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Sample records for obstructive jaundice influences

  1. Influence of obstructive jaundice on pharmacodynamics of rocuronium.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Meng; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Mi-Jia; Tan, Bo; Qiu, Hai-Bo; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Anesthetics are variable in patients with obstructive jaundice. The minimum alveolar concentration awake of desflurane is reduced in patients with obstructive jaundice, while it has no effect on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of propofol. In this study, we investigated the influence of obstructive jaundice on the pharmacodynamics and blood concentration of rocuronium. Included in this study were 26 control patients and 27 patients with obstructive jaundice. Neuromuscular block of rocuronium was monitored by acceleromyography. Onset time, spontaneous recovery of the height of twitch first (T1) to 25% of the final T1 value (Duration 25%, Dur 25%), recovery index (RI), and spontaneous recovery of train-of-four (TOF) ratios to 70% were measured. The plasma rocuronium concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography using berberine as an internal standard. There was no significant difference in onset time between the two groups. The Dur 25%, the recovery index and the time of recovery of the TOF ratios to 70% were all prolonged in the obstructive jaundice group compared with the control group. The plasma concentration of rocuronium at 60, 90 and 120 min after bolus administration was significantly higher in the obstructive jaundice group. The neuromuscular blockade by rocuronium is prolonged in obstructive jaundice patients, and therefore precautions should be taken in case of postoperative residual neuromuscular block. The possible reason is impedance of rocuronium excretion due to biliary obstruction and increased plasma unbound rocuronium because of free bilirubin competing with it for albumin binding.

  2. Influence of Obstructive Jaundice on Pharmacodynamics of Rocuronium

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mi-Jia; Tan, Bo; Qiu, Hai-Bo; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Background Anesthetics are variable in patients with obstructive jaundice. The minimum alveolar concentration awake of desflurane is reduced in patients with obstructive jaundice, while it has no effect on pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of propofol. In this study, we investigated the influence of obstructive jaundice on the pharmacodynamics and blood concentration of rocuronium. Methods Included in this study were 26 control patients and 27 patients with obstructive jaundice. Neuromuscular block of rocuronium was monitored by acceleromyography. Onset time, spontaneous recovery of the height of twitch first (T1) to 25% of the final T1 value (Duration 25%, Dur 25%), recovery index (RI), and spontaneous recovery of train-of-four (TOF) ratios to 70% were measured. The plasma rocuronium concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography using berberine as an internal standard. Results There was no significant difference in onset time between the two groups. The Dur 25%, the recovery index and the time of recovery of the TOF ratios to 70% were all prolonged in the obstructive jaundice group compared with the control group. The plasma concentration of rocuronium at 60, 90 and 120 min after bolus administration was significantly higher in the obstructive jaundice group. Conclusions The neuromuscular blockade by rocuronium is prolonged in obstructive jaundice patients, and therefore precautions should be taken in case of postoperative residual neuromuscular block. The possible reason is impedance of rocuronium excretion due to biliary obstruction and increased plasma unbound rocuronium because of free bilirubin competing with it for albumin binding. PMID:24147111

  3. Murine model of long term obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Hiroaki; Aoki, Masayo; Yang, Jing; Katsuta, Eriko; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Woelfel, Ingrid A.; Wang, Xuan; Spiegel, Sarah; Zhou, Huiping; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Background With the recent emergence of conjugated bile acids as signaling molecules in cancer, a murine model of obstructive jaundice by cholestasis with long-term survival is in need. Here, we investigated the characteristics of 3 murine models of obstructive jaundice. Methods C57BL/6J mice were used for total ligation of the common bile duct (tCL), partial common bile duct ligation (pCL), and ligation of left and median hepatic bile duct with gallbladder removal (LMHL) models. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. Fibrotic change was determined by Masson-Trichrome staining and Collagen expression. Results 70% (7/10) of tCL mice died by Day 7, whereas majority 67% (10/15) of pCL mice survived with loss of jaundice. 19% (3/16) of LMHL mice died; however, jaundice continued beyond Day 14, with survival of more than a month. Compensatory enlargement of the right lobe was observed in both pCL and LMHL models. The pCL model demonstrated acute inflammation due to obstructive jaundice 3 days after ligation but jaundice rapidly decreased by Day 7. The LHML group developed portal hypertension as well as severe fibrosis by Day 14 in addition to prolonged jaundice. Conclusion The standard tCL model is too unstable with high mortality for long-term studies. pCL may be an appropriate model for acute inflammation with obstructive jaundice but long term survivors are no longer jaundiced. The LHML model was identified to be the most feasible model to study the effect of long-term obstructive jaundice. PMID:27916350

  4. Murine model of long-term obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hiroaki; Aoki, Masayo; Yang, Jing; Katsuta, Eriko; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Ramanathan, Rajesh; Woelfel, Ingrid A; Wang, Xuan; Spiegel, Sarah; Zhou, Huiping; Takabe, Kazuaki

    2016-11-01

    With the recent emergence of conjugated bile acids as signaling molecules in cancer, a murine model of obstructive jaundice by cholestasis with long-term survival is in need. Here, we investigated the characteristics of three murine models of obstructive jaundice. C57BL/6J mice were used for total ligation of the common bile duct (tCL), partial common bile duct ligation (pCL), and ligation of left and median hepatic bile duct with gallbladder removal (LMHL) models. Survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier method. Fibrotic change was determined by Masson-Trichrome staining and Collagen expression. Overall, 70% (7 of 10) of tCL mice died by day 7, whereas majority 67% (10 of 15) of pCL mice survived with loss of jaundice. A total of 19% (3 of 16) of LMHL mice died; however, jaundice continued beyond day 14, with survival of more than a month. Compensatory enlargement of the right lobe was observed in both pCL and LMHL models. The pCL model demonstrated acute inflammation due to obstructive jaundice 3 d after ligation but jaundice rapidly decreased by day 7. The LHML group developed portal hypertension and severe fibrosis by day 14 in addition to prolonged jaundice. The standard tCL model is too unstable with high mortality for long-term studies. pCL may be an appropriate model for acute inflammation with obstructive jaundice, but long-term survivors are no longer jaundiced. The LHML model was identified to be the most feasible model to study the effect of long-term obstructive jaundice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Objectification of facial color inspection to differentiate obstructive/nonobstructive jaundice in neonates by spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhen; Zheng, Shan; Dong, Rui; Chen, Gong

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to study whether color difference in facial color truly exists between neonates with obstructive and nonobstructive jaundice, and whether the color difference could be objectified by spectrophotometer. Twelve biliary atresia patients were enrolled in an obstructive jaundice group and 15 neonates admitted for non-conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in a nonobstructive group. Nine patients with syphilis (n=6) and sacrococcygeal teratoma (n=3) were studied as control. Transcutaneous total bilirubin (TB) and hemoglobin were recorded. Face color was measured by spectrophotometer. Spectral reflection curve and L*a*b* model parameters were studied. Facial color of jaundiced neonates were characteristic in waveform that reflectivity at wavelength of 550nm was significantly decreased compared with control by 16.4±3.4%, while not significantly different between obstructive and nonobstructive jaundice (p=0.124). At 650nm, reflection in nonobstructive jaundice was decreased by 8.4±2.3% (p<0.01), and reflection in obstructive jaundice was (9.6±3.2) % lower compared with nonobstructive jaundice (p<0.01). In L*a*b* model, mean color difference between obstructive and nonobstructive jaundice was 9.60. L* was significantly different: control (71.84±3.75%)>obstructive jaundice (58.09±1.25%)>nonobstructive jaundice (54.25±7.27%). Value b* was higher in jaundiced patients compared to normal control (11.88±2.16, p<0.001), but not significantly different in obstructive and nonobstructive jaundice (20.12±2.17vs18.25±4.58). Value a* was not significantly different between normal control (5.57±2.38) and obstructive jaundice (5.25±1.19), but was lower than nonobstructive jaundice (14.03±3.29, p<0.001). TB was significantly correlated with b* (R=0.526, p=0.014), while hemoglobin was correlated with a* (R=0.791, p<.001) and L* (R=-0.707, p<.001). Obstructive and nonobstructive jaundice could be objectively differentiated through facial color inspection by

  6. The Efficacy of Endoscopic Palliation of Obstructive Jaundice in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Park, Semi; Park, Jeong Youp; Chung, Moon Jae; Chung, Jae Bock; Park, Seung Woo; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Song, Si Young

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Obstructive jaundice in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is uncommon (0.5-13%). Unlike other causes of obstructive jaundice, the role of endoscopic intervention in obstructive jaundice complicated by HCC has not been clearly defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of obstructive jaundice caused by HCC and predictive factors for successful endoscopic intervention. Materials and Methods From 1999 to 2009, 54 patients with HCC who underwent endoscopic intervention to relieve obstructive jaundice were included. We defined endoscopic intervention as a clinical success when the obstructive jaundice was relieved within 4 weeks. Results Clinical success was achieved in 23 patients (42.6%). Patients in the clinical success group showed better Child-Pugh liver function (C-P grade A or B/C; 17/6 vs. 8/20), lower total bilirubin levels (8.1±5.3 mg/dL vs. 23.1±10.4 mg/dL) prior to the treatment, and no history of alcohol consumption. The only factor predictive of clinical success by multivariate analysis was low total bilirubin level at the time of endoscopic intervention, regardless of history of alcohol consumption [odds ratio 1.223 (95% confidence interval, 1.071-1.396), p=0.003]. The cut-off value of pre-endoscopic treatment total bilirubin level was 12.8 mg/dL for predicting the clinical prognosis. Median survival after endoscopic intervention in the clinical success group was notably longer than that in the clinical failure group (5.6 months vs. 1.5 months, p≤0.001). Conclusion Before endoscopic intervention, liver function, especially total bilirubin level, should be checked to achieve the best clinical outcome. Endoscopic intervention can be helpful to relieve jaundice in well selected patients with HCC. PMID:25048484

  7. Protective effects of intravenous anesthetics on kidney tissue in obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Hatipoglu, Sinan; Yildiz, Huseyin; Bulbuloglu, Ertan; Coskuner, Ismail; Kurutas, Ergul Belge; Hatipoglu, Filiz; Ciralik, Harun; Berhuni, Mehmet Sait

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective effects on kidney tissue of frequently used intravenous anesthetics (ketamine, propofol, thiopental, and fentanyl) in rats with obstructive jaundice. METHODS: There is an increased incidence of postoperative acute renal failure in patients with obstructive jaundice. Thirty-two Wistar-albino rats were randomly divided into four equal groups. Laparatomy was performed on each animal in the four groups and common bile ducts were ligated and severed on day 0. After 7 d, laparotomy was again performed using ketamine, propofol, thiopental, or fentanyl anesthesia whose antioxidative properties are well known in oxidative stress in a rat liver model of obstructive jaundice. After 2 h, the rats were sacrificed. Renal tissue specimens were analyzed for catalase, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde enzymes activities. All values are expressed as the mean ± SD. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS: All animals survived without complications until the end of the study. Enlargement in the bile duct and obstructive jaundice were observed in all rats. Catalase was found to be significantly lower in the fentanyl group than in the ketamine (P = 0.039), propofol (P = 0.012), and thiopental (P = 0.001) groups. Superoxide dismutase activities were similar in all groups (P > 0.05). Malondialdehyde was found to be significantly lower in the ketamine group than in the propofol (P = 0.028), thiopental (P = 0.002) and fentanyl (P = 0.005) groups. Malondialdehyde was also lower in the fentanyl group than in the thiopental group (P = 0.001). The results showed that obstructive jaundice sensitizes renal tissue to damage under the different anesthetics. CONCLUSION: Among the agents tested, ketamine and propofol generated the least amount of oxidative stres on renal tissues in this rat model of obstructive jaundice created by common bile duct ligation. The importance of free radical injury in renal tissue in obstructive

  8. Endosonography for suspected obstructive jaundice with no definite pathology on ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Hua; Yang, Chi-Chieh; Yeh, Yung-Hsiang; Yang, Tsang; Chung, Tieh-Chi

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasonography (US) cannot demonstrate all the etiologies of biliary tract dilatation in patients with jaundice. Thus, we evaluated the etiologic yield of endosonography (EUS) for suspected obstructive jaundice when no definite pathology was found on US. Additionally, we sought to identify the predictors of the most common etiologies. We performed a retrospective review of 123 consecutive patients who had undergone EUS for suspected obstructive jaundice when no definite pathology was identified on US. The most common diagnoses included no pathological obstruction (n = 43), pancreatobiliary malignancy (n = 41), and choledocholithiasis (n = 28). Pancreatobiliary malignancy was associated with common bile duct (CBD) dilatation, and fever and elevated alanine aminotransferase were predictors of choledocholithiasis (p < 0.05). The accuracy of EUS was 95.9% (118/123) for overall cause of suspected obstructive jaundice, 100% (40/40) for no pathological finding, 100% (23/23) for ampullary cancer, 100% (13/13) for pancreatic cancer, 75% (3/4) for CBD cancer, and 92.9% (26/28) for choledocholithiasis, respectively. Besides the two patients with focal chronic pancreatitis misdiagnosed as with pancreatic cancer, EUS missed the lesions in one CBD cancer patient and two patients with choledocholithiasis. The overall accuracy of EUS in ascertaining pancreatobiliary malignancy and choledocholithiasis was comparable (97.6%, 40/41 vs. 92.9%, 26/28; p > 0.05). Marked CBD dilatation (≥12 mm) should remind us of the high risk of malignancy, and the presence of CBD dilatation and fever is suggestive of choledocholithiasis. Negative EUS findings cannot assure any pathological obstruction in patients with clinically suspected obstructive jaundice. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Hepatectomy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Bile Duct Tumor Thrombus, Including Cases with Obstructive Jaundice.

    PubMed

    Orimo, Tatsuya; Kamiyama, Toshiya; Yokoo, Hideki; Wakayama, Kenji; Shimada, Shingo; Tsuruga, Yosuke; Kamachi, Hirofumi; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the short- and long-term outcomes of hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with bile duct tumor thrombus (BDTT), including cases with obstructive jaundice. The study reviewed 42 HCC patients with BDTT, including six patients who needed preoperative biliary drainage due to obstructive jaundice, and 732 HCC patients without BDTT. The authors analyzed the impact of BDTT on the surgical outcomes and assessed the outcomes of hepatectomy for patients presenting with obstructive jaundice. The HCC patients with BDTT, almost all with stage 3 or 4 disease, had increased alpha-fetoprotein expression, larger tumors, and more portal vein invasion status. The survival of the HCC patients with BDTT was significantly inferior to that of the patients without BDTT (p = 0.0003). Survival did not differ significantly between the HCC patients with BDTT and those without BDTT when the two groups were matched by stage (p = 0.3366). The HCC patients with BDTT who presented with obstructive jaundice demonstrated outcomes similar to those for the HCC patients with BDTT who did not present with obstructive jaundice in terms of the overall survival rate (p = 0.5469). The perioperative outcomes for the HCC patients with BDTT did not depend on the presence or absence of preoperative jaundice. No patients in either BDTT group demonstrated 90-day mortality in this study. Hepatectomy should be considered for HCC patients with BDTT, even for patients with obstructive jaundice, because the surgical outcomes equivalent to those for HCC without BDTT can be achieved.

  10. Castleman disease presenting as obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Al-Salamah, Saleh M; Khan, Iftikhar A; Khalid, Kamran; Al-Shakweer, Wafaa A

    2005-01-01

    A 48-year-old Saudi male was admitted with features of obstructive jaundice. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed stricture in distal common bile duct CBD. Computed tomography scan revealed lymphadenopathy along CBD and in porta hepatis. Cholangiocarcinoma, lymphoma or metastatic deposits were suspected but no definite preoperative diagnosis could be established. Laparotomy disclosed lymph node enlargement in porta hepatis and along the CBD and lesser curvature of the stomach. Triple bypass procedure was performed to relieve the obstruction. Pathological examination of the lymph nodes showed Castleman disease of hyaline vascular type.

  11. Identification of bile survivin and carbohydrate antigen 199 in distinguishing cholangiocarcinoma from benign obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanfeng; Sun, Jingxian; Zhang, Qiangbo; Jin, Bin; Zhu, Min; Zhang, Zongli

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether bile survivin and carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199) can be helpful in distinguishing cholangiocarcinoma (malignant obstructive jaundice) from benign obstructive jaundice. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the feasibility of bile survivin and CA199 in differentiating cholangiocarcinoma from benign obstructive jaundice. The area under the curve for survivin and CA199 in bile and serum were 0.780 (p < 0.001), 0.6 (p = 0.084), 0.746 (p < 0.001) and 0.542 (p = 0.464), respectively. Combination of bile survivin and CA199 could improve the diagnostic capability. Bile survivin and CA199 are significantly increased in patients with cholangiocarcinoma and may be useful biomarkers in differentiating distinguishing cholangiocarcinoma from benign obstructive jaundice.

  12. Pre-operative biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yuan; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Wang, Qin; Davidson, Brian R; Lin, He; Xie, Xiaodong; Wang, Chaohua

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with obstructive jaundice have various pathophysiological changes that affect the liver, kidney, heart, and the immune system. There is considerable controversy as to whether temporary relief of biliary obstruction prior to major definitive surgery (pre-operative biliary drainage) is of any benefit to the patient. Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of pre-operative biliary drainage versus no pre-operative biliary drainage (direct surgery) in patients with obstructive jaundice (irrespective of a benign or malignant cause). Search methods We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until February 2012. Selection criteria We included all randomised clinical trials comparing biliary drainage followed by surgery versus direct surgery, performed for obstructive jaundice, irrespective of the sample size, language, and publication status. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), rate ratio (RaR), or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on the available patient analyses. We assessed the risk of bias (systematic overestimation of benefit or systematic underestimation of harm) with components of the Cochrane risk of bias tool. We assessed the risk of play of chance (random errors) with trial sequential analysis. Main results We included six trials with 520 patients comparing pre-operative biliary drainage (265 patients) versus no pre-operative biliary drainage (255 patients). Four trials used percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and two trials used endoscopic sphincterotomy and stenting as the method of pre-operative biliary drainage. The risk of bias was high in all trials. The proportion of patients with malignant obstruction varied between 60

  13. Pruritus and Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    McPhedran, N. T.; Henderson, R. D.

    1965-01-01

    The records of 147 patients who had pruritus and jaundice (11% of a series of 1262 patients with jaundice) were reviewed in an effort to delineate more clearly the etiology of jaundice associated with pruritus. Fifty-two had obstructive jaundice caused by neoplasm, 51 had obstructive jaundice not caused by neoplasm, 42 had pruritus associated with hepatogenous jaundice, and two had jaundice and pruritus associated with a lymphoma. Pruritus occurred in 17% of all patients with non-neoplastic obstructive jaundice and in 45% of patients with neoplastic obstructive jaundice. Hepatogenous jaundice was the cause of pruritus in almost one-third of the patients in this series-occurring in 20% of patients with infectious hepatitis and in 7% of patients with cirrhosis. This large series confirms the clinical impression that pruritus occurs most often in association with extrahepatic biliary obstruction, and as well re-emphasizes the common association of pruritus with hepatogenous jaundice. PMID:14296007

  14. Mortality-related Factors in Patients with Malignant Obstructive Jaundice.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, Juferdy; Hasan, Irsan; Gani, Rino Alvani; Simadibrata, Marcellus

    2016-10-01

    to obtain survival rate and mortality-related factors of malignant obstructive jaundice patients. all medical records of obstructive jaundice inpatient at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta from January 2010 to December 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. The following factors were analyzed in terms of mortality: age, gender, sepsis, hypoalbumin, serum bilirubin level, serum CA 19-9 level, billiary drainage, non-ampulla Vateri carcinoma, and comorbid factors. total 181 out of 402 patients were enrolled in this study with male proportion was 58.6%, and patients aged 50 years or above was 57.5%. Multivariate analysis showed that only sepsis, unsuccessful or no prior biliary drainage and Charlson comorbid score ≥4 were independent predictors of mortality. Patients with significant prognostic factors had median survival 14 days compared with overall median survival 26 days. Score ≥2 identified as the highest prognostic score threshold with sensitivity 68%, specificity 75%, and AUC on ROC curve 0.769. sepsis, unsuccessful or no prior bilirary drainage, and Charlson comorbid score ≥4 are factors significantly associated with shortened survival in malignant obstructive jaundice patients. Prognostic score  ≥2 was determined to classify patients into high risk mortality group. Mortality of patients with those significant prognostic factors can be predicted in 76.9%.

  15. The effect of recombinant growth hormone on intestinal anastomotic wound healing in rats with obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Cağlikülekçi, Mehmet; Ozçay, Necdet; Oruğ, Taner; Aydoğ, Gülden; Renda, Nurten; Atalay, Fuat

    2002-03-01

    Several clinical and experimental studies have shown that obstructive jaundice delays wound healing. Growth hormone may prevent delayed wound healing, since it has effects on the release of mediators in jaundice, as well as increasing the protein synthesis. Forty male Wistar rats were allocated to four groups: Group I (n=10): intestinal anastomosis to normal small bowel, Group II (n=10): intestinal anastomosis to normal small bowel followed by growth hormone therapy (2mg/kg/day, subcutaneously), Group III (n=10): intestinal anastomosis to obstructive jaundice rat's small bowel, Group IV (n=10): intestinal anastomosis to obstructive jaundice rat's small bowel followed by growth hormone therapy at the same dosage The animals were observed for seven days then killed. Intraabdominal adhesions, anastomotic complications and anastomotic bursting pressures were recorded and tissue samples from the anastomotic site were obtained to measure hydroxyproline levels and for histopathologic examination. Growth hormone had a beneficial effect on the healing of intestinal anastomosis in both jaundiced and non-jaundiced rats. This was demonstrated by clinical and mechanical parameters such as a significant increase in anastomotic bursting pressure, hydroxyproline content and histopathological scores. Growth hormone reverses the adverse effects of obstructive jaundice on small bowel anastomotic healing. It can be hypothesized that this effect is due to augmentation of insulin-like growth factors, protection of hepatocytes, enhancement of intestinal epithelization, and reversal of the resultant malnutritional state caused by growth hormone in obstructive jaundice.

  16. Glucagon-like peptide-2 protects impaired intestinal mucosal barriers in obstructive jaundice rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Dong, Jia-Tian; Li, Xiao-Jing; Gu, Ye; Cheng, Zhi-Jian; Cai, Yuan-Kun

    2015-01-14

    To observe the protective effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) on the intestinal barrier of rats with obstructive jaundice and determine the possible mechanisms of action involved in the protective effect. Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, an obstructive jaundice group, and a GLP-2 group; each group consisted of 12 rats. The GLP-2 group was treated with GLP-2 after the day of surgery, whereas the other two groups were treated with the same concentration of normal saline. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin, and endotoxin levels were recorded at 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 d. Furthermore, on the 14(th) day, body weight, the wet weight of the small intestine, pathological changes of the small intestine and the immunoglobulin A (IgA) expressed by plasma cells located in the small intestinal lamina propria were recorded for each group. In the rat model, jaundice was obvious, and the rats' activity decreased 4-6 d post bile duct ligation. Compared with the sham operation group, the obstructive jaundice group displayed increased yellow staining of abdominal visceral serosa, decreased small intestine wet weight, thinning of the intestinal muscle layer and villi, villous atrophy, uneven height, fusion, partial villous epithelial cell shedding, substantial inflammatory cell infiltration and significantly reduced IgA expression. However, no significant gross changes were noted between the GLP-2 and sham groups. With time, the levels of ALT, endotoxin and bilirubin in the GLP-2 group were significantly increased compared with the sham group (P < 0.01). The increasing levels of the aforementioned markers were more significant in the obstructive jaundice group than in the GLP-2 group (P < 0.01). GLP-2 reduces intestinal mucosal injuries in obstructive jaundice rats, which might be attributed to increased intestinal IgA and reduced bilirubin and endotoxin.

  17. Spontaneous remission of obstructive jaundice in rats: Selection of experimental models

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Yunfu; Yue, Jie; Gong, Xiaoguang; Han, Xiaoyu; Wu, Hongfei; Deng, Jie; Li, Yejuan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and causes of spontaneous remission of obstructive jaundice in rats. Healthy male and female Wistar rats (180–220 g) were randomly assigned to receive common bile duct ligation (CBDL) and transection (group A), CBDL only (group B), or CBD dissection without ligation or transection (control group C; n=36 in each group). There was a difference in eye and skin jaundice prevalence between groups A and B from 14 days after surgery. The level of total bilirubin (TB) did not continue to increase in group A and began to decrease in the majority of rats in group B (P<0.05 vs. group B). At day 21 after surgery, the TB level returned to normal in group B and no significant difference was observed compared with group C. At day 21 after surgery, significant dilatation of bile ducts above the ligature was observed in group A following cholangiography with 38% meglumine diatrizoate and this contrast agent did not spread to other sites. Slight dilatation of the proximal bile ducts was observed in group B and the contrast agent entered the intestinal lumen through the omental ducts adhering to the porta hepatis. After 14 days of surgery, there were 36 rats in group A and B, and 17 rats exhibited spontaneous regression of jaundice. Overall, 47.2% (17/36) of rats experienced spontaneous remission of obstructive jaundice, 82.4% (14/17) of which underwent ligation only. The spontaneous remission of jaundice may have been caused by shunting through very small bile ducts or omental ducts adhering to the porta hepatis. If a model of biliary obstruction is to be established in future research, a model of CBDL and transection is preferable. In this case, jaundice reduction surgery should be performed 14 days after establishment of the model. PMID:29904412

  18. Glucagon-like peptide-2 protects impaired intestinal mucosal barriers in obstructive jaundice rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Dong, Jia-Tian; Li, Xiao-Jing; Gu, Ye; Cheng, Zhi-Jian; Cai, Yuan-Kun

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To observe the protective effect of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) on the intestinal barrier of rats with obstructive jaundice and determine the possible mechanisms of action involved in the protective effect. METHODS: Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, an obstructive jaundice group, and a GLP-2 group; each group consisted of 12 rats. The GLP-2 group was treated with GLP-2 after the day of surgery, whereas the other two groups were treated with the same concentration of normal saline. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin, and endotoxin levels were recorded at 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 d. Furthermore, on the 14th day, body weight, the wet weight of the small intestine, pathological changes of the small intestine and the immunoglobulin A (IgA) expressed by plasma cells located in the small intestinal lamina propria were recorded for each group. RESULTS: In the rat model, jaundice was obvious, and the rats’ activity decreased 4-6 d post bile duct ligation. Compared with the sham operation group, the obstructive jaundice group displayed increased yellow staining of abdominal visceral serosa, decreased small intestine wet weight, thinning of the intestinal muscle layer and villi, villous atrophy, uneven height, fusion, partial villous epithelial cell shedding, substantial inflammatory cell infiltration and significantly reduced IgA expression. However, no significant gross changes were noted between the GLP-2 and sham groups. With time, the levels of ALT, endotoxin and bilirubin in the GLP-2 group were significantly increased compared with the sham group (P < 0.01). The increasing levels of the aforementioned markers were more significant in the obstructive jaundice group than in the GLP-2 group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: GLP-2 reduces intestinal mucosal injuries in obstructive jaundice rats, which might be attributed to increased intestinal IgA and reduced bilirubin and endotoxin. PMID:25593463

  19. Outcomes in Patients with Obstructive Jaundice from Metastatic Colorectal Cancer and Implications for Management

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Shawnn D.; Albert, Scott; Shirley, Lawrence; Schmidt, Carl; Abdel-Misih, Sherif; El-Dika, Samer; Groce, J. Royce; Wu, Christina; Goldberg, Richard M.; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Bloomston, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer can develop jaundice from intrahepatic or extrahepatic causes. Currently, there is little data on the underlying causes and overall survival after onset of jaundice. The purpose of this study was to characterize the causes of jaundice and determine outcomes. Methods Six hundred twenty-nine patients treated for metastatic colorectal cancer between 2004 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Those developing jaundice were grouped as having intrahepatic or extrahepatic obstruction. Demographics, clinicopathologic, and outcome data were analyzed. Results Sixty-two patients with metastatic colorectal cancer developed jaundice. Intrahepatic biliary obstruction was most common, occurring in younger patients. Time from metastatic diagnosis to presentation of jaundice was similar between groups, as was the mean number of prior lines of chemotherapy. Biliary decompression was successful 41.7 % of the time and was attempted more commonly for extrahepatic causes. Median overall survival after onset of jaundice was 1.5 months and it was similar between groups, but improved to 9.6 months in patients who were able to receive further chemotherapy. Conclusions Jaundice due to metastatic colorectal cancer is an ominous finding, representing aggressive tumor biology or exhaustion of therapies. Biliary decompression is often difficult and should only be pursued when additional treatment options are available. PMID:25300799

  20. Pancreatobiliary fistula associated with intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma accompanying obstructive jaundice: A case report.

    PubMed

    Komo, Toshiaki; Oishi, Koichi; Kohashi, Toshihiko; Hihara, Jun; Kanou, Mikihiro; Nakashima, Akira; Kaneko, Mayumi; Mukaida, Hidenori; Hirabayashi, Naoki

    2018-06-04

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) occasionally involve formation of fistulas with other adjacent organs. Pancreatobiliary fistulas associated with IPMNs are rare, but affected patients often develop obstructive jaundice and cholangitis. A 79-year-old man was referred to our hospital for evaluation of abnormal biliary enzymes. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography demonstrated multiple cystic lesions with septa in the pancreatic head and fistulas between the cystic lesions and common bile duct. The clinical diagnosis was pancreatobiliary fistula associated with a mixed-type IPMN and accompanying obstructive jaundice. The patient underwent subtotal stomach-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. The resected specimen showed fistulas between the cystic lesions and common bile duct. Histopathological examination showed that the main and branch ducts of the pancreatic head were dilated and filled with mucus. The epithelia of the pancreatic ducts revealed papillary proliferation and an invasive adenocarcinoma arising from an intraductal neoplasm. Immunohistochemistry examination showed CDX2- and MUC2-positive reactions. The final diagnosis was an intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma of the intestinal-type. The patient remained disease-free for 9 months postoperatively. The causes of death in patients who have pancreatobiliary fistulas associated with IPMNs without resection are cholangitis or hepatic insufficiency. Nonoperative treatment is limited for cases with obstructive jaundice. It is necessary to prevent obstructive jaundice and cholangitis due to a large quantity of mucinous material. Surgical resection should be considered, if possible, in patients with pancreatobiliary fistulas associated with IPMNs. A better prognosis is expected with prevention of obstructive jaundice or cholangitis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Efficacy of preoperative biliary drainage in malignant obstructive jaundice: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moole, Harsha; Bechtold, Matthew; Puli, Srinivas R

    2016-07-11

    In patients requiring surgical resection for malignant biliary jaundice, it is unclear if preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) would improve mortality and morbidity by restoration of biliary flow prior to operation. This is a meta-analysis to pool the evidence and assess the utility of PBD in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. The primary outcome is comparing mortality outcomes in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice undergoing direct surgery (DS) versus PBD. The secondary outcomes include major adverse events and length of hospital stay in both the groups. Studies using PBD in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice were included in this study. For the data collection and extraction, articles were searched in MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials & Database of Systematic Reviews, etc. Pooled proportions were calculated using both Mantel-Haenszel method (fixed effects model) and DerSimonian-Laird method (random effects model). Initial search identified 2230 reference articles, of which 204 were selected and reviewed. Twenty-six studies (N = 3532) for PBD in malignant obstructive jaundice which met the inclusion criteria were included in this analysis. The odds ratio for mortality in PBD group versus DS group was 0.96 (95 % CI = 0.71 to 1.29). Pooled number of major adverse effects was lower in the PBD group at 10.40 (95 % CI = 9.96 to 10.83) compared to 15.56 (95 % CI = 15.06 to 16.05) in the DS group. Subgroup analysis comparing internal PBD to DS group showed lower odds for major adverse events (odds ratio, 0.48 with 95 % CI = 0.32 to 0.74). In patients with malignant biliary jaundice requiring surgery, PBD group had significantly less major adverse effects than DS group. Length of hospital stay and mortality rate were comparable in both the groups.

  2. [Managements for jaundice].

    PubMed

    Furuse, Junji; Toki, Masao; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Hirokawa, Satoshi; Nagashima, Fumio

    2011-04-01

    Jaundice is a yellowish pigmentation of skin and mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia, which itself has various causes. Jaundice related to malignant tumors is classified as obstructive jaundice. This disease proceeds from biliary tract obstruction and liver failure by progression of intrahepatic tumors, including metastases from other malignancies. Biliary tract cancer, pancreatic head cancer, or lymph nodes metastases from other sites of cancer are mainly responsible for the obstruction of the bile duct. In patients with obstructive jaundice, biliary drainage is often required in order to give treatments such as chemotherapy. In patients with biliary drainage, various complications arise, such as cholangitis due to obstruction ofa biliary stent, and bleeding from the ulcer due to a dislodged stent to the duodenum. It is crucial to manage those complications as oncologic emergencies. Jaundice of liver failure due to hepatic metastases is often observed in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies such as gastric cancer or colorectal cancer. Although chemotherapy is the usual application for those patients, useful anti-cancer agents are limited. It is crucial to diagnose and decide the best treatments as soon as possible for patients with very advanced hepatic metastases.

  3. 18F-FDG PET/CT in differentiating malignant from benign origins of obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Bo; Wu, Hu-Bing; Wang, Quan-Shi; Zhou, Wen-Lan; Tian, Ying; Ji, Yun-Hai; Lv, Liang

    2015-10-01

    The various origins of obstructive jaundice make the diagnosis of the disease difficult. This study was undertaken to evaluate the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in differentiating malignant from benign origins of obstructive jaundice and to quantify the added value of 18F-FDG PET/CT over conventional imaging (enhanced CT and/or MRI). Eighty-five patients with obstructive jaundice who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT within 2 weeks after enhanced CT and/or MRI were reviewed retrospectively. All 18F-FDG PET/CT images were independently evaluated by 2 nuclear medicine physicians who were unaware of other imaging data; differences were resolved by consensus of the physicians. All conventional imaging interpretations, according to the medical records, were reviewed by 2 radiologists to determine the potential value. Final diagnoses were based on histological or surgical findings. Sixty-six patients were diagnosed with malignancies, and 19 patients with benign lesions. The maximum standardized uptake values for malignant and benign lesions causing biliary obstruction were 8.2+/-4.4 and 4.0+/-5.0, respectively (P<0.05). The sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy for differentiating malignant from benign origins with 18F-FDG PET/CT were 86.4% (57/66), 73.7% (14/19), and 83.5% (71/85), respectively. 18F-FDG PET/CT in conjunction with conventional imaging changed the sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of conventional imaging alone from 75.8% (50/66) to 95.5% (63/66) (P<0.05), 68.4% (13/19) to 57.9% (11/19) (P>0.05), and 74.1% (63/85) to 87.1% (74/85) (P<0.05), respectively. 18F-FDG PET/CT is of great value in differentiating malignant from benign origins of obstructive jaundice and is a useful adjuvant to conventional imaging. 18F-FDG PET/CT should be recommended for further etiological clarification.

  4. Palliative percutaneous transhepatic drainage for inoperable obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed Central

    Baxter-Smith, D. C.; Temple, J. G.; Howarth, F.

    1982-01-01

    A technique of percutaneous transhepatic drainage under local anaesthesia is described for the relief of intractable pruritus in patients with obstructive jaundice due to inoperable carcinoma. After standard percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography a polyethylene catheter is introduced into one of the large dilated bile ducts and left in situ, thereby establishing external retrograde biliary drainage. The technique has been used successfully in 6 cases with reduction in serum bilirubin levels and relief of pruritus. PMID:6182832

  5. Obstructive jaundice caused by pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysms associated with celiac axis stenosis: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Yin, Tiansheng; Wan, Zhili; Chen, Hongwei; Mao, Xixian; Yi, Yayang; Li, Dewei

    2015-07-01

    Pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm (PDA) is quite rare, which accounts for only approximate 2% of all visceral aneurysms. Besides, PDA is usually related to celiac axis stenosis (CAS) and prone to rupture. Advanced imaging examination can facilitate the disclosure of such peripancreatic masses, but most of them were seldom diagnosed until they rupture because of the nonspecific symptoms. Secondary to PDA, obstructive jaundice is however an extremely rare manifestation. A case of an 84-year-old man is reported here, who suffered from severe jaundice caused by a ruptured PDA associated with CAS. In addition, this review collects and organizes PDAs with jaundice by applying a MEDLINE search and discusses the pathogenesis and therapeutic options of these aneurysms leading to external compression over the bile duct. Consequently, the formation of PDA with obstructive jaundice is based on the specific anatomy of pancreaticoduodenal arcades. When there is a retroperitoneal mass around the head of the pancreas associated with unexpected jaundice, PDA should be considered, for which early aggressive therapy is required. The case report and literature review suggest that PDA associated with obstructive jaundice may be treated successfully by single transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) without auxiliary biliary drainage, whether it ruptures or not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of ursodeoxycholic acid in liver functional restoration of patients with obstructive jaundice after endoscopic treatment: a prospective, randomized, and controlled study.

    PubMed

    Fekaj, Enver; Gjata, Arben; Maxhuni, Mehmet

    2013-09-22

    In patients with obstructive jaundice, multi-organ dysfunction may develop. This trial is a prospective, open-label, randomized, and controlled study with the objective to evaluate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid in liver functional restoration in patients with obstructive jaundice after endoscopic treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid in liver functional restoration of patients with obstructive jaundice after endoscopic treatment. The hypothesis of this trial is that patients with obstructive jaundice, in which will be administered UDCA, in the early phase after endoscopic intervention will have better and faster functional restoration of the liver than patients in the control group.Patients with obstructive jaundice, randomly, will be divided into two groups: (A) test group in which will be administered ursodeoxycholic acid twenty-four hours after endoscopic procedure and will last fourteen days, and (B) control group.Serum-testing will include determination of bilirubin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, gama-glutamil transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, albumin, and cholesterol levels. These parameters will be determined one day prior endoscopic procedure, and on the third, fifth, seventh, tenth, twelfth and fourteenth days after endoscopic intervention. This trial is a prospective, open-label, randomized, and controlled study to asses the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid in liver functional restoration of patients with obstructive jaundice in the early phase after endoscopic treatment.

  7. Analysis of different ways of drainage for obstructive jaundice caused by hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuan; Lv, Peng-Hua; Huang, Xin-En; Wang, Shu-Xiang; Sun, Ling; Wang, Fu-An

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the prognosis of different ways of drainage for patients with obstructive jaundice caused by hilar cholangiocarcinoma. During the period of January 2006- March 2012, percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage (PTCD)/ percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting (PTBS) were performed for 89 patients. According to percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), external drainage was selected if the region of obstruction could not be passed by guide wire or a metallic stent was inserted if it could. External drainage was the first choice if infection was diagnosed before the procedure, and a metallic stent was inserted in one week after the infection was under control. Selection by new infections, the degree of bilirubin decrease, the change of ALT, the time of recurrence of obstruction, and the survival time of patients as the parameters was conducted to evaluate the methods of different interventional treatments regarding prognosis of patients with hilar obstruction caused by hilar cholangiocarcinoma. PTCD was conducted in 6 patients and PTBS in 7 (p<0.05). Reduction of bilirubin levels and ALT levels was obvious after the procedures (p<0.05). The average survival time with PTCD was 161 days and with PTBS was 243 days (p<0.05). With both drainage procedures for obstructive jaundice caused by hilar cholangiocarcinoma improvement in liver function was obvious. PTBS was found to be better than PTCD for prolonging the patient survival.

  8. An HIV-positive Case of Obstructive Jaundice Caused by Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome of Tuberculous Lymphadenitis Successfully Treated with Corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Naoaki; Sato, Ryota; Nagai, Hideaki; Matsui, Hirotoshi; Yamane, Akira; Kawashima, Masahiro; Suzuki, Junko; Tashimo, Hiroyuki; Ohshima, Nobuharu; Masuda, Kimihiko; Tamura, Atsuhisa; Akagawa, Shinobu; Hebisawa, Akira; Ohta, Ken

    2017-10-01

    A 60-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of a persistent fever with enlargement of multiple lymph nodes in the mediastinum and around the pancreatic head. He was diagnosed with tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus infection. We started antiretroviral therapy three weeks after the initiation of anti-tuberculous therapy. Two weeks later, jaundice appeared with dilatation of the biliary tract due to further enlargement of the lymph nodes, which seemed to be immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). The administration of corticosteroids resolved the obstructive jaundice without surgical treatment or endoscopic drainage. Obstructive jaundice caused by IRIS should first be treated with corticosteroids before invasive treatment.

  9. ACR appropriateness criteria jaundice.

    PubMed

    Lalani, Tasneem; Couto, Corey A; Rosen, Max P; Baker, Mark E; Blake, Michael A; Cash, Brooks D; Fidler, Jeff L; Greene, Frederick L; Hindman, Nicole M; Katz, Douglas S; Kaur, Harmeet; Miller, Frank H; Qayyum, Aliya; Small, William C; Sudakoff, Gary S; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yarmish, Gail M; Yee, Judy

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental consideration in the workup of a jaundiced patient is the pretest probability of mechanical obstruction. Ultrasound is the first-line modality to exclude biliary tract obstruction. When mechanical obstruction is present, additional imaging with CT or MRI can clarify etiology, define level of obstruction, stage disease, and guide intervention. When mechanical obstruction is absent, additional imaging can evaluate liver parenchyma for fat and iron deposition and help direct biopsy in cases where underlying parenchymal disease or mass is found. Imaging techniques are reviewed for the following clinical scenarios: (1) the patient with painful jaundice, (2) the patient with painless jaundice, and (3) the patient with a nonmechanical cause for jaundice. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Preoperative biliary drainage for periampullary tumors causing obstructive jaundice; DRainage vs. (direct) OPeration (DROP-trial).

    PubMed

    van der Gaag, Niels A; de Castro, Steve M M; Rauws, Erik A J; Bruno, Marco J; van Eijck, Casper H J; Kuipers, Ernst J; Gerritsen, Josephus J G M; Rutten, Jan-Paul; Greve, Jan Willem; Hesselink, Erik J; Klinkenbijl, Jean H G; Rinkes, Inne H M Borel; Boerma, Djamila; Bonsing, Bert A; van Laarhoven, Cees J; Kubben, Frank J G M; van der Harst, Erwin; Sosef, Meindert N; Bosscha, Koop; de Hingh, Ignace H J T; Th de Wit, Laurens; van Delden, Otto M; Busch, Olivier R C; van Gulik, Thomas M; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Gouma, Dirk J

    2007-03-12

    Surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice caused by a periampullary (pancreas, papilla, distal bile duct) tumor is associated with a higher risk of postoperative complications than in non-jaundiced patients. Preoperative biliary drainage was introduced in an attempt to improve the general condition and thus reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Early studies showed a reduction in morbidity. However, more recently the focus has shifted towards the negative effects of drainage, such as an increase of infectious complications. Whether biliary drainage should always be performed in jaundiced patients remains controversial. The randomized controlled multicenter DROP-trial (DRainage vs. Operation) was conceived to compare the outcome of a 'preoperative biliary drainage strategy' (standard strategy) with that of an 'early-surgery' strategy, with respect to the incidence of severe complications (primary-outcome measure), hospital stay, number of invasive diagnostic tests, costs, and quality of life. Patients with obstructive jaundice due to a periampullary tumor, eligible for exploration after staging with CT scan, and scheduled to undergo a "curative" resection, will be randomized to either "early surgical treatment" (within one week) or "preoperative biliary drainage" (for 4 weeks) and subsequent surgical treatment (standard treatment). Primary outcome measure is the percentage of severe complications up to 90 days after surgery. The sample size calculation is based on the equivalence design for the primary outcome measure. If equivalence is found, the comparison of the secondary outcomes will be essential in selecting the preferred strategy. Based on a 40% complication rate for early surgical treatment and 48% for preoperative drainage, equivalence is taken to be demonstrated if the percentage of severe complications with early surgical treatment is not more than 10% higher compared to standard treatment: preoperative biliary drainage. Accounting for a 10

  11. Comparison of infection between internal-external and external percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in treating patients with malignant obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuan; Huang, Xin-En; Wang, Shu-Xiang; Lv, Peng-Hua; Sun, Ling; Wang, Fu-An

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) is a form of palliative care for patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. We here compared the infection incidence between internal-external and external drainage for patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. Patients with malignant obstructive jaundice without infection before surgery receiving internal-external or external drainage from January 2008 to July 2014 were recruited. According to percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), if the guide wire could pass through the occlusion and enter the duodenum, we recommended internal-external drainage, and external drainage biliary drainage was set up if the occlusion was not crossed. All patients with infection after procedure received a cultivation of blood and a bile bacteriological test. Among 110 patients with malignant obstructive jaundice, 22 (52.4%) were diagnosed with infection after the procedure in the internal-external drainage group, whereas 19 (27.9%) patients were so affected in the external drainage group, the difference being significant (p<0.05). In 8 patients (36.3%) in the internal-external group infection was controlled, as compared to 12 (63.1%) in the external group (p<0.05). The mortality rate for patients with infection not controlled in internal-external group in one month was 42.8%, while this rate in external group was 28.6% (p<0.05). External drainage is a good choice, which could significantly reduce the chance of biliary infection caused by bacteria, and decrease the mortality rate at one month and improve the long-term prognosis.

  12. Cholangiohydatidosis: an Infrequent Cause of Obstructive Jaundice and Acute Cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Manterola, Carlos; Otzen, Tamara

    One of the evolutionary complications of hepatic echinococcosis (HE) is cholangiohydatidosis, a rare cause of obstructive jaundice and cholangitis. The aim of this study was to describe the results of surgical treatment on a group of patients with cholangiohydatidosis and secondary cholangitis in terms of post-operative morbidity (POM). Case series of patients operated on for cholangiohydatidosis and cholangitis in the Department at Surgery of the Universidad de La Frontera and the Clínica Mayor in Temuco, Chile between 2004 and 2014. The minimum follow-up time was six months. The principal outcome variable was the development of POM. Other variables of interest were age, sex, cyst diameter, hematocrit, leukocytes, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and transaminases, type of surgery, existence of concomitant evolutionary complications in the cyst, length of hospital stay, need for surgical re-intervention and mortality. Descriptive statistics were calculated. A total of 20 patients were studied characterized by a median age of 53 years, 50.0% female and 20.0% having two or more cysts with a mean diameter of 13.3 ± 6.3 cm. A median hospital stay of six days and follow-up of 34 months was recorded. POM was 30.0%, re-intervention rate was 10.0% and mortality rate was 5.0%. Cholangiohydatidosis is a rare cause of obstructive jaundice and cholangitis associated with significant rates of POM and mortality.

  13. Bile acid receptor TGR5 overexpression is associated with decreased intestinal mucosal injury and epithelial cell proliferation in obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chen-Guang; Xie, Xiao-Li; Yin, Jie; Qi, Wei; Chen, Lei; Bai, Yun; Wang, Na; Zhao, Dong-Qiang; Jiang, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Hui-Qing

    2017-04-01

    Bile acids stimulate intestinal epithelial proliferation in vitro. We sought to investigate the role of the bile acid receptor TGR5 in the protection of intestinal epithelial proliferation in obstructive jaundice. Intestinal tissues and serum samples were obtained from patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and from bile duct ligation (BDL) rats. Intestinal permeability and morphological changes in the intestinal mucosa were observed. The functions of TGR5 in cell proliferation in intestinal epithelial injury were determined by overexpression or knockdown studies in Caco-2 and FHs 74 Int cells pretreated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Internal biliary drainage was superior to external biliary drainage in recovering intestinal permeability and mucosal histology in patients with obstructive jaundice. In BDL rats, feeding of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) decreased intestinal mucosa injury. The levels of PCNA, a marker of proliferation, increased in response to CDCA feeding and were paralleled by elevated TGR5 expression. CDCA upregulated TGR5 expression and promoted proliferation in Caco-2 and FHs 74 Int cells pretreated with LPS. Overexpression of TGR5 resulted in increased PCNA, cell viability, EdU incorporation, and the proportion of cells in S phase, whereas knockdown of TGR5 had the opposite effect. Our data indicate that bile acids promote intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and decrease mucosal injury by upregulating TGR5 expression in obstructive jaundice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Different Palliative Jaundice Reducing Methods on Immunologic Functions in Patients with Advanced Malignant Obstructive Jaundice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kun; Sui, Lu-Lu; Xu, Gang; Zhang, Tong; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Fang

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of three treatment methods on the immunological function of patients with advanced malignant obstructive jaundice (MOJ). Patients with advanced MOJ were randomly divided into three groups according to biliary drainage methods. Detection of levels of multi-indices were investigated in different time periods. After drainage, the levels of complement 3 (C3) and complement 4 (C4) were increased. Forteen days post-operation, the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) in the group undergoing palliative surgery decreased significantly compared to those in both percutaneous transhepatic cholangio drainage (PTCD) and endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD) groups. The level of serum endotoxin in the group undergoing palliative surgery decreased gradually. Palliative surgery for reducing jaundice is superior to PTCD and ERBD in improving immune function of patients with MOJ. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Early sepsis, obstructive jaundice and right-sided diaphragmatic hernia in the newborn.

    PubMed

    García-Muñoz, F; Santana, C; Reyes, D; Wiehoff, A; López-Pinto, J M; García-Alix, A

    2001-01-01

    A male newborn was admitted to our Unit because of early sepsis and shock. He required antimicrobial therapy and mechanical ventilation and initially did well, although he exhibited jaundice and cholestasis. During the second week he deteriorated, with radiological opacification of the right hemithorax and pleural effusion, and did poorly in spite of antibiotical therapy and drainage of the effusion. In the third week, the X-ray suggested some bowel loops in the right hemithorax. A right-sided diaphragmatic hernia was confirmed by a CT-scan, and surgery was performed with good outcome. The association of delayed-onset right-sided CDH following early sepsis and obstructive jaundice has not been published before, and illustrates a scarcely known form of presentation of this condition.

  16. Changes in extrathymic T cells in the liver and intestinal intraepithelium in mice with obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Kimihiko; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Hisami; Abo, Toru; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Onoyama, Hirohiko; Kuroda, Yoshikazu

    2004-03-01

    Recently, T cells were classified into two categories: intrathymic T cells (ITCs; thymus-derived T cells) and extrathymic T cells (ETCs). ETC, localized in the liver and intestinal intraepithelium (IE), play an important immunologic role in the suppressed condition of T-cell development in the thymus. Given the fact that complications of surgery in patients with obstructive jaundice are often related to immunosuppression in the gut-liver circulation, we attempted to investigate the changes in the proportion of ETCs in mice with obstructive jaundice. Three mice models were prepared ( n = 10 per group): sham group with simple laparotomy; ligation group with common bile duct ligation; deoxycholic acid (DCA) group with an oral intake of DCA as a model of the presence of bile salts in the gut lumen. In each model, total mononuclear cells (MNCs), ITCs in the thymus, and ETCs in the liver and IE were counted using monoclonal antibodies in conjunction with a two-color immunofluorescence test by flow cytometry. In the ligation group the number of MNCs was reduced in the thymus and IE, and only those in the IE recovered after oral intake of DCA. A decrease of ITCs in the thymus and the increase in ETCs in the liver and IE occurred simultaneously during the early phase of biliary obstruction. At day 7 after biliary obstruction, ETCs in the livers of the DCA and ligation groups decreased to nearly the level in the sham group. However, on day 7 the ETCs in the IE remained significantly higher in the DCA group than in the ligation group. These results suggested that ETCs can act in place of ITCs at an early phase of obstructive jaundice, and the presence of bile in the gut lumen may be associated with the consumption of ETCs in the IE, a reaction that may bring about improved immunoreactivity.

  17. [Self-expandable metallic biliary endoprosthesis in malignant obstructive jaundice].

    PubMed

    Güitrón-Cantú, Alfredo; Adalid-Martínez, Raúl; Gutiérrez-Bermúdez, José A

    2005-01-01

    Implantation of metallic stents for malignant biliary strictures has been recognized to be effective alternatives. To show our experience in metallic stents for palliation of malignant biliary strictures. Seventy three patients (38 males, 35 females, mean age 64.26) with malignant biliary strictures have been treated by implantation of metallic stents. Causes of obstruction were pancreatic carcinoma (23/73, 31.5%), bile duct carcinoma (31/73, 42.5%), carcinoma of ampula of Vater (11/73, 15%) and Klatskin tumor (3/73, 4.1%). Endoscopic procedure was successful in all cases. Neither procedure-related morbidity nor mortality was observed. Life surviving curve was 9 months and showed significant difference (p < 0.0071) in patients with carcinoma of ampula of Vater. Self-expanding metal endoprosthesis is a recognized method of palliation in malignant biliary obstruction. It efficiently relieves jaundice and generally improves comfort and nutritional status during the patient's remaining lifetime. The metallic stents are advantageous in patients surviving 6 months or less.

  18. Transjugular Insertion of Bare-Metal Biliary Stent for the Treatment of Distal Malignant Obstructive Jaundice Complicated by Coagulopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Tsauo Jiaywei, E-mail: 80732059@qq.com; Li Xiao, E-mail: simonlixiao@gmail.com; Li Hongcui, E-mail: lihongcui520@126.com

    This study was designed to investigate retrospectively the feasibility of transjugular insertion of biliary stent (TIBS) for the treatment of distal malignant obstructive jaundice complicated by coagulopathy. Between April 2005 and May 2010, six patients with distal malignant obstructive jaundice associated with coagulopathy that was unable to be corrected underwent TIBS at our institution for the palliation of jaundice. Patients' medical record and imaging results were reviewed to obtain information about demographics, procedure details, complications, and clinical outcomes. The intrahepatic biliary tract was successfully accessed in all six patients via transjugular approach. The procedure was technically successfully in five ofmore » six patients, with a bare-metal stent implanted after traversing the biliary strictures. One procedure failed, because the guidewire could not traverse the biliary occlusion. One week after TIBS, the mean serum bilirubin in the five successful cases had decreased from 313 {mu}mol/L (range 203.4-369.3) to 146.2 {mu}mol/L (range 95.8-223.3) and had further decreased to 103.6 {mu}mol/L (range 29.5-240.9) at 1 month after the procedure. No bleeding, sepsis, or other major complications were observed after the procedure. The mean survival of these five patients was 4.5 months (range 1.9-5.8). On imaging follow-up, there was no evidence of stent stenosis or migration, with 100 % primary patency. When the risks of hemorrhage from percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage are high, TIBS may be an effective alternative for the treatment of distal malignant obstructive jaundice.« less

  19. Propolis reduces bacterial translocation and intestinal villus atrophy in experimental obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Sabuncuoglu, Mehmet Zafer; Kismet, Kemal; Kilicoglu, Sibel Serin; Kilicoglu, Bulent; Erel, Serap; Muratoglu, Sabahattin; Sunay, Asli Elif; Erdemli, Esra; Akkus, Mehmet Ali

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of propolis on bacterial translocation and ultrastructure of intestinal morphology in experimental obstructive jaundice. METHODS: Thirty Wistar-Albino male rats were randomly divided into three groups, each including 10 animals: groupI, sham-operated; group II, ligation and division of the common bile duct (BDL); group III, BDL followed by oral supplementation of propolis 100 mg/kg per day. Liver, blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ileal samples were taken for microbiological, light and transmission electron microscopic examination on postoperative 7th d after sacrification. RESULTS: The mean number of villi per centimeter and mean mucosal height of the propolis group were significantly different in the BDL group (P = 0.001 and 0.012, respectively). The electron microscopic changes were also different between these groups. Sham and BDL + propolis groups had similar incidence of bacterial translocation (BT). The BDL group had significantly higher rates of BT as compared with sham and BDL + propolis groups. BT was predominantly detected in MLNs and the most commonly isolated bacteria was Escherichia coli. CONCLUSION: Propolis showed a significant protective effect on ileal mucosa and reduced bacterial translocation in the experimental obstructive jaundice model. Further studies should be carried out to explain the mechanisms of these effects. PMID:17876893

  20. Effect of honey on bacterial translocation and intestinal morphology in obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Gencay, Cem; Kilicoglu, Sibel Serin; Kismet, Kemal; Kilicoglu, Bulent; Erel, Serap; Muratoglu, Sabahattin; Sunay, Asli Elif; Erdemli, Esra; Akkus, Mehmet Ali

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of honey on bacterial translocation and intestinal villus histopathology in experimental obstructive jaundice. METHODS: Thirty Wistar-Albino rats were randomly divided into three groups each including 10 animals: group I, sham-operated; group II, ligation and section of the common bile duct (BDL); group III, bile duct ligation followed by oral supplementation of honey (BDL + honey) 10 g/kg per day. Liver, blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and ileal samples were taken for microbiological, light and transmission electrone microscopic examination. RESULTS: Although the number of villi per centimeter and the height of the mucosa were higher in sham group, there was no statistically significant difference between sham and BDL + honey groups (P > 0.05). On the other hand, there was a statistically significant difference between BDL group and other groups (P < 0.05). The electron microscopic changes were also different between these groups. Sham and honey groups had similar incidence of bacterial translocation (P > 0.05). BDL group had significantly higher rates of bacterial translocation as compared with sham and honey groups. Bacterial translocation was predominantly detected in mesenteric lymph nodes. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of honey in presence of obstructive jaundice ameliorates bacterial translocation and improves ileal morphology. PMID:18528939

  1. Clinical Interpretation of Elevated CA 19-9 Levels in Obstructive Jaundice Following Benign and Malignant Pancreatobiliary Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Seong; Jeon, Tae Joo; Park, Ji Young; Choi, Jeongmin; Shin, Won Chang; Park, Seong Eun; Seo, Ji Young; Kim, Young Moon

    2017-08-25

    Elevated carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 level may be unable to differentiate between benign and malignant pancreatobiliary disease with obstructive jaundice. The study aims to determine the clinical interpretation and the diagnostic value of CA 19-9 level in pancreatobiliary diseases with coexistent obstructive jaundice. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 981 patients who underwent biliary drainage due to obstructive jaundice following pancreatobiliary disease at Sanggye Paik Hospital for 5 years. 114 patients with serial follow-up data for CA 19-9 level were included in this study (80 patients with malignancy and 34 patients with benign diseases). We compared the levels of CA 19-9 levels and the biochemical value before and after biliary drainage. The rate of CA 19-9 elevation (>37 U/mL) was significantly different between the benign group and the malignant group (59% vs. 90%, p=0.001). Despite the decrease in serum bilirubin after biliary drainage, CA 19-9 levels remained elevated in 12% of patients in the benign group and in 63% of patients in the malignant group (p<0.001). Finally, 12% of patients in the benign group turned out to have malignant disease. A receiver operating characteristic analysis provided a cut-off value of 38 U/mL for differentiating benign disease from malignant disease after biliary drainage (area under curve, 0.787; 95% confidence interval, 0.703 to 0.871; sensitivity, 62%; specificity, 88%). This study suggested that we should consider the possibility of malignant causes if the CA 19-9 levels remain high or are more than 38 U/mL after resolution of biliary obstruction.

  2. Extra-hepatic hepatocellular carcinoma presenting as obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Batsis, J A; Halfdanarson, T R; Pitot, H

    2006-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a neoplasm with a uniformly poor prognosis. Risk factors for its development include chronic hepatitis B or C infection, haemochromatosis and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, but individuals with any type of chronic liver disease are predisposed. The incidence is significantly higher in Asia and Africa although it has been noted to be increasing in the United States. We present a patient with notable atypical clinical features for hepatocellular carcinoma. The patient had neither predisposing risk factors nor a primary liver lesion causing obstructive jaundice. After multiple tissue specimens were obtained, the final pathological diagnosis was established. Hepatocellular carcinoma generally requires a surgical cure, but patients who are icteric often portend poorer prognoses. For those at high risk, screening may be indicated to identify early curative treatment.

  3. Management of malignant obstructive jaundice at The Middlesex Hospital.

    PubMed

    Leung, J W; Emery, R; Cotton, P B; Russell, R C; Vallon, A G; Mason, R R

    1983-10-01

    A total of 180 patients with malignant obstructive jaundice have been treated by 5 different methods: surgical resection; surgical by-pass; percutaneous prosthesis; endoscopic prosthesis; and endoscopic sphincterotomy (for papillary tumours). The spectrum of patients is unusual, because many elderly and ill patients were referred for nonoperative management. Operative by-pass, percutaneous and endoscopic prostheses gave similar overall results, with a mean survival of about 6 months. Patients with tumours of the papilla of Vater treated by endoscopy or surgery fared well; 11 of 18 were alive at follow-up. Median survival after resection of other tumours was 17 months. These results underline the need for randomized clinical trials, which are now in progress.

  4. [The factors affecting the results of mechanical jaundice management].

    PubMed

    Malkov, I S; Shaimardanov, R Sh; Korobkov, V N; Filippov, V A; Khisamiev, I G

    To improve the results of obstructive jaundice management by rational diagnostic and treatment strategies. Outcomes of 820 patients with obstructive jaundice syndrome were analyzed. Diagnostic and tactical mistakes were made at pre-hospital stage in 143 (17.4%) patients and in 105 (12.8%) at hospital stage. Herewith, in 53 (6.5%) cases the errors were observed at all stages. Retrospective analysis of severe postoperative complications and lethal outcomes in patients with obstructive jaundice showed that in 23.8% of cases they were explained by diagnostic and tactical mistakes at various stages of examination and treatment. We developed an algorithm for obstructive jaundice management to reduce the number of diagnostic and tactical errors, a reduction in the frequency of diagnostic and tactical errors. It reduced the number of postoperative complications up to 16.5% and mortality rate to 3.0%.

  5. A late unusual complication after an open cholecystectomy: Amputation neuroma of the CBD causing obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Sleiman, Youssef A; Hassoun, Ziad A; Nasser, Haydar A; Abs, Leila; Allouch, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Cholecystectomy is one of the most frequently done procedures in general surgery. There are few reports of amputation neuromas following this procedure. This presentation describes a case of obstructive jaundice due to amputation neuroma in a patient with a history of cholecystectomy. We report about a 53 y o lady who presented with obstructive jaundice, 8 years following open cholecystectomy. Paraclinical investigations were in favor of cholangicarcinoma, however the final pathology revealed an amputation neuroma of the CBD. Amputation neuromas are rarely seen in the era of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. They are benign reparative lesions of the CBD following surgery or manipulation of the extra hepatic biliary tree. It is very difficult to diagnose them pre-operatively. Surgical resection is the first choice of treatment. Traumatic neuromas should always be among the differential diagnosis, when assessing a CBD mass in patients with a previous history of open cholecystectomy or surgery to the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of obstructive jaundice on hepatic hemodynamics: use of Sonazoid-enhanced ultrasonography in a prospective study of the blood flow balance between the hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery.

    PubMed

    Wakui, Noritaka; Takeda, Yuki; Nishinakagawa, Shuta; Ueki, Nobuo; Otsuka, Takafumi; Oba, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Kamiyama, Naohisa; Sumino, Yasukiyo; Kojima, Tatsuya

    2015-10-01

    To prospectively clarify the effects of obstructive jaundice (OJ) on hepatic hemodynamics using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US). Subjects comprised 14 patients admitted to our hospital for OJ between April 2013 and March 2014. Contrast-enhanced US was performed using the LOGIQ E9 ultrasound device during the jaundice phase, before biliary drainage, and again after improvement of jaundice. After injecting the Sonazoid contrast agent, contrast dynamics were recorded in the right kidney and liver segments 5 or 6. Prototype software was used to calculate mean arrival time (AT) of the contrast agent in the liver parenchyma. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the mean AT in the jaundice and improved jaundice phases. We were unable to follow up three of the 14 patients after biliary drainage; thus, we included 11 patients for further analysis. The mean AT of the contrast agent was 2.0 ± 1.8 and 6.1 ± 2.3 s in the jaundice and improved jaundice phases, respectively, showing significantly shorter AT in the jaundice phase (p = 0.0033). Our findings indicate that OJ may influence the blood flow balance between the hepatic portal vein and hepatic artery.

  7. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on gut barrier function in experimental obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yu-Kun; Qin, Huan-Long; Zhang, Ming; Shen, Tong-Yi; Chen, Hong-Qi; Ma, Yan-Lei; Chu, Zhao-Xin; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Zhi-Hua

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanisms of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) action on gut barrier in preoperative and postoperative experimental obstructive jaundice in rats. METHODS: Forty rats were randomly divided into groups of sham-operation, bile duct ligation (BDL), BDL + L. plantarum, BDL + internal biliary drainage (IBD), and BDL + IBD + L. plantarum. Ten days after L. plantarum administration, blood and ileal samples were collected from the rats for morphological examination, and intestinal barrier function, liver function, intestinal oxidative stress and protein kinase C (PKC) activity measurement. The distribution and expression of the PKC and tight junction (TJ) proteins, such as occludin, zonula occludens-1, claudin-1, claudin-4, junction adhesion molecule-A and F-actin, were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. RESULTS: L. plantarum administration substantially restored gut barrier, decreased enterocyte apoptosis, improved intestinal oxidative stress, promoted the activity and expression of protein kinase (BDL vs BDL + L. plantarum, 0.295 ± 0.007 vs 0.349 ± 0.003, P < 0.05; BDL + IBD vs BDL + IBD + L. plantarum, 0.407 ± 0.046 vs 0.465 ± 0.135, P < 0.05), and particularly enhanced the expression and phosphorylation of TJ proteins in the experimental obstructive jaundice (BDL vs BDL + L. plantarum, 0.266 ± 0.118 vs 0.326 ± 0.009, P < 0.05). The protective effect of L. plantarum was more prominent after internal biliary drainage ( BDL + IBD vs BDL + IBD + L. plantarum, 0.415 ± 0.105 vs 0.494 ± 0.145, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: L. plantarum can decrease intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, reduce oxidative stress, and prevent TJ disruption in biliary obstruction by activating the PKC pathway. PMID:22912548

  8. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on gut barrier function in experimental obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu-Kun; Qin, Huan-Long; Zhang, Ming; Shen, Tong-Yi; Chen, Hong-Qi; Ma, Yan-Lei; Chu, Zhao-Xin; Zhang, Peng; Liu, Zhi-Hua

    2012-08-14

    To investigate the mechanisms of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) action on gut barrier in preoperative and postoperative experimental obstructive jaundice in rats. Forty rats were randomly divided into groups of sham-operation, bile duct ligation (BDL), BDL + L. plantarum, BDL + internal biliary drainage (IBD), and BDL + IBD + L. plantarum. Ten days after L. plantarum administration, blood and ileal samples were collected from the rats for morphological examination, and intestinal barrier function, liver function, intestinal oxidative stress and protein kinase C (PKC) activity measurement. The distribution and expression of the PKC and tight junction (TJ) proteins, such as occludin, zonula occludens-1, claudin-1, claudin-4, junction adhesion molecule-A and F-actin, were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting, real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. L. plantarum administration substantially restored gut barrier, decreased enterocyte apoptosis, improved intestinal oxidative stress, promoted the activity and expression of protein kinase (BDL vs BDL + L. plantarum, 0.295 ± 0.007 vs 0.349 ± 0.003, P < 0.05; BDL + IBD vs BDL + IBD + L. plantarum, 0.407 ± 0.046 vs 0.465 ± 0.135, P < 0.05), and particularly enhanced the expression and phosphorylation of TJ proteins in the experimental obstructive jaundice (BDL vs BDL + L. plantarum, 0.266 ± 0.118 vs 0.326 ± 0.009, P < 0.05). The protective effect of L. plantarum was more prominent after internal biliary drainage ( BDL + IBD vs BDL + IBD + L. plantarum, 0.415 ± 0.105 vs 0.494 ± 0.145, P < 0.05). L. plantarum can decrease intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, reduce oxidative stress, and prevent TJ disruption in biliary obstruction by activating the PKC pathway.

  9. [The ultrasonic diagnosis of jaundice. 199 cases (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Weill, F; Marmier, A; Paronneau, P; Zeltner, F; Charton, M N

    1978-11-25

    Thank to a thorough ultrasonographic analysis of biliary tree ("shotgun sign"), liver and pancreas, a positive diagnosis of obstruction was carried out in 92% of cases. The success rate in diagnosis of level of obstruction was also 92%. Aetiologic diagnosis was successful in 61% of cases only (almost 100% in jaundices of pancreatic origine). No false positive diagnosis of obstruction was made in non-obstructive jaundice. This enabled to carry out instrumental cholangiography (i.e. "skinny" needle percutaneous cholangiography, and ERC) only in case of clinical, biological and sonographic discrepancies, or in hilar obstructions.

  10. Adjusting CA19-9 values to predict malignancy in obstructive jaundice: Influence of bilirubin and C-reactive protein

    PubMed Central

    La Greca, Gaetano; Sofia, Maria; Lombardo, Rosario; Latteri, Saverio; Ricotta, Agostino; Puleo, Stefano; Russello, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To find a possible relationship between inflammation and CA19-9 tumor marker by analyzing data from patients with benign jaundice (BJ) and malignant jaundice (MJ). METHODS: All patients admitted for obstructive jaundice, in the period 2005-2009, were prospectively enrolled in the study, obtaining a total of 102 patients. On admission, all patients underwent complete standard blood test examinations including C-reactive protein (CRP), bilirubin, CA19-9. Patients were considered eligible for the study when they presented obstructive jaundice confirmed by instrumental examinations and increased serum bilirubin levels (total bilirubin > 2.0 mg/dL). The standard cut-off level for CA19-9 was 32 U/mL, whereas for CRP this was 1.5 mg/L. The CA19-9 level was adjusted by dividing it by the value of serum bilirubin or by the CRP value. The patients were divided into 2 groups, MJ and BJ, and after the adjustment a comparison between the 2 groups of patients was performed. Sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values were calculated before and after the adjustment. RESULTS: Of the 102 patients, 51 were affected by BJ and 51 by MJ. Pathologic CA19-9 levels were found in 71.7% of the patients. In the group of 51 BJ patients there were 29 (56.9%) males and 22 (43.1%) females with a median age of 66 years (range 24-96 years), whereas in the MJ group there were 24 (47%) males and 27 (53%) females, with a mean age of 70 years (range 30-92 years). Pathologic CA19-9 serum level was found in 82.3% of MJ. CRP levels were pathologic in 66.6% of the patients with BJ and in 49% with MJ. Bilirubin and CA19-9 average levels were significantly higher in MJ compared with BJ (P = 0.000 and P = 0.02), while the CRP level was significantly higher in BJ (P = 0.000). Considering a CA19-9 cut-off level of 32 U/mL, 82.3% in the MJ group and 54.9% in the BJ group were positive for CA19-9 (P = 0.002). A CA19-9 cut-off of 100 U/mL increases the difference between the two groups: 35.3% in

  11. Octreotide inhibits hepatic fibrosis, bile duct proliferation and bacterial translocation in obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Türkçapar, Nuran; Bayar, Sancar; Koyuncu, Ayhan; Ceyhan, Koray

    2003-01-01

    The protective effect of octreotide on bacterial translocation, bile duct epithelial proliferation and hepatic fibrosis was studied in an experimental obstructive jaundice model. Forty-five healthy Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group I (n = 15): Median laparotomy and common bile duct manipulation performed (Sham group). Group II (n = 15): Laparotomy and common bile duct ligation performed. Group III (n = 15): After laparotomy and common bile duct ligation octreotide (Sandostatin, sandoz) was given. Simultaneously group I and II received 3 cc 0.9% NaCl and group III received 20 micrograms/kg/daily octreotide subcutaneously every 8 hours during 9 days. Two days after the procedure all rats were opened under ether anesthesia and sterile conditions. Group I had simple laparotomy but group II and III also had common bile duct ligation by 5/0 prolene. Seven days after the surgery (9th day after treatment) all rats underwent laparotomy and tests for bacterial translocation, liver biochemical tests and histopathologic analysis of liver and small bowel were carried out. In group II cecal population levels of bacteria were significantly higher than group I and group III (p < 0.05). In group II there was also statistically significant bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Pathological changes were found in terminal ileum samples in group II which seemed to improve in group III. Hepatocyte function was preserved with octreotide treatment which also significantly decreased bile duct proliferation and periportal fibrosis in response to biliary obstruction. This experimental study showed that octreotide is effective in preventing bacterial translocation, bile duct proliferation and hepatic fibrosis in obstructive jaundice.

