ARIs, respectively. Mean PdetQmax and Qmax changes were:12.30 cm H 2 O (P < 0.00001) and +2.27 ml/s (P < 0.00001) for ABs and -9.63 cm H 2 O (P = 0.05), and +1.18 mL/s (P = 0.04) for 5-ARIs. PDE5is and phytotherapic compounds had no significant effects on urodynamic parameters. ABs and 5-ARIs efficiently improve BOOI in men with LUTS/BPO. Both treatments are associated with a clinically significant decrease in PdetQmax but only marginal improvements in Qmax. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [Evaluation of the standard application of Delphi in the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused by occupational irritant chemicals].

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; Yan, Y J

    2017-11-20

    Objective: To investigate the problems encountered in the application of the standard (hereinafter referred to as standard) for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused by occu-pational irritant chemicals, to provide reference for the revision of the new standard, to reduce the number of missed patients in occupational COPD, and to get rid of the working environment of those who suffer from chronic respiratory diseases due to long-term exposure to poisons., slowing the progression of the disease. Methods: Using Delphi (Delphi) Expert research method, after the senior experts to demonstrate, to under-stand the GBZ 237-2011 "occupational irritant chemicals to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary dis-ease" standard evaluation of the system encountered problems, to seek expert advice, The problems encoun-tered during the clinical implementation of the standards promulgated in 2011 are presented. Results: Through the Delphi Expert investigation method, it is found that experts agree on the content evaluation and implemen-tation evaluation in the standard, but the operational evaluation of the standard is disputed. According to the clinical experience, the experts believe that the range of occupational irritant gases should be expanded, and the operation of the problem of smoking, seniority determination and occupational contact history should be challenged during the diagnosis. Conclusions: Since the promulgation in 2011 of the criteria for the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease caused by occupational stimulant chemicals, there have been some problems in the implementation process, which have caused many occupationally exposed to irritating gases to suffer from "occupational chronic respiratory Diseases" without a definitive diagnosis.

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea devices for out-of-center (OOC) testing: technology evaluation.

    PubMed

    Collop, Nancy A; Tracy, Sharon L; Kapur, Vishesh; Mehra, Reena; Kuhlmann, David; Fleishman, Sam A; Ojile, Joseph M

    2011-10-15

    Guidance is needed to help clinicians decide which out-of-center (OOC) testing devices are appropriate for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A new classification system that details the type of signals measured by these devices is presented. This proposed system categorizes OOC devices based on measurements of Sleep, Cardiovascular, Oximetry, Position, Effort, and Respiratory (SCOPER) parameters.Criteria for evaluating the devices are also presented, which were generated from chosen pre-test and post-test probabilities. These criteria state that in patients with a high pretest probability of having OSA, the OOC testing device has a positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 5 or greater coinciding with an in-lab-polysomnography (PSG)-generated apnea hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5, and an adequate sensitivity (at least 0.825).Since oximetry is a mandatory signal for scoring AHI using PSG, devices that do not incorporate oximetry were excluded. English peer-reviewed literature on FDA-approved devices utilizing more than 1 signal was reviewed according to the above criteria for 6 questions. These questions specifically addressed the adequacy of different respiratory and effort sensors and combinations thereof to diagnose OSA. In summary, the literature is currently inadequate to state with confidence that a thermistor alone without any effort sensor is adequate to diagnose OSA; if a thermal sensing device is used as the only measure of respiration, 2 effort belts are required as part of the montage and piezoelectric belts are acceptable in this context; nasal pressure can be an adequate measurement of respiration with no effort measure with the caveat that this may be device specific; nasal pressure may be used in combination with either 2 piezoelectric or respiratory inductance plethysmographic (RIP) belts (but not 1 piezoelectric belt); and there is insufficient evidence to state that both nasal pressure and thermistor are required to adequately diagnose OSA. With

  16. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    PubMed

    Gabbard, Scott L; Lacy, Brian E

    2013-06-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) is a rare and serious disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract characterized as a motility disorder with the primary defect of impaired peristalsis; symptoms are consistent with a bowel obstruction, although mechanical obstruction cannot be identified. CIP is classified as a neuropathy, myopathy, or mesenchymopathy; it is a neuropathic process in the majority of patients. The natural history of CIP is generally that of a progressive disorder, although occasional patients with secondary CIP note significant symptomatic improvement when the underlying disorder is identified and treated. Symptoms vary from patient to patient depending on the location of the luminal GI tract involved and the degree of involvement; however, the small intestine is nearly always involved. Common symptoms include dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, abdominal distension, constipation or diarrhea, and involuntary weight loss. Unfortunately, these symptoms are nonspecific, which can contribute to misdiagnosis or a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Since many of the symptoms and signs suggest a mechanical bowel obstruction, diagnostic tests typically focus on uncovering a mechanical obstruction, although routine tests do not identify an obstructive process. Nutrition supplementation is required for many patients with CIP due to symptoms of dysphagia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. This review discusses the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with CIP, with an emphasis on nutrition assessment and treatment options for patients with nutrition compromise.

  17. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... SM. Obstructive sleep apnea: clinical features, evaluation, and principles of management. In: Kryger M, Roth T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  18. COPD assessment test (CAT): simple tool for evaluating quality of life of chemical warfare patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Lari, Shahrzad M; Ghobadi, Hassan; Attaran, Davood; Mahmoodpour, Afsoun; Shadkam, Omid; Rostami, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the serious late pulmonary complications caused by sulphur mustard exposure. Health status evaluations of chemical warfare patients with COPD are important to the management of these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of the COPD assessment test (CAT) in evaluating the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of chemical warfare patients with COPD. Eighty-two consecutive patients with stable COPD were enrolled in this study. All subjects were visited by one physician, and the HRQOL was evaluated by the CAT and St. George Respiratory Questionnaires (SGRQs). In addition, a standard spirometry test, 6-min walk distance test and pulse oxymetry were conducted. The severity of the COPD was determined using Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) staging and the body mass index, obstruction, dyspnoea and exercise (BODE) index. The mean age of the patients was 47.30 ± 7.08 years. The mean CAT score was 26.03 ± 8.28. Thirty-five (43%) patients were in CAT stage 3. There were statistically significant correlations between the CAT and the SGRQ (r = 0.70, P = 0.001) and the BODE index (r = 0.70, P = 0.001). A statistically significant inverse correlation was found between the CAT score and the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (r = -0.30, P = 0.03). Our results demonstrated that the CAT is a simple and valid tool for assessment of HRQOL in chemical warfare patients with COPD and can be used in clinical practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Psychometric evaluation of the HIV symptom distress scale

    PubMed Central

    Marc, Linda G.; Wang, Ming-Mei; Testa, Marcia A.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to psychometrically validate the HIV Symptom Distress Scale (SDS), an instrument that can be used to measure overall HIV symptom distress or clinically relevant groups of HIV symptoms. A secondary data analysis was conducted using the Collaborations in HIV Outcomes Research U.S. Cohort (CHORUS). Inclusion criteria required study participants (N=5,521) to have a valid baseline measure of the AIDS Clinical Trial Group Symptom Distress Module, with an SF-12 or SF-36 completed on the same day. Psychometric testing assessed unidimensionality, internal consistency and factor structure using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling (SEM). Construct validity examined whether the new measure discriminates across clinical significance (CD4 and HIV viral load). Findings show that the SDS has high reliability (α=0.92), and SEM supports a correlated second-order factor model (physical and mental distress) with acceptable fit (GFI=0.88, AGFI=0.85, NFI=0.99, NNFI=0.99; RMSEA=0.06, [90% CI 0.06 – 0.06]; Satorra Bentler Scaled, C2 =3274.20; p=0.0). Construct validity shows significant differences across categories for HIV-1 viral load (p< 0.001) and CD4 (p< 0.001). Differences in mean SDS scores exist across gender (p< 0.001), race/ethnicity (p< 0.05) and educational attainment (p < 0.001). Hence, the HIV Symptom Distress Scale is a reliable and valid instrument, which measures overall HIV symptoms or clinically relevant groups of symptoms. PMID:22409246

  20. Comprehensive evaluation of functional and anatomical disorders of the patients with distal occlusion and accompanying obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabiev, F. H.; Dobrodeev, A. S.; Libin, P. V.; Kotov, I. I.; Ovsyannikov, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    The paper defines the therapeutic and rehabilitation approach to the patients with Angle's classification Class II dento-facial anomalies, accompanied by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The proposed comprehensive approach to the diagnostics and treatment of patients with posterior occlusion, accompanied by OSA, allows for objective evaluation of intensity of a dento-facial anomaly and accompanying respiratory disorders in the nasal and oral pharynx, which allows for the pathophysiological mechanisms of OSA to be identified, and an optimal plan for surgical procedures to be developed. The proposed comprehensive approach to the diagnostics and treatment of patients with Angle's classification Class II dento-facial anomalies provides high functional and aesthetic results.

  1. Effects of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease on Asthma Control in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Anne E.; Clerisme-Beaty, Emmanuelle M.; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Rubin I.; Lang, Jason E.; Brown, Ellen D.; Richter, Joel E.; Irvin, Charles G.; Mastronarde, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity is a risk factor for asthma. Obese asthmatics often have poor asthma control and respond poorly to therapy. It has been suggested that co-morbidities associated with obesity, such as reflux and obstructive sleep apnea, could be important factors contributing to poor asthma control in obese patients. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine if (i) reflux and/or (ii) symptoms of sleep apnea contribute to poor asthma control in obesity. Methods We studied asthmatic subjects participating in a trial of reflux treatment. Participants underwent baseline evaluation of asthma symptoms and lung function. 304 participants underwent esophageal pH probe testing. 246 participants were evaluated for obstructive sleep apnea symptoms. Results Of 402 participants in this trial, 51% were obese. Role of reflux in asthma control Those with higher body mass index reported a higher prevalence of reflux symptoms, but the prevalence of pH probe acid reflux was similar in all groups. Reflux was not associated with measures of asthma control in obese patients. Role of obstructive sleep apnea in asthma control Symptoms and self-report of obstructive sleep apnea were more common with increasing body mass index and associated with worse asthma control as measured by the Juniper Asthma Control Questionnaire and Asthma Symptom Utility Index. Conclusions Our data suggest that obstructive sleep apnea, but not gastroesophageal reflux disease may contribute significantly to poor asthma control in obese patients. PMID:21819338

  2. Short-term exposure to high ambient air pollution increases airway inflammation and respiratory symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shaowei; Ni, Yang; Li, Hongyu; Pan, Lu; Yang, Di; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Deng, Furong; Chen, Yahong; Shima, Masayuki; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the short-term respiratory effects of ambient air pollution in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients in the context of high pollution levels in Asian cities. A panel of 23 stable COPD patients was repeatedly measured for biomarkers of airway inflammation including exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and exhaled hydrogen sulfide (FeH2S) (215 measurements) and recorded for daily respiratory symptoms (794person-days) in two study periods in Beijing, China in January-September 2014. Daily ambient air pollution data were obtained from nearby central air-monitoring stations. Mixed-effects models were used to estimate the associations between exposures and health measurements with adjustment for potential confounders including temperature and relative humidity. Increasing levels of air pollutants were associated with significant increases in both FeNO and FeH2S. Interquartile range (IQR) increases in PM2.5 (76.5μg/m(3), 5-day), PM10 (75.0μg/m(3), 5-day) and SO2 (45.7μg/m(3), 6-day) were associated with maximum increases in FeNO of 13.6% (95% CI: 4.8%, 23.2%), 9.2% (95% CI: 2.1%, 16.8%) and 34.2% (95% CI: 17.3%, 53.4%), respectively; and the same IQR increases in PM2.5 (6-day), PM10 (6-day) and SO2 (7-day) were associated with maximum increases in FeH2S of 11.4% (95% CI: 4.6%, 18.6%), 7.8% (95% CI: 2.3%, 13.7%) and 18.1% (95% CI: 5.5%, 32.2%), respectively. Increasing levels of air pollutants were also associated with increased odds ratios of sore throat, cough, sputum, wheeze and dyspnea. FeH2S may serve as a novel biomarker to detect adverse respiratory effects of air pollution. Our results provide potential important public health implications that ambient air pollution may pose risk to respiratory health in the context of high pollution levels in densely-populated cities in the developing world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Technical and Clinical Success and Long-Term Durability of Endovascular Treatment for Atherosclerotic Aortic Arch Branch Origin Obstruction: Evaluation of 144 Procedures.

    PubMed

    van de Weijer, M A J; Vonken, E J P A; de Vries, J-P P M; Moll, F L; Vos, J A; de Borst, G J

    2015-07-01

    Endovascular treatment of atherosclerotic obstruction of aortic arch branch origins (AABO) has largely replaced open surgery, but long-term outcome data are lacking. This study evaluated mid-term and long-term results of these procedures. Retrospective cohort study. Patients underwent endovascular treatment for symptomatic atherosclerotic stenosis of AABO between 1995 and 2012. Technical success was defined as uncomplicated revascularization and residual stenosis ≤30%. The primary end point was freedom from restenosis ≥50% on Duplex ultrasonography or magnetic resonance angiography. Secondary end points were freedom from target lesion revascularization or recurrent symptoms. 144 lesions were treated in 114 patients (75 female; mean age 66.3 years), by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) in 20 patients and PTA and stent in 117 patients (brachiocephalic artery [BCA] 9/54; left common carotid artery [LCCA] 0/7; left subclavian artery [LSA] 11/56). The lesion could not be passed in four patients, and in three patients the intervention was terminated before angioplasty. The 30-day technical success was 94.4%, without deaths or strokes. Mean follow-up was 52.0 months (range 2-163 months). Restenosis-free survival was 95.6%, 92.9%, 87.6%, and 83.2% at 12, 24, 48, and 60 months, respectively. Log-rank test showed no significant difference between PTA only and PTA with additional stent placement at any point (p = .375), nor between BCA (n = 51), LCCA (n = 6), or LSA (n = 57). During follow-up, 27 patients (23.7%) became symptomatic (15 BCA, 1 LCCA, and 11 LSA); 19 patients with a restenosis of the target lesion (mean 56.7 months). Symptom-free survival was 94.7%, 92.0%, 82.3%, and 77.9% at 12, 24, 48, and 60 months, respectively. Endovascular treatment of aortic arch branch origin obstruction is safe and efficacious in experienced hands and can be considered as the preferred treatment, with good mid-term durability. Recurrent symptomatic lesions can be treated

  4. Obstructive uropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the kidney and causes it to become swollen ( hydronephrosis ). Obstructive uropathy can affect one or both kidneys. ... occurs during pregnancy. This condition is called idiopathic hydronephrosis of pregnancy.

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of Onen's Alternative Grading System combined with Doppler evaluation of ureteral jets as an alternative in the diagnosis of obstructive hydronephrosis in children.

    PubMed

    de Bessa, Jose; Rodrigues, Cicilia M; Chammas, Maria Cristina; Miranda, Eduardo P; Gomes, Cristiano M; Moscardi, Paulo R; Bessa, Marcia C; Molina, Carlos A; Tiraboschi, Ricardo B; Netto, Jose M; Denes, Francisco T

    2018-01-01

    Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is a common congenital anomaly leading to varying degrees of hydronephrosis (HN), ranging from no apparent effect on the renal function to atrophy. Evaluation of these children is based on Diuretic Renal Scintigraphy (DRS) and Ultrasonography (US). Recent studies have suggested that new parameters of conventional and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS) may be useful in discriminating which kidneys are obstructed. The present study aims to assess the diagnostic accuracy of such parameters in the diagnosis of obstruction in children with UPJO. We evaluated 44 patients (33 boys) with a mean age of 6.53 ± 4.39 years diagnosed with unilateral high-grade hydronephrosis (SFU grades 3 and 4). All underwent DRS and index tests (conventional US and CDUS to evaluate ureteral jets frequency) within a maximum interval of two weeks. Hydronephrotic units were reclassified according to the alternative grading system (AGS) proposed by Onen et al. Obstruction in the DRS was defined as a differential renal function <40% on the affected side and/or features indicating poor drainage function like T1/2 >20 minutes after the administration of furosemide, and a plateau or ascending pattern of the excretion curve. Nineteen hydronephrotic units (43.1%) were obstructed. Some degree of cortical atrophy-grades 3 (segmental) or 4 (diffuse)-was present in those obstructed units. AGS grades had 100% sensitivity, 76% of specificity and 86.4% of accuracy. The absence of ureteral jets had a sensitivity of 73.68%, a specificity of 100% with an accuracy of 88.6%. When we analyzed the two aspects together and considered obstructed the renal units classified as AGS grade 3 or 4 with no jets, sensitivity increased to 78.9%, accuracy to 92%, remaining with a maximum specificity of 100%. These features combined would allow us to avoid performing DRS in 61% of our patients, leaving more invasive tests to inconclusive cases. Although DRS remains the mainstay to

  6. Validation of the Apnea Risk Evaluation System (ARES) device against laboratory polysomnography in pregnant women at risk for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Katherine M; Waters, Kelly; Millman, Richard P; Moore, Robin; Martin, Susan M; Bourjeily, Ghada

    2014-05-15

    To assess the validity of using the Apnea Risk Evaluation System (ARES) Unicorder for detecting obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in pregnant women. Sixteen pregnant women, mean age (SD) = 29.8 (5.4) years, average gestational age (SD) = 28.6 (6.3) weeks, mean body mass index (SD) = 44.7 (6.9) kg/m(2) with signs and symptoms of OSA wore the ARES Unicorder during one night of laboratory polysomnography (PSG). PSG was scored according to AASM 2007 criteria, and PSG AHI and RDI were compared to the ARES 1%, 3%, and 4% AHIs calculated with the ARES propriety software. Median PSG AHI and PSG RDI were 3.1 and 10.3 events/h of sleep, respectively. Six women had a PSG AHI ≥ 5 events/h of sleep and 11 had a PSG RDI ≥ 5 events/h of sleep. PSG AHI and RDI were strongly correlated with the ARES AHI measures. When compared with polysomnographic diagnosis of OSA, the ARES 3% algorithm provided the best balance between sensitivity (1.0 for PSG AHI, 0.91 for PSG RDI) and specificity (0.5 for PSG AHI, 0.8 for PSG RDI) for detecting sleep disordered breathing in our sample. The ARES Unicorder demonstrated reasonable consistency with PSG for diagnosing OSA in this small, heterogeneous sample of obese pregnant women.

  7. Examining the Effects of Age on Health Outcomes of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Results From the Genetic Epidemiology of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Study and Evaluation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Parulekar, Amit D; Martinez, Carlos; Tsai, Chu-Lin; Locantore, Nicholas; Atik, Mustafa; Yohannes, Abebaw M; Kao, Christina C; Al-Azzawi, Hassan; Mohsin, Ali; Wise, Robert A; Foreman, Marilyn G; Demeo, Dawn L; Regan, Elizabeth A; Make, Barry J; Boriek, Aladin M; Wiener, Laura E; Hanania, Nicola A

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and its associated comorbidities increase with age. However, little is understood about differences in the disease in patients over 65 years of age compared with younger patients. To determine disease characteristics of COPD and its impact in older patients compared with younger patients. We examined baseline characteristics of patients with COPD (global obstructive lung disease stage II-IV) in 2 large cohorts: Genetic Epidemiology of COPD Study (COPDGene) and Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE). We compared demographics, indices of disease severity, prevalence of comorbidities, exacerbation frequency, and quality of life scores in patients ≥65 years of age vs patients <65 years of age. We also tested for associations of age with disease characteristics and health outcomes. In the COPDGene cohort, older patients (n = 1663) had more severe disease as measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 second (1.22 vs 1.52 L, P < .001), use of long-term oxygen therapy (35% vs 22%, P < .001), 6-minute walk distance (355 vs 375 m, P < .001), and radiographic evidence of emphysema (14% vs 8%, P < .001) and air trapping (47% vs 36%, P < .001) and were more likely to have comorbidities compared with younger patients (n = 2027). Similarly, in the ECLIPSE cohort, older patients (n = 1030) had lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second (1.22 vs 1.34 L, P < .001), greater use of long-term oxygen therapy (7% vs 5%, P = .02), shorter 6- minute walk distance (360 vs 389 m, P < .001), and more radiographic evidence of emphysema (17% vs 14%, P = .009) than younger patients (n = 1131). In adjusted analyses of both cohorts, older age was associated with decreased frequency of exacerbations [odds ratio = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.43-0.64 in COPDGene, odds ratio = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.64-0.99 in ECLIPSE] and a better quality of

  8. Drug induced sleep endoscopy: its role in evaluation of the upper airway obstruction and patient selection for surgical and non-surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    De Vito, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Sleep related breathing disorders cause obstruction of the upper airway which can be alleviated by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, oral devices or surgical intervention. Non-surgical treatment modalities are not always accepted by patients and in order to attain successful surgical outcomes, evaluation of the upper airway is necessary to carefully select the patients who would benefit from surgery. There are numerous techniques available to assess the upper airway obstruction and these include imaging, acoustic analysis, pressure transducer recording and endoscopic evaluation. It is essential to note that the nocturnal obstructive upper airway has limited muscle control compared to the tone of the upper airway lumen during wakefulness. Thus, if one were to attempt to identify the anatomical segments contributing to upper airway obstruction in sleep related breathing disorders; it must be borne in mind that evaluation of the airway must be performed if possible when the patient is awake and asleep albeit during drug induced sleep. This fact as such limits the use of imaging techniques for the purpose. Drug induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) was pioneered at Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital, London in 1990 and initially introduced as sleep nasendoscopy. The nomenclature and the technique has been modified by various Institutions but the core value of this evaluation technique remains similar and extremely useful for identifying the anatomical segment responsible for obstructing the upper airway during sleep in patients with sleep related breathing disorders. There have been numerous controversies that have surrounded this technique but over the last two decades most of these have been addressed and it now remains in the forefront of methods of evaluating the upper airway obstruction. A variety of sedative agents and different grading systems have been described and efforts to unify various aspects of the technique have been made. This

  9. Evaluation of oxidative stress markers in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and additional antioxidant therapy: a review article.

    PubMed

    Lira, Amanda Bastos; de Sousa Rodrigues, Célio Fernando

    2016-12-01

    The hypoxia and reoxygenation cycles in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) cause a change in the oxidative balance, leading to the formation of reactive oxygen species capable of reacting with other organic molecules impairing their functions. This study aimed to determine the best markers of oxidative stress in OSAS and what better antioxidant agent to be used to treat the disease. Searches were conducted in three different databases (PubMed, LILACS, SCIELO), using as descriptors the terms obstructive sleep apnea, oxidative stress, and antioxidant therapy. A total of 120 articles were found but only those considered of interest to the research were selected. Thus, 10 articles were included for further analysis regarding the biomarkers of oxidative stress in OSAS, and 6 articles to evaluate the antioxidant most often used for demonstration of efficacy. The thioredoxin, malondialdehyde, superoxide dysmutase, and reduced iron were the most commonly used biomarkers and showed a more consistent relationship between increased oxidative stress and OSAS. As antioxidant therapy, vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) presented interesting results as a reduction of oxidative stress, which may become an alternative to the complementary treatment of OSAS. This review's findings agree mostly to measure that the markers of oxidative stress in OSAS may be a contributing aspect to assessment and monitoring of patient, and the antioxidant therapy appears to be beneficial in the treatment of OSAS.

  10. Small bowel obstruction: A practical step-by-step evidence-based approach to evaluation, decision making, and management.

    PubMed

    Azagury, Dan; Liu, Rockson C; Morgan, Ashley; Spain, David A

    2015-10-01

    The initial goal of evaluating a patient with SBO is to immediately identify strangulation and need for urgent operative intervention, concurrent with rapid resuscitation. This relies on a combination of traditional clinical signs and CT findings. In patients without signs of strangulation, a protocol for administration of Gastrografin immediately in the emergency department efficiently sorts patients into those who will resolve their obstructions and those who will fail nonoperative management.Furthermore, because of the unique ability of Gastrografin to draw water into the bowel lumen, it expedites resolution of partial obstructions, shortening time to removal of nasogastric tube liberalization of diet, and discharge from the hospital. Implementation of such a protocol is a complex, multidisciplinary, and time-consuming endeavor. As such, we cannot over emphasize the importance of clear, open communication with everyone involved.If surgical management is warranted, we encourage an initial laparoscopic approach with open access. Even if this results in immediate conversion to laparotomy after assessment of the intra-abdominal status, we encourage this approach with a goal of 30% conversion rate or higher. This will attest that patients will have been given the highest likelihood of a successful laparoscopic LOA.

  11. Management of Acute Exacerbation of Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Suau, Salvador J; DeBlieux, Peter M C

    2016-02-01

    Acute asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are the most common respiratory diseases requiring emergent medical evaluation and treatment. Asthma and COPD are chronic, debilitating disease processes that have been differentiated traditionally by the presence or absence of reversible airflow obstruction. Asthma and COPD exacerbations impose an enormous economic burden on the US health care budget. In daily clinical practice, it is difficult to differentiate these 2 obstructive processes based on their symptoms, and on their nearly identical acute treatment strategies; major differences are important when discussing anatomic sites involved, long-term prognosis, and the nature of inflammatory markers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluating obesity in fibromyalgia: neuroendocrine biomarkers, symptoms, and functions.

    PubMed

    Okifuji, Akiko; Bradshaw, David H; Olson, Chrisana

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between obesity and fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). This study was conducted at the University of Utah Pain Management and Research Center, Salt Lake City, Utah. Thirty-eight FMS patients were included in this study. Neuroendocrine indices (catecholamines, cortisol, C-reactive protein [CRP], and interleukin-6), symptom measures (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire), sleep indices (Actigraph), and physical functioning (treadmill testing) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) provided the primary indicator of obesity. Approximately 50% of the patients were obese and an additional 21% were overweight. Strong positive associations were found between BMI and levels of IL-6 (r=0.52) and epinephrine (r=0.54), and somewhat weaker associations with cortisol (r=0.32) and CRP (r=0.37). BMI was also related to maximal heart rate (r=0.33) and inversely related to distance walked (r= -0.41). BMI was associated with disturbed sleep: total sleep time (r= -0.56) and sleep efficiency (r= -0.44). No associations between self-reported symptoms and BMI were found. This study provides preliminary evidence suggesting that obesity plays a role in FMS-related dysfunction.

  13. Sex differences in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease evaluated using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Miranda; Zhang, Wei; Laratta, Peter K.; Sin, Don D.; Lam, Stephen; Coxson, Harvey O.

    2014-03-01

    Although there are more women than men dying of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the United States and elsewhere, we still do not have a clear understanding of the differences in the pathophysiology of airflow obstruction between the sexes. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging imaging technology that has the capability of imaging small bronchioles with resolution approaching histology. Therefore, our objective was to compare OCT-derived airway wall measurements between males and females matched for lung size and in anatomically matched small airways. Subjects 50-80 yrs were enrolled in the British Columbia Lung Health Study and underwent OCT and spirometry. OCT was performed using a 1.5mm diameter probe/sheath in anatomically matched airways for males and females; the right lower lobe (RB8 or RB9) or left lower lobe (LB8 or LB9) during end-expiration. OCT airway wall area (Aaw) was obtained by manual segmentation. For males and females there was no significant difference in OCT Aaw (p=0.12). Spearman correlation coefficients indicated that the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and Aaw were significantly correlated for males (r=-0.78, p=0.004) but not for females (r=-0.20, p=0.49) matched for lung size. These novel OCT findings demonstrate that while there were no overall sex differences in airway wall thickness, the relationship between lung function and airway wall thickness was correlated only in men. Therefore, factors other than airway remodeling may be driving COPD pathogenesis in women and OCT may provide important information for investigating airway remodeling and its relationship with COPD progression.

  14. Evaluation of clinical comorbidities in cognitively impaired patients with depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Funari, Rossana Maria Russo; Mansur, Letícia Lessa; Varandas, Paulo Rogério Rosmaninho; Freitas, Maria Isabel D'Avila; Jacob Filho, Wilson

    2007-01-01

    In demented patients, depressive symptoms as well as cognition and clinical comorbidities can interact and induce a complex condition of severity and handicap. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of depressive symptoms in cognitively impaired patients on associated clinical comorbidities in geriatric patients. Methods One-hundred-thirty-eight (138) patients were divided into two groups: the first contained cognitively impaired patients with depressive symptoms while the second comprised cognitively impaired patients without depressive symptoms. To quantify comorbidities, the Modified CIRS Scale was used. Results Out of the 138 patients, 52 were cognitively impaired with depressive symptoms and 86 were cognitively impaired without depressive symptoms, both having mean CDR of 1.74 (moderate dementia). The patients with depressive symptoms used more drugs (4.98 per patient vs. 3.45 per patient without depressive symptoms; p=0.001), presented more comorbidities (3.24 per patient vs. 2.46 per patient without depressive symptoms; p=0.009). However, these comorbidities were neither more severe nor more complex in the patients with depressive symptoms, with mean Comorbidity Severity Index of 1.45 in patients with and 1.37 in patients without depressive symptoms (p= 0.078) and mean Comorbidity Complexity Index of 2.41 in patients with depressive symptoms and 2.01 in those without depressive symptoms (p=0.103). Conclusion Cognitively impaired patients with depressive symptoms had a greater absolute number of comorbidities and took more drugs although these comorbid diseases were less severe and complex than in non-depressive cognitively impaired patients. PMID:29213419

  15. PTSD symptom reports of patients evaluated for the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program.

    PubMed

    Greer, George R; Grob, Charles S; Halberstadt, Adam L

    2014-01-01

    New Mexico was the first state to list post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as a condition for the use of medical cannabis. There are no published studies, other than case reports, of the effects of cannabis on PTSD symptoms. The purpose of the study was to report and statistically analyze psychometric data on PTSD symptoms collected during 80 psychiatric evaluations of patients applying to the New Mexico Medical Cannabis Program from 2009 to 2011. The Clinician Administered Posttraumatic Scale for DSM-IV (CAPS) was administered retrospectively and symptom scores were then collected and compared in a retrospective chart review of the first 80 patients evaluated. Greater than 75% reduction in CAPS symptom scores were reported when patients were using cannabis compared to when they were not. Cannabis is associated with reductions in PTSD symptoms in some patients, and prospective, placebo-controlled study is needed to determine efficacy of cannabis and its constituents in treating PTSD.

  16. Evaluation of right ventricular remodeling using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in co-existent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bhavneesh; Neilan, Tomas G; Kwong, Raymond Y; Mandry, Damien; Owens, Robert L; McSharry, David; Bakker, Jessie P; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-02-01

    Untreated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) co-existing with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), also known as overlap syndrome, has higher cardiovascular mortality than COPD alone but its underlying mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesize that the presence of overlap syndrome is associated with more extensive right ventricular (RV) remodeling compared to patients with COPD alone. Adult COPD patients (GOLD stage 2 or higher) with at least 10 pack-years of smoking history were included. Overnight laboratory-based polysomnography was performed to test for OSA. Subjects with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) >10/h were classified as having overlap syndrome (n = 7), else classified as having COPD-only (n = 11). A cardiac MRI was performed to assess right and left cardiac chambers sizes, ventricular masses, and cine function. RV mass index (RVMI) was markedly higher in the overlap group than the COPD-only group (19 ± 6 versus 11 ± 6; p = 0.02). Overlap syndrome subjects had a reduced RV remodeling index (defined as the ratio between RVMI and RV end-diastolic volume index) compared to the COPD-only group (0.27 ± 0.06 versus 0.18 ± 0.08; p = 0.02). In the overlap syndrome subjects, the extent of RV remodeling was associated with severity of oxygen desaturation (R(2) = 0.65, p = 0.03). Our pilot results suggest that untreated overlap syndrome may cause more extensive RV remodeling than COPD alone.

  17. [Evaluation of the course of chronic obstructive lung diseases according to the classifications of the European Respiratory Society and the Global Initiative on Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Shergina, E A; Popova, L A

    2006-01-01

    In 91 patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), the severity of this disease according to the Classifications of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the Global Initiative on Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) was compared with that of pulmonary dysfunction according to the data of a comprehensive study, involving the determination of bronchial patency, lung volumes, capacities, and gas-exchange function. This follows that the ERS and GOLD classifications are to be positively appraised as they provide an eligible group of patients for clinical practice in terms of the severity of pulmonary dysfunction and that of COLD. However, the concomitant clinical use of both classifications cannot be regarded as justifiable due to that there are differences in the number of detectable grades (stages) of COLD and borderline (COLD differentiating grades (stages) values of EFV1). In this connection, both classifications have approximately equally significant merits and shortcomings and it is practically impossible to give preference to one of them as the best one. The optimal way out of the established situation is to develop a new (improved) classification of the severity of COLD on the bases of these two existing classifications.

  18. Intestinal obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the bowel may be due to: A mechanical cause, which means something is in the way ... lung disease Use of certain medicines, especially narcotics Mechanical causes of intestinal obstruction may include: Adhesions or ...

  19. Evaluation of Inhaled Procaterol for Potential Assist Use in Patients with Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Kodaka, Norio; Yamagishi, Toru; Watanabe, Kayo; Kishimoto, Kumiko; Nakano, Chihiro; Oshio, Takeshi; Niitsuma, Kumiko; Shimada, Nagashige; Matsuse, Hiroto

    2018-05-17

    International guidelines recommend the use of long-acting bronchodilators for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the usefulness of short-acting bronchodilator assist use for stable COPD remains uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to objectively demonstrate the effects of assist use of procaterol, a short-acting -agonist, on the respiratory mechanics of stable COPD patients treated with a long-acting bronchodilator using forced oscillation technique (FOT) and conventional spirometry. We also confirmed the length of time for which procaterol assist could significantly improve pulmonary function. We enrolled 28 outpatients with mild to severe COPD (GOLD stages I-III), who had used the same long-acting bronchodilator for longer than 3 months and who were in stable condition. All measures were performed using both FOT and spirometry sequentially from 15 min to 2 h after inhalation. Compared to baseline, inhaled procaterol assist use modestly but significantly improved spirometric and FOT measurements within 2 h after inhalation. These significant effects continued for at least 2 h. Significant correlations were found between parameters measured by spirometry and those measured by FOT. Procaterol assist use modestly but significantly improved pulmonary function determined by spirometry and respiratory mechanics in patients with stable COPD treated with long-acting bronchodilators. Thus, inhaled procaterol has potential for assist use for COPD. ©2018The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Three-dimensional photography for the evaluation of facial profiles in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Wei; Sutherland, Kate; Liao, Yu-Fang; Cistulli, Peter A; Chuang, Li-Pang; Chou, Yu-Ting; Chang, Chih-Hao; Lee, Chung-Shu; Li, Li-Fu; Chen, Ning-Hung

    2018-06-01

    Craniofacial structure is an important determinant of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome risk. Three-dimensional stereo-photogrammetry (3dMD) is a novel technique which allows quantification of the craniofacial profile. This study compares the facial images of OSA patients captured by 3dMD to three-dimensional computed tomography (3-D CT) and two-dimensional (2-D) digital photogrammetry. Measurements were correlated with indices of OSA severity. Thirty-eight patients diagnosed with OSA were included, and digital photogrammetry, 3dMD and 3-D CT were performed. Distances, areas, angles and volumes from the images captured by three methods were analysed. Almost all measurements captured by 3dMD showed strong agreement with 3-D CT measurements. Results from 2-D digital photogrammetry showed poor agreement with 3-D CT. Mandibular width, neck perimeter size and maxillary volume measurements correlated well with the severity of OSA using all three imaging methods. Mandibular length, facial width, binocular width, neck width, cranial base triangle area, cranial base area 1 and middle cranial fossa volume correlated well with OSA severity using 3dMD and 3-D CT, but not with 2-D digital photogrammetry. 3dMD provided accurate craniofacial measurements of OSA patients, which were highly concordant with those obtained by CT, while avoiding the radiation associated with CT. © 2018 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  1. Evaluation of a regional disease management programme for patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Steuten, Lotte; Vrijhoef, Bert; Van Merode, Frits; Wesseling, Geert-Jan; Spreeuwenberg, Cor

    2006-12-01

    To assess the impact of a population-based disease management programme for adult patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on process measures, intermediate outcomes, and endpoints of care. Quasi-experimental design with 12-month follow-up. Region of Maastricht (the Netherlands) including university hospital and 16 general practices. Nine hundred and seventy-five patients of whom 658 have asthma and 317 COPD. Disease management programme. Endpoints of care are respiratory health, health utility, patient satisfaction, and total health care costs related to asthma or COPD. Quality aspects of care, disease control, self-care behaviour, smoking status, disease-specific knowledge, and patients' satisfaction improved after implementation of the programme. Lung function was not affected by implementation of the programme. For COPD patients, a significant improvement in health utility was found. For patients with asthma, significant cost savings were measured. Organizing health care according to principles of disease management for adults with asthma or COPD is associated with significant improvements in several processes and outcomes of care, while costs of care do not exceed the existing budget.

  2. Evaluation of a self-management programme for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ap; Anderson, Jk; Wallace, Lm; Kennedy-Williams, P

    2014-06-30

    Self-management is becoming an important part of treatment for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We conducted a longitudinal survey of patients with COPD who attended a 7-week group-based lay and clinician co-delivered COPD self-management programme (SMP)to see whether they became more activated, enjoyed better health status, and quality of life, were less psychologically distressed and improved their self-management abilities. The main analysis was a per-protocol analysis (N = 131), which included only patients who attended ≥5 SMP sessions and who returned a 6-month follow-up questionnaires. Changes in the mean values of the patient outcomes were compared over time using paired t tests and general linear model for repeated measures. Patient activation significantly improved 6 months after the SMP (p < 0.001). There were also significant improvements in COPD mastery (p = 0.001) and significant improvements in a range of self-management abilities (self-monitoring and insight p = 0.03), constructive attitude shift (p = 0.04), skills and technique acquisition, (p < 0.001)). This study showed that a lay and clinician-led SMP for patients with COPD has the potential to produce improvements in important outcomes such as activation, mastery and self-management abilities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Evaluation of Self-Perceived Changes in Gastrointestinal Symptoms During Ramadan Fasting.

    PubMed

    Keshteli, A H; Sadeghpour, S; Feizi, A; Boyce, P; Adibi, P

    2017-10-01

    Little is known regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on common gastrointestinal symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the alterations of these symptoms in a healthy Iranian adult population during Ramadan. In a cross-sectional study, self-administered questionnaires were used to evaluate the alterations in seven groups of gastrointestinal symptoms (esophageal symptoms, dyspeptic symptoms, bloating and abdominal distension, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and nausea) after Ramadan. A total of 900 individuals participated in the study. Almost 87 % of participants reported to fast for at least 2 weeks during Ramadan. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found no relationship between alteration in frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms and Ramadan fasting, except for constipation which increased significantly after Ramadan fasting (odds ratio 1.99, 95 % confidence interval 1.05-3.80, P < 0.05). In addition, those who fasted for at least 2 weeks reported to experience severe or very severe constipation-related symptoms three times more in comparison with those who fasted for less than 2 weeks (P < 0.05). There was no relationship between severity of other gastrointestinal symptoms and Ramadan fasting. We found that Ramadan fasting does not increase frequency and severity of common gastrointestinal symptoms in the general population except for constipation that may be experienced more frequently and severely among those who fast for 2 weeks or more.

  4. Multi-component assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an evaluation of the ADO and DOSE indices and the global obstructive lung disease categories in international primary care data sets

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rupert C; Price, David; Chavannes, Niels H; Lee, Amanda J; Hyland, Michael E; Ställberg, Björn; Lisspers, Karin; Sundh, Josefin; van der Molen, Thys; Tsiligianni, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Suitable tools for assessing the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) include multi-component indices and the global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) categories. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dyspnoea, obstruction, smoking, exacerbation (DOSE) and the age, dyspnoea, obstruction (ADO) indices and GOLD categories as measures of current health status and future outcomes in COPD patients. This was an observational cohort study comprising 5,114 primary care COPD patients across three databases from UK, Sweden and Holland. The associations of DOSE and ADO indices with (i) health status using the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and COPD Assessment test (CAT) and with (ii) current and future exacerbations, admissions and mortality were assessed in GOLD categories and DOSE and ADO indices. DOSE and ADO indices were significant predictors of future exacerbations: incident rate ratio was 1.52 (95% confidence intervals 1.46–1.57) for DOSE, 1.16 (1.12–1.20) for ADO index and 1.50 (1.33–1.68) and 1.23 (1.10–1.39), respectively, for hospitalisations. Negative binomial regression showed that the DOSE index was a better predictor of future admissions than were its component items. The hazard ratios for mortality were generally higher for ADO index groups than for DOSE index groups. The GOLD categories produced widely differing assessments for future exacerbation risk or for hospitalisation depending on the methods used to calculate them. None of the assessment systems were excellent at predicting future risk in COPD; the DOSE index appears better than the ADO index for predicting many outcomes, but not mortality. The GOLD categories predict future risk inconsistently. The DOSE index and the GOLD categories using exacerbation frequency may be used to identify those at high risk for exacerbations and admissions. PMID:27053297

  5. Multi-component assessment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an evaluation of the ADO and DOSE indices and the global obstructive lung disease categories in international primary care data sets.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rupert C; Price, David; Chavannes, Niels H; Lee, Amanda J; Hyland, Michael E; Ställberg, Björn; Lisspers, Karin; Sundh, Josefin; van der Molen, Thys; Tsiligianni, Ioanna

    2016-04-07

    Suitable tools for assessing the severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) include multi-component indices and the global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD) categories. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dyspnoea, obstruction, smoking, exacerbation (DOSE) and the age, dyspnoea, obstruction (ADO) indices and GOLD categories as measures of current health status and future outcomes in COPD patients. This was an observational cohort study comprising 5,114 primary care COPD patients across three databases from UK, Sweden and Holland. The associations of DOSE and ADO indices with (i) health status using the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and COPD Assessment test (CAT) and with (ii) current and future exacerbations, admissions and mortality were assessed in GOLD categories and DOSE and ADO indices. DOSE and ADO indices were significant predictors of future exacerbations: incident rate ratio was 1.52 (95% confidence intervals 1.46-1.57) for DOSE, 1.16 (1.12-1.20) for ADO index and 1.50 (1.33-1.68) and 1.23 (1.10-1.39), respectively, for hospitalisations. Negative binomial regression showed that the DOSE index was a better predictor of future admissions than were its component items. The hazard ratios for mortality were generally higher for ADO index groups than for DOSE index groups. The GOLD categories produced widely differing assessments for future exacerbation risk or for hospitalisation depending on the methods used to calculate them. None of the assessment systems were excellent at predicting future risk in COPD; the DOSE index appears better than the ADO index for predicting many outcomes, but not mortality. The GOLD categories predict future risk inconsistently. The DOSE index and the GOLD categories using exacerbation frequency may be used to identify those at high risk for exacerbations and admissions.

  6. Self-evaluated and Close Relative-Evaluated Epworth Sleepiness Scale vs. Multiple Sleep Latency Test in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Zhang, Jihui; Lei, Fei; Liu, Hong; Li, Zhe; Tang, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine (1) the agreement in Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) evaluated by patients and their close relatives (CRs), and (2) the correlation of objective sleepiness as measured by multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) with self-evaluated and close relative-evaluated ESS. Methods: A total of 85 consecutive patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) (70 males, age 46.7 ± 12.9 years old) with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 5 events per hour (mean 38.9 ± 26.8/h) were recruited into this study. All participants underwent an overnight polysomnographic assessment (PSG), MSLT, and ESS rated by both patients and their CRs. Mean sleep latency < 8 min on MSLT was considered objective daytime sleepiness. Results: Self-evaluated global ESS score (ESSG) was closely correlated with evaluation by CRs (r = 0.79, p < 0.001); the mean ESSG score evaluated by patients did not significantly differ from that evaluated by CRs (p > 0.05). However, Bland- Altman plot showed individual differences between self-evaluated and CR-evaluated ESS scores, with a 95%CI of -9.3 to 7.0. The mean sleep latency on MSLT was significantly associated with CR-evaluated ESSG (r = -0.23, p < 0.05); significance of association with self-evaluated ESSG was marginal (r = -0.21, p = 0.05). Conclusions: CR-evaluated ESS has a good correlation but also significant individual disagreement with self-evaluated ESS in Chinese patients with OSA. CR-evaluated ESS performs as well as, if not better than, self-evaluated ESS in this population when referring to MSLT. Citation: Li Y; Zhang J; Lei F; Liu H; Li Z; Tang X. Self-evaluated and close relative-evaluated Epworth Sleepiness Scale vs. multiple sleep latency test in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(2):171-176. PMID:24533000

  7. Sudden Cardiac Death in Women With Suspected Ischemic Heart Disease, Preserved Ejection Fraction, and No Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease: A Report From the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation Study.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Puja K; Johnson, B Delia; Kenkre, Tanya S; Eteiba, Wafia; Sharaf, Barry; Pepine, Carl J; Reis, Steven E; Rogers, William J; Kelsey, Sheryl F; Thompson, Diane V; Bittner, Vera; Sopko, George; Shaw, Leslee J; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2017-08-21

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is often the first presentation of ischemic heart disease; however, there is limited information on SCD among women with and without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). We evaluated SCD incidence in the WISE (Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation) study. Overall, 904 women with suspected ischemic heart disease with preserved ejection fraction and core laboratory coronary angiography were followed for outcomes. In case of death, a death certificate and/or a physician or family narrative of the circumstances of death was obtained. A clinical events committee rated all deaths as cardiovascular or noncardiovascular and as SCD or non-SCD. In total, 96 women (11%) died over a median of 6 years (maximum: 8 years). Among 65 cardiovascular deaths, 42% were SCD. Mortality per 1000 person-hours increased linearly with CAD severity (no CAD: 5.8; minimal: 15.9; obstructive: 38.6; P <0.0001). However, the proportion of SCD was similar across CAD severity: 40%, 58%, and 38% for no, minimal, and obstructive CAD subgroups, respectively ( P value not significant). In addition to traditional risk factors (age, diabetes mellitus, smoking), a history of depression ( P =0.018) and longer corrected QT interval ( P =0.023) were independent SCD predictors in the entire cohort. Corrected QT interval was an independent predictor of SCD in women without obstructive CAD ( P =0.033). SCD contributes substantially to mortality in women with and without obstructive CAD. Corrected QT interval is the single independent SCD risk factor in women without obstructive CAD. In addition to management of traditional risk factors, these data indicate that further investigation should address mechanistic understanding and interventions targeting depression and corrected QT interval in women. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  8. Obstructed labour.

    PubMed

    Neilson, J P; Lavender, T; Quenby, S; Wray, S

    2003-01-01

    Obstructed labour is an important cause of maternal deaths in communities in which undernutrition in childhood is common resulting in small pelves in women, and in which there is no easy access to functioning health facilities with the capability of carrying out operative deliveries. Obstructed labour also causes significant maternal morbidity in the short term (notably infection) and long term (notably obstetric fistulas). Fetal death from asphyxia is also common. There are differences in the behaviour of the uterus during obstructed labour, depending on whether the woman has delivered previously. The pattern in primigravid women (typically diminishing contractility with risk of infection and fistula) may result from tissue acidosis, whereas in parous women, contractility may be maintained with the risk of uterine rupture. Ultimately, tackling the problem of obstructed labour will require universal adequate nutritional intake from childhood and the ability to access adequately equipped and staffed clinical facilities when problems arise in labour. These seem still rather distant aspirations. In the meantime, strategies should be implemented to encourage early recognition of prolonged labour and appropriate clinical responses. The sequelae of obstructed labour can be an enormous source of human misery and the prevention of obstetric fistulas, and skilled treatment if they do occur, are important priorities in regions where obstructed labour is still common.

