Science.gov

Sample records for obtaining cytological samples

  1. Comparative yield of endocervical and metaplastic cells. Two sampling techniques: wooden spatula and cytology brush.

    PubMed Central

    Lo, L.; Jordan, J.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare two sampling techniques in their ability to obtain endocervical and metaplastic cells from the Papanicolaou smear. DESIGN: Prospective clinical trial comparing the criterion standard of a wooden spatula to a cytology brush. SETTING: Community-based family medicine clinic in London, Ont. PATIENTS: Consecutive sample of 102 women aged 15 to 58 years requiring a Pap smear between October 1992 and October 1993 who presented to the office of their family physician and were assessed by one resident or one faculty physician. INTERVENTIONS: A Pap smear was obtained from each participant using first the wooden spatula and then the cytology brush. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of Pap smears done in the study population that contained endocervical or metaplastic cells. RESULTS: Endocervical cell yield was significantly greater using the cytology brush (93.1%) than using the spatula (61.8%) (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in metaplastic cell yield between the cytology brush (71.6%) and the spatula (63.7%). At least one of these cell types was identified on 95.1% of cytology brush samples and on 79.4% of spatula samples (P < 0.001). The resident and faculty physician were not significantly different in their rate of detecting endocervical or metaplastic cells. CONCLUSIONS: Adding a cytology brush sample to the Pap smear resulted in a significant increase in the rate of Pap smears that detected cells. The cytology brush was significantly better than the spatula for detecting endocervical cells (P < 0.001), but not significantly better for detecting metaplastic cells. PMID:8520238

  2. Comparative study of manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) technique and direct smear technique (conventional) on fine-needle cytology/fine-needle aspiration cytology samples

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Prajkta Suresh; Gadkari, Rasika Uday; Swami, Sunil Y.; Joshi, Anil R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Liquid-based cytology technique enables cells to be suspended in a liquid medium and spread in a monolayer, making better morphological assessment. Automated techniques have been widely used, but limited due to cost and availability. Aim: The aim was to establish manual liquid-based cytology (MLBC) technique on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) material and compare its results with conventional technique. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined cells trapped in needles hub used for the collection of FNAC samples. 50 cases were examined by the MLBC technique and compared with the conventional FNAC technique. By centrifugation, sediment was obtained and imprint was taken on defined area. Papanicolaou (Pap) and May-Grünwald Giemsa (MGG) staining was done. Direct smears and MLBC smears were compared for cellularity, background, cellular preservation, and nuclear preservation. Slides were diagnosed independently by two cytologists with more than 5 years’ experience. Standard error of proportion was used for statistical analysis. Results: Cellularity was low in MLBC as compared with conventional smears, which is expected as remnant material in the needle hub was used. Nuclei overlap to a lesser extent and hemorrhage and necrosis was reduced, so cell morphology can be better studied in the MLBC technique. P value obtained was <0.05. Conclusion: This MLBC technique gives results comparable to the conventional technique with better morphology. In a set up where aspirators are learners, this technique will ensure adequacy due to remnant in needle hub getting processed PMID:25210235

  3. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology versus Fine Needle Capillary Sampling in Cytological Diagnosis of Thyroid Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Pinki, Pandey; Alok, Dixit; Ranjan, Aggarwal; Nanak Chand, Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an established out- patient procedure used in primary diagnosis of palpable thyroid lesions. A modified technique fine needle capillary sampling (FNCS) obviates the need of suction, is less painful, patient friendly and reported to overcome the problem of inadequate and bloody specimens. The aim of our study was to compare the efficacy and quality of FNCS with that of conventional FNAC in the lesions of thyroid. Methods: One hundred patients, presenting between January 2011 to December 2012 at Cytopathology Department of M M Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Mullana, with diffuse and nodular thyroid lesions were enrolled with both the techniques being executed on the patients, beginning with FNA followed by FNCS. The smears were scored using five objective parameters i.e. background blood, cellular material, cellular degeneration, cellular trauma, and retention of appropriate architecture, in a single blind setting by a cyto-pathologist. The results were analyzed using Student’s test for paired data and chi- square analysis. Results: A highly significant differences (P<0.001) in favor of FNCS was observed for the background blood, cellular material and retention of architecture while total score favored FNA for cellular degeneration and degree of cellular trauma. Total scores and average score per case for FNCS was significantly better (P<0.001) than FNA. FNCS technique yielded more diagnostically superior and lesser number of unsatisfactory smears whereas greater number of diagnostically adequate samples was obtained by FNA technique. Conclusion: FNCS offers more number of diagnostically better quality smears. Both techniques could be supplementary on many occasions and substitutive on a few. Combination of the two techniques could offer better diagnostic accuracy. PMID:26516325

  4. Comparison of conventional Papanicolaou cytology samples with liquid-based cervical cytology samples from women in Pernambuco, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Costa, M.O.L.P.; Heráclio, S.A.; Coelho, A.V.C.; Acioly, V.L.; Souza, P.R.E.; Correia, M.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we compared the performance of a ThinPrep cytological method with the conventional Papanicolaou test for diagnosis of cytopathological changes, with regard to unsatisfactory results achieved at the Central Public Health Laboratory of the State of Pernambuco. A population-based, cross-sectional study was performed with women aged 18 to 65 years, who spontaneously sought gynecological services in Public Health Units in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, between April and November 2011. All patients in the study were given a standardized questionnaire on sociodemographics, sexual characteristics, reproductive practices, and habits. A total of 525 patients were assessed by the two methods (11.05% were under the age of 25 years, 30.86% were single, 4.4% had had more than 5 sexual partners, 44% were not using contraception, 38.85% were users of alcohol, 24.38% were smokers, 3.24% had consumed drugs previously, 42.01% had gynecological complaints, and 12.19% had an early history of sexually transmitted diseases). The two methods showed poor correlation (k=0.19; 95%CI=0.11–0.26; P<0.001). The ThinPrep method reduced the rate of unsatisfactory results from 4.38% to 1.71% (χ2=5.28; P=0.02), and the number of cytopathological changes diagnosed increased from 2.47% to 3.04%. This study confirmed that adopting the ThinPrep method for diagnosis of cervical cytological samples was an improvement over the conventional method. Furthermore, this method may reduce possible losses from cytological resampling and reduce obstacles to patient follow-up, improving the quality of the public health system in the State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. PMID:26247400

  5. What sampling device is the most appropriate for vaginal vault cytology in gynaecological cancer follow up?

    PubMed Central

    Lino, Del Pup; Vincenzo, Canzonieri; Diego, Serraino; Elio, Campagnutta

    2012-01-01

    Background In women with cancer-related hysterectomy, the vaginal vault cytology has a low efficacy - when performed by conventional methods – for the early detection of vaginal recurrence. The amount of exfoliated cells collected is generally low because of atrophy, and the vaginal vault corners can be so narrow that the commonly used Ayres spatula cannot often penetrate deeply into them. This prospective study aimed at identifying the advantages obtained in specimens collection using the cytobrush, as compared to the Ayres’s spatula. Patients and methods. 141 gynaecologic cancer patients were studied to compare samplings collected with Ayre’s spatula or with cytobrush. In a pilot setting of 15 patients, vaginal cytology samples obtained by both Ayre’s spatula and cytobrush were placed at the opposite sites of a single slide for quali-quantitative evaluation. Thereafter, the remaining 126 consecutive women were assigned to either group A (spatula) or B (cytobrush) according to the order of entry. The same gynaecologist performed all the procedures. Results In all 15 pilot cases, the cytobrush seemed to collect a higher quantity of material. The comparative analysis of the two complete groups indicated that the cytobrush technique was more effective than the spatula one. The odds ratio (OR) for an optimal cytology using the cytobrush was 2.8 (95% confidence interval -C.I. 1.3–6.2; chi-square test, p=0.008). Conclusions Vaginal vault cytology with cytobrush turned out to better perform than the traditional Ayre’s spatula to obtain an adequate sampling in gynecological cancer patients. PMID:23077454

  6. Techniques for cytologic sampling of pancreatic and bile duct lesions.

    PubMed

    Brugge, William; Dewitt, John; Klapman, Jason B; Ashfaq, Raheela; Shidham, Vinod; Chhieng, David; Kwon, Richard; Baloch, Zubair; Zarka, Matthew; Staerkel, Gregg

    2014-04-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology including indications for endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, techniques of the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and postbiopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of the literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18-month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology website [www.papsociety.org]. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of ancillary testing in the cytological diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. This document summarizes the current state of the art for techniques in acquiring cytology specimens from the biliary tree as well as solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas.

  7. Next-generation sequencing for molecular diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma specimens obtained by fine needle aspiration cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tian; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Luhua; Zhang, Zhihui

    2015-06-01

    Identification of multi-gene variations has led to the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and identification of an appropriate patient population with a reliable screening method is the key to the overall success of tumor targeted therapies. In this study, we used the Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique to screen for mutations in 89 cases of lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Of the 89 specimens, 30 (34%) were found to harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations. Seven (8%) samples harbored KRAS mutations, and three (3%) samples had BRAF mutations involving exon 11 (G469A) and exon 15 (V600E). Eight (9%) samples harbored PIK3CA mutations. One (1%) sample had a HRAS G12C mutation. Thirty-two (36%) samples (36%) harbored TP53 mutations. Other genes including APC, ATM, MET, PTPN11, GNAS, HRAS, RB1, SMAD4 and STK11 were found each in one case. Our study has demonstrated that NGS using the Ion Torrent technology is a useful tool for gene mutation screening in lung adenocarcinoma metastatic lymph node specimens obtained by FNAC, and may promote the development of new targeted therapies in lung adenocarcinoma patients.

  8. Improving sensitivity of cervical cytology by removal of cervical secretions before sampling: a prospective study in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Curiel-Valdés, JJ; Briones-Pimentel, J; Bandala, C

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity of cervical cytology is suboptimal, especially in developing countries such as Mexico, despite available guidelines aimed at improving this. When obtaining cervical samples, whether the samples are taken from the transformation zone and whether abnormal cells are missing must be considered. Cervical secretions (CS) are always present in variable proportions, and when cleaning the cervix, better samples may be obtained. In this study, we analyzed samples obtained with or without cleaning the cervix, and compared their contents in order to determine the sensitivity and specificity of these two methods. Methods: Of 500 patients who underwent cytology and colposcopy, 271 (54.2%) required a second opinion due to a diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). CS was removed and compared with the clean, second sample (SS) using in both liquid-based cytology. The quality of samples according to the Bethesda System, the presence of CIN, and inflammatory reactions were recorded. The sensitivity and specificity were calculated using biopsy as the gold standard. Results: The SS resulted in a higher proportion of adequate samples being obtained (97.6% vs. 44.8%), and in increased sensitivity (88.2% vs. 58.8%). CIN was detected in the SS 26% more often than in the CS (34 vs. 27 samples), whereas inflammatory reactions were noted more often in the CS (91.4% vs. 74%). Conclusion: Cervical sampling including CS results in lower sensitivity and CIN detection rates, and in more inflammatory reactions. By excluding CS from cervical samples, the sensitivity could be improved and the false negative rate could be reduced. PMID:25337232

  9. A novel cytologic sampling technique to diagnose subclinical endometritis and comparison of staining methods for endometrial cytology samples in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pascottini, O B; Dini, P; Hostens, M; Ducatelle, R; Opsomer, G

    2015-11-01

    The present article describes a study of the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in dairy cows having two principal aims: first, to validate a novel technique for taking endometrial cytology samples to diagnose subclinical endometritis in dairy cows. Second, to compare the percentage of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) in cytology samples stained with Diff-Quik versus a specific staining method for PMNs, naphthol-AS-D-chloroacetate-esterase (CIAE). In the first experiment, Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 204) were used to take two cytology samples at the same time using the conventional cytobrush (CB) and the new cytotape (CT). Both devices were assembled within the same catheter allowing sampling at the same time, and approximately at the same location. Cytotape consisted of a 1.5-cm piece of paper tape rolled on the top of an insemination catheter covered with a double guard sheet. Parameters used to evaluate both methods were: PMNs percentage, total cellularity, quality of the smears, and red blood cell contamination. The concordance correlation coefficient analysis was used to assess agreement between continuous and Pearson chi-square tests for categorical variables. Agreement between the percentage of PMNs in both methods was good ρ = 0.84 (0.79, 0.87) with a minor standard error of 2%. Both methods yielded similar total cellularity (P = 0.62). Cytotape yielded better quality smears with more intact cells (P < 0.01) while samples that were taken by CB were more likely to be bloody (P < 0.01). Hence, CT and CB methods yielded smears with a similar PMNs percentage and a total number of cells, but CT provided smears with higher quality and significantly less blood contamination. For the second experiment, 114 duplicate cytology slides were stained using both Diff-Quik and CIAE. Agreement between PMNs percentage in both staining techniques was good ρc = 0.84 (0.78, 0.89) with a standard error of only 2%. Hence, Diff-Quik was confirmed as an easy, fast

  10. Techniques for cytologic sampling of pancreatic and bile duct lesions: The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Brugge, William R; De Witt, John; Klapman, Jason B; Ashfaq, Raheela; Shidham, Vinod; Chhieng, David; Kwon, Richard; Baloch, Zubair; Zarka, Matthew; Staerkel, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology has developed a set of guidelines for pancreatobiliary cytology, including indications for endoscopic ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy, techniques of the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, terminology and nomenclature of pancreatobiliary disease, ancillary testing, and postbiopsy management. All documents are based on the expertise of the authors, a review of literature, discussions of the draft document at several national and international meetings over an 18 month period and synthesis of online comments of the draft document on the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology website [www.papsociety.org]. This document presents the results of these discussions regarding the use of sampling techniques in the cytological diagnosis of biliary and pancreatic lesions. This document summarizes the current state of the art for techniques in acquiring cytology specimens from the biliary tree as well as solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas.

  11. Molecular classification of cancer with the 92-gene assay in cytology and limited tissue samples

    PubMed Central

    Brachtel, Elena F.; Operaña, Theresa N.; Sullivan, Peggy S.; Kerr, Sarah E.; Cherkis, Karen A.; Schroeder, Brock E.; Dry, Sarah M.; Schnabel, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Detailed molecular evaluation of cytology and limited tissue samples is increasingly becoming the standard for cancer care. Reproducible and accurate diagnostic approaches with reduced demands on cellularity are an ongoing unmet need. This study evaluated the performance of a 92-gene assay for molecular diagnosis of tumor type/subtype in cytology and limited tissue samples. Methods Clinical validation of accuracy for the 92-gene assay in limited tissue samples such as cytology cell blocks, core biopsies and small excisions was conducted in a blinded multi-institutional study (N = 109, 48% metastatic, 53% grade II and III). Analytical success rate and diagnostic utility were evaluated in a consecutive series of 644 cytology cases submitted for clinical testing. Results The 92-gene assay demonstrated 91% sensitivity (95% CI [0.84, 0.95]) for tumor classification, with high accuracy maintained irrespective of specimen type (100%, 92%, and 86% in FNA/cytology cell blocks, core biopsies, and small excisions, respectively; p = 0.26). The assay performed equally well for metastatic versus primary tumors (90% vs 93%, p = 0.73), and across histologic grades (100%, 90%, 89%, in grades I, II, and III, respectively; p = 0.75). In the clinical case series, a molecular diagnosis was reported in 87% of the 644 samples, identifying 23 different tumor types and allowing for additional mutational analysis in selected cases. Conclusions These findings demonstrate high accuracy and analytical success rate of the 92-gene assay, supporting its utility in the molecular diagnosis of cancer for specimens with limited tissue. PMID:27034010

  12. Detection of EGFR and KRAS Mutation by Pyrosequencing Analysis in Cytologic Samples of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    EGFR and KRAS mutations are two of the most common mutations that are present in lung cancer. Screening and detecting these mutations are of issue these days, and many different methods and tissue samples are currently used to effectively detect these two mutations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the testing for EGFR and KRAS mutations by pyrosequencing method, and compared the yield of cytology versus histology specimens in a consecutive series of patients with lung cancer. We retrospectively reviewed EGFR and KRAS mutation results of 399 (patients with EGFR mutation test) and 323 patients (patients with KRAS mutation test) diagnosed with lung cancer in Konkuk University Medical Center from 2008 to 2014. Among them, 60 patients had received both EGFR and KRAS mutation studies. We compared the detection rate of EGFR and KRAS tests in cytology, biopsy, and resection specimens. EGFR and KRAS mutations were detected in 29.8% and 8.7% of total patients, and the positive mutation results of EGFR and KRAS were mutually exclusive. The detection rate of EGFR mutation in cytology was higher than non-cytology (biopsy or resection) materials (cytology: 48.5%, non-cytology: 26.1%), and the detection rate of KRAS mutation in cytology specimens was comparable to non-cytology specimens (cytology: 8.3%, non-cytology: 8.7%). We suggest that cytology specimens are good alternatives that can readily substitute tissue samples for testing both EGFR and KRAS mutations. Moreover, pyrosequencing method is highly sensitive in detecting EGFR and KRAS mutations in lung cancer patients. PMID:27478332

  13. Detection of EGFR and KRAS Mutation by Pyrosequencing Analysis in Cytologic Samples of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Eun; Lee, So-Young; Park, Hyung-Kyu; Oh, Seo-Young; Kim, Hee-Joung; Lee, Kye-Young; Kim, Wan-Seop

    2016-08-01

    EGFR and KRAS mutations are two of the most common mutations that are present in lung cancer. Screening and detecting these mutations are of issue these days, and many different methods and tissue samples are currently used to effectively detect these two mutations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the testing for EGFR and KRAS mutations by pyrosequencing method, and compared the yield of cytology versus histology specimens in a consecutive series of patients with lung cancer. We retrospectively reviewed EGFR and KRAS mutation results of 399 (patients with EGFR mutation test) and 323 patients (patients with KRAS mutation test) diagnosed with lung cancer in Konkuk University Medical Center from 2008 to 2014. Among them, 60 patients had received both EGFR and KRAS mutation studies. We compared the detection rate of EGFR and KRAS tests in cytology, biopsy, and resection specimens. EGFR and KRAS mutations were detected in 29.8% and 8.7% of total patients, and the positive mutation results of EGFR and KRAS were mutually exclusive. The detection rate of EGFR mutation in cytology was higher than non-cytology (biopsy or resection) materials (cytology: 48.5%, non-cytology: 26.1%), and the detection rate of KRAS mutation in cytology specimens was comparable to non-cytology specimens (cytology: 8.3%, non-cytology: 8.7%). We suggest that cytology specimens are good alternatives that can readily substitute tissue samples for testing both EGFR and KRAS mutations. Moreover, pyrosequencing method is highly sensitive in detecting EGFR and KRAS mutations in lung cancer patients.

  14. [Cytological investigation of needle aspiration and endoscopy samples using stain-covered glass slides (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Böttcher-Ramdohr, G; von Wichert, P; Stein, E

    1977-10-28

    Early morning sputum (n = 46), sputum and bronchial secretion obtained by aspiration (n = 87), pleural, ascitic, and pericardial fluids (n = 53), and pulmonary aspirate and gastric wash-out fluid (n = 10) were investigated cytologicallly using stain-covered glass slides (Testsimplets, Boehringer Mannheim). It was shown that the method was equal to classical cytological stains (Pappeheim and Papanicolaou) when exudates and biopsy material were investigated. The method is suitable for diagnostic purposes in hospitals and practice.

  15. Molecular Typing of Lung Adenocarcinoma on Cytological Samples Using a Multigene Next Generation Sequencing Panel

    PubMed Central

    Fassan, Matteo; Rachiglio, Anna Maria; Cappellesso, Rocco; Antonello, Davide; Amato, Eliana; Mafficini, Andrea; Lambiase, Matilde; Esposito, Claudia; Bria, Emilio; Simonato, Francesca; Scardoni, Maria; Turri, Giona; Chilosi, Marco; Tortora, Giampaolo; Fassina, Ambrogio; Normanno, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Identification of driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma has led to development of targeted agents that are already approved for clinical use or are in clinical trials. Therefore, the number of biomarkers that will be needed to assess is expected to rapidly increase. This calls for the implementation of methods probing the mutational status of multiple genes for inoperable cases, for which limited cytological or bioptic material is available. Cytology specimens from 38 lung adenocarcinomas were subjected to the simultaneous assessment of 504 mutational hotspots of 22 lung cancer-associated genes using 10 nanograms of DNA and Ion Torrent PGM next-generation sequencing. Thirty-six cases were successfully sequenced (95%). In 24/36 cases (67%) at least one mutated gene was observed, including EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA, BRAF, TP53, PTEN, MET, SMAD4, FGFR3, STK11, MAP2K1. EGFR and KRAS mutations, respectively found in 6/36 (16%) and 10/36 (28%) cases, were mutually exclusive. Nine samples (25%) showed concurrent alterations in different genes. The next-generation sequencing test used is superior to current standard methodologies, as it interrogates multiple genes and requires limited amounts of DNA. Its applicability to routine cytology samples might allow a significant increase in the fraction of lung cancer patients eligible for personalized therapy. PMID:24236184

  16. Fine-needle sample of salivary gland lesions. V: Cytology of 22 cases of acinic cell carcinoma with histologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Klijanienko, J; Vielh, P

    1997-11-01

    Fine-needle sampling (FNS) of 22 acinic cell carcinomas, including 17 primary tumors, 4 local recurrences, and 1 lymph node metastasis was performed preoperatively in 17 patients. Cytologic diagnoses were concordant with histology in 3 (13.7%) cases, whereas 15 (68.2%) cases were cytologically classified as malignant, 2 (9.1%) as suspicious, and 1 (4.5%) as benign (pleomorphic adenoma). The material was unsatisfactory for cytologic evaluation in 1 (4.5%) case. Preoperative FNS technique is, therefore, useful in acinic cell carcinoma with a concordant malignant/suspicious rate of 91%.

  17. Fine-needle sampling of salivary gland lesions. II. Cytology and histology correlation of 71 cases of Warthin's tumor (adenolymphoma).

    PubMed

    Klijanienko, J; Vielh, P

    1997-03-01

    Fine-needle sampling (FNS) of 71 Warthin's tumors was performed preoperatively in 70 patients. Cytologic diagnoses were concordant with histology in 50 (70.4%) tumors, whereas 14 (19.7%) cases were cytologically misclassified as benign lesions. Material for cytologic evaluation was unsatisfactory in seven (9.9%) cases, and no suspicious or false-positive diagnoses were observed. FNS is therefore a reliable preoperative technique for assessment of Warthin's tumor with a concordant/benign diagnostic rate of 90.1%.

  18. Goblet cells of the normal human bulbar conjunctiva and their assessment by impression cytology sampling.

    PubMed

    Doughty, Michael J

    2012-07-01

    Goblet cells of the conjunctiva are the main source of mucus for the ocular surface. The objectives of this review are to consider the goblet cells as assessed by various histological, cytological and electron microscopy methods, and to assess the consistency of published reports (over more than 25 years) of goblet cell density (GCD) from impression cytology specimens from nominally healthy human subjects. Reported GCD values have been notably variable, with a range from 24 to 2226 cells/mm² for average values. Data analysis suggests that a high density of goblet cells should be expected for the healthy human conjunctiva, with a tendency toward higher values in samples taken from normally covered locations (inferior and superior bulbar conjunctiva) of the open eye (at 973 +/- 789 cells/ mm²) than in samples taken from exposed (interpalpebral) locations (at 427 +/- 376 cells/mm²). No obvious change in GCD was found with respect to age, perhaps because the variability of the data did not allow detection of any age-related decline in GCD. Analyses of published data from 33 other sources indicated a trend for GCD to be lower than normal across a spectrum of ocular surface diseases.

  19. Scoop Ready to Obtain New Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This view from the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the Robotic Arm scoop. This image was taken on the 59th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 25, 2008). The scoop was photographed to confirm it is empty in preparation for collecting a sample for analysis from a hard subsurface layer where soil may contain frozen water.

    The width of the scoop is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches).

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  20. Spectral Cytopathology of Cervical Samples: Detecting Cellular Abnormalities in Cytologically Normal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Jennifer M.; Bird, Benjamin; Papamarkakis, Kostas; Miljković, Miloš; Bedrossian, Kristi; Laver, Nora; Diem, Max

    2010-01-01

    Aim Spectral Cytopathology (SCP) is a novel spectroscopic method for objective and unsupervised classification of individual exfoliated cells. The limitations of conventional cytopathology are well-recognized within the pathology community. In SCP, cellular differentiation is made by observing molecular changes in the nucleus and the cytoplasm, which may or may not produce morphological changes detectable by conventional cytopathology. This proof of concept study demonstrates SCP’s potential as an enhancing tool for cytopathologists by aiding in the accurate and reproducible diagnosis of cells in all states of disease. Method Infrared spectra are collected from cervical cells deposited onto reflectively coated glass slides. Each cell has a corresponding infrared spectrum that describes its unique biochemical composition. Spectral data are processed and analyzed by an unsupervised chemometric algorithm, Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Results In this blind study, cervical samples are classified by analyzing the spectra of morphologically normal looking squamous cells from normal samples and samples diagnosed by conventional cytopathology with low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL). SCP discriminated cytopathological diagnoses amongst twelve different cervical samples with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity. SCP also correlated two samples with abnormal spectral changes: these samples had a normal cytopathological diagnosis but had a history of abnormal cervical cytology. The spectral changes observed in the morphologically normal looking cells are most likely due to an infection with human papillomavirus, HPV. HPV DNA testing was conducted on five additional samples, and SCP accurately differentiated these samples by their HPV status. Conclusions SCP tracks biochemical variations in cells that are consistent with the onset of disease. HPV has been implicated as the cause of these changes detected spectroscopically. SCP does not depend on

  1. Fine needle cytology of palpable head and neck lesions: a comparison of sampling methods with and without suction.

    PubMed

    Allen, S M; Boon, A P; Brownridge, D M; Chadwick, C H; Buckley, J G

    1999-04-01

    Patients attending the ear, nose and throat (ENT) department at St James's University Hospital, Leeds, UK, for evaluation of palpable head and neck lesions have a fine needle cytology (FNC) specimen taken and receive the result at the same out-patient visit. This study was designed to discover if there is a significant difference in the efficiency of the methods with and without suction. The method was chosen randomly on each occasion and the adequacy or otherwise of the specimen was determined taking into account the site and nature of the lesion and the total cellularity of the sample. The level of blood contamination was also compared by each method. When benign and malignant lesions from all sites were analysed together the method with suction produced a significantly higher number of adequate samples than the method without suction. The exception was in the case of samples from lymph node lesions measuring < 1 cm, where adequate specimens were only obtained without suction. The non-suction technique was particularly poor at sampling salivary gland lesions in the 1-1.5 cm category. There was no significant difference in the level of blood contamination between the two methods at any site. These results are at variance with most other similar studies and possible reasons for this are discussed.

  2. A systematic assessment of goblet cell sampling of the bulbar conjunctiva by impression cytology.

    PubMed

    Doughty, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the apparent goblet cell density (GCD) from conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) samples in relation to the number of conjunctival cells collected onto the filters. CIC specimens were collected from the superior-temporal bulbar conjunctiva of 16 pigmented rabbits onto Biopore (Millicell-CM) membranes, fixed with buffered glutaraldehyde and stained with Giemsa. Different numbers of microscope fields of view in each of the specimens were imaged by light microscopy using a 20× magnification objective lens (200× final magnification), and the goblet cells marked and counted. The GCD values/sq. mm were calculated. The same conjunctival region of 3 other rabbits was also prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) by fixation, in situ, with the same buffered glutaraldehyde. Mean values for GCD estimates were found to vary from 399 to 1576 cells/sq. mm, depending on the image sampling and analysis strategy chosen, with the lowest inter-sample variance of around 10% being found if a maximum goblet cell count was taken on substantially multilayered regions of the CIC specimens. Counts of the number of goblet cells per 1000 visible conjunctival epithelial cells yielded a value of close to 90 (range 36-151), with modest inter-sample variability of around 30%. A three or ten 200× microscope field and random sampling strategy yielded mean GCD values between 542 and 670 cells/sq. mm, but with very high intra- and inter-sample variance of at least 60% and sometimes higher than 100%. TEM confirmed the multilayered organization of the conjunctiva and the deeper lying goblet cells. The general use of a goblet cell count as an objective marker for conjunctival normality or health is likely to be highly variable unless a more specific strategy is adopted. Beyond providing details of exactly the counting strategy used, it would be very useful to provide full details of the actual microscope field size used as well as information on

  3. Fine-needle sampling of salivary gland lesions. I. Cytology and histology correlation of 412 cases of pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Klijanienko, J; Vielh, P

    1996-05-01

    Fine-needle sampling (FNS) of 412 pleomorphic adenomas, corresponding to 378 primary tumors and 34 local recurrences, was performed preoperatively in 378 patients. Concordant cytologic diagnoses were established in 376 tumors (91.3%), whereas seven (1.7%) were only classified as benign. Sixteen (3.9%) tumors were considered to be suspicious and two (0.5%) were diagnosed as adenoid cystic carcinomas. Insufficient material for cytologic evaluation was found in 11 (2.6%) tumors. Pleomorphic adenomas were retrospectively classified according to the predominant histological differentiation: chondromyxoid, cellular, myoepithelial, or metaplastic. FNS performances were higher in chondromyxoid than in other types, with 95.2% concordant and 1.4% suspicious/ false-positive, vs. 81.8% concordant, and 11.5% suspicious/false-positive cytodiagnoses, respectively.

  4. Mutual association of Broad bean wilt virus 2 VP37-derived tubules and plasmodesmata obtained from cytological observation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Li; Shang, Weina; Liu, Chengke; Zhang, Qinfen; Sunter, Garry; Hong, Jian; Zhou, Xueping

    2016-01-01

    The movement protein VP37 of broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV 2) forms tubules in the plasmodesmata (PD) for the transport of virions between cells. This paper reports a mutual association between the BBWV 2 VP37-tubule complex and PD at the cytological level as determined by transmission electron microscopy. The generation of VP37-tubules within different PD leads to a different occurrence frequency as well as different morphology lines of virus-like particles. In addition, the frequency of VP37-tubules was different between PD found at different cellular interfaces, as well as between single-lined PD and branched PD. VP37-tubule generation also induced structural alterations of PD as well as modifications to the cell wall (CW) in the vicinity of the PD. A structural comparison using three-dimensional (3D) electron tomography (ET), determined that desmotubule structures found in the center of normal PD were absent in PD containing VP37-tubules. Using gold labeling, modification of the CW by callose deposition and cellulose reduction was observable on PD containing VP37-tubule. These cytological observations provide evidence of a mutual association of MP-derived tubules and PD in a natural host, improving our fundamental understanding of interactions between viral MP and PD that result in intercellular movement of virus particles. PMID:26903400

  5. Silicone lymphadenopathy: presentation of a further case containing asteroid bodies on fine-needle cytology sample.

    PubMed

    Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Campanile, Anna Cipolletta; Gioioso, Antonella; Fucito, Alfredo; D'Aiuto, Giuseppe; Botti, Gerardo; Fulciniti, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Silicone lymphadenopathy is a recognized complication of breast augmentation. It is thought to occur when silicone droplets migrate from breast implants to lymph nodes. We report the cytologic findings in axillary and inguinal lymph node aspirate smears from a 35-year-old Italian woman, who came to our observation 10 years after bilateral cosmetic breast augmentation. A fine-needle cytology of the axillary lymph node showed extensive granulomatous inflammation, numerous histiocytes, and multinucleated giant cells containing star-shaped structures known as "asteroid bodies." The inguinal lymph node aspirate simply showed an aspecific reactive hyperplasia. No evidence of malignancy was present in any of the smears as well as in the excised axillary lymph node. PMID:24995825

  6. 7 CFR 201.45 - Obtaining the working sample.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.45 Obtaining the working sample. (a) The... available, the sample shall be thoroughly mixed and placed in a pile and the pile shall be...

  7. Improvization of conventional cytology by centrifuged liquid-based cytology in oral exfoliative cytology specimen

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Shwetha; Hegde, Veda; Yadav, Nikhil; Hallikeri, Kaveri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exfoliative cytology is the microscopic examination of shed or desquamated cells from the epithelial surface. Centrifuged liquid-based cytology (CLBC) is a modified technique that was used in the current study. Aims: To compare the efficacy of CLBC with conventional cytology in apparently normal mucosa after staining with Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of apparently normal mucosa from healthy subjects were selected for the study. The first sample was taken and spread on the slide by the conventional technique. The second sample was flushed out in a suspending solution, centrifuged, and the cell pellet obtained was used to make the smear. The stained smears were compared for seven parameters such as adequate cellularity, clear background, uniform distribution, cellular overlapping, cellular elongation, mucus, and inflammatory cells. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis and P ≤ 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between CLBC and conventional cytology with parameters such as adequate cellularity (P = 0.001), clear background (P = 0.001), uniform distribution (0.005), cellular overlapping, and cellular elongation (P = 0). The presence of mucus and inflammatory cells was minimal as the samples were collected from healthy subjects. Conclusion: CLBC has better efficacy over the conventional method in all the parameters analyzed. PMID:27756981

  8. Development of optimal liquid based cytology sample processing methods for HPV testing: minimising the 'inadequate' test result.

    PubMed

    Peevor, R; Jones, J; Fiander, A N; Hibbitts, S

    2011-05-01

    Incorporation of HPV testing into cervical screening is anticipated and robust methods for DNA extraction from liquid based cytology (LBC) samples are required. This study compared QIAamp extraction with Proteinase K digestion and developed methods to address DNA extraction failure (β-globin PCR negative) from clinical specimens. Proteinase K and QIAamp extraction methods in paired LBC samples were comparable with adequate DNA retrieved from 93.3% of clinical specimens. An HPV prevalence cohort (n=10,000) found 7% (n=676) LBC samples tested negative for β-globin, and were classified as inadequate. This 'failure' rate is unsuitable for population screening, particularly as the sampling method is intrusive. 379/676 samples were assessed to determine the cause of test failure. Re-testing confirmed adequate DNA in 21.6% of the original extracts; re-extraction from stored material identified 56.2% samples contained adequate material; dilution to overcome sample inhibition (1:10) resolved 51.7% cases in original extracts and 28% in new extracts. A standardised approach to HPV testing with an optimal DNA concentration input rather than standard volume input is recommended. Samples failing initial DNA extraction should be repeat extracted and assessed for sample inhibition to reduce the 7% of HPV tests being reported as inadequate and reduce the need for retesting of those women to <1%.

  9. Diagnostic validity of human papillomavirus E6/E7 mRNA test in cervical cytological samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong-Yu; Xie, Rong; Luo, Li; Reilly, Kathleen H; He, Cheng; Lin, Yu-Zhen; Chen, Gang; Zheng, Xiong-Wei; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Wang, Hai-Bo

    2014-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA tests tend to show high sensitivity, but poor specificity in detecting high-grade cervical lesions. This study aimed to explore the clinical performance of QuantiVirus(®) HPV E6/E7 mRNA in identifying ≥Grade 2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Thin-prep(®) liquid based cytology test (LBC) samples were collected from October 2009 to October 2011 from women who underwent outpatient hospital-based gynecological screening. LBC samples were processed for E6/E7 mRNA detection and HPV DNA detection. Of 335 patients, 135 (40.3%) were HPV E6/E7 mRNA positive for high-risk HPV subtypes. The positivity rate of HPV E6/E7 mRNA increased with the severity of cytological and histological evaluation. An optimal cut-off value of ≥567copies/ml was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and positive predictive value and negative predictive value of cut-off value (≥567copies/ml) were higher than those of E6/E7 mRNA positivity only, but not significant. QuantiVirus(®) HPV E6/E7 mRNA testing may be a valuable tool in triage for identifying ≥Grade 2 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. A high specificity and a low positivity rate of E6/E7mRNA testing as a triage test in HPV DNA-positive women can be translated into a low referral for colposcopy. Studies composed of large population-based samples of women and with rigorous disease ascertainment, are needed to establish the optimal cut-off point based on ROC curve analysis.

  10. Confocal microscopy and exfoliative cytology

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Shyam Prasad; Ramani, Pratibha; Nainani, Purshotam

    2013-01-01

    Context: Early detection of potentially malignant lesions and invasive squamous-cell carcinoma in the oral cavity could be greatly improved through techniques that permit visualization of subtle cellular changes indicative of the neoplastic transformation process. One such technique is confocal microscopy. Combining rapidity with reliability, an innovative idea has been put forward using confocal microscope in exfoliative cytology. Aims: The main objective of this study was to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis and the results were compared with that of the standard PAP stain. Settings and Design: Confocal microscope, acridine orange (AO) stain, PAP (Papanicolaou) stain. The study was designed to assess confocal microscopy for cytological diagnosis. In the process, smears of patients with (clinically diagnosed and/or suspected) oral squamous cell carcinoma as well as those of controls (normal people) were stained with acridine orange and observed under confocal microscope. The results were compared with those of the standard PAP method. Materials and Methods: Samples of buccal mucosa smears from normal patients and squamous cell carcinoma patients were made, fixed in 100% alcohol, followed by AO staining. The corresponding set of smears was stained with PAP stain using rapid PAP stain kit. The results obtained were compared with those obtained with AO confocal microscopy. Results: The study had shown nuclear changes (malignant cells) in the smears of squamous cell carcinoma patients as increased intensity of fluorescence of the nucleus, when observed under confocal microscope. Acridine orange confocal microscopy showed good amount of sensitivity and specificity (93%) in identifying malignant cells in exfoliative cytological smears. Conclusion: Confocal microscopy was found to have good sensitivity in the identification of cancer (malignant) cells in exfoliative cytology, at par with the PAP method. The rapidity of processing and screening a

  11. [Detection of genetically modified organisms obtained from food samples ].

    PubMed

    Monma, Kimio; Araki, Rie; Ichikawa, Hisatsugu; Sato, Masaki; Uno, Naomichi; Sato, Kazue; Tobe, Takashi; Kuribara, Hideo; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Hino, Akihiro; Saito, Kazuo

    2004-08-01

    Genetially modified organisms (GMOs) were explored in food samples obtained from November 2000 to March 2003 in the Tokyo area by using PCR and real-time PCR techniques. The existence of Roundup Ready Soybean (RRS) was surveyed in processed foods derived from soybeans, such as tofu, boiled soybean, kinako, nama-age, abura-age, natto, miso, soymilk and yuba. RRS was detected in 3 of 37 tofu, 2 of 3 nama-age, 2 of 3 yuba and 3 of 3 abura-age samples. The CBH351 in 70 processed corn foods, NewLeaf Plus and NewLeaf Y in 50 processed potato foods, and 55-1 papaya in 16 papayas were surveyed. These GMOs were not detected among the samples. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of RRS and genetically modified (GM) corn were performed in soybean, corn and semi-processed corn products such as corn meal, corn flour and corn grits. RRS was detected in 42 of 178 soybean samples, and the amount of RRS in RRS-positive samples was determined. The content was in the range of 0.1-1.4% in identity-preserved soybeans (non-GMO), and 49.8-78.8% in non-segregated soybeans. On the other hand, GM corns were detected in 8 of 26 samples. The amount of GM corn in GM corn-positive samples was in the range of 0.1-2.0%.

  12. Uterine lavage is efficient to recover endometrial cytology sample and does not interfere with fertility rate after artificial insemination in cows.

    PubMed

    Thomé, Helder Esteves; de Arruda, Rubens Paes; de Oliveira, Bruna Marcele Martins; Maturana Filho, Milton; de Oliveira, Guilherme Cain; Guimarães, Carina de Fátima; de Carvalho Balieiro, Júlio César; Azedo, Milton Ricardo; Pogliani, Fábio Celidônio; Celeghini, Eneiva Carla Carvalho

    2016-06-01

    Productivity rates directly depend on the fertility of a herd, which in turn can be influenced by many factors. Semen deposited in the female reproductive tract is foreign to the body and, in response to this invasion, produces an inflammatory reaction, which is characterized by rapid infusion of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells. Techniques to obtain an endometrial sample are usually invasive and can mask the true inflammatory response. Ultrasound is a noninvasive technique and can contribute to the diagnosis of postartificial insemination (AI) inflammatory response in cattle. The present study was divided into two experiments. The aim of experiment 1 was to compare two methods of endometrial cytology collection, uterine cytobrush (UC) and uterine lavage (UL), and their effects on uterine hemodynamics that provide information about blood flow. The two methods were evaluated by Doppler ultrasound using the spectral and color modes. For that purpose, 19 Nellore cows were synchronized for timed AI and subjected to UC (n = 9) or UL (n = 10). The techniques were performed 4 hours after AI. The results showed that both techniques allow collection of a good quality sample and with enough PMN cells to perform counting. More PMN cells were obtained by UL than UC. There was no difference in uterine blood flow between the UC and UL groups in any of the periods evaluated (34 hours before and 4, 24, and 48 hours after collection of uterine sample). On the basis of results of experiment 1, the effect of UL on fertility was studied in experiment 2. A total of 128 Nellore cows were synchronized for TAI; 35 cows were subjected to endometrial cytology by UL 4 hours after AI, and 93 were not submitted to any procedure (control). Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by transrectal ultrasound 30 days after AI. Pregnancy rates did not differ between UL (54.29%) and control (56.99%) groups. The results of this study showed that UL allows the collection of more representative cells of

  13. Bacterial contamination in cold water samples obtained from water dispensers.

    PubMed

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a basic study in order to evaluate the bacterial contamination in water dispensers. Water samples were obtained from water dispensers from October 2012 to November 2013, and standard plate counts (at 36˚C, 24 h) of the samples, as well as heterotrophic plate counts (at 25˚C, 7 d), were estimated with the standard methods for the examination of drinking water in Japan. Standard plate counts exceeding the water-quality standard (1.0×10(2) CFU/ml) were observed in 42 of the 140 samples (30.0%), with a maximum detected bacterial count of 2.1×10(5) CFU/ml. The rate of the standard plate counts exceeding the water quality standard tended to be higher when using a one-way type method or water dispensers with natural water. Ralstonia spp. was most commonly isolated, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated in a few cases. Some opportunistic pathogens were also isolated, suggesting that we should be more concerned about bacterial contamination in cold water supplied from water dispensers.

  14. [Imprint cytology. Advantages and possibilities].

    PubMed

    Müller, H A

    1976-01-01

    Imprint cytology is a special variation of applied cytology, which can be used for quite different purposes. In scientific research cytologic imprints are very apt for cytophotometric measurements of DNA contents in nuclei as well as for karyologic studies, for instance on the different distribution of chromatin in the nuclei of benign and malignant tumors. Furthermore, imprint cytology is of great importance in teaching and learning results of aspiration biopsies, as the cellular patterns obtained with both methods are looking identical and moreover every imprint can be compared with the corresponding histologic slide. Last but not least in diagnostic procedures cytologic imprints are very helpful as an adjuvant to frozen and paraffin sections: They set off also very discrete changes and make possible diagnostic statements in a shorter time than it is possible with histologic slides.

  15. EGFR mutation testing on cytological and histological samples in non-small cell lung cancer: a Polish, single institution study and systematic review of European incidence.

    PubMed

    Szumera-Ciećkiewicz, Anna; Olszewski, Włodzimierz T; Tysarowski, Andrzej; Kowalski, Dariusz M; Głogowski, Maciej; Krzakowski, Maciej; Siedlecki, Janusz A; Wągrodzki, Michał; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika

    2013-01-01

    The targeted treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) depends on confirmation of activating somatic EGFR mutation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of EGFR mutations in NSCLC detected in cytological and histological material and present literature review on European EGFR mutation incidence. 273 patients with confirmed NSCLC were entered into the study: 189 histological, paraffin-embedded materials, 12 fresh and 72 fixed cytological specimens. DNA was extracted from both types of material and the EGFR mutation in exons 18-21 was analyzed by direct sequencing. In addition the EGFR gene copy number in cases with sufficient histological material (110 patients) was evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. The percentage of EGFR somatic mutations was 10.62%. FISH positive results (amplification or high polysomy of EGFR gene) were identified in 33 patients (30.0%). The strongest clinicopathological correlation with the EGFR mutation was found for histological type (adenocarcinoma; p < 0.01), gender (females; p < 0.01) and FISH positive result (p < 0.05). This is the first, single institution study that estimates the EGFR mutation incidence in the Polish population. Cytological material recovered from fixed preparations and stained with hematoxylin and eosin showed DNA quality comparable to fresh tumor cells and histological samples.

  16. Comparison of the Cervex-Brush® Combi and the Cytobrush+Ayres Spatula Combination for Cervical Sampling in Liquid-Based Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Tavares Guerreiro Fregnani, José Humberto; Possati Resende, Júlio Cesar; Antoniazzi, Márcio; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the performance of two cervical collection devices (Cytobrush+Ayres spatula and Cervex-Brush® Combi) for cellular sampling, transformation zone representation and accuracy in diagnosing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2+. Methods Cervical samples were collected from patients referred to the colposcopy unit of the Barretos Cancer Hospital between September 2013 and October 2014 using one of the two sampling devices. Additionally, colposcopy was performed with or without cervical biopsy and/or endocervical curettage. Results Biopsy was performed in 670 of the 1,235 patients submitted to colposcopy (54.2%). The Cervex-Brush® Combi was more effective than the Cytobrush with respect to endocervical cells sampling (82.7% versus 74.6%; p = 0.001). Sensitivity was also higher with the Cervex-Brush® Combi (48.6% versus 33.9%; p = 0.023) for predicting CIN2+ when high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were detected at cytology. Conclusions Cervex-Brush® Combi was more effective than Cytobrush+Ayres Spatula for endocervical cells sampling and also had a slightly higher accuracy in predicting histologically CIN2+ lesions in patients with diagnosis of HSIL in cytology. PMID:27741238

  17. Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) for Research; Obtaining Adequate Sample Yield

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Andrea M.; Rylance, Jamie; Wootton, Daniel G.; Wright, Angela D.; Wright, Adam K. A.; Fullerton, Duncan G.; Gordon, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a research technique for fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) using manual hand held suction in order to remove nonadherent cells and lung lining fluid from the mucosal surface. In research environments, BAL allows sampling of innate (lung macrophage), cellular (B- and T- cells), and humoral (immunoglobulin) responses within the lung. BAL is internationally accepted for research purposes and since 1999 the technique has been performed in > 1,000 subjects in the UK and Malawi by our group. Our technique uses gentle hand-held suction of instilled fluid; this is designed to maximize BAL volume returned and apply minimum shear force on ciliated epithelia in order to preserve the structure and function of cells within the BAL fluid and to preserve viability to facilitate the growth of cells in ex vivo culture. The research technique therefore uses a larger volume instillate (typically in the order of 200 ml) and employs manual suction to reduce cell damage. Patients are given local anesthetic, offered conscious sedation (midazolam), and tolerate the procedure well with minimal side effects. Verbal and written subject information improves tolerance and written informed consent is mandatory. Safety of the subject is paramount. Subjects are carefully selected using clear inclusion and exclusion criteria. This protocol includes a description of the potential risks, and the steps taken to mitigate them, a list of contraindications, pre- and post-procedure checks, as well as precise bronchoscopy and laboratory techniques. PMID:24686157

  18. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for research; obtaining adequate sample yield.

    PubMed

    Collins, Andrea M; Rylance, Jamie; Wootton, Daniel G; Wright, Angela D; Wright, Adam K A; Fullerton, Duncan G; Gordon, Stephen B

    2014-01-01

    We describe a research technique for fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) using manual hand held suction in order to remove nonadherent cells and lung lining fluid from the mucosal surface. In research environments, BAL allows sampling of innate (lung macrophage), cellular (B- and T- cells), and humoral (immunoglobulin) responses within the lung. BAL is internationally accepted for research purposes and since 1999 the technique has been performed in > 1,000 subjects in the UK and Malawi by our group. Our technique uses gentle hand-held suction of instilled fluid; this is designed to maximize BAL volume returned and apply minimum shear force on ciliated epithelia in order to preserve the structure and function of cells within the BAL fluid and to preserve viability to facilitate the growth of cells in ex vivo culture. The research technique therefore uses a larger volume instillate (typically in the order of 200 ml) and employs manual suction to reduce cell damage. Patients are given local anesthetic, offered conscious sedation (midazolam), and tolerate the procedure well with minimal side effects. Verbal and written subject information improves tolerance and written informed consent is mandatory. Safety of the subject is paramount. Subjects are carefully selected using clear inclusion and exclusion criteria. This protocol includes a description of the potential risks, and the steps taken to mitigate them, a list of contraindications, pre- and post-procedure checks, as well as precise bronchoscopy and laboratory techniques.

  19. Identification of Episomal Human Papillomavirus and Other DNA Viruses in Cytological Anal Samples of HIV-Uninfected Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Benevolo, Maria; Vocaturo, Amina; Latini, Alessandra; Giglio, Amalia; Venuti, Aldo; Giuliani, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    To date, there have been only few studies that investigated integration of anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Most of them were conducted on HIV-infected individuals and mainly analyzed samples from high-grade lesions and invasive cancer. We aimed to investigate HPV physical status in HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) with a detectable anal HPV infection, irrespective of the presence of lesions. We also sought to explore the presence of other circular DNA viruses in the anal region. Study participants were attendees of an STI screening program, which were also screened for anal HPV infection and cytological abnormalities. HPV physical status was assessed using multiply-primed RCA. HPV16-positive samples were also analyzed using E2/E6 multiplex PCR, qRT-PCR and APOT assay. RCA and virus-specific PCR were employed to investigate the presence of other DNA viruses. Anal HPV infection was detected in 76.9% of the 230 MSM enrolled. The anal cytological reports were: 129 NILM, 37 ASC-US and 28 L-SIL (36 samples were inadequate for interpretation). HPV physical status was evaluated in the 109 anal specimens that harbored one or two different HPV genotypes. Integration was observed only in one HPV16-positive sample (0.9%), in which integrate-derived viral transcripts of type B were detected. Integration occurred in chromosome 14 q. In 22 of the 53 (41.5%) mucosal HPV-negative samples, RCA restriction results would seem to indicate the presence of circular DNA viruses. Indeed, cutaneous HPV (4 samples), MCPyV (5 samples) and TTV (4 samples) were detected. In conclusion, anal HPV integration was rarely evidenced in HIV-uninfected MSM with no or mild anal cytological abnormalities, although the integration rate may have been underestimated because of the limitations of the employed assays. Other DNA viruses were detected in the anal samples of these individuals, although the significance of this occurrence needs to be assessed. PMID:23951299

  20. Diagnosis of bile duct cancer by bile cytology: usefulness of post-brushing biliary lavage fluid

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Keiko; Nagata, Kaori; Ohno, Sachiyo; Uesaka, Katsuhiko; Mori, Keita; Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Takizawa, Kohei; Kakushima, Naomi; Tanaka, Masaki; Kawata, Noboru; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pathologic evidence of biliary diseases can be obtained from cytology in addition to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP); however, the diagnostic effectiveness is not satisfactory. Study aim: This retrospective, single-center study evaluated the efficacy of various sampling methods for the cytologic diagnosis of bile duct cancer. Patients and methods: Biliary samples included bile that was simply aspirated, brush smear, brush-rinsed saline, and post-brushing biliary lavage fluid. A set of samples was compared for cytologic efficacy in 76 patients with surgically proven bile duct cancer and in 50 patients with benign biliary stricture. Results: The cytologic sensitivity for diagnosing biliary cancer was 34 % with aspirated bile, 32 % with brush smear, 43 % with brush-rinsed saline, and 70 % with post-brushing biliary lavage fluid, in contrast to the null false-positive result in the benign cases. The sensitivity of cytology was significantly higher with post-brushing lavage fluid than with the other three sampling methods (P < 0.0001), and post-brushing lavage fluid improved the cumulative sensitivity by 24 % (P = 0.002). The sensitivity of biliary cytology was also associated with the amount of aspirated bile (P = 0.01) and with the aspiration site (P = 0.03). The rate of cancer positivity in a cytology set differed according to the tumor macroscopic type (85 % in the protruding type vs. 40 % in the flat type; P = 0.003), and according to the size of the cancer (87 % for tumors ≥ 50 mm vs. 66 % for tumors < 50 mm; P = 0.02). Conclusions: Post-brushing biliary lavage fluid cytology provides superior diagnostic efficacy, and its addition to ERCP procedures is recommended for obtaining cytologic evidence of bile duct cancer. PMID:26357678

  1. Pathologic evaluation of a new endoscopic ultrasound needle designed to obtain core tissue samples: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Douglas G.; Witt, Benjamin; Chadwick, Barbara; Wells, Jason; Taylor, Linda Jo; Dimaio, Christopher; Schmidt, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Standard endoscopic ultrasound-fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) needles are in widespread use. Meaningful differences between the available needles have been difficult to identify. Recently, a new EUS needle (Shark Core®, Covidien, Dublin, Leinster, Ireland), has been introduced in an attempt to improve diagnostic accuracy, tissue yield, and to potentially obtain a core tissue sample. We performed a pilot study prospectively to evaluate this new needle when compared to a standard EUS-FNA needle. Materials and Methods: Analysis of the first 15 patients undergoing EUS-FNA with the Shark Core needle was performed and it was compared to EUS-FNA in 15 patients who underwent EUS-FNA with a standard needle. Results: The Shark Core needle required fewer needle passes to obtain diagnostic adequacy than the standard needle [(χ2(1) = 11.3, P < 0.001]. The Shark Core needle required 1.5 passes to reach adequacy, whereas the standard needle required three passes. For cases with cell blocks, the Shark Core needle produced diagnostic material in 85% of cases [95% confidence interval (CI): 54–98], whereas the standard needle produced diagnostic material in 38% of the cases (95% CI: 9-76). The Shark Core needle produced actual tissue cores 82% of the time (95% CI: 48–98) and the standard needle produced no tissue cores (95% CI: 0-71) (P = 0.03). Conclusion: This pilot study found that the Shark Core needle had a high rate of producing adequate cytologic material for the diagnosis of pancreatic and peri-pancreatic lesions sampled by EUS with fewer passes required to obtain a definitive diagnosis and with a high rate of tissue cores being obtained when compared to a standard FNA needle. PMID:27386475

  2. 7 CFR 32.402 - Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. 32... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF GREASE MOHAIR AND MOHAIR TOP SAMPLES § 32.402 Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. Samples certified as representative of the official standards of...

  3. 7 CFR 32.402 - Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. 32... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF GREASE MOHAIR AND MOHAIR TOP SAMPLES § 32.402 Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. Samples certified as representative of the official standards of...

  4. 7 CFR 32.402 - Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. 32... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF GREASE MOHAIR AND MOHAIR TOP SAMPLES § 32.402 Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. Samples certified as representative of the official standards of...

  5. 7 CFR 32.402 - Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. 32... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF GREASE MOHAIR AND MOHAIR TOP SAMPLES § 32.402 Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. Samples certified as representative of the official standards of...

  6. 7 CFR 32.402 - Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. 32... STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF GREASE MOHAIR AND MOHAIR TOP SAMPLES § 32.402 Samples of mohair top grades; method of obtaining. Samples certified as representative of the official standards of...

  7. Clinical evaluation of cytological diagnosis of nasopharyngeal malignancies.

    PubMed

    Molinari, R; Pilotti, S; Rilke, F

    1978-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1975 cytological examination was applied to the diagnosis of nasopharyngeal malignancies in a series of 216 consecutive patients who had either a tumour in the nasopharynx or clinical signs of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, or who were locally asymptomatic but had enlarged cervical lymph nodes. Smears were taken by introducing a small rough pad of compressed gauze through the mouth into the nasopharynx with an upward-angled forceps. In each case the cytological smear was taken immediately before biopsy; often, a lymph node was removed subsequently. When morphological diagnoses were doubtful and histological findings were at variance with positive cytological findings, the patients were reexamined clinically, and diagnosis was postponed. The case material was made up of 90 nasopharyngeal carcinomas, 24 lymphomas, one malignant melanoma, one adenoid cystic carcinoma and 100 patients without malignancies. Cytological findings from the first smear were positive in 77.8% of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, in 66.6% of lymphomas and in the cases of melanoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. There were no false-positive results. When the nasopharyngeal carcinomas were subdivided into undifferentiated carcinomas of the nasopharyngeal type and squamous-cell carcinomas, cytological findings were positive in ,0% and 73%, respectively. Positivity of histological findings was distributed as follows: 91.7% for malignant lymphomas, 86.6% for undifferentiated carcinomas and 86.6% for squamous-cell carcinomas. With respect to clinical suspicion of malignancy, positive cytological findings were obtained in 50% of clinically occult cases and in 84.6% of patients with obvious malignancies; intermediate figures were found for clinically doubtful (64.3%) and for highly suspicious (77.8%) cases. Cyto-histological concordance was shown in 70% of cases; false-negative histological results were obtained in 7.8% and false-negative cytological results in 16.6% of cases. Combined cyto

  8. Cytology exam of pleural fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs. This area is called the pleural space. Cytology means the study of cells. ... A sample of fluid from the pleural space is needed. The sample is taken using a procedure called thoracentesis . The procedure is done in the following way: You sit on a ...

  9. 7 CFR 31.400 - Samples for wool and wool top grades; method of obtaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Samples for wool and wool top grades; method of... STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF WOOL AND WOOL TOP SAMPLES § 31.400 Samples for wool and wool top grades; method of obtaining. Samples certified as representative of the...

  10. 7 CFR 31.400 - Samples for wool and wool top grades; method of obtaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Samples for wool and wool top grades; method of... STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF WOOL AND WOOL TOP SAMPLES § 31.400 Samples for wool and wool top grades; method of obtaining. Samples certified as representative of the...

  11. 7 CFR 31.400 - Samples for wool and wool top grades; method of obtaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Samples for wool and wool top grades; method of... STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF WOOL AND WOOL TOP SAMPLES § 31.400 Samples for wool and wool top grades; method of obtaining. Samples certified as representative of the...

  12. 7 CFR 31.400 - Samples for wool and wool top grades; method of obtaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Samples for wool and wool top grades; method of... STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF WOOL AND WOOL TOP SAMPLES § 31.400 Samples for wool and wool top grades; method of obtaining. Samples certified as representative of the...

  13. [Cytologic diagnosis of pleural mesothelioma].

    PubMed

    Kirdan, G V; Biriukov, Iu V; Nikolaeva, E P

    1990-08-01

    The efficacy of examination of various cytologic material in patients with mesothelioma was analysed. A total of 48 studies were carried out in 24 patients. Examination of transthoracic aspiration material obtained from the tumor and pleural cavity exudate yielded the best results. When mesothelioma of the pleura is suspected, care should be taken to collect material from different areas of the tumor, bearing in mind the significance of discovering different components of the tumor in it. On grounds of study of various cytologic material, a malignant tumor or adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in 43% and mesothelioma in 48% of patients.

  14. [Assessment of applicability of archived cytological lung cancer specimens for molecular genetic analysis].

    PubMed

    Mityushkina, N V; Ievleva, A G; Poltoratsky, A N; Ivantsov, A O; Budovsky, A I; Novik, V I; Imyanitov, E N

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis of lung tumors is often essential for the proper choice of therapy. EGFR mutation is a well-known marker of sensitivity to gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib; ALK-translocations make tumor sensitive to several ALK inhibitors; low intratumoral expression of DNA repair genes (ERCC1, BRCA1, etc.) may increase the therapeutic index of platinum-based drugs. Usually these markers are evaluated using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues. The goal of this work was to assess utility of archived cytological lung cancer specimens as an alternative source of material for molecular genetic testing. We analyzed paired histological and cytological lung adenocarcinoma specimens. Comparison of results within the pairs showed that cytological material can be used instead of histological material for qualitative analyses (detection of EGFR mutations or ALK-translocations); however, gene expression measurements, obtained by quantitative real-time PCR, may differ significantly in histological and cytological samples from the same patient.

  15. The cytology and DNA detection by the PapilloCheck® test in the diagnosis of human papillomavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to make a comparison between the results obtained by cytologies and by the detection and genotyping of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in the screening of cervical cancer. In this study, there were 994 samples used from human females. These were obtained from liquid-based preparations. The samples were analyzed by cytological technique and by the detection of HPV DNA using the PapilloCheck® Test. The HPV was detected in 28% of the samples. Most of the cytology lesions appeared in HPV positive samples and, within these, the most serious injuries occurred mostly in samples with multiple HPV infections. The results indicate that, in general, there is a correlation between the detection of HPV DNA and cytology. However, there were some cases that emphasize the limitations of both diagnosis methods (27% cases with viral HPV DNA positive and normal cytologies and about 2% of cytological lesions detected in samples HPV negatives). It is possible to conclude that none of the two techniques is enough by itself and should be applied together in order to increase the accuracy of cervical cancer screening. PMID:24265920

  16. Diagnosis of Ovarian Carcinoma Histotype Based on Limited Sampling: A Prospective Study Comparing Cytology, Frozen Section, and Core Biopsies to Full Pathologic Examination.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Lien N; Zachara, Susanna; Soma, Anita; Köbel, Martin; Lee, Cheng-Han; McAlpine, Jessica N; Huntsman, David; Thomson, Thomas; van Niekerk, Dirk; Singh, Naveena; Gilks, C Blake

    2015-11-01

    Growing insights into the biological features and molecular underpinnings of ovarian cancer has prompted a shift toward histotype-specific treatments and clinical trials. As a result, the preoperative diagnosis of ovarian carcinomas based on small tissue sampling is rapidly gaining importance. The data on the accuracy of ovarian carcinoma histotype-specific diagnosis based on small tissue samples, however, remains very limited in the literature. Herein, we describe a prospective series of 30 ovarian tumors diagnosed using cytology, frozen section, core needle biopsy, and immunohistochemistry (p53, p16, WT1, HNF-1β, ARID1A, TFF3, vimentin, and PR). The accuracy of histotype diagnosis using each of these modalities was 52%, 81%, 85%, and 84% respectively, using the final pathology report as the reference standard. The accuracy of histotype diagnosis using the Calculator for Ovarian Subtype Prediction (COSP), which evaluates immunohistochemical stains independent of histopathologic features, was 85%. Diagnostic accuracy varied across histotype and was lowest for endometrioid carcinoma across all diagnostic modalities (54%). High-grade serous carcinomas were the most overdiagnosed on core needle biopsy (accounting for 45% of misdiagnoses) and clear cell carcinomas the most overdiagnosed on frozen section (accounting for 36% of misdiagnoses). On core needle biopsy, 2/30 (7%) cases had a higher grade lesion missed due to sampling limitations. In this study, we identify several challenges in the diagnosis of ovarian tumors based on limited tissue sampling. Recognition of these scenarios can help improve diagnostic accuracy as we move forward with histotype-specific therapeutic strategies.