  12. Drainage alone or combined with anti-tumor therapy for treatment of obstructive jaundice caused by recurrence and metastasis after primary tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chuan; Huang, Xin-En; Wang, Shu-Xiang; Lv, Peng-Hua; Sun, Ling; Wang, Fu-An; Wang, Li-Fu

    2014-01-01

    To compare drainage alone or combined with anti-tumor therapy for treatment of obstructive jaundice caused by recurrence and metastasis after primary tumor resection. We collect 42 patients with obstructive jaundice caused by recurrence and metastasis after tumor resection from January 2008 - August 2012, for which percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage (pTCD)/ percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting (pTBS) were performed. In 25 patients drainage was combined with anti-tumor treatment, antineoplastic therapy including intra/postprodure local treatment and postoperative systemic chemotherapy, the other 17 undergoing drainage only. We assessed the two kinds of treatment with regard to patient prognosis. Both treatments demonstrated good effects in reducing bilirubin levels in the short term and promoting liver function. The time to reobstruction was 125 days in the combined group and 89 days in the drainage only group; the mean survival times were 185 and 128 days, the differences being significant. Interventional drainage in the treatment of the obstructive jaundice caused by recurrence and metastasis after tumor resection can decrease bilirubin level quickly in a short term and promote the liver function recovery. Combined treatment prolongs the survival time and period before reobstruction as compared to drainage only.

  13. Clinical Study on Using 125I Seeds Articles Combined with Biliary Stent Implantation in the Treatment of Malignant Obstructive Jaundice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Sheng; Zheng, Yan-Bo; Song, Xue-Peng; Sun, Bo-Lin; Jiang, Wen-Jin; Wang, Li-Gang

    2017-08-01

    Aim: To study the feasibility and curative effect of 125 I seeds articles combined with biliary stent implantation in the treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice. Patients and Methods: Fifty patients with malignant obstructive jaundice were included. Twenty-four were treated by biliary stent implantation combined with intraluminal brachytherapy by 125 I seeds articles as the experimental group, while the remaining 26 were treated by biliary stent implantation only as the control group. The goal of this study was to evaluate total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and tumor markers (cancer antigen (CA)-199, CA-242 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)), as well as biliary stent patency status and survival time before and after surgery. Results: Jaundice improved greatly in both groups. The decreases of CA-199 and CA-242 had statistical significance (p=0.003 and p=0.004) in the experimental group. The ratio of biliary stent patency was 83.3% (20/24) in the experimental group and 57.7% (15/26) in the control group (p=0.048). The biliary stent patency time in the experimental group was 1~15.5 (mean=9.84) months. The biliary stent patency time in the control group was 0.8~9 (mean=5.57) months, which was statistically significant (p=0.018). The median survival time was 10.2 months in the experimental group, while 5.4 months in control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: 125 I seeds articles combined with biliary stent implantation significantly prolongs biliary stent patency time and survival time for patients with malignant obstructive jaundice possibly by inhibiting the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells and the growth of tumor. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. [Application of (125)I seeds combined with biliary stent implantation in the treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice].

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Liu, S; Zheng, Y B; Song, X P; Jiang, W J; Sun, B L; Wang, L G

    2016-03-23

    To study the feasibility and therapeutic effect of the application of (125)I seeds combined with biliary stent implantation on the treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice. Fifty patients with malignant obstructive jaundice treated from September 2010 to February 2013 in Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital were included in this study. Among them, 24 patients received biliary stent implantation combined with (125)I seeds intraluminal brachytherapy as experimental group, and 26 were treated by biliary stent implantation as control group.The total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and tumor markers (CA-199, CA-242, CEA) before and after surgery, the biliary stent patency status was assessed, and the survival time was evaluated. The 24 patients in experimental group were implanted with 30 (125)I seeds successfully in a total of 450 seeds. Jaundice was improved greatly in both groups. The CA-199 and CA-242 after treatment in the experimental group were significantly decreased than that before treatment (P=0.003 and P=0.004). CEA was also decreased, but showed no statistical significance (P>0.05). There were no significant improvement comparing the CA-199, CA-242 and CEA before and 2 months after surgery in the control group (P>0.05). The rate of biliary stent patency was 83.3% (20/24) in the experimental group and 57.7% (15/26) in the control group (P=0.048). The mean biliary stent patency time in the experimental group was 9.84 months (range 1-15.5 months). The mean biliary stent patency time in the control group was 5.57 months (range 0.8-9 months). There was a significant difference between the two groups (P=0.018). The median survival time was 10.2 months in the experimental group and 5.4 months in the control group (P<0.05). (125)I seeds combined with biliary stent implantation can inhibit the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells and the growth of tumor effectively, and can prolong the biliary stent patency time and the survival time obviously for patients with

  15. Role of endoscopic biliary drainage in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with jaundice.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hyun Young; Han, Sung Yong; Heo, Jeong; Kim, Dong Uk; Baek, Dong Hoon; Yoo, So Yong; Kim, Chang Won; Kim, Suk; Song, Geun Am; Cho, Mong; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with jaundice have an extremely poor prognosis. Although biliary drainage can resolve obstructive jaundice, signs of obstruction may not be evident. This study evaluated the role of endoscopic biliary drainage in patients with advanced HCC and obstructive jaundice. From 2010 to 2015, 74 patients underwent endoscopic biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice due to advanced HCC. Jaundice resolution was defined as complete response and total bilirubin concentration below 3 mg/dl. The technical success rate in the 74 patients was 92.1% (70/76). Of the 70 patients who underwent successful biliary drainage, 48 (68.6%) and 22 (31.4%) were Child-Pugh classes B and C, respectively, and 10 (14.3%) and 60 (85.7%) were BCLC stages B and C, respectively. Intrahepatic bile duct (IHD) dilatation was observed in 35 patients (50%). After drainage, the complete response rate was 35.7% (25/70). The mean time to resolution was 17.4 ±8.5 days. However, jaundice was re-aggravated in 74.3% (15/25) after a mean 103.5 ±96.4 days. Multivariate analysis showed that the absence of ascites, presence of IHD dilatation, normal range of prothrombin time, and lower MELD score were significantly associated with complete response. The overall survival rate was 15.7% (11/70) and the median survival time is 28 days (95% confidence interval 2.6-563 days). Complete response and HCC treatment after drainage were significantly associated with survival. Effective endoscopic biliary drainage is an important palliative treatment in patients with advanced HCC and obstructive jaundice, especially those with IHD dilatation and preserved liver function, as determined by ascites, prothrombin time, and MELD score.

  16. Liver elasticity measurement before and after biliary drainage in patients with obstructive jaundice: a prospective cohort studya prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Kimitoshi; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Kuwatani, Masaki; Nishida, Mutsumi; Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Kawahata, Shuhei; Taya, Yoko; Kubota, Yoshimasa; Amano, Toraji; Shirato, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2016-07-08

    Obstructive jaundice has been reported to influence liver elasticity, independent of liver fibrosis. The aim of our prospective study was to evaluate the changes in liver elasticity, before and after biliary drainage, in patients with obstructive jaundice, and to evaluate the correlation between elasticity measures and serum markers of liver fibrosis. This is a prospective cohort study of 20 patients with obstructive jaundice. Liver elasticity was assessed by Transient Elastography (TE) and Virtual Touch™ Quantification (VTQ). Serum total bilirubin (T-Bil) level was measured before biliary drainage (Day 0), with measures repeated at 2 days (Day 2) and 7 days (Day 7) after biliary drainage. Serum levels of the following markers of liver fibrosis were also obtained on Day 0 and Day 7: hyaluronic acid (HA), procollagen-III-peptide (P-III-P). T-Bil, TE, and VTQ for the left (VTQ-L) and right (VTQ-R) lobes of the liver were all elevated before biliary drainage, with respective levels, measured at Day 0, of 11.9 ± 1.5 mg/dl, 12.1 ± 0.9 kPa, 2.23 ± 0.10 m/s, and 1.85 ± 0.10 m/s. All values decreased on Day 7 after drainage: T-Bil, 4.7 ± 1.0 mg/dl (P < 0.001); TE, 7.6 ± 0.6 kPa (P < 0.001); VTQ-L, 1.53 ± 0.08 m/s (P < 0.001); and VTQ-R, 1.30 ± 0.05 m/s (P < 0.001). Similar changes were observed in serum markers of liver fibrosis. Liver elasticity measures correlated with serum levels of T-Bil, P-III-P, and HA (r = 0.35-0.67, P < 0.001). This study confirmed decreases in liver elasticity, measured by TE and VTQ, after biliary drainage. Measures of liver elasticity correlated to levels of T-Bil and serum markers of liver fibrosis. (UMIN ID: UMIN00001284313). University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN ID: UMIN00001284313 ); Registration date: 2014-01-14.

  17. Reversible surgical model of biliary inflammation and obstructive jaundice in mice.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Jacob G; Godfrey, Cody B; Garrett, Ryan; Kakar, Sanjay; Yeh, Benjamin M; Corvera, Carlos U

    2010-12-01

    Common bile duct (CBD) ligation is used in animal models to induce biliary inflammation, fibrosis, and cholestatic liver injury, but results in a high early postoperative mortality rate, probably from traumatic pancreatitis. We modified the CBD ligation model in mice by placing a small metal clip across the lower end of the CBD. To reverse biliary obstruction, a suture was incorporated within the clip during its placement. The suture and clip were removed on postoperative d 5 or 10 for biliary decompression. After 5 d of biliary obstruction, the gallbladder showed an 8-fold increase in wall thickness and a 17-fold increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity. Markedly elevated serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin indicated injury to the biliary epithelium and hepatocytes. Early postoperative (d 0-2) survival was 100% and later (d 3-5) survival was 85% (n=54 mice). We successfully reversed biliary obstruction in 20 mice (37%). Overall survival after reversal was 70%. In surviving mice, biliary decompression was complete, inflammation was reduced, and jaundice resolved. Histologic features confirmed reduced epithelial damage, edema, and neutrophil infiltration. Our technique minimized postoperative death, maintained an effective inflammatory response, and was easily reversible without requiring repeat laparotomy. This reversible model can be used to further define molecular mechanisms of biliary inflammation, fibrosis, and liver injury in genetically altered mice. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Role of endoscopic biliary drainage in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma with jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sung Yong; Heo, Jeong; Kim, Dong Uk; Baek, Dong Hoon; Yoo, So Yong; Kim, Chang Won; Kim, Suk; Song, Geun Am; Cho, Mong; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with jaundice have an extremely poor prognosis. Although biliary drainage can resolve obstructive jaundice, signs of obstruction may not be evident. This study evaluated the role of endoscopic biliary drainage in patients with advanced HCC and obstructive jaundice. Methods From 2010 to 2015, 74 patients underwent endoscopic biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice due to advanced HCC. Jaundice resolution was defined as complete response and total bilirubin concentration below 3 mg/dl. Results The technical success rate in the 74 patients was 92.1% (70/76). Of the 70 patients who underwent successful biliary drainage, 48 (68.6%) and 22 (31.4%) were Child-Pugh classes B and C, respectively, and 10 (14.3%) and 60 (85.7%) were BCLC stages B and C, respectively. Intrahepatic bile duct (IHD) dilatation was observed in 35 patients (50%). After drainage, the complete response rate was 35.7% (25/70). The mean time to resolution was 17.4 ±8.5 days. However, jaundice was re-aggravated in 74.3% (15/25) after a mean 103.5 ±96.4 days. Multivariate analysis showed that the absence of ascites, presence of IHD dilatation, normal range of prothrombin time, and lower MELD score were significantly associated with complete response. The overall survival rate was 15.7% (11/70) and the median survival time is 28 days (95% confidence interval 2.6–563 days). Complete response and HCC treatment after drainage were significantly associated with survival. Conclusion Effective endoscopic biliary drainage is an important palliative treatment in patients with advanced HCC and obstructive jaundice, especially those with IHD dilatation and preserved liver function, as determined by ascites, prothrombin time, and MELD score. PMID:29095941

  19. The Effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on Bacterial Translocation in Rats with Obstructive Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Geyik, Mehmet Faruk; Aldemir, Mustafa; Hosoglu, Salih; Ayaz, Celal; Satilmis, Selda; Buyukbayram, Huseyin; Kokoglu, Omer Faruk

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Saccharomyces boulardii treatment on preventing bacterial translocation in an obstructive jaundice animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty adult rats were divided into five groups: group 1 – the sham-operated group; group 2 – the common bile duct ligation group; group 3 – the S. boulardii group; group 4 – the ampicillin-sulbaktam group; and group 5 – the S. boulardii plus ampicillin-sulbaktam group. The saline, antibiotics and S. boulardii were given, respectively, for a 7-day period as a single dose per day via temporary orogastric intubation. Seven days following the obstructive jaundice, the animal had laparatomy under sterile conditions. Segments of ileum were removed for histopathological examination. Blood, liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes were taken for microbiological culture. RESULTS Bacterial translocation rates were 0% in the sham-operated group, 83% in group 2, 42% in group 3, 42% in group 4 and 33% in group 5. Bacterial translocation significantly increased in group 2 compared to groups 3, 4 and 5 (P = 0.001). The bacterial counts (CFU/g) of group 2 were significantly higher than those of groups 3, 4 and 5 (P = 0.001). Histopathological examination of ileum specimens revealed a significant decrease in the heights of villi in groups 2–5 compared to the sham-operated group (P = 0.001). The mean villus height in groups 3 and 5 was significantly higher than that of group 4 (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS S. boulardii was found to be effective in the successful control of translocation and improvement of intestinal barrier function. PMID:16551414

  20. Cost-effectiveness of preoperative biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice in pancreatic and periampullary cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Stephen; Gurusamy, Kurinchi S.; Sheringham, Jessica; Davidson, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Background A recent Cochrane Review found that preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) in patients with resectable pancreatic and periampullary cancer undergoing surgery for obstructive jaundice is associated with similar mortality but increased serious morbidity compared with no PBD. Despite this clinical evidence of its lack of effectiveness, PBD is still in use. We considered the economic implications of PBD versus direct surgery for obstructive jaundice in patients with pancreatic and periampullary cancer. Materials and methods Model-based cost-utility analysis estimating mean costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per patient from the perspective of the UK National Health Service over a 6-month time horizon. A decision tree model was constructed and populated with probabilities, outcomes, and cost data from published sources. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were undertaken. Results PBD was more costly than direct surgery (mean cost per patient £10,775 [$15,616] versus £8221 [$11,914]) and produced fewer QALYs (mean QALYs per patient 0.337 versus 0.343). Not performing PBD would result in cost savings of approximately £2500 ($3623) per patient to the National Health Service. PBD had <10% probability of being cost-effective at a maximum willingness to pay for a QALY of £20,000 ($28,986) to £30,000 ($43,478). Conclusions There are significant cost savings to be gained by avoiding routine PBD in patients with resectable pancreatic and periampullary cancer where PBD is still routinely used in this context; this economic evidence should be used to support the clinical argument for a change in practice. PMID:25172090

  1. The protective effects of pomegranate on liver and remote organs caused by experimental obstructive jaundice model.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, E E; Arikanoğlu, Z; Turkoğlu, A; Kiliç, E; Yüksel, H; Gümüş, M

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the protective potential of pomegranate extract on the liver and remote organs in rats with obstructive jaundice. The rats were split into 4 groups. In Group 1 (G1) (sham group) rats, the common bile duct was mobilized without any ligation. Group 2 (G2) received a combination of the sham operation and synchronous treatment with pomegranate. Group 3 (G3) received common bile duct ligation (CBDL). Group 4 (G4) were subjected to CBDL and treatment with pomegranate. After 8 days, we measured total oxidative status (TOS) and antioxidant capacity in the rats' liver tissue and remote organs, and evaluated blood levels of malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). G3 rats showed significantly raised malondialdehyde level as compared to G1 rats (p < 0.001). Following the pomegranate therapy, a decrease in malondialdehyde was observed (p = 0.015). TAC levels were significantly raised in the G3 rats compared to the G1 rats (p = 0.004). TAC levels dropped after pomegranate therapy (p = 0.011). CBDL caused elevated TOS levels in the liver and remote organs, with a statistically significant increase in the lung tissue (p = 0.002). TOS levels in the CBDL groups decreased after pomegranate treatment (p < 0.001). This study reveals the marked protective effect of pomegranate on the liver and remote organs in obstructive jaundice.

  2. [Phytobezoar in the common hepatic duct - rare cause of obstructive jaundice following pancreatoduodenectomy: case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Garlipp, B; Schulz, H-U; Böttcher, S; Lemke, A; Meyer, F; Lippert, H

    2012-11-01

    Obstruction of bile flow following pancreatoduodenectomy can be caused by stenosis of the hepaticojejunostomy created at the time of surgery, obstruction of the bile-draining jejunal loop, stones or, very rarely, ingested foreign bodies in the common hepatic duct. In analogy with endoscopic sphincterotomy or the once popular side-to-side-choledochduodenostomy, the creation of a hepaticojejunostomy eliminates the barrier of the sphincter Oddi, enabling intestinal content such as ingested foreign bodies or food fibers to migrate into the bile duct. We report on the case of a patient developing biliary tract obstruction due to fibrous material in the common hepatic duct 15 years after pancreatoduodenectomy. In addition, an overview of the literature on the rare phenomenon of foreign body-associated obstructive jaundice is given. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Preoperative Biliary Stenting on Patients With Obstructive Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chengyi; Yan, Guirong; Li, Zhiming; Tzeng, Chi-Meng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The goal of this study was to systematically review the effects of biliary stenting on postoperative morbidity and mortality of patients with obstructive jaundice. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and other relevant databases were searched by computer and manually for published and unpublished studies on the impact of preoperative biliary drainage on patients with obstructive jaundice from 2000 to the present day. Two investigators independently selected the studies according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted the data, and assessed the quality of the selected studies. Meta-analysis was performed to compare postoperative morbidity and mortality of patients between the drainage and nondrainage groups. Compared with the nondrainage group, the overall mortality, overall morbidity, infectious morbidity, incidence of wound infection, intra-abdominal abscess, pancreatic fistulas, bile leak, and delayed gastric emptying in the drainage group were not significantly different. Compared with the nondrainage group, the drainage group had a drainage time of <4 weeks with an increased overall morbidity by 7% to 23%; however, the overall morbidity of the drainage group with a drainage time >4 weeks was not significantly different. Compared with the nondrainage group, the overall mortality of the drainage group using metal stents and plastic stents as internal drainage devices was reduced by 0.5% to 6%, whereas that of the drainage group using plastic stent devices was not significantly different. In summary, preoperative drainage should be applied selectively. The drainage time should be >4 weeks, and metal stents should be used for internal drainage. PMID:25474436

  4. A case of jaundice of obscure origin.

    PubMed

    Khan, Fahad M; Alcorn, Joseph; Hanson, Joshua

    2014-05-01

    Idiopathic painless jaundice with significant elevations in serum transaminases, occurring in a previously healthy patient, invokes a circumscribed set of possibilities including viral hepatitis, auto-immune hepatitis (AIH) and drug-induced liver injury (DILI). In this described case, common causes of cholestatic jaundice were considered including drug-induced liver injury, viral causes of hepatitis, and auto-immune antibodies. Biliary obstruction was excluded by appropriate imaging studies. Liver biopsy was obtained, though not definitive. After detailed investigation failed to reveal a cause of the jaundice, an empiric trial of steroids was initiated on the possibility that our patient had antibody-negative AIH and not DILI, with an associated grave prognosis. Empiric treatment with prednisone led to rapid resolution of jaundice and to the conclusion that the correct diagnosis was antibody-negative AIH.

  5. CT vs. MRCP in choledocholithiasis jaundice.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, I; Bratu, A M; Petrescu, S; Popa, B V; Cristian, D; Burcos, T

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive jaundice can raise problems to diagnostic imaging. The radiologist must choose the most appropriate examination that delivers the most important diagnostic information because the differences between a lithiasic obstruction and a tumoral one are vital. This information helps the surgeon speed up the process of decision-making, because the treatment may be very different in relation to the nature of the obstruction. This study tries to demonstrate the diagnostic accuracy of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in detecting the obstacle in the common bile duct (CBD) and the possibility of establishing the lithiasic nature of the obstruction. A retrospective analysis was analyzed during an interval of 18 months that included jaundice patients admitted in the General Surgery Department of "Coltea" Clinical Hospital. They were examined by CT scanning and by MRCP, being suspected of choledocholithiasis. 63 patients were included in the study, 34 females and 29 males. 33 CT scans and 30 MRCP exams were performed. CT scan is useful in detecting residual or iterative choledocholithiasis in patients after cholecystectomy, contrast enhanced CT (CECT), being able to differentiate between lithiasic and non-lithiasic obstruction. MRCP delivers important anatomic details of the biliary tree; it is superior to CT in diagnosing the hepatocholedochal lithiasis; MRCP tends to replace endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)--the diagnostic "gold standard" reducing the number of unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures.

  6. Evaluation of Jaundice in Adults.

    PubMed

    Fargo, Matthew V; Grogan, Scott P; Saguil, Aaron

    2017-02-01

    Jaundice in adults can be an indicator of significant underlying disease. It is caused by elevated serum bilirubin levels in the unconjugated or conjugated form. The evaluation of jaundice relies on the history and physical examination. The initial laboratory evaluation should include fractionated bilirubin, a complete blood count, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, ?-glutamyltransferase, prothrombin time and/or international normalized ratio, albumin, and protein. Imaging with ultrasonography or computed tomography can differentiate between extrahepatic obstructive and intrahepatic parenchymal disorders. Ultrasonography is the least invasive and least expensive imaging method. A more extensive evaluation may include additional cancer screening, biliary imaging, autoimmune antibody assays, and liver biopsy. Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia occurs with increased bilirubin production caused by red blood cell destruction, such as hemolytic disorders, and disorders of impaired bilirubin conjugation, such as Gilbert syndrome. Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia occurs in disorders of hepatocellular damage, such as viral and alcoholic hepatitis, and cholestatic disorders, such as choledocholithiasis and neoplastic obstruction of the biliary tree.

  7. Current Status of Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage in Palliation of Malignant Obstructive Jaundice: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chandrashekhara, SH; Gamanagatti, S; Singh, Anuradha; Bhatnagar, Sushma

    2016-01-01

    Malignancies leading to obstructive jaundice present too late to perform surgery with a curative intent. Due to inexorably progressing hyperbilirubinemia with its consequent deleterious effects, drainage needs to established even in advanced cases. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are widely used palliative procedures each with its own merits and lacunae. With the current state-of-the-art PTBD technique consequent upon procedural and hardware improvement, it is equaling ERCP regarding technical success and complications. In addition, there is a reduction in immediate procedure-related mortality with proven survival benefit. Nonetheless, it is the only imminent lifesaving procedure in cholangitis and sepsis. PMID:27803558

  8. [Comparison of the therapeutic effects of PTBD and PTBS in treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice].

    PubMed

    Bai, Ai-Guo; Zheng, Chuan-Sheng; Zhou, Guo-Feng; Liang, Hui-Min; Feng, Gan-Sheng

    2010-06-01

    To summarize and compare the short-term and long-term clinical efficacy of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and percutaneous transhepatic biliary stent (PTBS) in the treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice. 210 cases of malignant obstructive jaundice underwent interventional therapy, of which 161 cases of drainage catheters placement and 49 cases of metallic stent implantation. Follow-up information was obtained through telephone review or check-up records. The technical success rate of technique was 100%. At 3 - 5 days after treatment, the serum total bilirubin in 15 metallic stent-treated patients was decreased by (178.04 +/- 42.32) micromol/L, and direct bilirubin by (83.97 +/- 23.63) micromol/L. Compared with those of 28 cases treated with drainage catheters: (95.67 +/- 34.28) micromol/L and (49.84 +/- 28.21) micromol/L, there were statistically significant differences between the two groups (P = 0.017 and P = 0.035). At 6 - 9 days after treatment, the serum total bilirubin in 28 cases of metallic stent group was decreased by (188.22 +/- 79.90) micromol/L, and that in 126 cases of drainage catheter group decreased by (141.39 +/- 65.32) micromol/L. The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.014). But the decline value of direct bilirubin had no significant difference. The median patency period and the median survival time of the drainage catheter group were 60 and 148 days, respectively, those of metallic stent group were 197 days and 245 days. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups (P < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that the short-term and long-term efficacies of metallic stent implantation are better than those of catheter drainage technique.

  9. Obstructive Jaundice as an Uncommon Manifestation of Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Budimir, Ivan; Sabol Pusic, Mateja; Nikolic, Marko; Dorosulic, Zdravko; Ljubicic, Neven; Stajduhar, Emil; Mise, Ivana; Vazdar, Ljubica; Sarcevic, Bozena

    2015-02-01

    Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer and accounts for about 70-85% of all invasive breast carcinomas. It primarily metastasizes to the bone, lungs, regional lymph nodes, liver and brain. Most of breast cancer recurrence occurs within the first 5 years of diagnosis, particularly for ER negative disease. Gastrointestinal tract involvement is very rare and is detected in only 10% of all the cases, and it usually derives from lobular breast cancer rather than the much more common cell type of ductal breast cancer. Early diagnosis is very important because it enables prompt and adequate choice of treatment and improves patient's long-term prognosis. In this report we describe an unusual case of obstructive jaundice caused by metastases from invasive ductal breast cancer to the lymph nodes of the hepatoduodenal ligament with extramural compression of the distal common bile duct and tumor invasion to the lumen of the duct. Our goal is to emphasize possible diagnostic pitfalls and increase the clinical awareness and the importance of intensive follow-up in patients with breast cancer, even years after the initial diagnosis.

  10. Effect of Obstructive Jaundice and Nitric Oxide on the Profiles of Intestinal Bacterial Flora in Wild and iNOS−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ji-Young; F. Sato, Eisuke; Nishikawa, Tomoko; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Inoue, Masayasu

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported that the plasma level of endotoxin and colonic expression of IgA in the mouse increased with obstructive jaundice induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). To elucidate the mechanism of the BDL-induced increase, we analyzed the effect of BDL on intestinal flora in wild type and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)-deficient mice (iNOS−/−) using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) and 16S rDNA clone libraries. The amounts of bacterial DNA detected in fecal samples from both animal groups pretreated with antibiotics were extremely low as compared with untreated groups. We found that the profiles of enteric bacteria changed markedly after BDL. The bacterial composition is significantly different between not only wild type and iNOS−/− mice but also those before and after BDL, respectively. Among enteric bacteria examined, Lactobacillus murinus was found to increase markedly after BDL in rectum of both animal groups. However, Escherichia coli markedly increased after BDL in the iNOS−/− mice. These findings suggest that profiles of enteric flora change markedly in animals during obstructive jaundice by some mechanism that is affected by bile constituents and iNOS-derived NO. PMID:19308270

  11. [A case of groove pancreatitis (segmental form) presented with obstructive jaundice associated with pancreatobiliary maljunction].

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Kiyoshi; Ito, Takaaki; Kaburagi, Daisuke; Arai, Riki; Maruyama, Hideki; Naganuma, Atsushi; Kato, Kenji

    2008-09-01

    A 52-year-old-man was admitted to our hospital for obstructive jaundice. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangio drainage (PTCD) and endscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were performed, and pointed out stenosis of lower common bile duct (CBD) and pancreatobiliary maljunction. Brushing cytology of this lesion was negative for malignancy. CT and MRI revealed chronic inflammatory change in groove lesion with no mass formation suggesting tumor. So we diagnosed groove pancreatitis (segmental form) associated with pancreatobiliary maljunction, and operation (resection of the bile duct and biliary reconstruction by Roux-en-Y) was done. Resected specimen was revealed stenosis of the bile duct formed by fibrous tissue with no malignancy compatible to groove pancreatitis pathologically. This is first reported case of groove pancreatits associated with pancreatobiliary maljunction.

  12. Bare-metal stents across the Vater's ampulla is a safe method for patients with lower bile duct obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiao-Nan; Lu, Zai-Ming; Wen, Feng; Liang, Hong-Yuan; Guo, Qi-Yong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study explored the effect of the implant position of stents across the Vater's ampulla on treatment outcomes in patients with lower bile duct obstruction. In the retrospective study, 41 patients with malignant obstruction of the lower bile duct and obstructive jaundice received percutaneous transhepatic biliary placement of bare-metal stents. Basic demographic data on patients, such as sex, age, and primary diseases, and follow-up data, including postoperative complications and jaundice-free survival, were recorded. The follow-up data on patients with an involved ampulla, patients with an uninvolved ampulla, patients with a stent across the ampulla, and patients with a stent at a site other than the ampulla were compared. Furthermore, prognostic factors for jaundice- free survival were investigated using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Among the 41 patients, 38 patients experienced subsiding of jaundice, whereas 3 cases had unsuccessful stent patency. Whether or not the ampulla was involved did not influence the incidence rates of postoperative complications and the jaundice-free survival time. Notably, when stents were placed across the ampulla, the jaundice-free survival time was significantly longer than when stents were placed at sites other than across the ampulla (P < .05). Furthermore, placement of the stent across the ampulla or at other sites was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio = 0.154, 95% confidence interval 0.042–0.560, P = .005) for jaundice-free survival of patients. The current study revealed that the implant position of a stent across the ampulla resulted in maintenance of stent patency and prolongation of the jaundice-free survival time. PMID:29137005

  13. [Case report: a recurrent gastric cancer in the terminal stage, associated with obstructive jaundice which responded significantly to oral administration of TS-1].

    PubMed

    Tasaka, K; Tomofuzi, Y; Sugihara, Z; Fukuda, H

    2001-10-01

    TS-1, a novel oral formation of 5-fluorouracil that consists of 1M tegafur (5-FU), 0.4M CDHP and 1M Oxo, is reported to achieve a higher response rate of 49% in patients with advanced gastric cancer in a late phase II study. We report a case of recurrent gastric cancer that responded significantly to the short-term administration of TS-1. A 73-year-old man, who had undergone a curative distal gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy 2 years earlier, had presented with obstructive jaundice resulting from cancerous lymphadenopathy. PTCD was performed for drainage, but cholestasis disappeared completely through the two courses of oral administration of TS-1. The serum level of transaminase and bilirubin remained within normal limits, even with PTCD unequipped, until the patient died of the original disease. The adverse effects observed with the drug were anemia (grade 1) and skin pigmentation (grade 2), both of which improved soon after discontinuing the medication. In conclusion, TS-1 may be well-tolerable and effective in some cases of terminal-stage and/or recurrent gastric cancer, especially those associated with obstructive jaundice arising from the cancerous lymphadenopathy, in that patient QOL can be maintained to a much greater extent.

  14. [Long-term treatment results and quality of life of the patients, operated on the reason of chronic pancreatitis, complicated by the obstructive jaundice].

    PubMed

    Gagua, A K; Zagaĭnov, V E; Evtikhova, E Iu

    2013-01-01

    Methods of surgical treatment of the patients, operated on the reason of chronic pancreatitis, complicated by the obstructive jaundice, were comparatively analyzed. 25 patients received pancreatoduodenal resection, 19 patients had the Bern variant of Beger operation. The quality of life was assessed with the use of MOS-SF-36. The duodenum preserving resection of the head of the pancreas showed better long-term results then pancreatoduodenal resection. Those patients, who received biliodigestive anastomosis as the basic operation, showed no good results at all.

  15. [Long-Term Multidisciplinary Therapy for Multiple Liver Metastases from Colorectal Cancer with Biliary Drainage for Occlusive Jaundice--A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Okamura, Shu; Mikami, Koji; Murata, Kohei; Nushijima, Yoichirou; Okada, Kazuyuki; Yanagisawa, Tetsu; Fukuchi, Nariaki; Ebisui, Chikara; Yokouchi, Hideoki; Kinuta, Masakatsu

    2015-11-01

    Here, we report the case of a 43-year-old man who was diagnosed with sigmoid colon cancer with synchronous multiple liver metastases following resection of a primary lesion. Subsequent mFOLFOX+BV therapy elicited a marked response in the liver metastases, which led to the patient undergoing hepatic (S7) radiofrequency ablation (RFA), hepatic resection (lateral segmentectomy and partial [S5] resection), and cholecystectomy. Six months later, transluminal RFA was repeated because liver (S7) metastasis recurred, and 8 courses of XELOX plus BV therapy were administered. As obstructive jaundice due to recurrence of the liver metastases developed after a 6 months hiatus in chemotherapy, we endoscopically inserted a biliary stent. Despite reducing IRIS plus BV therapy, obstructive jaundice developed again, and 3 intrahepatic biliary stents were inserted with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. To date, the patient has been alive for 4 years since the initial resection of the primary lesion after undergoing consecutive systemic chemotherapy with different regimens. Some studies have shown that in cases of obstructive jaundice caused by advanced gastrointestinal cancer, longer survival could be expected by reducing the severity of jaundice, suggesting that resuming chemotherapy as well as improving the severity of jaundice could contribute to better outcomes. The patient in the present case was successfully treated twice with biliary drainage for occlusive jaundice and chemotherapy, suggesting that a combination of multidisciplinary therapy and adequate local therapy such as biliary drainage could be important for the treatment of metastatic liver cancer.

  16. Jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    Conditions associated with jaundice; Yellow skin and eyes; Skin - yellow; Icterus; Eyes - yellow; Yellow jaundice ... over time. Symptoms of jaundice commonly include: Yellow skin and the white part of the eyes (sclera) -- ...

  17. Role of biliary tract cytology in the evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mamta; Pai, Radha R.; Dileep, Devi; Gopal, Sandeep; Shenoy, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic evaluation is critical in assessing the cause of obstructive jaundice. Cytological techniques including bile aspiration and biliary brushings have become the initial diagnostic modality. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of endoscopic biliary tract cytology as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice. Materials and Methods: A total of 56 biliary tract specimens including 34 bile aspirations and 22 biliary brushings from 41 consecutive patients who had presented with obstructive jaundice and underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were assessed by cytological examination. The smears prepared were analyzed for standard cytological features. Results: Cytologic diagnosis was adenocarcinoma in 13 (31.7%) cases, atypical in 2 (4.9%), reactive in 3 (7.3%) and benign changes in 19 (46.3%) cases. 4 (9.8%) cases were non-diagnostic. Serum bilirubin was significantly elevated in the malignant group. Biliary stricture was the most common finding on ERCP (68.3%). On cytological examination, presence of solitary, intact atypical cells, enlarged nuclei, irregular nuclear membrane, coarse chromatin and nucleoli were important cytologic criteria for differentiating malignant from benign biliary specimens. Conclusions: Regular use of bile cytology and brushings during ERCP evaluation of extrahepatic cholestatic jaundice is invaluable in obtaining a morphologic diagnosis. A systematic approach, use of strict cytomorphologic criteria and inclusion of significant atypia as malignant diagnosis may improve the sensitivity. PMID:24130407

  18. Jaundice as a Rare Indication for Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

    PubMed

    Rieß, Henrik C; Tsilimparis, Nikolaos; Behrendt, Christian A; Wipper, Sabine; Debus, Eike S; Larena-Avellaneda, Axel

    2015-10-01

    Compression of adjacent anatomic structures by an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) can result in a variety of symptoms. We describe the case of an 88-year-old Caucasian woman with jaundice, elevated laboratory parameters for extrahepatic and intrahepatic cholestasis, and concomitant juxtarenal AAA compressing the liver hilum. Following exclusion of other common causes for cholestasis, the patient was considered to have a symptomatic AAA. Open abdominal aortic surgery revealed a contained rupture and was repaired. Obstructive jaundice secondary to a compromising AAA is a rare condition and to the best of our knowledge has not been reported to date. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. HDR-192Ir intraluminal brachytherapy in treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Xiao-Lin; Yan, Zhi-Ping; Cheng, Jie-Min; Wang, Jian-Hua; Gong, Gao-Quan; Qian, Sheng; Luo, Jian-Jun; Liu, Qing-Xin

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the feasibility and safety of intraluminal brachytherapy in treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice (MOJ) and to evaluate the clinical effect of intraluminal brachytherapy on stent patency and patient survival. METHODS: Thirty-four patients with MOJ were included in this study. Having biliary stent placed, all patients were classified into intraluminal brachytherapy group (group A, n = 14) and control group (group B, n = 20) according to their own choice. Intraluminal brachytherapy regimen included: HDR-192Ir was used in the therapy, fractional doses of 4-7 Gy were given every 3-6 d for 3-4 times, and standard points were established at 0.5-1.0 cm. Some patients of both groups received transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) after stent placement. RESULTS: In group A, the success rate of intraluminal brachytherapy was 98.0%, RTOG grade 1 acute radiation morbidity occurred in 3 patients, RTOG/EORTC grade 1 late radiation morbidity occurred in 1 patient. Mean stent patency of group A (12.6 mo) was significantly longer than that of group B (8.3 mo) (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the mean survival (9.4 mo vs 6.0 mo) between the two groups. CONCLUSION: HDR-192Ir intraluminal brachytherapy is a safe palliative therapy in treating MOJ, and it may prolong stent patency and has the potentiality of extending survival of patients with MOJ. PMID:15526374

  20. The “jaundice hotline” for the rapid assessment of patients with jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jonathan; Hussaini, Hyder; McGovern, Dermot; Farrow, Richard; Maskell, Giles; Dalton, Harry

    2002-01-01

    Problem Patients with jaundice require rapid diagnosis and treatment, yet such patients are often subject to delay. Design An open referral, rapid access jaundice clinic was established by reorganisation of existing services and without the need for significant extra resources. Background and setting A large general hospital in a largely rural and geographically isolated area. Key measures for improvement Waiting times for referral, consultation, diagnosis, and treatment, length of stay in hospital, and general practitioners' and patients' satisfaction with the service. Strategies for change Referrals were made through a 24 hour telephone answering machine and fax line. Initial assessment of patients was carried out by junior staff as part of their working week. Dedicated ultrasonography appointments were made available. Effects of change Of 107 patients seen in the first year of the service, 62 had biliary obstruction. The mean time between referral and consultation was 2.5 days. Patients who went on to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography waited 5.7 days on average. The mean length of stay in hospital in the 69 patients who were admitted was 6.1 days, compared with 11.5 days in 1996, as shown by audit data. Nearly all the 36 general practices (95%) and the 30 consecutive patients (97%) that were surveyed rated the service as above average or excellent. Lessons learnt An open referral, rapid access service for patients with jaundice can shorten time to diagnosis and treatment and length of stay in hospital. These improvements can occur through the reorganisation of existing services and with minimal extra cost. PMID:12142314

  1. The ultrastructural research of liver in experimental obstructive jaundice and effect of honey.

    PubMed

    Kilicoglu, Bulent; Gencay, Cem; Kismet, Kemal; Serin Kilicoglu, Sibel; Erguder, Imge; Erel, Serap; Sunay, Asli Elif; Erdemli, Esra; Durak, Ilker; Akkus, Mehmet Ali

    2008-02-01

    To examine the effects of honey on oxidative stress and apoptosis in experimental obstructive jaundice model. Thirty rats were divided into 3 groups: group I, sham-operated; group II, ligation and division of the common bile duct (BDL); group III, BDL followed by oral supplementation of honey 10 g/kg/d. Liver samples were examined under light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Hepatocyte apoptosis was quantitated using the terminal deoxy-nucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Plasma and blood malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutation activities were measured for determining the oxidative stress. The liver levels of MDA and GSH were significantly different between the honey and BDL groups (P = .006 and .001, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between the plasma MDA and GSH levels of these groups (P > .05). In group III, significant reductions in the size of enlarged hepatocytes and the edema were demonstrated. The dilatation of the bile canaliculi dramatically turned to original dimention. By TUNEL assay, it was shown that administration of honey decreased the number of apoptotic cells. In the present study, we found that honey diminished the negative effects of BDL on the hepatic ultrastructure. We conclude that this effect might be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

  2. The effects of somatostatin and ursodeoxycholic acid in preventing the ischemic injury of the liver following Pringle maneuver in obstructive jaundice-rat model.

    PubMed

    Pergel, Ahmet; Zengin, Kagan; Cercel, Ali; Aki, Hilal; Kaya, Safiye

    2007-01-01

    In our study, the effects of somatostatin (SS) and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on ischemic liver injury were studied in (obstructive) jaundice-rat model. For this purpose, jaundice was produced in the first four groups by binding of their choleducts. We performed just laparotomy to the other four groups of animals. To groups 1 and 5, SS was given 15 mcg/kg/day intraperitoneally, and to groups 2 and 6, UDCA was given 20 mg/kg/day enterally. No drugs were given to any other group. At the end of one week, a procedure with ischemia of the liver for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion for 2 hours, was performed to each rat except for groups 4 and 8. Following this procedure, they were sacrificed. The blood samples were taken to measure SGOT, SGPT, ALP, LDH, total and direct bilirubin levels, while liver biopsies were taken for histopathological evaluation. Under normothermic conditions, following 60-minute liver ischemia period, no irreversible histopathological changes were detected. However, increases in liver necrosis parameters were noted biochemically. SS and UDCA were thought to be effective in preventing the injury by decreasing the liver enzymes levels to a significant degree. The damage of the hepatic ischemic injury was found to be more meaningful and prominent in liver with jaundice. In this study, it was noted that SS and UDCA decrease the effects of cholestatic hepatic injury especially and improve the condition.

  3. Jaundice and breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    Hyperbilirubinemia - breast milk; Breast milk jaundice; Breastfeeding failure jaundice ... first few days of life. It is called "breastfeeding failure jaundice," "breast-non-feeding jaundice," or even " ...

  4. The study on clinical value of the detection about serum and Unconjugated Bilirubin in diagnosis of neonatal jaundice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangzhou; Wang, Jiefei; Huang, Nannan; Yu, Fengqin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the clinical value of the detection about serum and unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) in neonatal jaundice was studied to found an effective and rapid method for diagnose of neonatal jaundice. ALB (Serum Albumin), total serum bilirubin (TSB) and UCB were detected by ELISA method among the 100 cases with neonatal jaundice selected for the study. The values of ALB, UCB and TSB in moderate jaundice patients were (42.83±3.87) g/L, (287.35±44.38) μm/L, (304.16±43.40) μm/L, respectively; as for the severe jaundice patients, the values were (38.41±4.82) g/L, (354.38±48.75) μm/L, (375.20±47.51) μm/L. The results showed significant differences with the p< 0.05 between moderate and severe jaundice patients. The level of ALB, UCB, TSB in hemolytic jaundice, obstructive jaundice and jaundice caused by other infections also had significant differences, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The detection of ALB and UCB provides a useful method for the diagnosis and assessment of neonatal jaundice.

  5. Influence of a Phototherapy Unit on Detection of Neonatal Jaundice and Hyperbilirubinemia

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Donald T.

    1984-01-01

    The introduction of a phototherapy unit in a rural community hospital resulted in a significant increase in the detection of neonatal jaundice and hyperbilirubinemia in otherwise healthy term infants. Jaundiced newborns who were either missed or ignored in the past were now identified and monitored. Both the number of breast-fed infants and the number of primiparous women delivered increased significantly after the unit was obtained. However, these factors alone did not account for the marked increase in the detection rate of jaundice and hyperbilirubinemia. A sub-population of 94 infants was selected to evaluate the clinical assessment of jaundice in the term infant. The accuracy rate for clinical assessment was 70%; 13.8% of newborns with serum bilirubins above 10 mg/dl (170 umol/L) were not identified clinically. PMID:21279119

  6. SU-E-T-315: Planning and Verification of CT-Based HDR Intraluminal Brachytherapy Treatment for Malignant Obstructive Jaundice.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, A; Lo, Y; Sheu, R; Dumane, V; Rosenzweig, K

    2012-06-01

    To present our experience using CT to plan and verify intraluminal HDR treatment for a patient with obstructive jaundice. Due to the obstruction's proximity to the small bowel, along with small bowel adhesions from past surgical history, it was imperative to verify source position relative to the bowel before each treatment. Treatment was administered to a total dose of 2000cGy in 5 fractions via a 6F intraluminal catheter inserted into the patient's 14F percutaneous drainage catheter. Graduations on the intraluminal catheter were used to measure the exact length of catheter inserted in to the patient's drainage tube allowing reproducibility. Dummy seeds inserted during CT were identified by iteratively aligning the planning system's 3D reconstruction axis to the catheter at multiple points as it snaked through the liver. Taking in to account the known offset between actual dwell positions and dummy source positions, we determined what dwell positions to activate for planning. CT verification was performed prior to each treatment to insure that the drainage catheter had not moved and that the distance from treatment site to small bowel was adequate. Dummy seeds and anatomical landmarks were identified on the scout image and correlated to the CT. Verification CTs showed remarkable consistency in the day-to-day drainage catheter position. The physician was able to easily identify the small bowel of concern on the CT and determine if a safe distance existed for treatment. The method outlined in this work provides a safe means by which to treat bile duct obstructions using HDR when critical structures are nearby. We were prepared to make real-time adjustments to our treatment plan to account for significant variation, but found it unnecessary to do so in this particular case. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  7. Can red cell distribution width help to discriminate benign from malignant biliary obstruction? A retrospective single center analysis.

    PubMed

    Beyazit, Yavuz; Kekilli, Murat; Ibis, Mehmet; Kurt, Mevlut; Sayilir, Abdurrahim; Onal, Ibrahim Koral; Purnak, Tugrul; Oztas, Erkin; Tas, Adnan; Yesil, Yusuf; Arhan, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Differentiation of benign obstructive jaundice from malignant obstructive jaundice still remains difficult, despite improvements in diagnostic modalities. The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of red cell distribution width (RDW) in differentiating benign and malignant causes of obstructive jaundice. One hundred and ninety four consecutive patients (101 malignant, 93 benign) with a history of obstructive jaundice were reviewed in the period between January 2008 and August 2009. Definition of biliary strictures was suggested by cholangiographic features and supported by brush cytology, fine needle aspiration (FNA) and the presence of mass or metastases by imaging and/or clinical followup. Patients were divided into two groups, benign and malignant, based on the discharge diagnosis. The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that a RDW of 14.8% was the best cut-off value for predicting a malignant biliary stricture with a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 69% (AUC=0.755, 95% CI=0.649-0.810). RDW was increased (>14.8%) in 31.6% of benign cases and 68.4% of malignancies. Depressed RDW levels (<14.8%) were found in 72.9% of benign cases and 27.1% of malignancies, which was statistically significant (p<0.001). Our results show that RDW is useful in the differentiation of benign from malignant causes of biliary obstruction when using an optimized cut-off value. In patients in whom biliary obstruction is suspected, an elevated RDW value may be a reliable additional predictor for differentiating the underlying etiology of biliary obstruction.

  8. Fluorescein-related extensive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Kalkan, Asim; Turedi, Suleyman; Aydin, Ibrahim

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescein is a chemical dye frequently used in eye diseases to assess blood flow in the retina, choroid tissue, and iris. Although it has many known adverse effects, it has not previously been reported to lead to jaundice. The purpose of this case report was to emphasize that for patients presenting at the emergency department with jaundice symptoms, it should not be forgotten by emergency physicians that jaundice can develop after fluorescein angiography. Case: A 65-year-old woman presented at the emergency department with extensive jaundice that had developed on her entire body a few hours after fluorescein angiography applied because of vision impairment. The test results for all the diseases considered to cause jaundice were normal,and fluorescein-related jaundice was diagnosed. Conclusion: A detailed anamnesis should be taken when jaundice is seen in patients who have undergone fluorescein angiography, and it should not be forgotten that fluorescein dye is a rare cause of jaundice.

  9. Newborn jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    Jaundice of the newborn; Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia; Bili lights - jaundice; Infant - yellow skin; Newborn - yellow skin ... lasts 1 to 2 days. Sometimes, special blue lights are used on infants whose levels are very ...

  10. Jaundice (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Jaundice is a condition produced when excess amounts of bilirubin circulating in the blood stream dissolve in ... the eyes. With the exception of normal newborn jaundice in the first week of life, all other ...

  11. Jaundice causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... membranes, or eyes. The yellow color comes from bilirubin, a byproduct of old red blood cells. Jaundice ... or pancreas. Jaundice can occur when too much bilirubin builds up in the body. This may happen ...

  12. Comparison of covered and uncovered self-expandable stents in the treatment of malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Flores Carmona, Diana Yamel; Alonso Lárraga, Juan Octavio; Hernández Guerrero, Angélica; Ramírez Solís, Mauro Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Drainage with metallic stents is the treatment of choice in malignant obstructive jaundice. Technical and clinical success with metallic stents is obtained in over 90% and 80% of cases, respectively. There are self-expandable metallic stents designed to increase permeability. The aim of this study was to describe the results obtained with totally covered self-expandable and uncovered self-expandable metallic stents in the palliative treatment of malignant biliary obstruction. Sixty eight patients with malignant obstructive jaundice secondary to pancreatobiliary or metastatic disease not amenable to surgery were retrospectively included. Two groups were created: group A (covered self-expandable metallic stents) (n = 22) and group B (uncovered self-expandable metallic stents) (n = 46). Serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase levels decreased in both groups and no statistically significant difference was detected (p = 0.800, p = 0.190, p = 0.743, p = 0.521). Migration was greater with covered stents but it was not statistically significant either (p = 0.101). Obstruction was greater in the group with uncovered stents but it was not statistically significant either (p = 0.476). There are no differences when using covered self-expandable stents or uncovered self-expandable stents in terms of technical and clinical success or complications in the palliative treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice.

  13. Jaundice in the newborns.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Satish; Agarwal, Ramesh; Deorari, Ashok K; Paul, Vinod K

    2008-02-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is the commonest morbidity in the neonatal period and 5-10% of all newborns require intervention for pathological jaundice. Neonates on exclusive breast-feeding have a different pattern and degree of jaundice as compared to artificially fed babies. Latest guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) for management of jaundice in a normal term newborn have been included in the protocol. Separate guidelines have been provided for the management of jaundice in sick term babies, preterm and low birth weight babies, for hemolytic jaundice and prolonged hyperbilirubinemia.

  14. Palliation double stenting for malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, LIANG; XU, HAITAO; ZHANG, YUBAO

    2016-01-01

    The surgical management of patients with malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction is complex. Tumor excision is no longer possible in the majority of patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and duodenal obstruction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of intraluminal dual stent placement in malignant biliary and duodenal obstruction. In total, 20 patients with malignant obstructive jaundice and duodenal obstruction, including 6 with pancreatic carcinoma, 11 with cholangiocarcinoma, 1 with duodenal carcinoma and 2 with abdominal lymph node metastasis, were treated with intraluminal stent placement. Bile duct obstruction with late occurrence of duodenal obstruction was observed in 16 cases, and duodenal obstruction followed by a late occurrence of bile duct obstruction was observed in 3 cases, while, in 1 case, bile duct obstruction and duodenal obstruction occurred simultaneously. After X-ray fluoroscopy revealed obstruction in the bile duct and duodenum, stents were placed into the respective lumens. Percutaneous transhepatic placement was employed for the biliary stent, while the duodenal stent was placed perioraly. The clinical outcomes, including complications associated with the procedures and patency of the stents, were evaluated. The biliary and duodenal stents were successfully implanted in 18 patients and the technical success rate was 90% (18/20). A total of 39 stents were implanted in 20 patients. In 2 cases, duodenal stent placement failed following biliary stent placement. Duodenal obstruction remitted in 15 patients, and 1 patient succumbed to aspiration pneumonia 5 days after the procedure. No severe complications were observed in any other patient. The survival time of the 18 patients was 5–21 months (median, 9.6 months), and 6 of those patients survived for >12 months. The present study suggests that X-ray fluoroscopy-guided intraluminal stent implantation is an effective procedure for the treatment of malignant

  15. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and intraductal radiofrequency ablation combined with biliary stent placement for malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Li, Teng-Fei; Huang, Guo-Hao; Li, Zhen; Hao, Chang-Fu; Ren, Jian-Zhuang; Duan, Xu-Hua; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Chen; Han, Xin-Wei; Jiao, De-Chao; Zhang, Meng-Fan; Wang, Yan-Li

    2015-05-01

    To determine the safety and feasibility of percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) and intraductal radiofrequency (RF) ablation combined with biliary stent placement for malignant biliary obstruction. Data from patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction who underwent PTC, intraductal RF ablation, and biliary stent placement (n = 12) or PTC and biliary stent placement only (control group; n = 14) were reviewed. Postoperative complications, jaundice remission, and stent patency were assessed. All procedures were successful. No severe complications (eg, biliary bleeding, perforation) occurred. Two experimental group patients developed cholangitis, which resolved with conservative treatment. The 1-week jaundice remission and 3-month stent patency rates were similar in both groups, but the 6-month stent patency rate was higher in the experimental group (P < .05). In the experimental group, one death occurred as a result of gastrointestinal hemorrhage (unrelated to stent placement) by 3 months, and there were two cases of recurrent jaundice by 6 months. The latter two patients underwent repeat PTC, ablation, and stent placement. In the control group, one death occurred as a result of hepatic failure caused by progressive jaundice at 3 months, and another death resulted from disseminated intravascular coagulation caused by jaundice recurrence at 138 days after stent placement. In addition, seven patients developed jaundice recurrence (50-151 d after stent placement). PTC and repeat stent placement were performed in these patients. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and intraductal RF ablation combined with biliary stent placement for malignant biliary obstruction is safe and feasible and effectively prolongs stent patency time. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neonatal jaundice and human milk.

    PubMed

    Soldi, Antonella; Tonetto, Paola; Varalda, Alessia; Bertino, Enrico

    2011-10-01

    Breastfeeding is linked both to a greater jaundice frequency and intensity in the first postnatal days ("breastfeeding jaundice") and to visible jaundice persisting beyond the first two weeks of life ("breast milk jaundice"), but the appearance of skin jaundice is not a reason for interrupting breastfeeding which can and should continue without any interruption in most cases. There have been numerous contributions to the literature, which have rescaled the direct role of breast milk, both in early jaundice and in the more severe cases of late jaundice. In fact, the reviewed guidelines for detection and management of hyperbilirubinemia underline, how prevention of badly managed breastfeeding and early support for the couple mother-child are effective prevention measures against severe early-onset jaundice; furthermore, the breastfeeding interruption is no longer recommended as a diagnostic procedure to identify breast milk jaundice because of its low specificity and the risk to disregarding the detection of a potentially dangerous disease.

  17. Jaundice in the newborn.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, R; Aggarwal, R; Deorari, A K; Paul, V K

    2001-10-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is the commonest morbidity in the neonatal period and 5-10% of all newborns require intervention for pathological jaundice. Neonates on exclusive breast-feeding have a different pattern of physiological jaundice as compared to artificially fed babies. Guidelines from American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) for management of jaundice in a normal term newborn have been included in the protocol. Separate guidelines have been provided for the management of jaundice in sick term babies, preterm and low birth weight babies, for jaundice secondary to hemolysis and for prolonged hyperbilirubinemia. Although hour specific bilirubin charts are available, these have to be validated in Indian infants before they are accepted for widespread use.

  18. Fine-needle aspiration findings of a rare hematopoietic neoplasm presenting as obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Tracht, Jessica; Ahmed, Ali M; Rosenblum Donath, Frida

    2017-12-01

    A 51-year-old female who presented with obstructive jaundice was found to have masses in the pancreatic head and tail as well as suspicious liver and periaortic masses on imaging. Aspiration cytology of the pancreatic tail mass showed abundant large single cells with vacuolated eosinophilic cytoplasm, marked nuclear pleomorphism, large bizarre irregular nuclei, binucleation, and prominent nucleoli. Numerous cells also showed intracytoplasmic black to brown pigmentation. A cell block was obtained and extensive immunohistochemical staining was performed. S-100, HMB-45, Sox10, pancytokeratin, CK7, RCC antigen, synaptophysin, HepPar 1, inhibin, CD45, CD21, and CD123 were negative, making melanoma, epithelial malignancies, lymphoma, follicular dendritic and plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms less likely. CD4 and CD56 showed partial positivity, and CD68, CD163, and CD14 were positive, supporting the diagnosis of histiocytic sarcoma. Surgical specimens and immunohistochemistry confirmed the cytologic findings. Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare aggressive malignancy of histiocytic origin with most cases presenting in adults in extranodal sites, most commonly the intestinal tract. Few cases are reported in the literature, presenting diagnostic challenges for cytopathologists when seen on fine-needle aspiration. We present the first reported case of histiocytic sarcoma presenting as a pancreatic mass, diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). This entity is rarely described on cytology and arose in a location in which EUS-FNA is the diagnostic modality of choice. This case study highlights that cytopathologists should be aware of histiocytic sarcoma occurring in extranodal locations accessible by EUS-FNA and be familiar with the cytomorphologic appearance. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Infant jaundice (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Jaundice is a yellow discoloring of the skin, mucous membranes, and eyes, caused by too much bilirubin ( ... hemoglobin made by the liver) in the blood. Jaundice is a condition produced when excess amounts of ...

  20. Influence of breast-feeding on weight loss, jaundice, and waste elimination in neonates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Fu; Hsu, Mei-Ching; Shen, Chin-Hua; Wang, Chun-Lung; Chang, Shou-Chin; Wu, Keng-Gu; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Chen, Shu-Jen

    2011-04-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative began promoting exclusive breast-feeding in 2001 in Taiwan; however, few studies have investigated its impact. This study evaluated the influence of breast-feeding on Taiwanese neonates with regard to the frequency of jaundice, body weight loss (BWL), and elimination of both urine and stool. The medical records of 313 healthy mother-neonate pairs admitted at our hospital were reviewed retrospectively and divided into three groups: exclusively breast-feeding (n=161), mixed (breast/formula) feeding (n=80), and exclusively formula feeding (n=72). Compared with the exclusively formula feeding group, in the exclusively breast-fed neonates, the average total serum bilirubin level at 3 days after birth (p < 0.001) and the rate of significant hyperbilirubinemia ≥ 15 mg/dL (p<0.05) were significantly higher; the average BWLs at 2 and 3 days after birth (p < 0.001, p < 0.001) and the rate of BWL ≥ 10% (p < 0.05) were significantly higher; the average frequency of stool passage at 2 and 3 days after birth (p < 0.001, p < 0.001) and urination at 1, 2, and 3 days after birth (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001) were significantly less. The factors associated with a mother's choice of infant feeding type include maternal age and delivery method. Breast-feeding during the initial days of life has a significant influence on the degree of jaundice, amount of BWL, and the frequency of stool passage and urination. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. [Jaundice and pathological liver values].

    PubMed

    Schwarzenbach, Hans-Rudolf

    2013-06-05

    Jaundice corresponds to elevated bilirubin- levels, whereat one has to distinguish between direct and indirect serum-bilirubin. In the present Mini Review causes and differential diagnosis of jaundice are outlined. Ultrasound-diagnostic plays a major role in identifying intrahepatic or extrahepatic jaundice. Attention is given to the differential diagnosis of elevated liver enzymes in presence of jaundice, pointing out the distinction between hepatocellular and cholestatic parameters as well as the differentiation in acute or chronic increase. Moreover, the consequences of liver enzyme elevations including further diagnostic procedures, are highlighted. Finally, possibilities and limitations of modern diagnostic tests for liver fibrosis are briefly overviewed.

  2. Early profound jaundice following blunt hepatic trauma: resolution after lobectomy--case report.

    PubMed

    Visner, S L; Helling, T S; Watkins, M

    1994-04-01

    The patient presented herein was seen and evaluated following a motor vehicle crash. Although hemodynamically stable, he was found to have a liver injury and orthopedic trauma. Following admission he developed rapidly deepening jaundice. Radiographic studies demonstrated biliary pooling in the left lobe without antegrade obstruction. After a left hepatic lobectomy steady improvement in his hyperbilirubinemia was seen. Despite our inability to identify a communication anatomically in the resected specimen, one explanation considered was a traumatic fistulization between a biliary radical and an hepatic vein.

  3. Branding to treat jaundice in India.

    PubMed

    John, Selva Inita; Balekuduru, Ainash; Zachariah, Uday; Eapen, C E; Chandy, George

    2009-01-01

    Jaundice is regarded as a mysterious disease rather than a symptom of disease in several parts of India. We describe 8 cases that underwent branding to treat jaundice and subsequently presented to our centre. The causes for jaundice in these patients included a variety of benign and malignant disorders. Our report suggests that despite being literate, strong cultural beliefs lead people to seek potentially harmful procedures like branding to treat jaundice in parts of India.

  4. Neonatal Jaundice Detection System.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Mustafa; Hardalaç, Fırat; Ural, Berkan; Karap, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a common condition that occurs in newborn infants in the first week of life. Today, techniques used for detection are required blood samples and other clinical testing with special equipment. The aim of this study is creating a non-invasive system to control and to detect the jaundice periodically and helping doctors for early diagnosis. In this work, first, a patient group which is consisted from jaundiced babies and a control group which is consisted from healthy babies are prepared, then between 24 and 48 h after birth, 40 jaundiced and 40 healthy newborns are chosen. Second, advanced image processing techniques are used on the images which are taken with a standard smartphone and the color calibration card. Segmentation, pixel similarity and white balancing methods are used as image processing techniques and RGB values and pixels' important information are obtained exactly. Third, during feature extraction stage, with using colormap transformations and feature calculation, comparisons are done in RGB plane between color change values and the 8-color calibration card which is specially designed. Finally, in the bilirubin level estimation stage, kNN and SVR machine learning regressions are used on the dataset which are obtained from feature extraction. At the end of the process, when the control group is based on for comparisons, jaundice is succesfully detected for 40 jaundiced infants and the success rate is 85 %. Obtained bilirubin estimation results are consisted with bilirubin results which are obtained from the standard blood test and the compliance rate is 85 %.

  5. Jaundice in the Hippocratic Corpus.

    PubMed

    Papavramidou, Niki; Fee, Elizabeth; Christopoulou-Aletra, Helen

    2007-12-01

    The Hippocratic physicians were among the first who described jaundice (icterus). The Hippocratic Corpus has numerous appearances of the condition, where its etiology, description, prognosis, and treatment are provided. The connection made between the liver and jaundice was remarkable, bearing in mind that the Hippocratic physicians had not performed dissections and that their medical views were based on observation. The Hippocratic doctors described five kinds of jaundice. The etiology was, as in most cases of diseases mentioned in the Hippocratic Corpus, "humoral" imbalance. The diagnosis and prognosis were based on the color of the skin, the urine, the feces, and several other factors, such as the season of the year during which the disease first appeared or the coexisting diseases. The treatment, finally, consisted of herbal medications, baths, diet, and blood-letting, depending on the type of jaundice in question. Finally, an attempt is made to correlate modern diseases with the Hippocratic types of jaundice.

  6. Thyrotoxic crisis presenting with jaundice.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, R D S S; Luke, W A N V; Sebastiampillai, B S; Gunathilake, M P M L; Premaratna, R

    2016-06-23

    Thyrotoxic crisis is a medical emergency requiring early diagnosis and urgent management, which can be challenging due to its diverse clinical presentations. While common presentations include fever, sweating, palpitations, tremors and confusion, presence of jaundice is rare. We report a 35-year-old male who presented with jaundice due to cholestasis along with other features of thyrotoxic crisis due to Graves' disease. He had a good clinical recovery with resolution of cholestasis following treatment for thyrotoxic crisis. Jaundice can be a rare manifestation of thyrotoxic crisis, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis when other clinical features of thyrotoxic crisis are present. However secondary causes of jaundice should be looked into and excluded.

  7. Jaundice in the full-term newborn.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shannon Munro

    2006-01-01

    Jaundice is a common problem affecting over half of all full-term and most preterm infants. Jaundice describes the yellow orange hue of the skin caused by excessive circulating levels of bilirubin that accumulate in the skin. In most healthy full-term newborns, jaundice is noticed during the first week of life. Shortened hospital stays and inconsistent follow up, especially for first-time breastfeeding mothers, prompted the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to update management guidelines. Health care providers need to be familiar with the diagnosis and management of jaundice to prevent brain, vision, and hearing damage. Treatment of choice for jaundice remains close observation and frequent feeding followed by phototherapy, and finally exchange transfusion for severe or refractory cases.

  8. [Development of transcutaneous jaundice predictor for the neonates].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pengzhi; Yuan, Hengxin; Tan, Zhifeng; Zhu, Guoping; Yi, Yongju

    2011-06-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a common neonatal disease. Severe jaundices lead to kernicterus that affects intellectual development of infants or even causes death. Timely and early prediction is vital to the treatment and prevention. This paper presents a jaundice predictor, which uses C8051F020 as the core of single-chip microcomputer (SCM) system with prediction algorithms proven by a large number of clinical trials. The jaundice predictor can reduce the incidence rate of jaundice, alleviate the condition of infants with jaundice, improve the quality of perinatal, with predicting pathologic neonatal jaundice effectively and calling attention to the prophylactic treatment. In addition, compared with the existing transcutaneous jaundice meters, the new predictor has a smaller size, a lighter weight, more user-friendly, and easier to use by hand-holding.

  9. [The 455th case: swollen leg, jaundice and mental disturbance].

    PubMed

    Dong, R; Weng, L; Guo, T; Zhu, T N; Zhao, J L; Wu, Q J; Zeng, X F

    2017-04-01

    A 17-year-old young man with a history of swollen leg and intermittent jaundice was presented to Peking Union Medical College Hospital with acute fever and mental disturbance. He developed deep venous thrombosis, acute myocardial infarction and plantar skin necrosis during the past four years, and was presented with an acute episode of fever, thrombocytopenia, acute kidney injury, acute myocardial infarction, mental disturbance, and obstructive jaundice. Laboratory tests showed schistocytes on peripheral blood smear.High titer of antiphospholipid antibodies was detected.Strikingly, the activity of a disintegrin and metalloprotease with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13 (ADAMTS13)was significantly decreased without the production of inhibitors. Images indicated stenosis of the common bile duct, common hepatic duct, and cystic duct, which caused dilation of bile ducts and the gall bladder. Corticosteroids and anticoagulation therapy were effective at first, but the disease relapsedonce the corticosteroids tapered down. Plasma exchange was administrated for 17 times, which was effective temporarily during this episode. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy, intravenous immunoglobulin, rituximab, anticoagulation therapy, and bile drainage, were all tried but still could not control the disease. The patient's family agreed to withdraw treatment after he developed septic shock.

  10. Assessment of jaundice in the hospitalized patient.

    PubMed

    Kathpalia, Priya; Ahn, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    Jaundice in the hospitalized patient is not an uncommon consultation for the general gastroenterologist. It is essential to explore the underlying cause of jaundice because management is largely aimed at addressing these causes rather than the jaundice itself. Although the diagnostic evaluation for jaundice can be broad, clinical judgment must be used to prioritize between various laboratory tests and imaging studies. Most importantly, clinicians must understand which conditions are emergent and/or require evaluation for liver transplantation. Further studies need to be performed to better understand the outcomes of hospitalized patients who develop jaundice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hepatic fascioliasis presenting with bile duct obstruction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lefryekh, Rachid; Bensaad, Ahmed; Bensardi, Fatimazahra; Elhattabi, Khalid; Bouali, Mounir; Daif, Bessam; Fadil, Abdelaziz; Jaouhari, Zakaria; Hicham, Tazi; Hamdani, Aziz; Abdalaoui, Maha Soussi

    2017-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by a liver trematode: fasciola hepatica; which commonly affects cattle and sheep, humans are accidental hosts. Several cases have been reported in the literature worldwide with a large geographical distribution. We present a case of bile duct obstruction due to a hepatic fascioliasis, successfully treated with both a combined surgical and medical approaches. A high index of suspicion should be kept in mind for all cases of obstructive jaundice, especially in areas in which human fascioliasis infection is repeatedly reported.

  12. Gastrointestinal bleeding and obstructive jaundice: Think of hepatic artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Vultaggio, Fabrice; Morère, Pierre-Henri; Constantin, Christophe; Christodoulou, Michel; Roulin, Didier

    2016-06-27

    Hemobilia is an uncommon and potential life-threatening condition mainly due to hepato-biliary tree traumatic or iatrogenic injuries. Spontaneously ruptured aneurysm of the hepatic artery is seldom described. We report the case of an 89-year-old woman presenting with abdominal pain, jaundice and gastrointestinal bleeding, whose ultrasound and computed tomography revealed a non-traumatic, spontaneous aneurysm of the right hepatic artery. The oeso-gastro-duodenoscopy and colonoscopy did not reveal any bleeding at the ampulla of Vater, nor anywhere else. Selective angiography confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic artery aneurysm and revealed a full hepatic artery originating from the superior mesenteric artery. The patient was successfully treated by selective embolization of microcoils. We discuss the etiologies of hemobilia and its treatment with selective embolization, which remains favored over surgical treatment. Although aneurysm of the hepatic artery is rare, especially without trauma, a high index of suspicion is needed in order to ensure appropriate treatment.