  9. Online chemotherapy symptom care and patient management system: an evaluative study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Moon Fai; Ang, Neo Kim Emily; Cho, Aye Aye; Chow, Ying Leng; Taylor, Beverly

    2014-02-01

    Health delivery practices are shifting toward home care, because of better possibilities for managing chronic care, controlling health delivery costs, and increasing the quality of life and quality of health services, and the distinct possibility of predicting and thus avoiding serious complications. The study aimed to explore the benefits of an online Symptom Care and Management System in the home for patients receiving chemotherapy. A single-group experimental design was used. Thirty patients aged between 37 and 77 years undergoing their first or commencing a new course of chemotherapy treatment were recruited from November 2010 and December 2012 at a cancer center in Singapore. All patients used the Symptom Care and Management System to send daily symptom reports to the cancer center and received symptom management advice from the oncology nurse via teleconferencing during the first four chemotherapy treatment cycles. Patients' perceptions of the use of the Symptom Care and Management System were evaluated. All participants perceived the Symptom Care and Management System as a user-friendly interface and believed that they felt more involved in their care, and the system made it easier to understand some of the problems they experienced and helped them manage the symptoms more easily during the treatment. In addition, 29 participants (96.7%) felt that the nurse could contact them better via the Symptom Care and Management System, the Symptom Care and Management System helped them explain their symptoms to the nurse, and that it was simple to understand. The results presented in this study suggested that the Symptom Care and Management System has the potential to enhance remote monitoring and provides a feasible and acceptable way for a specific group of cancer patients to manage their symptoms at home.

  10. INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Whipple, G. H.; Stone, H. B.; Bernheim, B. M.

    1913-01-01

    Closed duodenal loops may be made in dogs by ligatures placed just below the pancreatic duct and just beyond the duodenojejunal junction, together with a posterior gastro-enterostomy. These closed duodenal loop dogs die with symptoms like those of patients suffering from volvulus or high intestinal obstruction. This duodenal loop may simulate closely a volvulus in which there has been no vascular disturbance. Dogs with closed duodenal loops which have been washed out carefully survive a little longer on the average than animals with unwashed loops. The duration of life in the first instance is one to three days, with an average of about forty-eight hours. The dogs usually lose considerable fluid by vomiting and diarrhea. A weak pulse, low blood pressure and temperature are usually conspicuous in the last stages. Autopsy shows more or less splanchnic congestion which may be most marked in the mucosa of the upper small intestine. The peritoneum is usually clear and the closed loop may be distended with thin fluid, or collapsed, and contain only a small amount of pasty brown material. The mucosa of the loop may show ulceration and even perforation, but in the majority of cases it is intact and exhibits only a moderate congestion. Simple intestinal obstruction added to a closed duodenal loop does not modify the result in any manner, but it may hasten the fatal outcome. The liver plays no essential role as a protective agent against this poison, for a dog with an Eck fistula may live three days with a closed loop. A normal dog reacts to intraportal injection and to intravenous injection of the toxic substance in an identical manner. Drainage of this loop under certain conditions may not interfere with the general health over a period of weeks or months. Excision of the part of the duodenum included in this loop causes no disturbance. The material from the closed duodenal loops contains no bile, pancreatic juice, gastric juice, or split products from the food. It can be

  11. Clinical Guideline for the Evaluation, Management and Long-term Care of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common chronic disorder that often requires lifelong care. Available practice parameters provide evidence-based recommendations for addressing aspects of care. Objective: This guideline is designed to assist primary care providers as well as sleep medicine specialists, surgeons, and dentists who care for patients with OSA by providing a comprehensive strategy for the evaluation, management and long-term care of adult patients with OSA. Methods: The Adult OSA Task Force of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) was assembled to produce a clinical guideline from a review of existing practice parameters and available literature. All existing evidence-based AASM practice parameters relevant to the evaluation and management of OSA in adults were incorporated into this guideline. For areas not covered by the practice parameters, the task force performed a literature review and made consensus recommendations using a modified nominal group technique. Recommendations: Questions regarding OSA should be incorporated into routine health evaluations. Suspicion of OSA should trigger a comprehensive sleep evaluation. The diagnostic strategy includes a sleep-oriented history and physical examination, objective testing, and education of the patient. The presence or absence and severity of OSA must be determined before initiating treatment in order to identify those patients at risk of developing the complications of sleep apnea, guide selection of appropriate treatment, and to provide a baseline to establish the effectiveness of subsequent treatment. Once the diagnosis is established, the patient should be included in deciding an appropriate treatment strategy that may include positive airway pressure devices, oral appliances, behavioral treatments, surgery, and/or adjunctive treatments. OSA should be approached as a chronic disease requiring long-term, multidisciplinary management. For each treatment option, appropriate outcome

  12. Can the inflammatory response be evaluated using 18F-FDG within zones of microvascular obstruction after myocardial infarction?

    PubMed

    Prato, Frank S; Butler, John; Sykes, Jane; Keenliside, Lynn; Blackwood, Kimberley J; Thompson, R Terry; White, James A; Mikami, Yoko; Thiessen, Jonathan D; Wisenberg, Gerald

    2015-02-01

    Inflammation that occurs after acute myocardial infarction plays a pivotal role in healing by facilitating the creation of a supportive scar. (18)F-FDG, which is taken up avidly by macrophages, has been proposed as a marker of cell-based inflammation. However, its reliability as an accurate indicator of inflammation has not been established, particularly in the early postinfarction period when regional myocardial perfusion is often severely compromised. Nine adult dogs underwent left anterior descending coronary occlusion with or without reperfusion. Animals were imaged between 7 and 21 d after infarction with PET/MR imaging after bolus injection of gadolinium-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), bolus injection of (18)F-FDG, bolus injection of (99)Tc-DTPA to simulate the distribution of gadolinium-DTPA (which represents its partition coefficient in well-perfused tissue), and injection of (111)In-labeled white blood cells 24 h earlier. After sacrifice, myocardial tissue concentrations of (18)F, (111)In, and (99)Tc were determined in a well counter. Linear regression analysis evaluated the relationships between the concentrations of (111)In and (18)F and the dependence of the ratio of (111)In/(18)F to the apparent distribution volume of (99m)Tc-DTPA. In 7 of 9 animals, (111)In increased as (18)F increased with the other 2 animals, showing weak negative slopes. With respect to the dependence of (111)In/(18)F with partition coefficient, 4 animals showed no dependence and 4 showed a weak positive slope, with 1 animal showing a negative slope. Further, in regions of extensive microvascular obstruction, (18)F significantly underestimated the extent of the presence of (111)In. In the early post-myocardial infarction period, (18)F-FDG PET imaging after a single bolus administration may underestimate the extent and degree of inflammation within regions of microvascular obstruction. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  13. Transesophageal color Doppler evaluation of obstructive lesions using the new "Quasar" technology.

    PubMed

    Fan, P; Nanda, N C; Gatewood, R P; Cape, E G; Yoganathan, A P

    1995-01-01

    Due to the unavoidable problem of aliasing, color flow signals from high blood flow velocities cannot be measured directly by conventional color Doppler. A new technology termed Quantitative Un-Aliased Speed Algorithm Recognition (Quasar) has been developed to overcome this limitation. Employing this technology, we used transesophageal color Doppler echocardiography to investigate whether the velocities detected by the Quasar would correlate with those obtained by continuous-wave Doppler both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro study, a 5.0 MHz transesophageal transducer of a Kontron Sigma 44 color Doppler flow system was used. Fourteen different peak velocities calculated and recorded by color Doppler-guided continuous-wave Doppler were randomly selected. In the clinical study, intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography was performed using the same transducer 18 adults (13 aortic valve stenosis, 2 aortic and 2 mitral stenosis, 2 hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and 1 mitral valve stenosis). Following each continuous-wave Doppler measurement, the Quasar was activated, and a small Quasar marker was placed in the brightest area of the color flow jet to obtain the maximum mean velocity readout. The maximum mean velocities measured by Quasar closely correlated with maximum peak velocities obtained by color flow guided continuous-wave Doppler in both in vitro (0.53 to 1.65 m/s, r = 0.99) and in vivo studies (1.50 to 6.01 m/s, r = 0.97). We conclude that the new Quasar technology can accurately measure high blood flow velocities during transesophageal color Doppler echocardiography. This technique has the potential of obviating the need for continuous-wave Doppler.

  14. Initial Evaluation of a Titration Appliance for Temporary Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Levendowski, Daniel J; Morgan, Todd; Westbrook, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Custom oral appliances that adjustably advance the mandible provide superior outcomes when treating patients with moderate or severe sleep apnea. Custom appliances, however, are expensive, must be fitted by a dentist, and the likelihood of successful outcomes are difficult to predict. An inexpensive trial appliance, if proven efficacious, might be used to predict custom appliance outcomes or to provide temporary therapeutic benefit. The aim of this initial study was to assess the treatment efficacy of a novel titration oral appliance with that of an optimized custom appliance. Seventeen patients, treated with a custom oral appliance for at least one year, successfully completed a three-night home sleep test. The baseline obstructive sleep apnea severity was established on Night 1 with seven patients exhibiting severe, six moderate and four mild apnea/hypopnea indexes. Patients were randomly assigned to wear their custom appliance or the titration appliance on Nights 2 and 3. Significant reductions in the mean overall and supine apnea indexes (p < 0.05), and the overall (p < 0.01) and supine (p < 0.05) apnea/hypopnea indexes were observed for both the titration and custom appliances. The proportion of patients who exhibited at least a 50% reduction in the overall apnea index and supine apnea/hypopnea were similar for the titration and custom appliance (~60%). The custom appliance reduced the overall apnea/hypopnea index by 50% in a greater proportion of the patients compared to the titration appliance (77% vs. 53%). The titration appliance significantly reduced the degree of hypoxic exposure across sleep disordered breathing events overall (p < 0.05) and supine (p < 0.01). Patients found their custom appliance was more comfortable than the titration appliance, but preferred the titration appliance to no therapy. The titration appliance may be useful in assessing oral appliance treatment efficacy. When set to 70% of maximum protrusion, the titration appliance may

  15. Initial Evaluation of a Titration Appliance for Temporary Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Levendowski, Daniel J.; Morgan, Todd; Westbrook, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Background Custom oral appliances that adjustably advance the mandible provide superior outcomes when treating patients with moderate or severe sleep apnea. Custom appliances, however, are expensive, must be fitted by a dentist, and the likelihood of successful outcomes are difficult to predict. An inexpensive trial appliance, if proven efficacious, might be used to predict custom appliance outcomes or to provide temporary therapeutic benefit. Objective The aim of this initial study was to assess the treatment efficacy of a novel titration oral appliance with that of an optimized custom appliance. Methods Seventeen patients, treated with a custom oral appliance for at least one year, successfully completed a three-night home sleep test. The baseline obstructive sleep apnea severity was established on Night 1 with seven patients exhibiting severe, six moderate and four mild apnea/hypopnea indexes. Patients were randomly assigned to wear their custom appliance or the titration appliance on Nights 2 and 3. Results Significant reductions in the mean overall and supine apnea indexes (p < 0.05), and the overall (p < 0.01) and supine (p < 0.05) apnea/hypopnea indexes were observed for both the titration and custom appliances. The proportion of patients who exhibited at least a 50% reduction in the overall apnea index and supine apnea/hypopnea were similar for the titration and custom appliance (~60%). The custom appliance reduced the overall apnea/hypopnea index by 50% in a greater proportion of the patients compared to the titration appliance (77% vs. 53%). The titration appliance significantly reduced the degree of hypoxic exposure across sleep disordered breathing events overall (p < 0.05) and supine (p < 0.01). Patients found their custom appliance was more comfortable than the titration appliance, but preferred the titration appliance to no therapy. Conclusion The titration appliance may be useful in assessing oral appliance treatment efficacy. When set to 70% of

  16. Economic Evaluation of Community-Based Case Management of Patients Suffering From Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Sabrina Storgaard; Pedersen, Kjeld Møller; Weinreich, Ulla Møller; Ehlers, Lars

    2017-06-01

    To analyse the cost effectiveness of community-based case management for patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The study took place in the third largest municipality in Denmark and was conducted as a randomised controlled trial with 12 months of follow-up. A total of 150 patients with COPD were randomised into two groups receiving usual care and case management in addition to usual care. Case management included among other things self care proficiency, medicine compliance, and care coordination. Outcome measure for the analysis was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) as cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) from the perspective of the healthcare sector. Costs were valued in British Pounds (£) at price level 2016. Scenario analyses and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted in order to assess uncertainty of the ICER estimate. The intervention resulted in a QALY improvement of 0.0146 (95% CI -0.0216; 0.0585), and a cost increase of £494 (95% CI -1778; 2766) per patient. No statistically significant difference was observed either in costs or effects. The ICER was £33,865 per QALY gained. Scenario analyses confirmed the robustness of the result and revealed slightly lower ICERs of £28,100-£31,340 per QALY. Analysis revealed that case management led to a positive incremental QALY, but were more costly than usual care. The highly uncertain ICER somewhat exceeds for instance the threshold value used by the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE). No formally established Danish threshold value exists. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01512836.

  17. Economic evaluation of a disease management program for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Naresh A; Rice, Kathryn L; Caldwell, Michael; Hilleman, Daniel E

    2011-06-01

    The data on cost savings with disease management (DM) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is limited. A multicomponent DM program in COPD has recently shown in a large randomized controlled trial to reduce hospitalizations and emergency department visits compared to usual care (UC). The objectives of this study were to determine the cost of implementing the DM program and its impact on healthcare resource utilization costs compared to UC in high-risk COPD patients. This study was a post-hoc economic analysis of a multicenter randomized, adjudicator-blinded, controlled, 1-year trial comparing DM and UC at 5 Midwest region Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers. Health-care costs (hospitalizations, ED visits, respiratory medications, and the cost of the DM intervention) were compared in the COPD DM intervention and UC groups. The composite outcome for all hospitalizations or ED visits were 27% lower in the DM group (123.8 mean events per 100 patient-years) compared to the UC group (170.5 mean events per 100 patient-years) (rate ratio 0.73; 0.56-0.90; p < 0.003). The cost of the DM intervention was $241,620 or $650 per patient. The total mean ± SD per patient cost that included the cost of DM in the DM group was 4491 ± 4678 compared to $5084 ± 5060 representing a $593 per patient cost savings for the DM program. The DM intervention program in this study was unique for producing an average cost savings of $593 per patient after paying for the cost of DM intervention.

  18. Evaluation of MIh Scoring System in Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinxing; Du, Junwei; Ling, Xiaobo; Lu, Yangfei

    2017-10-02

    BACKGROUND The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the analysis of magnesium (Mg), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) concentrations can be used as a non-invasive and convenient method for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). MATERIAL AND METHODS After polysomnography, venous blood was collected from 33 patients with OSAS and 30 control individuals. Serum levels of Mg, hsCRP, and IMA were investigated. The relationship between these factors and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. The role of the factors was determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS The levels of hsCRP and IMA were significantly higher in patients with OSAS than in control subjects, while the levels of Mg were lower (P<0.05 for all). A significant correlation was noted between serum IMA (r=0.614; P<0.001) and hsCRP (r=0.453; P<0.001) levels and the AHI. The ROC showed that serum Mg (AUC=0.74(0.62-0.85)), hsCRP (AUC=0.77(0.65-0.87)), and IMA (AUC=0.78(0.66-0.87)) levels could be used as markers to diagnose OSAS. Moreover, our new model, MIh, which is obtained by multivariate analysis, yielded an AUC value of 0.93 (0.83-0.98). Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment reversed the changes in the serum levels of Mg, hsCRP, and IMA. CONCLUSIONS Patients with OSAS show reduced serum Mg levels and elevated serum hsCRP and IMA levels. These observed alterations can be reversed by CPAP treatment. A novel model, named MIh, may be a promising tool for OSAS diagnosis.

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea and asthma*

    PubMed Central

    Salles, Cristina; Terse-Ramos, Regina; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Cruz, Álvaro A

    2013-01-01

    Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), are common in asthma patients and have been associated with asthma severity. It is known that asthma symptoms tend to be more severe at night and that asthma-related deaths are most likely to occur during the night or early morning. Nocturnal symptoms occur in 60-74% of asthma patients and are markers of inadequate control of the disease. Various pathophysiological mechanisms are related to the worsening of asthma symptoms, OSAS being one of the most important factors. In patients with asthma, OSAS should be investigated whenever there is inadequate control of symptoms of nocturnal asthma despite the treatment recommended by guidelines having been administered. There is evidence in the literature that the use of continuous positive airway pressure contributes to asthma control in asthma patients with obstructive sleep apnea and uncontrolled asthma. PMID:24310634

  20. The Evaluation of Interstitial Abnormalities in Group B of the 2011 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Classification of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    PubMed

    Ohgiya, Masahiro; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Tamura, Atsuhisa; Kato, Takafumi; Akagawa, Shinobu; Ohta, Ken

    2017-10-15

    Objective In 2011, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification categorized chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients into 4 groups. A report demonstrated that the mortality in Group B was higher than that in Group C. Ischemic heart disease and cancer were suggested to be the cause. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that interstitial lung abnormalities (ILAs) are more prevalent in Group B than Group C and that they may be responsible for the higher mortality in Group B. Methods Patients were selected based on their pulmonary function test results. The inclusion criterion was a forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC) of <70% after the inhalation of a bronchodilator. Patients without a smoking history or computed tomography (CT) scan were excluded. The medical records of the patients were retrospectively reviewed, and the selected patients were categorized into Groups A to D. High-resolution CT scans were used to investigate the presence of ILAs and determine the low attenuation area (LAA). Results Among the 349 COPD patients, ILAs were detected in 10.3% of the patients in Group A, 22.5% of the patients in Group B, 5.6% of the patients in Group C, and 23.1% of the patients in Group D. In Group B, the frequency of ILAs was significantly higher and the area affected by the ILAs was significantly greater in comparison to Group C. Among the patterns of interstitial abnormalities, the area of honeycombing in Group B was significantly greater than that in Group C. Furthermore, among the patients in Group B, the LAA in the ILA-positive patients was significantly greater than that in the ILA-negative patients. Conclusion In Group B, the area occupied by ILAs-especially honeycombing-was greater than that in Group C. This contributed to the preserved %FEV 1 and possibly to the poorer prognosis of the patients in Group B.

  1. Scintigraphic Evaluation of Esophageal Motility and Gastroesophageal Reflux in Patients Presenting with Upper Respiratory Tract Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Amalachandran, Jaykanth; Simon, Shelley; Elangoven, Indirani; Jain, Avani; Sivathapandi, Thangalakshmi

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of Study: The purpose is to evaluate the findings and utility of esophageal transit scintigraphy (ETS) and gastroesophageal reflux scintigraphy (GES) in patients presenting with upper respiratory tract (URT) symptoms suspected to be due to gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients aged between 19 and 60 years underwent nasopharyngolaryngoscopy (NPL), ETS, and GES. Correlation between GER, esophageal motility, and NPL was evaluated. Inclusion criteria include patients with recurrent URT symptoms such as chronic dry cough/hoarseness of voice and itching/foreign body sensation in throat. Those with typical gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of GER, URT symptoms relieved by antibiotics, surgical intervention in abdomen, cardiac/hepatobiliary diseases, etc. were excluded from the study. Results: Significant correlation was found between GER and NPL in 28/30 patients. More the grade of reflux, more severe was the NPL findings. Two patients with Grade II reflux had normal NPL suggesting structural inflammatory changes due to acidic pH of refluxate which have not yet manifested or symptoms could be due to nonacid refluxate. Incidence of esophageal motility disorder was statistically significant in patients with GER disease (GERD). Patients who had symptoms, but no demonstrable GER showed delayed ET in supine position suggesting the presence of esophageal motility disorder even before GERD. Conclusion: GES demonstrated GER in patients presenting with URT symptoms without typical GI symptoms. ETS showed coexistence of esophageal motility disorder in most patients presenting with URT symptoms even without an associated reflux disease. We hypothesize that primary abnormal esophageal motility leads to delayed esophageal clearance and consequently to URT symptoms. Addition of ETS to GES is easily feasible with no significant additional cost, time, or radiation burden. PMID:29430111

  2. [Electrocautery and bronchoscopy as a first step for the management of central airway obstruction and associated hemoptysis].

    PubMed

    Jalilie, Alfredo; Carvajal, Juan Carlos; Aparicio, Rodrigo; Meneses, Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Central airway obstruction caused by malignant or benign lesions, associated in some cases with hemoptysis, is a condition with high morbidity and mortality. The use of electrocautery by flexible bronchoscopy is an initial treatment option with immediate improvement of obstruction symptoms. It is as effective as Nd: YAG laser. To describe the usefulness of electrocautery in the management of central obstruction of the airway and hemoptysis. A retrospective, descriptive study of patients referred for management of central airway obstruction or associated hemoptysis. Diagnoses, symptoms (dyspnea, cough, and hemoptysis) and radiology before and after the procedures were analyzed. Eighteen patients aged 59 ± 12 years (66% males) were evaluated, registering 25 endoscopic procedures. Three conditions were found: partial or complete airway obstruction, hemoptysis and post lung transplant bronchial stenosis. Seventy two percent presented with dyspnea, 61% with cough and 33% with hemoptysis. Sixty six percent of patients had airway obstruction caused by malignant metastatic lesions. After electrocautery, 17 patients (94.4%) improved their symptoms and achieved complete airway clearing. Three patients had significant bronchial stenosis after lung transplant achieving subsequent clearing after electrocautery. Electrocautery during flexible bronchoscopy is an effective and safe procedure for the management of central airway obstruction and associated hemoptysis.

  3. Evaluation of choroidal thickness in patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kara, Selcuk; Ozcimen, Muammer; Bekci, Taha Tahir; Sakarya, Yasar; Gencer, Baran; Tufan, Hasan Ali; Arikan, Sedat

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To compare the subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) of patients with different severities of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and normal controls via enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Methods: In this retrospective, case-control study, 49 eyes from 49 patients that had undergone polysomnography were included. SFCT of the horizontal and vertical line scans were manually measured for all eyes based on EDI-OCT images. Two separate analyses were performed according to different apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) groupings. Initial testing was conducted using non-OSAHS, mild OSAHS (5≤AHI<15), moderate OSAHS (15≤AHI<30), and severe OSAHS (AHI≥30) patient groupings, while secondary testing used non-OSAHS, mild OSAHS (5≤AHI<15), and moderate/severe OSAHS (AHI≥15) patient groupings. Results: The mean SFCT was 314.5 μm in the non-OSAHS patients (n=14), 324.5 μm in the mild OSAHS patients (n=15), 269.3 μm in the moderate OSAHS patients (n=11), and 264.3 μm in the severe OSAHS patients (n=9). SFCT between the four groups revealed no significant differences despite a trend towards slight thinning in the severe group (P=0.08). When the moderate and severe groups were merged and compared with the mild OASHS and non-OSAHS groups, SFCT of the moderate/severe group was found to be significantly thinner than that of the mild group (P=0.016). A negative significant correlation was found between SFCT and AHI in OSAHS patients (r=0.368, P=0.033). Conclusions: In patients with moderate/severe OSAHS, EDI-OCT revealed a thinned SFCT. Other accompanying systemic or ocular diseases may induce perfusion and oxygenation deficiency in eyes of OSAHS patients. Further studies are required in order to determine the exact relationships between ocular pathologies and clinical grades of OSAHS.

  4. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Residual Symptoms and Impairment in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, William; Roseborough, David

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral interventions in the treatment of persons with schizophrenia who experienced significant residual symptoms and impaired functioning despite their adherence to medication. The study used an aggregated AB single-system research design across 22 participants to evaluate change in clinical…

  5. Oral appliance therapy versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial on self-reported symptoms of common sleep disorders and sleep-related problems.

    PubMed

    Nikolopoulou, M; Byraki, A; Ahlberg, J; Heymans, M W; Hamburger, H L; De Lange, J; Lobbezoo, F; Aarab, G

    2017-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with several sleep disorders and sleep-related problems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of a mandibular advancement device (MAD) with those of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) on self-reported symptoms of common sleep disorders and sleep-related problems in mild and moderate OSAS patients. In this randomised placebo-controlled trial, sixty-four OSAS patients (52·0 ± 9·6 years) were randomly assigned to an MAD, nCPAP or an intra-oral placebo appliance in a parallel design. All participants filled out the validated Dutch Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SDQ) twice: one before treatment and one after six months of treatment. With 88 questions, thirteen scales were constructed, representing common sleep disorders and sleep-related problems. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to study differences between the groups for the different SDQ scales over time. The MAD group showed significant improvements over time in symptoms corresponding with 'insomnia', 'excessive daytime sleepiness', 'psychiatric sleep disorder', 'periodic limb movements', 'sleep apnoea', 'sleep paralysis', 'daytime dysfunction', 'hypnagogic hallucinations/dreaming', 'restless sleep', 'negative conditioning' and 'automatic behaviour' (range of P values: 0·000-0·014). These improvements in symptoms were, however, not significantly different from the improvements in symptoms observed in the nCPAP and placebo groups (range of P values: 0·090-0·897). It can be concluded that there is no significant difference between MAD and nCPAP in their positive effects on self-reported symptoms of common sleep disorders and sleep-related problems in mild and moderate OSAS patients. These beneficial effects may be a result of placebo effects. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Evaluating depressive symptoms in mania: a naturalistic study of patients with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Young, Allan H; Eberhard, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) who have mania with depressive symptoms and who meet the new “with mixed features” specifier of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). Method This prospective, multinational, naturalistic study surveyed psychiatrists and their patients with BD-I from October 2013 to March 2014. Eligible patients had BD-I, had a (current) manic episode, and had experienced onset of a manic episode within the previous 3 months. Psychiatrists provided patient information on depressive symptoms (DSM-5 criteria); symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation; suicide attempts; and physician satisfaction with treatment response. Data were stratified according to whether patients met the criteria for the BD-I “with mixed features” specifier of DSM-5 (≥3 depressive symptoms) or not, and characteristics were compared between the two subgroups. Patients also self-reported on depressive symptoms using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview module questionnaire. Results Overall, 34% of 1,035 patients met the criteria for BD-I “with mixed features,” exhibiting ≥3 depressive symptoms during their current manic episode. This correlated with the matched patient self-reports of depressive symptoms. During their current manic episode, BD-I patients “with mixed features” had more severe symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation (average composite severity score of 4.1 vs 3.4), a higher incidence of suicide attempts (38% vs 9%), and more physician dissatisfaction with treatment response (22% vs 14%), compared to patients with 0–2 depressive symptoms (all P<0.05). Conclusion This study found that patients with BD-I “with mixed features” (ie, ≥3 depressive symptoms during a manic episode), suffered, on average, from a greater burden of disease than patients with pure mania. Improved identification of these patients may help to optimize

  7. Evaluating depressive symptoms in mania: a naturalistic study of patients with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Young, Allan H; Eberhard, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) who have mania with depressive symptoms and who meet the new "with mixed features" specifier of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). This prospective, multinational, naturalistic study surveyed psychiatrists and their patients with BD-I from October 2013 to March 2014. Eligible patients had BD-I, had a (current) manic episode, and had experienced onset of a manic episode within the previous 3 months. Psychiatrists provided patient information on depressive symptoms (DSM-5 criteria); symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation; suicide attempts; and physician satisfaction with treatment response. Data were stratified according to whether patients met the criteria for the BD-I "with mixed features" specifier of DSM-5 (≥3 depressive symptoms) or not, and characteristics were compared between the two subgroups. Patients also self-reported on depressive symptoms using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview module questionnaire. Overall, 34% of 1,035 patients met the criteria for BD-I "with mixed features," exhibiting ≥3 depressive symptoms during their current manic episode. This correlated with the matched patient self-reports of depressive symptoms. During their current manic episode, BD-I patients "with mixed features" had more severe symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation (average composite severity score of 4.1 vs 3.4), a higher incidence of suicide attempts (38% vs 9%), and more physician dissatisfaction with treatment response (22% vs 14%), compared to patients with 0-2 depressive symptoms (all P<0.05). This study found that patients with BD-I "with mixed features" (ie, ≥3 depressive symptoms during a manic episode), suffered, on average, from a greater burden of disease than patients with pure mania. Improved identification of these patients may help to optimize treatment outcomes.

  8. Evaluation of a fully covered self-expanding metal stent with flared ends in malignant biliary obstruction: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Kahaleh, Michel; Talreja, Jayant P; Loren, David E; Kowalski, Thomas E; Poneros, John M; Degaetani, Marisa; Raijman, Isaac; Sejpal, Divyesh V; Patel, Sandeep; Rosenkranz, Lauren; McNamara, Kevin N; Brijbassie, Alan; Wang, Andrew Y; Gaidhane, Monica; Sethi, Amrita; Stevens, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    Limited data are available regarding fully covered metal stents in the management of malignant distal biliary strictures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety of a fully covered self-expanding metal stent (FCSEMS) with flared ends, in treating malignant biliary strictures. We report our long-term retrospective analysis from 6 centers. A total of 260 patients (142 males, median age 68 y) underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with placement of FCSEMS (WallFlex; Boston Scientific, Natick, MA) for the palliation of obstructive jaundice in the setting of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (169), metastatic disease (36), cholangiocarcinoma (23), ampullary cancer (19), or other (13). Patients were evaluated clinically in follow-up and biochemical tests of liver function were obtained. Data were recorded for the following variables: patient survival, duration of stent patency, the need for subsequent biliary intervention, and complications. A total of 266 FCSEMS were placed in 260 patients. There was a median survival of 100 days (range, 7 to 531 d). There was a mean follow-up of 134±118 days (range, 4 to 519 d). Biliary decompression was successful in 252 patients (97%). At the end of the study period, 121 were alive with a patent stent, 65 patients died with a patent stent, 40 patients were successfully bridged to surgery, 8 patients had their patent stent removed and had no need for further stenting, and 18 patients were lost to follow-up. Five patients who had a successfully placed FCSEMS were considered a failure due to the following reason: migration (2), cholangitis (1), stent occlusion (1), and removal for management of proximal biliary obstruction (1). Two additional patients experienced migration that did not require FCSEMS removal or replacement. Stent replacement was required in 10 patients, of whom 6 had a second FCSEMS placed. The remaining 4 were in the failure group and underwent replacement with either uncovered stents or plastic

  9. A Comprehensive Evaluation of a Two-Channel Portable Monitor to “Rule in” Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Kim L.; McArdle, Nigel; James, Alan; Bremner, Alexandra P.; Simpson, Laila; Cooper, Matthew N.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Fedson, Annette C.; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Hillman, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: We hypothesized that a dual-channel portable monitor (PM) device could accurately identify patients who have a high pretest probability of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and we evaluated factors that may contribute to variability between PM and polysomnography (PSG) results. Methods: Consecutive clinic patients (N = 104) with possible OSA completed a home PM study, a PM study simultaneous with laboratory PSG, and a second home PM study. Uniform data analysis methods were applied to both PM and PSG data. Primary outcomes of interest were the positive likelihood ratio (LR+) and sensitivity of the PM device to “rule-in” OSA, defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5 events/h on PSG. Effects of different test environment and study nights, and order of study and analysis methods (manual compared to automated) on PM diagnostic accuracy were assessed. Results: The PM has adequate LR+ (4.8), sensitivity (80%), and specificity (83%) for detecting OSA in the unattended home setting when benchmarked against laboratory PSG, with better LR+ (> 5) and specificity (100%) and unchanged sensitivity (80%) in the simultaneous laboratory comparison. There were no significant night-night (all p > 0.10) or study order effects (home or laboratory first, p = 0.08) on AHI measures. Manual PM data review improved case finding accuracy, although this was not statistically significant (all p > 0.07). Misclassification was more frequent where OSA was mild. Conclusions: Overall performance of the PM device is consistent with current recommended criteria for an “acceptable” device to confidently “rule-in” OSA (AHI ≥ 5 events/h) in a high pretest probability clinic population. Our data support the utility of simple two-channel diagnostic devices to confirm the diagnosis of OSA in the home environment. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 411. Citation: Ward KL, McArdle N, James A, Bremner AP, Simpson L, Cooper MN, Palmer LJ

  10. Evaluation of posterior ocular changes using enhanced depth imaging-optical coherence tomography in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yuvacı, İsa; Pangal, Emine; Bayram, Nurettin; Yüksel, Sevgi Arık; Alabay, Bedirhan; Ağadayı, Alperen; Sırakaya, Ender; Gülhan, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of the nerve fiber thicknesses of the macula, choroid, and retina using the apnea-hypopnea index in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) without systemic components. Prospective, controlled study. The central macular, choroidal, and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses were evaluated using enhanced depth imaging-spectral domain optical coherence tomography in individuals with OSAS. In people with severe OSAS who had received treatment, posterior ocular structures were examined over 3 months (4th and 12th weeks), and changes were evaluated. Only the right eyes of the participants were evaluated in the study. A total of 72 people were involved in the study, with 18 in the control group and 19 with mild, 16 with moderate, and 19 with severe OSAS. No significant difference was found among the groups in terms of demographic measures. No significant differences were found among the groups in terms of the measures of central macular, central subfoveal choroidal (CSCT), temporal choroidal, nasal choroidal, and RNFL thicknesses. In severe OSAS cases in which treatment was administered, although subjective clinical recovery was observed, statistically significant thinning was detected during the 3-month follow-up period in the CSCT, general RNFL, as well as in the inferior and superior nasal quadrants, and temporal superior quadrant (p=0.005, p=0.009, p=0.039, p=0.003, and p=0.02, respectively). In the group with severe OSAS, thinning in some posterior ocular tissues was observed. Although patients with severe OSAS may experience clinical recovery, we recommend that they would be followed up in terms of ocular ischemic injury.

  11. Adult obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Amy S.; McSharry, David G.; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is an increasingly common disorder of repeated upper airway collapse during sleep, which leads to oxygen desaturation and disrupted sleep. Symptoms include snoring, witnessed apnoeas, and sleepiness. Pathogenesis varies; predisposing factors include small upper airway lumen, unstable respiratory control, low arousal threshold, small lung volume, and dysfunctional upper airway dilator muscles. Risk factors include obesity, male sex, age, menopause, fluid retention, adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and smoking. Obstructive sleep apnoea causes sleepiness, road traffic accidents, and probably systemic hypertension. It has also been linked to myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, and diabetes mellitus though not definitively. Continuous positive airway pressure is the treatment of choice, with adherence of 60–70%. Bi-level positive airway pressure or adaptive servo-ventilation can be used for patients who are intolerant to continuous positive airway pressure. Other treatments include dental devices, surgery, and weight loss. PMID:23910433

  12. Evaluation of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in pyrochlore mine workers

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Ritta de Cássia Canedo Oliveira; Barros, José Cerqueira; Oliveira, Fabrício Borges; Brunherotti, Marisa Andrade; Quemelo, Paulo Roberto Veiga

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify respiratory symptoms and evaluate lung function in mine workers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study involving production sector workers of a pyrochlore mining company. The subjects completed the British Medical Research Council questionnaire, which is designed to evaluate respiratory symptoms, occupational exposure factors, and smoking status. In addition, they underwent pulmonary function tests with a portable spirometer. Results: The study involved 147 workers (all male). The mean age was 41.37 ± 8.71 years, and the mean duration of occupational exposure was 12.26 ± 7.09 years. We found that 33 (22.44%) of the workers had respiratory symptoms and that 26 (17.69%) showed abnormalities in the spirometry results. However, we found that the spirometry results did not correlate significantly with the presence of respiratory symptoms or with the duration of occupational exposure. Conclusions: The frequencies of respiratory symptoms and spirometric changes were low when compared with those reported in other studies involving occupational exposure to dust. No significant associations were observed between respiratory symptoms and spirometry results. PMID:27832236

  13. Evaluation of platelet lymphocyte ratio and 90-day mortality in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Praneel; Law, Stephanie; Sriram, Krishna B

    2017-06-01

    Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) have high mortality and health care costs. The platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is a marker of inflammation and has been reported to be elevated in patients with AECOPD compared to stable state. In this study, we sought to evaluate the association of the PLR in patients with AECOPD with 90-day mortality. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to our institution with a primary diagnosis of AECOPD between January 2014 and July 2014. Blood test results on admission were recorded. The primary outcomes were 90-day mortality. One hundred and eighty-one AECOPD patients were considered for the study. Death had occurred in 16 (9%) patients within 90 days of hospital discharge. Univariable analysis identified age, haemoglobin, neutrophil count, and urea level, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and PLR as being associated with increased 90-day mortality. Multivariable logistic regression analysis variables demonstrated that only PLR (P=0.03) was significantly associated with death at 90 days. Receiver operator characteristic analysis identified PLR ≥235 had a sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 74% in predicting 90-day mortality. PLR was ≥235 was also associated with worse survival (days) [mean ± standard deviation (SD): PLR ≥235 vs. PLR <235: 512±358 vs. 626±346, P=0.004]. A PLR ≥235 was significantly associated with 90-day mortality, which may provide prognostic guidance to clinicians.

  14. Short-term Evaluation of a Comprehensive Education Program Including Inhaler Training and Disease Management on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Kwang Ha; Chung, Wou Young; Park, Joo Hun; Hwang, Sung Chul; Kim, Tae Eun; Oh, Min Jung; Kang, Dae Ryong; Rhee, Chin Kook; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Park, Yong Bum; Kim, Sang Ha; Yum, Ho Kee

    2017-10-01

    Proper education regarding inhaler usage and optimal management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is essential for effectively treating patients with COPD. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a comprehensive education program including inhaler training and COPD management. We enlisted 127 patients with COPD on an outpatient basis at 43 private clinics in Korea. The patients were educated on inhaler usage and disease management for three visits across 2 weeks. Physicians and patients were administered a COPD assessment test (CAT) and questionnaires about the correct usage of inhalers and management of COPD before commencement of this program and after their third visit. The outcomes of 127 COPD patients were analyzed. CAT scores (19.6±12.5 vs. 15.1±12.3) improved significantly after this program (p<0.05). Patients with improved CAT scores of 4 points or more had a better understanding of COPD management and the correct technique for using inhalers than those who did not have improved CAT scores (p<0.05). A comprehensive education program including inhaler training and COPD management at a primary care setting improved CAT scores and led to patients' better understanding of COPD management. Copyright©2017. The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases

  15. Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in the evaluation of renal parenchymal stiffness in patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Hatice Arioz; Cicek, Rumeysa Yasemin; Kandemirli, Sedat Giray; Ure, Emel; Ucar, Ayse Kalyoncu; Aslan, Mine; Caliskan, Salim; Adaletli, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the role of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in the detection of renal parenchymal damage in kidneys with and without ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). Twenty-five pediatric patients with a diagnosis of UPJO who underwent surgery and 15 pediatric patients with conservatively managed UPJO were prospectively evaluated with ARFI elastography. Sixteen healthy volunteers constituted the control group. Shear wave velocity (SWV) measurements in the upper, mid, and lower poles of the affected kidney were performed. SWV values of kidneys based on presence of UPJO and hydronephrosis grade were compared. The correlation of SWV values with residual renal function obtained from diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid or mercaptoacetyltriglycine-3 renal scan was evaluated. Significantly, higher SWV values were found in control kidneys compared to kidneys affected by UPJO. The median SWVs were 2.82 (2.51-3.07) m/s for the control kidneys and 2.36 (2.09-2.53) m/s for the kidneys in the UPJO group (p < 0.001). When UPJO patients were grouped according to the grade of hydronephrosis, grade 0 hydronephrotic kidneys [2.35 (2.11-2.50) m/s] and grade 3-4 hydronephrotic kidneys [1.86 (1.96-2.25) m/s] had significantly lower SWV values compared to grade 1-2 hydronephrotic kidneys [2.62 (2.37-2.90) m/s] (p < 0.05). ARFI as a noninvasive, radiation-free procedure for evaluating parenchymal stiffness may prove useful in the diagnostic work-up and follow-up of children with UPJO-induced renal disease.

  16. The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Punjabi, Naresh M

    2008-02-15

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a chronic condition characterized by frequent episodes of upper airway collapse during sleep. Its effect on nocturnal sleep quality and ensuing daytime fatigue and sleepiness are widely acknowledged. Increasingly, obstructive sleep apnea is also being recognized as an independent risk factor for several clinical consequences, including systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and abnormal glucose metabolism. Estimates of disease prevalence are in the range of 3% to 7%, with certain subgroups of the population bearing higher risk. Factors that increase vulnerability for the disorder include age, male sex, obesity, family history, menopause, craniofacial abnormalities, and certain health behaviors such as cigarette smoking and alcohol use. Despite the numerous advancements in our understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical consequences of the disorder, a majority of those affected remain undiagnosed. Simple queries of the patient or bed-partner for the symptoms and signs of the disorder, namely, loud snoring, observed apneas, and daytime sleepiness, would help identify those in need of further diagnostic evaluation. The primary objective of this article is to review some of the epidemiologic aspects of obstructive sleep apnea in adults.

  17. ADHD symptoms and body composition changes in childhood: a longitudinal study evaluating directionality of associations.

    PubMed

    Bowling, A B; Tiemeier, H W; Jaddoe, V W V; Barker, E D; Jansen, P W

    2018-06-04

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is linked to increased risk of overweight/obesity among children and adults. Studies have also implicated obesity as a risk factor for ADHD. However, no studies have evaluated bidirectional, longitudinal associations between childhood fat mass and ADHD symptom severity. We investigate bidirectional associations between ADHD symptoms and measures of body composition between ages 1.5 and 9. We further examine effects of specific eating patterns linked to ADHD on associations between symptom severity and body composition. The study utilized data from children (N = 3903) participating in the Generation R cohort (Netherlands). Children were enrolled at birth and retained regardless of ADHD symptoms over time. Cross-lagged and change models examined bidirectional associations between body composition (body mass index/dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and ADHD symptoms at four time points in childhood. A child with a clinically concerning ADHD symptom z-score two standard deviations above the mean at age 6 would be expected to experience about 0.22 kg greater fat mass gain measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry between ages 6 and 9, even if they displayed healthy eating patterns (95% CI: 0.11 - 0.28, p < 0.001). Conversely, fat mass at any age did not predict worse ADHD symptoms later. Beginning in early childhood, more ADHD symptoms predict higher fat mass at later ages. We did not find evidence of a reverse association. Based on these and prior findings, lifestyle counselling during treatment for children with a diagnosis of ADHD should be considered, even if they are diagnosed in early childhood and do not yet have a body mass index of clinical concern. © 2018 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Evaluation and management of post-transurethral resection of the prostate lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Simma-Chiang, Vannita; Kaplan, Steven A

    2014-09-01

    Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) continues to be the most common treatment in the operative management of benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Several other modalities have shown equivalence to TURP. However, even after surgical treatment, up to one third of patients have bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This review discusses the pathophysiology, evaluation, and management options for patients with LUTS after TURP.

  19. Evaluation of a School-Based Program Aimed at Preventing Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmy, Pernilla; Jakobsson, Ulf; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the implementation of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral program whose target is to prevent depressive symptoms in adolescents. The study had a quasi-experimental design with pretest, posttest, and a 1-year follow-up and provides an illustrative calculation for the implementation costs of the…

  20. Evaluation of the measurement properties of symptom measurement instruments for atopic eczema: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gerbens, L A A; Prinsen, C A C; Chalmers, J R; Drucker, A M; von Kobyletzki, L B; Limpens, J; Nankervis, H; Svensson, Å; Terwee, C B; Zhang, J; Apfelbacher, C J; Spuls, P I

    2017-01-01

    Symptoms have been identified as a core outcome domain for atopic eczema (AE) trials. Various instruments exist to measure symptoms in AE, but they vary in quality and there is a lack of standardization between clinical trials. Our objective was to systematically evaluate the quality of the evidence on the measurement properties of AE symptom instruments, thereby informing consensus discussions within the Harmonising Outcome Measures for Eczema (HOME) initiative regarding the most appropriate instruments for the core outcome domain symptoms. Using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist and predefined criteria for good measurement properties on identified development and validation studies of AE symptom instruments, a best evidence synthesis was performed to draw an overall conclusion on quality of the instruments and to provide recommendations. Eighteen instruments were identified and evaluated. When the quality and results of the studies were considered, only five of these instruments had sufficient validation data to consider them for the core outcome set for the core outcome domain symptoms. These were the paediatric Itch Severity Scale (ISS), Patient-Oriented Eczema Measure (POEM), Patient-Oriented SCOring Atopic Dermatitis (PO-SCORAD), Self-Administered Eczema Area and Severity Index (SA-EASI) and adapted SA-EASI. ISS (paediatric version), POEM, PO-SCORAD, SA-EASI and adapted SA-EASI are currently the most appropriate instruments and therefore have the potential to be recommended as core symptom instrument in future clinical trials. These findings will be utilized for the development of a core outcome set for AE. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evaluating the test-retest reliability of symptom indices associated with the ImPACT post-concussion symptom scale (PCSS).

    PubMed

    Merritt, Victoria C; Bradson, Megan L; Meyer, Jessica E; Arnett, Peter A

    2018-05-01

    The Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is a commonly used tool in sports concussion assessment. While test-retest reliabilities have been established for the ImPACT cognitive composites, few studies have evaluated the psychometric properties of the ImPACT's Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). The purpose of this study was to establish the test-retest reliability of symptom indices associated with the PCSS. Participants included 38 undergraduate students (50.0% male) who underwent neuropsychological testing as part of their participation in their psychology department's research subject pool. The majority of the participants were Caucasian (94.7%) and had no history of concussion (73.7%). All participants completed the ImPACT at two time points, approximately 6 weeks apart. The PCSS was the main outcome measure, and eight symptom indices were calculated (a total symptom score, three symptom summary indices, and four symptom clusters). Pearson correlations (r) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were computed as measures of test-retest reliability. Overall, reliabilities ranged from low to high (r = .44 to .80; ICC = .44 to .77). The cognitive symptom cluster exhibited the highest test-retest reliability (r = .80, ICC = .77), followed by the positive symptom total (PST) index, an indicator of the total number of symptoms endorsed (r = .71, ICC = .69). In contrast, the commonly used total symptom score showed lower test-retest reliability (r = .67, ICC = .62). Paired-samples t tests revealed no significant differences between test and retest for any of the symptom variables (all p > .01). Finally, reliable change indices (RCI) were computed to determine whether differences observed between test and retest represented clinically significant change. RCI values were provided for each symptom index at the 80%, 90%, and 95% confidence intervals. These results suggest that evaluating additional symptom

  2. Insight in bipolar mania: evaluation of its heterogeneity and correlation with clinical symptoms.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rafael de Assis da; Mograbi, Daniel C; Bifano, Jaqueline; Santana, Cristina M T; Cheniaux, Elie

    2016-07-15

    Studies on insight in bipolar mania are not numerous and usually consider insight as a unitary construct. Evaluate how different facets of insight are affected in bipolar mania and investigate correlations between insight for each specific object in bipolar disorder and manic symptomatology. A group of 165 bipolar patients were followed during a year, with 51 patients having manic episodes according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Patients underwent a clinical assessment and insight was evaluated through the Insight Scale for Affective Disorders. The study found that insight regarding symptoms is worse than insight of having bipolar disorder, social relationships and self esteem. Moreover, poor global insight (total ISAD) correlates with more severe changes in mood, speech and thought structure, with worse insight about symptoms correlating with the same alterations and also with more severe symptoms of agitation/energy. Although a large sample of bipolar patients was followed up, the final sample composed of patients with at least one manic episode was relatively smaller. Moreover, the fact that the study was performed in a university hospital may have led to selection biases. Results suggest that patients with BD are reasonably capable of identifying that their condition implies consequences but have more impaired awareness of their energy and activity levels. A lower level of insight specifically about symptoms correlates with more severe symptoms of agitation/energy, which suggests a psychomotor nucleus able to impair insight in mania. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sonographic evaluation of tongue motions during upper airway stimulation for obstructive sleep apnea-a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hofauer, Benedikt; Strohl, Kingman; Knopf, Andreas; Bas, Murat; Wirth, Markus; Stock, Konrad; Heiser, Clemens

    2017-03-01

    The objective was to evaluate the feasibility of sonographic evaluation of functional tongue motion as a tool to evaluate postoperative outcomes in human subjects using breathing-synchronized stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve-a novel therapy option for patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Sixteen patients with OSA (n = 16, age 60.4 ± 10.2, BMI 28.7 ± 2.4, AHI 35.0 ± 11.8) underwent sonographic evaluation of tongue motion after initiation of therapy with the Inspire II Upper Airway Stimulation system. Sonographic examination was performed in four different planes (A = floor of the mouth frontal, B = base of the tongue horizontal, C = floor of the mouth parallel to mandible, and D = floor of the mouth median sagittal) in an attempt to visualize tongue surface, tongue and hyoid motion, and the distance of protrusion. Identification of the tongue surface was achieved in all cases in planes B, C, and D and 81 % of patients in plane A. Tongue motion was evident on the right (implant) side in 63 % in plane A and 75 % in plane B. Distance of protrusion was measured in plane B at 1.04 cm (±0.51), in plane C at 1.08 cm (±0.47), and in plane D at 0.96 cm (±0.45). Hyoid protrusion was measured in plane C or D and was 0.57 cm (±0.39). Significant correlations among the three planes were observed, but there was no correlation to the reduction of apnea-hypopnea index. The results indicate feasibility of sonography to identify tongue and hyoid motions during upper airway stimulation. Useful sonographic planes and landmarks, which allow visualization of dynamic effects of upper airway stimulation, could be established. The evaluation of the tongue in a horizontal (B) and in a sagittal plane (D) appears to be superior to the other investigated planes. The approximate tongue protrusion needed to generate a significant reduction of AHI and ODI was 1 cm.