  17. Sanger Sequencing for BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del Mutation Screen on Pap Smear Cytology Samples.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sin Hang; Zhou, Shaoxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Hong, Guofan

    2016-02-08

    Three sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed for heminested PCR amplification of the target DNA fragments in the human genome which include the site of BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del respectively, to prepare the templates for direct Sanger sequencing screen of these three founder mutations. With a robust PCR mixture, crude proteinase K digestate of the fixed cervicovaginal cells in the liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology specimens can be used as the sample for target DNA amplification without pre-PCR DNA extraction, purification and quantitation. The post-PCR products can be used directly as the sequencing templates without further purification or quantitation. By simplifying the frontend procedures for template preparation, the cost for screening these three founder mutations can be reduced to about US $200 per test when performed in conjunction with human papillomavirus (HPV) assays now routinely ordered for cervical cancer prevention. With this projected price structure, selective patients in a high-risk population can be tested and each provided with a set of DNA sequencing electropherograms to document the absence or presence of these founder mutations in her genome to help assess inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer in this era of precision molecular personalized medicine.

  18. Additional Human Papillomavirus Types Detected by the Hybrid Capture Tube Test among Samples from Women with Cytological and Colposcopical Atypia

    PubMed Central

    Kónya, József; Veress, György; Juhász, Attila; Szarka, Krisztina; Sápy, Tamás; Hernádi, Zoltán; Gergely, Lajos

    2000-01-01

    The type specificity of the human papillomavirus (HPV) Hybrid Capture Tube (HCT) test was evaluated by using typing with PCR (MY09-MY11)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing. All samples HCT test positive for only low-risk HPV (n = 15) or only high-risk HPV (n = 102) were confirmed, whereas 9 of 12 HCT test double-positive samples contained only high-risk HPV types as determined by PCR-RFLP. Several high-risk HPV types (HPV-53, -58, -62, -66, -CP8304, and -MM4) not included in the HCT test were indeed detected, indicating a broader detection range with retained distinction between low-risk and high-risk HPV types. PMID:10618127

  19. First trial of cervical cytology in healthy women of urban Laos using by self-sampling instrument.

    PubMed

    Nabandith, Viengvansay; Pholsena, Vatsana; Mounthisone, Phouthasone; Shimoe, Kyoko; Kato, Saiko; Aoki, Kunio; Noda, Sadamu; Takamatsu, Reika; Saio, Masanao; Yoshimi, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in Laos women and a screening programme, even with the PAP smear test (PAP test), has yet to be established for routine use. The Pap test is accepted as the most appropriate for cervical cancer screening in some settings but it is not commonly available in Laos hospitals, because there are few cytopathologists and gynecologists have little experience. As a pilot program, seminars for the PAP test were given in 2007 and 2008, and then PAP tests were carried out using self-sampling instrument (Kato's device) with 200 healthy volunteers in Setthathirath hospital, Laos, in 2008. The actual examination number was 196, divided into class I 104 (53.1%), class II 85 (43.3%), class IIIa 4 (2.0%), class IIIb 1 (0.5%), and class V 1 (0.5%) by modified Papanicolau classification. Four cases had menstruation. There were 6 cases with epithelial cell abnormalities including malignancy. There were 7 cases with fungus and 2 cases with trichomonas in Class II. More than 70% volunteers felt comfortable with the Kato's device and wanted to use it next time, because of the avoidance of the embarrassment and a low cost as compared with pelvic examination by gynecologists. This first trial for PAP test for healthy Laos women related to a hospital found three percent to have abnormal cervical epithelial cells. Therefore, this appraoch using a self-sampling device suggests that it should be planned for cervical cancer prevention in Laos.

  20. Imprint cytology on microcalcifications excised by Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy: A rapid preliminary diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Fotou, Maria; Oikonomou, Vassiliki; Zagouri, Flora; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Nonni, Afroditi; Athanassiadou, Pauline; Drouveli, Theodora; atsouris, Efstratios; Kotzia, Evagelia; Zografos, George C

    2007-01-01

    Background To evaluate imprint cytology in the context of specimens with microcalcifications derived from Vacuum-Assisted Breast Biopsy (VABB). Patients and methods A total of 93 women with microcalcifications BI-RADS 3 and 4 underwent VABB and imprint samples were examined. VABB was performed on Fischer's table using 11-gauge Mammotome vacuum probes. A mammogram of the cores after the procedure confirmed the excision of microcalcifications. For the application of imprint cytology, the cores with microcalcifications confirmed by mammogram were gently rolled against glass microscope slides and thus imprint smears were made. For rapid preliminary diagnosis Diff-Quick stain, modified Papanicolaou stain and May Grunwald Giemsa were used. Afterwards, the core was dipped into a CytoRich Red Collection fluid for a few seconds in order to obtain samples with the use of the specimen wash. After the completion of cytological procedures, the core was prepared for routine histological study. The pathologist was blind to the preliminary cytological results. The cytological and pathological diagnoses were comparatively evaluated. Results According to the pathological examination, 73 lesions were benign, 15 lesions were carcinomas (12 ductal carcinomas in situ, 3 invasive ductal carcinomas), and 5 lesions were precursor: 3 cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) and 2 cases of lobular neoplasia (LN). The observed sensitivity and specificity of the cytological imprints for cancer were 100% (one-sided, 97.5% CI: 78.2%–100%). Only one case of ADH could be detected by imprint cytology. Neither of the two LN cases was detected by the imprints. The imprints were uninformative in 11 out of 93 cases (11.8%). There was no uninformative case among women with malignancy. Conclusion Imprint cytology provides a rapid, accurate preliminary diagnosis in a few minutes. This method might contribute to the diagnosis of early breast cancer and possibly attenuates patients' anxiety. PMID

  1. Using a Conveyor-Mounted Spout Sampler to Obtain Farmer Stock Grade Samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate determination of the value of load of peanuts is contingent upon obtaining a representative sample. Devices have been approved to extract a representative sample from a static load and from peanuts as they flow through an elevator downspout. A device that rotates a diverter through the flow...

  2. Guidelines and techniques for obtaining water samples that accurately represent the water chemistry of an aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claassen, Hans C.

    1982-01-01

    Obtaining ground-water samples that accurately represent the water chemistry of an aquifer is a complex task. Before a ground-water sampling program can be started, an understanding of the kind of chemical data needed and the potential changes in water chemistry resulting from various drilling, well-completion, and sampling techniques is needed. This report provides a basis for such an evaluation and permits a choice of techniques that will result in obtaining the best possible data for the time and money allocated.

  3. Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori in gastric brushing cytology.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, P R; Carrozza, M J; Ruggiero, F M; Calafati, S A; Jann, R C

    1992-01-01

    Helicobacter (formerly Campylobacter) pylori is frequently associated with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and has been implicated as an etiologic agent. Identification of H. pylori is important for specific treatment with antibiotics and bismuth compounds. We studied 27 patients who presented with symptoms of gastritis or peptic ulcer on whom paired gastric biopsies and gastric brushings for cytology had been performed. Biopsies were stained with H & E and Warthin-Starry or Giemsa for H. pylori. Previously, Papanicolaou-stained brushings were restained with Giemsa and reviewed blindly by two cytologists. Cytologic examination revealed the characteristic 1-3 mu curved or spiral gram-negative bacilli embedded in mucus in 12 of 27 (44%) of cases. Biopsies showed H. pylori in 13 of 27 (48%) of cases. Cytology and histology were concordant in 22 of 27 (81%) of cases. Three cases were positive on biopsy, negative on cytology; two of these were unsatisfactory cytology specimens. Two cases were positive on cytology, negative on biopsy, apparently sampling artifacts. Papanicolaou-stained slides were scored for several morphologic parameters; numbers of acute and chronic inflammatory cells and degree of cytologic atypia. None of these were predictive of the presence of H. pylori. We conclude that Giemsa-stained gastric brushings are a useful complement to gastric biopsies in establishing the diagnosis of H. pylori.

  4. Discrimination of non-explosive and explosive samples through nitrocellulose fingerprints obtained by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Fernández de la Ossa, Ma Ángeles; Ortega-Ojeda, Fernando; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-08-01

    This work is focused on a novel procedure to discriminate nitrocellulose-based samples with non-explosive and explosive properties. The nitrocellulose study has been scarcely approached in the literature due to its special polymeric properties such as its high molar mass and complex chemical and structural characteristics. These properties require the nitrocellulose analysis to be performed by using a few organic solvents and in consequence, they limit the number of adequate analytical techniques for its study. In terms of identification of pre-blast explosives, mass spectrometry is one of the most preferred technique because it allows to obtain structural information. However, it has never been used to analyze polymeric nitrocellulose. In this study, the differentiation of non-explosive and explosive samples through nitrocellulose fingerprints obtained by capillary electrophoresis was investigated. A batch of 30 different smokeless gunpowders and 23 different everyday products were pulverized, derivatized with a fluorescent agent and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection. Since this methodology is specific to d-glucopyranose derivatives (cellulosic and related compounds), and paper samples could be easily found in explosion scenes, 11 different paper samples were also included in the study as potential interference samples. In order to discriminate among samples, multivariate analysis (principal component analysis and soft independent modeling of class analogy) was applied to the obtained electrophoretic profiles. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first study that achieve a successful discrimination between non-explosive and explosive nitrocellulose-based samples, as well as potential cellulose interference samples, and posterior classification of unknown samples into their corresponding groups using CE-LIF and chemometric tools.

  5. Effect of histologic processing on dimensions of skin samples obtained from cat cadavers.

    PubMed

    Jeyakumar, Sakthila; Smith, Annette N; Schleis, Stephanie E; Cattley, Russell C; Tillson, D Michael; Henderson, Ralph A

    2015-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine changes in dimensions of feline skin samples as a result of histologic processing and to identify factors that contributed to changes in dimensions of skin samples after sample collection. SAMPLE Cadavers of 12 clinically normal cats. PROCEDURES Skin samples were obtained bilaterally from 3 locations (neck, thorax, and tibia) of each cadaver; half of the thoracic samples included underlying muscle. Length, width, and depth were measured at 5 time points (before excision, after excision, after application of ink to mark tissue margins, after fixation in neutral-buffered 10% formalin for 36 hours, and after completion of histologic processing and staining with H&E stain). Measurements obtained after sample collection were compared with measurements obtained before excision. RESULTS At the final time point, tissue samples had decreased in length (mean decrease, 32.40%) and width (mean decrease, 34.21%) and increased in depth (mean increase, 54.95%). Tissue from the tibia had the most shrinkage in length and width and that from the neck had the least shrinkage. Inclusion of underlying muscle on thoracic skin samples did not affect the degree of change in dimensions. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, each step during processing from excision to formalin fixation and histologic processing induced changes in tissue dimensions, which were manifested principally as shrinkage in length and width and increase in depth. Most of the changes occured during histologic processing. Inclusion of muscle did not affect thoracic skin shrinkage. Shrinkage should be a consideration when interpreting surgical margins in clinical cases. 945). PMID:26512538

  6. Destructive and nondestructive procedures to obtain chicken carcass samples for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. detection.

    PubMed

    Cossi, Marcus Vinícius Coutinho; de Almeida, Michelle Vieira; Dias, Mariane Rezende; de Arruda Pinto, Paulo Sérgio; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2011-12-01

    Destructive and nondestructive sampling procedures were compared for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. detection in 60 fresh chicken carcasses, which were submitted to the following sampling procedures: rinsing, skin swabbing, tissue excision, and skin excision; the proximity or not to the cloacae region was also considered. The obtained results were compared to identify significant differences (p<0.05). Forty eight chicken carcasses were positive for E. coli, and five were positive for Salmonella spp. For E. coli, nonsignificant differences were observed between rinsing and tissue excision, rinsing and skin excision, and skin excision and tissue excision (p>0.05), thus indicating equivalencies between these techniques. Skin swabbing produced a statistically significant lower frequency of positive results (p<0.05) than all other techniques for E. coli, thus indicating its inadequacy for detection of this microorganism. For Salmonella spp., no significant differences were observed between the sampling techniques (p>0.05), possibly due to the low overall frequency of positive carcasses. No significant differences in the number of positive samples (E. coli or Salmonella spp.) were observed between samples collected near or far from the cloacae region (p>0.05), regardless of the sampling technique. The obtained results demonstrate that the tested sampling techniques were equivalent for Salmonella spp. detection in chicken carcasses, as observed for E. coli with the exception of skin swabbing.

  7. Difficulties in obtaining representative samples for compliance with the Ballast Water Management Convention.

    PubMed

    Carney, Katharine J; Basurko, Oihane C; Pazouki, Kayvan; Marsham, Sara; Delany, Jane E; Desai, D V; Anil, A C; Mesbahi, Ehsan

    2013-03-15

    As implementation of the Ballast Water Convention draws nearer a major challenge is the development of protocols which accurately assess compliance with the D-2 Standard. Many factors affect the accuracy of assessment: e.g. large volume of ballast water, the shape, size and number of ballast tanks and the heterogeneous distribution of organisms within tanks. These factors hinder efforts to obtain samples that truly represent the total ballast water onboard a vessel. A known cell density of Tetraselmis suecica was added to a storage tank and sampled at discharge. The factors holding period, initial cell density and sampling interval affected representativeness. Most samples underestimated cell density, and some tanks with an initial cell density of 100 cells ml(-1) showed <10 cells ml(-1) at discharge, i.e. met the D-2 standard. This highlights difficulties in achieving sample representativeness and when applied to a real ballast tank this will be much harder to achieve.

  8. Obtaining Self-Samples to Diagnose Curable Sexually Transmitted Infections: A Systematic Review of Patients’ Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Paudyal, Priyamvada; Llewellyn, Carrie; Lau, Jason; Mahmud, Mohammad; Smith, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Routine screening is key to sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention and control. Previous studies suggest that clinic-based screening programmes capture only a small proportion of people with STIs. Self-sampling using non- or minimally invasive techniques may be beneficial for those reluctant to actively engage with conventional sampling methods. We systematically reviewed studies of patients’ experiences of obtaining self-samples to diagnose curable STIs. Methods We conducted an electronic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, BNI, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify relevant articles published in English between January 1980 and March 2014. Studies were included if participants self-sampled for the diagnosis of a curable STI and had specifically sought participants’ opinions of their experience, acceptability, preferences, or willingness to self-sample. Results The initial search yielded 558 references. Of these, 45 studies met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-six studies assessed patients’ acceptability and experiences of self-sampling. Pooled results from these studies shows that self-sampling is a highly acceptable method with 85% of patients reporting the method to be well received and acceptable. Twenty-eight studies reported on ease of self-sampling; the majority of patients (88%) in these studies found self-sampling an “easy” procedure. Self-sampling was favoured compared to clinician sampling, and home sampling was preferred to clinic-based sampling. Females and older participants were more accepting of self-sampling. Only a small minority of participants (13%) reported pain during self-sampling. Participants were willing to undergo self-sampling and recommend others. Privacy and safety were the most common concerns. Conclusion Self-sampling for diagnostic testing is well accepted with the majority having a positive experience and willingness to use again. Standardization of self-sampling procedures

  9. Bespoke Bias for Obtaining Free Energy Differences within Variationally Enhanced Sampling.

    PubMed

    McCarty, James; Valsson, Omar; Parrinello, Michele

    2016-05-10

    Obtaining efficient sampling of multiple metastable states through molecular dynamics and hence determining free energy differences is central for understanding many important phenomena. Here we present a new biasing strategy, which employs the recent variationally enhanced sampling approach (Valsson and Parrinello Phys. Rev. Lett. 2014, 113, 090601). The bias is constructed from an intuitive model of the local free energy surface describing fluctuations around metastable minima and depends on only a few parameters which are determined variationally such that efficient sampling between states is obtained. The bias constructed in this manner largely reduces the need of finding a set of collective variables that completely spans the conformational space of interest, as they only need to be a locally valid descriptor of the system about its local minimum. We introduce the method and demonstrate its power on two representative examples. PMID:27057791

  10. Technical note: A device for obtaining time-integrated samples of ruminal fluid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corley, R. N.; Murphy, M.R.; Lucena, J.; Panno, S.V.

    1999-01-01

    A device was adapted to allow for time-integrated sampling of fluid from the rumen via a cannula. The sampler consisted of a cup-shaped ceramic filter positioned in the ventral rumen of a cannulated cow and attached to a tube through which fluid entering the filter was removed continuously using a peristaltic pump. Rate of ruminal fluid removal using the device was monitored over two 36-h periods (at 6-h intervals) and was not affected (P > .05) by time, indicating that the system was not susceptible to clogging during this period. Two cows having ad libitum access to a totally mixed ration were used in a split-block design to evaluate the utility of the system for obtaining time-integrated samples of ruminal fluid. Ruminal fluid VFA concentration and pattern in samples collected in two replicated 8-h periods by the time-integrated sampler (at 1-h intervals) were compared with composite samples collected using a conventional suction-strainer device (at 30-min intervals). Each 8-h collection period started 2 h before or 6 h after feeding. Results indicated that total VFA concentration was not affected (P > .05) by the sampling method. Volatile fatty acid patterns were likewise unaffected (P > .05) except that acetate was 2.5% higher (P < .05) in samples collected 2 h before feeding and valerate was 5% higher (P < .05) in samples collected 6 h after feeding by the suction-strainer device. Although significant, these differences were not considered physiologically important. We concluded that use of the ceramic filter improved the sampling of ruminal fluid by simplifying the technique and allowing time-integrated samples to be obtained.

  11. Performance of the HPV-16 L1 methylation assay and HPV E6/E7 mRNA test for the detection of squamous intraepithelial lesions in cervical cytological samples.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Cui; Zhi, Yanfang; Shen, Yong; Gong, Jiaomei; Li, Ya; Rong, Shouhua; Okunieff, Paul; Zhang, Lulu; Li, Xiaofu

    2015-11-01

    HPV-16 L1 methylation and E6/E7 mRNA have suggested that they had close relationship with cervical neoplastic progression. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical performance of the HPV-16 L1 methylation assay and E6/E7 mRNA test for detecting high-grade cervical lesions (CIN2+). A total of 81 women with liquid-based cytology (LBC) samples, histological results, and positive HPV-DNA test for HPV type 16 only were included in this study. HPV-16 L1 methylation and E6/E7 mRNA levels were measured using methylation-sensitive high resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis and Quantivirus®HPV E6/E7 RNA 3.0 assay (bDNA), respectively, in the same residue of LBC samples. The current date showed a positive correlation between the HPV-16 L1 methylation and the E6/E7 mRNA levels. The L1 methylation and mRNA levels both increased with disease severity. The mRNA test method showed higher sensitivity and NPV (98.0 and 91.7% vs. 89.8 and 80.8%), while lower specificity and PPV (34.4 and 69.6% vs. 65.6 and 80.0%), than the L1 methylation assay for detecting histology-confirmed CIN2+. When using the detection method of mRNA test combined with L1 methylation assay, we obtained a sensitivity of 89.8% and a specificity of 71.9%. These findings suggest that assessment of HPV-16 L1 methylation testing combined with E6/E7 mRNA testing may be a promising method for the triage of women with HPV type 16 only. PMID:26297960

  12. A systematic review of ultrasound-guided FNA of lesions in the head and neck—focusing on operator, sample inadequacy and presence of on-spot cytology service

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, A; Burnside, G

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review is to perform a systematic review of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) services for head and neck lesions with assessment of inadequacy rates and related variables such as the presence of immediate cytological assessment. A computer-based systematic search of articles in English language was performed using MEDLINE (1950 to date) from National Health Service evidence healthcare database and PubMed. Full texts of all relevant articles were obtained and scrutinized independently by two authors according to the stated inclusion and exclusion criteria. The primary search identified 932 articles, but only 78 met all the study criteria. The overall inadequacy rate was 9.3%, 16 studies had on-site evaluation by a cytopathologist/specialist clinician with a rate of 6.0%. In seven studies, a cytotechnician was available to either assess the sample or prepare the slides with an average inadequacy rate of 11.4%. In 1 study, the assessment was unclear, but the inadequacy rate for the remaining 54 studies, without immediate assessment, was 10.3%. The rate for the cytopathologist/specialist clinicians was significantly different to no on-site assessment but this was not found for assessment by cytotechnicians. The review suggests that the best results are obtained with a cytopathologist-led FNA service, where the pathologist reviews the specimen immediately, in relation to the clinical context, thereby deciding on adequacy and need for further biopsies. A systematic review looking at ultrasound-guided FNA of head and neck lesions has not been published previously. PMID:25247346

  13. Cytological and bacteriological evaluation of transendoscopic guttural pouch lavages in clinically healthy horses.

    PubMed

    Dobesova, Olga; Bezdekova, Barbora

    2016-06-01

    Thirty-eight guttural pouch lavages from 19 clinically healthy horses were collected transendoscopically. Cytological examination and bacteriological culture of the samples were carried out. All 38 lavages assessed for cytology contained less than five per cent neutrophils and could be termed as cytologically 'normal'. In none of the lavages did the neutrophil count vary between five and 25 per cent or exceed 25 per cent, which are the borderlines for being termed 'reactive' or 'pathological', respectively. Epithelial cells were the most commonly represented cell type in all lavages. Bacteriological culture was positive in 16 out of 38 lavages, but specific pathogenic bacteria were not cultivated in any of them, and only transient microflora was present. Although the relationship between the presence of specific bacteria, neutrophil count and total cell count could not be statistically evaluated due to the absence of 'reactive' and 'pathological' lavages, transendoscopic lavage appears to be a reliable method for obtaining a sample for bacteriological culture. PMID:27342089

  14. Detection of microRNAs in archival cytology urine smears.

    PubMed

    Simonato, Francesca; Ventura, Laura; Sartori, Nicola; Cappellesso, Rocco; Fassan, Matteo; Busund, Lill-Tove; Fassina, Ambrogio

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs' dysregulation and profiling have been demonstrated to be clinically relevant in urothelial carcinoma (UC). Urine cytology is commonly used as the mainstay non-invasive test for secondary prevention and follow-up of UC patients. Ancillary tools are needed to support cytopathologists in the diagnosis of low-grade UC. The feasibility and reliability of microRNAs profiling by qRT-PCR analysis (miR-145 and miR-205) in archival routine urine cytology smears (affected by fixation/staining [Papanicolau] and room temperature storage) was tested in a series of 15 non-neoplastic and 10 UC urine specimens. Only samples with >5,000 urothelial cells and with <50% of inflammatory cells/red blood cells clusters were considered. Overall, a satisfactory amount of total RNA was obtained from all the considered samples (mean 1.27±1.43 µg, range 0.06-4.60 µg). Twenty nanograms of total RNA have been calculated to be the minimal total RNA concentration for reliable and reproducible miRNAs expression profiling analysis of archival cytological smears (slope= -3.4084; R-squared=0.99; efficiency=1.94). miR-145 and miR-205 were significantly downregulated in UC samples in comparison to non-tumor controls. These findings demonstrate that urine archival cytology smears are suitable for obtaining high-quality RNA to be used in microRNAs expression profiling. Further studies should investigate if miRNAs profiling can be successfully translated into clinical practice as diagnostic or prognostic markers.

  15. Aspiration cytology of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Geisinger, K R; Weidner, N

    1986-08-01

    Although mass lesions of the salivary glands are readily accessible to examination by fine-needle aspiration, the use of this modality has been limited. In part, this may be related to the difficulty differentiating between benign and malignant neoplasms in some cytologic specimens. Marked atypia in reactive non-neoplastic epithelium also could result in a false-positive diagnosis. In addition, aspiration of hypocellular material from cystic neoplasms, eg, well-differentiated mucoepidermoid carcinoma, may lead to false-negative cytologic reports. However, the diagnostic specificities claimed by a number of authors for this method are excellent. Furthermore, aspirates of certain specific neoplasms may yield highly distinctive cellular samples, such as the uniform tumor cells and extracellular hyaline spheres in many adenoid cystic carcinomas. Another example is the characteristic transition between the epithelial and myoepithelial cells of pleomorphic adenomas, which may contain prominent myxoid matrical material. With the increasing recognition of such features, the reported levels of diagnostic accuracy are improving.

  16. Evaluation of the Validity of Groundwater Samples Obtained Using the Purge Water Management System at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Beardsley, C.C.

    1999-04-27

    As part of the demonstration testing of the Purge Water Management System (PWMS) technology at the Savannah River Site (SRS), four wells were equipped with PWMS units in 1997 and a series of sampling events were conducted at each during 1997-1998. Three of the wells were located in A/M Area while the fourth was located at the Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground in the General Separations Area.The PWMS is a ''closed-loop'', non-contact, system used to collect and return purge water to the originating aquifer after a sampling event without having significantly altered the water quality. One of the primary concerns as to its applicability at SRS, and elsewhere, is whether the PWMS might resample groundwater that is returned to the aquifer during the previous sampling event. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare groundwater chemical analysis data collected at the four test wells using the PWMS vs. historical data collected using the standard monitoring program methodology to determine if the PWMS provides representative monitoring samples.The analysis of the groundwater chemical concentrations indicates that the PWMS sampling methodology acquired representative groundwater samples at monitoring wells ABP-1A, ABP-4, ARP-3 and BGO-33C. Representative groundwater samples are achieved if the PWMS does not resample groundwater that has been purged and returned during a previous sampling event. Initial screening calculations, conducted prior to the selection of these four wells, indicated that groundwater velocities were high enough under the ambient hydraulic gradients to preclude resampling from occurring at the time intervals that were used at each well. Corroborating evidence included a tracer test that was conducted at BGO-33C, the high degree of similarity between analyte concentrations derived from the PWMS samples and those obtained from historical protocol sampling, as well as the fact that PWMS data extend all previously existing concentration

  17. Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of the parotid gland: report of a recurrent case with aggressive cytomorphology and behavior diagnosed on fine-needle cytology sample.

    PubMed

    Fulciniti, Franco; Pia Curcio, Maria; Liguori, Giuseppina; Aquino, Gabriella; Botti, Gerardo; Campanile, Anna Cipolletta; De Cecio, Rossella; Pavone, Ettore; Aversa, Corrado; Perri, Francesco; Caponigro, Francesco; Ionna, Franco

    2014-01-01

    A case of recurrent hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) of the parotid gland in a 46-year-old female is here introduced. The patient had undergone a left superficial parotidectomy 6 months ago in another institution for an alleged benign, circumscribed mass 2.4 cm in diameter of the left parotid gland. Histopathological examination revealed a poorly differentiated HCCC bearing a EWSR-1 translocation on FISH examination. Fine Needle Cytology (FNC) was performed on three separate soft tissue masses in the pre-masseterine area and a cytological diagnosis of recurrent, poorly differentiated, possibly aggressive variant of HCCC, was rendered. FISH performed on a destained Diff Quik stained smear demonstrated an ESWR-1 translocation, which supported the cytopathological diagnosis. The cytomorphologic features and the differential diagnosis of this aggressive variant of HCCC are briefly discussed.

  18. Brush cytology: a reliable method to detect Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Dalla Libera, M; Pazzi, P; Carli, G; Contato, E; Piva, I; Scagliarini, R; Merighi, A; Ricci, N; Gullini, S

    1996-06-01

    This study was conducted to verify the reliability of brush cytology in detecting Helicobacter pylori in an unselected group of patients with duodenal ulcer (DU) and nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD). Endoscopy was performed on 416 consecutive patients: group A, 94 with active DU; group B, 176 patients with DU after omeprazole (n = 78), ranitidine (n = 43), or triple anti-H. pylori therapy (n = 55); and group C, 146 patients with NUD. During endoscopy, the gastric mucosa was brushed and two biopsy samples from the antrum and body were obtained for histology. In 65 patients, culture of the brush-collected materials also was performed as was that from of biopsy samples. The overall frequency of H. pylori presence detected by brush cytology was significantly higher compared with that of histology (p < 0.001), particularly in group A (p < 0.05), group C (p < 0.05), and in patients with DU after omeprazole treatment (p < 0.01), but not in patients with DU after ranitidine or anti-H. pylori treatment. The overall frequency of H. pylori-positive cultures from the brush-collected material was higher compared with cultures from the biopsy samples (38.5% vs. 24.6%), particularly in the NUD group (32.6% vs. 16.3%). Brush cytology is more sensitive than histology, besides being faster and cheaper, for the assessment of H. pylori infection, particularly when the density of the bacteria is low.

  19. Obtaining Vector Magnetic Field Maps of Geological Samples with Single-Axis Scanning Magnetic Microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, E. A.; Weiss, B. P.

    2008-12-01

    Magnetic scanning microscopy can be used to study inhomogeneous magnetization in geological samples with submillimiter spatial resolution. In particular, Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) microscopes offer a unique combination of high spatial resolution and outstanding field sensitivity. However, due to physical constraints, most magnetic microscopes only measure a single component of the magnetic field. Nevertheless, Maxwell's equations can be used to demonstrate that the components of a static magnetic field in a region of space devoid of sources are not independent. This means that single-axis scanning magnetometers can potentially obtain all of three components of the field external to the sample. We present an improved technique in the Fourier domain which can obtain the complete vector field planar map from just the planar map of one component. This technique is fast, robust, does not rely on any specific source type or configuration and does not require the formulation of an inverse problem. In contrast to other applications in geomagnetic remote sensing, the assumptions and conditions imposed on the field distribution by the technique can be naturally satisfied in scanning microscopy of geological samples. We analyze the advantages and shortcomings of the technique, and establish which sensor and mapping configurations may yield high quality three-component field maps with virtually no information loss. We present results obtained both with synthetic data and experimental data measured with our SQUID microscope system.

  20. DNA breaks as measured by the alkaline comet assay in exfoliated cells as compared to voided urine cytology in the diagnosis of bladder cancer: a study of 105 subjects.

    PubMed

    Fracasso, Maria Enrica; Franceschetti, Paola; Doria, Denise; Talamini, Giorgio; Bonetti, Franco

    2004-11-14

    In this study we evaluated the clinical usefulness of identifying urothelial cells with increased DNA damage with the alkaline comet assay and compare it with voided urine cytology for the assessment of markers indicative of bladder cancer. The analysis was carried out on 105 subjects having clinical suspicion of bladder cancer, and who had undergone cytology for the first time. Urine cytology and alkaline comet assay were performed on the same fresh urine samples obtained from each patient. The subjects were divided according to negative or positive cytology. The Mann-Whitney U-test showed that the comet parameters (tail moment, tail length, and % of DNA in the tail) and the numbers of comets (cells with an arbitrary cut-off value of head intensity <90% of DNA content) in subjects positive in both tests were significantly higher than in the negative group. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of the comet assay were compared with those of cytology, which is regarded as the gold standard. Sensitivity was 71.4%, specificity was 91.8%, positive and negative predictive values were 38.5 and 97.8, respectively. Two subjects negative in the comet assay were positive in cytology. Eight patients were positive in the comet assay and negative for cytology. Interestingly, one of these eight patients was later found positive for cytology. Logistic regression analysis indicates that the tail moment is significantly associated with an increased risk for positive cytology. PMID:15474411

  1. Accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions: routine diagnostic experience in Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nguansangiam, Sudarat; Jesdapatarakul, Somnuek; Dhanarak, Nisarat; Sosrisakorn, Krittika

    2012-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is well accepted as a safe, reliable, minimal invasive and cost-effective method for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. This study evaluated the accuracy and diagnostic performance of FNA cytology in Thailand. A consecutive series of 290 samples from 246 patients during January 2001-December 2009 were evaluated from the archive of the Anatomical Pathology Department of our institution and 133 specimens were verified by histopathologic diagnoses, obtained with material from surgical excision or biopsy. Cytologic diagnoses classified as unsatisfactory, benign, suspicious for malignancy and malignant were compared with the histopathological findings. Among the 133 satisfactory specimens, the anatomic sites were 70 (52.6%) parotid glands and 63 (47.4 %) submandibular glands. FNA cytological diagnoses showed benign lesions in 119 cases (89.5 %), suspicious for malignancy in 3 cases (2.2 %) and malignant in 11 cases (8.3%). From the subsequent histopathologic diagnoses, 3/133 cases of benign cytology turned out to be malignant lesions, the false negative rate being 2.2 % and 1/133 case of malignant cytology turned out to be a benign lesion, giving a false positive rate was 0.8%. The overall accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 97.0% (95% CI, 70.6%-99.4%), 81.3% (95% CI, 54.4%-96.0%), 99.1% (95% CI, 95.4%-100%), 92.9% (95% CI, 66.1%-99.8), 97.5% (95% CI, 92.8%-99.5%), respectively. This study indicated that FNA cytology of salivary gland is a reliable and highly accurate diagnostic method for diagnosis of salivary gland lesions. It not only provides preoperative diagnosis for therapeutic management but also can prevent unnecessary surgery.

  2. Cytology Specimen Management, Triage and Standardized Reporting of Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsies of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Won Jae; Bishop Pitman, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The recent advances in pancreas cytology specimen sampling methods have enabled a specific cytologic diagnosis in most cases. Proper triage and processing of the cytologic specimen is pivotal in making a diagnosis due to the need for ancillary testing in addition to cytological evaluation, which is especially true in the diagnosis of pancreatic cysts. Newly proposed terminology for pancreaticobiliary cytology offers a standardized language for reporting that aims to improve communication among patient caregivers and provide for increased flexibility in patient management. This review focuses on these updates in pancreas cytology for the optimal evaluation of solid and cystic lesions of the pancreas. PMID:26265683

  3. Determination of radiocarbon in stratospheric CO2, obtained through AirCore sampling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Dipayan; Chen, Huilin; Been, Henk A.; Kivi, Rigel; Meijer, Harro A. J.

    2016-04-01

    The concentration of Greenhouse Gases (GHG), with carbon dioxide as the most prominent example, has been and still is increasing, predominantly due to emissions from fossil fuel combustion. CO2 is also the most important component of the global carbon cycle. Among other tracers, radiocarbon (Carbon-14) is a unique and an important atmospheric tracer used in the understanding of the global carbon cycle. Radiocarbon is a naturally occurring isotope (radioactive, t 1/2 = 5730 ± 40 years) of carbon produced through the interaction of thermalized neutrons and nitrogen in the upper atmosphere. Generally, for performing atmospheric radiocarbon measurements in the higher atmosphere, large samples (few liters of air) were collected using aircrafts and balloons. However, collecting stratospheric samples on a regular basis for radiocarbon analysis is extremely expensive. Here we describe the determination of radiocarbon concentrations in stratospheric CO2, collected using AirCore sampling. AirCore is an innovative sampling technique for obtaining vertical atmospheric profiles and, in Europe, is done on a regular basis at Sodankylä, Finland for CO2, CH4 and CO. The stratospheric parts of two such AirCore profiles were used in this study as a proof-of-principle. CO2 from the stratospheric air samples were extracted and converted to elemental carbon, which were then measured at the Accelerator Mass Spectrometric (AMS) facility of the Centre for Isotope Research (CIO) at the University of Groningen. The stratospheric part of the AirCore profile was divided into six sections, each contained approximately 10 μg C. A detailed description of the extraction, graphitization, AMS analysis and the derivation of the stratospheric radiocarbon profile will be the main focus. Through our results, we will show that AirCore is a viable sampling method for performing high-precision radiocarbon measurements of stratospheric CO2 with reasonably good spatial resolution on a regular basis

  4. Process and apparatus for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from soil

    DOEpatents

    Rossabi, Joseph; May, Christopher P.; Pemberton, Bradley E.; Shinn, Jim; Sprague, Keith

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and process for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from subsurface soil is provided having filter zone adjacent an external expander ring. The expander ring creates a void within the soil substrate which encourages the accumulation of soil-borne fluids. The fluids migrate along a pressure gradient through a plurality of filters before entering a first chamber. A one-way valve regulates the flow of fluid into a second chamber in further communication with a collection tube through which samples are collected at the surface. A second one-way valve having a reverse flow provides additional communication between the chambers for the pressurized cleaning and back-flushing of the apparatus.

  5. Process and apparatus for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from soil

    DOEpatents

    Rossabi, J.; May, C.P.; Pemberton, B.E.; Shinn, J.; Sprague, K.

    1999-03-30

    An apparatus and process for obtaining samples of liquid and gas from subsurface soil is provided having filter zone adjacent an external expander ring. The expander ring creates a void within the soil substrate which encourages the accumulation of soil-borne fluids. The fluids migrate along a pressure gradient through a plurality of filters before entering a first chamber. A one-way valve regulates the flow of fluid into a second chamber in further communication with a collection tube through which samples are collected at the surface. A second one-way valve having a reverse flow provides additional communication between the chambers for the pressurized cleaning and back-flushing of the apparatus. 8 figs.

  6. Casingless down-hole for sealing an ablation volume and obtaining a sample for analysis

    DOEpatents

    Noble, D.T.; Braymen, S.D.; Anderson, M.S.

    1996-10-01

    A casing-less down hole sampling system for acquiring a subsurface sample for analysis using an inductively coupled plasma system is disclosed. The system includes a probe which is pushed into the formation to be analyzed using a hydraulic ram system. The probe includes a detachable tip member which has a soil point and a barb, with the soil point aiding the penetration of the earth, and the barb causing the tip member to disengage from the probe and remain in the formation when the probe is pulled up. The probe is forced into the formation to be tested, and then pulled up slightly, to disengage the tip member and expose a column of the subsurface formation to be tested. An instrumentation tube mounted in the probe is then extended outward from the probe to longitudinally extend into the exposed column. A balloon seal mounted on the end of the instrumentation tube allows the bottom of the column to be sealed. A source of laser radiation is emitted from the instrumentation tube to ablate a sample from the exposed column. The instrumentation tube can be rotated in the probe to sweep the laser source across the surface of the exposed column. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated sample from the probe to the surface for testing in an inductively coupled plasma system. By testing at various levels in the down-hole as the probe is extracted from the soil, a profile of the subsurface formation may be obtained. 9 figs.

  7. Casingless down-hole for sealing an ablation volume and obtaining a sample for analysis

    DOEpatents

    Noble, Donald T.; Braymen, Steven D.; Anderson, Marvin S.

    1996-10-01

    A casing-less down hole sampling system for acquiring a subsurface sample for analysis using an inductively coupled plasma system is disclosed. The system includes a probe which is pushed into the formation to be analyzed using a hydraulic ram system. The probe includes a detachable tip member which has a soil point mad a barb, with the soil point aiding the penetration of the earth, and the barb causing the tip member to disengage from the probe and remain in the formation when the probe is pulled up. The probe is forced into the formation to be tested, and then pulled up slightly, to disengage the tip member and expose a column of the subsurface formation to be tested. An instrumentation tube mounted in the probe is then extended outward from the probe to longitudinally extend into the exposed column. A balloon seal mounted on the end of the instrumentation tube allows the bottom of the column to be sealed. A source of laser radiation is emitted from the instrumentation tube to ablate a sample from the exposed column. The instrumentation tube can be rotated in the probe to sweep the laser source across the surface of the exposed column. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated sample from the probe to the surface for testing in an inductively coupled plasma system. By testing at various levels in the down-hole as the probe is extracted from the soil, a profile of the subsurface formation may be obtained.

  8. Stable isotope analysis of precipitation samples obtained via crowdsourcing reveals the spatiotemporal evolution of Superstorm Sandy.

    PubMed

    Good, Stephen P; Mallia, Derek V; Lin, John C; Bowen, Gabriel J

    2014-01-01

    Extra-tropical cyclones, such as 2012 Superstorm Sandy, pose a significant climatic threat to the northeastern United Sates, yet prediction of hydrologic and thermodynamic processes within such systems is complicated by their interaction with mid-latitude water patterns as they move poleward. Fortunately, the evolution of these systems is also recorded in the stable isotope ratios of storm-associated precipitation and water vapor, and isotopic analysis provides constraints on difficult-to-observe cyclone dynamics. During Superstorm Sandy, a unique crowdsourced approach enabled 685 precipitation samples to be obtained for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis, constituting the largest isotopic sampling of a synoptic-scale system to date. Isotopically, these waters span an enormous range of values (> 21‰ for δ(18)O, > 160‰ for δ(2)H) and exhibit strong spatiotemporal structure. Low isotope ratios occurred predominantly in the west and south quadrants of the storm, indicating robust isotopic distillation that tracked the intensity of the storm's warm core. Elevated values of deuterium-excess (> 25‰) were found primarily in the New England region after Sandy made landfall. Isotope mass balance calculations and Lagrangian back-trajectory analysis suggest that these samples reflect the moistening of dry continental air entrained from a mid-latitude trough. These results demonstrate the power of rapid-response isotope monitoring to elucidate the structure and dynamics of water cycling within synoptic-scale systems and improve our understanding of storm evolution, hydroclimatological impacts, and paleo-storm proxies.

  9. Stable Isotope Analysis of Precipitation Samples Obtained via Crowdsourcing Reveals the Spatiotemporal Evolution of Superstorm Sandy

    PubMed Central

    Good, Stephen P.; Mallia, Derek V.; Lin, John C.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2014-01-01

    Extra-tropical cyclones, such as 2012 Superstorm Sandy, pose a significant climatic threat to the northeastern United Sates, yet prediction of hydrologic and thermodynamic processes within such systems is complicated by their interaction with mid-latitude water patterns as they move poleward. Fortunately, the evolution of these systems is also recorded in the stable isotope ratios of storm-associated precipitation and water vapor, and isotopic analysis provides constraints on difficult-to-observe cyclone dynamics. During Superstorm Sandy, a unique crowdsourced approach enabled 685 precipitation samples to be obtained for oxygen and hydrogen isotopic analysis, constituting the largest isotopic sampling of a synoptic-scale system to date. Isotopically, these waters span an enormous range of values (21‰ for O, 160‰ for H) and exhibit strong spatiotemporal structure. Low isotope ratios occurred predominantly in the west and south quadrants of the storm, indicating robust isotopic distillation that tracked the intensity of the storm's warm core. Elevated values of deuterium-excess (25‰) were found primarily in the New England region after Sandy made landfall. Isotope mass balance calculations and Lagrangian back-trajectory analysis suggest that these samples reflect the moistening of dry continental air entrained from a mid-latitude trough. These results demonstrate the power of rapid-response isotope monitoring to elucidate the structure and dynamics of water cycling within synoptic-scale systems and improve our understanding of storm evolution, hydroclimatological impacts, and paleo-storm proxies. PMID:24618882

  10. Isolation of Yersinia enterocolitica and related species from porcine samples obtained from an abattoir.

    PubMed

    Harmon, M C; Swaminathan, B; Forrest, J C

    1984-06-01

    Swabs of swine carcasses and samples of porcine tongue and trim obtained from an abattoir were examined for the presence of Yersinia enterocolitica and related species (Y. intermedia, Y. kristensenii and Y. frederiksenii). Three enrichment media (phosphate buffered saline, sorbitol-bile salts-phosphate buffered saline, and a modified Rappaport's broth) were compared at 4 degrees C for their efficiency of recovery of Y. enterocolitica and related species. Two secondary enrichment procedures (post-enrichment in modified Rappaport's broth for 2 d at 25 degrees C and treatment with 0.5% KOH in 0.5% NaC1) also were evaluated. The porcine isolates were characterized by biochemical and serological examination, speciation, and biotyping. Eight of 43 samples were positive for Y. enterocolitica and related species. The combination of incubation in sorbitol-bile salts-phosphate buffered saline for 21 d at 4 degrees C followed by post-enrichment in modified Rappaport's broth yielded maximum number of isolates. All isolates, except one, were avirulent as determined by autoagglutination, calcium dependence at 37 degrees C, and HeLa cell invasiveness tests.

  11. Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Nahm, Ji Hae; Yoon, Gun; Do, Sung-Im; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Squash smear cytology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has rarely been reported. We described squash cytological findings of cranial LCH. Additionally, based on recent data that suggests an association of LCH with either viral infection or genetic alteration, we investigated the presence of several viruses or mutation of TP53 and BRAF in LCH tissue samples. Intraoperative squash smears of a small tissue fragment excised from the lesion demonstrated a mixed population of eosinophils, neutrophils, small lymphocytes and a high content of histiocytes. The histiocytes possessed abundant dense cytoplasm with round cell shape and eccentrically located nuclei with fine chromatin, delicate nuclear membranes and prominent nuclear grooves, indentations and pseudoinclusions. The cytologic features were consistent with Langerhans cells (LCs). Subsequent histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of LCH. Immunohistochemically, the LCs were positive for S-100, CD1a and langerin, but negative for adenovirus, CMV, EBV, HHV-8, HPV, HSV, SV 40 and p53. BRAF V600E mutation was absent. Our findings did not support the role of viruses and genetic abnormalities in the pathogenesis of LCH. In summary, the presence of a mixed population of inflammatory cells and a high content of histiocytes with characteristic cytomorphology, along with radiologic evidence and appropriate clinical findings, is highly suggestive of LCH on the intraoperative squash smears. Awareness of characteristic cytological features of LCH is necessary for rapid and accurate diagnosis. Squash smear cytology is a potentially useful tool in the intraoperative diagnosis of LCH. PMID:26339366

  12. THE CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF GASTRIC CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Charles D.; Johnson, William D.; Wilbur, Richard S.; Lack, Arthur J.

    1961-01-01

    Established centers find that cytological study of gastric washings with saline or chymotrypsin, adequately performed, is a valuable diagnostic tool in the detection of early and curable gastric carcinoma. Our experience with a small series of 150 patients, studied by saline gastric washing, has emphasized the difficulties of collection and the particular importance of obtaining, by repeated washings if necessary, an adequate specimen of gastric epithelial cells for diagnosis, before an opinion is given. It seems likely that the cytological method will be of future value in study of the natural history of gastric malignant disease and in detection of its surface lesions in their earliest form in asymptomatic, known-susceptible persons. Further, it should become a complementary part of the “stomach profile” in gastric diagnostic problems, where roentgenologic and gastroscopic studies may be expected to reveal the older, necrotic, or infiltrative lesions; cytological study, the earlier and more superficial stages of disease. PMID:13862364

  13. Experimental evaluation of factors affecting temporal variability of water samples obtained from long-screened wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reilly, T.E.; LeBlanc, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    As a well is pumped through time, concentrations of specific constituents in the water discharging from the well may change as a result of their transport within the well and the aquifer. A series of experiments conducted at a research site on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, examined the effects of transport on the chemistry of water samples obtained from a long-screened well. Analyses of time series of constituent concentrations in water pumped from the long-screened well showed persistent temporal trends during the first experiment. Iron concentrations decreased over a five-hour test (15 casing volumes), whereas the calcium and magnesium concentrations increased. In contrast, the time series of constituent concentrations of water discharging from the same well showed less change with time during a later experiment. Numerical simulations were undertaken to test the relative importance of several possible factors affecting the temporal variations of these constituents. During the process of quantitatively explaining the changes in concentrations over time observed in the two experiments, different system conceptualizations were used, including (1) flow and transport in the aquifer without wellbore transport, (2) flow and transport in the aquifer with advective flow and transport in the wellbore, and (3) flow and transport in the aquifer with advective flow and transport in the wellbore and a thin layer (skin) of water surrounding the well with constituent concentrations that had been altered by the presence of the well. The conjectured skin of wellbore water, which could have invaded the aquifer because of nearby sampling or dispersion and diffusion near the wellbore, in conjunction with flow and transport in the aquifer and advective transport within the wellbore, produced a reasonable match between the simulated and observed concentrations. The data analysis confirms the known fact that long-screened wells provide mechanisms for the redistribution of chemical

  14. 7 CFR 31.400 - Samples for wool and wool top grades; method of obtaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... average and standard deviation of fiber diameter of the bulk sample are within the limits corresponding to... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF WOOL AND WOOL TOP SAMPLES § 31.400 Samples for...

  15. 7 CFR 32.400 - Samples of grease mohair grades; method of obtaining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... standard deviation of fiber diameter of bulk sample were within the limits corresponding to the grade of... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS PURCHASE OF GREASE MOHAIR AND MOHAIR TOP SAMPLES § 32.400 Samples of...

  16. The Utilization of Cytologic Fine-Needle Aspirates of Lung Cancer for Molecular Diagnostic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    In this era of precision medicine, our understanding and knowledge of the molecular landscape associated with lung cancer pathogenesis continues to evolve. This information is being increasingly exploited to treat advanced stage lung cancer patients with tailored, targeted therapy. During the management of these patients, minimally invasive procedures to obtain samples for tissue diagnoses are desirable. Cytologic fine-needle aspirates are often utilized for this purpose and are important not only for rendering diagnoses to subtype patients’ lung cancers, but also for ascertaining molecular diagnostic information for treatment purposes. Thus, cytologic fine-needle aspirates must be utilized and triaged judiciously to achieve both objectives. In this review, strategies in utilizing fine-needle aspirates will be discussed in the context of our current understanding of the clinically actionable molecular aberrations underlying non-small cell lung cancer and the molecular assays applied to these samples in order to obtain treatment-relevant molecular diagnostic information. PMID:26076721

  17. Methodology for Obtaining a Representative Sample of Homeless Persons: The Los Angeles Skid Row Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnam, M. Audrey; Koegel, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Drawing a probability sample of homeless adults in Los Angeles' Skid Row resulted in a sampling design meeting statistical criteria. The design uses data from meal centers, bed counts, and outdoor congregations; and allows unbiased estimates of prevalence of mental disorders and assessment of service needs of the homeless. (TJH)

  18. Hair of the dog: obtaining samples from coyotes and wolves noninvasively

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ausband, David E.; Young, Julie; Fannin, Barbara; Mitchell, Michael S.; Stenglein, Jennifer L.; Waits, Lisette P.; Shivik, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Canids can be difficult to detect and their populations difficult to monitor. We tested whether hair samples could be collected from coyotes (Canis latrans) in Texas, USA and gray wolves (C. lupus) in Montana, USA using lure to elicit rubbing behavior at both man-made and natural collection devices. We used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to determine whether collected hair samples were from coyote, wolf, or nontarget species. Both coyotes and wolves rubbed on man-made barbed surfaces but coyotes in Texas seldom rubbed on hanging barbed surfaces. Wolves in Montana showed a tendency to rub at stations where natural-material collection devices (sticks and debris) were present. Time to detection was relatively short (5 nights and 4 nights for coyotes and wolves, respectively) with nontarget and unknown species comprising approximately 26% of the detections in both locations. Eliciting rubbing behavior from coyotes and wolves using lures has advantages over opportunistic genetic sampling methods (e.g., scat transects) because it elicits a behavior that deposits a hair sample at a fixed sampling location, thereby increasing the efficiency of sampling for these canids. Hair samples from rub stations could be used to provide estimates of abundance, measures of genetic diversity and health, and detection-nondetection data useful for cost-effective population monitoring.

  19. A nonlethal sampling method to obtain, generate and assemble whole blood transcriptomes from small, wild mammals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zixia; Gallot, Aurore; Lao, Nga T; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Foley, Nicole M; Jebb, David; Bekaert, Michaël; Teeling, Emma C

    2016-01-01

    The acquisition of tissue samples from wild populations is a constant challenge in conservation biology, especially for endangered species and protected species where nonlethal sampling is the only option. Whole blood has been suggested as a nonlethal sample type that contains a high percentage of bodywide and genomewide transcripts and therefore can be used to assess the transcriptional status of an individual, and to infer a high percentage of the genome. However, only limited quantities of blood can be nonlethally sampled from small species and it is not known if enough genetic material is contained in only a few drops of blood, which represents the upper limit of sample collection for some small species. In this study, we developed a nonlethal sampling method, the laboratory protocols and a bioinformatic pipeline to sequence and assemble the whole blood transcriptome, using Illumina RNA-Seq, from wild greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis). For optimal results, both ribosomal and globin RNAs must be removed before library construction. Treatment of DNase is recommended but not required enabling the use of smaller amounts of starting RNA. A large proportion of protein-coding genes (61%) in the genome were expressed in the blood transcriptome, comparable to brain (65%), kidney (63%) and liver (58%) transcriptomes, and up to 99% of the mitogenome (excluding D-loop) was recovered in the RNA-Seq data. In conclusion, this nonlethal blood sampling method provides an opportunity for a genomewide transcriptomic study of small, endangered or critically protected species, without sacrificing any individuals. PMID:26186236

  20. Comparison of Efficacy in Abnormal Cervical Cell Detection between Liquid-based Cytology and Conventional Cytology.

    PubMed

    Tanabodee, Jitraporn; Thepsuwan, Kitisak; Karalak, Anant; Laoaree, Orawan; Krachang, Anong; Manmatt, Kittipong; Anontwatanawong, Nualpan

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to 1206 women who had cervical cancer screening at Chonburi Cancer Hospital. The spilt-sample study aimed to compare the efficacy of abnormal cervical cells detection between liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). The collection of cervical cells was performed by broom and directly smeared on a glass slide for CC then the rest of specimen was prepared for LBC. All slides were evaluated and classified by The Bethesda System. The results of the two cytological tests were compared to the gold standard. The LBC smear significantly decreased inflammatory cell and thick smear on slides. These two techniques were not difference in detection rate of abnormal cytology and had high cytological diagnostic agreement of 95.7%. The histologic diagnosis of cervical tissue was used as the gold standard in 103 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive, false negative and accuracy of LBC at ASC-US cut off were 81.4, 75.0, 70.0, 84.9, 25.0, 18.6 and 77.7%, respectively. CC had higher false positive and false negative than LBC. LBC had shown higher sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy than CC but no statistical significance. In conclusion, LBC method can improve specimen quality, more sensitive, specific and accurate at ASC-US cut off and as effective as CC in detecting cervical epithelial cell abnormalities. PMID:26514540

  1. Approaches of using the beard testing method to obtain complete length distributions of the original samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fiber testing instruments such as HVI can rapidly measure fiber length by testing a tapered fiber beard of the sample. But these instruments that use the beard testing method only report a limited number of fiber length parameters instead of the complete length distribution that is important fo...

  2. A noninvasive hair sampling technique to obtain high quality DNA from elusive small mammals.

    PubMed

    Henry, Philippe; Henry, Alison; Russello, Michael A

    2011-03-13

    Noninvasive genetic sampling approaches are becoming increasingly important to study wildlife populations. A number of studies have reported using noninvasive sampling techniques to investigate population genetics and demography of wild populations. This approach has proven to be especially useful when dealing with rare or elusive species. While a number of these methods have been developed to sample hair, feces and other biological material from carnivores and medium-sized mammals, they have largely remained untested in elusive small mammals. In this video, we present a novel, inexpensive and noninvasive hair snare targeted at an elusive small mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). We describe the general set-up of the hair snare, which consists of strips of packing tape arranged in a web-like fashion and placed along travelling routes in the pikas' habitat. We illustrate the efficiency of the snare at collecting a large quantity of hair that can then be collected and brought back to the lab. We then demonstrate the use of the DNA IQ system (Promega) to isolate DNA and showcase the utility of this method to amplify commonly used molecular markers including nuclear microsatellites, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), mitochondrial sequences (800bp) as well as a molecular sexing marker. Overall, we demonstrate the utility of this novel noninvasive hair snare as a sampling technique for wildlife population biologists. We anticipate that this approach will be applicable to a variety of small mammals, opening up areas of investigation within natural populations, while minimizing impact to study organisms.

  3. GUIDANCE FOR OBTAINING REPRESENTATIVE ANALYTICAL LABORATORY SUBSAMPLES FROM PARTICULATE LABORATORY SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ongoing research program has been established to experimentally verify the application of the Gy theory to environmental samples, which serves as a supporting basis for -the material presented in this guidance. Research results from studies performed by the United
    States E...

  4. MINSIZE: A Computer Program for Obtaining Minimum Sample Size as an Indicator of Effect Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, David T.

    1998-01-01

    Describes MINSIZE, an MS-DOS computer program that permits the user to determine the minimum sample size needed for the results of a given analysis to be statistically significant. Program applications for statistical significance tests are presented and illustrated. (SLD)

  5. Inorganic profile of some Brazilian medicinal plants obtained from ethanolic extract and ''in natura'' samples

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.O.M.; de Sousa, P.T.; Salvador, V.L.R.; Sato, I.M.

    2004-10-03

    The Anadenathera macrocarpa, Schinus molle, Hymenaea courbaril, Cariniana legalis, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnodendron barbatiman, were collected ''in natura'' samples (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) from different commercial suppliers. The pharmaco-active compounds in ethanolic extracts had been made by the Mato Grosso Federal University (UFMT). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis in different parts of the plants and respective ethanolic extracts. The Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn concentrations were determined by the fundamental parameters method. Some specimens showed a similar inorganic profile for ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples and some ones showed a distinct inorganic profile. For example, the Anadenathera macrocarpa showed a similar concentration in Mg, P, Cu, Zn and Rb elements in ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples; however very different concentration in Na, S, Cl, K , Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was observed in distinctive samples. The Solidago microglossa showed the K, Ca, Cl, S, Mg, P and Fe elements as major constituents in both samples, suggesting that the extraction process did not affect in a considerable way the ''in natura'' inorganic composition. The elemental composition of the different parts of the plants (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) has been also determined. For example, the Schinus molle specimen showed P, K, Cl and Ca elements as major constituents in the seeds, Mg, K and Sr in the barks and Mg, S, Cl and Mn in the leaves, demonstrating a differentiated elementary distribution. These inorganic profiles will contribute to evaluate the quality control of the Brazilian herbaceous trade and also will assist to identify which parts of the medicinal plants has greater therapeutic effect.

  6. Molecular detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in bovine raw milk samples obtained directly from bulk tanks.

    PubMed

    Elias, Acácia Orieth; Cortez, Adriana; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Langoni, Helio

    2012-08-01

    Mastitis is the most common infectious disease affecting dairy cattle; in addition, it remains the most economically important disease of dairy industries around the world. Streptococcus agalactiae, a contagious pathogen associated with subclinical mastitis, is highly infectious. This bacterium can cause an increase in bulk tank bacterial counts (BTBC) and bulk tank somatic cell counts (BTSCC). The microbiological identification of S. agalactiae in samples from bulk tanks is an auxiliary method to control contagious mastitis. Thus, there are some limitations for time-consuming cultures or identification methods and additional concerns about the conservation and transport of samples. Bulk tank samples from 247 dairy farms were cultured and compared through polymerase chain reaction (PCR), directed to 16S rRNA genes of S. agalactiae, followed by BTBC and S. agalactiae isolation. The mean value of BTBC was 1.08×10(6) CFU mL(-1) and the bacterium was identified through the microbiological method in 98 (39.7%; CI(95%)=33.8-45.9%) and through PCR in 110 (44.5%; CI(95%)=38.5-50.8%) samples. Results indicated sensitivity of 0.8571±0.0353 (CI(95%)=0.7719-0.9196) and specificity of 0.8255±0.0311 (CI(95%)=0.7549-0.8827). The lack of significant difference between microbiological and molecular results (κ=0.6686±0.0477 and CI(95%)=0.5752-0.7620) indicated substantial agreement between the methods. This suggests that PCR can be used for bulk tank samples to detect contagious mastitis caused by S. agalactiae.

  7. [Turning points in cytology].

    PubMed

    Scharf, J H

    1990-01-01

    There is given a concise and woodcut-like survey over the history of cytology with was born by the pioneering of Hooke, Grew, Malpighi, and van Leeuwenhoek at the end of XVIIth century and three crises of this science. The first crisis of cytology resulted from barren discussions of the so-called preformation hypothesis and the monadism of Leibniz. These philosophical speculations caused a melting away of the concrete facts during the XVIIth century. After the rebuilding of cytology by Meyen and Brown during the XIXth century's early thirties and the propounding of the early cell-theory by Schleiden and Schwann, the second crisis was provoked since Schleiden and Schwann, clearer than Meyen, kept the hypothesis of equivocal or spontaneous generation that was alive since Aristotéles. This 2nd crisis showed a belated sequel in the middle of XXth century brought about by sloppy investigations of Lepesinskaja. The third crisis concerns the question whether there is or whether there is not existent a membran enveloping every animal cell. Whereas Schwann himself presupposed the cell membran as an integral part of each cell, Max Schultze negates its existence. After the creation of the membran theory of synapse by Sherrington, the neuron theory by Ramón y Cajal, and the membran theory of narcosis by Meyer and Overton, the negation of the cell membran was being combined successively with the neovitalistic hypothesis of neuronal networks of Bethe and others. This spectre could really wiped out not before the modern histochemistry and electron microscopy were established in the fifties of our century.

  8. [Turning points in cytology].