  13. Gastrointestinal bleeding and obstructive jaundice: Think of hepatic artery aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Vultaggio, Fabrice; Morère, Pierre-Henri; Constantin, Christophe; Christodoulou, Michel; Roulin, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Hemobilia is an uncommon and potential life-threatening condition mainly due to hepato-biliary tree traumatic or iatrogenic injuries. Spontaneously ruptured aneurysm of the hepatic artery is seldom described. We report the case of an 89-year-old woman presenting with abdominal pain, jaundice and gastrointestinal bleeding, whose ultrasound and computed tomography revealed a non-traumatic, spontaneous aneurysm of the right hepatic artery. The oeso-gastro-duodenoscopy and colonoscopy did not reveal any bleeding at the ampulla of Vater, nor anywhere else. Selective angiography confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic artery aneurysm and revealed a full hepatic artery originating from the superior mesenteric artery. The patient was successfully treated by selective embolization of microcoils. We discuss the etiologies of hemobilia and its treatment with selective embolization, which remains favored over surgical treatment. Although aneurysm of the hepatic artery is rare, especially without trauma, a high index of suspicion is needed in order to ensure appropriate treatment. PMID:27358680

  14. Hepatic fascioliasis presenting with bile duct obstruction: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lefryekh, Rachid; Bensaad, Ahmed; Bensardi, Fatimazahra; Elhattabi, Khalid; Bouali, Mounir; Daif, Bessam; Fadil, Abdelaziz; Jaouhari, Zakaria; Hicham, Tazi; Hamdani, Aziz; Abdalaoui, Maha Soussi

    2017-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by a liver trematode: fasciola hepatica; which commonly affects cattle and sheep, humans are accidental hosts. Several cases have been reported in the literature worldwide with a large geographical distribution. We present a case of bile duct obstruction due to a hepatic fascioliasis, successfully treated with both a combined surgical and medical approaches. A high index of suspicion should be kept in mind for all cases of obstructive jaundice, especially in areas in which human fascioliasis infection is repeatedly reported. PMID:29158867

  15. Laser Photoradiation Therapy For Neonatal Jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Mostafa; Hamza, Mohammad

    1987-04-01

    This paper describes our leading experience in the clinical application of laser in the treatment of neonatal jaundice. Currently, the irradiation of jaundiced infants during neonatal life to fluorescent light is the most common treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The authors have investigated the photodegradation of bilirubin by laser in vitro and in Gunn rats before embarking on its clinical application in the treatment of jaundice in the new born child. This work was done to study the theraputic effect of laser compared to the currently used phototherapy in the treatment of neonatal jaundice. We selected 16 full term neonates with jaundice to be the subject of this study. The neonates of the study were devided into two groups. The first group was treated with continuous phototherapy . The second group recieved photoradiation therapy with gas laser The laser used was a CW argon-ion laser tuned to oscillate at 488.0 nm wavelength. This wavelength selection was based on our previous studies on the effect of laser irradiation of Gunn rats at different wavelengths. Comparison of the results of both methods of treatment will be reported in detail. The advantages and limitations of laser photoradiation therapy for neonatal jaundice will be discussed.

  16. Antireflux Versus Conventional Plastic Stent in Malignant Biliary Obstruction: A Prospective Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Vihervaara, Hanna; Grönroos, Juha M; Hurme, Saija; Gullichsen, Risto; Salminen, Paulina

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic stents are used to relieve obstructive jaundice. The purpose of this prospective randomized study was to compare the patency of antireflux and conventional plastic biliary stent in relieving distal malignant biliary obstruction. All jaundiced patients admitted to hospital with suspected unresectable malignant distal biliary stricture between October 2009 and September 2010 were evaluated for the study. Eligible patients were randomized either to antireflux or conventional plastic stent arms. The primary endpoint was stent patency and the follow-up was continued either until the stent was occluded or until 6 months after the stent placement. At an interim analysis, antireflux stents (ARSs; n = 6) had a significantly shorter median patency of 34 (8-49) days compared with the conventional stent (n = 7) patency of 167 (38-214) days (P = .0003). Based on these results, the study was terminated due to ethical concerns. According to these results, the use of this ARS is not recommended.

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Nasogastric and Intravenous Fluid Resuscitation in Patients with Malignant Obstructive Jaundice Prior to Endoscopic Biliary Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Baghel, Kavita; Raj, Saloni; Awasthi, Induja; Gupta, Vishal; Chandra, Abhijit; Srivastava, Rajeshwar Nath

    2013-01-01

    Background: An alternative to intravenous is nasogastric fluid administration through normal functioning gut. Though not common, this practice has significance in mass causalities and elective situations. Aim: The study was designed to compare nasogastric and intravenous fluid resuscitation in malignant obstructive jaundice (OJ) and their effect on endotoxemia. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with malignant OJ undergoing endoscopic biliary drainage were randomized into two groups. A total of 4 l of fluid (Ringer's lactate) was administered to Group A through nasogastric tube and to Group B through intravenous route for 48 h. Vital parameters, serum bilirubin, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance rate, electrolytes, and endotoxemia were monitored. Results: Significant improvement in blood pressure (Group A, P = 0.014; Group B, P = 0.020) and significant decrease in serum bilirubin level (Group A, P = 0.001; Group B, P > 0.0001) was observed in both groups after resuscitation. Significantly decreased (P = 0.036) post hydration endotoxin level was observed in Group A as compared to Group B. Febrile events were significantly higher (P = 0.023) in Group B as compared to Group A (6 vs 0). Electrolyte abnormalities were found more in Group B, however statistically insignificant. Conclusion: In OJ patient undergoing biliary drainage, preoperative fluid resuscitation through nasogastric tube may be helpful in reducing postoperative septic complications and endotoxemia. PMID:24251269

  18. Ginsenoside Rg1 prevents cerebral and cerebellar injury induced by obstructive jaundice in rats via inducing expression of TIPE-2.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tingting; Zu, Guo; Zhou, Lu; Che, Ningwei; Guo, Jing; Liang, Zhanhua

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) on cerebral and cerebellar injury in experimental obstructive jaundice (OJ). OJ was done by ligature and section of extrahepatic biliary duct. Rg1 was injected intraperitoneally (10 mg kg(-1)d(-1) or 20 mg kg(-1) d(-1)). Comparison of serum total bile salts (TBA), total bilirubin (TBil), direct bilirubin (DBil), TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β among groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined, also apoptosis and mRNA and protein levels of TIPE2 (TNF-α-inducible protein 8-like 2) were tested in cerebrum and cerebellum. Our results showed that Rg1 reduced MDA and apoptosis in cerebrum and cerebellum induced by OJ, also GSH and antioxidant enzyme activity were raised obviously in rats treated with Rg1. Moreover, decreased mRNA and protein levels of TIPE2 in OJ rats and Rg1 could improve the decreased mRNA and protein levels of TIPE2 in OJ rats. In conclusion, Rg1 decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis, also recovered the antioxidant status and mRNA and protein levels of TIPE2 in the cerebrum and cerebellum of OJ rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Jaundice

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes your skin and the whites of your eyes to turn yellow. Too much bilirubin causes jaundice. Bilirubin is a yellow chemical in hemoglobin, the substance that carries oxygen in your red blood cells. As red blood cells break down, your body builds new cells to replace them. The old ones are ...

  20. Detecting jaundice by using digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Ramos, J.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Villa Manriquez, F.; Orozco-Guillen, E.; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Sánchez-Escobar, JJ.

    2014-03-01

    When strong Jaundice is presented, babies or adults should be subject to clinical exam like "serum bilirubin" which can cause traumas in patients. Often jaundice is presented in liver disease such as hepatitis or liver cancer. In order to avoid additional traumas we propose to detect jaundice (icterus) in newborns or adults by using a not pain method. By acquiring digital images in color, in palm, soles and forehead, we analyze RGB attributes and diffuse reflectance spectra as the parameter to characterize patients with either jaundice or not, and we correlate that parameters with the level of bilirubin. By applying support vector machine we distinguish between healthy and sick patients.

  1. Superoxide and nitric oxide production by Kupffer cells in rats with obstructive jaundice: effect of internal and external drainage.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Chan, Angus C W; Lau, James Y W; Lee, Danny W H; Ng, Enders K W; Sung, Joseph J Y; Chung, S C Sydney

    2004-02-01

    The role of Kupffer cells in obstructive jaundice (OJ) has not been fully understood. The aims of the present study were to measure superoxide and nitric oxide (NO) production by Kupffer cells in experimental OJ in rats and to investigate the response to internal and external biliary drainage. Eighty male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups: sham operation, OJ, and internal and external biliary drainage. Kupffer cells were isolated on day 7 in the sham operation and OJ group, and on day 7 after drainage procedures. Cells were cultured with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Superoxide production was quantified in cultured Kupffer cells at 2 h and 48 h, respectively, after cell isolation using the superoxide dismutase inhibitable ferricytochrome c reduction method. Nitrite production in cell culture supernatants was measured 48 h later using Greiss reagents. Without LPS stimulation, Kupffer cells produced comparable superoxide and nitrite in each group (P > 0.05). With LPS stimulation, Kupffer cells in the OJ group produced significantly higher superoxide anions than the other groups (P = 0.006). Nitrite production was significantly increased in the OJ group and external biliary drainage group compared to rats in the sham operation and internal drainage groups (P < 0.01). Kupffer cells from rats with OJ produce great amounts of endotoxin-mediated oxidants. Both internal and external biliary drainage can decrease the elevated superoxide production. Internal drainage is superior to external drainage for reversing the distortional capacity of NO production by Kupffer cells.

  2. Endoscopic ultrasound and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for obstructing pancreas head masses: combined or separate procedures?

    PubMed

    Aslanian, Harry R; Estrada, Juan D; Rossi, Federico; Dziura, James; Jamidar, Priya A; Siddiqui, Uzma D

    2011-09-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are complementary procedures in the evaluation of obstructive jaundice. To determine the feasibility, accuracy, and safety of the combined performance of EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) and ERCP with biliary stenting in patients with obstructive jaundice. Retrospectively reviewed data from consecutive patients presenting with obstructive jaundice due to a pancreas mass at a tertiary referral hospital between April 2002 and November 2007 who underwent combined (under the same sedation and in the same room) or separate EUS and ERCP. Procedure duration, amount of sedative medication administered, ability to achieve biliary stent placement, and the diagnostic yield of EUS-FNA were evaluated. A total of 47 patients were evaluated: 29 patients underwent combined EUS and ERCP and 18 had separate procedures (median of 5 d between procedures). Stent placement at ERCP was successful in 72% combined procedures versus 88% separate ERCP. EUS-FNA diagnosis of malignancy was positive in 91.6% combined versus 87.5% separate. The only complication was self-limited melena after a combined procedure in 1 patient. The median time for combined procedures was 75 minutes versus 50 minutes for separate EUS and 50 minutes for ERCP. Combined EUS and ERCP can be performed under the same sedation with a median 25 minute greater procedure length and similarly high yields for diagnostic EUS-FNA. A nonsignificant trend toward lower biliary stent placement success rates with combined ERCP procedures merits further study. Benefits of a combined procedure may include expedited patient evaluation and the avoidance of repeated sedation.

  3. Modulation of gut barrier function in patients with obstructive jaundice using probiotic LP299v.

    PubMed

    Jones, Claire; Badger, Stephen A; Regan, Mark; Clements, Barry W; Diamond, Tom; Parks, Rowan W; Taylor, Mark A

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of LP229v on intestinal permeability and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) p55 receptor concentrations in patients with obstructive jaundice undergoing biliary drainage. Patients undergoing biliary drainage were recruited and randomized into three groups to receive Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (LP299v), inactivated LP299v (placebo) or water. These were administered daily at noon until 7 days after biliary drainage. Intestinal permeability was measured using the lactulose/mannitol (L/M) dual sugar absorption test on admission, the day before biliary drainage and on days 1 and 7 after biliary drainage. Blood and urine were collected to determine the L/M ratio and the TNF p55 receptor levels at each time point. A total of 25 patients were recruited; 12 had choledocholithiasis and nine had a periampullary tumour. Open surgical biliary drainage was performed in nine patients, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in 12 and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography in two. Five patients received LP299v, five received placebo and seven, water. The median L/M ratio was 0.035 (0.018-0.065) at baseline. No difference existed between the groups on admission, before drainage and on day 7 after drainage (P=0.59, 0.175 and 0.61, respectively). The L/M ratio was lower in the LP299v group on day 1 after drainage [0.01 (0.01) vs. 0.18 (0.03-0.3) and 0.11 (0.07-0.14); P=0.37]. Although the TNF p55 receptor levels were lower on day 1 after drainage in the LP299v group (15.3 vs. 30.9 vs. 82.7 ng/ml; P=0.43), the concentration at the four time points was similar (P=0.24, 0.96, 0.43 and 0.68). Pretreatment with probiotic LP299v improves intestinal permeability after biliary drainage and attenuates the inflammatory response. However, a larger multicentre trial is required to determine the effect on clinical outcome.

  4. Multicenter study of endoscopic preoperative biliary drainage for malignant distal biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Sasahira, Naoki; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Togawa, Osamu; Yamamoto, Ryuichi; Iwai, Tomohisa; Tamada, Kiichi; Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Shimura, Kenji; Koike, Takero; Yoshida, Yu; Sugimori, Kazuya; Ryozawa, Shomei; Kakimoto, Toshiharu; Nishikawa, Ko; Kitamura, Katsuya; Imamura, Tsunao; Mizuide, Masafumi; Toda, Nobuo; Maetani, Iruru; Sakai, Yuji; Itoi, Takao; Nagahama, Masatsugu; Nakai, Yousuke; Isayama, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the optimal method of endoscopic preoperative biliary drainage for malignant distal biliary obstruction. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective study was conducted in patients who underwent plastic stent (PS) or nasobiliary catheter (NBC) placement for resectable malignant distal biliary obstruction followed by surgery between January 2010 and March 2012. Procedure-related adverse events, stent/catheter dysfunction (occlusion or migration of PS/NBC, development of cholangitis, or other conditions that required repeat endoscopic biliary intervention), and jaundice resolution (bilirubin level < 3.0 mg/dL) were evaluated. Cumulative incidence of jaundice resolution and dysfunction of PS/NBC were estimated using competing risk analysis. Patient characteristics and preoperative biliary drainage were also evaluated for association with the time to jaundice resolution and PS/NBC dysfunction using competing risk regression analysis. RESULTS: In total, 419 patients were included in the study (PS, 253 and NBC, 166). Primary cancers included pancreatic cancer in 194 patients (46%), bile duct cancer in 172 (41%), gallbladder cancer in three (1%), and ampullary cancer in 50 (12%). The median serum total bilirubin was 7.8 mg/dL and 324 patients (77%) had ≥ 3.0 mg/dL. During the median time to surgery of 29 d [interquartile range (IQR), 30-39 d]. PS/NBC dysfunction rate was 35% for PS and 18% for NBC [Subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) = 4.76; 95%CI: 2.44-10.0, P < 0.001]; the pig-tailed tip was a risk factor for PS dysfunction. Jaundice resolution was achieved in 85% of patients and did not depend on the drainage method (PS or NBC). CONCLUSION: PS has insufficient patency for preoperative biliary drainage. Given the drawbacks of external drainage via NBC, an alternative method of internal drainage should be explored. PMID:27076764

  5. Systematic review: the influence of nasal obstruction on sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Migueis, Debora Petrungaro; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Lemes, Lucas Neves de Andrade; Moreira, Chirlene Santos Souza; Joffily, Lucia; Araujo-Melo, Maria Helena de

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder that can lead to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, as well as to metabolic, neurological, and behavioral consequences. It is currently believed that nasal obstruction compromises the quality of sleep when it results in breathing disorders and fragmentation of sleep. However, recent studies have failed to objectively associate sleep quality and nasal obstruction. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the influence of nasal obstruction on OSAS and polysomnographic indices associated with respiratory events. Eleven original articles published from 2003 to 2013 were selected, which addressed surgical and non-surgical treatment for nasal obstruction, performing polysomnography type 1 before and after the intervention. In most trials, nasal obstruction was not related to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), indicating no improvement in OSAS with reduction in nasal resistance. However, few researchers evaluated other polysomnography indices, such as the arousal index and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep percentage. These could change with nasal obstruction, since it is possible that the nasal obstruction does not completely block the upper airways, but can increase negative intrathoracic pressure, leading to sleep fragmentation. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethnopharmacological Approaches for Therapy of Jaundice: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Devesh; Mocan, Andrei; Parvanov, Emil D.; Sah, Archana N.; Nabavi, Seyed M.; Huminiecki, Lukasz; Ma, Zheng Feei; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O.; Atanasov, Atanas G.

    2017-01-01

    Jaundice is a very common symptom especially in the developing countries. It is associated with several hepatic diseases which are still major causes of death. There are many different approaches to jaundice treatment and the growing number of ethnomedicinal studies shows the plant pharmacology as very promising direction. Many medicinal plants are used for the treatment of jaundice, however a comprehensive review on this subject has not been published. The use of medicinal plants in drug discovery is highly emphasized (based on their traditional and safe uses in different folk medicine systems from ancient times). Many sophisticated analytical techniques are emerging in the pharmaceutical field to validate and discover new biologically active chemical entities derived from plants. Here, we aim to classify and categorize medicinal plants relevant for the treatment of jaundice according to their origin, geographical location, and usage. Our search included various databases like Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar. Keywords and phrases used for these searches included: “jaundice,” “hyperbilirubinemia,” “serum glutamate,” “bilirubin,” “Ayurveda.” The first part of the review focuses on the variety of medicinal plant used for the treatment of jaundice (a total of 207 medicinal plants). In the second part, possible mechanisms of action of biologically active secondary metabolites of plants from five families for jaundice treatment are discussed. PMID:28860989

  7. Newborn jaundice - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor about newborn jaundice Images Infant jaundice References Kaplan M, Wong RJ, Sibley E, Stevenson DK. Neonatal ... constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial ...

  8. Managing malignant biliary obstruction in pancreas cancer: Choosing the appropriate strategy

    PubMed Central

    Boulay, Brian R; Parepally, Mayur

    2014-01-01

    Most patients with pancreatic cancer develop malignant biliary obstruction. Treatment of obstruction is generally indicated to relieve symptoms and improve morbidity and mortality. First-line therapy consists of endoscopic biliary stent placement. Recent data comparing plastic stents to self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) has shown improved patency with SEMS. The decision of whether to treat obstruction and the means for doing so depends on the clinical scenario. For patients with resectable disease, preoperative biliary decompression is only indicated when surgery will be delayed or complications of jaundice exist. For patients with locally advanced disease, self-expanding metal stents are superior to plastic stents for long-term patency. For patients with advanced disease, the choice of metallic or plastic stent depends on life expectancy. When endoscopic stent placement fails, percutaneous or surgical treatments are appropriate. Endoscopic therapy or surgical approach can be used to treat concomitant duodenal and biliary obstruction. PMID:25071329

  9. Granular Cell Tumor of the Common Hepatic Duct as an Unusual Cause of Jaundice in a Hepatitis C Patient.

    PubMed

    Chopade, Tripti R; Smith, Colin L; Maley, Warren R; Siddiqui, Ali A; Sass, David A

    2016-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman with a history of intravenous cocaine abuse presented with fatigue, nausea, and jaundice. Serologic testing revealed a positive hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody and HCV RNA. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed a partially obstructing lesion in the common hepatic duct, which was confirmed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Surgical excision revealed a granular cell tumor of the common hepatic duct, with immunohistochemical staining of tumor cells positive for S-100.

  10. Extrahepatic biliary duct obstruction as a result of involuntary transcavitary implantation of hair in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Linton, Michael; Buffa, Eugene; Simon, Adrian; Ashton, Julie; McGregor, Ross; Foster, Darren J

    2015-01-01

    Case summary A 4-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was referred for investigation of jaundice. The cat had a recent history of a skin laceration repair following trauma. Sequential serum biochemistry demonstrated increasing plasma bilirubin concentrations; abdominal ultrasonography revealed ongoing pancreatitis and apparent extrahepatic obstruction of the common bile duct. Exploratory laparotomy identified constriction of the common bile duct with foreign material (cat hair). The constricting band of hair was removed surgically; cholecystoduodenostomy was performed. Postsurgical quality of life is excellent with chronic treatment of tylosin, omeprazole and ursodeoxycholic acid. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of extrahepatic biliary duct obstruction resulting from the intra-abdominal migration of a foreign body, in this case, hair shafts. The mechanism by which this occurred was likely a combination of physical constriction by the hair shafts and subsequent foreign body reaction surrounding this. This should be included in the differential diagnosis of a cat with jaundice. PMID:28491390

  11. A report of three cases of jaundice with thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Akande, T O; Balogun, W O

    2013-09-01

    Jaundice and hepatic dysfunction have been reported in patients with thyrotoxicosis and could be due to different mechanisms. To describe three cases of jaundice occurring in patients with thyrotoxicosis and to illustrate the importance of early institution of thionamides when indicated. We present the clinical and laboratory features of three patients presenting within a year with thyrotoxicosis and jaundice and whose clinical conditions improved remarkably following treatment with thionamides. In addition, current literature on the subject is reviewed and summarised. The three patients presented with goitre and jaundice. None of the patients had received blood products, undergone scarification markings or experienced any previous episode of jaundice. Thyroid function tests in the three patients were consistent with a diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. Liver function tests showed elevated bilirubin and transaminases. All patients improved remarkably following treatment with thionamides. It is important to rule out thyrotoxicosis in patients with jaundice of unknown cause and consider early use of thionamides for treatment of the thyrotoxicosis, if confirmed.

  12. Newborn jaundice - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... discharge Images Exchange transfusion - series Infant jaundice References Kaplan M, Wong RJ, Sibley E, Stevenson DK. Neonatal ... constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial ...

  13. Sonic hedgehog (SHH) and glioblastoma-2 (Gli-2) expressions are associated with poor jaundice-free survival in biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hae Yoen; Jing, Jin; Lee, Kyoung Bun; Jang, Ja-June

    2015-03-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) causes biliary obstruction in neonates. Although the Kasai operation can successfully treat certain BA cases, many patients exhibit recurrent jaundice and secondary biliary cirrhosis requiring liver transplantation. Consequently, studies of the prognostic factors of the Kasai operation are needed. Accordingly, sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway expression at the extrahepatic bile duct (EHBD), an important bile duct repair mechanism, will be investigated via immunohistochemistry in patients with BA to examine the association with post-Kasai operation prognosis. Fifty-seven EHBD specimens were obtained during Kasai operations from 1992 to 2009. The SHH, patched (PTCH), and glioblastoma-2 (Gli-2) immunohistochemical staining results were analyzed quantitatively. Overall, 57.9% of patients had bile flow normalization after the Kasai operation; 43.1% did not. High preoperative serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and aspartate aminotransferase levels were associated with sustained jaundice post-Kasai operation, as was an age ≥65days at the time of surgery (all p<0.05). High Gli-2 and SHH expression rates were significantly associated with early post-Kasai operation jaundice relapse. Strong Gli-2 and SHH expression in the EHBD might be a poor prognostic factor in Kasai operation-treated patients with BA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pancreatic Calculus Causing Biliary Obstruction: Endoscopic Therapy for a Rare Initial Presentation of Chronic Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Anurag J; Pai, C Ganesh; Shetty, Shiran; Balaraju, Girisha

    2015-09-01

    Biliary obstruction in chronic calcific pancreatitis (CCP) is often caused by inflammatory or fibrotic strictures of the bile duct, carcinoma of head of pancreas or less commonly by compression from pseudocysts. Pancreatic calculi causing ampullary obstruction and leading to obstructive jaundice is extremely rare. The medical records of all patients with CCP or biliary obstruction who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) over 4 years between 2010-2014 at Kasturba Medical College, Manipal were analyzed. Five patients of CCP with impacted pancreatic calculi at the ampulla demonstrated during ERCP were identified. All 5 presented with biliary obstruction and were incidentally detected to have CCP when evaluated for the same; 3 patients had features of cholangitis. All the patients were managed successfully by endoscopic papillotomy and extraction of pancreatic calculi from the ampulla with resolution of biliary obstruction. Pancreatic calculus causing ampullary obstruction, though very rare, should be considered as a possibility in patients with CCP complicated by biliary obstruction. Endoscopic therapy is affective in the resolution of biliary obstruction in such patients.

  15. Extrahepatic portal obstruction without hepatopetal pathway associated with congenital arterioportal fistula: a case report.

    PubMed

    Maeda, N; Horie, Y; Koda, M; Suou, T; Andachi, H; Nakamura, K; Kawasaki, H

    1997-01-01

    Extrahepatic portal obstruction is one of the causes of portal hypertension, in which well-developed hepatopetal pathways are commonly recognized. Herein an extremely rare case of extrahepatic portal obstruction without hepatopetal pathway, probably caused by arterioportal fistula, is reported. The patient was a normally matured 16-year-old girl admitted for further evaluation of jaundice, presenting with the clinical manifestations of the portal hypertension associated with hypersplenism and portosystemic venous shunt. Celiac angiography clearly demonstrated an intrahepatic arterial aneurysm fed by the right hepatic artery shunting to the superior mesenteric vein, and portography disclosed complete obstruction of the portal trunk with conspicuous hepatofugal pathway but no hepatopetal collateral veins. The exact mechanism of this phenomenon is not known and whether the extrahepatic portal obstruction was primary or secondary is still obscure. However, this is the first case report in the world literature describing extrahepatic portal obstruction with absence of hepatopetal pathway.

  16. [A 14-day-old boy with jaundice and apnoea].

    PubMed

    Smerud, Ole-Jørgen Olsøy; Solevåg, Anne Lee; Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud; Grønn, Morten

    2015-12-15

    We describe an infant who was readmitted from home at 14 days of age with jaundice and a history of apnoea and episodes of retrocollis/opisthotonos. He had been only mildly jaundiced on discharge from the maternity clinic at 2 days of age. The total serum bilirubin (TSB) on admission was 542 µmol/L, and the infant was treated intensively with triple phototherapy and exchange transfusion. In contrast to what is recommended in Norwegian national guidelines for management of neonatal jaundice, the parents had apparently neither received oral nor written information about jaundice and its follow-up at the time of discharge from maternity. They therefore contacted their child healthcare centre when they had questions about jaundice, though the national guidelines specifically state that follow-up for neonatal jaundice during the first 2 weeks of life is the responsibility of the birth hospital. Inappropriate advice resulted in delayed referral, and the child has been diagnosed with chronic kernicterus, probably the first such case in Norway since national guidelines were formalised in 2006. Genetic work-up disclosed compound heterozygosity for Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I, to the best of our knowledge the first instance of this disorder ever to have been diagnosed in Norway. The incidence of kernicterus is Norway is much lower than in other industrialised countries. This is most likely due to national guidelines for management of neonatal jaundice, which place the responsibility for management and follow-up of jaundice with the birth hospital during the crucial first 2 weeks of life. This case report reminds us that tragedies may occur when guidelines are disregarded.

  17. Hypocalcemia in jaundiced neonates receiving phototherapy

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mashal; Malik, Kanwal Altaf; Bai, Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of hypocalcemia in term neonates with jaundice receiving phototherapy. Methods: This was a cross sectional study conducted at Neonatal intensive care unit, National Institute of Child Health, Karachi from 1st January 2014 to 30th December 2014. A total of 123 term neonates with jaundice of either gender managed by phototherapy were enrolled in the study. Gestational age was assessed through modified Ballard scoring. Duration of phototherapy was recorded. A sample of 3 ml of blood was sent to the laboratory for serum calcium level before initiating phototherapy and after 24 hours of continued phototherapy. All the data were recorded in the preformed proforma. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 19. P value <0.05 was taken as significant. Results: The mean age of the neonates was 8.35±6.74 days. Mean gestational age at the time of birth was 39.08±1.37 weeks. Mean duration of jaundice was 2.4±1.20 days. Mean duration of phototherapy was 1.74±0.98 days. Serum calcium level before and after 24 hours of initiating phototherapy was 8.73±0.68 mg/dl and 7.47±0.82mg/dl respectively Frequency of hypocalcemia in term jaundiced neonates receiving phototherapy were observed in 22.76% (28/123). Conclusions: The frequency of hypocalcemia is significant in the jaundiced neonates treated with phototherapy. One needs to be vigilant in dealing neonates in this context while serial monitoring for hypocalcemia and its complications should be considered in institutional policy and research priority. PMID:28083043

  18. Role of radical resection in patients with gallbladder carcinoma and jaundice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Fei-ling; Liu, Chen; Li, Bin; Zhang, Bai-he; Jiang, Xiao-qing

    2012-03-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is a commonly-seen malignancy of the biliary tract characterized by difficult early diagnosis, rapid growth, early metastasis, and poor prognosis. Nearly half of GBC patients also have jaundice, which is a mark of the advanced stage of GBC. The role of radical resection in patients of gallbladder carcinoma with jaundice is still a matter of uncertainty, which we attempted to clarify in this study. Totally, 251 GBC patients who received treatment at the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital (EHBH) from December 2002 to January 2010 were recruited into this study. We divided them into group A (jaundice group, n=117) and group B (non-jaundice group, n=134). Clinical records and follow-up data were collected and retrospectively analyzed in both groups. Compared with group A, patients in group B had a longer median survival time ((6.0±0.5) months vs. (15.0±2.6) months, P<0.01). Even in patients with stage III or stage IV GBC, the median survival time in patients without jaundice (n=111), was still longer than that in patients with jaundice (n=116) (P<0.01). The radical resection rate was lower in group A patients than in group B patients with stage III or stage IV GBC; 31.9% vs. 63.1%. However, the median survival time of patients undergoing radical resection did not show a statistical difference between jaundice patients and non-jaundice patients; (12.0±4.3) months vs. (18.0±3.0) months (P>0.05). GBC with jaundice usually implies advanced stage disease and a poor prognosis for the patients. However, our findings indicate that as long as the patient's condition allows, radical resection is still feasible for GBC patients with jaundice, and may achieve a prognosis close to those GBC patients without jaundice.

  19. Therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Huajun; Wang, Taisen; Tang, Xueqing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice and the safety. Methods: Sixty-eight neonates with jaundice were divided into a control group and a treatment group (n=34) randomly, and treated by blue light phototherapy and that in combination with probiotics. The serum bilirubin levels were detected before and 1, 4, 7 days after treatment. The time when therapy showed effects and jaundice faded, clinical outcomes as well as adverse reactions were recorded. The categorical data were expressed as (±s) and compared by t test. The numerical data were expressed as (case, %) and compared by χ² test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Serum bilirubin levels of the two groups were similar before treatment (P>0.05). The levels significantly decreased 1, 4 and 7 days after treatment (P<0.05), but there was no significant inter-group difference on the post-treatment 1st day (P>0.05). The treatment group underwent more significant decreases on the 4th and 7th days than the control group did (P=0.002, 0.001). In the treatment group, the therapy exerted effects on (1.0±0.5) d and jaundice faded on (3.8±1.7) d, which were (2.6±0.6) d and (5.3±2.1) d respectively in the control group (P=0.001, 0.002). The effective rate of the treatment group significantly exceeded that of the control group (P=0.002). There were no obvious adverse reactions in either group. Conclusions: Probiotics lowered the serum bilirubin levels of neonates with jaundice rapidly, safely and significantly, and accelerated jaundice fading as well. This method is worthy of application in clinical practice. PMID:26649008

  20. Therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Huajun; Wang, Taisen; Tang, Xueqing

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of probiotics on neonatal jaundice and the safety. Sixty-eight neonates with jaundice were divided into a control group and a treatment group (n=34) randomly, and treated by blue light phototherapy and that in combination with probiotics. The serum bilirubin levels were detected before and 1, 4, 7 days after treatment. The time when therapy showed effects and jaundice faded, clinical outcomes as well as adverse reactions were recorded. The categorical data were expressed as (±s) and compared by t test. The numerical data were expressed as (case, %) and compared by χ² test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Serum bilirubin levels of the two groups were similar before treatment (P>0.05). The levels significantly decreased 1, 4 and 7 days after treatment (P<0.05), but there was no significant inter-group difference on the post-treatment 1st day (P>0.05). The treatment group underwent more significant decreases on the 4th and 7th days than the control group did (P=0.002, 0.001). In the treatment group, the therapy exerted effects on (1.0±0.5) d and jaundice faded on (3.8±1.7) d, which were (2.6±0.6) d and (5.3±2.1) d respectively in the control group (P=0.001, 0.002). The effective rate of the treatment group significantly exceeded that of the control group (P=0.002). There were no obvious adverse reactions in either group. Probiotics lowered the serum bilirubin levels of neonates with jaundice rapidly, safely and significantly, and accelerated jaundice fading as well. This method is worthy of application in clinical practice.

  1. Gallbladder Cancer Presenting with Jaundice: Uniformly Fatal or Still Potentially Curable?

    PubMed

    Tran, Thuy B; Norton, Jeffrey A; Ethun, Cecilia G; Pawlik, Timothy M; Buettner, Stefan; Schmidt, Carl; Beal, Eliza W; Hawkins, William G; Fields, Ryan C; Krasnick, Bradley A; Weber, Sharon M; Salem, Ahmed; Martin, Robert C G; Scoggins, Charles R; Shen, Perry; Mogal, Harveshp D; Idrees, Kamran; Isom, Chelsea A; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shenoy, Rivfka; Maithel, Shishir K; Poultsides, George A

    2017-08-01

    Jaundice as a presenting symptom of gallbladder cancer has traditionally been considered to be a sign of advanced disease, inoperability, and poor outcome. However, recent studies have demonstrated that a small subset of these patients can undergo resection with curative intent. Patients with gallbladder cancer managed surgically from 2000 to 2014 in 10 US academic institutions were stratified based on the presence of jaundice at presentation (defined as bilirubin ≥4 mg/ml or requiring preoperative biliary drainage). Perioperative morbidity, mortality, and overall survival were compared between jaundiced and non-jaundiced patients. Of 400 gallbladder cancer patients with available preoperative data, 108 (27%) presented with jaundice while 292 (73%) did not. The fraction of patients who eventually underwent curative-intent resection was much lower in the presence of jaundice (n = 33, 30%) than not (n = 218, 75%; P < 0.001). Jaundiced patients experienced higher perioperative morbidity (69 vs. 38%; P = 0.002), including a much higher need for reoperation (12 vs. 1%; P = 0.003). However, 90-day mortality (6.5 vs. 3.6%; P = 0.35) was not significantly higher. Overall survival after resection was worse in jaundiced patients (median 14 vs. 32 months; P < 0.001). Further subgroup analysis within the jaundiced patients revealed a more favorable survival after resection in the presence of low CA19-9 < 50 (median 40 vs. 12 months; P = 0.003) and in the absence of lymphovascular invasion (40 vs. 14 months; P = 0.014). Jaundice is a powerful preoperative clinical sign of inoperability and poor outcome among gallbladder cancer patients. However, some of these patients may still achieve long-term survival after resection, especially when preoperative CA19-9 levels are low and no lymphovascular invasion is noted pathologically.

  2. Jaundice associated pruritis: a review of pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bassari, Ramez; Koea, Jonathan B

    2015-02-07

    To review the underlying pathophysiology and currently available treatments for pruritis associated with jaundice. English language literature was reviewed using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and clinicaltrials.gov for papers and trails addressing the pathophysiology and potential treatments for pruritis associated with jaundice. Recent advances in the understanding of the peripheral anatomy of itch transmission have defined a histamine stimulated pathway and a cowhage stimulated pathway with sensation conveyed centrally via the contralateral spinothalamic tract. Centrally, cowhage and histamine stimulated neurons terminate widely within the thalamus and sensorimotor cortex. The causative factors for itch in jaundice have not been clarified although endogenous opioids, serotonin, steroid and lysophosphatidic acid all play a role. Current guidelines for the treatment of itching in jaundice recommend initial management with biliary drainage where possible and medical management with ursodeoxycholic acid, followed by cholestyramine, rifampicin, naltrexone and sertraline. Other than biliary drainage no single treatment has proved universally effective. Pruritis associated with jaundice is a common but poorly understood condition for which biliary drainage is the most effective therapy. Pharmacological therapy has advanced but remains variably effective.

  3. Jaundice associated pruritis: A review of pathophysiology and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bassari, Ramez; Koea, Jonathan B

    2015-01-01

    To review the underlying pathophysiology and currently available treatments for pruritis associated with jaundice. English language literature was reviewed using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and clinicaltrials.gov for papers and trails addressing the pathophysiology and potential treatments for pruritis associated with jaundice. Recent advances in the understanding of the peripheral anatomy of itch transmission have defined a histamine stimulated pathway and a cowhage stimulated pathway with sensation conveyed centrally via the contralateral spinothalamic tract. Centrally, cowhage and histamine stimulated neurons terminate widely within the thalamus and sensorimotor cortex. The causative factors for itch in jaundice have not been clarified although endogenous opioids, serotonin, steroid and lysophosphatidic acid all play a role. Current guidelines for the treatment of itching in jaundice recommend initial management with biliary drainage where possible and medical management with ursodeoxycholic acid, followed by cholestyramine, rifampicin, naltrexone and sertraline. Other than biliary drainage no single treatment has proved universally effective. Pruritis associated with jaundice is a common but poorly understood condition for which biliary drainage is the most effective therapy. Pharmacological therapy has advanced but remains variably effective. PMID:25663760

  4. [A co-word analysis of current research on neonatal jaundice].

    PubMed

    Bao, Shan; Yang, Xiao-Yan; Tang, Jun; Wu, Jin-Lin; Mu, De-Zhi

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the research on neonatal jaundice in recent years by co-word analysis and to summarize the hot spots and trend of research in this field in China. The CNKI was searched with "neonate" and "jaundice" as the key words to identify the papers published from January 2009 to July 2013 that were in accordance with strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. To reveal the relationship between different high-frequency key words, Microsoft Office Excel 2013 was used for statistical analysis of key words, and Ucinet 6.0 and Netdraw were used for co-occurrence analysis. A total of 2 054 papers were included, and 44 high-frequency key words were extracted. The current hotspots of research on neonatal jaundice in China were displayed, and the relationship between different high-frequency key words was presented. There has been in-depth research on clinical manifestations and diagnosis of neonatal jaundice in China, but further research is needed to investigate the etiology, mechanism, and treatment of neonatal jaundice.

  5. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Complicated by Gastroduodenal Obstruction: Palliative Treatment with Metallic Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ye Jin; Kim, Jin Hyoung, E-mail: m1fenew@daum.net; Song, Ho-Young

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of self-expandable metallic stents in seven patients with malignant gastroduodenal obstruction caused by inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Seven patients with gastroduodenal obstruction caused by advanced HCC underwent metallic stent placement from 2003 to 2010. These patients had total dysphagia (n = 5) or were able to eat only liquids (n = 2) before stent placement. Patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance scores of 2 or 3, and Child-Pugh classification B or C. Results: Stent placement was technically successful in all seven patients (100%) and clinically successful in six (86%). Five patients couldmore » eat a soft diet, and one patient tolerated regular diet after stent placement. Stent-related obstructive jaundice occurred in one patient. One patient had hematemesis 11 days after stent placement. Overall mean survival was 51 days (range, 10-119 days). Stent patency was preserved in six patients with clinical success until death. Conclusion: Placement of a covered self-expandable metallic stent may offer good palliation in patients with gastroduodenal obstruction due to advanced HCC.« less

  6. Does UTI cause prolonged jaundice in otherwise well infants?

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Tanzila; Kisat, Hamudi; Tullus, Kjell

    2015-07-01

    The symptoms of urinary tract infections in infants are very non-specific and have historically included prolonged hyperbilirubinaemia. We studied the results of routine urine samples in 319 infants with prolonged jaundice. Convincing findings of UTI was not found in any of these children even if one of them was treated with antibiotics after four consecutive urine cultures with different bacteria. A urine culture might thus not be an appropriate investigation in a child with prolonged jaundice without any other symptoms of UTI. • The symptoms of UTI in infancy are very non-specific. • Old studies suggest that prolonged hyperbilirubinaemia is one such symptom; more modern studies give more conflicting results. What is New: • Our study could not confirm that children with prolonged jaundice have an increased risk of UTI. • Routine urine testing is thus not needed in otherwise healthy infants with prolonged jaundice.

  7. The causes of obvious jaundice in South West Wales: perceptions versus reality

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, M; Hainsworth, I; Kingham, J

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—(1) A prospective analysis of clinically obvious jaundice (bilirubin >120 µmol/l) in South Wales to determine accuracy of diagnosis, referral pattern, treatment, and outcome. (2) To compare British gastroenterologists' and local general practitioners' perceptions of common causes of jaundice with our study findings.
METHODS—Over a seven month period all patients with bilirubin >120 µmol/l (excluding neonates with physiological jaundice) were identified by a biochemistry laboratory serving three general hospitals and the community. Clinical data were recorded prospectively. Sixty nine consultant gastroenterologists and 67 local general practitioners (GPs) were asked to cite the commonest causes of bilirubin >120 µmol/l in their experience.
RESULTS—A total of 121 patients were identified of whom 95 were admitted to hospital because of jaundice, 22 developed jaundice while in hospital, and four remained in the community. Causes of jaundice were: malignancy 42, sepsis/shock 27, cirrhosis 25, gall stones 16, drugs 7, autoimmune hepatitis 2, and viral hepatitis 2. One in five was wrongly diagnosed, often as viral hepatitis. Although 30% were under surgical care only 4% required surgery. Overall mortality was high (31%) and greatest in sepsis/shock (51%). Gastroenterologists and GPs both perceived malignancy and gall stones to be the commonest causes of marked jaundice followed by viral hepatitis and cirrhosis; sepsis/shock was hardly mentioned.
CONCLUSIONS—There are important discrepancies between gastroenterologists' and GPs' perceptions of likely causes of jaundice and the actual causes we have shown. In particular, sepsis/shock is common in hospital practice but is overlooked whereas viral hepatitis is rare but perceived as common and overdiagnosed. Gall stones usually cause mild jaundice with bilirubin levels less than 120 µmol/l. Many patients are referred to surgical services for historical reasons yet rarely require surgery and

  8. Bioinformatics analysis on molecular mechanism of rheum officinale in treatment of jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Si; Tu, Jun; Nie, Peng; Yan, Xiaojun

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To study the molecular mechanism of Rheum officinale in the treatment of Jaundice by building molecular networks and comparing canonical pathways. Methods: Target proteins of Rheum officinale and related genes of Jaundice were searched from Pubchem and Gene databases online respectively. Molecular networks and canonical pathways comparison analyses were performed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Results: The molecular networks of Rheum officinale and Jaundice were complex and multifunctional. The 40 target proteins of Rheum officinale and 33 Homo sapiens genes of Jaundice were found in databases. There were 19 common pathways both related networks. Rheum officinale could regulate endothelial differentiation, Interleukin-1B (IL-1B) and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) in these pathways. Conclusions: Rheum officinale treat Jaundice by regulating many effective nodes of Apoptotic pathway and cellular immunity related pathways.

  9. The prognostic importance of jaundice in surgical resection with curative intent for gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-wei; Yuan, Jian-mao; Chen, Jun-yi; Yang, Jue; Gao, Quan-gen; Yan, Xing-zhou; Zhang, Bao-hua; Feng, Shen; Wu, Meng-chao

    2014-09-03

    Preoperative jaundice is frequent in gallbladder cancer (GBC) and indicates advanced disease. Resection is rarely recommended to treat advanced GBC. An aggressive surgical approach for advanced GBC remains lacking because of the association of this disease with serious postoperative complications and poor prognosis. This study aims to re-assess the prognostic value of jaundice for the morbidity, mortality, and survival of GBC patients who underwent surgical resection with curative intent. GBC patients who underwent surgical resection with curative intent at a single institution between January 2003 and December 2012 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. A total of 192 patients underwent surgical resection with curative intent, of whom 47 had preoperative jaundice and 145 had none. Compared with the non-jaundiced patients, the jaundiced patients had significantly longer operative time (p < 0.001) and more intra-operative bleeding (p = 0.001), frequent combined resections of adjacent organs (23.4% vs. 2.8%, p = 0.001), and postoperative complications (12.4% vs. 34%, p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that preoperative jaundice was the only independent predictor of postoperative complications. The jaundiced patients had lower survival rates than the non-jaundiced patients (p < 0.001). However, lymph node metastasis and gallbladder neck tumors were the only significant risk factors of poor prognosis. Non-curative resection was the only independent predictor of poor prognosis among the jaundiced patients. The survival rates of the jaundiced patients with preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) were similar to those of the jaundiced patients without PBD (p = 0.968). No significant differences in the rate of postoperative intra-abdominal abscesses were found between the jaundiced patients with and without PBD (n = 4, 21.1% vs. n = 5, 17.9%, p = 0.787). Preoperative jaundice indicates poor prognosis and high postoperative morbidity but is not a

  10. The impact of high-resolution ultrasound in the differential diagnosis of non-hemolytic jaundice.

    PubMed

    Rauh, Peter; Neye, Holger; Mönkemüller, Klaus; Malfertheiner, Peter; Rickes, Steffen

    2010-12-01

    Because jaundice is a common reason for hospital admission. A fast and correct differential diagnosis is very important to increase treatment efficacy. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the high-resolution ultrasound in this kind of clinical setting. In a prospective study we included 30 patients and we divided them in patients with extrahepatic jaundice and patients with intrahepatic jaundice. We observed a high accuracy of the high-resolution sonography, with a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 100% for extrahepatic jaundice, and a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 95% for intrahepatic jaundice. We conclude that the high-resolution ultrasound should be used in the very beginning of the diagnostic algorithm for the evaluation of patients with unclear jaundice.

  11. [Clinical-diagnostic estimation of carbohydrates metabolism in obturation jaundice].

    PubMed

    Nychytaĭlo, M Iu; Malyk, S V

    2004-07-01

    Complex examination of 175 patients with obturation jaundice was conducted, peculiar attention was spared to the carbohydrates metabolism changes, characterizing hepatic state. It was established, that in obturation jaundice in the liver there are occurring inflammatory changes and disturbances of all kinds of metabolism, including that of carbohydrates, severity of which depends on duration of jaundice, the concurrent diseases presence, they shows lowering of the glucose and glycogen level in the blood, as well as the hepatic glycogen content, that's why they may be applied as a complex of prognostic criterions for the disease course. An early conduction of operative treatment, elimination of the biliary ducts impassability promote the rehabilitation period shortening and the hepatic functional activity normalization.

  12. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for severe jaundice in patients with acute Budd-Chiari syndrome.

    PubMed

    He, Fu-Liang; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Fan, Zhen-Hua; Zhao, Meng-Fei; Dai, Shan; Yue, Zhen-Dong; Liu, Fu-Quan

    2015-02-28

    To evaluate the feasibility of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) for severe jaundice secondary to acute Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS). From February 2009 to March 2013, 37 patients with severe jaundice secondary to acute BCS were treated. Sixteen patients without hepatic venule, hepatic veins (HV) obstruction underwent percutaneous angioplasty of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and/or HVs. Twenty-one patients with HV occlusion underwent TIPS. Serum bilirubin, liver function, demographic data and operative data of the two groups of patients were analyzed. Twenty-one patients underwent TIPS and the technical success rate was 100%, with no technical complications. Sixteen patients underwent recanalization of the IVC and/or HVs and the technical success rate was 100%. The mean procedure time for TIPS was 84.0±12.11 min and angioplasty was 44.11±5.12 min (P<0.01). The mean portosystemic pressure in the TIPS group decreased significantly from 40.50±4.32 to 16.05±3.50 mmHg (P<0.01). The mean portosystemic pressure gradient decreased significantly from 33.60±2.62 to 7.30±2.21 mmHg (P<0.01). At 8 wk after the procedures, in the TIPS group, total bilirubin (TBIL) decreased significantly from 266.24±122.03 before surgery to 40.11±3.52 μmol/L (P<0.01) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) decreased significantly from 194.22±69.82 μmol/L to 29.82±3.10 μmol/L (P<0.01). In the angioplasty group, bilirubin returned to the normal range, with TBIL decreased significantly from 258.22±72.71 μmol/L to 13.33±3.54 μmol/L (P<0.01) and DBIL from 175.08±39.27 to 4.03±1.74 μmol/L (P<0.01). Liver function improved faster than TBIL. After 2 wk, in the TIPS group, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) decreased significantly from 50.33±40.61 U/L to 28.67±7.02 U/L (P<0.01) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from 49.46±34.33 U/L to 26.89±8.68 U/L (P<0.01). In the angioplasty group, ALT decreased significantly from 51.56±27.90 to 14.22±2.59 μmol/L (P<0.01) and AST from 60

  13. Clinical features and risk factors of acute hepatitis E with severe jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Yu, Hai-Bin; Hui, Wei; He, Jia-Li; Wei, Lin-Lin; Wang, Zheng; Guo, Xin-Hui

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To compares the clinical features of patients infected with hepatitis E virus (HEV) with or without severe jaundice. In addition, the risk factors for HEV infection with severe jaundice were investigated. METHODS: We enrolled 235 patients with HEV into a cross-sectional study using multi-stage sampling to select the study group. Patients with possible acute hepatitis E showing elevated liver enzyme levels were screened for HEV infection using serologic and molecular tools.HEV infection was documented by HEV antibodies and by the detection of HEV-RNA in serum. We used χ2 analysis, Fisher’s exact test, and Student’s t test where appropriate in this study. Significant predictors in the univariate analysis were then included in a forward, stepwise multiple logistic regression model. RESULTS: No significant differences in symptoms, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, or hepatitis B virus surface antigen between the two groups were observed. HEV infected patients with severe jaundice had significantly lower peak serum levels of γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT) (median: 170.31 U/L vs 237.96 U/L, P = 0.007), significantly lower ALB levels (33.84 g/L vs 36.89 g/L, P = 0.000), significantly lower acetylcholine esterase (CHE) levels (4500.93 U/L vs 5815.28 U/L, P = 0.000) and significantly higher total bile acid (TBA) levels (275.56 μmol/L vs 147.03 μmol/L, P = 0.000) than those without severe jaundice. The median of the lowest point time tended to be lower in patients with severe jaundice (81.64% vs 96.12%, P = 0.000). HEV infected patients with severe jaundice had a significantly higher viral load (median: 134 vs 112, P = 0.025) than those without severe jaundice. HEV infected patients with severe jaundice showed a trend toward longer median hospital stay (38.17 d vs 18.36 d, P = 0.073). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that there were significant differences in age, sex, viral load, GGT, albumin, TBA, CHE

  14. Clinical features and risk factors of acute hepatitis E with severe jaundice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Yu, Hai-Bin; Hui, Wei; He, Jia-Li; Wei, Lin-Lin; Wang, Zheng; Guo, Xin-Hui

    2012-12-28

    To compares the clinical features of patients infected with hepatitis E virus (HEV) with or without severe jaundice. In addition, the risk factors for HEV infection with severe jaundice were investigated. We enrolled 235 patients with HEV into a cross-sectional study using multi-stage sampling to select the study group. Patients with possible acute hepatitis E showing elevated liver enzyme levels were screened for HEV infection using serologic and molecular tools.HEV infection was documented by HEV antibodies and by the detection of HEV-RNA in serum. We used χ(2) analysis, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t test where appropriate in this study. Significant predictors in the univariate analysis were then included in a forward, stepwise multiple logistic regression model. No significant differences in symptoms, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, or hepatitis B virus surface antigen between the two groups were observed. HEV infected patients with severe jaundice had significantly lower peak serum levels of γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT) (median: 170.31 U/L vs 237.96 U/L, P = 0.007), significantly lower ALB levels (33.84 g/L vs 36.89 g/L, P = 0.000), significantly lower acetylcholine esterase (CHE) levels (4500.93 U/L vs 5815.28 U/L, P = 0.000) and significantly higher total bile acid (TBA) levels (275.56 μmol/L vs 147.03 μmol/L, P = 0.000) than those without severe jaundice. The median of the lowest point time tended to be lower in patients with severe jaundice (81.64% vs 96.12%, P = 0.000). HEV infected patients with severe jaundice had a significantly higher viral load (median: 134 vs 112, P = 0.025) than those without severe jaundice. HEV infected patients with severe jaundice showed a trend toward longer median hospital stay (38.17 d vs 18.36 d, P = 0.073). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that there were significant differences in age, sex, viral load, GGT, albumin, TBA, CHE, prothrombin index, alcohol

  15. Prolonged jaundice in newborns is associated with low antioxidant capacity in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Uras, Nurdan; Tonbul, Alpaslan; Karadag, Ahmet; Dogan, Derya G; Erel, Ozcan; Tatli, Mustafa M

    2010-10-01

    In breastfeeding newborns who are otherwise healthy, the mechanism of prolonged jaundice remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate relations between prolonged jaundice and oxidative parameters in breast milk. Full-term, otherwise healthy newborns with jaundice lasting more than 2 weeks were enrolled prospectively in the study. As a control group, newborns in the same age group but without prolonged jaundice were selected. All newborns in the study were exclusively breastfed. In the newborns with prolonged jaundice, investigations of the etiology of the jaundice included complete blood count, peripheral blood smear, blood typing, direct Coombs test, measurement of serum levels of total and direct bilirubin, tests for liver and thyroid function (TSH, free T4, total T4), urine culture and measurement of urine reducing substances, and determination of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme levels. Breast milk was collected from the mothers of the newborns in both groups. The antioxidant status of the breast milk was assessed via determination of total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Oxidative stress was also assessed in breast milk by measurement of total oxidation status (TOS) and calculation of the oxidative stress index (OSI). The prolonged jaundice group differed significantly from the control group in terms of mean TAC and OSI (p < 0.001), but not in terms of TOS. In conclusion, in the breast milk of mothers of newborns with prolonged jaundice, oxidative stress was found to be increased, and protective antioxidant capacity was found to be decreased.

  16. Incidence and Risk Factors for Neonatal Jaundice among Newborns in Southern Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Scrafford, Carolyn G.; Mullany, Luke C.; Katz, Joanne; Khatry, Subarna K.; LeClerq, Steven C.; Darmstadt, Gary L.; Tielsch, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the incidence of and risk factors for neonatal jaundice among infants referred for care from a rural, low-resource, population-based cohort in southern Nepal. Methods Study participants were 18,985 newborn infants born in Sarlahi District in Southern Nepal from May 2003 through January 2006 who participated in a cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled, community-based trial to evaluate the effect of newborn chlorhexidine cleansing on neonatal mortality and morbidity. Jaundice was assessed based on visual assessment of the infant by a study worker and referral for care. Adjusted relative risks (RR) were estimated to identify risk factors for referral for neonatal jaundice using Poisson regression. Results The incidence of referral for neonatal jaundice was 29.3 per 1,000 live births (95% Confidence Interval: 26.9, 31.7). Male sex, high birth weight, breastfeeding patterns, warm air temperature, primiparity, skilled birth attendance, place of delivery, prolonged labor, oil massage, paternal education, and ethnicity were significant risk factors (p-values<0.01). After multi-variable adjustment, sex, birth weight, difficulty feeding, prolonged labor, primiparity, oil massage, ambient air temperature, and ethnicity remained important factors. Among infants with difficulty feeding, exclusive breastfeeding was a risk factor for neonatal jaundice, whereas exclusive breastfeeding was protective among infants with no report of difficulty feeding. Conclusions Several known risk factors for neonatal jaundice in a low-resource setting were confirmed in this study. Unique observed associations of jaundice with ambient air temperature and oil massage may be explained by the opportunity for phototherapy based on the cultural practices of this study population. Future research should investigate the role of an infant’s difficulty in feeding as a potential modifier in the association between exclusive breastfeeding and jaundice. PMID:24112359

  17. [Jaundice and urinary tract infection in neonates: simple coincidence or real consequence?].

    PubMed

    Abourazzak, S; Bouharrou, A; Hida, M

    2013-09-01

    In neonates, jaundice may be one of the initial symptoms related to urinary tract infection (UTI). The routine testing of the urine in jaundiced neonates is controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the related factors of neonatal infants with the initial presentation of hyperbilirubinemia and the final diagnosis of UTI by evaluating data that help diagnose UTI early in apparently healthy newborns with jaundice. We retrospectively investigated the medical records of neonates who had been admitted for management of jaundice (n=26) and compared with neonates with jaundice but without UTI (n=26). There was a significant difference between the two groups in male gender and maternal conditions (prolonged rupture of membranes, maternal UTI). There was also a significant difference between the two groups in their age at the time jaundice started (4 ± 3 days vs 2 ± 1 days) in the UTI and non-UTI groups, respectively (P>0.05). The cases in the UTI group had significantly lower total bilirubin levels (183 ± 71 mg/l) vs (227 ± 40 mg/l) in the non-UTI group, but a higher indirect bilirubin rate than the non-UTI group (P<0.05). Type B blood group was more common in neonates with UTI (P<0.01). In the cases presented herein, none of the jaundiced infants with UTI presented conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Therefore, urinary tests for UTI should not be absolutely excluded or neglected in neonates in the early stage with unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Performing urinary tests to exclude the possibility of coincidental UTI may be necessary for admitted jaundiced infants younger than if they have a high level of indirect bilirubin, especially in male newborns with group B blood and in the presence of maternal urinary infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. [Diagnostic performance of biliary ultrasound vs. magnetic resonance cholangiogram in patients with recurrent biliary obstruction.].

    PubMed

    Chávez-Valencia, V; Espinosa-Ortega, H F; Espinoza-Peralta, D; Arce-Salinas, C A

    2009-01-01

    Obstructive jaundice in patients with previous cholecystectomy requires a precise diagnosis. In the diagnostic algorithm, biliary ultrasound (BUS) and magnetic resonance cholangiogram (MRC) are used, although the accuracy of each method is unknown in our setting. No previous comparison of US and MRC in subjects with cholecystectomy has been made. To determine diagnostic accuracy of BUS and MRC in patients with recurrent biliary obstruction. Patients with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopacreatography (ERCP) demonstrating recurrent biliary obstruction by stones were included. All patients underwent BUS and MRC. We determined the diagnostic performance of each image study compared with ERCP. Twenty-seven patients with a mean age of 62.9 +/- 17.3 years-old were included. Sensitivity and specificity of BUS were 0.12 and 0.58, respectively. Figures for MRC were 0.88 and 0.82. Diagnostic agreement between ERCP and MRC was k= 0.66 whereas BUS had a k of only 0.26. MRC had good diagnostic performance for recurrent choledocolithiasis. BUS demonstrated lower accuracy compared with previous reports, so should not be considered in the initial approach of recurrent choledocus obstruction.

  19. FLUCTUATING JAUNDICE IN THE ADENOCARCINOMA OF THE AMPULLA OF VATER: a classic sign or an exception?

    PubMed

    Alves, José Roberto; Amico, Enio Campos; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de; Oliveira, Patrick Vanttinny Vieira de; Maranhão, Ícaro Godeiro de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Some authors consider the fluctuating jaundice as a classic sign of the adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. Assessing the frequency of fluctuating jaundice in their forms of its depiction in the patients with adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. Observational and retrospective study, conducted through analyses of medical records from patients subjected to pancreatic cephalic resections between February 2008 and July 2013. The pathological examination of the surgical specimen was positive to adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. Concepts and differences on clinical and laboratory fluctuating jaundice were standardized. It was subdivided into type A and type B laboratory fluctuating jaundice. Twenty patients were selected. One of them always remained anicteric, 11 patients developed progressive jaundice, 2 of them developed clinical and laboratory fluctuating jaundice, 5 presented only laboratory fluctuating jaundice and one did not present significant variations on total serum bilirubin levels. Among the seven patients with fluctuating jaundice, two were classified as type A, one as type B and four were not classified due to lack information. Finally, progressive jaundice was the prevailing presentation form in these patients (11 cases). This series of cases suggested that clinical fluctuating jaundice is a uncommon signal in adenocarcinoma of the ampulla of Vater.

  20. Jaundice as a prognostic factor in patients undergoing radical treatment for carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianguo; Zhang, Qian; Li, Peng; Shan, Yi; Zhao, Dongbing; Cai, Jianqiang

    2014-01-01

    Carcinomas of the ampulla of Vater (CAV) is a relatively rare malignant gastrointestinal tumor, and its postoperative prognostic factors have been well studied. However, as its first symptom, the impact of jaundice on the prognosis of CAV is not so clear. This study aims to explore the role of jaundice as a prognostic factor in patients undergoing radical treatment for CAV. The clinical data of 195 patients with CAV who were treated in the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, from January 1989 to January 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 170 patients with pathologically confirmed CAV entered the statistical analysis. Jaundice was defined as a total bilirubin serum concentration of ≥ 3 mg/dl. Result Of these 170 patients, 99 (58.20%) had jaundice at presentation. Jaundice showed significant correlations with tumor differentiation (P = 0.002), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.016), pancreatic invasion (P = 0.000), elevated preoperative CA199 (P = 0.000), depth of invasion (P = 0.000), and tumor stage (P = 0.000). There were more patients with pancreatic invasion in the jaundice group than in the non-jaundice group. Also, lymph node metastasis was more common in the jaundice group (n = 26) than in the non-jaundice group (n = 8). The non-jaundice group had significant better overall 5-year disease-free survival (72.6%) than the jaundice group (41.2%, P = 0.013). Jaundice was not significantly correlated with the postoperative bleeding (P = 0.050). Jaundice in patients with CAV often predicts more advanced stages and poorer prognoses. Pancreatic invasion and lymph node metastasis are more common in CAV patients with jaundice. Jaundice is not a risk factor for postoperative bleeding and preoperative biliary drainage cannot reduce the incidence of postoperative complications.

  1. Resolution pattern of jaundice among children presenting with severe malaria in rural South-West Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osonuga, O A; Osonuga, A; Osonuga, A A; Osonuga, I O

    2012-07-01

    To compare the pattern of jaundice resolution among children with severe malaria treated with quinine and artemether. Thirty two children who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study from two hospitals with intensive care facilities. They were divided into two groups; 'Q' and 'A', receiving quinine and artemether, respectively. Jaundice was assessed by clinical examination. Sixteen out of 32 children recruited (representing 50%) presented with jaundice on the day of recruitment. The mean age was (7.00°C2.56) years. On day 3, four patients in 'A' and six patients in 'Q' had jaundice. By day 7, no child had jaundice. The study has shown that both drugs resolve jaundice although artemether relatively resolves it faster by the third day.

  2. The natural history of autoimmune hepatitis presenting with jaundice.

    PubMed

    Panayi, Vasilis; Froud, Oliver J; Vine, Louisa; Laurent, Paul; Woolson, Kathy L; Hunter, Jeremy G; Madden, Richard G; Miller, Catherine; Palmer, Jo; Harris, Nicola; Mathew, Joe; Stableforth, Bill; Murray, Iain A; Dalton, Harry R

    2014-06-01

    Forty percent of patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) present with acute jaundice/hepatitis. Such patients, when treated promptly, are thought to have a good prognosis. The objective of this study was to describe the natural history of AIH in patients presenting with jaundice/hepatitis and to determine whether the diagnosis could have been made earlier, before presentation. This study is a retrospective review of 2249 consecutive patients who presented with jaundice to the Jaundice Hotline clinic, Truro, Cornwall, UK, over 15 years (1998-2013) and includes a review of the laboratory data over a 23-year period (1990-2013). Of the 955 patients with hepatocellular jaundice, 47 (5%) had criterion-referenced AIH: 35 female and 12 male, the median age was 65 years (range 15-91 years); the bilirubin concentration was 139 μmol/l (range 23-634 μmol/l) and the alanine transaminase level was 687 IU/l (range 22-2519 IU/l). Among the patients, 23/46 (50%) were cirrhotic on biopsy; 11/47 (23%) died: median time from diagnosis to death, 5 months (range 1-59); median age, 72 years (range 59-91 years). All 8/11 patients who died of liver-related causes were cirrhotic. Weight loss (P=0.04) and presence of cirrhosis (P=0.004) and varices (P=0.015) were more common among those who died. Among patients who died from liver-related causes, 6/8 (75%) died less than 6 months from diagnosis. Cirrhosis at presentation and oesophageal varices were associated with early liver-related deaths (P=0.011, 0.002 respectively). Liver function test results were available in 33/47 (70%) patients before presentation. Among these patients, 16 (49%) had abnormal alanine transaminase levels previously, and eight (50%) were cirrhotic at presentation. AIH presenting as jaundice/hepatitis was mainly observed in older women: 50% of the patients were cirrhotic, and liver-related mortality was high. Some of these deaths were potentially preventable by earlier diagnosis, as the patients had abnormal liver

  3. Enzymatic Removal of Bilirubin from Blood: A Potential Treatment for Neonatal Jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavin, Arthur; Sung, Cynthia; Klibanov, Alexander M.; Langer, Robert

    1985-11-01

    Current treatments for severe jaundice can result in major complications. Neonatal jaundice is caused by excessive accumulation of bilirubin in the blood. A small blood filter containing immobilized bilirubin oxidase was developed to reduce serum bilirubin concentrations. When human or rat blood was passed through the enzyme filter, more than 90 percent of the bilirubin was degraded in a single pass. This procedure may have important applications in the clinical treatment of neonatal jaundice.

  4. Feto-Maternal Outcome of Jaundice in Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Parveen, T; Begum, F; Akhter, N

    2015-07-01

    Acute viral hepatitis is the most common cause of jaundice in pregnancy. Amongst hepatitis E bears a deadly combination with pregnancy, leading to loss of very young lives. There is almost no data available in this aspect documenting prevalence, profile and effect of jaundice on outcome of pregnancy in Bangladesh. This observational study was done to determine and analyze the frequency, cause and outcome of jaundice in pregnancy among the admitted patients in the feto-maternal medicine wing of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, for a 2 years period from August 2009 to July 2011. Management was done in collaboration with the hepatologists, hematologists and intensive care unit specialist. Outcome was noted in terms of the mode of delivery, maternal complications, need of blood transfusion and fresh frozen plasma and maternal end result. Fetal outcome was assessed by birth weight, Apgar score, neonatal admission, and perinatal mortality. Prevalence of jaundice was found 2.5% among all high risk and 1.3% among all obstetric admissions. Hepatitis E was the commonest cause and responsible for 80.4% cases of jaundice and next was cholestatic jaundice. Almost half of the patients (43.4%) faced complications like post partum haemorrhage (15.3%), hepatic encephalopathy (10.8%), ante partum hemorrhage (6.5%). Preterm delivery was noted in 71.1% cases. Out of 46 patients with jaundice four (4) mothers died due to hepatic encephalopathy in hepatitis E group. Regarding perinatal outcome 55.8% were of low birth weight, 35.3% had low Apgar score and perinatal mortality was 6.4%.

  5. The impact of the maternal experience with a jaundiced newborn on the breastfeeding relationship.

    PubMed

    Willis, Sharla K; Hannon, Patricia R; Scrimshaw, Susan C

    2002-05-01

    To examine the process by which mothers' experiences with neonatal jaundice affect breastfeeding. We used ethnographic interviews with grounded theory methodology. Audiotaped data were transcribed and analyzed for themes using ATLAS/ti qualitative data analysis software (Scientific Software Development, Berlin, Germany). We studied a total of 47 Spanish- and English-speaking breastfeeding mothers of otherwise healthy infants diagnosed with neonatal jaundice. Our outcomes were the qualitative descriptions of maternal experiences with neonatal jaundice. Interactions with medical professionals emerged as the most important factor mediating the impact of neonatal jaundice on breastfeeding. Breastfeeding orders and the level of encouragement from medical professionals toward breastfeeding had the strongest effect on feeding decisions. Maternal reaction to and understanding of information from their physicians also played an important role. Guilt was common, as many mothers felt they had caused the jaundice by breastfeeding. By providing accurate information and encouragement to breastfeed, medical professionals have great impact on whether a mother continues breastfeeding after her experience with neonatal jaundice. Health care providers must be aware of how mothers receive and interpret information related to jaundice to minimize maternal reactions, such as guilt, that have a negative impact on breastfeeding.

  6. Jaundice increases the rate of complications and one-year mortality in patients with hypoxic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Bernhard; Drolz, Andreas; Michl, Barbara; Schellongowski, Peter; Bojic, Andja; Nikfardjam, Miriam; Zauner, Christian; Heinz, Gottfried; Trauner, Michael; Fuhrmann, Valentin

    2012-12-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH) is the most frequent cause of acute liver injury in critically ill patients. No clinical data exist about new onset of jaundice in patients with HH. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and clinical effect of jaundice in critically ill patients with HH. Two hundred and six consecutive patients with HH were screened for the development of jaundice during the course of HH. Individuals with preexisting jaundice or liver cirrhosis at the time of admission (n = 31) were excluded from analysis. Jaundice was diagnosed in patients with plasma total bilirubin levels >3 mg/dL. One-year-survival, infections, and cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal (GI), renal, and hepatic complications were prospectively documented. New onset of jaundice occurred in 63 of 175 patients with HH (36%). In patients who survived the acute event of HH, median duration of jaundice was 6 days (interquartile range, 3-8). Patients who developed jaundice (group 1) needed vasopressor treatment (P < 0.05), renal replacement therapy (P < 0.05), and mechanical ventilation (P < 0.05) more often and had a higher maximal administered dose of norepinephrine (P < 0.05), compared to patients without jaundice (group 2). One-year survival rate was significantly lower in group 1, compared to group 2 (8% versus 25%, respectively; P < 0.05). Occurrence of jaundice was associated with an increased frequency of complications during follow-up (54% in group 1 versus 35% in group 2; P < 0.05). In particular, infections as well as renal and GI complications occurred more frequently in group 1 during follow-up. Jaundice is a common finding during the course of HH. It leads to an increased rate of complications and worse outcome in patients with HH. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. [Application of Bayes Probability Model in Differentiation of Yin and Yang Jaundice Syndromes in Neonates].

    PubMed

    Mu, Chun-sun; Zhang, Ping; Kong, Chun-yan; Li, Yang-ning

    2015-09-01

    To study the application of Bayes probability model in differentiating yin and yang jaundice syndromes in neonates. Totally 107 jaundice neonates who admitted to hospital within 10 days after birth were assigned to two groups according to syndrome differentiation, 68 in the yang jaundice syndrome group and 39 in the yin jaundice syndrome group. Data collected for neonates were factors related to jaundice before, during and after birth. Blood routines, liver and renal functions, and myocardial enzymes were tested on the admission day or the next day. Logistic regression model and Bayes discriminating analysis were used to screen factors important for yin and yang jaundice syndrome differentiation. Finally, Bayes probability model for yin and yang jaundice syndromes was established and assessed. Factors important for yin and yang jaundice syndrome differentiation screened by Logistic regression model and Bayes discriminating analysis included mothers' age, mother with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), gestational age, asphyxia, or ABO hemolytic diseases, red blood cell distribution width (RDW-SD), platelet-large cell ratio (P-LCR), serum direct bilirubin (DBIL), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), cholinesterase (CHE). Bayes discriminating analysis was performed by SPSS to obtain Bayes discriminant function coefficient. Bayes discriminant function was established according to discriminant function coefficients. Yang jaundice syndrome: y1= -21. 701 +2. 589 x mother's age + 1. 037 x GDM-17. 175 x asphyxia + 13. 876 x gestational age + 6. 303 x ABO hemolytic disease + 2.116 x RDW-SD + 0. 831 x DBIL + 0. 012 x ALP + 1. 697 x LCR + 0. 001 x CHE; Yin jaundice syndrome: y2= -33. 511 + 2.991 x mother's age + 3.960 x GDM-12. 877 x asphyxia + 11. 848 x gestational age + 1. 820 x ABO hemolytic disease +2. 231 x RDW-SD +0. 999 x DBIL +0. 023 x ALP +1. 916 x LCR +0. 002 x CHE. Bayes discriminant function was hypothesis tested and got Wilks' λ =0. 393 (P =0. 000). So Bayes

  8. Influence of reproductive tract obstruction on expression of epididymal proteins and their restoration after patency.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-Kun; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Chun-Xiao; Zheng, Shao-Bo; Li, Hu-Lin; Li, Li-Ping; Xu, A-Bai

    2013-01-01

    Vasectomy is a simple and reliable method of male contraception. A growing number of men after vasectomy request vasectomy reversal due to various reasons. The pregnancy rate is lower than the patency rate after vasovasostomy and the pregnancy rate is time dependent. In this study, we evaluated the influence of reproductive tract obstruction on expression of epididymal proteins and their restoration after patency. Adult male Wistar rats were studied 30, 60 and 120 days after vasectomy, 30 days after vasovasostomy or after sham operations. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass-spectrometric technique, multidatabase search, Western blotting and real-time PCR were used to analyze the expression regulation of epididymal proteins. Total integrated intensity and total spot area of autoradiograms showed a consistent downward trend with time after obstruction, and this trend remained after patency. The intensity of the autoradiographic spots in three patency groups showed three trends: a downward trend, similar intensity and an upward trend compared with the correspondent obstruction group, respectively. Further verified experiments on human epididymis 2 (HE2), fertilization antigen-1 (FA-1), clusterin and PH20 demonstrated that compared with the correspondent obstruction group, the translation levels of HE2 and the mRNA transcription levels of HE2 showed an upward trend in patency groups, especially in the groups of obstruction for 60 days where the expression levels of HE2 were significantly upregulated after patency (P<0.05). Reproductive tract obstruction provokes a disregulation of gene expression in the epididymis and this disregulation remained after patency. Successful reversal may recover some proteins and the recovery is time dependent. Obstruction differentially alters mRNA transcription of different proteins and the content of proteins seemed to be easier to be influenced than the gene transcription.