  4. Evaluation of central and peripheral neuropathy in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Aras, Yeşim Güzey; Aydemir, Yusuf; Güngen, Belma Doğan; Güngen, Adil Can

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency and characteristics of peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) involvement in COPD. The study included 41 COPD patients and 41 healthy volunteers. Electrophysiological studies were carried out: electromyography (EMG) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs). The median nerve, ulnar nerve, common peroneal nerve, and tibial nerve were evaluated for latency, amplitude, and conduction velocity. The mean age of patients with COPD was 61.8 years and disease duration 10.3 years. There was no difference between patient and control groups in terms of age, BMI, smoking status, or biochemical parameters. Upon VEP examination, latencies were significantly prolonged and amplitudes shortened in the patient group compared to the control group. In EMG measurements, conduction velocity and amplitudes in all nerves were low in the patient group. Similarly, latencies in all nerves were higher in patients with COPD. Central and peripheral nervous system involvement could develop in patients with moderate-severe COPD, and these patients should be monitored for neuropathic changes in combination with neurological examination.

  5. Acute Duodenal Obstruction After Percutaneous Placement of Metallic Biliary Stents: Peroral Treatment with Enteral Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Lopera, Jorge E.; Alvarez, Oscar A.; Perdigao, Joseph

    2003-09-15

    Three patients with malignant biliary obstruction were treated with placement of metallic biliary stents. Two patients had known partial duodenal stenosis but had no symptoms of gastrointestinal obstruction. The patients developed symptomatic duodenal obstruction early after biliary metallic stent placement. The symptomatic duodenal obstructions were successfully treated with peroral placement of duodenal stents, which obviated the need for surgical intervention.

  6. Psychometric evaluation of a daily gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptom measure.

    PubMed

    Bytzer, Peter; Reimer, Christina; Smith, Gary; Anatchkova, Milena D; Hsieh, Ray; Wilkinson, Joanne; Thomas, S Jane; Lenderking, William R

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of the Heartburn Reflux Dyspepsia Questionnaire (HRDQ), a newly developed measure of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) symptoms. Specifically, the HRDQ was developed for patients, who still experience symptoms with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment. The psychometric properties of HRDQ were evaluated based on data from two clinical trials of patients with GORD with a partial response to PPIs, one from the UK and one from Denmark and Germany. The HRDQ had good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha range .83-.88) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient range .71-.90). Convergent and discriminant validity were supported by high correlations with ReQuest™ and ability to differentiate between groups based on ReQuest™ cut-off values. Responsiveness of HRDQ was demonstrated by moderate to high correlations with ReQuest™ change scores and time with symptoms. An HRDQ cut-off value of 0.70 for definition of 'bad day' was also evaluated. Based on existing evidence, the HRDQ is a valid and reliable measure of GORD symptoms that can be used as a study outcome in clinical trials.

  7. The effect of positive expiratory pressure (PEP) therapy on symptoms, quality of life and incidence of re-exacerbation in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Osadnik, Christian R; McDonald, Christine F; Miller, Belinda R; Hill, Catherine J; Tarrant, Ben; Steward, Ranjana; Chao, Caroline; Stodden, Nicole; Oliveira, Cristino C; Gagliardi, Nadia; Holland, Anne E

    2014-02-01

    Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) is a technique used to enhance sputum clearance during acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). The impact of PEP therapy during acute exacerbations on clinically important outcomes is not clear. This study sought to determine the effect of PEP therapy on symptoms, quality of life and future exacerbations in patients with AECOPD. 90 inpatients (58 men; mean age 68.6 years, FEV(1) 40.8% predicted) with AECOPD and sputum expectoration were randomised to receive usual care (including physical exercise)±PEP therapy. The Breathlessness, Cough and Sputum Scale (BCSS), St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and BODE index (Body mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnoea, Exercise tolerance) were measured at discharge, 8 weeks and 6 months following discharge, and analysed via linear mixed models. Exacerbations and hospitalisations were recorded using home diaries. There were no significant between-group differences over time for BCSS score [mean (SE) at discharge 5.2 (0.4) vs 5.0 (0.4) for PEP and control group, respectively; p=0.978] or SGRQ total score [41.6 (2.6) vs 40.8 (2.8) at 8 weeks, p=0.872]. Dyspnoea improved more rapidly in the PEP group over the first 8 weeks (p=0.006), however these benefits were not observed at 6 months. Exacerbations (p=0.986) and hospitalisations (p=0.359) did not differ between groups. We found no evidence that PEP therapy during AECOPD improves important short-term or long-term outcomes. There does not appear to be a routine role for PEP therapy in the management of such individuals.

  8. An evaluation of a multi-site community pharmacy-based chronic obstructive pulmonary disease support service.

    PubMed

    Wright, David; Twigg, Michael; Barton, Garry; Thornley, Tracey; Kerr, Clare

    2015-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive chronic condition that can be effectively managed by smoking-cessation, optimising prescribed therapy and providing treatment to prevent chest infections from causing hospitalisation. The government agenda in the UK is for community pharmacists to become involved in chronic disease management, and COPD is one area where they are ideally located to provide a comprehensive service. This study aims to evaluate the effect of a community pharmacy-based COPD service on patient outcomes. Patients in one UK location were recruited over a 10-week period to receive a community pharmacy-based COPD support service consisting of signposting to or provision of smoking-cessation service, therapy optimisation and recommendation to obtain a rescue pack containing steroid and antibiotic to prevent hospitalisation as a result of chest infection. Data were collected over a 6-month period for all recruited patients. Appropriate clinical outcomes, patient reported medication adherence, quality of life and National Health Service (NHS) resource utilisation were measured. Three hundred six patients accessed the service. Data to enable comparison before and after intervention was available for 137 patients. Significant improvements in patient reported adherence, utilisation of rescue packs, quality of life and a reduction in routine general practitioner (GP) visits were identified. The intervention cost was estimated to be off-set by reductions in the use of other NHS services (GP and accident and emergency visits and hospital admissions). Results suggest that the service improved patient medicine taking behaviours and that it was cost-effective. © 2014 Community Pharmacy Futures. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice published by. John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Effective comparison of two auto-CPAP devices for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea based on polysomnographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hai-Bo; Cheng, Lei; Nakayama, Meiho; Kakazu, Yasuhiro; Yin, Min; Miyoshi, Akira; Komune, Shizuo

    2005-09-01

    Automatic continuous positive airway pressure (auto-CPAP) machines differ mainly in algorithms used for respiratory event detection and pressure control. The auto-CPAP machines operated by novel algorithms are expected to have better performance than the earlier ones in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The purpose of this study was to determine the therapeutic characteristics between two different auto-CPAP devices, i.e., the third-generation flow-based (f-APAP) and the second-generation vibration-based (v-APAP) machines, during the first night treatment of OSAS. We retrospectively reviewed the polysomnography (PSG) recordings of 43 OSAS patients who were initially performed an overnight diagnostic PSG to confirm the disease and afterwards received the first night auto-CPAP treatment with using either the f-APAP (n=22) or v-APAP (n=21) device under another PSG evaluation. There were 13.6% and 61.9% patients who remained a residual apnea/hypopnea index more than 5 during the f-APAP and v-APAP application, respectively (P<0.005). The f-APAP was more effective than the v-APAP in reducing apnea/hypopnea index (P=0.003), hypopnea index (P=0.023) and apnea index (P=0.007), improving the lowest oxygen saturation index (P=0.007) and shortening stage 1 sleep (P=0.016). However, the f-APAP was less sufficient than the v-APAP in reducing arousal/awakening index (P=0.02). These findings suggest that the f-APAP works better than the v-APAP in abolishing breathing abnormities in the treatment of OSAS; however, the f-APAP device might still have some potential limitations in the clinical application.

  10. A pilot study evaluating acute use of eszopiclone in patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Russell; Roach, James M; Scharf, Martin; Amato, David A

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of eszopiclone on measures of respiration and sleep using polysomnography in patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). This double-blind, randomized crossover study included patients (35-64 years) with mild-to-moderate OSAS [apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) range 10 and 40]. Patients received either eszopiclone 3mg or placebo for two consecutive nights, with a 5-7 day washout between treatments. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was not allowed on nights in the sleep laboratory. The primary endpoint, mean total AHI, was not significantly different from placebo (16.5 with placebo and 16.7 with eszopiclone; 90% confidence interval (CI) -1.7, 1.9). No significant differences in total arousals, respiratory arousals, duration of apnea and hypopnea episodes, or oxygen saturation were noted. Significant differences in spontaneous arousals (13.6 versus 11.4 for placebo and eszopiclone, respectively; 90% CI -3.7, -0.7), sleep efficiency (85.1% and 88.4%; p=0.0075), wake time after sleep onset (61.8 and 48.1 min; p=0.0125), and wake time during sleep (55.9 and 43.2 min; p=0.013) were noted after eszopiclone treatment. Eszopiclone was well tolerated. In this pilot study, eszopiclone did not worsen AHI, and it improved sleep maintenance and efficiency. Further study is warranted to determine whether eszopiclone could improve CPAP compliance or next-day function in patients with OSAS.

  11. Evaluation and validation of a method for determining platelet catecholamine in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Feres, Marcia C; Cintra, Fatima D; Rizzi, Camila F; Mello-Fujita, Luciane; Lino de Souza, Altay A; Tufik, Sergio; Poyares, Dalva

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of plasma and urinary catecholamine are susceptible to confounding factors that influence the results, complicating the interpretation of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity in the Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and arterial hypertension (HYP) conditions. In this study, we validated a test for platelet catecholamine and compared the catecholamine levels (adrenaline and noradrenaline) in urine, plasma and platelets in patients with OSA and HYP compared with controls. In the validation, 30 healthy, nonsmoking volunteers who were not currently undergoing treatment or medication were selected as the control group. One hundred fifty-four individuals (114 OSA, 40 non-OSA) were consecutively selected from the outpatient clinic of the Sleep Institute and underwent clinical, polysomnographic and laboratory evaluation, including the urinary, plasma and platelet levels of adrenaline (AD) and noradrenaline (NA). Patients were then allocated to groups according to the presence of OSA and/or hypertension. A logistic regression model, controlled for age and BMI, showed that urinary AD and urinary NA were risk factors in the OSA+HYP group and the HYP group; however, the model showed higher levels of platelet NA for OSA without HYP. After 1 year of CPAP (continuous upper airway pressure) treatment, patients (n = 9) presented lower levels of urinary NA (p = 0.04) and platelet NA (p = 0.05). Urinary NA and AD levels were significantly associated with the condition of hypertension with and without OSA, whereas platelet NA with OSA without comorbidity. These findings suggest that platelet catecholamine levels might reflect nocturnal sympathetic activation in OSA patients without hypertension.

  12. Clinical application of MRI-respiratory gating technology in the evaluation of children with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guohui; Teng, Yaoshu; Zhu, Jin; Zhu, Darong; Yang, Bin; Hu, Linping; Chen, Manman; Fu, Xiao

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the clinical application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-respiratory gating technology for assessing illness severity in children with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS).MRI-respiratory gating technology was used to scan the nasopharyngeal cavities of 51 children diagnosed with OSAHS during 6 respiratory phases. Correlations between the ratio of the area of the adenoid to the area of the nasopalatine pharyngeal cavity (Sa/Snp), with the main indexes of polysomnography (PSG), were analyzed. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve and Kappa analysis were used to determine the diagnostic accuracy of Sa/Snp in pediatric OSAHS.The Sa/Snp was positively correlated with the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) (P < .001) and negatively correlated with the lowest oxygen saturation of blood during sleep (LaSO2) (P < .001). ROC analysis in the 6 respiratory phases showed that the area under the curve (AUC) of the Sa/Snp in the end-expiratory phase was the largest (0.992, P < .001), providing a threshold of 69.5% for the diagnosis of severe versus slight-moderate OSAHS in children. Consistency analysis with the AHI showed a diagnosis accordance rate of 96.0% in severe pediatric OSAHS and 96.2% in slight-moderate pediatric OSAHS (Kappa = 0.922, P < .001).Stenosis of the nasopalatine pharyngeal cavity in children with adenoidal hypertrophy was greatest at the end-expiration phase during sleep. The end-expiratory Sa/Snp obtained by a combination of MRI and respiratory gating technology has potential as an important imaging index for diagnosing and evaluating severity in pediatric OSAHS.

  13. Utility of serum Aspergillus-galactomannan antigen to evaluate the risk of severe acute exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Katsuhiro; Inoue, Yusuke; Nishimoto, Koji; Karayama, Masato; Furuhashi, Kazuki; Enomoto, Noriyuki; Nakamura, Yutaro; Inui, Naoki; Yokomura, Koushi; Imokawa, Shiro; Suda, Takafumi

    2018-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown that the microbiome, namely Aspergillus species, play a previously unrecognized role in both stable and exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Galactomannan is a major component of the Aspergillus cell wall that has been widely used as a diagnostic marker. Objectives To explore whether serum levels of Aspergillus-galactomannan antigen could be used to evaluate the risk of severe acute exacerbation of COPD (AE-COPD). Methods We measured the Aspergillus-galactomannan antigen levels of 191 patients with stable COPD, and examined its clinical relevance including AE-COPD. Results There were 77 (40.3%) patients who were positive for serum Aspergillus-galactomannan antigen (≥0.5). High Aspergillus-galactomannan antigen level (≥0.7) was associated with older age and presence of bronchiectasis and cysts on computed tomography images. Compared to patients with low Aspergillus-galactomannan antigen level (<0.7), patients with high Aspergillus-galactomannan antigen level had significantly higher incidence of severe AE-COPD (P = 0.0039, Gray’s test) and respiratory-related mortality (P = 0.0176, log-rank test). Multivariate analysis showed that high Aspergillus-galactomannan antigen level was independently associated with severe AE-COPD (hazard ratio, 2.162; 95% confidence interval, 1.267−3.692; P = 0.005). Conclusion Serum Aspergillus-galactomannan antigen was detected in patients with COPD, and elevated serum Aspergillus-galactomannan antigen was associated with severe AE-COPD. PMID:29870550

  14. Engaging Community Stakeholders to Evaluate the Design, Usability, and Acceptability of a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Social Media Resource Center

    PubMed Central

    Chaney, Beth; Chaney, Don; Paige, Samantha; Payne-Purvis, Caroline; Tennant, Bethany; Walsh-Childers, Kim; Sriram, PS; Alber, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) often report inadequate access to comprehensive patient education resources. Objective The purpose of this study was to incorporate community-engagement principles within a mixed-method research design to evaluate the usability and acceptability of a self-tailored social media resource center for medically underserved patients with COPD. Methods A multiphase sequential design (qual → QUANT → quant + QUAL) was incorporated into the current study, whereby a small-scale qualitative (qual) study informed the design of a social media website prototype that was tested with patients during a computer-based usability study (QUANT). To identify usability violations and determine whether or not patients found the website prototype acceptable for use, each patient was asked to complete an 18-item website usability and acceptability questionnaire, as well as a retrospective, in-depth, semistructured interview (quant + QUAL). Results The majority of medically underserved patients with COPD (n=8, mean 56 years, SD 7) found the social media website prototype to be easy to navigate and relevant to their self-management information needs. Mean responses on the 18-item website usability and acceptability questionnaire were very high on a scale of 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) (mean 4.72, SD 0.33). However, the majority of patients identified several usability violations related to the prototype’s information design, interactive capabilities, and navigational structure. Specifically, 6 out of 8 (75%) patients struggled to create a log-in account to access the prototype, and 7 out of 8 patients (88%) experienced difficulty posting and replying to comments on an interactive discussion forum. Conclusions Patient perceptions of most social media website prototype features (eg, clickable picture-based screenshots of videos, comment tools) were largely positive. Mixed-method stakeholder feedback was

  15. In vivo Confocal Microscopy Evaluation of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Dry Eye Patients with Different Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Chen, Jing-Yao; Wang, Yu-Qian; Lin, Zhi-Rong; Wang, Shen

    2016-11-05

    Dry eye patients suffer from all kinds of symptoms. Sometimes, the clinical signs evaluation does not disclose any obvious difference in routine examination; in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) is a powerful tool for ocular surface disease. This study aimed to clarify meibomian gland (MG) alterations in dry eye patients with different symptoms and to compare the findings using IVCM. A total of sixty patients were recruited, all subjected to Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Salisbury Eye Evaluation Questionnaire (SEEQ), and questionnaires for the assessment of dry eye symptoms before clinical sign examinations were given to the patients. Finally, IVCM was applied to observe MG's structure. Statistical analysis was performed using the t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test and Spearman correlation analysis. The differences were statistically significant when P< 0.05. In the severe symptom group, OSDI and SEEQ scores were significantly higher (P< 0.05) compared with the mild symptoms group. All other clinical sign examinations had no statistical difference in the two groups (P> 0.05). However, all the IVCM-observed data showed that patients with severe symptoms had more significant fibrosis in MG (acinar unit area 691.87 ± 182.01 μm2 for the severe, 992.17 ± 170.84 μm2 for the mild; P< 0.05) and severer decrease in the size of MG acinar units than those observed in patients with mild symptoms (MG acinar unit density [MGAUD] 70.08 ± 18.78 glands/mm2, MG acinar unit longest diameter [MGALD] 51.50 ± 15.51 μm, MG acinar unit shortest diameter [MGASD] 20.30 ± 11.85 μm for the severe, MGAUD 89.53 ± 39.88 glands/mm2, MGALD 81.57 ± 21.14 μm, MGASD 42.37 ± 14.55 μm for the mild;P< 0.05). Dry eye symptoms were negatively correlated with MG confocal microscopic parameters and positively correlated with conjunctival inflammatory cells and Langerhans cells (P< 0.05). IVCM application provides a strong support to differentiate dry eye patients with different symptoms

  16. Development and initial psychometric evaluation of patient-reported outcome questionnaires to evaluate the symptoms and impact of hidradenitis suppurativa.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Alexa B; Sundaram, Murali; Banderas, Benjamin; Foley, Catherine; Shields, Alan L

    2018-03-01

    Two patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires, the Hidradenitis Suppurativa Symptom Assessment (HSSA) and Hidradenitis Suppurativa Impact Assessment (HSIA), were developed to measure signs, symptoms and impacts of HS in treatment efficacy studies. In accordance with FDA guidelines and published best practices, four stages of research were conducted to create the questionnaires: concept elicitation, questionnaire construction, content evaluation and psychometric evaluation. Subjects (N = 20) who participated in the concept elicitation stage reported 15 unique HS-related signs and symptoms and 51 impacts. Following this, eight sign and symptom concepts and 21 impacts were selected for construction of the HSSA and HSIA, respectively. During content evaluation, cognitive debriefing interviews with HS subjects (N = 20) confirmed subjects could read, comprehend and meaningfully respond to both questionnaires. Modifications made after this stage of work resulted in a nine-item HSSA and a 17-item HSIA. The HSSA and HSIA were subsequently entered into a US-based observational study (N = 40), and the scores produced by each were found to be reliable, construct valid, and able to distinguish among clinically distinct groups. The HSSA and HSIA are content-valid, HS-specific, PRO questionnaires with demonstrated ability to generate reliable, valid scores when administered to patients with HS in a research setting.

  17. Assessment for self-blame and trauma symptoms during the medical evaluation of suspected sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Melville, John D; Kellogg, Nancy D; Perez, Nadia; Lukefahr, James L

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe behavioural and emotional symptoms and to examine the effect of abuse-related factors, family responses to disclosure, and child self-blame on these symptoms in children presenting for medical evaluations after disclosure of sexual abuse. A retrospective review was conducted of 501 children ages 8-17. Trauma symptoms were determined by two sets of qualitative measures. Abstracted data included gender, ethnicity, and age; severity of abuse and abuser relationship to child; child responses regarding difficulty with sleep, school, appetite/weight, sadness, or self-harm, parent belief in abuse disclosure, and abuse-specific self-blame; responses to the Trauma Symptom Checklist in Children-Alternate; and the parent's degree of belief in the child's sexual abuse disclosure. Overall, 83% of the children had at least one trauma symptom; 60% had difficulty sleeping and one-third had thoughts of self-harm. Child age and abuse severity were associated with 3 of 12 trauma symptoms, and abuse-specific self-blame was associated with 10 trauma symptoms, after controlling for other variables. The children of parents who did not completely believe the initial disclosure of abuse were twice as likely to endorse self-blame as children of parents who completely believed the initial disclosure. Screening for behavioural and emotional problems during the medical assessment of suspected sexual abuse should include assessment of self-blame and family responses to the child's disclosures. In addition, parents should be informed of the importance of believing their child during the initial disclosure of abuse and of the impact this has on the child's emotional response to the abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Validity of a New Structured Assessment of Gastrointestinal Symptoms Scale (SAGIS) for Evaluating Symptoms in the Clinical Setting.

    PubMed

    Koloski, N A; Jones, M; Hammer, J; von Wulffen, M; Shah, A; Hoelz, H; Kutyla, M; Burger, D; Martin, N; Gurusamy, S R; Talley, N J; Holtmann, G

    2017-08-01

    The clinical assessments of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms can be time-consuming, and the symptoms captured during the consultation may be influenced by a variety of patient and non-patient factors. To facilitate standardized symptom assessment in the routine clinical setting, we developed the Structured Assessment of Gastrointestinal Symptom (SAGIS) instrument to precisely characterize symptoms in a routine clinical setting. We aimed to validate SAGIS including its reliability, construct and discriminant validity, and utility in the clinical setting. Development of the SAGIS consisted of initial interviews with patients referred for the diagnostic work-up of digestive symptoms and relevant complaints identified. The final instrument consisted of 22 items as well as questions on extra intestinal symptoms and was given to 1120 consecutive patients attending a gastroenterology clinic randomly split into derivation (n = 596) and validation datasets (n = 551). Discriminant validity along with test-retest reliability was assessed. The time taken to perform a clinical assessment with and without the SAGIS was recorded along with doctor satisfaction with this tool. Exploratory factor analysis conducted on the derivation sample suggested five symptom constructs labeled as abdominal pain/discomfort (seven items), gastroesophageal reflux disease/regurgitation symptoms (four items), nausea/vomiting (three items), diarrhea/incontinence (five items), and difficult defecation and constipation (2 items). Confirmatory factor analysis conducted on the validation sample supported the initially developed five-factor measurement model ([Formula: see text], p < 0.0001, χ 2 /df = 4.6, CFI = 0.90, TLI = 0.88, RMSEA = 0.08). All symptom groups demonstrated differentiation between disease groups. The SAGIS was shown to be reliable over time and resulted in a 38% reduction of the time required for clinical assessment. The SAGIS instrument has excellent

  19. Nasal Obstruction in Children With Cleft Lip and Palate: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study Utilizing the NOSE Scale.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rosaline S; Lin, Lawrence O; Hoppe, Ian C; Jackson, Oksana A; Low, David W; Bartlett, Scott P; Swanson, Jordan W; Taylor, Jesse A

    2018-01-01

    To characterize the epidemiology and risk factors for nasal obstruction among subjects with cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P) utilizing the well-validated Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) survey. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Cleft Lip and Palate Program, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Patients, Subjects: One thousand twenty-eight surveys obtained from 456 subjects (mean age: 10.10 (4.48) years) with CL/P evaluated between January 2015 and August 2017 with at least 1 completed NOSE survey. Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation surveys completed at each annual visit. Composite NOSE and individual symptom scores. Sixty-seven percent of subjects had nasal obstruction at some point during the study period, with 49% reporting nasal obstruction at latest follow-up. subjects aged 14 years and older reported the most severe symptoms ( P = .002). Subjects with cleft lip and alveolus (CL+A) and unilateral cleft lip and palate (CLP) reported more severe nasal blockage than other phenotypes ( P = .021). subjects with a history of either posterior pharyngeal flap (PPF) or sphincter pharyngoplasty (SP) had significantly higher NOSE scores than subjects with no history of speech surgery ( P = .006). There was no significant difference ( P > .050) in NOSE scores with regard to history of primary tip rhinoplasty, nasal stent use, or nasoalveolar molding. There are more severe nasal obstructive symptoms among subjects older than 14 years of age, with CL+A or unilateral CLP, and with a history of PPF or SP. Future studies utilizing the NOSE are needed to evaluate and address this prevalent morbidity in the CLP population.

  20. [Effectiveness of an educational program for respiratory rehabilitation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients in Primary Care in improving the quality of life, symptoms, and clinical risk].

    PubMed

    Blánquez Moreno, Cristina; Colungo Francia, Cristina; Alvira Balada, M Carme; Kostov, Belchin; González-de Paz, Luis; Sisó-Almirall, Antoni

    2017-10-04

    To determine the impact of an educational program to improve the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that contributes to an increase of the quality of life, exercise capacity, level of dyspnoea, and clinical risk. Intervention study without controls. Primary Healthcare Centre. 193 patients with COPD were invited, 73 accepted and 55 participated in the educational program. Respiratory rehabilitation educational program with basic concepts of pulmonary and respiratory pathophysiology, respiratory physiotherapy exercises, practical workshop on the use of the most frequent inhalation devices, understanding of chronic disease and self-care measures in case of exacerbation. The quality of life (the COPD assessment test), exercise tolerance (the Six-Minute Walk Test), rating of perceived exertion (Borg Dyspnoea Score) and clinical risk (BODE index) were assessed by means of validated questionnaires in Spanish. A total of 43 (78.2%) participants completed the program. An improvement in the quality of life by a mean of 3.3 points was observed (95%CI; 1.76-4.84). Just over half (53.5%) of the participants obtained a clinically relevant improvement. Participants also improved their physical exercise capacity at post-intervention by increasing the distance that they walked in 6min by a mean of 20.76m (95%CI; 2.57-38.95). Improvements in the level of dyspnoea and clinical risk were also observed. The educational program shows a statistically significant and clinically relevant improvement in the quality of life, fatigue, symptomatology, exercise capacity, level of dyspnoea, and clinical risk. The program is adaptable to the health care routine of healthcare centres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Work Capacity of the Bladder During Voiding: A Novel Method to Evaluate Bladder Contractile Function and Bladder Outlet Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ning; Man, Li-Bo; He, Feng; Huang, Guang-Lin; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Xiao-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Work in voiding (WIV) of the bladder may be used to evaluate bladder status throughout urination rather than at a single time point. Few studies, however, have assessed WIV owing to the complexity of its calculations. We have developed a method of calculating work capacity of the bladder while voiding and analyzed the associations of bladder work parameters with bladder contractile function and bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). Methods: The study retrospectively evaluated 160 men and 23 women, aged >40 years and with a detrusor pressure at maximal flow rate (Pdet Qmax) of ≥40 cmH2O in men, who underwent urodynamic testing. The bladder power integration method was used to calculate WIV; WIV per second (WIV/t) and WIV per liter of urine voided (WIV/v) were also calculated. In men, the relationships between these work capacity parameters and Pdet Qmax and Abrams-Griffiths (AG) number were determined using linear-by-linear association tests, and relationships between work capacity parameters and BOO grade were investigated using Spearman's association test. Results: The mean WIV was 1.15 ± 0.78 J and 1.30 ± 0.88 J, mean WIV/t was 22.95 ± 14.45 mW and 23.78 ± 17.02 mW, and mean WIV/v was 5.59 ± 2.32 J/L and 2.83 ± 1.87 J/L in men and women, respectively. In men, WIV/v showed significant positive associations with Pdet Qmax (r = 0.845, P = 0.000), AG number (r = 0.814, P = 0.000), and Schafer class (r = 0.726, P = 0.000). Conversely, WIV and WIV/t showed no associations with Pdet Qmax or AG number. In patients with BOO (Schafer class > II), WIV/v correlated positively with increasing BOO grade. Conclusions: WIV can be calculated from simple urodynamic parameters using the bladder power integration method. WIV/v may be a marker of BOO grade, and the bladder contractile function can be evaluated by WIV and WIV/t. PMID:26668148

  2. [Research about re-evaluation of screening of traditonal Chinese medicine symptoms item of post-marketing medicine Xuezhikang].

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Xie, Yanming; Wang, Yongyan

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of post-marketing Chinese medicine re-evaluation is to identify Chinese medicine clinical indications, while designing scientific and rational of Chinese medicine symptoms items are important to the result of symptoms re-evaluation. This study give screening of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) symptoms item of post-marketing medicine Xuezhikang re-evaluation as example that reference to principle dyslipidemia clinical research, academic dissertations, Xuezhikang directions, clinical expert practice experience etc. while standardization those symptom names and screening 41 dyslipidemia common symptoms. Furthermore, this paper discuss about the accoerdance and announcements when screening symptoms item, so as to providing a research thread to manufacture PRO chart for post-marketing medicine re-evaluation.

  3. Particulate matter air pollution and respiratory symptoms in individuals having either asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a European multicentre panel study.

    PubMed

    Karakatsani, Anna; Analitis, Antonis; Perifanou, Dimitra; Ayres, Jon G; Harrison, Roy M; Kotronarou, Anastasia; Kavouras, Ilias G; Pekkanen, Juha; Hämeri, Kaarle; Kos, Gerard Pa; de Hartog, Jeroen J; Hoek, Gerard; Katsouyanni, Klea

    2012-10-05

    Particulate matter air pollution has been associated with adverse health effects. The fraction of ambient particles that are mainly responsible for the observed health effects is still a matter of controversy. Better characterization of the health relevant particle fraction will have major implications for air quality policy since it will determine which sources should be controlled.The RUPIOH study, an EU-funded multicentre study, was designed to examine the distribution of various ambient particle metrics in four European cities (Amsterdam, Athens, Birmingham, Helsinki) and assess their health effects in participants with asthma or COPD, based on a detailed exposure assessment. In this paper the association of central site measurements with respiratory symptoms and restriction of activities is examined. At each centre a panel of participants with either asthma or COPD recorded respiratory symptoms and restriction of activities in a diary for six months. Exposure assessment included simultaneous measurements of coarse, fine and ultrafine particles at a central site. Data on gaseous pollutants were also collected. The associations of the 24-hour average concentrations of air pollution indices with the health outcomes were assessed in a hierarchical modelling approach. A city specific analysis controlling for potential confounders was followed by a meta-analysis to provide overall effect estimates. A 10 μg/m3 increase in previous day coarse particles concentrations was positively associated with most symptoms (an increase of 0.6 to 0.7% in average) and limitation in walking (OR= 1.076, 95% CI: 1.026-1.128). Same day, previous day and previous two days ozone concentrations were positively associated with cough (OR= 1.061, 95% CI: 1.013-1.111; OR= 1.049, 95% CI: 1.016-1.083 and OR= 1.059, 95% CI: 1.027-1.091, respectively). No consistent associations were observed between fine particle concentrations, nitrogen dioxide and respiratory health effects. As for particle

  4. Evaluation of atrial electromechanical delay and its relationship to inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Acar, Gurkan; Kahraman, Hasan; Akkoyun, Murat; Kilinc, Metin; Zencir, Cemil; Yusufoglu, Edagani; Dirnak, Imran; Sahin, Hatice; Olmez, Soner; Akcay, Ahmet; Ardic, Idris

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate atrial electromechanical delay, inflammation, and oxidative stress parameters, along with to investigate clinical and laboratory characteristics affecting atrial electromechanical delay in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Forty-three patients with COPD (60.5 ± 9.9 years) and 50 healthy controls (59.6 ± 7.1 years) were included in the study. Atrial electromechanical delay intervals were measured from lateral mitral annulus corrected PA (cPA lateral) and lateral tricuspid annulus (cPA tricuspid) using tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and corrected for heart rate. Left and right ventricles functions were examined using conventional and TDI. Plasma levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and oxidative stress parameters were also measured. Factors associated with atrial electromechanical delay were evaluated by stepwise multiple regression analysis. Corrected PA lateral and cPA tricuspid were significantly higher in patients with COPD (69.8 ± 10.4 vs. 62.2 ± 8.9 msec, P < 0.001 and 45.4 ± 10.2 vs. 33.5 ± 5.1 msec, P < 0.001, respectively). Plasma levels of hsCRP and malondialdehyde, an indicator of oxidative stress, were increased in patient's group (15.7 ± 31.7 vs. 4.8 ± 4.7 mg/L, P = 0.01 and 17.1 ± 10.3 vs. 11.6 ± 7.9 nmol/L, P = 0.005, respectively). cPA lateral is independently related to lateral Em /Am ratio (β = -0.29, P = 0.004) and forced expiratory volume in 1st second/forced vital capacity (FEV1 /FVC) ratio (β = -0.24, P = 0.02). cPA tricuspid is independently related to only FEV1 /FVC ratio (β = -0.51, P < 0.001). This study shows that atrial electromechanical delay intervals are prolonged in patients with COPD. Prolongation of atrial electromechanical delay measured from lateral tricuspid annulus was independently related with FEV1 /FVC ratio in these patients. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Evaluation of circulating markers of hepatic apoptosis and inflammation in obese children with and without obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Alkhouri, Naim; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Matloob, Ammar; Alonso-Álvarez, María Luz; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Terán-Santos, Joaquin; Okwu, Vera; Lopez, Rocio; Gileles-Hillel, Alex; Dweik, Raed; Gozal, David

    2015-09-01

    Hepatocyte apoptosis and macrophage activation contribute to the disease progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in obese children is associated with the severity of NAFLD. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma levels of soluble Fas (sFas), soluble Fas ligand (sFasL), cytokeratin 18 (CK18) (markers of apoptosis), and soluble CD163 (sCD163) (marker of macrophage activation) in obese children with and without OSA. Consecutive obese children who were evaluated for OSA were recruited. The diagnosis of OSA was made using overnight polysomnography (PSG). Fasting blood samples were used to determine plasma CK18, sFas, sFasL, and sCD163 levels using specific sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Fifty-eight subjects were included in the analysis with a mean age of 8.9 ± 3.2 years and a mean body mass index (BMI) z-score of 2.4 ± 0.49. Circulating sFas and sFasL levels were significantly lower in subjects with mild and severe OSA compared with those without OSA (p < 0.005 for both). In addition, sCD163 levels increased with an increasing severity of OSA (no OSA = 1.6 ± 0.25 mg/L, mild OSA = 2.3 ± 0.45, and severe OSA = 3.0 ± 0.52; p < 0.001), and they correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) [rho (95% confidence interval, CI) of 0.71 (0.41, 1.00), p-value <0.001]. In six patients with severe OSA from whom samples were taken before and after tonsillectomy, the sCD163 level decreased significantly after treatment, and there was a trend toward an increase in sFasL. Markers of apoptosis and macrophage activation are altered in obese children with OSA, indicating increased apoptotic and inflammatory pressures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluating physical capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: comparing the shuttle walk test with the encouraged 6-minute walk test.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Fernanda Warken; Camelier, Aquiles; Mayer, Anamaria; Jardim, José Roberto

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the applicability of the incremental (shuttle) walk test in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and compare the performance of those patients on the shuttle walk test to that of the same patients on the encouraged 6-minute walk test. A cross-sectional study was conducted, in which 24 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were selected. In random order, patients were, after an initial practice period, submitted to a shuttle walk test and an encouraged 6-minute walk test. The patients obtained a higher heart rate (expressed as a percentage of that predicted based on gender and age) on the encouraged 6-minute walk test (84.1 +/- 11.4%) than on the shuttle walk test (76.4 +/- 9.7%) (p = 0.003). The post-test sensation of dyspnea (Borg scale) was also higher on the encouraged 6-minute walk test. On average, the patients walked 307.0 +/- 89.3 meters on the shuttle walk test and 515.5 +/- 102.3 meters on the encouraged 6-minute walk test (p < 0.001). There was a good correlation between the two tests in terms of the distance walked (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). The shuttle walk test is simple and easy to implement in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The encouraged 6-minute walk test produced higher post-test heart rate and greater post-test sensation of dyspnea than did the shuttle walk test.

  7. Content Validity of the Hypogonadism Impact of Symptoms Questionnaire (HIS-Q): A Patient-Reported Outcome Measure to Evaluate Symptoms of Hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Gelhorn, Heather L; Vernon, Margaret K; Stewart, Katie D; Miller, Michael G; Brod, Meryl; Althof, Stanley E; DeRogatis, Leonard R; Dobs, Adrian; Seftel, Allen D; Revicki, Dennis A

    2016-04-01

    Hypogonadism, or low testosterone, is a common disorder. There are currently no patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments designed to comprehensively evaluate the symptoms of hypogonadism and to detect changes in these symptoms in response to treatment. The purpose of this study was to develop a PRO instrument, the Hypogonadism Impact of Symptoms Questionnaire (HIS-Q) and to assess its content validity. A literature review, expert clinician input, and qualitative concept elicitation with 39 male hypogonadism patients (four focus groups: n = 25; individual interviews: n = 14; mean age 52.3 ± 14.3 years) from the USA were used to develop the draft HIS-Q. Subsequent cognitive interviews (n = 29; mean age 51.5 ± 15.4 years) were used to evaluate content validity. Emergent discussion with participants yielded symptoms within the sexual, physical, energy, sleep, cognition, and mood domains. Low libido and tiredness were most commonly reported. The initial version of the HIS-Q includes 53 items that were consistently understood by the participants, who found the instrument to be relevant to their experiences with hypogonadism and comprehensive in the content coverage of symptoms. The HIS-Q is a comprehensive PRO measure of hypogonadism symptom severity in males. Its design elements, including the response options and recall period, were suitable, and content validity was confirmed.

  8. Evaluative beliefs as mediators of the relationship between parental bonding and symptoms of paranoia and depression.

    PubMed

    Valiente, Carmen; Romero, Nuria; Hervas, Gonzalo; Espinosa, Regina

    2014-01-30

    This study was aimed to explore the distinct pathways that lead to depression and paranoia. We first examined the association of dysfunctional parenting experiences and negative self-evaluations in depression and paranoia. Furthermore, we also examined whether different self-evaluative beliefs could mediate the relationships between dysfunctional parenting experiences (i.e. parental overprotection or lack of care) and the development of depression and paranoia. A sample composed of 55 paranoid patients, 38 depressed patients and 44 healthy controls completed the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), the Evaluative Beliefs Scale (EBS) and some clinical scales. Our analyses revealed that lack of parental care and negative self-self evaluations were associated with depression symptoms. Analyses also revealed that parental overprotection and negative other-self evaluations were associated with paranoid symptoms. Furthermore, negative self-self and other-self evaluations fully mediated the relationship of parental overprotection and paranoia, whereas negative self-self evaluations partially mediated the relationship between lack of parental care and depression. These findings suggest that distinct patterns of parental practices may contribute to the development of different dysfunctional schemas which in turn may lead to either depression or paranoia. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. The effect of continuous positive airway pressure on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder and obstructive sleep apnea: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    El-Solh, Ali A; Vermont, Leah; Homish, Gregory G; Kufel, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Previous retrospective studies have shown that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) exerts salutary effect on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and nightmare distress. The relative magnitude of therapeutic benefits from CPAP and the strength of associations between duration of CPAP use and PTSD symptomatology are unknown. A prospective cohort design involving 47 combat veterans with PTSD and documented obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) by overnight polysomnography. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score, PTSD checklist-Military (PCL-M), Nightmare Distress Questionnaire (NDQ), and Nightmare Frequency Questionnaire (NFQ) were administered at baseline and 3 months after CPAP therapy. Objective adherence was assessed at the 3-month follow-up. Twenty-two veterans with mild-to-moderate PTSD (PCL-M score 17-59) and 18 with severe-to-very-severe PTSD (PCL-M score 60-85) completed the study. There was a dose-dependent response of PCL-M to duration of CPAP usage (r = 0.45; p = 0.003). Veterans with severe-to-very-severe PTSD had a larger improvement in PTSD symptoms (d = 0.65; p = 0.004) compared with those with mild-to-moderate PTSD (d = 0.47; p = 0.04). CPAP usage was the only significant predictor of overall subjective improvement in PTSD symptoms (OR 10.5; p = 0.01). Significant changes in NDQ and NFQ scores following 3 months of treatment were observed in veterans adherent to CPAP, but the correlations with duration of CPAP use were not statistically significant (r = 0.24; p = 0.13 and r = 0.13; p = 0.4, respectively). Improvement of PTSD symptoms in veterans with OSA was more pronounced with prolonged use of CPAP. Adherence to treatment was linked to abatement in nightmare distress and frequency. Future investigation of multimodal treatment, including behavioral intervention combined with CPAP, is warranted. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. [Assessment of the validity and utility of the Beijing questionnaire as atool to evaluate for obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Wang, X T; Gao, L M; Xu, W; Ding, X

    2016-10-20

    Objective: To test the Beijing questionnaire as a means of identifying patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome(OSAHS). Method: The Beijing questionnaire is designed as an explorative tool consist of 11 questions for patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea, and is targeted toward key symptoms include snoring, apneas, daytime sleepiness, hypertension and overweight. 1 336 female participants living in communities of age≥40 years and 198 male adult subjects visting clinics were given questionnaires. Finally, 59 female and 198 male subjects underwent sleep studies after factor analysis,reliability check,internal consistency study. The correlation analysis was performed between the scores from the Beijing questionnaire and the apnea-hypopnea index from inlaboratory polysomnography.Receiver operating characteristics were constructed to determine optimal sensitivity and specificity. Twenty-four male subjects were recorded in the sleep laberatory again after operative. Result: Factor analysis reduced 11 questions of scale to four common factors as we have designed: snoring,apneas,other symptoms,risk factors. Cronbach's α coefficient of scale reached 0.7.There were an acceptable level of testretest reliability(r=0.619, P <0.01).The apnea hypopnea indices were significantly correlated with their Beijing questionnaire scores( P <0.01).For wemen,an Beijing questionnaire scroe of 19.5 provided a sensitivity of 74.3% and a specificity of 62.5%.For men,an Beijing questionnaire scroe of 22.5 provided a sensitivity of 90.9% and a specificity of 54.5%. And the postoperative Beijing questionnaire scroes changed with the apnea hypopnea indices. Conclusion: This questionnaire has a good validity and reliability and appears to be valid and sensitive to clinical change. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

  11. Managing symptoms during cancer treatments: evaluating the implementation of evidence-informed remote support protocols

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Management of cancer treatment-related symptoms is an important safety issue given that symptoms can become life-threatening and often occur when patients are at home. With funding from the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer, a pan-Canadian steering committee was established with representation from eight provinces to develop symptom protocols using a rigorous methodology (CAN-IMPLEMENT©). Each protocol is based on a systematic review of the literature to identify relevant clinical practice guidelines. Protocols were validated by cancer nurses from across Canada. The aim of this study is to build an effective and sustainable approach for implementing evidence-informed protocols for nurses to use when providing remote symptom assessment, triage, and guidance in self-management for patients experiencing symptoms while undergoing cancer treatments. Methods A prospective mixed-methods study design will be used. Guided by the Knowledge to Action Framework, the study will involve (a) establishing an advisory knowledge user team in each of three targeted settings; (b) assessing factors influencing nurses’ use of protocols using interviews/focus groups and a standardized survey instrument; (c) adapting protocols for local use, ensuring fidelity of the content; (d) selecting intervention strategies to overcome known barriers and implementing the protocols; (e) conducting think-aloud usability testing; (f) evaluating protocol use and outcomes by conducting an audit of 100 randomly selected charts at each of the three settings; and (g) assessing satisfaction with remote support using symptom protocols and change in nurses’ barriers to use using survey instruments. The primary outcome is sustained use of the protocols, defined as use in 75% of the calls. Descriptive analysis will be conducted for the barriers, use of protocols, and chart audit outcomes. Content analysis will be conducted on interviews/focus groups and usability testing with comparisons across

  12. Preliminary evaluation of PTSD Coach, a smartphone app for post-traumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Eric; Greene, Carolyn; Hoffman, Julia; Nguyen, Tam; Wald, Laura; Schmidt, Janet; Ramsey, Kelly M; Ruzek, Josef

    2014-01-01

    PTSD Coach is a mobile application (app) designed to help individuals who have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms better understand and self-manage their symptoms. It has wide-scale use (over 130,000 downloads in 78 countries) and very favorable reviews but has yet to be evaluated. Therefore, this study examines user satisfaction, perceived helpfulness, and usage patterns of PTSD Coach in a sample of 45 veterans receiving PTSD treatment. After using PTSD Coach for several days, participants completed a survey of satisfaction and perceived helpfulness and focus groups exploring app use and benefit from use. Data indicate that participants were very satisfied with PTSD Coach and perceived it as being moderately to very helpful with their PTSD symptoms. Analysis of focus group data resulted in several categories of app use: to manage acute distress and PTSD symptoms, at scheduled times, and to help with sleep. These findings offer preliminary support for the acceptability and perceived helpfulness of PTSD Coach and suggest that it has potential to be an effective self-management tool for PTSD. Although promising, future research is required to validate this, given study limitations. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  13. [Evaluation of the efficacy of a new nutraceutical product in the treatment of postmenopausal symptoms].

    PubMed

    Cappelli, V; Morgante, G; Di Sabatino, A; Massaro, M G; De Leo, V

    2015-12-01

    The onset of vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women represents the beginning of a hard period from the emotional point of view which involves some of the most important neurotransmitters. Hot flushes and insomnia associated with a state of anxiety that affect postmenopausal women are included in an index known as the Kupperman Index. The use of nutraceuticals in Italy is increasingly widespread, and only 6-8% of women currently choose to take hormone replacement therapy. The action of these natural supplements primarily depends on the selection of substances and the dose of each single ingredient. Moreover, it also depends on the range of vasomotor symptoms (from mild to moderate/severe). The aim of this study was to test the action of a new product without phytoestrogens containing Cimicifuga racemosa, chasteberry (Vitex agnus-castus), hyaluronic acid, zinc and ginger (ElleN®) in two different groups of women: one with mild and the other with moderate/severe menopausal symptoms. All women received a dose of one tablet per day of ElleN® for three months. Results showed a significant reduction in the Kupperman Index in both groups. The treatment was particularly effective against hot flushes associated with night insomnia and anxiety. The product was well tolerated, did not cause any side effects, and none of the subjects dropped out of the study. In conclusion, it can be stated that the supplement evaluated in the present study is able to reduce moderate/severe menopause symptoms.

  14. [Prefrontal Symptoms Inventory for clinical evaluation of addictions in everyday life: development process and psychometric properties].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sánchez de León, José M; Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J; Lozoya-Delgado, Paz; Llanero-Luque, Marcos; Rojo-Mota, Gloria; Puerta-García, Carmen

    2012-06-01

    Research has provided evidence of the presence of prefrontal symptoms in addicts, although they are usually evaluated using questionnaires that were created for acquired brain injury. To produce a specific instrument for evaluating those symptoms in subjects with addictions. For the study, 1624 participants were recruited (445 addicts and 1179 from the general population) and were given a 100-item inventory to complete based on the three spheres of human activity (cognition, emotion and behaviour) in relation to the three great prefrontal syndromes (dorsolateral, ventromedial and orbital). The preliminary analyses ruled out those that did not prove to have sufficient discriminating power, which resulted in the Prefrontal Symptoms Inventory (PSI) consisting of 46 items. The Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX-Sp) and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) were administered in order to study the convergent validity. The data show the three-factor structure of the questionnaire: problems with executive control (with three sub-factors: problems with motivation, control and attention), problems with social behaviour and problems with emotional control. The relationships between the scores on the PSI and sociodemographic and consumption variables, as well as with the DEX-Sp and the PSS were analysed. A reduced 20-item version is provided for screening. The PSI relates the ('subject-centred') self-evaluation of persons with the a priori ('brain-centred') theoretical formulation, the results showing adequate psychometric properties. We recommend its use when it comes to exploring the prefrontal symptoms of addicts, as well as other clinical or subclinical populations with similar cognitive profiles.