    PubMed

    Scharf, J H

    1990-01-01

    There is given a concise and woodcut-like survey over the history of cytology with was born by the pioneering of Hooke, Grew, Malpighi, and van Leeuwenhoek at the end of XVIIth century and three crises of this science. The first crisis of cytology resulted from barren discussions of the so-called preformation hypothesis and the monadism of Leibniz. These philosophical speculations caused a melting away of the concrete facts during the XVIIth century. After the rebuilding of cytology by Meyen and Brown during the XIXth century's early thirties and the propounding of the early cell-theory by Schleiden and Schwann, the second crisis was provoked since Schleiden and Schwann, clearer than Meyen, kept the hypothesis of equivocal or spontaneous generation that was alive since Aristotéles. This 2nd crisis showed a belated sequel in the middle of XXth century brought about by sloppy investigations of Lepesinskaja. The third crisis concerns the question whether there is or whether there is not existent a membran enveloping every animal cell. Whereas Schwann himself presupposed the cell membran as an integral part of each cell, Max Schultze negates its existence. After the creation of the membran theory of synapse by Sherrington, the neuron theory by Ramón y Cajal, and the membran theory of narcosis by Meyer and Overton, the negation of the cell membran was being combined successively with the neovitalistic hypothesis of neuronal networks of Bethe and others. This spectre could really wiped out not before the modern histochemistry and electron microscopy were established in the fifties of our century. PMID:2080255

  9. Chemical analysis of post explosion samples obtained as a result of model field experiments.

    PubMed

    Borusiewicz, Rafal; Zadora, Grzegorz; Zieba-Palus, Janina

    2013-11-15

    Five different explosives were detonated in a series of field experiments. Each experiment (detonation of the charge of each specific explosive) was repeated three times. The experiments were conducted under controlled conditions, exceeding those of research published so far. Detonated charges were uniform in size and, as far as possible, in shape. The explosives used originated from the same batch. Additionally, the same kind of electric detonators were used. Witness plates (sheets of galvanised steel 100 cm × 90 cm × 0.5 mm) were used to collect post-blast residues in a reproducible way. They were placed relatively close to the charge to minimise the influence of the wind. Samples were collected by systematic swabbing of the surface of the plate by acetone moistened cotton swabs. Samples were packed tight, transferred to the laboratory, and extracted with methanol. Extracts were concentrated by solvent evaporation, cleaned by centrifugation, and analysed using HPLC-DAD. Each extract was analysed three times and the mean value of the amount of the given explosive within the extract was calculated. For each of the explosive materials used the results of the repetition of the experiments proved them to be irreproducible. After each detonation of a specific charge different amounts of given explosives were found in post-blast samples. Also, the intuitively expected relationship between the distance from the charge and amount of post-blast residues were not observed. These results are consistent with previously published results of field experiments. The lack of reproducibility may be explained by differences in efficiency of detonation. The efficiency of a detonation may be influenced even by small differences in the shape of the charge as well as by the position and properties of the detonator. The lack of dependency between the amount of the explosive in the post-blast samples and the distance from the charge may be explained by the fact that during detonation

  10. A Noninvasive Hair Sampling Technique to Obtain High Quality DNA from Elusive Small Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Philippe; Henry, Alison; Russello, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Noninvasive genetic sampling approaches are becoming increasingly important to study wildlife populations. A number of studies have reported using noninvasive sampling techniques to investigate population genetics and demography of wild populations1. This approach has proven to be especially useful when dealing with rare or elusive species2. While a number of these methods have been developed to sample hair, feces and other biological material from carnivores and medium-sized mammals, they have largely remained untested in elusive small mammals. In this video, we present a novel, inexpensive and noninvasive hair snare targeted at an elusive small mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). We describe the general set-up of the hair snare, which consists of strips of packing tape arranged in a web-like fashion and placed along travelling routes in the pikas’ habitat. We illustrate the efficiency of the snare at collecting a large quantity of hair that can then be collected and brought back to the lab. We then demonstrate the use of the DNA IQ system (Promega) to isolate DNA and showcase the utility of this method to amplify commonly used molecular markers including nuclear microsatellites, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), mitochondrial sequences (800bp) as well as a molecular sexing marker. Overall, we demonstrate the utility of this novel noninvasive hair snare as a sampling technique for wildlife population biologists. We anticipate that this approach will be applicable to a variety of small mammals, opening up areas of investigation within natural populations, while minimizing impact to study organisms. PMID:21445038

  11. Fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed Central

    Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images PMID:2578481

  12. Informatics applied to cytology

    PubMed Central

    Hornish, Maryanne; Goulart, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Automation and emerging information technologies are being adopted by cytology laboratories to augment Pap test screening and improve diagnostic accuracy. As a result, informatics, the application of computers and information systems to information management, has become essential for the successful operation of the cytopathology laboratory. This review describes how laboratory information management systems can be used to achieve an automated and seamless workflow process. The utilization of software, electronic databases and spreadsheets to perform necessary quality control measures are discussed, as well as a Lean production system and Six Sigma approach, to reduce errors in the cytopathology laboratory. PMID:19495402

  13. Analysis of the Magnetocaloric Effect in Powder Samples Obtained by Ball Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blázquez, J. S.; Ipus, J. J.; Moreno-Ramírez, L. M.; Borrego, J. M.; Lozano-Pérez, S.; Franco, V.; Conde, C. F.; Conde, A.

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetocaloric effect (MCE) close to room temperature in FeRh and particularly in Gd5Si2Ge2 compounds, the study of this phenomenon has experienced an exponential growth. Among the different techniques used to produce magnetocaloric materials, ball milling has been shown as a very versatile one and presents several advantages over other preparation techniques ( e.g., easy scale-up to industrial production). Although a general decrease of the peak value of the magnetic entropy change is observed for milled samples, it can be compensated by the large broadening of the MCE peak, leading to an increase of the refrigeration capacity. In this short review, several aspects inherent to powder samples affecting MCE will be discussed, such as the relevant effect of the demagnetizing field, the possible multiphase character, and the presence of Curie temperature distributions. In mechanically alloyed samples, the two latter factors are typically affected by the degree of integration of the different starting constituents.

  14. Veterinary antibiotic resistance, residues, and ecological risks in environmental samples obtained from poultry farms, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Nabawy, Ehab Elsayed

    2015-02-01

    In Egypt, poultry production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary antibiotics (VAs) into the environment. About 80 % of meat production in Egypt is of poultry origin, and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of VAs in these farms have not yet been properly evaluated. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enteric key bacteria and the incidence of residual antibiotics in poultry farm environmental samples and to determine whether fertilizing soils with poultry litter from farms potentially brings ecological risks. From December 2011 to September 2012, a total of 225 litter, bird dropping, and water samples were collected from 75 randomly selected boiler poultry farms. A high prevalence of Escherichia coli (n = 179; 79.5 %) in contrast to the low prevalence of Salmonella spp. (n = 7; 3.1 %) was detected. Amongst E. coli isolates, serotypes O142:K86, O125:K70, O91:K, and O119:K69 were the most common. Meanwhile, Salmonella enterica serotypes emek and enteritidis were recovered. The antibiograms using the disc diffusion method revealed significantly more common resistant and multi-resistant isolates in broiler poultry farms. Residues of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were detected at 2.125 and 1.401 mg kg(-1) mean levels, respectively, in environmental samples contaminated with E. coli-resistant strains by HPLC. The risk evaluations highlighted that tetracycline residues in poultry litter significantly display environmental risks with a hazard quotient value above 1 (1.64). Our study implies that ineffective implementation of veterinary laws which guide and guard against incorrect VA usage may potentially bring health and environmental risks. PMID:25600402

  15. Veterinary antibiotic resistance, residues, and ecological risks in environmental samples obtained from poultry farms, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Nabawy, Ehab Elsayed

    2015-02-01

    In Egypt, poultry production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary antibiotics (VAs) into the environment. About 80 % of meat production in Egypt is of poultry origin, and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of VAs in these farms have not yet been properly evaluated. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enteric key bacteria and the incidence of residual antibiotics in poultry farm environmental samples and to determine whether fertilizing soils with poultry litter from farms potentially brings ecological risks. From December 2011 to September 2012, a total of 225 litter, bird dropping, and water samples were collected from 75 randomly selected boiler poultry farms. A high prevalence of Escherichia coli (n = 179; 79.5 %) in contrast to the low prevalence of Salmonella spp. (n = 7; 3.1 %) was detected. Amongst E. coli isolates, serotypes O142:K86, O125:K70, O91:K, and O119:K69 were the most common. Meanwhile, Salmonella enterica serotypes emek and enteritidis were recovered. The antibiograms using the disc diffusion method revealed significantly more common resistant and multi-resistant isolates in broiler poultry farms. Residues of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were detected at 2.125 and 1.401 mg kg(-1) mean levels, respectively, in environmental samples contaminated with E. coli-resistant strains by HPLC. The risk evaluations highlighted that tetracycline residues in poultry litter significantly display environmental risks with a hazard quotient value above 1 (1.64). Our study implies that ineffective implementation of veterinary laws which guide and guard against incorrect VA usage may potentially bring health and environmental risks.

  16. Pseudomonas diversity in crude-oil-contaminated intertidal sand samples obtained after the Prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Mulet, Magdalena; David, Zoyla; Nogales, Balbina; Bosch, Rafael; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2011-02-01

    The Galicia seashore, in northwestern Spain, was one of the shorelines affected by the Prestige oil spill in November 2002. The diversity of autochthonous Pseudomonas populations present at two beaches (Carnota municipality) was analyzed using culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. The first analysis involved the screening of an rpoD gene library. The second involved the isolation of 94 Pseudomonas strains that were able to grow on selective media by direct plating or after serial enrichments on several carbon sources: biphenyl, gentisate, hexadecane, methylnaphthalene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, salicylate, xylene, and succinate. Eight denitrifying Pseudomonas strains were also isolated by their ability to grow anaerobically with nitrate. The calculated coverage index for Pseudomonas species was 89% when clones and isolates were considered together, and there were 29 phylospecies detected. The most abundant were members of the species P. stutzeri, P. putida, P. anguilliseptica, and P. oleovorans. Thirty-one isolates could not be identified at the species level and were considered representatives of 16 putative novel Pseudomonas species. One isolate was considered representative of a novel P. stutzeri genomovar. Concordant results were obtained when the diversities of the cloned DNA library and the cultured strains were compared. The clone library obtained by the rpoD PCR method was a useful tool for evaluating Pseudomonas communities and also for microdiversity studies of Pseudomonas populations. PMID:21131512

  17. Pseudomonas diversity in crude-oil-contaminated intertidal sand samples obtained after the Prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Mulet, Magdalena; David, Zoyla; Nogales, Balbina; Bosch, Rafael; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2011-02-01

    The Galicia seashore, in northwestern Spain, was one of the shorelines affected by the Prestige oil spill in November 2002. The diversity of autochthonous Pseudomonas populations present at two beaches (Carnota municipality) was analyzed using culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. The first analysis involved the screening of an rpoD gene library. The second involved the isolation of 94 Pseudomonas strains that were able to grow on selective media by direct plating or after serial enrichments on several carbon sources: biphenyl, gentisate, hexadecane, methylnaphthalene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, salicylate, xylene, and succinate. Eight denitrifying Pseudomonas strains were also isolated by their ability to grow anaerobically with nitrate. The calculated coverage index for Pseudomonas species was 89% when clones and isolates were considered together, and there were 29 phylospecies detected. The most abundant were members of the species P. stutzeri, P. putida, P. anguilliseptica, and P. oleovorans. Thirty-one isolates could not be identified at the species level and were considered representatives of 16 putative novel Pseudomonas species. One isolate was considered representative of a novel P. stutzeri genomovar. Concordant results were obtained when the diversities of the cloned DNA library and the cultured strains were compared. The clone library obtained by the rpoD PCR method was a useful tool for evaluating Pseudomonas communities and also for microdiversity studies of Pseudomonas populations.

  18. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above.

    PubMed

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥ 30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30-65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥ CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥ CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥ CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥ 50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30-65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  19. Analyzing Illumina Gene Expression Microarray Data Obtained From Human Whole Blood Cell and Blood Monocyte Samples.

    PubMed

    Teumer, Alexander; Schurmann, Claudia; Schillert, Arne; Schramm, Katharina; Ziegler, Andreas; Prokisch, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Microarray profiling of gene expression is widely applied to studies in molecular biology and functional genomics. Experimental and technical variations make not only the statistical analysis of single studies but also meta-analyses of different studies very challenging. Here, we describe the analytical steps required to substantially reduce the variations of gene expression data without affecting true effect sizes. A software pipeline has been established using gene expression data from a total of 3358 whole blood cell and blood monocyte samples, all from three German population-based cohorts, measured on the Illumina HumanHT-12 v3 BeadChip array. In summary, adjustment for a few selected technical factors greatly improved reliability of gene expression analyses. Such adjustments are particularly required for meta-analyses of different studies. PMID:26614070

  20. Stent Scraping for Histology: An Alternative Method for Obtaining Tissue to Rule out Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Veerappan, Annamali; Prudente, Romulo; Kasmin, Franklin E.; Cohen, Seth A.

    1994-01-01

    Despite improvement in diagnostic modalities, confirmation of a histologic diagnosis of cancer of the biliary tree and pancreas remains elusive. Attempts to collect positive cytology specimens from vigorous brushings or washings obtained at endoscopy or percutaneously are often unsuccessful. In our unit, we have increased the yield by obtaining tissue scraped from prostheses that have been previously placed in either the bile duct or the pancreatic duct. The stents are first flushed with saline to collect cytology specimens, after which, they are bisected and scraped, and these contents are prepared in a manner similar to that used to prepare biopsy samples. Twelve of 16 scraped samples, 9 bile duct and 3 pancreas, were positive for adenocarcinoma. The cytology specimens were positive in only 4 of the 12. We recommend this method of sampling from material contained within prostheses as an adjunct when previous brushings, washings, or biopsies are negative. PMID:18493350

  1. Genotypic Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus Obtained from Humans and Bovine Mastitis Samples in India

    PubMed Central

    Prashanth, K; Rao, K Rajender; Reddy, PV Vivek; Saranathan, R; Makki, Abhijith R

    2011-01-01

    Aim and Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen that also causes important infections in cattle and sheep. The present study aimed to test genetic diversity among strains of S. aureus isolated from cattle (n=34) and humans (n=22) by DNA typing. Materials and Methods: Fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) is the genotyping tool used in the study. The presence of the mecA and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes among these strain groups was also checked. Results: A dendrogram deduced from FAFLP showed that all the strains clustered into 10 groups (A–J) with a relative genetic divergence of less than 8%. Sixty-seven percent of the isolates from bovine sources clustered together in two clades (A and H), while another major cluster with 13 isolates (59%) (Cluster G) had all strains from a human host. The remaining strains from both the hosts clustered independently into smaller clusters with the exception of two strains of human origin, which clustered along with a bovine cluster. Thirteen strains belonging to cluster G were highly clonal. About 77% of strains obtained from human infections were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), whereas only 29% of strains from bovine origin were MRSA. Only three strains from human origin showed PVL positive, while no strain from cattle had PVL genes. The complete absence of PVL genes in all the bovine strains in the study appears to be significant. Conclusions: FAFLP can be successfully applied to assess the genetic relationship of S. aureus isolates from different hosts. The study also provided the valuable epidemiological data on S. aureus from bovine sources in India, which is lacking. PMID:21731296

  2. Design of a protocol for obtaining genomic DNA from saliva using mouthwash: Samples taken from patients with periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Ángel Chávez; Volante, Beatriz Buentello; Hernández, María Esther Ocharán; Mendoza, Claudia Camelia Calzada; Pliego, Arturo Flores; Baptista Gonzalez, Héctor A.; Juárez, Higinio Estrada

    2016-01-01

    Background Obtaining high quality genomic DNA safely and economically is vital for diverse studies of large populations aimed at evaluating the role of genetic factors in susceptibility to disease. Aim This study was to test a protocol for the extraction of high quality genomic DNA from saliva samples obtained with mouthwash and taken from patients with periodontal disease. Methods Saliva samples were taken from 60 patients and then stored at room temperature. DNA extraction was carried out at distinct post-sampling times (10, 20 and 30 days). Evaluation of genomic DNA was performed with spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, and PCR genotyping and sequencing. Results The greatest concentration of DNA obtained was 352 μg at 10 days post-sampling, followed by 121.025 μg and 19.59 μg at 20 and 30 days, respectively. When determining the purity of DNA with the spectrophotometric ratio of 260/230, the relations of 1.20, 1.40 and 0.781 were obtained for 10, 20 and 30 days, respectively. In all samples, it was possible to amplify the product of 485 bp and the sequence of the amplicons showed 95% similarity to the reference sequence. Conclusion The present protocol represents an easy, safe and economical technique for obtaining high quality genomic DNA. PMID:27195211

  3. Evaluation of the effects of anatomic location, histologic processing, and sample size on shrinkage of skin samples obtained from canine cadavers.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Jennifer K; Selmic, Laura E; Garrett, Laura D; Singh, Kuldeep

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of anatomic location, histologic processing, and sample size on shrinkage of excised canine skin samples. SAMPLE Skin samples from 15 canine cadavers. PROCEDURES Elliptical samples of the skin, underlying subcutaneous fat, and muscle fascia were collected from the head, hind limb, and lumbar region of each cadaver. Two samples (10 mm and 30 mm) were collected at each anatomic location of each cadaver (one from the left side and the other from the right side). Measurements of length, width, depth, and surface area were collected prior to excision (P1) and after fixation in neutral-buffered 10% formalin for 24 to 48 hours (P2). Length and width were also measured after histologic processing (P3). RESULTS Length and width decreased significantly at all anatomic locations and for both sample sizes at each processing stage. Hind limb samples had the greatest decrease in length, compared with results for samples obtained from other locations, across all processing stages for both sample sizes. The 30-mm samples had a greater percentage change in length and width between P1 and P2 than did the 10-mm samples. Histologic processing (P2 to P3) had a greater effect on the percentage shrinkage of 10-mm samples. For all locations and both sample sizes, percentage change between P1 and P3 ranged from 24.0% to 37.7% for length and 18.0% to 22.8% for width. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Histologic processing, anatomic location, and sample size affected the degree of shrinkage of a canine skin sample from excision to histologic assessment. PMID:27580116

  4. Evidence for obtaining a second successive semen sample for intrauterine insemination in selected patients: results from 32 consecutive cases

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Alejandra; Ortiz, Rita; Soto, Evelyn; Hartmann, Jonathan; Manzur, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to compare the semen parameters of two successive samples obtained within an interval of less than 60 minutes from patients planning to undergo intrauterine insemination (IUI) whose first samples exhibited low semen quality. Methods Thirty-two consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. On the day of IUI, the semen analysis of the samples initially presented by all patients met at least two of the following criteria: sperm concentration <5×106/mL, total sperm count <10×106, progressive sperm motility (a+b) in the native sample <30%, and total motile sperm count (TMSC) <4×106. A successive semen sample was obtained no more than 60 minutes after the first sample. Results Compared to the first sample, the second exhibited significantly (p<0.05) improved sperm concentration, TMSC, progressive motility, and vitality. Regarding TMSC, the most critical parameter on the day of IUI, 23 patients (71.8%) improved it, while nine (28.2%) displayed poorer outcomes. Conclusion In defined cases, requesting a second successive ejaculate on the day of insemination may result in a high percentage of cases in an improvement of the quality of the sample. PMID:27358828

  5. USE OF COMMERCIAL TELEPHONE DIRECTORY FOR OBTAINING A POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE OF WOMEN OF REPRODUCTIVE AGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using Commercial Telephone Directories to Obtain a Population-Based Sample for Mail Survey of Women of Reproductive Age

    Danelle T. Lobdella, Germaine M. Buckb, John M. Weinerc, Pauline Mendolaa

    aUnited States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and ...

  6. Evaluation of endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsy samples from cats and dogs in an adapter-modified Ussing chamber

    PubMed Central

    DeBiasio, John V.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Newman, Shelley; Musch, Mark W.; Steiner, Jörg M.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate an adapter-modified Ussing chamber for assessment of transport physiology in endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsies from healthy cats and dogs, as well as dogs with chronic enteropathies. 17 duodenal biopsies from five cats and 51 duodenal biopsies from 13 dogs were obtained. Samples were transferred into an adapter-modified Ussing chamber and sequentially exposed to various absorbagogues and secretagogues. Overall, 78.6% of duodenal samples obtained from cats responded to at least one compound. In duodenal biopsies obtained from dogs, the rate of overall response ranged from 87.5% (healthy individuals; n = 8), to 63.6% (animals exhibiting clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and histopathological unremarkable duodenum; n = 15), and 32.1% (animals exhibiting clinical signs of gastrointestinal diseases and moderate to severe histopathological lesions; n = 28). Detailed information regarding the magnitude and duration of the response are provided. The adapter-modified Ussing chamber enables investigation of the absorptive and secretory capacity of endoscopically obtained duodenal biopsies from cats and dogs and has the potential to become a valuable research tool. The response of samples was correlated with histopathological findings. PMID:24378587

  7. Benign dermal eccrine cylindroma. A pitfall in the cytologic diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bondeson, L; Lindholm, K; Thorstenson, S

    1983-01-01

    Aspiration cytology from four benign dermal eccrine cylindromas and five adenoid cystic carcinomas were compared. These two lesions were found to have so much in common morphologically that they may be indistinguishable on a purely cytologic basis. Accordingly, we recommend a restricted excision to obtain a histopathologic diagnosis before more extensive surgery is performed whenever a lesion is cytologically consistent with adenoid cystic carcinoma but clinically shows a picture that does not exclude dermal eccrine cylindroma.

  8. Cytological evaluation and significance of cell cannibalism in effusions and urine cytology.

    PubMed

    Ahmed Wani, Farooq; Bhardwaj, Subhash

    2015-12-01

    Cell cannibalism is believed to be an indicator of high-grade aggressive cancers with increased metastatic potential. It denotes both anaplastic grade and invasiveness and is valuable in assessing tumor behavior. The present study was a 2-year retrospective and 1-year prospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology, Government Medical College, Jammu. PAP and MGG stained smears of effusions and urinary cytology were evaluated for cannibalism. Cannibalism was assessed by parameters like cellularity of cannibalism, diameter of cannibalistic cells, chromatin pattern and background of the smears. Of 350 cases evaluated, 260 (74.2%) were benign and 90 (25.8%) were malignant. Cannibalism was absent in all benign cases. Cannibalism was present in 14 ascitic fluids, 7 pleural fluids, 1 pericardial fluid and 3 cases of urine cytology. Comparison of distribution of cannibalism in effusions and urine did not yield statistically significant result (X2=0.8678 and p>0.05). Comparison of other parameters between effusions and urine samples also did not yield significant results. We conclude that cytological parameters of cellular cannibalism are better observed in malignant effusions than in urine cytology but did not reach statistical significance. Cannibalism can be assessed morphologically in malignant body fluids and is an indicator of increased tumour growth. PMID:26712673

  9. Comparison of specimen adequacy and smear quality in oral smears prepared by manual liquid-based cytology and conventional methods

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Surabhi; Einstein, A; Shukla, Abhilasha; Mishra, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Background: Liquid-based cytology (LBC), recommended in the mass screening of potentially malignant cervical and oral lesions, suffers from high cost owing to the use of expensive automated devices and materials. Considering the need for cost-effective LBC techniques, we evaluated the efficacy of an inexpensive manual LBC (MLBC) technique against conventional cytological technique in terms of specimen adequacy and smear quality of oral smears. Materials and Methods: Cytological samples were collected from 21 patients using a cytobrush device. After preparation of a conventional smear, the brush containing the remaining sample was immersed in the preservative vial. The preserved material was processed by an MLBC technique and subsequently, direct smears were made from the prepared cell button. Both conventional and MLBC smears were stained by routine Papanicolaou technique and evaluated by an independent observer for the thickness of the smear, cellular distribution, resolution/clarity of cells, cellular staining characteristics and the presence of unsatisfactory background/artifacts. Each parameter was graded as satisfactory; or satisfactory, but limited; or unsatisfactory. Chi-square test was used to compare the values obtained (significance set at P ≤ 0.05). Results: MLBC technique produced a significant number of satisfactory smears with regard to cell distribution, clarity/resolution, staining characteristics and background/artifacts compared to conventional methods. Conclusions: MLBC is a cost-effective cytological technique that may produce oral smears with excellent cytomorphology and longer storage life. PMID:26980958

  10. Impression Cytology of the Lid Wiper Area.

    PubMed

    Muntz, Alex; van Doorn, Kevin; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Jones, Lyndon W

    2016-01-01

    Few reports on the cellular anatomy of the lid wiper (LW) area of the inner eyelid exist and only one report makes use of cytological methods. The optimization of a method of collecting, staining and imaging cells from the LW region using impression cytology (IC) is described in this study. Cells are collected from the inner surface of the upper eyelid of human subjects using hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes, and stained with cytological dyes to reveal the presence of goblet cells, mucins, cell nuclei and various degrees of pre- and para-keratinization. Immunocytochemical dyes show cell esterase activity and compromised cell membranes by the use of a confocal scanning laser microscope. Up to 100 microscopic digital images are captured for each sample and stitched into a high-resolution, large scale image of the entire IC span. We demonstrate a higher sensitivity of IC than reported before, appropriate for identifying cellular morphologies and metabolic activity in the LW area. To our knowledge, this is the first time this selection of fluorescent dyes was used to image LW IC membranes. This protocol will be effective in future studies to reveal undocumented details of the LW area, such as assessing cellular particularities of contact lens wearers or patients with dry eye or lid wiper epitheliopathy. PMID:27584693

  11. Evaluation of rock powdering methods to obtain fine-grained samples for CHEMIN, a combined XRD/XRF instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Sarrazin, P.; Feldman, S.; Blake, D.; Bearman, G. H.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2004-01-01

    A miniature XRD/XRD (X-ray diffraction/X-ray fluorescence) instrument, CHEMIN, is currently being developed for definite mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on Mars. One of the technical issues that must be addressed to enable remote XRD analysis is how best to obtain a representative sample powder for analysis. For powder XRD analyses, it is beneficial to have a fine-grained sample to reduce preferred orientation effects and to provide a statistically significant number of crystallites to the X-ray beam. Although a two-dimensional detector as used in the CHEMIN instrument produces good results even with poorly prepared powder, the quality of the data improves and the time required for data collection is reduced if the sample is fine-grained and randomly oriented. A variety of methods have been proposed for XRD sample preparation. Chipera et al. presented grain size distributions and XRD reuslts from powders generated with an Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) currently being developed at JPL. The USDC was shown to be an effective instrument for sampling rock to produce powder suitable for XRD. In this paper, they compare powder prepared using the USDC with powder obtained with a miniaturized rock crusher developed at JPL and with powder obtained with a rotary tungsten carbide bit to powders obtained from a laboratory bench-scale Retsch mill (provides benchmark mineralogical data). These comparisons will allow assessment of the suitability of these methods for analysis by an XRD/XRD instrument such as CHEMIN.

  12. Evaluation of Rock Powdering Methods to Obtain Fine-grained Samples for CHEMIN, a Combined XRD/XRF Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Sarrazin, P.; Feldman, S.; Blake, D. F.; Bearman, G.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2004-01-01

    A miniature XRD/XRF (X-ray diffraction / X-ray fluorescence) instrument, CHEMIN, is currently being developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on Mars. One of the technical issues that must be addressed to enable remote XRD analysis is how best to obtain a representative sample powder for analysis. For powder XRD analyses, it is beneficial to have a fine-grained sample to reduce preferred orientation effects and to provide a statistically significant number of crystallites to the X-ray beam. Although a two-dimensional detector as used in the CHEMIN instrument will produce good results even with poorly prepared powder, the quality of the data will improve and the time required for data collection will be reduced if the sample is fine-grained and randomly oriented. A variety of methods have been proposed for XRD sample preparation. Chipera et al. presented grain size distributions and XRD results from powders generated with an Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) currently being developed at JPL. The USDC was shown to be an effective instrument for sampling rock to produce powder suitable for XRD. In this paper, we compare powder prepared using the USDC with powder obtained with a miniaturized rock crusher developed at JPL and with powder obtained with a rotary tungsten carbide bit to powders obtained from a laboratory bench-scale Retsch mill (provides benchmark mineralogical data). These comparisons will allow assessment of the suitability of these methods for analysis by an XRD/XRF instrument such as CHEMIN.

  13. Utility of the microculture method in non-invasive samples obtained from an experimental murine model with asymptomatic leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Bagirova, Malahat; Cakir-Koc, Rabia; Elcicek, Serhat; Oztel, Olga Nehir; Canim-Ates, Sezen; Abamor, Emrah Sefik; Yesilkir-Baydar, Serap

    2012-07-01

    The sensitivity of diagnostic methods for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) decreases because of the low number of parasites and antibody amounts in asymptomatic healthy donors who are not suitable for invasive sample acquisition procedures. Therefore, new studies are urgently needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic approaches in non-invasive samples. In this study, the sensitivity of the microculture method (MCM) was compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) methods in an experimental murine model with asymptomatic leishmaniasis. Results showed that the percent of positive samples in ELISA, IFAT, and peripheral blood (PB) -PCR tests were 17.64%, 8.82%, and 5.88%, respectively, whereas 100% positive results were obtained with MCM and MCM-PCR methods. Thus, this study, for the first time, showed that MCM is more sensitive, specific, and economic than other methods, and the sensitivity of PCR that was performed to samples obtained from MCM was higher than sensitivity of the PCR method sampled by PB. PMID:22764296

  14. Effect of aggregation of horn fly populations within cattle herds and consequences for sampling to obtain unbiased estimates of abundance.

    PubMed

    Lysyk, T J; Steelman, C D

    2004-07-01

    Reanalysis of counts of horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.), obtained from a variety of cattle herds indicated that aggregation of the flies within herds decreased as mean fly density increased. Aggregation was also related to the proportion of fly-resistant and fly-susceptible cattle in a herd. Herds were grouped according to their degree of horn fly aggregation. Low aggregation herds included larger framed Angus, Horned Hereford, Polled Hereford, and Red Poll breeds. Moderate aggregation occurred with Brahman, Charolais, small-framed Angus, mixed cows, and Hereford x Charolais cross. High aggregation occurred with Chianina and mixed herds. Relationships between the sample means and variances varied among aggregation groups. A resampling approach was used to determine the influence of random sampling of a herd on the proportion of horn fly population estimates within fixed percentages of the true mean. The proportion of sample means within +/- 5, 10, 15, and 20% of the true means varied with the proportion of the herd sampled, the mean and variance of fly density, and herd size. Recommendations for obtaining sample size to estimate fly density within a fixed percentage of the true mean are given.

  15. Effect of aggregation of horn fly populations within cattle herds and consequences for sampling to obtain unbiased estimates of abundance.

    PubMed

    Lysyk, T J; Steelman, C D

    2004-07-01

    Reanalysis of counts of horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.), obtained from a variety of cattle herds indicated that aggregation of the flies within herds decreased as mean fly density increased. Aggregation was also related to the proportion of fly-resistant and fly-susceptible cattle in a herd. Herds were grouped according to their degree of horn fly aggregation. Low aggregation herds included larger framed Angus, Horned Hereford, Polled Hereford, and Red Poll breeds. Moderate aggregation occurred with Brahman, Charolais, small-framed Angus, mixed cows, and Hereford x Charolais cross. High aggregation occurred with Chianina and mixed herds. Relationships between the sample means and variances varied among aggregation groups. A resampling approach was used to determine the influence of random sampling of a herd on the proportion of horn fly population estimates within fixed percentages of the true mean. The proportion of sample means within +/- 5, 10, 15, and 20% of the true means varied with the proportion of the herd sampled, the mean and variance of fly density, and herd size. Recommendations for obtaining sample size to estimate fly density within a fixed percentage of the true mean are given. PMID:15311450

  16. Subcontracted R and D final report: analysis of samples obtained from GKT gasification test of Kentucky coal. Nonproprietary version

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.V.

    1983-09-01

    A laboratory test program was performed to obtain detailed compositional data on the Gesellshaft fuer Kohle-Technologie (GKT) gasifier feed and effluent streams. GKT performed pilot gasification tests with Kentucky No. 9 coal and collected various samples which were analyzed by GKT and the Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas. The coal chosen had good liquefaction characteristics and a high gasification reactivity. No organic priority pollutants or PAH compounds were detected in the wash water, and solid waste leachates were within RCRA metals limits.

  17. Utility of the microculture method for Leishmania detection in non-invasive samples obtained from a blood bank.

    PubMed

    Ates, Sezen Canim; Bagirova, Malahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Kocazeybek, Bekir; Kosan, Erdogan

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the role of donor blood has taken an important place in epidemiology of Leishmaniasis. According to the WHO, the numbers of patients considered as symptomatic are only 5-20% of individuals with asymptomatic leishmaniasis. In this study for detection of Leishmania infection in donor blood samples, 343 samples from the Capa Red Crescent Blood Center were obtained and primarily analyzed by microscopic and serological methods. Subsequently, the traditional culture (NNN), Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were applied to 21 samples which of them were found positive with at least one method. Buffy coat (BC) samples from 343 blood donors were analyzed: 15 (4.3%) were positive by a microculture method (MCM); and 4 (1.1%) by smear. The sera of these 343 samples included 9 (2.6%) determined positive by ELISA and 7 (2%) positive by IFAT. Thus, 21 of (6.1%) the 343 subjects studied by smear, MCM, IFAT and ELISA techniques were identified as positive for leishmaniasis at least one of the techniques and the sensitivity assessed. According to our data, the sensitivity of the methods are identified as MCM (71%), smear (19%), IFAT (33%), ELISA (42%), NNN (4%), PCR (14%) and ICT (4%). Thus, with this study for the first time, the sensitivity of a MCM was examined in blood donors by comparing MCM with the methods used in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. As a result, MCM was found the most sensitive method for detection of Leishmania parasites in samples obtained from a blood bank. In addition, the presence of Leishmania parasites was detected in donor bloods in Istanbul, a non-endemic region of Turkey, and these results is a vital importance for the health of blood recipients. PMID:23806567

  18. Utility of the microculture method for Leishmania detection in non-invasive samples obtained from a blood bank.

    PubMed

    Ates, Sezen Canim; Bagirova, Malahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Kocazeybek, Bekir; Kosan, Erdogan

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the role of donor blood has taken an important place in epidemiology of Leishmaniasis. According to the WHO, the numbers of patients considered as symptomatic are only 5-20% of individuals with asymptomatic leishmaniasis. In this study for detection of Leishmania infection in donor blood samples, 343 samples from the Capa Red Crescent Blood Center were obtained and primarily analyzed by microscopic and serological methods. Subsequently, the traditional culture (NNN), Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were applied to 21 samples which of them were found positive with at least one method. Buffy coat (BC) samples from 343 blood donors were analyzed: 15 (4.3%) were positive by a microculture method (MCM); and 4 (1.1%) by smear. The sera of these 343 samples included 9 (2.6%) determined positive by ELISA and 7 (2%) positive by IFAT. Thus, 21 of (6.1%) the 343 subjects studied by smear, MCM, IFAT and ELISA techniques were identified as positive for leishmaniasis at least one of the techniques and the sensitivity assessed. According to our data, the sensitivity of the methods are identified as MCM (71%), smear (19%), IFAT (33%), ELISA (42%), NNN (4%), PCR (14%) and ICT (4%). Thus, with this study for the first time, the sensitivity of a MCM was examined in blood donors by comparing MCM with the methods used in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. As a result, MCM was found the most sensitive method for detection of Leishmania parasites in samples obtained from a blood bank. In addition, the presence of Leishmania parasites was detected in donor bloods in Istanbul, a non-endemic region of Turkey, and these results is a vital importance for the health of blood recipients.

  19. [Histopathology and cytology of supposedly benign tumors of the ovary].

    PubMed

    Sevestre, H; Ikoli, J-F; Al Thakfi, W

    2013-12-01

    Most tumors of the ovary presumed benign according to clinical, biological and imaging data are cysts. A cyst is a newly formed cavity lined by epithelium. It tends to enlarge, and can undergo torsion, rupture and haemorrhage. Most prevalent cystic lesions, i.e. inclusion cysts, serous or mucinous cystadenomas, endometriotic cysts, mature teratoma and other cysts are described. Diagnostic methods of cytology and pathology are described and evaluated: intraoperative examination of cystic and peritoneal fluids are not recommended; intraoperative consultation can be performed on solid parts or implants, if the pathologist is familiar with these lesions, or if primary carcinoma is known. The value of intraoperative examination is good in benign and cancer cases, but unsatisfactory in borderline lesions, especially of mucinous type. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue can be performed to preserve tumoral and normal tissue in Biobank for research protocol, or to maintain fertility through follicle preservation, in aseptic conditions. Transfer of samples towards the pathology laboratory can be performed either and preferably in fresh state, or in vacuum sealed bags at +4°C allowing a 2-day delay, or after immersion in a 15 × volume of 4% formalin. Cytological samples must be collected on citrate and sent immediately to the pathology laboratory, or fixed volume/volume in of absolute alcohol. The pathologist and the surgeon must collaborate to obtain good practice: intact labelled sample, accompanied by clinical information, transfer according to best local conditions, judicious use of intraoperative examination, knowing its possibilities and limitations, no excess delay of pathology report, even in difficult cases requiring expert opinion.

  20. Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Khushboo; Mehendiratta, Monica; Rehani, Shweta; Kumra, Madhumani; Sharma, Rashi; Kardam, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cytological artifacts are important to learn because an error in routine laboratory practice can bring out an erroneous result. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of delayed fixation and morphological discrepancies created by deliberate addition of extraneous factors on the interpretation and/or diagnosis of an oral cytosmear. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out using papanicolaou and hematoxylin and eosin-stained oral smears, 6 each from 66 volunteer dental students with deliberate variation in fixation delay timings, with and without changes in temperature, undue pressure while smear making and intentional addition of contaminants. The fixation delay at room temperature was carried out at an interval of every 30 minutes, 1 day and 1 week and was continued till the end of 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month, respectively. The temperature variations included 60 to 70°C and 3 to 4°C. Results: Light microscopically, the effect of delayed fixation at room temperature appeared first on cytoplasm followed by nucleus within the first 2 hours and on the 4th day, respectively, till complete cytoplasmic degeneration on the 23rd day. However, delayed fixation at variable temperature brought faster degenerative changes at higher temperature than lower temperature. Effect of extraneous factors revealed some interesting facts. Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy. PMID:24648667

  1. [A Large Number of Circulating Tumor Cells(CTCs)Can Be Isolated from Samples Obtained by Using Leukapheresis Procedures].

    PubMed

    Soya, Ryoko; Taguchi, Jyunichi; Nagakawa, Yuichi; Takahashi, Osamu; Sandoh, Norimasa; Hosokawa, Yuichi; Kasuya, Kazuhiko; Umeda, Naoki; Okamoto, Masato; Tsujitani, Shunichi; Tsuchida, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    We hypothesized that a large number of circulating tumor cells(CTCs)may be isolated from samples obtained by using the leukapheresis procedures that are utilized to collect peripheral blood mononuclear cells for dendritic cell vaccine therapy. We utilized the CellSearch System to determine the number of CTCs in samples obtained by using leukapheresis in 7 patients with colorectal cancer, 5 patients with breast cancer, and 3 patients with gastric cancer. In all patients, a large number of CTCs were isolated. The mean number of CTCs per tumor was 17.1(range 10-34)in colorectal cancer, 10.0(range 2-27)in breast cancer, and 24.0(range 2-42)in gastric cancer. We succeeded in culturing the isolated CTCs from 7 patients with colorectal cancer, 5 patients with breast cancer, and 3 patients with gastric cancer. In conclusion, compared to conventional methods, a large number of CTCs can be obtained by using leukapheresis procedures. The molecular analyses of the CTCs isolated by using this method should be promising in the development of personalized cancer treatments.

  2. [Cytological changes in patients with diabetes mellitus and corneal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Raica, D; Turlea, M; Ciocmăreanu, M; Haidar, A; Demian, C; Jinga, F

    1999-01-01

    There were studied 11 diabetic patients, insulin dependents, from 4 were with juvenile diabetes mellitus. These were hospitalized in the Dept. Ophthalm. of the City Hospital of Arad, during 1996-1998, admitted with the diagnosis of corneal ulcer. There were made samples of the gathered secretion from the level of conjunctiva and of the grataj material, gathered at the level of the edges of the corneal ulcer. All samples were stained with the BPT-Drăgan method. There are described cytologic alterations, insisting on details that indicate the severity of the corneal disease. There are taken into consideration cytologic aspects in relationship with the clinical outcome of the disease, pointing out the cellular alterations which announce a nonfavourable prognosis. Cytologic results can improve the diagnosis and they are involved in therapeutic schedule. PMID:10641114

  3. Tissue Microarray Technology for Molecular Applications: Investigation of Cross-Contamination between Tissue Samples Obtained from the Same Punching Device

    PubMed Central

    Vassella, Erik; Galván, José A.; Zlobec, Inti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tissue microarray (TMA) technology allows rapid visualization of molecular markers by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. In addition, TMA instrumentation has the potential to assist in other applications: punches taken from donor blocks can be placed directly into tubes and used for nucleic acid analysis by PCR approaches. However, the question of possible cross-contamination between samples punched with the same device has frequently been raised but never addressed. Methods: Two experiments were performed. (1) A block from mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) positivetissue and a second from an uninfected patient were aligned side-by-side in an automated tissue microarrayer. Four 0.6 mm punches were cored from each sample and placed inside their corresponding tube. Between coring of each donor block, a mechanical cleaning step was performed by insertion of the puncher into a paraffin block. This sequence of coring and cleaning was repeated three times, alternating between positive and negative blocks. A fragment from the 6110 insertion sequence specific for mycobacterium tuberculosis was analyzed; (2) Four 0.6 mm punches were cored from three KRAS mutated colorectal cancer blocks, alternating with three different wild-type tissues using the same TMA instrument (sequence of coring: G12D, WT, G12V, WT, G13D and WT). Mechanical cleaning of the device between each donor block was made. Mutation analysis by pyrosequencing was carried out. This sequence of coring was repeated manually without any cleaning step between blocks. Results/Discussion: In both analyses, all alternating samples showed the expected result (samples 1, 3 and 5: positive or mutated, samples 2, 4 and 6: negative or wild-type). Similar results were obtained without cleaning step. These findings suggest that no cross-contamination of tissue samples occurs when donor blocks are punched using the same device, however a cleaning step is nonetheless recommended. Our result supports

  4. [Clinical importance of thyroid gland cytology].

    PubMed

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Bockisch, A; Führer, D; Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The cytological evaluation of fine needle biopsies (FNB) of the thyroid gland crucially depends on a close cooperation between clinicians and cytopathologists. Scintigraphy, sonography as well as clinical data and patient history are necessary for a correct interpretation of the indications for FNB; moreover, these data are of outstanding importance for cytopathologists for the correct interpretation of the cytomorphological findings. This overview describes the present standards in the acquisition, technical workup and cytopathological interpretation of thyroid gland tissue obtained by FNB, particularly focusing on the rapidly growing relevance of additional molecular pathological investigations to increase the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid FNB.

  5. Methyl tert-butyl ether biodegradation by microbial consortia obtained from soil samples of gasoline-polluted sites in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Morales, Marcia; Velázquez, Elia; Jan, Janet; Revah, Sergio; González, Uriel; Razo-Flores, Elías

    2004-02-01

    Microbial consortia obtained from soil samples of gasoline-polluted sites were individually enriched with pentane, hexane, isooctane and toluene. Cometabolism with methyl tert-butyl ether, (MTBE), gave maximum degradation rates of 49, 12, 32 and 0 mg g(-1)protein h(-1), respectively. MTBE was fully degraded even when pentane was completely depleted with a cometabolic coefficient of 1 mgMTBE mg(-1)pentane. The analysis of 16S rDNA from isolated microorganisms in the pentane-adapted consortia showed that microorganisms could be assigned to Pseudomonas. This is the first work reporting the cometabolic mineralization of MTBE by consortium of this genus.

  6. Confirmed dioestrus in pseudopregnant mice using vaginal exfoliative cytology improves embryo transfer implantation rate.

    PubMed

    Mamrot, Jared; Pangestu, Mulyoto; Walker, David; Gardner, David K; Dickinson, Hayley

    2015-10-01

    Embryo transfer is a commonly performed surgical technique. In mice, protocols typically specify pairing recipient females with vasectomized males to induce a receptive uterine environment for embryo implantation. However, this induced receptive state is not always maintained until implantation occurs. The use of a well-characterized correlation between oestrous state and exfoliative vaginal cytology was therefore evaluated to assess uterine receptivity immediately before embryo transfer. Eight- to 12-week-old virgin female CD1 mice (n = 22) were paired overnight with vasectomized males and successfully mated, indicated by the presence of a vaginal plug. These dams underwent embryo transfer 3 days later with embryos obtained from superovulated 4-week-old F1 (C57BL/6 × CBA) females. Non-invasive vaginal lavage was conducted immediately before transfer. Dams were killed 6 days after transfer and the uterus collected for histological analysis. Embryo implantation rate in mice was 96% when cytological analysis of the lavage samples signified dioestrus (n = 6), whereas the implantation rate was <15% (n = 16) when cytology signified other stages of oestrous. This simple, quick, non-invasive measure of receptivity was accurate and easily adopted and, when applied prospectively, will avoid unnecessary surgery and subsequent culling of non-suitable recipients, while maximizing the implantation potential of each recipient female.

  7. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer Download Printable Version [ ... on the topics below to get started. Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer How is cancer ...

  8. Statistical evaluation of fatty acid profile and cholesterol content in fish (common carp) lipids obtained by different sample preparation procedures.

    PubMed

    Spiric, Aurelija; Trbovic, Dejana; Vranic, Danijela; Djinovic, Jasna; Petronijevic, Radivoj; Matekalo-Sverak, Vesna

    2010-07-01

    the second principal component (PC2) is recorded by C18:3 n-3, and C20:3 n-6, being present in a higher amount in the samples treated by the modified Soxhlet extraction, while C22:5 n-3, C20:3 n-3, C22:1 and C20:4, C16 and C18 negatively influence the score values of the PC2, showing significantly increased level in the samples treated by ASE method. Hotelling's paired T-square test used on the first three principal components for confirmation of differences in individual fatty acid content obtained by ASE and Soxhlet method in carp muscle showed statistically significant difference between these two data sets (T(2)=161.308, p<0.001).

  9. Two cases of matrix-producing carcinoma showing chondromyxoid matrix in cytological specimens

    PubMed Central

    Tajima, Shogo; Koda, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-producing carcinoma (MPC) is extremely rare. Limited reports have described the cytological aspects of MPC. Herein, we present 2 cases of MPC, both of which showed ring-enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and chondromyxoid matrix on cytological specimens. In these cases, the diagnosis of MPC was preoperatively suspected. Recognizing extracellular matrix as chondromyxoid matrix on the cytological specimen is important in making a distinction between MPC and mucinous carcinoma. They share some features on cytology and MRI (ring-enhancement) but have different prognoses and involve different approaches for obtaining histological specimens for neoadjuvant therapy. The reason for the different approaches for obtaining the histological specimens is that tumor cells usually distribute peripherally in MPC in contrast to the relatively uniform distribution of mucinous carcinoma. Therefore, it would be helpful if the diagnosis of MPC can be suspected by examination of the cytological specimen. PMID:26379985

  10. Volatile halocarbons in butter: elevated tetrachloroethylene levels in samples obtained in close proximity to dry-cleaning establishments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.J.; Uhler, A.D.

    1988-09-01

    In recent years materials not directly associated with food production, such as polychlorinated and brominated biphenyls, have been found in foods. According to the criteria to evaluate the likelihood for a chemical to contaminate food, the volatile halocarbons (VHCs) were selected as target compounds in an examination for potential contaminants in selected foods. The technique of multiple headspace extraction (MHE) was used in this study to minimize sample handling, and thereby reduce the potential for laboratory contamination and maximize throughput. Recently this laboratory reported findings of several VHCs in margarine, including PCE in four samples at levels above the usual background findings. Those samples had been obtained from a food store located immediately next to a dry-cleaning establishment. Follow-up investigation was conducted to determine the frequency of occurrence and levels of PCE that may be present in fatty foods purchased from stores located both near and distant from dry cleaners. Butter was chosen as a model food because it is a highly uniform product of very high fat content, which would be expected to act as a good absorber of the lipophilic VHCs. This paper presents results of these analyses and correlations between level of VHCs in butter and the proximity to dry cleaners of the food store where the butter was purchased.

  11. The Correlation of Routine Tear Function Tests and Conjunctival Impression Cytology in Dry Eye Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prachi; Kumar, Manoj; Ranjan, Somesh; Kumar, Manjushri; Verma, Pratima

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To establish the strength of the association between routine tear function tests and conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and to determine whether they simulate the morphological and cytological changes that occur on the ocular surface in dry eye. What are the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive values of these tests when CIC is considered the gold standard? Methods The tear film profile included tear film break up time (TBUT), Schirmer's-1, Rose Bengal scores (RBS), and impression cytology. CIC samples were obtained from the inferior bulbar conjunctiva and stained with periodic acid-Schiff and counter stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Results The mean Schirmer's value was 11.66 ± 5.90 in patients and 17.17 ± 2.97 in controls (p < 0.001). The mean TBUT in participants was 8.88 ± 3.54 and 13.53 ± 2.12 in controls (p < 0.001). Patients had a mean goblet cell density (GCD) of 490 ± 213, while the value for controls was 1,462 ± 661 (p < 0.001). Abnormal CIC was observed in 46.7% cases of dry eye and in 32.8% of controls. The correlation coefficient (L) for Schirmer's was 0.2 and 0.24 for participants and controls, respectively, while TBUT values were 0.26 and 0.38, RBS were 0.5 and 0.5, and GCD was 0.8 and 0.6 in cases and controls, respectively. Conclusions GCD, RBS, and TBUT were better predictors of morphological and cytological changes in the conjunctiva than Schirmer's in dry eye syndrome. The sensitivity of tear function tests in diagnosing dry eye was TBUT > Schirmer's > RBS, and the specificity was Schirmer's > TBUT > RBS in decreasing order when CIC was considered the gold standard. PMID:24688254

  12. Comparison between cytology and histopathology to evaluate subclinical endometritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bogado Pascottini, Osvaldo; Hostens, Miel; Dini, Pouya; Vandepitte, Jan; Ducatelle, Richard; Opsomer, Geert

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare endometrial cytology with histopathology to diagnose subclinical endometritis (SCE) in dairy cows. Endometrial cytology samples were collected from Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 32) just before slaughtering. Half of them were obtained by in vivo cytobrush (IV-CB), whereas the other half by in vivo low-volume lavage (IV-LVL). After slaughtering, reproductive tracts were collected, and the endometrium was sampled at eight locations. At each location, both a ex vivo cytobrush sample (EV-CB) and a tissue sample for histopathologic examination were taken. In the histopathology slides, polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell counts were differentiated as PMN cells in direct contact with the epithelial cells of the endometrium (PMN-EP), and PMN cells present in the deeper stratum compactum (PMN-SC). Summation of both countings was referred to as PMN-total. Pearson's correlation and Cohen's kappa coefficient were used to assess the correlation and agreement between both sampling methods (in vivo cytology [IV-CB and IV-LVL] with EV-CB and PMN-total). A Poisson mixed effect model was used to analyze the PMN cells' distribution. The prevalence of SCE was 18.75% (n = 6/32) for in vivo cytology. The SCE prevalence based on EV-CB analyses and on the assessment of PMN-total was determined both at the sample (n = 256) as well as at the cow level (n = 32): EV-CB 25% (n = 64/256) and 35.5% (n = 12/32), and PMN-total 37.11% (n = 95/256) and 59.38% (n = 19/32). Correlation and agreement between IV-CB and EV-CB were r = 0.81 and k = 0.97, whereas between IV-CB and PMN-total r = 0.15 and k = 0.23, respectively. In vivo low-volume lavage correlation and agreement were r = 0.52 and k = 0.66 with EV-CB, and r = 0.45 and k = 0.44 with PMN-total. Moreover, correlation and agreement between EV-CB and PMN-total were r = 0.60 and k = 0.50, respectively. More PMN cells (P < 0.05) were detected in PMN-SC when compared to PMN

  13. Comparison between cytology and histopathology to evaluate subclinical endometritis in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bogado Pascottini, Osvaldo; Hostens, Miel; Dini, Pouya; Vandepitte, Jan; Ducatelle, Richard; Opsomer, Geert

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare endometrial cytology with histopathology to diagnose subclinical endometritis (SCE) in dairy cows. Endometrial cytology samples were collected from Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 32) just before slaughtering. Half of them were obtained by in vivo cytobrush (IV-CB), whereas the other half by in vivo low-volume lavage (IV-LVL). After slaughtering, reproductive tracts were collected, and the endometrium was sampled at eight locations. At each location, both a ex vivo cytobrush sample (EV-CB) and a tissue sample for histopathologic examination were taken. In the histopathology slides, polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell counts were differentiated as PMN cells in direct contact with the epithelial cells of the endometrium (PMN-EP), and PMN cells present in the deeper stratum compactum (PMN-SC). Summation of both countings was referred to as PMN-total. Pearson's correlation and Cohen's kappa coefficient were used to assess the correlation and agreement between both sampling methods (in vivo cytology [IV-CB and IV-LVL] with EV-CB and PMN-total). A Poisson mixed effect model was used to analyze the PMN cells' distribution. The prevalence of SCE was 18.75% (n = 6/32) for in vivo cytology. The SCE prevalence based on EV-CB analyses and on the assessment of PMN-total was determined both at the sample (n = 256) as well as at the cow level (n = 32): EV-CB 25% (n = 64/256) and 35.5% (n = 12/32), and PMN-total 37.11% (n = 95/256) and 59.38% (n = 19/32). Correlation and agreement between IV-CB and EV-CB were r = 0.81 and k = 0.97, whereas between IV-CB and PMN-total r = 0.15 and k = 0.23, respectively. In vivo low-volume lavage correlation and agreement were r = 0.52 and k = 0.66 with EV-CB, and r = 0.45 and k = 0.44 with PMN-total. Moreover, correlation and agreement between EV-CB and PMN-total were r = 0.60 and k = 0.50, respectively. More PMN cells (P < 0.05) were detected in PMN-SC when compared to PMN

  14. Raman spectroscopy and oral exfoliative cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Aditi; Shah, Nupur; Mahimkar, Manoj; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Nair, Sudhir; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Early detection of oral cancers can substantially improve disease-free survival rates. Ex vivo and in vivo Raman spectroscopic (RS) studies on oral cancer have demonstrated the applicability of RS in identifying not only malignant and premalignant conditions but also cancer-field-effects: the earliest events in oral carcinogenesis. RS has also been explored for cervical exfoliated cells analysis. Exfoliated cells are associated with several advantages like non-invasive sampling, higher patient compliance, transportation and analysis at a central facility: obviating need for on-site instrumentation. Thus, oral exfoliative cytology coupled with RS may serve as a useful adjunct for oral cancer screening. In this study, exfoliated cells from healthy controls with and without tobacco habits, premalignant lesions (leukoplakia and tobacco-pouch-keratosis) and their contralateral mucosa were collected using a Cytobrush. Cells were harvested by vortexing and centrifugation at 6000 rpm. The cellular yield was ascertained using Neubauer's chamber. Cell pellets were placed on a CaF2 window and Raman spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe (40X objective) coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Approximately 7 spectra were recorded from each pellet, following which pellet was smeared onto a glass slide, fixed in 95% ethanol and subjected to Pap staining for cytological diagnosis (gold standard). Preliminary PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out cross validation indicate delineation of cells from healthy and all pathological conditions. A tendency of classification was also seen between cells from contralateral, healthy tobacco and site of premalignant lesions. These results will be validated by cytological findings, which will serve as the basis for building standard models of each condition.

  15. Acrokeratosis verruciformis of Hopf exhibiting Darier disease-like cytological features.

    PubMed

    Harman, M; Durdu, M; İbiloğlu, I

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between acrokeratosis verruciformis (AVH; also known as Hopf disease) and Darier disease (DD) has been debated for several decades. There is still substantial controversy over the characterization and association of AVH with DD. Certain histopathological features overlapping with those of DD have been demonstrated in patients with AVH. Although cytological findings have been described in DD, no study has identified the cytological changes in AVH. We report a case of AVH exhibiting a DD-like cytological manifestation. The samples from the most prominent lesions were examined by split-skin smear test. Cytological examination showed acantholytic keratinocytes, dyskeratotic acantholytic cells, corps ronds and grains. Histopathological examination showed compact hyperkeratosis, hypergranulosis, slight acanthosis, circumscribed epidermal elevations resembling church spires, and a cleft in the granular layer with several acantholytic cells. Our case indicates that the cytological findings of AVH are similar to those of DD. PMID:27663152

  16. Comparative image analysis of conventional and thin-layer preparations in endometrial cytology.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Manabu; Kobayashi, Tadao K; Nishimura, Yukari; Machida, Daisuke; Toyonaga, Masumi; Tsunoda, Shinpei; Ohbu, Makoto

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the differences in cytologic findings between conventional and thin-layer preparations in endometrial cytology to introduce the thin-layer method into routine cytology. Eighty patients who had undergone endometrial cytology and biopsy on the same day were selected and we compared the cytological findings between conventional- and thin-layer preparations (TLP) in endometrial cytology. The numbers of neutrophils and cell clusters in the thin-layer method were lower than those in the conventional smear (CSS) method. The average number of neutrophils in endometrioid adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than that in normal morphology endometrium and endometrial hyperplasia. Regarding the shape of the cell clusters, ball-like patterns and round-edged cell clusters were not identified in CSS. The average number of clusters in CSS was significantly greater than that using the TLP. The average of the nuclear area in CSS was significantly larger than that using the TLP, indicating that the nuclear areas in CSS were more uneven than that using the TLP. In the future, it is expected that liquid-based cytology will be applied to the cytological diagnosis of a variety of lesions. The influence on cells due to fixation is considerable in liquid-based preparations. Therefore, if we strive to pick up the differences between CSS and TLP of endometrial samples, the diagnostic accuracy of the latter could be improved.

  17. Utility and diagnostic accuracy of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration cytology of mediastinal lesions: Saudi Arabian experience

    PubMed Central

    Raddaoui, Emad; Alhamad, Esam H; Zaidi, Shaesta Naseem; Al-Habeeb, Fatmah F; Arafah, Maha

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the cytological accuracy of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial fine-needle aspiration (EBUS-TFNA) of the mediastinal mass/nodular lesions. Study Design: Over 3½ years from inception at King Khalid University Hospital, a retrospective analysis of the cytological diagnoses of all the EBUS-TFNA procedures performed in 80 patients who had mediastinal mass/nodular enlargement. Cytology results were reviewed and correlated with the histologic follow-up. Results: Of the 80 patients who underwent EBUS-TFNA, 15 cases (18.75%) were positive for malignancy, 48 cases (60%) negative for malignancy and 17 cases (21.25%) unsatisfactory. Of the 48 cases, which were negative for malignancy, 24 (50%) cases were of granulomatous inflammation. The overall diagnostic yield of our EBUS-TFNA specimen was 78.75%. Forty-seven cases (58.75%) of 80 cases had histological follow-up biopsies. Among them, 32 cases (68%) had the same cytological and histological diagnosis and 15 cases (31.09%) had discordance between the cytology and the follow-up histological diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for diagnosing granulomas by EBUS-TFNA are 77%, 82%, 83%, and 75% and for diagnosing malignancy are 71%, 100%, 100%, and 82%, respectively. Conclusion: Preliminary results show that cytological samples obtained through EBUS-TFNA are accurate and specific in making a diagnosis of the mediastinal mass/nodular lesions. Its optimum use depends on the effective collaboration between the cytotechnologist, pathologist, and the bronchoscopist. PMID:25191512

  18. Human Papillomavirus Assays and Cytology in Primary Cervical Screening of Women Aged 30 Years and Above

    PubMed Central

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Preisler, Sarah; Ejegod, Ditte; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    In women aged ≥30 years, Human Papillomavirus testing will replace cytology for primary cervical screening. We compared Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2), cobas, CLART, and APTIMA HPV assays with cytology on 2869 SurePath samples from women undergoing routine screening at 30–65 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with cytological abnormalities were managed according to routine recommendations, with 92% completeness. Those with cytology-normal/HPV-positive samples (on any of the four assays) were invited for repeated cytology and HPV testing in 1.5 year, and 58% had additional testing. HPV testing detected more ≥CIN3 than cytology (HC2: 35, cobas, CLART: 37, APTIMA: 34, cytology: 31), although statistically the differences were not significant. Cobas and CLART detected significantly more ≥CIN2 than cytology (cobas, CLART: 49, cytology: 39). The proportion of women with false-positive test results (positive test results without ≥CIN3) varied between 3.3% with cytology and 14.9% with cobas. All HPV assays led to significantly more false-positive tests, whereas compared to HC2 cobas and CLART were associated with a significantly higher and APTIMA with a significantly lower proportion. Detection of CIN1 was particularly increased for the three DNA assays. With APTIMA combined with cytological triage, about 20% more women were referred for colposcopy than with cytology screening. With the three DNA assays, the increase was ≥50%. The number of women with repeated testing was twice as high with APTIMA and almost five times as high with cobas compared to cytology. To our knowledge, Horizon was the only study set in routine practice that compared more than two HPV assays in the same women while also ascertaining the histological status of women with normal cytology/HPV-positive test results. HPV-based screening of Danish women aged 30–65 detected more high-grade CIN but decreased the screening specificity, and increased the demand for additional testing. PMID:26789267

  19. Real-Time PCR in faecal samples of Triatoma infestans obtained by xenodiagnosis: proposal for an exogenous internal control

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has proved to be a sensitive technique to detect Trypanosoma cruzi in the chronic phase of Chagas disease, which is characterized by low and fluctuating parasitemia. Another technique proposed for parasitological diagnosis in this phase of infection combines a microscopic search for motile trypomastigote forms in faecal samples (FS) obtained by xenodiagnosis (XD) with conventional PCR (XD-PCR). In this study we evaluate the use of human blood DNA as an exogenous internal control (EIC) for real time PCR (qPCR) combined with XD (XD-qPCR) using chromosome 12 (X12) detection. Findings None of the FS-XD evaluated by qPCR amplified for X12. Nevertheless, all the EIC-FS-XD mixtures amplified for X12. Conclusions We determined that X12 is useful as an EIC for XD-qPCR because we showed that the FS-XD does not contain human DNA after 30 or more days of XD incubation. This information is relevant for research on T. cruzi by XD-qPCR since it allows ruling out inhibition and false negative results due to DNA loss during the process of extraction and purification. PMID:22448961

  20. Roseomonas tokyonensis sp. nov. isolated from a biofilm sample obtained from a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Edagawa, Akiko; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Strain K-20(T), a Gram-negative, nonmotile, nonspore-forming and strictly aerobic coccobacillus, which produces a pale pink pigment (R2A agar medium, 30℃, seven days) was isolated from a sample of biofilm obtained from a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan. A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA partial gene sequences (1,439 bp) showed that the strain (accession number: AB297501) was related to Roseomonas frigidaquae CW67(T) and Roseomonas stagni HS-69(T) with 97.4% and 96.9% sequence similarity, respectively. Strain K-20(T) formed a distinct cluster with Roseomonas frigidaquae CW67(T) in the phylogenetic tree at a high bootstrap value (93%); however, distance was recognized between the strains. In addition, the DNA-DNA hybridization level between strain K-20(T) and Roseomonas frigidaquae JCM 15073(T) was 33%. The taxonomic data indicate that K-20(T) (=JCM 14634(T) =KCTC 32152(T)) should be classified in the genus Roseomonas as the type strain of a novel species, Roseomonas tokyonensis sp. nov.