  9. Resolution pattern of jaundice among children presenting with severe malaria in rural South-West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Osonuga, OA; Osonuga, A; Osonuga, AA; Osonuga, IO

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the pattern of jaundice resolution among children with severe malaria treated with quinine and artemether. Methods Thirty two children who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were recruited for the study from two hospitals with intensive care facilities. They were divided into two groups; ‘Q’ and ‘A’, receiving quinine and artemether, respectively. Jaundice was assessed by clinical examination. Results Sixteen out of 32 children recruited (representing 50%) presented with jaundice on the day of recruitment. The mean age was (7.00°C2.56) years. On day 3, four patients in ‘A’ and six patients in ‘Q’ had jaundice. By day 7, no child had jaundice. Conclusion The study has shown that both drugs resolve jaundice although artemether relatively resolves it faster by the third day. PMID:23569969

  10. Two cases of Kawasaki disease presented with acute febrile jaundice.

    PubMed

    Kaman, Ayşe; Aydın-Teke, Türkan; Gayretli-Aydın, Zeynep Gökçe; Öz, Fatma Nur; Metin-Akcan, Özge; Eriş, Deniz; Tanır, Gönül

    2017-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is an acute, systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Although gastrointestinal involvement does not belong to the classic diagnostic criteria; diarrhea, abdominal pain, hepatic dysfunction, hydrops of gallbladder, and acute febrile cholestatic jaundice are reported in patients with Kawasaki disease. We describe here two cases presented with fever, and acute jaundice as initial features of Kawasaki disease.

  11. An unusual case of hyperthyroidism associated with jaundice and hypercalcaemia.

    PubMed

    Klangjareonchai, Theerawut

    2012-05-08

    A 51-year-old woman with rheumatoid arthritis presented with a 3 month history of painless jaundice and significant weight loss and constipation. Laboratory values were consistent with hyperthyroidism, cholestatic jaundice and parathyroid hormone-independent hypercalcaemia. Three months after beginning of methimazole, euthyroidism was achieved and serum adjusted calcium, total and direct bilirubin levels were normal.

  12. Newborn jaundice and kernicterus--health and societal perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bhutani, Vinod K; Johnson, Lois H

    2003-05-01

    Kernicterus, a preventable injury to the brain from severe neonatal jaundice, has re-emerged in the United States as a public and societal health concern. Kernicterus, in its usually recognized form, causes devastating disabilities, including athetoid cerebral palsy and speech and hearing impairment. This condition not only ranks amongst the highest cost per new case (per CDCs Financial Burden of Disability study, 1992), but also results in profound and uncompromising grief for the family and loss to siblings of healthy, talkative playmates. And for the child with kernicterus (usually remarkably intelligent, but trapped in an uncontrollable body), grief and frustration are enormous. In 2001 national healthcare organizations, including Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the Joint Commission for the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JACHO) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued alerts to all accredited hospitals and public health professionals in the United States that all healthy infants are at potential risk of kernicterus if their newborn jaundice is unmonitored and inadequately treated. The re-emergence of kernicterus in the United States is the result of interacting phenomena including (a) Early hospital discharge (before extent of jaundice is known and signs of impending brain damage have appeared); (b) Lack of adequate concern for the risks of severe jaundice in healthy term and near newborns; (c) An increase in breast feeding; (d) Medical care cost constraints; (e) Paucity of educational materials to enable parents to participate in safeguarding their newborns; and (f) Limitations within in healthcare systems to monitor the outpatient progression of jaundice. A multidisciplinary approach that encompasses both healthcare and societal needs should be evaluated at a national level for practical and easy to implement strategies. An approach that is based on principles of evidence-based medicine, patient-safety and family centeredness is

  13. Knowledge Level and Determinants of Neonatal Jaundice: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Effutu Municipality of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Kontor, Kate Adomakowaah; Bentsil, Joseph-Josiah; Anderson, Maxwell; Nsiah, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Background Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is a major cause of hospital admission during the neonatal period and is associated with significant mortality. This case-control study with cross-sectional design sought to identify the possible factors associated with neonatal jaundice and assess maternal knowledge level of this condition. Methods One hundred and fifty (150) neonates comprising 100 with clinically evident jaundice and 50 without jaundice were conveniently recruited from the Trauma and Specialist Hospital in the Effutu Municipality. Blood samples were collected for the determination of serum bilirubin, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), status and blood group (ABO and Rhesus). Well-structured questionnaire was used to collect maternal and neonate sociodemographic and clinical history. Results Majority (54%) of neonates developed jaundice within 1–3 days after birth with 10% having it at birth. Duration of labour and neonatal birth weight were associated with neonatal jaundice (P < 0.05). G6PD abnormality was found in 11 (12%) of the neonates with jaundice and ABO incompatibility was present in 18%. Neonates delivered by mothers with formal occupation and those who had prolonged duration of labour were significantly more likely to have neonatal jaundice (OR = 4.174, P = 0.003; OR = 2.389, P = 0.025, resp.). Neonates with low birth weight were also more likely to develop neonatal jaundice (OR = 2.347, P = 0.044). Only 17.3% of mothers had heard of neonatal jaundice. School was the major source of information on neonatal jaundice (34.6%). Majority of participants (mothers) did not know that NNJ can cause damage to other organs in the body (90%). Conclusion Low neonatal birth weight and prolonged duration of labour are associated with neonatal jaundice. Mothers had inadequate knowledge of neonatal jaundice and its causes. PMID:29686715

  14. Ethnomedicine for neonatal jaundice: A cross-sectional survey in Qom, Iran.

    PubMed

    Heydari, Mojtaba; Heydari, Hosein; Saadati, Alireza; Gharehbeglou, Mohammad; Tafaroji, Javad; Akbari, Abolfazl

    2016-12-04

    Traditional Medicine (TM) is popularly used for neonatal jaundice in Iran. to provides evidence for characteristics of traditional medicine use in the treatment of neonatal jaundice in Qom, Iran. Field surveys were carried out during July 2015 - August 2015 in Qom through structured questionnaire in Persian from 212 parents of children with neonatal jaundice. All plant species recorded for the treatment of neonatal jaundice were sampled. Samples were identified by a botanist and obtained a voucher specimens number and deposited in the Shiraz School of Pharmacy Herbarium. The information such as scientific name, family, local name, parts used and preparation method were provided. The Use Value (UV), Frequency of Citation (FC), Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) and Relative Family Importance Value (FIV) are also calculated. In total, 165 (78%) of participants reported the use of traditional methods for their neonates. The use of herbal remedies was the most popular form of these traditional interventions. A total of 8 plant species belonging to 7 families were identified. Cotoneaster nummularioides Pojark. Cichorium intybus L. Alhagi maurorum Medik. Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl were most frequent herbs used by neonates and their feeding mother to treat jaundice. Manna was the most popular plant part and distillation and soaking were most frequent preparation methods in these patients. The use of TM in these patients is associated with their previous experience on TM use and their view on its potential risk. This study provided information on the prevalence, associated factors and characteristics of traditional medicine use along with ethnomedicinal knowledge from Qom in Iran on neonatal jaundice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Survey of management of neonatal haemolytic jaundice in Australasia.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Atul; Carse, Elizabeth

    2010-05-01

    Haemolytic jaundice is an important entity in neonatal clinical practice. Because of the decrease in rhesus isoimmunisation since the advent of anti-D immunoglobulin and improved antenatal management strategies, its management in the neonatal period has become less intensive and exchange transfusions rarely performed. We planned to review the practice of Australasian perinatal units in light of recent advances and recommendations. An electronic survey was sent to the directors of all 25 tertiary-level perinatal units across Australasia. The questionnaire comprised 20 questions dealing with the management of haemolytic jaundice. Twenty out of the 25 neonatal units responded. Most were aware of the recent American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines, but only eight (40%) based their practice on it. Fifty per cent of neonatal units had written protocols to manage such infants, but almost all had written guidelines for performing exchange transfusions. Seven (35%) units started prophylactic phototherapy; however, the criteria used for early exchange were variable, most related to cord haemoglobin or rate of rise of bilirubin. Few units used high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin in haemolytic jaundice. Average exchange rates (based on the last 2 years) were 3.5/year (0-10). Variable practice was noted across the Australasian units. Written protocols form the backbone of management of jaundice in such babies. The use of intravenous immunoglobulin is minimal, and the information available on its use needs to be critically appraised.

  16. Hyperthyroidism and Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Bal, CS; Chawla, Madhavi

    2010-01-01

    Development of hyperbilirubinemia, concurrent or subsequent to hyperthyroidism, can be due to thyrotoxicosis per se, or due to drug treatment of hyperthyroidism. Other rare conditions: autoimmune thyroid disease, or causes unrelated to hyperthyroidism like viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, sepsis, cholangitis, or as a side effect of certain medications. In this article, we review these causes of co-existent hyperthyroidism and jaundice. We also highlight the changes to be expected while interpreting thyroid function tests vis-a-vis liver function tests in this subgroup of patients. PMID:21713219

  17. Probiotics Supplementation Therapy for Pathological Neonatal Jaundice: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Lingli; Zeng, Linan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lucan; Gui, Ge; Zhang, Zuojie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Neonatal jaundice is a relatively prevalent disease and affects approximately 2.4-15% newborns. Probiotics supplementation therapy could assist to improve the recovery of neonatal jaundice, through enhancing immunity mainly by regulating bacterial colonies. However, there is limited evidence regarding the effect of probiotics on bilirubin level in neonates. Therefore, this study aims at systematically evaluating the efficacy and safety of probiotics supplement therapy for pathological neonatal jaundice. Methods: Databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wan Fang Database (Wan Fang), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (VIP) were searched and the deadline is December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of probiotics supplementation for pathological neonatal jaundice in publications were extracted by two reviewers. The cochrane tool was applied to assessing the risk of bias of the trials. The extracted information of RCTs should include efficacy rate, serum total bilirubin level, time of jaundice fading, duration of phototherapy, duration of hospitalization, adverse reactions. The main outcomes of the trials were analyzed by Review Manager 5.3 software. The relative risks (RR) or mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to measure the effect. Results: 13 RCTs involving 1067 neonatal with jaundice were included in the meta-analysis. Probiotics supplementation treatment showed efficacy [RR: 1.19, 95% CI (1.12, 1.26), P < 0.00001] in neonatal jaundice. It not only decreased the total serum bilirubin level after 3day [MD: -18.05, 95% CI (-25.51, -10.58), P < 0.00001], 5day [MD: -23.49, 95% CI (-32.80, -14.18), P < 0.00001], 7day [MD: -33.01, 95% CI (-37.31, -28.70), P < 0.00001] treatment, but also decreased time of jaundice fading [MD: -1.91, 95% CI (-2.06, -1.75), P < 0.00001], as well as the duration of

  18. Intense jaundice in an adolescent. An unusual presentation of infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Chambers, C V; Irwin, C E

    1986-05-01

    Hemolytic anemia is an infrequent complication of infectious mononucleosis. The hemolysis may result from the temporary production of antibodies directed against one or more red-cell antigens. This report describes an adolescent female with infectious mononucleosis who presented for evaluation of jaundice. In this patient the jaundice resulted from a combination of hemolysis and mild hepatitis.

  19. [Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and molecular mechanisms of jaundice].

    PubMed

    Jirsa, M; Sticová, E

    2013-07-01

    The introductory summarises the classical path of heme degradation and classification of jaundice. Subsequently, a description of neonatal types of jaundice is given, known as Crigler Najjar, Gilberts, DubinJohnson and Rotor syndromes, emphasising the explanation of the molecular mechanisms of these metabolic disorders. Special attention is given to a recently discovered molecular mechanism of the Rotor syndrome. The mechanism is based on the inability of the liver to retrospectively uptake the conjugated bilirubin fraction primarily excreted into the blood, not bile. A reduced ability of the liver to uptake the conjugated bilirubin contributes to the development of hyperbilirubinemia in common disorders of the liver and bile ducts and to the toxicity of xenobiotics and drugs using transport proteins for conjugated bilirubin.

  20. [Diagnosis of congenital endocrinological disease in newborns with prolonged jaundice and hypoglycaemia].

    PubMed

    Braslavsky, D; Keselman, A; Chiesa, A; Bergadá, I

    2012-03-01

    The association of prolonged neonatal jaundice and hypoglycaemia may be secondary to an endocrinological disease. Pituitary insufficiency and primary adrenal insufficiency are the most likely endocrine diseases that need to be ruled out. We retrospectively analysed the clinical and laboratory characteristics of thirteen patients referred to the Hospital de Niños Ricardo Gutiérrez between years 2003 and 2008 due to prolonged neonatal jaundice and hypoglycaemia secondary to pituitary insufficiency in twelve patients, and in one secondary to primary adrenal insufficiency. All patients had a history of neonatal hypoglycaemia. Ten patients had conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia and six also had elevated transaminases. Combined pituitary hormone deficiency was observed in the twelve hypopituitarism patients. Hormonal replacement normalised liver function and resolved the prolonged jaundice in all the patients. None of them underwent liver biopsy. Hypoglycaemia also remitted after hormonal therapy. Prolonged or cholestatic jaundice associated with neonatal hypoglycaemia is highly likely to be due to pituitary hormone deficiency or primary adrenal insufficiency. Early diagnosis and treatment of these children reverts the prolonged jaundice and prevents morbidity and mortality due to recurrent hypoglycaemia and hormone deficiencies. Copyright © 2011 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. [MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF THE LIVER IN OBTURATION JAUNDICE, CAUSED BY CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS, DEPENDING ON ITS DURATION].

    PubMed

    Sipliviy, V A; Yevtushenko, D V; Naumova, O V; Andreyeshchev, S A; Yevtushenko, A V

    2016-02-01

    Abstract The results of surgical treatment of 184 patients for obturation jaundice, caused by choledocholithiasis, were analyzed. Morphological changes of the liver were studied in 20 patients. There were three groups of patients delineated, depending on the obturation jaundice duration: up to 7 days, from 8 to 14 days, more than 15 days, and also a group of patients after the bile outflow restoration. The obturation jaundice occurrence in choledocholithiasis is accompanied by significant morphological changes in the liver, severity of which is enhancing while the obturation jaundice persistence increasing. While persistence of obturation jaundice through 8 days and more the connective tissue volume is enhancing, a relative volume of hepatocytes is reducing and a stromal-parenchymatous index is increasing. The bile outflow restoration secures significant reduction of intensity of alterative and inflammatory changes in hepatic parenchyma, as well as activation of reparative processes in the tissue. In cholangitis, caused by P. aeruginosa and E. coli, according to morphological investigations data, in the liver a diffuse purulent cholangitis on background of chronic changes in accordance to duration of the obturation jaundice persists.

  2. Previously undiagnosed hereditary spherocytosis in a patient with jaundice and pyelonephritis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Yuki; Suzuki, Ryoji; Kitamura, Yukihiro

    2016-12-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis is autosomal dominant inherited extravascular hemolytic disorder and is the commonest cause of inherited hemolysis in northern Europe and the United States. The classical clinical features of hereditary spherocytosis are anemia, jaundice, and splenomegaly. However, all of these classical features are not always revealed in the case of mild hemolysis or when hemolysis is well compensated. Patients with hereditary spherocytosis may remain undiagnosed for years if their hemolysis is mild. A 42-year-old Asian woman presented to our clinic with a sudden onset of high fever with shaking chills and jaundice, suggesting septicemia; however, following detailed investigation, the patient was diagnosed with pyelonephritis and accelerated hemolysis of hereditary spherocytosis due to infection. It is important to note that transient anemia or jaundice can sometimes be the only initial presenting symptoms in cases of undiagnosed latent hereditary spherocytosis. This case also highlights the fact that physicians should consider concomitant hemolytic disease in patients in whom jaundice and infections that rarely cause jaundice coexist.

  3. The prevalence of neonatal jaundice and risk factors in healthy term neonates at National District Hospital in Bloemfontein

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Background Neonatal jaundice affects one in two infants globally. The jaundice is the result of an accumulation of bilirubin as foetal haemoglobin is metabolised by the immature liver. High serum levels of bilirubin result in lethargy, poor feeding and kernicterus of the infant. Aim The main aim of this article was to determine the prevalence of neonatal jaundice and secondly to explore its risk factors in healthy term neonates. Setting Maternity ward, National District Hospital, Bloemfontein, South Africa. Methods In this cross-sectional study, mothers and infants were conveniently sampled after delivery and before discharge. The mothers were interviewed and their case records were reviewed for risk factors for neonatal jaundice and the clinical appearance and bilirubin levels of the infants were measured with a non-invasive transcutaneous bilirubin meter. Results A total of 96 mother-infant pairs were included in the study. The prevalence of neonatal jaundice was 55.2%; however, only 10% of black babies who were diagnosed with jaundice appeared clinically jaundiced. Normal vaginal delivery was the only risk factor associated with neonatal jaundice. Black race and maternal smoking were not protective against neonatal jaundice as in some other studies. Conclusion More than half (55.2%) of healthy term neonates developed neonatal jaundice. As it is difficult to clinically diagnose neonatal jaundice in darker pigmented babies, it is recommended that the bilirubin level of all babies should be checked with a non-invasive bilirubin meter before discharge from hospital or maternity unit as well as during the first clinic visit on day 3 after birth.

  4. Probiotics Supplementation Therapy for Pathological Neonatal Jaundice: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Lingli; Zeng, Linan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Lucan; Gui, Ge; Zhang, Zuojie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Neonatal jaundice is a relatively prevalent disease and affects approximately 2.4–15% newborns. Probiotics supplementation therapy could assist to improve the recovery of neonatal jaundice, through enhancing immunity mainly by regulating bacterial colonies. However, there is limited evidence regarding the effect of probiotics on bilirubin level in neonates. Therefore, this study aims at systematically evaluating the efficacy and safety of probiotics supplement therapy for pathological neonatal jaundice. Methods: Databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wan Fang Database (Wan Fang), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals (VIP) were searched and the deadline is December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of probiotics supplementation for pathological neonatal jaundice in publications were extracted by two reviewers. The cochrane tool was applied to assessing the risk of bias of the trials. The extracted information of RCTs should include efficacy rate, serum total bilirubin level, time of jaundice fading, duration of phototherapy, duration of hospitalization, adverse reactions. The main outcomes of the trials were analyzed by Review Manager 5.3 software. The relative risks (RR) or mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to measure the effect. Results: 13 RCTs involving 1067 neonatal with jaundice were included in the meta-analysis. Probiotics supplementation treatment showed efficacy [RR: 1.19, 95% CI (1.12, 1.26), P < 0.00001] in neonatal jaundice. It not only decreased the total serum bilirubin level after 3day [MD: −18.05, 95% CI (−25.51, −10.58), P < 0.00001], 5day [MD: -23.49, 95% CI (−32.80, −14.18), P < 0.00001], 7day [MD: −33.01, 95% CI (−37.31, −28.70), P < 0.00001] treatment, but also decreased time of jaundice fading [MD: −1.91, 95% CI (−2.06, −1.75), P < 0.00001], as well as

  5. A neonate with intestinal volvulus without malrotation exhibiting early jaundice with a suspected fetal onset.

    PubMed

    Hara, Kaori; Kinoshita, Mari; Kin, Takane; Arimitsu, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Yohei; Ikeda, Kazushige; Tomita, Hiroshi; Fujino, Akihiro; Kuroda, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal volvulus without malrotation is a rare disease that causes volvulus of the small intestine despite normal intestinal rotation and fixation. We encountered a neonate with this disease who developed early jaundice and was suspected to have a fetal onset. This patient was characterized by early jaundice complicating intestinal volvulus without malrotation and is considered to have exhibited reduced fetal movement and early jaundice as a result of volvulus, necrosis, and hemorrhage of the small intestine in the fetal period. If abdominal distention accompanied by early jaundice is noted in a neonate, intestinal volvulus without malrotation and associated intraabdominal hemorrhage should be suspected and promptly treated.

  6. Preparation for discharge, maternal satisfaction, and newborn readmission for jaundice: comparing postpartum models of care.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Lise; Fall, Aïssatou; D'Amour, Danielle; Pineault, Raynald

    2007-06-01

    Physiological jaundice generally appears between the third and fifth days of life. The danger of hyperbilirubinemia is therefore a major challenge when postpartum hospital stays are short, and part of the responsibility for screening for signs of jaundice is assumed by the mother. The objective of this study was to identify the model of postnatal continuity of care most likely to prepare mothers for discharge, to reduce newborn readmission for jaundice, and to enhance maternal satisfaction. An epidemiological study was conducted in regions operating under 3 different models of postnatal continuity of care. Eligible mothers were those who had spent less than 60 hours in hospital after an uncomplicated vaginal delivery. Of this group, 70.8 percent participated in telephone interviews conducted 1 month after their deliveries (n=1,096). Newborns who had presented with signs of jaundice were identified through statements from their mothers. Of the participating newborns, 45.5 percent presented with signs of jaundice, and 3.2 percent were readmitted for jaundice during the first week of life. The follow-up procedures used in regions operating under a community-based model most closely followed the recommendations of health authorities and featured a high level of mothers' satisfaction. In the region operating under a mixed hospital model, mothers reported signs of jaundice significantly more often, and postdischarge services received by mothers were less effective at allaying their fears compared with other models. Phototherapy was offered in the home only in the region operating under a mixed ambulatory model, and no readmissions for jaundice were recorded in this region. An effective coordination between community-based perinatal services and hospital-linked home phototherapy in the form of an integrated network appears to be an essential condition for improved monitoring of newborns' health since it fosters a follow-up that is focused not only on jaundice but also on

  7. Free radical-triggered hepatic injury of experimental obstructive jaundice of rats involves overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and enhanced activation of nuclear factor kappaB.

    PubMed

    Liu, T Z; Lee, K T; Chern, C L; Cheng, J T; Stern, A; Tsai, L Y

    2001-10-01

    Excessive production of hydroxyl radicals in blood and liver has previously been demonstrated by us in rats with obstructive jaundice induced by common bile duct ligation (CBDL). In this study, we demonstrate overproduction of superoxide radicals in circulating blood of CBDL rats by the lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence technique. To pinpoint the molecular agents that mediate these processes, we measured circulating proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta ( IL-1beta), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in controls and CBDL rats. Concentrations of these cytokines in blood of CBDL rats were markedly elevated when compared to the controls (TNF-alpha: 36.7 +/- 5.0 vs 13.8 +/- 0.5 pg/mL; IL-6: 2,814 +/- 1,740 vs 0 pg/mL; IL-1beta: 11.9 +/- 2.6 vs 0 pg/mL). The overproduction of free radicals triggered by elevated cytokines in CBDL rats was correlated with the activation of NF-kappaB in hepatic tissue. Using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end label staining technique, we showed that hepatic tissue sections from CBDL rats had an increase in the apoptotic index (AI). Based on these findings, we propose that the severe hepatic injury in CBDL rats is mediated by a cycle that involves the activation of NF-kappaB by combined action of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS). NF-KB, in turn, initiates the transcription of cytokine genes (eg, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha), which triggers hepatic injury, at least in part, by a free radical-mediated apoptotic mechanism. Elevated ROS may be as a positive-feedback signal that triggers NF-KB reactivation; the severe hepatic injury of CBDL rats may result from perpetuation of this vicious cycle.

  8. Parental infant jaundice colour card design successfully validated by comparing it with total serum bilirubin.

    PubMed

    Xue, Guo-Chang; Ren, Ming-Xing; Shen, Lin-Na; Zhang, Li-Wen

    2016-12-01

    We designed a jaundice colour card that could be used by the parents of neonates and validated it by comparing it with total serum bilirubin levels. There were 106 term Chinese neonates in the study. The majority weighed between 2500 g and 3499 g (63%) and had a gestational age of 37-40 weeks (77%). The jaundice colour card and photometric determination were used to screen for neonatal jaundice and compared with serum bilirubin. The bilirubin levels were measured by mothers using the jaundice colour card, and 67% of the measurements were taken at 11-20 days (range 3-30). The measurements at the infant's forehead, cheek and sternum showed strong correlations with total serum bilirubin. The mean differences between the total serum bilirubin and the jaundice colour card measurements from the forehead, cheek and sternum were 1.9 mg/dL, 0.3 mg/dL and 1.5 mg/dL, respectively. When total serum bilirubin >13 mg/dL was used as the cut-off point, the areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves were 0.934 for the forehead, 0.985 for the cheek and 0.966 for the sternum. We established the validity of the jaundice colour card as a parental measurement tool for jaundice in Chinese neonates, and the cheek was the best measurement site. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in Plasmodium vivax malaria patients evolving with cholestatic jaundice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax infection has been considered a benign and self-limiting disease, however, recent studies highlight the association between vivax malaria and life-threatening manifestations. Increase in reactive oxygen species has already been described in vivax malaria, as a result of the increased metabolic rate triggered by the multiplying parasite, and large quantities of toxic redox-active byproducts generated. The present study aimed to study the oxidative stress responses in patients infected with P. vivax, who developed jaundice (hyperbilirubinaemia) in the course of the disease, a common clinical complication related to this species. Methods An evaluation of the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes profile was performed in 28 healthy individuals and compared with P. vivax infected patients with jaundice, i.e., bilirubin < 51.3 μmol/L (8 patients) or without jaundice (34 patients), on day 1 (D1) and day 14 (D14) after anti-malarial therapy. Results Hyperbilirubinaemia was more frequent among women and patients experiencing their first malarial infection, and lower haemoglobin and higher lactate dehydrogenase levels were observed in this group. Malondialdehyde levels and activity of celuroplasmin and glutathione reductase were increased in the plasma from patients with P. vivax with jaundice compared to the control group on D1. However, the activity of thioredoxin reductase was decreased. The enzymes glutathione reductase, thioredoxin reductase, thiols and malondialdehyde also differed between jaundiced versus non-jaundiced patients. On D14 jaundice and parasitaemia had resolved and oxidative stress biomarkers were very similar to the control group. Conclusion Cholestatic hyperbilirubinaemia in vivax malaria cannot be totally disassociated from malaria-related haemolysis. However, significant increase of lipid peroxidation markers and changes in antioxidant enzymes in patients with P. vivax-related jaundice was observed. These results

  10. Effect of biliary drainage on inducible nitric oxide synthase, CD14 and TGR5 expression in obstructive jaundice rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi-Kai; Xiao, Jian-Guo; Huang, Xue-Fei; Gong, Yi-Chun; Li, Wen

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of biliary drainage on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD14 and TGR5 expression in rats with obstructive jaundice (OJ). METHODS: Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups: OJ, sham operation (SH), internal biliary drainage (ID) and external biliary drainage (ED). Rat models were successfully established by two operations and succumbed for extraction of Kupffer cells (KCs) and liver tissue collection on the 8th and 15th day. KCs were isolated by in situ hepatic perfusion and digested with collagen IV, density gradient centrifuged by percoll reagent and purified by cell culture attachment. The isolated KCs were cultured with the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with and without the addition of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). The expression of iNOS, CD14 and bile acid receptor-TGR5 protein in rat liver tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry. The expression of iNOS and CD14 messenger RNA (mRNA) on the isolated KCs was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the TGR5 mRNA level in KCs was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS: The iNOS protein was markedly expressed in the liver of OJ rats, but rare expressed in SH rats. After relief of OJ, the iNOS expression was decidedly suppressed in the ID group (ID vs OJ, P < 0.01), but obviously increased in rats of ED (ED vs OJ, P = 0.004). When interfered only with LPS, the expression of iNOS mRNA by KCs was increased in the OJ group compared with the SH group (P = 0.004). After relief of biliary obstruction, the iNOS mRNA expression showed slight changes in the ED group (ED vs OJ, P = 0.71), but dropped in the ID group (ID vs OJ, P = 0.001). Compared with the simple intervention with LPS, the expressions of iNOS mRNA were significantly inhibited in all four groups after interfered with both LPS and UDCA (P < 0.01, respectively). After bile duct ligation, the CD14 protein expression in rat liver was significantly

  11. Visuocortical Function in Infants With a History of Neonatal Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chuan; Norcia, Anthony M.; Madan, Ashima; Good, William V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. High concentrations of unconjugated bilirubin are neurotoxic and cause brain damage in newborn infants. However, the exact level of bilirubin that may be neurotoxic in a given infant is unknown. The aim of this study was to use a quantitative measure of neural activity, the swept parameter visual evoked potential (sVEP) to determine the relationship between neonatal bilirubin levels and visual responsivity several months later. Methods. We compared sVEP response functions over a wide range of contrast, spatial frequency, and Vernier offset sizes in 16 full-term infants with high bilirubin levels (>10 mg/dL) and 18 age-matched infants with no visible neonatal jaundice, all enrolled at 14 to 22 weeks of age. The group means of sVEP thresholds and suprathreshold response amplitudes were compared. The correlation between individual sVEP thresholds and bilirubin levels in jaundiced infants was studied. Results. Infants who had a history of neonatal jaundice showed lower response amplitudes (P < 0.05) and worse or immeasurable sVEP thresholds compared with control infants for all three measures (P < 0.05). Swept parameter visual evoked potential thresholds for Vernier offset were correlated with bilirubin level (P < 0.05), but spatial acuity and contrast sensitivity measures in the infants with neonatal jaundice were not (P > 0.05). Conclusions. These results indicate that elevated neonatal bilirubin levels affect measures of visual function in infancy up to at least 14 to 22 weeks of postnatal age. PMID:25183760

  12. Intraductal Radiofrequency Ablation Followed by Locoregional Tumor Treatments for Treating Occluded Biliary Stents in Non-Resectable Malignant Biliary Obstruction: A Single-Institution Experience

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xu-Hua; Wang, Yan-Li; Han, Xin-Wei; Ren, Jian-Zhuang; Li, Teng-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Hao; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Peng-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the safety and feasibility of intraductal radiofrequency ablation (RFA) followed by locoregional tumor treatments in patients with non-resectable malignant biliary obstruction and stent re-occlusion. Methods Fourteen patients with malignant biliary obstruction and blocked metal stents were studied retrospectively. All had intraductal RFA followed by locoregional tumor treatments and were monitored clinically and radiologically. The practicality, safety, postoperative complications, jaundice remission, stent patency and survival time were analyzed. Results Combination treatment was successful for all patients. There were no severe complications during RFA or local treatments. All patients had stent patency restored, with a decline in serum bilirubin. Three patients had recurrent jaundice by 195, 237 and 357 days; two patients underwent repeat intraductal RFA; and one required an internal-external biliary drain. The average stent patency time was 234 days (range 187-544 days). With a median follow-up of 384 days (range 187-544 days), six patients were alive, while eight had died. There was no mortality at 30 days. The 3, 6, 12 and 18 month survival rates were 100%, 100%, 64.3% and 42.9%, respectively. Conclusion Intraductal RFA followed by locoregional tumor treatments for occluded metal stents is safe and practically feasible and potential increase stent patency and survival times. PMID:26244367

  13. Prognostic value of jaundice in patients with gallbladder cancer by the AFC-GBC-2009 study group.

    PubMed

    Regimbeau, J M; Fuks, D; Bachellier, P; Le Treut, Y P; Pruvot, F R; Navarro, F; Chiche, L; Farges, O

    2011-06-01

    Jaundice is frequent in patients with gallbladder cancer (GBC) and indicates advanced disease and, according to some teams, precludes routine operative exploration. The present study was designed to re-assess the prognostic value of jaundice in patients with GBC. Patients with GBC operated from 1998 to 2008 were included in a retrospective multicenter study (AFC). The main outcome measured was the prognostic value of jaundice in patients with GBC focusing on morbidity, mortality and survival. A total of 110 of 429 patients with GBC presented with jaundice, with a median age of 66 years (range: 31-88). The resectability rate was 45% (n=50) and the postoperative mortality and morbidity rates were 16% and 62%, respectively; 71% had R0 resection and 46% had lymph node involvement. Overall 1- and 3-year survivals of the 110 jaundiced patients were 41% and 15%, respectively. For the 50 resected patients, 1- and 3-year survivals were 48% and 19%, respectively (real 5-year survivors n=4) which were significantly higher than that of the 60 non-resected patients (31%, 0%, p=0.001). Among the resected jaundiced patients, T-stage, N and M status were found to have a significant impact on survival. R0 resection did not increase the overall survival in all resected patients, but R0 increased median survival in the subgroup of N0 patients (20 months versus 6 months, p=0.01). This series confirms that jaundice is a poor prognostic factor. However, the presence of jaundice does not preclude resection, especially in highly selected patients (N0). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy of preoperative biliary tract decompression in patients with obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Gundry, S R; Strodel, W E; Knol, J A; Eckhauser, F E; Thompson, N W

    1984-06-01

    Fifty consecutive matched patients with benign or malignant biliary tract obstruction were compared to determine the efficacy of preoperative percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD). Twenty-five patients underwent PBD for an average of nine days before operation; 25 patients underwent percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography ( PTHC ) followed immediately by operation. Serum bilirubin levels before PTHC were 16.5 +/- 7.6 mg/dL and 14.9 +/- 7.6 mg/dL in PBD and non-PBD groups, respectively. Serum bilirubin levels decreased to 6.5 +/- 6.2 mg/dL preoperatively in patients having PBD. One week after operation, bilirubin levels were 4.2 +/- 4.3 mg/dL and 9.0 +/- 5.2 mg/dL in the PBD and non-PBD groups, respectively. Major morbidity (sepsis, abscess, renal failure, or bleeding) occurred in two patients (8%) having PBD and in 13 patients (52%) without PBD. One patient (4%) with PBD, and five patients (20%) without PBD, died. The mean hospital stay was shorter for the PBD group. Preoperative PBD reduces operative mortality and morbidity and results in a more rapid resolution of hyperbilirubinemia during the postoperative period.

  15. Jaundice in primary care: a cohort study of adults aged >45 years using electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anna; Stapley, Sally; Hamilton, William

    2012-08-01

    Jaundice is a rare but important symptom of malignant and benign conditions. When patients present in primary care, understanding the relative likelihood of different disease processes can help GPs to investigate and refer patients appropriately. To identify and quantify the various causes of jaundice in adults presenting in primary care. Historical cohort study using electronic primary care records. UK General Practice Research Database. Participants (186 814 men and women) aged >45 years with clinical events recorded in primary care records between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2007. Data were searched for episodes of jaundice and explanatory diagnoses identified within the subsequent 12 months. If no diagnosis was found, the patient's preceding medical record was searched for relevant chronic diseases. From the full cohort, 277 patients had at least one record of jaundice between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2006. Ninety-two (33%) were found to have bile duct stones; 74 (27%) had an explanatory cancer [pancreatic cancer 34 (12%), cholangiocarcinoma 13 (5%) and other diagnosed primary malignancy 27 (10%)]. Liver disease attributed to excess alcohol explained 26 (9%) and other diagnoses were identified in 24 (9%). Sixty-one (22%) had no diagnosis related to jaundice recorded. Although the most common cause of jaundice is bile duct stones, cancers are present in over a quarter of patients with jaundice in this study, demonstrating the importance of urgent investigation into the underlying cause.

  16. Effect of sılymarın on oxıdatıve stress and lıver hıstopathology ın experımental obstructıve jaundıce model.

    PubMed

    Onalan, Ali Kemal; Tuncal, Salih; Kilicoglu, Sibel; Celepli, Salih; Durak, Esra; Kilicoglu, Bulent; Devrim, Erdinc; Barlas, Aziz Mutlu; Kismet, Kemal

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effect of silymarin on oxidative stress and hepatic injury induced by obstructive jaundice in an experimental model. Thirty Wistar-Albino type female rats were divided into 3 groups each including 10 rats. Only laparotomy was performed in group 1. Bile duct ligation was performed in group 2. In group 3, bile duct ligation was performed and orogastic silymarin 300 mg/kg/day dose was given for seven days. At the end of seven days, rats were sacrificed. The blood and liver tissue samples were taken to be examined biochemically and histopathologically. The plasma and liver levels of malondialdehyde were significantly lower in silymarin group than in the bile duct ligated group. Although liver levels of GSH were significantly higher in silymarin group than in the bile duct ligated group, there was no significant difference between the plasma GSH levels of these groups. In silymarin group; the enlargement of hepatocytes, dilatation of canaliculi and the edema were regressed. Silymarin diminished the harmful effects of obstructive jaundice on liver.

  17. Jaundice: an important, poorly recognized risk factor for diminished survival in patients with adenocarcinoma of the head of the pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Strasberg, Steven M; Gao, Feng; Sanford, Dominic; Linehan, David C; Hawkins, William G; Fields, Ryan; Carpenter, Danielle H; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Phillips, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Jaundice impairs cellular immunity, an important defence against the dissemination of cancer. Jaundice is a common mode of presentation in pancreatic head adenocarcinoma. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between preoperative jaundice and survival in patients who have undergone resection of such tumours. Methods: Thirty possible survival risk factors were evaluated in a database of over 400 resected patients. Univariate analysis was used to determine odds ratio for death. All factors for which a P-value of <0.30 was obtained were entered into a multivariate analysis using the Cox model with backward selection. Results: Preoperative jaundice, age, positive node status, poor differentiation and lymphatic invasion were significant indicators of poor outcome in multivariate analysis. Absence of jaundice was a highly favourable prognostic factor. Interaction emerged between jaundice and nodal status. The benefit conferred by the absence of jaundice was restricted to patients in whom negative node status was present. Five-year overall survival in this group was 66%. Jaundiced patients who underwent preoperative stenting had a survival advantage. Conclusions: Preoperative jaundice is a negative risk factor in adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. Additional studies are required to determine the exact mechanism for this effect. PMID:23600768

  18. Approach to Clinical Syndrome of Jaundice and Encephalopathy in Tropics

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Anil C.; Garg, Hitendra K.

    2015-01-01

    A large number of patients present with jaundice and encephalopathy in tropical country like India and acute liver failure is the usual cause. Clinical presentation like ALF is also a complication of many tropical infections, and these conditions may mimic ALF but may have subtle differences from ALF. Moreover, what hepatologists see as acute liver failure in tropics is different from what is commonly described in Western Textbooks. Paracetamol overdose, which is possibly the commonest cause of ALF in UK and USA, is hardly ever seen in India. Most common etiology here is viral hepatitis (hepatitis E > hepatitis B> hepatitis A). Apart from ALF, one may also come across subacute hepatic failure (SAHF) as well as acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) due to viral hepatitis. Interestingly, a host of other conditions can mimic ALF because clinical presentation in these conditions can be dominated by jaundice and encephalopathy. Malarial hepatopathy is possibly the best-known condition out of these and is not an uncommon manifestation of severe malaria. A similar presentation can also be seen in other common infections in tropics such as dengue fever, typhoid fever, leptospirosis, scrub typhus, amoebic liver abscesses, tuberculosis and other bacterial and fungal infections with or without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related disease. In many of these conditions, liver failure may not be underlying pathophysiology. Some pregnancy related liver diseases could also present with jaundice and encephalopathy. This review summarizes the commonly seen presentations in tropical country like India, where jaundice and encephalopathy dominate the clinical picture. PMID:26041951

  19. Transcutaneous measurement of hyperbilirubinaemia: comparison of the Minolta jaundice meter and the Ingram icterometer.

    PubMed

    Bilgen, H; Ince, Z; Ozek, E; Bekiroglu, N; Ors, R

    1998-12-01

    The effectiveness of two different non-invasive transcutaneous bilirubin measurement devices was compared with serum bilirubin levels in 96 healthy newborns. Transcutaneous measurements were obtained with the Minolta Air Shields jaundice meter and the Ingram icterometer and serum bilirubin levels were determined by a direct spectrophotometric method (Bilitron 444). A linear correlation existed between serum bilirubin values and the readings on both the Minolta jaundice meter (r = 0.83) and the Ingram icterometer (r = 0.78). The Kappa coefficient was 0.66. the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 100%, 56%, 33% and 100% for the Minolta jaundice meter and 100%, 48%, 29% and 100% for the Ingram icterometer, respectively. The high sensitivity and negative predictive value of both devices render them suitable for screening neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia. However, because of its low cost, the Ingram icterometer is preferable to the more complex and expensive Minolta jaundice meter, especially in countries with a high birth rate, such as Turkey.

  20. Point-of-care device to diagnose and monitor neonatal jaundice in low-resource settings

    PubMed Central

    Keahey, Pelham A.; Simeral, Mathieu L.; Schroder, Kristofer J.; Bond, Meaghan M.; Mtenthaonnga, Prince J.; Miros, Robert H.; Dube, Queen

    2017-01-01

    Newborns are at increased risk of jaundice, a condition in which excess bilirubin accumulates in blood. Left untreated, jaundice can lead to neurological impairment and death. Jaundice resulting from unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is easily treated with exposure to blue light, and phototherapy systems have been developed for low-resource settings; however, there are no appropriate solutions to diagnose and monitor jaundice in these settings. To address this need we present BiliSpec, a low-cost reader and disposable lateral flow card designed to measure the concentration of total bilirubin from several drops of blood at the point of care. We evaluated the performance of BiliSpec, using blood from normal volunteers spiked with varying amounts of bilirubin; results measured using BiliSpec correlated well with a reference laboratory bilirubinometer (r = 0.996). We then performed a pilot clinical study using BiliSpec to measure total bilirubin in neonates at risk for jaundice at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Concentrations measured using BiliSpec correlated well with those measured using a laboratory reference standard in 94 patient samples ranging from 1.1 mg/dL to 23.0 mg/dL in concentration (r = 0.973). The mean difference between bilirubin levels measured with BiliSpec and the reference standard was 0.3 mg/dL (95% CI: −1.7–2.2 mg/dL). PMID:29203650

  1. [Jaundice after Herbage Walking Tour of a 44 Year Old Man].

    PubMed

    Sawatzki, Mikael; Haller, Christoph; Henz, Samuel

    2015-06-03

    We report about a 44-year old patient with severe acute hepatitis E after herbage walking-to ur. Transmission occurred with ingestion of contaminated herbs. Symptoms were jaundice, dark urine, rheumatic pains and distinctive fatigue. We could document a benign self-limiting course under regular clinical controls. Hepatitis Eisa worldwide common cause for acute hepatitis with jaundice. In Switzerland contamination of this autochthonic infection is aquired by consumption of pork and venison (seroprevalence up to 22%). Infection can be without symptoms but also can result in acute liver failure. Extrahepatic symptoms are not uncommon.

  2. One in Five Maternal Deaths in Bangladesh Associated with Acute Jaundice: Results from a National Maternal Mortality Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rupal; Nahar, Quamrun; Gurley, Emily S.

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the proportion of maternal deaths in Bangladesh associated with acute onset of jaundice. We used verbal autopsy data from a nationally representative maternal mortality survey to calculate the proportion of maternal deaths associated with jaundice and compared it to previously published estimates. Of all maternal deaths between 2008 and 2010, 23% were associated with jaundice, compared with 19% from 1998 to 2001. Approximately one of five maternal deaths was preceded by jaundice, unchanged in 10 years. Our findings highlight the need to better understand the etiology of these maternal deaths in Bangladesh. PMID:26755563

  3. One in Five Maternal Deaths in Bangladesh Associated with Acute Jaundice: Results from a National Maternal Mortality Survey.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rupal; Nahar, Quamrun; Gurley, Emily S

    2016-03-01

    We estimated the proportion of maternal deaths in Bangladesh associated with acute onset of jaundice. We used verbal autopsy data from a nationally representative maternal mortality survey to calculate the proportion of maternal deaths associated with jaundice and compared it to previously published estimates. Of all maternal deaths between 2008 and 2010, 23% were associated with jaundice, compared with 19% from 1998 to 2001. Approximately one of five maternal deaths was preceded by jaundice, unchanged in 10 years. Our findings highlight the need to better understand the etiology of these maternal deaths in Bangladesh. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. Expandable metal stents for endoscopic bilateral stent-within-stent placement for malignant hilar biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Chahal, Prabhleen; Baron, Todd H

    2010-01-01

    Placement of biliary stents is effective for palliation of unresectable hilar malignant biliary obstruction. However, when bilateral self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) are used, placement can be technically challenging. In many studies, side-by-side placement is performed, although it is unclear whether this is the most anatomical and functional approach. We sought to assess the technical feasibility and effectiveness of deploying bilateral SEMSs with a stent-within-stent approach using commercially available stents with a large cell width. Retrospective study. Tertiary care medical center. Patients with malignant biliary hilar obstruction referred for endoscopic palliation of obstructive jaundice. Technical success, ie, successful bilateral SEMS placement across the stricture; functional success, ie, decrease in pretreatment bilirubin level; early and late complications; and stent patency. Bilateral biliary drainage was attempted and successfully established in 21 patients with malignant hilar obstruction (15 men, 6 women; mean age 63.7 [standard deviation 13.9] years), resulting in clinical improvement of obstructive symptoms. Median follow-up was 6.14 months (interquartile range 3.5-9.5 months). There were 1 (5%) early and 7 (33%) late stent occlusions that required endoscopic reintervention. The 30-day mortality rate was 10% (2 deaths). Retrospective study of a series of cases treated at a tertiary care center by expert endoscopists. This simple technique was performed by using an open-cell expandable metal stent is technically feasible and easy and allows bilateral placement of SEMSs in patients with unresectable hilar malignancy. 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bile acids modulate glucocorticoid metabolism and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis in obstructive jaundice☆

    PubMed Central

    McNeilly, Alison D.; Macfarlane, David P.; O’Flaherty, Emmett; Livingstone, Dawn E.; Mitić, Tijana; McConnell, Kirsty M.; McKenzie, Scott M.; Davies, Eleanor; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Thiesson, Helle C.; Skøtt, Ole; Walker, Brian R.; Andrew, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Suppression of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis occurs in cirrhosis and cholestasis and is associated with increased concentrations of bile acids. We investigated whether this was mediated through bile acids acting to impair steroid clearance by inhibiting glucocorticoid metabolism by 5β-reductase. Methods The effect of bile acids on glucocorticoid metabolism was studied in vitro in hepatic subcellular fractions and hepatoma cells, allowing quantitation of the kinetics and transcript abundance of 5β-reductase. Metabolism was subsequently examined in vivo in rats following dietary manipulation or bile duct ligation. Finally, glucocorticoid metabolism was assessed in humans with obstructive jaundice. Results In rat hepatic cytosol, chenodeoxycholic acid competitively inhibited 5β-reductase (Ki 9.19 ± 0.40 μM) and reduced its transcript abundance (in H4iiE cells) and promoter activity (reporter system, HepG2 cells). In Wistar rats, dietary chenodeoxycholic acid (1% w/w chow) inhibited hepatic 5β-reductase activity, reduced urinary excretion of 3α,5β-tetrahydrocorticosterone and reduced adrenal weight. Conversely, a fat-free diet suppressed bile acid levels and increased hepatic 5β-reductase activity, supplementation of the fat-free diet with CDCA reduced 5β-reductase activity, and urinary 3α,5β-reduced corticosterone. Cholestasis in rats suppressed hepatic 5β-reductase activity and transcript abundance. In eight women with obstructive jaundice, relative urinary excretion of 3α,5β-tetrahydrocortisol was significantly lower than in healthy controls. Conclusion These data suggest a novel role for bile acids in inhibiting hepatic glucocorticoid clearance, of sufficient magnitude to suppress hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity. Elevated hepatic bile acids may account for adrenal insufficiency in liver disease. PMID:20347173

  6. [Etiologies of non-hemolytic jaundice in infants: a retrospective analysis of 3113 cases].

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiaorong; Xu, Hongmei

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the causes of non-hemolytic jaundice among infants in Chongqing, China from the period of 1982 to 2011 and to determine whether the etiologies have changed over the past 30 years. The medical records of 3 113 infants,aged 1 month to 1 year,admitted to our hospital with non-hemolytic jaundice were collected and stratified according to decade-long time periods: group A (1982-1991), n=537; group B (1992-2001), n=786; group C (2002-2011), n=1 790. Data on sex, age, etiology and bilirubin level were retrospectively assessed using the chi-square test. In the three groups, boys consistently accounted for the majority of cases (group A:74.3%, group B:66.7%, group C:62.6%). In group A, 52% of the patients were 1-2 months of age; the peak age of patients in both group B and C was 2-3 months (group B:67.8%, group C:61.0%). Group A showed the highest level of patients with mildly elevated total bilirubin level (80.3%); however, moderately elevated total bilirubin level was most frequent in group B (53.4%) and group C (49.7%). The main etiologic diagnoses of the patients in group A were cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (31.7%), sepsis (18.2%), hepatitis B virus (HBV) (1.3%), and biliary tract anomalies (1.3%); 46.6% of the cases had unclear cause. The main etiologic diagnoses of the cases in group B were CMV infection (36.0%), sepsis (21.5%), breast milk jaundice (2.0%), and HBV (1.9%); 37.9% of the cases had unclear cause. The main etiologic diagnoses of the cases in group C were CMV infection (42.6%), sepsis (7.5%), breast milk jaundice (17.7%), and biliary tract anomalies (2.46%); 29.1% of the cases had unclear cause. In Chongqing, infective factors, especially CMV, remain the main cause of nonhemolytic jaundice in infants, but bacterial etiologies have declined over the past 30 years.Non-infective factors, such as biliary tract anomalies and inherited metabolic diseases, have trended upwards. Although there has been great progress in the clinical management of

  7. Burden of severe neonatal jaundice: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Slusher, Tina M; Zamora, Tara G; Appiah, Duke; Stanke, Judith U; Strand, Mark A; Lee, Burton W; Richardson, Shane B; Keating, Elizabeth M; Siddappa, Ashajoythi M

    2017-01-01

    Context To assess the global burden of late and/or poor management of severe neonatal jaundice (SNJ), a common problem worldwide, which may result in death or irreversible brain damage with disabilities in survivors. Population-based data establishing the global burden of SNJ has not been previously reported. Objective Determine the burden of SNJ in all WHO regions, as defined by clinical jaundice associated with clinical outcomes including acute bilirubin encephalopathy/kernicterus and/or exchange transfusion (ET) and/or jaundice-related death. Data sources PubMed, Scopus and other health databases were searched, without language restrictions, from 1990 to 2017 for studies reporting the incidence of SNJ. Study selection/data extraction Stratification was performed for WHO regions and results were pooled using random effects model and meta-regression. Results Of 416 articles including at least one marker of SNJ, only 21 reported estimates from population-based studies, with 76% (16/21) of them conducted in high-income countries. The African region has the highest incidence of SNJ per 10 000 live births at 667.8 (95% CI 603.4 to 738.5), followed by Southeast Asian, Eastern Mediterranean, Western Pacific, Americas and European regions at 251.3 (132.0 to 473.2), 165.7 (114.6 to 238.9), 9.4 (0.1 to 755.9), 4.4 (1.8 to 10.5) and 3.7 (1.7 to 8.0), respectively. The incidence of ET per 10 000 live births was significantly higher for Africa and Southeast Asian regions at 186.5 (153.2 to 226.8) and 107.1 (102.0 to 112.5) and lower in Eastern Mediterranean (17.8 (5.7 to 54.9)), Americas (0.38 (0.21 to 0.67)), European (0.35 (0.20 to 0.60)) and Western Pacific regions (0.19 (0.12 to 0.31). Only 2 studies provided estimates of clear jaundice-related deaths in infants with significant jaundice [UK (2.8%) and India (30.8%). Conclusions Limited but compelling evidence demonstrates that SNJ is associated with a significant health burden especially in low-income and middle

  8. Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder in late preterm and term infants with severe jaundice.

    PubMed

    Saluja, Satish; Agarwal, Asha; Kler, Neelam; Amin, Sanjiv

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate if severe jaundice is associated with acute auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder in otherwise healthy late preterm and term neonates. In a prospective observational study, all neonates who were admitted with severe jaundice at which exchange transfusion may be indicated as per American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines had comprehensive auditory evaluation performed before discharge to home. Neonates with infection, perinatal asphyxia, chromosomal disorders, cranio-facial malformations, or family history of childhood hearing loss were excluded. Comprehensive auditory evaluations (tympanometry, oto-acoustic emission tests, and auditory brainstem evoked responses) were performed by an audiologist unaware of the severity of jaundice. Total serum bilirubin and serum albumin were measured at the institutional chemistry laboratory using the Diazo and Bromocresol purple method, respectively. A total of 13 neonates with total serum bilirubin concentration at which exchange transfusion is indicated as per American Academy of Pediatrics were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit over 3 month period. Six out of 13 neonates (46%) had audiological findings of acute auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. There was no significant difference in gestational age, birth weight, hemolysis, serum albumin concentration, peak total serum bilirubin concentrations, and peak bilirubin:albumin molar ratio between six neonates who developed acute auditory neuropathy and seven neonates who had normal audiological findings. Only two out of six infants with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder had clinical signs and symptoms of acute bilirubin encephalopathy. Our findings strongly suggest that auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder is a common manifestation of acute bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity in late preterm and term infants with severe jaundice. Our findings also suggest that comprehensive auditory evaluations should be routinely performed in neonates with severe

  9. Ethno-Medicinal Plants Used to Cure Jaundice by Traditional Healers of Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh; Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; TaghavizadehYazdi, Mohammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Jaundice is the commonest ailments affecting the citizens of both developed and poor Asians countries including Iran. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used by the traditional healers for the treatment of jaundice was conducted in the Mashhad city, Northeastern Iran. A total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 26 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against jaundice. The plant families which contained the most commonly used species for their effects are: Fabaceae (5 species), Polygonaceae (4 sp.), Asteraceae (3 sp.), Plantaginaceae (2 sp.) and Salicaceae (2 sp.). The plants were arranged with correct nomenclature along with their common name, family, the part used and their medicinal value. The use of decoction is the most preferred method of herbal preparation. In all cases, the treatment involved oral administration of the extracts 2 to 3 times daily from a week to month till the problem disappears. Cichorium intybus, Salix alba, Cotoneaster nummularius, Descurainia sophia, Malva sylvestris, Berberis integrrima, Rumex acetosella, Phyllanthus emblica and Alhagi maurorum were repeatedly mentioned by the traditional healers as the most widely used for the treatment of jaundice in the study area. The study indicates that the local inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for treatment. This paper suggested that further clinical experimentation is needed to scientifically evaluate these widely used herbal remedies for possible bioactive effects. PMID:24734067

  10. Ethno-medicinal plants used to cure jaundice by traditional healers of mashhad, iran.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh; Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; Taghavizadehyazdi, Mohammad Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Jaundice is the commonest ailments affecting the citizens of both developed and poor Asians countries including Iran. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used by the traditional healers for the treatment of jaundice was conducted in the Mashhad city, Northeastern Iran. A total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 26 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against jaundice. The plant families which contained the most commonly used species for their effects are: Fabaceae (5 species), Polygonaceae (4 sp.), Asteraceae (3 sp.), Plantaginaceae (2 sp.) and Salicaceae (2 sp.). The plants were arranged with correct nomenclature along with their common name, family, the part used and their medicinal value. The use of decoction is the most preferred method of herbal preparation. In all cases, the treatment involved oral administration of the extracts 2 to 3 times daily from a week to month till the problem disappears. Cichorium intybus, Salix alba, Cotoneaster nummularius, Descurainia sophia, Malva sylvestris, Berberis integrrima, Rumex acetosella, Phyllanthus emblica and Alhagi maurorum were repeatedly mentioned by the traditional healers as the most widely used for the treatment of jaundice in the study area. The study indicates that the local inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for treatment. This paper suggested that further clinical experimentation is needed to scientifically evaluate these widely used herbal remedies for possible bioactive effects.

  11. The Effect of Traditional Remedies (Camel's Thorn, Flixweed and Sugar Water) on Idiopathic Neonatal Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Boskabadi, Hassan; Maamouri, Gholamali; Mafinejad, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    Objective Jaundice is the most common reason of newborn's admission to neonatal ward. Many Iranian families give traditional remedies like sugar water, camel's thorn and flixweed extracts to breast-fed babies for reducing jaundice. This study investigated the effect of traditional remedies on idiopathic neonatal jaundice. Methods This prospective study has been performed on 336 babies with idiopathic jaundice in a four year period (2005-2009) at Ghaem hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The babies were divided into two groups. In case group (n=234) breast-fed babies received no remedy and in control group (n=102), traditional remedies were given additional to breast milk and the results recorded and compared. Findings In the present study significant differences were observed between the two groups in age of admission (6.8±3.2 vs 9.2±3.7 day, P<0.001), serum bilirubin values (17.8 vs 21.3 mg/dl, P<0.001) and percent of weight loss (P<0.01). There were no significant differences between the two groups in birth weight, sex, gestational age and duration of hospitalization, age at jaundice remission, hematocrit value and maternal factors (age, gestational order, pregnancy and labor problems)(P>0.05). Conclusion Traditional remedies (camel's thorn, flixweed and sugar water) cause more weight loss and delayed reexamination of newborns leading to increased hyperbilirubinemia. These remedies may raise pseudo confidence in parents, which postpones reexamination and follow up of the newborns. PMID:23056809

  12. Association Between Early Idiopathic Neonatal Jaundice and Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Murat; Sarici, S Ümit; Yurdugül, Yüksel; Akpinar, Melis; Altun, Demet; Özcan, Begüm; Serdar, Muhittin A; Sarici, Dilek

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: Etiologic role, incidence, demographic, and response-to-treatment characteristics of urinary tract infection (UTI) among neonates, its relationship with significant neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and abnormalities of the urinary system were studied in a prospective investigation in early (≤10 days) idiopathic neonatal jaundice in which all other etiologic factors of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia were ruled out. Patients and methods: Urine samples for microscopic and bacteriologic examination were obtained with bladder catheterization from 155 newborns with early neonatal jaundice. Newborns with a negative urine culture and with a positive urine culture were defined as group I and group II, respectively, and the 2 groups were compared with each other. Results: The incidence of UTI in whole of the study group was 16.7%. Serum total and direct bilirubin levels were statistically significantly higher in group II when compared with group I (P = .005 and P = .001, respectively). Decrease in serum total bilirubin level at the 24th hour of phototherapy was statistically significantly higher in group I compared with group II (P = .022). Conclusions: Urinary tract infection should be investigated in the etiologic evaluation of newborns with significant hyperbilirubinemia. The possibility of UTI should be considered in jaundiced newborns who do not respond to phototherapy well or have a prolonged duration of phototherapy treatment. PMID:28469520

  13. Intelligent diagnosis of jaundice with dynamic uncertain causality graph model.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shao-Rui; Geng, Shi-Chao; Fan, Lin-Xiao; Chen, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Qin; Li, Lan-Juan

    2017-05-01

    Jaundice is a common and complex clinical symptom potentially occurring in hepatology, general surgery, pediatrics, infectious diseases, gynecology, and obstetrics, and it is fairly difficult to distinguish the cause of jaundice in clinical practice, especially for general practitioners in less developed regions. With collaboration between physicians and artificial intelligence engineers, a comprehensive knowledge base relevant to jaundice was created based on demographic information, symptoms, physical signs, laboratory tests, imaging diagnosis, medical histories, and risk factors. Then a diagnostic modeling and reasoning system using the dynamic uncertain causality graph was proposed. A modularized modeling scheme was presented to reduce the complexity of model construction, providing multiple perspectives and arbitrary granularity for disease causality representations. A "chaining" inference algorithm and weighted logic operation mechanism were employed to guarantee the exactness and efficiency of diagnostic reasoning under situations of incomplete and uncertain information. Moreover, the causal interactions among diseases and symptoms intuitively demonstrated the reasoning process in a graphical manner. Verification was performed using 203 randomly pooled clinical cases, and the accuracy was 99.01% and 84.73%, respectively, with or without laboratory tests in the model. The solutions were more explicable and convincing than common methods such as Bayesian Networks, further increasing the objectivity of clinical decision-making. The promising results indicated that our model could be potentially used in intelligent diagnosis and help decrease public health expenditure.

  14. Intelligent diagnosis of jaundice with dynamic uncertain causality graph model*

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Shao-rui; Geng, Shi-chao; Fan, Lin-xiao; Chen, Jia-jia; Zhang, Qin; Li, Lan-juan

    2017-01-01

    Jaundice is a common and complex clinical symptom potentially occurring in hepatology, general surgery, pediatrics, infectious diseases, gynecology, and obstetrics, and it is fairly difficult to distinguish the cause of jaundice in clinical practice, especially for general practitioners in less developed regions. With collaboration between physicians and artificial intelligence engineers, a comprehensive knowledge base relevant to jaundice was created based on demographic information, symptoms, physical signs, laboratory tests, imaging diagnosis, medical histories, and risk factors. Then a diagnostic modeling and reasoning system using the dynamic uncertain causality graph was proposed. A modularized modeling scheme was presented to reduce the complexity of model construction, providing multiple perspectives and arbitrary granularity for disease causality representations. A “chaining” inference algorithm and weighted logic operation mechanism were employed to guarantee the exactness and efficiency of diagnostic reasoning under situations of incomplete and uncertain information. Moreover, the causal interactions among diseases and symptoms intuitively demonstrated the reasoning process in a graphical manner. Verification was performed using 203 randomly pooled clinical cases, and the accuracy was 99.01% and 84.73%, respectively, with or without laboratory tests in the model. The solutions were more explicable and convincing than common methods such as Bayesian Networks, further increasing the objectivity of clinical decision-making. The promising results indicated that our model could be potentially used in intelligent diagnosis and help decrease public health expenditure. PMID:28471111

  15. [How to assess clinical practice guidelines with AGREE II: The example of neonatal jaundice].

    PubMed

    Renesme, L; Bedu, A; Tourneux, P; Truffert, P

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a very frequent condition that occurs in approximately 50-70% of term or near-term (>35 GA) babies in the 1st week of life. In some cases, a high bilirubin blood level can lead to kernicterus. There is no consensus for the management of neonatal jaundice and few countries have published national clinical practice guidelines for the management of neonatal jaundice. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of these guidelines. We conducted a systematic review of the literature for national clinical practice guidelines for the management of neonatal jaundice in term or near-term babies. Four independent reviewers assessed the quality of each guideline using the AGREE II evaluation. For each of the clinical practice guidelines, the management modalities were analyzed (screening, treatment, follow-up, etc.). Seven national clinical practice guidelines were found (South Africa, USA AAP, UK NICE, Canada, Norway, Switzerland, and Israel). The AGREE II score showed widespread variation regarding the quality of these national guidelines. There was no major difference between the guidelines concerning the clinical management of these babies. The NICE guideline is the most valuable guideline regarding the AGREE II score. NICE showed that, despite a strong and rigorous methodology, there is no evidenced-based recommended code of practice (RCP). Comparing RCPs, we found no major differences. The NICE guideline showed the best quality. The AGREE II instrument should be used as a framework when developing clinical practice guidelines to improve the quality of the future guideline. In France, a national guideline is needed for a more standardized management of neonatal jaundice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of the traditional methods of newborn mothers regarding jaundice in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Diler; Karaca Ciftci, Esra; Karatas, Hulya

    2014-02-01

    To detect traditional methods applied for the treatment of newborn jaundice by mothers in Turkey. Traditional methods are generally used in our society. Instead of using medical services, people often use already-known traditional methods to treat the disease. In such cases, the prognosis of the disease generally becomes worse, the treatment period longer and healthcare costs higher, and more medicine is used. A cross-sectional descriptive study. The participants of this study were 229 mothers with newborn babies aged 0-28 days in one university hospital and one public children's hospital in Sanliurfa. The study was conducted between March and May 2012. In this research, the Beliefs and Traditional Methods of Mothers for Jaundice Questionnaire, which was formed by searching the relevant literature, is used as a data collection tool. The data are evaluated by percentage distributions. Mothers apply conventional practices in cases of health problems such as jaundice, and application of these methods is important to mothers. Moreover, mothers reported applying hazardous conventional methods in cases of neonatal jaundice, such as cutting the area between the baby's eyebrows with a blade, cutting the back of the ear and the body and burning the body, which are not applied in different cultures. Education regarding the effects of conventional methods being applied in families should be provided, and the results of this study should serve to guide further studies in assessing the effects of such education. This approach can support beneficial practices involving individual care and prevent the negative health effects of hazardous practices. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. SciTech Connect

    Kanasaki, Shuzo; Furukawa, Akira; Kane, Teruyuki

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the polyure-thane-covered Nitinol Strecker stent in the treatment of patients with malignant biliary obstruction.Methods: Twenty-three covered stents produced by us were placed in 18 patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Jaundice was caused by cholangiocarcinoma (n=5), pancreatic Cancer (n=6), gallbladder Cancer (n=4), metastatic lymph nodes (n=2), and tumor of the papilla (n=1).Resulrs: The mean patency period of the Stents was 37.5 weeks (5-106 weeks). Recurrent obstructive jaundice occurred in two patients (11%). Adequate biliary drainage over 50 weeks or until death was achieved in 17 of 18 patients (94.4%). Late cholangitis was observed inmore » two patients whose stents bridged the ampulla of Vater. Other late severe complications were not encountered.Conclusion: Although more study is necessary, our results suggest the clinical efficacy of our covered Nitinol Strecker stent in the management of obstructive jaundice caused by malignant diseases.« less

  18. SciTech Connect

    Kanasaki, Shuzo; Furukawa, Akira; Kane, Teruyuki

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of the polyurethane-covered Nitinol Strecker stent in the treatment of patients with malignant biliary obstruction.Methods: Twenty-three covered stents produced by us were placed in 18 patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Jaundice was caused by cholangiocarcinoma (n = 5), pancreatic cancer (n = 6), gallbladder cancer (n = 4), metastatic lymph nodes (n = 2), and tumor of the papilla (n 1).Results: The mean patency period of the stents was 37.5 weeks (5-106 weeks). Recurrent obstructive jaundice occurred in two patients (11%). Adequate biliary drainage over 50 weeks or until death was achieved in 17more » of 18 patients (94.4%). Late cholangitis was observed in two patients whose stents bridged the ampulla of Vater. Other late severe complications were not encountered.Conclusion: Although more study is necessary, our results suggest the clinical efficacy of our covered Nitinol Strecker stent in the management of obstructive jaundice caused by malignant diseases.« less

  19. Paraneoplastic jaundice and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ana Claudia; Alvarenga, Maria Joana; Santos, Jose Carlos; Silva, Alberto Mello

    2017-04-22

    Cholestasis has numerous causes. We present the case of a 78-year-old man with a common diagnosis in this age group and gender but with an unusual presentation. There are only 11 articles published of patients with jaundice due to a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with prostate cancer. Interleukin 6 and other proinflammatory cytokines appear to contribute to the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Our patient remains symptom free 4 months after treatment initiation. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Trans-Cutaneous Bilirubinometery versus Serum Bilirubin in Neonatal Jaundice.

    PubMed

    Mahram, Manoochehr; Oveisi, Sonia; Jaberi, Najmeh

    2015-12-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is a common problem in neonates and causes serious complications. Thus, serial measurements of bilirubin should be done. This assessment is done through two methods of laboratory measurement in serum sample and transcutaneous bilirubinometer. This descriptive study compared transcutaneous bilirubin assessment and laboratory serum bilirubin. Bilirubin level was assessed among 256 neonates admitted to the Qods Children's Hospital in Qazvin- Iran, because of neonatal indirect jaundice, through two methods of transcutaneous bilirubinometery from two sites of forehead and sternum and laboratory measurement of bilirubin in serum. The cases were non-hemolytic icteric term neonates weighing 2500 gram or more and had not received phototherapy or other treatments. Neonates with hemolytic forms of jaundice, sepsis and suspicious to metabolic disorders were excluded. Assessments by means of KJ-8000 transcutaneous bilirubinometer from two sites of forehead and sternum and through laboratory measurement of serum bilirubin were registered and analyzed. The results of the current study showed that there was a correlation of 0.82 between serum bilirubin and transcutaneous forehead bilirubin assessment and for the used device sensitivity of 0.844; specificity of 0.842, Youden Index of 0.709 and Shortest of 0.042 for a cut-off of 12.4 in bilirubin of participants. Furthermore, Likelihood Ratio positive and negative (LR) were 5.665 and 0.164, respectively and diagnostic Odds Ratio (LR+/LR-) was 34.56. Transcutaneous bilirubinometery can be considered as a reliable tool to assess bilirubin for the screening of neonatal jaundice in term neonates.

  1. Fever, jaundice and acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Sam M; Pathak, Neha; Toms, Graham C; Gelding, Susan V; Sivaprakasam, Venkat

    2015-02-01

    Leptospirosis is an uncommon infectious disease that has protean clinical manifestations ranging from an innocuous 'flu-like' illness to potentially life-threatening multi-organ failure. Here we describe a case of Weil's disease that presented on the acute medical take with fever, jaundice and acute renal failure. We highlight the importance of careful history taking at the time of admission and how understanding the epidemiology and pathophysiology of leptospirosis enables a definitive diagnosis to be reached. © 2015 Royal College of Physicians.

  2. What Do Expectant Mothers Know about Neonatal Jaundice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunfowora, Olusoga B.; Adefuye, Peter O.; Fetuga, Musili B.