  15. Surgical management of nasal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Moche, Jason A; Palmer, Orville

    2012-05-01

    The proper evaluation of the patient with nasal obstruction relies on a comprehensive history and physical examination. Once the site of obstruction is accurately identified, the patient may benefit from a trial of medical management. At times however, the definitive treatment of nasal obstruction relies on surgical management. Recognizing the nasal septum, nasal valve, and turbinates as possible sites of obstruction and addressing them accordingly can dramatically improve a patient's nasal breathing. Conservative resection of septal cartilage, submucous reduction of the inferior turbinate, and structural grafting of the nasal valve when appropriate will provide the optimal improvement in nasal airflow and allow for the most stable results. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Clinical Guideline for Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoru; Takei, Mineo; Nishizawa, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Kato, Kumiko; Gotoh, Momokazu; Yoshimura, Yasukuni; Takeyama, Masami; Ozawa, Hideo; Shimada, Makoto; Yamanishi, Tomonori; Yoshida, Masaki; Tomoe, Hikaru; Yokoyama, Osamu; Koyama, Masayasu

    2016-01-01

    The "Japanese Clinical Guideline for Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms," published in Japan in November 2013, contains two algorithms (a primary and a specialized treatment algorithm) that are novel worldwide as they cover female lower urinary tract symptoms other than urinary incontinence. For primary treatment, necessary types of evaluation include querying the patient regarding symptoms and medical history, examining physical findings, and performing urinalysis. The types of evaluations that should be performed for select cases include evaluation with symptom/quality of life (QOL) questionnaires, urination records, residual urine measurement, urine cytology, urine culture, serum creatinine measurement, and ultrasonography. If the main symptoms are voiding/post-voiding, specialized treatment should be considered because multiple conditions may be involved. When storage difficulties are the main symptoms, the patient should be assessed using the primary algorithm. When conditions such as overactive bladder or stress incontinence are diagnosed and treatment is administered, but sufficient improvement is not achieved, the specialized algorithm should be considered. In case of specialized treatment, physiological re-evaluation, urinary tract/pelvic imaging evaluation, and urodynamic testing are conducted for conditions such as refractory overactive bladder and stress incontinence. There are two causes of voiding/post-voiding symptoms: lower urinary tract obstruction and detrusor underactivity. Lower urinary tract obstruction caused by pelvic organ prolapse may be improved by surgery. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Usability Evaluation of a Web-Based Symptom Monitoring Application for Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Bonnie; Pham, Kassie; Scherubel, Melody

    2015-07-01

    Symptom recognition and reporting by patients with heart failure are critical to avoid hospitalization. This project evaluated a patient symptom tracking application. Fourteen end users (nine patients, five clinicians) from a Midwestern Veterans Affairs Medical Center evaluated the website using a think aloud protocol. A structured observation protocol was used to assess success or failure for each task. Measures included task time, success, and satisfaction. Patients had a mean age of 70 years; clinicians averaged 42 years in age. Patients took 9.3 min and clinicians took less than 3 min per scenario. Most patients needed some assistance, but few patients were completely unable to complete some tasks. Clinicians demonstrated few problems navigating the site. Patient System Usability Scale item scores ranged from 2.0 to 3.6; clinician item scores ranged from 1.8 to 4.0. Further work is needed to determine whether using the web-based tool improves symptom recognition and reporting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Enlarged thalamostriate vein causing unilateral Monro foramen obstruction. Case report.

    PubMed

    Leonardo, Jody; Grand, Walter

    2009-06-01

    Causes of unilateral hydrocephalus resulting from an obstruction at the Monro foramen include foraminal atresia, tumors, gliosis, contralateral shunting, and infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, few reports in the literature cite vascular lesions as the cause of the obstruction. To their knowledge, the authors present the first report of unilateral hydrocephalus occurring due to an abnormally enlarged thalamostriate vein independent of an arteriovenous malformation or developmental venous angioma. The condition was treated successfully by endoscopic septum pellucidum fenestration. A 28-year-old man was referred for evaluation due to a 10-year history of chronic headaches that worsened in severity over the past year. A CT scan of the head revealed unilateral right ventricular dilation. Cranial MR imaging with and without contrast administration showed a dilated right thalamostriate-internal vein complex without any evidence of associated arteriovenous malformation or venous angioma. Endoscopic exploration of the right lateral ventricle showed an enlarged subependymal thalamostriate vein obstructing the Monro foramen. An endoscopic fenestration of the septum pellucidum was performed, resulting in alleviation of the patient's symptoms. Abnormally enlarged venous structures may cause obstructive unilateral hydrocephalus and can be a rare cause of chronic, intermittent headaches in adults. Endoscopic fenestration of the septum pellucidum is an effective treatment.

  19. Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy: the Mayo Clinic experience.

    PubMed

    Kotkar, Kunal D; Said, Sameh M; Dearani, Joseph A; Schaff, Hartzell V

    2017-07-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary myocardial disease characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy in the absence of other etiologies. Clinical presentation may vary from asymptomatic to sudden cardiac death. Medical treatment is the first-line therapy for symptomatic patients. Extended left ventricular septal myectomy is the procedure of choice if medical treatment is unsuccessful or intolerable. More than 3,000 patients have had septal myectomy for HCM at the Mayo Clinic (MN, USA) from 1993 to 2016. Risk of hospital death after isolated septal myectomy for obstructive HCM is <1% and is similar to the risk of operation for elective mitral valve repair. Complications, such as complete heart block requiring permanent pacemaker, are uncommon (2%), although partial or complete left bundle branch block is a frequent finding on the postoperative ECG. Relief of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction with septal myectomy dramatically improves symptoms and exercise capacity in symptomatic patients with obstructive HCM. More than 90% of severely symptomatic patients have improvement by at least two functional classes, and reduction of outflow gradients by myectomy decreases or eliminates symptoms of dyspnea, angina and/or syncope. Basal obstruction with systolic anterior motion (SAM) is treated by transaortic myectomy. The transapical approach was applied in 115 patients with obstructive midventricular and apical variants of HCM between 1993 and 2012. All patients with midventricular obstruction had gradient relief and none developed an apical aneurysm or ventricular septal defect. Recurrent obstruction after satisfactory myectomy was rare. Septal myectomy effectively and definitively relieves LVOT obstruction and cardiac symptoms in patients with obstructive HCM. In experienced centers, early mortality for isolated septal myectomy is less than 1%, and overall results are excellent and continue to improve in the current era.

  20. Comparison of scales for evaluating premenstrual symptoms in women using oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Coffee, Andrea L; Kuehl, Thomas J; Sulak, Patricia J

    2008-05-01

    To compare two scales used in research to evaluate daily premenstrual mood symptoms during use of a monophasic oral contraceptive. Subanalysis of data from a prospective study. University-affiliated medical center. SUBJECTS; One hundred two reproductive-aged (18-48 yrs) women taking a monophasic oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol and drospirenone in the standard 21-7 fashion (21 days of hormones followed by 7 days of placebo), and who had self-identified premenstrual symptoms of headache, mood changes, or pelvic pain. Subjects completed a single-item questionnaire, the Scott & White Daily Diary of Symptoms, and a multiple-item questionnaire, the Penn State Daily Symptom Report (DSR), to assess their premenstrual symptoms. The Scott & White diary used a visual analog scale of 0-10 to assess pelvic pain, headache, and mood (a composite of anxiety, depression, and irritability). The Penn State DSR contained 17 items: 10 behavioral and seven physical components, each rated on a scale of 0-4, with one item that specifically rated mood swings. Scores from the two scales were compared by using Spearman correlation coefficients, the Kendall W for concordance, and linear regression of ranked sums for study cycles. The Scott & White mood score significantly correlated with the total of the 17 items on the Penn State DSR, as well as the 10 behavioral items, the seven physical items, and the single mood-swing item (p<0.0001); specific coefficients of concordance were 0.44, 0.23, 0.10, and 0.28, respectively, and R2 values were 0.39, 0.39, 0.30, and 0.34, respectively. The daily Scott & White mood score was positively correlated with all 17 elements of the Penn State DSR (0.25-0.57). The greatest correlation was seen with the mood-swing element. Both instruments demonstrated the same patterns during the 21-7 oral contraceptive cycle, with symptoms increasing immediately before and peaking during the 7-day hormone-free interval. A single-item daily mood score using

  1. Over diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in an underserved patient population.

    PubMed

    Ghattas, Christian; Dai, Allen; Gemmel, David J; Awad, Magdi H

    2013-01-01

    While cross-national studies have documented rates of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) misdiagnosis among patients in primary care, US studies are scarce. Studies investigating diagnosis among uninsured patients are lacking. The purpose of this study is to identify patients who are over diagnosed and thus, mistreated, for COPD in a federally qualified health center. A descriptive study was conducted for a retrospective cohort from February 2011 to June 2012. Spirometry was performed by trained personnel following American Thoracic Society recommendations. Patients were referred for spirometry to confirm previous COPD diagnosis or to assess uncontrolled COPD symptoms. Airway obstruction was defined as a forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1) to forced vital capacity ratio less than 0.7. Reversibility was defined as a postbronchodilator increase in FEV1 greater than 200 mL and greater than 12%. Eighty patients treated for a previous diagnosis of COPD (n = 72) or on anticholinergic inhalers (n = 8) with no COPD diagnosis were evaluated. The average age was 52.9 years; 71% were uninsured. Only 17.5% (14/80) of patients reported previous spirometry. Spirometry revealed that 42.5% had no obstruction, 22.5% had reversible obstruction, and 35% had non-reversible obstruction. Symptoms and smoking history are insufficient to diagnose COPD. Prevalence of COPD over diagnosis among uninsured patient populations may be higher than previously reported. Confirming previous COPD diagnosis with spirometry is essential to avoid unnecessary and potentially harmful treatment.

  2. Evaluating Comparative Effectiveness Research Priorities for Care Coordination in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Community-Based eDelphi Study

    PubMed Central

    Alber, Julia; Paige, Samantha; Castro, Daniela; Singh, Briana

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite research supporting the use of care coordination in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there is relatively little known about the comparative effectiveness of different strategies used to organize care for patients. To investigate the most important COPD care coordination strategies, community-based stakeholder input is needed, especially from medically underserved populations. Web-based platforms are electronic tools now being used to bring together individuals from underrepresented populations to share input and obtain clarification on comparative effectiveness research (CER) ideas, questions, and hypotheses. Objective Use low computer-literate, collaborative survey technology to evaluate stakeholder priorities for CER in COPD care coordination. Methods A mixed-method, concurrent triangulation design was used to collect survey data from a virtual advisory board of community-based stakeholders including medically underserved patients with COPD, informal caregivers, clinicians, and research scientists. The eDelphi method was used to conduct 3 iterative rounds of Web-based surveys. In the first 2 survey rounds, panelists viewed a series of “mini research prospectus” YouTube video presentations and rated their level of agreement with the importance of 10 COPD care coordination topics using 7-point Likert scales. In the final third-round survey, panelists ranked (1=most important, 8=least important) and commented on 8 remaining topics that panelists favored most throughout the first 2 survey rounds. Following the third-round survey, panelists were asked to provide feedback on the potential impact of a Web-based stakeholder engagement network dedicated to improving CER in COPD. Results Thirty-seven panelists rated the following care coordination topics as most important (lower means indicate greater importance): (1) measurement of quality of care (mean 2.73, SD 1.95); (2) management of COPD with other chronic health issues (mean 2

  3. Evaluation of the reported association of obsessive-compulsive symptoms or disorder with Tourette's disorder.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A K; Shapiro, E

    1992-01-01

    This review evaluates the evidence reporting an association of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with Tourette's syndrome or disorder (TS). Published reports in the literature describing a relationship between OCS-OCD and TS provided the data for the review. The methodological adequacy of the studies are discussed and rated on five criteria: adequacy of the experimental sample, presence and adequacy of the control sample, whether tics are defined as OCS-OCD, whether blind procedures are used to diagnose OCS-OCD in subjects and controls, and evidence for the reliability and validity of OCS-OCD measures. Although there are considerable clinical indications suggesting an association of OCS-OCD with TS and chronic motor tic disorder (CMT), and a possible overlap between OSC-OCD and TS, our evaluation of the evidence does not provide adequate support for an association between these disorders. To meaningfully evaluate the possible relationship between OCS-OCD and TS requires development of specific criteria for classification of OCS-OCD-TS symptoms, use of adequate experimental and control samples, blind evaluation, reliable and valid measures of OCS-OCD-TS, and appropriate statistical analysis. If such studies are performed, it is possible that the strong relationship reported between OCS-OCD and TS is more likely to be artifact than fact, and recent bandwagon effect rather than the latest breakthrough.

  4. Negative symptoms in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: A psychometric evaluation of the brief negative symptom scale across diagnostic categories.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Gregory P; Vertinski, Mary; Vogel, Sally J; Ringdahl, Erik N; Allen, Daniel N

    2016-02-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that the Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS) has excellent psychometric properties in patients with schizophrenia. In the current study, we extended this literature by examining psychometric properties of the BNSS in outpatients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (n=46), outpatients with schizophrenia (n=50), and healthy controls (n=27). Participants completed neuropsychological testing and a clinical interview designed to assess negative, positive, disorganized, mood, and general psychiatric symptoms. Results indicated differences among the 3 groups in the severity of all BNSS items, with SZ and BD scoring higher than CN; however, SZ and BD only differed on blunted affect and alogia items, not anhedonia, avolition, or asociality. BD patients with a history of psychosis did not differ from those without a history of psychosis on negative symptom severity. The BNSS had excellent internal consistency in SZ, BD, and CN groups. Good convergent and discriminant validity was apparent in SZ and BD groups, as indicated by relationships between the BNSS and other clinical rating scales. These findings support the validity of the BNSS in broadly defined serious mental illness populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Role of the small intestinal decompression tube and Gastrografin in the treatment of early postoperative inflammatory small bowel obstruction].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Zhixia; An, Dali; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the role of the small intestinal decompression tube (SIDT) and Gastrografin in the treatment of early postoperative inflammatory small bowel obstruction (EPISBO). Twelve patients presented EPISBO after abdominal surgery in our department from April 2011 to July 2012. Initially, nasogastric tube decompression and other conventional conservative treatment were administrated. After 14 days, obstruction symptom improvement was not obvious, then the SIDT was used. At the same time, Gastrografin was injected into the small bowel through the SIDT in order to demonstrate the site of obstruction of small bowel and its efficacy. In 11 patients after this management, obstruction symptoms disappeared, bowel function recovered within 3 weeks, and oral feeding occurred gradually. Another patient did not pass flatus after 4 weeks and was reoperated. After postoperative follow-up of 6 months, no case relapsed with intestinal obstruction. For severe and long course of early postoperative inflammatory intestinal obstruction, intestinal decompression tube plus Gastrografin is safe and effective, and can avoid unnecessary reoperation.

  6. Mechanical valve obstruction: Review of diagnostic and treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Salamon, Jason; Munoz-Mendoza, Jerson; Liebelt, Jared J; Taub, Cynthia C

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic valve obstruction (PVO) is a rare but feared complication of mechanical valve replacement. Diagnostic evaluation should focus on differentiating prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT) from pannus formation, as their treatment options differ. History of sub-optimal anti-coagulation and post-op time course to development of PVO are useful clinical characteristics in differentiating thrombus from pannus formation. Treatment of PVT is influenced by the patient’s symptoms, valve location, degree of obstruction and thrombus size and may include thrombolysis or surgical intervention. Alternatively, pannus formation requires surgical intervention. The purpose of this article is to review the pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnostic approach and treatment options for aortic and mitral valve PVO. PMID:26730292

  7. Clinical and polysomnographic predictors of laryngopharyngeal reflux in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Caparroz, Fábio Azevedo; Campanholo, Milena de Almeida Torres; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Park, Sung Woo; Haddad, Leonardo; Gregório, Luís Carlos; Haddad, Fernanda Louise Martinho

    2018-04-14

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and laryngopharyngeal reflux are diseases with a high prevalence in the overall population; however, it remains unclear whether they are diseases with the same risk factors present in the same populations or if there is any association between them. To evaluate and determine the prevalence of laryngopharyngeal reflux in patients with moderate and severe obstructive apnea syndrome and also to determine its predictive factors. Historical cohort, cross-sectional study of patients aged 18-70 years, referred to a tertiary service Otorhinolaryngology outpatient clinic with a polysomnographic diagnosis of moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The reflux symptom index questionnaire and the reflux finding score at indirect videolaryngoscopy were applied to the assessed population, considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Fifty-six patients were evaluated, of which 64.3% had a positive laryngopharyngeal reflux (positive reflux symptom index and/or positive endolaryngeal reflux finding score). Body mass index was a predictor of reflux presence in this group of patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. In patients with positive score for endoscopic findings and reflux symptom index (12.3%), there was a trend toward significance for a higher mean apnea-hypopnea index and a higher percentage of sleep time with oxyhemoglobin saturation below 90% (p=0.05). The prevalence of laryngopharyngeal reflux was higher in this group of patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and the body mass index was a predictor of laryngopharyngeal reflux in these patients. There was a trend toward greater oxyhemoglobin desaturation in patients with a positive score for reflux symptoms index (RSI) and reflux finding score (RFS). Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep complaints and psychiatric symptoms in children evaluated at a pediatric mental health clinic.

    PubMed

    Ivanenko, Anna; Crabtree, Valerie McLaughlin; Obrien, Louise Margaret; Gozal, David

    2006-01-15

    To examine the association of sleep problems with psychiatric symptoms in children evaluated at a university-based outpatient child psychiatry clinic. Parents of 174 children attending psychiatric services completed a 47-item Childhood Sleep Questionnaire and the Behavioral Assessment System for Children. Psychiatric diagnosis was obtained through retrospective chart review. Sleep characteristics were compared among 4 diagnostic subcategories: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) alone (n=29), ADHD with comorbid mood and anxiety disorders (ADHD+; n=50), mood and anxiety disorders alone (n=67), and other psychiatric disorders (n= 28). Data from sleep habits survey of 174 community children without reported psychiatric history served as controls. Children with psychiatric disorders had a significantly higher prevalence of sleep complaints compared with nonpsychiatric controls. Children with ADHD had frequent nocturnal awakenings, bad dreams, and bedtime struggles. In addition, the presence of leg jerks during sleep was particularly frequent in patients with ADHD compared with any other psychiatric disorder. More frequent nighttime awakenings were present in children with mood and anxiety disorders. Sleep duration and sleep latency strongly correlated with aggression, hyperactivity, and depression. Restless sleep scores highly correlated with all psychiatric symptoms. Sleep problems are highly prevalent among children with psychiatric disorders. Children with ADHD and comorbid anxiety or mood disorders are more likely to report sleep disturbances. Restless sleep, long sleep latency, short sleep duration, and frequent nocturnal awakenings correlate with the severity of psychiatric symptoms.

  9. Design and Evaluation of a Web-Based Symptom Monitoring Tool for Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Bonnie J; Alexander, Gregory; Dohrmann, Mary; Richardson, James

    2017-05-01

    Heart failure is a chronic condition where symptom recognition and between-visit communication with providers are critical. Patients are encouraged to track disease-specific data, such as weight and shortness of breath. Use of a Web-based tool that facilitates data display in graph form may help patients recognize exacerbations and more easily communicate out-of-range data to clinicians. The purposes of this study were to (1) design a Web-based tool to facilitate symptom monitoring and symptom recognition in patients with chronic heart failure and (2) conduct a usability evaluation of the Web site. Patient participants generally had a positive view of the Web site and indicated it would support recording their health status and communicating with their doctors. Clinician participants generally had a positive view of the Web site and indicated it would be a potentially useful adjunct to electronic health delivery systems. Participants expressed a need to incorporate decision support within the site and wanted to add other data, for example, blood pressure, and have the ability to adjust font size. A few expressed concerns about data privacy and security. Technologies require careful design and testing to ensure they are useful, usable, and safe for patients and do not add to the burden of busy providers.

  10. Evaluating a Web-Based Coaching Program Using Electronic Health Records for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in China: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; He, Lin; Tao, Yanxia; Sun, Li; Zheng, Hong; Zheng, Yashu; Shen, Yuehao; Liu, Suyan; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Yaogang

    2017-07-21

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is now the fourth leading cause of death in the world, and it continues to increase in developing countries. The World Health Organization expects COPD to be the third most common cause of death in the world by 2020. Effective and continuous postdischarge care can help patients to maintain good health. The use of electronic health records (EHRs) as an element of community health care is new technology in China. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a Web-based coaching program using EHRs for physical function and health-related quality of life for patients with COPD in China. A randomized controlled trial was conducted from 2008 to 2015 at two hospitals. The control group received routine care and the intervention group received routine care with the addition of the Web-based coaching program using EHRs. These were used to manage patients' demographic and clinical variables, publish relevant information, and have communication between patients and health care providers. Participants were not blinded to group assignment. The effects of the intervention were evaluated by lung function, including percent of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%), percent of forced vital capacity (FVC%), peak expiratory flow (PEF), maximum midexpiratory flow; St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ); Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (MMRC); and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT). Data were collected before the program, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after the program. Of the 130 participants, 120 (92.3%) completed the 12-month follow-up program. There were statistically significant differences in lung function (FEV1%: F1,4=5.47, P=.002; FVC%: F1,4=3.06, P=.02; PEF: F1,4=12.49, P<.001), the total score of SGRQ (F1,4=23.30, P<.001), symptoms of SGRQ (F1,4=12.38, P<.001), the activity of SGRQ (F1,4=8.35, P<.001), the impact of SGRQ (F1,4=12.26, P<.001), MMRC (F1,4=47.94, P<.001), and 6MWT (F1,4=35.54, P<.001) between

  11. Evaluating symptom outcomes in gastroparesis clinical trials: validity and responsiveness of the Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index-Daily Diary (GCSI-DD).

    PubMed

    Revicki, D A; Camilleri, M; Kuo, B; Szarka, L A; McCormack, J; Parkman, H P

    2012-05-01

    Patient-reported symptom scales are needed to evaluate treatments for gastroparesis. The Gastroparesis Cardinal Symptom Index-Daily Diary (GCSI-DD) was developed to assess daily symptoms of gastroparesis. This study evaluated the validity and responsiveness of the GCSI-DD in patients with gastroparesis. Symptomatic patients were started with a new treatment for gastroparesis. Patients completed the GCSI-DD each evening during a baseline week and for 8 weeks of treatment. Responders were defined based on patient and clinician global rating of change. Minimal important differences (MID) were estimated based on baseline to 4 week changes in symptoms scores for small improvements. Of 69 patients participating, 46 had idiopathic, 19 diabetic, and four postfundoplication gastroparesis. Excellent test-retest reliability was seen for GCSI-DD scores, and there were significant correlations between GCSI-DD scores and clinician ratings of symptom severity. Responders to treatment reported improvements in nausea [effect size (ES) = 0.42, P < 0.001], postprandial fullness, ES = 0.83, P < 0.001), bloating (ES = 0.34, P < 0.001), early satiety (ES = 0.53, P < 0.001), but lower responses for upper abdominal pain (ES = 0.29), and vomiting (ES = 0.22; P = 0.119). MIDs were 0.55 for nausea, 0.97 for excessive fullness, 0.63 for bloating, 0.77 for postprandial fullness, and 0.30 for abdominal pain. A composite score of four symptoms (Composite-1; nausea, bloating, excessive fullness, postprandial fullness) had ES of 0.61 and MID of 0.73. Composite-2 score (nausea, early satiety, bloating, abdominal pain) had a lower ES of 0.47. Symptoms of early satiety, nausea, postprandial fullness, and bloating were responsive to treatment for gastroparesis. A composite of these symptoms also demonstrates validity and responsiveness to treatment for gastroparesis, and may represent an acceptable endpoint for evaluating the effectiveness of medical treatments in clinical trials for gastroparesis.

  12. Evaluation of visual and computer-based CT analysis for the identification of functional patterns of obstruction and restriction in hypersensitivity pneumonitis.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Joseph; Bartholmai, Brian J; Brun, Anne Laure; Egashira, Ryoko; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Karwoski, Ronald; Kouranos, Vasileios; Kokosi, Maria; Hansell, David M; Wells, Athol U

    2017-11-01

    To determine whether computer-based quantification (CALIPER software) is superior to visual computed tomography (CT) scoring in the identification of CT patterns indicative of restrictive and obstructive functional indices in hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). A total of 135 consecutive HP patients had CT parenchymal patterns evaluated quantitatively by both visual scoring and CALIPER. Results were evaluated against: forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC), diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL CO ) and a composite physiological index (CPI) to identify which CT scoring method better correlated with functional indices. CALIPER-derived scores of total interstitial lung disease extent correlated more strongly than visual scores: FVC (CALIPER R = 0.73, visual R = 0.51); DL CO (CALIPER R = 0.61, visual R = 0.48); and CPI (CALIPER R = 0·70, visual R = 0·55). The CT variable that correlated most strongly with restrictive functional indices was CALIPER pulmonary vessel volume (PVV): FVC R = 0.75, DL CO R = 0.68 and CPI R = 0.76. Ground-glass opacity quantified by CALIPER alone demonstrated strong associations with restrictive functional indices: CALIPER FVC R = 0.65; DL CO R = 0.59; CPI R = 0.64; and visual = not significant. Decreased attenuation lung quantified by CALIPER was a better morphological measure of obstructive lung disease than equivalent visual scores as judged by relationships with TLC (CALIPER R = 0.63 and visual R = 0.12). All results were maintained on multivariate analysis. CALIPER improved on visual scoring in HP as judged by restrictive and obstructive functional correlations. Decreased attenuation regions of the lung quantified by CALIPER demonstrated better linkages to obstructive lung physiology than visually quantified CT scores. A novel CALIPER variable, the PVV, demonstrated the strongest linkages with restrictive functional indices and could represent a new

  13. Evaluation of a Therapeutic Interchange from Fluticasone/Salmeterol to Mometasone/Formoterol in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Yip, Elaine; Karimi, Sahar; Pien, Linda T

    2016-04-01

    Combination treatment with an inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta2-agonist is among the many treatment options for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that has been shown to improve clinical outcomes. While mometasone/formoterol does not currently have an FDA-approved indication for COPD, evidence from 2 phase 3 trials demonstrated that mometasone/formoterol can improve lung function and was well tolerated in patients with moderate-to-very severe COPD. Based on these data, a therapeutic interchange was implemented in the Kaiser Permanente Mid-Atlantic States region to convert patients with a COPD diagnosis from fluticasone/salmeterol to mometasone/formoterol. To evaluate the impact of a therapeutic interchange from fluticasone/salmeterol to mometasone/formoterol on health outcomes in patients with COPD in a large ambulatory and managed care setting. The investigators retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of patients with a COPD diagnosis who had a prescription for fluticasone/salmeterol converted to mometasone/formoterol between March 6, 2011, to March 6, 2013. Kaiser Permanente's Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee provided recommended equivalent doses for conversion from fluticasone/salmeterol to mometasone/formoterol. Nonetheless, the final approval for the change in medication and selection of the dose was left to each physician's clinical judgment. Patients were excluded if they were (a) prescribed fluticasone/salmeterol 100/50 mcg, which has no equivalent mometasone/formoterol dose; (b) less than aged 18 years; or (c) prescribed fluticasone/salmeterol for a duration of less than 6 months preconversion to mometasone/formoterol. In addition, patients who left the Kaiser Permanente network or became deceased during the study period of interest were excluded. After the application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 521 patients were included in the data analysis. The primary endpoint was the determination of the difference

  14. Evaluating prevalence and risk factors of building-related symptoms among office workers: Seasonal characteristics of symptoms and psychosocial and physical environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Kenichi; Ikeda, Koichi; Kagi, Naoki; Yanagi, U; Osawa, Haruki

    2017-04-12

    Psychosocial and environmental factors at the workplace play a significant role in building-related symptoms (BRSs). Environmental factors change during summer cooling and winter heating using air-conditioning systems. Thus, significant risk factors in each season need to be clarified. A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted during summer in Japan and seasonal differences between summer and winter were evaluated. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 489 offices. Possible risk factors for BRSs associated with the work environment, indoor air quality, and job stressors were examined by multiple regression analyses. Among people having at least one BRS, the prevalence of BRSs in summer (27.8%) was slightly higher than that in winter (24.9%). High prevalence was observed for eye and nasal symptoms related to dryness and general symptoms related to psychological distress in both seasons. Analyses revealed that dryness of air was an important and significant risk factor associated with BRSs, and job stressors were significantly associated with general symptoms in both seasons. Conversely, humidity was a significant risk factor of general symptoms in summer (odds ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.43). Carpeting, recently painted walls, and unpleasant chemical odors in summer and noise, dust and dirt, and unpleasant odors such as body or food odors in both seasons were significant risk factors for BRSs. Improvements in the physical environmental qualities in an office throughout the year are important along with the reduction in psychological distress related to work.

  15. A systematic review of quality and cost-effectiveness derived from Markov models evaluating smoking cessation interventions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Florian

    2015-04-01

    Smoking cessation is the only strategy that has shown a lasting reduction in the decline of lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, to assess the quality of the Markov models and to estimate the consequences of model structure and input data on cost-effectiveness. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, BusinessSourceComplete and Econlit on June 11, 2014. Data were extracted, and costs were inflated. Model quality was evaluated by a quality appraisal, and results were interpreted. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. The results varied widely from cost savings to additional costs of €17,004 per quality adjusted life year. The models scored best in the category structure, followed by data and consistency. The quality of the models seems to rise over time, and regarding the results there is no economic reason to refuse the reimbursement of any smoking cessation intervention.

  16. Evaluating effect of symptoms heterogeneity on decision-making ability in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Martoni, Riccardo Maria; Brombin, Chiara; Nonis, Alessandro; Salgari, Giulia Carlotta; Buongiorno, Angela; Cavallini, Maria Cristina; Galimberti, Elisa; Bellodi, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Despite having a univocal definition, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) shows a remarkably phenotypic heterogeneity. The published reports show impaired decision-making in OCD patients, using tasks such as the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). We wanted to verify the hypothesis of an IGT worse performance in a large sample of OCD patients and healthy control (HC) subjects and to examine the relation between neuropsychological performance in IGT and the OCD symptoms heterogeneity. Binary data from the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale collected on a large sample of OCD patients were analyzed using a multidimensional item response theory model to explore the underlying structure of data, thus revealing latent factors. Factor scores were categorized into quartiles. Then, for each factor, we identified patients respectively with the highest versus lowest score. We evaluated whether symptom dimensions affect the probability of a correct answer over time generalized, during IGT performance, fitting a generalized linear mixed model. We found a general deficit in ambiguous decision-making in OCD compared to HC. Moreover, our findings suggested that OCD symptoms heterogeneity affects decision-making learning abilities during IGT. In fact, while 'Symmetry' and 'Washing' patients showed a learning curve during the task, other subgroups did not. Our study confirmed previous findings suggesting that OCD is characterized by a deficit in decision-making under uncertainty. Moreover, our study gave evidence about biological specificity for each symptom dimension in OCD. Data were discussed in the context of the somatic marker hypothesis, which was hypothesized to be reduced in OCD patients. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  17. Perception of Better Nasal Patency Correlates with Increased Mucosal Cooling after Surgery for Nasal Obstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Guilherme; Sullivan, Corbin; Frank-Ito, Dennis; Kimbell, Julia; Rhee, John

    2014-11-01

    Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a common health problem with 340,000 patients undergoing surgery annually in the United States. Traditionally, otolaryngologists have focused on airspace cross-sectional areas and nasal resistance to airflow as objective measures of nasal patency, but neither of these variables correlated consistently with patients' symptoms. Given that the sensation of nasal airflow is also associated with mucosal cooling (i.e., heat loss) during inspiration, we investigated the correlation between the sensation of nasal obstruction and mucosal cooling in 10 patients before and after NAO surgery. Three-dimensional models of the nasal anatomy were created based on pre- and post-surgery computed tomography scans. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to quantify nasal resistance and mucosal cooling. Patient-reported symptoms were measured by a visual analog scale and the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE), a disease-specific quality of life questionnaire. Our results revealed that the subjective sensation of nasal obstruction correlated with both nasal resistance and heat loss, but the strongest correlation was between the NOSE score and the nasal surface area where heat flux exceeds 50 W /m2 . In conclusion, a significant post-operative increase in mucosal cooling correlates well with patients' perception of better nasal patency after NAO surgery.

  18. Empirical evaluation of grouping of lower urinary tract symptoms: principal component analysis of Tampere Ageing Male Urological Study data.

    PubMed

    Pöyhönen, Antti; Häkkinen, Jukka T; Koskimäki, Juha; Hakama, Matti; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-03-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: The ICS has divided LUTS into three groups: storage, voiding and post-micturition symptoms. The classification is based on anatomical, physiological and urodynamic considerations of a theoretical nature. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to determine the inter-correlations of various LUTS, which is a novel approach to research and can strengthen existing knowledge of the phenomenology of LUTS. After we had completed our analyses, another study was published that used a similar approach and results were very similar to those of the present study. We evaluated the constellation of LUTS using PCA of the data from a population-based study that included >4000 men. In our analysis, three components emerged from the 12 LUTS: voiding, storage and incontinence components. Our results indicated that incontinence may be separate from the other storage symptoms and post-micturition symptoms should perhaps be regarded as voiding symptoms. To determine how lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) relate to each other and assess if the classification proposed by the International Continence Society (ICS) is consistent with empirical findings. The information on urinary symptoms for this population-based study was collected using a self-administered postal questionnaire in 2004. The questionnaire was sent to 7470 men, aged 30-80 years, from Pirkanmaa County (Finland), of whom 4384 (58.7%) returned the questionnaire. The Danish Prostatic Symptom Score-1 questionnaire was used to evaluate urinary symptoms. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the inter-correlations among various urinary symptoms. The PCA produced a grouping of 12 LUTS into three categories consisting of voiding, storage and incontinence symptoms. Post-micturition symptoms were related to voiding symptoms, but incontinence symptoms were separate from storage symptoms. In the analyses by age group, similar categorization was found at

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea presenting as pseudopheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Marmouch, Hela; Arfa, Sondes; Graja, Sameh; Slim, Tensim; Khochtali, Ines

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old female with a history of poorly controlled resistant hypertension was admitted to our hospital with severe hypertension. She had a history of fatigue and intermittent episodes of palpitations. Laboratory evaluation was significant for elevated 24-h urinary catecholamine levels (3,5 times the upper normal levels). This case was presenting with a clinical and biochemical picture indistinguishable from that of pheochromocytoma. However, neither computed tomography nor meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine scintigraphy detected any catecholamine-producing tumor in or outside the adrenal glands. Our patient was screened with full polysomnography because of heavy snoring, daytime somnolence and obesity. It revealed severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. After three months of continuous positive airway pressure therapy, the patient experienced resolution of his presenting symptoms, improved blood pressure control and normalization of his urinary catecholamine levels. This case highlights sleep disordered breathing as a potentially reversible cause of pseudo-pheochromocytoma. PMID:27217898

  20. Comparative study between surgical and non-surgical treatment of anismus in patients with symptoms of obstructed defecation: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Faried, Mohamed; El Nakeeb, Ayman; Youssef, Mohamed; Omar, Waleed; El Monem, Hisham Abd

    2010-08-01

    This study came to compare the results of biofeedback retraining biofeedback (BFB), botulinum toxin botulinum type A (BTX-A) injection and partial division of puborectalis (PDPR) in the treatment of anismus patients. Consecutive patients treated for anismus fulfilled Rome II criteria for functional constipation at our institution were evaluated for inclusion. Participants were randomly allocated to receive BFB, BTX-A injection, and PDPR. All patients underwent anorectal manometry, balloon expulsion test, defecography, and electromyography activity of the anal sphincter. Follow up was conducted weekly in the first month then monthly for about 1 year. Study variables included clinical improvement, patient satisfaction, and objective improvement. Sixty patients with anismus were randomized and completed the study. The groups differed significantly regarding clinical improvement at 1 month (50% for BFB, 75%BTX-A injection, and 95% for PDPR, P = 0.006) and differences persisted at 1 year (30% for BFB, 35%BTX-A injection, and 70% for PDPR, P = 0.02). Constipation score of the patients significantly improved postPDPR and BTX-A injection. Manometric relaxation was achieved significantly in the three groups. Biofeedback retraining has a limited therapeutic effect, BTX-A injection seems to be successful for temporary treatment but PDPR is found to be an effective with lower morbidity in contrast to its higher success rate in treating anismus.

  1. Development of Decision Support Formulas for the Prediction of Bladder Outlet Obstruction and Prostatic Surgery in Patients With Lower Urinary Tract Symptom/Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Part I, Development of the Formula and its Internal Validation.

    PubMed

    Choo, Min Soo; Yoo, Changwon; Cho, Sung Yong; Jeong, Seong Jin; Jeong, Chang Wook; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Oh, Seung-June

    2017-04-01

    As the elderly population increases, a growing number of patients have lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS)/benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The aim of this study was to develop decision support formulas and nomograms for the prediction of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and for BOO-related surgical decision-making, and to validate them in patients with LUTS/BPH. Patient with LUTS/BPH between October 2004 and May 2014 were enrolled as a development cohort. The available variables included age, International Prostate Symptom Score, free uroflowmetry, postvoid residual volume, total prostate volume, and the results of a pressure-flow study. A causal Bayesian network analysis was used to identify relevant parameters. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, formulas were developed to calculate the probabilities of having BOO and requiring prostatic surgery. Patients between June 2014 and December 2015 were prospectively enrolled for internal validation. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, calibration plots, and decision curve analysis were performed. A total of 1,179 male patients with LUTS/BPH, with a mean age of 66.1 years, were included as a development cohort. Another 253 patients were enrolled as an internal validation cohort. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, 2 and 4 formulas were established to estimate the probabilities of having BOO and requiring prostatic surgery, respectively. Our analysis of the predictive accuracy of the model revealed area under the curve values of 0.82 for BOO and 0.87 for prostatic surgery. The sensitivity and specificity were 53.6% and 87.0% for BOO, and 91.6% and 50.0% for prostatic surgery, respectively. The calibration plot indicated that these prediction models showed a good correspondence. In addition, the decision curve analysis showed a high net benefit across the entire spectrum of probability thresholds. We established nomograms for the prediction of BOO and BOO-related prostatic surgery

  2. Vocal Tract Discomfort Scale (VTDS) and Voice Symptom Scale (VoiSS) in the Evaluation of Patients With Voice Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; de Oliveira Florencio, Vanessa; Silva, Priscila Oliveira Costa; da Nóbrega E Ugulino, Ana Celiane; Almeida, Anna Alice

    2018-01-04

    We aimed to correlate the Vocal Tract Discomfort Scale (VTDS) with the Voice Symptom Scale (VoiSS) for evaluation of patients with dysphonia. In addition, we aimed to compare vocal tract discomfort symptoms in patients with and without self-reported voice problem. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, and retrospective study. We analyzed 143 women and 62 men with voice disorders, as confirmed by endoscopic larynx examination. All patients completed the VTDS and VoiSS at vocal evaluation. Descriptive statistics and the Spearman correlation test were applied to all variables. The degree of covariance of variables was noted. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the average number of discomfort symptoms among patients with and without self-reported voice problems. A weak to moderate positive correlation was observed between the average number, frequency, and intensity of comfort symptom and the total score, physical domain score, and limitation domain score of the VoiSS. The vocal tract discomfort symptoms and the emotional domain score of the VoiSS were weakly correlated. Patients with self-reported voice problems had a higher number, frequency, and intensity of vocal tract discomfort symptoms. There is correlation between the VTDS and VoiSS scales, with greater references to vocal tract discomfort symptom in patients with self-reported voice problems. Therefore, the discomfort symptoms seem to influence the perception of the impact of a voice problem. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of friendship network popularity on depressive symptoms during early adolescence: moderation by fear of negative evaluation and gender.

    PubMed

    Kornienko, Olga; Santos, Carlos E

    2014-04-01

    We integrated a social network analysis and developmental perspectives to examine the effects of friendship network popularity on depressive symptoms during early adolescence. We explored whether the association between social status processes (i.e., friendship network popularity) and depressive symptoms was moderated by socio-cognitive aspects of peer relations (i.e., a fear of negative evaluation by peers) and gender. This longitudinal study was conducted with a sample of 367 adolescents (48.5 % female; M age = 11.9 years; 9 % European American, 19 % African American, 7 % Native American, 60 % Latino(a), 5 % other) attending sixth and seventh grades at Time 1. Results indicated that, for males with high levels of fear of negative evaluation, friendship network popularity was associated negatively with increases in depressive symptoms. Conversely, for females with high levels of fear of negative evaluation, friendship network popularity was associated positively with increases in depressive symptoms. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  4. Psychometric Evaluation of the Hypogonadism Impact of Symptoms Questionnaire Short Form (HIS-Q-SF).

    PubMed

    Gelhorn, Heather L; Roberts, Laurie J; Khandelwal, Nikhil; Revicki, Dennis A; DeRogatis, Leonard R; Dobs, Adrian; Hepp, Zsolt; Miller, Michael G

    2017-08-01

    The Hypogonadism Impact of Symptoms Questionnaire Short Form (HIS-Q-SF) is a patient-reported outcome measurement designed to evaluate the symptoms of hypogonadism. The HIS-Q-SF is an abbreviated version including17 items from the original 28-item HIS-Q. To conduct item analyses and reduction, evaluate the psychometric properties of the HIS-Q-SF, and provide guidance on score interpretation. A 12-week observational longitudinal study of hypogonadal men was conducted as part of the original HIS-Q psychometric evaluation. Participants completed the original HIS-Q every 2 weeks. Blood samples were collected to evaluate testosterone levels. Participants completed the Aging Male's Symptoms Scale, the International Index of Erectile Function, the Short Form-12, and the PROMIS Sexual Activity, Satisfaction with Sex Life, Sleep Disturbance, and Applied Cognition Scales (baseline and weeks 6 and 12). Clinicians completed the Clinical Global Impression of Severity and Change scales and a clinical form. Item performance was evaluated using descriptive statistics and Rasch analyses. Reliability (internal consistency and test-retest), validity (concurrent and know groups), and responsiveness were assessed. One hundred seventy-seven men participated (mean age = 54.1 years, range = 23-83). Similar to the full HIS-Q, the final abbreviated HIS-Q-SF instrument includes five domains (sexual, energy, sleep, cognition, and mood) with two sexual subdomains (libido and sexual function). For key domains, test-retest reliability was very good, and construct validity was good for all domains. Known-groups validity was demonstrated for all domain scores, subdomain scores, and total score based on the Clinical Global Impression-Severity. All domains and subdomains were responsive to change based on patient-rated anchor questions. The HIS-Q-SF could be a useful tool in clinical practice, epidemiologic studies, and other academic research settings. Careful consideration was given to the

  5. Further evaluation of associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms and bullying-victimization in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fite, Paula J; Evans, Spencer C; Cooley, John L; Rubens, Sonia L

    2014-02-01

    Relations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and bullying-victimization in adolescence are not yet clear. Accordingly, the current study evaluated these associations, with attention to gender differences, in a sample of predominantly Latino 9th-12th grade students (52.6 % male; mean grade level = 10.35, SD = 1.11). Further, the role of peer delinquency in these associations was evaluated. Findings indicated that ODD symptoms were more strongly associated with both bullying and victimization than ADHD symptoms, and the effects of ODD symptoms on physical forms of both bullying and victimization were stronger for males than females. The association between ODD symptoms and physical bullying was stronger at high levels of peer delinquency when compared to low levels of peer delinquency for both males and females. The role of peer delinquency in the link between ADHD symptoms and bullying and victimization appears to be gender specific and in need of further evaluation. Implications for the need to focus primarily on ODD symptoms for both bullying and victimization prevention and intervention are discussed.

  6. Accuracy of a novel auto-CPAP device to evaluate the residual apnea-hypopnea index in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Carlos Alberto; González, Sergio; Arce, Anabella; Aragone, María Rosario; Nigro, Luciana

    2015-05-01

    Patients under treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may have residual sleep apnea (RSA). The main objective of our study was to evaluate a novel auto-CPAP for the diagnosis of RSA. All patients referred to the sleep laboratory to undergo CPAP polysomnography were evaluated. Patients treated with oxygen or noninvasive ventilation and split-night polysomnography (PSG), PSG with artifacts, or total sleep time less than 180 min were excluded. The PSG was manually analyzed before generating the automatic report from auto-CPAP. PSG variables (respiratory disturbance index (RDI), obstructive apnea index, hypopnea index, and central apnea index) were compared with their counterparts from auto-CPAP through Bland-Altman plots and intraclass correlation coefficient. The diagnostic accuracy of autoscoring from auto-CPAP using different cutoff points of RDI (≥5 and 10) was evaluated by the receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) curve. The study included 114 patients (24 women; mean age and BMI, 59 years old and 33 kg/m(2); RDI and apnea/hypopnea index (AHI)-auto median, 5 and 2, respectively). The average difference between the AHI-auto and the RDI was -3.5 ± 3.9. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between the total number of central apneas, obstructive, and hypopneas between the PSG and the auto-CPAP were 0.69, 0.16, and 0.15, respectively. An AHI-auto >2 (RDI ≥ 5) or >4 (RDI ≥ 10) had an area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative for diagnosis of residual sleep apnea of 0.84/0.89, 84/81%, 82/91%, 4.5/9.5, and 0.22/0.2, respectively. The automatic analysis from auto-CPAP (S9 Autoset) showed a good diagnostic accuracy to identify residual sleep apnea. The absolute agreement between PSG and auto-CPAP to classify the respiratory events correctly varied from very low (obstructive apneas, hypopneas) to moderate (central apneas).

  7. Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome and colonic pathologies in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Canny, J D; Brookes, A; Bowley, D B

    2017-01-02

    The management of abdominal pain in cystic fibrosis can be complicated. Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome is a common cause of pain and obstruction in these patients. Knowledge of the diagnosis and management and of similar presenting symptoms is essential for the hospital doctor.

  8. A randomized trial of peer review: the UK National Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Resources and Outcomes Project: three-year evaluation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Christopher M; Stone, Robert A; Buckingham, Rhona J; Pursey, Nancy A; Lowe, Derek; Potter, Jonathan M

    2012-06-01

    Peer review has been widely used within the National Health Service to facilitate health quality improvement but evaluation has been limited particularly over the longer-term. Change within the National Health Service (NHS) can take a prolonged period--1-2 years--to occur. We report here a 3-year evaluation of the largest randomized trial of peer review ever conducted in the UK. To evaluate whether targeted mutual peer review of respiratory units brings about improvements in services for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) over 3 years. The peer review intervention was a reciprocal supportive exercise that included clinicians, hospital management, commissioners and patients, which focused on the quality of the provision of four specific evidence-based aspects of COPD care. Follow-up at 36 months demonstrated limited significant quantitative differences in the quality of services offered in the two groups but a strong trend in favour of intervention sites. Qualitative data suggested many benefits of peer review in most but not all intervention units and some control teams. The data identify factors that promote and obstruct change. The findings demonstrate significant change in service provision over 3 years in both control and intervention sites with great variability in both groups. The combined quantitative and qualitative findings indicate that targeted mutual peer review is associated with improved quality of care, improvements in service delivery and with changes within departments that promote and are precursors to quality improvement. The generic findings of this study have potential implications for the application of peer review throughout the NHS. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. [Evaluation of depressive symptoms and resilience in patients on pharmacotherapeutic follow-up].