  1. Roseomonas tokyonensis sp. nov. isolated from a biofilm sample obtained from a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan.

    PubMed

    Furuhata, Katsunori; Ishizaki, Naoto; Edagawa, Akiko; Fukuyama, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    Strain K-20(T), a Gram-negative, nonmotile, nonspore-forming and strictly aerobic coccobacillus, which produces a pale pink pigment (R2A agar medium, 30℃, seven days) was isolated from a sample of biofilm obtained from a cooling tower in Tokyo, Japan. A phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA partial gene sequences (1,439 bp) showed that the strain (accession number: AB297501) was related to Roseomonas frigidaquae CW67(T) and Roseomonas stagni HS-69(T) with 97.4% and 96.9% sequence similarity, respectively. Strain K-20(T) formed a distinct cluster with Roseomonas frigidaquae CW67(T) in the phylogenetic tree at a high bootstrap value (93%); however, distance was recognized between the strains. In addition, the DNA-DNA hybridization level between strain K-20(T) and Roseomonas frigidaquae JCM 15073(T) was 33%. The taxonomic data indicate that K-20(T) (=JCM 14634(T) =KCTC 32152(T)) should be classified in the genus Roseomonas as the type strain of a novel species, Roseomonas tokyonensis sp. nov. PMID:24366626

  2. EGFR mutation detection on routine cytological smears of non-small cell lung cancer by digital PCR: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Malapelle, Umberto; de Luca, Caterina; Vigliar, Elena; Ambrosio, Francesca; Rocco, Danilo; Pisapia, Pasquale; Bellevicine, Claudio; Troncone, Giancarlo

    2016-05-01

    Highly sensitive genotyping techniques are useful to detect epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations on lung cancer cytological samples, when these specimens feature only few neoplastic cells. This study aimed to validate digital PCR (dPCR) methodology on cytological material. In plasmid model system, dPCR allowed for the detection of a minimal percentage (1%) of EGFR mutant alleles. Cytological samples (n = 30), with neoplastic cell percentage ranging from 10% to 80% and yielding a quantity of extracted DNA ranging from 1.75 to 60 ng/µL were selected. Results previously generated by fragment length and TaqMan assays (n = 8 exon 19 deletions, n = 2 L858R mutations and n = 20 wild-type DNA) were compared with those obtained by dPCR. Data were highly concordant (96.6%). However, dPCR detected an additional L858R mutation that had been missed by TaqMan assay on a paucicellular smear. This mutation was confirmed by cloning PCR products and sequencing. Thus, dPCR can reliably be used to increase EGFR mutation detection rate on scarcely cellular lung cancer smears. PMID:26893402

  3. Usefulness of PCR and Antigen Latex Agglutination Test with Samples Obtained by Transthoracic Needle Aspiration for Diagnosis of Pneumococcal Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    García, Amparo; Rosón, Beatriz; Pérez, José Luis; Verdaguer, Ricard; Dorca, Jordi; Carratalà, Jordi; Casanova, Aurora; Manresa, Frederic; Gudiol, Francesc

    1999-01-01

    In a large number of cases, the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not established. Some cases are probably caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Transthoracic needle aspiration (TNA) culture has a limited sensitivity which might be improved by antigen detection or gene amplification techniques. We evaluated the capacity of a PCR assay and a latex agglutination test to detect S. pneumoniae in samples obtained by TNA from 95 patients with moderate-to-severe CAP. Latex agglutination and PCR had sensitivities of 52.2 and 91.3%, specificities of 88.7 and 83.3%, positive predictive values of 62.3 and 65.6%, and negative predictive values of 83.3 and 96.5%, respectively, when culture techniques were used as the “gold standard.” When we considered expanded criteria for the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia as a standard for our calculations, latex agglutination and PCR had sensitivities of 53.6 and 89.7%, specificities of 93.0 and 90.0%, positive predictive values of 78.9 and 81.3%, and negative predictive values of 80.3 and 94.7%, respectively. The additional diagnosis provided by the PCR assay compared to latex agglutination was 12.2% (95% confidence interval of the difference from 0.4 to 20.1%). PCR was more sensitive than TNA culture, particularly in patients who had received prior antibiotic therapy (83.3 versus 33.3%). Although PCR is a very sensitive and specific technique, it has not proved to be cost-effective in clinical practice. Conversely, latex agglutination is a fast and simple method whose results might have significant implications for initial antibiotic therapy. PMID:9986837

  4. Comparison of RNA Extraction Methods for Molecular Analysis of Oral Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Sayáns, Mario; Padín-Iruegas, Maria-Elena; Reboiras-López, Maria Dolores; Suarez-Peńaranda, José Manuel; López-López, Rafael; Carta, Celina Faig Lima; Issa, Jaqueline Scholz; García-García, Abel; Almeida, Janete Dias

    2016-01-01

    Objective of work The aim of this study was to compare three methods of RNA extraction for molecular analysis of oral cytology to establish the best technique, considering its concentration and purity for molecular tests of oral lesions such as real-time reverse transcriptase reaction. Material and methods The sample included exfoliative cytology from the oral cavity mucosa of patients with no visible clinical changes, using Orcellex Rovers Brush®. The extraction of total RNA was performed using the following three techniques: 30 samples were extracted by Trizol® technique, 30 by the Direct-zolTM RNA Miniprep system and 30 by the RNeasy mini Kit. The absorbance was measured by spectrophotometer to estimate the purity. The estimated RNA concentration was obtained by multiplying the value of A260 (ng/mL) by 40. Statistical analysis of the obtained data was performed using GraphPad Prism 5.03 software with Student t, analysis of variance and Bonferroni tests, considering p ≤0.05. Results Trizol® group revealed higher average concentration, followed by Direct-zolTM and Rneasy group. It was observed that the RNA Direct-zolTM group had the highest purity, followed by RNeasy and Trizol® groups, allowing for the two ratios. Conclusion Considering all aspects, concentration, purity and time spent in the procedures, the Direct-zolTM group showed the best results. PMID:27789907

  5. The cytology of giant solitary trichoepithelioma

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Jayashree; Divya, KN

    2010-01-01

    Giant solitary trichoepithelioma (GST) is a rare trichogenic tumor, which may present as a pigmented lesion. An 80-year-old man was diagnosed to have giant solitary trichoepithelioma on fine-needle aspiration cytology. The cytological findings represented the histological features. The recognition of GST is important because of its close resemblance to basal cell carcinoma and other skin adnexal tumors – clinically, cytologically and histologically. PMID:21187885

  6. Cytologic study of salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, T; Kanamaru, T; Shingaki, S; Mizutani, H; Nakajima, T

    1980-02-01

    Cytologic examination was performed on 22 known oral tumors of glandular origin. Cytologically, the cells of benign pleomorphic adenomas and an adenolymphoma could easily be identified as of benign tumor origin, but cytologic determination of malignancy was difficult in 11 of 14 malignant tumors due to lack of malignant features. A precise and comparative study of the morphologic details of the tumor cells with the histologic findings, however, seemed to suggest a possibility of determining the histologic type even in smear preparations.

  7. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a diagnosis of HSIL, adenocarcinoma, or other malignant neoplasm for which histology results were available for comparison; (v) Gynecologic cases where cytology and histology are discrepant; and...

  8. Education and training in cytology in Europe.

    PubMed

    Tötsch, M

    2016-10-01

    Education and training in cytology in Europe is hampered by the fact that there is no homogenous programme across Europe. This can be observed for (Cyto)Pathologists and Cytotechnologists. However, lack of workforce and lack of a pan-European Cytology diploma are decreasing motivation among junior staff to dedicate their professional interests to cytology. Cytology and histology are complementary approaches for the diagnosis or exclusion of disease in patients and there are many individual efforts of National Societies to maintain competencies in cytology by workshops, seminars, tutorials and congresses. Furthermore, professional organizations such as the European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS), the European Society of Pathology (ESP) and Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) - Section Pathology are working together in order to develop a pan-European Cytology diploma. The EFCS is part supported by EU funding in this endeavour. Activities are ongoing in the fields of training (Eurocytology) and examination (QUATE Aptitude Test - Quality Assurance, Training and Examination) or both (Cy-Test). Modern techniques such as Webatlas with teaching modules in cytology and Tele(cyto)pathology are more and more integrated in daily teaching activities resulting in standardization of cytology in Europe. PMID:27650599

  9. Cytology of the Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Seethala, Raja R

    2014-03-01

    Common usage of fine-needle aspirate (FNA) for salivary gland lesions is the preoperative determination of whether a lesion is neoplastic, its lineage, and if neoplastic, whether it is low grade/benign, or high grade. Immunohistochemical stains can be performed on cell blocks to determine lineage and help refine diagnosis, although their performance is not always equivalent to that seen in surgical specimens. Several characteristic translocations have been described in various entities in these categories, and these can be evaluated using fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the future, high-throughput next-generation sequencing panels may further refine cytologic diagnosis in salivary tumors.

  10. Effectiveness of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of lateral cervical nonthyroid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Iacob, Alina; Zazgyva, Ancuta; Ormenişan, Alina; Mezei, Tibor; Sin, Anca; Tilinca, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Given that the clinical and radiological examinations of lateral cervical masses are not always sufficient for deciding on appropriate management, the cytological examination of the material obtained by fine-needle aspiration might be an efficient tool in the preoperative investigation of these lesions. In this prospective cross-sectional study we evaluated the efficacy and diagnostic accuracy of fine-needle aspiration cytology in the assessment of lateral cervical nonthyroid tumors, by comparing its results with those of histopathology. A total of 58 patients with lateral cervical masses were included. Preoperative cytological results were compared with the histopathologic examination of surgical specimens. Both cytology and histology indicated that malignant tumors outnumbered benign lesions (62% vs 38%), with 88.9% of malignancies presenting in patients aged >50 years, but cytology was less effective at differentiating between benign and nontumor lesions. Cytology had 76.5% specificity and 78.1% sensitivity for identifying malignant lateral cervical lesions, and there was a concordance between the two diagnostic tests (McNemar test, P = 0.17, κ = 0.50, P <0.001). Fine-needle aspiration cytology is a simple, quick, and effective procedure that can aid in the preoperative evaluation of lateral cervical masses by differentiating benign tumors and inflammatory processes from malignancies and thus help in determining a subsequent therapeutic strategy. PMID:27495074

  11. Brush cytology with immunocytochemical evaluation of VEGF expression versus biopsy in clinically precancerous laryngeal lesions: can we diagnose laryngeal cancer only with brush cytology?

    PubMed

    Chatziavramidis, Angelos; Tsinaslanidou, Zinovia; Valeri, Rozalia; Konstantinidis, Iordanis; Constantinidis, Jannis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is the most common SCC of the head and neck. The high incidence of this malignancy and the low survival rate necessitate the development of novel diagnostic approaches. Aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic value of laryngeal brush cytology combined with VEGF immunocytochemistry versus histopathology of clinically precancerous lesions of the larynx. Material and Methods. Thirty patients with precancerous or suspected malignant laryngeal lesions underwent microlaryngoscopy, during which samples were taken for cytological, immunocytochemical, and histological analysis. Cytology and histology results were classified as follows: benign lesions, atypia/moderate dysplasia, and malignancy, whereas the expression of VEGF was evaluated as strong, moderate, weak, and zero expression, based on the percentage of cells stained. Results. The cytology results were in accordance with the histology results in 86.7% of the patients. The exfoliative cytology's sensitivity was estimated at 85% and its specificity at 90%. Its positive prognostic value was 94%, while its negative prognostic value was 75%. The additional immunocytochemical evaluation of VEGF expression increased all the noted parameters. Discussion. Exfoliative cytology of laryngeal lesions is a minimal-invasive, easily applicable procedure during microlaryngoscopy and reliable in terms of diagnostic value. Under certain conditions it could be held also in local anesthesia. Concurrent immunocytochemical analysis of VEGF expression further enhances its diagnostic value. PMID:26457244

  12. Fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology of major salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Qizilbash, A H; Sianos, J; Young, J E; Archibald, S D

    1985-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the major salivary glands was performed on 160 patients. In 146 patients with satisfactory samples, the cytologic diagnosis was correlated with clinical follow-up and histologic findings. There were 122 benign lesions, including 47 tumors. There were 24 malignant lesions, 10 of which were primary and 14 metastatic. The overall accuracy was 98%. The sensitivity of the technique was 87.5%. There was no false-positive diagnosis. There were three false-negative diagnoses due to sampling errors and inexperience during the initial period of the study. This study documents that needle aspiration biopsy cytology of the salivary glands is accurate, simple, rapid, inexpensive, well tolerated and harmless to the patient.

  13. Histopathological examination of nerve samples from pure neural leprosy patients: obtaining maximum information to improve diagnostic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Sérgio Luiz Gomes; Chimelli, Leila; Jardim, Márcia Rodrigues; Vital, Robson Teixeira; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Corte-Real, Suzana; Hacker, Mariana Andréa Vilas Boas; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes

    2012-03-01

    Nerve biopsy examination is an important auxiliary procedure for diagnosing pure neural leprosy (PNL). When acid-fast bacilli (AFB) are not detected in the nerve sample, the value of other nonspecific histological alterations should be considered along with pertinent clinical, electroneuromyographical and laboratory data (the detection of Mycobacterium leprae DNA with polymerase chain reaction and the detection of serum anti-phenolic glycolipid 1 antibodies) to support a possible or probable PNL diagnosis. Three hundred forty nerve samples [144 from PNL patients and 196 from patients with non-leprosy peripheral neuropathies (NLN)] were examined. Both AFB-negative and AFB-positive PNL samples had more frequent histopathological alterations (epithelioid granulomas, mononuclear infiltrates, fibrosis, perineurial and subperineurial oedema and decreased numbers of myelinated fibres) than the NLN group. Multivariate analysis revealed that independently, mononuclear infiltrate and perineurial fibrosis were more common in the PNL group and were able to correctly classify AFB-negative PNL samples. These results indicate that even in the absence of AFB, these histopathological nerve alterations may justify a PNL diagnosis when observed in conjunction with pertinent clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data.

  14. Ag-doped FeSe0.94 polycrystalline samples obtained through hot isostatic pressing with improved grain connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajda, G.; Morawski, A.; Rogacki, K.; Cetner, T.; Zaleski, A. J.; Buchkov, K.; Nazarova, E.; Balchev, N.; Hossain, M. S. A.; Diduszko, R.; Gruszka, K.; Przysłupski, P.; Fajfrowski, Ł.; Gajda, D.

    2016-09-01

    We evaluate the effects of high pressure during annealing on the structural and superconducting properties of Ag-doped FeSe bulks. The results obtained in this work indicate that the annealing at high pressure increases the critical temperature, upper critical field and irreversibility field due to the improved uniformity and grain connectivity.

  15. Extraction of DNA from exfoliative cytology specimens and its suitability for analysis by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D P; Payne, J; Bell, S; Lewis, F A; Taylor, G R; Peel, K R; Sutton, J; Quirke, P

    1990-01-01

    The extraction of DNA from archival exfoliative cytology samples would allow the molecular biological analysis of this readily available material using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We have quantitatively and qualitatively studied the extraction of DNA from a variety of cytological preparations. For both fresh and archival cervical smears, overnight incubation with proteinase K produces high yields of high molecular weight DNA, but simply boiling the samples produces DNA suitable for PCR amplification of a single copy gene. Increasing the proteinase K incubation to several days allows the extraction of DNA from fixed and stained archival cytology slides from a variety of sites. The extracted DNA was again suitable for PCR analysis. Fresh and archival cytological material can be utilized for molecular biological study of disease processes using PCR. Archival cytological material is probably the best source of DNA and RNA after stored frozen tissue.

  16. H-1 Relaxation Times of Metabolites in Biological Samples Obtained with Nondestructive Ex-vivo Slow-MAS NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Wind, Robert A.; Rommereim, Donald N.

    2006-03-01

    Methods suitable for measuring 1H relaxation times such as T1, T2 and T1p, in small sized biological objects including live cells, excised organs and tissues, oil seeds etc., were developed in this work. This was achieved by combining inversion-recovery, spin-echo, or spin lock segment with the phase-adjusted spinning sideband (PASS) technique that was applied at slow sample spinning rate. Here, 2D-PASS was used to produce a high-resolution 1H spectrum free from the magnetic susceptibility broadening so that the relaxation parameters of individual metabolite can be determined. Because of the slow spinning employed, tissue and cell damage due to sample spinning is minimized. The methodologies were demonstrated by measuring 1H T1, T2 and T1p of metabolites in excised rat livers and sesame seeds at spinning rates of as low as 40 Hz.

  17. Pseudomonas Diversity in Crude-Oil-Contaminated Intertidal Sand Samples Obtained after the Prestige Oil Spill▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Mulet, Magdalena; David, Zoyla; Nogales, Balbina; Bosch, Rafael; Lalucat, Jorge; García-Valdés, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The Galicia seashore, in northwestern Spain, was one of the shorelines affected by the Prestige oil spill in November 2002. The diversity of autochthonous Pseudomonas populations present at two beaches (Carnota municipality) was analyzed using culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. The first analysis involved the screening of an rpoD gene library. The second involved the isolation of 94 Pseudomonas strains that were able to grow on selective media by direct plating or after serial enrichments on several carbon sources: biphenyl, gentisate, hexadecane, methylnaphthalene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, salicylate, xylene, and succinate. Eight denitrifying Pseudomonas strains were also isolated by their ability to grow anaerobically with nitrate. The calculated coverage index for Pseudomonas species was 89% when clones and isolates were considered together, and there were 29 phylospecies detected. The most abundant were members of the species P. stutzeri, P. putida, P. anguilliseptica, and P. oleovorans. Thirty-one isolates could not be identified at the species level and were considered representatives of 16 putative novel Pseudomonas species. One isolate was considered representative of a novel P. stutzeri genomovar. Concordant results were obtained when the diversities of the cloned DNA library and the cultured strains were compared. The clone library obtained by the rpoD PCR method was a useful tool for evaluating Pseudomonas communities and also for microdiversity studies of Pseudomonas populations. PMID:21131512

  18. Diagnostic value of cytological analysis of tumours and tumour-like lesions of the oral cavity in dogs and cats: a prospective study on 114 cases.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, U; Bertazzolo, W; Gracis, M; Roccabianca, P; Romanelli, G; Palermo, G; Zini, E

    2015-08-01

    Neoplastic or non-neoplastic masses are common findings in the oral cavity of cats and dogs. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the results of cytological examinations of lesions of the oral cavity following fine-needle aspiration (FNA), fine-needle insertion (FNI), and impression smear (IS) with histopathological results being considered as the diagnostic gold standard. In total, 85 dogs and 29 cats were included in the study. Cases were included when histology and cytology (FNA, FNI, and/or IS) were available from the same lesion; κ-agreement and accuracy between cytological and histopathological results were calculated. Eighteen cytological specimens were excluded, with a retrieval rate of 84.2%. Of the 96 samples analysed, FNA, FNI, and IS were available from 80, 76, and 73 animals, respectively. Overall, 60/67 (89.6%) and 21/29 (72.4%) lesions were neoplastic in dogs and cats, respectively, with the remaining being non-neoplastic. For all lesions, κ-values obtained by FNA, FNI, and IS were in dogs 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-0.90), 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81-0.93) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.67-0.84), respectively, and in cats 0.92 (95% CI: 0.87-0.96), 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88-0.97) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.79-0.92), respectively. The diagnostic accuracies of FNA, FNI, and IS in dogs with neoplasia were 98.2%, 98.1%, and 91.8%, respectively, and in cats with neoplasia were 95.6%, 95.6% and 95.8%, respectively. In conclusion, the high agreement with histopathology suggests that cytological examinations by FNI, FNA, and IS are all appropriate methods to correctly diagnose lesions of the oral cavity in dogs and cats.

  19. Urine: beyond cytology for detection of malignancy.

    PubMed

    Pattari, Sanjib Kumar; Dey, Pranab

    2002-09-01

    In the present review we discuss various ancillary modalities for detection of malignancies in urine samples, with an emphasis on urothelial carcinomas. Flow cytometry, bladder tumor antigen (BTA), nuclear matrix protein (NMP), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), human chorionic gonadotrophic (HCG), telomerase, and other techniques are discussed. DNA FCM is a relatively costly and sophisticated technique. It has a practical application in the diagnosis of bladder cancer among subjects at high risk and is of value in monitoring the course of the disease and anticipating recurrence following conservative treatment. The BTA test is a simple, rapid, and inexpensive adjunct to cystoscopy and the results of the test are equivalent or superior to those of voided urinary cytology. NMP-22 immunoassay is a useful diagnostic test for predicting recurrence of urothelial malignancy. It is also a cost-effective and sensitive screening test for detecting tumor in patients with urothelial carcinoma. Beta-HCG estimation in urine samples appears to be an efficient diagnostic marker for the assessment of distant metastasis in bladder carcinoma rather than a screening test. Other ancillary techniques such as detection of expression of cytokeratin 20 by RT-PCR, MMP-9 estimation, and fluorescent in situ hybridization and telomerase activity are rarely applied clinically in routine urinary samples and are not cost-effective.

  20. Antimicrobial resistance trends among canine Escherichia coli isolates obtained from clinical samples in the northeastern USA, 2004-2011.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Kevin J; Aprea, Victor A; Altier, Craig

    2015-04-01

    Our objectives were to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates from dogs in the northeastern USA and to identify temporal trends in resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. Data were collected retrospectively for all canine E. coli isolates from clinical samples submitted to Cornell University's Animal Health Diagnostic Center between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2011. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 3519 canine E. coli isolates; frequency of resistance to each agent ranged from 0.4% (amikacin) to 34.3% (ampicillin). No trends were evident among urinary isolates, but cephalosporin resistance remained consistently high. Among non-urinary isolates, there was evidence of a significantly increasing trend in prevalence of resistance to several agents, including cephalosporins, enrofloxacin, and tetracycline. These data suggest that some of the most commonly used antimicrobial agents in companion animal practice are becoming less effective against canine E. coli infections outside the urinary tract.

  1. A standardized procedure to obtain mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from minimally manipulated dental pulp and Wharton's jelly samples.

    PubMed

    Ducret, M; Fabre, H; Degoult, O; Atzeni, G; McGuckin, C; Forraz, N; Mallein-Gerrin, F; Perrier-Groult, E; Fargues, J C

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of mesenchymal stem/stromalcells (MSCs) has emerged as an effectivemethod to treat diseased or damagedorgans and tissues, and hundreds of clinicaltrials using MSCs are currently under way todemonstrate the validity of such a therapeuticapproach. However, most MSCs used for clinicaltrials are prepared in research laboratorieswith insufficient manufacturing quality control.In particular, laboratories lack standardizedprocedures for in vitro isolation of MSCs fromtissue samples, resulting in heterogeneouspopulations of cells and variable experimentaland clinical results.MSCs are now referred to as Human CellularTissue-based Products or Advanced TherapyMedicinal Products, and guidelines fromthe American Code of Federal Regulation ofthe Food and Drug Administration (21 CFRPart 1271) and from the European MedicinesAgency (European Directive 1394/2007) definerequirements for appropriate production ofthese cells. These guidelines, commonly called"Good Manufacturing Practices" (GMP),include recommendations about laboratorycell culture procedures to ensure optimal reproducibility,efficacy and safety of the finalmedicinal product. In particular, the Food andDrug Administration divides ex vivo culturedcells into "minimally" and "more than minimally"manipulated samples, in function of theuse or not of procedures "that might alter thebiological features of the cells". Today, minimalmanipulation conditions have not beendefined for the collection and isolation ofMSCs (Torre et al. 2015)(Ducret et al. 2015).Most if not all culture protocols that have beenreported so far are unsatisfactory, becauseof the use of xeno- or allogeneic cell culturemedia, enzymatic treatment and long-termcell amplification that are known to alter thequality of MSCs.The aim of this study was to describe a standardizedprocedure for recovering MSCs withminimal handling from two promising sources,the dental pulp (DP) and the Wharton's jelly(WJ) of the umbilical cord. The quality and

  2. Prevalence of anal human papillomavirus infection and cytologic abnormalities among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Latini, Alessandra; Gabriella Dona, Maria; Ronchetti, Livia; Giglio, Amalia; Moretto, Domenico; Colafigli, Manuela; Laquintana, Valentina; Frasca, Mirko; Zaccarelli, Mauro; Antinori, Andrea; Cristaudo, Antonio; Giuliani, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) is responsible for 85% of anal cancers. Recently, anal cancer incidence has been increasing, particularly in men who have sex with men (MSM). Cytology may be a useful tool for the detection of anal precancerous lesions. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of anal HPV infection and cytologic abnormalities among HIV-infected and -uninfected MSM. Materials and Methods MSM ≥18-year-old attending an STI clinic in Rome (Italy) were enrolled. Anal cytologic samples were collected in PreservCyt (Hologic) using a Dacron swab. The Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Diagnostics) was used for the detection and genotyping of 37 mucosal HPV types. Liquid-based cytological slides were obtained using a ThinPrep2000 processor (Hologic). The morphology of the anal pap-test was classified following the Bethesda 2001 guidelines. Results We enrolled 180 HIV-infected (median age 41 years, IQR 33–47) and 438 HIV-uninfected MSM (median age 32 years, IQR: 27–39). Most of the individuals were Caucasian (92.2% and 97.0%, respectively). HPV prevalence, both overall (93.3% vs 72.4%, p<.001) and by high-risk (HR) HPV types (80.5% vs 56.0%, p<.001), was significantly higher among HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected individuals. HPV-multiple infections were evidenced in 48.2% of the HIV-uninfected and 76.1% of the HIV-infected MSM (p<.001). HPV16 was the most prevalent genotype in both groups (23.3% in HIV-positive and 17.6% in HIV-negative MSM). HPV6 and 84 were the most frequent low-risk types in both cohorts. Anal cytologic abnormalities were found in a significantly higher proportion of HIV-infected MSM (46.1% vs 27.9%, p<.001). H-SILs (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) were exclusively observed among the HIV-infected individuals, although at a low prevalence (1.2%). Conclusions A high prevalence of anal HPV infection and cytologic abnormalities was evidenced in both populations. Nonetheless, HIV-infected MSM showed a

  3. The Value of Cytology Smears for Acanthamoeba Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Jamie L.; Paterson, Joyce; Liu, Weiguo; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Acanthamoeba keratitis remains a difficult diagnosis despite advances in genetic and imaging technologies. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the utility of cytology smears for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. Methods. This is a case study of the diagnostic course for a patient with suspected Acanthamoeba keratitis. Results. A 40-year-old male with poor contact lens hygiene presented with severe left eye pain. Slit lamp examination showed two peripheral ring infiltrates without an epithelial defect. The epithelium over both infiltrates was removed with a Kimura spatula. Half of the sample was smeared on a dry microscope slide and the other half was submitted for Acanthamoeba culture and PCR. Both culture and PCR were negative for Acanthamoeba, but hematoxylin and eosin stain of the smear revealed double-walled cysts. Conclusion. H&E staining of corneal cytology specimens is an efficient and readily available test for diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:27403362

  4. [Comparative histological and cytological characteristics of peripheral lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Zolotarevskiĭ, V B; Kogan, E A; Ablitsov, Iu A

    1983-01-01

    Peripheral pulmonary carcinoma was analysed retrospectively histologically, histochemically, and cytologically. The examination material (smears taken at percutaneous thoracic aspirational biopsy, resected lung or lung lobe) had been obtained from 113 patients with PPC among whom 85 patients underwent pulmon- or lobe-ectomy. Cytological examination of specimens from percutaneous thoracic biopsy allowed the diagnosis of PPC to be established in 90.6% of cases and to determine correctly the histological type of cancer in 85.7%. No regular correlation between the levels of tissue and cellular differentiation in squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma was found. Argyrophilic granules (Grimelius reaction) were detected in cells of combined oat cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma of transitional type. Because of the existence of combined tumors in the lungs consisting of cells of different types of differentiation it is suggested that complex histological types of pulmonary carcinoma can develop from a common polypotent precursor cell.

  5. Can we confidently diagnose pilomatricoma with fine needle aspiration cytology?

    PubMed

    Wong, Yin-Ping; Masir, Noraidah; Sharifah, Noor Akmal

    2015-01-01

    Pilomatricomas can be confidently diagnosed cytologically due to their characteristic cytomorphological features. However, these lesions are rarely encountered by cytopathologists and thus pose a diagnostic dilemma to even experienced individuals, especially when the lesions are focally sampled. We describe two cases of histologically confirmed pilomatricoma. The first case is of a 13-year-old boy with posterior cervical 'lymphadenopathy', and the second one is of a 12-year-old girl with a lower cheek swelling. Both aspirates comprised predominantly atypical basal-like cells, with prominent nucleoli. 'Ghost cells' were readily identified by cell block in case two, but cell block in case one yielded no diagnostic material. In case two, pilomatricoma was accurately diagnosed pre-operatively. A cytological suspicion of a neoplastic process was raised in case one. Despite being diagnostically challenging, pilomatricoma can be diagnosed with careful observation of two unique cytological features of the lesions: (1) pathognomonic 'ghost cells' and (2) irregular, saw-toothed, loosely cohesive basaloid cells, with prominent nucleoli. The role of thorough sampling of the lesion, with multiple passes of various sites, cannot be overemphasized. PMID:25892955

  6. Can We Confidently Diagnose Pilomatricoma with Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology?

    PubMed Central

    WONG, Yin-Ping; MASIR, Noraidah; SHARIFAH, Noor Akmal

    2015-01-01

    Pilomatricomas can be confidently diagnosed cytologically due to their characteristic cytomorphological features. However, these lesions are rarely encountered by cytopathologists and thus pose a diagnostic dilemma to even experienced individuals, especially when the lesions are focally sampled. We describe two cases of histologically confirmed pilomatricoma. The first case is of a 13-year-old boy with posterior cervical ‘lymphadenopathy’, and the second one is of a 12-year-old girl with a lower cheek swelling. Both aspirates comprised predominantly atypical basal-like cells, with prominent nucleoli. ‘Ghost cells’ were readily identified by cell block in case two, but cell block in case one yielded no diagnostic material. In case two, pilomatricoma was accurately diagnosed pre-operatively. A cytological suspicion of a neoplastic process was raised in case one. Despite being diagnostically challenging, pilomatricoma can be diagnosed with careful observation of two unique cytological features of the lesions: (1) pathognomonic ‘ghost cells’ and (2) irregular, saw-toothed, loosely cohesive basaloid cells, with prominent nucleoli. The role of thorough sampling of the lesion, with multiple passes of various sites, cannot be overemphasized. PMID:25892955

  7. Impression Cytology with Transfer in xerophthalmia and conjunctival diseases.

    PubMed

    Resnikoff, S; Luzeau, R; Filliard, G; Amedee-Manesme, O

    1992-11-01

    During a countrywide survey, we assessed the prevalence of clinical signs of xerophthalmia and of major conjunctival diseases in a randomized sample of 2,445 subjects representative of the population of the Republic of Djibouti. On a part of this sample, conjunctival Impression Cytology with Transfer (ICT) test and a plasma retinol determination were performed. Xerophthalmia as a public health problem was displayed by clinical signs (Bitot's spots, corneal scars among preschool children), low plasma retinol levels and ICT test results: 9.3% with deficient cytology in the rural area and 12.3% in the urban one (age-standardized rates). Results of ICT were related to age (p < 0.00001). Vitamin A deficiency was prevalent not only in preschool children but also up to 15 years. Moreover, ICT results are influenced by conjunctival diseases: compared to age-matched controls, there were more abnormal cytologies among patients with trachomatous inflammation (p = 0.025), conjunctivitis (p = 0.024) or Limbal Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (p = 0.015). Thus ICT shouldn't be performed among children with conjunctival diseases. In the region under study conjunctival diseases had high rates of prevalence: 16.4% of trachomatous scarrings in the urban area (standardized rate), 8% of conjunctivitis among rural preschool children, and 5% of Limbal Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis among children between 5 and 14 years in both areas. PMID:1490836

  8. The Application of Molecular Diagnostics to Stained Cytology Smears.

    PubMed

    Oktay, Maja H; Adler, Esther; Hakima, Laleh; Grunblatt, Eli; Pieri, Evan; Seymour, Andrew; Khader, Samer; Cajigas, Antonio; Suhrland, Mark; Goswami, Sumanta

    2016-05-01

    Detection of mutational alterations is important for guiding treatment decisions of lung non-small-cell carcinomas and thyroid nodules with atypical cytologic findings. Inoperable lung tumors requiring further testing for staging and thyroid lesions often are diagnosed using only cytology material. Molecular diagnostic tests of these samples typically are performed on cell blocks; however, insufficient cellularity of cell blocks is a limitation for test performance. In addition, some of the fixatives used while preparing cell blocks often introduces artifacts for mutation detection. Here, we applied qClamp xenonucleic technology and quantitative RT-PCR to cells microdissected directly from stained cytology smears to detect common alterations including mutations and translocations in non-small-cell carcinomas and thyroid lesions. By using this approach, we achieved a 1% molecular alteration detection rate from as few as 50 cells. Ultrasensitive methods of molecular alteration detection similar to the one described here will be increasingly important for the evaluation of molecular alterations in clinical scenarios when only tissue samples that are small are available. PMID:26921541

  9. Can we confidently diagnose pilomatricoma with fine needle aspiration cytology?

    PubMed

    Wong, Yin-Ping; Masir, Noraidah; Sharifah, Noor Akmal

    2015-01-01

    Pilomatricomas can be confidently diagnosed cytologically due to their characteristic cytomorphological features. However, these lesions are rarely encountered by cytopathologists and thus pose a diagnostic dilemma to even experienced individuals, especially when the lesions are focally sampled. We describe two cases of histologically confirmed pilomatricoma. The first case is of a 13-year-old boy with posterior cervical 'lymphadenopathy', and the second one is of a 12-year-old girl with a lower cheek swelling. Both aspirates comprised predominantly atypical basal-like cells, with prominent nucleoli. 'Ghost cells' were readily identified by cell block in case two, but cell block in case one yielded no diagnostic material. In case two, pilomatricoma was accurately diagnosed pre-operatively. A cytological suspicion of a neoplastic process was raised in case one. Despite being diagnostically challenging, pilomatricoma can be diagnosed with careful observation of two unique cytological features of the lesions: (1) pathognomonic 'ghost cells' and (2) irregular, saw-toothed, loosely cohesive basaloid cells, with prominent nucleoli. The role of thorough sampling of the lesion, with multiple passes of various sites, cannot be overemphasized.

  10. 33S nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of biological samples obtained with a laboratory model 33S cryogenic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobo, Fumio; Takahashi, Masato; Saito, Yuta; Sato, Naoki; Takao, Tomoaki; Koshiba, Seizo; Maeda, Hideaki

    2010-05-01

    S33 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is limited by inherently low NMR sensitivity because of the quadrupolar moment and low gyromagnetic ratio of the S33 nucleus. We have developed a 10 mm S33 cryogenic NMR probe, which is operated at 9-26 K with a cold preamplifier and a cold rf switch operated at 60 K. The S33 NMR sensitivity of the cryogenic probe is as large as 9.8 times that of a conventional 5 mm broadband NMR probe. The S33 cryogenic probe was applied to biological samples such as human urine, bile, chondroitin sulfate, and scallop tissue. We demonstrated that the system can detect and determine sulfur compounds having SO42- anions and -SO3- groups using the S33 cryogenic probe, as the S33 nuclei in these groups are in highly symmetric environments. The NMR signals for other common sulfur compounds such as cysteine are still undetectable by the S33 cryogenic probe, as the S33 nuclei in these compounds are in asymmetric environments. If we shorten the rf pulse width or decrease the rf coil diameter, we should be able to detect the NMR signals for these compounds.

  11. Aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions advantages and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Kamal, M M; Dani, A A; Kotwal, M N; Kherdekar, M S

    1994-07-01

    FNAC of the major salivary glands was performed on 72 patients during a period of two and a half years. In 64 patients samples were satisfactory. The cytologic diagnosis was correlated with histology available in 36 cases. 21 out of 22 benign lesions and 12 out 4 malignant lesions were correctly identified rendering a diagnostic accuracy of 91 percent. The pitfalls of FNAC of salivary gland lesions are reflected by the overall false positive rate of 5.5 percent of false negative rate of 2.7 percent. Diagnostic pitfalls are due to variability of tumor morphology which makes sampling & interpretation difficult. Multiple sampling and increasing experience help to minimize errors.

  12. [Information technologies in clinical cytology (a lecture)].

    PubMed

    Shabalova, I P; Dzhangirova, T V; Kasoian, K T

    2010-07-01

    The lecture is devoted to the urgent problem that is to increase the quality of cytological diagnosis, by diminishing the subjectivism factor via introduction of up-to-date computer information technologies into a cytologist's practice. Its main lines from the standardization of cytological specimen preparation to the registration of a cytologist's opinion and the assessment of the specialist's work quality at the laboratories that successfully use the capacities of the current information systems are described. Information technology capabilities to improve the interpretation of the cellular composition of cytological specimens are detailed. PMID:20799410

  13. Fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of mass lesions of the salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, A

    1993-03-01

    Fine needle aspiration was performed on 101 patients with mass lesions of the salivary gland. In 98 patients satisfactory material was obtained. This could be correlated with the histology done in 54 cases. There were 12 inflammatory lesions; 52 benign and 34 malignant tumors. Of the malignant tumors 32 were primary salivary tumors and one case each of lymphoma and leukemia. The overall accuracy was 97 per cent. There were no false positives but one false negative diagnosis. In two cases there was a discrepancy of tumor type between the cytology and histopathology; these were due mainly to sampling errors. This study documents that cytomorphology can characterise a wide range of histologically described lesions including the rare epithelial myoepithelial tumor. The application of stringent criteria in the diagnoses of salivary lesions, even inflammatory conditions like chronic sialadenitis, avoids over-diagnosis. Both inflammatory and neoplastic lesions may be cystic. These cystic lesions may prove to be a pitfall in cytology. Reaspiration of cystic lesions especially from residual solid areas greatly improves accuracy. We suggest that a fore-knowledge of tumor type preoperatively greatly reduces surgery in clinically questionable salivary lesions.

  14. Quality of determinations obtained from laboratory reference samples used in the calibration of X-ray electron probe microanalysis of silicate minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, Ludmila A.; Suvorova, Ludmila F.; Belozerova, Olga Yu; Pavlov, Sergey M.

    2003-02-01

    Nine simple minerals and oxides, traditionally used as laboratory reference samples in the electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of silicate minerals, have been quantitatively evaluated. Three separate series of data, comprising the average concentration, standard deviation, relative standard deviation, confidence interval and the z-score of data quality, were calculated for 21 control samples derived from calibrations obtained from three sets of reference samples: (1) simple minerals; (2) oxides; and (3) certified glass reference materials. No systematic difference was observed between the concentrations obtained from these three calibration sets when analyzed results were compared to certified compositions. The relative standard deviations obtained for each element were smaller than target values for all determinations. The z-score values for all elements determined fell within acceptable limits (-2< z<2) for concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 100%. These experiments show that the quality of data obtained from laboratory reference calibration samples is not inferior to that from certified reference glasses. The quality of results obtained corresponds to the 'applied geochemistry' type of analysis (category 2) as defined in the GeoPT proficiency testing program. Therefore, the laboratory reference samples can be used for calibrating EPMA techniques in the analysis of silicate minerals and for controlling the quality of results.

  15. Clinical usefulness of fine needle aspiration cytology in patients less than 20 years old: a 10-year experience at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunzoo; Jang, Eun Jeong; Jeong, Ji Yun; Park, Ji Young

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the spectrum of cytological diagnoses and evaluate the diagnostic effectiveness of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA) in patients less than 20 years old. The subjects were selected by retrospectively reviewing records from 1999 to 2009. Selected patients less than 20 years old underwent FNA. Cytological and histological slides of samples from the subjects were reviewed. Our study included a total of 909 subjects with a mean age of 14.6 years. The majority of the FNA samples were taken from lymph nodes (n = 448, 49.3%), with the remaining aspirates obtained from the thyroid gland (n = 247, 27.2%), soft tissues of head and neck masses (n = 106, 11.7%), salivary glands (n = 75, 8.3%), breasts (n = 18, 1.9%), skins (n = 9, 1.0%) and soft tissues of extremity (n = 6, 0.7%). The majority (87.6%, n = 796) of the FNA samples were categorized as 'benign', with the remaining designated as 'atypical lesion' (n = 18, 2.0%), 'malignant' (n = 24, 2.6%), or 'inadequate specimen' (n = 71, 7.8%). FNA accuracy was 92% for diagnosing cancer. Specificity and sensitivity were 99% and 63%, respectively. Our study first revealed that FNA has a high specificity for diagnosing cancer in various anatomical locations in young patients and can be confidently used as an effective tool for diagnosing malignancies in young individuals with a clinically suspicious lesion.

  16. Preoperative Ultrasound Guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Ovarian Lesions- Is It a Rapid and Effective Diagnostic Modality?

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Saikat; Chaudhuri, Snehamay; Paul, Prabir Chandra; Khandakar, Binny; Mandal, Sonali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The deep seated ovarian lesions unapproachable by unguided aspiration cytology were easily done under ultrasound guidance. It gave a before hand cytological diagnosis of the lesion to the surgeon determining the modality of treatment for the patient. Aim To find the diagnostic accuracy of the method of ultrasound guided cytological assessment of ovarian lesion. Materials and Methods The study was conducted as a prospective observational study over a period of one year, in hospital setting, where ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration had been used to aspirate ovarian lesions, giving a rapid cytological diagnosis. In 43 sample cases, aspiration of fluid done from ovarian lesions were followed by cyto-centrifugation and staining by May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG) and Papanicolaou (Pap) stain providing a cytological opinion regarding benign/malignant nature of the lesion and further categorization. Later the cytological diagnosis was compared with final histopathological diagnosis, taking it as a gold standard. Results The overall sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound guided aspiration and cytological analysis were high, 96%, 76.92% and 89.47% respectively as calculated by comparing the cytological diagnosis with histological diagnosis, taking it as gold standard. Conclusion This method has evolved as a highly sensitive, rapid, simple and effective modality for screening and as well as accurate preoperative diagnosis of ovarian lesions. PMID:27134878

  17. Short communication: Comparison of pH, volatile fatty acids, and microbiome of rumen samples from preweaned calves obtained via cannula or stomach tube.

    PubMed

    Terré, M; Castells, L; Fàbregas, F; Bach, A

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare rumen samples from young dairy calves obtained via a stomach tube (ST) or a ruminal cannula (RC). Five male Holstein calves (46±4.0 kg of body weight and 11±4.9 d of age) were ruminally cannulated at 15 d of age. Calves received 4 L/d of a commercial milk replacer (25% crude protein and 19.2% fat) at 12.5% dry matter, and were provided concentrate and chopped oats hay ad libitum throughout the study (56 d). In total, 29 paired rumen samples were obtained weekly throughout the study in most of the calves by each extraction method. These samples were used to determine pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration, and to quantify Prevotella ruminicola and Streptococcus bovis by quantitative PCR. Furthermore, a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was performed on rumen samples harvested during wk 8 of the study to determine the degree of similarity between rumen bacteria communities. Rumen pH was 0.30 units greater in ST compared with RC samples. Furthermore, total VFA concentrations were greater in RC than in ST samples. However, when analyzing the proportion of each VFA by ANOVA, no differences were found between the sampling methods. The quantification of S. bovis and P. ruminicola was similar in both extraction methods, and values obtained using different methods were highly correlated (R(2)=0.89 and 0.98 for S. bovis and P. ruminicola, respectively). Fingerprinting analysis showed similar bacteria band profiles between samples obtained from the same calves using different extraction methods. In conclusion, when comparing rumen parameters obtained using different sampling techniques, it is recommended that VFA profiles be used rather than total VFA concentrations, as total VFA concentrations are more affected by the method of collection. Furthermore, although comparisons of pH across studies should be avoided when samples are not obtained using the same sampling method, the comparison of fingerprinting of a

  18. Magnitude error bounds for sampled-data frequency response obtained from the truncation of an infinite series, and compensator improvement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The frequency response method of analyzing control system performance is discussed, and the difficulty of obtaining the sampled frequency response of the continuous system is considered. An upper bound magnitude error equation is obtained which yields reasonable estimates of the actual error. Finalization of the compensator improvement program is also reported, and the program was used to design compensators for Saturn 5/S1-C dry workshop and Saturn 5/S1-C Skylab.

  19. Cytological analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana meiotic chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Susan J; Sanchez-Moran, Eugenio; Franklin, F Chris H

    2009-01-01

    Advances in molecular biology and in the genetics of Arabidopsis thaliana have led to this organism becoming an important model for the analysis of meiosis in plants. Cytogenetic investigations are pivotal to meiotic studies and a number of technological improvements for Arabidopsis cytology have provided a range of tools to investigate chromosome behaviour during meiosis. This chapter includes protocols on basic cytology, FISH analysis, immunocytology, a procedure for a meiotic time course and electron microscopy.

  20. Less invasive blood sampling in the animal laboratory: clinical chemistry and haematology of blood obtained by the Triatominae bug Dipetalogaster maximus.

    PubMed

    Markvardsen, S N; Kjelgaard-Hansen, M; Ritz, C; Sørensen, D B

    2012-04-01

    Dipetalogaster maximus (Dipmax), a blood-sucking bug belonging to the family Reduviidae, has been used to obtain blood samples, for example for clinical chemistry and haematology, in a variety of zoo animals and wildlife. Using this bug allows stress-free blood sampling as the bug is able to draw blood without the mammal noticing the bug. In laboratory animal science, the need for blood samples from unstressed animals may arise, especially in animal behaviour research. The use of Dipmax bugs may prove a valuable tool for this purpose. To validate the method, we compared an array of standard blood parameters sampled from New Zealand White rabbits, sampled either by the use of bugs or by the conventional method; puncture of vena auricularis caudalis. The overall hypothesis was that there was no significant difference in clinical chemistry and haematological parameters between the bug method and the conventional method. A total of 17 clinical parameters as well as 12 haematological parameters were measured and compared in New Zealand White rabbits. The results showed that for 13 of these 29 analysed parameters, the bug method and the conventional method did not give significantly different results, and the obtained results were thus directly comparable. For the remaining parameters the obtained results were significantly different. However, all parameters were measurable in the bug samples. The influences of the bug metabolism on these parameters are discussed.

  1. Human papillomavirus status of head and neck cancer as determined in cytologic specimens using the hybrid-capture 2 assay

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David F.; Maleki, Zahra; Coughlan, Diarmuid; Gooi, Zhen; Akpeng, Belinda; Ogawa, Takenori; Bishop, Justin A.; Frick, Kevin D.; Agrawal, Nishant; Gourin, Christine G.; Ha, Patrick K.; Koch, Wayne M.; Richmon, Jeremy D.; Westra, William H.; Pai, Sara I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A standardized assay to determine the HPV status of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) specimens has not yet been established, particularly for cytologic samples. The goal of this study was to determine whether the hybrid capture-2 (HC-2) assay, already widely used for the detection of high risk HPV in cervical brushings, is applicable to cytologic specimens obtained from patients with suspected HNSCCs. Materials and methods Fine needle aspirates (FNA) of cervical lymph nodes were pre-operatively obtained from patients with suspected HNSCCs and evaluated for the presence of HPV using the HC-2 assay. HPV analysis was performed on the corresponding resected tissue specimens using p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and HR-HPV in situ hybridization (ISH). A cost analysis was performed using the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Results HPV status of the cervical lymph node metastases was correctly classified using the HC-2 assay in 84% (21/25) of cases. Accuracy was improved to 100% when cytologic evaluation confirmed the presence of cancer cells in the test samples. The estimated cost savings to CMS using the HC-2 assay ranged from $113.74 to $364.63 per patient. Conclusions HC-2 is a reliable method for determining the HPV status of HNSCCs. Its application to HNSCCs may reduce costs by helping to localize the primary site during the diagnostic work-up as well as decrease the interval time of determining the HPV status which would be relevant for providing prognostic information to the patient as well as determining eligibility for clinical trials targeting this unique patient population. PMID:24630260

  2. Assessment of Hormone Receptor and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Status in Breast Carcinoma Using Thin-Prep Cytology Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology FISH Experience From China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhihui; Yuan, Peng; Guo, Huiqin; Zhao, Linlin; Ying, Jianming; Wang, Mingrong; Zhao, Huan; Pan, Qinjing; Xu, Binghe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) overexpression can be used to predict patient prognosis in breast cancer (BC). Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a reliable predictive marker in invasive breast cancer (IBC). Thin-Prep (TP) specimens are commonly utilized for immunocytochemistry (ICC) in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Thus, we sought to investigate if the incorporation of molecular diagnosis performed on TP-processed specimens is applicable in clinical practice. Hormone receptors (HRs) and HER2 immunocytochemistry was performed on 542 primary breast cancer FNAC specimens using the TP method. One hundred fourteen HER2 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were performed on HER2 ICC 2+ FNAC specimens and the corresponding tissue samples. HRs results of TP slides and those of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) slides were correlated well for ER (concordance rate = 93.3%, kappa value = 0.85) and PR (concordance rate = 88.6%, kappa value = 0.75). HER2 results for the TP slides and those of the matched FFPE slides also correlated well (concordance rate = 80.0%, kappa value = 0.62). The specificity of HER2 was 97.3%; however, the sensitivity was only 67.1%. Cytological specimens and histological samples showed a strong correlation (concordance rate = 99.1%, kappa value = 0.98) while being used to evaluate HER2 gene amplification. FNAC is a minimally invasive technique that can be used as an alternative method to collect tissue especially in cases where an excisional or core biopsy is difficult to obtain, or when recurrence is present. The results of ICC HRs in FNAC TP specimens may be used instead, but HER2 assessment may not be reliable enough for clinical use. FISH testing is necessary in this setting. PMID:26091472

  3. [Comparison of the Conventional Centrifuged and Filtrated Preparations in Urine Cytology].

    PubMed

    Sekita, Nobuyuki; Shimosakai, Hirofumi; Nishikawa, Rika; Sato, Hiroaki; Kouno, Hiroyoshi; Fujimura, Masaaki; Mikami, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The urine cytology test is one of the most important tools for the diagnosis of malignant urinary tract tumors. This test is also of great value for predicting malignancy. However, the sensitivity of this test is not high enough to screen for malignant cells. In our laboratory, we were able to attain a high sensitivity of urine cytology tests after changing the preparation method of urine samples. The differences in the cytodiagnosis between the two methods are discussed here. From January 2012 to June 2013, 2,031 urine samples were prepared using the conventional centrifuge method (C method) ; and from September 2013 to March 2015, 2,453 urine samples were prepared using the filtration method (F method) for the cytology test. When the samples included in category 4 or 5, were defined as cytological positive, the sensitivities of this test with samples prepared using the F method were significantly high compared with samples prepared using the C method (72% vs 28%, p<0.001). The number of cells on the glass slides prepared by the F method was significantly higher than that of the samples prepared by the C method (p<0.001). After introduction of the F method, the number of f alse negative cases was decreased in the urine cytology test because a larger number of cells was seen and easily detected as atypical or malignant epithelial cells. Therefore, this method has a higher sensitivity than the conventional C method as the sensitivity of urine cytology tests relies partially on the number of cells visualized in the prepared samples. PMID:27133882

  4. Evolution and cytological diversification of the green seaweeds (Ulvophyceae).

    PubMed

    Cocquyt, Ellen; Verbruggen, Heroen; Leliaert, Frederik; De Clerck, Olivier

    2010-09-01

    The Ulvophyceae, one of the four classes of the Chlorophyta, is of particular evolutionary interest because it features an unrivaled morphological and cytological diversity. Morphological types range from unicells and simple multicellular filaments to sheet-like and complex corticated thalli. Cytological layouts range from typical small cells containing a single nucleus and chloroplast to giant cells containing millions of nuclei and chloroplasts. In order to understand the evolution of these morphological and cytological types, the present paper aims to assess whether the Ulvophyceae are monophyletic and elucidate the ancient relationships among its orders. Our approach consists of phylogenetic analyses (maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference) of seven nuclear genes, small subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA and two plastid markers with carefully chosen partitioning strategies, and models of sequence evolution. We introduce a procedure for fast site removal (site stripping) targeted at improving phylogenetic signal in a particular epoch of interest and evaluate the specificity of fast site removal to retain signal about ancient relationships. From our phylogenetic analyses, we conclude that the ancestral ulvophyte likely was a unicellular uninucleate organism and that macroscopic growth was achieved independently in various lineages involving radically different mechanisms: either by evolving multicellularity with coupled mitosis and cytokinesis (Ulvales-Ulotrichales and Trentepohliales), by obtaining a multinucleate siphonocladous organization where every nucleus provides for its own cytoplasmic domain (Cladophorales and Blastophysa), or by developing a siphonous organization characterized by either one macronucleus or millions of small nuclei and cytoplasmic streaming (Bryopsidales and Dasycladales). We compare different evolutionary scenarios giving rise to siphonous and siphonocladous cytologies and argue that these did not necessarily evolve from a multicellular

  5. Comparison of Two Techniques to Calculate Methane Oxidation rates in Samples Obtained From the Hudson Canyon Seep Field in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonte, M.; Kessler, J. D.; Chepigin, A.; Kellermann, M. Y.; Arrington, E.; Valentine, D. L.; Sylva, S.

    2014-12-01

    Aerobic methane oxidation, or methanotrophy, is the dominant process by which methane is removed from the water column in oceanic environments. Therefore, accurately quantifying methane oxidation rates is crucial when constructing methane budgets on a local or global scale. Here we present a comparison of two techniques used to determine methane oxidation rates based on samples obtained over the Hudson Canyon seep field in the North Atlantic. Traditional methane oxidation rate measurements require inoculation of water samples with isotopically labeled methane and tracking the changes to methane concentrations and isotopes as the samples are incubated. However, the addition of methane above background levels is thought to increase the potential for methane oxidation in the sample. A new technique to calculate methane oxidation rates is based on kinetic isotope models and incorporates direct measurements of methane concentrations, methane 13C isotopes, and water current velocity. Acoustic instrumentation (ADCP) aboard the R/V Endeavor was used to obtain water current velocity data while water samples were collected for methane concentration and isotopic ratio analysis. Methane δ13C measurements allow us to attribute changes in methane concentration to either water dispersion or bacterial methane oxidation. The data obtained from this cruise will tell us a comprehensive story of methane removal processes from this active seep field. The kinetic isotope models will allow us to estimate the total flux of methane from the seep site and calculate methane oxidation rates at different depths and locations away from seafloor plumes.

  6. Conjunctival impression cytology: bright hope of children.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    A practical method of screening for pre-clinical xerophthalmia due to vitamin A deficiency, called conjunctival impression cytology (CIC), is described as it is being used in a training stage in the Philippines. The noninvasive technic consists of touching the conjunctiva with a filter paper disc, and fixing and staining the disc on a slide for histology. Normally goblet cells with mucin spots are seen among sheets of epithelial cells. In abnormal conjunctiva from vitamin A deficient individuals, the epithelial cells are enlarged, and goblet cells are lacking. These specimens may be obtained from areas of the conjunctiva that appear clinically normal. The equipment needed is millipore paper, a hand-held suction pump with 5 feet of tubing, tissue or gauze, screw-top vials, labels, fixative, Papanicolaou stain, and a microscope. Vitamin A supplements can be given to affected children, or to the whole population at risk. With CIC training materials donated by International Center for Epidemiologic and Preventive Ophthalmology (ICEPO) at the Wilmer Institute, and the School of Hygiene and Public Health of the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, the 1st training class was certified by the Nutrition Center of the Philippines. Twice yearly training of physicians and technologists has been recommended.

  7. Comparison of geochemical data obtained using four brine sampling methods at the SECARB Phase III Anthropogenic Test CO2 injection site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conaway, Christopher; Thordsen, James J.; Manning, Michael A.; Cook, Paul J.; Trautz, Robert C.; Thomas, Burt; Kharaka, Yousif K.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a characterization well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, as part of the Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB) Phase III Anthropogenic Test, which is an integrated carbon capture and storage project. In this study, formation water and gas samples were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using gas lift, electric submersible pump, U-tube, and a downhole vacuum sampler (VS) and subjected to both field and laboratory analyses. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, dissolved sulfide concentration, alkalinity, and pH; laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements, dissolved carbon, volatile fatty acids, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na–Ca–Cl-type brine with a salinity of about 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids. Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity. There was little gas in samples, and gas composition results were strongly influenced by sampling methods. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the VS and U-tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

  8. Effects of anesthesia with isoflurane on plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone in samples obtained from the cavernous sinus and jugular vein of horses.

    PubMed

    Carmalt, James L; Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Schott, Harold C; van der Kolk, Johannes H

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of anesthesia on plasma concentrations and pulsatility of ACTH in samples obtained from the cavernous sinus and jugular vein of horses. ANIMALS 6 clinically normal adult horses. PROCEDURES Catheters were placed in a jugular vein and into the cavernous sinus via a superficial facial vein. The following morning (day 1), cavernous sinus blood samples were collected every 5 minutes for 1 hour (collection of first sample = time 0) and jugular venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 60 minutes. On day 2, horses were sedated with xylazine hydrochloride and anesthesia was induced with propofol mixed with ketamine hydrochloride. Horses were positioned in dorsal recumbency. Anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen and a continuous rate infusion of butorphanol tartrate. One hour after anesthesia was induced, the blood sample protocol was repeated. Plasma ACTH concentrations were quantified by use of a commercially available sandwich assay. Generalized estimating equations that controlled for horse and an expressly automated deconvolution algorithm were used to determine effects of anesthesia on plasma ACTH concentrations and pulsatility, respectively. RESULTS Anesthesia significantly reduced the plasma ACTH concentration in blood samples collected from the cavernous sinus. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Mean plasma ACTH concentrations in samples collected from the cavernous sinus of anesthetized horses were reduced. Determining the success of partial ablation of the pituitary gland in situ for treatment of pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction may require that effects of anesthesia be included in interpretation of plasma ACTH concentrations in cavernous sinus blood. PMID:27347826

  9. Sclerosing polycystic adenosis of the parotid gland: report of one case diagnosed by fine-needle cytology with in situ malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Fulciniti, Franco; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Ionna, Franco; Longo, Francesco; Aversa, Corrado; Botti, Gerardo; Foschini, Maria Pia

    2010-05-01

    Sclerosing polycystic adenosis (SPA) is a rare pathological condition affecting the salivary glands, first described by Smith etal. in 1996. Even though this lesion is being increasingly diagnosed, less than 50 cases have been published in the world literature to date. In line with numerous other pathological analogies between breast and salivary gland lesions, SPA shares with fibrocystic disease of the breast many histopathological features, i.e., fibrosis, oncocytic (apocrine) changes, hyperplasia of ductal and acinar epithelium, cystic dilation of ducts, and, often, atypical epithelial changes. Most of the described cases have followed a benign clinical course, despite the frequent possibility of atypical hyperplasia in more than 50% of the cases and of the more than occasional in situ malignant transformation. In this article, we introduce a new case occurring in the parotid gland of a 57-year-old male showing atypical epithelial hyperplasia and low-grade in situ mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Fine-needle cytology (FNC) was performed on the lesion and, when a diagnosis of SPA was prospected, the variegated cytological features of the obtained sample posed several differential diagnostic problems. The spectrum of pathological lesions entering differential diagnosis comprised sebaceous adenoma, Warthin's tumors with presence of sebaceous remnants, and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Histopathological examination disclosed SCA with intraductal neoplastic transformation resembling noninvasive low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The cytological diagnosis of SPA should be entertained whenever a polymorphous picture is found on FNC samples comprising oncocytic/apocrine changes, sebaceous cells, cystic background, and epithelial hyperplasia with low-grade cytological atypias.

  10. Use of an ultrasonic/sonic driller/corer to obtain sample powder for chemin, a combined XRD/XRF instrument.

    SciTech Connect

    Chipera, S. J.; Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Sherrit, S.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Blake, D.