    2006-01-01

    Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is a common disorder worldwide and many affected babies become brain-damaged due to delay in seeking medical consultation. In order to assess the awareness and knowledge of expectant mothers about NNJ, women who registered for antenatal care at a tertiary health facility in the South-western part of Nigeria were…

  3. Jaundice and life-threatening hemobilia: an uncommon presentation of choledochal cyst.

    PubMed

    Koh, Peng Soon; Yoong, Boon Koon; Vijayananthan, Anushya; Nawawi, Ouzreiah; Mahadeva, Sanjiv

    2013-08-01

    Hemobilia with jaundice as a result of cholestasis and bleeding from choledochal cyst is uncommon. Ascertaining the diagnosis is often challenging and delayed diagnosis can lead to significant consequences due to hemodynamic instability, particularly in elderly patients. Although surgery remains the definitive treatment modality, interventional radiology for hemostasis has been increasingly recognized as an option. In this manuscript, we described two Malaysian cases of jaundice and hemobilia associated with choledochal cysts and the challenges related with clinical diagnosis and management. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  4. Prevalence of UTI among Iranian infants with prolonged jaundice, and its main causes: A systematic review and meta-analysis study.

    PubMed

    Tola, H H; Ranjbaran, M; Omani-Samani, R; Sadeghi, M

    2018-04-01

    An extremely variable and high prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants with prolonged jaundice has been reported in Iran. However, there is no research from the area that has attempted to estimate pooled prevalence of UTI from considerably diverse evidence. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis study aimed to estimate the prevalence of UTI in infants with prolonged jaundice who were admitted into clinics or hospitals in Iran. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted of published articles on UTI prevalence in infants with prolonged jaundice in Iran. Electronic databases were searched, including Web of Sciences, PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Iranian Scientific Information Database (SID) and Iranmedex, for both English and Persian language articles published between January, 2000 and March, 2017. All possible combinations of the following keywords were used: jaundice, icterus, hyperbilirubinemia during infancy, infection and neonatal. Nine studies that reported prevalence of UTI in infants with prolonged jaundice were included. The overall prevalence of UTI was estimated using random-effects meta-analysis models. A total of 1750 infants were pooled to estimate the overall prevalence of UTI in infants with prolonged jaundice. The prevalence reported by the studies included in this literature review was extremely variable and ranged 0.6-53.9%. The overall prevalence was 11% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 5.0-18.0), and Escherichia coli was found to be the main cause of UTI. The overall prevalence of UTI was 11%, and E. coli was the main cause of UTI in infants with prolonged jaundice. Screening of UTI should be considered for infants with prolonged jaundice. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Within-breath respiratory impedance and airway obstruction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Silva, Karla Kristine Dames da; Faria, Alvaro Camilo Dias; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Melo, Pedro Lopes de

    2015-07-01

    Recent work has suggested that within-breath respiratory impedance measurements performed using the forced oscillation technique may help to noninvasively evaluate respiratory mechanics. We investigated the influence of airway obstruction on the within-breath forced oscillation technique in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and evaluated the contribution of this analysis to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Twenty healthy individuals and 20 smokers were assessed. The study also included 74 patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We evaluated the mean respiratory impedance (Zm) as well as values for the inspiration (Zi) and expiration cycles (Ze) at the beginning of inspiration (Zbi) and expiration (Zbe), respectively. The peak-to-peak impedance (Zpp=Zbe-Zbi) and the respiratory cycle dependence (ΔZrs=Ze-Zi) were also analyzed. The diagnostic utility was evaluated by investigating the sensitivity, the specificity and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01888705. Airway obstruction increased the within-breath respiratory impedance parameters that were significantly correlated with the spirometric indices of airway obstruction (R=-0.65, p<0.0001). In contrast to the control subjects and the smokers, the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients presented significant expiratory-inspiratory differences (p<0.002). The adverse effects of moderate airway obstruction were detected based on the Zpp with an accuracy of 83%. Additionally, abnormal effects in severe and very severe patients were detected based on the Zm, Zi, Ze, Zbe, Zpp and ΔZrs with a high degree of accuracy (>90%). We conclude the following: (1) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease introduces higher respiratory cycle dependence, (2) this increase is proportional to airway obstruction, and (3) the within-breath forced oscillation technique may provide novel parameters that facilitate the

  6. Diagnostics of jaundice from the change of the transmission coefficient of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guminetskiy, S. G.; Kirsh, N. L.; Lomanets, V. S.; Lazurka, I. I.; Yakobets, I. I.

    2004-06-01

    The paper deals with the absorption spectra of bilirubin solutions, patient blood plasma with jaundice manifestations with a different degree of disease and whole blood. Using as an analysis base the dependencies of blood plasma absorption spectra on bilirubin concentration in this blood there has been proposed the method of disease diagnostics with jaundice manifestations, and there has been realized the corresponding portable laboratory device, the functioning of which is based on registering the radiation propagated through the ear lobule.

  7. Diagnostic laparoscopy-assisted cholangiography in infants with prolonged jaundice.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Tadaharu; Miyano, Go; Yamataka, Atsuyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Koga, Hiroyuki; Lane, Geoffrey J; Miyano, Takeshi

    2006-02-01

    Cholangiography is often crucial for establishing the definitive cause of neonatal jaundice. We present our protocol for using laparoscopy-assisted cholangiography in infants with prolonged jaundice and discuss its benefits. Firstly, a 5 mm supra-umbilical trocar is introduced to create a port for a 0 degrees laparoscope. A 5 mm trocar is then inserted through a right subcostal incision to allow the liver and gallbladder to be visualized. If the gallbladder is of good size, the fundus is exteriorized through the right subcostal trocar site and a catheter is inserted into the gallbladder for cholangiography. If the gallbladder is atretic, the fundus is not exteriorized and a laparotomy is performed for open intraoperative cholangiography because the lumen of an atretic gallbladder is usually not fully patent and cholangiography through its exteriorized fundus often fails. We reviewed 18 jaundiced infants thought to have biliary atresia (BA) who had laparoscopy-assisted cholangiography. At laparoscopy, four patients had good sized gallbladders and minimal to mild liver fibrosis. They underwent cholangiography via the exteriorized fundus, and BA in two cases and biliary hypoplasia in two cases were identified. The remaining 14 had atretic gallbladders and varying degrees of liver fibrosis. Cholangiography via the exteriorized fundus was performed in one patient, but failed and converted to open cholangiography. Open intraoperative cholangiography identified BA in all 14 cases. All BA cases progressed to Kasai portoenterostomy directly after diagnosis. Laparoscopy is used to determine the type of cholangiography to be performed based on the appearance of the gallbladder and this simple, accurate, and safe protocol allows the anatomical structure of the biliary tree to be obtained accurately with minimal surgical intervention.

  8. Hepatitis E as a cause of acute jaundice syndrome in northern Uganda, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Gerbi, Gemechu B; Williams, Roxanne; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas; Liu, Stephen; Downing, Robert; Drobeniuc, Jan; Kamili, Saleem; Xu, Fujie; Holmberg, Scott D; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries; however, its contribution to acute jaundice syndrome is not well-described. A large outbreak of hepatitis E occurred in northern Uganda from 2007 to 2009. In response to this outbreak, acute jaundice syndrome surveillance was established in 10 district healthcare facilities to determine the proportion of cases attributable to hepatitis E. Of 347 acute jaundice syndrome cases reported, the majority (42%) had hepatitis E followed by hepatitis B (14%), malaria (10%), hepatitis C (5%), and other/unknown (29%). Of hepatitis E cases, 72% occurred in Kaboong district, and 68% of these cases occurred between May and August of 2011. Residence in Kaabong district was independently associated with hepatitis E (adjusted odds ratio = 13; 95% confidence interval = 7-24). The findings from this surveillance show that an outbreak and sporadic transmission of hepatitis E occur in northern Uganda. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Differentiation of benign and malignant ampullary obstruction by multi-row detector CT.

    PubMed

    Angthong, Wirana; Jiarakoop, Kran; Tangtiang, Kaan

    2018-05-21

    To determine useful CT parameters to differentiate ampullary carcinomas from benign ampullary obstruction. This study included 93 patients who underwent abdominal CT, 31 patients with ampullary carcinomas, and 62 patients with benign ampullary obstruction. Two radiologists independently evaluated CT parameters then reached consensus decisions. Statistically significant CT parameters were identified through univariate and multivariate analyses. In univariate analysis, the presence of ampullary mass, asymmetric, abrupt narrowing of distal common bile duct (CBD), dilated intrahepatic bile duct (IHD), dilated pancreatic duct (PD), peripancreatic lymphadenopathy, duodenal wall thickening, and delayed enhancement were more frequently in ampullary carcinomas observed (P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis using significant CT parameters and clinical data from univariate analysis, and clinical symptom with jaundice (P = 0.005) was an independent predictor of ampullary carcinomas. For multivariate analysis using only significant CT parameters, abrupt narrowing of distal CBD was an independent predictor of ampullary carcinomas (P = 0.019). Among various CT criteria, abrupt narrowing of distal CBD and dilated IHD had highest sensitivity (77.4%) and highest accuracy (90.3%). The abrupt narrowing of distal CBD and dilated IHD is useful for differentiation of ampullary carcinomas from benign entity in patients without the presence of mass.

  10. Initial study of sediment antagonism and characteristics of silver nanoparticle-coated biliary stents in an experimental animal model.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yigeng; Xia, Mingfeng; Zhang, Shuai; Fu, Zhen; Wen, Qingbin; Liu, Feng; Xu, Zongzhen; Li, Tao; Tian, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Plastic biliary stents used to relieve obstructive jaundice are frequently blocked by sediment, resulting in loss of drainage. We prepared stents coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and compared their ability to resist sedimentation with Teflon stents in a beagle model of obstructive jaundice. AgNP-coated Teflon biliary stents were prepared by chemical oxidation-reduction and evaluated in an obstructive jaundice model that was produced by ligation of common bile duct (CBD); animals were randomized to two equal groups for placement of AgNP-coated or Teflon control stents. Liver function and inflammatory index were found to be similar in the two groups, and the obstruction was relieved. Stents were removed 21 days after insertion and observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The AgNP coating was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), and the composition of sediment was assayed by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Electron microscopy revealed a black, closely adherent AgNP stent coating, with thicknesses of 1.5-6 µm. Sediment thickness and density were greater on Teflon than on AgNP-coated stents. EDXA confirmed the stability and integrity of the AgNP coating before and after in vivo animal experimentation. FTIR spectroscopy identified stent sediment components including bilirubin, cholesterol, bile acid, protein, calcium, and other substances. AgNP-coated biliary stents resisted sediment accumulation in this canine model of obstructive jaundice caused by ligation of the CBD.

  11. Initial study of sediment antagonism and characteristics of silver nanoparticle-coated biliary stents in an experimental animal model

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yigeng; Xia, Mingfeng; Zhang, Shuai; Fu, Zhen; Wen, Qingbin; Liu, Feng; Xu, Zongzhen; Li, Tao; Tian, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Plastic biliary stents used to relieve obstructive jaundice are frequently blocked by sediment, resulting in loss of drainage. We prepared stents coated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and compared their ability to resist sedimentation with Teflon stents in a beagle model of obstructive jaundice. Methods AgNP-coated Teflon biliary stents were prepared by chemical oxidation–reduction and evaluated in an obstructive jaundice model that was produced by ligation of common bile duct (CBD); animals were randomized to two equal groups for placement of AgNP-coated or Teflon control stents. Liver function and inflammatory index were found to be similar in the two groups, and the obstruction was relieved. Stents were removed 21 days after insertion and observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The AgNP coating was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), and the composition of sediment was assayed by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Results Electron microscopy revealed a black, closely adherent AgNP stent coating, with thicknesses of 1.5–6 µm. Sediment thickness and density were greater on Teflon than on AgNP-coated stents. EDXA confirmed the stability and integrity of the AgNP coating before and after in vivo animal experimentation. FTIR spectroscopy identified stent sediment components including bilirubin, cholesterol, bile acid, protein, calcium, and other substances. Conclusion AgNP-coated biliary stents resisted sediment accumulation in this canine model of obstructive jaundice caused by ligation of the CBD. PMID:27217749

  12. Metal versus plastic stents for drainage of malignant biliary obstruction before primary surgical resection.

    PubMed

    Song, Tae Jun; Lee, Jae Hoon; Lee, Sang Soo; Jang, Ji Woong; Kim, Jung Wook; Ok, Tae Jin; Oh, Dong Wook; Park, Do Hyun; Seo, Dong Wan; Lee, Sung Koo; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Kim, Song Cheol; Kim, Chul Nam; Yun, Sung Cheol

    2016-11-01

    Preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) with stent placement has been commonly used for patients with malignant biliary obstruction. In PBD, the placement of fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMSs) may provide better patency duration and a lower incidence of cholangitis compared with plastic stents. We aimed to evaluate which type of stent showed better outcomes in PBD. In this multicenter, prospective randomized trial, we compared PBD with FCSEMSs versus plastic stents in 86 patients with malignant biliary obstruction between January 2012 and December 2014. Patients with obstructive jaundice were randomly assigned to undergo PBD either with plastic stents or FCSEMS placement. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Endoscopic stent placement was technically successful in all patients. Procedure-related adverse events were not significantly different between the 2 groups (plastic vs FCSEMS group; 16.3% vs 16.3%, P = 1.0). Reintervention was required in 16.3% of the plastic stent group and 14.0% of the FCSEMS group (P = .763). The interval to surgery after PBD (plastic vs FCSEMS group; 14.2 ± 8.3 vs 12.3 ± 6.9 days, P = .426) was not significantly different between groups. Surgery-related adverse events occurred in 43.6% of the plastic stent group and 40.0% of the FCSEMS group (P = .755). In patients with resectable malignant biliary obstruction, the outcomes of PBD with plastic stents and FCSEMSs were similar. Considering the cost-effectiveness, PBD with plastic stents may be preferable to FCSEMS placement. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT01789502.). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Serological evidence of hepatitis E virus infection in pigs and jaundice among pig handlers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Haider, N; Khan, M S U; Hossain, M B; Sazzad, H M S; Rahman, M Z; Ahmed, F; Zeidner, N S

    2017-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare the history of jaundice between pig handlers and people not exposed to pigs and pork. Blood and faecal samples were collected from 100 pigs derived from three slaughterhouses in the Gazipur district of Bangladesh from January to June, 2011. We also interviewed 200 pig handlers and 250 non-exposed people who did not eat pork or handled pigs in the past 2 years. We tested the pig sera for HEV-specific antibodies using a competitive ELISA and pig faecal samples for HEV RNA using real-time RT-PCR. Of 100 pig sera, 82% (n = 82) had detectable antibody against HEV. Of the 200 pig handlers, 28% (56/200) demonstrated jaundice within the past 2 years, whereas only 17% (43/250) of controls had a history of jaundice (p < .05). Compared to non-exposed people, those who slaughtered pigs (31% versus 15%, p < .001), reared pigs (37% versus 20%, p < .001), butchered pigs (35% versus 19%, p < .001) or involved in pork transportation (28% versus 13%, p < .001) were more likely to be affected with jaundice in the preceding 2 years. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, exposure to pigs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2-3.9) and age (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95-0.99) was significantly associated with jaundice in the past 2 years. Pigs in Bangladesh demonstrated evidence of HEV infection, and a history of jaundice was significantly more frequent in pig handlers. Identifying and genotyping HEV in pigs and pig handlers may provide further evidence of the pig's role in zoonotic HEV transmission in Bangladesh. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Is Neonatal Jaundice Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tristram; Wang, Hongyue

    2014-01-01

    Using guidelines of the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Group, we systematically reviewed the literature on neonatal jaundice (unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in term and preterm infants. Thirteen studies were included in a meta-analysis. Most used retrospective matched case–control designs. There was significant heterogeneity (Q = 31, p = 0.002) and no evidence of publication bias (p = 0.12). Overall, jaundice, assessed by total serum bilirubin (TSB), was associated with ASD (OR, 1.43, 95% CI 1.22–1.67, random effect model). This association was not found in preterms (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.38–1.02) but deserves further investigation since other measures of bilirubin such as unbound unconjugated bilirubin may be better predictors of neurotoxicity than TSB in preterms. PMID:22009628

  15. Is neonatal jaundice associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Amin, Sanjiv B; Smith, Tristram; Wang, Hongyue

    2011-11-01

    Using guidelines of the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Group, we systematically reviewed the literature on neonatal jaundice (unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in term and preterm infants. Thirteen studies were included in a meta-analysis. Most used retrospective matched case-control designs. There was significant heterogeneity (Q = 31, p = 0.002) and no evidence of publication bias (p = 0.12). Overall, jaundice, assessed by total serum bilirubin (TSB), was associated with ASD (OR, 1.43, 95% CI 1.22-1.67, random effect model). This association was not found in preterms (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.38-1.02) but deserves further investigation since other measures of bilirubin such as unbound unconjugated bilirubin may be better predictors of neurotoxicity than TSB in preterms.

  16. Intraductal ultrasonographic anatomy of biliary varices in patients with portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Tadayuki; Irisawa, Atsushi; Shibukawa, Goro; Hikichi, Takuto; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2015-01-01

    The term, portal biliopathy, denotes various biliary abnormalities, such as stenosis and/or dilatation of the bile duct, in patients with portal hypertension. These vascular abnormalities sometimes bring on an obstructive jaundice, but they are not clear which vessels participated in obstructive jaundice. The aim of present study was clear the bile ductal changes in patients with portal hypertension in hopes of establishing a therapeutic strategy for obstructive jaundice caused by biliary varices. Three hundred and thirty-seven patients who underwent intraductal ultrasound (IDUS) during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography for biliary abnormalities were enrolled. Portal biliopathy was analyzed using IDUS. Biliary varices were identified in 11 (2.7%) patients. IDUS revealed biliary varices as multiple, hypoechoic features surrounding the bile duct wall. These varices could be categorized into one of two groups according to their location in the sectional image of bile duct: epicholedochal and paracholedochal. Epicholedochal varices were identified in all patients, but paracholedochal varices were observed only in patients with extrahepatic portal obstruction. IDUS was useful to characterize the anatomy of portal biliopathy in detail.

  17. Jaundice in infants and children: causes, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Chee, Y Y; Chung, P H; Wong, R M; Wong, K K

    2018-05-21

    Jaundice is caused by an accumulation of bilirubin in the blood. The presentation in infants and children can be indicative of a wide range of conditions, with some self-limiting and others potentially life-threatening. This article aims to provide a concise review of the common medical and surgical causes in children and discuss their diagnosis and management.

  18. Plasmodium falciparum-induced severe malaria with acute kidney injury and jaundice: a case report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baswin, A.; Siregar, M. L.; Jamil, K. F.

    2018-03-01

    P. falciparum-induced severe malaria with life-threatening complications like acute kidney injury (AKI), jaundice, cerebral malaria, severe anemia, acidosis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). A 31-year-old soldier man who works in Aceh Singkil, Indonesia which is an endemic malaria area presented with a paroxysm of fever, shaking chills and sweats over four days, headache, arthralgia, abdominal pain, pale, jaundice, and oliguria. Urinalysis showed hemoglobinuria. Blood examination showed hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and hyperbilirubinemia. Falciparum malaria was then confirmed by peripheral blood smear, antimalarial medications were initiated, and hemodialysis was performed for eight times. The patient’s condition and laboratory results were quickly normalized. We report a case of P. falciparum-induced severe malaria with AKI and jaundice. The present case suggests that P. falciparum may induce severe malaria with life-threatening complications, early diagnosis and treatment is important to improve the quality of life of patients. Physicians must be alert for correct diagnosis and proper management of imported tropical malaria when patients have travel history in endemic areas.

  19. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in jaundiced Egyptian neonates.

    PubMed

    M Abo El Fotoh, Wafaa Moustafa; Rizk, Mohammed Soliman

    2016-12-01

    The enzyme, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), deficiency leads to impaired production of reduced glutathione and predisposes the red cells to be damaged by oxidative metabolites, causing hemolysis. Deficient neonates may manifest clinically as hyperbilirubinemia or even kernicterus. This study was carried out to detect erythrocyte G6PD deficiency in neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. To determine the frequency and effect of G6PD deficiency, this study was conducted on 202 neonates with indirect hyperbilirubinemia. All term and preterm babies up to 13 day of age admitted with clinically evident jaundice were taken for the study. G6PD activity is measured by the UV-Kinetic Method using cellular enzyme determination reagents by spectrophotometry according to manufacturer's instructions. A total of 202 babies were enrolled in this study. Male babies outnumbered the female (71.3% versus 28.7%). Mean age of the study newborns was 3.75 ± 2.5 days. Eighteen neonates (8.9%) had G6PD deficiency, all are males. One case had combined G6PD deficiency and RH incompatibility. Mean serum total bilirubin was 17.2 ± 4.4 in G6PD deficient cases. There was significant positive correlation between the time of appearance of jaundice in days and G6PD levels in G6PD deficient cases. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is associated with various clinical comorbidities. G6PD deficiency is found to one important cause of neonatal jaundice developing on day 2 onwards.

  20. Hepatitis E as a Cause of Acute Jaundice Syndrome in Northern Uganda, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Gerbi, Gemechu B.; Williams, Roxanne; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas; Liu, Stephen; Downing, Robert; Drobeniuc, Jan; Kamili, Saleem; Xu, Fujie; Holmberg, Scott D.; Teshale, Eyasu H.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries; however, its contribution to acute jaundice syndrome is not well-described. A large outbreak of hepatitis E occurred in northern Uganda from 2007 to 2009. In response to this outbreak, acute jaundice syndrome surveillance was established in 10 district healthcare facilities to determine the proportion of cases attributable to hepatitis E. Of 347 acute jaundice syndrome cases reported, the majority (42%) had hepatitis E followed by hepatitis B (14%), malaria (10%), hepatitis C (5%), and other/unknown (29%). Of hepatitis E cases, 72% occurred in Kaboong district, and 68% of these cases occurred between May and August of 2011. Residence in Kaabong district was independently associated with hepatitis E (adjusted odds ratio = 13; 95% confidence interval = 7–24). The findings from this surveillance show that an outbreak and sporadic transmission of hepatitis E occur in northern Uganda. PMID:25448237

  1. A polymorphism near IL28B is associated with spontaneous clearance of acute hepatitis C virus and jaundice.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Hans L; Thompson, Alex J; Patel, Keyur; Wiese, Manfred; Tenckhoff, Hannelore; Nischalke, Hans D; Lokhnygina, Yuliya; Kullig, Ulrike; Göbel, Uwe; Capka, Emanuela; Wiegand, Johannes; Schiefke, Ingolf; Güthoff, Wolfgang; Grüngreiff, Kurt; König, Ingrid; Spengler, Ulrich; McCarthy, Jeanette; Shianna, Kevin V; Goldstein, David B; McHutchison, John G; Timm, Jörg; Nattermann, Jacob

    2010-11-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) upstream of the IL28B gene has been associated with response of patients with chronic hepatitis C to therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin and also with spontaneous clearance of acute hepatitis C in a heterogeneous population. We analyzed the association between IL28B and the clinical presentation of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in a homogeneous population. We analyzed the SNP rs12979860 in 190 women from the German anti-D cohort (infected with HCV genotype 1b via contaminated rhesus prophylaxis) and its association with spontaneous clearance. Clinical data were available in 136 women with acute infection who were also evaluated for IL28B genotype. Based on results of a TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assay, the rs12979860 SNP genotypes studied were C/C, C/T, or T/T. Spontaneous clearance was more common in patients with the C/C genotype (43/67; 64%) compared with C/T (22/90; 24%) or T/T (2/33; 6%) (P < .001). Jaundice during acute infection was more common among patients with C/C genotype (32.7%) than non-C/C patients (with C/T or T/T) (16.1%; P = .032). In C/C patients, jaundice during acute infection was not associated with an increased chance of spontaneous clearance (56.3%) compared with those without jaundice (60.6%). In contrast, in non-C/C patients, jaundice was associated with a higher likelihood of spontaneous clearance (42.9%) compared with those without jaundice (13.7%). The SNP rs12979860 upstream of IL28B is associated with spontaneous clearance of HCV. Women with the C/T or T/T genotype who did not develop jaundice had a lower chance of spontaneous clearance of HCV infection. Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome during Treatment for Wilms' Tumor: A Life-threatening Complication.

    PubMed

    Totadri, Sidharth; Trehan, Amita; Bansal, Deepak; Jain, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Survival rates exceed 90% in Wilms' tumor (WT). Actinomycin-D (ACT-D) which is indispensable in the management of WT is associated with the development of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), a potentially fatal complication. The aim is to study the presentation, management, and outcome of SOS complicating ACT-D administration in WT. Retrospective file review conducted in a Pediatric Hematology-Oncology unit. Patients diagnosed and treated for WT from January 2012 to December 2015 were analyzed. SOS was diagnosed clinically, based on McDonalds criteria, requiring two of the following: jaundice, hepatomegaly and/or right upper quadrant pain, weight gain with or without ascites. Of 104 patients treated, SOS occurred in 5 (4.8%). Age: 6 months to 5 years, 3 were girls. Tumor involved left kidney in 3, right in 1 and a horseshoe kidney in 1. Histopathology was consistent with WT in 4 and clear cell sarcoma kidney in 1. One had pulmonary metastases. Three developed SOS preoperatively and two during adjuvant chemotherapy. None received radiotherapy. Clinical manifestations comprised of jaundice, hepatomegaly, ascites/weight gain, respiratory distress, hypotension, and encephalopathy. Laboratory findings included thrombocytopenia, elevated serum transaminases, and coagulopathy. Treatment included fluid restriction, broad spectrum antibiotics, and transfusional support. Two children received N-acetyl cysteine infusion. Defibrotide was administered to two patients. Four recovered and one succumbed to multi-organ failure. Two patients were safely re-challenged with 50% doses of ACT-D. SOS is a clinical diagnosis. Systematic supportive care can enable complete recovery. Under close monitoring, re-challenge of ACT-D can be performed in gradually escalating doses.

  3. Immunohistochemical localization of calcium-binding proteins in the brainstem vestibular nuclei of the jaundiced Gunn rat.

    PubMed

    Shaia, Wayne T; Shapiro, Steven M; Heller, Andrew J; Galiani, David L; Sismanis, Aristides; Spencer, Robert F

    2002-11-01

    Vestibular gaze and postural abnormalities are major sequelae of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The sites and cellular effects of bilirubin toxicity in the brainstem vestibular pathway are not easily detected. Since altered intracellular calcium homeostasis may play a role in neuronal cell death, we hypothesized that altered expression of calcium-binding proteins may occur in brainstem vestibular nuclei of the classic animal model of bilirubin neurotoxicity. The expression of the calcium-binding proteins calbindin-D28k and parvalbumin in the brainstem vestibular pathways and cerebellum of homozygous recessive jaundiced (jj) Gunn rats was examined by light microscopy and immunohistochemistry at 18 days postnatally and compared to the findings obtained from age-matched non-jaundiced heterozygous (Nj) littermate controls. Jaundiced animals exhibited decreased parvalbumin immunoreactivity specifically in synaptic inputs to superior, medial, and inferior vestibular nuclei, and to oculomotor and trochlear nuclei, whereas the neurons retained their normal immunoreactivity. Jaundiced animals also demonstrated a decrease in calbindin expression in the lateral vestibular nuclei and a paucity of calbindin-immunoreactive synaptic endings on the somata of Deiters' neurons. The involved regions are related to the control of the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulospinal reflexes. Decreased expression of calcium-binding proteins in brainstem vestibular neurons may relate to the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulospinal dysfunction seen with clinical kernicterus, and may provide a sensitive new way to assess bilirubin toxicity in the vestibular system.

  4. Identification of pathogens for differential diagnosis of fever with jaundice in the Central African Republic: a retrospective assessment, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Gadia, Christelle Luce Bobossi; Manirakiza, Alexandre; Tekpa, Gaspard; Konamna, Xavier; Vickos, Ulrich; Nakoune, Emmanuel

    2017-11-29

    Febrile jaundice results clinically in generalized yellow coloration of the teguments and mucous membranes due to excess plasma bilirubin, accompanied by fever. Two types are found: conjugated and unconjugated bilirubin jaundice. Jaundice is a sign in several diseases due to viruses (viral hepatitis and arbovirus), parasites (malaria) and bacteria (leptospirosis). In the Central African Republic (CAR), only yellow fever is included on the list of diseases for surveillance. The aim of this study was to identify the other pathogens that can cause febrile jaundice, for better management of patients. Between 2008 and 2010, 198 sera negative for yellow fever IgM were randomly selected from 2177 samples collected during yellow fever surveillance. Laboratory analyses targeted four groups of pathogens: hepatitis B, C, delta and E viruses; dengue, chikungunya, Zika, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, West Nile and Rift Valley arboviruses; malaria parasites; and bacteria (leptospirosis). Overall, 30.9% sera were positive for hepatitis B, 20.2% for hepatitis E, 12.3% for hepatitis C and 8.2% for malaria. The majority of positive sera (40.4%) were from people aged 16-30 years. Co-infection with at least two of these pathogens was also found. These findings suggest that a systematic investigation should be undertaken of infectious agents that cause febrile jaundice in the CAR.

  5. The infective causes of hepatitis and jaundice amongst hospitalised patients in Vientiane, Laos

    PubMed Central

    Syhavong, Bounkong; Rasachack, Bouachanh; Smythe, Lee; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie; Jenjaroen, Kemajittra; Soukkhaserm, Vimone; Phongmany, Simmaly; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Soukkhaserm, Sune; Thammavong, Te; Mayxay, Mayfong; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Barnes, Eleanor; Parola, Philippe; Dussaix, Elisabeth; Raoult, Didier; Humphreys, Isla; Klenerman, Paul; White, Nicholas J.; Newton, Paul N.

    2010-01-01

    Summary There is little information on the diverse infectious causes of jaundice and hepatitis in the Asiatic tropics. Serology (hepatitis A, B, C and E, leptospirosis, dengue, rickettsia), antigen tests (dengue), PCR assays (hepatitis A, C and E) and blood cultures (septicaemia) were performed on samples from 392 patients admitted with jaundice or raised transaminases (≥ × 3) to Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos over 3 years. Conservative definitions suggested diagnoses of dengue (8.4%), rickettsioses (7.3%), leptospirosis (6.8%), hepatitis B (4.9%), hepatitis C (4.9%), community-acquired septicaemia (3.3%) and hepatitis E (1.6%). Although anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgM antibody results suggested that 35.8% of patients had acute HAV infections, anti-HAV IgG antibody avidity and HAV PCR suggested that 82% had polyclonal activation and not acute HAV infections. Scrub typhus, murine typhus or leptospirosis were present in 12.8% of patients and were associated with meningism and relatively low AST and ALT elevation. These patients would be expected to respond to empirical doxycycline therapy which, in the absence of virological diagnosis and treatment, may be an appropriate cost-effective intervention in Lao patients with jaundice/hepatitis. PMID:20378138

  6. Development of a System Model for Non-Invasive Quantification of Bilirubin in Jaundice Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alla, Suresh K.

    Neonatal jaundice is a medical condition which occurs in newborns as a result of an imbalance between the production and elimination of bilirubin. Excess bilirubin in the blood stream diffuses into the surrounding tissue leading to a yellowing of the skin. An optical system integrated with a signal processing system is used as a platform to noninvasively quantify bilirubin concentration through the measurement of diffuse skin reflectance. Initial studies have lead to the generation of a clinical analytical model for neonatal jaundice which generates spectral reflectance data for jaundiced skin with varying levels of bilirubin concentration in the tissue. The spectral database built using the clinical analytical model is then used as a test database to validate the signal processing system in real time. This evaluation forms the basis for understanding the translation of this research to human trials. The clinical analytical model and signal processing system have been successful validated on three spectral databases. First spectral database is constructed using a porcine model as a surrogate for neonatal skin tissue. Samples of pig skin were soaked in bilirubin solutions of varying concentrations to simulate jaundice skin conditions. The resulting skins samples were analyzed with our skin reflectance systems producing bilirubin concentration values that show a high correlation (R2 = 0.94) to concentration of the bilirubin solution that each porcine tissue sample is soaked in. The second spectral database is the spectral measurements collected on human volunteers to quantify the different chromophores and other physical properties of the tissue such a Hematocrit, Hemoglobin etc. The third spectral database is the spectral data collected at different time periods from the moment a bruise is induced.

  7. Laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy for gastric outlet obstruction in patients with unresectable hepatopancreatobiliary cancers: A personal series and systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Manuel-Vázquez, Alba; Latorre-Fragua, Raquel; Ramiro-Pérez, Carmen; López-Marcano, Aylhin; la Plaza-Llamas, Roberto De; Ramia, José Manuel

    2018-05-14

    The major symptoms of advanced hepatopancreatic-biliary cancer are biliary obstruction, pain and gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). For obstructive jaundice, surgical treatment should de consider in recurrent stent complications. The role of surgery for pain relief is marginal nowadays. On the last, there is no consensus for treatment of malignant GOO. Endoscopic duodenal stents are associated with shorter length of stay and faster relief to oral intake with more recurrent symptoms. Surgical gastrojejunostomy shows better long-term results and lower re-intervention rates, but there are limited data about laparoscopic approach. We performed a systematic review of the literature, according PRISMA guidelines, to search for articles on laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy for malignant GOO treatment. We also report our personal series, from 2009 to 2017. A review of the literature suggests that there is no standardized surgical technique either standardized outcomes to report. Most of the studies are case series, so level of evidence is low. Decision-making must consider medical condition, nutritional status, quality of life and life expectancy. Evaluation of the patient and multidisciplinary expertise are required to select appropriate approach. Given the limited studies and the difficulty to perform prospective controlled trials, no study can answer all the complexities of malignant GOO and more outcome data is needed.

  8. Laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy for gastric outlet obstruction in patients with unresectable hepatopancreatobiliary cancers: A personal series and systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Manuel-Vázquez, Alba; Latorre-Fragua, Raquel; Ramiro-Pérez, Carmen; López-Marcano, Aylhin; la Plaza-Llamas, Roberto De; Ramia, José Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The major symptoms of advanced hepatopancreatic-biliary cancer are biliary obstruction, pain and gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). For obstructive jaundice, surgical treatment should de consider in recurrent stent complications. The role of surgery for pain relief is marginal nowadays. On the last, there is no consensus for treatment of malignant GOO. Endoscopic duodenal stents are associated with shorter length of stay and faster relief to oral intake with more recurrent symptoms. Surgical gastrojejunostomy shows better long-term results and lower re-intervention rates, but there are limited data about laparoscopic approach. We performed a systematic review of the literature, according PRISMA guidelines, to search for articles on laparoscopic gastrojejunostomy for malignant GOO treatment. We also report our personal series, from 2009 to 2017. A review of the literature suggests that there is no standardized surgical technique either standardized outcomes to report. Most of the studies are case series, so level of evidence is low. Decision-making must consider medical condition, nutritional status, quality of life and life expectancy. Evaluation of the patient and multidisciplinary expertise are required to select appropriate approach. Given the limited studies and the difficulty to perform prospective controlled trials, no study can answer all the complexities of malignant GOO and more outcome data is needed. PMID:29760541

  9. The influence of age on posterior pelvic floor dysfunction in women with obstructed defecation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Murad-Regadas, S M; Rodrigues, L V; Furtado, D C; Regadas, F S P; Olivia da S Fernandes, G; Regadas Filho, F S P; Gondim, A C; de Paula Joca da Silva, R

    2012-06-01

    Knowledge of risk factors is particularly useful to prevent or manage pelvic floor dysfunction but although a number of such factors have been proposed, results remain inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of aging on the incidence of posterior pelvic floor disorders in women with obstructed defecation syndrome evaluated using echodefecography. A total of 334 patients with obstructed defecation were evaluated using echodefecography in order to quantify posterior pelvic floor dysfunction (rectocele, intussusception, mucosal prolapse, paradoxical contraction or non-relaxation of the puborectalis muscle, and grade III enterocele/sigmoidocele). Patients were grouped according to the age (Group I = patients up to 50 years of age; Group II = patients over 50 years of age) to evaluate the isolated and associated incidence of dysfunctions. To evaluate the relationship between dysfunction and age-related changes, patients were also stratified into decades. Group I included 196 patients and Group II included 138. The incidence of significant rectocele, intussusception, rectocele associated with intussusception, rectocele associated with mucosal prolapse and 3 associated disorders was higher in Group II, whereas anismus was more prevalent in Group I. The incidence of significant rectocele, intussusception, mucosal prolapse and grade III enterocele/sigmoidocele was found to increase with age. Conversely, anismus decreased with age. Aging was shown to influence the incidence of posterior pelvic floor disorders (rectocele, intussusception, mucosa prolapse and enterocele/sigmoidocele), but not the incidence of anismus, in women with obstructed defecation syndrome.

  10. Applying data mining techniques to improve diagnosis in neonatal jaundice.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Duarte; Oliveira, Abílio; Freitas, Alberto

    2012-12-07

    Hyperbilirubinemia is emerging as an increasingly common problem in newborns due to a decreasing hospital length of stay after birth. Jaundice is the most common disease of the newborn and although being benign in most cases it can lead to severe neurological consequences if poorly evaluated. In different areas of medicine, data mining has contributed to improve the results obtained with other methodologies.Hence, the aim of this study was to improve the diagnosis of neonatal jaundice with the application of data mining techniques. This study followed the different phases of the Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining model as its methodology.This observational study was performed at the Obstetrics Department of a central hospital (Centro Hospitalar Tâmega e Sousa--EPE), from February to March of 2011. A total of 227 healthy newborn infants with 35 or more weeks of gestation were enrolled in the study. Over 70 variables were collected and analyzed. Also, transcutaneous bilirubin levels were measured from birth to hospital discharge with maximum time intervals of 8 hours between measurements, using a noninvasive bilirubinometer.Different attribute subsets were used to train and test classification models using algorithms included in Weka data mining software, such as decision trees (J48) and neural networks (multilayer perceptron). The accuracy results were compared with the traditional methods for prediction of hyperbilirubinemia. The application of different classification algorithms to the collected data allowed predicting subsequent hyperbilirubinemia with high accuracy. In particular, at 24 hours of life of newborns, the accuracy for the prediction of hyperbilirubinemia was 89%. The best results were obtained using the following algorithms: naive Bayes, multilayer perceptron and simple logistic. The findings of our study sustain that, new approaches, such as data mining, may support medical decision, contributing to improve diagnosis in neonatal

  11. Is Neonatal Jaundice Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amin, Sanjiv B.; Smith, Tristram; Wang, Hongyue

    2011-01-01

    Using guidelines of the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology Group, we systematically reviewed the literature on neonatal jaundice (unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in term and preterm infants. Thirteen studies were included in a meta-analysis. Most used retrospective matched case-control…

  12. Destruction of the hepatocyte junction by intercellular invasion of Leptospira causes jaundice in a hamster model of Weil's disease.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Satoshi; Saito, Mitsumasa; Kanemaru, Takaaki; Villanueva, Sharon Y A M; Gloriani, Nina G; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2014-08-01

    Weil's disease, the most severe form of leptospirosis, is characterized by jaundice, haemorrhage and renal failure. The mechanisms of jaundice caused by pathogenic Leptospira remain unclear. We therefore aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by integrating histopathological changes with serum biochemical abnormalities during the development of jaundice in a hamster model of Weil's disease. In this work, we obtained three-dimensional images of infected hamster livers using scanning electron microscope together with freeze-cracking and cross-cutting methods for sample preparation. The images displayed the corkscrew-shaped bacteria, which infiltrated the Disse's space, migrated between hepatocytes, detached the intercellular junctions and disrupted the bile canaliculi. Destruction of bile canaliculi coincided with the elevation of conjugated bilirubin, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase levels in serum, whereas serum alanine transaminase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels increased slightly, but not significantly. We also found in ex vivo experiments that pathogenic, but not non-pathogenic leptospires, tend to adhere to the perijunctional region of hepatocyte couplets isolated from hamsters and initiate invasion of the intercellular junction within 1 h after co-incubation. Our results suggest that pathogenic leptospires invade the intercellular junctions of host hepatocytes, and this invasion contributes in the disruption of the junction. Subsequently, bile leaks from bile canaliculi and jaundice occurs immediately. Our findings revealed not only a novel pathogenicity of leptospires, but also a novel mechanism of jaundice induced by bacterial infection. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2014 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  13. Destruction of the hepatocyte junction by intercellular invasion of Leptospira causes jaundice in a hamster model of Weil's disease

    PubMed Central

    Miyahara, Satoshi; Saito, Mitsumasa; Kanemaru, Takaaki; Villanueva, Sharon Y A M; Gloriani, Nina G; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Weil's disease, the most severe form of leptospirosis, is characterized by jaundice, haemorrhage and renal failure. The mechanisms of jaundice caused by pathogenic Leptospira remain unclear. We therefore aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by integrating histopathological changes with serum biochemical abnormalities during the development of jaundice in a hamster model of Weil's disease. In this work, we obtained three-dimensional images of infected hamster livers using scanning electron microscope together with freeze-cracking and cross-cutting methods for sample preparation. The images displayed the corkscrew-shaped bacteria, which infiltrated the Disse's space, migrated between hepatocytes, detached the intercellular junctions and disrupted the bile canaliculi. Destruction of bile canaliculi coincided with the elevation of conjugated bilirubin, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase levels in serum, whereas serum alanine transaminase and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase levels increased slightly, but not significantly. We also found in ex vivo experiments that pathogenic, but not non-pathogenic leptospires, tend to adhere to the perijunctional region of hepatocyte couplets isolated from hamsters and initiate invasion of the intercellular junction within 1 h after co-incubation. Our results suggest that pathogenic leptospires invade the intercellular junctions of host hepatocytes, and this invasion contributes in the disruption of the junction. Subsequently, bile leaks from bile canaliculi and jaundice occurs immediately. Our findings revealed not only a novel pathogenicity of leptospires, but also a novel mechanism of jaundice induced by bacterial infection. PMID:24945433

  14. Isolation of an agent causing bilirubinemia and jaundice in raccoons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilham, L.; Herman, C.M.

    1954-01-01

    An infectious agent, which appears to be a virus (RJV) has been isolated from the liver of a wild raccoon which has led to a highly fatal type of disease characterized by conjunctivitis and an elevated serum bilirubin frequently accompanied by jaundice on inoculation of raccoons. Ferrets also appear to be susceptible to infections with this agent.

  15. Transcutaneous bilirubinometry reduces the need for blood sampling in neonates with visible jaundice.

    PubMed

    Mishra, S; Chawla, D; Agarwal, R; Deorari, A K; Paul, V K; Bhutani, V K

    2009-12-01

    We determined usefulness of transcutaneous bilirubinometry to decrease the need for blood sampling to assay serum total bilirubin (STB) in the management of jaundiced healthy Indian neonates. Newborns, > or =35 weeks' gestation, with clinical evidence of jaundice were enrolled in an institutional approved randomized clinical trial. The severity of hyperbilirubinaemia was determined by two non-invasive methods: i) protocol-based visual assessment of bilirubin (VaB) and ii) transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) determination (BiliCheck). By a random allocation, either method was used to decide the need for blood sampling, which was defined to be present if assessed STB by allocated method exceeded 80% of hour-specific threshold values for phototherapy (2004 AAP Guidelines). A total of 617 neonates were randomized to either TcB (n = 314) or VaB (n = 303) groups with comparable gestation, birth weight and postnatal age. Need for blood sampling to assay STB was 34% lower (95% CI: 10% to 51%) in the TcB group compared with VaB group (17.5% vs 26.4% assessments; risk difference: -8.9%, 95% CI: -2.4% to -15.4%; p = 0.008). Routine use of transcutaneous bilirubinometry compared with systematic visual assessment of bilirubin significantly reduced the need for blood sampling to assay STB in jaundiced term and late-preterm neonates. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00653874).

  16. Piscine reovirus, but not Jaundice Syndrome, was transmissible to Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garver, Kyle A.; Marty, Gary D.; Cockburn, Sarah N.; Richard, Jon; Hawley, Laura M.; Müller, Anita; Thompson, Rachel L.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome is an acute to peracute systemic disease, and the time from first clinical signs to death is likely <48 h; renal tubular epithelial cell necrosis is the most consistent lesion. In an infectivity trial, Chinook Salmon, Sockeye Salmon and Atlantic Salmon, intraperitoneally inoculated with a PRV-positive organ homogenate from jaundiced Chinook Salmon, developed no gross or microscopic evidence of jaundice despite persistence of PRV for the 5-month holding period. The results from this study demonstrate that the Jaundice Syndrome was not transmissible by injection of material from infected fish and that PRV was not the sole aetiological factor for the condition. Additionally, these findings showed the Pacific coast strain of PRV, while transmissible, was of low pathogenicity for Atlantic Salmon, Chinook Salmon and Sockeye Salmon.

  17. Hyperactivity in the Gunn rat model of neonatal jaundice: age-related attenuation and emergence of gait deficits

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, John A.; Shuler, Jeffrey M.; Fowler, Stephen C.; Stanford, Kimberly G.; Ma, Delin; Bittel, Douglas C.; Le Pichon, Jean-Baptiste; Shapiro, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Neonatal jaundice resulting from elevated unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) occurs in 60–80% of newborn infants. Although mild jaundice is generally considered harmless, little is known about its long-term consequences. Recent studies have linked mild bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction (BIND) with a range of neurological syndromes, including attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. The goal of this study was to measure BIND across the lifespan in the Gunn rat model of BIND. Methods Using a sensitive force plate actometer, we measured locomotor activity and gait in jaundiced (jj) Gunn rats versus their non-jaundiced (Nj) littermates. Data were analyzed for young adult (3–4 months), early middle-aged (9–10 months), and late middle-aged (17–20 months) male rats. Results jj rats exhibited lower body weights at all ages and a hyperactivity that resolved at 17–20 months of age. Increased propulsive force and gait velocity accompanied hyperactivity during locomotor bouts at 9–10 months in jj rats. Stride length did not differ between the two groups at this age. Hyperactivity normalized and gait deficits, including decreased stride length, propulsive force, and gait velocity, emerged in the 17–20-month-old jj rats. Conclusions These results demonstrate that, in aging, hyperactivity decreases with the onset of gait deficits in the Gunn rat model of BIND. PMID:25518009

  18. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: an unusual cause of acute jaundice after paracetamol overdose.

    PubMed

    Phillpotts, Simon; Tash, Elliot; Sen, Sambit

    2014-11-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest human enzyme defect causing haemolytic anaemia after exposure to specific triggers. Paracetamol-induced haemolysis in G6PD deficiency is a rare complication and mostly reported in children. We report the first case (to the best of our knowledge) of acute jaundice without overt clinical features of a haemolytic crisis, in an otherwise healthy adult female following paracetamol overdose, due to previously undiagnosed G6PD deficiency. It is important that clinicians consider this condition when a patient presents following a paracetamol overdose with significant and disproportionate jaundice, without transaminitis or coagulopathy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Prevalence of significant weight loss and hypernatremia in breast feeding jaundice infants readmitted to Phramongkutklao Hospital within 1 month of age.

    PubMed

    Suksumek, Nithipun; Pirunnet, Tanin; Chamnanvanakij, Sangkae; Saengaroon, Preyapan

    2010-11-01

    Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is the most common cause of neonatal re-admission within the first month of life. Good maternal support and closed follow-up of newborn infants can promote successful breast feeding without causing any complications. To determine the rate of significant weight loss and hypernatremia in infants with breast feeding jaundice readmitted to Phramongkutklao Hospital within 1 month of age. Cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in infants of gestational age > or = 35 weeks and birth weight > or = 2,000 grams who had breast feeding jaundice readmitted between January, 1st and December 31st, 2008. Maternal and neonatal history, laboratory result, complications and treatment were reviewed. Rates of significant weight loss and hypernatremia were calculated. The associations between weight loss and factors, serum sodium, serum bilirubin and weight loss were analyzed using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U test. There were 30 infants in the study. 12 (40%) were male. The median gestational age and birth weight were 37 (35-40) weeks and 2,945 (2,100-3,810) grams, respectively. Three infants had significant weight loss more than 10% of birth weights. No infant had hyperbilirubinemia. Severity of weight loss was associated with weight loss at the time before discharge from hospital. Weight loss was not associated with gestational age, sex, parity, cesarean section, exclusive breast feeding, serum sodium level, and serum bilirubin level. Complications of dehydration such as hypernatremia was not observed in infants with breast feeding jaundice in this study. Maternal education, serial weight measurements and awareness of breast-feeding jaundice problems are helpful strategies to promote successful breast feeding.

  20. Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome during Treatment for Wilms' Tumor: A Life-threatening Complication

    PubMed Central

    Totadri, Sidharth; Trehan, Amita; Bansal, Deepak; Jain, Richa

    2017-01-01

    Context: Survival rates exceed 90% in Wilms' tumor (WT). Actinomycin-D (ACT-D) which is indispensable in the management of WT is associated with the development of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), a potentially fatal complication. Aims: The aim is to study the presentation, management, and outcome of SOS complicating ACT-D administration in WT. Settings and Design: Retrospective file review conducted in a Pediatric Hematology-Oncology unit. Materials and Methods: Patients diagnosed and treated for WT from January 2012 to December 2015 were analyzed. SOS was diagnosed clinically, based on McDonalds criteria, requiring two of the following: jaundice, hepatomegaly and/or right upper quadrant pain, weight gain with or without ascites. Results: Of 104 patients treated, SOS occurred in 5 (4.8%). Age: 6 months to 5 years, 3 were girls. Tumor involved left kidney in 3, right in 1 and a horseshoe kidney in 1. Histopathology was consistent with WT in 4 and clear cell sarcoma kidney in 1. One had pulmonary metastases. Three developed SOS preoperatively and two during adjuvant chemotherapy. None received radiotherapy. Clinical manifestations comprised of jaundice, hepatomegaly, ascites/weight gain, respiratory distress, hypotension, and encephalopathy. Laboratory findings included thrombocytopenia, elevated serum transaminases, and coagulopathy. Treatment included fluid restriction, broad spectrum antibiotics, and transfusional support. Two children received N-acetyl cysteine infusion. Defibrotide was administered to two patients. Four recovered and one succumbed to multi-organ failure. Two patients were safely re-challenged with 50% doses of ACT-D. Conclusions: SOS is a clinical diagnosis. Systematic supportive care can enable complete recovery. Under close monitoring, re-challenge of ACT-D can be performed in gradually escalating doses. PMID:29333010

  1. Jaundice in a pregnant woman.

    PubMed

    Ibrahimi, Sophiane; Mroué, Abbas Ali; Francois, Erik; Jagodzinski, Robert

    2017-01-01

    A 34-year-old woman in the 22nd week of gestation presented with generalized pruritis and weight loss since the first trimester of pregnancy. Physical examination revealed cutaneous scratch lesions, jaundice, and hepatomegaly. Blood tests revealed cholestasis with elevated direct bilirubinemia. Auto-antibody and viral hepatitis tests were negative. Liver ultrasound was normal. The initial diagnosis was cholestasis of pregnancy. However despite treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid, the patient did not improve. Delivery was by cesarean section at the 26th week of pregnancy for obstetrical reasons. A new liver ultrasound showed a heterogeneous nodular mass. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the liver showed an 11-cm mass centered on the hilum, dilated intrahepatic bile ducts, involvement of the hepatic veins, and hilar adenopathy. A liver biopsy revealed fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FHC). © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  2. The treatment of jaundice with medicinal plants in indigenous communities of the Sub-Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jyotsana; Gairola, Sumeet; Gaur, R D; Painuli, R M

    2012-08-30

    Inspite of tremendous advances made in allopathic medical practices, herbs still play an important role in the management of various liver diseases. A large number of plants and formulations have been claimed to have hepatoprotective activity. Jaundice is a symptom, indicative of the malfunctioning of the liver. This paper provides ethnomedicinal information on the plants used to treat jaundice by three important indigenous communities, i.e., nomadic Gujjars, Tharu and Bhoxa of Sub-Himalayan region, Uttarakhand, India. To record herbal preparations used by the studied indigenous communities in treatment of jaundice and discuss hepatoprotective properties of the recorded plants. The traditional knowledge of the studied indigenous communities on herbal preparations used for treating jaundice was collected through structured questionnaire and personal interviews. The interviews were conducted with 91 traditional healers (29 Bhoxa, 35 Tharu and 27 nomadic Gujjars) in Sub-Himalayan region of Uttarakhand, India. More than 250 research papers reporting ethnomedicinal information on the hepatoprotective plants used by various communities from different parts of India were extensively reviewed. A total of 40 medicinal plants belonging to 31 families and 38 genera were recorded to be used by the studied communities in 45 formulations as a remedy of jaundice. Bhoxa, nomadic Gujjars and Tharu communities used 15, 23 and 9 plants, respectively. To our knowledge eight plants reported in the present survey viz., Amaranthus spinosus L., Cissampelos pareira L., Ehretia laevis Roxb., Holarrhena pubescens Wall., Ocimum americanum L., Physalis divaricata D. Don, Solanum incanum L. and Trichosanthes cucumerina L. have not been reported earlier as remedy of jaundice in India. Literature review revealed that a total of 214 (belonging to 181 genus and 78 families), 19 (belonging to 18 genus and 12 families) and 14 (belonging to 14 genus and 11 families) plant species are used as internal

  3. Genetic associations with obstructive sleep apnea traits in Hispanic/Latino Americans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and premature mortality. Although there is strong clinical and epidemiologic evidence supporting the importance of genetic factors in influencing obstructive sleep apnea, its genetic bas...

  4. Piscine reovirus, but not Jaundice Syndrome, was transmissible to Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha (Walbaum), Sockeye Salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), and Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Garver, K A; Marty, G D; Cockburn, S N; Richard, J; Hawley, L M; Müller, A; Thompson, R L; Purcell, M K; Saksida, S

    2016-02-01

    A Jaundice Syndrome occurs sporadically among sea-pen-farmed Chinook Salmon in British Columbia, the westernmost province of Canada. Affected salmon are easily identified by a distinctive yellow discolouration of the abdominal and periorbital regions. Through traditional diagnostics, no bacterial or viral agents were cultured from tissues of jaundiced Chinook Salmon; however, piscine reovirus (PRV) was identified via RT-rPCR in all 10 affected fish sampled. By histopathology, Jaundice Syndrome is an acute to peracute systemic disease, and the time from first clinical signs to death is likely <48 h; renal tubular epithelial cell necrosis is the most consistent lesion. In an infectivity trial, Chinook Salmon, Sockeye Salmon and Atlantic Salmon, intraperitoneally inoculated with a PRV-positive organ homogenate from jaundiced Chinook Salmon, developed no gross or microscopic evidence of jaundice despite persistence of PRV for the 5-month holding period. The results from this study demonstrate that the Jaundice Syndrome was not transmissible by injection of material from infected fish and that PRV was not the sole aetiological factor for the condition. Additionally, these findings showed the Pacific coast strain of PRV, while transmissible, was of low pathogenicity for Atlantic Salmon, Chinook Salmon and Sockeye Salmon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Turkish Neonatal Jaundice Online Registry: A national root cause analysis

    PubMed Central

    Erdeve, Omer; Olukman, Ozgur; Ulubas, Dilek; Buyukkale, Gokhan; Narter, Fatma; Tunc, Gaffari; Atasay, Begum; Gultekin, Nazli Dilay; Arsan, Saadet; Koc, Esin

    2018-01-01

    Background Neonatal jaundice (NNJ) is common, but few root cause analyses based on national quality registries have been performed. An online registry was established to estimate the incidence of NNJ in Turkey and to facilitate a root cause analysis of NNJ and its complications. Methods A multicenter prospective study was conducted on otherwise healthy newborns born at ≥35 weeks of gestation and hospitalized for only NNJ in 50 collaborator neonatal intensive care units across Turkey over a 1-year period. Patients were analyzed for their demographic and clinical characteristics, treatment options, and complications. Results Of the 5,620 patients enrolled, 361 (6.4%) had a bilirubin level ≥25 mg/dL on admission and 13 (0.23%) developed acute bilirubin encephalopathy. The leading cause of hospital admission was hemolytic jaundice, followed by dehydration related to a lack of proper feeding. Although all infants received phototherapy, 302 infants (5.4%) received intravenous immunoglobulin in addition to phototherapy and 132 (2.3%) required exchange transfusion. The infants who received exchange transfusion were more likely to experience hemolytic causes (60.6% vs. 28.1%) and a longer duration of phototherapy (58.5 ± 31.7 vs. 29.4 ± 18.8 h) compared to infants who were not transfused (p < 0.001). The incidence of short-term complications among discharged patients during follow-up was 8.5%; rehospitalization was the most frequent (58%), followed by jaundice for more than 2 weeks (39%), neurological abnormality (0.35%), and hearing loss (0.2%). Conclusions Severe NNJ and bilirubin encephalopathy are still problems in Turkey. Means of identifying at-risk newborns before discharge during routine postnatal care, such as bilirubin monitoring, blood group analysis, and lactation consultations, would reduce the frequency of short- and long-term complications of severe NNJ. PMID:29474382

  6. [High incidence of jaundice in young calves in Southern Germany].

    PubMed

    Metzner, M; Wieland, M; Rademacher, G; Weber, B K; Hafner-Marx, A; Langenmayer, M C; Ammer, H; Klee, W

    2012-10-17

    Between September, 2010, and August, 2011, a series of cases of jaundice of unknown origin in young calves was detected in a number of farms in Southern Germany. This paper describes the syndrome on the basis of 57 cases, and the approach taken to discover the cause. The clinical course of the disease is described in 19 patients. Using a case definition (calves aged 1-3 weeks, total serum bilirubin > 20 µmol/l and/or serum glutamate dehydrogenase [GLDH] activity >50U/l and/or autopsy findings with striking liver pathology [jaundice, liver dystrophy, cirrhosis]), 36 farms were included in an epidemiological survey. In a feeding trial, two batches of a dietary supplement feed, previously used in diseased calves on farms, were fed at the dosage recommendations of the manufacturer to four clinically healthy calves over 5days. Four other calves served as controls. The calves were clinically monitored daily, and blood samples were investigated using clinical chemistry and haematology. Clinical examination revealed behavioural alterations (weakness, tonic-clonic seizures and bawling just before death), recumbency, jaundice and discolouration of faeces. In less severe cases without clinical signs, there was an increase in serum bilirubin concentration and/or GLDH activity. In the epidemiological survey of affected farms, the feeding of a diet supplement feed was registered in 54 of 57 cases. The feeding of two batches of that diet supplement feed to four clinically healthy calves resulted in a significant (p<0.05) increase in bilirubin and lactate concentrations, as well as the GLDH activity in serum, but without serious impairment of the general condition, whereas in control calves, no comparable changes were observed. The results of the epidemiological survey and the feeding trial suggest a causal involvement of a dietary supplement feed. The toxic principle is unknown. Knowledge of the clinical picture and the probable feed-related context is important to detect this

  7. Spectral matching technology for light-emitting diode-based jaundice photodynamic therapy device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Ru-ting; Guo, Zhen-ning; Lin, Jie-ben

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to obtain the spectrum of light-emitting diode (LED)-based jaundice photodynamic therapy device (JPTD), the bilirubin absorption spectrum in vivo was regarded as target spectrum. According to the spectral constructing theory, a simple genetic algorithm as the spectral matching algorithm was first proposed in this study. The optimal combination ratios of LEDs were obtained, and the required LEDs number was then calculated. Meanwhile, the algorithm was compared with the existing spectral matching algorithms. The results show that this algorithm runs faster with higher efficiency, the switching time consumed is 2.06 s, and the fitting spectrum is very similar to the target spectrum with 98.15% matching degree. Thus, blue LED-based JPTD can replace traditional blue fluorescent tube, the spectral matching technology that has been put forward can be applied to the light source spectral matching for jaundice photodynamic therapy and other medical phototherapy.

  8. The lowering of bilirubin levels in patients with neonatal jaundice using massage therapy: A randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Eghbalian, Fatemeh; Rafienezhad, Haneyeh; Farmal, Javad

    2017-11-01

    Due to the effects of massage on various laboratory parameters (including those related to jaundice) in infants and the expansion of existing studies to achieve effective and safe therapy in the treatment of neonatal jaundice, this study aimed to investigate the effect of massage on bilirubin levels in cases of neonatal jaundice. In this study, 134 patients were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (massage combined with phototherapy, n=67) or a control group (phototherapy only, n=67). In both groups, serum total bilirubin level and frequency of daily bowel movements were measured and compared during each of the first four days of treatment. Baseline levels of bilirubin were similar between the two groups (P>0.05). During the measurements obtained post-intervention, significant differences surfaces between the two groups in bilirubin levels and frequency of daily bowel movements (P<0.05 for both). No significant relationship was observed during days 1 and 2 of massage therapy between daily frequency of bowel movements and serum bilirubin level (P>0.05); this relationship became significant during the third and fourth days (P<0.05). Massage therapy combined with phototherapy is an effective method for reducing serum total bilirubin in infants with neonatal jaundice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ethnopharmacological Approaches for Therapy of Jaundice: Part II. Highly Used Plant Species from Acanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Combretaceae, and Fabaceae Families.

    PubMed

    Tewari, Devesh; Mocan, Andrei; Parvanov, Emil D; Sah, Archana N; Nabavi, Seyed M; Huminiecki, Lukasz; Ma, Zheng Feei; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2017-01-01

    In many developing countries, jaundice is the common symptom of hepatic diseases which are a major cause of mortality. The use of natural product-based therapies is very popular for such hepatic disorders. A great number of medicinal plants have been utilized for this purpose and some facilitated the discovery of active compounds which helped the development of new synthetic drugs against jaundice. However, more epidemiological studies and clinical trials are required for the practical implementation of the plant pharmacotherapy of jaundice. The focus of this second part of our review is on several of the most prominent plants used against jaundice identified in the analysis performed in the first part of the review viz. Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Terminalia chebula Retz., Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and some species of genus Phyllanthus . Furthermore, we discuss their physiological effects, biologically active ingredients, and the potential mechanisms of action. Some of the most important active ingredients were silybin (also recommended by German commission), phyllanthin and andrographolide, whose action leads to bilirubin reduction and normalization of the levels of relevant serum enzymes indicative for the pathophysiological status of the liver.

  10. Ethnopharmacological Approaches for Therapy of Jaundice: Part II. Highly Used Plant Species from Acanthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Combretaceae, and Fabaceae Families

    PubMed Central

    Tewari, Devesh; Mocan, Andrei; Parvanov, Emil D.; Sah, Archana N.; Nabavi, Seyed M.; Huminiecki, Lukasz; Ma, Zheng Feei; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O.; Atanasov, Atanas G.

    2017-01-01

    In many developing countries, jaundice is the common symptom of hepatic diseases which are a major cause of mortality. The use of natural product-based therapies is very popular for such hepatic disorders. A great number of medicinal plants have been utilized for this purpose and some facilitated the discovery of active compounds which helped the development of new synthetic drugs against jaundice. However, more epidemiological studies and clinical trials are required for the practical implementation of the plant pharmacotherapy of jaundice. The focus of this second part of our review is on several of the most prominent plants used against jaundice identified in the analysis performed in the first part of the review viz. Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Terminalia chebula Retz., Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and some species of genus Phyllanthus. Furthermore, we discuss their physiological effects, biologically active ingredients, and the potential mechanisms of action. Some of the most important active ingredients were silybin (also recommended by German commission), phyllanthin and andrographolide, whose action leads to bilirubin reduction and normalization of the levels of relevant serum enzymes indicative for the pathophysiological status of the liver. PMID:28848436

  11. Multi-level obstruction in obstructive sleep apnoea: prevalence, severity and predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Phua, C Q; Yeo, W X; Su, C; Mok, P K H

    2017-11-01

    To characterise multi-level obstruction in terms of prevalence, obstructive sleep apnoea severity and predictive factors, and to collect epidemiological data on upper airway morphology in obstructive sleep apnoea patients. Retrospective review of 250 obstructive sleep apnoea patients. On clinical examination, 171 patients (68.4 per cent) had multi-level obstruction, 49 (19.6 per cent) had single-level obstruction and 30 (12 per cent) showed no obstruction. Within each category of obstructive sleep apnoea severity, multi-level obstruction was more prevalent. Multi-level obstruction was associated with severe obstructive sleep apnoea (more than 30 events per hour) (p = 0.001). Obstructive sleep apnoea severity increased with the number of obstruction sites (correlation coefficient = 0.303, p < 0.001). Multi-level obstruction was more likely in younger (p = 0.042), male (p = 0.045) patients, with high body mass index (more than 30 kg/m2) (p < 0.001). Palatal (p = 0.004), tongue (p = 0.026) and lateral pharyngeal wall obstructions (p = 0.006) were associated with severe obstructive sleep apnoea. Multi-level obstruction is more prevalent in obstructive sleep apnoea and is associated with increased severity. Obstruction at certain anatomical levels contributes more towards obstructive sleep apnoea severity.

  12. Patient Factors Influencing Respiratory-Related Clinician Actions in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Screening.

    PubMed

    Wadland, William C; Zubek, Valentina Bayer; Clerisme-Beaty, Emmanuelle M; Ríos-Bedoya, Carlos F; Yawn, Barbara P

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify patient-related factors that may explain the increased likelihood of receiving a respiratory-related clinician action in patients identified to be at risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a U.S.-based pragmatic study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease screening. This post hoc analysis (conducted in 2014-2015) of the Screening, Evaluating and Assessing Rate Changes of Diagnosing Respiratory Conditions in Primary Care 1 (SEARCH1) study (conducted in 2010-2011), used the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Population Screener questionnaire in 112 primary care practices. Anyone with a previous chronic obstructive pulmonary disease diagnosis was excluded. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to assess patient factors associated with the likelihood of receiving an respiratory-related clinician action following positive screening. Overall, 994 of 6,497 (15%) screened positive and were considered at risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, only 187 of the 994 patients (19%) who screened positive received a respiratory-related clinician action. The chances of receiving a respiratory-related clinician action were significantly increased in patients who visited their physician with a respiratory issue (p<0.05) or had already been prescribed a respiratory medication (p<0.05). Most (81%) patients who screened positive or had a respiratory-related clinician action had one or more comorbidity, including cardiovascular disease (68%), diabetes (30%), depression/anxiety (26%), asthma (11%), and cancer (9%). Routine chronic obstructive pulmonary disease screening appears to promote respiratory-related clinician actions in patients with a high likelihood for disease who have respiratory complaints or already use prescribed respiratory medication. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gemfibrozil in late preterm and term neonates with moderate jaundice: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jaikrishan; Kumar, Praveen; Narang, Anil

    2009-12-01

    To determine, if oral Gemfibrozil is effective in decreasing the duration of phototherapy by at least 24 hours in neonates >34 weeks gestation with non-hemolytic jaundice, as compared to placebo. Double blind placebo controlled randomized controlled trial. Tertiary care neonatal unit in north India. Ninety seven neonates >34 weeks gestation with non-hemolytic jaundice within first 7 days of life requiring phototherapy. Two doses of Gemfibrozil (60 mg/kg/dose) or placebo, 12 hours apart. Babies were treated with single surface special blue light phototherapy. Serum total bilirubin (STB) was measured 8 hourly. Phototherapy was stopped if two consecutive STB values were below phototherapy zone. Duration of phototherapy. The median (IQR) duration of phototherapy was 40 (30, 60) hours in Gemfibrozil and 36 (19, 55) hours in the placebo group (P=0.13). The peak STB levels were 16.8 +/- 2.7 mg/dL and 16.3 +/- 2.3 mg/dL in Gemfibrozil and placebo groups, respectively. No side effect of the drug or placebo was noticed. Two doses of gemfibrozil (60 mg/kg/dose) given 12 hours apart were not able to reduce the duration of phototherapy, or peak bilirubin level in babies > 34 weeks gestation with non-hemolytic jaundice in the first week of life. Gemfibrozil was not associated with any side effects.

  14. Partial stent-in-stent placement of biliary metallic stents using a short double-balloon enteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Kato, Hironari; Tomoda, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Kazuyuki; Sakakihara, Ichiro; Yamamoto, Naoki; Noma, Yasuhiro; Sonoyama, Takayuki; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2012-12-07

    Endoscopic intervention is less invasive than percutaneous or surgical approaches and should be considered the primary drainage procedure in most cases with obstructive jaundice. Recently, therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) using double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) has been shown to be feasible and effective, even in patients with surgically altered anatomies. On the other hand, endoscopic partial stent-in-stent (PSIS) placement of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs) for malignant hilar biliary obstruction in conventional ERCP has also been shown to be feasible, safe and effective. We performed PSIS placement of SEMSs for malignant hilar biliary obstruction due to liver metastasis using a short DBE in a patient with Roux-en-Y anastomosis and achieved technical and clinical success. This procedure can result in quick relief from obstructive jaundice in a single session and with short-term hospitalization, even in patients with surgically altered anatomies.

  15. Novel diode-based laser system for combined transcutaneous monitoring and computer-controlled intermittent treatment of jaundiced neonates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Mostafa; El-Ahl, Mohammad H. S.; Hamza, Ahmad M.

    2001-06-01

    The high efficacy of laser phototherapy combined with transcutaneous monitoring of serum bilirubin provides optimum safety for jaundiced infants from the risk of bilirubin encephalopathy. In this paper the authors introduce the design and operating principles of a new laser system that can provide simultaneous monitoring and treatment of several jaundiced babies at one time. The new system incorporates diode-based laser sources oscillating at selected wavelengths to achieve both transcutaneous differential absorption measurements of bilirubin concentration in addition to the computer controlled intermittent laser therapy through a network of optical fibers. The detailed description and operating characteristics of this system are presented.

  16. Endoscopic and interstitial Nd:YAG laser therapy to control duodenal and periampullary carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Hugh; Fowler, Aiden L.

    1996-12-01

    Duodenal and periampullary cancer present with jaundice, bleeding and obstruction. Many patients are unsuitable for radical surgery. Endoscopic palliation of jaundice can be achieved using endoscopic sphincterotomy or stent insertion. However, the problems of bleeding and obstruction can be difficult to manage. Ten patients were treated using superficial Nd:YAG laser ablation and lower power interstitial laser therapy. After initial outpatient endoscopic therapy, treatment was repeated at 4 monthly intervals to prevent recurrent symptoms. Bleeding was controlled in all patients and only one patient developed obstructive symptoms between treatment sessions. This responded to further endoscopic laser therapy. The median survival was 21 months. Laser treated patients were compared with a historical series of 22 patients treated with endoscopic sphincterotomy or stent insertion. The complication rate was less in patients treated with the laser.

  17. Influence of risk factors on development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and legislative foundations for copd medical care in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Mykhalchuk, Vasyl M; Vasyliev, Averian G

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Out of all respiratory diseases COPD is the leading cause of death and is characterized with diffuse non-reversible airway obstruction. Many various components play role in development and progression of this disease, while COPD risk factors play the most prominent role. Further progress in healthcare system development around COPD in Ukraine requires analysis of legislation, regulating pulmonological medical service in Ukraine. The aim: To analyze the influence of major risk factors on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and to determine key legislative aspects of the organization of medical care for COPD patients in Ukraine. Materials and methods: 50 medical literature sources were systematically reviewed as the material for the research of COPD risk factors and their impact on studies disease. Also, an analysis of existing legislative acts regulating the pulmonological medical care in Ukraine, specifically, in patients with COPD, was conducted. Conclusions: There is a need to develop and implement a set of organizational and medical measures aiming at addressing the priorities of public healthcare, and specifically improvement of the quality of medical care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Ukraine.