    PubMed

    Gomes, N C; Abrão, P H O; Fernandes, M R; Beijo, L A; Marques, L A M

    This study aimed to carry out the pharmacotherapeutic follow-up of patients with depression and to assess its impact on the resilience of the patients. Patients were followed-up for 8 months. The pharmacist evaluated depressive symptoms, resilience, and the need for pharmaceutical intervention. The measurement tools used were the Dader method, PHQ-9, and a resilience scale. Data were analysed using BioStat 5.0 software and the performing of the Wilcoxon and Pearson correlation tests. There was a reduction in the rate of depressive symptoms from 12.9 to 5.2 (P<.0001), and an increase in the resilience score from 112.4 to 149.0 (P<.0001). Pharmaceutical interventions were made to resolve the drug related problems in the form of oral communication between pharmacist-patient or pharmacist-patient-doctor. The pharmaceutical care was effective in decreasing depression and contributed to the increased resilience of patients. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of outpatients experiencing implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks associated with minimal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hamer, M E; Clair, W K; Wilkinson, W E; Greenfield, R A; Pritchett, E L; Page, R L

    1994-05-01

    Patients receiving minimally symptomatic shocks from their implantable cardioverter defibrillators were studied prospectively using transtelephonic ECG loop monitoring. The time course to the first subsequent shock was evaluated. Twenty-nine consecutive patients who received a shock preceded by mild palpitations or no symptoms were given a transtelephonic ECG loop monitor and instructed to activate the monitor if a subsequent shock occurred. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to quantitate the time to first shock during the study period. The point estimate +/- standard error of patients receiving a shock during the study period was 31% +/- 9% at 30 days, 41% +/- 9% at 60 days, and 60% +/- 9% at 120 days. The ECG was successfully transmitted in 7 of 13 patients who had shocks in the 60-day monitoring period, and demonstrated inappropriate shocks in 6 of 7. Determination of the cause of shock led to a change in subsequent management in all 7 patients. We conclude that the incidence of inappropriate shocks may be higher than estimated previously in patients with minimal symptoms prior to the shock. There are thousands of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators that have no storage function for treated tachycardias; transtelephonic ECG loop monitoring can determine the cause of implantable cardioverter defibrillator discharge in these patients, and the diagnosis is invaluable in their management.

  11. Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition as adults. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction may be acute, occurring suddenly and lasting a short time, or it may be chronic, or long lasting. Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction, also called Ogilvie syndrome or ...

  12. Evaluating the stability of DSM-5 PTSD symptom network structure in a national sample of U.S. military veterans.

    PubMed

    von Stockert, Sophia H H; Fried, Eiko I; Armour, Cherie; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2018-03-15

    Previous studies have used network models to investigate how PTSD symptoms associate with each other. However, analyses examining the degree to which these networks are stable over time, which are critical to identifying symptoms that may contribute to the chronicity of this disorder, are scarce. In the current study, we evaluated the temporal stability of DSM-5 PTSD symptom networks over a three-year period in a nationally representative sample of trauma-exposed U.S. military veterans. Data were analyzed from 611 trauma-exposed U.S. military veterans who participated in the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS). We estimated regularized partial correlation networks of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms at baseline (Time 1) and at three-year follow-up (Time 2), and examined their temporal stability. Evaluation of the network structure of PTSD symptoms at Time 1 and Time 2 using a formal network comparison indicated that the Time 1 network did not differ significantly from the Time 2 network with regard to network structure (p = 0.12) or global strength (sum of all absolute associations, i.e. connectivity; p = 0.25). Centrality estimates of both networks (r = 0.86) and adjacency matrices (r = 0.69) were highly correlated. In both networks, avoidance, intrusive, and negative cognition and mood symptoms were among the more central nodes. This study is limited by the use of a self-report instrument to assess PTSD symptoms and recruitment of a relatively homogeneous sample of predominantly older, Caucasian veterans. Results of this study demonstrate the three-year stability of DSM-5 PTSD symptom network structure in a nationally representative sample of trauma-exposed U.S. military veterans. They further suggest that trauma-related avoidance, intrusive, and dysphoric symptoms may contribute to the chronicity of PTSD symptoms in this population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Delayed Presentation of Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction and Loss of Renal Function After Initially Mild (SFU Grade 1-2) Hydronephrosis.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Diana K; Yerkes, Elizabeth B; Lindgren, Bruce W; Gong, Edward M; Faasse, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    We report 4 pediatric cases of ureteropelvic junction obstruction involving delayed progression of initially mild postnatal hydronephrosis. All 4 children became symptomatic; however, 3 already had a substantial decrement of ipsilateral kidney function by the time of diagnosis. Two of these 3 patients had previous renal scintigraphy demonstrating normal differential function. We caution that counseling regarding hydronephrosis should emphasize the importance of prompt re-evaluation for any symptoms potentially referable to delayed presentation of ureteropelvic junction obstruction, irrespective of initial hydronephrosis grade. Future studies are needed to determine the optimal follow-up regimen for conservative management of hydronephrosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A simple tool to evaluate common disorders: validation of a "proctological symptom scale".

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Matthias; Kara, David; Rzepisko, Michael; Sayfan, Joel

    2015-05-01

    Proctological symptomatology is of little complexity and therefore appears particularly suitable for comparative evaluation by visual scales. We devised a "proctological symptom scale" (PSS) with separate scales for four cardinal proctological symptoms: pain, itching/irritation, discharge/moisture, and bleeding. The objective of this study was to evaluate the PSS among proctological patients and non-proctological controls. This was a single center non-interventional observational study on 229 proctological patients and 133 controls. The main outcome measures investigated were age- and sex-stratified comparison of the non-proctological cohort and the controls, effect of therapeutic intervention on scale values in a subset of patients with haemorrhoidal disease, and sensitivity of the PSS to detect therapeutic failure in this subset of patients. The PSS was found to significantly differentiate between proctological patients and controls. Gender and age had no significant influence on PSS values in the proctological cohort. The intervention (one session of rubber band ligation in patients with haemorrhoidal disease) was reflected by a significantly improved overall PSS. In 16 cases within this group, the PSS got worse. A case-by-case follow-up of these patients showed that 14 of the 16 patients ended up with surgery (or with the advice to have surgery). The PSS reliably differentiates proctological patients from non-proctological controls. Following intervention, the PSS reliably differentiated therapeutic success from failure. We find the PSS to be a simple and useful tool in our clinical routine since it provides an easily obtainable and reproducible basis for the visit-by-visit assessment of proctological patients. The PSS may also be suitable for studies to measure and compare symptomatic improvement and success of different therapies in proctology.

  15. Stenting versus non-stenting following uncomplicated ureteroscopic lithotripsy: Comparsion and evaluation of symptoms.

    PubMed

    Savić, Slaviša; Vukotić, Vinka; Lazić, Miodrag; Savić, Nataša

    2016-09-01

    Currently, ureterorenoscopic (URS) stone fragmentation and removal is the treatment of choice for managing ureteral stones, especially mid and distal ones and is advocated as initial management of ureteric stones. The aim of this work was to evaluate the symptoms, necessity, potential benefits and adverse effects of ureteral stent placement after uncomplicated ureteroscopic lithotripsy. This retrospective-prospective study evaluated a total of 125 patients who had underwent ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URSL). The patients were divided into two groups: stented (59 patients) and unstented (controls, 66 patients). The outcomes measured and compared between the two groups included: stone free rate, postoperative patient pain validated by scale, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), the need for unplanned hospital care, stent related complications, and functional recovery in the form return to normal physical activities. A successful outcome, defined as being stonefree after 12 weeks, was achieved in all 125 (100%) patients. The stone-free rate showed no significant differences between the two groups. LUTS was frequent complaint in the stented group, with statistically significant difference in the domain of frequency/urgency (p = 0.0314). There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in the mean operative time and mean hospitalization time, mean pain visual analog scale (VAS) score and in the use of nonnarcotic analgesic. On the day of the surgery and until postoperative day 3 (POD 3) and postoperative day 5 (POD 5), the pain score was much higher among stented patients than among the controls (p = 0.0001) and non-narcotic analgesic use (p = 0.001) was frequently required in the stented group. Routine placement of ureteral stent after URSL is not mandatory and may be associated with stent side effects. Uncomplicated URSL is safe without stent placement after the treatment.

  16. Caecal volvulus in a patient with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction

    PubMed Central

    El-Khatib, C

    2011-01-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare disorder characterised by recurrent symptoms and signs of intestinal obstruction without an underlying mechanical cause. Caecal volvulus remains a rare cause of intestinal obstruction that often requires operative intervention. We describe the previously unreported case of caecal volvulus occurring in an adult patient with CIPO, together with his subsequent management. PMID:22004621

  17. Evaluation of psychiatric symptoms in cocaine users in the Brazilian public health system: need for data and structure.

    PubMed

    Kessler, F; Woody, G; De Boni, R; Von Diemen, L; Benzano, D; Faller, S; Pechansky, F

    2008-12-01

    Few studies of comorbidity among cocaine users have been undertaken in Brazil, despite the fact that cocaine is one of the most commonly used illegal drugs in the country. The aim of this paper is to review existing data on psychiatric evaluations of cocaine users, and present data from two studies that have addressed this issue as it pertains to the Brazilian public health system. Review and results from two studies (cross-sectional and matched control). The Brazilian literature on PubMed, Lilacs, Psychinfo and DATASUS was searched using the key words: 'psychiatric symptoms', 'diagnosis', 'evaluation', 'assessment', 'cocaine disorders' and others related to this issue. Intake data from two studies of male and female cocaine users were also analysed with regard to psychiatric symptoms as measured by the Symptom Check List - 90 Revised (SCL-90). The literature review found no specific studies regarding psychiatric evaluation of cocaine users in Brazil. Analyses from the two studies presented showed high levels of psychiatric symptoms in this population. In the first study, psychiatric symptoms were measured at treatment entry and their prevalence was high, ranging from 27.4% to 53.4%. In the second study, SCL-90R scores at programme admission were higher in cocaine users than normal controls, with effect sizes ranging from moderate to high. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first article to discuss psychiatric evaluations of comorbidity among cocaine users in Brazil. The results indicate a need to: pay more attention to the evaluation of psychiatric symptoms in cocaine users; emphasize the importance of standardized data collection in this area; and evaluate the course of these symptoms, their impact on outcome, and how they are best addressed in treatment.

  18. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, V.K.

    2013-01-01

    The global prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged >40 yr is approximately 9-10 per cent. Recently, the Indian Study on Epidemiology of Asthma, Respiratory Symptoms and Chronic Bronchitis in Adults had shown that the overall prevalence of chronic bronchitis in adults >35 yr is 3.49 per cent. The development of COPD is multifactorial and the risk factors of COPD include genetic and environmental factors. Pathological changes in COPD are observed in central airways, small airways and alveolar space. The proposed pathogenesis of COPD includes proteinase-antiproteinase hypothesis, immunological mechanisms, oxidant-antioxidant balance, systemic inflammation, apoptosis and ineffective repair. Airflow limitation in COPD is defined as a postbronchodilator FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec) to FVC (forced vital capacity) ratio <0.70. COPD is characterized by an accelerated decline in FEV1. Co morbidities associated with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure), hypertension, metabolic diseases (diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and obesity), bone disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), stroke, lung cancer, cachexia, skeletal muscle weakness, anaemia, depression and cognitive decline. The assessment of COPD is required to determine the severity of the disease, its impact on the health status and the risk of future events (e.g., exacerbations, hospital admissions or death) and this is essential to guide therapy. COPD is treated with inhaled bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, oral theophylline and oral phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor. Non pharmacological treatment of COPD includes smoking cessation, pulmonary rehabilitation and nutritional support. Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplantation are advised in selected severe patients. Global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease guidelines

  19. Reduced upper obstructions in N3 and increased lower obstructions in REM sleep stage detected with manometry.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Markus; Schramm, Juliane; Bautz, Maximilian; Hofauer, Benedikt; Edenharter, Günther; Ott, Armin; Heiser, Clemens

    2018-01-01

    In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), airway obstruction occurs at different anatomic levels. The frequency and location of obstructions play a crucial role in the planning of surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharyngeal obstruction levels in different sleep stages with manometry in OSA patients. In addition, the manometry results were compared with drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). Forty-one patients with OSA received manometry measurements during one night of sleep. All patients were simultaneously evaluated with polysomnography. The frequency of obstructions in different sleep stages was assessed. Twenty patients were additionally studied with DISE. Obstruction levels detected with manometry were compared with DISE. The frequency of upper and to a lesser extent lower obstructions decreased in sleep stage N3. In rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, lower obstructions increased. The overall proportion of upper and lower obstructions detected with manometry corresponded with DISE in 13 of 20 cases. A significant change in the obstruction levels was detected with manometry in N3 and REM sleep. The reduction of both upper and to a lesser extent lower obstructions in N3 suggests more stable airways in slow-wave sleep. Relevant lower obstructions were not detected in DISE compared to manometry in 5 out of 20 examinations. This could be a potential reason for treatment failure of site-specific surgical OSA treatment when only performing DISE preoperatively. Therefore, manometry could be a useful complementary tool in the preoperative evaluation for OSA.

  20. Exposure therapy changes dysfunctional evaluations of somatic symptoms in patients with hypochondriasis (health anxiety). A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Weck, Florian; Neng, Julia M B; Schwind, Julia; Höfling, Volkmar

    2015-08-01

    Dysfunctional evaluations of somatic symptoms are considered a central factor in maintaining hypochondriasis. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether exposure therapy (ET) without cognitive restructuring is sufficient to change dysfunctional evaluations of somatic symptoms. The current study was based on a randomized controlled trial and compared patients with hypochondriasis (N=73) receiving ET or cognitive therapy (CT) to a wait list (WL) control group. In both the ET and CT groups, dysfunctional symptom evaluations changed significantly compared with the WL group. No differences between the ET and CT groups emerged. The relationship between the treatment condition (active treatment vs. WL) and reductions in health anxiety was mediated by changes in somatic symptom evaluations only in a specific card sorting procedure. We conclude that addressing dysfunctional symptom evaluations is a necessary precondition for the effective treatment of hypochondriasis. However, the results indicate that ET and CT appear to change those processes to a similar degree. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Consensus and evidence-based Indian initiative on obstructive sleep apnea guidelines 2014 (first edition)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Surendra K.; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan; Mohan, Alladi; Kadhiravan, T.; Elavarasi, A.; Ragesh, R.; Nischal, Neeraj; Sethi, Prayas; Behera, D.; Bhatia, Manvir; Ghoshal, A. G.; Gothi, Dipti; Joshi, Jyotsna; Kanwar, M. S.; Kharbanda, O. P.; Kumar, Suresh; Mohapatra, P. R.; Mallick, B. N.; Mehta, Ravindra; Prasad, Rajendra; Sharma, S. C.; Sikka, Kapil; Aggarwal, Sandeep; Shukla, Garima; Suri, J. C.; Vengamma, B.; Grover, Ashoo; Vijayan, V. K.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Gupta, Rasik

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are subsets of sleep-disordered breathing. Awareness about OSA and its consequences among the general public as well as the majority of primary care physicians across India is poor. This necessitated the development of the Indian initiative on obstructive sleep apnea (INOSA) guidelines under the auspices of Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. OSA is the occurrence of an average five or more episodes of obstructive respiratory events per hour of sleep with either sleep-related symptoms or co-morbidities or ≥15 such episodes without any sleep-related symptoms or co-morbidities. OSAS is defined as OSA associated with daytime symptoms, most often excessive sleepiness. Patients undergoing routine health check-up with snoring, daytime sleepiness, obesity, hypertension, motor vehicular accidents, and high-risk cases should undergo a comprehensive sleep evaluation. Medical examiners evaluating drivers, air pilots, railway drivers, and heavy machinery workers should be educated about OSA and should comprehensively evaluate applicants for OSA. Those suspected to have OSA on comprehensive sleep evaluation should be referred for a sleep study. Supervised overnight polysomnography is the “gold standard” for evaluation of OSA. Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is the mainstay of treatment of OSA. Oral appliances (OA) are indicated for use in patients with mild to moderate OSA who prefer OA to PAP, or who do not respond to PAP or who fail treatment attempts with PAP or behavioral measures. Surgical treatment is recommended in patients who have failed or are intolerant to PAP therapy. PMID:26180408

  2. Numerical analysis for the efficacy of nasal surgery in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shen; Liu, Ying-Xi; Sun, Xiu-Zhen; Su, Ying-Feng; Wang, Ying; Gai, Yin-Zhe

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, we reconstructed upper airway and soft palate models of 3 obstructive sleep apnea—hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) patients with nasal obstruction. The airflow distribution and movement of the soft palate before and after surgery were described by a numerical simulation method. The curative effect of nasal surgery was evaluated for the three patients with OSAHS. The degree of nasal obstruction in the 3 patients was improved after surgery. For 2 patients with mild OSAHS, the upper airway resistance and soft palate displacement were reduced after surgery. These changes contributed to the mitigation of respiratory airflow limitation. For the patient with severe OSAHS, the upper airway resistance and soft palate displacement increased after surgery, which aggravated the airway obstruction. The efficacy of nasal surgery for patients with OSAHS is determined by the degree of improvement in nasal obstruction and whether the effects on the pharynx are beneficial. Numerical simulation results are consistent with the polysomnogram (PSG) test results, chief complaints, and clinical findings, and can indirectly reflect the degree of nasal patency and improvement of snoring symptoms, and further, provide a theoretical basis to solve relevant clinical problems. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Effect of dai-kenchu-to on obstructive bowel disease in children.

    PubMed

    Ohya, Toshiki; Usui, Yoshiko; Arii, Shigeki; Iwai, Takehisa; Susumu, Tsunoda

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, dai-kenchu-to (DKT), on obstructive bowel diseases in children. We have treated 46 pediatric patients with various obstructive bowel diseases with DKT: six patients with postoperative ileus, 12 with large abdominal surgery (including three neonates), one with ano-rectal anomaly, three with Hirschsprung's disease, two with functional bowel obstructions, one with SMA syndrome, and 21 patients with chronic constipation. DKT (0.1-0.15 g/kg) was mixed with 5-10 ml of warm water, and was given orally two to three times a day. DKT was effective for 39 patients (85%) and their clinical symptoms improved. DKT was ineffective in seven patients: two with postoperative ileus, two with Hirschsprung's disease, and three with chronic constipation. DKT had mild but significant effects for various obstructive bowel diseases in children, while no side effects were encountered. Our current strategy for pediatric patients with obstructive bowel disease is to use DKT first and then test its efficacy. If DKT is effective, the regimen is continued. However, in cases where DKT is not effective, we will consider laparotomy or will further investigate the illness.

  4. Vision-related quality of life in patients undergoing silicone tube intubation for lacrimal passage obstructions.

    PubMed

    Kabata, Yoshiaki; Goto, Satoshi; Takahashi, Genichiro; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the changes in vision-related quality of life in patients with lacrimal passage obstructions undergoing silicone tube intubations. Prospective, consecutive, comparative, interventional case series. Forty-five patients with the chief complaint of epiphora diagnosed with complete and unilateral lacrimal passage obstructions were enrolled. Exclusion criteria included history of congenital nasolacrimal stenosis; lacrimal passage obstructions resulting from trauma, tumor, or chemotherapy; previous lacrimal passage surgery; and partial and functional nasolacrimal duct obstructions. Silicone tube intubation using a Nunchaku-style tube was performed under direct visualization with dacryoendoscope in all patients. Operations were considered as successful when the irrigating fluid could pass through the lacrimal passage and the disappearance of dye was observed in dye disappearance test and the patients' epiphora symptoms improved 3 months postoperatively. The 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) was self-administered in all patients preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Patients' preoperative and 3-months-postoperative NEI VFQ-25 scores were compared. Operations were successful in 40 patients (89%). Fully completed questionnaires were received from 32 patients (80%). Silicone tube intubation using a Nunchaku-style tube was associated with a significant improvement of the NEI VFQ-25 composite score (P = .0001), ocular pain score (P < .0001), and mental health score (P = .0003). Relief of epiphora by silicone tube intubation using a Nunchaku-style tube treatment significantly improved the vision-related quality of life in patients with lacrimal passage obstructions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of a water-soluble contrast agent for the conservative management of adhesive small bowel obstruction in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chee-Yew; Hung, Min-Hsuan; Lin, Lung-Huang; Chen, Der-Fang

    2015-04-01

    The diagnostic and therapeutic benefits of a commercial water-soluble contrast agent (Gastrografin) in pediatric patients with adhesive small-bowel obstruction (ASBO) are controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the therapeutic value of Gastrografin in the management of ASBO in children after unsuccessful conservative treatment. Medical records from patients with uncomplicated ASBO managed at Cathay General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan between January 1996 and December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. All children ≤18 years of age with clinical evidence of ASBO were managed conservative treatment, unless there was suspicion of strangulation. Patients who did not improve after 48 hours of conservative treatment were administered Gastrografin. Twenty-four patients with 33 episodes of ASBO were analyzed. Of those, there were 19 episodes of ASBO that failed to respond to the initial conservative management, and 16 (84%) responded well to Gastrografin administration thereby abrogating the need for surgical intervention. There were neither complications nor mortality that could be attributed to the use of Gastrografin. This preliminary study suggested that the use of a water-soluble contrast agent in ASBO is safe in children and useful for managing ASBO, particularly in reducing the need for surgery when conservative treatment fails. However, larger prospective studies would be needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Midlife Women’s Symptom Cluster Heuristics: Evaluation of An iPad Application for Data Collection

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Nancy Fugate; Ismail, Rita; Linder, Lauri A.; Macpherson, Catherine Fiona

    2015-01-01

    their symptoms (“really annoying”), the time of occurrence (“night problem”), and symptoms in the cluster (“hot flash”). They attributed their clusters to menopause, life demands, and other symptoms, among other causes. Management strategies that women used included: over the counter preparations, sleep, rest, and other lifestyle changes. Some women requested a copy of their final symptom cluster diagram to discuss with their health care providers. Conclusion Using the C-SCAT M afforded women an opportunity to depict their symptoms and clusters and relationships between them, as well as to provide narrative data about their heuristics. Women’s unsolicited comments about using the cluster diagram to facilitate conversation about their symptoms with their health care providers suggest the potential value of modifying the C-SCAT M and evaluating its use in a health care setting. PMID:25803668

  7. Evaluation of depressive symptoms in mid-aged women: report of a multicenter South American study.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Monterrosa-Castro, Alvaro; Ojeda, Eliana; Sánchez, Sandra C; Morales-Luna, Ingrid F; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Chedraui, Peter

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate depressive symptoms and related factors among mid-aged women using the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10). This was a cross-sectional multicenter study in which women aged 40 to 65 from various South American countries were surveyed with the CESD-10 and a general questionnaire containing personal and partner data. In all, 864 women were interviewed from Colombia (Afro-Colombian, n = 215), Ecuador (Mestizo, n = 202), Perú (Quechua at high altitude, n = 231), and Paraguay (Mestizo, n = 216). Mean age of the whole sample was 49.1 ± 6.0 years. Although the rate of postmenopausal status was similar among studied sites, differences were observed in relation to age, parity, hormone therapy use, hot flush rate, sedentary lifestyle, chronic medical conditions, habits, and partner aspects. Median total CESD-10 score for all sites was 7.0, with a 36.0% (n = 311) having scores equal to 10 or more (suggestive of depressed mood). Higher scores were observed for Afro-Colombian and Quechua women, and also for postmenopausal and perimenopausal ones. Multivariate linear regression analysis found that depressed mood (higher CESD-10 total scores) was significantly associated with ethnicity (Afro-Colombian), hot flush severity, hormone therapy use, sedentary lifestyle, postmenopause, perceived unhealthy status, and lower education. Higher monthly coital frequency and having a healthy partner without premature ejaculation was related to lower scores, hence less depressed mood. In this mid-aged female South American sample, depressive symptoms correlated to menopausal status and related aspects, ethnicity, and personal and partner issues. All these features require further research.

  8. Evaluation of rotigotine transdermal patch for the treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sun Ju; Asgharnejad, Mahnaz; Bauer, Lars; Ramirez, Francisco; Jeon, Beomseok

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the dopamine receptor agonist, rotigotine, for improving depressive symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Patients were randomized 1:1 to rotigotine or placebo, titrated for ≤7 weeks, and maintained at optimal/maximum dose for 8-weeks. Primary efficacy variable: 17- item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D 17) total score change from baseline to end-of-maintenance. Secondary variables: changes in Beck Depression Inventory-II, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II (activities of daily living [ADL]) and III (motor) subscores, UPDRS II+III total, patient-rated Apathy Scale (AS), and Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale. Of 380 patients randomized, 149/184 (81.0%) rotigotine-treated and 164/196 (83.7%) placebo-treated patients completed the study. mean (±SD) age 65.2 (±8.5) years; time since PD-diagnosis 2.74 (±3.08) years; 42.6% male. The treatment difference (LS mean [95% CI]) in change from baseline HAM-D 17 was -1.12 (-2.56, 0.33; p = 0.1286). UPDRS II, III, II+III and AS scores improved numerically with rotigotine versus placebo. Common adverse events with higher incidence with rotigotine: nausea, application/instillation site reactions, vomiting, and pruritus. Forty-one (10.8%) patients discontinued owing to adverse events (25 rotigotine/16 placebo). No statistically significant improvement in depressive symptoms were observed with rotigotine versus placebo. ADL, motor function, and patient-rated apathy improved numerically. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01523301.

  9. Direct quantitative evaluation of disease symptoms on living plant leaves growing under natural light.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Tomoko M; Ogawa, Daisuke; Taguchi-Shiobara, Fumio; Ishimoto, Masao; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Habu, Yoshiki

    2017-06-01

    Leaf color is an important indicator when evaluating plant growth and responses to biotic/abiotic stress. Acquisition of images by digital cameras allows analysis and long-term storage of the acquired images. However, under field conditions, where light intensity can fluctuate and other factors (shade, reflection, and background, etc.) vary, stable and reproducible measurement and quantification of leaf color are hard to achieve. Digital scanners provide fixed conditions for obtaining image data, allowing stable and reliable comparison among samples, but require detached plant materials to capture images, and the destructive processes involved often induce deformation of plant materials (curled leaves and faded colors, etc.). In this study, by using a lightweight digital scanner connected to a mobile computer, we obtained digital image data from intact plant leaves grown in natural-light greenhouses without detaching the targets. We took images of soybean leaves infected by Xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines , and distinctively quantified two disease symptoms (brown lesions and yellow halos) using freely available image processing software. The image data were amenable to quantitative and statistical analyses, allowing precise and objective evaluation of disease resistance.

  10. Within-breath respiratory impedance and airway obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Silva, Karla Kristine Dames da; Faria, Alvaro Camilo Dias; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Melo, Pedro Lopes de

    2015-07-01

    Recent work has suggested that within-breath respiratory impedance measurements performed using the forced oscillation technique may help to noninvasively evaluate respiratory mechanics. We investigated the influence of airway obstruction on the within-breath forced oscillation technique in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the contribution of this analysis to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Twenty healthy individuals and 20 smokers were assessed. The study also included 74 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We evaluated the mean respiratory impedance (Zm) as well as values for the inspiration (Zi) and expiration cycles (Ze) at the beginning of inspiration (Zbi) and expiration (Zbe), respectively. The peak-to-peak impedance (Zpp=Zbe-Zbi) and the respiratory cycle dependence (ΔZrs=Ze-Zi) were also analyzed. The diagnostic utility was evaluated by investigating the sensitivity, the specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01888705. Airway obstruction increased the within-breath respiratory impedance parameters that were significantly correlated with the spirometric indices of airway obstruction (R=-0.65, p<0.0001). In contrast to the control subjects and the smokers, the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients presented significant expiratory-inspiratory differences (p<0.002). The adverse effects of moderate airway obstruction were detected based on the Zpp with an accuracy of 83%. Additionally, abnormal effects in severe and very severe patients were detected based on the Zm, Zi, Ze, Zbe, Zpp and ΔZrs with a high degree of accuracy (>90%). We conclude the following: (1) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease introduces higher respiratory cycle dependence, (2) this increase is proportional to airway obstruction, and (3) the within-breath forced oscillation technique may provide novel parameters that facilitate the

  11. Initial evaluation of an electronic symptom diary for adolescents with cancer.

    PubMed

    Baggott, Christina; Gibson, Faith; Coll, Beatriz; Kletter, Richard; Zeltzer, Paul; Miaskowski, Christine

    2012-12-11

    The delivery of optimal care depends on accurate communication between patients and clinicians regarding untoward symptoms. Documentation of patients' symptoms necessitates reliance on memory, which is often imprecise. We developed an electronic diary (eDiary) for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer to record symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to describe the utility of an eDiary designed for AYAs with cancer, including dependability of the mobile application, the reasons for any missing recorded data, patients' adherence rates to daily symptom queries, and patients' perceptions of the usefulness and acceptability of symptom data collection via mobile phones. Our team developed an electronic symptom diary based on interviews conducted with AYAs with cancer and their clinicians. This diary included daily severity ratings of pain, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and sleep. The occurrence of other selected physical sequelae was assessed daily. Additionally, patients selected descriptors of their mood. A 3-week trial of the eDiary was conducted with 10 AYA cancer patients. Mobile phones with service plans were loaned to patients who were instructed to report their symptoms daily. Patients completed a brief questionnaire and were interviewed to elicit their perceptions of the eDiary and any technical difficulties encountered. Overall adherence to daily symptom reports exceeded 90%. Young people experienced few technical difficulties and reported benefit from daily symptom reports. Symptom occurrence rates were high and considerable inter- and intra-patient variability was noted in symptom and mood reports. We demonstrated the utility of an eDiary that may contribute insight into patients' symptom patterns to promote effective symptom management.

  12. Evaluation of a tailored implementation strategy to improve the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in primary care: a study protocol of a cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a major health problem, strongly related to smoking. Despite the publication of practice guidelines on prevention and treatment, not all patients with the disease receive the recommended healthcare, particularly with regard to smoking cessation advice where applicable. We have developed a tailored implementation strategy for enhancing general practitioners’ adherence to the disease management guidelines. The primary aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of this tailored implementation intervention on general practitioners’ adherence to guidelines. Methods/Design A pragmatic two-arm cluster randomized trial has been planned to compare care following the implementation of tailored interventions of four recommendations in COPD patients against usual care. The study will involve 18 general practices (9 in the intervention group and 9 in the control group) in Poland, each with at least 80 identified (at the baseline) patients with diagnosed COPD. The nine control practices will provide usual care without any interventions. Tailored interventions to implement four recommendations will be delivered in the remaining nine practices. At follow-up after nine months, data will be collected for all 18 general practices. The primary outcome measure is physicians’ adherence to all four recommendations: brief anti-smoking advice, dyspnea assessment, care checklist utilization and demonstration to patients of correct inhaler use. This measurement will be based on data extracted from identified patients’ records. Additionally, we will survey and interview patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease about the process of care. Discussion The results of this trial will be directly applicable to primary care in Poland and add to the growing body of evidence on interventions to improve chronic illness care. Trial registration This trial has been registered with Clinical Trials Protocol Registration

  13. Prospective evaluation of a newly designed T-configured stent graft system for palliative treatment of advanced hilar malignant biliary obstructions.

    PubMed

    Gwon, Dong Il; Ko, Gi-Young; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Lee, Jae Myeong; Ohm, Joon-Young; Sung, Kyu-Bo

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the technical and clinical safety and efficacy of using a newly designed T-configured stent graft for palliative treatment of advanced hilar malignant biliary obstructions. This is a prospective study that enrolled 30 patients who had malignant hilar obstructions from May 2007 to November 2008. All patients were treated with percutaneous transhepatic placement of two specially designed stent grafts in a T configuration. Technical success, evaluation of blocked branching ducts, complications, clinical success, stent patency time, and patient survival rates were analyzed. Stent graft deployment was technically successful in all patients. The bilirubin level and the bile duct diameter decreases were statistically significant after stent placement (P < .001), and all patients showed clinical improvement. Minor complications, including procedure-related complications (self-limiting hemobilia [n = 3], perihepatic biloma [n = 1], and acute pancreatitis [n = 1]) and rapidly resolving cholangitis (n = 5), occurred in ten patients (33.3%). Major complications, including acute cholecystitis, occurred in three patients (10%). Stent occlusion occurred in 12 patients (40%) after a mean period of 160 days (range, 82-307 days). The median survival and stent patency times were 334 days (range, 195.6-472.4 days) and 279 days (range, 194.7-363.3 days), respectively. There were no statistical differences in age, sex, Bismuth type, or number of blocked branching ducts. The initial results of percutaneous palliative treatment of advanced hilar malignancies with T-configured stent grafts suggest that they are safe and potentially clinically effective. Copyright 2010 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of a tailored implementation strategy to improve the management of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in primary care: a study protocol of a cluster randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Zakowska, Izabela; Kosiek, Katarzyna; Wensing, Michel; Krawczyk, Jaroslaw; Kowalczyk, Anna

    2014-04-04

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remains a major health problem, strongly related to smoking. Despite the publication of practice guidelines on prevention and treatment, not all patients with the disease receive the recommended healthcare, particularly with regard to smoking cessation advice where applicable. We have developed a tailored implementation strategy for enhancing general practitioners' adherence to the disease management guidelines. The primary aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of this tailored implementation intervention on general practitioners' adherence to guidelines. A pragmatic two-arm cluster randomized trial has been planned to compare care following the implementation of tailored interventions of four recommendations in COPD patients against usual care. The study will involve 18 general practices (9 in the intervention group and 9 in the control group) in Poland, each with at least 80 identified (at the baseline) patients with diagnosed COPD. The nine control practices will provide usual care without any interventions. Tailored interventions to implement four recommendations will be delivered in the remaining nine practices. At follow-up after nine months, data will be collected for all 18 general practices. The primary outcome measure is physicians' adherence to all four recommendations: brief anti-smoking advice, dyspnea assessment, care checklist utilization and demonstration to patients of correct inhaler use. This measurement will be based on data extracted from identified patients' records. Additionally, we will survey and interview patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease about the process of care. The results of this trial will be directly applicable to primary care in Poland and add to the growing body of evidence on interventions to improve chronic illness care. This trial has been registered with Clinical Trials Protocol Registration System. NCT01893476.

  15. Symptoms and biomarkers associated with celiac disease: evaluation of a population-based screening program in adults.

    PubMed

    Kårhus, Line L; Thuesen, Betina H; Rumessen, Jüri J; Linneberg, Allan

    2016-11-01

    To identify possible early predictors (symptoms and biomarkers) of celiac disease, compare symptoms before and after screening, and evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of serologic screening for celiac disease in an adult Danish population. This cross-sectional population-based study was based on the 5-year follow-up of the Health2006 cohort, where 2297 individuals were screened for celiac disease; 56 were antibody positive and thus invited to clinical evaluation. Eight were diagnosed with biopsy-verified celiac disease. A follow-up questionnaire was sent to antibody-positive individuals 19 months after the clinical evaluation to obtain information on their symptoms and their experience with participation in the screening. Before screening, participants subsequently diagnosed with celiac disease did not differ from the rest of the population with respect to symptoms, but had significantly lower total cholesterol. Tissue transglutaminase IgA antibodies with a cut-off of 10 U/ml had a positive predictive value of 88%. The majority of participants were satisfied with their participation in the screening program. Individuals with celiac disease were generally satisfied with having been diagnosed and 71% felt better on a gluten-free diet. There were no differences in the prevalence of symptoms between participants with and without screening-detected celiac disease, confirming that risk stratification in a general population by symptoms is difficult. The majority of participants diagnosed with celiac disease felt better on a gluten-free diet despite not reporting abdominal symptoms before diagnosis and participants in the clinical evaluation were generally satisfied with participation in the screening program.

  16. [Neoplasic colonic obstruction: resolution with self-expanding metallic stents].

    PubMed

    Jury, Gastón; Amieva, Leandro; Dolan, Martín; Fagalde, Rafael López; Naiderman, Diego; Pastorino, Martín; Jury, Rubén

    2014-03-01

    The endoscopic placement of self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) emerges as a therapeutic option for neoplastic colonic obstruction in two situations: as palliative treatment and as a bridge to surgery. The latter can avoid emergency surgery, thus decreasing the rate of ostomies and the mortality and morbidity associated with them. To evaluate the feasibility, safety and benefits of SEMS placement for the treatment of neoplastic colorectal obstruction. Between August 2008 and June 2012, we included in this prospective, longitudinal, descriptive and observational study all the patients suffering from colorectal neoplasia who were subjected to SEMS placement by the same group ofendoscopists. Nitinol SEMS were inserted under endoscopic vision and radioscopic control. Twenty seven SEMS were inserted in 27 patients, 61% of them were male and the average age was 70 years old. Symptoms of colonic suboclussion or obstruction were found in 92% of patients, 88% of the lesions were located in the left-side colon, 41% of cases were performed on an ambulatory basis and 65% of stenting was carried out for palliative purposes. The average time of hospitalization was 6,46 days. Technical and clinical success were 93% and 100%, respectively. Minor complications were observed in 11% of patients. Colonic stenting was followed by elective surgery within one month, by a laparoscopic technique in most cases. The placement of SEMS arises as a safe and effective alternative to palliative surgery or as a bridge to elective surgery.

  17. Development of Decision Support Formulas for the Prediction of Bladder Outlet Obstruction and Prostatic Surgery in Patients With Lower Urinary Tract Symptom/Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: Part II, External Validation and Usability Testing of a Smartphone App.

    PubMed

    Choo, Min Soo; Jeong, Seong Jin; Cho, Sung Yong; Yoo, Changwon; Jeong, Chang Wook; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Oh, Seung-June

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to externally validate the prediction model we developed for having bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) and requiring prostatic surgery using 2 independent data sets from tertiary referral centers, and also aimed to validate a mobile app for using this model through usability testing. Formulas and nomograms predicting whether a subject has BOO and needs prostatic surgery were validated with an external validation cohort from Seoul National University Bundang Hospital and Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center between January 2004 and April 2015. A smartphone-based app was developed, and 8 young urologists were enrolled for usability testing to identify any human factor issues of the app. A total of 642 patients were included in the external validation cohort. No significant differences were found in the baseline characteristics of major parameters between the original (n=1,179) and the external validation cohort, except for the maximal flow rate. Predictions of requiring prostatic surgery in the validation cohort showed a sensitivity of 80.6%, a specificity of 73.2%, a positive predictive value of 49.7%, and a negative predictive value of 92.0%, and area under receiver operating curve of 0.84. The calibration plot indicated that the predictions have good correspondence. The decision curve showed also a high net benefit. Similar evaluation results using the external validation cohort were seen in the predictions of having BOO. Overall results of the usability test demonstrated that the app was user-friendly with no major human factor issues. External validation of these newly developed a prediction model demonstrated a moderate level of discrimination, adequate calibration, and high net benefit gains for predicting both having BOO and requiring prostatic surgery. Also a smartphone app implementing the prediction model was user-friendly with no major human factor issue.

  18. The mediating role of state maladaptive emotion regulation in the relation between social anxiety symptoms and self-evaluation bias.

    PubMed

    Sarfan, Laurel D; Cody, Meghan W; Clerkin, Elise M

    2018-03-16

    Although social anxiety symptoms are robustly linked to biased self-evaluations across time, the mechanisms of this relation remain unclear. The present study tested three maladaptive emotion regulation strategies - state post-event processing, state experiential avoidance, and state expressive suppression - as potential mediators of this relation. Undergraduate participants (N = 88; 61.4% Female) rated their social skill in an impromptu conversation task and then returned to the laboratory approximately two days later to evaluate their social skill in the conversation again. Consistent with expectations, state post-event processing and state experiential avoidance mediated the relation between social anxiety symptoms and worsening self-evaluations of social skill (controlling for research assistant evaluations), particularly for positive qualities (e.g. appeared confident, demonstrated social skill). State expressive suppression did not mediate the relation between social anxiety symptoms and changes in self-evaluation bias across time. These findings highlight the role that spontaneous, state experiential avoidance and state post-event processing may play in the relation between social anxiety symptoms and worsening self-evaluation biases of social skill across time.

  19. Evaluation of water content around airway in obstructive sleep apnea patients using peripharyngeal mucosal T2 magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Rahmawati, Anita; Chishaki, Akiko; Ohkusa, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Sonomi; Adachi, Kazuo; Nagao, Michinobu; Konishi Nishizaka, Mari; Ando, Shin-Ichi

    2017-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common sleep disorder characterized by repetitive episodes of airway closure which usually occurs in the retropalatal region of the oropharynx. It has been known that upper airway mucosa in OSA patients is described as edematous, but not fully clarified. This study aimed to investigate and establish magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameter to estimate tissue water content at retropalatal level and its relationship with sleep parameters in OSA patients. Forty-eight subjects with OSA underwent overnight polysomnography and cervical MRI with 1.5-tesla [mean (SD) age 55 (14) years and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) 45.2 (26.1) events/hour, 79.2% male]. On the axial T2-weighted images from epipharynx to oropharynx, the signal intensities of masseter muscle and peripharyngeal mucosa [T2 mucous-to-masseter intensity ratio (T2MMIR)], was used as water content estimation in the retropalatal region. Partial correlation analysis was performed to examine the correlation between T2MMIR and polysomnography parameters. We found that there were strong and positive correlations between the T2MMIR and AHI (r = 0.545, P < 0.05), supine AHI (r = 0.553, P < 0.05) and REM AHI (r = 0.640, P < 0.01) by partial correlation analysis. Besides, in patients with less efficient sleep who had more stage 1 sleep, significantly higher T2MMIR was noted (r = 0.357, P < 0.05). This study confirmed that peripharyngeal T2MMIR can be a simple parameter representing peripharyngeal tissue water contents related to severe OSA. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Ultrasound Evaluation of Midurethral Sling Position and Correlation to Physical Examination and Patient Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tunitsky-Bitton, Elena; Unger, Cecile A; Barber, Matthew D; Goldman, Howard B; Walters, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective was to evaluate the position and angle variation between 3 different midurethral slings (MUSs) using 3-dimensional ultrasound (US) technology. The secondary objective was to compare differences in findings on physical examination and symptoms of incontinence and sexual dysfunction between subjects. This was a cross-sectional study of 61 subjects who had undergone MUS placement without concomitant anterior or apical compartment prolapse surgery (21 retropubic [RP], 19 out-to-in transobturator [TOT], 21 in-to-out transobturator [TVT-O]). Subjects completed validated questionnaires (Sandvik Incontinence Severity Index, Urogenital Distress Inventory 6) and underwent a pelvic examination and standardized 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional ultrasonography evaluation. On translabial US, the median RP sling angle was 108.2 degrees (72.6-135.9), significantly more acute than the angle of TOT and TVT-O slings (119.3 degrees [72.3-140.4, P = 0.02] and 118.5 degrees [99.0-154.7, P = 0.004]). There was no difference in the sling angles between the TOT and TVT-O slings (P = 0.86). No difference was noted in the position of the sling along the urethra (P = 0.82). The TOT sling was more often palpable (57.8%, P = 0.02) compared with the RP or TVT-O groups.Fifteen patients (4 RP, 5 TOT, 6 TVT-O) reported discomfort during intercourse that they attributed to the MUS. Three of 19 TOT subjects reported that their partner experienced pain with intercourse because of the sling. However, sexual function and urinary symptoms were not statistically different between the 3 groups. On 3-dimensional US, RP sling angle was found to be significantly more acute than the angles of the TOT and TVT-O slings, and there was no difference between the 2 transobturator slings. The TOT sling was more often palpable on examination, but this finding did not correlate with increased pain on palpation.

  1. Evaluating Symptom Expression as a Function of a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Severity

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Kathleen M.; Strong, David R.; MacPherson, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the relative severity or typical sequence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Using data from the National Comorbidity Study – Replication (Kessler et al., 2004), the current study used a logistic item response model to assess the degree to which DSM-IV symptoms combine to define a primary construct underlying PTSD, to identify which symptoms are associated with greater severity of PTSD, and to determine whether the symptoms and symptom patterns are influenced by gender. Results suggested that PTSD symptoms can be combined to assess a single dimension of PTSD severity, providing support for a continuum of symptom severity. However, several DSM-IV symptoms provided overlapping information, potentially reducing the effectiveness of these symptoms in describing a broad range of PTSD. More precise assessment of PTSD severity may help improve the descriptive value of PTSD measures relationship to continuous measures of treatment outcomes, and ultimately inform more effective treatments. PMID:18434083

  2. Measurement properties of instruments evaluating self-care and related concepts in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Clari, Marco; Matarese, Maria; Alvaro, Rosaria; Piredda, Michela; De Marinis, Maria Grazia

    2016-01-01

    The use of valid and reliable instruments for assessing self-care is crucial for the evaluation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management programs. The aim of this review is to evaluate the measurement properties and theoretical foundations of instruments for assessing self-care and related concepts in people with COPD. A systematic review was conducted of articles describing the development and validation of self-care instruments. The methodological quality of the measurement properties was assessed using the COSMIN checklist. Ten studies were included evaluating five instruments: three for assessing self-care and self-management and two for assessing self-efficacy. The COPD Self-Efficacy Scale was the most studied instrument, but due to poor study methodological quality, evidence about its measurement properties is inconclusive. Evidence from the COPD Self-Management Scale is more promising, but only one study tested its properties. Due to inconclusive evidence of their measurement properties, no instrument can be recommended for clinical use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Change of signs, symptoms and voice quality evaluations throughout a 3- to 6-month empirical treatment for laryngopharyngeal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Lechien, J R; Finck, C; Khalife, M; Huet, K; Delvaux, V; Picalugga, M; Harmegnies, B; Saussez, S

    2018-05-16

    To assess the usefulness of voice quality measurements as a treatment outcome in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR)-related symptoms. Prospective uncontrolled multi-centre study. A total of 80 clinically diagnosed LPR patients with a reflux finding score (RFS)>7 and a reflux symptom index (RSI)>13 were treated with pantoprazole and diet recommendations during 3 or 6 months, according to their evolution. RSI; RFS; blinded Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain and Instability (GRBASI) and aerodynamic and acoustic measurements were evaluated at baseline, 3 months (n = 80), and 6 months (n = 41) post-treatment. We conducted a correlation analysis between the adherence to the diet, and the evolution of both signs and symptoms and between videolaryngostroboscopic signs and acoustic measurements. Reflux symptom index, RFS, perceptual voice quality evaluations (dysphonia, roughness, strain and instability), and aerodynamic and acoustic measurements (ie, percent jitter and percent shimmer) were significantly improved at 3 months post-treatment but not at 6 months. Percent jitter was the most useful outcome for evaluating the clinical evolution of patients throughout the treatment course. A significant relationship between globus sensation and posterior commissure hypertrophy was documented; both seemed to significantly improve from 3 to 6 months. The correlation analysis revealed correlations between adherence to diet recommendations and the improvement of symptoms and between posterior commissure granulation severity and acoustic measurement impairments. Voice quality improved in a manner similar to both signs and symptoms throughout a 6-month empirical treatment with better improvement the 3 first months. Voice quality assessments can be used as indicators of treatment effectiveness in patients with LPR-related symptoms. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. 20 CFR 416.929 - How we evaluate symptoms, including pain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...), and (5), and (d). These include statements or reports from you, your treating or nontreating source... expected to produce your symptoms, such as pain. Your symptoms, such as pain, fatigue, shortness of breath..., standing for 15 to 20 minutes every hour, sleeping on a board, etc.); and (vii) Other factors concerning...

  5. 20 CFR 416.929 - How we evaluate symptoms, including pain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...), and (5), and (d). These include statements or reports from you, your treating or nontreating source... expected to produce your symptoms, such as pain. Your symptoms, such as pain, fatigue, shortness of breath..., standing for 15 to 20 minutes every hour, sleeping on a board, etc.); and (vii) Other factors concerning...

  6. 20 CFR 416.929 - How we evaluate symptoms, including pain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...), and (5), and (d). These include statements or reports from you, your treating or nontreating source... expected to produce your symptoms, such as pain. Your symptoms, such as pain, fatigue, shortness of breath..., standing for 15 to 20 minutes every hour, sleeping on a board, etc.); and (vii) Other factors concerning...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1529 - How we evaluate symptoms, including pain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... kinds of evidence described in §§ 404.1512(b)(2) through (8) and 404.1513(b)(1), (4), and (5), and (d.... Your symptoms, such as pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, weakness, or nervousness, will not be found... to relieve your pain or other symptoms (e.g., lying flat on your back, standing for 15 to 20 minutes...