    2003-01-01

    One of the technical issues that must be addressed before landing an XRD,iXRF spectrometer on an extraterrestrial body is how best to obtain a representative sample powder for analysis. For XRD powder diffraction analyses, it is beneficial to have a powder that is extremely fine grained to reduce preferred orientation effects and to provide a statistically significant number of crystallites to the Xray beam. Although a 2 dimensional detector as used in the CHEMIN instrument will produce good results with poorly prepared powders, the quality of the data will improve with the quality of the sample powder.

  11. Analytical dual-energy microtomography: A new method for obtaining three-dimensional mineral phase images and its application to Hayabusa samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiyama, A.; Nakano, T.; Uesugi, K.; Uesugi, M.; Takeuchi, A.; Suzuki, Y.; Noguchi, R.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuno, J.; Nagano, T.; Imai, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Ogami, T.; Noguchi, T.; Abe, M.; Yada, T.; Fujimura, A.

    2013-09-01

    We developed a novel technique called "analytical dual-energy microtomography" that uses the linear attenuation coefficients (LACs) of minerals at two different X-ray energies to nondestructively obtain three-dimensional (3D) images of mineral distribution in materials such as rock specimens. The two energies are above and below the absorption edge energy of an abundant element, which we call the "index element". The chemical compositions of minerals forming solid solution series can also be measured. The optimal size of a sample is of the order of the inverse of the LAC values at the X-ray energies used. We used synchrotron-based microtomography with an effective spatial resolution of >200 nm to apply this method to small particles (30-180 μm) collected from the surface of asteroid 25143 Itokawa by the Hayabusa mission of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). A 3D distribution of the minerals was successively obtained by imaging the samples at X-ray energies of 7 and 8 keV, using Fe as the index element (the K-absorption edge of Fe is 7.11 keV). The optimal sample size in this case is of the order of 50 μm. The chemical compositions of the minerals, including the Fe/Mg ratios of ferromagnesian minerals and the Na/Ca ratios of plagioclase, were measured. This new method is potentially applicable to other small samples such as cosmic dust, lunar regolith, cometary dust (recovered by the Stardust mission of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA]), and samples from extraterrestrial bodies (those from future sample return missions such as the JAXA Hayabusa2 mission and the NASA OSIRIS-REx mission), although limitations exist for unequilibrated samples. Further, this technique is generally suited for studying materials in multicomponent systems with multiple phases across several research fields.

  12. Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry for Ion Recovery and Clean-Up of MS and MS/MS Spectra Obtained from Low Abundance Viral Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, David J.; Crispin, Max; Bonomelli, Camille; Scrivens, Jim H.

    2015-07-01

    Many samples of complex mixtures of N-glycans released from small amounts of material, such as glycoproteins from viruses, present problems for mass spectrometric analysis because of the presence of contaminating material that is difficult to remove by conventional methods without involving sample loss. This study describes the use of ion mobility for extraction of glycan profiles from such samples and for obtaining clean CID spectra when targeted m/z values capture additional ions from those of the target compound. N-glycans were released enzymatically from within SDS-PAGE gels, from the representative recombinant glycoprotein, gp120 of the human immunodeficiency virus, and examined by direct infusion electrospray in negative mode followed by ion mobility with a Waters Synapt G2 mass spectrometer (Waters MS-Technologies, Manchester, UK). Clean profiles of singly, doubly, and triply charged N-glycans were obtained from samples in cases where the raw electrospray spectra displayed only a few glycan ions as the result of low sample concentration or the presence of contamination. Ion mobility also enabled uncontaminated CID spectra to be obtained from glycans when their molecular ions displayed coincidence with ions from fragments or multiply charged ions with similar m/z values. This technique proved to be invaluable for removing extraneous ions from many CID spectra. The presence of such ions often produces spectra that are difficult to interpret. Most CID spectra, even those from abundant glycan constituents, benefited from such clean-up, showing that the extra dimension provided by ion mobility was invaluable for studies of this type.

  13. Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry for Ion Recovery and Clean-Up of MS and MS/MS Spectra Obtained from Low Abundance Viral Samples.

    PubMed

    Harvey, David J; Crispin, Max; Bonomelli, Camille; Scrivens, Jim H

    2015-10-01

    Many samples of complex mixtures of N-glycans released from small amounts of material, such as glycoproteins from viruses, present problems for mass spectrometric analysis because of the presence of contaminating material that is difficult to remove by conventional methods without involving sample loss. This study describes the use of ion mobility for extraction of glycan profiles from such samples and for obtaining clean CID spectra when targeted m/z values capture additional ions from those of the target compound. N-glycans were released enzymatically from within SDS-PAGE gels, from the representative recombinant glycoprotein, gp120 of the human immunodeficiency virus, and examined by direct infusion electrospray in negative mode followed by ion mobility with a Waters Synapt G2 mass spectrometer (Waters MS-Technologies, Manchester, UK). Clean profiles of singly, doubly, and triply charged N-glycans were obtained from samples in cases where the raw electrospray spectra displayed only a few glycan ions as the result of low sample concentration or the presence of contamination. Ion mobility also enabled uncontaminated CID spectra to be obtained from glycans when their molecular ions displayed coincidence with ions from fragments or multiply charged ions with similar m/z values. This technique proved to be invaluable for removing extraneous ions from many CID spectra. The presence of such ions often produces spectra that are difficult to interpret. Most CID spectra, even those from abundant glycan constituents, benefited from such clean-up, showing that the extra dimension provided by ion mobility was invaluable for studies of this type.

  14. Aerosol and vapor characterization of Tank 241-C-103: Data report for in-tank OVS samples obtained December 2, 1993. Waste Tank Safety Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ligotke, M.W.; Clauss, T.R.; Fruchter, J.S.

    1994-03-01

    Waste tank vapor space samples for a flammability analysis and characterization were obtained from Tank 241-C-103, referred to as C-103, in early December 1993. The purpose of this report is to describe the analytical results of these samples and the resulting concentration of nominal paraffin hydrocarbons (NPH) in the tank vapor space. Past reports of a thick fog in the vapor space of C-103 led to a concern that an NPH fog could supply fuel to the vapor space in a form that could not be resolved ability measurement procedures. The scope of this study was to utilize a previously validated method to determine actual NPH concentrations. In this method, NPH samples were collected in multi-layer aerosol/vapor sorbent tubes inserted into the tank vapor space and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  15. Metabonomics, dietary influences and cultural differences: a 1H NMR-based study of urine samples obtained from healthy British and Swedish subjects.

    PubMed

    Lenz, E M; Bright, J; Wilson, I D; Hughes, A; Morrisson, J; Lindberg, H; Lockton, A

    2004-11-19

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and comparability of metabonomic data in clinical studies conducted in different countries without dietary restriction. A (1)H NMR-based metabonomic analysis was performed on urine samples obtained from two separate studies, both including male and female subjects. The first was on a group of healthy British subjects (n = 120), whilst the second was on healthy subjects from two European countries (Britain and Sweden, n = 30). The subjects were asked to provide single, early morning urine samples collected on a single occasion. The (1)H NMR spectra obtained for urine samples were visually inspected and analysed chemometrically using principal components analysis (PCA). These inspections highlighted outliers within the urine samples and displayed interesting differences, revealing characteristic dietary and cultural features between the subjects of both countries, such as high trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO)-excretion in the Swedish population and high taurine-excretion, due to the Atkins diet. This study suggests that the endogenous urinary profile is subject to distinct cultural and severe dietary influences and that great care needs to be taken in the interpretation of 'biomarkers of disease and response to drug therapy' for diagnostic purposes.

  16. Fine-needle aspiration cytology in fibromatoses.

    PubMed

    Zaharopoulos, P; Wong, J Y

    1992-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology was performed in seven cases of fibromatosis of variable types with tumorous clinical presentation. These included: four cases of musculoaponeurotic fibromatosis, two in posterior neck muscles, one in anterior neck muscles and one in intercostal muscles; one case of fibromatosis of the breast; and two cases of fibromatosis colli in neonates. In all cases the specimens contained connective tissue with many fibroblast-like cells, lacking features which could indicate a malignant lesion. The findings in these cases indicate that, although by FNA cytology in fibromatoses a specific diagnosis for each pathologic entity may not be easily reached, in the proper clinical setting the cytologic findings can be of sufficient relevance to offset the need for an open tissue biopsy, where there are valid reasons against a surgical intervention.

  17. Human papillomavirus genotyping as a predictor of high-grade cervical dysplasia in women with mildly cytologic abnormalities: a two-year follow-up report.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lee-Wen; Lin, Yu-Hung; Pan, Hun-Shan; Seow, Kok-Min; Lin, Ching-Yu

    2012-08-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA testing has emerged as another testing modality for women with mildly cytologic abnormalities. We conducted a two-year follow-up study of 108 women with mildly abnormal cervical cytology for detection of CIN 2/3. A cervical swab sample was obtained for HPV genotyping by a HPV blot and histologic follow-up results were correlated with HR-HPV types. Of the 108 cases, 93 (86.1%) were positive for HR-HPV DNA. HPV-16 was detected in 45.1% of patients. CIN grade 2 or 3 was confirmed in 25 (23.1%) of the 108 women during the two-year follow-up period. The two-year cumulative incidence rates of CIN 2/3 were 38.6% (17/44) among HPV-16- positive women, but only 5.6% among HR-HPV-positive women without HPV-16 or HPV-18. The sensitivity of a positive HPV-16 test for CIN 2/3 was 68.0%, the specificity was 67.5%. Our results demonstrated that the type-specific HPV-16 test increased sensitivity of detecting high-grade cervical dysplasia for women who have mildly cytologic abnormalities. The implication of the present findings is that HPV genotyping may identify women with the greatest risk of high-grade CIN.

  18. An impression cytology based study of ocular surface in an urban population.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Somnath; Dutta, Jayanta; Mitra, Jayati; Prakash, Ratnesh; Datta, Himadri

    2013-04-01

    To assess the health of ocular surface in a defined urban population, conjunctival goblet cell density and degree of surface squamous metaplasia were utilized as study tools. Two thousand names of those aged between 20 and 79 years from the 2006 electoral register in ward number 63 of Kolkata Corporation area were initially selected. Normal healthy human volunteers without any history of ocular surface disorder were recruited and divided into five age-groups. Impression cytology samples were obtained from interpalpebral part of bulbar conjunctiva from all the participants fixated and stained by a single observer. A stratified, clustered, disproportionate, random sampling method was used. The software used in the statistical analysis was EPI Info. The tests applied were t test and ANOVA. A variation in the number of goblet cells according to gender (women having less cells) and age (20-30 years group having the highest number of cells) was found. Those working outdoors were found to have fewer goblet cells compared to those who stay indoors. The majority of the people had grade 1 cytological appearance in both males and females. There was no statistically significant difference in Nelson's grading with age. People using coal and kerosene to cook were found to have a smaller goblet cell density than those who cooked on LPG or those who did not cook at all. Besides age and sex, environmental factors like the method of cooking and occupational variables (like outdoor activity, prolonged period of computer use, etc.) modify the health of the ocular surface. The results of this study will help put these findings into perspective as public health problems. PMID:23135239

  19. An impression cytology based study of ocular surface in an urban population.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Somnath; Dutta, Jayanta; Mitra, Jayati; Prakash, Ratnesh; Datta, Himadri

    2013-04-01

    To assess the health of ocular surface in a defined urban population, conjunctival goblet cell density and degree of surface squamous metaplasia were utilized as study tools. Two thousand names of those aged between 20 and 79 years from the 2006 electoral register in ward number 63 of Kolkata Corporation area were initially selected. Normal healthy human volunteers without any history of ocular surface disorder were recruited and divided into five age-groups. Impression cytology samples were obtained from interpalpebral part of bulbar conjunctiva from all the participants fixated and stained by a single observer. A stratified, clustered, disproportionate, random sampling method was used. The software used in the statistical analysis was EPI Info. The tests applied were t test and ANOVA. A variation in the number of goblet cells according to gender (women having less cells) and age (20-30 years group having the highest number of cells) was found. Those working outdoors were found to have fewer goblet cells compared to those who stay indoors. The majority of the people had grade 1 cytological appearance in both males and females. There was no statistically significant difference in Nelson's grading with age. People using coal and kerosene to cook were found to have a smaller goblet cell density than those who cooked on LPG or those who did not cook at all. Besides age and sex, environmental factors like the method of cooking and occupational variables (like outdoor activity, prolonged period of computer use, etc.) modify the health of the ocular surface. The results of this study will help put these findings into perspective as public health problems.

  20. Carcinoma in ectopic breast: a cytological diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shailaja; Sehgal, Shivali; Rai, Preeti; Agarwal, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic breast carcinoma in the axillary region is rare with an incidence ranging from 0.3-6%. We report a case of infiltrating duct carcinoma in an adult female arising in aberrant breast tissue in the axilla diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology. There was history of recent increase in size of the lump which was otherwise present for the past 5 years. This case highlights the role fine needle aspiration cytology can play in the early diagnosis of malignant transformation of lumps.

  1. Determination of sex by exfoliative cytology using acridine orange confocal microscopy: A short study

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, D Shyam Prasad; Sherlin, Herald J; Ramani, Pratibha; Prakash, P Ajay

    2012-01-01

    Context: Establishing individuality is an imperative aspect in any investigation procedure. Sometimes, in identifying an individual, it becomes necessary to determine the sex of that particular individual. Combining rapidity with reliability, an innovative idea has been put forward using a confocal microscope in exfoliative cytology. In the present study, we have determined the sex of the individual from buccal mucosal scrapings. The exfoliative cells were observed for Barr bodies under a confocal microscope, and the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells was determined. Aims: The main objective of this study is to assess confocal microscopy for the determination of sex by observing Barr bodies in the exfoliative cells of both men and women. Settings and Design: Samples of buccal mucosa smears were made followed by acridine orange staining. The stained slides were observed under a confocal microscope and the data obtained was subjected for statistical analysis, especially for mean and standard deviation. Materials and Methods: Samples of buccal mucosa smears from 20 men and 20 women were obtained by scraping with flat wooden sticks (exfoliative cytology). The smears were fixed in 100% alcohol for 15 min, followed by acridine orange (AO) staining as described by Von Bertalanffy et al. Smears stained with AO were examined under a confocal microscope and the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells was determined. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained was subjected for statistical analysis, especially for mean and standard deviation. Results: Two non-overlapping ranges for the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells have been obtained for men and women. It was observed that in the male samples, the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells ranged from 0-3%. In the female samples, the percentage of Barr-body-positive cells ranged from 18-72%, and all the females showed the presence of Barr bodies. Conclusion: The study showed that the presence of Barr body in buccal

  2. Nasseem Husain: homage to a pioneer of cytology automation.

    PubMed

    Kocjan, G; Herbert, A

    2015-08-01

    Dr Oliver Anthony Nasseem Husain, who died on 22 September 2014, aged 90 years, was one of the great names of European cytology, a pioneer of automated cervical screening and a founding member of both the British Society for Clinical Cytology (BSCC) and the European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS). The life of this one remarkable man involved much of the pioneering work, which is reviewed in this article, that has brought conventional cytology to the complex multimodal discipline it is today.

  3. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis specific IS900 insertion sequences in bulk-tank milk samples obtained from different regions throughout Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Corti, Sabrina; Stephan, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Background Since Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) was isolated from intestinal tissue of a human patient suffering Crohn's disease, a controversial discussion exists whether MAP have a role in the etiology of Crohn's disease or not. Raw milk may be a potential vehicle for the transmission of MAP to human population. In a previous paper, we have demonstrated that MAP are found in raw milk samples obtained from a defined region in Switzerland. The aim of this work is to collect data about the prevalence of MAP specific IS900 insertion sequence in bulk-tank milk samples in different regions of Switzerland. Furthermore, we examined eventual correlation between the presence of MAP and the somatic cell counts, the total colony counts and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae. Results 273 (19.7%) of the 1384 examined bulk-tank milk samples tested IS900 PCR-positive. The prevalence, however, in the different regions of Switzerland shows significant differences and ranged from 1.7% to 49.2%. Furthermore, there were no statistically significant (p >> 0.05) differences between the somatic cell counts and the total colony counts of PCR-positive and PCR-negative milk samples. Enterobacteriaceae occur as often in IS900 PCR-positive as in PCR-negative milk samples. Conclusion This is the first study, which investigates the prevalence of MAP in bulk-tank milk samples all over Switzerland and infers the herd-level prevalence of MAP infection in dairy herds. The prevalence of 19.7% IS900 PCR-positive bulk-milk samples shows a wide distribution of subclinical MAP-infections in dairy stock in Switzerland. MAP can therefore often be transmitted to humans by raw milk consumption. PMID:12097144

  4. An automatic incision device for obtaining blood samples from the heels of preterm infants causes less damage than a conventional manual lancet

    PubMed Central

    Vertanen, H; Fellman, V; Brommels, M; Viinikka, L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate in a randomised blind study the effect on puncture site lesions of two different incision devices used to obtain blood samples from preterm infants by repeated heel sticks. 
SETTING—The neonatal intensive care unit at the Hospital for Children and Adolescents and Laboratory, Helsinki University Central Hospital. 
PATIENTS—A total of 100 preterm infants (birth weight below 2500 g) not previously subjected to heel stick sampling. 
INTERVENTIONS—The infants were randomly allocated to blood sampling from the heel with either a conventional manual lancet or an automatic incision device. The same type of lancet was used for any given baby throughout the study (2-21 days).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—The damage caused by sampling was evaluated using four criteria: bruising of the heel, inflammation of the heel, bruising of either the ankle or the leg, and skin healing at the puncture site. The evaluation was based on photographs presenting typical categories of each outcome. 
RESULTS—To obtain a sufficient volume of blood, on average 2.6 times more punctures were needed when the conventional manual lancet was used than when the automatic incision device was used. Heels punctured with the lancet had more bruising (100% v 84%) and more signs of inflammation (79% v 53%), and there was more bruising of the ankle or leg (92% v 53%) than when the automatic incision device was used. Skin healed equally rapidly in the two groups.
CONCLUSION—The use of an automatic incision device for collecting repeated skin puncture samples from preterm infants is less traumatic than the use of a conventional manual lancet.

 PMID:11124927

  5. Prognostic impact of cytological fluid tumor markers in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Arthur; Hur, Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Young Jin; Hong, Sae Rom; Suh, Young Joo; Im, Dong Jin; Kim, Yun Jung; Lee, Jae Seok; Shim, Hyo Sup; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2016-03-01

    The serum tumor markers CYFRA 21-1, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA) are useful in diagnosis and prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Cytologic tumor markers obtained during needle aspiration biopsies (NAB) of lung lesions are useful for NSCLC diagnosis. This study investigated the incremental prognostic value of cytologic tumor markers compared to serum tumor markers. This prospective study included 253 patients diagnosed with NSCLC by NAB with cytologic tumor marker analysis. Levels of cytologic CYFRA 21-1, CEA, SCCA, and their serum counterparts were followed up for survival analysis. Optimal cutoff values for each tumor marker were obtained for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) analyses. All patients were followed up for a median of 22.8 months. Using cutoff values of 0.44 ng/ml for C-SCCA, 2.0 ng/ml for S-SCCA, and 3.3 ng/ml for S-CYFRA, a multivariate analysis revealed that high S-SCCA (hazard ratio, HR, 1.84) and high C-SCCA (HR, 1.63) were independent predictive factors of OS. The 3-year overall survival rate was 55 vs. 80 % for high and low C-SCCA, respectively. Cytologic tumor marker level detection is easily obtainable and provides prognostic information for NSCLC. Cytologic tumor markers provide comparable prognostic information relative to serum tumor markers, with C-SCCA acting as a strong prognostic factor of overall survival and PFS. PMID:26432331

  6. Multisurface Method of Pattern Separation for Medical Diagnosis Applied to Breast Cytology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolberg, William H.; Mangasarian, Olvi L.

    1990-12-01

    Multisurface pattern separation is a mathematical method for distinguishing between elements of two pattern sets. Each element of the pattern sets is comprised of various scalar observations. In this paper, we use the diagnosis of breast cytology to demonstrate the applicability of this method to medical diagnosis and decision making. Each of 11 cytological characteristics of breast fine-needle aspirates reported to differ between benign and malignant samples was graded 1 to 10 at the time of sample collection. Nine characteristics were found to differ significantly between benign and malignant samples. Mathematically, these values for each sample were represented by a point in a nine-dimensional space of real variables. Benign points were separated from malignant ones by planes determined by linear programming. Correct separation was accomplished in 369 of 370 samples (201 benign and 169 malignant). In the one misclassified malignant case, the fine-needle aspirate cytology was so definitely benign and the cytology of the excised cancer so definitely malignant that we believe the tumor was missed on aspiration. Our mathematical method is applicable to other medical diagnostic and decision-making problems.

  7. A robust biomarker of differential correlations improves the diagnosis of cytologically indeterminate thyroid cancers.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Rueda, Hugo; Palacios-Corona, Rebeca; Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Hugo; Trevino, Victor

    2016-05-01

    The fine-needle aspiration of thyroid nodules and subsequent cytological analysis is unable to determine the diagnosis in 15 to 30% of thyroid cancer cases; patients with indeterminate cytological results undergo diagnostic surgery which is potentially unnecessary. Current gene expression biomarkers based on well-determined cytology are complex and their accuracy is inconsistent across public datasets. In the present study, we identified a robust biomarker using the differences in gene expression values specifically from cytologically indeterminate thyroid tumors and a powerful multivariate search tool coupled with a nearest centroid classifier. The biomarker is based on differences in the expression of the following genes: CCND1, CLDN16, CPE, LRP1B, MAGI3, MAPK6, MATN2, MPPED2, PFKFB2, PTPRE, PYGL, SEMA3D, SERGEF, SLC4A4 and TIMP1. This 15-gene biomarker exhibited superior accuracy independently of the cytology in six datasets, including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) thyroid dataset. In addition, this biomarker exhibited differences in the correlation coefficients between benign and malignant samples that indicate its discriminatory power, and these 15 genes have been previously related to cancer in the literature. Thus, this 15-gene biomarker provides advantages in clinical practice for the effective diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

  8. All lesions great and small, part 2. Diagnostic cytology in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Leslie C; Seelig, Davis M; Overmann, Jed

    2014-06-01

    This is the second in a two-part review of diagnostic cytopathology in veterinary medicine. As in human medicine, cytopathology is a minimally invasive, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic modality with broad utilization. In this second part, the diagnostic applications of cytology in respiratory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, endocrine, ocular, and central nervous system tissues are discussed with a section describing fluid analysis in veterinary medicine. As noted in the previous manuscript, which characterized the cytology of the skin/subcutis, musculoskeletal, and lymphoid tissues, the interpretation of veterinary cytology samples must be undertaken with extensive knowledge of the breadth of animal species, including familiarity with the frequency and clinical progression of diseases, both of which can be influenced by species, breed, and husbandry conditions. Similar to part one, this review focuses on the most common domestic companion animal species (dog, cat, and horse) and highlights lesions that are either unique to veterinary species or have relevant correlates in people. The cytologic features and biological behavior of similar lesions are compared, and selected mechanisms of disease and ancillary diagnostics are reviewed when appropriate. Supporting figures illustrate a subset of lesions. While not an exhaustive archive of veterinary cytology, the goal is to give cytopathologists working in human medicine a general impression of correlates and unique entities in veterinary practice.

  9. Relations among synovial membrane histopathologic findings, synovial fluid cytologic findings, and bacterial culture results in horses with suspected infectious arthritis: 64 cases (1979-1987).

    PubMed

    Madison, J B; Sommer, M; Spencer, P A

    1991-05-01

    A retrospective evaluation of 64 cases of suspected infectious arthritis in horses was undertaken to determine the relations among histopathologic findings in synovial membrane specimens, cytologic findings in synovial fluid samples, and bacterial culture results. Positive cultures were obtained from 55% of the joints, and 18 different bacterial organisms were cultured. Culturing of synovial fluid yielded bacterial growth more often than did culturing of synovial membrane. Histologic evaluation (H&E and Gram stain) of synovial membrane specimens provided little information to help distinguish infected from culture-negative joints. We do not advocate the routine use of closed synovial biopsy in suspected cases of equine septic arthritis.

  10. Assessment of vitamin A deficiency in Republic of Malawi by impression cytology method.

    PubMed

    Escoute, A J; Chirambo, M C; Luzeau, R; Amedée-Manesme, O

    1991-01-01

    During a countrywide survey, we assessed the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency by impression cytology method with transfer in a randomized sample of 650 representative of the children's population of the Republic of Malawi. A vitamin A deficiency was indicated by the results of the ophthalmic examination (XN = 1,4%; X2 = 0,2%) and the ICT test (22% with deficient cytology). Results of ICT were related to age. Vitamin A deficiency seems to be a public health problem in the Republic of Malawi. PMID:1856038

  11. GCALIGNER 1.0: an alignment program to compute a multiple sample comparison data matrix from large eco-chemical datasets obtained by GC.

    PubMed

    Dellicour, Simon; Lecocq, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    GCALIGNER 1.0 is a computer program designed to perform a preliminary data comparison matrix of chemical data obtained by GC without MS information. The alignment algorithm is based on the comparison between the retention times of each detected compound in a sample. In this paper, we test the GCALIGNER efficiency on three datasets of the chemical secretions of bumble bees. The algorithm performs the alignment with a low error rate (<3%). GCALIGNER 1.0 is a useful, simple and free program based on an algorithm that enables the alignment of table-type data from GC.

  12. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology vs. the Postoperative Histology - the Continuing Need for Multi-Disciplinary Approach?

    PubMed

    Gill, G; Kalyanasundaram, K; Varughese, G; Wilson, P; Varadhan, L

    2016-07-01

    We set out to investigate the concordance rates that were observed between fine needle aspiration cytology (FNA) compared with that of the post operative histology obtained for thyroid nodules over an 8 year period at a large university hospital.A retrospective analysis of 355 cases was conducted; patients operated for hyperthyroidism were excluded for the purposes of this study. We identified malignancy in a total of 101 cases (28%) The chance of malignancy with 2 Thy1 specimens was 5% in this study and 9% was observed in those with a Thy 2 FNA. On the converse, 7% of patient had malignant cytology on FNA though post-operative histology turned out to be benign.This therefore highlights the potential for discordance between thyroid FNA cytology and post-operative histology in the assessment of any thyroid nodule and thus reinforcing the need for a multidisciplinary approach in the assessment of all thyroid nodules. PMID:27223871

  13. The role of cytology in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Pablo Moura de Andrade; Oliveira, Marcelo Parente; da Silva, Hilton Justino; de Mello, Roberto José Vieira

    2012-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed the literature of the last decade on the role of cytology in the evaluation of musculoskeletal neoplasms, and its diagnostic accuracy. A search was carried out on the databases PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO, selecting articles in which cytology was used in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal neoplasms. Limits were used for English, Spanish and Portuguese, and only articles published since 2000 were selected. 757 articles were retrieved, 24 of which were selected based on criteria of inclusion and exclusion. It was concluded that although promising in the assessment of musculoskeletal neoplasms, cytology obtained by fine needle aspiration is less accurate and reliable than histological evaluation of such lesions. PMID:24453581

  14. [Who performs gynecological cytology and how?].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, D; Neumann, H H

    2015-11-01

    Since 1971 German women aged 20 years and older can annually participate in the gynecological cancer screening program free of charge. As part of this program a cervical smear is taken for testing. The Federal Joint Committee (Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, GBA) is planning to change this system so that women aged over 30 years can either choose to continue with annual cytological screening using a cervical smear or can primarily opt for a human papillomavirus (HPV) test every 5 years. Women who are HPV positive will receive a supplementary cytological examination as a triage method. In Germany classification of the cytological results is based on the third revision of the Munich nomenclature (Münchner Nomenklatur, MN III), which has been in operation since 1 January 2015. The number of accredited cytology institutions and of cytologists has changed considerably since 2008. There has been a marked increase in the number of pathologists by 28.4%, which is a promising trend. The number of tests carried out has remained relatively constant; however, an increasing number of tests are now being performed in large laboratories.

  15. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Human papillomavirus (HPV)/mild dysplasia/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1). (C) HSIL... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standard: Cytology. 493.1274 Section 493.1274 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  16. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Human papillomavirus (HPV)/mild dysplasia/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1). (C) HSIL... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standard: Cytology. 493.1274 Section 493.1274 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  17. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Human papillomavirus (HPV)/mild dysplasia/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1). (C) HSIL... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standard: Cytology. 493.1274 Section 493.1274 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  18. 42 CFR 493.1274 - Standard: Cytology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Human papillomavirus (HPV)/mild dysplasia/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1 (CIN 1). (C) HSIL... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standard: Cytology. 493.1274 Section 493.1274 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  19. Limitations and value of aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M M; Hajdu, S I; Jordan, A G

    1984-03-01

    The successes of aspiration cytology have enhanced its popularity over the past few years. Now the limitations of the technique are becoming apparent. This article reviews the uses and contraindications for the detection of benign and malignant lesions in various body sites.

  20. Use of an Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer to Obtain Sample Powder for CHEMIN, a Combined XRD/XRF Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipera, S. J.; Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Sherrit, S.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.

    2003-01-01

    A miniature CHEMIN XRD/XRF (X-Ray Diffraction/X-Ray Fluourescence) instrument is currently being developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on Mars. One of the technical issues that must be addressed in order to enable XRD analysis on an extraterrestrial body is how best to obtain a representative sample powder for analysis. For XRD powder diffraction analyses, it is beneficial to have a fine-grained sample to reduce preferred orientation effects and to provide a statistically significant number of crystallites to the X-ray beam. Although a 2-dimensional detector as used in the CHEMIN instrument will produce good results with poorly prepared powders, the quality of the data will improve if the sample is fine-grained and randomly oriented. An Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) currently being developed at JPL is an effective mechanism of sampling rock to produce cores and powdered cuttings. It requires low axial load (< 5N) and thus offers significant advantages for operation from lightweight platforms and in low gravity environments. The USDC is lightweight (<0.5kg), and can be driven at low power (<5W) using duty cycling. It consists of an actuator with a piezoelectric stack, ultrasonic horn, free-mass, and drill bit. The stack is driven with a 20 kHz AC voltage at resonance. The strain generated by the piezoelectric is amplified by the horn by a factor of up to 10 times the displacement amplitude. The tip impacts the free-mass and drives it into the drill bit in a hammering action. The free-mass rebounds to interact with the horn tip leading to a cyclic rebound at frequencies in the range of 60-1000 Hz. It does not require lubricants, drilling fluid or bit sharpening and it has the potential to operate at high and low temperatures using a suitable choice of piezoelectric material. To assess whether the powder from an ultrasonic drill would be adequate for analyses by an XRD/XRF spectrometer such as CHEMIN, powders obtained from the JPL

  1. Programmable Bio-Nano-Chip based Cytologic Testing of Oral Potentially Malignant Disorders in Fanconi Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Floriano, Pierre; Abram, Tim; Taylor, Leander; Le, Cathy; Talavera, Humberto; Nguyen, Michael; Raja, Rameez; Gillenwater, Ann; McDevitt, John; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah

    2015-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is caused by mutations of DNA repair genes. The risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) among FA patients is 800-folds higher than in the general population. Early detection of OSCC, preferably at it precursor stage is critical in FA patients to improve their survival. In an ongoing clinical trial, we are evaluating the effectiveness of the programmable bio-nano-chip (p-BNC)-based oral cytology test in diagnosing oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) in non-FA patients. We used this test to compare the cytomorphometric and molecular biomarkers in OSCC cell lines derived from FA patients and non-FA patients and brush biopsy samples of a FA patient’s OPMD and normal mucosa of healthy volunteers. Our data showed that expression patterns of molecular biomarkers were not notably different between sporadic and FA OSCC cell lines. The p-BNC assay revealed significant differences in cytometric parameters and biomarker MCM2 expression between cytobrush samples of the FA patient and cytobrush samples of normal oral mucosa obtained from healthy volunteers. Microscopic examination of the FA patient’s OPMD confirmed the presence of dysplasia. Our pilot data suggests that p-BNC brush biopsy test recognizes dysplastic oral epithelial cells in a brush biopsy sample of a FA patient. PMID:25662766

  2. Dynamics of postpartum endometrial cytology and bacteriology and their relationship to fertility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Robert O; Santos, Natalia R

    2016-05-01

    Endometrial samples were obtained from 56 consecutively calving dairy cows examined for endometrial cytology and for aerobic and anaerobic bacterial growth. Changes over time, correlations between different cell types and between cell and bacterial populations and with fertility measures were calculated. The proportion of neutrophils in cytologic preparations decreased with time postpartum. Other cell types did not change significantly with time. The proportion of neutrophils early (Day 0 and 7) postpartum was negatively correlated with neutrophil proportion at 5 or 7 weeks postpartum and positively correlated with fertility. Cows with high proportion of neutrophils at 7 days postpartum (>40%) were significantly more likely to become pregnant than those with lower proportions of neutrophils. Escherichia coli were the bacteria most frequently isolated at 0 or 7 days postpartum but were uncommon after that. Trueperella pyogenes were most prevalent at 3 weeks postpartum and were more likely to infect cows that had previously been infected with E coli. The presence of T pyogenes at 3 weeks postpartum increased the risk of concomitant or later infection with gram-negative anaerobes. The presence of T pyogenes at 3 weeks postpartum significantly reduced the risk of pregnancy at 150 days in milk. The presence of alpha-hemolytic Streptoccus spp. at 7 days postpartum was associated with improved reproductive performance. The proportion of neutrophils at 5 and 7 weeks postpartum was related to concomitant bacterial infection. These findings suggest that rapid mobilization of neutrophils to the postpartum uterus is a beneficial response for uterine health in dairy cows. PMID:26944540

  3. Analysis of the Temporal Relationship between Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Quasispecies in Sequential Blood Samples and Various Organs Obtained at Autopsy

    PubMed Central

    van’t Wout, Angélique B.; Ran, Leonie J.; Kuiken, Carla L.; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Pals, Steven T.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke

    1998-01-01

    We studied the temporal relationship between human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) quasispecies in tissues and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of infected individuals. Sequential PBMC and tissue samples from various organs obtained at autopsy from three patients who died of AIDS-related complications were available for analysis. Biological HIV-1 clones were isolated from PBMC samples, and cellular tropism and syncytium-inducing (SI) capacity were determined. Genomic DNA was isolated from 1 cm3 of organ tissue, and proviral DNA was amplified by means of PCR and cloned with the PGEM-T vector system. A 185-bp region encompassing the third variable domain of the virus envelope, known to influence HIV-1 biological properties, was sequenced. HIV-1 could be amplified from all PBMC and organ samples, except from liver tissue for two patients. Both SI and non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) genotypes could be detected in the different tissues. Tissue-specific quasispecies were observed in brain, lung, and testis. Lymphoid tissues, such as bone marrow, lymph node, and spleen, harbored several different variants similar to those detected in blood in the last PBMC samples. In general, only tissues in which macrophages are likely to be the main target cell for HIV-1 harbored NSI HIV-1 sequences that clustered separately. Both SI and NSI sequences that clustered with sequences from late-stage PBMC were present in other tissues, which may indicate that the presence of HIV-1 in those tissues is secondary to lymphocyte infiltration rather than to tissue tropism of HIV-1 itself. These data suggest that the viral reservoir may be limited, which will have important implications for the success of HIV-1 eradication. PMID:9420250

  4. Cytology in nipple aspirate fluid during a randomized soy food intervention among premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Suzuki, Shana; Pagano, Ian S; Morimoto, Yukiko; Franke, Adrian A; Ehya, Hormoz

    2013-01-01

    Because soy food consumption may influence breast tissue activity, we examined its effect on the presence of epithelial cells in nipple aspirate fluid (NAF). In a randomized, crossover design, 82 premenopausal women completed a high-soy and a low-soy diet for 6 mo each, separated by a 1-mo washout period. They provided NAF samples at baseline, 6 mo, and 13 mo during the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Papanicolaou-stained cytology slides (for 33 women at baseline, 24 at low-soy, and 36 at high-soy) were evaluated in women with sufficient NAF. Mixed models evaluated the effect of the high-soy diet on epithelial cytology as compared to baseline and the low-soy diet. At the end of the high-soy diet, cytological subclass had decreased in 8 (24%) and increased in 3 (9%) women as compared to baseline, whereas the respective values were 3 (14%) and 6 (29%) for the low-soy diet samples (P = 0.32). Only the change in subclass indicated a trend in lower cytological class (P = 0.06). Contrary to an earlier report, the number of NAF samples with hyperplastic epithelial cells did not increase after a soy intervention in amounts consumed by Asians.

  5. Calcified Pulmonary Nodules Identified in a 350-Year-Old-Joseon Mummy: the First Report on Ancient Pulmonary Tuberculosis from Archaeologically Obtained Pre-modern Korean Samples

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We found calcified pulmonary nodules in a middle-aged female mummy discovered from 350-yr-old Joseon tomb of Korea. In the CT scan, we found six radiopaque nodules in right lung, through the levels of thoracic vertebrae 1 to 6. We also found presumptive pleural adhesions in right thoracic cavity of CT images. We re-confirmed radiological findings by our post-factum dissection on the same mummy. By the differential diagnosis, we speculate that the radiopaque calcification nodules and associated pleural adhesion could have been caused by tuberculosis. This is the first-ever report on the pulmonary tuberculosis identified in archaeologically obtained, pre-modern Korean samples. PMID:26770051

  6. A cohort study of cervical screening using partial HPV typing and cytology triage.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, Mark; Hyun, Noorie; Raine-Bennett, Tina R; Katki, Hormuzd; Fetterman, Barbara; Gage, Julia C; Cheung, Li C; Befano, Brian; Poitras, Nancy; Lorey, Thomas; Castle, Philip E; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2016-12-01

    HPV testing is more sensitive than cytology for cervical screening. However, to incorporate HPV tests into screening, risk-stratification ("triage") of HPV-positive women is needed to avoid excessive colposcopy and overtreatment. We prospectively evaluated combinations of partial HPV typing (Onclarity, BD) and cytology triage, and explored whether management could be simplified, based on grouping combinations yielding similar 3-year or 18-month CIN3+ risks. We typed ∼9,000 archived specimens, taken at enrollment (2007-2011) into the NCI-Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) HPV Persistence and Progression (PaP) cohort. Stratified sampling, with reweighting in the statistical analysis, permitted risk estimation of HPV/cytology combinations for the 700,000+-woman KPNC screening population. Based on 3-year CIN3+ risks, Onclarity results could be combined into five groups (HPV16, else HPV18/45, else HPV31/33/58/52, else HPV51/35/39/68/56/66/68, else HPV negative); cytology results fell into three risk groups ("high-grade," ASC-US/LSIL, NILM). For the resultant 15 HPV group-cytology combinations, 3-year CIN3+ risks ranged 1,000-fold from 60.6% to 0.06%. To guide management, we compared the risks to established "benchmark" risk/management thresholds in this same population (e.g., LSIL predicted 3-year CIN3+ risk of 5.8% in the screening population, providing the benchmark for colposcopic referral). By benchmarking to 3-year risk thresholds (supplemented by 18-month estimates), the widely varying risk strata could be condensed into four action bands (very high risk of CIN3+ mandating consideration of cone biopsy if colposcopy did not find precancer; moderate risk justifying colposcopy; low risk managed by intensified follow-up to permit HPV "clearance"; and very low risk permitting routine screening.) Overall, the results support primary HPV testing, with management of HPV-positive women using partial HPV typing and cytology.

  7. Cytological grading: An alternative to histological grading in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Namala, Srilekha; Guduru, Vijay Srinivas; Ananthaneni, Anuradha; Devi, Sabitha; Kuberappa, Puneeth Horrati; Udayashankar, Urmila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Micronuclei (MN) in oral exfoliative cells have been shown to indicate a disparaging change in genetic information of the cell. Recent studies showed correlation between the frequency of MN and severity of this damage. Grading of lesions can be used to determine the austerity of this damage. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the MN frequency in oral exfoliated cells of normal and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) individuals and to cytologically grade the frequency of MN in cytological smears and to correlate it with histological grading. The objective is to ascertain whether MN frequency in oral exfoliated cells can be a parameter for grading of OSCC. Settings and Design: The study group comprises of 40 subjects (20 controls and 20 OSCC patients) in the age group of 45-85 years. Materials and Methods: The cytosmear was obtained from each group and stained with Papanicolaou (PAP) stain. Twenty cells from each slide were counted for MN and cytological grade of OSCC was assigned based on the average frequency of MN. Cytological grade was correlated with histological grading and the data were recorded. Student's t-test and Spearman's correlation were used for the analysis of the data. Results: Average frequency of MN was 2.5 times higher in OSCC patients when compared to that in controls and the difference was found to be highly significant. Sixty percent correlation was found between cytological grade and histological grade of OSCC and the difference between them was not significant. Conclusions: Cytological grading can be used in grading OSCC, and MN insinuates genotoxic damage occurring in the epithelial cells.

  8. Does subdivision of the "atypical" urine cytology increase predictive accuracy for urothelial carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Bostwick, David G; Hossain, Deloar

    2014-12-01

    Urine cytology is routinely used for early diagnosis and monitoring of patients with hematuria or a history of urothelial carcinoma, but its clinical utility is greatly diminished by a high frequency of "atypical" specimens, reportedly around 20% in the literature. We compared our results with double-stained urine cytology specimens (papanicolaou and acid hematoxylin stains) with published results with only a single or double papanicolaou stain. The acid hematoxylin stain enhanced nuclear chromatin staining, eliminated significant background debris, and improved visibility of diagnostic cells in the presence of obscuring blood. Medical records of all urine cytologies received between 2005 and 2012 in our laboratories were reviewed. The study group consisted of all cases with bladder biopsy follow-up within one year of cytology. Of 43,131 urine cytologies diagnosed in our laboratories, biopsy follow-up results were available within one year in 10,473 cases, including 852 for symptoms and 1,461 for follow-up of bladder cancer. An additional 6,427 cases had cystoscopy results in which no biopsy was obtained. Cases were classified as negative (81.6%), atypical, favor reactive (2.9%), atypical, favor neoplastic (7.3%), suspicious (5.7%), and malignant (2.5%), with subsequent frequencies for urothelial cancer on biopsy of 13.3%, 31.1%, 37.6%, 53.6%, and 74.3%, respectively. No significant difference was found if atypical was subdivided into two categories: favor reactive and favor neoplastic. Subdivision of the atypical category did not improve diagnostic accuracy. Addition of the acid hematoxylin stain decreased the incidence of atypical urine cytologies from about 20% to 10.2%. PMID:24838797

  9. The LC-MS method for the simultaneous analysis of selected fat-soluble vitamins and their metabolites in serum samples obtained from pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Konieczna, Lucyna; Kaźmierska, Katarzyna; Roszkowska, Anna; Szlagatys-Sidorkiewicz, Agnieszka; Bączek, Tomasz

    2016-05-30

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common genetic diseases in children and affects mainly respiratory and digestive system functions. Despite the prolonged supplementation of vitamins, malnutrition manifested by poor growth and weight loss in children is a major complication in CF related to pancreatic insufficiency and difficulty in absorbing fat-soluble vitamins. In the present study, we have developed and validated a sensitive and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for the simultaneous quantification of three fat-soluble vitamins (A, E and K1) and two vitamin D3 active metabolites: 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in serum samples obtained from pediatric patients with CF. In optimized conditions, the LC-MS method was highly sensitive and presented excellent linearity with a regression coefficient higher than 0.999. The accuracy was in the range of 87.55-95.58 % for all analytes. The precision of the method, expressed as% RSD, ranged from 1.36 % to 3.74 % as the intra-day variability and from 2.35 % to 7.98 % as the inter-day precision for all the studied compounds. Sample preparation included a protein precipitation step with the use of methanol followed by liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane. The statistical analysis (t-test and principal component analysis (PCA)) of the obtained results revealed significant changes in the plasma level of the analyzed compounds, with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, vitamin E and K1 present at extremely low concentrations in patients with cystic fibrosis in comparison to healthy controls. The elaborated method reached the expectations for the fast and reliable assessment of fat-soluble vitamin status in children with cystic fibrosis in order to diagnose the disease and monitor the treatment process.

  10. Endo- and ectoparasites of large whales (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae, Physeteridae): Overcoming difficulties in obtaining appropriate samples by non- and minimally-invasive methods.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M R; Prieto, Rui; Kleinertz, Sonja; Taubert, Anja; Silva, Monica A

    2015-12-01

    Baleen and sperm whales, belonging to the Order Cetartiodactyla, are the largest and heaviest existent mammals in the world, collectively known as large whales. Large whales have been subjected to a variety of conservation means, which could be better monitored and managed if physiological and pathophysiological information, such as pathogen infections, could already be gathered from free-swimming animals instead of carcasses. Parasitic diseases are increasingly recognized for their profound influences on individual, population, and even ecosystem health. Furthermore, a number of parasite species have gained importance as opportunistic neozoan infections in the marine environment. Nonetheless, traditional approaches to study parasitic diseases have been impractical for large whales, since there is no current routine method for the capture and handling of these large animals and there is presently no practical method to obtain blood samples remotely from free-ranging whales. Therefore, we here not only intend to review the endo- and ectoparasite fauna of large whales but also to provide new insights in current available methods for gathering parasitological data by using non- or minimally invasive sampling techniques. We focus on methods, which will allow detailed parasitological studies to gain a broader knowledge on parasitoses affecting wild, free-swimming large whale populations.

  11. Quantitative fraction evaluation of dermal collagen and elastic fibres in the skin samples obtained in two orientations from the trunk region.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naveen; Kumar, Pramod; Nayak Badagabettu, Satheesha; Prasad, Keerthana; Kudva, Ranjini; Raghuveer, Coimbatore Vasudevarao

    2014-01-01

    Background. Histomorphic evaluation of dermal collagen and elastic fibres was analysed by image analysis technique. The quantification of dermal elements was performed in skin tissues, collected in horizontal and vertical directions from trunk region and discussed under the perspective of consequences of scar related complications. Materials and Method. Total number of 200 skin samples collected from 5 areas of trunk region were processed histologically and subjected to tissue-quant image analysis. Statistical analysis involving mean with SEM and paired t test by SPSS were employed to the percentage values obtained from image analysis. Result. Among the chosen 5 areas of trunk region, abdomen showed the statistically significant difference for both collagen and elastic content between horizontal and vertical orientations (P< 0.05), whereas upper back, presternal, and lateral chest areas showed significant difference (P< 0.05) only for collagen and groin only for elastic content. Conclusion. The differences in the distribution of dermal collagen and elastic fibres in 2 directions of the samples from the same areas might be attributed to final outcome of wound healing process by influencing the appearance and behaviour of scar related complications in the region of trunk. PMID:25328512

  12. Endo- and ectoparasites of large whales (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae, Physeteridae): Overcoming difficulties in obtaining appropriate samples by non- and minimally-invasive methods.

    PubMed

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M R; Prieto, Rui; Kleinertz, Sonja; Taubert, Anja; Silva, Monica A

    2015-12-01

    Baleen and sperm whales, belonging to the Order Cetartiodactyla, are the largest and heaviest existent mammals in the world, collectively known as large whales. Large whales have been subjected to a variety of conservation means, which could be better monitored and managed if physiological and pathophysiological information, such as pathogen infections, could already be gathered from free-swimming animals instead of carcasses. Parasitic diseases are increasingly recognized for their profound influences on individual, population, and even ecosystem health. Furthermore, a number of parasite species have gained importance as opportunistic neozoan infections in the marine environment. Nonetheless, traditional approaches to study parasitic diseases have been impractical for large whales, since there is no current routine method for the capture and handling of these large animals and there is presently no practical method to obtain blood samples remotely from free-ranging whales. Therefore, we here not only intend to review the endo- and ectoparasite fauna of large whales but also to provide new insights in current available methods for gathering parasitological data by using non- or minimally invasive sampling techniques. We focus on methods, which will allow detailed parasitological studies to gain a broader knowledge on parasitoses affecting wild, free-swimming large whale populations. PMID:26835249

  13. Endo- and ectoparasites of large whales (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae, Physeteridae): Overcoming difficulties in obtaining appropriate samples by non- and minimally-invasive methods

    PubMed Central

    Hermosilla, Carlos; Silva, Liliana M.R.; Prieto, Rui; Kleinertz, Sonja; Taubert, Anja; Silva, Monica A.

    2015-01-01

    Baleen and sperm whales, belonging to the Order Cetartiodactyla, are the largest and heaviest existent mammals in the world, collectively known as large whales. Large whales have been subjected to a variety of conservation means, which could be better monitored and managed if physiological and pathophysiological information, such as pathogen infections, could already be gathered from free-swimming animals instead of carcasses. Parasitic diseases are increasingly recognized for their profound influences on individual, population, and even ecosystem health. Furthermore, a number of parasite species have gained importance as opportunistic neozoan infections in the marine environment. Nonetheless, traditional approaches to study parasitic diseases have been impractical for large whales, since there is no current routine method for the capture and handling of these large animals and there is presently no practical method to obtain blood samples remotely from free-ranging whales. Therefore, we here not only intend to review the endo- and ectoparasite fauna of large whales but also to provide new insights in current available methods for gathering parasitological data by using non- or minimally invasive sampling techniques. We focus on methods, which will allow detailed parasitological studies to gain a broader knowledge on parasitoses affecting wild, free-swimming large whale populations. PMID:26835249

  14. Second order advantage obtained by spectroelectrochemistry along with novel carbon nanotube modified mesh electrode: Application for determination of acetaminophen in Novafen samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Maryam Sajjadi, S.; Taherzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    A matrix-augmentation multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MA-MCR-ALS) has been conducted on the spectroelectrochemical data of acetaminophen oxidation in order to quantify acetaminophen in Novafen capsule in the presence of unknown interferences. The experiments were carried out using new cheap mesh electrode, namely carbon nanotube modified mesh electrode (CNMME) as optically transparent thin layer electrode (OTTLE). For each sample, a second order spectroelectrochemical data was obtained and MA-MCR-ALS method was applied to analyze these data. Unlike full trilinear models such as PARAFAC, MCR-ALS is flexible in applying trilinearity constraint for each component, a fact which makes it manage deviations from trilinearity of data effectively. This method was employed in both spectral and kinetic augmentation mode of data under examining different trilinear components. However, spectral augmentation was the only setting which allows MA-MCR-ALS to solve the analytical problem achieving the second order advantage. Therefore, here the results of the augmentation in this mode have been described. In order to obtain the best analytical figures of merit in the analysis, different constraints were investigated. The results indicated the accuracy of the proposed method.

  15. Second order advantage obtained by spectroelectrochemistry along with novel carbon nanotube modified mesh electrode: Application for determination of acetaminophen in Novafen samples.

    PubMed

    Asadpour-Zeynali, Karim; Sajjadi, S Maryam; Taherzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-15

    A matrix-augmentation multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MA-MCR-ALS) has been conducted on the spectroelectrochemical data of acetaminophen oxidation in order to quantify acetaminophen in Novafen capsule in the presence of unknown interferences. The experiments were carried out using new cheap mesh electrode, namely carbon nanotube modified mesh electrode (CNMME) as optically transparent thin layer electrode (OTTLE). For each sample, a second order spectroelectrochemical data was obtained and MA-MCR-ALS method was applied to analyze these data. Unlike full trilinear models such as PARAFAC, MCR-ALS is flexible in applying trilinearity constraint for each component, a fact which makes it manage deviations from trilinearity of data effectively. This method was employed in both spectral and kinetic augmentation mode of data under examining different trilinear components. However, spectral augmentation was the only setting which allows MA-MCR-ALS to solve the analytical problem achieving the second order advantage. Therefore, here the results of the augmentation in this mode have been described. In order to obtain the best analytical figures of merit in the analysis, different constraints were investigated. The results indicated the accuracy of the proposed method.

  16. Küttner's tumor of the submandibular glands: report of five cases with fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Kaba, Sadayuki; Kojima, Masaru; Matsuda, Hazuki; Sugihara, Shiro; Masawa, Nobuhide; Kobayashi, Tadao K; Fukuda, Toshio

    2006-09-01

    Küttner's tumor (KT) is a benign tumor-like lesion of the salivary gland that mimics neoplasm clinically because of presentation as a hard mass. Recently, the histomorphological and immunohistochemical findings of this lesion have been analyzed, and differential diagnostic problems relating to salivary gland lymphoma have been discussed. However, currently there is little information on the cytological findings of those lesions. We present cytological findings from five such cases using fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). FNAC of this lesion may present a diagnostic challenge to the cytologist as lesions share some cytologic features with inflammatory process containing numerous lymphoid cells. Smears obtained from two cases contained moderate to large numbers of lymphoid cells without definite cytological atypia, scattered ductal structures, and acinar cell clusters. The remaining three cases showed low cellularity probably attributable to fibrosis that made it difficult to aspirate the cellular element. FNAC findings of scattered ductal structures surrounded by collagens and infiltrated by a mixed population of lymphoid cells, not specific for KT, are highly suggestive of the diagnosis with the appropriate clinical findings. However, a portion of cytological specimens of KT containing relatively large numbers of lymphoid cells should be differentiated from malignant lymphoma arising from the submandibular gland.

  17. Routine Treatment of Cervical Cytological Cell Changes

    PubMed Central

    Huber, J.; Pötsch, B.; Gantschacher, M.; Templ, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Diagnosis and treatment of vaginal and cervical cytological cell changes are described in European and national guidelines. The aim of this data collection was to evaluate the remission rates of PAP III and PAP III D cytological findings in patients over a period of 3–4 months. Method: The current state of affairs in managing suspicious and cytological findings (PAP III, and III D) in gynecological practice was assessed in the context of a data collection survey. An evaluation over a period of 24 months was conducted on preventative measures, the occurrence and changes to normal/suspect/pathological findings and therapy management (for suspicious or pathological findings). Results: 307 female patients were included in the analysis. At the time of the survey 186 patients (60.6 %) had PAP III and 119 (38.8 %) had PAP III D findings. The spontaneous remission rate of untreated PAP III patients was 6 % and that of untreated PAP III D patients was 11 %. The remission rates of patients treated with a vaginal gel were 77 % for PAP III and 71 % for PAP III D. Conclusion: A new treatment option was used in gynecological practice on patients with PAP III and PAP III D findings between confirmation and the next follow-up with excellent success. PMID:27761030

  18. Cytological features of carcinoma of the collecting ducts of Bellini in voided urine cytology.

    PubMed

    Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Hirakawa, Eiichiro; Kushida, Yoshio; Kadota, Kyuichi; Ishikawa, Masashi; Haba, Reiji

    2009-09-01

    Carcinoma of the collecting ducts of Bellini (CCDB) is a rare histological type of renal cell carcinoma. This article describes the cytological features of CCDB in voided urine, confirmed on the basis of the histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The CCDB cells occurred singly in loose aggregates and in small clusters, occasionally in a rosette-like structure. There were various types of cancer cells, including round to oval, spindle, and tadpole-like cells. The nuclei usually showed coarse chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli, and lacy to vacuolated cytoplasm. CCDB of the kidney is a rare cytodiagnostic challenge in voided urine cytology alone. When the cytological diagnosis is considered, it is necessary to perform immunocytochemistry and correlate the clinical history and imaging studies.

  19. Cytology training in the UK: a training centre prospective.

    PubMed

    Dudding, N

    2016-10-01

    Training in both cervical and non-gynaecological cytology in the UK has never faced a more challenging environment. A national reconfiguration of cervical cytology services has focussed resources on large centres and damaged the traditional links and overlapping roles within non-gynaecological cytology. The UK is now at significant risk of falling behind most European countries in the use of non-gynaecological cytology. The UK currently has five training centres which are approved by the NHS Screening programme for training in cervical cytology; the planned introduction of HPV primary screening and the subsequent dramatic reduction in cervical cytology workload will increase pressure on the remaining training schools. Funding is variable across the country as is the degree of diversification that training schools have undertaken to try to ensure a viable future. It is vital for the future of cytology in the UK that the strong network of training schools remain to ensure the quality of the laboratory service as the UK moves towards HrHPV primary screening. There is no doubt that the training school roles will change and new technology embraced to deliver training fit for the changing role of cytology in healthcare but this will require funding and recognition of the vital role the training centres play in the delivery of high quality training in both cervical and non-gynaecological cytology. PMID:27650600

  20. The Significance of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid Cytology in Diagnosing Lung Infiltrates in Children

    PubMed Central

    Selimovic, Amina; Mujicic, Ermina; Milisic, Selma; Pejicic, Tanja; Rancic, Milan; Mesihovic-Dinarevic, Senka; Lukic-Bilela, Lada; Moro, Mahir

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this research is to show why is it important in diagnosing children with lung infiltrates. Methods: Our study included 50 children with lung infiltrates during period 2005-2012, and was conducted on Pediatric Clinic of the University Clinical Center Sarajevo. We sent all cytological BAL analyses to the University Clinical Center Sarajevo. Cytology was performed by direct microscopy. BAL cytology was performed by the principle of sending samples for centrifuging, 12000 revolutions during a 10 min Shandon-cyto spin. Then the centrifuged sample is dried in the air during 1-2 hours, and is then dyed under the May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining, and analyzed under the Olympus BX41 microscope. Results: Nosocomial pneumonia has occurred in 32% children, acquired pneumonia in 38%, and 30% children had a lung infiltrates. 6 (12%) of children were younger then 1 year old, 23 (46%) children were between 1 to 5 years, 14 (28%) of children were between 5 to 10 ages, and 7 (14%) of children were between 10-15 ages. The most of the changes in observed children took place on the right lung, 34%, while 26% occurred on the left side, 22% were normal and 18% changes have affected both lungs, right and left. Percentage of cells in cytological smear in children with BAL were: cylindrical cells 28%, lung macrophage 26%, lymphocytes 17%, detritus 17% and phlegm 12%. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) in children with BAL was up to 10-52%, to 50-30%, while ESR after first hour was above 50-18 %. Conclusion: Clinical parameters and local inflammation of the affected lobe are associated with positive bronchoalveolar cytology lavage findings. PMID:26980927

  1. Cytological analysis of the periodontal pocket in patients with aggressive periodontitis and chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Cecilia, E. Castro; Myriam, A. Koss; María, E. López

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral exfoliative cytology includes the study and interpretation of the features cells exfoliated from the oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to analyze cytological changes in the periodontal pocket of patients with different clinical stages of aggressive periodontitis (AP) and chronic periodontitis (CP). Materials and Methods: Patients aged 24–54 years, of whom 41 were diagnosed with AP, 40 with CP, sub-classified as mild, moderate and severe periodontitis, and 40 healthy individuals who were the control group. Samples of the epithelium of the periodontal pocket were taken for the cytological study. Results: Superficial and intermediate cell values were significantly greater in patients with AP than in patients with CP or the control group. Histiocyte number was higher in patients with CP than in those with AP, and differed significantly in both types of periodontitis compared to the control group. There were significant differences in polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes when both types of periodontitis were compared to the control group. Microbial flora was statistically higher in patients with CP, and there were differences between patients with periodontitis and the control group. Conclusions: The cytological study demonstrated that patients with AP had greater tissue damage, shown by the increase in intermediate and superficial cells of the epithelium of the periodontal pocket compared to the group of healthy subjects and to a lesser extent, to patients with CP. Only superficial cells made it possible to differentiate the sub-stages of the disease. PMID:25395766

  2. Cytologic diagnosis of acinic-cell carcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Nagel, H; Laskawi, R; Büter, J J; Schröder, M; Chilla, R; Droese, M

    1997-05-01

    The cytologic findings in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies obtained from 40 primary and 18 recurrent acinic-cell carcinomas (ACC) were retrospectively analyzed. Cytomorphologically, ACC is characterized by acinar differentiated tumor cells. In addition to these diagnostic clue cells, other types of neoplastic cells including vacuolated cells, cells resembling oncocytes, and nonspecific glandular cells are encountered. A pronounced lymphocytic reaction is a hallmark in 10% of ACC aspirates. Both the variety of tumor cell differentiation and the pronounced lymphocytic reaction observed in ACC aspirates may result in confusion with other salivary gland lesions. The differential diagnosis of ACC encompasses adenocarcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, pleomorphic adenoma, Warthin tumor, sebaceous lymphadenoma, benign lymphoepithelial lesion, sialoadenosis, sialadenitis caused by radiotherapy, and lymphadenitis. Primary ACCs were correctly diagnosed in 68%; additionally, ACC was suspected or included in the differential diagnosis in 15%. Increased familiarity with the spectrum of cytomorphologic findings and the potential diagnostic pitfalls in ACC will improve the cytodiagnosis of this neoplasm.