  18. Gilbert syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Icterus intermittens juvenilis; Low-grade chronic hyperbilirubinemia; Familial non-hemolytic-non-obstructive jaundice; Constitutional liver dysfunction; Unconjugated benign bilirubinemia; Gilbert disease

  19. Hepatobiliary transporter expression and post-operative jaundice in patients undergoing partial hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Gerwin A; Zollner, Gernot; Cerwenka, Herwig; Kornprat, Peter; Fickert, Peter; Bacher, Heinz; Werkgartner, Georg; Müller, Gabriele; Zatloukal, Kurt; Mischinger, Hans-Jörg; Trauner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Post-operative hyperbilirubinaemia in patients undergoing liver resections is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Apart from different known factors responsible for the development of post-operative jaundice, little is known about the role of hepatobiliary transport systems in the pathogenesis of post-operative jaundice in humans after liver resection. Two liver tissue samples were taken from 14 patients undergoing liver resection before and after Pringle manoeuvre. Patients were retrospectively divided into two groups according to post-operative bilirubin serum levels. The two groups were analysed comparing the results of hepatobiliary transporter [Na-taurocholate cotransporter (NTCP); multidrug resistance gene/phospholipid export pump(MDR3); bile salt export pump (BSEP); canalicular bile salt export pump (MRP2)], heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression as well as the results of routinely taken post-operative liver chemistry tests. Patients with low post-operative bilirubin had lower levels of NTCP, MDR3 and BSEP mRNA compared to those with high bilirubin after Pringle manoeuvre. HSP70 levels were significantly higher after ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in both groups resulting in 4.5-fold median increase. Baseline median mRNA expression of all four transporters prior to Pringle manoeuvre tended to be lower in the low bilirubin group whereas expression of HSP70 was higher in the low bilirubin group compared to the high bilirubin group. Higher mRNA levels of HSP70 in the low bilirubin group could indicate a possible protective effect of high HSP70 levels against IR injury. Although the exact role of hepatobiliary transport systems in the development of post-operative hyper bilirubinemia is not yet completely understood, this study provides new insights into the molecular aspects of post-operative jaundice after liver surgery. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Estimating the Burden of Maternal and Neonatal Deaths Associated With Jaundice in Bangladesh: Possible Role of Hepatitis E Infection

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Amal K.; Streatfield, Peter K.; Sazzad, Hossain M.S.; Nurul Huda, Tarique M.; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Luby, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the population-based incidence of maternal and neonatal mortality associated with hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Bangladesh. Methods. We analyzed verbal autopsy data from 4 population-based studies in Bangladesh to calculate the maternal and neonatal mortality ratios associated with jaundice during pregnancy. We then reviewed the published literature to estimate the proportion of maternal deaths associated with liver disease during pregnancy that were the result of HEV in hospitals. Results. We found that 19% to 25% of all maternal deaths and 7% to 13% of all neonatal deaths in Bangladesh were associated with jaundice in pregnant women. In the published literature, 58% of deaths in pregnant women with acute liver disease in hospitals were associated with HEV. Conclusions. Jaundice is frequently associated with maternal and neonatal deaths in Bangladesh, and the published literature suggests that HEV may cause many of these deaths. HEV is preventable, and studies to estimate the burden of HEV in endemic countries are urgently needed. PMID:23078501

  1. A New Surgical Procedure "Dumbbell-Form Resection" for Selected Hilar Cholangiocarcinomas With Severe Jaundice: Comparison With Hemihepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuguang; Tian, Feng; Zhao, Xin; Li, Dajiang; He, Yu; Li, Zhihua; Chen, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of a new surgical procedure, dumbbell-form resection (DFR), for hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) with severe jaundice. In DFR, liver segments I, IVb, and partial V above the right hepatic pedicle are resected.Hemihepatectomy is recognized as the preferred procedure; however, its application is limited in HCCAs with severe jaundice.Thirty-eight HCCA patients with severe jaundice receiving DFR and 70 receiving hemihepatectomy from January 2008 to January 2013 were included. Perioperative parameters, operation-related morbidity and mortality, and post-operative survival were analyzed.A total of 21.1% patients (8/38) in the DFR group received percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD), which was significantly <81.4% (57/70) in the hemihepatectomy group. The TBIL was higher in the DFR group at operation (243.7 vs 125.6 μmol/L, respectively). The remnant liver volume was significantly higher after DFR. The operation-related morbidity was significantly lower after DFR than after hemihepatectomy (26.3% vs 48.6%, respectively). None of the patients died during the perioperative period after DFR, whereas 3 died after hemihepatectomy. There was no difference in margin status, histological grade, lymph-node involvement, and distant metastasis between the 2 groups. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates after DFR (68.4%, 32.1%, and 21.4%, respectively) showed no significant difference with those after hemihepatectomy (62.7%, 34.6%, and 23.3%, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that overall survival and recurrence after DFR demonstrated no significant difference compared with hemihepatectomy.DFR appears to be feasible for selected HCCA patients with severe jaundice. However, its indications should be restricted.

  2. Development and optimization of a noncontact optical device for online monitoring of jaundice in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Polley, Nabarun; Saha, Srimoyee; Singh, Soumendra; Adhikari, Aniruddha; Das, Sukhen; Choudhury, Bhaskar Roy; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Jaundice is one of the notable markers of liver malfunction in our body, revealing a significant rise in the concentration of an endogenous yellow pigment bilirubin. We have described a method for measuring the optical spectrum of our conjunctiva and derived pigment concentration by using diffused reflection measurement. The method uses no prior model and is expected to work across the races (skin color) encompassing a wide range of age groups. An optical fiber-based setup capable of measuring the conjunctival absorption spectrum from 400 to 800 nm is used to monitor the level of bilirubin and is calibrated with the value measured from blood serum of the same human subject. We have also developed software in the LabVIEW platform for use in online monitoring of bilirubin levels in human subjects by nonexperts. The results demonstrate that relative absorption at 460 and 600 nm has a distinct correlation with that of the bilirubin concentration measured from blood serum. Statistical analysis revealed that our proposed method is in agreement with the conventional biochemical method. The innovative noncontact, low-cost technique is expected to have importance in monitoring jaundice in developing/underdeveloped countries, where the inexpensive diagnosis of jaundice with minimally trained manpower is obligatory.

  3. Development and optimization of a noncontact optical device for online monitoring of jaundice in human subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polley, Nabarun; Saha, Srimoyee; Singh, Soumendra; Adhikari, Aniruddha; Das, Sukhen; Choudhury, Bhaskar Roy; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Jaundice is one of the notable markers of liver malfunction in our body, revealing a significant rise in the concentration of an endogenous yellow pigment bilirubin. We have described a method for measuring the optical spectrum of our conjunctiva and derived pigment concentration by using diffused reflection measurement. The method uses no prior model and is expected to work across the races (skin color) encompassing a wide range of age groups. An optical fiber-based setup capable of measuring the conjunctival absorption spectrum from 400 to 800 nm is used to monitor the level of bilirubin and is calibrated with the value measured from blood serum of the same human subject. We have also developed software in the LabVIEW platform for use in online monitoring of bilirubin levels in human subjects by nonexperts. The results demonstrate that relative absorption at 460 and 600 nm has a distinct correlation with that of the bilirubin concentration measured from blood serum. Statistical analysis revealed that our proposed method is in agreement with the conventional biochemical method. The innovative noncontact, low-cost technique is expected to have importance in monitoring jaundice in developing/underdeveloped countries, where the inexpensive diagnosis of jaundice with minimally trained manpower is obligatory.

  4. Application of blue laser diodes and LEDs in phototherapy for neonatal jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Mostafa; Sayed El-Ahl, Mohammad H.; Hamza, Ahmad M.; Hamza, Aya M.; Hamza, Yahya M.

    2003-10-01

    The authors introduce the design of a compact phototherapy unit capable of fulfilling the recommendations of the clinical use of lasers and LEDs in phototherapy for the treatment of neonatal jaundice. The system keeps the duration of phototherapy to the minimum required for efficient treatment. Our leading clinical experience as well as the wavelength selection rules will be presented.

  5. Maternal satisfaction with a novel filtered-sunlight phototherapy for newborn jaundice in Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In many resource-limited settings, the availability of effective phototherapy for jaundiced infants is frequently hampered by lack of, or inadequate resources to acquire and maintain conventional electric-powered phototherapy devices. This study set out to ascertain maternal experience and satisfaction with a novel treatment of infants with significant hyperbilirubinemia using filtered sunlight phototherapy (FSPT) in a tropical setting with irregular access to effective conventional phototherapy. Methods A cross-sectional satisfaction survey was conducted among mothers of jaundiced infants treated with FSPT in an inner-city maternity hospital in Lagos, Nigeria from November 2013 to March 2014. Mothers’ experience during treatment was elicited with a pretested questionnaire consisting of closed and open-ended items. Satisfaction was rated on a five-point Likert scale. Correlates of overall maternal satisfaction were explored with descriptive and inferential non-parametric statistics. Results A total of 191 mothers were surveyed, 77 (40%) of whom had no prior knowledge of neonatal jaundice. Maternal satisfaction was highest for quality of nursing care received (mean: 4.72 ± 0.55, median: 5[IQR: 5–5]) and lowest for physical state of the test environment (mean: 3.85 ± 0.74, median: 4[IQR: 3–4]). The overall rating (mean: 4.17 ± 0.58, median: 4[IQR: 4–5]) and the observed effect of FSPT on the babies (mean: 4.34 ± 0.58, 4[IQR: 4–5]) were quite satisfactory. FSPT experience was significantly correlated with the adequacy of information received (p < 0.0005), test environment (p = 0.002) and the observed effect of FSPT on the child (p < 0.0005). Almost all mothers (98.4%) indicated willingness to use FSPT in future or recommend it to others, although some (30 or 15.7%) disliked the idea of exposing newborns to sunlight. Conclusions Mothers of jaundiced newborns in this population are likely to be satisfied with FSPT

  6. Randomised clinical trial: enteral nutrition does not improve the long-term outcome of alcoholic cirrhotic patients with jaundice.

    PubMed

    Dupont, B; Dao, T; Joubert, C; Dupont-Lucas, C; Gloro, R; Nguyen-Khac, E; Beaujard, E; Mathurin, P; Vastel, E; Musikas, M; Ollivier, I; Piquet, M-A

    2012-05-01

    Malnutrition and jaundice are independent prognostic factors in cirrhosis. To assess the impact of enteral nutrition on the survival of alcoholic cirrhotic patients with jaundice but without acute alcoholic hepatitis. The study was a multicentre prospective randomised controlled trial comparing effects of enteral nutrition vs. a symptomatic support in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and jaundice (bilirubin ≥51 µmol/L) but without severe acute alcoholic hepatitis. A total of 99 patients were randomised to receive either the conventional symptomatic treatment (55 patients) or the symptomatic support associated with 35 kcal/Kg/day of enteral nutrition during 4 weeks followed by an oral nutritional support during 2 months (44 patients). Randomisation was stratified on nutritional status. One-year survival curves were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and Logrank test. Populations in both arms were similar. One-year survival was similar in the overall population (27/44 patients (61.4%) in the enteral nutrition arm vs. 36/55 (65.5%) in the control arm; Logrank P = 0.60) and in the subgroup suffering from malnutrition [18/29 patients (62.1%) in the enteral nutrition arm vs. 20/32 (62.5%) in the control arm; Logrank P = 0.99]. There was no statistical difference for bilirubin, prothrombin rate, Child-Pugh score, albumin or nutritional assessment. Complications during treatment (bleeding, encephalopathy, infection) occurred in 23% of patients in the enteral nutrition group (10/44) vs. 16% (9/55) of the control patients (P = 0.59). Enteral nutrition does not improve the survival and hepatic or nutritional parameters of cirrhotic patients with jaundice. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. [Influence Mildrocard on the morfo-functional condition of cardio-respiratory system at patients with chronic heart failure with concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Ignatenko, G A; Mukhin, I V; Faierman, A O; Pola, M K; Taktashov, G S; Goncharov, O M; Rybalko, G S; Volodkina, N O

    2011-01-01

    In paper influence of a cytoprotective drug "Mildrocard" on morfo-functional condition of cardiorespiratory system at patients with chronic heart failure with concomitant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is estimated. It is established, that joining "Mildrocard" to complex therapy associated to pathology promotes reduction clinical display of heart failure, shows cardioprotective and pulmoprotective effects.

  8. Unbound Bilirubin and Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder in Late Preterm and Term Infants with Severe Jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Sanjiv B; Wang, Hongyue; Laroia, Nirupama; Orlando, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate if unbound bilirubin is a better predictor of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) than total serum bilirubin (TSB) or the bilirubin albumin molar ratio (BAMR) in late preterm and term neonates with severe jaundice (TSB ≥ 20 mg/dL or TSB that met exchange transfusion criteria). Study design Infants ≥ 34 weeks gestational age with severe jaundice during the first two weeks of life were eligible for the prospective observational study. A comprehensive auditory evaluation was performed within 72 hours of peak TSB. ANSD was defined as absent or abnormal auditory brainstem evoked response waveform morphology at 80 decibel click intensity in the presence of normal outer hair cell function. TSB, serum albumin, and unbound bilirubin were measured using the colorimetric, bromocresol green, and modified peroxidase method, respectively. Results Five of 44 infants developed ANSD. By logistic regression, peak unbound bilirubin but not peak TSB or peak BAMR was associated with ANSD (odds ratio 4.6, 95% CI: 1.6-13.5, p = 0.002). On comparing receiver operating characteristic curves, the area under the curve (AUC) for unbound bilirubin (0.92) was significantly greater (p = 0.04) compared with the AUC for TSB (0.50) or BAMR (0.62). Conclusions Unbound bilirubin is a more sensitive and specific predictor of ANSD than TSB or BAMR in late preterm and term infants with severe jaundice. PMID:26952116

  9. Clinicopathological correlates in HIV seropositive tuberculosis cases presenting with jaundice after initiating antiretroviral therapy with a structured review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Barr, David A; Ramdial, Pravistadevi K

    2012-10-14

    The development of jaundice after initiation of HAART in HIV-TB co-infected patients is a challenging presentation in resource constrained settings, and is often attributed to drug induced liver injury (DILI).Some investigators have described hepatic tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (TB-IRIS) as a cause of liver disease in patients initiating HAART, which could also cause jaundice. We report the clinical and histopathological features of five HIV-TB co-infected patients presenting with a syndrome of jaundice, tender hepatomegaly, bile canalicular enzyme rise and return of constitutional symptoms within 8 weeks of initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for advanced HIV infection at a rural clinic in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.All five patients had been diagnosed with tuberculosis infection prior to HAART initiation and were on antituberculous medication at time of developing jaundice. There was evidence of multiple aetiologies of liver injury in all patients. However, based on clinical course and pathological findings, predominant hepatic injury was thought to be drug induced in one case and hepatic tuberculosis associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in the other four.In these later 4 patients, liver biopsy findings included necrotising and non-necrotising granulomatous inflammation in the lobules and portal tracts. The granulomas demonstrated - in addition to epithelioid histiocytes and Langhans giant cells - neutrophils, plasma cells and large numbers of lymphocytes, which are not features of a conventional untreated tuberculous response. In this high TB prevalent, low resource setting, TB-IRIS may be an important cause of jaundice post-HAART initiation. Clinicopathological correlation is essential for optimal diagnosis. Further multi-organ based histopathological studies in the context of immune reconstitution would be useful to clinicians in low resource settings dealing with this challenging

  10. Clinicopathological correlates in HIV seropositive tuberculosis cases presenting with jaundice after initiating antiretroviral therapy with a structured review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of jaundice after initiation of HAART in HIV-TB co-infected patients is a challenging presentation in resource constrained settings, and is often attributed to drug induced liver injury (DILI).Some investigators have described hepatic tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (TB-IRIS) as a cause of liver disease in patients initiating HAART, which could also cause jaundice. Case presentations We report the clinical and histopathological features of five HIV-TB co-infected patients presenting with a syndrome of jaundice, tender hepatomegaly, bile canalicular enzyme rise and return of constitutional symptoms within 8 weeks of initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for advanced HIV infection at a rural clinic in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. All five patients had been diagnosed with tuberculosis infection prior to HAART initiation and were on antituberculous medication at time of developing jaundice. There was evidence of multiple aetiologies of liver injury in all patients. However, based on clinical course and pathological findings, predominant hepatic injury was thought to be drug induced in one case and hepatic tuberculosis associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in the other four. In these later 4 patients, liver biopsy findings included necrotising and non-necrotising granulomatous inflammation in the lobules and portal tracts. The granulomas demonstrated – in addition to epithelioid histiocytes and Langhans giant cells – neutrophils, plasma cells and large numbers of lymphocytes, which are not features of a conventional untreated tuberculous response. Conclusion In this high TB prevalent, low resource setting, TB-IRIS may be an important cause of jaundice post-HAART initiation. Clinicopathological correlation is essential for optimal diagnosis. Further multi-organ based histopathological studies in the context of immune reconstitution would be useful to clinicians in low

  11. Hyperemesis gravidarum presenting as jaundice and transient hyperthyroidism complicated with acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Weng, Meng Tzu; Wei, Shu Chen; Wong, Jau Min; Chang, Tien Chun

    2005-03-01

    Hyperemesis gravidarum is an extreme form of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Its presenting symptoms include vomiting, disturbed nutrition, electrolyte imbalance, ketosis, extreme weight loss, renal and/or liver damage. It is rare for a hyperemesis gravidarum patient to present with jaundice, hyperthyroidism and idiopathic acute pancreatitis during the same hospitalization period. Here, we report such a case. A 25-year-old pregnant woman without underlying liver or thyroid disease was admitted due to jaundice noted for 2 days at 8 weeks of gestational age. Hyperthyroidism symptoms of tachycardia and finger tremor also bothered her. After treatment with parenteral fluid and antithyroid agents, her clinical condition improved. However, an episode of idiopathic pancreatitis occurred after nausea and vomiting subsided. Bowel rest with parenteral fluid and nutrition supplement was given and the increased pancreatic enzyme level gradually subsided. Follow-up liver and thyroid function were normal after gestational age of 26 weeks. She delivered a healthy female baby without low birth body weight at gestational age of 39 weeks. Rapid diagnosis and supportive care are important for the hyperemesis gravidarum patient with the complication of acute pancreatitis.

  12. Does septal thickness influence outcome of myectomy for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy?

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anita; Schaff, Hartzell V; Nishimura, Rick A; Dearani, Joseph A; Geske, Jeffrey B; Lahr, Brian D; Ommen, Steve R

    2018-03-01

    Patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and basal septal thickness <18 mm are often considered unsuitable candidates for myectomy. Mitral valve (MV) replacement is frequently performed instead. We aimed to determine whether septal thickness affects outcomes and adequacy of myectomy. Clinical and echocardiographic data were reviewed for 1486 consecutive adult patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy who underwent transaortic septal myectomy from January 2005 through December 2014. Comparisons between patients, grouped by septal thickness (<18 mm, n = 369; 18-21 mm, n = 612 and >21 mm, n = 505), were performed with the Kruskal-Wallis and the Pearson χ2 tests and semiparametric analysis of covariance. Median group ages were 57, 57 and 54 years (P = 0.007); men comprised 50.4%, 56.7% and 62.0%, respectively (P = 0.003). Intrinsic MV disease was present in 5.9%, 5.2% and 4.6%, respectively (P = 0.80). All patients underwent transaortic septal myectomy. Additional mitral procedures were performed in 7.6%, 7.8% and 8.1%, respectively (P = 0.90). Reasons for MV surgery included intrinsic MV disease (66.7%), residual mitral regurgitation (30.8%) and residual gradient (2.6%). All groups had postoperative gradient relief (median reduction: 51, 54 and 50 mmHg; P = 0.11). Ventricular septal defect occurred in 4 patients (0.3%), and risk did not differ by group (P = 0.24). Adequate relief of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction can be achieved via transaortic septal myectomy without concomitant MV procedures when septal thickness is < 18 mm, and the risk of ventricular septal defect is minimal. Concomitant MV repair/replacement should be reserved for patients with intrinsic MV disease or inadequate relief of mitral regurgitation/left ventricular outflow tract obstruction following adequate extended septal myectomy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  13. Jaundice and bilirubinemia as manifestations of canine distemper in raccoons and ferrets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilham, L.; Habermann, R.T.; Herman, C.M.

    1956-01-01

    1) Two strains of distemper virus have been isolated from wild raccoons and one strain from ferrets. 2) All strains isolated have induced bilirubinemia in raccoons and ferrets. Many raccoons with bilirubinemia also had jaundice. 3) Identification of these strains as members of the canine distemper virus complex has been by clinical and pathological findings consistent with this diagnosis as well as by cross-immunity tests.

  14. [Establishment and validation of a neonatal pig model of hemolytic jaundice].

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Fu; Ma, Yue-Lan; Nie, Ling; Chen, Shuan; Jin, Mei-Fang; Wang, San-Lan

    2016-05-01

    To establish a neonatal pig model of hemolytic jaundice. Twelve seven-day-old purebred Yorkshire pigs were randomly divided into an experimental group and a control group (n=6 each). Immunization of New Zealand white rabbits was used to prepare rabbit anti-porcine red blood cell antibodies, and rabbit anti-porcine red blood cell serum was separated. The neonatal pigs in the experimental group were given an intravenous injection of rabbit anti-porcine red blood cell serum (5 mL), and those in the control group were given an intravenous injection of normal saline (5 mL). Venous blood samples were collected every 6 hours for routine blood test and liver function evaluation. The experimental group had a significantly higher serum bilirubin level than the control group at 18 hours after the injection of rabbit anti-porcine red blood cell serum (64±30 μmol/L vs 20±4 μmol/L; P<0.05). In the experimental group, the serum bilirubin level reached the peak at 48 hours (275±31 μmol/L), and decreased significantly at 96 hours after the injection (95±17 μmol/L), but all significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). At 18 hours after the injection, the experimental group had a significantly lower red blood cell (RBC) count than the control group [(4.58±0.32)×10(12)/L vs (5.09±0.44)×10(12)/L; P<0.05]; at 24 hours, the experimental group showed further reductions in RBC count and hemoglobin level and had significantly lower RBC count and hemoglobin level than the control group [RBC: (4.21±0.24)×10(12)/L vs (5.11±0.39)×10(12)/L, P<0.05; hemoglobin: 87±3 g vs 97±6 g, P<0.05]. The differences in RBC count and hemoglobin level between the two groups were largest at 36-48 hours. The neonatal pig model of hemolytic jaundice simulates the pathological process of human hemolytic jaundice well and provides good biological and material bases for further investigation of neonatal hemolysis.

  15. A Rare Case of Periampullary Tumor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-13

    portion of the duodenum. They commonly present with abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, or rarely with obstructive jaundice. This is a case of an asymptomatic periampullary gangliocytic paraganglioma.

  16. Percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency ablation for clearance of occluded metal stent in malignant biliary obstruction: feasibility and early results.

    PubMed

    Pai, Madhava; Valek, Vlastimil; Tomas, Andrasina; Doros, Attila; Quaretti, Pietro; Golfieri, Rita; Mosconi, Cristina; Habib, Nagy

    2014-02-01

    The major complication occurring with biliary stents is stent occlusion, frequently seen because of tumour in-growth, epithelial hyperplasia, and sludge deposits, resulting in recurrent jaundice and cholangitis. We report a prospective study with the results of first in man percutaneous intraductal radiofrequency (RF) ablation to clear the blocked metal stents in patients with malignant biliary obstruction using a novel bipolar RF catheter. Nine patients with malignant biliary obstruction and blocked metal stents were included. These patients underwent intraductal biliary RF ablation through the blocked metal stent following external biliary decompression with an internal-external biliary drainage. All nine patients had their stent patency restored successfully without the use of secondary stents. Following this intervention, there was no 30-day mortality, haemorrhage, bile duct perforation, bile leak, or pancreatitis. Of the nine patients, six are alive and three patients are dead with a median follow-up of 122 (range 50-488) days and a median stent patency of 102.5 (range 50-321) days. Six patients had their stent patent at the time of last follow-up or death. Three patients with stent blockage at 321, 290, and 65 days postprocedure underwent percutaneous transhepatic drain insertion and repeat ablation. In this selective group of patients, it appears that this new approach is safe and feasible. Efficacy remains to be proven in future, randomized, prospective studies.

  17. Biliary stricture due to neuroma after an innocent blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Katsinelos, P; Dimiropoulos, S; Galanis, I; Tsolkas, P; Paroutoglu, G; Arvaniti, M; Katsiba, D; Baltaglannis, S; Pilpilidis, I; Papagiannis, A; Vaslliadis, I

    2002-10-01

    A traumatic neuroma of the biliary tract is rarely associated with biliary obstruction. However, when it arises in the common bile duct (CBD) and is associated with obstructive jaundice, it is difficult to distinguish it from bile duct cancer. We describe a patient who developed obstructive jaundice and itching, due to CBD stricture, 8 years after innocent blunt abdominal trauma. The stricture was resected and hepatico-jejunal anastomosis was performed. Histological examination revealed a traumatic neuroma and a fibrous scar around the common bile duct. Symptoms disappeared following surgical removal of the lesion. Blunt abdominal injury may cause the late onset of a fibrous scar and traumatic neuroma in the common bile duct. To our knowledge, a traumatic neuroma of the biliary tract after blunt abdominal trauma has not been reported previously. We review the clinical picture of this relatively rare problem, along with its diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment.

  18. Weight loss and severe jaundice in a patient with hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Breidert, M; Offensperger, S; Blum, H E; Fischer, R

    2011-09-01

    Thyrotoxicosis may significantly alter hepatic function and is associated with autoimmune disorders of the liver. We report the case of a thyrotoxic patient with Graves' disease and histologically established cholestatic hepatitis. Medical treatment of hyperthyroidism normalized liver function tests. In patients with elevated liver function parameters and jaundice of unknown origin, thyroid function should generally be tested. Moreover, medical treatment of hyperthyroidism with thyrostatics may cause severe hepatitis whereas untreated hyperthyroid patients are at risk of developing chronic liver failure. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Obstructed labour.

    PubMed

    Neilson, J P; Lavender, T; Quenby, S; Wray, S

    2003-01-01

    Obstructed labour is an important cause of maternal deaths in communities in which undernutrition in childhood is common resulting in small pelves in women, and in which there is no easy access to functioning health facilities with the capability of carrying out operative deliveries. Obstructed labour also causes significant maternal morbidity in the short term (notably infection) and long term (notably obstetric fistulas). Fetal death from asphyxia is also common. There are differences in the behaviour of the uterus during obstructed labour, depending on whether the woman has delivered previously. The pattern in primigravid women (typically diminishing contractility with risk of infection and fistula) may result from tissue acidosis, whereas in parous women, contractility may be maintained with the risk of uterine rupture. Ultimately, tackling the problem of obstructed labour will require universal adequate nutritional intake from childhood and the ability to access adequately equipped and staffed clinical facilities when problems arise in labour. These seem still rather distant aspirations. In the meantime, strategies should be implemented to encourage early recognition of prolonged labour and appropriate clinical responses. The sequelae of obstructed labour can be an enormous source of human misery and the prevention of obstetric fistulas, and skilled treatment if they do occur, are important priorities in regions where obstructed labour is still common.

  20. Resolution of parenteral nutrition-associated jaundice on changing from a soybean oil emulsion to a complex mixed-lipid emulsion.

    PubMed

    Muhammed, Rafeeq; Bremner, Ronald; Protheroe, Sue; Johnson, Tracey; Holden, Chris; Murphy, M Stephen

    2012-06-01

    Resolution of parenteral nutrition (PN)-associated jaundice has been reported in children given a reduced dose of intravenous fat using a fish oil-derived lipid emulsion. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect on PN-associated jaundice of changing from a soybean oil-derived lipid to a mixed lipid emulsion derived from soybean, coconut, olive, and fish oils without reducing the total amount of lipid given. Retrospective cohort comparison examining serum bilirubin during 6 months in children with PN-associated jaundice who changed to SMOFlipid (n=8) or remained on Intralipid (n=9). At entry, both groups received most of their energy as PN (SMOFlipid 81.5%, range 65.5-100 vs Intralipid 92.2%, range 60.3-100; P=0.37). After 6 months, both tolerated increased enteral feeding but still received large proportions of their energy as PN (SMOFlipid 68.4%, range 36.6-100 vs Intralipid 50%, range 37.6-76; P=0.15). The median bilirubin at the outset was 143 μmol/L (range 71-275) in the SMOFlipid group and 91 μmol/L (range 78-176) in the Intralipid group. After 6 months, 5 of 8 children in the SMOFlipid and 2 of 9 children in the Intralipid group had total resolution of jaundice. The median bilirubin fell by 99 μmol/L in the SMOFlipid group but increased by 79 μmol/L in the Intralipid group (P=0.02). SMOFlipid may have important protective properties for the liver and may constitute a significant advance in PN formulation. Randomised trials are needed to study the efficacy of SMOFlipid in preventing PN liver disease.

  1. Comparison of conventional phototherapy and phototherapy along with Kangaroo mother care on cutaneous bilirubin of neonates with physiological jaundice.

    PubMed

    Goudarzvand, Laleh; Dabirian, Akram; Nourian, Manijeh; Jafarimanesh, Hadi; Ranjbaran, Mehdi

    2017-11-27

    One of the adjuvant and desirable therapies is skin contact between mother and baby or Kangaroo mother care (KMC) that is a cheap, accessible, relaxing, noninvasive and easy method. This study aimed to compare the effect of conventional phototherapy method and phototherapy along with KMC on cutaneous bilirubin in neonates with physiological jaundice. In this randomized clinical trial, all infants with physiological jaundice who referred for phototherapy to Mofid Hospital of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran were selected by convenience sampling based on inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned into two groups of conventional phototherapy (n = 35) and phototherapy along with KMC (n = 35). The results showed that there was a significant difference in the average volume of skin bilirubin before treatment with cutaneous bilirubin every 24 h after treatment (p < .001). This significant difference was present in both intervention and control groups. Although the average volume of skin bilirubin every 24 h after treatment was lower in the intervention group than the control group, this difference was not statistically significant (p = .236). Mean duration of hospitalization of infants in the intervention group was significantly lower than the control group (2.09 versus 3.03 d, p < .001). Although KMC along with phototherapy has a favorable effect on the reduction of cutaneous bilirubin in neonates with physiological jaundice, there are not significant differences in routine care. This may need to do KMC for a longer time (more than 1 h) which must be surveyed in the future studies. KMC was effective in reduction of the duration of hospitalization in jaundiced infants.

  2. Unbound Bilirubin and Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder in Late Preterm and Term Infants with Severe Jaundice.

    PubMed

    Amin, Sanjiv B; Wang, Hongyue; Laroia, Nirupama; Orlando, Mark

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates whether unbound bilirubin is a better predictor of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) than total serum bilirubin (TSB) or the bilirubin:albumin molar ratio (BAMR) in late preterm and term neonates with severe jaundice (TSB ≥20 mg/dL or TSB that met exchange transfusion criteria). Infants ≥34 weeks' gestation with severe jaundice during the first 2 weeks of life were eligible for the prospective observational study. A comprehensive auditory evaluation was performed within 72 hours of peak TSB. ANSD was defined as absent or abnormal auditory brainstem evoked response waveform morphology at 80-decibel click intensity in the presence of normal outer hair cell function. TSB, serum albumin, and unbound bilirubin were measured using the colorimetric, bromocresol green, and modified peroxidase method, respectively. Five of 44 infants developed ANSD. By logistic regression, peak unbound bilirubin but not peak TSB or peak BAMR was associated with ANSD (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.6-13.5; P = .002). On comparing receiver operating characteristic curves, the area under the curve for unbound bilirubin (0.92) was significantly greater (P = .04) compared with the area under the curve for TSB (0.50) or BAMR (0.62). Unbound bilirubin is a more sensitive and specific predictor of ANSD than TSB or BAMR in late preterm and term infants with severe jaundice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Biliary plastic stent does not influence the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling of pancreatic head masses performed with core biopsy needles.

    PubMed

    Antonini, Filippo; Fuccio, Lorenzo; Giorgini, Sara; Fabbri, Carlo; Frazzoni, Leonardo; Scarpelli, Marina; Macarri, Giampiero

    2017-08-01

    While the presence of biliary stent significantly decreases the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for pancreatic head cancer staging, its impact on the EUS-guided sampling accuracy is still debated. Furthermore, data on EUS-fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) using core biopsy needles in patients with pancreatic mass and biliary stent are lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of biliary stent on the adequacy and accuracy of EUS-FNB in patients with pancreatic head mass. All patients who underwent EUS-guided sampling with core needles of solid pancreatic head masses causing obstructive jaundice were retrospectively identified in a single tertiary referral center. Adequacy, defined as the rate of cases in which a tissue specimen for proper examination was achieved, with and without biliary stent, was the primary outcome measure. The diagnostic accuracy and complication rate were the secondary outcome measures. A total of 130 patients with pancreatic head mass causing biliary obstruction were included in the study: 74 cases of them were sampled without stent and 56 cases with plastic stent in situ. The adequacy was 96.4% in the stent group and 90.5% in the group without stent (p=0.190). No significant differences were observed for sensitivity (88.9% vs. 85.9%), specificity (100% for both groups), and accuracy (89.3% vs. 86.5%) between those with and without stent, respectively. The accuracy was not influenced by the timing of stenting (<48h or ≥48h before EUS). No EUS-FNB related complications were recorded. The presence of biliary stent does not influence the tissue sampling adequacy, the diagnostic accuracy and the complication rate of EUS-FNB of pancreatic head masses performed with core biopsy needles. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of obstruction site in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients by drug induced sleep endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Koo, Soo Kweon; Choi, Jang Won; Myung, Nam Suk; Lee, Hyoung Ju; Kim, Yang Jae; Kim, Young Joong

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed site, pattern and degree of obstruction in Korean male obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients by drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). We also investigated possible links between BMI, AHI and DISE findings. Sixty-nine male patients underwent DISE. DISE findings were reported using our classification system in which modified 'VOTE classification' - obstruction type, site of obstruction, degree of obstruction and anatomical site contributing obstruction - was reported. Associations were analyzed among the results of the polysomnography, patients' characteristics and DISE finding. Multilevel airway obstruction was found in 84.06% of patients and 15.94% had a unilevel obstruction. Among those with unilevel obstruction, 90.90% had retropalatal level obstruction and 9.10% had retrolingual level obstruction. Palate with lateral pharyngeal wall obstruction (49.28%) is the most common obstruction type of the retropalatal level and tongue with lateral pharyngeal wall (37.68%) is the most common obstruction type of the retrolingual level. Examining the relation between obstruction site according to body mass index (BMI) and severity of OSAS (apnea hypopnea index, AHI), the lateral pharyngeal wall had an increasing tendency associated with higher BMI and higher AHI. But the lateral pharyngeal wall of both levels was statistically significant associated with higher AHI. The majority of the Korean male OSAS patients have multilevel obstruction and according to BMI and AHI, the DISE findings indicate that the lateral pharyngeal wall is the most important anatomical site contributing to obstruction regardless of the level at which the obstruction lies. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Chlumský, J

    2005-01-01

    Limitation of exercise tolerance, especially activities of daily living, is the most significant clinical experience, which greatly affects quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Many advances in the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of bronchial obstruction in patients with COPD and their meanings for diagnosis and monitoring of the disease have occurred during the last two decades. The author discusses the most significant factors, which influence tolerance of physical exercise in patients with more advanced forms of COPD, and brings the attention to a practical test of physical capacity.

  6. Blue-green diode-pumped solid state laser system for transcutaneous bilirubinometry in neonatal jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Mostafa; El-Ahl, Mohammad H. S.; Hamza, Ahmad M.

    2001-01-01

    The authors introduce the design of a blue-green diode- pumped solid-state laser system for transcutaneous measurement of serum bilirubin level in jaundiced new born infant. The system follows the principles of optical bilirubinometry. The choice of wavelengths provides correction for the presence of hemoglobin. The new design is more compact and less expensive.

  7. Expiratory timing in obstructive sleep apnoeas.

    PubMed

    Cibella, F; Marrone, O; Sanci, S; Bellia, V; Bonsignore, G

    1990-03-01

    Diaphragmatic electromyogram was recorded during NREM sleep in 4 patients affected by obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome in order to evaluate the behaviour of expiratory time (TE) in the course of the obstructive apnoea-ventilation cycle. The two components of TE, i.e. time of post-inspiratory inspiratory activity (TPIIA) and time of expiratory phase 2 (TE2) were separately analysed. TPIIA showed a short duration, with only minor variations, within the apnoea, while its duration was more variable and longer in the interapnoeic periods: the longest TPIIA values were associated with the highest inspiratory volumes in the same breaths. This behaviour seemed regulated according to the need of a more or less effective expiratory flow braking, probably as a result of pulmonary stretch receptors discharge. Conversely TE2 showed a continuous gradual modulation, progressively increasing in the pre-apnoeic period, decreasing during the apnoea and increasing in the post-apnoeic period: these TE2 variations seemed related to oscillations in chemical drive. These data show that TE in the obstructive apnoea-ventilation cycle results from a different modulation in its two components and suggest that both mechanical and chemical influences play a role in its overall duration.

  8. [Antegrade visualization of the billiary duct system by percutaneous transjugular cholangiography (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Huchzermeyer, H; Luska, G; Freuschmidt, J

    1976-01-01

    Percutaneous transjugular cholangiography (PTJC) is a new technique for visualization of the biliary duct system and for diagnosis of obstructive jaundice. First experiences of the authors in 22 patients are described. The advantages and disadvantages of this procedure, which at the present time is used rather rarely, are discussed and compared to various other cholangiographic methods. The endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) was used for patients with obstructive jaundice of unknown origine in the first place. If the biliary duct system could not be visualized by ERC (failure of complete obstruction of the common bile duct), the antegrade technique (PTJC) was performed. The peritoneoscopic and the transjugular cholangiography yield about the same percentage of positive results (90%), as far as visualization of the biliary tree is concerned. However in contrast to the peritoneoscopic methods PTJC seems to bear a smaller risk of complications. Some further diagnostic and therapeutical advantages, which might result from the use of PTJC are pointed out.

  9. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations Are Influenced by Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease.

    PubMed

    Bigatao, Amilcar M; Herbella, Fernando A M; Del Grande, Leonardo M; Nascimento, Oliver A; Jardim, Jose R; Patti, Marco G

    2018-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with different pulmonary diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Whether GERD is contributory to COPD severity remains unclear. This study aims to evaluate the contribution of GERD to the clinical manifestation of COPD based on ventilatory parameters and yearly clinical exacerbations. We studied 48 patients (56% females, age 66 years) with COPD. All patients underwent high-resolution manometry and esophageal pH monitoring. The patients were separated into two groups according to the presence of GERD. GERD was present in 21 (44%) patients. GERD + and GERD - groups did not differ in regard to gender, age, and body mass index. Pulmonary parameters were not different in the absence or presence of GERD. The number of yearly exacerbations was higher in patients GERD+. The severity of GERD (as measured by DeMeester score) correlated with the number of exacerbations. Our results show the following: 1) GERD does not influence pulmonary parameters and 2) GERD is associated with a higher number of annual clinical exacerbations. We believe GERD must be objectively tested in patients with COPD because the prevalence of GERD in these patients is underestimated when only symptoms are considered. GERD treatment might decrease the frequency of episodes of exacerbation.

  10. [Anaesthesia for patients with obstructive airway diseases].

    PubMed

    Groeben, H; Keller, V; Silvanus, M T

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive lung diseases like asthma or chronic obstructive lung diseases have a high prevalence and are one of the four most frequent causes of death. Obstructive lung diseases can be significantly influenced by the choice of anesthetic techniques and anesthetic agents. Basically, the severity of the COPD and the degree of bronchial hyperreactivity will determine the perioperative anesthetic risk. This risk has to be assessed by a thorough preoperative evaluation and will give the rationale on which to decide for the adequate anaesthetic technique. In particular, airway instrumentation can cause severe reflex bronchoconstriction. The use of regional anaesthesia alone or in combination with general anaesthesia can help to avoid airway irritation and leads to reduced postoperative complications. Prophylactic antiobstructive treatment, volatile anesthetics, propofol, opioids, and an adequate choice of muscle relaxants minimize the anesthetic risk, when general anesthesia is required In case, despite all precautions intra-operative bronchospasm occurs, deepening of anaesthesia, repeated administration of beta2-adrenergic agents and parasympatholytics, and a single systemic dose of corticosteroids represent the main treatment options.

  11. Congenital jaundice in bovine aborted foetuses: an emerging syndrome in southern Belgium.

    PubMed

    Delooz, L; Mori, M; Petitjean, T; Evrard, J; Czaplicki, G; Saegerman, C

    2015-04-01

    Southern Belgium faces an unusual recent increase of icteric bovine aborted foetuses. In the necropsy room, the majority of foetuses presented jaundice and splenomegaly. Despite a wide range of analyses, no definitive cause of abortion has yet been established but some analysis results support the leptospirosis hypothesis. This first description of cases will help veterinary practitioners to recognize more cases and to conduct those to the laboratory for future investigations. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Influence of skin colour on diagnostic accuracy of the jaundice meter JM 103 in newborns.

    PubMed

    Samiee-Zafarghandy, S; Feberova, J; Williams, K; Yasseen, A S; Perkins, S L; Lemyre, B

    2014-11-01

    To assess the diagnostic accuracy of the JM 103 as a screening tool for neonatal jaundice and explore differential effects based on skin colour. We prospectively compared the transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) and serum bilirubin (TSB) measurements of newborns over a 3 month-period. Skin colour was assigned via reference colour swatches. Diagnostic measures of the TcB/TSB comparison were made and clinically relevant TcB cut-off values were determined for each skin colour group. 451 infants (51 light, 326 medium and 74 dark skin colour) were recruited. The association between TcB and TSB was high for all skin colours (rs>0.9). The Bland-Altman analysis showed an absolute mean difference between the two measures of 13.3±26.4 µmol/L with broad limits of agreement (-39.4-66.0 µmol/L), with TcB underestimating TSB in light and medium skin colours and overestimating in dark skin colour. Diagnostic measures were also consistently high across skin colours, with no clinically significant differences observed. The JM 103 is a useful screening tool to identify infants in need of serum bilirubin, regardless of skin colour. The effect of skin colour on the accuracy of this device at high levels of serum bilirubin could not be assessed fully due to small numbers in the light and dark groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Vitamin B12 deficiency: unusual cause of jaundice in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Katakam, Phalguna Kousika; Hegde, Asha P; Venkataramaiahyappa, Manju

    2018-01-12

    Vitamin B 12 deficiency in vegans is a known cause of megaloblastic anaemia. We report an adolescent girl who presented with jaundice and weight loss for 6 months secondary to vitamin B 12 deficiency, leading to megaloblastic anaemia. Replacement with vitamin B 12 reversed her symptoms, resulting in weight gain, and normalised her haemoglobin, red blood cell morphology, bilirubin levels and serum vitamin B 12 levels. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Influence of socioeconomic and demographic status on spirometry testing in patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Koefoed, Mette M; Søndergaard, Jens; Christensen, René dePont; Jarbøl, Dorte E

    2013-06-14

    Socioeconomic status is known to influence the prevalence, severity and mortality of obstructive lung diseases, but it is uncertain whether it affects the use of diagnostic spirometry in patients initiating treatment for these conditions. The objective of this paper was to examine a possible association between education, income, labour market affiliation, cohabitation status and having spirometry performed when initiating medication targeting obstructive pulmonary disease. We conducted a population-based cohort study. Danish national registers were linked, retrieving data on prescriptions, spirometry testing, socioeconomic and demographic variables in all first time users of medication targeting obstructive lung disease in 2008. A total of 37,734 persons were included and approximately half of the cohort had spirometry performed. Among medication users under 65 years of age, being unemployed was significantly associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed, the strongest association was seen in men (OR = 0.82, CI = 0.73-0.91). Medium income was associated with increased odds of having spirometry performed in men (OR =1.18, CI = 1.06-1.30) and high educational level (>12 years) was associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed in women (OR = 0.86, CI = 0.78-0.94). Cohabitation status was not associated with having spirometry performed. Among medication users over 65 years of age, living alone was associated with reduced odds of having spirometry performed among men (OR = 0.78, CI = 0.69-0.88). Social inequity in spirometry testing among patients initiating medication targeting obstructive lung disease was confirmed in this study. Increased focus on spirometry testing among elderly men living alone, among the unemployed and among women with higher education is required when initiating medication.

  15. Endoscopic duodenal stent versus surgical gastrojejunostomy for gastric outlet obstruction in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Shinya; Iwashita, Takuji; Iwata, Keisuke; Mukai, Tsuyoshi; Osada, Shinji; Sekino, Takafumi; Adachi, Takahito; Kawai, Masahiko; Yasuda, Ichiro; Shimizu, Masahito

    2018-05-03

    Malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) often develops in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (APC). It is not clear whether endoscopic duodenal stenting (DS) or surgical gastrojejunostomy (GJJ) is preferable as palliative treatment. To compare the efficacy and safety of GJJ and DS for GOO with APC. Consecutive 99 patients who underwent DS or GJJ for GOO with APC were evaluated. We compared the technical and clinical success rates, the incidence of adverse event (AE), the time to start chemotherapy and discharge and survival durations between DS and GJJ. Prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) were investigated on the multivariate analysis. GOO was managed with GJJ in 35 and DS in 64. The technical and clinical success rates were comparable. DS was associated with shorter time to start oral intake and earlier chemotherapy start and discharge. No difference was seen in the early and late AE rates. Multivariate analyses of prognostic factors for OS showed that performance status ≧2, administration of chemotherapy, and presence of obstructive jaundice to be significant factors. There were no significant differences in survival durations between the groups, regardless of the PS. There were no significant differences in the technical and clinical success and AE rates and survival duration between DS and GJJ in management of GOO by APC. DS may be a preferable option over GJJ given that it will lead to an earlier return to oral intake, a shortened length of hospital stay, and finally an earlier referral for chemotherapy. Copyright © 2018 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Causes of prolonged jaundice in infancy: 3-year experience in a tertiary paediatric centre.

    PubMed

    Andre, Margaret; Day, Andrew S

    2016-01-29

    Although prolonged jaundice (PJ) commonly occurs in infancy, there is not yet agreement as to the appropriate extent of investigations, particularly in otherwise well children. Significant pathologies may present with PJ in this age group and need to be considered. The aim of this retrospective study was to ascertain the causes of PJ in infants referred to a single tertiary paediatric centre. Infants referred with PJ over a 3-year period were identified. Clinical documentation, electronic notes and results of investigations performed prior to and after referral were reviewed. One hundred and sixty-seven infants with PJ were seen. Fifty-eight percent were over 28 days of age. Four patients had conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. Eighteen percent of patients were found to have a specific medical diagnosis causing or contributing to PJ, almost half of whom had normal clinical examination. The single most common pathological cause for PJ was hypothyroidism found in six patients. This study demonstrates that normal clinical examination and exclusion of conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia are insufficient to exclude pathological causes of PJ. Overall, these children were referred late. Guidelines, in conjunction with education initiatives, are required to optimise the management of prolonged jaundice in infancy.

  17. Acute GI obstruction.

    PubMed

    Hucl, Tomas

    2013-10-01

    Acute gastrointestinal obstruction occurs when the normal flow of intestinal contents is interrupted. The blockage can occur at any level throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The clinical symptoms depend on the level and extent of obstruction. Various benign and malignant processes can produce acute gastrointestinal obstruction, which often represents a medical emergency because of the potential for bowel ischemia leading to perforation and peritonitis. Early recognition and appropriate treatment are thus essential. The typical clinical symptoms associated with obstruction include nausea, vomiting, dysphagia, abdominal pain and failure to pass bowel movements. Abdominal distention, tympany due to an air-filled stomach and high-pitched bowel sounds suggest the diagnosis. The diagnostic process involves imaging including radiography, ultrasonography, contrast fluoroscopy and computer tomography in less certain cases. In patients with uncomplicated obstruction, management is conservative, including fluid resuscitation, electrolyte replacement, intestinal decompression and bowel rest. In many cases, endoscopy may aid in both the diagnostic process and in therapy. Endoscopy can be used for bowel decompression, dilation of strictures or placement of self-expandable metal stents to restore the luminal flow either as a final treatment or to allow for a delay until elective surgical therapy. When gastrointestinal obstruction results in ischemia, perforation or peritonitis, emergency surgery is required. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Endoscopic and Photodynamic Therapy of Cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel

    2016-12-01

    Most patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) have unresectable disease. Endoscopic bile duct drainage is one of the major objectives of palliation of obstructive jaundice. Stent implantation using endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is considered to be the standard technique. Unilateral versus bilateral stenting is associated with different advantages and disadvantages; however, a standard approach is still not defined. As there are various kinds of stents, there is an ongoing discussion on which stent to use in which situation. Palliation of obstructive jaundice can be augmented through the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Studies have shown a prolonged survival for the combinations of PDT and different stent applications as well as combinations of PDT and additional systemic chemotherapy. More well-designed studies are needed to better evaluate and standardize endoscopic treatment of unresectable CCA.

  19. Impact of perioperative symbiotic therapy on infectious morbidity after Hpb Surgery in jaundiced patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Russolillo, N; Ferrero, A; Vigano', L; Langella, S; Briozzo, A; Ferlini, M; Migliardi, M; Capussotti, L

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at evaluating whether the administration of symbiotic therapy in jaundiced patients could reduce their postoperative infectious complications. The study was conducted between November 2008 and February 2011. Jaundiced patients scheduled for elective extrahepatic bile duct resection without liver cirrhosis, intestinal malabsorption or intolerance to symbiotic therapy were randomly assigned to receive [Group A] or not [Group B] symbiotics perioperatively. The primary endpoint was the infectious morbidity rate. Forty patients were included in the analysis (20 in each group). The patients in Group B presented a higher overall morbidity (70 vs 50%) and infectious morbidity rate (50 vs 25%), but the differences were not significant. Eleven patients in Group A (Group ndA) and 13 in Group B (Group ndB) did not receive preoperative biliary drainage. The results of the two groups were comparable. Infectious complications were higher in Group B [5 (34%) vs 0, p = 0.030], while the prevalence of natural killer (NK) cells was higher in Group ndA the day before surgery (17% ± 5.1 vs 10% ± 5.3, p < 0.01) and on post-operative day (POD) 7 (13.1% ± 4.1 vs 7.7% ± 3.4, p < 0.01). The rates of lymph node colonization were similar. The symbiotic therapy failed to reduce the rate of infectious morbidity in jaundiced patients. Further studies investigating the place of symbiotic in no-drainage patients are required.

  20. Immunizations, neonatal jaundice, and animal-induced injuries.

    PubMed

    Morris, Shaine A; Bernstein, Henry H

    2004-08-01

    Published studies during the past year about three topics important to the pediatric clinician-- immunizations, neonatal jaundice, and animal-induced injuries-are concisely reviewed. Recent updates regarding vaccines including the questionable link with autism, implementation of universal influenza vaccination for young children, the efficacy of pneumococcal vaccine against invasive disease, and new information on pertussis, varicella, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, measles, and rotavirus vaccination are discussed. No association between measles/mumps/rubella vaccine or thimerosal-containing pertussis vaccine and autism is evident. Universal influenza vaccination for children 6 to 23 months of age will be recommended for the 2004-2005 flu season, and this implementation should reduce significant school absenteeism as well as complications seen last year including encephalopathy, seizures, respiratory failure, and pneumonia. Pneumococcal vaccine significantly reduces rates of invasive pneumococcal vaccine in healthy and HIV-infected children, although it does not appear to greatly affect otitis media rates. A reduction in post-vaccine febrile seizures appears to be present since the introduction of acellular pertussis vaccine. Multiple outbreaks in varicella have been reported since the introduction of the varicella vaccine, and a booster vaccination may be necessary in the future. Methods for detecting and preventing severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia are reviewed, as well as anticipated recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics for the detection and management of hyperbilirubinemia. High bilirubin levels in preterm infants may result in hearing dysfunction and developmental impairment. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recommended a higher level of monitoring for newborn jaundice and treatment of hyperbilirubinemia in an effort to prevent kernicterus and sequelae from elevated bilirubin levels, including post-discharge follow-up appointment by day 3

  1. Severe jaundice due to intrahepatic cholestasis after initiating anticoagulation with rivaroxaban.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Abdullah N; Sari, Cenk; Baştuğ, Serdal; Sari, Sevil Ö; Akçay, Murat; Durmaz, Tahir; Bozkurt, Engin

    2016-03-01

    Rivaroxaban, a highly selective direct factor Xa inhibitor, is a new oral anticoagulant approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in November 2011 for stroke prophylaxis in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Because of its efficacy and once-a-day dosing, it is commonly preferred in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and intolerance to warfarin in clinical practice. However, it can result in some adverse effects such as bleeding, rashes and liver injury. Here, we described a very rare adverse reaction of rivaroxaban, jaundice due to intrahepatic cholestasis, appeared in a 71-year-old male patient after taking rivaroxaban.

  2. Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... condition as adults. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction may be acute, occurring suddenly and lasting a short time, or it may be chronic, or long lasting. Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction, also called Ogilvie syndrome or ...

  3. [Classification and choice of surgical procedures for chronic pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yin-Mo; Wan, Yuan-Lian; Zhuang, Yan; Wang, Wei-Min; Yan, Zhong-Yu; Huang, Yan-Ting

    2005-02-01

    To explore the classification, choice of surgical procedures and the clinical outcome of surgical management for chronic pancreatitis. 54 patients with chronic pancreatitis undergoing operation in our hospital from 1983 to 2004 were analyzed retrospectively, who were divided into chronic calcifying pancreatitis and chronic obstructive pancreatitis according to the clinical manifestations. There were 41 men (76%) and 13 women (24%) with a mean age of 54 years. The cause of chronic pancreatitis was alcohol related in 25 cases (46%), cholelithiasis in 21 (39%), and previous episodes of acute pancreatitis in 18 (33%). Clinical manifestations included abdominal pain in 38 cases (70%), obstructive jaundice in 27 cases (50%). There existed a significant difference in some clinical materials between the two groups of chronic calcifying pancreatitis and chronic obstructive pancreatitis, which might mean the different pathologic basis in the two kinds of chronic pancreatitis. A total of 34 patients underwent nine different operations without perioperative deaths. Both the Puestow procedure and the pancreatoduodenectomy was safe and achieved pain relief in a large percentage of patients, which could also improve the exocrine function whereas the endocrine function remained unchanged. Addition of biliary bypass to the Puestow procedure was suitable for the patients with stenosis of common bile duct. Jaundice was the main manifestation in the patients with the inflammatory mass in the head of the pancreas and Whipple's procedure or other resectional procedures should be performed for them. Only drainage of bile duct had a better outcome for the relief of jaundice, but its effect to pancreas need to be further evaluated. The clinicopathologic characteristics of obstructive chronic pancreatitis was more variable and the surgical management should be also different for individuals.

  4. Chryseomonas luteola from Bile Culture in an Adult Male with Severe Jaundice.

    PubMed

    De, Anuradha S; Salunke, Parul P; Parikh, Harshal R; Baveja, Sujata M

    2010-01-01

    A 60-year-old male was admitted in this hospital with severe jaundice, who had open cholecystectomy done 2 months ago. ERCP was performed and bile was sent for culture. It grew Chryseomonas luteola in pure culture. He underwent hepaticojejunostomy after 1 month. Total bilirubin improved gradually. His condition was stable on discharge. Prompt diagnosis of non-fermenters is required, as some of them are resistant to multiple antibiotics. Clinicians have to be made aware of the pathogenic role of C. luteola and its resistance to ampicillin and cephalosporins.

  5. Human fascioliasis by Fasciola hepatica: the first case report in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sah, Ranjit; Khadka, Shusila; Khadka, Mohan; Gurubacharya, Dipesh; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Parajuli, Keshab; Shah, Niranjan Prasad; Kattel, Hari Prasad; Pokharel, Bharat Mani; Rijal, Basista

    2017-09-05

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease caused by Fasciola species. Patient may be asymptomatic or presents with jaundice and biliary colic or right hypochondriac pain due to bile duct obstruction with gastrointestinal symptoms. We report a case of human fascioliasis in a 45 years old female presented to Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH), Kathmandu, Nepal on August, 2015 with fever, right hypochondriac pain, jaundice and occasional vomiting with anorexia for 4 months whose alkaline phosphatase was elevated and peripheral blood smear revealed eosinophilia. The patient also gives the history of consumption of water-cress. Endoscopic Retrograde Cholagiopancretography (ERCP) showed the presence of a flat worm resembling Fasciola hepatica and stool routine examination revealed ova of F. hepatica. The patient was treated with nitazoxanide by which she got improved. Repeat stool examination 2 weeks after treatment revealed no ova of F. hepatica. Patient with fascioliasis can be simply diagnosed with stool routine microscopy and treated with nitazoxanide. So patient with right hypochondriac pain, sign and symptoms of obstructive jaundice, eosinophilia and history of water-cress consumption should be suspected for fascioliasis and investigated and treated accordingly.

  6. Colorful story of phototherapy for neonatal jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agati, Giovanni; Fusi, Franco; Pratesi, Riccardo; Pratesi, Simone; Donzelli, Gian Paolo

    1996-12-01

    Colors have always attracted our fantasy and imagination. Medicine, like many other human activities, did not escape their attraction, sometimes with fatal consequences. The scientific literature, magazines, etc. are full of reports on the beneficial, miraculous effects of colors. Even nowadays, where photobiology and photomedicine have been put on very firm bases, chromopaths are still at work. The evolution of light therapy from chromotherapy to photomedicine is presented in brief, with the aim of contributing to the action against the unscientific behavior of researchers and clinicians who support biological and/or clinical results without serious and well documented work. Colors have played an important role in the phototherapy of neonatal jaundice. It is an interesting example of how even a rigorous scientific search for the optimal color has progressed in part by change, due to the lack of an action spectrum, too hurried extrapolations of animal results to man, unsuspected dynamical behavior of bilirubin molecules, etc. The story of its evolution up to present knowledge is reported in this paper.

  7. Effect of Fluticasone Furoate and Vilanterol on Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in Patients with Moderate Airflow Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Fernando J; Vestbo, Jørgen; Anderson, Julie A; Brook, Robert D; Celli, Bartolome R; Cowans, Nicholas J; Crim, Courtney; Dransfield, Mark; Kilbride, Sally; Yates, Julie; Newby, David E; Niewoehner, Dennis; Calverley, Peter M A

    2017-04-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids have been shown to decrease exacerbations in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Their effects in patients with milder airflow obstruction remain unclear. This was an analysis of exacerbations in the SUMMIT (Study to Understand Mortality and Morbidity) study. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial, once-daily inhaled placebo, fluticasone furoate (FF; 100 μg), vilanterol (VI; 25 μg), or the combination of FF/VI was administered. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Exacerbations of COPD were an additional predefined endpoint. A total of 1,368 centers in 43 countries and 16,485 patients with moderate COPD and heightened cardiovascular risk were included in the study. Compared with placebo, FF/VI reduced the rate of moderate and/or severe exacerbations by 29% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22-35; P < 0.001) and the rate of hospitalized exacerbations by 27% (95% CI, 13-39; P < 0.001). These relative effects were similar regardless of whether subjects had a history of exacerbation in the year before the study or an FEV 1 <60% or ≥60% of predicted. The number needed to treat was not influenced by baseline FEV 1 but was influenced by the history of exacerbations. FF/VI also reduced the rate of exacerbations treated with corticosteroids alone or with corticosteroids and antibiotics but not the rates of those treated with antibiotics alone. Patients with moderate chronic airflow obstruction experienced a reduction in exacerbations with FF/VI compared with placebo, irrespective of a history of exacerbations or baseline FEV 1 . Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01313676; GSK Study number 113782).

  8. Mechanical valve obstruction: Review of diagnostic and treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Salamon, Jason; Munoz-Mendoza, Jerson; Liebelt, Jared J; Taub, Cynthia C

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic valve obstruction (PVO) is a rare but feared complication of mechanical valve replacement. Diagnostic evaluation should focus on differentiating prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT) from pannus formation, as their treatment options differ. History of sub-optimal anti-coagulation and post-op time course to development of PVO are useful clinical characteristics in differentiating thrombus from pannus formation. Treatment of PVT is influenced by the patient’s symptoms, valve location, degree of obstruction and thrombus size and may include thrombolysis or surgical intervention. Alternatively, pannus formation requires surgical intervention. The purpose of this article is to review the pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnostic approach and treatment options for aortic and mitral valve PVO. PMID:26730292

  9. Endoscopic and Photodynamic Therapy of Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Background Most patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) have unresectable disease. Endoscopic bile duct drainage is one of the major objectives of palliation of obstructive jaundice. Methods/Results Stent implantation using endoscopic retrograde cholangiography is considered to be the standard technique. Unilateral versus bilateral stenting is associated with different advantages and disadvantages; however, a standard approach is still not defined. As there are various kinds of stents, there is an ongoing discussion on which stent to use in which situation. Palliation of obstructive jaundice can be augmented through the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Studies have shown a prolonged survival for the combinations of PDT and different stent applications as well as combinations of PDT and additional systemic chemotherapy. Conclusion More well-designed studies are needed to better evaluate and standardize endoscopic treatment of unresectable CCA. PMID:28229075

  10. Effects of miso- and mesoscale obstructions on PAM winds obtained during project NIMROD. [Portable Automated Mesonet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.; Wakimoto, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    Data from 27 PAM (Portable Automated Mesonet) stations, operational as a phase of project NIMROD (Northern Illinois Meteorological Research on Downburst), are presented. It was found that PAM-measured winds are influenced by the mesoscale obstruction of the Chicago metropolitan area, as well as by the misoscale obstruction of identified trees and buildings. The mesoscale obstruction was estimated within the range of near zero to 50%, increasing toward the city limits, while the misoscale obstruction was estimated as being as large as 58% near obstructing trees which were empirically calculated to cause a wind speed deficit 50-80 times their height. Despite a statistical analysis based on one-million PAM winds, wind speed and stability transmission factors could not be accurately calculated; thus, in order to calculate the airflow free from obstacle, PAM-measured winds must be corrected.

  11. Robotic surgery twice performed in the treatment of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with deep jaundice: delayed right hemihepatectomy following the right-hepatic vascular control.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenyu; Liu, Quanda; Chen, Junzhou; Duan, Weihong; Dong, Maosheng; Mu, Peiyuan; Cheng, Di; Che, Honglei; Zhang, Tao; Xu, Xiaoya; Zhou, Ningxin

    2014-10-01

    To explore and find a new method to treat hilar cholangiocarcinoma with deep jaundice assisted by Da Vinci robot. A hilar cholangiocarcinoma patient of type Bismuch-Corlette IIIa was found with deep jaundice (total bilirubin: 635 µmol/L). On the first admission, we performed Da Vinci robotic surgery including drainage of left hepatic duct, dissection of right hepatic vessels (right portal vein and right hepatic artery), and placement of right-hepatic vascular control device. Three weeks later on the second admission when the jaundice disappeared we occluded right-hepatic vascular discontinuously for 6 days and then sustained later. On the third admission after 3 weeks of right-hepatic vascular control, the right hemihepatectomy was performed by Da Vinci robot for the second time. The future liver remnant after the right-hepatic vascular control increased from 35% to 47%. The volume of left lobe increased by 368 mL. When the total bilirubin and liver function were all normal, right hemihepatectomy was performed by Da Vinci robot 10 weeks after the first operation. The removal of atrophic right hepatic lobe with tumor in bile duct was found with no pathologic cancer remaining in the margin. The patient was followed up at our outpatient clinic every 3 months and no tumor recurrence occurs by now (1 y). Under the Da Vinci robotic surgical system, a programmed treatment can be achieved: first, the hepatic vessels were controlled gradually together with biliary drainage, which results in liver's partial atrophy and compensatory hypertrophy in the other part. Then a radical hepatectomy could be achieved. Such programmed hepatectomy provides a new treatment for patients of hilar cholangiocarcinoma with deep jaundice who have the possibility of radical heptolobectomy.

  12. Reduced upper obstructions in N3 and increased lower obstructions in REM sleep stage detected with manometry.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Markus; Schramm, Juliane; Bautz, Maximilian; Hofauer, Benedikt; Edenharter, Günther; Ott, Armin; Heiser, Clemens

    2018-01-01

    In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), airway obstruction occurs at different anatomic levels. The frequency and location of obstructions play a crucial role in the planning of surgical treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharyngeal obstruction levels in different sleep stages with manometry in OSA patients. In addition, the manometry results were compared with drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE). Forty-one patients with OSA received manometry measurements during one night of sleep. All patients were simultaneously evaluated with polysomnography. The frequency of obstructions in different sleep stages was assessed. Twenty patients were additionally studied with DISE. Obstruction levels detected with manometry were compared with DISE. The frequency of upper and to a lesser extent lower obstructions decreased in sleep stage N3. In rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, lower obstructions increased. The overall proportion of upper and lower obstructions detected with manometry corresponded with DISE in 13 of 20 cases. A significant change in the obstruction levels was detected with manometry in N3 and REM sleep. The reduction of both upper and to a lesser extent lower obstructions in N3 suggests more stable airways in slow-wave sleep. Relevant lower obstructions were not detected in DISE compared to manometry in 5 out of 20 examinations. This could be a potential reason for treatment failure of site-specific surgical OSA treatment when only performing DISE preoperatively. Therefore, manometry could be a useful complementary tool in the preoperative evaluation for OSA.

  13. RED CELL GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY--A NEWLY RECOGNIZED CAUSE OF NEONATAL JAUNDICE AND KERNICTERUS IN CANADA.

    PubMed

    NAIMAN, J L; KOSOY, M H

    1964-12-12

    Seven male newborns of Chinese, Greek and Italian origin presented with severe hemolytic jaundice due to red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency. In five, the hemolysis was precipitated by inhalation of mothball vapours in the home. Kernicterus was evident upon admission in six infants and was fatal in four of these.G-6-PD deficiency should be suspected as a cause of jaundice in all full-term male infants of these ethnic groups. The diagnosis can be confirmed in any hospital by the methemoglobin reduction test. In areas similar to Toronto, Canada, where these high-risk ethnic groups prevail, the following measures are recommended: (1) detection of G-6-PD deficient newborns by screening cord bloods of all infants of these ethnic groups; (2) protection of affected infants from potentially hemolytic agents such as naphthalene, certain vitamin K preparations, and sulfonamides; and (3) observation of serum bilirubin levels to assess the need for exchange transfusion for hyperbilirubinemia.

  14. Red Cell Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency—A Newly Recognized Cause of Neonatal Jaundice and Kernicterus in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Naiman, J. Lawrence; Kosoy, Martin H.

    1964-01-01

    Seven male newborns of Chinese, Greek and Italian origin presented with severe hemolytic jaundice due to red cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency. In five, the hemolysis was precipitated by inhalation of mothball vapours in the home. Kernicterus was evident upon admission in six infants and was fatal in four of these. G-6-PD deficiency should be suspected as a cause of jaundice in all full-term male infants of these ethnic groups. The diagnosis can be confirmed in any hospital by the methemoglobin reduction test. In areas similar to Toronto, Canada, where these high-risk ethnic groups prevail, the following measures are recommended: (1) detection of G-6-PD deficient newborns by screening cord bloods of all infants of these ethnic groups; (2) protection of affected infants from potentially hemolytic agents such as naphthalene, certain vitamin K preparations, and sulfonamides; and (3) observation of serum bilirubin levels to assess the need for exchange transfusion for hyperbilirubinemia. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:14226101

  15. Severity of Airflow Obstruction in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): Proposal for a New Classification.

    PubMed

    Coton, Sonia; Vollmer, William M; Bateman, Eric; Marks, Guy B; Tan, Wan; Mejza, Filip; Juvekar, Sanjay; Janson, Christer; Mortimer, Kevin; P A, Mahesh; Buist, A Sonia; Burney, Peter G J

    2017-10-01

    Current classifications of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) severity are complex and do not grade levels of obstruction. Obstruction is a simpler construct and independent of ethnicity. We constructed an index of obstruction severity based on the FEV 1 /FVC ratio, with cut-points dividing the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study population into four similarly sized strata to those created by the GOLD criteria that uses FEV 1 . We measured the agreement between classifications and the validity of the FEV 1 -based classification in identifying the level of obstruction as defined by the new groupings. We compared the strengths of association of each classification with quality of life (QoL), MRC dyspnoea score and the self-reported exacerbation rate. Agreement between classifications was only fair. FEV 1 -based criteria for moderate COPD identified only 79% of those with moderate obstruction and misclassified half of the participants with mild obstruction as having more severe COPD. Both scales were equally strongly associated with QoL, exertional dyspnoea and respiratory exacerbations. Severity assessed using the FEV 1 /FVC ratio is only in moderate agreement with the severity assessed using FEV 1 but is equally strongly associated with other outcomes. Severity assessed using the FEV 1 /FVC ratio is likely to be independent of ethnicity.

  16. Nasal obstruction and human communication.

    PubMed

    Malinoff, R; Moreno, C

    1989-04-01

    Nasal obstruction may cause a variety of communication disorders, particularly in children. The effects of nasal obstruction on hearing, speech, language, and voice are examined. Methods for assessing the effects of nasal obstruction are delineated, and recommendations for therapeutic interventions are described.

  17. Primary obstructive megaureter.

    PubMed

    Sripathi, V; King, P A; Thomson, M R; Bogle, M S

    1991-07-01

    Twenty-three children with primary obstructive megaureters presented between 1978 and 1988 to the Princess Margaret Hospital for Children in Perth. Twenty-eight ureters were treated. Urinary infections were the presenting feature in 14 children. The obstructive segment was transvesically excised. Histopathologic examination of the distal, intramural ureter showed fibromuscular disarray with a relative increase in fibrous tissue and reduction of musculature in all specimens. Twenty-two ureters were tapered by excision and all 28 were reimplanted using an antireflux technique. Seventeen children were followed for an average of 3 years. Seven children showed renal growth, reduction in ureteric size by greater than 2 cm, improvement in glomerular filtration rate by more than 10%, no obstruction on reflux, and no infections in postoperative period. Four children showed all the above but suffered one or more infections after the operation. Of the remaining 6 children, 3 had postoperative obstruction and 3 had vesicoureteric reflux.