  8. 20 CFR 416.929 - How we evaluate symptoms, including pain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...), and (5), and (d). These include statements or reports from you, your treating or nontreating source... expected to produce your symptoms, such as pain. Your symptoms, such as pain, fatigue, shortness of breath... § 405.5 of this chapter) in claims adjudicated under the procedures in part 405 of this chapter...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1529 - How we evaluate symptoms, including pain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... kinds of evidence described in §§ 404.1512(b)(2) through (8) and 404.1513(b)(1), (4), and (5), and (d.... Your symptoms, such as pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, weakness, or nervousness, will not be found... to relieve your pain or other symptoms (e.g., lying flat on your back, standing for 15 to 20 minutes...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1529 - How we evaluate symptoms, including pain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... kinds of evidence described in §§ 404.1512(b)(2) through (8) and 404.1513(b)(1), (4), and (5), and (d.... Your symptoms, such as pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, weakness, or nervousness, will not be found... to relieve your pain or other symptoms (e.g., lying flat on your back, standing for 15 to 20 minutes...

  11. 20 CFR 416.929 - How we evaluate symptoms, including pain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...), and (5), and (d). These include statements or reports from you, your treating or nontreating source... expected to produce your symptoms, such as pain.Your symptoms, such as pain, fatigue, shortness of breath... § 405.5 of this chapter) in claims adjudicated under the procedures in part 405 of this chapter...

  12. Evaluation of the CAARS Infrequency Index for the Detection of Noncredible ADHD Symptom Report in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Weisbrod, Matthias; Grabemann, Marco; Zimmermann, Marco; Mette, Christian; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    The reliance on self-reports in detecting noncredible symptom report of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adulthood (aADHD) has been questioned due to findings showing that symptoms can easily be feigned on self-report scales. In response, Suhr and colleagues developed an infrequency index for the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CII)…

  13. Palliation double stenting for malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, LIANG; XU, HAITAO; ZHANG, YUBAO

    2016-01-01

    The surgical management of patients with malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction is complex. Tumor excision is no longer possible in the majority of patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and duodenal obstruction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intraluminal dual stent placement in malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction. In total, 20 patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and duodenal obstruction, including 6 with pancreatic carcinoma, 11 with cholangiocarcinoma, 1 with duodenal carcinoma and 2 with abdominal lymph node metastasis, were treated with intraluminal stent placement. Bile duct obstruction with late occurrence of duodenal obstruction was observed in 16 cases, and duodenal obstruction followed by a late occurrence of bile duct obstruction was observed in 3 cases, while, in 1 case, bile duct obstruction and duodenal obstruction occurred simultaneously. After X-ray fluoroscopy revealed obstruction in the bile duct and duodenum, stents were placed into the respective lumens. Percutaneous transhepatic placement was employed for the biliary stent, while the duodenal stent was placed perioraly. The clinical outcomes, including complications associated with the procedures and patency of the stents, were evaluated. The biliary and duodenal stents were successfully implanted in 18 patients and the technical success rate was 90% (18/20). A total of 39 stents were implanted in 20 patients. In 2 cases, duodenal stent placement failed following biliary stent placement. Duodenal obstruction remitted in 15 patients, and 1 patient succumbed to aspiration pneumonia 5 days after the procedure. No severe complications were observed in any other patient. The survival time of the 18 patients was 5–21 months (median, 9.6 months), and 6 of those patients survived for >12 months. The present study suggests that X-ray fluoroscopy-guided intraluminal stent implantation is an effective procedure for the treatment of malignant

  14. Measuring symptoms as a critical component of drug development and evaluation in hematological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Loretta A; Yucel, Emre; Cortes, Jorge E; Cleeland, Charles S

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of new therapies for patients with hematological malignancies, there is an increasing need for patient report of symptom status during all phases of drug testing. The patient’s perspective on new treatments reflects treatment tolerability as well as symptom benefit, and may assist patients and clinicians in choosing treatments. Inclusion of patient-reported outcomes, more common in solid-tumor than hematological trials, provides early information about symptoms to guide decisions about appropriate dosing and supportive care needs. We provide a historical overview of the use of patient-reported outcomes and symptom assessment in solid-tumor and hematological drug development, and offer recommendations about methodological issues in the monitoring of symptoms in the drug development process in hematological clinical trials. PMID:24910769

  15. Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy in detecting ordered symptom statuses without a gold standard

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheyu; Zhou, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Miqu

    2011-01-01

    Our research is motivated by 2 methodological problems in assessing diagnostic accuracy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) doctors in detecting a particular symptom whose true status has an ordinal scale and is unknown—imperfect gold standard bias and ordinal scale symptom status. In this paper, we proposed a nonparametric maximum likelihood method for estimating and comparing the accuracy of different doctors in detecting a particular symptom without a gold standard when the true symptom status had an ordered multiple class. In addition, we extended the concept of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve to a hyper-dimensional overall accuracy for diagnostic accuracy and alternative graphs for displaying a visual result. The simulation studies showed that the proposed method had good performance in terms of bias and mean squared error. Finally, we applied our method to our motivating example on assessing the diagnostic abilities of 5 TCM doctors in detecting symptoms related to Chills disease. PMID:21209155

  16. Increased risk of obstructive pulmonary disease in tunnel workers.

    PubMed

    Ulvestad, B; Bakke, B; Melbostad, E; Fuglerud, P; Kongerud, J; Lund, M B

    2000-04-01

    Tunnel workers are exposed to gases and particles from blasting and diesel exhausts. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation in tunnel workers and to relate these findings to years of exposure. Two hundred and twelve tunnel workers and a reference group of 205 other heavy construction workers participated in a cross sectional investigation. Exposure measurements were carried out to demonstrate the difference in exposure between the two occupational groups. Spirometric tests and a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and smoking habits were applied. Atopy was determined by a multiple radioallergosorbent test (RAST). Radiological signs of silicosis were evaluated. Respiratory symptoms and lung function were studied in relation to years of exposure and adjusted for smoking habits and atopy. Compared with the reference subjects the tunnel workers had a significant decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC) % predicted and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) % predicted when related to years of exposure. Adjusted FEV(1) decreased by 17 ml for each year of tunnel work exposure compared with 0.5 ml in outdoor heavy construction workers. The tunnel workers also reported significantly higher occurrence of respiratory symptoms. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was 14% in the tunnel workers compared with 8% in the reference subjects. Exposure to dust and gases from diesel exhaust, blasting, drilling and rock transport in tunnel work enhances the risk for accelerated decline in FEV(1), respiratory symptoms, and COPD in tunnel workers compared with other heavy construction workers.

  17. Obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Ho, Matthew L; Brass, Steven D

    2011-11-29

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects millions of Americans and is estimated to be as prevalent as asthma and diabetes. Given the fact that obesity is a major risk factor for OSA, and given the current global rise in obesity, the prevalence of OSA will increase in the future. Individuals with sleep apnea are often unaware of their sleep disorder. It is usually first recognized as a problem by family members who witness the apneic episodes or is suspected by their primary care doctor because of the individual's risk factors and symptoms. The vast majority remain undiagnosed and untreated, despite the fact that this serious disorder can have significant consequences. Individuals with untreated OSA can stop breathing hundreds of times a night during their sleep. These apneic events can lead to fragmented sleep that is of poor quality, as the brain arouses briefly in order for the body to resume breathing. Untreated, sleep apnea can have dire health consequences and can increase the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and heart failure. OSA management has also become important in a number of comorbid neurological conditions, including epilepsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, and headache. Diagnosis typically involves use of screening questionnaires, physical exam, and an overnight polysomnography or a portable home study. Treatment options include changes in lifestyle, positive airway pressure, surgery, and dental appliances.

  18. Malignant central airway obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mudambi, Lakshmi; Miller, Russell

    2017-01-01

    This review comprehensively describes recent advances in the management of malignant central airway obstruction (CAO). Malignant CAO can be a dramatic and devastating manifestation of primary lung cancer or metastatic disease. A variety of diagnostic modalities are available to provide valuable information to plan a therapeutic intervention. Clinical heterogeneity in the presentation of malignant CAO provides opportunities to adapt and utilize endoscopic technology and tools in many ways. Mechanical debulking, thermal tools, cryotherapy and airway stents are methods and instruments used to rapidly restore airway patency. Delayed bronchoscopic methods, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) and brachytherapy can also be utilized in specific non-emergent situations to establish airway patency. Although data regarding the success and complications of therapeutic interventions are retrospective and characterized by clinical and outcome measure variability, the symptoms of malignant CAO can often be successfully palliated. Assessment of risks and benefits of interventions in each individual patient during the decision-making process forms the critical foundation of the management of malignant CAO. PMID:29214067

  19. [Evaluation of transperineal sonography for lower urinary tract symptoms after pelvic floor reconstruction].

    PubMed

    Zhong, X L; Song, J; Xu, Y L; Lyu, X L; Zhong, X H; Wang, A P; Song, Y F

    2017-09-25

    Objective: To evaluate transperineal sonography for lower urinary tract symptoms after pelvic floor reconstruction. Methods: Eighty-three patients with severe pelvic organ prolapse received surgeries in Fuzhou General Hospital from September 2014 to September 2015, dividing into two groups: 27 patients were selected to receive transvaginal mesh (TVM) pelvic floor reconstruction surgery with tension-free vaginal tape-Abbrevo (TVT-Abbrevo) incontinence surgery, named TVM+TVT-Abbrevo group; 56 patients were selected to receive TVM pelvic floor reconstruction surgery only, named TVM group. The ultrasonic parameters at rest, on contraction and Valsalva condition respectively were observed and measured, including the bladder neck descent (BND), urethral rotation angle, retrovesical angle, levator urethra gap (LUG), the existence of bladder neck funneling, position of the tape, by using 2D and 3D transperineal ultrasound. Results: The two groups were compared with the ultrasonic parameters before and after operation: two groups of patients with postoperative BND [(2.3±0.5) versus (3.1±0.7) cm, (1.6±0.4) versus (3.6±0.4) cm] were significantly reduced, the difference was statistically significant ( P= 0.02, P< 0.01). The two groups of LUG before and after operation [(3.62±0.45) versus (3.26±0.92) cm, (2.96±0.47) versus (2.72±0.38) cm] both had significant difference by maximum Valsalva ( P< 0.01, P= 0.04). There was statistical significance difference of urethral rotation angle in TVM+TVT-Abbrevo group by maximum Valsalva ( P= 0.01). Observation of morphology: (1) 2 patients with difficulty in urination in TVM+TVT-Abbrevo group, ultrasound showed when the position of the bladder down the urethra discount; 4 patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI), ultrasound showed slings off or release. (2) One patient with difficulty in urination in TVM group, but ultrasound showed lower urinary tract anatomy were normal; 5 patients with SUI, ultrasound showed the

  20. Future of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease management.

    PubMed

    D'Urzo, Anthony; Vogelmeier, Claus

    2012-06-01

    Bronchodilators play a pivotal role in the management of symptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Inhaled short-acting bronchodilators are used for all stages of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, primarily for the immediate relief of symptoms; inhaled long-acting bronchodilators are recommended for maintenance therapy in patients with moderate-to-very severe disease and those with daily symptoms. When symptoms are not adequately controlled by a single bronchodilator, combining bronchodilators of different classes may prove effective. Several long-acting β(2)-agonists and long-acting muscarinic antagonists with 24-h duration of action and inhalers combining different classes of long-acting, once-daily bronchodilators are in development. The place of these agents in the treatment algorithm will be determined by their efficacy and safety profiles and their long-term impact on relevant clinical outcomes.

  1. Occupational exposures and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): comparison of a COPD-specific job exposure matrix and expert-evaluated occupational exposures

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Laura; Doney, Brent; Weinmann, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare the occupational exposure levels assigned by our National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-specific job exposure matrix (NIOSH COPD JEM) and by expert evaluation of detailed occupational information for various jobs held by members of an integrated health plan in the Northwest USA. Methods We analysed data from a prior study examining COPD and occupational exposures. Jobs were assigned exposure levels using 2 methods: (1) the COPD JEM and (2) expert evaluation. Agreement (Cohen’s κ coefficients), sensitivity and specificity were calculated to compare exposure levels assigned by the 2 methods for 8 exposure categories. Results κ indicated slight to moderate agreement (0.19–0.51) between the 2 methods and was highest for organic dust and overall exposure. Sensitivity of the matrix ranged from 33.9% to 68.5% and was highest for sensitisers, diesel exhaust and overall exposure. Specificity ranged from 74.7% to 97.1% and was highest for fumes, organic dust and mineral dust. Conclusions This COPD JEM was compared with exposures assigned by experts and offers a generalisable approach to assigning occupational exposure. PMID:27777373

  2. Occupational exposures and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): comparison of a COPD-specific job exposure matrix and expert-evaluated occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Laura; Doney, Brent; Weinmann, Sheila

    2017-03-01

    To compare the occupational exposure levels assigned by our National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-specific job exposure matrix (NIOSH COPD JEM) and by expert evaluation of detailed occupational information for various jobs held by members of an integrated health plan in the Northwest USA. We analysed data from a prior study examining COPD and occupational exposures. Jobs were assigned exposure levels using 2 methods: (1) the COPD JEM and (2) expert evaluation. Agreement (Cohen's κ coefficients), sensitivity and specificity were calculated to compare exposure levels assigned by the 2 methods for 8 exposure categories. κ indicated slight to moderate agreement (0.19-0.51) between the 2 methods and was highest for organic dust and overall exposure. Sensitivity of the matrix ranged from 33.9% to 68.5% and was highest for sensitisers, diesel exhaust and overall exposure. Specificity ranged from 74.7% to 97.1% and was highest for fumes, organic dust and mineral dust. This COPD JEM was compared with exposures assigned by experts and offers a generalisable approach to assigning occupational exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Children's Feedback Preferences in Response to an Experimentally Manipulated Peer Evaluation Outcome: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reijntjes, Albert; Dekovic, Maja; Vermande, Marjolijn; Telch, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the linkage between pre-adolescent children's depressive symptoms and their preferences for receiving positive vs. negative feedback subsequent to being faced with an experimentally manipulated peer evaluation outcome in real time. Participants (n = 142) ages 10 to 13, played a computer contest based on the television…

  4. Assessment of Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom Dimensions: Development and Evaluation of the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramowitz, Jonathan S.; Deacon, Brett J.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Wheaton, Michael G.; Berman, Noah C.; Losardo, Diane; Timpano, Kiara R.; McGrath, Patrick B.; Riemann, Bradley C.; Adams, Thomas; Bjorgvinsson, Throstur; Storch, Eric A.; Hale, Lisa R.

    2010-01-01

    Although several measures of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms exist, most are limited in that they are not consistent with the most recent empirical findings on the nature and dimensional structure of obsessions and compulsions. In the present research, the authors developed and evaluated a measure called the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive…

  5. Personality Symptoms and Self-Esteem as Correlates of Psychopathology in Child Psychiatric Patients: Evaluating Multiple Informant Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pauw, Sarah S. W.; Mervielde, Ivan; De Clercq, Barbara J.; De Fruyt, Filip; Tremmery, Sabine; Deboutte, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Research on adulthood posits personality and self-esteem as important predictors of psychopathology. In childhood, however, the study of these relationships is complicated by the lack of consensus on how to combine data from multiple informants of child behavior. This study evaluates the relationships among personality symptoms, self-esteem and…

  6. [Gastric outlet obstruction in malignant stenosis: self expanding metal stents].

    PubMed

    Jury, Gastón; Amieva, Leandro; Bouzas, Guillermo; López Fagalde, Rafael; Pili, Carlos; Ramacciotti, Gonzalo; Jury, Rubén

    2012-12-01

    Gastric outlet obstruction is a complication that can occur in the evolution of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) resolve this situation by endoscopy, thus avoiding a laparoscopic gastroenterotomy. The aim of our study is to report our experience in the palliative treatment with SEMS of gastroduodenal neoplasic obstruction at a monovalent gastroenterology institute in Mar del Plata. All patients with symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction of neoplasic origin who fit for SEMS between January 2006 and February 2011 were included. Data were collected regarding the patients' clinical characteristics as well as the type of tumor and the efficacy of the procedure measured according to success and complication rates, length of hospital stay and evaluation of clinical benefit, according to performance status scales and gastric outlet obstruction score (GOOS). A total of 17 prosthesis placed in 16 patients were analyzed. In all cases the procedure was completed successfully. The intervention was performed on an outpatient basis in 12 patients (75%). One patient presented within 7 days gastric haemorrhage related with the stent, who was early treated with argon plasma. Late expected com- plications due to prolonged survival were observed in 60% of patients. None of them was serious and resolved spontaneously or by endoscopic treatment. Average survival was 117 days (range 3 to 300 days) and most patients showed subjective improvement in GOOS scale. SEMS have a high rate of technical and clinical success. However, they are scarcely known in our field. They present an insignificant number of early complications and the resolution of later ones is quite easy. An improvement in GOOS scale and quality of life is achieved.

  7. The self-evaluation of upper-gastrointestinal symptoms in Chinese patients with digestive disease: A multicenter questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rong; Wang, Weijun; Hou, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the self-evaluation of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in Chinese patients. To observe the role of patients' characters, such as sex, age, education background, and clinic visits, which might affect the self-understanding of patients. The nationwide cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 3000 patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms at 50 hospitals across 9 provinces in China. Questionnaire items covered four basic patients' characters and five major upper gastrointestinal symptoms. A total of 2799 questionnaires (response rate: 93.3%) were analyzed. Only 35.29% patients could precisely understand the definition of dyspepsia. The misunderstanding of lower-gastroenterology discomforts is the major reason leading to low accuracy rate of dyspepsia. The accuracy rate of early satiety and postprandial fullness is 37.7% and 52.27% separately; they are most interrelated and easily confused concepts to each other. The accuracy rate of heartburn is 30.02%, while the location of burning sensation is the key aspect for misunderstanding of heartburn. The self-understanding of symptoms in patients was decreased with increasing age, and enhanced with higher education background and time of clinic visits. Gender is not the independent factor. Based on the low accuracy rate of self-understanding of patients, this survey suggests that the gastroenterologists should re-evaluate the symptoms of patients during the clinical inquiry. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. The Percutaneous shunting in Lower Urinary Tract Obstruction (PLUTO) study and randomised controlled trial: evaluation of the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of percutaneous vesicoamniotic shunting for lower urinary tract obstruction.

    PubMed

    Morris, R K; Malin, G L; Quinlan-Jones, E; Middleton, L J; Diwakar, L; Hemming, K; Burke, D; Daniels, J; Denny, E; Barton, P; Roberts, T E; Khan, K S; Deeks, J J; Kilby, M D

    2013-12-01

    Congenital lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) is a disease associated with high perinatal mortality and childhood morbidity. Fetal vesicoamniotic shunting (VAS) bypasses the obstruction with the potential to improve outcome. To determine the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and patient acceptability of VAS for fetal LUTO. A multicentre, randomised controlled trial incorporating a prospective registry, decision-analytic health economic model and preplanned Bayesian analysis using elicited opinions. Patient acceptability was evaluated by interview in a qualitative study. Fetal medicine departments in the UK, Ireland and the Netherlands. Pregnant women with a male singleton fetus with LUTO. In utero percutaneous VAS compared with conservative care. The primary outcome was survival to 28 days. Secondary outcome measures were survival and renal function at 1 year of age, cost of care and cost per additional life-year and per disability-free survival at the end of 1 year. The trial stopped early with 31 women randomised because of difficulties in recruitment. Of those randomised to VAS and conservative management, 3/16 (19%) and 2/15 (13%), respectively, did not receive their allocated intervention. Based on intention-to-treat analysis, survival at 28 days was higher if allocated VAS (50%) than conservative management (27%) [relative risk (RR) 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71 to 4.96, p = 0.27]. At 12 months survival was 44% in the VAS arm and 20% in the conservative arm (RR 2.19, 95% CI 0.69 to 6.94, p = 0.25). Neither difference was statistically significant. Of survivors at 1 year, two in the VAS arm had no evidence of renal impairment and four in the VAS arm and two in the conservative arm required medical management. One baby in the conservative arm had end-stage renal failure at 1 year. VAS was more expensive because of additional surgery and intensive care. VAS cost £15,500 per survivor at 1 year and £43,900 per disability-free year. Elicited

  9. The Percutaneous shunting in Lower Urinary Tract Obstruction (PLUTO) study and randomised controlled trial: evaluation of the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and acceptability of percutaneous vesicoamniotic shunting for lower urinary tract obstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, R K; Malin, G L; Quinlan-Jones, E; Middleton, L J; Diwakar, L; Hemming, K; Burke, D; Daniels, J; Denny, E; Barton, P; Roberts, T E; Khan, K S; Deeks, J J; Kilby, M D

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Congenital lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) is a disease associated with high perinatal mortality and childhood morbidity. Fetal vesicoamniotic shunting (VAS) bypasses the obstruction with the potential to improve outcome. OBJECTIVE To determine the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and patient acceptability of VAS for fetal LUTO. DESIGN A multicentre, randomised controlled trial incorporating a prospective registry, decision-analytic health economic model and preplanned Bayesian analysis using elicited opinions. Patient acceptability was evaluated by interview in a qualitative study. SETTING Fetal medicine departments in the UK, Ireland and the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS Pregnant women with a male singleton fetus with LUTO. INTERVENTIONS In utero percutaneous VAS compared with conservative care. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was survival to 28 days. Secondary outcome measures were survival and renal function at 1 year of age, cost of care and cost per additional life-year and per disability-free survival at the end of 1 year. RESULTS The trial stopped early with 31 women randomised because of difficulties in recruitment. Of those randomised to VAS and conservative management, 3/16 (19%) and 2/15 (13%), respectively, did not receive their allocated intervention. Based on intention-to-treat analysis, survival at 28 days was higher if allocated VAS (50%) than conservative management (27%) [relative risk (RR) 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71 to 4.96, p = 0.27]. At 12 months survival was 44% in the VAS arm and 20% in the conservative arm (RR 2.19, 95% CI 0.69 to 6.94, p = 0.25). Neither difference was statistically significant. Of survivors at 1 year, two in the VAS arm had no evidence of renal impairment and four in the VAS arm and two in the conservative arm required medical management. One baby in the conservative arm had end-stage renal failure at 1 year. VAS was more expensive because of additional surgery and intensive

  10. 'Food Sticking in My Throat': Videofluoroscopic Evaluation of a Common Symptom.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Aarthi; Carnaby, Giselle D; Crary, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Prevalence of the symptom of food 'sticking' during swallowing has been reported to range from 5 to 50%, depending on the assessment setting. However, limited objective evidence has emerged to clarify factors that contribute to this symptom. Three hundred and fifteen patient records from an outpatient dysphagia clinic were reviewed to identify patients with symptoms of 'food sticking in the throat.' Corresponding videofluoroscopic swallowing studies for patients with this complaint were reviewed for the following variables: accuracy of symptom localization, identification and characteristics (anatomic, physiologic) of an explanatory cause for the symptom, and the specific swallowed material that identified the explanatory cause. One hundred and forty one patients (45%) were identified with a complaint of food 'sticking' in their throat during swallowing. Prevalence of explanatory findings on fluoroscopy was 76% (107/141). Eighty five percent (91/107) of explanatory causes were physiologic in nature, while 15% (16/107) were anatomic. The majority of explanatory causes were identified in the esophagus (71%). Symptom localization was more accurate when the explanatory cause was anatomic versus physiologic (75 vs. 18%). A non-masticated marshmallow presented with the highest diagnostic yield in identification of explanatory causes (71%). Patients complaining of 'food sticking in the throat' are likely to present with esophageal irregularities. Thus, imaging studies of swallowing function should include the esophagus. A range of materials, including a non-masticated marshmallow, is helpful in determining the location and characteristics of swallowing deficits contributing to this symptom.

  11. Differential Effect of Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea, COPD Assessment Test, and Clinical COPD Questionnaire for Symptoms Evaluation Within the New GOLD Staging and Mortality in COPD.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Ciro; Marin, Jose M; Martinez-Gonzalez, Cristina; de Lucas-Ramos, Pilar; Mir-Viladrich, Isabel; Cosio, Borja; Peces-Barba, German; Solanes-García, Ingrid; Agüero, Ramón; Feu-Collado, Nuria; Calle-Rubio, Miryam; Alfageme, Inmaculada; de Diego-Damia, Alfredo; Irigaray, Rosa; Marín, Margarita; Balcells, Eva; Llunell, Antonia; Galdiz, Juan Bautista; Golpe, Rafael; Lacarcel, Celia; Cabrera, Carlos; Marin, Alicia; Soriano, Joan B; Lopez-Campos, Jose Luis; Soler-Cataluña, Juan José; de-Torres, Juan P

    2015-07-01

    The modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnea, the COPD Assessment Test (CAT), and the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) have been interchangeably proposed by GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) for assessing symptoms in patients with COPD. However, there are no data on the prognostic value of these tools in terms of mortality. We endeavored to evaluate the prognostic value of the CAT and CCQ scores and compare them with mMRC dyspnea. We analyzed the ability of these tests to predict mortality in an observational cohort of 768 patients with COPD (82% men; FEV1, 60%) from the COPD History Assessment in Spain (CHAIN) study, a multicenter observational Spanish cohort, who were monitored annually for a mean follow-up time of 38 months. Subjects who died (n = 73; 9.5%) had higher CAT (14 vs 11, P = .022), CCQ (1.6 vs 1.3, P = .033), and mMRC dyspnea scores (2 vs 1, P < .001) than survivors. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that higher CAT, CCQ, and mMRC dyspnea scores were associated with higher mortality (area under the curve: 0.589, 0.588, and 0.649, respectively). CAT scores ≥ 17 and CCQ scores > 2.5 provided a similar sensitivity than mMRC dyspnea scores ≥ 2 to predict all-cause mortality. The CAT and the CCQ have similar ability for predicting all-cause mortality in patients with COPD, but were inferior to mMRC dyspnea scores. We suggest new thresholds for CAT and CCQ scores based on mortality risk that could be useful for the new GOLD grading classification. ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01122758; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  12. Coexistence of Chronic Bronchitis in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Mejza, Filip; Nastałek, Paweł; Mastalerz-Migas, Agnieszka; Doniec, Zbigniew; Skucha, Wojciech

    2018-05-12

    The incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is on the rise worldwide. Chronic bronchitis is a frequent accompaniment of COPD, which increases the burden of COPD in affected individuals. The aim of this study was to characterize the phenotype of chronic bronchitis in COPD patients. The study was based on the survey data retrospectively retrieved from the Action Health-Lung Cancer Prophylaxis and Health Care Improvement screening program that concerned all the inhabitants, aged over 40, of the Proszowice administrative region situated in the Lesser Poland Voivodeship in southern Poland. Participants with the symptoms suggestive of a lung disease were subject to further evaluation. The findings were that 546 (13.3%) out of the 4105 individuals displayed spirometry features of COPD. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis were present in 92 (16.8%) out of the COPD afflicted persons. Chronic bronchitis was commoner in current smokers and its incidence increased with increasing severity of airway obstruction. In multivariate analysis, chronic bronchitis was independently related to lower FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, and to dyspnea. In regression model, factors related to increased risk of chronic bronchitis were current smoking, asthma, and lower lung function. We conclude that COPD with coexisting chronic bronchitis is linked to severer dyspnea and worse lung function. Current smoking, asthma, and lower lung function are related to increased risk of chronic bronchitis accompanying COPD.

  13. [The role of the quality of hospital discharge records on the comparative evaluation of outcomes: the example of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)].

    PubMed

    Fano, Valeria; D'Ovidio, Mariangela; del Zio, Katiuscia; Renzi, Davide; Tariciotti, Daniela; Agabiti, Nera; Argenti, Lucia; Cattaruzza, Maria Sofia; Fortino, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the results of the regional comparative evaluation of the outcome "thirty days mortality after admission for reacutized Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)" before and after a reabstract study. Reabstract study of clinical records included in the regional comparative evaluation. 232 clinical records retrieved from Grassi Hospital archives (years 2006-2007) and reviewed by two physicians and one nurse specifically trained. Models performed before and after reabstract study for comparative evaluation of the outcome were compared. Blind coding of diagnosis and interventions/procedures was completed according to a standard grid consistent with regional guidelines for Hospital Discharge Record coding. Other information was registered, if present on discharge record: smoking habit, number of reacutizations occurred within previous year, use of oxigen and/or other therapies, pneumological visit at discharge. The majority (94%) of reviewed cases were confirmed as being cases of COPD. A total of 168 cases (72%) have been identified as reacutized COPD coherent with enrolment criteria of regional program, 49 (21%) have been identified as COPD and only 15 cases (6%) resulted not affected by COPD. Results of the regional comparative model were substantially unchanged for Grassi hospital (RR =23 vs RR =24). Accurateness of clinical documentation resulted inadequate especially regarding information at discharge (50% missing information on smoking habit, 83% on previous year reacutizations, 22% on follow-up organization after discharge). This study contributes to the debate on the role of administrative data on the comparative evaluation of health outcomes. Other relevant issues are to promote the collaboration among different health professionals working in the same hospital, and to increase the awareness of the importance of the quality of health and administrative data.

  14. Validated Measures of Insomnia, Function, Sleepiness, and Nasal Obstruction in a CPAP Alternatives Clinic Population.

    PubMed

    Lam, Austin S; Collop, Nancy A; Bliwise, Donald L; Dedhia, Raj C

    2017-08-15

    Although efficacious in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can be difficult to tolerate, with long-term adherence rates approaching 50%. CPAP alternatives clinics specialize in the evaluation and treatment of CPAP-intolerant patients; yet this population has not been studied in the literature. To better understand these patients, we sought to assess insomnia, sleep-related functional status, sleepiness, and nasal obstruction, utilizing data from validated instruments. After approval from the Emory University Institutional Review Board, a retrospective chart review was performed from September 2015 to September 2016 of new patient visits at the Emory CPAP alternatives clinic. Patient demographics and responses were recorded from the Insomnia Severity Index, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire-10 (FOSQ-10), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation questionnaires. A total of 172 patients were included, with 81% having moderate-severe OSA. Most of the patients demonstrated moderate-severe clinical insomnia and at least moderate nasal obstruction. FOSQ-10 scores indicated sleep-related functional impairment in 88%. However, most patients did not demonstrate excessive daytime sleepiness. This patient population demonstrates significant symptomatology and functional impairment. Because of the severity of their OSA, they are at increased risk of complications. In order to mitigate the detrimental effects of OSA, these significantly impacted patients should be identified and encouraged to seek CPAP alternatives clinics that specialize in the treatment of this population. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  15. Use of the Crawford tube for symptomatic epiphora without nasolacrimal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Tong, Nyu-Xia; Zhao, Ying-Ying; Jin, Xiu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Crawford tube in treating symptomatic epiphora without nasolacrimal obstruction. A protocol was adopted for the management of symptomatic epiphora without nasolacrimal obstruction. Patients who suffered symptomatic epiphora without nasolacrimal obstruction in both eyes were included in the study. One eye was treated with Crawford tube intubation and the other eye was treated with medication therapy. Degree of watering, patient satisfaction, and symptomatic improvement were carefully evaluated by one of the authors at the end of the follow-up period, after Crawford tube removal, to ascertain functional results. Thirty-seven adult patients (37 eyes) underwent Crawford tube intubation for functional epiphora. The mean follow-up time after removal of the tube was 14.8±4.8mo. The procedure was an overall success in 28 eyes (75.7%), with symptoms improving significantly. Two eyes (5.4%) were relieved of indoor epiphora, two (5.4%) had minimal epiphora outdoors, but only with wind or cold, and five (13.5%) continued to experience tearing both indoors and outdoors. Thirty of the patients (81%) expressed satisfaction with the procedure. Crawford tube insertion is an effective, safe, simple, and relatively noninvasive treatment strategy for functional lacrimal system obstruction.

  16. Evaluation on Hope and Psychological Symptoms in Infertile Couples Undergoing Assisted Reproduction Treatment.

    PubMed

    Omani Samani, Reza; Vesali, Samira; Navid, Behnaz; Vakiliniya, Bahareh; Mohammadi, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated hope, depression, anxiety, and stress among three groups of infertile couples. This cross-sectional study consisted of three groups of infertile couples-candidates for oocyte donation (n=60), embryo donation (n=60), and normal infertile (n=60). Participants included couples seen at Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran between 2013-2014 who were at least 18 years of age and could read and write in Persian. Participants provided demographic and general characteristics and completed the Persian version of the Adult Trait Hope Scale (hope, agency and pathway) and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS). Data was analyzed by the paired t test, ANOVA, ANCOVA and Pearson correlation tests using SPSS statistical software. Overall, 180 infertile couples participated in the three groups. There was a significant higher mean score for hope in husbands compared to wives in the normal infertile group (P=0.046). Husbands in the normal infertile group also had a significantly higher mean score for pathway (P=0.032). The frequency of anxiety significantly differed in female subjects (P=0.028). In the normal infertile group, the anxiety distribution significantly differed between wives and husbands (P=0.006). There was a significantly different stress frequency in male subjects (P=0.048). In the embryo donation group, stress significantly differed between wives and husbands (P=0.002). In the normal infertile group, stress also significantly differed between wives and husbands (P=0.05). The results have suggested that hope might be important in reducing psychological symptoms and psychological adjustment in those exposed to infertility problems who follow medical recommendations, which accelerates recovery. It is recommended to hold psychological counseling sessions (hope therapy) during reproduction cycles.

  17. A prospective evaluation of undiagnosed joint hypermobility syndrome in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Fikree, Asma; Grahame, Rodney; Aktar, Rubina; Farmer, Adam D; Hakim, Alan J; Morris, Joan K; Knowles, Charles H; Aziz, Qasim

    2014-10-01

    The Joint Hypermobility Syndrome (JHS) is a common connective tissue disorder characterized by joint hyperflexibility, dysautonomia, and chronic pain. Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are reported in JHS patients attending rheumatology clinics, but the prevalence and symptom pattern of previously undiagnosed JHS in GI clinics are unknown. By using validated questionnaires, a prospective cross-sectional study in secondary care GI clinics estimated the prevalence of JHS in new consecutively referred patients, compared GI symptoms in patients with and without JHS, and by using multiple regression determined whether the burden of GI symptoms in JHS patients was dependent on chronic pain, autonomic, psychological, and medication related factors. A positive control group consisted of JHS patients referred from rheumatology clinics with GI symptoms (JHS-Rh). From 552 patients recruited, 180 (33%) had JHS (JHS-G) and 372 did not (non-JHS-G). Forty-four JHS-Rh patients were included. JHS-G patients were more likely to be younger, female with poorer quality of life (P = .02) than non-JHS-G patients. After age and sex matching, heartburn (odds ratio [OR], 1.66; confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.5; P = .01), water brash (OR, 2.02; CI, 1.3-3.1; P = .001), and postprandial fullness (OR, 1.74; CI, 1.2-2.6; P = .006) were more common in JHS-G vs non-JHS-G. Many upper and lower GI symptoms increased with increasing severity of JHS phenotype. Upper GI symptoms were dependent on autonomic and chronic pain factors. JHS is common in GI clinics, with increased burden of upper GI and extraintestinal symptoms and poorer quality of life. Recognition of JHS will facilitate multidisciplinary management of GI and extra-GI manifestations. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of upper airway obstruction in infants with Pierre Robin sequence and the role of polysomnography--Review of current evidence.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vudum Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is a heterogeneous condition presenting with upper airway obstruction (UAO) of varying severity. Polysomnography (PSG) is an objective investigation to assess the severity of obstructive sleep apnea and UAO. Its role in the management of PRS has not been well defined. This review summarizes the available evidence on the role of PSG in the assessment of infants with PRS in the context of other commonly used methods of assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of prosthetic valve obstruction on electrocardiographically gated multidetector-row computed tomography--identification of subprosthetic pannus in the aortic position.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Tomohiro; Teshima, Hideki; Fukunaga, Shuji; Aoyagi, Shigeaki; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic role of electrocardiographically gated multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) for prosthetic valve obstruction (PVO) in the aortic position. Between 2002 and 2006, 9 patients were diagnosed with PVO of an aortic bileaflet mechanical valve based on echocardiographic and cineradiographic criteria. These 9 patients were examined using MDCT before replacement of the mechanical valve, and intraoperative findings were compared to morphologic periprosthetic abnormalities observed on MDCT. CT attenuation (Hounsfield units; HU) of the periprosthetic abnormalities was measured to investigate the underlying cause of the PVO. MDCT showed subprosthetic masses extending beyond the prosthetic ring into the orifice of the valve. At reoperation, presence of subprosthetic pannus was confirmed in all of the 9 patients, but no periprosthetic thrombus was found. The mean CT attenuation of the subprosthetic pannus was 170 HU, and it was significantly greater than that obtained from the interventricular septum (108 HU; P<0.0001). MDCT can be used to clearly visualize subprosthetic pannus causing PVO and the mean CT attenuation of subprosthetic pannus is significantly higher than that of the interventricular septum on MDCT.

  20. Factors predictive of obstructive sleep apnea in patients undergoing pre-operative evaluation for bariatric surgery and referred to a sleep laboratory for polysomnography

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Ricardo Luiz de Menezes; Magalhães-da-Silveira, Flavio José

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the main predictive factors for obtaining a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients awaiting bariatric surgery. Methods: Retrospective study of consecutive patients undergoing pre-operative evaluation for bariatric surgery and referred for in-laboratory polysomnography. Eight variables were evaluated: sex, age, neck circumference (NC), BMI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) score, snoring, observed apnea, and hypertension. We employed ROC curve analysis to determine the best cut-off value for each variable and multiple linear regression to identify independent predictors of OSA severity. Results: We evaluated 1,089 patients, of whom 781 (71.7%) were female. The overall prevalence of OSA-defined as an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5.0 events/h-was 74.8%. The best cut-off values for NC, BMI, age, and ESS score were 42 cm, 42 kg/m2, 37 years, and 10 points, respectively. All eight variables were found to be independent predictors of a diagnosis of OSA in general, and all but one were found to be independent predictors of a diagnosis of moderate/severe OSA (AHI ≥ 15.0 events/h), the exception being hypertension. We devised a 6-item model, designated the NO-OSAS model (NC, Obesity, Observed apnea, Snoring, Age, and Sex), with a cut-off value of ≥ 3 for identifying high-risk patients. For a diagnosis of moderate/severe OSA, the model showed 70.8% accuracy, 82.8% sensitivity, and 57.9% specificity. Conclusions: In our sample of patients awaiting bariatric surgery, there was a high prevalence of OSA. At a cut-off value of ≥ 3, the proposed 6-item model showed good accuracy for a diagnosis of moderate/severe OSA. PMID:26578136

  1. Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty for Complete Membranous Obstruction of Suprahepatic Inferior Vena Cava: Long-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Kucukay, Fahrettin, E-mail: fkucukay@hotmail.com; Akdogan, Meral, E-mail: akdmeral@yahoo.com; Bostanci, Erdal Birol, E-mail: ebbostanci@yahoo.com

    PurposeTo determine the long-term results of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for a complete membranous obstruction of the suprahepatic inferior vena cava.MethodsPatients (n = 65) who were referred to the interventional unit for PTA for a complete membranous obstruction of the suprahepatic inferior vena cava between January 2006 and October 2014 were included in the study. Thirty-two patients (18 males, 14 females, mean age 35 ± 10.7, range 20–42 years) were treated. The patients presented with symptoms of ascites (88 %), pleural effusion (53 %), varicose veins (94 %), hepatomegaly (97 %), abdominal pain (84 %), and splenomegaly (40 %). Transjugular liver access set and re-entry catheter were used to puncture andmore » traverse the obstruction from the jugular side. PTA balloon dilations were performed. The mean follow-up period was 65.6 ± 24.5 months. The objective was to evaluate technical success, complications, primary patency, and clinical improvement in the symptoms of the patients.ResultsThe technical success rate was 94 %. In two patients, obstruction could not be traversed. These patients underwent cavoatrial graft bypass surgery. There were no procedure-related complications. Clinical improvements were achieved in all patients within 3 months. The primary patency rate at 4 years was 90 %. There was no primary assisted patency. There was no need for metallic stent deployment in the cohort. The secondary patency rate at 4 years was 100 %.ConclusionsPercutaneous transluminal angioplasty for a complete membranous obstruction of the suprahepatic inferior vena cava is safe and effective, and the long-term results are excellent.« less

  2. Changes in prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma in the US population and associated risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Halldin, Cara N; Doney, Brent C; Hnizdo, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lower airway diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, are currently the third leading cause of death in the United States. We aimed to evaluate changes in prevalence of and risk factors for COPD and asthma among the US adult population. We evaluated changes in prevalence of self-reported doctor-diagnosed COPD (i.e. chronic bronchitis and emphysema) and asthma and self-reported respiratory symptoms comparing data from the 1988–1994 and 2007–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. To investigate changes in the severity of each outcome over the two periods, we calculated changes in the proportions of spirometry-based airflow obstruction for each outcome. Prevalence of doctor-diagnosed chronic bronchitis and emphysema decreased significantly mainly among males, while asthma increased only among females. The self-reported disease and the respiratory symptoms were associated with increased prevalence of airflow obstruction for both periods. However, the prevalence of airflow obstruction decreased significantly in the second period among those with shortness of breath and doctor-diagnosed respiratory conditions (chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma). COPD outcomes and asthma were associated with lower education, smoking, underweight and obesity, and occupational dusts and fumes exposure. Chronic lower airway diseases continue to be major public health problems. However, decreased prevalence of doctor-diagnosed chronic bronchitis and emphysema (in males) and decreased prevalence of airflow obstruction in those with respiratory symptoms and doctor-diagnosed respiratory diseases may indicate a declining trend and decrease in disease severity between the two periods. Continued focus on prevention of these diseases through public health interventions is prudent. PMID:25540134

  3. Impression management or real change? Reports of depressive symptoms before and after the preoperative psychological evaluation for bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Fabricatore, Anthony N; Sarwer, David B; Wadden, Thomas A; Combs, Christopher J; Krasucki, Jennifer L

    2007-09-01

    Many bariatric surgery programs require that candidates undergo a preoperative mental health evaluation. Candidates may be motivated to suppress or exaggerate psychiatric symptoms (i.e., engage in impression management), if they believe doing so will enhance their chances of receiving a recommendation to proceed with surgery. 237 candidates for bariatric surgery completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-ll) as part of their preoperative psychological evaluation (Time 1). They also completed the BDI-II approximately 2-4 weeks later, for research purposes, after they had received the mental health professional's unconditional recommendation to proceed with surgery (Time 2). There was a small but statistically significant increase in mean BDI-II scores from Time 1 to Time 2 (11.4 vs 12.7, P<.001). Clinically significant changes, defined as a change from one range of symptom severity to another, were observed in 31.2% of participants, with significant increases in symptoms occurring nearly twice as often as reductions (20.7% vs 10.5%, P<.008). Demographic variables were largely unrelated to changes in BDI-II scores from Time 1 to Time 2. Approximately one-third of bariatric surgery candidates reported a clinically significant change in depressive symptoms after receiving psychological "clearance" for surgery. Possible explanations for these findings include measurement error, impression management, and true changes in psychiatric status.

  4. Role of central sensitization in symptoms beyond muscle pain, and the evaluation of a patient with widespread pain.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Muhammad B

    2007-06-01

    Patients with widespread pain or fibromyalgia syndrome have many symptoms besides musculoskeletal pain: e.g. fatigue, sleep difficulties, a swollen feeling in tissues, paresthesia, cognitive dysfunction, dizziness, and symptoms of overlapping conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome, headaches and restless legs syndrome. There is evidence for central sensitization in these conditions, but further studies are needed. Anxiety, stress and depression are also present in 30-45% of patients. Other factors that may contribute to symptoms include endocrine dysfunction, psychosocial distress, trauma, and disrupted sleep. Evaluation of a patient presenting with widespread pain includes history and physical examination to diagnose both fibromyalgia and associated or concomitant conditions. Fibromyalgia should be diagnosed by its own characteristic features. Some patients with otherwise typical symptoms of fibromyalgia may have as few as four to six tender points in clinical practice. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus should be evaluated for fibromyalgia, since 20-30% of them have associated fibromyalgia, requiring a different treatment approach.

  5. Long-term prognostic impact of CT-Leaman score in patients with non-obstructive CAD: Results from the COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes InteRnational Multicenter (CONFIRM) study.

    PubMed

    Andreini, Daniele; Pontone, Gianluca; Mushtaq, Saima; Gransar, Heidi; Conte, Edoardo; Bartorelli, Antonio L; Pepi, Mauro; Opolski, Maksymilian P; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Berman, Daniel S; Budoff, Matthew J; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J W; Cury, Ricardo; Delago, Augustin; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kim, Yong-Jin; Kaufmann, Philipp A; Leipsic, Jonathon; Lin, Fay Y; Maffei, Erica; Raff, Gilbert; Shaw, Leslee J; Villines, Todd C; Dunning, Allison; Marques, Hugo; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Hindoyan, Niree; Gomez, Millie; Min, James K

    2017-03-15

    Non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) identified by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) demonstrated prognostic value. CT-adapted Leaman score (CT-LeSc) showed to improve the prognostic stratification. Aim of the study was to evaluate the capability of CT-LeSc to assess long-term prognosis of patients with non-obstructive (CAD). From 17 centers, we enrolled 2402 patients without prior CAD history who underwent CCTA that showed non-obstructive CAD and provided complete information on plaque composition. Patients were divided into a group without CAD and a group with non-obstructive CAD (<50% stenosis). Segment-involvement score (SIS) and CT-LeSc were calculated. Outcomes were non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and the combined end-point of MI and all-cause mortality. Patient mean age was 56±12years. At follow-up (mean 59.8±13.9months), 183 events occurred (53 MI, 99 all-cause deaths and 31 late revascularizations). CT-LeSc was the only multivariate predictor of MI (HRs 2.84 and 2.98 in two models with Framingham and risk factors, respectively) and of MI plus all-cause mortality (HR 2.48 and 1.94 in two models with Framingham and risk factors, respectively). This was confirmed by a net reclassification analysis confirming that the CT-LeSc was able to correctly reclassify a significant proportion of patients (cNRI 0.28 and 0.23 for MI and MI plus all-cause mortality, respectively) vs. baseline model, whereas SIS did not. CT-LeSc is an independent predictor of major acute cardiac events, improving prognostic stratification of patients with non-obstructive CAD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Management of Nasal Airway Obstruction: Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Suresh; Fuller, Jennifer C; Ford, Stephanie Friree; Lindsay, Robin W

    2018-05-10

    Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a common complaint in the otolaryngologist's office and can have a negative influence on quality of life (QOL). Existing diagnostic methods have improved, but little consensus exists on optimal tools. Furthermore, although surgical techniques for nasal obstruction continue to be developed, effective outcome measurement is lacking. An update of recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic management of NAO is warranted. To review advances in diagnosis and treatment of NAO from the last 5 years. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, LILACS, Web of Science, and Guideline.gov were searched with the terms nasal obstruction and nasal blockage and their permutations from July 26, 2012, through October 23, 2017. Studies were included if they evaluated NAO using a subjective and an objective technique, and in the case of intervention-based studies, the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scale and an objective technique. Exclusion criteria consisted of animal studies; patients younger than 14 years; nasal foreign bodies; nasal masses including polyps; choanal atresia; sinus disease; obstructive sleep apnea or sleep-disordered breathing; allergic rhinitis; and studies not specific to nasal obstruction. The initial search resulted in 942 articles. After independent screening by 2 investigators, 46 unique articles remained, including 2 randomized clinical trials, 3 systematic reviews, 3 meta-analyses, and 39 nonrandomized cohort studies (including a combined systematic review and meta-analysis). An aggregate of approximately 32 000 patients were reviewed (including meta-analyses). Of the subjective measures available for NAO, the NOSE scale is outstanding with regard to disease-specific validation and correlation with symptoms. No currently available objective measure can be considered a criterion standard. Structural measures of flow, pressure, and volume appear to be necessary but insufficient to assess NAO. Therefore

  7. Need for multi-diagnostic approaches before considering treatment in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Guilleminault, C; Mondini, S

    1983-01-01

    To choose an appropriate therapeutic treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) depends on accurately diagnosing the underlying problems that lead to the disease. Evaluating local anatomical problems is critical. New techniques, such as imaging, permit us to do this more effectively. Appreciating the involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) in a fully developed syndrome is also important. Abnormal stimulation of the autonomic nervous system can be evaluated easily with a Holter ECG. Recognizing that OSAS is a multi-faceted problem whose various symptoms interact and aggravate one another helps to explain why treatments may not be immediately effective.