  3. Comparative value of clinical, cytological, and histopathological features in feline mammary gland tumors; an experimental model for the study of human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of breast lesions is usually confirmed by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) or histological biopsy. Although there is increasing literature regarding the advantages and limitations of both modalities, there is no literature regarding the accuracy of these modalities for diagnosing breast lesions in high-risk patients, who usually have lesions detected by screening. Moreover, few studies have been published regarding the cytopathology of mammary tumors in cats despite widespread use of the animal model for breast cancer formation and inhibition. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic interest of cytological and histopathological analysis in feline mammary tumours (FMTs), in order to evaluate its possible value as an animal model. Methods The study was performed in 3 female cats submitted to surgical resections of mammary tumours. The mammary tumours were excised by simple mastectomy or regional mastectomy, with or without the superficial inguinal lymph nodes. Female cats were of different breeds (1 siamese and 2 persians). Before surgical excision of the tumour, FNA cytology was performed using a 0.4 mm diameter needle attached to a 8 ml syringe held in a standard metal syringe holder. The cytological sample was smeared onto a glass slide and either air-dried for May-Grünwald-stain and masses were surgically removed, the tumours were grossly examined and tissue samples were fixed in 10%-buffered-formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections 4 μm thick were obtained from each sample and H&E stained. Results Cytologically, atypical epithelial cells coupled to giant nucleus, chromatin anomalies, mitotic figures, spindle shape cells, anisocytosis with anisokaryosis and hyperchromasia were found. Histologically, these tumors are characterized by pleomorphic and polygonal cell population together with mitotic figures, necrotic foci and various numbers inflammatory foci. Also, spindle shaped cells, haemorrhage

  4. Patterns of Antimicrobial Resistance Observed in Escherichia coli Isolates Obtained from Domestic- and Wild-Animal Fecal Samples, Human Septage, and Surface Water

    PubMed Central

    Sayah, Raida S.; Kaneene, John B.; Johnson, Yvette; Miller, RoseAnn

    2005-01-01

    A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the patterns of antimicrobial resistance in 1,286 Escherichia coli strains isolated from human septage, wildlife, domestic animals, farm environments, and surface water in the Red Cedar watershed in Michigan. Isolation and identification of E. coli were done by using enrichment media, selective media, and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method was conducted for neomycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin, cephalothin, and sulfisoxazole. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent was demonstrated in isolates from livestock, companion animals, human septage, wildlife, and surface water. In general, E. coli isolates from domestic species showed resistance to the largest number of antimicrobial agents compared to isolates from human septage, wildlife, and surface water. The agents to which resistance was demonstrated most frequently were tetracycline, cephalothin, sulfisoxazole, and streptomycin. There were similarities in the patterns of resistance in fecal samples and farm environment samples by animal, and the levels of cephalothin-resistant isolates were higher in farm environment samples than in fecal samples. Multidrug resistance was seen in a variety of sources, and the highest levels of multidrug-resistant E. coli were observed for swine fecal samples. The fact that water sample isolates were resistant only to cephalothin may suggest that the resistance patterns for farm environment samples may be more representative of the risk of contamination of surface waters with antimicrobial agent-resistant bacteria. PMID:15746342

  5. Endometrial cytology and computerized morphometric analysis of epithelial nuclei: a useful tool for reproductive diagnosis in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Groppetti, D; Pecile, A; Arrighi, S; Di Giancamillo, A; Cremonesi, F

    2010-04-15

    New diagnostic approaches are required to recognize early canine hypofertility or infertility. We suggest that the identification of different cytologic types, cellular aspects, and nuclear features of the endometrial epithelial cells may be suitable for this purpose. This study was performed on the bitch (Canis familiaris) during the physiologic reproductive cycle and in uterine diseases. We also applied computerized cytomorphometry to evaluate nuclear area, perimeter, diameter, density, aspect, and roundness of endometrial epithelial cells in healthy dogs (N=35) at different stages of the reproductive cycle (before puberty, during proestrus, estrus, diestrus, and anestrus) and in bitches affected by uterine disorders (N=10). The stage of the estrous cycle was determined by vaginal cytology and progesterone evaluation and also confirmed by clinical and histologic observations. Samples for endometrial cytology were collected in vivo by uterine flushing with transcervical uterine cannulation. After uterine sampling, each dog underwent OHE or uterine stump revision. Cytologic analyses were compared with histologic examinations to verify the uterine condition. The uterine cellular population was represented by endometrial epithelial cells, erythrocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, macrophages, plasma cells, and cervical or incidental vaginal cells. Bacteria and amorphous material were observed. The proportion of different cells and nuclear features in the cytologic samples varied throughout the stages of the reproductive cycle and between normal and pathologic uterine conditions. The computer-assisted nuclear morphometry, performed in cytologic specimens by means of the six nuclear parameters chosen to evaluate the endometrial epithelial cell population, proved to be useful for determining the stage of the reproductive cycle. Furthermore, this system was demonstrated to be a valid support to diagnose and distinguish uterine disorders. PMID:20116837

  6. Predictive Value of Class III D Cytological Diagnosis (Munich II, Low and Moderate Dysplasia) and Additional High-risk HPV Testing.

    PubMed

    Ziemke, P

    2012-07-01

    The validity of cytological diagnostic procedures for the detection of pre- and early cervical cancer stages is limited due to biological conditions, the uncertainty of cell sampling, and the subjective nature of microscopic assessment. Particularly in class III D cases (Munich II) this can lead to a stigmatization of patients and uncertainty with regard to further clinical follow-up and therapy. Prior to carrying out additional investigations such as high-risk HPV testing or the examination of biomarkers, the positive predictive values of patients with a class III D cytological diagnosis need to be assessed in routine practice. To this end, all relevant data from patients from our practice classed as class III D (pap smears) between 2002 and 2008 (n = 1190; 38.2 % histological diagnosis = therapeutic endpoint) and their current HPV status were recorded. Cytology, histology, persistence, age and follow-up were recorded. The database was used for comparative statistical analysis. Overall, the positive predictive value of conventional pap smear for CIN 2+ was calculated to be 32.3 % (mean follow-up: 39.7 months). The following values were calculated for high-risk HPV testing: sensitivity 94.8 %, specificity 39 %, positive predictive value 42.8 %, negative predictive value 94 %. The additional information obtained from high-risk HPV testing resulted in a significantly better positive predictive value only in patients older than 40 years. However, there was no evidence for an individual risk stratification approach which would reduce uncertainty in the management of III D patients.

  7. Application of multivariate, fuzzy set and neural network analysis in quantitative cytological examinations.

    PubMed

    Molnar, B; Szentirmay, Z; Bodo, M; Sugar, J; Feher, J

    1993-05-01

    Multivariate statistical methods have been used in several studies to increase the diagnostic reliability of TV image analyser systems. In recent years some algorithms for decision support (fuzzy logic) and for pattern recognition (neural nets), both non-linear, were developed. This paper reports on preliminary results obtained with these methods in quantitative cytology and compares them to the traditional classifiers. A total of 21 normal, 15 dysplastic and 23 malignant, gastric imprint smears were Feulgen stained and analysed on a Leitz Miamed DNA cytophotometer system. Mean DNA content, the 2c deviation index (2cDI), 5c exceeding rate (5cER), G1, S, G2 phase fraction ratios, cell nucleus area and form factor were determined. Diagnostic accuracy of the discriminant analysis was 96% for the malignant cases, 87% for dysplasias and 81% for normal cases. Cluster analysis gave no significant result. Our diagnostic system utilizing fuzzy logic has made the diagnostic borders adjustable and reliable. The back-propagation neural net correctly classified the normal and malignant cases (100%) and all but one of the dysplasias (98%). The non-linear mathematical methods improved the reliability of the diagnostic system. These new algorithms gave results comparable to traditional classifiers. The application of these methods to clinical samples is encouraging.

  8. Cytological Study of Breast Carcinoma Before and After Oncotherapy with Special Reference to Morphometry and Proliferative Activity.

    PubMed

    Koley, Sananda; Chakrabarti, Srabani; Pathak, Swapan; Manna, Asim Kumar; Basu, Siddhartha

    2015-12-01

    Our study was done to assess the cytological changes due to oncotherapy in breast carcinoma especially on morphometry and proliferative activity. Cytological aspirates were collected from a total of 32 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma both before and after oncotherapy. Morphometry was done on the stained cytological smears to assess the different morphological parameters of cell dimension by using the ocular morphometer and the software AutoCAD 2007. Staining was done with Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as proliferative markers. Different morphological parameters were compared before and after oncotherapy by unpaired Student's t test. Statistically significant differences were found in morphometric parameters, e.g., mean nuclear diameter, mean nuclear area, mean cell diameter, and mean cell area, and in the expression of proliferative markers (Ki-67 and PCNA). Statistical analysis was done by obtaining p values. There are statistically significant differences between morphological parameter of breast carcinoma cells before and after oncotherapy. PMID:26730066

  9. [Correlation of cytologic and pathohistologic findings in ultrasonically-guided thin-needle biopsy of abdominal and retroperitoneal organs].

    PubMed

    Bokun, R; Tatomirović, Z; Lakić-Trajković, Z; Lisanin, L; Pesić, V; Zica, D; Lukac, S; Kupresanin, S; Spasić, V; Ilić, S; Dimitrijević, J

    1997-01-01

    The ultrasonically guided fine needle biopsy is cheap, very sensitive and specific method for the diagnosis of nonpalpable deep-seated lesions. During 1992 in the institute of Radiology of Military Medical Academy in Belgrade 87 biopsies of abdominal and 81 biopsies of retroperitoneal organs were performed for the cytological and histopathologic analysis. Deficient material was obtained in 15.4% of the cases. A good correlation between cytologic and histopathologic findings was observed, with diagnostic concordance in 90.8%. In 9 cases with falsely positive cytological diagnosis at the first examination, the diagnosis of malignancy was later confirmed by other diagnosis procedures. Diagnostic difficulties and the significance of adequate biopsy were particularly stressed.

  10. Cytological Study of Breast Carcinoma Before and After Oncotherapy with Special Reference to Morphometry and Proliferative Activity.

    PubMed

    Koley, Sananda; Chakrabarti, Srabani; Pathak, Swapan; Manna, Asim Kumar; Basu, Siddhartha

    2015-12-01

    Our study was done to assess the cytological changes due to oncotherapy in breast carcinoma especially on morphometry and proliferative activity. Cytological aspirates were collected from a total of 32 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma both before and after oncotherapy. Morphometry was done on the stained cytological smears to assess the different morphological parameters of cell dimension by using the ocular morphometer and the software AutoCAD 2007. Staining was done with Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as proliferative markers. Different morphological parameters were compared before and after oncotherapy by unpaired Student's t test. Statistically significant differences were found in morphometric parameters, e.g., mean nuclear diameter, mean nuclear area, mean cell diameter, and mean cell area, and in the expression of proliferative markers (Ki-67 and PCNA). Statistical analysis was done by obtaining p values. There are statistically significant differences between morphological parameter of breast carcinoma cells before and after oncotherapy.

  11. Simple pretreatment procedure combined with gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/mass spectrometry for the analysis of dioxins in soil samples obtained after the Tōhoku earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Ching; Imasaka, Totaro

    2013-01-01

    A simple pretreatment procedure was developed for the analysis of dioxins in soil samples using gas chromatography/multiphoton ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The sample was subjected to a pressurized liquid extraction procedure, followed by separation using a pair of Sulfoxide and Ag-ION columns for cleanup. Due to the high selectivity of laser ionization, the procedure was simplified and the time required for an analysis was decreased to 3 h. The sample collected after the earthquake and tsunami contained relatively high concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs. This simple and rapid pretreatment procedure can be useful for monitoring the environment to prevent unexpected exposure of toxic dioxins for the workers who have to process more than 20 million tons of the wastes in a few years.

  12. Molecular analysis and conventional cytology: association between HPV and bacterial vaginosis in the cervical abnormalities of a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Peres, A L; Camarotti, J R S L; Cartaxo, M; Alencar, N; Stocco, R C; Beçak, W; Pontes-Filho, N T; Araújo, R F F; Lima-Filho, J L; Martins, D B G

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Papanicolaou smears in a Brazilian population. Cross-sectional analysis was performed on 673 samples collected from women attending public health centers in Olinda (PE, Brazil) by conventional cytology methodology and molecular analysis, PCR tests (GP5+/6+ and MY09/11). Cytological abnormalities, BV, and HPV-DNA were detected in 23 (3.4%) samples, 189 samples (28.1%), and 210 samples (31.2%), respectively. GP5+/6+ primers resulted in higher detection performance than MY09/11 primers, with 81% concordance between both primers (P < 0.0001). The occurrence of HPV-DNA and BV had ORs of 8.59 (P < 0.0001) and 2.91 (P = 0.0089) for abnormal cytology, respectively, whereas the concomitant presence of both infections showed an OR equal to 3.82 (P = 0.0054). Therefore, we observed an association between abnormal cervical cytology and HPV infection, BV, or both HPV infection and BV. These results highlight the necessity of monitoring patients presenting not only HPV, but also BV, as risk factors for cervical lesion development. PMID:26345883

  13. [Tamoxifen and cervico-vaginal cytology].

    PubMed

    Ayoubi, J M; Monrozies, X; Ayoubi, F; Charasson, T; Reme, J M

    1994-04-01

    The impact of tamoxifen on the genital tract was assessed by cervico-vaginal cytology. Fifty two post-menopausal patients treated with tamoxifen for breast cancer were regularly monitored, with a pre-treatment reference smear showing a profoundly menopausal status, followed by an anual smear. Smears returned to a functional status in 44% of patients after 2 to 5 years treatment. The agonist effect of tamoxifen appears to be beyond any doubt, and responsible for certain adverse reactions. This should not bring into question the usefulness of the drug, but indicates the need for regular monitoring and, in the presence of a functional smear, further investigation by vaginal ultrasonography is essential in order to evaluate the status of the endometrium. PMID:8036383

  14. Iatrogenic calcinosis cutis: A rare cytological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Sawke, Gopal Krishna; Rai, Tina; Sawke, Nilima

    2016-01-01

    Calcinosis cutis is an uncommon condition characterized by the deposition of calcium salts in the subcutaneous tissues of the body. Calcifications can also occur in a variety of other clinical settings and can be subjected to fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Since cutaneous calcific deposits may clinically mimic a tumor, it is feasible to diagnose them by FNA cytology (FNAC). We reported a case of calcinosis cutis by FNA in a 36-year-old male who presented with a solitary subcutaneous nodule in cubital fossa. Smears showed amorphous granular material consistent with calcium and occasional histiocytes. The diagnosis was confirmed when cytosmears were subjected to a special stain such as the von Kossa stain.

  15. Utility of Cell-Block of Bronchial Washings in Diagnosis of Lung Cancer- A Comparative Analysis with Conventional Smear Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Vadala, Rohit; Mandrekar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bronchoscopy is a safe & effective means of diagnosing bronchogenic carcinoma with a varying diagnostic yield of different bronchoscopic procedures. Cell-Block (CB) preparation of cytology specimen has been shown to increase the diagnostic yield further. To the authors’ knowledge, the diagnostic value of CB as an adjunct to conventional smear cytology (CS) of bronchial washing specimens in the detection of bronchogenic carcinoma has not been well evaluated. Aim The present study was aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of CB of bronchial washings when compared with CS. Materials and Methods A total of 104 patients of suspected bronchogenic carcinoma were subjected to bronchoscopy as per British Thoracic Society (BTS) protocol. Bronchial biopsy, brushings and washings were collected. Smears were prepared immediately of bronchial washings and another aliquot was subjected to CB preparation and further processing by paraffin embedding and H&E staining. Results Out of 104 patients, 92 were diagnosed by bronchoscopy with a cumulative diagnostic yield of all sampling techniques being 88.46%. Yield of CB of bronchial washings (44.23%) was higher than Bronchial washings – conventional smears (36.53%). CB detected additional 8 cases of malignancy where corresponding bronchial washings-conventional smears were negative. Exclusive diagnosis by CB was obtained in 2 cases. Brushings and biopsy confirmed malignancy in 49.03% and 57.69% cases. Conclusion CB of bronchial washings had a higher yield as compared to corresponding conventional smears. Increase in yield was also noted when CB of bronchial washings was combined with biopsy and compared to bronchial washings- conventional smears combined with biopsy. In limited resource settings, CB preparation is a simple method that increases diagnostic yield of flexible bronchoscopy, is cost effective & hence can be routinely used. The immunohistochemical and molecular studies are possible with CB only, which is a

  16. Guidance on liquid-based cytology system conversion training: a secondary publication.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A

    2016-10-01

    National cervical screening programmes are considering a move to HPV primary screening. HPV testing requires the cervical sample to be placed in liquid based cytology (LBC) media and the triage cytology test will be carried out using LBC preparations. The resources required for conversion training from conventional smears to LBC should not be underestimated as errors can be made without the use of a structured training plan and monitoring of performance. In the UK, many labs have converted between the two main LBC technologies, Thinprep and Surepath. The same logic apples: all staff including primary screeners and cytopathologists must undergo a structured conversion course with clear and measurable outcomes to ensure the competence of all staff before going "live" with the new technology. It is expected that conversion training will take approximately 39 hrs and a minimum of 95% high grade sensitivity and 70% specificity must be achieved. PMID:27650602

  17. Cytological patterns of primary malignant uterine fibrous histiocytoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Torrisi, A; Giorgino, F; Onnis, G L; Minucci, D

    1990-01-01

    The Authors have reported the cytological patterns of malignant primitive uterine fibrous histiocytoma of a 57 year old woman. The endometrial cytological sampling was performed by an aspiration technique using a feeding-tube; a necrotic-haemorrhagic background filled with hymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and a mixture of highly anaplastic histiocytic and fibroblastic type cells, associated with undifferentiated small round cells, has been described. The result of the histological examination performed on the surgical specimen was the following: polymorphic malignant neoplasia characterized by spindle-like and giant plurinucleated cells, phagocytosis features, endoluminal polypoid growth, wide infiltration of the miometrium two thirds deep, vascular space invasion of the uterine wall and the hilus of the ovaries. The histological features and immunohistochemical analysis were consistent with malignant fibrous histiocytoma in the pleomorphic variety. PMID:1965802

  18. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of salivary glands: diagnostic pitfalls--revisited.

    PubMed

    Rajwanshi, Arvind; Gupta, Kirti; Gupta, Nalini; Shukla, Rajeev; Srinivasan, Radhika; Nijhawan, Raje; Vasishta, Rakesh

    2006-08-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of salivary gland lesions is a safe, effective diagnostic technique. Several amply illustrated reviews are available in the English literature. The reported diagnostic accuracy varies between 86% to 98%. The sensitivity ranges from 62% to 97.6% and specificity is higher from 94.3% to 100%. In this present study, we have analyzed 172 cases of salivary gland aspirates and the histopathological diagnosis was available in 45 cases. There was discordance in cytological and histopathological diagnosis in nine cases. Five cases had discrepancies in benign versus malignant diagnosis with four cases being false negative. The errors in these FNA diagnoses were due to sampling error, observational error and interpretational error. Therefore, this study illustrates high diagnostic accuracy of FNAC in salivary gland lesions and shows that FNAC offers valuable information that allows the planning of subsequent patient management.

  19. Cytological diagnosis of sialadenosis, sialadenitis, and parotid cysts by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Droese, M

    1981-01-01

    This analysis permits the following conclusions: The value of punctate cytology consists in the possibility to verify the clinical diagnosis of a cyst by aspiration of fluid, and to make a preoperative assessment of the necessity of an operation and its type and extent, if proof of a benign or malignant tumor was obtained by microscopic examination. The diagnostic value of punctate cytology can be increased if after aspiration of cyst fluid also solid tissue components from the region of the cyst are included. Patients whose biopsy aspirates did not give evidence for the presence of a tumor should be reexamined 2-4 weeks later. Operative treatment will not be necessary if the follow-up examination reveals that the parotid swelling has subsided. Without this control investigation, recommended by Zajicek [80], morphological aspects always indicate an operation if tumor-negative biopsies cannot be etiologically classified even though clinical data were included in the diagnostic procedure.

  20. Frequency distribution of mineral elements in samples of alfalfa and sugar beet leaves obtained from a common field in Imperial Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.; Kinnear, J.

    1982-07-01

    Baseline measurements were made of mineral composition of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.) from one field each in the Imperial Valley of California. The fields are in a geothermal area being developed for energy production, and the purpose of the investigation was to ascertain variablility within a relatively large number of samples from a common area, so that subsequent samplings could be made to satisfactorily detect whether there were changes resulting from the geothermal activity. Means, standard deviations, frequency distribution, correlations, cluster trees, and other statistics were examined for over 20 elements at each site.Most elements were normally distributed, but there was three- to fourfold range in the concentration for each.

  1. Label-free enumeration, collection and downstream cytological and cytogenetic analysis of circulating tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Manjima; Pao, Edward; Renier, Corinne; Go, Derek E.; Che, James; Montoya, Rosita; Conrad, Rachel; Matsumoto, Melissa; Heirich, Kyra; Triboulet, Melanie; Rao, Jianyu; Jeffrey, Stefanie S.; Garon, Edward B.; Goldman, Jonathan; Rao, Nagesh P.; Kulkarni, Rajan; Sollier-Christen, Elodie; Di Carlo, Dino

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have a great potential as indicators of metastatic disease that may help physicians improve cancer prognostication, treatment and patient outcomes. Heterogeneous marker expression as well as the complexity of current antibody-based isolation and analysis systems highlights the need for alternative methods. In this work, we use a microfluidic Vortex device that can selectively isolate potential tumor cells from blood independent of cell surface expression. This system was adapted to interface with three protein-marker-free analysis techniques: (i) an in-flow automated image processing system to enumerate cells released, (ii) cytological analysis using Papanicolaou (Pap) staining and (iii) fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) targeting the ALK rearrangement. In-flow counting enables a rapid assessment of the cancer-associated large circulating cells in a sample within minutes to determine whether standard downstream assays such as cytological and cytogenetic analyses that are more time consuming and costly are warranted. Using our platform integrated with these workflows, we analyzed 32 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 22 breast cancer patient samples, yielding 60 to 100% of the cancer patients with a cell count over the healthy threshold, depending on the detection method used: respectively 77.8% for automated, 60–100% for cytology, and 80% for immunostaining based enumeration. PMID:27739521

  2. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland: a review of 341 cases.

    PubMed

    Stewart, C J; MacKenzie, K; McGarry, G W; Mowat, A

    2000-03-01

    Three hundred and forty-one salivary gland fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology specimens taken over a 6-yr period were reviewed and correlated with clinical and/or histological findings. The aspirates were derived from parotid gland (212 cases), submandibular gland (124 cases), and minor salivary gland (5 cases). The major diagnostic categories were unsatisfactory (10 cases), normal (100 cases), sialadenitis (74 cases), cyst (34 cases), lipoma (5 cases), pleomorphic adenoma (55 cases), Warthin's tumor (36 cases), and malignancy (27 cases). The latter included 14 primary salivary neoplasms (4 lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type, 3 adenocarcinomas, 2 squamous carcinomas, 2 adenoid cystic cacinomas, and one case each of carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, and high-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma), and 13 metastases, 9 of which were derived from squamous carcinomas of head and neck origin. Clinicopathological review showed that 88 of 91 (97%) benign epithelial tumors and 27 of 31 (87%) malignant neoplasms with adequate FNA sampling were accurately diagnosed cytologically. False-negative results were caused by sampling error (7 cases), most notably in cystic tumors, or were due to misinterpretation of uncommon neoplasms (3 cases). The overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 92%, 100%, and 98%, respectively. FNA cytology provides accurate diagnosis of most salivary gland lesions and contributes to conservative management in many patients with nonneoplastic conditions.

  3. All lesions great and small, part 1: diagnostic cytology in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Leslie C; Seelig, Davis M; Overmann, Jed

    2014-06-01

    Cytopathology is a minimally invasive, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic modality with broad utilization in veterinary medicine. Primary care clinicians often screen common cutaneous and subcutaneous aspirates, with other samples most frequently evaluated by board certified veterinary clinical pathologists in reference laboratories. Wright-Giemsa stains are frequently utilized with the application of ancillary diagnostics such as cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostic techniques complicated by the need to develop and validate species specific reagents and protocols. The interpretation of veterinary cytology samples must be undertaken with extensive knowledge of the breadth of animal species, which includes familiarity with the frequency and biological behavior of inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic lesions that are influenced by species, breed, and husbandry conditions. This review is the first of two parts that focus on the most common domestic companion animal species (dog, cat, and horse), taking an organ system approach to survey important lesions that may be unique to veterinary species or have interesting correlates in human medicine. The first of the two-part series covers skin and subcutaneous tissue, the musculoskeletal system, and lymphoid organs. The cytologic features and biological behavior of similar lesions are compared, and selected molecular mechanisms of disease and ancillary diagnostics are reviewed when characterized. Supporting figures illustrate a subset of lesions. While not a comprehensive catalog of veterinary cytology, the goal is to give cytopathologists working in human medicine a general impression of correlates in veterinary practice.

  4. Transfer factors and effective half-lives of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in different environmental sample types obtained from Northern Finland: case Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Koivurova, Matias; Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Kallio, Antti

    2015-08-01

    The Fukushima NPP accident caused a small but detectable cesium fallout in northern Finland, of the order of 1 Bq/m(2). This fallout transferred further to soil, water, flora and fauna. By using modern HPGe detector systems traces of (134)Cs from the Fukushima fallout were observed in various samples of biota. In northern Finland different types of environmental samples such as reindeer meat, berries, fish, lichens and wolf were collected during 2011-2013. The observed (134)Cs concentrations varied from 0.1 Bq/kg to a few Bq/kg. By using the known (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio observed in Fukushima fallout the increase of the Fukushima accident to the (137)Cs concentrations was found to vary from 0.06 % to 6.9 % depending on the sample type. The aggregated transfer factors (Tag) and effective half-lives (Teff) for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were also determined and then compared with known values found from earlier studies which are calculated based on the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Generally, the Tag and Teff values determined in this study were found to agree with the values found in the earlier studies. The Teff values were sample-type specific and were found to vary from 0.91 to 2.1 years for (134)Cs and the estimates for (137)Cs ranged between 1.6 and 19 years. Interestingly, the ground lichens had the longest Teff whereas the beard lichen had the shortest. In fauna, highest Tag values were determined for wolf meat ranging between 1.0 and 2.2 m(2)/kg. In flora, the highest Tag values were determined for beard lichens, ranging from 1.9 m(2)/kg to 3.5 m(2)/kg.

  5. Transfer factors and effective half-lives of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in different environmental sample types obtained from Northern Finland: case Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Koivurova, Matias; Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Kallio, Antti

    2015-08-01

    The Fukushima NPP accident caused a small but detectable cesium fallout in northern Finland, of the order of 1 Bq/m(2). This fallout transferred further to soil, water, flora and fauna. By using modern HPGe detector systems traces of (134)Cs from the Fukushima fallout were observed in various samples of biota. In northern Finland different types of environmental samples such as reindeer meat, berries, fish, lichens and wolf were collected during 2011-2013. The observed (134)Cs concentrations varied from 0.1 Bq/kg to a few Bq/kg. By using the known (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio observed in Fukushima fallout the increase of the Fukushima accident to the (137)Cs concentrations was found to vary from 0.06 % to 6.9 % depending on the sample type. The aggregated transfer factors (Tag) and effective half-lives (Teff) for (134)Cs and (137)Cs were also determined and then compared with known values found from earlier studies which are calculated based on the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Generally, the Tag and Teff values determined in this study were found to agree with the values found in the earlier studies. The Teff values were sample-type specific and were found to vary from 0.91 to 2.1 years for (134)Cs and the estimates for (137)Cs ranged between 1.6 and 19 years. Interestingly, the ground lichens had the longest Teff whereas the beard lichen had the shortest. In fauna, highest Tag values were determined for wolf meat ranging between 1.0 and 2.2 m(2)/kg. In flora, the highest Tag values were determined for beard lichens, ranging from 1.9 m(2)/kg to 3.5 m(2)/kg. PMID:25935505

  6. Obtained effect size as a function of sample size in approved antidepressants: a real-world illustration in support of better trial design.

    PubMed

    Gibertini, Michael; Nations, Kari R; Whitaker, John A

    2012-03-01

    The high failure rate of antidepressant trials has spurred exploration of the factors that affect trial sensitivity. In the current analysis, Food and Drug Administration antidepressant drug registration trial data compiled by Turner et al. is extended to include the most recently approved antidepressants. The expanded dataset is examined to further establish the likely population effect size (ES) for monoaminergic antidepressants and to demonstrate the relationship between observed ES and sample size in trials on compounds with proven efficacy. Results indicate that the overall underlying ES for antidepressants is approximately 0.30, and that the variability in observed ES across trials is related to the sample size of the trial. The current data provide a unique real-world illustration of an often underappreciated statistical truism: that small N trials are more likely to mislead than to inform, and that by aligning sample size to the population ES, risks of both erroneously high and low effects are minimized. The results in the current study make this abstract concept concrete and will help drug developers arrive at informed gate decisions with greater confidence and fewer risks, improving the odds of success for future antidepressant trials.

  7. Automatic recognition of abnormal cells in cytological tests using multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertych, A.; Galliano, G.; Bose, S.; Farkas, D. L.

    2010-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of gynecologic disease-related death worldwide, but is almost completely preventable with regular screening, for which cytological testing is a method of choice. Although such testing has radically lowered the death rate from cervical cancer, it is plagued by low sensitivity and inter-observer variability. Moreover, its effectiveness is still restricted because the recognition of shape and morphology of nuclei is compromised by overlapping and clumped cells. Multispectral imaging can aid enhanced morphological characterization of cytological specimens. Features including spectral intensity and texture, reflecting relevant morphological differences between normal and abnormal cells, can be derived from cytopathology images and utilized in a detection/classification scheme. Our automated processing of multispectral image cubes yields nuclear objects which are subjected to classification facilitated by a library of spectral signatures obtained from normal and abnormal cells, as marked by experts. Clumps are processed separately with reduced set of signatures. Implementation of this method yields high rate of successful detection and classification of nuclei into predefined malignant and premalignant types and correlates well with those obtained by an expert. Our multispectral approach may have an impact on the diagnostic workflow of cytological tests. Abnormal cells can be automatically highlighted and quantified, thus objectivity and performance of the reading can be improved in a way which is currently unavailable in clinical setting.

  8. [Cytologic diagnosis of salivary gland lesions by fine needle aspiration].

    PubMed

    Fu, X W

    1989-12-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology was used in diagnosis of 504 major and minor salivary gland lesions. In 180 cases with satisfactory specimens, cytologic diagnosis was contrasted with pathohistologic findings. There were 150 benign lesions (including 124 tumors and 26 cases of other lesions) and 30 malignant tumors. The total correspondence rate was 94.5%. The rate of misdiagnosis was 5.5%. Cytologic appearance of various salivary gland tumors is described and the significance of distribution of mucus is discussed. The misdiagnosed cases were mainly in the early stage.

  9. Fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, G; Verma, A K; Sood, N; Khurana, N

    1994-07-01

    247 salivary gland lesions were subjected to fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology; 179 were designated as neoplastic lesions and 68 as non-neoplastic. Based on cytomorphologic features, the neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions were subcategorised. All but 36 of the neoplastic lesions were subjected to histopathologic study. The overall diagnostic accuracy of FNA cytology for neoplastic lesions was 91%. The sensitivity rate for detecting malignant tumours was 87.8% and the specificity 98.0%. There was 100% sensitivity for cytodiagnosis of benign tumours. The high sensitivity and specificity of cytodiagnosis makes FNA cytology a valuable diagnostic modality in the evaluation of salivary gland lesions.

  10. Analysis of DDT and its metabolites in soil and water samples obtained in the vicinity of a closed-down factory in Bangladesh using various extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Al Mahmud, M N U; Khalil, Farzana; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Mamun, M I R; Shoeb, Mohammad; Abd El-Aty, A M; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Shin, Ho-Chul; Nahar, Nilufar; Shim, Jae-Han

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to monitor the spread of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD)) in soil and water to regions surrounding a closed DDT factory in Bangladesh. This fulfillment was accomplished using inter-method and inter-laboratory validation studies. DDTs (DDT and its metabolites) from soil samples were extracted using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and solvent extraction (SE). Inter-laboratory calibration was assessed by SE, and all methods were validated by intra- and inter-day accuracy (expressed as recovery %) and precision (expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD)) in the same laboratory, at three fortified concentrations (n = 4). DDTs extracted from water samples by liquid-liquid partitioning and all samples were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)-electron capture detector (ECD) and confirmed by GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Linearities expressed as determination coefficients (R (2)) were ≥0.995 for matrix-matched calibrations. The recovery rate was in the range of 72-120 and 83-110%, with <15% RSD in soil and water, respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.0165 mg kg(-1) in soil and 0.132 μg L(-1) in water. Greater quantities of DDTs were extracted from soil using the MAE and SE techniques than with the SFE method. Higher amounts of DDTs were discovered in the southern (2.2-936 × 10(2) mg kg(-1)) or southwestern (86.3-2067 × 10(2) mg kg(-1)) direction from the factory than in the eastern direction (1.0-48.6 × 10(2) mg kg(-1)). An exception was the soil sample collected 50 ft (15.24 m) east (2904 × 10(2) mg kg(-1)) of the factory. The spread of DDTs in the water bodies (0.59-3.01 μg L(-1)) was approximately equal in all directions. We concluded that DDTs might have been dumped randomly around the warehouse after the closing of the factory. PMID:26559557

  11. Analysis of DDT and its metabolites in soil and water samples obtained in the vicinity of a closed-down factory in Bangladesh using various extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Al Mahmud, M N U; Khalil, Farzana; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Mamun, M I R; Shoeb, Mohammad; Abd El-Aty, A M; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Shin, Ho-Chul; Nahar, Nilufar; Shim, Jae-Han

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to monitor the spread of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD)) in soil and water to regions surrounding a closed DDT factory in Bangladesh. This fulfillment was accomplished using inter-method and inter-laboratory validation studies. DDTs (DDT and its metabolites) from soil samples were extracted using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and solvent extraction (SE). Inter-laboratory calibration was assessed by SE, and all methods were validated by intra- and inter-day accuracy (expressed as recovery %) and precision (expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD)) in the same laboratory, at three fortified concentrations (n = 4). DDTs extracted from water samples by liquid-liquid partitioning and all samples were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)-electron capture detector (ECD) and confirmed by GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Linearities expressed as determination coefficients (R (2)) were ≥0.995 for matrix-matched calibrations. The recovery rate was in the range of 72-120 and 83-110%, with <15% RSD in soil and water, respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.0165 mg kg(-1) in soil and 0.132 μg L(-1) in water. Greater quantities of DDTs were extracted from soil using the MAE and SE techniques than with the SFE method. Higher amounts of DDTs were discovered in the southern (2.2-936 × 10(2) mg kg(-1)) or southwestern (86.3-2067 × 10(2) mg kg(-1)) direction from the factory than in the eastern direction (1.0-48.6 × 10(2) mg kg(-1)). An exception was the soil sample collected 50 ft (15.24 m) east (2904 × 10(2) mg kg(-1)) of the factory. The spread of DDTs in the water bodies (0.59-3.01 μg L(-1)) was approximately equal in all directions. We concluded that DDTs might have been dumped randomly around the warehouse after the closing of the factory.

  12. [Position statement. Protein/creatinine in a randomly obtained urine sample in the diagnosis of proteinuria in pregnant patients with arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Leaños Miranda and collaborators published that the measurement of protein/creatinine ratio in a single random urine sample is a reliable indicator of significant proteinuria and may be reasonably used as alternative to the 24-hours urine collection method as a diagnostic criteria for urinary protein, and it is also a criterion for identifying the disease severity. This leads us to present this successful result of the investigation as a position statement in the care of pregnant women with hypertension.

  13. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterisation of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Obtained from Animal Fecal Samples in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Adewumi, Olufunmilayo; Odewale, Gbolabo; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Adefioye, Olusolabomi Jose

    2015-01-01

    Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing E. coli in animals and different methods of identifications from Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, were investigated. Three hundred and fifty fecal samples, collected from apparently healthy cattle and pigs, were cultured and identified following standard procedures. ESBL phenotypic detection was carried out using combination disc test, double disc synergism test, and ESBL brilliance agar screening. Molecular detection of TEM, SHV, and CTX-M genes was carried out using standard molecular method. One hundred and fourteen E. coli isolates were recovered from the 350 samples processed, out of which 72 (63.2%) isolates were positive for ESBLs with multiple resistance to the antibiotics used. Eighty-one (71%) isolates were positive for ESBL by combination disc test, 90 (78.9%) were positive for double disc synergism test, and 93 (81.6%) were positive for ESBL brilliance agar. TEM and CTX-M genes were detected in 48 (42.1%) and 51 (44.7%) isolates, respectively. SHV gene was not detected in any of the isolates while TEM and CTX-M were detected in 33 (28.9%) isolates. This study showed high resistance of E. coli to antibiotics, particularly to the third generation cephalosporins. Regular monitoring and regulated use of antibiotics in livestock should be encouraged. PMID:26417371

  14. Phenotypic and Molecular Characterisation of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Obtained from Animal Fecal Samples in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olowe, Olugbenga Adekunle; Adewumi, Olufunmilayo; Odewale, Gbolabo; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Adefioye, Olusolabomi Jose

    2015-01-01

    Production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing E. coli in animals and different methods of identifications from Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria, were investigated. Three hundred and fifty fecal samples, collected from apparently healthy cattle and pigs, were cultured and identified following standard procedures. ESBL phenotypic detection was carried out using combination disc test, double disc synergism test, and ESBL brilliance agar screening. Molecular detection of TEM, SHV, and CTX-M genes was carried out using standard molecular method. One hundred and fourteen E. coli isolates were recovered from the 350 samples processed, out of which 72 (63.2%) isolates were positive for ESBLs with multiple resistance to the antibiotics used. Eighty-one (71%) isolates were positive for ESBL by combination disc test, 90 (78.9%) were positive for double disc synergism test, and 93 (81.6%) were positive for ESBL brilliance agar. TEM and CTX-M genes were detected in 48 (42.1%) and 51 (44.7%) isolates, respectively. SHV gene was not detected in any of the isolates while TEM and CTX-M were detected in 33 (28.9%) isolates. This study showed high resistance of E. coli to antibiotics, particularly to the third generation cephalosporins. Regular monitoring and regulated use of antibiotics in livestock should be encouraged. PMID:26417371

  15. Combined strategies for optimal detection of the contact point in AFM force-indentation curves obtained on thin samples and adherent cells.

    PubMed

    Gavara, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a widely used tool to study cell mechanics. Current AFM setups perform high-throughput probing of living cells, generating large amounts of force-indentations curves that are subsequently analysed using a contact-mechanics model. Here we present several algorithms to detect the contact point in force-indentation curves, a crucial step to achieve fully-automated analysis of AFM-generated data. We quantify and rank the performance of our algorithms by analysing a thousand force-indentation curves obtained on thin soft homogeneous hydrogels, which mimic the stiffness and topographical profile of adherent cells. We take advantage of the fact that all the proposed algorithms are based on sequential search strategies, and show that a combination of them yields the most accurate and unbiased results. Finally, we also observe improved performance when force-indentation curves obtained on adherent cells are analysed using our combined strategy, as compared to the classical algorithm used in the majority of previous cell mechanics studies. PMID:26891762

  16. Combined strategies for optimal detection of the contact point in AFM force-indentation curves obtained on thin samples and adherent cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavara, Núria

    2016-02-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a widely used tool to study cell mechanics. Current AFM setups perform high-throughput probing of living cells, generating large amounts of force-indentations curves that are subsequently analysed using a contact-mechanics model. Here we present several algorithms to detect the contact point in force-indentation curves, a crucial step to achieve fully-automated analysis of AFM-generated data. We quantify and rank the performance of our algorithms by analysing a thousand force-indentation curves obtained on thin soft homogeneous hydrogels, which mimic the stiffness and topographical profile of adherent cells. We take advantage of the fact that all the proposed algorithms are based on sequential search strategies, and show that a combination of them yields the most accurate and unbiased results. Finally, we also observe improved performance when force-indentation curves obtained on adherent cells are analysed using our combined strategy, as compared to the classical algorithm used in the majority of previous cell mechanics studies.

  17. Combined strategies for optimal detection of the contact point in AFM force-indentation curves obtained on thin samples and adherent cells

    PubMed Central

    Gavara, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a widely used tool to study cell mechanics. Current AFM setups perform high-throughput probing of living cells, generating large amounts of force-indentations curves that are subsequently analysed using a contact-mechanics model. Here we present several algorithms to detect the contact point in force-indentation curves, a crucial step to achieve fully-automated analysis of AFM-generated data. We quantify and rank the performance of our algorithms by analysing a thousand force-indentation curves obtained on thin soft homogeneous hydrogels, which mimic the stiffness and topographical profile of adherent cells. We take advantage of the fact that all the proposed algorithms are based on sequential search strategies, and show that a combination of them yields the most accurate and unbiased results. Finally, we also observe improved performance when force-indentation curves obtained on adherent cells are analysed using our combined strategy, as compared to the classical algorithm used in the majority of previous cell mechanics studies. PMID:26891762

  18. Source apportionment by PMF on elemental concentrations obtained by PIXE analysis of PM10 samples collected at the vicinity of lignite power plants and mines in Megalopolis, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manousakas, M.; Diapouli, E.; Papaefthymiou, H.; Migliori, A.; Karydas, A. G.; Padilla-Alvarez, R.; Bogovac, M.; Kaiser, R. B.; Jaksic, M.; Bogdanovic-Radovic, I.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2015-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is an important constituent of atmospheric pollution especially in areas under the influence of industrial emissions. Megalopolis is a small city of 10,000 inhabitants located in central Peloponnese in close proximity to three coal opencast mines and two lignite fired power plants. 50 PM10 samples were collected in Megalopolis during the years 2009-11 for elemental and multivariate analysis. For the elemental analysis PIXE was used as one of the most effective techniques in APM analytical characterization. Altogether, the concentrations of 22 elements (Z = 11-33), whereas Black Carbon was also determined for each sample using a reflectometer. Factorization software was used (EPA PMF 3.0) for source apportionment analysis. The analysis revealed that major emission sources were soil dust 33% (7.94 ± 0.27 μg/m3), biomass burning 19% (4.43 ± 0.27 μg/m3), road dust 15% (3.63 ± 0.37 μg/m3), power plant emissions 13% (3.01 ± 0.44 μg/m3), traffic 12% (2.82 ± 0.37 μg/m3), and sea spray 8% (1.99 ± 0.41 μg/m3). Wind trajectories have suggested that metals associated with emission from the power plants came mainly from west and were connected with the locations of the lignite mines located in this area. Soil resuspension, road dust and power plant emissions increased during the warm season of the year, while traffic/secondary, sea spray and biomass burning become dominant during the cold season.

  19. Preanalytic parameters in epidermal growth factor receptor mutation testing for non-small cell lung carcinoma: A review of cytologic series.

    PubMed

    da Cunha Santos, Gilda; Saieg, Mauro Ajaj

    2015-11-01

    The results from molecular assays can be affected significantly by the preanalytic condition of cytologic samples. The authors review current knowledge on the use of cytologic samples for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing in non-small cell lung cancer with a focus on preanalytic parameters. A systematic electronic search of the MEDLINE database was performed to identify original articles that reported the use of cytologic samples for EGFR molecular analysis and included a minimum of 100 samples. The information collected included author(s), journal, and year of publication; number of patients and samples; sampling method; type of preparation; type of fixative; staining techniques; mutation analysis techniques; tumor cellularity; the percentage of tumor cells; data on DNA quantity, quality, and concentration; failed assays; and the mutation rate. EGFR mutation analysis was conducted on 4999 cytologic samples from 22 studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Fine-needle aspirates and pleural effusions were the most common types of specimens used. DNA was mainly extracted from cell blocks and smears, and the most commonly reported fixatives included formalin, ethanol, and CytoLyt. Cellularity assessments and DNA yields were available from 5 studies each. The average success rate for the assays that used cytologic specimens was 95.87% (range, 85.2%-100%). The mutation rate ranged from 6% to 50.46%, and a higher mutation detection rate and lower numbers of insufficient cases were reported for pleural effusions and lymph node samples from endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration compared with histologic specimens. Low cellularity and a low percentage of tumor cells were associated with higher test failure rates. Future guidelines should consider the current data for specific recommendations regarding cytologic samples.

  20. Preanalytic parameters in epidermal growth factor receptor mutation testing for non–small cell lung carcinoma: A review of cytologic series

    PubMed Central

    Saieg, Mauro Ajaj

    2015-01-01

    The results from molecular assays can be affected significantly by the preanalytic condition of cytologic samples. The authors review current knowledge on the use of cytologic samples for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing in non–small cell lung cancer with a focus on preanalytic parameters. A systematic electronic search of the MEDLINE database was performed to identify original articles that reported the use of cytologic samples for EGFR molecular analysis and included a minimum of 100 samples. The information collected included author(s), journal, and year of publication; number of patients and samples; sampling method; type of preparation; type of fixative; staining techniques; mutation analysis techniques; tumor cellularity; the percentage of tumor cells; data on DNA quantity, quality, and concentration; failed assays; and the mutation rate. EGFR mutation analysis was conducted on 4999 cytologic samples from 22 studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Fine‐needle aspirates and pleural effusions were the most common types of specimens used. DNA was mainly extracted from cell blocks and smears, and the most commonly reported fixatives included formalin, ethanol, and CytoLyt. Cellularity assessments and DNA yields were available from 5 studies each. The average success rate for the assays that used cytologic specimens was 95.87% (range, 85.2%‐100%). The mutation rate ranged from 6% to 50.46%, and a higher mutation detection rate and lower numbers of insufficient cases were reported for pleural effusions and lymph node samples from endobronchial ultrasound‐guided transbronchial needle aspiration compared with histologic specimens. Low cellularity and a low percentage of tumor cells were associated with higher test failure rates. Future guidelines should consider the current data for specific recommendations regarding cytologic samples. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2015;123:633–643. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26288231

  1. Diagnostic and Prognostic Value of SHOX2 and SEPT9 DNA Methylation and Cytology in Benign, Paramalignant and Malignant Pleural Effusions

    PubMed Central

    Puetzer, Svenja; Leisse, Annette; Holmes, Emily Eva; Meller, Sebastian; Uhl, Barbara; Schatz, Philipp; Ivascu, Claudia; Kristiansen, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Pleural effusions (PE) are a common clinical problem. The discrimination between benign (BPE), malignant (MPE) and paramalignant (PPE) pleural effusions is highly important to ensure appropriate patient treatment. Today, cytology is the gold standard for diagnosing malignant pleural effusions. However, its sensitivity is limited due to the sometimes low abundance of tumor cells and the challenging assessment of cell morphology in cytological samples. This study aimed to develop and validate a diagnostic test, which allows for the highly specific detection of malignant cells in pleural effusions based on the DNA methylation biomarkers SHOX2 and SEPT9. A quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed which enabled the accurate and sensitive detection of SHOX2 and SEPT9 in PEs. Cytological and DNA methylation analyses were conducted in a case control study comprised of PEs from 114 patients (58 cases, 56 controls). Cytological analysis as well as SHOX2 and SEPT9 methylation resulted in 100% specificity. 21% of the cases were cytologically positive and 26% were SHOX2 or SEPT9 methylation positive. The combined analysis of cytology and DNA methylation resulted in an increase of 71% positively classified PEs from cancer patients as compared to cytological analysis alone. The absolute sensitivity of cytology and DNA methylation was not determinable due to the lack of an appropriate gold standard diagnostic for distinguishing between MPEs and PPEs. Therefore, it was unclear which PEs from cancer patients were malignant (containing tumor cells) and which PEs were paramalignant and resulted from benign conditions in cancer patients, respectively. Furthermore, DNA methylation analysis in PEs allowed the prognosis of the overall survival in cancer patients (Kaplan-Meier analysis, log rank test, p = 0.02 (SHOX2), p = 0.02 (SEPT9)). The developed test may be used as a diagnostic and prognostic adjunct to existing clinical and cytopathological investigations in patients

  2. Human papillomavirus genotypes distribution by cervical cytologic status among women attending the General Hospital of Loandjili, Pointe-Noire, Southwest Congo (Brazzaville).

    PubMed

    Boumba, Luc Magloire Anicet; Qmichou, Zineb; Mouallif, Mustapha; Attaleb, Mohammed; El Mzibri, Mohammed; Hilali, Lahoucine; Donatien, Moukassa; Ennaji, Moulay Mustapha

    2015-10-01

    HPV infection is associated with cervical cancer, one of the major public health problems in developing countries. In the Republic of Congo, despite of the high age-standardized incidence rate estimated at 25.2 per 100,000 women, molecular epidemiology data on HPV infections are very limited. We investigated HPV genotypes distribution in cervical smears among patients attending the General Hospital of Loandjili, Southwest Congo. A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted on 321 women. Liquid-based cytology samples were collected for cytological diagnosis and HPV detection. Nested-PCR was performed using MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6+ primers with genotyping by direct sequencing. Type-specific PCR for HPV-6, -11, -16, -18, -31 and -33 was also used to assess multiple infections. Out of 321 women examined, 189 (58.8%) had normal cytology, 16 (5.0%) had ASCUS and 116 (36.1%) had cytological abnormalities. HPV-DNA was detected in 22 (11.6%), 6 (37.5%), and 104 (89.6%) normal cytology, ASCUS and cytological abnormalities respectively. HPV16 was the most prevalent genotype regardless of cytological status followed by HPV70 in women without lesions and HPV33 among those with lesions. HR-HPV prevalence varied significantly according to the cervical cytology (P = 0.000). Among women without lesions, two peaks of HPV infections were observed in age group less than 30 years (60.0%) and in age group 50-59 years (7.1%). Age, age of first sex, multiple sexual partners and pregnancies were the risk factors for HPV infection in women without lesions. Our findings could be used as evidence data base for future epidemiological monitoring in this region.

  3. Characterization of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter obtained in environmental samples of a Tunisian hospital.

    PubMed

    Dziri, Raoudha; Klibi, Naouel; Alonso, Carla Andrea; Said, Leila Ben; Bellaaj, Ridha; Slama, Karim Ben; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Torres, Carmen

    2016-10-01

    The assessment of the hospital environment as a reservoir of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Tunisian hospitals is scarcely analyzed, except for Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of ESBL-producing non-E. coli Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-EbNoEc) in 300 samples of abiotic surfaces and the hands of patients and staff of a Tunisian Hospital, and to characterize the ESBL genes of the recovered isolates. ESBL-EbNoEc were recovered in 28 of 300 (9.3%) analyzed samples and were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae (n= 11), Enterobacter cloacae (n=11), Citrobacter freundii (n=4) and Klebsiella oxytoca (n=2). The bla genes identified by PCR and sequencing among the strains were as follows: 11 K.pneumoniae strains [blaCTX-M-15+ blaTEM-1+ blaSHV-11 (n=6); blaCTX-M-15+ blaTEM-1+ blaSHV-28 (n=3); blaCTX-M-15+ blaTEM-1+ blaSHV-1 (n=2)], 11 E. cloacae strains [blaCTX-M-15 (n=6); blaCTX-M-15+ blaTEM-1b (n=2); blaCTX-M-15+ blaTEM-1b+ blaOXA-1 (n=1);blaCTX-M-15+ blaOXA-1 (n=1);blaSHV-12 (n=1)], 4 C. freundii strains [blaCTX-M-15] and 2 K. oxytoca strains [blaCTX-M-15 (n=1); blaSHV-12 (n=1)]. The ISEcp1 and orf477 sequences were identified upstream and downstream of the blaCTX-M-15 gene, respectively, in 3 K. pneumoniae and 3 E. cloacae isolates. The PFGE analysis demonstrated three unrelated pulsotypes in K. pneumoniae strains and five pulsotypes in E. cloacae. The uncontrolled dissemination of ESBL-producing bacteria, even in the hospital environment, has become a real problem and new strategies and hygienic rules are needed to stop this bacterial dissemination. PMID:27492133

  4. Adenomatoid tumor of testis: A rare cytological diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Makkar, M; Dayal, P; Gupta, C; Mahajan, NC

    2013-01-01

    Adenomatoid tumor is a benign neoplasm of the male and female genital tracts arising from mesothelial cells. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) plays a pivotal role in its preoperative diagnosis. Therefore, it is imperative that pathologists should be well aware of its cytological features so as to avoid erroneous diagnosis and hence prevent unnecessary surgical interventions. We hereby, present a case of adenomatoid tumor of testis in a 41 year male diagnosed by FNAC and later confirmed by histopathological examination. PMID:23661947

  5. Diagnosis of filariasis on cytology: a series of 24 cases.

    PubMed

    Handa, Uma; Kundu, Reetu; Singhal, Niti; Mohan, Harsh

    2014-04-01

    Filariasis has a worldwide distribution, with a special predilection for tropical and subtropical areas. The microfilaria wanders in lymphatics and can be accidentally trapped in the needle during fine-needle aspiration cytology, thus leading to its incidental detection. This is a retrospective study of 24 cases of microfilarial infestation diagnosed on cytology. Accurate recognition and detection of the parasite leads to the institution of specific treatment and prevents chronic manifestations of the disease.

  6. Gait and Foot Clearance Parameters Obtained Using Shoe-Worn Inertial Sensors in a Large-Population Sample of Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dadashi, Farzin; Mariani, Benoit; Rochat, Stephane; Büla, Christophe J.; Santos-Eggimann, Brigitte; Aminian, Kamiar

    2014-01-01

    In order to distinguish dysfunctional gait, clinicians require a measure of reference gait parameters for each population. This study provided normative values for widely used parameters in more than 1,400 able-bodied adults over the age of 65. We also measured the foot clearance parameters (i.e., height of the foot above ground during swing phase) that are crucial to understand the complex relationship between gait and falls as well as obstacle negotiation strategies. We used a shoe-worn inertial sensor on each foot and previously validated algorithms to extract the gait parameters during 20 m walking trials in a corridor at a self-selected pace. We investigated the difference of the gait parameters between male and female participants by considering the effect of age and height factors. Besides; we examined the inter-relation of the clearance parameters with the gait speed. The sample size and breadth of gait parameters provided in this study offer a unique reference resource for the researchers. PMID:24379049

  7. Otoscopic, cytological, and microbiological examination of the equine external ear canal.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Sandra J; Frank, Linda A; Buchanan, Benjamin R; Donnell, Robert L; Morandi, Federica

    2006-06-01

    Otoscopic examination and cytology of the equine ear would be beneficial in diseases such as head trauma, headshaking, otitis externa secondary to otitis media, vestibular disease, aural neoplasia and aural pruritus secondary to parasites. In practice, otic examinations of horses are rarely done due to the perceived difficulty in visualizing the equine external ear canal and tympanic membrane, as well as the need for chemical restraint. In this study, the proximal external ear canal was examined in live horses using a handheld otoscope and in cadaver heads using video otoscopy. Visualization of the proximal ear canal of the sedated horse could be done with a handheld otoscope, but more sedation or general anaesthesia and a video otoscope would be required to adequately visualize the tympanic membrane in the live horse. The proximal ear canals of 18 horses were examined cytologically and cultured aerobically. In three horses, both ears were sampled. No cells or organisms were seen on cytological examination of 11/21 ears. Nine of the 21 ears were sterile when cultured. Ten of the 21 ears had mixed growth with low numbers of organisms (Corynebacterium sp. being most common). Two of the 21 ears had heavy growth of a single organism (Corynebacterium sp. and Staphylococcus intermedius, respectively). Equine cadaver heads were examined in cross-section by computed tomography (CT) imaging and histopathology in order to further understand the anatomy of the equine external ear canal. Equine practitioners should be aware that otic examination is possible and may provide important diagnostic information.

  8. Intraoperative squash cytology of central nervous system lesions: a single center study of 326 cases.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Sushila; Vij, Mukul; Jaiswal, Awadhesh Kumar; Behari, Sanjay

    2012-02-01

    Cytology has been shown to be of great value in intraoperative consultations of central nervous system (CNS) pathology. Intraoperative smear cytology provides a rapid and reliable intraoperative diagnosis and guidance to the neurosurgeon during surgical resection and lesion targeting. It also helps the surgeon to monitor and modify the approach at surgery. The current study was undertaken to assess the accuracy and utility of intraoperative consultations for cytomorphological diagnosis by smear technique and correlate with histopathological diagnosis. A retrospective study of 326 cases of CNS intraoperative consultations was performed. Smears were prepared from the biopsy samples sent in isotonic saline for immediate processing and stained by the Haematoxylin and Eosin method. The cytomorphological features were noted and correlated with final histopathological diagnosis. Concordance between the intraoperative diagnosis and the final diagnosis was seen in 83.7% of cases. We demonstrated >95% accuracy for glioblastomas and >89% accuracy for meningiomas and schwannomas. A reduction of diagnostic accuracy was seen in oligodendrogliomas (60%) and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (57.2%). Smear technique is a fairly accurate, relatively safe, rapid, simple, easily reproducible, and cost effective tool to diagnose brain tumors. Smear cytology is of great value in intraoperative consultation of CNS pathology.

  9. Fine needle aspiration cytology of oral and pharyngeal lesions. A study of 45 cases.

    PubMed

    Das, D K; Gulati, A; Bhatt, N C; Mandal, A K; Khan, V A; Bhambhani, S

    1993-01-01

    Forty-five patients with oral or pharyngeal swellings were subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the mucosal surface over eight years. The age of the patients ranged from 2 to 85 years. The male:female ratio was 25:20. The common sites of involvement were palate (16 cases), cheek (9), pharynx (7) and tonsillar/peritonsillar area (6). Tongue, maxilla, alveolus and lips were less frequently involved. FNAC played an important role in differentiating inflammatory from neoplastic lesions and also benign from malignant neoplasms. Fifteen cases were cytologically diagnosed as benign neoplasms and included pleomorphic adenoma (11 cases), schwannoma (2), odontogenic tumor (1) and benign neoplasm not otherwise specified (1). Sixteen cases were diagnosed as malignancies. There were seven cases of malignant salivary gland tumors and 6 of squamous cell carcinoma. Two cases were high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and one was malignant odontogenic tumor. Of the 11 inflammatory or reactive lesions, 4 were found to be harboring Actinomyces. The rate of inadequate sampling was 6.7%. Histopathology reports on excised tissue were available for 10 cases only. Seven of nine cases with adequate cytology (77.88%) showed complete agreement with histology.

  10. Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology as a Diagnostic Tool in Orbital and Adnexal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Lubna; Malukani, Kamal; Malaiya, Siddharth; Yeshwante, Prashant; Ishrat, Saba; Nandedkar, Shirish S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration (FNAC) as a diagnostic tool in cases of orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Cytological findings were correlated with histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. Methods: FNAC was performed in 29 patients of different age groups presenting with orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Patients were evaluated clinically and investigated by non-invasive techniques before fine needle aspiration of the masses. Smears were analyzed by a cytologist in all cases. Further, results of cytology were compared with the histopathological diagnosis. Results: The age of patients ranged from 1 to 68 years (mean: 29.79±19.29). There were 14 males and 15 females with a male to female ratio of 0.93:1. Out of 29 cases, 26 aspirates were cellular. Cellularity was insufficient in three (10.34%) aspirates. Out of 26 cellular aspirates, 11 were non-neoplastic while 15 were neoplastic on cytology. Subsequent histopathologic examination was done in 21/26 cases. Concordance rate of FNAC in orbital and ocular adnexal mass lesions with respect to the precise histologic diagnosis was 90%. Conclusion: When properly used in well-indicated patients (in cases where a diagnosis cannot be made by clinical and imaging findings alone), FNAC of orbital and periorbital lesions is an invaluable and suitable adjunct diagnostic technique that necessitates close cooperation between the ophthalmologist and cytologist. However, nondiagnostic aspirates may sometimes be obtained, and an inconclusive FNAC should not always be ignored. PMID:27621787

  11. Small pancreatic cancer with pancreas divisum preoperatively diagnosed by pancreatic juice cytology.

    PubMed

    Obana, Takashi; Fujita, Naotaka; Noda, Yutaka; Kobayashi, Go; Ito, Kei; Horaguchi, Jun; Takasawa, Osamu; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Sawai, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of small pancreatic head cancer with pancreas divisum preoperatively diagnosed by pancreatic juice cytology. A 60-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for evaluation of a dilated main pancreatic duct (MPD). A small and poorly reproducible low-echoic lesion in the pancreas was suspected by ultrasonography (US) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) failed to visualize the ventral pancreatic duct, and the upstream dorsal pancreatic duct was dilated. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was indicative of pancreas divisum, and complete obstruction of the MPD in the pancreatic head was seen. Cytology of pancreatic juice obtained from the dorsal pancreas after minor papilla sphincterotomy revealed the presence of adenocarcinoma cells. Pancreatoduodenectomy was performed under the diagnosis of pancreatic head cancer with pancreas divisum. Histological examination revealed moderately-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma 20 mm in diameter, located in the pancreatic head. Dilatation of the dorsal pancreatic duct is sometimes observed in cases with pancreas divisum without the presence of tumors. When pancreatic duct stenosis also exists in such cases, even if a tumor is not clearly visualized by diagnostic imaging, vigorous examinations such as pancreatic juice cytology are recommended to establish an accurate diagnosis.

  12. [Risk factors for uterine cervical cancer according to results of VIA, cytology and cervicography].

    PubMed

    dos Anjos, Saiwori de Jesus Silva Bezerra; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Franco, Eugênio Santana; de Almeida, Paulo César; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between risk factors for uterine cervical neoplasms and cervical lesions by HPV by comparison of the visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), cytology and cervicography results. A prevalence research was made with 157 women in a health center of Fortaleza in the period of June to September 2006. The SPSS program was used to codify the data. Inferences were made through statistical tests (chi2 = chi square and LR = likelihood ratio). The VIA, cervicography and cytology obtained 43.3%, 10.19% and 3.2% of altered results. The variables with important association to cervical lesions in the VIA were: aged less than 20 years old (p = 0.0001); one or more partners in the last three months (p = 0.015); use of contraceptives (p = 0.0008); presence of vaginal discharge (p = 0.0001) and moderate or accentuated inflammatory process (p = 0.0001). In the cytology: low instructional level (p = 0.0001) and high pH (p = 0.001). It wasn't found any significant association in the cervicography.