  18. Treatment of neonatal jaundice with filtered sunlight in Nigerian neonates: study protocol of a non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Slusher, Tina M; Olusanya, Bolajoko O; Vreman, Hendrik J; Wong, Ronald J; Brearley, Ann M; Vaucher, Yvonne E; Stevenson, David K

    2013-12-28

    Severe neonatal jaundice and its progression to kernicterus is a leading cause of death and disability among newborns in poorly-resourced countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The standard treatment for jaundice using conventional phototherapy (CPT) with electric artificial blue light sources is often hampered by the lack of (functional) CPT devices due either to financial constraints or erratic electrical power. In an attempt to make phototherapy (PT) more readily available for the treatment of pathologic jaundice in underserved tropical regions, we set out to test the hypothesis that filtered sunlight phototherapy (FS-PT), in which potentially harmful ultraviolet and infrared rays are appropriately screened, will be as efficacious as CPT. This prospective, non-blinded randomized controlled non-inferiority trial seeks to enroll infants with elevated total serum/plasma bilirubin (TSB, defined as 3 mg/dl below the level recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics for high-risk infants requiring PT) who will be randomly and equally assigned to receive FS-PT or CPT for a total of 616 days at an inner-city maternity hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. Two FS-PT canopies with pre-tested films will be used. One canopy with a film that transmits roughly 33% blue light (wavelength range: 400 to 520 nm) will be used during sunny periods of a day. Another canopy with a film that transmits about 79% blue light will be used during overcast periods of the day. The infants will be moved from one canopy to the other as needed during the day with the goal of keeping the blue light irradiance level above 8 μW/cm²/nm. FS-PT will be as efficacious as CPT in reducing the rate of rise in bilirubin levels. Secondary outcome: The number of infants requiring exchange transfusion under FS-PT will not be more than those under CPT. This novel study offers the prospect of an effective treatment for infants at risk of severe neonatal jaundice and avoidable exchange transfusion in

  19. Sleep Architecture Linked to Airway Obstruction and Intracranial Hypertension in Children with Syndromic Craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Spruijt, Bart; Mathijssen, Irene M J; Bredero-Boelhouwer, Hansje H; Cherian, Perumpillichira J; Corel, Linda J A; van Veelen, Marie-Lise; Hayward, Richard D; Tasker, Robert C; Joosten, Koen F M

    2016-12-01

    Children with syndromic craniosynostosis often have obstructive sleep apnea and intracranial hypertension. The authors aimed to evaluate (1) sleep architecture, and determine whether this is influenced by the presence of obstructive sleep apnea and/or intracranial hypertension; and (2) the effect of treatment on sleep architecture. This study included patients with syndromic craniosynostosis treated at a national referral center, undergoing screening for obstructive sleep apnea and intracranial hypertension. Obstructive sleep apnea was identified by polysomnography, and categorized into no, mild, moderate, or severe. Intracranial hypertension was identified by the presence of papilledema on funduscopy, supplemented by optical coherence tomography and/or intracranial pressure monitoring. Regarding sleep architecture, sleep was divided into rapid eye movement or non-rapid eye movement sleep; respiratory effort-related arousals and sleep efficiency were scored. The authors included 39 patients (median age, 5.9 years): 19 with neither obstructive sleep apnea nor intracranial hypertension, 11 with obstructive sleep apnea (four moderate/severe), six with intracranial hypertension, and three with obstructive sleep apnea and intracranial hypertension. Patients with syndromic craniosynostosis, independent of the presence of mild obstructive sleep apnea and/or intracranial hypertension, have normal sleep architecture compared with age-matched controls. Patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea have a higher respiratory effort-related arousal index (p < 0.01), lower sleep efficiency (p = 0.01), and less rapid eye movement sleep (p = 0.04). An improvement in sleep architecture was observed following monobloc surgery (n = 5; rapid eye movement sleep, 5.3 percent; p = 0.04). Children with syndromic craniosynostosis have in principle normal sleep architecture. However, moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea does lead to disturbed sleep architecture, which fits within

  20. FEV1/FVC and FEV1 for the assessment of chronic airflow obstruction in prevalence studies: do prediction equations need revision?

    PubMed

    Roche, Nicolas; Dalmay, François; Perez, Thierry; Kuntz, Claude; Vergnenègre, Alain; Neukirch, Françoise; Giordanella, Jean-Pierre; Huchon, Gérard

    2008-11-01

    Little is known on the long-term validity of reference equations used in the calculation of FEV(1) and FEV(1)/FVC predicted values. This survey assessed the prevalence of chronic airflow obstruction in a population-based sample and how it is influenced by: (i) the definition of airflow obstruction; and (ii) equations used to calculate predicted values. Subjects aged 45 or more were recruited in health prevention centers, performed spirometry and fulfilled a standardized ECRHS-derived questionnaire. Previously diagnosed cases and risk factors were identified. Prevalence of airflow obstruction was calculated using: (i) ATS-GOLD definition (FEV(1)/FVC<0.70); and (ii) ERS definition (FEV(1)/FVCobstruction was 8.71% with ATS-GOLD definition and 6.40% with ERS definition and ECCS predicted values. The ERS definition with predicted values derived from the studied population provided a 7.96% prevalence. Severity distribution of airflow obstruction was also influenced by the equation used to calculate predicted values of FEV(1). Prevalence and severity of chronic airflow obstruction are influenced not only by the definition used but also by equations used to calculate predicted FEV(1)/FVC and FEV(1) values. These equations likely need to be periodically revised.

  1. Evaluation of two techniques of partial urethral obstruction in the male rat model of bladder outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Melman, Arnold; Tar, Moses; Boczko, Judd; Christ, George; Leung, Albert C; Zhao, Weixin; Russell, Robert G

    2005-11-01

    To perform a comparison to determine which of two methods of partial urethral ligation produces the most consistent outcome and fewest side effects. Such a study has not been previously reported. Partial urethral ligation is a means of causing reproducible bladder outlet obstruction. In the male rat model, partial urethral obstruction can be performed either by perineal incision and bulbous urethral ligation or retropubic incision and midprostatic obstruction. Fifteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied. Five were selected for bulbous urethral obstruction through a perineal incision, five for midprostatic obstruction using a retropubic approach, and five for a sham operation through a perineal incision. The operative time was shorter and morbidity lower with the perineal approach compared with the retropubic approach. Inflammation or infection, or both, were seen in the prostate, bladder, proximal urethra, ureters, and kidneys in the rats in which a midprostatic obstruction was performed. The proximal urethra and prostate were mildly inflamed in those rats that underwent bulbous obstruction. Sham-operated rats exhibited mild prostatitis only. The perineal approach to the bulbous urethra is the method of choice for creating a partial urethral obstruction model of bladder outlet obstruction in the male rat.

  2. Paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea: can our identification of surgical candidates be evidence-based?

    PubMed

    Pabla, L; Duffin, J; Flood, L; Blackmore, K

    2018-04-01

    Paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea is a common clinical condition managed by most ENT clinicians. However, despite the plethora of publications on the subject, there is wide variability, in the literature and in practice, on key aspects such as diagnostic criteria, the impact of co-morbidities and the indications for surgical correction. A systematic review is presented, addressing four key questions from the available literature: (1) what is the evidence base for any definition of paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea?; (2) does it cause serious systemic illness?; (3) what co-morbidities influence the severity of paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea?; and (4) is there a medical answer? There is a considerable lack of evidence regarding most of these fundamental questions. Notably, screening measures show low specificity and can be insensitive to mild obstructive sleep apnoea. There is a surprising lack of clarity in the definition (let alone estimate of severity) of sleep-disordered breathing, relying on what may be arbitrary test thresholds. Areas of potential research might include investigation of the mechanisms through which obstructive sleep apnoea causes co-morbidities, whether neurocognitive, behavioural, metabolic or cardiovascular, and the role of non-surgical management.

  3. A jaundiced bodybuilder Cholestatic hepatitis as side effect of injectable anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    PubMed

    Boks, Marije N; Tiebosch, Anton T; van der Waaij, Laurens A

    2017-11-01

    The use of anabolic steroids is prevalent in recreational athletes. This case report describes a young amateur bodybuilder who was referred to our outpatient clinic with jaundice and loss of appetite due to cholestatic hepatitis. Additional tests including a liver biopsy made it likely that the hepatitis was caused by the injectable anabolic steroid trenbolone enanthate. Cholestatic hepatitis may not be limited to the use of oral anabolic-androgenic steroids, as is widely assumed. Therefore, and because of other side effects, the recreational use of all forms of anabolic steroids should be discouraged.

  4. Worsening cholestasis and possible cefuroxime-induced liver injury following "successful" therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for a distal common bile duct stone: a case report.

    PubMed

    Niriella, Madunil Anuk; Kumarasena, Ravindu Sujeewa; Dassanayake, Anuradha Supun; Pathirana, Aloka; de Silva Hewavisenthi, Janaki; de Silva, Hithanadura Janaka

    2016-12-21

    Cefuroxime very rarely causes drug-induced liver injury. We present a case of a patient with paradoxical worsening of jaundice caused by cefuroxime-induced cholestasis following therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for a distal common bile duct stone. A 51-year-old, previously healthy Sri Lankan man presented to our hospital with obstructive jaundice caused by a distal common bile duct stone. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with stone extraction, common bile duct clearance, and stenting failed to improve the cholestasis, with paradoxical worsening of his jaundice. A liver biopsy revealed features of drug-induced intrahepatic cholestasis. Although his case was complicated by an episode of cholangitis, the patient made a complete recovery in 4 months with supportive treatment and withdrawal of the offending drug. This case highlights a very rare drug-induced liver injury caused by cefuroxime as well as our approach to treating a patient with paradoxical worsening of jaundice after therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

  5. Non-surgical biliary drainage - technique, indications and results.

    PubMed

    Riemann, J F; Lux, G; Rösch, W; Beickert-Sterba, A

    1981-07-01

    Nonsurgical biliary drainage offers a therapeutic alternative in the palliation of malignant obstructive jaundice. Two basic approaches are available. The percutaneous transhepatic method can be employed either for external drainage or for the placement of an internal endoprosthesis. In the case of the transduodenal, transpapillary approach, either a pigtail catheter can be placed, after prior papillotomy, or - with or without the need to split the papillar - a nasobiliary drainage tube can be introduced. Successful drainage was achieved in 67 patients. In the majority of cases, external drainage was performed as a palliative measure in inoperable carcinoma of the biliodigestive system. In addition, however, pre-operative temporary drainage was also carried out to reduce the risks of surgery in patients with severe obstructive jaundice. The complication rate was low. Apart from biliary peritonitis, cholangitis and minor bleeds were observed. The rate of failure for technical reasons was a relatively low 10%.

  6. Cholestasis caused by Fasciola gigantica.

    PubMed

    Beştaş, Remzi; Yalçin, Kendal; Çiçek, Muttalip

    2014-01-01

    Fascioliasis is an infectious disease caused by the hepatic trematodes Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. Here, we report the case of Fasciola gigantica presenting with biliary obstruction and abdominal pain that was diagnosed and treated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP). A 46-year-old woman presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain and jaundice. Physical examination revealed icterus and hepatomegaly. Laboratory findings revealed an increase in liver transaminases and bilirubin. Abdominal ultrasonography showed extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile duct dilatation. The patient underwent ERCP. One live Fasciola gigantica was removed from the common bile duct by ERCP. In conclusion, fascioliasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of obstructive jaundice, especially in endemic regions, and it should be kept in mind that ERCP plays an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. To our knowledge, this is the second case report of Fasciola gigantica treated by ERCP in Turkey.

  7. Correlation of soft palate length with velum obstruction and severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ju-Shin; Lee, Jae Woo; Han, Chun; Kwon, Jang-Woo

    2018-06-01

    Our aim in this study was to analyze whether soft palate length and velum obstruction during sleep are correlated and to determine the effects of related parameters on obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) severity. We used computed tomography to measure soft palate length and drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) to evaluate velum obstruction severity. Patients also underwent polysomnography (PSG) for evaluation of OSAS severity. A retrospective cohort of 67 patients with OSAS treated between May 1st, 2013 and July 31st, 2016 was analyzed. Each patient underwent DISE, PSG, and computed tomography. Using DISE, velum obstruction was categorized by the VOTE classification method. Using computed tomography, soft palate length was measured as the length of the posterior nasal spine to the uvula. Correlations of velum obstruction in DISE and PSG parameters (obstructive apnea, hypopnea, apnea hypopnea index (AHI), respiratory effort related arousal (RERA), respiratory disturbance index (RDI), baseline SaO 2 , and minimum SaO 2 ) with soft palate length were also analyzed. Among the 67 patients, the average PNS-U length was 39.90±4.19mm. Length was significantly different by age but not by other demographic characteristics such as sex, past history, or BMI. DISE revealed a statistically significant difference of velum obstruction degree; the cutoff value for PNS-U was 39.47mm. The PSG results, obstructive apnea, AHI, RDI, baseline SaO 2 , and minimum SaO 2 were correlated with PNS-U length, while other results such as hypopnea and RERA showed no correlation. Analysis of soft palate length showed that increased PNS-U length was associated with higher rates of obstructive apnea, AHI, and RDI as assessed by PSG. In contrast, lower baseline SaO 2 and minimum SaO 2 values were seen by PSG; more severe velum obstruction was seen by DISE. We propose that when a soft palate is suspected in OSAS, computed tomography measurement of soft palate length is a valid method for

  8. Thyrotoxicosis and Choledocholithiasis Masquerading as Thyroid Storm.

    PubMed

    Horn, Christian L; Short, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    A 26-year-old female, thirteen months postpartum, presented to the emergency department for four weeks of epigastric abdominal pain, pruritus, new onset jaundice, and 11.3 kgs (25 lbs) unintentional weight loss. On examination, she was afebrile, tachycardic, alert, and oriented and had jaundice with scleral icterus. Labs were significant for undetectable TSH, FT4 that was too high to measure, and elevated total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, and transaminases. Abdominal ultrasound revealed cholelithiasis without biliary ductal dilation. Treatment for presumed thyroid storm was initiated. Further work-up with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) revealed an obstructing cholelith within the distal common bile duct. With the presence of choledocholithiasis explaining the jaundice and abdominal pain, plus the absence of CNS alterations, the diagnosis of thyroid storm was revised to thyrotoxicosis complicated by choledocholithiasis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP) with sphincterotomy was performed to alleviate the biliary obstruction, with prompt symptomatic improvement. Thyroid storm is a rare manifestation of hyperthyroidism with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of thyroid storm is based on clinical examination, and abnormal thyroid function tests do not correlate with disease severity. Knowledge of the many manifestations of thyroid storm will facilitate a quick and accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome (Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease)

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Cathy Q.; Crawford, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) is an obliterative venulitis of the terminal hepatic venules, which in its more severe forms imparts a high risk of mortality. SOS, also known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD), occurs as a result of cytoreductive therapy prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), following oxaliplatin-containing adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy for colorectal carcinoma metastatic to the liver and treated by partial hepatectomy, in patients taking pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing herbal remedies, and in other particular settings such as the autosomal recessive condition of veno-occlusive disease with immunodeficiency (VODI). A central pathogenic event is toxic destruction of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (SEC), with sloughing and downstream occlusion of terminal hepatic venules. Contributing factors are SEC glutathione depletion, nitric oxide depletion, increased intrahepatic expression of matrix metalloproteinases and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and activation of clotting factors. The clinical presentation of SOS includes jaundice, development of right upper-quadrant pain and tender hepatomegaly, ascites, and unexplained weight gain. Owing to the potentially critical condition of these patients, transjugular biopsy may be the preferred route for liver biopsy to exclude other potential causes of liver dysfunction and to establish a diagnosis of SOS. Treatment includes rigorous fluid management so as to avoid excessive fluid overload while avoiding too rapid diuresis or pericentesis, potential use of pharmaceutics such as defibrotide, coagulolytic agents, or methylprednisolone, and liver transplantation. Proposed strategies for prevention and prophylaxis include reduced-intensity conditioning radiation for HSCT, treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid, and inclusion of bevacizumab with oxaliplatin-based chemotherapeutic regimes. While significant progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis

  10. Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

    PubMed

    Gabbard, Scott L; Lacy, Brian E

    2013-06-01

    Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP) is a rare and serious disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract characterized as a motility disorder with the primary defect of impaired peristalsis; symptoms are consistent with a bowel obstruction, although mechanical obstruction cannot be identified. CIP is classified as a neuropathy, myopathy, or mesenchymopathy; it is a neuropathic process in the majority of patients. The natural history of CIP is generally that of a progressive disorder, although occasional patients with secondary CIP note significant symptomatic improvement when the underlying disorder is identified and treated. Symptoms vary from patient to patient depending on the location of the luminal GI tract involved and the degree of involvement; however, the small intestine is nearly always involved. Common symptoms include dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, abdominal distension, constipation or diarrhea, and involuntary weight loss. Unfortunately, these symptoms are nonspecific, which can contribute to misdiagnosis or a delay in diagnosis and treatment. Since many of the symptoms and signs suggest a mechanical bowel obstruction, diagnostic tests typically focus on uncovering a mechanical obstruction, although routine tests do not identify an obstructive process. Nutrition supplementation is required for many patients with CIP due to symptoms of dysphagia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. This review discusses the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with CIP, with an emphasis on nutrition assessment and treatment options for patients with nutrition compromise.

  11. Gallbladder Polyp Mimicking an Obstructive Calculus

    PubMed Central

    Bass, James; Fegelman, Ronald H.

    1978-01-01

    The second documented case of obstructing polyp of the gallbladder—an extremely rare lesion—is presented. Symptoms were indistinguishable from those of acute obstructive cholecystitis. The mechanism of obstruction is hypothesized. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:702555

  12. Airflow obstruction was associated with elevation of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity but not ankle-brachial index in aged patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; He, Wanbing; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Houzhen; Lin, Lin; Nie, Ruqiong; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2015-09-01

    Both brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and ankle-brachial index (ABI) are important predictors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at high risk of CVD. But the association between airflow obstruction and baPWV or ABI was still unclear. The study was aimed to investigate the influencing factors on arterial stiffness in aged COPD patients. 67 aged patients with COPD and 67 age- and sex-matched controls without COPD were enrolled in this study. COPD patients were grouped into four groups according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Guidelines (GOLD). Both baPWV and ABI were evaluated. Spirometry indices, blood pressure, smoking history and related laboratory parameters were also collected. Comparing with controls, all COPD patients had significantly higher baPWV (1933 ± 355 cm/s versus 1515 ± 256 cm/s, P < 0.001) but not ABI (P = 0.196). And baPWV values were significantly highest at GOLD stage 4. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) was the most significant factor influencing baPWV, after adjusting for age, systolic blood pressure and other traditional cardiovascular risk factors (β = -0.463, P = 0.014). Arterial stiffness was serious in aged patients with COPD. Spirometry index FEV1 was a possible important predictor for the severity of arterial stiffness of COPD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 21 CFR 862.1460 - Leucine aminopeptidase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Systems § 862.1460 Leucine aminopeptidase test system. (a) Identification. A leucine aminopeptidase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme leucine amino-peptidase in serum... diseases such as viral hepatitis and obstructive jaundice. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1460 - Leucine aminopeptidase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Systems § 862.1460 Leucine aminopeptidase test system. (a) Identification. A leucine aminopeptidase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme leucine amino-peptidase in serum... diseases such as viral hepatitis and obstructive jaundice. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls...

  15. Post-obstructive pulmonary edema from aspirated nuts.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Ahsan; Ahmad, Sabina Qureshi; Silverman, Joshua; Concepcion, Emily; Lee, Haesoon

    2017-01-01

    Post-obstructive pulmonary edema is thought to occur from hemodynamic changes secondary to forced inspiration against the closed airway due to acute or chronic airway obstruction. We report a case of a 13 month-old boy who developed pulmonary edema from aspirated foreign body, nuts. He underwent emergency bronchoscopy to confirm the clinical diagnosis of aspirated nuts in the trachea and nuts were removed endoscopically. His trachea was then intubated and he was mechanically ventilated with oxygen. He developed florid pulmonary edema early in the course with tracheal obstruction and during endoscopic removal of nuts. After removal of obstruction he was ventilated mechanically and pulmonary edema cleared rapidly. Aspirated nuts obstructing trachea can induce obstructive pulmonary edema. Early recognition of foreign body obstruction based on clinical history and its removal resolved pulmonary edema.

  16. The Fate of Nephrons in Congenital Obstructive Nephropathy: Adult Recovery is Limited by Nephron Number Despite Early Release of Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Sergio, Maria; Galarreta, Carolina I; Thornhill, Barbara A; Forbes, Michael S; Chevalier, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Urinary tract obstruction and reduced nephron number often occur together as a result of maldevelopment of the kidneys and the urinary tract. We determined the role of nephron number on adaptation of the remaining nephrons of mice subjected to neonatal partial unilateral ureteral obstruction followed through adulthood. Wild-type and Os/+ mice (the latter with 50% fewer nephrons) underwent sham operation or partial unilateral ureteral obstruction in the first 2 days of life. Additional mice underwent release of unilateral ureteral obstruction at 7 days. All kidneys were harvested at 3 weeks (weaning) or 6 weeks (adulthood). Glomerular number and area, glomerulotubular junction integrity, proximal tubular volume fraction and interstitial fibrosis were measured by histomorphometry. In the obstructed kidney unilateral ureteral obstruction caused additional nephron loss in Os/+ but not in wild-type mice. Glomerular growth from 3 to 6 weeks was impaired by ipsilateral obstruction and not preserved by release in wild-type or Os/+ mice. Proximal tubular growth was impaired and interstitial collagen was increased by ipsilateral obstruction in all mice. These conditions were attenuated by release of unilateral ureteral obstruction in wild-type mice but were not restored in Os/+ mice. Unilateral ureteral obstruction increased interstitial collagen in the contralateral kidney while release of obstruction enhanced tubular growth and reduced interstitial collagen. Unilateral ureteral obstruction in early postnatal development impairs adaptation to reduced nephron number and induces additional nephron loss despite release of obstruction. Premature and low birth weight infants with congenital obstructive nephropathy are likely at increased risk for progression of chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Postradiation ureteral obstruction: a reappraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Muram, D.; Oxorn, H.; Curry, R.H.

    1981-02-01

    Thirty-four patients who received radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix developed hydronephrosis. Twelve of 34 (35%) had no evidence of pelvic malignancy, and the obstruction was caused by periureteral fibrosis. The incidence of obstructive uropathy due to periureteral fibrosis not associated with recurrent tumor increased when the obstructing lesion was unilateral, the clinical staging of the cervical carcinoma prior to therapy was Stage IB or Stage II rather than Stage III or Stage IV, and the obstructing lesion appeared 2 or more years after the completion of radiation therapy. The appearance of hydronephrosis in association with ipsilateral leg edema,more » and sciatic pain in these patients strongly suggest a recurrent tumor. The diagnosis of periureteral fibrosis should be considered in all patients who develop obstruction of the urinary tract after radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix. Laparotomy is indicated if all other methods of investigation fail to confirm the presence of a malignant lesion.« less

  18. Maxillomandibular Volume Influences the Relationship between Weight Loss and Improvement in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Kate; Phillips, Craig L.; Yee, Brendon J.; Grunstein, Ronald R.; Cistulli, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obesity is the major risk factor for OSA; however, weight loss reduces OSA to a variable extent. We aimed to assess whether size of the maxillomandibular skeletal enclosure influences the relationship between weight loss and OSA reduction. Methods: Obese males (≥ 30 kg/m2) with moderate-severe OSA (AHI > 15/h) participating in a 6-mo open-label weight loss program had craniofacial computed tomography (CT) scans before and after weight loss. CT scans were analysed using three-dimensional cephalometry. Maxillomandibular volume was calculated from skeletal landmarks on the mandible (condyle, gonion, menton) and maxilla (anterior nasal spine). Multiple regression analysis was used to test for moderating effects of maxillomandibular volume on relationship between changes in weight and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Results: Fifty-two men (age 44.3 ± 8.8 y, AHI 42.9 ± 21.3 events/h, body mass index [BMI] 34.0 ± 2.7 kg/m2) had 7.4 ± 4.1% weight loss and 34.1 ± 32.4% AHI reduction at 6 months. BMI reduction modestly predicted AHI change (r2 = 0.17, P = 0.002). The interaction term of maxillomandibular volume and BMI change was a predictor of OSA improvement (P = 0.03), indicating maxillomandibular volume moderates this relationship. Subgroup analyses of patients by small, medium, and large maxillomandibular volume showed a strong correlation between weight loss and OSA improvement only in the small volume group (r = 0.654, P = 0.004). There was no relationship evident in those with large maxillomandibular volume (r = 0.05, P = 0.9). Conclusion: Maxillomandibular volume influences the relationship between weight loss and OSA improvement with an effect on AHI more evident in those with a smaller craniofacial skeleton. Citation: Sutherland K, Phillips CL, Yee BJ, Grunstein RR, Cistulli PA. Maxillomandibular volume influences the relationship between weight loss and improvement in obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2016;39(1):43–49. PMID:26350470

  19. Surgical management of nasal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Moche, Jason A; Palmer, Orville

    2012-05-01

    The proper evaluation of the patient with nasal obstruction relies on a comprehensive history and physical examination. Once the site of obstruction is accurately identified, the patient may benefit from a trial of medical management. At times however, the definitive treatment of nasal obstruction relies on surgical management. Recognizing the nasal septum, nasal valve, and turbinates as possible sites of obstruction and addressing them accordingly can dramatically improve a patient's nasal breathing. Conservative resection of septal cartilage, submucous reduction of the inferior turbinate, and structural grafting of the nasal valve when appropriate will provide the optimal improvement in nasal airflow and allow for the most stable results. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Central Airway Obstruction: Benign Strictures, Tracheobronchomalacia, and Malignancy-related Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Murgu, Septimiu Dan; Egressy, Katarine; Laxmanan, Balaji; Doblare, Guillermo; Ortiz-Comino, Rosamaria; Hogarth, D Kyle

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an update on methods for palliating symptoms in patients with histologically benign and malignant central airway obstruction. We review the published literature within the past decade on postintubation, posttracheostomy, and TB- and transplant-related airway strictures; tracheobronchomalacia; and malignant airway obstruction. We review terminology, classification systems, and parameters that impact treatment decisions. The focus is on how airway stent insertion fits into the best algorithm of care. Several case series and cohort studies demonstrate that airway stents improve dyspnea, lung function, and quality of life in patients with airway obstruction. Airway stenting, however, is associated with high rates of adverse events and should be used only when curative open surgical interventions are not feasible or are contraindicated. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Plastic Biliary Stent Occlusion: Factors Involved and Possible Preventive Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Donelli, Gianfranco; Guaglianone, Emilio; Di Rosa, Roberta; Fiocca, Fausto; Basoli, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Endoscopic biliary stenting is today the most common palliative treatment for patients suffering from obstructive jaundice associated with malignant hepatobiliary tumors or benign strictures. However, recurrent jaundice, with or without cholangitis, is a major complication of a biliary endoprosthesis insertion. Thus, stent removal and replacement with a new one frequently occurs as a consequence of device blockage caused by microbial biofilm growth and biliary sludge accumulation in the lumen. Factors and mechanisms involved in plastic stent clogging arising from epidemiological, clinical and experimental data, as well as the possible strategies to prevent biliary stent failure, will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:17456835

  2. Epidemic investigation of the jaundice outbreak in girdharnagar, ahmedabad, gujarat, India, 2008.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Naresh T; Prajapati, Prakash; Trivedi, Atul V; Bhagyalaxmi, A

    2010-04-01

    Since 1976, seven outbreaks of hepatitis E occurred in Ahmedabad. Clusters of jaundice cases were reported on June 19, 2008, by a civic center, Girdharnagar ward, Ahmedabad. THE OBJECTIVES WERE AS FOLLOWS: (1) to identify the etiological agent, source of outbreak, and mode of transmission; (2) to propose a control measure based on the outbreak investigation. We defined a case as an acute illness with (a) a discrete onset of symptoms and (b) jaundice or elevated serum aminotransferase levels, from March to September 2008 in the households of the Girdharnagar ward. We collected data through a door-to-door survey and hospital records. We described the outbreak in terms of time, place, and person. We collected laboratory investigation reports of case patients admitted to the civil hospital. To test our hypothesis we conducted a retrospective cohort study to find out the relative risk for hepatitis. We conducted environment investigation to find out the source of contamination of water supply. A total 233 case patients of hepatitis were identified with the attack rate of 10.9/1000 population. Cases were reported in all the age groups with a higher attack rate in the age group of 20-29 years (18.5/1000). Out of 17 case patients, 16 were positive for the hepatitis E IgM antibody. The attack rate was two times more among those who were exposed to the leaking pipeline than the non-exposed (RR=2.3, 95% CI 1.76, 2.98). Environmental investigation also confirmed the sewage contamination of drinking water in the distribution system. The outbreak was due to hepatitis E virus. We recommended a temporary alternative water supply, repair of the leakages, and water quality surveillance.

  3. Palliative self-expandable metal stents for acute malignant colorectal obstruction: clinical outcomes and risk factors for complications.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae Pil; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Shin Hee; Choi, Jong Hyo; Jung, Hee Jae; Cho, Youn Hee; Ko, Bong Min; Lee, Moon Sung

    2014-08-01

    Self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) have been used as palliative treatment or bridge to surgery for obstructions caused by colorectal cancer (CRC). We assessed the long-term outcomes of palliative SEMSs and evaluated the risk factors influencing complications. One hundred and seventy-five patients underwent SEMS placement for acute malignant colorectal obstruction. Of the 72 patients who underwent palliative treatment for primary CRC, 30 patients received chemotherapy (CT) for primary cancer (CT group) and 42 underwent best supportive treatment (BST) without CT (BST group). There was a significant difference in late migration between the CT group and the BST group (20.0% in CT group, 2.4% in BST group, p = 0.018). Response to CT influenced the rate of late obstruction (0% in disease control, 35.7% in disease progression, p = 0.014). However, late obstruction was not associated with stent properties, such as diameter or type (≤22 mm vs. >22 mm, 13.5% vs. 14.3%, p = 1.00; uncovered stent vs. covered stent, 15.5% vs. 7.1%, p = 0.675) and migration (≤22 mm vs. >22 mm, 16.2% vs. 2.9%, p = 0.108; uncovered stent vs. covered stent, 8.6% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.615) in palliative SEMS. The administration of CT increases the rate of stent migration, and disease control by CT can reduce the risk of obstruction by maintaining the luminal patency of palliative SEMSs.

  4. Microscopic hematuria and calculus-related ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Stewart, D P; Kowalski, R; Wong, P; Krome, R

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation of patients with ureteral calculi in the emergency department has historically included urinalysis (UA) and intravenous pyelograms (IVP). This retrospective study was done to determine if a statistically significant relationship existed between the degree of calculus-related ureteral obstruction, proven by IVP, and the presence or absence of microscopic hematuria. Urine red blood cells were recorded as less than 3 rbc/hpf (negative) or greater than or equal to 3 rbc/hpf (positive). IVPs were recorded as nonsevere or severe. IVP criteria were based on the presence or absence of extravasation, greater than 2-hour ureteral filling times, and a numerical scoring system of 1 to 4 for ureteral or calyceal dilatation and nephrogenic effect. Eighty-nine men (72%) had non-severe obstructions and 34 (28%) had severe obstructions. Twenty-five women (68%) had nonsevere obstructions and 12 (32%) had severe obstructions. Of the 28 patients with normal UAs, 11 had severe ureteral obstructions and 17 had nonsevere ureteral obstructions. There were no statistically significant differences between the presence or absence of significant microscopic hematuria and the presence or absence of severe ureteral obstruction. Microscopic hematuria is neither sensitive nor specific in determining the degree of calculus-related ureteral obstruction.

  5. Snoring Sounds Predict Obstruction Sites and Surgical Response in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Li-Ang; Lo, Yu-Lun; Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Gui-She; Ni, Yung-Lun; Chen, Ning-Hung; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Huang, Chung-Guei; Cheng, Wen-Nuan; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Snoring sounds generated by different vibrators of the upper airway may be useful indicators of obstruction sites in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). This study aimed to investigate associations between snoring sounds, obstruction sites, and surgical responses (≥50% reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] and <10 events/hour) in patients with OSAHS. This prospective cohort study recruited 36 OSAHS patients for 6-hour snoring sound recordings during in-lab full-night polysomnography, drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE), and relocation pharyngoplasty. All patients received follow-up polysomnography after 6 months. Fifteen (42%) patients with at least two complete obstruction sites defined by DISE were significantly, positively associated with maximal snoring sound intensity (40–300 Hz; odds ratio [OR], 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.49) and body mass index (OR, 1.48, 95% CI 1.02–2.15) after logistic regression analysis. Tonsil obstruction was significantly, inversely correlated with mean snoring sound intensity (301–850 Hz; OR, 0.84, 95% CI 0.74–0.96). Moreover, baseline tonsil obstruction detected by either DISE or mean snoring sound intensity (301–850 Hz), and AHI could significantly predict the surgical response. Our findings suggest that snoring sound detection may be helpful in determining obstruction sites and predict surgical responses. PMID:27471038

  6. [Cardiac structure and function in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and co-prevalent arterial hypertension. Influence of CPAP therapy].

    PubMed

    Duchna, Hans-Werner; Myslinski, Wojciech; Dichmann, Manuel; Rasche, Kurt; Schultze-Werninghaus, Gerhard; Orth, Maritta

    2006-01-15

    30% of patients with arterial hypertension (AH) are supposed to have a co-prevalent obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Hence, the influence of CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) therapy on cardiac structure and function was investigated in medically treated patients with AH and co-prevalent OSAS. In all patients AH was treated for at least 5 years. Matched pairs concerning anthropometric data, medical therapy and duration of AH, and severity of OSAS were investigated: 20 patients with untreated OSAS were compared to 20 patients with CPAP therapy for at least 6 months. Further cardiopulmonary diseases were excluded. Cardiac structure and function were assessed echocardiographically. Patients under CPAP therapy had significantly better diastolic left ventricular function, a lower left ventricular mass index, and significantly less frequent signs of left ventricular (eccentric) hypertrophy than patients with untreated OSAS. Furthermore, differences were significant concerning right ventricular wall thickness and mean pulmonary artery pressure. CPAP therapy positively influences left and right cardial structure and function in addition to antihypertensive medication in patients with AH and co-prevalent OSAS.

  7. Portal Vein Stenting for Portal Biliopathy with Jaundice

    SciTech Connect

    Hyun, Dongho, E-mail: mesentery@naver.com; Park, Kwang Bo, E-mail: kbjh.park@samsung.com; Lim, Seong Joo

    2016-04-15

    Portal biliopathy refers to obstruction of the bile duct by dilated peri- or para-ductal collateral channels following the main portal vein occlusion from various causes. Surgical shunt operation or endoscopic treatment has been reported. Herein, we report a case of portal biliopathy that was successfully treated by interventional portal vein recanalization.

  8. Interventional Endoscopy Database for Pancreatico-biliary, Gastrointestinal and Esophageal Disorders

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-16

    Ampullary Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Bile Duct Disorders; Gallstones; Obstructive Jaundice; Pancreatic Disorders (Noncancerous); Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Barrett's Esophagus; Gastric Malignancies; Pancreatic Cancer; Pediatric Gastroenterology; Cholangiocarcinoma; Pancreatic Pseudocysts; Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis; Recurrent Pancreatitis; Cholangitis; Bile Leak; Biliary Strictures; Pancreatic Divisum; Biliary and Pancreatic Stones; Choledocholithiasis

  9. [Right-sided hemihepatectomy in echinococcosis of the liver in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Blöchle, C; Lloyd, D M; Izbicki, J R; Schröder, S; Brölsch, C E

    1993-07-01

    The treatment of symptomatic echinococcal disease of the liver during pregnancy is a rare, but difficult problem. A 42 year old, pregnant woman with obstructive jaundice and acute cholangitis due to extensive echinococcus cysticus infection of the right hepatic lobe is presented. A formal, right hemihepatectomy was successfully performed.

  10. [A case of gastric outlet obstruction and rectal obstruction due to metastases from breast cancer treated by gastroduodenal and colon stenting].

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yoshihiro; Egawa, Chiyomi; Ishida, Tomo; Sato, Yasufumi; Kusama, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Tadayoshi; Matsushita, Katsunori; Kimura, Kei; Katsura, Yoshiteru; Nitta, Kanae; Kagawa, Yoshinori; Okishiro, Masatsugu; Takeno, Atsushi; Nakahira, Shin; Sakisaka, Hideki; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Takeda, Yutaka; Kato, Takeshi; Tamura, Shigeyuki; Takatsuka, Yuichi

    2014-11-01

    Malignant bowel obstruction often causes oral intake difficulties and decreases quality of life. In Japan, gastroduodenal stenting for malignant gastric outlet obstruction has been covered by health insurance since 2010, while colon stenting has been covered since 2012. Both approaches are useful treatments for malignant bowel obstruction. Here we report the case of a woman with gastric outlet obstruction and rectal obstruction due to breast cancer metastases who was able to eat solid food after duodenal and colon stenting. When choosing whether to perform endoscopic stenting or surgical intervention such as gastrojejunostomy, ileostomy, and colostomy for treating malignant bowel obstruction, it is important to assess the patient's general condition and prognosis as well as the obstruction position.

  11. Mortality from respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and associations with environmental quality.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Respiratory infections (RI) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been identified by the World Health Organization as conditions which may be strongly influenced by environmental factors. We examined the associations between environmental quality and U.S. county m...

  12. Guideline for the Evaluation of Cholestatic Jaundice in Infants: Joint Recommendations of the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fawaz, Rima; Baumann, Ulrich; Ekong, Udeme; Fischler, Björn; Hadzic, Nedim; Mack, Cara L; McLin, Valérie A; Molleston, Jean P; Neimark, Ezequiel; Ng, Vicky L; Karpen, Saul J

    2017-01-01

    Cholestatic jaundice in infancy affects approximately 1 in every 2500 term infants and is infrequently recognized by primary providers in the setting of physiologic jaundice. Cholestatic jaundice is always pathologic and indicates hepatobiliary dysfunction. Early detection by the primary care physician and timely referrals to the pediatric gastroenterologist/hepatologist are important contributors to optimal treatment and prognosis. The most common causes of cholestatic jaundice in the first months of life are biliary atresia (25%-40%) followed by an expanding list of monogenic disorders (25%), along with many unknown or multifactorial (eg, parenteral nutrition-related) causes, each of which may have time-sensitive and distinct treatment plans. Thus, these guidelines can have an essential role for the evaluation of neonatal cholestasis to optimize care. The recommendations from this clinical practice guideline are based upon review and analysis of published literature and the combined experience of the authors. The committee recommends that any infant noted to be jaundiced after 2 weeks of age be evaluated for cholestasis with measurement of total and direct serum bilirubin, and that an elevated serum direct bilirubin level (direct bilirubin levels >1.0 mg/dL or >17 μmol/L) warrants timely consideration for evaluation and referral to a pediatric gastroenterologist or hepatologist. Of note, current differential diagnostic plans now incorporate consideration of modern broad-based next-generation DNA sequencing technologies in the proper clinical context. These recommendations are a general guideline and are not intended as a substitute for clinical judgment or as a protocol for the care of all infants with cholestasis. Broad implementation of these recommendations is expected to reduce the time to the diagnosis of pediatric liver diseases, including biliary atresia, leading to improved outcomes.

  13. New scanner fiber optic delivery system for laser phototherapy in the treatment of neonatal jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Mostafa; Hamza, Mohammad S. E.

    1995-05-01

    The authors have introduced laser phototherapy for the treatment of neonatal jaundice. Clinical trials have demonstrated its high efficacy compared to the conventionally used fluorescent phototherapy. In this paper a new modification to laser irradiation in phototherapy can be achieved by scanning the laser output beam in the selected wavelength of irradiation (488 nm) through a fiberoptic bundle which irradiate the skin of the baby. Scanning of the laser beam provides intermittent irradiation at high frequency, which can provide the same therapeutic efficacy with almost half the power of laser irradiation.

  14. Factors associated with undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnoea among hypertensive patients: A multisite cross-sectional survey study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsiu-Chin; Chen, Ning-Hung; Ho, Wan Jing; Lin, Mei-Hsiang

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the distribution and risk factors associated with undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnoea among hypertensive patients. Obstructive sleep Apnoea has been deemed a cardinal risk factor affecting cardiovascular event, and the condition is still frequently overlooked clinically. The lack of advanced diagnosis often causes hypertensive patients with obstructive sleep apnoea to miss opportunities for preventing chronic diseases. A cross-sectional design. A total of 215 hypertensive participants were recruited from the cardiovascular outpatients of medical centre in northern and middle Taiwan. The Chinese version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the Chinese version of the Epworth Sleep Scale and a portable sleep monitoring device were used for data collection. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the factors affecting hypertensive patients with obstructive sleep apnoea, and a multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine the major influence factors for each obstructive sleep apnoea severity level. 81.9% of the hypertensive participants were found having obstructive sleep apnoea. Concerning to the obstructive sleep apnoea severity, 50.0% of participants had mild obstructive sleep apnoea. After controlling the confounding variables, the supine position (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07), SO 2 (odds ratio, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38-0.89) and oxygen desaturation index (odds ratio, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.18-6.18) were significantly associated with obstructive sleep apnoea. Furthermore, severe obstructive sleep apnoea was significantly correlated with gender (odds ratio, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.00-0.66), excessive daytime sleepiness (odds ratio, 20.27; 95% CI, 1.58-26.97) and oxygen desaturation index (odds ratio, 4.05; 95% CI, 1.86-8.81). Nearly 82% of the hypertensive participants were found having undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnoea, and 80% of them were mild or moderate severity. Oxygen desaturation index, SO 2 and the supine position were found

  15. An unusual case of prolonged post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography jaundice.

    PubMed

    Tziatzios, Georgios; Gkolfakis, Paraskevas; Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Dimitriadis, George; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Despite the effectiveness of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for the treatment of choledocholithiasis, various complications have been described. We herein report the first case of prolonged post-ERCP jaundice due to toxicity of the contrast agent Iobitridol (®XENETIX, Guerbet, Roissy CdG Cedex, France) in a patient who underwent ERCP with sphincterectomy and common bile duct stone removal. While clinical improvement and normalization of aminotransferases and cholestatic enzymes after the procedure, an unexplained increase of direct bilirubin was noticed. A second ERCP was performed one week later, excluding possible remaining choledocholithiasis. Nevertheless, serum direct bilirubin increased further up to 15 mg/dL. Other potential causes of direct hyperbilirubinemia were ruled out and patient's liver biopsy was compatible with drug-induced liver toxicity. Additionally, the cause-result time connection between the use of Iobitridol and bilirubin increase indicated the possibility of a toxic effect related to the repeated use of the particular contrast agent. Iobitridol, a contrast agent, can induce prolonged direct hyperbilirubinemia.

  16. Eosinophilic Cholangitis--A Challenging Diagnosis of Benign Biliary Stricture: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Fragulidis, Georgios Panagiotis; Vezakis, Antonios I; Kontis, Elissaios A; Pantiora, Eirini V; Stefanidis, Gerasimos G; Politi, Aikaterini N; Koutoulidis, Vasilios K; Mela, Maria K; Polydorou, Andreas A

    2016-01-01

    When confronting a biliary stricture, both benign and malignant etiologies must be carefully considered as a variety of benign biliary strictures can masquerade as hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Therefore, patients could undergo a major surgery despite the possibility of a benign biliary disease. Approximately 15% to 24% of patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected biliary malignancy will have benign pathology. Eosinophilic cholangitis (EC) is a rare benign disorder of the biliary tract, which can cause obstructive jaundice and can pose a difficult diagnostic task. We present a rare case of a young woman who was referred to our hospital with obstructive painless jaundice due to a biliary stricture at the confluence of the hepatic bile ducts, with a provisional diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. Though, during her work up she was found to have EC, an extremely rare benign cause of biliary stricture, which is characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tree causing stricturing, fibrosis, and obstruction and which is reversible with short-term high-dose steroids. Despite its rarity, EC should be taken into consideration when imaging modalities demonstrate a biliary stricture, especially if preoperative diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made, in the setting of peripheral eosinophilia and the absence of cardinal symptoms of malignancy.

  17. Is ursodeoxycholic acid detrimental in obstructive cholestasis? A propos of a case of malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Bessone, Fernando; Roma, Marcelo Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the first choice medication for most cholestatic hepatopathies, due to its capability to counteract inflammation and bile-acid-induced liver damage, two common features in cholestasis. However, UDCA is usually contraindicated in obstructive cholestasis, due to the alleged risk of biliary integrity disruption due to its choleretic effect. We report on an 83-year-old man with an unsuspected malignant biliary obstruction who received moderate doses of UDCA (8-12 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks, because the preliminary evidence suggested he had chemotherapy-induced cholestasis. Liver integrity was extensively protected by UDCA, as indicated by a marked decrease in serum liver enzymes, despite a steady increase in the levels of bilirubin and serum bile acids due to the obstructive process. In conclusion, this report shows, for the first time in humans, that moderate UDCA doses can reduce liver injury associated with complete biliary obstruction. This may contribute to a better understanding of the risk-benefit ratio of the use of UDCA in obstructive cholangiopathies.

  18. Obstructive uropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the kidney and causes it to become swollen ( hydronephrosis ). Obstructive uropathy can affect one or both kidneys. ... occurs during pregnancy. This condition is called idiopathic hydronephrosis of pregnancy.

  19. Agreement between Results of Home Sleep Testing for Obstructive Sleep Apnea with and without a Sleep Specialist

    PubMed Central

    Aurora, R. Nisha; Putcha, Nirupama; Swartz, Rachel; Punjabi, Naresh M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea is a prevalent yet underdiagnosed condition associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Home sleep testing offers an efficient means for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea but has primarily been deployed in clinical samples with a high pretest probability. The current study sought to assess if obstructive sleep apnea can be diagnosed with home sleep testing in a non-referred sample without involvement of a sleep medicine specialist. Methods A study of community-based adults with untreated obstructive sleep apnea was undertaken. Misclassification of disease severity based on home sleep testing with and without involvement of a sleep medicine specialist was assessed, and agreement was characterized using scatter plots, Pearson's correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman analysis, and the kappa statistic. Analyses were also conducted to assess whether any observed differences varied as a function of pretest probability of obstructive sleep apnea or subjective sleepiness. Results The sample consisted of 191 subjects with over half (56.5%) having obstructive sleep apnea. Without involvement of a sleep medicine specialist, obstructive sleep apnea was not identified in only 5.8% of the sample. Analyses comparing the categorical assessment of disease severity with and without a sleep medicine specialist showed that in total, 32 subjects (16.8%) were misclassified. Agreement in the disease severity with and without a sleep medicine specialist was not influenced by the pretest probability or daytime sleep tendency. Conclusion Obstructive sleep apnea can be reliably identified with home sleep testing in a non-referred sample irrespective of the pretest probability of the disease. PMID:26968467

  20. Agreement Between Results of Home Sleep Testing for Obstructive Sleep Apnea with and Without a Sleep Specialist.

    PubMed

    Aurora, R Nisha; Putcha, Nirupama; Swartz, Rachel; Punjabi, Naresh M

    2016-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a prevalent yet underdiagnosed condition associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Home sleep testing offers an efficient means for diagnosing obstructive sleep apnea but has been deployed primarily in clinical samples with a high pretest probability. The present study sought to assess whether obstructive sleep apnea can be diagnosed with home sleep testing in a nonreferred sample without involvement of a sleep medicine specialist. A study of community-based adults with untreated obstructive sleep apnea was undertaken. Misclassification of disease severity according to home sleep testing with and without involvement of a sleep medicine specialist was assessed, and agreement was characterized using scatter plots, Pearson's correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman analysis, and the κ statistic. Analyses were also conducted to assess whether any observed differences varied as a function of pretest probability of obstructive sleep apnea or subjective sleepiness. The sample consisted of 191 subjects, with more than half (56.5%) having obstructive sleep apnea. Without involvement of a sleep medicine specialist, obstructive sleep apnea was not identified in only 5.8% of the sample. Analyses comparing the categorical assessment of disease severity with and without a sleep medicine specialist showed that in total, 32 subjects (16.8%) were misclassified. Agreement in the disease severity with and without a sleep medicine specialist was not influenced by the pretest probability or daytime sleep tendency. Obstructive sleep apnea can be reliably identified with home sleep testing in a nonreferred sample, irrespective of the pretest probability of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of biofeedback on obstructive defecation--reconditioning of the defecation reflex?

    PubMed Central

    Papachrysostomou, M; Smith, A N

    1994-01-01

    Twenty two patients with obstructive defecation were recruited for relaxation training by domiciliary self regulatory biofeedback. Each patient served as his or her own control for anorectal and proctographic assessments. Biofeedback training improved the obstructive symptoms of the patients and showed significant change in various parameters related to the obstructive defecation syndrome. As examined by isotope dynamic proctography: the defecation rate (% of evacuation/defecation time) was significantly increased (p < 0.05), the anorectal angles at rest and during attempted defecation were made more obtuse (p < 0.05), and the pelvic floor movements were made more dynamic on voluntary contraction of the anal sphincter (p < 0.03). The external anal sphincter electromyographic voltage recorded during defecation was significantly reduced (p < 0.0005) as was the surface anal plug electromyographic electrode voltage (p < 0.0001), which was associated with a greatly reduced anismus index (p < 0.0001). The rectal sensation was improved (p < 0.05), concomitantly. Biofeedback thus improves the defecation act in patients suffering from inappropriate contraction of the pelvic floor and sphincter musculature. Furthermore, this study has shown that biofeedback objectively influences the defecation reflex leading to an improved quality of higher control of bowel function. PMID:8307478

  2. Trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction in New World camelids.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Eileen K; Callan, Robert J; Holt, Timothy N; Van Metre, David C

    2005-01-01

    To describe clinical findings, surgical treatment, and outcome associated with trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction in New World camelids. Retrospective study. Alpacas (7) and 1 llama. Historical and clinical data were obtained from the medical records of New World camelids with a diagnosis of trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction confirmed by surgical exploration or necropsy. Seven camelids were <1 year old. Abnormal clinical findings included anorexia, reduced fecal output, recumbency, colic, abdominal distension, regurgitation, decreased serum chloride concentration, increased serum bicarbonate concentration, and/or elevated first gastric compartment chloride concentration. Survey abdominal radiographs obtained (4 animals) revealed gastric distension (4) and/or visualization of the obstruction (2). Diagnosis was confirmed at necropsy (1) or surgery (7). Right paracostal celiotomy was performed on all animals and duodenotomy (3) or retropulsion of the trichophytobezoar combined with third compartment gastrotomy (4) was used to remove the obstruction. Six animals survived to discharge and 5 were healthy at follow-up, 8-20 months later. The remaining discharged alpaca was healthy at 12 months but subsequently died of unrelated causes. Diagnosis of trichophytobezoar duodenal obstruction should be considered in juvenile New World camelids with abdominal distension and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Right paracostal celiotomy can be used for access to the descending duodenum and third gastric compartment for surgical relief of obstruction. Duodenal obstruction from bezoars should be considered in New World camelids <1year of age with abdominal distension and hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Surgical relief of the obstruction by right paracostal celiotomy has a good prognosis.

  3. The influence of camouflage, obstruction, familiarity and spatial ability on target identification from an unmanned ground vehicle.

    PubMed

    Fincannon, Thomas; Keebler, Joseph R; Jentsch, Florian; Curtis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of environmental and cognitive factors on the identification of targets from an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). This was accomplished by manipulating obstruction, camouflage and familiarity of objects in the environment, while also measuring spatial ability. The effects of these variables on target identification were studied by measuring performance of participants that observed pre-recorded video from a 1:35 scaled military operations in urban terrain facility. Analyses indicated that a combination of camouflage and obstruction caused the most detrimental effects on performance, and that there were differences in the recognition of familiar and unfamiliar targets. Further analysis indicated that these detrimental effects could only be overcome with a combination of target familiarity and spatial ability. The findings highlight the degree to which environmental factors hinder performance and the need for a multidimensional approach for improving performance under these conditions. Areas in need of future research are also discussed. Cognitive theory is applied to the problem of perception from UGVs. Results from an experimental study indicate that a combination of camouflage and obstruction caused the most detrimental effects on performance, with differences in the recognition of both familiar and unfamiliar targets. Familiarity and spatial ability interacted to predict the performance.

  4. 49 CFR 236.382 - Switch obstruction test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch obstruction test. 236.382 Section 236.382... and Tests § 236.382 Switch obstruction test. Switch obstruction test of lock rod of each power-operated switch and lock rod of each hand-operated switch equipped with switch-and-lock-movement shall be...

  5. 49 CFR 236.382 - Switch obstruction test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switch obstruction test. 236.382 Section 236.382... and Tests § 236.382 Switch obstruction test. Switch obstruction test of lock rod of each power-operated switch and lock rod of each hand-operated switch equipped with switch-and-lock-movement shall be...

  6. 49 CFR 236.382 - Switch obstruction test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch obstruction test. 236.382 Section 236.382... and Tests § 236.382 Switch obstruction test. Switch obstruction test of lock rod of each power-operated switch and lock rod of each hand-operated switch equipped with switch-and-lock-movement shall be...

  7. 49 CFR 236.382 - Switch obstruction test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switch obstruction test. 236.382 Section 236.382... and Tests § 236.382 Switch obstruction test. Switch obstruction test of lock rod of each power-operated switch and lock rod of each hand-operated switch equipped with switch-and-lock-movement shall be...

  8. 49 CFR 236.382 - Switch obstruction test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switch obstruction test. 236.382 Section 236.382... and Tests § 236.382 Switch obstruction test. Switch obstruction test of lock rod of each power-operated switch and lock rod of each hand-operated switch equipped with switch-and-lock-movement shall be...

  9. Postrenal acute kidney injury in a patient with unilateral ureteral obstruction caused by urolithiasis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kazama, Itsuro; Nakajima, Toshiyuki

    2017-10-01

    In patients with bilateral ureteral obstruction, the serum creatinine levels are often elevated, sometimes causing postrenal acute kidney injury (AKI). In contrast, those with unilateral ureteral obstruction present normal serum creatinine levels, as long as their contralateral kidneys are preserved intact. However, the unilateral obstruction of the ureter could affect the renal function, as it humorally influences the renal hemodynamics. A 66-year-old man with a past medical history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus came to our outpatient clinic because of right abdominal dullness. Unilateral ureteral obstruction caused by a radio-opaque calculus in the right upper ureter and a secondary renal dysfunction. As oral hydration and the use of calcium antagonists failed to allow the spontaneous stone passage, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was performed. Immediately after the passage of the stone, the number of red blood cells in the urine was dramatically decreased and the serum creatinine level almost returned to the normal range with the significant increase in glomerular filtration rate. Unilateral ureteral obstruction by the calculus, which caused reflex vascular constriction and ureteral spasm in the contralateral kidney, was thought to be responsible for the deteriorating renal function.

  10. Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy: the Mayo Clinic experience.

    PubMed

    Kotkar, Kunal D; Said, Sameh M; Dearani, Joseph A; Schaff, Hartzell V

    2017-07-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary myocardial disease characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy in the absence of other etiologies. Clinical presentation may vary from asymptomatic to sudden cardiac death. Medical treatment is the first-line therapy for symptomatic patients. Extended left ventricular septal myectomy is the procedure of choice if medical treatment is unsuccessful or intolerable. More than 3,000 patients have had septal myectomy for HCM at the Mayo Clinic (MN, USA) from 1993 to 2016. Risk of hospital death after isolated septal myectomy for obstructive HCM is <1% and is similar to the risk of operation for elective mitral valve repair. Complications, such as complete heart block requiring permanent pacemaker, are uncommon (2%), although partial or complete left bundle branch block is a frequent finding on the postoperative ECG. Relief of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction with septal myectomy dramatically improves symptoms and exercise capacity in symptomatic patients with obstructive HCM. More than 90% of severely symptomatic patients have improvement by at least two functional classes, and reduction of outflow gradients by myectomy decreases or eliminates symptoms of dyspnea, angina and/or syncope. Basal obstruction with systolic anterior motion (SAM) is treated by transaortic myectomy. The transapical approach was applied in 115 patients with obstructive midventricular and apical variants of HCM between 1993 and 2012. All patients with midventricular obstruction had gradient relief and none developed an apical aneurysm or ventricular septal defect. Recurrent obstruction after satisfactory myectomy was rare. Septal myectomy effectively and definitively relieves LVOT obstruction and cardiac symptoms in patients with obstructive HCM. In experienced centers, early mortality for isolated septal myectomy is less than 1%, and overall results are excellent and continue to improve in the current era.

  11. [Extrinsic compression of the hepatocholedocus caused by cavernomatosis of the portal vein. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Carpani, M; Guma, C I; Casal, M A

    1982-01-01

    The extrinsic compression of the hepatocholedochus by a cavernomatosis of the portal vein, is an unusual pathology. The present case begun clinically as an obstructive jaundice, assuming that the vascular origin of the compression increased the litiasic biliary disease. The percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography was the diagnostic method that suggested a double illness of the biliary system. The surgery and the pathology certificated the diagnosis. The correct treatment once confirmed the obstructive trial, must be: the extraction of the biliary gallstones and the bile-digestive derivation (preferently the hepatic-jejunum anastomosis in Y of Roux).

  12. 33 CFR 67.20-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.20-5... Obstruction lights. The obstruction lights shall be white lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of this part. The lights shall be of sufficient candlepower as to be visible at a distance of at least five nautical...

  13. 33 CFR 67.20-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.20-5... Obstruction lights. The obstruction lights shall be white lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of this part. The lights shall be of sufficient candlepower as to be visible at a distance of at least five nautical...

  14. 33 CFR 67.20-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.20-5... Obstruction lights. The obstruction lights shall be white lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of this part. The lights shall be of sufficient candlepower as to be visible at a distance of at least five nautical...

  15. 33 CFR 67.20-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.20-5... Obstruction lights. The obstruction lights shall be white lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of this part. The lights shall be of sufficient candlepower as to be visible at a distance of at least five nautical...

  16. 33 CFR 67.20-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.20-5... Obstruction lights. The obstruction lights shall be white lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of this part. The lights shall be of sufficient candlepower as to be visible at a distance of at least five nautical...

  17. Tuberculosis associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Malay; Srinivasa; Madabhavi, Irappa; Kumar, Kushal

    2017-05-01

    Reviewed the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, mechanisms, and treatment of tuberculosis associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the CINAHL from inception to June 2016. We used the following search terms: Tuberculosis, COPD, Tuberculosis associated COPD, and so forth. All types of study were chosen. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and tuberculosis are significant public health problems, particularly in developing countries. Although, smoking is the conventional risk factor for COPD, nonsmoking related risk factors such as biomass fuel exposure, childhood lower-respiratory tract infections, chronic asthma, outdoor air pollution, and prior history of pulmonary tuberculosis have become important risk factors of COPD, particularly in developing countries. Past history of tuberculosis as a risk factor of chronic airflow obstruction has been reported in several studies. It may develop during the course of tuberculosis or after completion of tuberculosis treatment. Developing countries with large burden of tuberculosis can contribute significantly to the burden of chronic airflow obstruction. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis should be emphasized to lessen the future burden of chronic airflow obstruction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Stenting in Malignant Biliary Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Almadi, Majid A; Barkun, Jeffrey S; Barkun, Alan N

    2015-10-01

    Decompression of the biliary system in patients with malignant biliary obstruction has been widely accepted and implemented as part of the care. Despite a wealth of literature, there remains a significant amount of uncertainty as to which approach would be most appropriate in different clinical settings. This review covers stenting of the biliary system in cases of resectable or palliative malignant biliary obstruction, potential candidates for biliary drainage, technical aspects of the procedure, as well as management of biliary stent dysfunction. Furthermore, periprocedural considerations including proper mapping of the location of obstruction and the use of antibiotics are addressed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Severe jaundice due to coexistence of Dubin-Johnson syndrome and hereditary spherocytosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Uğur; Duman, Ali Erkan; Oğütmen Koç, Deniz; Gürbüz, Yeşim; Dındar, Gökhan; Ensaroğlu, Fatih; Sener, Selçuk Yusuf; Sentürk, Omer; Hülagü, Sadettin

    2011-08-01

    Dubin-Johnson syndrome is a chronic, benign, intermittent jaundice, mostly of conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. The level of bilirubin is not expected to be more than 20 mg/dl in this syndrome. In this article, we report a patient who was evaluated for hyperbilirubinemia and liver function test abnormalities and diagnosed with Dubin-Johnson syndrome coexisting with hereditary spherocytosis. We suggest that other diseases should be investigated if patients with Dubin-Johnson syndrome present with severe hyperbilirubinemia. Dubin-Johnson syndrome accompanied by hemolytic diseases might also have high coproporphyrin levels (as in Rotor's syndrome) than expected in pure Dubin-Johnson syndrome.

  20. Mir-29 repression in bladder outlet obstruction contributes to matrix remodeling and altered stiffness.

    PubMed

    Ekman, Mari; Bhattachariya, Anirban; Dahan, Diana; Uvelius, Bengt; Albinsson, Sebastian; Swärd, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has uncovered a role of the microRNA (miRNA) miR-29 in remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Partial bladder outlet obstruction is a prevalent condition in older men with prostate enlargement that leads to matrix synthesis in the lower urinary tract and increases bladder stiffness. Here we tested the hypothesis that miR-29 is repressed in the bladder in outlet obstruction and that this has an impact on protein synthesis and matrix remodeling leading to increased bladder stiffness. c-Myc, NF-κB and SMAD3, all of which repress miR-29, were activated in the rat detrusor following partial bladder outlet obstruction but at different times. c-Myc and NF-κB activation occurred early after obstruction, and SMAD3 phosphorylation increased later, with a significant elevation at 6 weeks. c-Myc, NF-κB and SMAD3 activation, respectively, correlated with repression of miR-29b and miR-29c at 10 days of obstruction and with repression of miR-29c at 6 weeks. An mRNA microarray analysis showed that the reduction of miR-29 following outlet obstruction was associated with increased levels of miR-29 target mRNAs, including mRNAs for tropoelastin, the matricellular protein Sparc and collagen IV. Outlet obstruction increased protein levels of eight out of eight examined miR-29 targets, including tropoelastin and Sparc. Transfection of human bladder smooth muscle cells with antimiR-29c and miR-29c mimic caused reciprocal changes in target protein levels in vitro. Tamoxifen inducible and smooth muscle-specific deletion of Dicer in mice reduced miR-29 expression and increased tropoelastin and the thickness of the basal lamina surrounding smooth muscle cells in the bladder. It also increased detrusor stiffness independent of outlet obstruction. Taken together, our study supports a model where the combined repressive influences of c-Myc, NF-κB and SMAD3 reduce miR-29 in bladder outlet obstruction, and where the resulting drop in miR-29 contributes to matrix remodeling and

  1. 33 CFR 67.30-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.30-5... Obstruction lights. (a) The obstruction lights shall be white or red lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of... nautical mile 90 percent of the nights of the year. The lights shall be displayed at such height, above...

  2. 33 CFR 67.25-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.25-5... Obstruction lights. (a) The obstruction lights shall be white lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of this... miles 90 percent of the nights of the year. The lights shall be displayed not less than 20 feet above...

  3. 33 CFR 67.30-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.30-5... Obstruction lights. (a) The obstruction lights shall be white or red lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of... nautical mile 90 percent of the nights of the year. The lights shall be displayed at such height, above...

  4. 33 CFR 67.30-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.30-5... Obstruction lights. (a) The obstruction lights shall be white or red lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of... nautical mile 90 percent of the nights of the year. The lights shall be displayed at such height, above...

  5. 33 CFR 67.25-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.25-5... Obstruction lights. (a) The obstruction lights shall be white lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of this... miles 90 percent of the nights of the year. The lights shall be displayed not less than 20 feet above...

  6. 33 CFR 67.30-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.30-5... Obstruction lights. (a) The obstruction lights shall be white or red lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of... nautical mile 90 percent of the nights of the year. The lights shall be displayed at such height, above...

  7. 33 CFR 67.30-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.30-5... Obstruction lights. (a) The obstruction lights shall be white or red lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of... nautical mile 90 percent of the nights of the year. The lights shall be displayed at such height, above...

  8. 33 CFR 67.25-5 - Obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obstruction lights. 67.25-5... Obstruction lights. (a) The obstruction lights shall be white lights as prescribed in Subpart 67.05 of this... miles 90 percent of the nights of the year. The lights shall be displayed not less than 20 feet above...

  9. Bowel obstruction complicated by ischemia: analysis of CT findings.

    PubMed

    Cox, Veronica L; Tahvildari, Ali M; Johnson, Benjamin; Wei, Wei; Jeffrey, R Brooke

    2018-06-01

    To analyze CT signs of bowel ischemia in patients with surgical bowel obstruction, and thereby improve CT diagnosis in this common clinical scenario. Surgical and histopathological findings were used as the reference standard. We retrospectively analyzed CT findings in patients brought to surgery for bowel obstruction over 13 years. Etiology of obstruction (adhesion, hernia, etc.) was recorded. Specific CT features of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) were analyzed, including bowel wall thickening, mucosal hypoenhancement, and others. 173 cases were eligible for analysis. 21% of cases were positive for bowel ischemia. Volvulus, internal hernia, and closed-loop obstructions showed ischemia rates of 60%, 43%, and 43%; ischemia rate in obstruction from simple adhesion was 21%. Patients with bowel obstruction related to malignancy were never ischemic. Sensitivities and specificities for CT features predicting ischemia were calculated, with wall thickening, hypoenhancement, and pneumatosis showing high specificity for ischemia (86%-100%). Wall thickening, hypoenhancement, and pneumatosis are highly specific CT signs of ischemia in the setting of obstruction. None of the evaluated CT signs were found to be highly sensitive. Overall frequency of ischemia in surgical bowel obstruction is 21%, and 2-3 times that for complex obstructions (volvulus, closed loop, etc.). Obstructions related to malignancy virtually never become ischemic.

  10. Influence of smoking on sleep and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Deleanu, Oana-Claudia; Pocora, Diana; Mihălcuţă, Stefan; Ulmeanu, Ruxandra; Zaharie, Ana-Maria; Mihălţan, Florin Dumitru

    2016-01-01

    The various ill effects that tobacco smoking has on health have been largely studied, particularly on vascular, neoplastic, and respiratory diseases. Lately, the discussion about the negative impact of cigarette smoking moved towards sleep medicine. Tobacco consumption has been associated with sleep disordered architecture, both during regular intake and after withdrawal. Its effects on sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) still remain a matter of debate. It is unclear whether smoking represents a risk factor for OSAS or whether smoking cessation has any beneficial effects on OSAS and its therapy. There seems to be a synergistic effect between smoking and OSAS, both causing an increase in cardiovascular morbidity. Future studies are needed in order to establish the strength of this association. We aim to review the literature regarding the consequences of smoking on sleep architecture and SDB, adding emphasis on OSAS clinical implications and treatment.

  11. Localization of glossopharyngeal obstruction using nasopharyngeal tube versus Friedman tongue position classification in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuhua; Hei, Renyi; Wu, Dahai; Shi, Hongjin

    2014-08-01

    Assessing the severity of glossopharyngeal obstruction is important for the diagnosis and therapy of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). The polysomnography (PSG) with nasopharyngeal tube insertion (NPT-PSG) has shown good results in assessing glossopharyngeal obstruction. The objective of this study was to compare NPT-PSG with Friedman tongue position (FTP) classification which was also used to evaluate the glossopharyngeal obstruction. One hundred and five patients with OSAHS diagnosed by PSG were included in the study. All the patients were successfully examined by NPT-PSG. Based on the grade of FTP classification, 105 patients were divided into four groups. The differences of the general clinical data, PSG and NPT-PSG results were analyzed among the four groups. And the coincidence of diagnosing glossopharyngeal obstruction of two methods was calculated. There was no significant difference among the four groups in general clinical data and PSG results. However, NPT-PSG results were significantly different among the four groups. Following with the increasing FTP, apnea hypopnea index increased and lowest saturation of blood oxygen decreased. There were 38 patients with and other 38 patients without glossopharyngeal obstruction diagnosed by both methods. The coincidence of two methods was 72.4 %. NPT-PSG is an easy and effective method in assessing the severity of glossopharyngeal obstruction. The coincidence between the NPT-PSG and FTP classification is good. But in some special OSAHS patients such as glossoptosis, unsuccessful uvulopalatopharyngoplasty or suspicious pachyglossia, NPT-PSG is better than FTP classification.

  12. [Anthelmintics as a risk factor in intestinal obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides in children].

    PubMed

    Vásquez Tsuji, O; Gutiérrez Castrellón, P; Yamazaki Nakashimada, M A; Arredondo Suárez, J C; Campos Riveral, T; Martínez Barbosa, I

    2000-01-01

    by step (Backward) logistic regression conditioned by the treatment variable with an anthelmintic, an X2 = 38.15 gl, p < 0.000 was obtained for which reason it was considered by A. lumbricoides. Of the probable risk factors analyzed in this study, the only one capable of influencing and predicting the presentation of intestinal obstruction by A. lumbricoides in children, was the prior anthelmintic treatment particularly with mebendazol.

  13. Intestinal obstruction

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the bowel may be due to: A mechanical cause, which means something is in the way ... lung disease Use of certain medicines, especially narcotics Mechanical causes of intestinal obstruction may include: Adhesions or ...

  14. The role of the actinomyces in obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy and recurrent tonsillitis in pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Kutluhan, Ahmet; Salvız, Mehti; Yalçıner, Gökhan; Kandemir, Olcay; Yeşil, Cemile

    2011-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of tonsillar Actinomyces in subjects with recurrent tonsillitis and those with obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy, and to determine the association between the presence of Actinomyces and tonsillar volume, and crypt abscess. A prospective designed cross-sectional study consisted of 90 children subjects who underwent tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy for recurrent tonsillitis and obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy. The subjects of recurrent tonsillitis (Group A) and obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy (Group B) were compared to the presence of Actinomyces. The relationship between the presence of Actinomyces and the presence of crypt abscess, and tonsillar volume were also compared. Actinomyces was found to be significantly more prominent in obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy group (61.5%) compared to recurrent tonsillitis group (26.6%) (p<0.001). Additionally, the mean tonsillar volume was significantly higher in tonsils with Actinomyces than those without (p<0.001). The histopathological study revealed that there was no significant inflammatory response to the existence of Actinomyces. According to the presented study, Actinomyces was seen more prominent in subjects with obstructive tonsillar hypertrophy compared those with recurrent tonsillitis. Furthermore Actinomyces had a pathological influence on tonsil size. This study showed there was a significant relation between Actinomyces and enlargement of tonsillar tissue. However, how causes tonsillar hypertrophy is not understood yet in tonsillar disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biliary complications of cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajeev M; Shetty, Tilakdas S; Singh, Rajinder; Adhikari, Devbrata R; Patil, Bhushan P; Bhange, Snehal A

    2008-01-01

    Biliary complications occur because of causes such as obscure or variant anatomy, predisposing conditions such as fibrosis or severe inflammation, equipment failure, and surgeon factors. The aim of this study was to review the optimal surgical treatment. Analysis of 81 patients with bile duct injuries treated in a single referral unit over an 8.5-year period was done. Time of detection of biliary injury and its presentation were ascertained as well as the level of injury (Strasburg's). In 8 patients, injury was detected intraoperatively, and 41 were detected in the early postoperative period with bile leak (n = 25) or obstructive jaundice (n = 10). Those diagnosed in the delayed postoperative period (n = 32) presented with recurrent cholangitis (n = 9), obstructive jaundice (n = 16), and a cholestatic enzymatic profile (n = 1). Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy was the preferred option (n = 64). One patient died because of biliary peritonitis. Improper treatment is associated with disastrous results, but early recognition and correct management can lead to a successful outcome and good prognosis.