  8. Maximal venous outflow velocity: an index for iliac vein obstruction.

    PubMed

    Jones, T Matthew; Cassada, David C; Heidel, R Eric; Grandas, Oscar G; Stevens, Scott L; Freeman, Michael B; Edmondson, James D; Goldman, Mitchell H

    2012-11-01

    Leg swelling is a common cause for vascular surgical evaluation, and iliocaval obstruction due to May-Thurner syndrome (MTS) can be difficult to diagnose. Physical examination and planar radiographic imaging give anatomic information but may miss the fundamental pathophysiology of MTS. Similarly, duplex ultrasonographic examination of the legs gives little information about central impedance of venous return above the inguinal ligament. We have modified the technique of duplex ultrasonography to evaluate the flow characteristics of the leg after tourniquet-induced venous engorgement, with the objective of revealing iliocaval obstruction characteristic of MTS. Twelve patients with signs and symptoms of MTS were compared with healthy control subjects for duplex-derived maximal venous outflow velocity (MVOV) after tourniquet-induced venous engorgement of the leg. The data for healthy control subjects were obtained from a previous study of asymptomatic volunteers using the same MVOV maneuvers. The tourniquet-induced venous engorgement mimics that caused during vigorous exercise. A right-to-left ratio of MVOV was generated for patient comparisons. Patients with clinical evidence of MTS had a mean right-to-left MVOV ratio of 2.0, asymptomatic control subjects had a mean ratio of 1.3, and MTS patients who had undergone endovascular treatment had a poststent mean ratio of 1.2 (P = 0.011). Interestingly, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging results, when available, were interpreted as positive in only 53% of the patients with MTS according to both our MVOV criteria and confirmatory venography. After intervention, the right-to-left MVOV ratio in the MTS patients was found to be reduced similar to asymptomatic control subjects, indicating a relief of central venous obstruction by stenting the compressive MTS anatomy. Duplex-derived MVOV measurements are helpful for detection of iliocaval venous obstruction, such as MTS. Right-to-left MVOV ratios and

  9. Evaluation of symptom presentation in dyspeptic patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Kolk, Helgi

    2004-10-01

    To investigate the structure of dyspeptic symptoms and determine the association between dyspeptic symptoms and endoscopic findings in patients referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy by family physicians in a country with a high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Consecutive outpatients (n=172; median 36 years, range 18-75; 85 male; 87 female) were referred to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Patient history was recorded prior to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy using the computer-aided Glasgow Diagnostic System for Dyspepsia (GLADYS). Family physicians used open access endoscopy with a short waiting list. Two biopsies, both from the antrum and the corpus, were taken for histological assessment. Out of the 172 patients studied, 81% (n=139) were H. pylori positive, 65% (n=112) were younger than 45 years. The incidence of peptic ulcer was 44% (n=75). Upper abdominal pain was the predominant complaint in 73% (n=126) of the patients, as well as the most frequent overall complaint. Hunger pain, night pain, periodical nature of symptoms, and history over 2 years were of independent value in differentiating between peptic ulcer and functional dyspepsia. The symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease and irritable bowel syndrome predominated in the minority of patients (11% and 5% respectively) but accompanied other complaints in almost 2/3 of the patients. In 32 out of 75 patients with peptic ulcer, the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and in 29 cases the presence of frequent heartburn and regurgitation were noted. Classical symptoms are valuable in predicting the diagnosis of peptic ulcer. Heartburn and acid regurgitation are present in both gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer. Irritable bowel syndrome is common in patients with peptic ulcer.

  10. Prospective evaluation of 618 pregnant women exposed to parvovirus B19: risks and symptoms.

    PubMed

    Harger, J H; Adler, S P; Koch, W C; Harger, G F

    1998-03-01

    To assess the risk of maternal parvovirus B19 infection from exposure to various sources and the fetal morbidity of those infections. We obtained demographic and occupational information about pregnant women exposed to sources of B19 and about the nature and duration of the exposures. We performed serologic testing 10-14 days after exposure using an indirect capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Women with immunoglobulin (Ig) M were examined with weekly ultrasound until 12 weeks after exposure, and the outcome of the pregnancy was ascertained from interviews with patients and their obstetricians. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors for maternal immunity and infection by B19. Of 618 pregnant women exposed, 307 (49.7%) were immune to B19, 259 remained susceptible after exposure, and 52 (16.7% of all susceptibles) contracted B19 infection. None of the 52 fetuses of infected women developed nonimmune hydrops, and there were no fetal deaths attributable to B19 in this group. The relative risk of maternal B19 infection was 2.8 if the source was a related child living in the household (95% confidence interval 1.7, 4.6; P < .001). No significant differences were found for maternal B19 infection in eight categories of maternal occupation. Maternal symptoms of polyarthralgia (46%), fever (19%), and nonspecific rash (38%) were significantly more common (P < .001) in IgM-positive patients than in noninfected women (4.1%, 2.8%, and 5.7%, respectively). Only 17 (33%) of the IgM-positive women were entirely asymptomatic. The risk of maternal B19 infection in pregnancy could not be predicted by a gravida's occupation, but it was significantly higher when the source of exposure was her own child. The fetal risk of nonimmune hydrops after maternal B19 infection must be very low. As a consequence, exclusion of pregnant women from the workplace during endemic periods with seasonal clusters of cases is not justified. Weekly fetal ultrasound evaluation

  11. Evaluation of malnutrition detected with the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) and the quality of life in hospitalized patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Arslan, M; Soylu, M; Kaner, G; İnanç, N; Başmısırlı, E

    2016-01-01

    Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have impaired quality of life, but the relationship between their nutritional status and quality of life has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between quality of life and nutritional status in hospitalized COPD patients. Demographic data, quality of life and nutritional status of 90 inpatients with a mean age of 68.76 ± 10.85 years were enrolled in the study. The Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) tool was used to evaluate their nutritional status. The quality of life was assessed using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire. The correlation analysis was used for the relationship between SF-36 subscales and nutritional status variables. Of the 90 COPD patients included in the study, 54.4 % were men, and 45.6 % were women. Moderate, severe, and very severe COPD were detected in 37.8 %, 38.9 %, and 23.3 % of the patients, respectively. At risk of malnutrition were 55.6 % of the 90 COPD patients, whereas 44.4 % were not. The scores for physical function, physical role functioning, pain, general health, emotional role functioning, vitality, social function, and mental function subscales were lower in the patients at risk of malnutrition (p <0.001). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between malnutrition score and the subscores of SF-36 related to physical function, physical role functioning, pain, general health, emotional role functioning, vitality, social function, and mental function (p <0.001). COPD patients were found to have a high risk of malnutrition that adversely affects their quality of life. Therefore, the evaluation of the nutritional status of COPD patients should be an integral part of their clinical treatment plans aiming towards improving their quality of life. Hippokratia 2016, 20(2):147-152.

  12. Multicenter study of the efficacy and safety of disopyramide in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Sherrid, Mark V; Barac, Ivan; McKenna, William J; Elliott, Perry M; Dickie, Shaughan; Chojnowska, Lidia; Casey, Susan; Maron, Barry J

    2005-04-19

    In this study we assessed the long-term efficacy and safety of disopyramide for patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). It has been reported that disopyramide may reduce left ventricular outflow gradient and improve symptoms in patients with HCM. However, long-term efficacy and safety of disopyramide has not been shown in a large cohort. Clinical and echocardiographic data were evaluated in 118 obstructive HCM patients treated with disopyramide at 4 HCM treatment centers. Mortality in the disopyramide-treated patients was compared with 373 obstructive HCM patients not treated with disopyramide. Patients were followed with disopyramide for 3.1 +/- 2.6 years; dose 432 +/- 181 mg/day (97% also received beta-blockers). Seventy-eight patients (66%) were maintained with disopyramide without the necessity for major non-pharmacologic intervention with surgical myectomy, alcohol ablation, or pacing; outflow gradient at rest decreased from 75 +/- 33 to 40 +/- 32 mm Hg (p < 0.0001) and mean New York Heart Association functional class from 2.3 +/- 0.7 to 1.7 +/- 0.6 (p < 0.0001). Forty other patients (34%) could not be satisfactorily managed with disopyramide and required major invasive interventions because of inadequate symptom and gradient control or vagolytic side effects. All-cause annual cardiac death rate between disopyramide and non-disopyramide-treated patients did not differ significantly, 1.4% versus 2.6%/year (p = 0.07). There was also no difference in sudden death rate, 1.0%/year versus 1.8%/year (p = 0.08). Two-thirds of obstructed HCM patients treated with disopyramide could be managed medically with amelioration of symptoms and about 50% reduction in subaortic gradient over >/=3 years. Disopyramide therapy does not appear to be proarrhythmic in HCM and should be considered before proceeding to surgical myectomy or alternate strategies.

  13. 20 CFR 404.1529 - How we evaluate symptoms, including pain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... kinds of evidence described in §§ 404.1512(b)(2) through (6) and 404.1513(b)(1), (4), and (5), and (d.... Your symptoms, such as pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, weakness, or nervousness, will not be found... Commissioner, or a medical or psychological expert (as defined in § 405.5 of this chapter) in claims...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1529 - How we evaluate symptoms, including pain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... kinds of evidence described in §§ 404.1512(b)(2) through (8) and 404.1513(b)(1), (4), and (5), and (d.... Your symptoms, such as pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, weakness, or nervousness, will not be found... medical or psychological expert (as defined in § 405.5 of this chapter) in claims adjudicated under the...

  15. A Study to Evaluate Genetic Predictors of Aromatase Inhibitor Musculoskeletal Symptoms (AIMSS) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    E1Z11 is a study to determine whether certain genetic information can predict which breast cancer patients will discontinue treatment with AIs due to the development of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS). Women with stage 1-111 breast cancer who are prescribed the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole as treatment may join. |

  16. Declines with Age in Childhood Asthma Symptoms and Health Care Use: An Adjustment for Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Yi-An; Song, Peter X. K.; Clark, Noreen M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma is a variable condition with an apparent tendency for a natural decline in asthma symptoms and health care use occurring as children age. As a result, asthma interventions using a pre-post design may overestimate the intervention effect when no proper control group is available. Objectives: Investigate patterns of natural decline…

  17. A rating scale is a proper method to evaluate changes in quality of life due to dry eye symptoms.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenwen; Xu, Xian; Zou, Haidong

    2018-02-07

    To determine which utility value assessment method is more suitable to evaluate changes in the quality of life due to dry eye symptoms. Dry eye outpatients with a presenting visual acuity of 20/25 or better in the worse-seeing eye were recruited. Presenting distance visual acuity, tear film break-up time, Schirmer I test and fluorescein were assessed. The severity of dry eye symptoms was assessed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), and utility values were measured using the time trade-off (TTO), standard gamble (SG1 and SG2) and rating scale (RS) methods. Different utility values were compared with each other. The most appropriate utility value method to evaluate quality-of-life changes solely due to dry eye symptoms is determined by calculating the correlation between the OSDI score and different utility values. A total of 104 patients were enrolled. The three sections of OSDI in the order of high to low scores were as follows: "environmental trigger," "eye discomfort" and "visual function." The utility scores measured with TTO, SG1, SG2 and RS were 0.95 ± 0.11, 0.96 ± 0.10, 0.99 ± 0.07 and 0.89 ± 0.10, respectively. The utility scores evaluated by the TTO, SG1, SG2 and RS methods were significantly different from each other (p < 0.05). Only the utility scores measured with RS were significantly correlated with the composite OSDI score, "environmental trigger" and "eye discomfort" section scores (p < 0.05). RS is more sensitive than TTO and SG for the evaluation of altered quality of life due to dry eye symptoms.

  18. The 4-Item Negative Symptom Assessment (NSA-4) Instrument: A Simple Tool for Evaluating Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia Following Brief Training.

    PubMed

    Alphs, Larry; Morlock, Robert; Coon, Cheryl; van Willigenburg, Arjen; Panagides, John

    2010-07-01

    Objective. To assess the ability of mental health professionals to use the 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment instrument, derived from the Negative Symptom Assessment-16, to rapidly determine the severity of negative symptoms of schizophrenia.Design. Open participation.Setting. Medical education conferences.Participants. Attendees at two international psychiatry conferences.Measurements. Participants read a brief set of the 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment instructions and viewed a videotape of a patient with schizophrenia. Using the 1 to 6 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment severity rating scale, they rated four negative symptom items and the overall global negative symptoms. These ratings were compared with a consensus rating determination using frequency distributions and Chi-square tests for the proportion of participant ratings that were within one point of the expert rating.Results. More than 400 medical professionals (293 physicians, 50% with a European practice, and 55% who reported past utilization of schizophrenia ratings scales) participated. Between 82.1 and 91.1 percent of the 4-items and the global rating determinations by the participants were within one rating point of the consensus expert ratings. The differences between the percentage of participant rating scores that were within one point versus the percentage that were greater than one point different from those by the consensus experts was significant (p<0.0001). Participants rating of negative symptoms using the 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment did not generally differ among the geographic regions of practice, the professional credentialing, or their familiarity with the use of schizophrenia symptom rating instruments.Conclusion. These findings suggest that clinicians from a variety of geographic practices can, after brief training, use the 4-item Negative Symptom Assessment effectively to rapidly assess negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.

  19. Development of the Flu-PRO: a patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument to evaluate symptoms of influenza.

    PubMed

    Powers, John H; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Leidy, Nancy Kline; Fairchok, Mary P; Rosenberg, Alice; Hernández, Andrés; Stringer, Sonja; Schofield, Christina; Rodríguez-Zulueta, Patricia; Kim, Katherine; Danaher, Patrick J; Ortega-Gallegos, Hilda; Bacci, Elizabeth Dansie; Stepp, Nathaniel; Galindo-Fraga, Arturo; St Clair, Kristina; Rajnik, Michael; McDonough, Erin A; Ridoré, Michelande; Arnold, John C; Millar, Eugene V; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M

    2016-01-05

    To develop content validity of a comprehensive patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure following current best scientific methodology to standardize assessment of influenza (flu) symptoms in clinical research. Stage I (Concept Elicitation): 1:1 telephone interviews with influenza-positive adults (≥18 years) in the US and Mexico within 7 days of diagnosis. Participants described symptom type, character, severity, and duration. Content analysis identified themes and developed the draft Flu-PRO instrument. Stage II (Cognitive Interviewing): The Flu-PRO was administered to a unique set of influenza-positive adults within 14 days of diagnosis; telephone interviews addressed completeness, respondent interpretation of items and ease of use. Samples: Stage I: N = 46 adults (16 US, 30 Mexico); mean (SD) age: 38 (19), 39 (14) years; % female: 56%, 73%; race: 69% White, 97% Mestizo. Stage II: N = 34 adults (12 US, 22 Mexico); age: 37 (14), 39 (11) years; % female: 50%, 50%; race: 58% White, 100% Mestizo. Symptoms identified by >50%: coughing, weak or tired, throat symptoms, congestion, headache, weakness, sweating, chills, general discomfort, runny nose, chest (trouble breathing), difficulty sleeping, and body aches or pains. No new content was uncovered during Stage II; participants easily understood the instrument. Results show the 37-item Flu-PRO is a content valid measure of influenza symptoms in adults with a confirmed diagnosis of influenza. Research is underway to evaluate the suitability of the instrument for children and adolescents. This work can form the basis for future quantitative tests of reliability, validity, and responsiveness to evaluate the measurement properties of Flu-PRO for use in clinical trials and epidemiology studies.

  20. Evaluation of Treatment- and Disease-Related Symptoms in Advanced Head and Neck Cancer: Validation of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network-Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck Cancer Symptom Index-22 (NFHNSI-22)

    PubMed Central

    Pearman, Timothy P.; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Paul, Diane; Abernethy, Amy P.; Jacobsen, Paul B.; Syrjala, Karen L.; Von Roenn, Jamie; Cella, David

    2018-01-01

    Context The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck is a well-validated assessment of quality of life used with patients diagnosed with head and neck cancers (HCNs). The present study is an attempt to evaluate and modify this instrument as necessary in light of the recent regulatory guidelines from the Food and Drug Administration on the use of patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials. Objectives Overall, the goal was to identify patients’ highest priority cancer symptoms, compare these symptoms with those suggested by oncology experts, and construct a brief symptom index to assess these symptoms and categorize them as treatment-related, disease-related, or related to general function and well-being. Methods Patients (N = 49) with advanced (Stages III and IV) HCNs were recruited from participating National Comprehensive Cancer Network institutions and community cancer support organizations in the Chicago area. Patients completed open-ended interviews and symptom checklists. Participating oncology physician experts also rated symptoms. Content validity was obtained by evaluating results alongside items in the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy system. Eleven oncologists categorized symptoms in terms of importance and also whether the symptoms were primarily related to disease, treatment, or functional well-being. Results HCN-related symptoms endorsed as high priority by both patients and oncology experts were selected for the new National Comprehensive Cancer Network-Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck Cancer Symptom Index-22. The final version includes 22 items, which are broken down into disease-related symptoms, treatment side effects, or general function and well-being. The new scale has acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach’s coefficient alpha = 0.86), content validity for use in chemotherapy trials of patients with advanced disease, and concurrent validity as demonstrated by moderate

  1. Large bowel obstruction due to gallstones: an endoscopic problem?

    PubMed Central

    Waterland, Peter; Khan, Faisal Shehzaad; Durkin, Damien

    2014-01-01

    A 73-year-old man was admitted with symptoms of large bowel obstruction. An emergency CT scan revealed pneumobilia and large bowel obstruction at the level of the rectosigmoid due to a 4×4 cm impacted gallstone. Flexible sigmoidoscopy confirmed the diagnosis but initial attempts to drag the stone into the rectum failed. An endoscopic mechanical lithotripter was employed to repeatedly fracture the gallstone into smaller fragments, which were passed spontaneously the next day. The patient made a complete recovery avoiding the potential dangers of surgery. This case report discusses cholecystoenteric fistula and a novel minimally invasive treatment for large bowel obstruction due to gallstones. PMID:24390966

  2. Large bowel obstruction due to gallstones: an endoscopic problem?

    PubMed

    Waterland, Peter; Khan, Faisal Shehzaad; Durkin, Damien

    2014-01-03

    A 73-year-old man was admitted with symptoms of large bowel obstruction. An emergency CT scan revealed pneumobilia and large bowel obstruction at the level of the rectosigmoid due to a 4×4 cm impacted gallstone. Flexible sigmoidoscopy confirmed the diagnosis but initial attempts to drag the stone into the rectum failed. An endoscopic mechanical lithotripter was employed to repeatedly fracture the gallstone into smaller fragments, which were passed spontaneously the next day. The patient made a complete recovery avoiding the potential dangers of surgery. This case report discusses cholecystoenteric fistula and a novel minimally invasive treatment for large bowel obstruction due to gallstones.

  3. Evaluating Age Differences in Coping Motives as a Mediator of the Link between Social Anxiety Symptoms and Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Clerkin, Elise M.; Werntz, Alexandra J.; Magee, Joshua C.; Lindgren, Kristen P.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate whether coping motives mediate the relationship between self-reported symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems across different age groups, building upon previous research conducted among emerging adults. This study focuses on adult drinkers, including emerging adults (age 18–25; n = 148), young adults (age 26–39; n = 68), and middle-aged adults (age 40–65; n = 51). All participants completed measures of social anxiety symptoms, alcohol problems, and coping motives, administered via the web. Invariance tests using structural equation modeling suggested that among emerging adults (and to some degree middle-aged adults), coping motives mediated the positive relationship between symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems. Interestingly, coping motives appeared to suppress a negative relationship between social anxiety and alcohol problems in young adults. Results suggest that it is critical to consider age differences when attempting to understand the relationships between symptoms of social anxiety, alcohol problems, and coping motives. PMID:24841182

  4. Evaluating age differences in coping motives as a mediator of the link between social anxiety symptoms and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Clerkin, Elise M; Werntz, Alexandra J; Magee, Joshua C; Lindgren, Kristen P; Teachman, Bethany A

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate whether coping motives mediate the relationship between self-reported symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems across different age groups, building on previous research conducted among emerging adults. This study focuses on adult drinkers, including emerging adults (aged 18-25 years; n = 148), young adults (aged 26-39 years; n = 68), and middle-aged adults (aged 40-65 years; n = 51). All participants completed measures of social anxiety symptoms, alcohol problems, and coping motives, administered via the Web. Invariance tests using structural equation modeling suggested that among emerging adults (and to some degree middle-aged adults), coping motives mediated the positive relationship between symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems. Interestingly, coping motives appeared to suppress a negative relationship between social anxiety and alcohol problems in young adults. Results suggest that it is critical to consider age differences when attempting to understand the relationships between symptoms of social anxiety, alcohol problems, and coping motives.

  5. Cognitive status among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Roncero, Carlos; Campuzano, Ana Isabel; Quintano, Jose Antonio; Molina, Jesús; Pérez, Joselín; Miravitlles, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the association between cognitive impairment and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), taking into account demographic and clinical variables evaluated during routine practice. Patients and methods We performed a post hoc analysis of a cross-sectional study that included subjects with stable COPD. Sociodemographic and clinical information was recorded using the Body mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea and Exacerbations index and the Charlson comorbidity index. Cognitive performance was studied by the mini-mental state examination, with a score less than 27 indicating clinical impairment. Depressive symptoms, physical activity, and quality of life (EuroQoL-5 dimensions and COPD Assessment Test) were also evaluated. Results The analysis included 940 subjects. The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 39.4%. Multivariate logistic regression models revealed that cognitive impairment was associated with educational level (odds ratio [OR] =0.096, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.011–0.447) and poorer quality of life measured by the EuroQoL-5 dimensions social tariff (OR =0.967, 95% CI =0.950–0.983). When questionnaires were not included in the analysis, cognitive impairment was associated with educational level (OR =0.063, 95% CI =0.010–0.934), number of exacerbations (OR =11.070, 95% CI =1.450–84.534), Body mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea and Exacerbations index score (OR =1.261, 95% CI =1.049–1.515), and the Charlson comorbidity index (OR =1.412, 95% CI =1.118–1.783). Conclusion Cognitive impairment is common in COPD and is associated with low educational level, higher disease severity, and increased comorbidity. This could have therapeutic implications for this population. PMID:27042043

  6. Evaluation of choroidal thickness using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Karalezli, Aylin; Eroglu, Fatma Corak; Kivanc, Tulay; Dogan, Rusina

    2014-01-01

    AIM To assess choroidal thickness in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and compare them with healthy controls, using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS In this observational, cross-sectional study, choroidal thicknesses of 23 newly severe OSAS patients and 23 body mass index- age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were measured using a high-speed, high-resolution frequency domain-OCT device (λ=840 nm, 26000 A-scans/s, 5 µm axial resolution). All patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination before the measurements. OCT measurements were taken at the same time of day (9:00 a.m.), in order to minimize the effects of diurnal variation. RESULTS There was a statistically significant difference in median choroidal thickness between the OSAS patients (201 µm; range 145-237 µm) and the controls (324 µm; range 296-383 µm; P<0.001). There were significant differences at all measurement points (P<0.001 for all). The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) values were more than 30 in all OSAS patients and the mean AHI was 48.57±6.54. The interexaminer intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the mean choroidal thickness was 0.938 (95%CI, 0.908-0.985) and ICC was greater than 0.90 for all measurement points. CONCLUSION The decreased choroidal thickness of patients with severe OSAS might be related to the the autonomic disregulation associated with this disease. Further studies are needed to evaluate the etiopathologic relationship between choroidal thickness and OSAS. PMID:25540760

  7. Evaluation of atrial electromechanical delay and left atrial mechanical function in patients with obstructive sleep apnea : Cardiac involvement in patients with OSA.

    PubMed

    Karabag, Turgut; Aydin, Mustafa; Altin, Remzi; Dogan, Sait M; Cil, Cem; Buyukuysal, Cagatay; Sayin, Muhammet R

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate atrial electromechanical delay measured by tissue Doppler imaging and left atrial mechanical function in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Fourty-seven moderate-to-severe OSA patients who were newly diagnosed by polysomnography (Apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 events/h, 32 males, mean age 49.4 ± 11.5) and 30 patients who had no OSA in polysomnography (Apnea-hypopnea index < 5 events/h, 21 males, mean age 45.4 ± 9.1) were included in the study. Using tissue Doppler, diastolic functions, atrial electromechanical coupling were measured from the lateral mitral, septal, and tricuspid annulus. Inter, intra, and left atrial electromechanical delay were calculated (lateral-tricuspid, septum-tricuspid, lateral-septal). Left atrial volumes (maximal, minimal, and presystolic) were measured by the method of discs in the apical four-chamber view and were indexed to body surface area. Mechanical function parameters of the left atrium were also calculated. Interatrial, intraatrial, and left atrial electromechanical delays were significantly higher in the OSA group compared to the control group. Passive emptying fraction was significantly decreased, volume at the beginning of atrial systole and active emptying volume were significantly increased in OSA patients compared to the controls. The apnea-hypopnea index was significantly associated with interatrial and intraatrial electromechanical delay, passive emptying fraction, and conduit volume. Electromechanical delay was markedly prolonged and left atrial electromechanical function was impaired in untreated OSA patients. These impairments worsen with increasing severity of OSA.

  8. The Cost Effectiveness of Maintenance Schedules Following Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: An Economic Evaluation Alongside a Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Burns, Darren K; Wilson, Edward C F; Browne, Paula; Olive, Sandra; Clark, Allan; Galey, Penny; Dix, Emma; Woodhouse, Helene; Robinson, Sue; Wilson, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affects approximately 3 million people in the UK. An 8-week pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) course is recommended under current guidelines. However, studies show that initial benefits diminish over time. We present here an economic evaluation conducted alongside a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a low-intensity maintenance programme over a time horizon of 1 year delivered in UK primary and secondary care settings. Patients with COPD who completed at least 60 % of a standard 8-week PR programme were randomised to a 2-h maintenance session at 3, 6 and 9 months (n = 73) or treatment as usual (n = 75). Outcomes were change in Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ) score, EQ-5D-based QALYs, cost (price year 2014) to the UK NHS and social services over the 12 months following initial PR, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). At 12 months, incremental cost to the NHS and social services was -£204.04 (95 % CI -£1522 to £1114). Incremental CRQ and QALY gains were -0.007 (-0.461 to 0.447) and +0.015 (-0.050 to 0.079), respectively. Based on point estimates, PR maintenance therefore dominates treatment as usual from the perspective of the NHS and social services in terms of cost per QALY gained. Whether it is cost effective in terms of CRQ depends on whether the £204 per patient could be reinvested elsewhere to a CRQ gain of greater than 0.007. However, there is much decision uncertainty: 95 % CIs around increments did not exclude zero, and there is a 72.9 % (72.5 %) probability that the ICER is below £20,000 (£30,000) per QALY. Future research should explore whether more intensive maintenance regimens offer benefit to patients at reasonable cost.

  9. Time-course evaluation of intestinal structural disorders in a porcine model of intra-abdominal hypertension by mechanical intestinal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M.; Candanosa-Aranda, Irma Eugenia; Malbrain, Manu L. N. G.; Wise, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Background A mechanical intestinal obstruction (MIO) can generate intraabdominal hypertension (IAH) that is life threatening. The intestines are very sensitive to IAH since the low splanchnic perfusion causes intestinal hypoxia, local acidosis and bacterial translocations. This may lead to acute intestinal distress syndrome (AIDS). The identification of intestinal injuries during IAH and its correlation with clinical parameters as the abdominal perfusion pressure (APP), the gastric intramucosal pH (pHi) and lactic acid (Lc) are still unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the sequence of intestinal histopathological findings in an MIO model and to analyze potential relationships with parameters currently used in clinical practice (APP, pHi and Lc). Material and methods Twenty pigs were divided into three groups: a control group (n = 5) and two experimental groups with 20 mmHg (G1, n = 10) and 30 mmHg (G2, n = 5) of IAH by MIO. The pressures were maintained for 3 hours, except in 5 animals in G1 where it was maintained for 5 hours. The APP, pHi and LA were recorded and biopsies of the terminal ileum were taken every 30 minutes in all groups. The intestinal damage was graded according to the Park Score. Results Intestinal injuries were found in 42.9% of pigs in the experimental groups. The lesions were independent of the level and duration of IAH. Although APP and pHi were slightly lower in injured animals (I +) of G1 and G2, there were no significant differences among those uninjured (I-). Lc was significantly increased in all I+ pigs from the onset of IAH. Conclusion The IAH by MIO causes intestinal lesions from the first 30 minutes with concurrent decreases in APP and pHi and increases in Lc. Lc could be the best clinical parameter related to intestinal damages with a clear difference between I + and I- animals. PMID:29357386

  10. Nonmassive acute pulmonary embolism: evaluation of the impact of pulmonary arterial wall distensibility on the assessment of the CT obstruction score.

    PubMed

    Bigot, Julien; Rémy-Jardin, Martine; Duhamel, Alain; Gorgos, Andréi-Bogdan; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Rémy, Jacques

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of pulmonary arterial wall distensibility on the assessment of a computed tomography (CT) score in patients with nonmassive pulmonary embolism (PE) (ie, Mastora score). The arterial wall distensibility of five central pulmonary arteries (pulmonary artery trunk, right and left main pulmonary arteries, right and left interlobar pulmonary arteries) was studied on ECG-gated CT angiographic studies of the chest in 15 patients with no pulmonary arterial hypertension (group 1; mean pulmonary artery pressure: 17.2 mm Hg) and 9 patients with nonmassive PE (group 2), using 2D reconstructions at every 10% of the R-R interval. The systolic and diastolic reconstruction time windows of the examined arteries were identical in the 2 groups, obtained at 20% and 80% of the R-R interval, respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed between the mean values of the pulmonary arterial wall distensibility between the 2 groups, varying between 20.5% and 24% in group 1 and between 23.3% and 25.9% in group 2. The coefficients of variation of the average arterial surfaces were found to vary between 4.30% and 6.50% in group 1 and 4.2% and 8.4% in group 2. Except the pulmonary artery trunk in group 2, all the intraclass correlation coefficients were around 0.8 or greater than 0.8, that is the cutoff for good homogeneity of measurements. The pulmonary arterial wall systolic-diastolic distensibility does not interfere with the assessment of a CT obstruction score in the setting of nonmassive PE.

  11. Bowel obstruction complicated by ischemia: analysis of CT findings.

    PubMed

    Cox, Veronica L; Tahvildari, Ali M; Johnson, Benjamin; Wei, Wei; Jeffrey, R Brooke

    2018-06-01

    To analyze CT signs of bowel ischemia in patients with surgical bowel obstruction, and thereby improve CT diagnosis in this common clinical scenario. Surgical and histopathological findings were used as the reference standard. We retrospectively analyzed CT findings in patients brought to surgery for bowel obstruction over 13 years. Etiology of obstruction (adhesion, hernia, etc.) was recorded. Specific CT features of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) were analyzed, including bowel wall thickening, mucosal hypoenhancement, and others. 173 cases were eligible for analysis. 21% of cases were positive for bowel ischemia. Volvulus, internal hernia, and closed-loop obstructions showed ischemia rates of 60%, 43%, and 43%; ischemia rate in obstruction from simple adhesion was 21%. Patients with bowel obstruction related to malignancy were never ischemic. Sensitivities and specificities for CT features predicting ischemia were calculated, with wall thickening, hypoenhancement, and pneumatosis showing high specificity for ischemia (86%-100%). Wall thickening, hypoenhancement, and pneumatosis are highly specific CT signs of ischemia in the setting of obstruction. None of the evaluated CT signs were found to be highly sensitive. Overall frequency of ischemia in surgical bowel obstruction is 21%, and 2-3 times that for complex obstructions (volvulus, closed loop, etc.). Obstructions related to malignancy virtually never become ischemic.

  12. Multidimensional approach for the proper management of a complex chronic patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Rogliani, Paola; Brusasco, Vito; Fabbri, Leonardo; Ungar, Andrea; Muscianisi, Elisa; Barisone, Ilaria; Corsini, Alberto; De Angelis, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently associated with comorbidities occurring either independently or as consequences of COPD. Areas covered: This review examines the interactions between the pathophysiology of COPD and the most frequent comorbidities, and highlights the need for multidimensional clinical strategies to manage COPD patients with comorbidities. Expert commentary: Most COPD patients need to be approached in a complex and multifactorial scenario. The diagnosis of COPD is necessarily based on the presence of chronic respiratory symptoms and poorly reversible airflow obstruction, but exacerbations and comorbidities need to be considered in the evaluation of disease severity and prognosis in individual patients. More importantly, defining the precise relationship between COPD and comorbidities for each patient is the basis for a correct therapeutic approach.

  13. Fully Automated Pulmonary Lobar Segmentation: Influence of Different Prototype Software Programs onto Quantitative Evaluation of Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyun-ju; Weinheimer, Oliver; Wielpütz, Mark O.; Dinkel, Julien; Hielscher, Thomas; Gompelmann, Daniela; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Heussel, Claus Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Surgical or bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (BLVR) techniques can be beneficial for heterogeneous emphysema. Post-processing software tools for lobar emphysema quantification are useful for patient and target lobe selection, treatment planning and post-interventional follow-up. We aimed to evaluate the inter-software variability of emphysema quantification using fully automated lobar segmentation prototypes. Material and Methods 66 patients with moderate to severe COPD who underwent CT for planning of BLVR were included. Emphysema quantification was performed using 2 modified versions of in-house software (without and with prototype advanced lung vessel segmentation; programs 1 [YACTA v.2.3.0.2] and 2 [YACTA v.2.4.3.1]), as well as 1 commercial program 3 [Pulmo3D VA30A_HF2] and 1 pre-commercial prototype 4 [CT COPD ISP ver7.0]). The following parameters were computed for each segmented anatomical lung lobe and the whole lung: lobar volume (LV), mean lobar density (MLD), 15th percentile of lobar density (15th), emphysema volume (EV) and emphysema index (EI). Bland-Altman analysis (limits of agreement, LoA) and linear random effects models were used for comparison between the software. Results Segmentation using programs 1, 3 and 4 was unsuccessful in 1 (1%), 7 (10%) and 5 (7%) patients, respectively. Program 2 could analyze all datasets. The 53 patients with successful segmentation by all 4 programs were included for further analysis. For LV, program 1 and 4 showed the largest mean difference of 72 ml and the widest LoA of [-356, 499 ml] (p<0.05). Program 3 and 4 showed the largest mean difference of 4% and the widest LoA of [-7, 14%] for EI (p<0.001). Conclusions Only a single software program was able to successfully analyze all scheduled data-sets. Although mean bias of LV and EV were relatively low in lobar quantification, ranges of disagreement were substantial in both of them. For longitudinal emphysema monitoring, not only scanning protocol but

  14. The development, implementation and evaluation of clinical pathways for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Saskatchewan: protocol for an interrupted times series evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rotter, Thomas; Plishka, Christopher; Hansia, Mohammed Rashaad; Goodridge, Donna; Penz, Erika; Kinsman, Leigh; Lawal, Adegboyega; O'Quinn, Sheryl; Buchan, Nancy; Comfort, Patricia; Patel, Prakesh; Anderson, Sheila; Winkel, Tanya; Lang, Rae Lynn; Marciniuk, Darcy D

    2017-11-28

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has substantial economic and human costs; it is expected to be the third leading cause of death worldwide by 2030. To minimize these costs high quality guidelines have been developed. However, guidelines alone rarely result in meaningful change. One method of integrating guidelines into practice is the use of clinical pathways (CPWs). CPWs bring available evidence to a range of healthcare professionals by detailing the essential steps in care and adapting guidelines to the local context. We are working with local stakeholders to develop CPWs for COPD with the aims of improving care while reducing utilization. The CPWs will employ several steps including: standardizing diagnostic training, unifying components of chronic disease care, coordinating education and reconditioning programs, and ensuring care uses best practices. Further, we have worked to identify evidence-informed implementation strategies which will be tailored to the local context. We will conduct a three-year research project using an interrupted time series (ITS) design in the form of a multiple baseline approach with control groups. The CPW will be implemented in two health regions (experimental groups) and two health regions will act as controls (control groups). The experimental and control groups will each contain an urban and rural health region. Primary outcomes for the study will be quality of care operationalized using hospital readmission rates and emergency department (ED) presentation rates. Secondary outcomes will be healthcare utilization and guideline adherence, operationalized using hospital admission rates, hospital length of stay and general practitioner (GP) visits. Results will be analyzed using segmented regression analysis. Funding has been procured from multiple stakeholders. The project has been deemed exempt from ethics review as it is a quality improvement project. Intervention implementation is expected to begin in summer of 2017

  15. Cytological evaluation of spermatogenesis: a novel and simple diagnostic method to assess spermatogenesis in non-obstructive azoospermia using testicular sperm extraction specimens.

    PubMed

    Hessel, M; de Vries, M; D'Hauwers, K W M; Fleischer, K; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C A; Braat, D D M; Ramos, L

    2015-05-01

    Most of the non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA)-patients have only focal spermatogenesis which results in insufficient numbers of spermatozoa to reach the ejaculate. In ≈50% of these NOA-patients testicular sperm extraction (TESE) is successful and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is pursued. We studied whether (i) spermatogenesis can be evaluated by defining the ratios between Sertoli cells, pachytene spermatocytes and spermatozoa in a testicular cell suspension, and (ii) these ratios are associated with the outcome of fertility treatment. A retrospective cohort study was conducted between June 2007 and August 2012. In this period, 441 consecutive ICSI-TESE cycles were performed in 212 couples. For each TESE biopsy, the ratios between Sertoli cells, pachytene spermatocytes and spermatozoa were calculated. A control population of 32 vasectomized men was used to define cut-off values for complete spermatogenesis. Based on the pachytene to sperm ratio (P/Sp) and number of spermatozoa per 100 Sertoli cells (#Sp/100SC) groups were defined as complete spermatogenesis, hypospermatogenesis and partial maturation arrest (MA). Validation of the cytological diagnoses was performed by comparing the results of cytology to the histological evaluation of spermatogenesis in 40 cases. In 92.5%, a perfect match was observed and in the three remaining cases cytology corresponded well with the results of TESE. Couples with complete spermatogenesis have a higher ongoing pregnancy rate after the first treatment cycle compared to couples with hypospermatogenesis (34 vs. 16%; p = 0.02) and partial MA (34 vs. 19%; p = 0.11). In conclusion, pachytene spermatocytes, spermatozoa and Sertoli cells can be easily identified and counted in a cell suspension and their ratios can be successfully used to diagnose the level of spermatogenic impairment. This pilot study indicates that once successful spermatozoa retrieval is achieved, treatment outcome declines when spermatogenesis is

  16. Multilevel Obstructive Sleep Apnea Surgery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Ching; Weaver, Edward M; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Friedman, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the primary treatment of obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSA). Most sleep physicians are in agreement that a certain number of OSA patients cannot or will not use CPAP. Although other conservative therapies, such as oral appliance, sleep hygiene, and sleep positioning, may help some of these patients, there are many who fail all conservative treatments. As sleep surgeons, we have the responsibility to screen patients for both symptoms and signs of OSA. As experts of upper airway diseases, we often view an airway clearly and help the patient understand the importance of assessment and treatment for OSA. Surgery for OSA is not a substitute for CPAP but is a salvage treatment for those who failed CPAP and other conservative therapies and therefore have no other options. Most early studies and reviews focused on the efficacy of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, a single-level procedure for the treatment of OSA. Since OSA is usually caused by multilevel obstructions, the true focus on efficacy should be on multilevel surgical intervention. The purpose here is to provide an updated overview of multilevel surgery for OSA patients. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Biliary obstruction - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100199.htm Biliary obstruction - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview Bile is a digestive fluid secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder which normally is ...

  18. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Apnea (OSA) Download Download the ebook for further information Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious and ... that can create the necessary air passageway. The information provided here is not intended as a substitute ...

  19. Primary obstructive megaureter.

    PubMed

    Sripathi, V; King, P A; Thomson, M R; Bogle, M S

    1991-07-01

    Twenty-three children with primary obstructive megaureters presented between 1978 and 1988 to the Princess Margaret Hospital for Children in Perth. Twenty-eight ureters were treated. Urinary infections were the presenting feature in 14 children. The obstructive segment was transvesically excised. Histopathologic examination of the distal, intramural ureter showed fibromuscular disarray with a relative increase in fibrous tissue and reduction of musculature in all specimens. Twenty-two ureters were tapered by excision and all 28 were reimplanted using an antireflux technique. Seventeen children were followed for an average of 3 years. Seven children showed renal growth, reduction in ureteric size by greater than 2 cm, improvement in glomerular filtration rate by more than 10%, no obstruction on reflux, and no infections in postoperative period. Four children showed all the above but suffered one or more infections after the operation. Of the remaining 6 children, 3 had postoperative obstruction and 3 had vesicoureteric reflux.

  20. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... more each hour, all night long. These disruptions impair your ability to reach the desired deep, restful ... with obstructive sleep apnea may also complain of memory problems, morning headaches, mood swings or feelings of ...

  1. A randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effects of rasagiline on depressive symptoms in non-demented Parkinson's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Barone, P; Santangelo, G; Morgante, L; Onofrj, M; Meco, G; Abbruzzese, G; Bonuccelli, U; Cossu, G; Pezzoli, G; Stanzione, P; Lopiano, L; Antonini, A; Tinazzi, M

    2015-08-01

    Depressed mood is a common psychiatric problem associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), and studies have suggested a benefit of rasagiline treatment. ACCORDO (see the ) was a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effects of rasagiline 1 mg/day on depressive symptoms and cognition in non-demented PD patients with depressive symptoms. The primary efficacy variable was the change from baseline to week 12 in depressive symptoms measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-IA) total score. Secondary outcomes included change from baseline to week 12 in cognitive function as assessed by a comprehensive neuropsychological battery; Parkinson's disease quality of life questionnaire (PDQ-39) scores; Apathy Scale scores; and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) subscores. One hundred and twenty-three patients were randomized. At week 12 there was no significant difference between groups for the reduction in total BDI-IA score (primary efficacy variable). However, analysis at week 4 did show a significant difference in favour of rasagiline (marginal means difference ± SE: rasagiline -5.46 ± 0.73 vs. placebo -3.22 ± 0.67; P = 0.026). There were no significant differences between groups on any cognitive test. Rasagiline significantly improved UPDRS Parts I (P = 0.03) and II (P = 0.003) scores versus placebo at week 12. Post hoc analyses showed the statistical superiority of rasagiline versus placebo in the UPDRS Part I depression item (P = 0.04) and PDQ-39 mobility (P = 0.007) and cognition domains (P = 0.026). Treatment with rasagiline did not have significant effects versus placebo on depressive symptoms or cognition in PD patients with moderate depressive symptoms. Although limited by lack of correction for multiple comparisons, post hoc analyses signalled some improvement in patient-rated cognitive and depression outcomes. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neurology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European

  2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: knowing what we mean, meaning what we say.

    PubMed

    Joshi, J M

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined in several different ways using different criteria based on symptoms, physiological impairment and pathological abnormalities. While some use COPD to mean smoking related chronic airway disease, others include all disorders causing chronic airway obstruction. When COPD is used as a broad descriptive term, specific disorders that cause chronic airway obstruction remain under-diagnosed and the prevalence estimates vary considerably. The lack of agreement over the precise terminology and classification of COPD has resulted in widespread confusion. Terminology includes definition, diagnostic criteria, and a system for staging severity. Recently, COPD is defined more clearly and diagnosed using precise criteria that include tobacco smoking greater than 10 pack years, symptoms and airway obstruction on spirometry. A multi-dimensional severity grading system, the BODE (body mass index, obstruction, dyspnoea, and exercise tolerance) index has been designed to assess the respiratory and systemic expressions of COPD. This review proposes that the broad group of chronic disorders of the airways (with or without airway obstruction) be called chronic airway disease (CAD). The term COPD should be used exclusively for tobacco smoking related chronic airway disease. Chronic airway obstruction or obstructive lung disease may be used to define those conditions with airways obstruction caused by factors other than tobacco smoking. The aetiology may be appended to the label, for example, chronic airway obstruction/obstructive lung disease associated with bronchiectasis, chronic airway obstruction/obstructive lung disease associated with obliterative bronchiolitis or chronic airway obstruction/obstructive lung disease due to biomass fuel/occupational exposure.

  3. The Symptoms and Functioning Severity Scale (SFSS): Psychometric Evaluation and Discrepancies among Youth, Caregiver, and Clinician Ratings over Time

    PubMed Central

    Athay, M. Michele; Riemer, Manuel; Bickman, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the Symptoms and Functioning Severity Scale (SFSS), which includes three parallel forms to systematically capture clinician, youth, and caregiver perspectives of youth symptoms on a frequent basis. While there is widespread consensus that different raters of youth psychopathology vary significantly in their assessment this is the first paper that specifically investigates the discrepancies among clinician, youth, and caregiver ratings in a community mental health setting throughout the treatment process. Results for all three respondent versions indicate the SFSS is a psychometrically sound instrument for use in this population. Significant discrepancies in scores exist at baseline among the three respondents. Longitudinal analyses reveal the youth-clinician and caregiver-clinician score discrepancies decrease significantly over time. Differences by youth gender exist for caregiver-clinician discrepancies. The average youth-caregiver score discrepancy remains consistent throughout treatment. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. PMID:22407556

  4. Palliative Management of Malignant Bowel Obstruction in Terminally Ill Patient

    PubMed Central

    Thaker, Darshit A; Stafford, Bruce C; Gaffney, Luke S

    2010-01-01

    Mr. P was a 57-year-old man who presented with symptoms of bowel obstruction in the setting of a known metastatic pancreatic cancer. Diagnosis of malignant bowel obstruction was made clinically and radiologically and he was treated conservatively (non-operatively)with octreotide, metoclopromide and dexamethasone, which provided good control over symptoms and allowed him to have quality time with family until he died few weeks later with liver failure. Bowel obstruction in patients with abdominal malignancy requires careful assessment. The patient and family should always be involved in decision making. The ultimate goals of palliative care (symptom management, quality of life and dignity of death) should never be forgotten during decision making for any patient. PMID:21811356

  5. Children’s Feedback Preferences in Response to an Experimentally Manipulated Peer Evaluation Outcome: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Dekovic, Maja; Vermande, Marjolijn; Telch, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the linkage between pre-adolescent children’s depressive symptoms and their preferences for receiving positive vs. negative feedback subsequent to being faced with an experimentally manipulated peer evaluation outcome in real time. Participants (n = 142) ages 10 to 13, played a computer contest based on the television show Survivor and were randomized to either a peer rejection (i.e., receiving the lowest total ‘likeability’ score from a group of peer-judges), a peer success (i.e., receiving the highest score), or a control peer evaluation condition. Children’s self-reported feedback preferences were then assessed. Results revealed that participants assigned to the negative evaluation outcome, relative to either the success or the control outcome, showed a significantly higher subsequent preference for negatively tuned feedback. Contrary to previous work and predictions derived from self-verification theory, children higher in depressive symptoms were only more likely to prefer negative feedback in response to the negative peer evaluation outcome. These effects for depression were not accounted for by either state mood at baseline or mood change in response to the feedback manipulation. PMID:17279340

  6. Children's feedback preferences in response to an experimentally manipulated peer evaluation outcome: the role of depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Reijntjes, Albert; Dekovic, Maja; Vermande, Marjolijn; Telch, Michael J

    2007-06-01

    The present study examined the linkage between pre-adolescent children's depressive symptoms and their preferences for receiving positive vs. negative feedback subsequent to being faced with an experimentally manipulated peer evaluation outcome in real time. Participants (n = 142) ages 10 to 13, played a computer contest based on the television show Survivor and were randomized to either a peer rejection (i.e., receiving the lowest total 'likeability' score from a group of peer-judges), a peer success (i.e., receiving the highest score), or a control peer evaluation condition. Children's self-reported feedback preferences were then assessed. Results revealed that participants assigned to the negative evaluation outcome, relative to either the success or the control outcome, showed a significantly higher subsequent preference for negatively tuned feedback. Contrary to previous work and predictions derived from self-verification theory, children higher in depressive symptoms were only more likely to prefer negative feedback in response to the negative peer evaluation outcome. These effects for depression were not accounted for by either state mood at baseline or mood change in response to the feedback manipulation.