  13. Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology as a Diagnostic Tool in Orbital and Adnexal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Lubna; Malukani, Kamal; Malaiya, Siddharth; Yeshwante, Prashant; Ishrat, Saba; Nandedkar, Shirish S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration (FNAC) as a diagnostic tool in cases of orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Cytological findings were correlated with histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. Methods: FNAC was performed in 29 patients of different age groups presenting with orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Patients were evaluated clinically and investigated by non-invasive techniques before fine needle aspiration of the masses. Smears were analyzed by a cytologist in all cases. Further, results of cytology were compared with the histopathological diagnosis. Results: The age of patients ranged from 1 to 68 years (mean: 29.79±19.29). There were 14 males and 15 females with a male to female ratio of 0.93:1. Out of 29 cases, 26 aspirates were cellular. Cellularity was insufficient in three (10.34%) aspirates. Out of 26 cellular aspirates, 11 were non-neoplastic while 15 were neoplastic on cytology. Subsequent histopathologic examination was done in 21/26 cases. Concordance rate of FNAC in orbital and ocular adnexal mass lesions with respect to the precise histologic diagnosis was 90%. Conclusion: When properly used in well-indicated patients (in cases where a diagnosis cannot be made by clinical and imaging findings alone), FNAC of orbital and periorbital lesions is an invaluable and suitable adjunct diagnostic technique that necessitates close cooperation between the ophthalmologist and cytologist. However, nondiagnostic aspirates may sometimes be obtained, and an inconclusive FNAC should not always be ignored.

  14. Cervical screening by visual inspection, HPV testing, liquid-based and conventional cytology in Amazonian Peru.

    PubMed

    Almonte, Maribel; Ferreccio, Catterina; Winkler, Jennifer L; Cuzick, Jack; Tsu, Vivien; Robles, Sylvia; Takahashi, Rina; Sasieni, Peter

    2007-08-15

    Cervical cancer is an important public health problem in many developing countries, where cytology screening has been ineffective. We compared four tests to identify the most appropriate for screening in countries with limited resources. Nineteen midwives screened 5,435 women with visual inspection (VIA) and collected cervical samples for HPV testing, liquid-based cytology (LBC) and conventional cytology (CC). If VIA was positive, a doctor performed magnified VIA. CC was read locally, LBC was read in Lima and HPV testing was done in London. Women with a positive screening test were offered colposcopy or cryotherapy (with biopsy). Inadequacy rates were 5% and 11% for LBC and CC respectively, and less than 0.1% for VIA and HPV. One thousand eight hundred eighty-one women (84% of 2,236) accepted colposcopy/cryotherapy: 79 had carcinoma in situ or cancer (CIS+), 27 had severe- and 42 moderate-dysplasia on histology. We estimated a further 6.5 cases of CIS+ in women without a biopsy. Sensitivity for CIS+ (specificity for less than moderate dysplasia) was 41.2% (76.7%) for VIA, 95.8% (89.3%) for HPV, 80.3% (83.7%) for LBC, and 42.5% (98.7%) for CC. Sensitivities for moderate dysplasia or worse were better for VIA (54.9%) and less favourable for HPV and cytology. In this setting, VIA and CC missed the majority of high-grade disease. Overall, HPV testing performed best. VIA gives immediate results, but will require investment in regular training and supervision. Further work is needed to determine whether screened-positive women should all be treated or triaged with a more specific test. PMID:17437272

  15. Hepatitis C virus infection among pregnant women in Slovenia: study on 31,849 samples obtained in four screening rounds during 1999, 2003, 2009 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Kopilović, B; Poljak, M; Seme, K; Klavs, I

    2015-06-04

    The majority of people infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are unaware of their infection. Assessment of the prevalence of HCV infection in the general population and in key populations at increased risk is needed for evidence-based testing policies. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV), the prevalence of HCV viraemia (HCV RNA), and to describe HCV genotype distribution among pregnant women in Slovenia. Unlinked anonymous testing was performed on residual sera obtained from 31,849 pregnant women for routine syphilis screening during 1999, 2003, 2009, and 2013. Anti-HCV reactive specimens were tested for HCV RNA and HCV genotypes were determined. Annual prevalence of anti-HCV ranged between 0.09% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03–0.18) in 2009 and 0.21% (95% CI: 0.12–0.34) in 2003 and HCV RNA positivity between 0.06% (95% CI: 0.02–0.14) in 2009 and 0.14% (95% CI: 0.07–0.25) in 2003. We observed no statistically significant differences in anti-HCV or HCV RNA prevalence between age groups (<20, 20–29 and ≥30 years) in any year and no trend in time. Of 29 HCV active infections, 19 were with genotype 1 and 10 with genotype 3. HCV infection among pregnant women was rare suggesting a low burden in the Slovenian general population. Antenatal screening for HCV in Slovenia could not be recommended.

  16. Cervical cytology service in Nigeria: providers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Adesina, O A; Babarinsa, I A; Fawole, O A; Oladokun, A; Adeniji, A R; Adewole, I F

    2003-07-01

    It has been noted that efforts to organise an effective screening programme in developing countries will have to find adequate financial resources, develop the infrastructure, train the necessary manpower and elaborate surveillance mechanisms. In our study, we set out to determine (a) just how frequent is cervical cancer, to warrant the investment of funds in screening programmes; (b) what proportion of surveyed health facilities offer a cervical cytology screening programme; and (c) what basic facilities are currently available where such programmes exist? A pretested, self-completed questionnaire was sent to heads of department of obstetrics and gynaecology in public tertiary and secondary care hospitals in Nigeria as well as major mission hospitals. The response rate was 63%, monthly consultations included a mean of 114 (+/-11.7) new gynaecological patients and an average of 5 (4.7+/-0.8) cervical cancer cases. One-half of the institutions had a hospital-based cervical screening programme with an average of 27 patients being screened monthly. Finance was the main difficulty encountered in maintaining a screening service. Only four had a certified gynaecological oncologist. In conclusion, there is dismal utilisation of available services and a dearth of trained specialists should any cervical cancer screening programme be considered. PMID:12881085

  17. Role of micronucleus in oral exfoliative cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shashikala, R.; Indira, A. P.; Manjunath, G. S.; rao, K. Arathi; Akshatha, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, the interest for oral cytology as a diagnostic and prognostic methodology, for monitoring patients in oral potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer has re-emerged substantially. In 1983, buccal mucosal micronuclei assay was first proposed to evaluate genetic instability. There are biomarkers that predict if a potentially malignant disorder is likely to develop into an aggressive tumor. These genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals have been reported to be potent clastogenic and mutagenic agents which are thought to be responsible for the induction of chromatid/chromosomal aberrations resulting in the production of micronuclei. Various studies have concluded that the gradual increase in micronucleus (MN) counts from normal oral mucosa to potentially malignant disorders to oral carcinoma suggested a link of this biomarker with neoplastic progression. MN scoring can be used as a biomarker to identify different preneoplastic conditions much earlier than the manifestations of clinical features and might specifically be exploited in the screening of high-risk population for a specific cancer. Hence, it can be used as a screening prognostic and educational tool in community centers of oral cancer. PMID:26538888

  18. Cervical cytology screening convenient for the workforce.

    PubMed

    Andren, S M

    1991-01-01

    The study describes the demographic details and smear results of women attending a Well Woman Clinic in an Occupational Health setting over a two year period. The clinic is located close to the place of work, run during working hours, and operated by a doctor and nurse. Charging fees acceptable to women attending or their employers, the service has made a modest profit and offers scope for increasing the income against fixed costs. The age range attending is older than commonly found at screening clinics. The abnormal smear detection rate, 115 per 1000 is high while the proportion of inadequate results at 50 per 1000 compares favourably with other clinics. In an area with 13 per cent Asian population, only 5 per cent of attenders were Asian but of these one fifth had abnormal smears. A cervical cytology screening facility timed and located for the convenience of the working woman is found to attract a group of women in the older age range who have a high abnormal smear rate, and those who fail to attend elsewhere. PMID:1779673

  19. SOME CYTOLOGICAL AND PATHOGENIC PROPERTIES OF SPHEROPLASTS OF CANDIDA ALBICANS

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, George S.; Friedman, Lorraine; Kofroth, Judith F.

    1964-01-01

    Kobayashi, George S. (Tulane University, New Orleans, La.), Lorraine Friedman, and Judith F. Kofroth. Some cytological and pathogenic properties of spheroplasts of Candida albicans. J. Bacteriol. 88:795–801. 1964.—Spheroplasts of Candida albicans were prepared by use of an enzymatic mixture from the digestive tract of the snail Helix pomatia. Untreated cells exhibited well-defined cell walls, whereas such structures were absent from spheroplasts. The intravenous inoculation of either spheroplasts or intact cells into rabbits produced a fever which was apparent within 30 min, the “immediate” fever response characteristic of microbial endotoxin. Cell-wall fragments of enzyme-treated cells did not induce a convincing pyrogenic response. When the inoculum was viable, body temperatures did not return to normal but remained elevated until death of the animal 1 or more days later, exhibiting the “delayed” fever of infection. The gross pathological picture in animals succumbing to infection by viable spheroplasts was similar to that obtained with untreated yeast cells. Images PMID:14208520

  20. Urine cytology. It is still the gold standard for screening?

    PubMed

    Brown, F M

    2000-02-01

    Urine cytology remains the gold standard for bladder cancer screening. It is the test against which all others are compared when evaluating potential bladder tumor markers. The answer to whether urine cytology possess the optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity to retain consideration as the best screening device depends on the goals of the clinical practice. Urine cytology has excellent specificity with few false-positive cases. Its overall sensitivity is poor, but this drawback is explained for the most part by poor criteria for identifying well-differentiated, low-grade TCC. The natural history of such lesions is the occurrence of multiple superficial recurrences in 70% to 80% of patients, with only a minority (10% to 15%) progressing to muscle invasive or metastatic disease. Because patients with low-grade TCC are at low risk for progression, they are monitored primarily for the development of a subsequent tumor. One might argue that the detection of new low-grade lesions is of secondary importance to the early detection of disease progression. The performance characteristics of urine cytology in this regard are much improved. Urine cytology often results in the identification of high-grade malignant cells even before a cystoscopically distinguishable gross lesion is present. Routinely diagnosing grade I TCC may be clinically irrelevant. Ancillary techniques to improve the sensitivity of urine cytology have been insufficiently additive to have much clinical value. Several promising bladder tumor markers have been investigated as potential screening tools and are summarized in Table 3. BTA, nuclear matrix proteins, and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products share lower specificities than urine cytology and may have high rates of false positivity. Telomerase is highly sensitive and highly specific but is not readily available as a point-of-service test. Hyaluronidase and hyaluronic acid are promising prognostic markers, but hyaluronidase does not

  1. Reliability of a rapid hematology stain for sputum cytology*

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Jéssica; Pizzichini, Emilio; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes; Steidle, Leila John Marques; Rocha, Cristiane Cinara; Ferreira, Samira Cardoso; Zimmermann, Célia Tânia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reliability of a rapid hematology stain for the cytological analysis of induced sputum samples. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study comparing the standard technique (May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain) with a rapid hematology stain (Diff-Quik). Of the 50 subjects included in the study, 21 had asthma, 19 had COPD, and 10 were healthy (controls). From the induced sputum samples collected, we prepared four slides: two were stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa, and two were stained with Diff-Quik. The slides were read independently by two trained researchers blinded to the identification of the slides. The reliability for cell counting using the two techniques was evaluated by determining the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for intraobserver and interobserver agreement. Agreement in the identification of neutrophilic and eosinophilic sputum between the observers and between the stains was evaluated with kappa statistics. Results: In our comparison of the two staining techniques, the ICCs indicated almost perfect interobserver agreement for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.98-1.00), as well as substantial agreement for lymphocyte counts (ICC: 0.76-0.83). Intraobserver agreement was almost perfect for neutrophil, eosinophil, and macrophage counts (ICC: 0.96-0.99), whereas it was moderate to substantial for lymphocyte counts (ICC = 0.65 and 0.75 for the two observers, respectively). Interobserver agreement for the identification of eosinophilic and neutrophilic sputum using the two techniques ranged from substantial to almost perfect (kappa range: 0.91-1.00). Conclusions: The use of Diff-Quik can be considered a reliable alternative for the processing of sputum samples. PMID:25029648

  2. Makorin Ring Finger Protein 1 as Adjunctive Marker in Liquid-based Cervical Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Maria; Chang, Min Young; Shin, Ha-Yeon; Shin, Eunah; Hong, Sun Won; Kim, Kyung-Mi; Chay, Doo Byung; Cho, Hanbyoul; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To assess the utility of makorin ring finger protein 1 (MKRN1) as a marker of cervical pathology. A PROspective specimen collection and retrospective Blinded Evaluation study was conducted. Liquid-based cytology samples were collected from 187 women, embedding all residuals as cell blocks for immunohistochemical staining of MKRN1 and P16 INK4a. Results of liquid-based cervical cytology, immunostained cell block sections, and human papillomavirus (HPV) hybrid capture (with real-time polymerase chain reaction) were analyzed. Clinical outcomes were analyzed overall and in subsets of specimens yielding atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Makorin ring finger protein 1 positivity and grades (1–3) of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) increased in tandem (CIN1, 32.4%; CIN2, 60.0%; and CIN3, 80.0%), reaching 92.3% in invasive cancer. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value in detecting CIN2+ via MKRN1 were 73.8%, 76.8%, 75.6%, and 75.0%, respectively. The performance of liquid-based cytology was poorer by comparison (61.3%, 69.5%, 66.2%, and 64.8%, respectively), and HPV assay (versus MKRN1 immunohistochemical staining) displayed lower specificity (67.7%). Combined HPV + MKRN1 testing proved highest in sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value (71.8%, 85.5%, 82.3%, and 76.5%, respectively), whereas corresponding values for cytology + HPV (60.6%, 81.8%, 75.4%, and 69.2%) and cytology + MKRN1 (58.8%, 84.1%, 78.3%, and 67.7%) were all similar. In instances of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, the HPV + MKRN1 combination performed best by above measures (100%, 72.7%, 73.9%, and 100%), followed by cytology + MKRN1 (100%, 50.0%, 60.7%, and 100%). Makorin ring finger protein 1 displayed greater sensitivity and specificity than liquid

  3. Cytological grading of canine cutaneous mast cell tumours.

    PubMed

    Scarpa, Filippo; Sabattini, Silvia; Bettini, Giuliano

    2016-09-01

    A cytological grading for mast cell tumours (MCTs) would be highly desirable, allowing to select the most appropriate therapeutic intervention prior to surgery. This study evaluates the applicability on fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) of the novel Kiupel grading system, based on number of mitoses, multinucleated cells, bizarre nuclei and presence of karyomegaly. Fifty consecutive cases with pre-operative cytological diagnosis were included. In cytological specimens, approximately 1000 cells were evaluated, and the histological grade was assessed on the corresponding resected specimens. On cytology, the above parameters were significantly different between histologically low-grade and high-grade tumours (P < 0.001). The cytograding correctly predicted the histological grade in 47 cases (accuracy, 94%; sensitivity, 84.6%; specificity, 97.3%). Two high-grade MCTs (4%) were not detected on cytology. The cytograding can provide helpful insights to assist clinical decisions in most cases. However, the risk of underestimation in a minority of patients represents a limit to the overall utility of the technique.

  4. The role of intraoperative scrape cytology in vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Inuganti, Renuka Venkata; Mettu, Rami Reddy; Surath, Harsha Vardhan; Surath, Amarnath

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To assess the adequacy of intraoperative scrape cytology during percutaneous vertebroplasty by correlating results with corresponding histopathology. Settings and Design: Vertebroplasty is a procedure increasingly used to treat painful vertebral compression fractures. The history and presentation of osteoporotic fractures are straightforward, but difficulty arises in differentiating infective from neoplastic lesions, especially in cases where the magnetic resonance imaging is equivocal. The procedure involves injection of polymethyl methacrylate (bone cement) into the pathological vertebral body and gives dramatic pain relief. It is indicated in osteoporotic and neoplastic lesions but contraindicated in infections. Hence, intraoperative evaluation of a specimen is essential to aid in the decision of performing vertebroplasty. Subjects and Methods: A total of 128 patients with vertebral lesions underwent core biopsy and scrape cytology from June 2006 to June 2015. Based on the findings of cytological examination, malignant lesions were subjected to vertebroplasty. In lesions with infective etiology, vertebroplasty was abandoned and antibiotic or antituberculous therapy started. Results: The overall diagnostic accuracy of scrape cytology was excellent with 97.58% cases correlating with the final histopathological diagnosis. Specificity was 100%, positive predictive value was 100% and negative predictive value was 33.33%. Conclusion: Scrape cytology is a simple, rapid, accurate cytodiagnostic technique and should be routinely utilized in vertebral lesions for intraoperative consultation and decision making during vertebroplasty. PMID:27298628

  5. In vivo cytological observation of liver and spleen by using high-resolution microendoscopy system under endoscopic ultrasound guidance: A preliminary study using a swine model

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Rei; Shin, Dongsuk; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Coghlan, Lezlee; Bhutani, Manoop S.

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is useful to obtain specimens from lesions underlying deep parts of the liver and spleen. However, the development of novel ancillary techniques must be explored to reduce the number of needle passes and potential adverse effects during this procedure. We conducted an animal study using a swine to demonstrate technical feasibility of in vivo cytological observation of liver and spleen using the high-resolution microendoscopy (HRME) system under EUS guidance. We successfully performed the study. No significant acute adverse events occurred during the procedure. The HRME system could obtain clear images representing cytology-level morphology of spleen and liver. Hence, it is found out that in vivo cytological observation of liver and spleen using the HRME system under EUS guidance is technically feasible. PMID:27503155

  6. Cytological diagnosis of chondroblastoma: diagnostic challenge for the cytopathologist.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Kafil; Qadri, Shagufta; Sen Ray, Prasenjit; Sherwani, Rana K

    2014-05-29

    Chondroblastoma is an uncommon osseous neoplasm that accounts for less than 1% of all bone tumours. It characteristically arises in the epiphysis or epimetaphyseal region of long bones and has been reported to affect people of all ages with slight male predilection. WHO has defined chondroblastoma as 'a benign, cartilage-producing neoplasm usually arising in the epiphyses of skeletally immature patients'. The authors document the cytological features on fine-needle aspiration cytology of a chondroblastoma which appeared as a lytic lesion in the upper end of the right fibula, an uncommon site, in an 18-year-old male patient. X-ray feature combined with fine-needle aspiration cytology favoured the diagnosis of chondroblastoma, which was further confirmed by histopathological examination.

  7. CD-ROM transnational training program in cervical cytology (CYTOTRAIN).

    PubMed

    Marsan, C; Coleman, D V; Branca, M; Cochand-Priollet, B; Molinié, V

    2001-01-01

    The Transnational Training Programme in Cervical Cytology (CYTOTRAIN) is a 3-yr project funded by the European Commission to harmonize training and quality standards in cervical screening across the European Union. The aim of the program is to develop new approaches in initial and continuing vocational training, particularly in the area of life-long learning with the aim of meeting national, regional, and local needs. We present a new approach to training in cervical cytology, using an interactive program of cytological images. The method used to prepare the program and the problems encountered are described. The authors have the feeling that giving details of the organizational and management structure adopted for the project implementation might help other pathologists realize more or less similar CD-ROM training programs in their own field of activity.

  8. Cytological diagnosis of chondroblastoma: diagnostic challenge for the cytopathologist.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Kafil; Qadri, Shagufta; Sen Ray, Prasenjit; Sherwani, Rana K

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is an uncommon osseous neoplasm that accounts for less than 1% of all bone tumours. It characteristically arises in the epiphysis or epimetaphyseal region of long bones and has been reported to affect people of all ages with slight male predilection. WHO has defined chondroblastoma as 'a benign, cartilage-producing neoplasm usually arising in the epiphyses of skeletally immature patients'. The authors document the cytological features on fine-needle aspiration cytology of a chondroblastoma which appeared as a lytic lesion in the upper end of the right fibula, an uncommon site, in an 18-year-old male patient. X-ray feature combined with fine-needle aspiration cytology favoured the diagnosis of chondroblastoma, which was further confirmed by histopathological examination. PMID:24876212

  9. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: cytological and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Greenstone, M; Rutman, A; Dewar, A; Mackay, I; Cole, P J

    1988-05-01

    Thirty patients with functional and/or morphological abnormalities of respiratory tract cilia were identified. The diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia was based on observed abnormalities of ciliary ultrastructure or beating in vitro (beat pattern, beat frequency or percentage of motile cilia). Beat frequency and motility indices approached the normal range in some cases and suggests that the term 'immotile cilia syndrome' is not appropriate. Morphological abnormalities were most commonly due to deficiency of dynein arms, affecting the outer arms (n = 7), inner arms (n = 3) or both (n = 10). Examples of radial spoke and microtubular defects were also identified but in seven subjects ciliary ultrastructure was normal. In six patients paired samples of nasal and bronchial cilia were obtained and showed consistent abnormalities of motility and ultrastructure. Adenosine triphosphate and adenosine triphosphatase did not restore in vitro motility when added to dynein deficient cilia. The clinical picture was of life-long sinusitis and recurrent bronchial infection but the spectrum was broader than that encompassed by Kartagener's triad (dextrocardia, sinusitis and bronchiectasis). Fourteen patients had normal cardiac situs and definite or highly suggestive evidence of bronchiectasis was present in only 17 patients. Radiological evidence of sinusitis was common but absence of frontal sinuses was not universal. Chronic serous otitis media was a frequent finding but deafness was rarely profound. Fertility problems were common but were not universal in female subjects. Lung function testing revealed evidence of airflow obstruction but this was mild in most cases. PMID:2975807

  10. Using cytology to increase small animal practice revenue.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Joanne

    2013-11-01

    Diagnostic cytology is a useful, noninvasive test with practical foundations in high-quality medicine and applications to practice building. Cytology will generate practice revenue whether assessed in-house or sent to a clinical pathologist. Thorough in-house evaluation is adequate in some cases, but expert opinion is important in many cases. Specimen slides should at least be reviewed in-house for assessment of cellularity and potential artifacts before submission to a reference laboratory. Reference laboratories also provide special stains and advanced molecular diagnostics to help further characterize many neoplastic processes, search for organisms, identify pigments, and address other important aspects of the lesion. PMID:24144097

  11. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the breast. An overview.

    PubMed

    Naylor, B

    1988-01-01

    With the development of the Breast Care Center in the University of Michigan, we experienced over a 4-year period a 1,200% increase in the number of breast aspirates received annually in our cytopathology laboratory. During this period, as newcomers to breast aspiration cytology, we achieved an 81.4% positive diagnosis rate in 161 cases of breast cancer without any false positives. This article reviews our experience with fine-needle aspiration cytology of the breast with particular reference to (a) procurement of specimens, (b) cytopathology of benign lesions, (c) cytopathology of malignant lesions, and (d) advantages of the procedure.

  12. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland of adults.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; Bárcena, Carmen; Agra, Carolina; Asunción, Alfonso

    2015-08-01

    It is well known that the histology of normal pineal gland may resemble not only pineal tumors but also gliomas, owing to its cellularity which is much greater than that of normal white or gray matter. Our recent experience with a case in which part of a normal gland was submitted for intraoperative consultation, together with the scarcity of cytologic descriptions, led us to perform a cyto-histologic correlation study. In addition to the intraoperative case, we collected five pineal glands from consecutive adult autopsies. During the squash procedure, we often noted the presence of calcified grains. Smears were hypercellular, distributed in tissue fibrillary fragments and as numerous single cells, with crystalline structures. Pineal gland cells (pineocytes) were large, round, epithelioid with ill-defined cytoplasms and moderate nuclear pleomorphism. Spindle cells with greater fibrillary quality were less common. One of the most remarkable findings seen in all cases was the presence of cytoplasmic pigment. Histological evaluation and immunohistochemical staining confirmed that the tissue was normal pineal gland. The histology showed a characteristic lobular aspect and frequent corpora arenacea. The pigment seen cytologically was also encountered in histology and corresponded to lipofuscin. Cytologic features of the pineal gland are peculiar when compared to other normal structures of the central nervous system. These features correlate closely with what is seen on histology. In an adequate clinical context, and in combination with frozen sections, cytology allows a specific recognition of the pineal gland during intraoperative pathologic consultations.

  13. Cytologic features of the normal pineal gland on squash preparations.

    PubMed

    Murro, Diana; Alsadi, Alaa; Nag, Sukriti; Arvanitis, Leonidas; Gattuso, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    As primary pineal lesions are extremely rare, many surgical pathologists are unfamiliar with normal pineal cytologic features. We describe cytologic features of the normal pineal gland in patients of varying ages and identify common diagnostic pitfalls. We performed a retrospective review of pineal gland biopsies performed at our institution, where approximately 30,000 surgical specimens are accessioned yearly, for the last 23 years. Only two pineal gland biopsies were found. Although both cases were initially diagnosed as low-grade gliomas on frozen section, the final diagnosis was benign pineal tissue based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry results. Additionally, we performed squash preparations of five normal pineal gland autopsy specimens with Papanicolaou and Diff-Quik® (Dade Behring, Newark, DE) stains. Infant preparations were highly cellular smears composed of numerous, uniform, single cells with indistinct cytoplasm, small round-to-oval nuclei, fine chromatin, and absent nucleoli and calcifications. The vague microfollicular pattern mimicked a pineocytoma and the fine fibrillary background mimicked a glial neoplasm. Young adult smears were similar; however, microcalcifications were present with fewer background single cells. Older patients had much less cellular smears composed of small clusters of cells with fusiform-to-spindle nuclei, a fine chromatin pattern, and indistinct cytoplasmic borders. There were fewer background single cells and more microcalcifications. The cytologic features of the native pineal gland vary with age. Normal pineal tissue can be confused with a pineocytoma or low-grade glioma. Familiarity with normal pineal gland cytological features will help to avoid a potential misdiagnosis.

  14. Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of citrus clementina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidizat...

  15. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma of the fibula.

    PubMed

    Malukani, Kamal; Nandedkar, Shirish S; Yeshwante, Prashant; Rihal, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare benign cartilaginous tumor typically seen in long bones, especially femur, tibia and proximal humerus. Extracortical soft tissue invasion or metastasis is rarely seen. We report here a unique case of chondroblastoma of the fibula with extracortical soft tissue invasion. Differential diagnosis on cytology is discussed.

  16. Fine needle aspiration cytology of chondroblastoma of the fibula.

    PubMed

    Malukani, Kamal; Nandedkar, Shirish S; Yeshwante, Prashant; Rihal, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    Chondroblastoma is a rare benign cartilaginous tumor typically seen in long bones, especially femur, tibia and proximal humerus. Extracortical soft tissue invasion or metastasis is rarely seen. We report here a unique case of chondroblastoma of the fibula with extracortical soft tissue invasion. Differential diagnosis on cytology is discussed. PMID:25745297

  17. Intraoperative Squash Cytologic Features of Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Nasit, Jitendra; Vaghsiya, Viren; Hiryur, Srilaxmi; Patel, Smita

    2016-01-01

    Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is a low grade (WHO Grade I) tumor, usually seen in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and commonly occurs at a lateral ventricular location. Intraoperative squash cytologic features can help in differentiating SEGA from gemistocytic astrocytoma (GA), giant cell glioblastoma and ependymoma, in proper clinical context and radiological findings, which may alter the surgical management. Here, we present a case of SEGA with squash cytologic findings and a review of cytology findings of SEGA presently available in the literature. Loose cohesive clusters of large polygonal cells containing an eccentric nucleus, evenly distributed granular chromatin, distinct to prominent nucleoli, and moderate to the abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm in a hair-like fibrillar background are the key cytologic features of SEGA. Other important features are moderate anisonucleosis and frequent binucleation and multinucleation. The absence of mitoses, necrosis, and vascular endothelial proliferation are important negative features. Other consistent features are cellular smears, few dispersed cells, few spindly strap-like cells, rare intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusion, and perivascular pseudorosettes. PMID:27013816

  18. Intraoperative Squash Cytologic Features of Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Nasit, Jitendra; Vaghsiya, Viren; Hiryur, Srilaxmi; Patel, Smita

    2016-01-01

    Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is a low grade (WHO Grade I) tumor, usually seen in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and commonly occurs at a lateral ventricular location. Intraoperative squash cytologic features can help in differentiating SEGA from gemistocytic astrocytoma (GA), giant cell glioblastoma and ependymoma, in proper clinical context and radiological findings, which may alter the surgical management. Here, we present a case of SEGA with squash cytologic findings and a review of cytology findings of SEGA presently available in the literature. Loose cohesive clusters of large polygonal cells containing an eccentric nucleus, evenly distributed granular chromatin, distinct to prominent nucleoli, and moderate to the abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm in a hair-like fibrillar background are the key cytologic features of SEGA. Other important features are moderate anisonucleosis and frequent binucleation and multinucleation. The absence of mitoses, necrosis, and vascular endothelial proliferation are important negative features. Other consistent features are cellular smears, few dispersed cells, few spindly strap-like cells, rare intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusion, and perivascular pseudorosettes. PMID:27013816

  19. Cytological characterization of anther development in Panax ginseng Meyer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Jin; Jang, Moon-Gi; Zhu, Lu; Silva, Jeniffer; Zhu, Xiaolei; Sukweenadhi, Johan; Kwon, Woo-Saeng; Yang, Deok-Chun; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-07-01

    Ginseng (Panax ginseng), a valued medicinal herb, is a slow-growing plant that flowers after 3 years of growth with the formation of a solitary terminal umbel inflorescence. However, little is known about cytological events during ginseng reproduction, such as the development of the male organ, the stamen. To better understand the mechanism controlling ginseng male reproductive development, here, we investigated the inflorescence and flower structure of ginseng. Moreover, we performed cytological analysis of anther morphogenesis and showed the common and specialized cytological events including the formation of four concentric cell layers surrounding male reproductive cells followed by subsequent cell differentiation and degeneration of tapetal cells, as well as the formation of mature pollen grains via meiosis and mitosis during ginseng anther development. Particularly, our transverse section and microscopic observations showed that the ginseng tapetal layer exhibits obvious nonsynchronous cell division evidenced by the observation of one or two tapetal layers frequently observed in one anther lobe, suggesting the unique control of cell division. To facilitate the future study on ginseng male reproduction, we grouped the anther development into 10 developmental stages according to the characterized cytological events.

  20. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., negative or within normal limits. (2) Infection other than Human Papillomavirus (HPV) (e.g., Trichomonas... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section 493.945 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  1. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... limits. (2) Infection other than Human Papillomavirus (HPV) (e.g., Trichomonas vaginalis, changes or... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section 493.945 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  2. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... limits. (2) Infection other than Human Papillomavirus (HPV) (e.g., Trichomonas vaginalis, changes or... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section 493.945 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  3. 42 CFR 493.945 - Cytology; gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... limits. (2) Infection other than Human Papillomavirus (HPV) (e.g., Trichomonas vaginalis, changes or... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cytology; gynecologic examinations. 493.945 Section 493.945 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  4. Cytologic diagnosis of adenoid cystic carcinoma of salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Nagel, H; Hotze, H J; Laskawi, R; Chilla, R; Droese, M

    1999-06-01

    The cytomorphologic features in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies from 31 primary and 33 recurrent adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACC) were investigated. The correct FNA diagnosis was established in 24 of 31 primary ACC (77%). The diagnostic clue in aspirates from ACC are large globules of extracellular matrix, partially surrounded by basaloid tumor cells. In FNAs with predominance of basaloid tumor cells, but lacking characteristic globules, all other benign and malignant salivary gland tumors of epithelial-myoepithelial differentiation should be considered in the cytologic diagnosis. Pleomorphic adenoma is most frequently confused with ACC, and therefore, the cytologic findings in FNAs from 50 pleomorphic adenomas were compared with those diagnosed as ACC. Furthermore, rare neoplasms of salivary glands with epithelial-myoepithelial cell differentiation, including basal-cell adenoma and carcinoma, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma, as well as some nonsalivary gland neoplasms presenting an adenoid cystic pattern, must be considered. The cytologic features of these entities are discussed in detail with respect to the cytologic diagnostic criteria of ACC.

  5. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing by Specialty and... participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap smears... enrolled in a proficiency testing program approved by CMS by January 1, 1995, if available in the State...

  6. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing by Specialty and... participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap smears... enrolled in a proficiency testing program approved by CMS by January 1, 1995, if available in the State...

  7. 42 CFR 493.855 - Standard; Cytology: gynecologic examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Proficiency Testing for Laboratories Performing Nonwaived Testing Proficiency Testing by Specialty and... participate successfully in a cytology proficiency testing program for gynecologic examinations (Pap smears... enrolled in a proficiency testing program approved by CMS by January 1, 1995, if available in the State...

  8. [The value of fine needle aspiration cytology in suspected neoplastic salivary gland enlargement].

    PubMed

    Schoengen, A; Binder, T; Krause, H R; Stussak, G; Zeelen, U

    1995-04-01

    Imaging offers little support in the management of salivary gland masses suggestive of a neoplastic lesion. There are also contraindications for a surgical biopsy in many cases. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is not yet widely recognized as a diagnostic tool. To date, 206 FNAC were carried out from 1986 through 1993 on 181 consecutive patients and were reviewed in the present study. Histological confirmation was possible in 174 tests, while 32 were confirmed on clinical follow-up. In sum, 192 samples were sufficient for interpretation, 10 were questionable by our standards and 4 were non-diagnostic. One hundred-seventy-one samples were true-negative, 27 true-positive, 4 false-negative and 4 false-positive. Sensitivity was 87.1% and specificity 97.7%. Out of 141 primary diagnostic procedures in which a final histologic diagnosis was available, FNAC was able to determine histogenesis in 113/124 benign lesions and 9/17 malignant masses. These included 65/67 pleomorphic adenomas and 21/22 adenolymphomas. In 8 cases a diagnosis of "adenoma" was made. Difficulties in interpretation were found in lesions that were mucoepidermoid carcinomas and, in part, adenoid cystic carcinomas. No complications occurred. Provided that there was sufficient experience in performing the aspiration technique and in cytologic interpretation, FNAC was found to be a quick, reliable, low-cost, easy-to-perform method with low risk in the management of nearly all benign and most malignant salivary gland lesions.

  9. Cystic lesions of the salivary glands: cytologic features in fine-needle aspiration biopsies.

    PubMed

    Layfield, Lester J; Gopez, Evelyn V

    2002-10-01

    A variety of neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions of the salivary glands have a predominantly cystic architecture. Fine-needle aspirates of these lesions yield watery or mucoid material, frequently of low cellularity. Such aspirates may be obtained from mucus retention cysts, lymphoepithelial cysts, cystadenomas, Warthin's tumors, cystic pleomorphic adenomas, low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas, cystadenocarcinomas, and examples of polycystic disease of the parotid gland. The cellular component within the fluid obtained from these lesions may be exceedingly scant or absent, making cytologic diagnosis difficult and, at times, impossible. We studied a series of 56 cystic lesions of the salivary glands, including 38 Warthin's tumors, 6 benign cysts, 2 lymphoepithelial cysts, 5 low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas, 1 cystic pleomorphic adenoma, 2 cystadenomas, and 2 cystadenocarcinomas. Careful attention to the cellular elements present often allowed definitive cytologic diagnosis, with an overall accuracy rate of 84%. The presence of atypical squamous metaplasia in oncocytic lesions was a significant cause of false-positive diagnoses of carcinoma (4 cases, 7%). Aspirates of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma may contain no epithelial cells and result in false-negative diagnoses (1 case, 2%).

  10. Ki-67 cytological index can distinguish well-differentiated from poorly differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: a comparative cytohistological study of 53 cases.

    PubMed

    Carlinfante, Gabriele; Baccarini, Paola; Berretti, Debora; Cassetti, Tiziana; Cavina, Maurizio; Conigliaro, Rita; De Pellegrin, Alessandro; Di Tommaso, Luca; Fabbri, Carlo; Fornelli, Adele; Frasoldati, Andrea; Gardini, Giorgio; Losi, Luisa; Maccio, Livia; Manta, Raffaele; Pagano, Nico; Sassatelli, Romano; Serra, Silvia; Camellini, Lorenzo

    2014-07-01

    The Ki-67 labeling index has been found to bear prognostic significance in gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), and it was recently incorporated in NET histological grading. Nevertheless, a reliable preoperative determination of NET grading could be useful in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to compare the results of Ki-67 labeling index, as measured on cytological samples and on surgical specimens of patients with pancreatic NETs (P-NETs). We also investigated whether concordance might be improved, using a 5 % (instead of 2 %) cutoff value for defining G2 tumors. We retrospectively identified 48 consecutive patients with 53 P-NETs, from our five institutions, and we measured Ki-67 labeling index on their cytological samples and surgical specimens. The traditional 2 % and the alternative 5 % cutoff values were used to classify G2 tumors. The concordance rate between cytological and histological grading was 46/53 (86.8 %; weighted κ statistic 0.77; 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.60-0.94). No cases of cytological G1-G2 NETs were upgraded to G3 neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) at histological grading. Cytology was found to be highly specific in the diagnosis of both G2 (94.1 %; 95 % CI 80.3-99.3) and G3 tumors (100.0 %; 95 % CI 92.8-100), but the sensitivity was poor for G2 NETs (66.7 %; 95 % CI 38.4-88.2) and high for the prediction of G3 NECs (100 %; 95 % CI 39.8-100.0). When the 5 % cutoff value was adopted, concordance rate was 49/53 (92.4 %; weighted κ 0.82; 95 % CI 0.64-1.00). In conclusion, Ki-67 cytological expression can distinguish well-differentiated (both G1 and G2) from poorly differentiated P-NETs, and it may be useful for their preoperative classification. PMID:24807732

  11. Comparison of honey with ethanol as an oral cytological fixative: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amita; Hunasgi, Santosh; Koneru, Anila; Vanishree, M; Ramalu, Surekha; Manvikar, Vardendra

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The fixation of cytological smears using ethanol is the gold standard. But, there exists a quench to search a new alternative for it due to it being expensive, carcinogenic and not freely available. Honey has various properties, like dehydrant, anti-bacterial and antioxidant. The use of honey as a preservative in funerary practices is well documented. A thorough search in the literature did not reveal any matter for the utility of honey as a fixative in cytological smear, but its use in histopathology is well recognized. Aims: To analyze the efficacy of cytological smears fixed in ethanol and 20% unprocessed honey and to compare the efficacy between the two fixatives. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 30 normal healthy individuals who willingly gave written consent. Prior to the collection of buccal cells, subjects were asked to rinse their mouth with water. Buccal cells were collected using a wooden ice cream stick. Two smears were collected from each subject. One smear was fixed in ethanol and the other was fixed in unprocessed 20% honey. The slides were washed in tap water for about 30 s, following which they were subjected to the conventional Papanicolaou staining procedure. The slides thus fixed were evaluated separately for ethanol and honey. The cytoplasmic and nuclear details were scored for 50 cells in each slide. Data were statistically analyzed using the chi-square test and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Ninety percent of the ethanol-fixed (EF) smears were adequately fixed as compared with the honey-fixed (HF) smears, which were 80% adequate. The P-value obtained was 0.47 and the data were statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Both EF and HF smears were at par with each other, and honey can be safely used as a substitute to ethanol. PMID:26229248

  12. Evaluation of EGFR mutation status in cytology specimens: an institutional experience.

    PubMed

    Aisner, D L; Deshpande, C; Baloch, Z; Watt, C D; Litzky, L A; Malhotra, B; Sepulveda, A R; Langer, C; Evans, T; Van Deerlin, V M

    2013-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status has been shown to predict response to anti-EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In patients with advanced-stage NSCLC, evaluation of mutational status is increasingly requested on biopsy or fine-needle aspiration specimens, which often have limited material. There are limited data on the suitability of cytology cell blocks (CB) for EGFR mutation testing. In this study, we report our institutional experience with cytology cell block material for EGFR mutation testing. We retrospectively reviewed EGFR mutation analyses performed on 234 surgical (SP) and cytology (CB) from October 2007 to May 2010. One hundred ninety-two SP specimens and 42 CB specimens were evaluated for EGFR mutation. CB specimens were evaluated for overall specimen size based on aggregate cellularity in comparison to small biopsy specimens, and percent tumor. Of the 192 SP and 42 CB specimens, 31 (16.1%) and 11 (26.2%) were positive for EGFR mutation, respectively; there does not appear to be an association between mutation detection rate and the source of the specimen (P = 0.124). Limited DNA was obtained from 70.0% (29/42), including 81.8% (9/11) of those which were mutation positive. Additionally, 45.4% (5/11) of mutation positive specimens had extremely low DNA yields. Although 16.6% (7/42) of CB specimens had <10% tumor, all 11 mutation positive CB cases had >10% tumor. These data indicate that CB specimens provide an alternative source for molecular evaluation of NSCLC, and that tumor percentage may be more important than specimen size and/or DNA yield in determining the suitability of these specimens for testing.

  13. BRAF p.Val600Glu (V600E) mutation detection in thyroid fine needle aspiration cell block samples: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Connull; Grieu-Iacopetta, Fabienne; Richter, Anna; Platten, Michael; Murray, Jack; Frost, Felicity A; Amanuel, Benhur; Kumarasinghe, M Priyanthi

    2015-08-01

    Assessing BRAF mutation status in thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology samples by both immunohistochemistry (IHC) and molecular methods has been documented in recent literature. We aim to highlight issues relating to quality and quantity of cellular material and DNA extracted from cell block samples.BRAF mutation status was assessed by both molecular and IHC methods in cell block material from thyroid FNA samples over a range of diagnostic categories, and correlated with available follow-up resection specimens.Of 39 samples there were 14 cases with 'inconclusive' cytology (Bethesda diagnostic categories 3, 4 or 5) and 25 cases with malignant cytology. Follow-up information was available in 38 of 39 cases and resection material for comparison in 18 of 39 case. Detection of BRAF mutation in cell block samples by combined molecular and IHC methods showed 100% specificity and 71.4% sensitivity compared to subsequent histologically confirmed BRAF mutated papillary thyroid carcinoma. IHC detected BRAF mutation in two (8.2%) cases which were negative by molecular methods and confirmed mutation positive by IHC and molecular methods on subsequent histology. Low extracted DNA concentration did not appear to preclude detection of BRAF mutation, although cell blocks with lower tumour cell content were over-represented in cases that were wild-type on FNA material and BRAF mutant on subsequent histology.BRAF mutation detection in cell block material is feasible and highly specific for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Best results are obtained by a combination of molecular and IHC methods.

  14. Anal cytological abnormalities and epidemiological correlates among men who have sex with men at risk for HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of anal cancer, a Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-related neoplasia, has been increasing in recent decades, mainly in men who have sex with men (MSM). Cytological changes of the anal epithelium induced by HPV can be detected through an anal pap smear. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiological correlates of anal cytological abnormalities among relatively young MSM at risk for HIV-1 infection, to help clarify whether or not this population deserves further investigation to assess the presence of anal cancer precursor lesions. Methods MSM were recruited among attendees of a large STI clinic for a HIV-1 screening program. Anal samples, collected with a Dracon swab in PreservCyt, were used both for liquid-based cytology and HPV testing by the Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test. Data regarding socio-demographic characteristics and sexual behavior were collected in face-to-face interviews. Results A total of 346 MSM were recruited (median age 32 years). Overall, 72.5% of the individuals had an anal HPV infection, with 56.1% of them being infected by oncogenic HPV genotypes. Anal cytological abnormalities were found in 29.8% of the cases (16.7% ASC-US and 13.1% L-SIL). Presence of ASC-US+ was strongly associated with infection by any HPV type (OR=4.21, 95% CI: 1.97-9.23), and particularly by HPV 16 and/or 18 (OR=5.62, 95% CI: 2.33-13.81). A higher proportion of ASC-US+ was found in older MSM, in those with a higher number of lifetime partners and in those with a history of ano-genital warts. However, none of these variables or the others analyzed showed any significant association with abnormal cytological findings. Conclusions The presence of anal cytological abnormalities in about one third of the recruited MSM and their strong association with HPV infection, in particular that caused by HPV 16 and/or 18, might provide a further complement to the data that now support the introduction of HPV vaccination among MSM to protect them

  15. Cervical cytology as a diagnostic tool for female genital schistosomiasis: Correlation to cervical atypia and Schistosoma polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Pavitra; van Lieshout, Lisette; Taylor, Myra; Sebitloane, Motshedisi; Zulu, Siphosenkosi Gift; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Roald, Borghild; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

    2016-01-01

    Background: Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is a tissue reaction to lodged ova of Schistosoma haematobium in the genital mucosa. Lesions can make the mucosa friable and prone to bleeding and discharge. Women with FGS may have an increased risk of HIV acquisition, and FGS may act as a cofactor in the development of cervical cancer. Objectives: To explore cytology as a method for diagnosing FGS and to discuss the diagnostic challenges in low-resource rural areas. The correlation between FGS and squamous cell atypia (SCA) is also explored and discussed. Cytology results are compared to Schistosoma polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in vaginal lavage and urine and in urine microscopy. Materials and Methods: In a clinical study, 394 women aged between 16 and 23 years from rural high schools in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, underwent structured interviews and the following laboratory tests: Cytology Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for S. haematobium ova and cervical SCA, real-time PCR for Schistosoma-specific DNA in vaginal lavage and urine samples, and urine microscopy for the presence of S. haematobium ova. Results: In Pap smears, S. haematobium ova were detected in 8/394 (2.0%). SCA was found in 107/394 (27.1%), seven of these had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Schistosoma specific DNA was detected in 38/394 (9.6%) of vaginal lavages and in 91/394 (23.0%) of urines. Ova were found microscopically in 78/394 (19.7%) of urines. Conclusion: Schistosoma PCR on lavage was a better way to diagnose FGS compared to cytology. There was a significant association between S. haematobium ova in Pap smears and the other diagnostic methods. In low-resource Schistosoma-endemic areas, it is important that cytology screeners are aware of diagnostic challenges in the identification of schistosomiasis in addition to the cytological diagnosis of SCA. Importantly, in this study, three of eight urines were negative but showed Schistosoma ova in their Pap smear, and one of them

  16. Classification of bladder cancer cell lines using Raman spectroscopy: a comparison of excitation wavelength, sample substrate and statistical algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Laura T.; Adams, Aine; O'Dea, Shirley; Domijan, Katarina; Cullen, Ivor; Hennelly, Bryan M.

    2014-05-01

    Raman microspectroscopy can be applied to the urinary bladder for highly accurate classification and diagnosis of bladder cancer. This technique can be applied in vitro to bladder epithelial cells obtained from urine cytology or in vivo as an optical biopsy" to provide results in real-time with higher sensitivity and specificity than current clinical methods. However, there exists a high degree of variability across experimental parameters which need to be standardised before this technique can be utilized in an everyday clinical environment. In this study, we investigate different laser wavelengths (473 nm and 532 nm), sample substrates (glass, fused silica and calcium fluoride) and multivariate statistical methods in order to gain insight into how these various experimental parameters impact on the sensitivity and specificity of Raman cytology.

  17. Diagnostic utility of the cell block method versus the conventional smear study in pleural fluid cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shivakumarswamy, Udasimath; Arakeri, Surekha U; Karigowdar, Mahesh H; Yelikar, BR

    2012-01-01

    Background: The cytological examinations of serous effusions have been well-accepted, and a positive diagnosis is often considered as a definitive diagnosis. It helps in staging, prognosis and management of the patients in malignancies and also gives information about various inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Diagnostic problems arise in everyday practice to differentiate reactive atypical mesothelial cells and malignant cells by the routine conventional smear (CS) method. Aims: To compare the morphological features of the CS method with those of the cell block (CB) method and also to assess the utility and sensitivity of the CB method in the cytodiagnosis of pleural effusions. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the cytology section of the Department of Pathology. Sixty pleural fluid samples were subjected to diagnostic evaluation for over a period of 20 months. Along with the conventional smears, cell blocks were prepared by using 10% alcohol–formalin as a fixative agent. Statistical analysis with the ‘z test’ was performed to identify the cellularity, using the CS and CB methods. Mc. Naemer's χ2test was used to identify the additional yield for malignancy by the CB method. Results: Cellularity and additional yield for malignancy was 15% more by the CB method. Conclusions: The CB method provides high cellularity, better architectural patterns, morphological features and an additional yield of malignant cells, and thereby, increases the sensitivity of the cytodiagnosis when compared with the CS method. PMID:22438610

  18. HPV genotype prevalence in cervical specimens with abnormal cytology: a report from north-east Italy.

    PubMed

    Rassu, Mario; Bertoloni, Giulio; Mengoli, Carlo; Peron, Antonella; Benedetti, Paolo; Palu', Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    We have investigated the prevalence of HPV DNA in cervical samples collected from 1335 women with abnormal Pap test and analysed the degree of association of HPV genotype with cervical cytological abnormality and also with patient age. The study was principally aimed at providing some cross-sectional figures on the epidemiology of HPV in our area, where the ethnic background is expected to rapidly evolve due to extensive immigration from overseas. 471 (35.3%) of the 1335 patients screened were positive for HPV DNA. A clear association was observed between cytological findings and the proportion of patients with positive HPV PCR, namely 24.0% HPV positivity in the ASCUS group (atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance), 48.7% in LSIL group (low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions), and 71.9% in HSIL group (high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions) (p-value < 0.001). High-risk (HR) HPV prevalence appeared to be different from other areas of the world; we have detected a high prevalence rate of HPV-16, 31, and 58 and a low prevalence rate of HPV-18 and 11. The prevalence of both HR and low risk (LR) genotype groups was clearly related to age (p-value < 0.001), since the prevalence of LR group had a nadir between 41 and 50 y of age and 2 peaks at 15-20 y and at over 60 y, while the curve of prevalence of HR genotypes displayed an almost inverse trend.

  19. Cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid acquired by bronchoscopy in healthy ferrets: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bercier, Marjorie; Langlois, Isabelle; Dunn, Marilyn; Hélie, Pierre; Burns, Patrick; Gara-Boivin, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the normal cytological evaluation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in healthy adult ferrets (N = 12). These ferrets underwent bronchoscopy and BAL using sterile saline [1.5 mL/kg body weight (BW)]. Percentage of fluid recovered, total leukocyte count, differential leukocyte count, and cell count of the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) were determined. The mean percentage of lavage volume recovered from the right lung and left lung were 67.8 ± 14.9% and 69.7 ± 20.0%, respectively. Gender (P = 0.12) and weight (P = 0.17) did not significantly affect the mean percentage of recovered volume. The mean percentage of recovered volume (P = 0.47) and the mean leukocyte count (P = 0.17) from the right and left lung were not significantly different. Macrophages were the main leukocyte component of the lavages, followed by neutrophils, lymphocytes, and eosinophils. The mean proportion of ELF in BAL fluid was 9.3 ± 3.7% v/v. Bronchoscopy is clinically useful for collecting good quality BAL samples for cytological analysis in ferrets. The leucocyte differential was established, which may help veterinarians to make better clinical decisions when treating respiratory disease. Further studies are required with a larger group in order to establish the healthy reference intervals for BAL values in ferrets. PMID:26733735

  20. The significance of fine needle aspiration cytology for the diagnosis and treatment of malignant lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Lopes Cardozo, P

    1980-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration biopsy of a laesion, thought to be a lymph node, is a minor procedure, which provides quick and valuable information. It should be performed with a fine needle (0.6 mM outer diameter = 23 Gauge) and a special syringe, which needs only one hand during the aspiration itself. From the experience obtained in over 6000 own patients a f.n.a.b. gives the first place information whether the laesion actually is a lymph node, or a cyst, a salivary gland, a chemodectoma or any other lesion which can mimic a lymph node, In 3000 cases a benign lymph node was found and this finding often is as important as reporting malignancy. In 2000 cases metastatic malignancy was found. In 90% of these the primary tumour could be ascertained by coupling the clinical and the cytological data. False-negatives and false-positives practically do not occur with our technique. In 1023 patients primary lymphoma was found; 523 of them being Hodgkin's disease and 500 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In fresh cases of lymphoma surgical biopsies should always be done. In relapses cytology alone will as a rule be sufficient. In case of doubt repeat the f.n.a.b. after one week and do not immediately proceed to histological biopsy.

  1. From cytology to histology: diagnosis of a relapsed mediastinal lymphoma by endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial histological needle.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Prota, Miguel Angel; Bango Álvarez, Antonio; Pérez, Liliana; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; Fuentes, Nelson; Casan, Pere

    2015-06-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is highly accurate in diagnosing mediastinal lymphadenopathies of lung cancer and benign disorders, with the advantage that it is a minimally invasive technique, unlike open surgery and mediastinoscopy. However, the diagnostic accuracy of EBUS-TBNA for the diagnosis of lymphoma in patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy is not well defined. The lack of tissue architecture obtained by cytological needles decreases the diagnostic accuracy for diagnosis and subtyping of de novo and relapsed mediastinal lymphomas. We present the first described case in the literature of an anaplastic large cell lymphoma relapsed, diagnosed on tissue fragments obtained by EBUS-TBNA with the particularity of using a histological needle. PMID:26090115

  2. Thyroid aspiration cytology: a "cell pattern" approach to interpretation.

    PubMed

    Nayar, R; Frost, A R

    2001-05-01

    The key to the interpretation of thyroid fine needle aspiration is largely dependent on the recognition of various morphologic patterns of epithelial cells, usually follicular cells, and background elements, such as colloid. These morphologic patterns consist of 3 parts: 1) The arrangement of cells with respect to one another, 2) The cytologic features of individual cells, and 3) The presence of background elements. The cellular arrangements generally encountered in fine needle aspiration of the thyroid include the follicular patterns (macro-/normo-follicular and micro-follicular), the papillary pattern, the syncytial pattern, the dispersed cell pattern, and the cystic pattern. This article approaches some of the differential diagnostic challenges encountered while interpreting thyroid aspiration cytology by focusing first on the overall cellular arrangement to generate a differential diagnosis and then narrowing that differential by assessing cellular features of individual cells and the presence of background elements. PMID:11403258

  3. Thyroid aspiration cytology: a "cell pattern" approach to interpretation.

    PubMed

    Nayar, R; Frost, A R

    2001-05-01

    The key to the interpretation of thyroid fine needle aspiration is largely dependent on the recognition of various morphologic patterns of epithelial cells, usually follicular cells, and background elements, such as colloid. These morphologic patterns consist of 3 parts: 1) The arrangement of cells with respect to one another, 2) The cytologic features of individual cells, and 3) The presence of background elements. The cellular arrangements generally encountered in fine needle aspiration of the thyroid include the follicular patterns (macro-/normo-follicular and micro-follicular), the papillary pattern, the syncytial pattern, the dispersed cell pattern, and the cystic pattern. This article approaches some of the differential diagnostic challenges encountered while interpreting thyroid aspiration cytology by focusing first on the overall cellular arrangement to generate a differential diagnosis and then narrowing that differential by assessing cellular features of individual cells and the presence of background elements.

  4. Frequency of "blue bodies" in pulmonary cytology specimens.

    PubMed

    Kung, I T; Hsu, C; Chan, S C; Leung, B S; Ng, D W

    1987-12-01

    To determine the frequency of occurrence of "blue bodies" (BBs), 2,010 pulmonary cytology specimens (1,403 sputum and 607 bronchial specimens) from 1985 were reviewed. The smears were examined microscopically by transmitted and polarized light. BBs were extracellular structures, occurring most commonly in clusters but sometimes conglomerated. With Papanicolaou stain, they had a characteristic birefringent laminated brown core and a nonbirefringent blue rim. Chemical microanalysis and energy-dispersive x-ray analysis revealed that their chemical composition was calcium carbonate. A total of 233 specimens contained BBs, with a frequency of 10.5% in bronchial specimens and 12% in sputum. Only 8.6% of the BBs had co-existent pulmonary malignancy. We concluded that BBs were common structures in pulmonary cytology and were not associated with pulmonary malignancy or pulmonary fibrosis in our series. They must be distinguished from contaminants, staining artifacts, and parasitic ova.

  5. Unexpected cytological diagnosis of two cases of echinococcosis.

    PubMed

    Giuffré, G; Mondello, P; Inferrera, A; Furchì, A; Gentile, H M; Speciale, G

    1993-01-01

    The Authors report two cases of hydatid cysts localized in the soft tissues of the thigh and in para-renal region respectively. In both cases the cystic nature of the lesion was revealed by echography while the common serologic and hematologic preoperative tests did not show pathologic values. The working diagnosis was traumatic or developmental lesion and the patients were undergone to fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology which permitted to make the unexpected diagnosis of hydatid cysts. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for echinococcus, done at the time in monitoring the disease, was positive only in one case. Although the routine use of FNA cytology for the diagnosis of echinococcosis should be discouraged, this procedure may represent a real aid in the definitive diagnose of clinically unsuspected hydatid cysts.

  6. Study of benign superficial cysts by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Roy, M; Bhattacharyya, A; Sanyal, S; Dasgupta, S

    1995-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology of 213 cases of different cystic lesions from various regions of body and different superficial organs was analysed in an attempt to present the experience of the authors in the diagnosis of such lesions. The predominant lesion diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology was adnexal cyst/sebaceous cyst (41 cases) followed by vascular hamartoma (40 cases) and thyroglossal cyst (9 cases). One hundred fifty-eight (74.2%) out 213 cases were confirmed histopathologically. There was false negative diagnosis in 14 cases (6.6%). The remaining 41 (19.2%) cases did not turn up for further treatment. The fallacies that have been recorded in the diagnosis of thyroid cysts, salivary gland cysts and breast cysts in respect of papillary cystic thyroid carcinoma, muco-epidermoid carcinoma of salivary gland and intraductal carcinoma with fibrocystic disease of breast respectively have been highlighted in the present study.

  7. Benign and malignant neoplasms of myoepithelial cells: cytologic findings.

    PubMed

    Torlakovic, E; Ames, E D; Manivel, J C; Stanley, M W

    1993-12-01

    We report two myoepithelial cell neoplasms; a salivary gland tumor was malignant and a breast neoplasm was benign. Both were studied histologically, immunohistochemically, cytologically, and ultrastructurally. The malignant myoepithelioma recurred twice and metastasized to one regional lymph node. This tumor was infiltrative with areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. It was composed of malignant-appearing spindle and plasmacytoid cells. Both types of cells were immunoreactive to muscle specific actin, S-100 protein, cytokeratin, vimentin, and neuron-specific enolase. Ultrastructurally, features of myoepithelial cells were seen. Fine-needle aspirate smears showed spindle and plasmacytoid cells, numerous mitoses, and malignant-appearing nuclei. Spindle-cell adenomyoepithelioma of the breast, a small well-circumscribed firm nodule, featured multiple lobules of spindle cells associated with clear-cell glands at the lobular periphery. Histologically and cytologically, the lesion was cellular but appeared benign. The differential diagnosis of myoepithelial neoplasms is discussed.

  8. Maxillary odontogenic myxoma: a diagnostic pitfall on aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neeta; Jain, Shyama; Gupta, Sunita

    2002-08-01

    A painless, slow-growing cheek swelling in a young male clinically considered a salivary gland mass was aspirated. Cytology smears were hypocellular. The striking feature was abundant myxoid material with a few monomorphic oval cells, interpreted as myxoid variant of pleomorphic adenoma. Subsequent CT scan was suggestive of a malignant tumor but biopsy confirmed it as myxoma. Myxoma of the jaw is a rare benign tumor that has a tendency for bone destruction, invasion into surrounding structures, and a relatively high recurrence rate. Maxillary myxoma is less frequent but behaves more aggressively than in the mandible, as it spreads through the maxillary sinus. Cytologically, it should be differentiated from other tumors showing predominant myxoid change. Awareness of potential diagnostic pitfalls and careful evaluation of clinical and radiological data is necessary to narrow the differential diagnosis.

  9. Ciliated pancreatic foregut cyst: MRI, EUS, and cytologic features.

    PubMed

    Alessandrino, Francesco; Allard, Felicia D; Mortelé, Koenraad J

    2016-01-01

    Ciliated foregut cysts are extremely uncommon pancreatic cystic lesions, with-to the best of our knowledge-only five cases previously reported in the English literature. We report herein on a case of a ciliated foregut cyst of the pancreas connected with the duct of Wirsung. The magnetic resonance imaging, endoultrasonographic, and cytologic features are described and a brief review of literature is also presented. PMID:26526788

  10. Quantitative exfoliative cytology of abnormal oral mucosal smears.

    PubMed Central

    Cowpe, J G; Longmore, R B; Green, M W

    1988-01-01

    In this study quantitative techniques have been applied to smears collected from the buccal mucosa and floor of the mouth. The results display an encouraging success rate for identifying premalignant and malignant lesions. 'Intrapatient' normal smears provide a satisfactory control for comparison with pathological smears. Early results indicate that quantitative cytology could be of great value for monitoring and follow-up of suspicious lesions and provide an excellent additional diagnostic test for detecting early oral malignancy. PMID:3184106

  11. Analytical cytology applied to detection of induced cytogenetic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Straume, T.; Pinkel, D.

    1987-08-06

    Radiation-induced biological damage results in formation of a broad spectrum of cytogenetic changes such as translocations, dicentrics, ring chromosomes, and acentric fragments. A battery of analytical cytologic techniques are now emerging that promise to significantly improve the precision and ease with which these radiation induced cytogenetic changes can be quantified. This report summarizes techniques to facilitate analysis of the frequency of occurrence of structural and numerical aberrations in control and irradiated human cells. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Cell bioprocessing in space - Applications of analytical cytology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, P.; Hymer, W. C.; Goolsby, C. L.; Hatfield, J. M.; Morrison, D. R.

    1988-01-01

    Cell bioprocessing experiments in space are reviewed and the development of on-board cell analytical cytology techniques that can serve such experiments is discussed. Methods and results of experiments involving the cultivation and separation of eukaryotic cells in space are presented. It is suggested that an advanced cytometer should be developed for the quantitative analysis of large numbers of specimens of suspended eukaryotic cells and bioparticles in experiments on the Space Station.