  16. Self-expandable metallic stents vs. plastic stents for endoscopic biliary drainage in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kwang Hyun; Lee, Sang Hyub; Park, Jin Myung; Lee, Jae Min; Ahn, Dong-Won; Ryu, Ji Kon; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2015-06-01

    The patency of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) is known to be better than plastic stents in the palliation of malignant biliary obstruction. However, data are scarce for obstructive jaundice caused by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to compare SEMSs and plastic stents for the palliation of obstructive jaundice in unresectable HCC. A total of 96 patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage with SEMSs or plastic stents were included in this retrospective analysis. The rate of successful biliary drainage, adverse events, stent patency duration, and patient survival were compared between the SEMS (n = 36) and plastic stent (n = 60) groups. The rate of successful biliary drainage was similar between the SEMS and plastic stent groups (25/36 [69.4 %] vs. 39/60 [65.0 %]; P = 0.655). Adverse events occurred in 6 patients (16.7 %) in the SEMS group and 13 patients (21.7 %) in the plastic stent group (P = 0.552). The median patency duration was also similar between the two groups (60 vs. 68 days; P = 0.396). The median patient survival was longer in the plastic stent group than in the SEMS group (123 vs. 48 days; P = 0.005). SEMSs were not superior to plastic stents for the palliation of malignant biliary obstruction in HCC with regard to successful drainage, stent patency, and adverse events. Patient survival was better in the plastic stent group. Given the lower cost, plastic stents could be a favorable option for malignant biliary obstruction caused by HCC. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Effect of obstructive sleep apnoea on severity and short-term prognosis of acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barbé, Ferran; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Alicia; Abad, Jorge; Durán-Cantolla, Joaquin; Mediano, Olga; Amilibia, Jose; Masdeu, Maria José; Florés, Marina; Barceló, Antonia; de la Peña, Mónica; Aldomá, Albina; Worner, Fernando; Valls, Joan; Castellà, Gerard; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel

    2015-02-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence of obstructive sleep apnoea on the severity and short-term prognosis of patients admitted for acute coronary syndrome. Obstructive sleep apnoea was defined as an apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) >15 h(-1). We evaluated the acute coronary syndrome severity (ejection fraction, Killip class, number of diseased vessels, and plasma peak troponin) and short-term prognosis (length of hospitalisation, complications and mortality). We included 213 patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (mean±sd AHI 30±14 h(-1), 61±10 years, 80% males) and 218 controls (AHI 6±4 h(-1), 57±12 years, 82% males). Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea exhibited a higher prevalence of systemic hypertension (55% versus 37%, p<0.001), higher body mass index (29±4 kg·m(-2) versus 26±4 kg·m(-2), p<0.001), and lower percentage of smokers (61% versus 71%, p=0.04). After adjusting for smoking, age, body mass index and hypertension, the plasma peak troponin levels were significantly elevated in the obstructive sleep apnoea group (831±908 ng·L(-1) versus 987±884 ng·L(-1), p=0.03) and higher AHI severity was associated with an increased number of diseased vessels (p=0.04). The mean length of stay in the coronary care unit was higher in the obstructive sleep apnoea group (p=0.03). This study indicates that obstructive sleep apnoea is related to an increase in the peak plasma troponin levels, number of diseased vessels, and length of stay in the coronary care unit. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  18. Congenital Urinary Tract Obstruction: The Long View

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Maldevelopment of the collecting system resulting in urinary tract obstruction (UTO) is the leading identifiable cause of CKD in children. Specific etiologies are unknown; most cases are suspected by discovering hydronephrosis on prenatal ultrasonography. Congenital UTO can reduce nephron number and cause bladder dysfunction, which contribute to ongoing injury. Severe UTO can impair kidney growth in utero, and animal models of unilateral ureteral obstruction show that ischemia and oxidative stress cause proximal tubular cell death, with later development of interstitial fibrosis. Congenital obstructive nephropathy therefore results from combined developmental and obstructive renal injury. Due to inadequacy of available biomarkers, criteria for surgical correction of upper tract obstruction are poorly established. Lower tract obstruction requires fetal or immediate postnatal intervention, and the rate of progression of CKD is highly variable. New biomarkers based on proteomics and determination of glomerular number by MRI should improve future care. Angiotensin inhibitors have not been effective in slowing progression, although avoidance of nephrotoxins and timely treatment of hypertension are important. Because congenital UTO begins in fetal life, smooth transfer of care from perinatologist to pediatric and adult urology and nephrology teams should optimize quality of life and ultimate outcomes for these patients. PMID:26088076

  19. Bladder outlet obstruction in women: definition and characteristics.

    PubMed

    Groutz, A; Blaivas, J G; Chaikin, D C

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of bladder outlet obstruction in women is unknown and most probably has been underestimated. Moreover, there are no standard definitions for the diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction in women. Our study was conducted to define as well as to examine the clinical and urodynamic characteristics of bladder outlet obstruction among women referred for evaluation of voiding symptoms. Bladder outlet obstruction was defined as a persistent, low, maximum "free" flow rate of <12 mL/s in repeated non-invasive uroflow studies, combined with high detrusor pressure at a maximum flow (p(det.Q)(max) >20 cm H(2)O) during detrusor pressure-uroflow studies. A urodynamic database of 587 consecutive women identified 38 (6.5%) women with bladder outlet obstruction. The mean age of the patients was 63.9 +/- 17.5 years. The mean maximum "free" flow, voided volume, and residual urinary volume were 9.4 +/-3.9 mL/s, 144. 9 +/- 72.7 mL, and 86.1 +/- 98.8 mL, respectively. The mean p(det. Q)(max) was 37.2 +/- 19.2 cm H(2)O. Previous anti-incontinence surgery and severe genital prolapse were the most common etiologies, accounting for half of the cases. Other, less common, etiologies included urethral stricture (13%), primary bladder neck obstruction (8%), learned voiding dysfunction (5%), and detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia (5%). Symptomatology was defined as mixed obstructive and irritative in 63% of the patients, isolated irritative in 29%, and isolated obstructive in other 8%. In conclusion, bladder outlet obstruction in women appears to be more common than was previously recognized, occurring in 6.5% of our patients. Micturition symptoms relevant to bladder outlet obstruction are non-specific, and a full urodynamic evaluation is essential in making the correct diagnosis and formulating a treatment plan.

  20. Genome-Wide Association Studies Identify CHRNA5/3 and HTR4 in the Development of Airflow Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Shrine, Nick R. G.; Loehr, Laura R.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Manichaikul, Ani; Lopez, Lorna M.; Smith, Albert Vernon; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smolonska, Joanna; Tang, Wenbo; Loth, Daan W.; Curjuric, Ivan; Hui, Jennie; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Henry, Amanda P.; Aldrich, Melinda; Bakke, Per; Beaty, Terri H.; Bentley, Amy R.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Burkart, Kristin M.; Chen, Ting-hsu; Couper, David; Crapo, James D.; Davies, Gail; Dupuis, Josée; Franceschini, Nora; Gulsvik, Amund; Hancock, Dana B.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hofman, Albert; Imboden, Medea; James, Alan L.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lahousse, Lies; Launer, Lenore J.; Litonjua, Augusto; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt K.; Lomas, David A.; Lumley, Thomas; Marciante, Kristin D.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Meibohm, Bernd; Morrison, Alanna C.; Musk, Arthur W.; Myers, Richard H.; North, Kari E.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rich, Stephen S.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rochat, Thierry; Rotter, Jerome I.; Artigas, María Soler; Starr, John M.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Zanen, Pieter; Province, Michael A.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Deary, Ian J.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Cassano, Patricia A.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Barr, R. Graham; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Strachan, David P.; London, Stephanie J.; Boezen, H. Marike; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Gharib, Sina A.; Hall, Ian P.; O’Connor, George T.; Tobin, Martin D.; Stricker, Bruno H.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified loci influencing lung function, but fewer genes influencing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are known. Objectives: Perform meta-analyses of GWAS for airflow obstruction, a key pathophysiologic characteristic of COPD assessed by spirometry, in population-based cohorts examining all participants, ever smokers, never smokers, asthma-free participants, and more severe cases. Methods: Fifteen cohorts were studied for discovery (3,368 affected; 29,507 unaffected), and a population-based family study and a meta-analysis of case-control studies were used for replication and regional follow-up (3,837 cases; 4,479 control subjects). Airflow obstruction was defined as FEV1 and its ratio to FVC (FEV1/FVC) both less than their respective lower limits of normal as determined by published reference equations. Measurements and Main Results: The discovery meta-analyses identified one region on chromosome 15q25.1 meeting genome-wide significance in ever smokers that includes AGPHD1, IREB2, and CHRNA5/CHRNA3 genes. The region was also modestly associated among never smokers. Gene expression studies confirmed the presence of CHRNA5/3 in lung, airway smooth muscle, and bronchial epithelial cells. A single-nucleotide polymorphism in HTR4, a gene previously related to FEV1/FVC, achieved genome-wide statistical significance in combined meta-analysis. Top single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ADAM19, RARB, PPAP2B, and ADAMTS19 were nominally replicated in the COPD meta-analysis. Conclusions: These results suggest an important role for the CHRNA5/3 region as a genetic risk factor for airflow obstruction that may be independent of smoking and implicate the HTR4 gene in the etiology of airflow obstruction. PMID:22837378

  1. Drug-induced sleep endoscopy in the identification of obstruction sites in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Viana, Alonço da Cunha; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; Araújo-Melo, Maria Helena de

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome has multifactorial causes. Although indications for surgery are evaluated by well-known diagnostic tests in the awake state, these do not always correlate with satisfactory surgical results. To undertake a systematic review on endoscopy during sleep, as one element of the diagnosis routine, aiming to identify upper airway obstruction sites in adult patients with OSAS. By means of electronic databases, a systematic review was performed of studies using drug-induced sleep endoscopy to identify obstruction sites in patients with OSAS. Ten articles were selected that demonstrated the importance of identifying multilevel obstruction, especially in relation to retrolingual and laryngeal collapse in OSAS. DISE is an additional method to reveal obstruction sites that have not been detected in awake patients. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Painless Jaundice Caused by Clonorchis sinensis Infection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yuhua; Bao, Wanguo; Jin, Meishan; Li, Yuxiang; Wang, Feng

    2016-06-01

    A man with only yellowing of the skin and eye sclera was diagnosed with clonorchiasis, which rarely manifested jaundice as the initial symptom. However, because of a lack of evidence for a diagnostic gold standard, the time until definitive diagnosis was more than a week. The diagnostic process relied on inquiring about the patient's history, including the place of residence, dietary habits, and symptoms, as well as on serological findings, an imaging examination, and pathological findings. MRCP and CT results showed mild dilatation of intrahepatic ducts and increased periductal echogenicity. The eggs were ultimately found in stool by water sedimentation method after the negative report through direct smear. DNA sequencing of PCR production of the eggs demonstrated 98-100% homology with ITS2 of Clonorchis sinensis. After anti-parasite medical treatment, the patient's symptoms were gradually relieved. Throughout the diagnostic procedure, besides routine examinations, the sedimentation method or concentration method could be used as a sensitive way for both light and heavy C. sinensis infection in the definite diagnosis.

  3. Of guinea pigs and men--an unusual case of jaundice.

    PubMed

    Pischke, S; Ehmer, U; Schedel, I; Gratz, W F; Wedemeyer, H; Ziesing, S; Bange, F C; Burchard, G D; Manns, M P; Bahr, M J; Strassburg, C P

    2010-01-01

    A 21-year-old male presented at the emergency room with jaundice, itching, dry cough, malaise and weight loss of 10 kg during the preceding four weeks. Eighteen months earlier, the patient had suffered an automobile accident leading to polytrauma. Serological markers for viral or other causes of hepatitis were absent. For suspected secondary sclerosing cholangitis, ultrasound and ERCP were performed but failed to reveal pathological findings. A liver biopsy showed cholestatic liver disease without signs of portal field-associated hepatitis. Hepato-biliary scintigraphy demonstrated hepatocellular dysfunction. The patient finally mentioned his guinea pig farm with around 50 animals, 20 of which had recently died for unknown reasons. The patient and three of his guinea pigs were subsequently tested for serological evidence of leptospirosis. IgG and IgM antibodies reacting with Leptospira interrogans were detected in the patient's serum, and all 3 guinea pigs were serologically positive for serovar Bratislava. Bacterial culture was not successful, and also PCR tests remained negative. The clinical symptoms quickly resolved after the initiation of antibiotic therapy with amoxicillin.

  4. Avoiding Obstructions in Aiming a High-Gain Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2006-01-01

    The High Gain Antenna Pointing and Obstruction Avoidance software performs computations for pointing a Mars Rover high-gain antenna for communication with Earth while (1) avoiding line-of-sight obstructions (the Martian terrain and other parts of the Rover) that would block communication and (2) taking account of limits in ranges of motion of antenna gimbals and of kinematic singularities in gimbal mechanisms. The software uses simplified geometric models of obstructions and of the trajectory of the Earth in the Martian sky(see figure). It treats all obstructions according to a generalized approach, computing and continually updating the time remaining before interception of each obstruction. In cases in which the gimbal-mechanism design allows two aiming solutions, the algorithm chooses the solution that provides the longest obstruction-free Earth-tracking time. If the communication session continues until an obstruction is encountered in the current pointing solution and the other solution is now unobstructed, then the algorithm automatically switches to the other position. This software also notifies communication- managing software to cease transmission during the switch to the unobstructed position, resuming it when the switch is complete.

  5. Corticosteroid therapy and airflow obstruction influence the bronchial microbiome, which is distinct from that of bronchoalveolar lavage in asthmatic airways

    SciTech Connect

    Denner, Darcy R.; Sangwan, Naseer; Becker, Julia B.

    The lung has a diverse microbiome that is modest in biomass. This microbiome differs in asthmatic patients compared with control subjects, but the effects of clinical characteristics on the microbial community composition and structure are not clear. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether the composition and structure of the lower airway microbiome correlated with clinical characteristics of chronic persistent asthma, including airflow obstruction, use of corticosteroid medications, and presence of airway eosinophilia. METHODS: DNA was extracted from endobronchial brushings and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid collected from 39 asthmatic patients and 19 control subjects, along with negative control samples. 16S rRNA V4 amplicon sequencingmore » was used to compare the relative abundance of bacterial genera with clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Differential feature selection analysis revealed significant differences in microbial diversity between brush and lavage samples from asthmatic patients and control subjects. Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, and Rickettsia species were significantly enriched in samples from asthmatic patients, whereas Prevotella, Streptococcus, and Veillonella species were enriched in brush samples from control subjects. Generalized linear models on brush samples demonstrated oral corticosteroid use as an important factor affecting the relative abundance of the taxa that were significantly enriched in asthmatic patients. In addition, bacterial α-diversity in brush samples from asthmatic patients was correlated with FEV1 and the proportion of lavage eosinophils. CONCLUSION: The diversity and composition of the bronchial airway microbiome of asthmatic patients is distinct from that of nonasthmatic control subjects and influenced by worsening airflow obstruction and corticosteroid use. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.« less

  6. 36 CFR 4.13 - Obstructing traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... interfere with the normal flow of traffic. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obstructing traffic. 4.13... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.13 Obstructing traffic. The following are prohibited: (a) Stopping or...

  7. 36 CFR 4.13 - Obstructing traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... interfere with the normal flow of traffic. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obstructing traffic. 4.13... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.13 Obstructing traffic. The following are prohibited: (a) Stopping or...

  8. 36 CFR 4.13 - Obstructing traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... interfere with the normal flow of traffic. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obstructing traffic. 4.13... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.13 Obstructing traffic. The following are prohibited: (a) Stopping or...

  9. Conical intersection in a bilirubin model A possible pathway for phototherapy of neonatal jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zietz, Burkhard; Blomgren, Fredrik

    2006-03-01

    Phototherapy of neonatal jaundice involves Z- E-isomerisation around an exocyclic double bond in bilirubin. Our results of a CASSCF study on dipyrrinone, a bilirubin model, show a conical intersection between the ground and first excited singlet states associated with the Z- E-isomerisation. The conical intersection, located ca. 50 kJ/mol below the Franck-Condon-point, together with the S 1 minimum, ca. 50 kJ/mol below the conical intersection, are able to explain the available time-resolved spectroscopic data (the very short lifetime of the initially excited state and transient 'dark state' intermediate) as well as bilirubin's very low fluorescence quantum yield and the medium-efficient photoisomerisation reaction.

  10. New laser sources for clinical treatment and diagnostics of neonatal jaundice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamza, Mostafa; El-Ahl, Mohammad H. S.; Hamza, Ahmad M.

    2001-06-01

    An elevated serum bilirubin concentration in the newborn infant presents a therapeutic as well as a diagnostic problem to the physician. It has long been recognized that high levels of bilirubin cause irreversible brain damage and even death. The authors introduce the use of semiconductor diode lasers and diode-pumped solid-state lasers that can be used for solving such diagnostic and therapeutic problems. These new laser sources can improve the ergonomics of using laser, enhance performance capabilities and reduce the cost of employing laser energy to pump bilirubin out of an infant's body. The choice of laser wavelengths follows the principles of bilirubinometry and phototherapy of neonatal jaundice. The wide spread use of these new laser sources for clinical monitoring and treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia will be made possible as each incremental or quantum jump cost reduction is achieved. Our leading clinical experience as well as the selection rules of laser wavelengths will be presented.

  11. Newborn Jaundice Technologies: Unbound Bilirubin and Bilirubin Binding Capacity In Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Sanjiv B.; Lamola, Angelo A.

    2011-01-01

    Neonatal jaundice (hyperbilirubinemia), extremely common in neonates, can be associated with neurotoxicity. A safe level of bilirubin has not been defined in either premature or term infants. Emerging evidence suggest that the level of unbound (or “free”) bilirubin has a better sensitivity and specificity than total serum bilirubin for bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity. Although recent studies suggest the usefulness of free bilirubin measurements in managing high-risk neonates including premature infants, there currently exists no widely available method to assay the serum free bilirubin concentration. To keep pace with the growing demand, in addition to reevaluation of old methods, several promising new methods are being developed for sensitive, accurate, and rapid measurement of free bilirubin and bilirubin binding capacity. These innovative methods need to be validated before adopting for clinical use. We provide an overview of some promising methods for free bilirubin and binding capacity measurements with the goal to enhance research in this area of active interest and apparent need. PMID:21641486

  12. Total oxidant/antioxidant status in jaundiced newborns before and after phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan

    2007-01-01

    To assess the effect of phototherapy on serum oxidant and antioxidant status in hyperbilirubinemic full-term newborns. Thirty-four full-term infants from 3 to 10 days of age exposed to phototherapy were studied. The serum antioxidant status was assessed by measuring the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and individual antioxidant components: vitamin C, uric acid, albumin, thiol contents and total bilirubin. The oxidant status was assessed by determining the total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and individual oxidant components: malondialdehyde (MDA), and lipid hydroperoxide levels. Vitamin C, uric acid, total bilirubin and MDA concentration were significantly lower, whereas serum TOS, lipid hydroperoxide and OSI levels were significantly higher after phototherapy (p < 0.05). There were significant positive correlations between serum total bilirubin and MDA (r = 0.434, p = 0.001). Although the MDA level was reduced after phototherapy, phototherapy has a negative impact on numerous parts of the oxidant/antioxidant defense system in jaundiced full-term newborns, exposing them to potential oxidative stress.

  13. Effect of bilastine upon nasal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Dávila, I; Sastre, J; Mullol, J; Montoro, J; Jáuregui, I; Ferrer, M; del Cuvillo, A; Bartra, J; Valero, A

    2011-01-01

    H1 antihistamines constitute one of the main references for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Classically, these drugs have been considered effective in controlling sneezing, rhinorrhea and itching, though they have not been regarded as particularly effective in application to nasal obstruction. The most recent studies, involving second-generation H1 antihistamines (desloratadine, fexofenadine, levocetirizine, rupatadine), have shown these drugs to offer effects upon nasal obstruction significantly superior to those of placebo. The present review examines the effect of bilastine, a new, potent and highly specific H1 antihistamine without sedative effects or cardiac toxicity, upon nasal obstruction. The analysis of the data from the different clinical trials indicates that in patients with allergic rhinitis, the effect of bilastine upon nasal obstruction is superior to that of placebo and similar to that of other second-generation H1 antihistamines, manifesting within 24 hours after the start of treatment.

  14. 33 CFR 67.05-5 - Multiple obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Multiple obstruction lights. 67... for Lights § 67.05-5 Multiple obstruction lights. When more than one obstruction light is required by this part to mark a structure, all such lights shall be operated to flash in unison. ...

  15. 33 CFR 67.05-5 - Multiple obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Multiple obstruction lights. 67... for Lights § 67.05-5 Multiple obstruction lights. When more than one obstruction light is required by this part to mark a structure, all such lights shall be operated to flash in unison. ...

  16. 33 CFR 67.05-5 - Multiple obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Multiple obstruction lights. 67... for Lights § 67.05-5 Multiple obstruction lights. When more than one obstruction light is required by this part to mark a structure, all such lights shall be operated to flash in unison. ...

  17. 33 CFR 67.05-5 - Multiple obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Multiple obstruction lights. 67... for Lights § 67.05-5 Multiple obstruction lights. When more than one obstruction light is required by this part to mark a structure, all such lights shall be operated to flash in unison. ...

  18. 33 CFR 67.05-5 - Multiple obstruction lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Multiple obstruction lights. 67... for Lights § 67.05-5 Multiple obstruction lights. When more than one obstruction light is required by this part to mark a structure, all such lights shall be operated to flash in unison. ...

  19. Accuracy of abdominal auscultation for bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Breum, Birger Michael; Rud, Bo; Kirkegaard, Thomas; Nordentoft, Tyge

    2015-09-14

    To investigate the accuracy and inter-observer variation of bowel sound assessment in patients with clinically suspected bowel obstruction. Bowel sounds were recorded in patients with suspected bowel obstruction using a Littmann(®) Electronic Stethoscope. The recordings were processed to yield 25-s sound sequences in random order on PCs. Observers, recruited from doctors within the department, classified the sound sequences as either normal or pathological. The reference tests for bowel obstruction were intraoperative and endoscopic findings and clinical follow up. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each observer and compared between junior and senior doctors. Interobserver variation was measured using the Kappa statistic. Bowel sound sequences from 98 patients were assessed by 53 (33 junior and 20 senior) doctors. Laparotomy was performed in 47 patients, 35 of whom had bowel obstruction. Two patients underwent colorectal stenting due to large bowel obstruction. The median sensitivity and specificity was 0.42 (range: 0.19-0.64) and 0.78 (range: 0.35-0.98), respectively. There was no significant difference in accuracy between junior and senior doctors. The median frequency with which doctors classified bowel sounds as abnormal did not differ significantly between patients with and without bowel obstruction (26% vs 23%, P = 0.08). The 53 doctors made up 1378 unique pairs and the median Kappa value was 0.29 (range: -0.15-0.66). Accuracy and inter-observer agreement was generally low. Clinical decisions in patients with possible bowel obstruction should not be based on auscultatory assessment of bowel sounds.

  20. Accuracy of abdominal auscultation for bowel obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Breum, Birger Michael; Rud, Bo; Kirkegaard, Thomas; Nordentoft, Tyge

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the accuracy and inter-observer variation of bowel sound assessment in patients with clinically suspected bowel obstruction. METHODS: Bowel sounds were recorded in patients with suspected bowel obstruction using a Littmann® Electronic Stethoscope. The recordings were processed to yield 25-s sound sequences in random order on PCs. Observers, recruited from doctors within the department, classified the sound sequences as either normal or pathological. The reference tests for bowel obstruction were intraoperative and endoscopic findings and clinical follow up. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each observer and compared between junior and senior doctors. Interobserver variation was measured using the Kappa statistic. RESULTS: Bowel sound sequences from 98 patients were assessed by 53 (33 junior and 20 senior) doctors. Laparotomy was performed in 47 patients, 35 of whom had bowel obstruction. Two patients underwent colorectal stenting due to large bowel obstruction. The median sensitivity and specificity was 0.42 (range: 0.19-0.64) and 0.78 (range: 0.35-0.98), respectively. There was no significant difference in accuracy between junior and senior doctors. The median frequency with which doctors classified bowel sounds as abnormal did not differ significantly between patients with and without bowel obstruction (26% vs 23%, P = 0.08). The 53 doctors made up 1378 unique pairs and the median Kappa value was 0.29 (range: -0.15-0.66). CONCLUSION: Accuracy and inter-observer agreement was generally low. Clinical decisions in patients with possible bowel obstruction should not be based on auscultatory assessment of bowel sounds. PMID:26379407

  1. Breast Milk Jaundice: Effect of 3α 20β-pregnanediol on Bilirubin Conjugation by Human Liver

    PubMed Central

    Adlard, B. P. F.; Lathe, G. H.

    1970-01-01

    The effect of 3α,20β-pregnanediol and other steroids on bilirubin conjugation was examined using liver tissue from human and four other species. Neither 3α,20β-pregnanediol nor 3α,20β-pregnanediol inhibited conjugation by human liver slices or by solubilized human liver microsomes. 3α,20β-pregnanediol is unlikely to be the inhibitor causing breast milk jaundice. Oestriol inhibited conjugation by human liver slices. A comparison of species indicated that the response of the human liver slice system to steroids resembles that of the rabbit and guinea-pig rather than the rat or mouse. PMID:4246186

  2. Small-airway obstruction and emphysema in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    McDonough, John E; Yuan, Ren; Suzuki, Masaru; Seyednejad, Nazgol; Elliott, W Mark; Sanchez, Pablo G; Wright, Alexander C; Gefter, Warren B; Litzky, Leslie; Coxson, Harvey O; Paré, Peter D; Sin, Don D; Pierce, Richard A; Woods, Jason C; McWilliams, Annette M; Mayo, John R; Lam, Stephen C; Cooper, Joel D; Hogg, James C

    2011-10-27

    The major sites of obstruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are small airways (<2 mm in diameter). We wanted to determine whether there was a relationship between small-airway obstruction and emphysematous destruction in COPD. We used multidetector computed tomography (CT) to compare the number of airways measuring 2.0 to 2.5 mm in 78 patients who had various stages of COPD, as judged by scoring on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) scale, in isolated lungs removed from patients with COPD who underwent lung transplantation, and in donor (control) lungs. MicroCT was used to measure the extent of emphysema (mean linear intercept), the number of terminal bronchioles per milliliter of lung volume, and the minimum diameters and cross-sectional areas of terminal bronchioles. On multidetector CT, in samples from patients with COPD, as compared with control samples, the number of airways measuring 2.0 to 2.5 mm in diameter was reduced in patients with GOLD stage 1 disease (P=0.001), GOLD stage 2 disease (P=0.02), and GOLD stage 3 or 4 disease (P<0.001). MicroCT of isolated samples of lungs removed from patients with GOLD stage 4 disease showed a reduction of 81 to 99.7% in the total cross-sectional area of terminal bronchioles and a reduction of 72 to 89% in the number of terminal bronchioles (P<0.001). A comparison of the number of terminal bronchioles and dimensions at different levels of emphysematous destruction (i.e., an increasing value for the mean linear intercept) showed that the narrowing and loss of terminal bronchioles preceded emphysematous destruction in COPD (P<0.001). These results show that narrowing and disappearance of small conducting airways before the onset of emphysematous destruction can explain the increased peripheral airway resistance reported in COPD. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others.).

  3. Biomechanical remodeling of obstructed guinea pig jejunum

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingbo; Liao, Donghua; Yang, Jian; Gregersen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Data on morphological and biomechanical remodeling are needed to understand the mechanisms behind intestinal obstruction. The effect of partial obstruction on mechanical properties with reference to the zero-stress state and on the histomorphological properties of the guinea pig small intestine was determined in this study. Partial obstruction and sham operation were surgically created in mid-jejunum of guinea pigs. The animals survived 2, 4, 7, and 14 days respectively. The age-matched guinea pigs that were not operated served as normal controls. The segment proximal to the obstruction site was used for histological analysis, no-load state and zero-stress state data, and distension test. The segment for distension was immersed in an organ bath and inflated to 10 cmH20. The outer diameter change during the inflation was monitored using a microscope with CCD camera. Circumferential stresses and strains were computed from the diameter, pressure and the zero-stress state data. The opening angle and absolute value of residual strain decreased (P<0.01 and P<0.001) whereas the wall thickness, wall cross-sectional area, and the wall stiffness increased after 7 days obstruction (P<0.05, P<0.01). Histologically, the muscle and submucosa layers, especially the circumferential muscle layer increased in thickness after obstruction. The opening angle and residual strain mainly depended on the thickness of the muscle layer whereas the wall stiffness mainly depended on the thickness of the submucosa layer. In conclusion, the histomorphological and biomechanical properties of small intestine (referenced for the first time to the zero-stress state) remodel proximal to the obstruction site in a time-dependent manner. PMID:20189575

  4. Preoperative Obstructive Sleep Apnea Screening in Gynecologic Oncology Patients.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ross F; Medlin, Erin E; Petersen, Chase B; Rose, Stephen L; Hartenbach, Ellen M; Kushner, David M; Spencer, Ryan J; Rice, Laurel W; Al-Niaimi, Ahmed N

    2018-05-21

    Women with a gynecologic cancer tend to be older, obese, and postmenopausal, characteristics that are associated with an increased risk for obstructive sleep apnea. However, there is limited investigation regarding the condition's prevalence in this population or its impact on postoperative outcomes. In other surgical populations, patients with obstructive sleep apnea have been observed to be at increased risk for adverse postoperative events. To estimate the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea among gynecologic oncology patients undergoing elective surgery and to investigate for a relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and postoperative outcomes. Patients referred to an academic gynecologic oncology practice were approached for enrollment in this prospective, observational study. Patients were considered eligible for study enrollment if they were scheduled for a non-emergent inpatient surgery and could provide informed consent. Enrolled patients were evaluated for a preexisting diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea. Those without a prior diagnosis were screened using the validated, 4-item STOP [i.e. Snore loudly, daytime Tiredness, Observed apnea, elevated blood Pressure] questionnaire. All patients who screened positive for obstructive sleep apnea were referred for polysomnography. The primary outcome was the prevalence of women with obstructive sleep apnea or those who screened at high risk for the condition. Secondary outcomes examined the correlation between body mass index (kg/m 2 ) with obstructive sleep apnea and assessed for a relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and postoperative outcomes. Over a 22-month accrual period, 383 eligible patients were consecutively approached to participate in the study. A cohort of 260 patients were enrolled. A total of 33/260 patients (13%) were identified as having a previous diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea. An additional 66/260 (25%) screened at risk for the condition using the STOP questionnaire. Of

  5. Drug-eluting stent in malignant biliary obstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Ki; Jang, Sung Ill

    2012-10-01

    Endoscopic stent insertion is the treatment of choice for patients with malignant biliary obstruction. However, conventional stents enable only mechanical palliation of the obstruction, without any anti-tumor effects. Drugeluting stent (DES), which was first introduced in coronary artery disease, are currently under investigation for sustaining stent patency and prolonging patient survival by inhibiting tumor ingrowth in malignant biliary obstruction. Many factors affecting efficient drug delivery have been studied to determine how drugs with antitumor effects suppress tumor ingrowth, including the specific drugs incorporated, means of incorporating the drugs, mode of drug release, and stent structure. Advances have resulted in the construction of more effective non-vascular DES and ongoing clinical research. Non-vascular DES is expected to play a vital role in prolonging the survival of patients with malignant biliary obstruction.

  6. 33 CFR 329.10 - Existence of obstructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE DEFINITION OF NAVIGABLE WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES § 329.10 Existence of obstructions. A stream... obstruction by means of artificial chutes. However, the question is ultimately a matter of degree, and it must...

  7. [Treatment of a patient with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome superimposed on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Mańkowski, M; Tulibacki, M; Koziej, M; Adach, W; Zieliński, J

    1995-01-01

    History of a middle aged obese male, presenting with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is described. Provisionally patient was started on CPAP and long-term domiciliary oxygen therapy (LTOT). OSA was successfully treated by surgical repair of nasal patency and partial uvulectomy. There was also remarkable improvement in ventilatory indices after steroid therapy. There was no further need for CPAP and LTOT.

  8. Prognostic significance of obstructive uropathy in advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Oefelein, Michael G

    2004-06-01

    To report the incidence and prognostic implications of obstructive uropathy (OU) in patients with advanced prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy and to define the impact initial local therapy has on the development of OU in patients with prostate cancer who develop recurrence and begin androgen deprivation therapy. From a population of 260 patients with advanced prostate cancer diagnosed between 1986 and 2003, OU was identified in 51 patients. The OU treatment options included ureteral stent, percutaneous nephrostomy, transurethral resection of the prostate, Foley catheter placement, and urinary diversion. Overall survival and the factors that influenced survival were calculated using standard statistical methods. OU was diagnosed in 15 (16%) of 80 patients who received local therapy with curative intent and in whom local therapy subsequently failed and in 36 (19%) of 180 patients who had never received local therapy (P = 0.7, chi-square test). Of these 51 patients, 39 had bladder neck obstruction and 16 had ureteral obstruction. Overall survival was significantly worse for the men with OU compared with those without OU (41 versus 54 months). OU was associated with tumor stage and androgen-insensitive prostate cancer. OU results in significantly reduced survival in men with prostate cancer. In a select group of patients with prostate cancer with progression after local therapy (primarily radiotherapy), no statistically significant reduction in the development of OU was observed relative to patients matched for stage, grade, and pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level treated with androgen deprivation therapy alone. Aggressive advanced stage and hormone-insensitive disease are variables associated with OU.

  9. Influence of premedication with alprazolam on the occurence of obstructive apneas. A prospective randomized double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Deflandre, E; Bonhomme, V; Courtois, A-C; Degey, S; Poirrier, R; Brichant, J-F

    2016-08-01

    Postoperative development or worsening of obstructive sleep apnea is a potential complication of anesthesia. The objective of this study was to study the effects of a premedication with alprazolam on the occurrence of apneas during the immediate postoperative period. Fifty ASA 1 - 2 patients undergoing a colonoscopy were recruited. Patients with a history of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) were excluded. Recruited patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: in Group A, they received 0.5 mg of alprazolam orally one hour before the procedure; and in Group C, they received placebo. Anesthesia technique was identical in both groups. Patients were monitored during the first two postoperative hours to establish their AHI (apnea hypopnea index, the number of apneas and hypopneas per hour). Nine patients were excluded (4 in group A and 5 in group C) due to technical problems or refusal. Interestingly, premedication by alprazolam did not change intra-operative propofol requirements. During the first two postoperative hours, the AHI was significantly higher in group A than in group C (Group A: 20.33 ± 10.97 h -1 , C: 9.63 ± 4.67 h -1 ). These apneas did not induce significant arterial oxygen desaturation, or mandibular instability. Our study demonstrates that a premedication with 0.5 mg of alprazolam doesn't modify intra-operative anesthetic requirements during colonoscopy, but is associated with a higher rate of obstructive apneas during at least three and a half hours after ingestion. No severe side effects were observed in our non-obese population. Our results must be confirmed on a larger scale.

  10. /sup 99m/Tc-IDA hepatobiliary imaging following upper abdominal surgery. [IDA = acetanilide iminodiacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthall, L.; Fonseca, C.; Arzoumanian, A.

    1979-03-01

    Bile flow patterns were studied with serial /sup 99m/Tc-IDA images in 19 patients with cholecysto- and choledochointestinal anastomoses, gastroenteric bypasses, and combinations of the two. Complications such as anastomotic, afferent, and efferent loop obstruction and bile leakage were readily detected even in the presence of jaundice. This noninvasive technique warrants further investigation to determine its indications and weaknesses.

  11. Clinical Outcomes of Self-Expandable Metal Stents for Malignant Rectal Obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Hong, Sung Pil; Cheon, Jae Hee; Kim, Tae Il; Kim, Won Ho; Park, Soo Jung

    2018-01-01

    Self-expandable metal stents are widely used to treat malignant colorectal obstruction. However, data on clinical outcomes of stent placement for rectal obstruction specifically are lacking. We aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes of self-expandable metal stents in malignant rectal obstruction in comparison with those in left colonic obstruction and to identify factors associated with clinical failure and complication. This was a retrospective study. The study was conducted at a tertiary care center. Between January 2005 and December 2013, medical charts of patients who underwent stent placement for malignant rectal or left colonic obstruction were reviewed retrospectively. Study intervention included self-expandable metal stent placement. Technical success, clinical success, and complications were measured. Technical success rates for the 2 study groups (rectum vs left colon, 93.5% vs 93.1%; p = 0.86) did not differ significantly; however, the clinical success rate was lower in patients with rectal obstruction (85.4% vs 92.1%; p = 0.02). In addition, the complication rate was higher in patients with rectal obstruction (37.4% vs 25.1%; p = 0.01). Patients with rectal obstruction showed higher rates of obstruction because of extracolonic malignancy (33.8% vs 15.8%; p < 0.001) and stent use for palliation (78.6% vs 56.3%; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated obstruction attributed to extracolonic malignancy and covered stent usage to be independent risk factors for clinical failure. Factors predictive of complications in the palliative group were total obstruction, obstruction because of extracolonic malignancy, and covered stent usage. This was a retrospective, single-center study. The efficacy and safety of stent placement for malignant rectal obstruction were comparable with those for left colonic obstruction. However, obstruction attributed to extracolonic malignancy, use of covered stents, and total obstruction negatively impacted clinical outcomes

  12. Biliary obstruction - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100199.htm Biliary obstruction - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... Overview Bile is a digestive fluid secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder which normally is ...

  13. Functional tension nose as a cause of nasal airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kantas, Ilias V; Papadakis, Chariton E; Balatsouras, Dimitrios G; Vafiadis, Marinos; Korres, Stavros G; Panagiotakopoulou, Aggeliki; Danielidis, Vassilios

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the influence of functional tension nose in nasal obstruction and to discuss its frequency and management. Over the years 2000-2006, 153 patients underwent revision operation for nasal obstruction in our rhinoplastic center. Twenty-two of them (14.37%) suffered from functional tension nose. All 22 patients refused rhinoplasty during primary septoplasty. Sixteen of them had a kyphotic nose and the rest six cases suffered from hanging columella (drooped nose). Eighteen of them underwent primary rhinoplasty in combination with caudal diminution under general anesthesia. The other four patients refused rhinoplasty, and under local anesthesia their tip was deprojected and reprojected. Marked improvement in nasal airflow was noted at the most recent follow-up evaluation in 20 patients out of 22 (90.91%). The mean length of follow-up was 8 months (ranging from 4 to 12 months). All follow-up results were based on office examination and pre- and post-operative computer-assisted rhinomanometry evaluation. In only two cases results were not efficient enough. Our study strongly suggests that tension nose is a usual misdiagnosed cause of nasal obstruction. This problem is concealed under a "kyphotic", "big", or "pinocchio" nose. Usually the functional defect is spontaneously corrected during conventional rhinoplasty. However, tip should be deprojected and reprojected in cases where the patient refuses cosmetic intervention and surgeon tries to resolve his functional problem.

  14. Significant Hyperbilirubinemia and Acute Hepatocellular Jaundice in a Pediatric Patient Receiving Deferasirox: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Elizabeth A; Miller, Christopher D; Wojnowicz, Sarabeth; Seabury, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Despite a boxed warning, postmarketing reports of deferasirox-associated hepatic injury in patients with chronic transfusions are not well described. Hepatic impairment, including failure, has been reported to occur more frequently in patients older than 55 years and in those with significant comorbidities, including liver cirrhosis and multiorgan failure. In this case report, we describe significant hyperbilirubinemia and acute hepatocellular jaundice related to deferasirox in a 7-year-old female being treated for iron overload secondary to chronic transfusions. This report outlines a unique case without preexisting risk factors in which other causes of liver injury are excluded as defined by the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method, which indicates a probable score of deferasirox causing the injury.

  15. Significant Hyperbilirubinemia and Acute Hepatocellular Jaundice in a Pediatric Patient Receiving Deferasirox: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Christopher D.; Wojnowicz, Sarabeth; Seabury, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Despite a boxed warning, postmarketing reports of deferasirox-associated hepatic injury in patients with chronic transfusions are not well described. Hepatic impairment, including failure, has been reported to occur more frequently in patients older than 55 years and in those with significant comorbidities, including liver cirrhosis and multiorgan failure. In this case report, we describe significant hyperbilirubinemia and acute hepatocellular jaundice related to deferasirox in a 7-year-old female being treated for iron overload secondary to chronic transfusions. This report outlines a unique case without preexisting risk factors in which other causes of liver injury are excluded as defined by the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method, which indicates a probable score of deferasirox causing the injury. PMID:29491755

  16. Supplemental Oxygen During High-Intensity Exercise Training in Nonhypoxemic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Neunhäuserer, Daniel; Steidle-Kloc, Eva; Weiss, Gertraud; Kaiser, Bernhard; Niederseer, David; Hartl, Sylvia; Tschentscher, Marcus; Egger, Andreas; Schönfelder, Martin; Lamprecht, Bernd; Studnicka, Michael; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-11-01

    Physical exercise training is an evidence-based treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and patients' peak work rate is associated with reduced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality. We assessed whether supplemental oxygen during exercise training in nonhypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease might lead to superior training outcomes, including improved peak work rate. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial. Twenty-nine patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (aged 63.5 ± 5.9 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted, 46.4 ± 8.6) completed 2 consecutive 6-week periods of endurance and strength training with progressive intensity, which was performed 3 times per week with supplemental oxygen or compressed medical air (flow via nasal cannula: 10 L/min). Each session of electrocardiography-controlled interval cycling lasted 31 minutes and consisted of a warm-up, 7 cycles of 1-minute intervals at 70% to 80% of peak work rate alternating with 2 minutes of active recovery, and final cooldown. Thereafter, patients completed 8 strength-training exercises of 1 set each with 8 to 15 repetitions to failure. Change in peak work rate was the primary study end point. The increase in peak work rate was more than twice as high when patients exercised with supplemental oxygen compared with medical air (0.16 ± 0.02 W/kg vs 0.07 ± 0.02 W/kg; P < .001), which was consistent with all other secondary study end points related to exercise capacity. The impact of oxygen on peak work rate was 39.1% of the overall training effect, whereas it had no influence on strength gain (P > .1 for all exercises). We report that supplemental oxygen in nonhypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease doubled the effect of endurance training but had no effect on strength gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Facilitative and obstructive factors in the clinical learning environment: Experiences of pupil enrolled nurses.

    PubMed

    Lekalakala-Mokgele, Eucebious; Caka, Ernestine M

    2015-03-31

    The clinical learning environment is a complex social entity that influences student learning outcomes in the clinical setting. Students can experience the clinical learning environment as being both facilitative and obstructive to their learning. The clinical environment may be a source of stress, creating feelings of fear and anxiety which in turn affect the students' responses to learning. Equally, the environment can enhance learning if experienced positively. This study described pupil enrolled nurses' experiences of facilitative and obstructive factors in military and public health clinical learning settings. Using a qualitative, contextual, exploratory descriptive design, three focus group interviews were conducted until data saturation was reached amongst pupil enrolled nurses in a military School of Nursing. Data analysed provided evidence that acceptance by clinical staff and affordance of self-directed learning facilitated learning. Students felt safe to practise when they were supported by the clinical staff. They felt a sense of belonging when the staff showed an interest in and welcomed them. Learning was obstructed when students were met with condescending comments. Wearing of a military uniform in the public hospital and horizontal violence obstructed learning in the clinical learning environment. Students cannot have effective clinical preparation if the environment is not conducive to and supportive of clinical learning, The study shows that military nursing students experience unique challenges as they are trained in two professions that are hierarchical in nature. The students experienced both facilitating and obstructing factors to their learning during their clinical practice. Clinical staff should be made aware of factors which can impact on students' learning. Policies need to be developed for supporting students in the clinical learning environment.

  18. Congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction: human disease and animal models

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Julie; Gonzalez, Julien; Miravete, Mathieu; Caubet, Cécile; Chaaya, Rana; Decramer, Stéphane; Bandin, Flavio; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Buffin-Meyer, Bénédicte; Schanstra, Joost P

    2011-01-01

    Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction is the most frequently observed cause of obstructive nephropathy in children. Neonatal and foetal animal models have been developed that mimic closely what is observed in human disease. The purpose of this review is to discuss how obstructive nephropathy alters kidney histology and function and describe the molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of the lesions, including inflammation, proliferation/apoptosis, renin–angiotensin system activation and fibrosis, based on both human and animal data. Also we propose that during obstructive nephropathy, hydrodynamic modifications are early inducers of the tubular lesions, which are potentially at the origin of the pathology. Finally, an important observation in animal models is that relief of obstruction during kidney development has important effects on renal function later in adult life. A major short-coming is the absence of data on the impact of UPJ obstruction on long-term adult renal function to elucidate whether these animal data are also valid in humans. PMID:20681980

  19. Small Bowel Obstruction Caused by Aloe vera Bezoars: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hong, In Taik; Cha, Jae Myung; Ki, Hye Jin; Kwak, Min Seob; Yoon, Jin Young; Shin, Hyun Phil; Jeoun, Jung Won; Choi, Sung Il

    2017-05-25

    Small bowel obstruction is a clinical condition commonly caused by postoperative adhesion, volvulus, intussusceptions, and hernia. Small bowel obstruction due to bezoars is clinically uncommon, accounting for approximately 2-4% of all obstructions. Computed tomography (CT) is a useful method in diagnosing the cause of small bowel obstruction. However, small bowel obstruction caused by bezoars may not be detected by an abdominal CT examination. Herein, we report a rare case of small bowel obstruction by Aloe vera bezoars, which were undetected by an abdominal CT. Phytobezoars should be included in the differential diagnosis of small bowel obstruction in patients with predisposing factors, such as excessive consumption of high-fiber food and diabetes.

  20. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Due To Extrathoracic Tracheomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Muzumdar, Hiren; Nandalike, K.; Bent, J.; Arens, Raanan

    2013-01-01

    We report obstructive sleep apnea in a 3-year-old boy with tracheomalacia secondary to tracheotomy that resolved after placement of a metallic stent in the region of tracheomalacia. The tracheal location of obstruction during sleep in this case contrasts with the usual location in the pharynx or, less often, the larynx. This case also demonstrates the utility of polysomnography in managing decannulation of tracheostomies. Citation: Muzumdar H; Nandalike K; Bent J; Arens R. Obstructive sleep apnea due to extrathoracic tracheomalacia. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(2):163–164. PMID:23372471

  1. [Helium-Oxigen (Heliox) mixture in airway obstruction

    PubMed

    Ulhôa, C A; Larner, L

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate the effectiveness and the good outcome of the patients treated with helium-oxygen (Heliox) mixture. This mixture (Heliox) has been used in patients with airway obstruction, from different ethiologies, who did not respond to a conventional treatment with oxygen. METHODS: Case report of five patients that received Heliox as treatment for airway obstruction. All of them had good results without side effects during the treatment. CONCLUSION: Heliox is a promising treatment for severe airway obstruction with good results in a short period of time, until the final treatment is established.

  2. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: An Emerging Risk Factor for Dementia.

    PubMed

    Buratti, Laura; Luzzi, Simona; Petrelli, Cristina; Baldinelli, Sara; Viticchi, Giovanna; Provinciali, Leandro; Altamura, Claudia; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Silvestrini, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) may increase the risk of developing cognitive impairment. In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the prevalence of OSAS is much higher than that expected in cognitively healthy subjects. A deeper knowledge of the pathophysiological link between OSAS and AD and the demonstration that OSAS may directly influence the development of cognitive alterations, would increase prevention and treatment strategies for AD patients. In this article, we discuss the evidence of the association between OSAS and dementia. Moreover, we present data about the functional and anatomic cerebral changes induced by OSAS and the possible effects on cognitive activities and on AD pathogenesis. The possibility to positively influence cognitive impairment by OSAS treatment will be also discussed.

  3. Spectral analysis of bowel sounds in intestinal obstruction using an electronic stethoscope.

    PubMed

    Ching, Siok Siong; Tan, Yih Kai

    2012-09-07

    To determine the value of bowel sounds analysis using an electronic stethoscope to support a clinical diagnosis of intestinal obstruction. Subjects were patients who presented with a diagnosis of possible intestinal obstruction based on symptoms, signs, and radiological findings. A 3M™ Littmann(®) Model 4100 electronic stethoscope was used in this study. With the patients lying supine, six 8-second recordings of bowel sounds were taken from each patient from the lower abdomen. The recordings were analysed for sound duration, sound-to-sound interval, dominant frequency, and peak frequency. Clinical and radiological data were reviewed and the patients were classified as having either acute, subacute, or no bowel obstruction. Comparison of bowel sound characteristics was made between these subgroups of patients. In the presence of an obstruction, the site of obstruction was identified and bowel calibre was also measured to correlate with bowel sounds. A total of 71 patients were studied during the period July 2009 to January 2011. Forty patients had acute bowel obstruction (27 small bowel obstruction and 13 large bowel obstruction), 11 had subacute bowel obstruction (eight in the small bowel and three in large bowel) and 20 had no bowel obstruction (diagnoses of other conditions were made). Twenty-five patients received surgical intervention (35.2%) during the same admission for acute abdominal conditions. A total of 426 recordings were made and 420 recordings were used for analysis. There was no significant difference in sound-to-sound interval, dominant frequency, and peak frequency among patients with acute bowel obstruction, subacute bowel obstruction, and no bowel obstruction. In acute large bowel obstruction, the sound duration was significantly longer (median 0.81 s vs 0.55 s, P = 0.021) and the dominant frequency was significantly higher (median 440 Hz vs 288 Hz, P = 0.003) when compared to acute small bowel obstruction. No significant difference was seen

  4. Spectral analysis of bowel sounds in intestinal obstruction using an electronic stethoscope

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Siok Siong; Tan, Yih Kai

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine the value of bowel sounds analysis using an electronic stethoscope to support a clinical diagnosis of intestinal obstruction. METHODS: Subjects were patients who presented with a diagnosis of possible intestinal obstruction based on symptoms, signs, and radiological findings. A 3M™ Littmann® Model 4100 electronic stethoscope was used in this study. With the patients lying supine, six 8-second recordings of bowel sounds were taken from each patient from the lower abdomen. The recordings were analysed for sound duration, sound-to-sound interval, dominant frequency, and peak frequency. Clinical and radiological data were reviewed and the patients were classified as having either acute, subacute, or no bowel obstruction. Comparison of bowel sound characteristics was made between these subgroups of patients. In the presence of an obstruction, the site of obstruction was identified and bowel calibre was also measured to correlate with bowel sounds. RESULTS: A total of 71 patients were studied during the period July 2009 to January 2011. Forty patients had acute bowel obstruction (27 small bowel obstruction and 13 large bowel obstruction), 11 had subacute bowel obstruction (eight in the small bowel and three in large bowel) and 20 had no bowel obstruction (diagnoses of other conditions were made). Twenty-five patients received surgical intervention (35.2%) during the same admission for acute abdominal conditions. A total of 426 recordings were made and 420 recordings were used for analysis. There was no significant difference in sound-to-sound interval, dominant frequency, and peak frequency among patients with acute bowel obstruction, subacute bowel obstruction, and no bowel obstruction. In acute large bowel obstruction, the sound duration was significantly longer (median 0.81 s vs 0.55 s, P = 0.021) and the dominant frequency was significantly higher (median 440 Hz vs 288 Hz, P = 0.003) when compared to acute small bowel obstruction. No significant

  5. Obstructive sleep apnea and sedation in the endoscopy suite.

    PubMed

    Moos, Daniel D

    2006-01-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnea are at risk of mortality and morbidity related to the administration of sedatives, anesthetics, and opioids. Commonly employed sedatives and analgesics promote pharyngeal collapse and alter normal respiratory responses to obstruction and apnea. Literature concerning patients with obstructive sleep apnea undergoing moderate and deep sedation in the endoscopy suite is lacking. The purpose of this article is to provide the reader with a review of normal airway patency, the effects of obstructive sleep apnea on airway patency, and the impact that analgesics and sedatives may impart on the airway of patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The goal of this article is to increase awareness, stimulate discussions within the gastroenterological community, and encourage research regarding sedation in this at-risk population.

  6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: knowing what we mean, meaning what we say.

    PubMed

    Joshi, J M

    2008-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined in several different ways using different criteria based on symptoms, physiological impairment and pathological abnormalities. While some use COPD to mean smoking related chronic airway disease, others include all disorders causing chronic airway obstruction. When COPD is used as a broad descriptive term, specific disorders that cause chronic airway obstruction remain under-diagnosed and the prevalence estimates vary considerably. The lack of agreement over the precise terminology and classification of COPD has resulted in widespread confusion. Terminology includes definition, diagnostic criteria, and a system for staging severity. Recently, COPD is defined more clearly and diagnosed using precise criteria that include tobacco smoking greater than 10 pack years, symptoms and airway obstruction on spirometry. A multi-dimensional severity grading system, the BODE (body mass index, obstruction, dyspnoea, and exercise tolerance) index has been designed to assess the respiratory and systemic expressions of COPD. This review proposes that the broad group of chronic disorders of the airways (with or without airway obstruction) be called chronic airway disease (CAD). The term COPD should be used exclusively for tobacco smoking related chronic airway disease. Chronic airway obstruction or obstructive lung disease may be used to define those conditions with airways obstruction caused by factors other than tobacco smoking. The aetiology may be appended to the label, for example, chronic airway obstruction/obstructive lung disease associated with bronchiectasis, chronic airway obstruction/obstructive lung disease associated with obliterative bronchiolitis or chronic airway obstruction/obstructive lung disease due to biomass fuel/occupational exposure.

  7. Fate of Neural Progenitor Cells Transplanted into Jaundiced and Nonjaundiced Rat Brains

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fu-Chen; Riordan, Sean M.; Winter, Michelle; Gan, Li; Smith, Peter G.; Vivian, Jay L.; Shapiro, Steven M.; Stanford, John A.

    2017-01-01

    High levels of bilirubin in infants can cause kernicterus, which includes basal ganglia damage and dystonia. Stem cell transplantation may be an effective treatment for this disease. In this study, we transplanted human neural progenitor cells differentiated toward propriospinal interneurons into the striatum of 20-day-old spontaneously jaundiced (jj) Gunn rats and nonjaundiced (Nj) littermates. Using immunohistochemical methods, we found that grafted cells survived and grew fibers in jj and Nj brains 3 weeks after transplantation. Grafted cells had a higher survival rate in jj than in Nj brains, suggesting that slightly elevated bilirubin may protect graft survival due to its antioxidative and immunosuppressive effects. Despite their survival, only a small portion of grafted neurons expressed GAD-6 or ChAT, which mark GABAergic and cholinergic neurons, respectively, and are the cells that we are attempting to replace in kernicterus. Thus, NPCs containing large populations of GABAergic and cholinergic neurons should be used for further study in this field. PMID:28155818

  8. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Apnea (OSA) Download Download the ebook for further information Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a serious and ... that can create the necessary air passageway. The information provided here is not intended as a substitute ...

  9. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePlus

    ... more each hour, all night long. These disruptions impair your ability to reach the desired deep, restful ... with obstructive sleep apnea may also complain of memory problems, morning headaches, mood swings or feelings of ...

  10. Phototherapy with blue and green mixed-light is as effective against unconjugated jaundice as blue light and reduces oxidative stress in the Gunn rat model.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yumiko; Morimoto, Yukihiro; Uchiike, Takao; Kamamoto, Tomoyuki; Hayashi, Tamaki; Arai, Ikuyo; Nishikubo, Toshiya; Takahashi, Yukihiro

    2015-07-01

    Phototherapy using blue light-emitting diodes (LED) is effective against neonatal jaundice. However, green light phototherapy also reduces unconjugated jaundice. We aimed to determine whether mixed blue and green light can relieve jaundice with minimal oxidative stress as effectively as either blue or green light alone in a rat model. Gunn rats were exposed to phototherapy with blue (420-520 nm), filtered blue (FB; 440-520 nm without<440-nm wavelengths, FB50 (half the irradiance of filtered blue), mixed (filtered 50% blue and 50% green), and green (490-590 nm) LED irradiation for 24h. The effects of phototherapy are expressed as ratios of serum total (TB) and unbound (UB) bilirubin before and after exposure to each LED. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was measured by HPLC before and after exposure to each LED to determine photo-oxidative stress. Values < 1.00 indicate effective phototherapy. The ratios of TB and UB were decreased to 0.85, 0.89, 1.07, 0.90, and 1.04, and 0.85, 0.94, 0.93, 0.89, and 1.09 after exposure to blue, filtered blue, FB50, and filtered blue mixed with green LED, respectively. In contrast, urinary 8-OHdG increased to 2.03, 1.25, 0.96, 1.36, 1.31, and 1.23 after exposure to blue, filtered blue, FB50, mixed, green LED, and control, indicating side-effects (> 1.00), respectively. Blue plus green phototherapy is as effective as blue phototherapy and it attenuates irradiation-induced oxidative stress. Combined blue and green spectra might be effective against neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke from husband more strongly impacts on the airway obstruction of nonsmoking women.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Kazuaki; Kozu, Ryo; Tanaka, Takako; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Sawai, Terumitsu

    2018-01-01

    The impact of airway obstruction of nonsmoking women caused by their husband's smoking is unclear, despite the association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at home and obstructive pulmonary diseases among nonsmoking women. The aim of this study was to provide evidence that ETS exposure from the husband at home has a more significant influence on the airway obstruction of nonsmoking women than other housemates. Nonsmoking women aged 40 years or older were recruited from the health checkup during May 2015-December 2016, Japan. They answered structured questionnaires, including ETS exposure from their husbands and other housemates (parents, siblings and dependants), and performed spirometry. We categorized the women with any history of ETS exposure from housemates into three groups (A = husband, B = others and C = both of husband and others) and defined the control group as those with no ETS exposure from housemates. A total of 811 nonsmoking women completed questionnaires and spirometry. The proportion of nonsmoking women who had airway obstruction (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV 1 ]/forced vital capacity [FVC] <70%) among Group A (7.5%) was significantly higher than those in the control group (1.1%, p <0.01) and Group B (0.8%, p <0.01). The proportion of airway obstruction in Group C (6.4%) was also higher than that in the control group ( p <0.05) and Group B ( p <0.05). ETS exposure from husband (odds ratio [OR], 3.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-8.42) remained strongly associated with airway obstruction after multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, housemate's smoking habits, family history and ETS exposure in childhood and at work. Nonsmoking women who were exposed to ETS from their husband had the lowest FEV 1 /FVC, and a higher proportion of them had airway obstruction when compared to nonsmoking women who experienced ETS from housemates other than their husbands. The findings suggest that tobacco control in

  12. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for the detection of crossing renal vessels in children with symptomatic ureteropelvic junction obstruction: comparison with operative findings.

    PubMed

    Calder, Alistair D; Hiorns, Melanie P; Abhyankar, Aruna; Mushtaq, Imran; Olsen, Oystein E

    2007-04-01

    Crossing renal vessels (CRV) are associated with ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction, particularly when presentation is beyond the neonatal period. Their presence may influence surgical management. To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) in the identification of CRV in children requiring surgical treatment of symptomatic UPJ obstruction, against a gold standard of laparoscopic or open surgical findings. We reviewed CE-MRA studies (3-D T2-weighted turbo spin-echo and multiphase 3-D spoiled gradient echo following intravenous gadolinium administration) of 14 children, age range 6-15 years, performed prior to surgery for suspected CRV-related UPJ obstruction. Consensus reviews of the CE-MRA studies were compared with surgical findings. CE-MRA demonstrated CRV at the level of the obstruction in nine and no crossing vessels in five children. These were all verified intraoperatively (chi2=14.0; P<0.001). In eight of the nine patients with CRV there was no evidence of intrinsic obstruction at surgery. In the remaining patient there was fibrosis of the upper ureter. CE-MRA is an accurate means of identifying CRV in children older than 6 years with symptomatic UPJ obstruction.

  13. Mitral stenosis and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy: An unusual combination.

    PubMed

    Hong, Joonhwa; Schaff, Hartzell V; Ommen, Steve R; Abel, Martin D; Dearani, Joseph A; Nishimura, Rick A

    2016-04-01

    Systolic anterior motion of mitral valve (MV) leaflets is a main pathophysiologic feature of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Thus, restricted leaflet motion that occurs with MV stenosis might be expected to minimize outflow tract obstruction related to systolic anterior motion. From January 1993 through February 2015, we performed MV replacement and septal myectomy in 12 patients with mitral stenosis and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy at Mayo Clinic Hospital in Rochester, Minn. Preoperative data, echocardiographic images, operative records, and postoperative outcomes were reviewed. Mean (standard deviation) age was 70 (7.6) years. Preoperative mean (standard deviation) maximal LVOT pressure gradient was 75.0 (35.0) mm Hg; MV gradient was 13.7 (2.8) mm Hg. From echocardiographic images, 4 mechanisms of outflow tract obstruction were identified: systolic anterior motion without severe limitation in MV leaflet excursion, severe limitation in MV leaflet mobility with systolic anterior motion at the tip of the MV anterior leaflet, septal encroachment toward the LVOT, and MV displacement toward the LVOT by calcification. Mitral valve replacement and extended septal myectomy relieved outflow gradients in all patients, with no death or serious morbidity. Patients with mitral stenosis and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy have multiple LVOT obstruction mechanisms, and MV replacement may not be adequate treatment. We favor septal myectomy and MV replacement in this complex subset of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex Differences in the Association of Regional Fat Distribution with the Severity of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Laila; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Cooper, Matthew N.; Ward, Kim L.; Lee, Jessica D.; Fedson, Annette C.; Potter, Jane; Hillman Fanzca, David R.; Eastwood, Peter; Palmer, Lyle J.; Kirkness, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To describe sex differences in the associations between severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and measures of obesity in body regions defined using both dual-energy absorptiometry and traditional anthropometric measures in a sleep-clinic sample. Design: A prospective case-series observational study. Setting: The Western Australian Sleep Health Study operating out of the Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital Sleep Clinic, Perth, Western Australia. Participants: Newly referred clinic patients (60 men, 36 women) suspected of having OSA. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Obstructive sleep apnea severity was defined by apnea-hypopnoea index from laboratory-based overnight polysomnography. Body mass index, neck, waist and hip circumference, neck-to-waist ratio, and waist-to-hip ratio were measured. Dual energy absorptiometry measurements included percentage fat and lean tissue. Multivariate regression models for each sex were developed. In women, percentage of fat in the neck region and body mass index together explained 33% of the variance in apnea-hypopnea index. In men, percentage of fat in the abdominal region and neck-to-waist ratio together accounted for 37% of the variance in apnea-hypopnea index. Conclusions: Regional obesity is associated with obstructive sleep apnea severity, although differently in men and women. In women, a direct influence of neck fat on the upper airway patency is implicated. In men, abdominal obesity appears to be the predominant influence. The apnea-hypopnea index was best predicted by a combination of Dual Energy Absorptiometry-measured mass and traditional anthropometric measurements. Citation: Simpson L; Mukherjee S; Cooper MN; Ward KL; Lee JD; Fedson AC; Potter J; Hillman Fanzca DR; Eastwood P; Palmer LJ; Kirkness J. Sex differences in the association of regional fat distribution with the severity of obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2010;33(4):467-474 PMID:20394315

  15. Utility of Diffusion-Weighted MRI to Detect Changes in Liver Diffusion in Benign and Malignant Distal Bile Duct Obstruction: The Influence of Choice of b-Values.

    PubMed

    Karan, Belgin; Erbay, Gurcan; Koc, Zafer; Pourbagher, Aysin; Yildirim, Sedat; Agildere, Ahmet Muhtesem

    2016-11-01

    The study sought to evaluate the potential of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to detect changes in liver diffusion in benign and malignant distal bile duct obstruction and to investigate the effect of the choice of b-values on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Diffusion-weighted imaging was acquired with b-values of 200, 600, 800, and 1000 s/mm 2 . ADC values were obtained in 4 segments of the liver. The mean ADC values of 16 patients with malignant distal bile duct obstruction, 14 patients with benign distal bile duct obstruction, and a control group of 16 healthy patients were compared. Mean ADC values for 4 liver segments were lower in the malignant obstruction group than in the benign obstruction and control groups using b = 200 s/mm 2 (P < .05). Mean ADC values of the left lobe medial and lateral segments were lower in the malignant obstruction group than in the benign obstructive and control groups using b = 600 s/mm 2 (P < .05). Mean ADC values of the right lobe posterior segment were lower in the malignant and benign obstruction groups than in the control group using b = 1000 s/mm 2 (P < .05). Using b = 800 s/mm 2 , ADC values of all 4 liver segments in each group were not significantly different (P > .05). There were no correlations between the ADC values of liver segments and liver function tests. Measurement of ADC shows good potential for detecting changes in liver diffusion in patients with distal bile duct obstruction. Calculated ADC values were affected by the choice of b-values. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Infectious mononucleosis presenting as upper airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vivek; Singhi, Sunit; Desai, Ravi V

    2003-01-01

    Upper airway obstruction though a common complication of infectious mononucleosis is rarely considered in differential diagnosis of stridor. We report a three-year-old child who had upper airway obstruction due to infectious mononucleosis, managed conservatively with oxygen, intravenous fluids and steroids.

  17. Effect of Sleeping Position on Upper Airway Patency in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Determined by the Pharyngeal Structure Causing Collapse

    PubMed Central

    Genta, Pedro R.; Sands, Scott A.; Azarbazin, Ali; de Melo, Camila; Taranto-Montemurro, Luigi; White, David P.; Wellman, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: In some patients, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can be resolved with improvement in pharyngeal patency by sleeping lateral rather than supine, possibly as gravitational effects on the tongue are relieved. Here we tested the hypothesis that the improvement in pharyngeal patency depends on the anatomical structure causing collapse, with patients with tongue-related obstruction and epiglottic collapse exhibiting preferential improvements. Methods: Twenty-four OSA patients underwent upper airway endoscopy during natural sleep to determine the pharyngeal structure associated with obstruction, with simultaneous recordings of airflow and pharyngeal pressure. Patients were grouped into three categories based on supine endoscopy: Tongue-related obstruction (posteriorly located tongue, N = 10), non-tongue related obstruction (collapse due to the palate or lateral walls, N = 8), and epiglottic collapse (N = 6). Improvement in pharyngeal obstruction was quantified using the change in peak inspiratory airflow and minute ventilation lateral versus supine. Results: Contrary to our hypothesis, patients with tongue-related obstruction showed no improvement in airflow, and the tongue remained posteriorly located while lateral. Patients without tongue involvement showed modest improvement in airflow (peak flow increased 0.07 L/s and ventilation increased 1.5 L/min). Epiglottic collapse was virtually abolished with lateral positioning and ventilation increased by 45% compared to supine position. Conclusions: Improvement in pharyngeal patency with sleeping position is structure specific, with profound improvements seen in patients with epiglottic collapse, modest effects in those without tongue involvement and—unexpectedly—no effect in those with tongue-related obstruction. Our data refute the notion that the tongue falls back into the airway during sleep via gravitational influences. PMID:28329099

  18. Influences of obstructive sleep apnea on blood pressure variability might not be limited only nocturnally in middle-aged hypertensive males.

    PubMed

    Shao, Liang; Heizhati, Mulalibieke; Yao, Xiaoguang; Wang, Yingchun; Abulikemu, Suofeiya; Zhang, Delian; Zhou, Ling; Hong, Jing; Li, Nanfang

    2018-05-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the potential association between sleep measures and blood pressure variability. Ninety-three middle-aged hypertensive males, who underwent polysomnography and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, were enrolled. Blood pressure variability was assessed by blood pressure standard deviation. Obstructive sleep apnea (apnea hypopnea index ≥ 15) was diagnosed in 52 (55.91%) patients. Mean body mass index and age were 27.77 ± 3.11 kg/m 2 and 44.05 ± 8.07 years, respectively. Hypertensive males with obstructive sleep apnea showed significantly higher 24-h, diurnal, and nocturnal diastolic blood pressure variability, compared to those without obstructive sleep apnea. While total cohort was further divided into two groups using the median of oxygen desaturation index, another indicator for severity of OSA, significant differences were also observed in 24-h, diurnal, and nocturnal diastolic blood pressure variability between two groups with higher and lower oxygen desaturation index. While subjects were also divided into two groups via the mean of sleep stage 1, hypertensive males with sleep stage 1 ≥ 8.1% showed significantly higher diurnal diastolic blood pressure variability than those with sleep stage 1 < 8.1%. Apnea hypopnea index was independently associated with 24-h and nocturnal diastolic blood pressure variability; oxygen desaturation index of 3% with 24-h diastolic, diurnal, and nocturnal diastolic blood pressure; and sleep stage 1 was with 24-h and with diurnal diastolic blood pressure variability in all study subjects. Effects of obstructive sleep apnea on blood pressure variability may not be limited nocturnally.

  19. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Management of Nasal Airway Obstruction: Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Suresh; Fuller, Jennifer C; Ford, Stephanie Friree; Lindsay, Robin W

    2018-05-10

    Nasal airway obstruction (NAO) is a common complaint in the otolaryngologist's office and can have a negative influence on quality of life (QOL). Existing diagnostic methods have improved, but little consensus exists on optimal tools. Furthermore, although surgical techniques for nasal obstruction continue to be developed, effective outcome measurement is lacking. An update of recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic management of NAO is warranted. To review advances in diagnosis and treatment of NAO from the last 5 years. PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, LILACS, Web of Science, and Guideline.gov were searched with the terms nasal obstruction and nasal blockage and their permutations from July 26, 2012, through October 23, 2017. Studies were included if they evaluated NAO using a subjective and an objective technique, and in the case of intervention-based studies, the Nasal Obstruction Symptom Evaluation (NOSE) scale and an objective technique. Exclusion criteria consisted of animal studies; patients younger than 14 years; nasal foreign bodies; nasal masses including polyps; choanal atresia; sinus disease; obstructive sleep apnea or sleep-disordered breathing; allergic rhinitis; and studies not specific to nasal obstruction. The initial search resulted in 942 articles. After independent screening by 2 investigators, 46 unique articles remained, including 2 randomized clinical trials, 3 systematic reviews, 3 meta-analyses, and 39 nonrandomized cohort studies (including a combined systematic review and meta-analysis). An aggregate of approximately 32 000 patients were reviewed (including meta-analyses). Of the subjective measures available for NAO, the NOSE scale is outstanding with regard to disease-specific validation and correlat