  7. Evaluation of Gelatin Tannate Against Symptoms of Acute Diarrhea in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Çağan, Eren; Ceylan, Saime; Mengi, Şenay; Çağan, Havva Hasret

    2017-04-27

    BACKGROUND Acute diarrhea is the second most common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children aged ≤3 years. Some drugs (e.g., the mucoprotector gelatin tannate) plus a reduced osmolality oral rehydration solution (ORS) may effectively reduce symptom duration and severity. The current trial was therefore designed to assess the efficacy and safety of gelatin tannate in pediatric patients with acute diarrhea. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, single-center study comparing gelatin tannate plus ORS (103 patients) with ORS plus placebo (100 patients) in children aged 3 months to 12 years with infectious or noninfectious acute diarrhea. Details about stool consistency and total time to resolution of diarrhea comprised the primary study endpoints. Secondary study endpoints included symptoms of diarrhea at 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours after the first dose of study medication. RESULTS From 12 hours onwards, the incidence of watery stools was significantly lower in the gelatin tannate group than in the ORS group (at 12 hours: 59.2% vs. 77.0%; p=0.01). The same was true for stool frequency (at 12 hours: mean 2 vs. 3 stool productions in the previous 12 hours; p<0.01). At all timepoints during the study, the proportion of patients with Stool Decrease Index improvement was significantly greater (p<0.01) in the gelatin tannate group than in the placebo group (at 12 hours: 66.6% vs. 33.3%; p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS Gelatin tannate plus ORS is an effective and safe option for the treatment of acute diarrhea in children. Significant symptom relief is evident 12 hours after starting treatment.

  8. Evaluation of Gelatin Tannate Against Symptoms of Acute Diarrhea in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Çağan, Eren; Ceylan, Saime; Mengi, Şenay; Çağan, Havva Hasret

    2017-01-01

    Background Acute diarrhea is the second most common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children aged ≤3 years. Some drugs (e.g., the mucoprotector gelatin tannate) plus a reduced osmolality oral rehydration solution (ORS) may effectively reduce symptom duration and severity. The current trial was therefore designed to assess the efficacy and safety of gelatin tannate in pediatric patients with acute diarrhea. Material/Methods This was a randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, single-center study comparing gelatin tannate plus ORS (103 patients) with ORS plus placebo (100 patients) in children aged 3 months to 12 years with infectious or noninfectious acute diarrhea. Details about stool consistency and total time to resolution of diarrhea comprised the primary study endpoints. Secondary study endpoints included symptoms of diarrhea at 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 hours after the first dose of study medication. Results From 12 hours onwards, the incidence of watery stools was significantly lower in the gelatin tannate group than in the ORS group (at 12 hours: 59.2% vs. 77.0%; p=0.01). The same was true for stool frequency (at 12 hours: mean 2 vs. 3 stool productions in the previous 12 hours; p<0.01). At all timepoints during the study, the proportion of patients with Stool Decrease Index improvement was significantly greater (p<0.01) in the gelatin tannate group than in the placebo group (at 12 hours: 66.6% vs. 33.3%; p<0.01). Conclusions Gelatin tannate plus ORS is an effective and safe option for the treatment of acute diarrhea in children. Significant symptom relief is evident 12 hours after starting treatment. PMID:28448477

  9. Evaluation of thromboelastometry parameters as predictive markers for sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in patients undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation for acute leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Rupa-Matysek, Joanna; Gil, Lidia; Wojtasińska, Ewelina; Kanduła, Zuzanna; Nowicki, Adam; Matuszak, Magdalena; Komarnicki, Mieczysław

    2017-01-01

    Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (previously named veno-occlusive disease, SOS/VOD) is a serious complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Early identification of patients at risk of SOS/VOD may possibly improve the outcome and reduce mortality. Rotation thromboelastometry (ROTEM) is global assay allowing for the precise assessment of both bleeding and thrombotic conditions, however, its usefulness in patients undergoing HSCT for acute leukaemia has not been studied. We evaluated the thromboelastometry parameters in patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT for acute leukaemia to identify candidate biomarkers of SOS/VOD occurrence. ROTEM assays (INTEM, EXTEM, FIBTEM, APTEM) were performed on day -10, on the day of stem cell infusion (day 0) and on days +12 and +28 post-HSCT. The diagnosis of SOS/VOD was based on the Baltimore criteria. Seven patients (26%) developed SOS/VOD. On day +12, the patients with SOS/VOD had statistically significant longer INTEM-CT (clotting time, 199 ± 33.41vs166 ± 23.65s, p = 0.0033), EXTEM-CT (69.5 ± 6.39vs.52 ± 3.42s, p = 0.0139) and FIBTEM-CT (69.5 ± 22.75vs. 50.8 ± 14.31s, p = 0.0124) compared to SOS/VOD (-). ROC curve on day +12 indicated a cut-off value of 179s in INTEM-CT (AUC = 0.91), 69s in EXTEM-CT (AUC = 0.90) and 102s in FIBTEM-CT (AUC = 0.82) for the prediction of SOS/VOD. This is the first study evaluating the usefulness of ROTEM assays in the early detection of haemostasis abnormalities predictive of SOS/VOD development in patients undergoing HSCT for acute leukemia. Patients with SOS/VOD had a significant delay in the initiation of thrombin formation in the analysed ROTEM assays. The utility of ROTEM assays in the optimal management of patients undergoing HSCT should be clarified in further prospective studies. PMID:28938703

  10. Central Airway Obstruction: Benign Strictures, Tracheobronchomalacia, and Malignancy-related Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Murgu, Septimiu Dan; Egressy, Katarine; Laxmanan, Balaji; Doblare, Guillermo; Ortiz-Comino, Rosamaria; Hogarth, D Kyle

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an update on methods for palliating symptoms in patients with histologically benign and malignant central airway obstruction. We review the published literature within the past decade on postintubation, posttracheostomy, and TB- and transplant-related airway strictures; tracheobronchomalacia; and malignant airway obstruction. We review terminology, classification systems, and parameters that impact treatment decisions. The focus is on how airway stent insertion fits into the best algorithm of care. Several case series and cohort studies demonstrate that airway stents improve dyspnea, lung function, and quality of life in patients with airway obstruction. Airway stenting, however, is associated with high rates of adverse events and should be used only when curative open surgical interventions are not feasible or are contraindicated. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Spectral analysis of bowel sounds in intestinal obstruction using an electronic stethoscope.

    PubMed

    Ching, Siok Siong; Tan, Yih Kai

    2012-09-07

    To determine the value of bowel sounds analysis using an electronic stethoscope to support a clinical diagnosis of intestinal obstruction. Subjects were patients who presented with a diagnosis of possible intestinal obstruction based on symptoms, signs, and radiological findings. A 3M™ Littmann(®) Model 4100 electronic stethoscope was used in this study. With the patients lying supine, six 8-second recordings of bowel sounds were taken from each patient from the lower abdomen. The recordings were analysed for sound duration, sound-to-sound interval, dominant frequency, and peak frequency. Clinical and radiological data were reviewed and the patients were classified as having either acute, subacute, or no bowel obstruction. Comparison of bowel sound characteristics was made between these subgroups of patients. In the presence of an obstruction, the site of obstruction was identified and bowel calibre was also measured to correlate with bowel sounds. A total of 71 patients were studied during the period July 2009 to January 2011. Forty patients had acute bowel obstruction (27 small bowel obstruction and 13 large bowel obstruction), 11 had subacute bowel obstruction (eight in the small bowel and three in large bowel) and 20 had no bowel obstruction (diagnoses of other conditions were made). Twenty-five patients received surgical intervention (35.2%) during the same admission for acute abdominal conditions. A total of 426 recordings were made and 420 recordings were used for analysis. There was no significant difference in sound-to-sound interval, dominant frequency, and peak frequency among patients with acute bowel obstruction, subacute bowel obstruction, and no bowel obstruction. In acute large bowel obstruction, the sound duration was significantly longer (median 0.81 s vs 0.55 s, P = 0.021) and the dominant frequency was significantly higher (median 440 Hz vs 288 Hz, P = 0.003) when compared to acute small bowel obstruction. No significant difference was seen

  12. Spectral analysis of bowel sounds in intestinal obstruction using an electronic stethoscope

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Siok Siong; Tan, Yih Kai

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine the value of bowel sounds analysis using an electronic stethoscope to support a clinical diagnosis of intestinal obstruction. METHODS: Subjects were patients who presented with a diagnosis of possible intestinal obstruction based on symptoms, signs, and radiological findings. A 3M™ Littmann® Model 4100 electronic stethoscope was used in this study. With the patients lying supine, six 8-second recordings of bowel sounds were taken from each patient from the lower abdomen. The recordings were analysed for sound duration, sound-to-sound interval, dominant frequency, and peak frequency. Clinical and radiological data were reviewed and the patients were classified as having either acute, subacute, or no bowel obstruction. Comparison of bowel sound characteristics was made between these subgroups of patients. In the presence of an obstruction, the site of obstruction was identified and bowel calibre was also measured to correlate with bowel sounds. RESULTS: A total of 71 patients were studied during the period July 2009 to January 2011. Forty patients had acute bowel obstruction (27 small bowel obstruction and 13 large bowel obstruction), 11 had subacute bowel obstruction (eight in the small bowel and three in large bowel) and 20 had no bowel obstruction (diagnoses of other conditions were made). Twenty-five patients received surgical intervention (35.2%) during the same admission for acute abdominal conditions. A total of 426 recordings were made and 420 recordings were used for analysis. There was no significant difference in sound-to-sound interval, dominant frequency, and peak frequency among patients with acute bowel obstruction, subacute bowel obstruction, and no bowel obstruction. In acute large bowel obstruction, the sound duration was significantly longer (median 0.81 s vs 0.55 s, P = 0.021) and the dominant frequency was significantly higher (median 440 Hz vs 288 Hz, P = 0.003) when compared to acute small bowel obstruction. No significant

  13. Psychometric Evaluation of the Workstyle Short Form among Nursing Assistants with Work-Related Musculoskeletal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Shirley S. Y.; Ma, Ka Yan; Szeto, Grace

    2018-01-01

    The Workstyle Short Form (24 items) (WSF-24) has been tested for its psychometric properties on work-related upper-extremity musculoskeletal symptoms (WRUEMSs) among office workers. However, the impact of workstyle should not only be limited to WRUEMSs and the sedentary workforce. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the modified 24-item Chinese WSF (C-WSF-24) to identify work-related musculoskeletal symptoms (WRMSs) in various body parts among nursing assistants (NAs) working in nursing homes. Four hundred and thirty-nine NAs participated in the study. The results of the factor analysis were that a four-factor solution (working through pain, social reactivity at work, demands at work and breaks) accounted for 56.45% of the total variance. Furthermore, validation against known groups showed that the total score and subscale scores of the C-WSF-24 had the ability to discriminate between NAs with and without WRMSs in various body parts (such as low back and lower extremities). Additionally, C-WSF-24 had a statistically significant association with the contributing factors to WRMSs. This is the first study to examine the psychometric properties of the C-WSF-24 in the non-sedentary workforce, with a focus on various body parts of WRMSs. The results demonstrated that C-WSF-24 is reliable and valid for assessing WRMSs in various body parts among NAs. PMID:29690544

  14. Psychometric Evaluation of the Workstyle Short Form among Nursing Assistants with Work-Related Musculoskeletal Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Kin; Ching, Shirley S Y; Ma, Ka Yan; Szeto, Grace

    2018-04-22

    The Workstyle Short Form (24 items) (WSF-24) has been tested for its psychometric properties on work-related upper-extremity musculoskeletal symptoms (WRUEMSs) among office workers. However, the impact of workstyle should not only be limited to WRUEMSs and the sedentary workforce. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the modified 24-item Chinese WSF (C-WSF-24) to identify work-related musculoskeletal symptoms (WRMSs) in various body parts among nursing assistants (NAs) working in nursing homes. Four hundred and thirty-nine NAs participated in the study. The results of the factor analysis were that a four-factor solution (working through pain, social reactivity at work, demands at work and breaks) accounted for 56.45% of the total variance. Furthermore, validation against known groups showed that the total score and subscale scores of the C-WSF-24 had the ability to discriminate between NAs with and without WRMSs in various body parts (such as low back and lower extremities). Additionally, C-WSF-24 had a statistically significant association with the contributing factors to WRMSs. This is the first study to examine the psychometric properties of the C-WSF-24 in the non-sedentary workforce, with a focus on various body parts of WRMSs. The results demonstrated that C-WSF-24 is reliable and valid for assessing WRMSs in various body parts among NAs.

  15. Development of a Symptom-Based Patient-Reported Outcome Instrument for Functional Dyspepsia: A Preliminary Conceptual Model and an Evaluation of the Adequacy of Existing Instruments.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Fiona; Reasner, David S; Carson, Robyn T; Deal, Linda S; Foley, Catherine; Iovin, Ramon; Lundy, J Jason; Pompilus, Farrah; Shields, Alan L; Silberg, Debra G

    2016-10-01

    The aim was to document, from the perspective of the empirical literature, the primary symptoms of functional dyspepsia (FD), evaluate the extent to which existing questionnaires target those symptoms, and, finally, identify any missing evidence that would impact the questionnaires' use in regulated clinical trials to assess treatment efficacy claims intended for product labeling. A literature review was conducted to identify the primary symptoms of FD and existing symptom-based FD patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments. Following a database search, abstracts were screened and articles were retrieved for review. The primary symptoms of FD were organized into a conceptual model and the PRO instruments were evaluated for conceptual coverage as well as compared against evidentiary requirements presented in the FDA's PRO Guidance for Industry. Fifty-six articles and 16 instruments assessing FD symptoms were reviewed. Concepts listed in the Rome III criteria for FD (n = 7), those assessed by existing FD instruments (n = 34), and symptoms reported by patients in published qualitative research (n = 6) were summarized in the FD conceptual model. Except for vomiting, all of the identified symptoms from the published qualitative research reports were also specified in the Rome III criteria. Only three of the 16 instruments, the Dyspepsia Symptom Severity Index (DSSI), Nepean Dyspepsia Index (NDI), and Short-Form Nepean Dyspepsia Index (SF-NDI), measure all seven FD symptoms defined by the Rome III criteria. Among these three, each utilizes a 2-week recall period and 5-point Likert-type scale, and had evidence of patient involvement in development. Despite their coverage, when these instruments were evaluated in light of regulatory expectations, several issues jeopardized their potential qualification for substantiation of a labeling claim. No existing PRO instruments that measured all seven symptoms adhered to the regulatory principles necessary to support product

  16. Parylene MEMS patency sensor for assessment of hydrocephalus shunt obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Brian J; Jin, Willa; Baldwin, Alexander; Yu, Lawrence; Christian, Eisha; Krieger, Mark D; McComb, J Gordon; Meng, Ellis

    2016-10-01

    Neurosurgical ventricular shunts inserted to treat hydrocephalus experience a cumulative failure rate of 80 % over 12 years; obstruction is responsible for most failures with a majority occurring at the proximal catheter. Current diagnosis of shunt malfunction is imprecise and involves neuroimaging studies and shunt tapping, an invasive measurement of intracranial pressure and shunt patency. These patients often present emergently and a delay in care has dire consequences. A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) patency sensor was developed to enable direct and quantitative tracking of shunt patency in order to detect proximal shunt occlusion prior to the development of clinical symptoms thereby avoiding delays in treatment. The sensor was fabricated on a flexible polymer substrate to eventually allow integration into a shunt. In this study, the sensor was packaged for use with external ventricular drainage systems for clinical validation. Insights into the transduction mechanism of the sensor were obtained. The impact of electrode size, clinically relevant temperatures and flows, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plasma sterilization on sensor function were evaluated. Sensor performance in the presence of static and dynamic obstruction was demonstrated using 3 different models of obstruction. Electrode size was found to have a minimal effect on sensor performance and increased temperature and flow resulted in a slight decrease in the baseline impedance due to an increase in ionic mobility. However, sensor response did not vary within clinically relevant temperature and flow ranges. H2O2 plasma sterilization also had no effect on sensor performance. This low power and simple format sensor was developed with the intention of future integration into shunts for wireless monitoring of shunt state and more importantly, a more accurate and timely diagnosis of shunt failure.

  17. Endocanalicular diode laser dacryocystorhinostomy for nasolacrimal duct obstruction: short-term results of a new minimally invasive surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Özçimen, Muammer; Uysal, Ismail Onder; Eryılmaz, Mehmet Akif; Kal, Ali

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the results, complications, effectiveness, and operative results of the endocanalicular laser dacryocystorhinostomy (ECL DCR) in the distal obstructions of the lacrimal drainage system. Sixty eyes of 57 patients who had a diagnosis of distal obstruction of the lacrimal drainage system were evaluated retrospectively in this study. All patients underwent ECL DCR by diode laser between October 2008 and July 2009. Forty-nine patients (86%) were females, 8 patients (14%) were males, and age distribution was between 3 and 84 years old (median, 40 y). The canaliculi were intubated by a silicone tube. The patency of the nasolacrimal system was controlled by lacrimal lavage, loss of epiphora, and endoscopic evaluation of the endonasal rhinostomy site with routine follow-up scheduled at first day and 1-week, 1-month, and 3-month postoperative intervals. After the 60 ECL DCRs, 10 patients underwent revision ECL DCR because of the persistent epiphora. The patency of the nasolacrimal duct or the decrease of the symptoms was assigned as success. There were no symptoms at all in 83.3% of the patients. The ECL DCR in the treatment of the distal obstructions of the lacrimal drainage system was easily tolerated by the patients, cosmetically preferred because there was no incision and scar formation with high success rates, and a minimally invasive alternative technique.

  18. Insomnia complaints in lean patients with obstructive sleep apnea negatively affect positive airway pressure treatment adherence.

    PubMed

    Eysteinsdottir, Bjorg; Gislason, Thorarinn; Pack, Allan I; Benediktsdottir, Bryndís; Arnardottir, Erna S; Kuna, Samuel T; Björnsdottir, Erla

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the determinants of long-term adherence to positive airway pressure treatment among patients with obstructive sleep apnea, with special emphasis on patients who stop positive airway pressure treatment within 1 year. This is a prospective long-term follow-up of subjects in the Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort who were diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea between 2005 and 2009, and started on positive airway pressure treatment. In October 2014, positive airway pressure adherence was obtained by systematically evaluating available clinical files (n = 796; 644 males, 152 females) with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 events per h). The mean follow-up time was 6.7 ± 1.2 years. In total, 123 subjects (15.5%) returned their positive airway pressure device within the first year, 170 (21.4%) returned it later and 503 (63.2%) were still using positive airway pressure. The quitters within the first year had lower body mass index, milder obstructive sleep apnea, less sleepiness, and more often had symptoms of initial and late insomnia compared with long-term positive airway pressure users at baseline. Both initial and late insomnia were after adjustment still significantly associated with being an early quitter among subjects with body mass index <30 kg m -2 , but not among those with body mass index ≥30 kg m -2 . The prevalence of early quitters decreased significantly during the study period (2005-2009). Almost two-thirds of patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea are positive airway pressure users after 7 years. Obesity level, obstructive sleep apnea severity and daytime sleepiness are important determinants of long-term adherence. Symptoms of initial and late insomnia are associated with early quitting on positive airway pressure among non-obese subjects. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  19. Correlation of obstructive sleep apnoea and laryngopharyngeal reflux: phmetry study.

    PubMed

    Elhennawi, D M; Ahmed, M R; Abou-Halawa, A S

    2016-12-01

    To study the correlation of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). A descriptive study. Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt. 62 patients with polysomnography confirmed OSA. Patients were evaluated with ambulatory 24-h double channel pH monitoring. Mean reflux symptom index in the study group was 9 ± 5.5, and it was > 13 in all patients with severe OSA. Signs of LPR reflux were present in 34 (55%) patients. Abnormal reflux was detected in the distal oesophagus in 41 patients (66%) and in the proximal oesophagus in 21 patients (34%). Patients with severe OSA had significantly higher nocturnal LPR reflux episodes compared to patients with mild disease (P < .05). Number of reflux episodes and total duration of reflux during sleep are significantly correlated to degree of OSA (P < .05). No difference was found in relation to age or sex. Daytime reflux was not related to the degree of obstructive sleep apnoea (P > .05). LPR is common in patients with OSA. Patients with severe OSA have significantly higher nocturnal LPR. This should be considered when treating this group of patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A replicated field intervention study evaluating the impact of a highly adjustable chair and office ergonomics training on visual symptoms.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Cammie Chaumont; Amick, Benjamin C; Robertson, Michelle; Bazzani, Lianna; DeRango, Kelly; Rooney, Ted; Moore, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Examine the effects of two office ergonomics interventions in reducing visual symptoms at a private sector worksite. A quasi-experimental study design evaluated the effects of a highly adjustable chair with office ergonomics training intervention (CWT group) and the training only (TO group) compared with no intervention (CO group). Data collection occurred 2 and 1 month(s) pre-intervention and 2, 6 and 12 months post-intervention. During each data collection period, a work environment and health questionnaire (covariates) and daily health diary (outcomes) were completed. Multilevel statistical models tested hypotheses. Both the training only intervention (p<0.001) and the chair with training intervention (p=0.01) reduced visual symptoms after 12 months. The office ergonomics training alone and coupled with a highly adjustable chair reduced visual symptoms. In replicating results from a public sector worksite at a private sector worksite the external validity of the interventions is strengthened, thus broadening its generalizability. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. A research coding method to evaluate medical clinicians conduct of behavioral health care in patients with unexplained symptoms.

    PubMed

    Grayson-Sneed, Katelyn A; Smith, Robert C

    2018-04-01

    Develop a reliable coding method of a Behavioral Health Treatment Model for patients with Medically Unexplained Symptoms (BHTM-MUS). Two undergraduates trained for 30h coded videotaped interviews from 161 resident-simulated patient (SP) interactions. Trained on 45 videotapes, coders coded 33 (20%) of 161 study set tapes for the BHTM-MUS. Guetzkow's U, Cohen's Kappa, and percent of agreement were used to measure coders' reliability in unitizing and coding residents' skills for eliciting: education and informing (4 yes/no items), motivating (2), treatment statements (5), commitment and goals (2), negotiates plan (8), non-emotion patient-centered skills (4), and patient-centered emotional skills (8). 60 items were dichotomized a priori from analysis of the BHTM-MUS and were reduced to 33 during training. Guetzkow's U ranged from .00 to .082. Kappa ranged from 0.76 to 0.97 for the 7 variables and 33 individual items. The overall kappa was 0.87, and percent of agreement was 95.7%. Percent of agreement by item ranged from 85 to 100%. A highly reliable coding method is recommended to evaluate medical clinicians' behavioral care skills in patients with unexplained symptoms. A way to rate behavioral care in patients with unexplained symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating a computer aid for assessing stomach symptoms (ECASS): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Moore, Helen J; Nixon, Catherine; Tariq, Anisah; Emery, Jon; Hamilton, Willie; Hoare, Zoë; Kershenbaum, Anne; Neal, Richard D; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Usher-Smith, Juliet; Walter, Fiona M; Whyte, Sophie; Rubin, Greg

    2016-04-04

    For most cancers, only a minority of patients have symptoms meeting the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidance for urgent referral. For gastro-oesophageal cancers, the 'alarm' symptoms of dysphagia and weight loss are reported by only 32 and 8 % of patients, respectively, and their presence correlates with advanced-stage disease. Electronic clinical decision-support tools that integrate with clinical computer systems have been developed for general practice, although uncertainty remains concerning their effectiveness. The objectives of this trial are to optimise the intervention and establish the acceptability of both the intervention and randomisation, confirm the suitability and selection of outcome measures, finalise the design for the phase III definitive trial, and obtain preliminary estimates of the intervention effect. This is a two-arm, multi-centre, cluster-randomised, controlled phase II trial design, which will extend over a 16-month period, across 60 general practices within the North East and North Cumbria and the Eastern Local Clinical Research Network areas. Practices will be randomised to receive either the intervention (the electronic clinical decision-support tool) or to act as a control (usual care). From these practices, we will recruit 3000 adults who meet the trial eligibility criteria and present to their GP with symptoms suggestive of gastro-oesophageal cancer. The main measures are the process data, which include the practitioner outcomes, service outcomes, diagnostic intervals, health economic outcomes, and patient outcomes. One-on-one interviews in a sub-sample of 30 patient-GP dyads will be undertaken to understand the impact of the use or non-use of the electronic clinical decision-support tool in the consultation. A further 10-15 GPs will be interviewed to identify and gain an understanding of the facilitators and constraints influencing implementation of the electronic clinical decision-support tool in practice

  3. Development of Depression Profile: a new psychometric instrument to selectively evaluate depressive symptoms based on the neurocircuitry theory.

    PubMed

    Faludi, Gábor; Gonda, Xenia; Kliment, Edit; Bekes, Vera; Mészáros, Veronika; Oláh, Attila

    2010-06-01

    Although we have several self-report instruments available to assess depression, they yield a composite score and thus do not allow for the differential examination of major symptom clusters associated with depression. However, such an instrument would be a useful tool in subtyping depression and selecting the most appropriate pharmacotherapy for each patient. The neurocircuitry theory describes the biochemical and neuroanatomic background associated with the major symptoms of depression. Based on the neurocircuitry theory, our team has developed a new instrument, the Depression Profile, to selectively assess depressive symptom clusters associated with different neurotransmitter systems and neuroanatomic structures. The aim of our study was to investigate the psychometric characteristics of Depression Profile. 339 patients consecutively admitted with DSM-IV major depression in our hospital completed the Depression Profile in the first two weeks of their hospitalisation. 81 patients in an adult outpatient unit also completed the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale. Internal consistency of Depression Profile was tested with item analysis. The external validity of Depression Profile against the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale was tested using Pearson correlations. The internal consistency of Depression Profile proved to be excellent. The Cronbach alpha values of the scales met the expectable minimum level derived from the number of items in the scales. In testing for convergent validity, all Pearson correlation coefficients between Depression profile subscales and the Zung Self-rating Depression Scale were significant and moderate to high which indicates the good external validity of our instrument. The initial psychometric evaluation of Depression Profile indicates that our instrument has good reliability and internal and external validity. The instrument also proved to be useful in clinical work to aid the choice of medications and determine the subtype of

  4. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Shari; Gentry, Barry

    2017-04-01

    The diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) should be suspected in patients with risk factors (primarily a history of smoking) who report dyspnea at rest or with exertion, chronic cough with or without sputum production, or a history of wheezing. COPD may be suspected based on findings from the history and physical examination, but must be confirmed by spirometry to detect airflow obstruction. Findings that are most helpful to rule in COPD include a smoking history of more than 40 pack-years, a self-reported history of COPD, maximal laryngeal height, and age older than 45 years. The combination of three clinical variables-peak flow rate less than 350 L per minute, diminished breath sounds, and a smoking history of 30 pack-years or more-is another good clinical predictor, whereas the absence of all three of these signs essentially rules out airflow obstruction. Pharmacotherapy and smoking cessation are the mainstays of treatment, and pulmonary rehabilitation, long-term oxygen therapy, and surgery may be considered in select patients. Current guidelines recommend starting monotherapy with an inhaled bronchodilator, stepping up to combination therapy as needed, and/or adding inhaled corticosteroids as symptom severity and airflow obstruction progress.

  5. [Health economic evaluation of a 23 value pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination pilot programme among elderly chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in China].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Y P; Zhao, K; Li, X; Shi, L W; Guo, W D; Qi, X R; Sui, B Y; Zhou, R M

    2016-12-06

    Objective: From the perspective of health economics, to evaluate 23 pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination programme among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patient. Methods: In the pilot counties of the project of integrated care pathway for COPD patient (Hanbin district of Hanzhong city in Shanxi Province, Qianjian district of Qingqing city, Huandao district of Qindao city in Shangdong Province, Wen county of Jiaozuo city in Henan Province), information of insurance participants of New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCS) was collected by local NRCM information system, which included general information as well as records of medical care and medical fee. Nonprobability sampling method was applied to select a total of 860 objects, who were over 60 years old with local household registration, hospitalized within one recent year due to COPD acute exacerbation, and without vaccination of 23 voluntary pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine within 3 years. A quasi-experimental design without control group was adopted. Objects were vaccinated with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine from January to December in 2013, then were followed up from January in 2014 for one year. Data of effectiveness and medical cost was collected by self-designed questionnaire and (Chinese version). Paired rank sum test applied to test the difference of quality of life, number and direct medical cost of treatment (including outpatient treatment and hospitalization) due to COPD acute exacerbation, one year before and after intervention. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and cost-benefit ratio (CBR) of the programme were calculated. Results: By January 2014, eight hundred sixty objects were vaccinated. By January 2015, seven hundred eighty eight objects were followed up, with 72 cases withdrawed (8.4%). On average, COPD patients reduced 1.12±2.51 treatments due to acute exacerbation, including 0.28±2.09 outpatient

  6. Management of patients with rectocele, multiple pelvic floor dysfunctions and obstructed defecation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Murad-Regadas, Sthela Maria; Regadas, Francisco Sergio P; Rodrigues, Lusmar Veras; Fernandes, Graziela Olivia da Silva; Buchen, Guilherme; Kenmoti, Viviane T

    2012-01-01

    Management of patients with obstructed defecation syndrome is still controversial. To analyze the efficacy of clinical, clinical treatment followed by biofeedback, and surgical treatment in patients with obstructed defecation, rectocele and multiple dysfunctions evaluated with echodefecography. The study included 103 females aged 26-84 years with obstructed defecation, grade-II/III rectocele and multiple dysfunctions on echodefecography. Patients were distributed into three treatment groups and constipation scores were assigned. Group I: 34 (33%) patients with significant improvement of symptoms through clinical management only. Group II: 14 (14%) with improvement through clinical treatment plus biofeedback. Group III: 55 (53%) referred to surgery due to treatment failure. Group I: 20 (59%) patients had grade-II rectocele, 14 (41%) grade-III. Obstructed defecation syndrome was associated with intussusception (41%), mucosal prolapse (41%), anismus (29%), enterocele (9%) or 2 dysfunctions (23%). The average constipation score decreased significantly from 11 to 5. Group II: 11 (79%) grade-II rectocele, 3 (21%) grade-III, associated with intussusception (7%), mucosal prolapse (43%), anismus (71%) or 2 dysfunctions (29%). There was significant decrease in constipation score from 13 to 6. Group III: 8 (15%) grade-II rectocele, 47 (85%) grade-III, associated with intussusception (42%), mucosal prolapse (40%) or 2 dysfunctions (32%). The constipation score remained unchanged despite clinical treatment and biofeedback. Twenty-three underwent surgery had a significantly decrease in constipation score from 12 to 4. The remaining 32 (31%) patients which 22 refused surgery, 6 had low anal pressure and 4 had slow transit. Approximately 50% of patients with obstructed defecation, rectocele and multiple dysfunctions presented a satisfactory response to clinical treatment and/or biofeedback. Surgical repair was mainly required in patients with grade-III rectocele whose constipation

  7. Gray Matter Hypertrophy and Thickening with Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Middle-aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Baril, Andrée-Ann; Gagnon, Katia; Brayet, Pauline; Montplaisir, Jacques; De Beaumont, Louis; Carrier, Julie; Lafond, Chantal; L'Heureux, Francis; Gagnon, Jean-François; Gosselin, Nadia

    2017-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxemia, hemodynamic fluctuations, and sleep fragmentation, all of which could damage cerebral gray matter that can be indirectly assessed by neuroimaging. To investigate whether markers of obstructive sleep apnea severity are associated with gray matter changes among middle-aged and older individuals. Seventy-one subjects (ages, 55-76 yr; apnea-hypopnea index, 0.2-96.6 events/h) were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. Two techniques were used: (1) voxel-based morphometry, which measures gray matter volume and concentration; and (2) FreeSurfer (an open source software suite) automated segmentation, which estimates the volume of predefined cortical/subcortical regions and cortical thickness. Regression analyses were performed between gray matter characteristics and markers of obstructive sleep apnea severity (hypoxemia, respiratory disturbances, and sleep fragmentation). Subjects had few symptoms, that is, sleepiness, depression, anxiety, and cognitive deficits. Although no association was found with voxel-based morphometry, FreeSurfer revealed increased gray matter with obstructive sleep apnea. Higher levels of hypoxemia correlated with increased volume and thickness of the left lateral prefrontal cortex as well as increased thickness of the right frontal pole, the right lateral parietal lobules, and the left posterior cingulate cortex. Respiratory disturbances positively correlated with right amygdala volume, and more severe sleep fragmentation was associated with increased thickness of the right inferior frontal gyrus. Gray matter hypertrophy and thickening were associated with hypoxemia, respiratory disturbances, and sleep fragmentation. These structural changes in a group of middle-aged and older individuals may represent adaptive/reactive brain mechanisms attributed to a presymptomatic stage of obstructive sleep apnea.

  8. Obstructive sleep apnea: the most common secondary cause of hypertension associated with resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Rodrigo P; Drager, Luciano F; Gonzaga, Carolina C; Sousa, Marcio G; de Paula, Lílian K G; Amaro, Aline C S; Amodeo, Celso; Bortolotto, Luiz A; Krieger, Eduardo M; Bradley, T Douglas; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo

    2011-11-01

    Recognition and treatment of secondary causes of hypertension among patients with resistant hypertension may help to control blood pressure and reduce cardiovascular risk. However, there are no studies systematically evaluating secondary causes of hypertension according to the Seventh Joint National Committee. Consecutive patients with resistant hypertension were investigated for known causes of hypertension irrespective of symptoms and signs, including aortic coarctation, Cushing syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, drugs, pheochromocytoma, primary aldosteronism, renal parenchymal disease, renovascular hypertension, and thyroid disorders. Among 125 patients (age: 52±1 years, 43% males, systolic and diastolic blood pressure: 176±31 and 107±19 mm Hg, respectively), obstructive sleep apnea (apnea-hypopnea index: >15 events per hour) was the most common condition associated with resistant hypertension (64.0%), followed by primary aldosteronism (5.6%), renal artery stenosis (2.4%), renal parenchymal disease (1.6%), oral contraceptives (1.6%), and thyroid disorders (0.8%). In 34.4%, no secondary cause of hypertension was identified (primary hypertension). Two concomitant secondary causes of hypertension were found in 6.4% of patients. Age >50 years (odds ratio: 5.2 [95% CI: 1.9-14.2]; P<0.01), neck circumference ≥41 cm for women and ≥43 cm for men (odds ratio: 4.7 [95% CI: 1.3-16.9]; P=0.02), and presence of snoring (odds ratio: 3.7 [95% CI: 1.3-11]; P=0.02) were predictors of obstructive sleep apnea. In conclusion, obstructive sleep apnea appears to be the most common condition associated with resistant hypertension. Age >50 years, large neck circumference measurement, and snoring are good predictors of obstructive sleep apnea in this population.

  9. Evaluation of gastroesophageal reflux before and after sleeve gastrectomy using symptom scoring, scintigraphy, and endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aditya; Aggarwal, Sandeep; Ahuja, Vineet; Bal, Chandrashekhar

    2014-01-01

    The effect of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been a controversial issue. There have been limited studies on this aspect and most of the published studies are retrospective. Therefore, a prospective study was designed to objectively assess the problem. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of SG on symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux using questionnaire, endoscopy, and radionuclide scintigraphy. Thirty-two patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy were assessed for gastroesophageal reflux using Carlsson Dent Questionnaire and GERD questionnaire before and after surgery at three monthly intervals. They were also subjected to upper GI endoscopy (UGIE) and radionuclide scintigraphy both pre- and postoperatively. Mean preoperative weight and body mass index were 126.5 kg and 47.8 kg/m2, respectively. Mean percent excess weight loss at 12 months was 64.3 ± 18.4. Both the Carlsson Dent Score (CDS) and Severity Score (SS) exhibited a decline from 2.88 to 1.63 (p<0.05) and 2.28 to 1.06 (p<0.05), respectively after 12 months. Radionuclide scintigraphy revealed a significant rise of GERD from 6.25% to 78.1% in the postoperative period (p<0.001). UGIE showed a rise in incidence of esophagitis from 18.8% to 25%; however, there was improvement in all patients except one in terms of reduction of severity of esophagitis. Presence of GERD may not be considered as a contra-indication for sleeve gastrectomy. There is improvement of GERD as assessed by symptom questionnaires, as well as improvement in grade of esophagitis. The new onset GERD detected on scintigraphy may not be pathologic as there is a decrease in total acid production postsurgery; however, it still remains an important issue and needs long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Microscopic hematuria and calculus-related ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Stewart, D P; Kowalski, R; Wong, P; Krome, R

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation of patients with ureteral calculi in the emergency department has historically included urinalysis (UA) and intravenous pyelograms (IVP). This retrospective study was done to determine if a statistically significant relationship existed between the degree of calculus-related ureteral obstruction, proven by IVP, and the presence or absence of microscopic hematuria. Urine red blood cells were recorded as less than 3 rbc/hpf (negative) or greater than or equal to 3 rbc/hpf (positive). IVPs were recorded as nonsevere or severe. IVP criteria were based on the presence or absence of extravasation, greater than 2-hour ureteral filling times, and a numerical scoring system of 1 to 4 for ureteral or calyceal dilatation and nephrogenic effect. Eighty-nine men (72%) had non-severe obstructions and 34 (28%) had severe obstructions. Twenty-five women (68%) had nonsevere obstructions and 12 (32%) had severe obstructions. Of the 28 patients with normal UAs, 11 had severe ureteral obstructions and 17 had nonsevere ureteral obstructions. There were no statistically significant differences between the presence or absence of significant microscopic hematuria and the presence or absence of severe ureteral obstruction. Microscopic hematuria is neither sensitive nor specific in determining the degree of calculus-related ureteral obstruction.

  11. [Prevalence of urinary tract symptoms in women with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, Javier; Carbajal-Ramírez, Angélica; Meza-Vázquez, Héctor; Moreno-Palacios, Jorge; Serrano-Brambila, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the prevalence of urinary tract symptoms and the impact in the quality of life in women with diabetes, the association with DM and neuropathy evolution time and glycemic control. A cohort of women from the DiabetIMSS program was evaluated from January 2011 to 2013. The personal history, time of DM diagnosis, neuropathy, urinary symptoms, glycemic control and quality of life impact were noted. A total of 169 women were evaluated. The median age was 58 years (29-85) and DM main evolution time was 9 years (0.5-31). Urinary tract symptoms were present in 128 (75.7 %) patients. Stress and urge incontinence were predominantly present (45.3 and 40.6 % respectively), followed by obstructive and irritative symptoms (25 and 10.1 % respectively). The impact in the quality of life was mild-moderate in 91.1 % of the patients. At least one criteria for neuropathy was noted in 154 (91.1 %) patients. Neuropathy evolution time was longer in the symptomatic group (12 vs 4.8 months). Symptoms were mainly present in patients with more than one year of neuropathy; p < 0.05. There is a high prevalence of urinary tract symptoms in diabetic women. The only associated risk factor was neuropathy. No significative association was found between the rest of the factors.

  12. THE RÔLE OF ANHYDREMIA AND THE NATURE OF THE TOXIN IN INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Ingvaldsen, Thorsten; Whipple, Allen O.; Bauman, Louis; Smith, Beverly C.

    1924-01-01

    1. Data are presented which show that anhydremia does not play a leading rôle in the causation of symptoms in intestinal obstruction. 2. Chemical changes in the blood corresponding with those noted by previous investigators were observed. 3. Additional data regarding the chemistry of the toxin found in the obstructed intestine of dogs were obtained. PMID:19868827

  13. Evaluation and Management of the Nursing Home Resident With Respiratory Symptoms and an Equivocal Chest X-Ray Report.

    PubMed

    McClester Brown, Mallory; Sloane, Philip D; Kistler, Christine E; Reed, David; Ward, Kimberly; Weber, David; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2016-12-01

    Pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in nursing home (NH) residents. Chest x-ray evidence is considered a key diagnostic criterion for pneumonia by the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) diagnostic guidelines, the modified McGeer diagnostic criteria, and the Loeb criteria for initiating antibiotics; however, x-ray interpretation is often equivocal. We conducted chart audits of patients in NHs who had chest x-rays for new respiratory symptoms to determine the degree of ambiguity in the radiology reports and their relationship to antibiotic prescription decisions. Cross-sectional study. Thirty-one NHs in North Carolina. Two hundred twenty-six NH residents who had a chest x-ray. Medical charts were abstracted to record (1) the patient's clinical presentation when a chest x-ray was ordered, (2) the verbatim report of the chest x-ray, and (3) the patient's course during the subsequent 7 days. To standardize the radiologist reports, a seven-category coding system was developed, which was further aggregated into three groups based on the radiologist's description of the likelihood of pneumonia. Of the 226 chest x-rays, 118 (52%) identified a very low likelihood of pneumonia, 67 (30%) indicated that pneumonia was present or highly likely, and the remaining 41 (18%) used a variety of terms to describe uncertainty regarding the presence of pneumonia. NH medical providers tended to treat ambiguous chest x-ray reports similarly to positive x-ray reports, prescribing antibiotic therapy to 71% of patients with ambiguous reports and 78% of positive reports. Also notable is that 40 (34%) of the 118 patients with a very low likelihood of pneumonia based on chest x-ray results were prescribed antibiotics, the majority of whom failed to meet criteria for a clinical diagnosis of pneumonia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation. The moderate rate of ambiguous x-ray interpretations in NH residents is likely a combination of the poor quality

  14. Effects of Adenotonsillectomy on Neurocognitive Function in Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Horiuchi, Fumie; Oka, Yasunori; Komori, Kenjiro; Tokui, Yasumasa; Matsumoto, Teruhisa; Ueno, Shu-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children does not only present with symptoms of sleep disturbances but also with associated symptoms such as growth failure, enuresis, academic learning difficulties, and behavioral problems, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder- (ADHD-) like symptoms. We evaluated neurocognitive functions before and after adenotonsillectomy in a patient with OSAS. An 11-year-old boy suspected of having ADHD with nocturnal enuresis was referred for evaluation. He was found to have adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Presence of snoring was evident only after detailed medical interview. Polysomnography confirmed the diagnosis of OSAS, which was subsequently treated by adenotonsillectomy. The apnea/hypopnea index decreased from 21.9 at baseline to 1.8 after surgery, and the frequency of enuresis fell from almost nightly to 2-3 times per month. Neurocognitive and behavioral assessment after the treatment of OSAS showed significant improvement in cognitive functions, especially attention capacity and considerable amelioration of behavioral problems including ADHD-like symptoms. As the most common cause of pediatric OSAS is adenotonsillar hypertrophy, medical interview and oropharyngeal examination should always be performed in children suspected of having ADHD. The necessity of sleep evaluation for children with ADHD-like symptoms was also emphasized. PMID:24971187

  15. Recent research on the role of urodynamic study in the diagnosis and treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms and urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yuan-Hong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2017-01-01

    Although evidence shows that urodynamic study may not improve outcomes, it can be used to evaluate men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) which have not been adequately delineated and treated. In young men with LUTS not responding to treatment based on clinical examination, or elderly men with LUTS and incontinence, a complete urodynamic evaluation is mandatory to understand the pathophysiology underlying LUTS, such as bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), detrusor overactivity, and detrusor underactivity. Preoperative urodynamic study-proven BOO is a predictor of a successful surgical outcome. An urodynamic study should be performed when patients with LUTS are planning to undergo surgical treatment for benign prostatic obstruction.

  16. Recent research on the role of urodynamic study in the diagnosis and treatment of male lower urinary tract symptoms and urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan-Hong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2017-01-01

    Although evidence shows that urodynamic study may not improve outcomes, it can be used to evaluate men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) which have not been adequately delineated and treated. In young men with LUTS not responding to treatment based on clinical examination, or elderly men with LUTS and incontinence, a complete urodynamic evaluation is mandatory to understand the pathophysiology underlying LUTS, such as bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), detrusor overactivity, and detrusor underactivity. Preoperative urodynamic study-proven BOO is a predictor of a successful surgical outcome. An urodynamic study should be performed when patients with LUTS are planning to undergo surgical treatment for benign prostatic obstruction. PMID:28757770

  17. Increased risk of obstructive pulmonary disease in tunnel workers

    PubMed Central

    Ulvestad, B.; Bakke, B.; Melbostad, E.; Fuglerud, P.; Kongerud, J.; Lund, M. B.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Tunnel workers are exposed to gases and particles from blasting and diesel exhausts. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation in tunnel workers and to relate these findings to years of exposure.
METHODS—Two hundred and twelve tunnel workers and a reference group of 205 other heavy construction workers participated in a cross sectional investigation. Exposure measurements were carried out to demonstrate the difference in exposure between the two occupational groups. Spirometric tests and a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms and smoking habits were applied. Atopy was determined by a multiple radioallergosorbent test (RAST). Radiological signs of silicosis were evaluated. Respiratory symptoms and lung function were studied in relation to years of exposure and adjusted for smoking habits and atopy.
RESULTS—Compared with the reference subjects the tunnel workers had a significant decrease in forced vital capacity (FVC) % predicted and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) % predicted when related to years of exposure. Adjusted FEV1 decreased by 17 ml for each year of tunnel work exposure compared with 0.5 ml in outdoor heavy construction workers. The tunnel workers also reported significantly higher occurrence of respiratory symptoms. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was 14% in the tunnel workers compared with 8% in the reference subjects.
CONCLUSION—Exposure to dust and gases from diesel exhaust, blasting, drilling and rock transport in tunnel work enhances the risk for accelerated decline in FEV1, respiratory symptoms, and COPD in tunnel workers compared with other heavy construction workers.

 PMID:10722766

  18. Evaluation of rotigotine transdermal patch for the treatment of apathy and motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Robert A; Slawek, Jaroslaw; Barone, Paolo; Dohin, Elisabeth; Surmann, Erwin; Asgharnejad, Mahnaz; Bauer, Lars

    2016-06-07

    This multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study assessed the efficacy of rotigotine transdermal patch on apathy and motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Patients with PD-associated apathy (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS] I item 4 [motivation] ≥2 and patient-rated Apathy Scale [AS] ≥14) were randomized 1:1:1 to "low-dose" rotigotine (≤6 mg/24 h for early PD [those not receiving levodopa] or ≤8 mg/24 h for advanced PD [those receiving levodopa]), "high-dose" rotigotine (≤8 mg/24 h for early PD or ≤16 mg/24 h for advanced PD), or placebo, and maintained at optimal/maximal dose for 12 weeks. Coprimary efficacy variables were: change from baseline to End of Maintenance in patient-rated AS and UPDRS II + III total score. Recruitment was stopped after an interim futility analysis; therefore, all p values are exploratory. Of 122 patients randomized, 81.1 % completed the study (placebo, n = 32/40 [80.0 %]; low-dose rotigotine, n = 30/41 [73.2 %]; high-dose rotigotine, n = 37/41 [90.2 %]). No treatment difference was observed in the change in patient-rated AS (least squares mean [95 % confidence interval (CI)] difference: low-dose, 0.04 [-2.42, 2.50], p =0.977; high-dose, -0.22 [-2.61, 2.18], p = 0.859). Rotigotine improved UPDRS II + III total scores