  13. Aspiration cytology of metastatic chordoma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Elliott, E C; McKinney, S; Banks, H; Fulks, R M

    1983-01-01

    A patient with previously diagnosed sacrococcygeal chordoma presented with multiple skin nodules. Cytologic examination of an aspirate from one of these nodules showed syncytial clusters of hyperchromatic cells surrounded by extracellular mucin. The characteristic physaliphorous cells, although present in a biopsy of the primary sacrococcygeal tumor, were not observed in the aspirate or on histopathologic examination of three excised skin metastases. That chordoma metastases may lack physaliphorous cells should be recognized.

  14. Fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions.

    PubMed

    Young, J A; Smallman, L A; Thompson, H; Proops, D W; Johnson, A P

    1990-01-01

    Eighty-eight fine needle aspirates from 79 salivary gland lesions in 77 patients were examined. The overall diagnostic sensitivity was 84% and the specificity 98.41%. When the 14 unsatisfactory specimens were excluded the sensitivity rose to 95.45%. Correct identification of the disease process was possible in nearly 80% of cases with a final benign diagnosis. The histological tumour type was correctly predicted in 75% of the malignancies. In the others the cytological diagnosis was anaplastic malignant neoplasm.

  15. Evaluation of the Biofire FilmArray BioThreat-E Test (v2.5) for Rapid Identification of Ebola Virus Disease in Heat-Treated Blood Samples Obtained in Sierra Leone and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Weller, Simon A; Bailey, Daniel; Matthews, Steven; Lumley, Sarah; Sweed, Angela; Ready, Derren; Eltringham, Gary; Richards, Jade; Vipond, Richard; Lukaszewski, Roman; Payne, Phillippa M; Aarons, Emma; Simpson, Andrew J; Hutley, Emma J; Brooks, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Rapid Ebola virus (EBOV) detection is crucial for appropriate patient management and care. The performance of the FilmArray BioThreat-E test (v2.5) using whole-blood samples was evaluated in Sierra Leone and the United Kingdom and was compared with results generated by a real-time Ebola Zaire PCR reference method. Samples were tested in diagnostic laboratories upon availability, included successive samples from individual patients, and were heat treated to facilitate EBOV inactivation prior to PCR. The BioThreat-E test had a sensitivity of 84% (confidence interval [CI], 64% to 95%) and a specificity of 89% (CI, 73% to 97%) in Sierra Leone (n = 60; 44 patients) and a sensitivity of 75% (CI, 19% to 99%) and a specificity of 100% (CI, 97% to 100%) in the United Kingdom (n = 108; 70 patients) compared to the reference real-time PCR. Statistical analysis (Fisher's exact test) indicated there was no significant difference between the methods at the 99% confidence level in either country. In 9 discrepant results (5 real-time PCR positives and BioThreat-E test negatives and 4 real-time PCR negatives and BioThreat-E test positives), the majority (n = 8) were obtained from samples with an observed or probable low viral load. The FilmArray BioThreat-E test (v2.5) therefore provides an attractive option for laboratories (either in austere field settings or in countries with an advanced technological infrastructure) which do not routinely offer an EBOV diagnostic capability.

  16. Evaluation of the Biofire FilmArray BioThreat-E Test (v2.5) for Rapid Identification of Ebola Virus Disease in Heat-Treated Blood Samples Obtained in Sierra Leone and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Weller, Simon A; Bailey, Daniel; Matthews, Steven; Lumley, Sarah; Sweed, Angela; Ready, Derren; Eltringham, Gary; Richards, Jade; Vipond, Richard; Lukaszewski, Roman; Payne, Phillippa M; Aarons, Emma; Simpson, Andrew J; Hutley, Emma J; Brooks, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Rapid Ebola virus (EBOV) detection is crucial for appropriate patient management and care. The performance of the FilmArray BioThreat-E test (v2.5) using whole-blood samples was evaluated in Sierra Leone and the United Kingdom and was compared with results generated by a real-time Ebola Zaire PCR reference method. Samples were tested in diagnostic laboratories upon availability, included successive samples from individual patients, and were heat treated to facilitate EBOV inactivation prior to PCR. The BioThreat-E test had a sensitivity of 84% (confidence interval [CI], 64% to 95%) and a specificity of 89% (CI, 73% to 97%) in Sierra Leone (n = 60; 44 patients) and a sensitivity of 75% (CI, 19% to 99%) and a specificity of 100% (CI, 97% to 100%) in the United Kingdom (n = 108; 70 patients) compared to the reference real-time PCR. Statistical analysis (Fisher's exact test) indicated there was no significant difference between the methods at the 99% confidence level in either country. In 9 discrepant results (5 real-time PCR positives and BioThreat-E test negatives and 4 real-time PCR negatives and BioThreat-E test positives), the majority (n = 8) were obtained from samples with an observed or probable low viral load. The FilmArray BioThreat-E test (v2.5) therefore provides an attractive option for laboratories (either in austere field settings or in countries with an advanced technological infrastructure) which do not routinely offer an EBOV diagnostic capability. PMID:26537445

  17. [The immediate interpretation for fine-needle aspiration cytology].

    PubMed

    Chang, M C; Ho, W L

    1993-11-01

    From December 1990 to November 1992, 2005 cases of immediate interpretation for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology were performed, of which 727 cases were confirmed by surgical pathology. A mobile cytologic laboratory (a cart loaded with a dual viewing microscope, Liu's staining solutions, hair dryer, and slides) can be moved to the Out-patient Department, wards and Computed Tomography room, where clinicians perform aspiration and pathologists read smears. Immediate verbal diagnoses are documented to patients' charts and listed in cytopathologic files. Immediate interpretation in this entire series yielded a sensitivity 92.5%; specificity, 98.1%; false-positive rate, 1.1%; false-negative rate, 3.2%; positive predictive value (PV), 97.3%; negative PV, 94.7% and efficiency, 95.7%. The cause of false-negative results in the 23 cases probably came from the hesitation in making an immediate diagnosis. Most of these cases were malignant lymphoma or breast carcinoma. The roles of immediate cytodiagnosis are (1) to decrease the inadequate rate of FNA specimens; (2) to render preliminary diagnosis for clinicians to make decisions; (3) to provide on-site teaching material for both clinicians and pathology residents to better understand clinicopathological correlations; (4) to act as the initial diagnostic procedure in the evaluation of a superficial palpable mass. This study shows that immediate interpretation for FNA cytology is a simple, rapid, accurate and noninvasive diagnostic procedure that can be routinely used for superficial palpable masses.

  18. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Viguer, José M; Jiménez-Heffernan, José A; López-Ferrer, Pilar; Banaclocha, Marcos; Vicandi, Blanca

    2005-04-01

    Cytological features of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were reviewed in an attempt to select cytological criteria that permit a specific recognition of metastases. For this purpose, 54 fine-needle aspiration (FNA) procedures from 43 patients with NPC were analyzed. Thirty-two (59.3%) procedures were performed before the histological diagnosis. In 25 (46.3%) procedures, smears showed many neoplastic single cells, clusters, and abundant lymphoid cells (mixed pattern). A dissociated (single cell) pattern consisting of individual neoplastic and lymphoid cells was seen in 18 (33.3%) cases. Finally, 11 (20.4%) cases showed cohesive epithelial clusters (cohesive pattern) without relevant cellular dissociation or lymphoid cells. Squamous-cell differentiation was seen in three of these cases. Most single neoplastic cells presented as large, pleomorphic naked nuclei. Other interesting findings were granulomas (n = 3), prominent eosinophilic infiltrates (n = 4), and suppurative changes (n = 5). In most smears with mixed and dissociated patterns, a nasopharyngeal origin could be suggested. On the contrary, those smears with a cohesive pattern were indistinguishable from other head and neck carcinomas. The presence (on cervical lymph nodes) of a dissociated or mixed (single cells and groups) architectural pattern of large, anaplastic cells and naked nuclei accompanied by an abundant lymphoid component is highly suggestive of undifferentiated NPC. Cytology offers a rapid diagnosis, establishes the necessity of a complete cavum examination, and helps in avoiding unnecessary and harmful biopsies. PMID:15754369

  19. Urine cytology of micropapillary carcinoma of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Takahiko; Furuta, Michiko; Mimura, Akihiro; Tanigawa, Naoto; Takamizu, Ryuichi; Kawano, Kiyoshi

    2011-11-01

    A case of micropapillary carcinoma (MPC) of urinary bladder is presented, in which the urine smear was studied in detail in an attempt to better characterize the cytologic findings of MPC. When the voided urine was examined in low power, cancer cells were scattered in the specimens as compact papillary/spheroidal clusters composed of pleomorphic cancer cells. Solitary carcinoma cells were occasionally observed. High power view of the smear revealed that the papillae/spheroids consisted of high-grade urothelial carcinoma cells. The cancer cells had pleomorphic nuclei with coarsely granular chromatin and thickened, irregular nuclear membrane, and thick cytoplasm. Histologically, the tumor in the resected bladder appeared as small nests with surrounding hallo both in the luminal surface and in the site of wall involvement. These tightly bound papillary/spheroidal clusters comprised of highly atypical cancer cells were the most specific cytologic finding in the urine of MPC, which were considered as a key diagnostic clue of MPC. The background of the urine smear showed numerous granulocytes and bacilli compatible with cystitis, which is a previously known complication of MPC. Differential diagnoses of MPC from those with pertinent cytologic findings such as conventional UC (including glandular differentiation), and primary/secondary adenocarcinoma of urinary bladder are discussed with a brief review of literature.

  20. Diagnostic challenges in aspiration cytology of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Schindler, S; Nayar, R; Dutra, J; Bedrossian, C W

    2001-05-01

    The main goal of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of salivary gland lesions is to assist the clinician in the management of patients who present with a mass lesion. Cytologic examination aims to determine, if a process is inflammatory and/or reactive, benign or malignant neoplasm and if possible renders a specific diagnosis. It has been argued that in the area of salivary gland tumors, surgical management relies less heavily on a specific preoperative diagnosis, because almost all neoplastic salivary gland lesions will undergo surgical excision. However, knowing beforehand if a lesion is malignant or benign, will aid in planning surgery and may prompt or postpone decisions for surgical intervention. The salivary glands are unique in their histologic complexity and morphological variability of tumors, which is reflected in the cytologic material. In addition to the overlapping morphologic patterns of salivary gland tumors, they also represent relatively rare lesions, thus making it more difficult to acquire diagnostic expertise in FNA. Other than approaching salivary gland tumors by a description of single entities in their benign and malignant categories, we favor a more practical approach to diagnosis based on the key morphologic features noted in FNAs. This article addresses differential diagnoses according to the predominant cytologic presentation with attention to the cell type and size, nature of the cytoplasm, and the smear background.

  1. Chondroid syringoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bipin

    2010-01-01

    Chondroid syringoma is a rare benign skin adnexal tumor of eccrine/apocrine origin affecting commonly the head and neck region. It used to be previously called as mixed tumor of skin because of the presence of both the epithelial and mesenchymal components. There are only few case reports describing the fine needle aspiration cytologic features of chondroid syringoma for diagnosis. We studied a 20-year-old male case from Taplejung district of Nepal came to Otorhinolaryngology out patient department with the complaints of painless, progressively enlarging swelling on the dorsum of nose. On examination, 2.0 x 2.0 cm, firm, non-tender swelling was seen on the right side of dorsum of nose. Overlying skin was normal, and the swelling was fixed to the skin but freely mobile over underlying structure. A clinical diagnosis of dermoid cyst was entertained, and the case was subjected to FNAC. FNA yielded mucoid material which on microscopy showed clusters of round cells with moderate to abundant cytoplasm embedded in chondromyxoid ground substance. The nuclei were monomorphic, centrally to eccentrically located and had fine chromatin. On the basis of these cytologic features, a diagnosis of chondroid syringoma was made. We concluded that Chondroid syringoma may be considered as a rare differential diagnosis in the swelling of head and neck region and the diagnosis can be easily confirmed or ruled out by means of fine needle aspiration cytology.

  2. A cross sectional study of HPV type prevalence according to age and cytology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A cross sectional study to investigate HPV prevalence according to age and cytology. Methods Women presenting to a gynaecological outpatient clinic for a Pap smear test were included in the study (n=3177). All women had cervical cytology and HPV testing. Results Overall prevalence of any 24 HPV type analysed was 33.1% (95% CI 31.5% to 34.7%) and HPV 16 and HPV 42 were the most frequent (6.7% (95% CI 5.8% to 7.6%), 6.8% (95% CI 5.9% to 7.6%)), in total samples. Multiple HPV infection rate was 12.9% (95% CI 11.8% to 14.1%). High risk HPV (hrHPV) types were present in 27.4% (95% CI 25.8% to 28.9%) of the samples. HPV prevalence was highest among 14 to 19 y.o (46.6% (95% CI 40.7%-52.4%)) and second highest among 30–34 y.o. (39.7%, 95% CI 35.4%–44%). HPV 16 was highest among 20–24 (9.0% (95% CI 6.4%–11.6%)) and second highest among 50 to 54 y.o. (6.3% (95% CI 2.9% to 9.8%). In Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (LgSIL) cytology samples, the most frequently detected hrHPV types were: 16 (14.5% (95% CI 12.1% to 16.9%)), 51 (13.0% (95% CI 10.7% to 15.3%)) and 53 (9.1% (95% CI 7.2% to 11.1%)) and in High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions (HgSIL) were: HPV 16 (37.2% (95% CI 26.5% to 47.9%)), HPV 51 (17.9% (95% CI 9.4% to 26.5%)) and HPV 18 (12.8% (95% CI 5.4% to 20.2%)). Conclusions In the population studied, HPV 16 and 51 were the most frequent detected hrHPV types. HPV positivity, hrHPV and multiple HPV types infections were higher in young women, while HPV prevalence declined with increasing age and presented two peaks a higher (14–19 y.o.) and a lower one (30–34 y.o.) These results may contribute to the creation of a national screening programme. PMID:23363541

  3. Does Cytological Laboratory Holds the Responsibility for the Low Sensitivity of the PAP Test in Detecting Endometrial Cancer?

    PubMed

    Milicić, Valerija; Matić, Tereza Solocki; Martinek, Vjenceslav; Tomasković, Igor; Ramljak, Vesna

    2015-09-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer but there is no economically justified screening method. Although we can detect endometrial cells in the sample using PAP test, many studies show low sensitivity and positive predictive value of PAP test for the diagnosis of endometrial cancer. The goal of this research was to determine significance of PAP test for the diagnostics of endometrial carcinoma. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed with statistical parameters. VCE (vaginal, cervical, endocervical) smears of patients with histologically proven endometrial carcinoma were re-examined in order to determine the proportion of false negative results for endometrial cancer cells in the VCE samples. Study group consisted of all consecutive patients with PAP test performed at the Department of Clinical Cytology of the University Hospital Center Osijek from 2002 until the end of 2014. There was one inclusion criteria: subsequent hysterectomy or curettage within the six month after the PAP test, regardless of histological finding. From a total of 263 patients with previous PAP test and histologically proven endometrial cancer, endometrial cancer was cytologicaly diagnosed in 24.7% (including suspicious and positive findings), while 66.2% patients had normal cytological findings. The diagnostic value of PAP test in detection of endometrial cancer was statistically revealed with 25% sensitivity and 99% specificity. To determine false negative rate VCE samples were reviewed for patients with histologically proven endometrial cancer and negative VCE findings. There were a total of five negative results. In one case revision did not changed the original negative diagnosis, but benign endometrial cells, a lot of blood and inadequate cytohormonal status were found. In three out of four reviewed samples there were missed cells of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Review of remaining VCE sample upgraded the diagnosis from negative to suspicious for endometrial cancer

  4. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of chondroid syringoma of fore arm: Report of a rare case.

    PubMed

    Pal, Subrata; Sengupta, Sanjay; Jana, Sritanu; Bose, Kingshuk

    2014-07-01

    Chondroid syringoma is a rare benign adnexal tumor of sweat glands with microscopic resemblance to the salivary gland pleomorphic adenoma. Cytology is rarely utilized for preoperative assessment of these slow-growing, small, nodular lesions. Definitive cytological diagnosis is also quite difficult, and majority of the aspirates are evaluated as benign adnexal tumors leading to mandatory histopathological examination for pinpoint diagnosis. Here, we report a case of chondroid syringoma of forearm, which was diagnosed by cytology and also confirmed after histopathological examination. Pinpoint cytological diagnosis can help early formulation of necessary management protocol.

  5. Fine needle aspiration cytologic findings in a benign lymphoepithelial lesion with microcalcifications. A case report.

    PubMed

    Günhan, O; Celasun, B; Doğan, N; Onder, T; Pabuşçu, Y; Finci, R

    1992-01-01

    Aspiration cytologic findings in a case of benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLL) of the parotid gland are presented. The aspirate contained a polymorphous lymphoid population, histiocytes, myoepithelial and ductal epithelial cells and numerous bluish, calcified bodies. A cytologic diagnosis of benign nonneoplastic lesion, consistent with chronic sialadenitis and microlithiasis, was made. The clinical impression of neoplasia was inconsistent with the cytologic findings. Subsequent histologic examination showed classic BLL with microcalcifications as an unexpected feature. The value and limitations of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of nonneoplastic salivary gland lesions and the differential diagnosis of BLL are discussed.

  6. Polyploidy in pleomorphic adenomas with cytological atypia.

    PubMed

    Thunnissen, F B; Peterse, J L; Buchholtz, R; Van der Beek, J M; Bosman, F T

    1992-01-01

    Occasionally, in fine-needle aspirates of pleomorphic salivary gland adenomas, considerable cytonuclear atypia is present, which may give rise to a false-positive diagnosis. In this study DNA cytophotometry was performed on Feulgen restained smears prepared from material obtained by needle aspirates of normal salivary glands (n = 4), pleomorphic adenomas with (n = 5) and without (n = 4) atypia and a carcinoma in a pleomorphic adenoma. The results showed a clear diploid DNA histogram in the specimens of normal salivary gland and pleomorphic adenomas without atypia. In contrast, in the pleomorphic adenomas with atypia a distinct polyploid pattern was present in three out of the five DNA histograms with DNA values in 2c, 4c and 8c ranges. In two of these cases a 16c peak was also present and in the two remaining cases tetraploidy was demonstrated. In the carcinoma a main stemline at 4c was found. This report once more emphasizes the possible atypia which may be present in FNA of pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary gland. The atypia is due to polyploidy in a histologically benign tumour.

  7. Helicobacter pylori in gastroduodenal diseases: rapid identification by endoscopic brush cytology.

    PubMed

    De Francesco, F; Nicòtina, P A; Picciotto, M; Martines, F; Ferlazzo, G; d'Aquino, A

    1993-08-01

    Previous reports showed Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in type B gastritis-affected stomachs. This study was carried out to compare H. pylori staining effectiveness on biopsy to brush cytology. Tissue and brush parallel samples of gastric mucosa with abnormal or normal appearances were examined: 57.6% H. pylori-positive pieces from the antrum and 19.2% from the body were found, versus 65.3% and 25% H. pylori-positive brush smears, respectively. H. pylori resembling organisms were mainly related to chronic and acute antral inflammations and were often associated with higher amounts of round-shaped cocco-bacteria. In addition, H. pylori direct stain on brushing is proposed as the most rapid and reliable method for the routine diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection, in both ulcer or nonulcer gastritis.

  8. [Aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions--analysis of 55 cases].

    PubMed

    Katoh, T; Takahashi, H; Ida, Y; Masuda, T; Takeda, B

    1994-06-01

    Aspiration cytology of 55 salivary gland lesions (10 cases of non-neoplastic lesions, 36 cases of benign tumors and 9 cases of malignant tumors) were reviewed with histologic examination. Accuracy of benign and malignancy was 91.8% (benign lesion 97.6%, malignant tumor 57.1%), accuracy rates was almost of satisfactory for benign lesions, but not for malignant tumors. Agreement rate with histological type was 73.5%. One case (1.8%) was false positive, basal cell adenoma with adenoid cystic like pattern was falsely taken for adenoid cystic carcinoma. Three false negative cases (5.5%) consist of 1 acinic cell carcinoma, 1 adenoid cystic carcinoma with minimum cellular atypia and 1 partial malignant change (minor area) in pleomorphic adenoma. Six cases (10.9%) belong to group of insufficient material. Technical improvement of cell sampling is expected.

  9. Value of quantitative nucleolar features in the preoperative cytological diagnosis of follicular neoplasias of the thyroid.

    PubMed Central

    Montironi, R; Braccischi, A; Scarpelli, M; Matera, G; Alberti, R

    1991-01-01

    Nucleolar prevalence, size, and outline were investigated on cytological material from cold thyroid nodules obtained by fine needle aspiration. The percentage of nucleolated nuclei in follicular adenoma (32 cases) was less than in follicular carcinoma (26 cases). In adenoma most nuclei contained one nucleolus, and nuclei with two or more nucleoli were less common than in carcinoma where most cases showed the highest nucleolar diameter values. There was some overlap between adenomas and carcinomas, however, when the mean of the 10 largest values of the major nucleolar diameter was considered. In follicular carcinoma the percentage of marginated nucleoli--that is, those touching the nuclear membrane--was, in general, greater than 20%; in adenoma the values were equal to or lower than 16%. The overlap index showed that the percentages of marginated nucleoli and nucleolated nuclei are the two best discriminatory features between adenoma and carcinoma. PMID:2066431

  10. Fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of uncommon types of lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Mayall, F; Darlington, A; Harrison, B

    2003-01-01

    Aims: Fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is an accepted means of diagnosing and typing common forms of lymphoma, particularly small lymphocytic lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, and large B cell lymphoma. However, its usefulness for diagnosing less common forms of lymphoma is not clearly established and this study was designed to examine this. Methods: The study reviewed the FNAs of suspected lymphomas collected over a period of approximately five years. Results: FNA samples were available for 138 definite lymphomas; most were common forms of B cell lymphoma. However, there was also one Burkitt lymphoma (BL), two Burkitt-like large B cell lymphomas, 15 classic Hodgkin lymphomas (HLs), two nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphomas, four mantle cell lymphomas, two mediastinal (thymic) large B cell lymphomas (MLBCLs), 11 peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCLs), and five T cell rich large B cell lymphomas (TCRLBCLs). Conclusions: FNA diagnosis of BL was possible with immunoflow cytometry (IFC), cell block immunohistochemistry (IHC), and cell block fluorescent in situ hybridisation for c-myc alteration. It was difficult to make a definite diagnosis of HL and MLBCL on FNA alone. Both tend to be sclerotic tumours and FNA tends to yield scanty neoplastic cells. The FNA diagnosis of PTCL depended on cell block IHC; IFC was not usually useful. TCRLBCL did not show light chain restriction on IFC of FNA samples, probably because of frequent reactive B cells in the tumour. Thus, HL, MLBCL, and TCRLBCL are often difficult to diagnose accurately on FNA cytology, even when using IFC and cell block IHC. PMID:14600125

  11. Effects of De- and Rehydration on Food-conducting Cells in the Moss Polytrichum formosum: A Cytological Study

    PubMed Central

    PRESSEL, SILVIA; LIGRONE, ROBERTO; DUCKETT, JEFFREY G.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Moss food-conducting cells (leptoids and specialized parenchyma cells) have a highly distinctive cytology characterized by a polarized cytoplasmic organization and longitudinal alignment of plastids, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and vesicles along endoplasmic microtubules. Previous studies on the desiccation biology of mosses have focused almost exclusively on photosynthetic tissues; the effects of desiccation on food-conducting cells are unknown. Reported here is a cytological study of the effects of de- and rehydration on food-conducting cells in the desiccation-tolerant moss Polytrichum formosum aimed at exploring whether the remarkable subcellular organization of these cells is related to the ability of mosses to survive desiccation. • Methods Shoots of Polytrichum formosum were dehydrated under natural conditions and prepared for transmission and scanning electron microscopy using both standard and anhydrous chemical fixation protocols. Replicate samples were then fixed at intervals over a 24-h period following rehydration in either water or in a 10 µm solution of the microtubule-disrupting drug oryzalin. • Key Results Desiccation causes dramatic changes; the endoplasmic microtubules disappear; the nucleus, mitochondria and plastids become rounded and the longitudinal alignment of the organelles is lost, though cytoplasmic polarity is in part retained. Prominent stacks of endoplasmic reticulum, typical of the hydrated condition, are replaced with membranous tubules arranged at right angles to the main cellular axis. The internal cytoplasm becomes filled with small vacuoles and the plasmalemma forms labyrinthine tubular extensions outlining newly deposited ingrowths of cell wall material. Whereas plasmodesmata in meristematic cells at the shoot apex and in stem parenchyma cells appear to be unaffected by dehydration, those in leptoids become plugged with electron-opaque material. Starch deposits in parenchyma cells

  12. Electron microscopic stereological study of collagen fibrils in bovine articular cartilage: volume and surface densities are best obtained indirectly (from length densities and diameters) using isotropic uniform random sampling

    PubMed Central

    LÅNGSJÖ, TEEMU K.; HYTTINEN, MIKA; PELTTARI, ALPO; KIRALY, KARI; AROKOSKI, JARI; HELMINEN, HEIKKI J.

    1999-01-01

    Results obtained by the indirect zonal isotropic uniform random (IUR) estimation were compared with those obtained by the direct point and interception counting methods on vertical (VS) or IUR sections in a stereological study of bovine articular cartilage collagen fibrils at the ultrastructural level. Besides comparisons between the direct and indirect estimations (direct IUR vs indirect IUR estimations) and between different sampling methods (VS vs IUR sampling), simultaneous comparison of the 2 issues took place (direct VS vs indirect IUR estimation). Using the direct VS method, articular cartilage superficial zone collagen volume fraction (Vv 41%) was 67% and fibril surface density (Sv 0.030 nm2/nm3) 15% higher (P<0.05) than values obtained by the indirect IUR method (Vv 25% and Sv 0.026 nm2/nm3). The same was observed when the direct IUR method was used: collagen volume fraction (Vv 40%) was 63% and fibril surface density (Sv 0.032 nm2/nm3) 21% higher (P<0.05) than those obtained by the indirect IUR technique. Similarly, in the deep zone of articular cartilage direct VS and direct IUR methods gave 50 and 55% higher (P<0.05) collagen fibril volume fractions (Vv 43 and 44% vs 29%) and the direct IUR method 25% higher (P<0.05) fibril surface density values (Sv 0.025 vs 0.020 nm2/nm3) than the indirect IUR estimation. On theoretical grounds, scrutiny calculations, as well as earlier reports, it is concluded that the direct VS and direct IUR methods systematically overestimated the Vv and Sv of collagen fibrils. This bias was due to the overprojection which derives from the high section thickness in relation to collagen fibril diameter. On the other hand, factors that during estimation tend to underestimate Vv and Sv, such as profile overlapping and truncation (‘fuzzy’ profiles), seemed to cause less bias. As length density (Lv) and collagen fibril diameter are minimally biased by the high relative section thickness, the indirect IUR method, based on

  13. Impression Cytology in Different Types of Contact Lens Users.

    PubMed

    Iskeleli, Guzin; Arici, Ceyhun; Deger Bilgec, Mustafa; Demirkesen, Cuyan; Serap Arslan, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    This study compared tear function tests and cytologic changes on the conjunctival surface in asymptomatic patients wearing contact lens of different materials. Included in this study were 40 eyes wearing daily wear 4 week replacement hydrogel (H) lenses, 32 eyes wearing silicone hydrogel (SiH) lenses, 18 eyes wearing rigid gas-permeable (RGP) lenses, and 21 healthy eyes (no lenses) as the control group. Epithelial morphology of the conjunctival surface was evaluated, based on Nelson classification with conjunctival impression cytology (CIC), after the tear break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer test were performed. The mean values of the Schirmer and TBUT tests were significantly higher in the control group than in the other lens groups (p < 0.001). Grade 0 was the most frequent CIC in the control group (66.7%) and least frequent in the SiH lens group (40.6%); grade I was least frequent in the control and RGP groups (33.3%) and most frequent in the SiH lens group (40.6%). Moreover, grade 2 was most frequent in the SiH lens group (18.8%). There was no statistically significant difference in goblet cell densities between the groups (p = 0.462). In addition to the different Schirmer and TBUT test results between contact lens wearers and healthy non-wearers, some cytologic changes may occur on the ocular surface with direct mechanical effects of contact lenses. This simple and noninvasive technique may be used to evaluate the ocular surface with regard to intolerance to contact lenses. PMID:27350951

  14. Cytologic diagnosis of generalized cutaneous sporotrichosis in a hunting hound.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Joseph A; Cook, Heather E; Gill, Amy F; Ryan, Kirk A; Sirninger, Jeffrey

    2007-03-01

    A 1-year-old male Foxhound/Walker Hound mix was presented to the small animal internal medicine service at Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine with a 6-week history of progressive, multifocal, ulcerative and draining, well-circumscribed lesions in a generalized distribution. Prior to referral, a presumptive diagnosis was made of sterile pyogranulomatous disease; immunosuppressive therapy was instituted but resulted in clinical deterioration. At presentation, the dog had marked neutropenia (1100 neutrophils/microL), and a mild toxic left shift (400 bands/microL). Cytologic findings in the exudates from a draining skin lesion included high numbers of markedly degenerate neutrophils (about 95% of nucleated cells) as well as low numbers of macrophages, small mature lymphocytes, and eosinophils. Low numbers of intracellular (within neutrophils and macrophages) and extracellular, pleomorphic, cigar-to-ovoid shaped organisms ( approximately 3x9 microm) consistent with Sporothrix were observed. Histopathologic examination of a skin biopsy showed marked, chronic, active, ulcerative, pyogranulomatous dermatitis and panniculitis, with intralesional yeast consistent with Sporothrix sp. The etiologic agent was confirmed as Sporothrix schenckii by macerated tissue fungal culture. The patient was treated with itraconazole, enrofloxacin, and clindamycin, with clinical resolution occurring over a 3-month period. This case is a rare example of the cytologic diagnosis of Sporothrix schenckii in a canine patient. Diagnosis of canine sporotrichosis is often challenging and usually requires tissue culture, as infected dogs typically harbor very few organisms. The patient's prior immunosuppressive therapy likely contributed to higher numbers of organisms in exudates from the cutaneous lesions, facilitating cytologic diagnosis. PMID:17311202

  15. Atypic adenomatous hyperplasiae of the endometrium. Cytologic and histopathologic confrontations.

    PubMed

    Zaharia, M; Cristea, A; Samoilescu, M; Alexandrescu, M; Virtej, P; Andronescu, A

    1977-01-01

    By cytologic and histopathologic confrontations performed in uterine curettage products, 34 atypic adenomatous hyperplasiae were comparatively analysed with 38 malignant proliferations of the endometrium. The confrontation was made with the aim of knowing the diagnosis significance of some atypic adenomatous hyperplasiae lesions, finally correlated with the diagnosis established on histerectomy pieces. The significance of anomalies and/or atypies generated by disorders occurred in the cytodifferentiation of glandular cells and of those of the covering epithelium of the endometrium are discussed as well as the value of methods for the early diagnosis of the malignant process at the level of endometrium.

  16. The endoskeletal structures in arthropods: cytology, morphology and evolution.

    PubMed

    Bitsch, Colette; Bitsch, Jacques

    2002-02-01

    The paper proposes an overview of the endoskeletal structures of the head and trunk in the different arthropod groups: Chelicerata, Crustacea, Myriapoda and Hexapoda (=Insecta s.l.). Two major endoskeletal systems are reported with their cytological characteristics: those made up of connective tissue derived from muscular tendons, and those consisting of cuticular rods or plates arising from integumentary ingrowths. The morphological value of the various endoskeletal structures, their possible homologies in different groups, and their presumed evolutionary changes are discussed. This survey may be considered as a first step to use morphological characteristics of the endoskeleton in future cladistic analyses to assess the phylogeny of arthropods. PMID:18088953

  17. Colostrum in menopause effects on vaginal cytology/symptoms.

    PubMed

    Tucci, S; Mancini, R; De Vitis, C; Noto, A; Marra, E; Lukic, A; Giovagnoli, M R; Moscarini, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of three weeks of daily colostrum cream on vaginal cytology and local symptoms related to menopause. Genito-urinary symptoms and cell morphology were analyzed at time 0 (T0) and after three weeks (16 +/- days since the end of treatment) at time 1 (T1). Dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, and maturation index (MI) reached a statistically significant difference between T0 and T1. The results proved to be an alternative treatment for vaginal distress caused by lack of hormones in patients in which hormonal treatment is contraindicated.

  18. Diagnostic significance of atypical category in the voided urine samples: A retrospective study in a tertiary care center

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtar, Ghadeer A.; Al-Dousari, Mohamed; Al-Ghamedi, Doaa

    2010-01-01

    Background: Voided urine samples continue to play an important role in the surveillance of urothelial malignancy and also as a screening mode for high risk patients. In some cases, it is difficult to reliably distinguish changes induced by inflammation, stone or other reactive condition from neoplasm, and these cases are categorized as atypical. The aim of our study is to evaluate the prevalence and the significance of atypical diagnosis in the voided urine samples and also to identify the cytomorphologic features that are seen more frequently in the atypical malignant urine samples. Materials and Methods: All voided urine cytology samples with a diagnosis of atypical urothelial cells, between the period of 2000 and 2009, were obtained from the cytology database. Only those cases with histologic follow-up were included in the study. The cytology and the histology slides were retrieved and reviewed. The following parameters were evaluated: cellularity, cell clusters, nuclear membrane irregularities, hyperchromasia and India-ink type nuclei, the presence of spindle cells and the cytoplasmic characteristics. Results: Out of 72 voided urine samples included in the study, 49 cases (68%) had a positive histologic diagnosis of urothelial malignancy in the follow-up histology; of these (55%) were high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Increased cellularity, papillary cell clusters, nuclear membrane irregularity, hyperchromasia and India-ink type nuclei were observed more frequently in the atypical malignant urine samples, while cytoplasmic vacuolization were seen more in the negative reactive urine samples. Conclusion: The atypical category diagnosis is associated with a significant proportion of urothelial carcinoma. It should be used by the pathologist to convey concern to the clinician in difficult cases that may require close follow-up. PMID:20981196

  19. Molecular profiling of thin-prep FNA samples in assisting clinical management of non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Petriella, Daniela; Galetta, Domenico; Rubini, Vincenza; Savino, Eufemia; Paradiso, Angelo; Simone, Giovanni; Tommasi, Stefania

    2013-07-01

    The discovery of new target treatments for NSCLC has led to a search for new genetic and epigenetic markers able to selectively predict response to these new drugs. Somatic mutations in EGFR and KRAS genes are routinely analyzed to predict response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), used in the treatment of NSCLC patients, whose efficacy depend on the presence or the absence of specific mutations. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression evaluation has been recently analyzed because of the involvement of these molecules in lung cancer pathogenesis and in drug resistance. Only 30 % of NSCLC patients present a resectable stage at time of diagnosis so tissue samples cannot be the only starting material for genetic and epigenetic analysis. Therefore, the possibility to use cytological sampling already used for diagnosis also for molecular testing is emerging. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the first time in lung cancer the use of liquid-based cytology both for EGFR and KRAS mutational testing and for the expression trend of some miRNAs involved in lung cancer pathogenesis: miR-21, miR-155, miR-7, and let7a. We enrolled 20 fine-needle aspirate (FNA) samples diagnosed as NSCLC, 10 FNAs without neoplastic cells, and tissue samples coming from 5 of the 20 patients who underwent surgery after FNA NSCLC diagnosis. All Thin-Prep processed FNA samples were evaluable for DNA and RNA analysis and results were compared with those of the small group of patients whose matched tumor histology was available. The mutational status of the EGFR and KRAS genes and the expression profile of the selected miRNA showed comparable results between FNA samples and histological tissues. Our results underline that cytological samples could give the same genetic information as that obtained from histological specimens and so could be collected to create a nucleic acids bank.

  20. Anal Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Prevalences and Factors Associated with Abnormal Anal Cytology in HIV-Infected Women in an Urban Cohort from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Paula M.; Lake, Jordan E.; Levi, José Eduardo; Coutinho, José Ricardo; de Andrade, Angela; Heinke, Thais; Derrico, Mônica; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Friedman, Ruth K.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Identifying factors, including human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes, associated with abnormal anal cytology in HIV-infected women have implications for anal squamous cell cancer (SCC) prevention in HIV-infected women. Anal and cervical samples were collected for cytology, and tested for high-(HR-HPV) and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) genotypes in a cross-sectional analysis of the IPEC Women's HIV Cohort (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Multivariate log-binomial regression models estimated prevalence ratios for factors associated with abnormal anal cytology [≥atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance, (ASC-US)]. Characteristics of the 863 participants included: median age 42 years, 57% non-white, 79% current CD4+ T-cell count >350 cells/mm3, 53% HIV-1 viral load <50 copies/mL, median ART duration 5.8 years. Fifty-one percent of anal specimens contained ≥1 HR-HPV genotype; 31% had abnormal anal cytology [14% ASC-US, 11% low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesion, (LSIL); 2% atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade SIL (ASC-H); 4% high-grade SIL/cancer (HSIL+)]. In multivariate analysis, cervical LSIL+, nadir CD4+ T-cell count ≤50 cells/mm3, HIV-1 viral load ≥50 copies/mL, and anal HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 33, 45, 52, 56, and 58 were associated with ≥anal ASC-US (p<0.05). Abnormal anal cytology and HR-HPV prevalences were high. HIV-infected women with cervical LSIL+, low nadir CD4+ counts, or detectable HIV-1 viral loads should be a particular focus for enhanced anal SCC screening efforts. PMID:25361401

  1. Molecular Testing for miRNA, mRNA, and DNA on Fine-Needle Aspiration Improves the Preoperative Diagnosis of Thyroid Nodules With Indeterminate Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Shifrin, Alexander; Busseniers, Anne E.; Lupo, Mark A.; Manganelli, Monique L.; Andruss, Bernard; Wylie, Dennis; Beaudenon-Huibregtse, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Context: Molecular testing for oncogenic mutations or gene expression in fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) from thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytology identifies a subset of benign or malignant lesions with high predictive value. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate a novel diagnostic algorithm combining mutation detection and miRNA expression to improve the diagnostic yield of molecular cytology. Setting: Surgical specimens and preoperative FNAs (n = 638) were tested for 17 validated gene alterations using the miRInform Thyroid test and with a 10-miRNA gene expression classifier generating positive (malignant) or negative (benign) results. Design: Cross-sectional sampling of thyroid nodules with atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS) or follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN) cytology (n = 109) was conducted at 12 endocrinology centers across the United States. Qualitative molecular results were compared with surgical histopathology to determine diagnostic performance and model clinical effect. Results: Mutations were detected in 69% of nodules with malignant outcome. Among mutation-negative specimens, miRNA testing correctly identified 64% of malignant cases and 98% of benign cases. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the combined algorithm was 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 73–97%) and 85% (95% CI, 75–92%), respectively. At 32% cancer prevalence, 61% of the molecular results were benign with a negative predictive value of 94% (95% CI, 85–98%). Independently of variations in cancer prevalence, the test increased the yield of true benign results by 65% relative to mRNA-based gene expression classification and decreased the rate of avoidable diagnostic surgeries by 69%. Conclusions: Multiplatform testing for DNA, mRNA, and miRNA can accurately classify benign and malignant thyroid nodules, increase the diagnostic yield of molecular cytology, and further improve

  2. A six-year experience with anal cytology in women with HPV in the lower genital tract: utility, limitations, and clinical correlation.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, L H; Carballo, P; Lorenzo, M C Cabral; García, A; Suzuki, V; Tatti, S; Vighi, S; Díaz, L B

    2014-05-01

    This study assessed the utility and limitations of anal cytology as a screening method for women infected with human papilloma virus (HPV) in the lower genital tract. Furthermore, this study aimed to establish risk factors for pathological anal cytology/biopsy findings, the prevalence of anatomopathological lesions associated with positive anal brushings, and the frequency of concomitant lesions of the lower genital tract. A cross-sectional, retrospective, descriptive study in 207 women with HPV-associated lesions of the lower genital tract and 25 women with immunosuppression was carried out. Anal cytology, high resolution anoscopy, and biopsy of suspicious lesions were performed. In total, 232 anal brushings were performed: 184 (79.3%) were negative, 24 (10.34%) showed atypical squamous cells of undeterminated significance, 18 (7.7%) showed low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 6 (2.6%) showed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. Cytohistological correlation was obtained for 70 cases. The sensitivity of anal cytology in detecting intraepithelial lesions was 70%, whereas the specificity was 93%. The sensitivity of the method for detecting high-grade lesions (84%) was higher, than that for detecting low-grade lesions (66%). The most frequently associated pathology was vulvar lesion. It is important to perform anal brushings in women who have had lower genital tract biopsies for HPV-associated lesions due to the high prevalence of anal lesions in such patients. Anal cytology is useful for detecting high-grade lesions but the sensitivity for detecting low-grade lesions is low. It is of the utmost importance to perform high-resolution anoscopy and biopsy in women with suspicious lesions in order to confirm the pathology.

  3. Cytological evaluation of Apiaceae Lindl. from Western Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Jeelani, S M; Rani, S; Kumari, S; Gupta, R C

    2014-01-01

    The present paper deals with cytological studies on 31 populations covering 17 species belonging to 10 genera of Apiaceae from Western Himalayas. The chromosome numbers in the two species as Chaerophyllum capnoides (n = 11) and Heracleum brunonis (n = 11), along with additional cytotypes for Pimpinella acuminata (n = 9) and Sium latijugum (n = 12) have been reported for the first time on world-wide basis. The genus Pleurospermum, although cytologically worked out earlier from outside India, its species densiflorum (n = 11) makes first representation of the genus from India. Besides, the chromosome number in Chaerophyllum aromaticum (n = 11) have been worked out for the first time from India. The course of meiosis varies from normal to abnormal in different populations of Chaerophyllum villosum, Pimpinella achilleifolia and Sium latijugum while abnormal meiotic course has been observed in all the studied populations of Chaerophyllum acuminatum, C. aromaticum, C. capnoides, Pimpinella acuminata, P. diversifolia, Pleurospermum densiflorum and Vicatia coniifolia. Such taxa are marked with meiotic abnormalities in the form of cytomixis, chromatin stickiness, formation of laggards and bridges resulting into abnormal microsporogenesis. The occurrence of structural heterozygosity has been recorded in the Chaerophyllum acuminatum and C. aromaticum. The effect of these abnormalities is clearly seen on the pollen size and fertility. PMID:25181856

  4. Picture archiving and communication systems in digital cytology.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Sandra; Grigioni, Mauro; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria; Balzano, Simone; Giansanti, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes a fundamental feature of digital cytology relevant to the implementation of the technology in the hospital net services: the electronic recording of the virtual slides (VS) in the hospital information system (HIS) through a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Starting from the digital cytology (D-CYT) state of art and considering the most important products in the field, particular attention has been devoted in this review to the comparison with the digital radiology (D-RAD). Two main indications emerged from the study: 1. there is not a standard in the digital files relevant to the virtual slides in D-CYT, while in D-RAD the standard digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM), introduced by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), has been adopted from several years; 2. the PACS in D-CYT are not standardized from manufacturers. The study makes a proposal of a useful software architecture to improve the PACS integration for D-CYT applications, with potentialities in the HIS.

  5. Cytological and physiological changes in orthodox maize embryos during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Bin; Wang, Ruling; Cheng, Hongyan; Song, Songquan

    2010-03-01

    Cytological and physiological changes during cryopreservation were studied in maize embryos at 35 days after pollination (DAP). Both dehydration and freezing caused cytological damage, such as plasmolysis, swelled mitochondria, increased heterochromatin, and nuclear shrinkage. Dehydration alone slightly impaired plasma membrane integrity while a drastic increase in electrolyte leakage was observed after freezing of embryos with moisture content above 23%. Damage to cellular ultrastructure and plasmalemma integrity was negatively related to moisture content in unfrozen embryos and positively related in frozen embryos. The pattern of changes in activity of antioxidant enzymes differed from one another during dehydration and/or freezing-thawing treatment. Dehydration increased activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) but decreased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR). Freezing further decreased GR and SOD activity and resulted in extremely low DHAR activity. Embryos at intermediate moisture contents had low catalase (CAT) activity before freezing but highest CAT activity after freeze-thaw. Both dehydration and freezing promoted membrane lipid peroxidation which resulted in an approximately threefold increase at most in the malondialdehyde content in postthaw embryos. Changes in viability of postthaw embryos can be closely related to damage in cellular ultrastructure and plasmalemma integrity but directly related neither to antioxidants nor lipid peroxidation levels. PMID:19904484

  6. Sexual polyploidization in plants – cytological mechanisms and molecular regulation

    PubMed Central

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2013-01-01

    In the plant kingdom, events of whole genome duplication or polyploidization are generally believed to occur via alterations of the sexual reproduction process. Thereby, diploid pollen and eggs are formed that contain the somatic number of chromosomes rather than the gametophytic number. By participating in fertilization, these so-called 2n gametes generate polyploid offspring and therefore constitute the basis for the establishment of polyploidy in plants. In addition, diplogamete formation, through meiotic restitution, is an essential component of apomixis and also serves as an important mechanism for the restoration of F1 hybrid fertility. Characterization of the cytological mechanisms and molecular factors underlying 2n gamete formation is therefore not only relevant for basic plant biology and evolution, but may also provide valuable cues for agricultural and biotechnological applications (e.g. reverse breeding, clonal seeds). Recent data have provided novel insights into the process of 2n pollen and egg formation and have revealed multiple means to the same end. Here, we summarize the cytological mechanisms and molecular regulatory networks underlying 2n gamete formation, and outline important mitotic and meiotic processes involved in the ectopic induction of sexual polyploidization. PMID:23421646

  7. CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF FIBER TYPES IN SKELETAL MUSCLE

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Geraldine F.; Padykula, Helen A.

    1966-01-01

    A comparative investigation of the mammalian diaphragm has revealed a correlation between certain cytological aspects of red and white muscle fibers and functional activity. This skeletal muscle presents the advantage of a similar and constant function among the mammals, but its functional activity varies in a quantitative manner. Both the rate of breathing (and hence the rate of contraction of the diaphragm) and metabolic activity are known to be inversely related to body size; and this study has demonstrated a relationship between cytological characteristics of the diaphragm and body size of the animal. Small fibers rich in mitochondria (red fibers) are characteristic of small mammals, which have high metabolic activity and fast breathing rates; and large fibers with relatively low mitochondrial content predominate in large mammals, which have lower metabolic activity and slower breathing rates. In mammals with body size intermediate between these two groups (including the laboratory rat), the diaphragm consists of varying mixtures of fiber types. In general, the mitochondrial content of diaphragm fibers is inversely related to body size. It appears, then, that the red fiber reflects a high degree of metabolic activity or a relatively high rate of contraction within the range exhibited by this muscle. PMID:5950272

  8. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of metastatic transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dey, Pranab; Amir, Thasneem; Jogai, Sanjay; Al Jussar, Aisha

    2005-04-01

    In this article we described the fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of five cases of metastatic transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). There were four cases of metastatic lymph nodes and one case of metastatic skin lesion. All of the TCC cases were primarily in the urinary bladder and were high grade on histopathology (grade 3). Three cases showed bladder muscle involvement and two cases showed superficial TCC at the time of primary diagnosis. FNAC smears showed abundant cellularity. The cells were present in discrete and small syncytial clusters. Nuclear position of the cell was central to eccentric. Many cells showed prominent nucleoli. Cercariform cells (CCs) were noted in four cases. These cells are malignant cells with a nucleated globular body and a unipolar nontapering cytoplasmic process. Two cases showed intranuclear inclusions. Prominent cytoplasmic vacuoles were noted in three cases. In addition, cell cannibalism and attempted pearl formations were noted in two cases.In conclusion, clinical history along with the certain cytological features such as the presence of CCs, cells with eccentric nuclei, and intranuclear inclusions are helpful to diagnose metastatic TCC on FNAC material. PMID:15754372

  9. Insight to neoplastic thyroid lesions by fine needle aspiration cytology

    PubMed Central

    Rangaswamy, M; Narendra, KL; Patel, S; Gururajprasad, C; Manjunath, GV

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a valuable adjunct to pre-operative screening in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules, and in most cases, it can distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. Aim: To study the cytology of neoplastic thyroid lesions to minimize surgical intervention and for confirmation of the diagnosis by histopathological study. Materials and Methods: 100 cases of thyroid FNAC smears were analyzed and cyto-histopathological correlation was done in 47 cases. Galen and Gambino's method was used to calculate the sensitivity and positive predictive value. Results: Of the 100 cases, 90 were diagnosed as neoplastic lesions by FNAC and ten cases as non-neoplastic lesions, which turned out to be neoplasms on histopathological study. Among 100 cases, 47 were biopsied and subjected to histopathological study. The sensitivity of FNAC was 75.60%, and positive predictive value was 83.78% for malignant lesions. Conclusions: FNAC is a rapid, efficient, cost-effective, relatively painless procedure with a high diagnostic accuracy. It has high rate of sensitivity and positive predictive value in diagnosing thyroid neoplastic lesions. Hence, it is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and management of patients. PMID:23661936

  10. Lectin cytochemistry in the exfoliative cytology of uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Remani, P; Pillai, K R; Haseenabeevi, V M; Ankathil, R; Bhattathiri, V N; Nair, M K; Vijayakumar, T

    1994-01-01

    A lectin was isolated from the seeds of jack fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) and purified using a column of immobilized N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. This jack fruit lectin (JFL) was then conjugated to horse-radish peroxidase (HRP) type VI and used to study the cell surface carbohydrate profile of the cytological smears of the uterine cervix using diaminobenzidine as substrate. Cervical smears from 15 healthy individuals and 65 patients with dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and carcinoma of uterine cervix were used for the study. Normal cells showed weak binding in the membrane as well as cytoplasm, whereas carcinomatous cells showed strong binding towards JFL. Carcinoma in situ cells showed a binding pattern similar to that of carcinoma. Dysplastic cells showed difference in binding in mild, moderate and severe dysplasia. The intensity of binding increased with the severity of the dysplasia. The nature and intensity of binding of jack fruit lectin with cancer tissues suggest that this lectin may be of use as a diagnostic aid in exfoliative cytology.

  11. Cytological picture of the oral mucosa in patients with gastric and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Kędra, Bożena; Chomczyk, Monika; Złotkowski, Marcin; Stokowska, Wanda; Borsuk, Agnieszka; Bicz, Mieczysław; Pietruska, Małgorzata; Tokajuk, Grażyna; Charkiewicz, Radosław; Czajka, Piotr; Chyczewski, Lech; Zimnoch, Lech; Kędra, Bogusław

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of malignant gastrointestinal cancers in Poland has been constantly growing, which has led to an intensification of the search for new markers of the early clinical stage of this disease. The oral cavity,as the first part of the gastrointestinal tract, has a very important role. The oral cavity presents symptoms of both typically stomatological and systemic diseases. Oral cancers, benign or malignant, may originate and grow in any of the tissues of the mouth, and within this small area they may be of varied clinical, histological and biological features. These can be lesions typically observed in the oral cavity, but also characteristic of cases where the symptoms occur both in the mouth and in other body parts. The aim of this study was to present a cytological picture of the oral mucosa in patients with gastric and colon cancer and to compare the cytological picture with that obtained from a group of patients with no cancer, using the Papanicolaou classification and the Bethesda system. The study was conducted in 126 patients treated surgically in the II General and Gastroenterological Surgery Clinic between 2006 and 2008. All patients were divided into two groups based on the type of lesions. In both of the studied groups, more than half of the patients did not present any abnormalities in the mucosa of the mouth, lips and cheeks in the physical examination. None of the patients had erosion, ulceration or lesions typical of leukoplakia or lichen planus. No malignant cells were detected in either of the studied groups, and there were no well-defined lesions found in the oral cavity that would distinguish the patients with gastrointestinal cancer. PMID:23042267

  12. Deep brush-based cytology in tonsils resected for benign diseases.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Silvia; Combes, Jean-Damien; Dalstein, Véronique; Caudroy, Stéphanie; Clifford, Gary; Gheit, Tarik; Tommasino, Massimo; Clavel, Christine; Lacau St Guily, Jean; Birembaut, Philippe

    2015-12-15

    A fraction of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC), especially in the tonsil, is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), mainly HPV16. Noninvasive diagnostic methods to detect precancerous lesions in the tonsil would be useful, e.g., liquid-based cytology (LBC). However, ill-characterized precancerous lesions may be hidden in the depth of the tonsillar crypts. We therefore conducted a study on HPV and tonsillar precancerous lesions to evaluate, among other things, the utility of LBC obtained by deep brushing of the resected tonsils. Two hundred non-paediatric patients (mean age: 30.3 years) who underwent tonsillectomy for infection-related conditions (69%) or other conditions (mainly obstructive sleep apnoea, 31%) were included. An ultra-sensitive Luminex bead-based platform was used to test for the DNA of 21 mucosal HPV types; 56% of slides were unsatisfactory due to low number of squamous epithelial cells or the masking effect of a large number of lymphocytes. Three patients (1.5%; 95% CI: 0.5-4.3) showed suspicious cytological findings (atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, ASC-H) while 3 others were HPV-positive (2 for HPV16 and 1 for HPV39). None of the ASC-H patients and HPV-positive patients showed dysplasia at histological examination. The rarity of HPV infection in the tonsil conflicts with the relatively frequent detection of the virus in the mouth. In conclusion, aggressive deep brushing of tonsils, while hardly applicable in vivo, is unlikely to be a reliable method to detect precancerous lesions. The absence of OPC screening modalities places the priority on multi-purpose primary prevention strategies, i.e., HPV vaccination and reduction of smoking and drinking.

  13. Detection of malignant mesothelioma using nuclear structure of mesothelial cells in effusion cytology specimens.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Akif Burak; Yergiyev, Oleksandr; Kolouri, Soheil; Silverman, Jan F; Rohde, Gustavo K

    2015-04-01

    Mesothelioma is a form of cancer generally caused from previous exposure to asbestos. Although it was considered a rare neoplasm in the past, its incidence is increasing worldwide due to extensive use of asbestos. In the current practice of medicine, the gold standard for diagnosing mesothelioma is through a pleural biopsy with subsequent histologic examination of the tissue. The diagnostic tissue should demonstrate the invasion by the tumor and is obtained through thoracoscopy or open thoracotomy, both being highly invasive surgical operations. On the other hand, thoracocentesis, which is removal of effusion fluid from the pleural space, is a far less invasive procedure that can provide material for cytological examination. In this study, we aim at detecting and classifying malignant mesothelioma based on the nuclear chromatin distribution from digital images of mesothelial cells in effusion cytology specimens. Accordingly, a computerized method is developed to determine whether a set of nuclei belonging to a patient is benign or malignant. The quantification of chromatin distribution is performed by using the optimal transport-based linear embedding for segmented nuclei in combination with the modified Fisher discriminant analysis. Classification is then performed through a k-nearest neighborhood approach and a basic voting strategy. Our experiments on 34 different human cases result in 100% accurate predictions computed with blind cross validation. Experimental comparisons also show that the new method can significantly outperform standard numerical feature-type methods in terms of agreement with the clinical diagnosis gold standard. According to our results, we conclude that nuclear structure of mesothelial cells alone may contain enough information to separate malignant mesothelioma from benign mesothelial proliferations. PMID:25598227

  14. Aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of head and neck masses: the early Christchurch experience.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D S; Allison, R S; Robertson, M S; Hamer, J W

    1989-12-13

    Fine needle aspiration cytology has been performed on patients presenting with head and neck masses in Christchurch since mid-1985. The results of an initial 120 aspirations were reviewed. Histology was available to compare with the cytology result in 58% of cases. Clinical review was used to assess the accuracy of the cytology result in the remaining cases. The majority of the masses aspirated were of benign origin (72%). The cytological diagnosis was accurate in 79% of cases. Of the remaining aspirates, 13% were inaccurate and 8% nondiagnostic. The sensitivity for malignant lesions was 100%, with 86% specificity (for benign lesions). Particular diagnostic difficulty was found in the differentiation between some salivary gland tumours, and the assessment of aspirates from neck masses after combined therapy (radiotherapy and surgery). Fine needle aspiration cytology is of considerable value in the management of head and neck masses.

  15. The probability for a Pap test to be abnormal is directly proportional to HPV viral load: results from a Swiss study comparing HPV testing and liquid-based cytology to detect cervical cancer precursors in 13,842 women.

    PubMed

    Bigras, G; de Marval, F

    2005-09-01

    In a study involving 13,842 women and 113 gynaecologists, liquid-based cytology and HPV testing for detecting cervical cancer were compared. A total of 1334 women were found to be positive for one or both tests and were invited for colposcopy with biopsy. A total of 1031 satisfactory biopsies on 1031 women were thereafter collected using a systematic biopsy protocol, which was random in the colposcopically normal-appearing cervix or directed in the abnormal one. In all, 502 women with negative tests were also biopsied. A total of 82 histologic high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were reported in biopsies, all from the group with one or both tests positive. Sensitivity and specificity to detect histologic HSIL were 59 and 97% for cytology, and 97 and 92% for HPV. In total, 14% of reviewed negative cytological preparations associated with histologic HSIL contained no morphologically abnormal cells despite a positive HPV test. This suggested a theoretical limit for cytology sensitivity. HPV viral load analysis of the 1143 HPV-positive samples showed a direct relationship between abnormal Pap test frequency and HPV viral load. Thus, not only does the HPV testing have a greater sensitivity than cytology but the probability of the latter being positive can also be defined as a function of the associated HPV viral load. PMID:16136031

  16. The probability for a Pap test to be abnormal is directly proportional to HPV viral load: results from a Swiss study comparing HPV testing and liquid-based cytology to detect cervical cancer precursors in 13 842 women

    PubMed Central

    Bigras, G; de Marval, F

    2005-01-01

    In a study involving 13 842 women and 113 gynaecologists, liquid-based cytology and HPV testing for detecting cervical cancer were compared. A total of 1334 women were found to be positive for one or both tests and were invited for colposcopy with biopsy. A total of 1031 satisfactory biopsies on 1031 women were thereafter collected using a systematic biopsy protocol, which was random in the colposcopically normal-appearing cervix or directed in the abnormal one. In all, 502 women with negative tests were also biopsied. A total of 82 histologic high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) were reported in biopsies, all from the group with one or both tests positive. Sensitivity and specificity to detect histologic HSIL were 59 and 97% for cytology, and 97 and 92% for HPV. In total, 14% of reviewed negative cytological preparations associated with histologic HSIL contained no morphologically abnormal cells despite a positive HPV test. This suggested a theoretical limit for cytology sensitivity. HPV viral load analysis of the 1143 HPV-positive samples showed a direct relationship between abnormal Pap test frequency and HPV viral load. Thus, not only does the HPV testing have a greater sensitivity than cytology but the probability of the latter being positive can also be defined as a function of the associated HPV viral load. PMID:16136031

  17. Guidelines for cytopathologic diagnosis of epithelioid and mixed type malignant mesothelioma. Complementary statement from the International Mesothelioma Interest Group, also endorsed by the International Academy of Cytology and the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology

    PubMed Central

    Hjerpe, Anders; Ascoli, Valeria; Bedrossian, Carlos; Boon, Mathilde; Creaney, Jenette; Davidson, Ben; Dejmek, Annika; Dobra, Katalin; Fassina, Ambrogio; Field, Andrew; Firat, Pinar; Kamei, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Tadao; Michael, Claire W.; Önder, Sevgen; Segal, Amanda; Vielh, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    To provide practical guidelines for the cytopathologic diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma (MM). Cytopathologists involved in the International Mesothelioma Interest Group (IMIG) and the International Academy of Cytology (IAC), who have an interest in the field contributed to this update. Reference material includes peer-reviewed publications and textbooks. This article is the result of discussions during and after the IMIG 2012 conference in Boston, followed by thorough discussions during the 2013 IAC meeting in Paris. Additional contributions have been obtained from cytopathologists and scientists, who could not attend these meetings, with final discussions and input during the IMIG 2014 conference in cape town. During the previous IMIG biennial meetings, thorough discussions have resulted in published guidelines for the pathologic diagnosis of MM. However, previous recommendations have stated that the diagnosis of MM should be based on histological material only.[12] Accumulating evidence now indicates that the cytological diagnosis of MM supported by ancillary techniques is as reliable as that based on histopathology, although the sensitivity with cytology may be somewhat lower.[345] Recognizing that noninvasive diagnostic modalities benefit both the patient and the health system, future recommendations should include cytology as an accepted method for the diagnosis of this malignancy.[67] The article describes the consensus of opinions of the authors on how cytology together with ancillary testing can be used to establish a reliable diagnosis of MM. PMID:26681974

  18. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Meyrelles, Angela Ri; Siqueira, Juliana D; Santos, Pâmela P Dos; Hofer, Cristina B; Luiz, Ronir R; Seuánez, Héctor N; Almeida, Gutemberg; Soares, Marcelo A; Soares, Esmeralda A; Machado, Elizabeth S

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample), re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples), and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples). An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30%) or re-infection (20%). A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR) was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79). Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific) HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting. PMID:26872340

  19. Bonafide, type-specific human papillomavirus persistence among HIV-positive pregnant women: predictive value for cytological abnormalities, a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Meyrelles, Angela RI; Siqueira, Juliana D; dos Santos, Pâmela P; Hofer, Cristina B; Luiz, Ronir R; Seuánez, Héctor N; Almeida, Gutemberg; Soares, Marcelo A; Soares, Esmeralda A; Machado, Elizabeth S

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rate of human papillomavirus (HPV) persistence, associated risk factors, and predictors of cytological alteration outcomes in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected pregnant women over an 18-month period. HPV was typed through L1 gene sequencing in cervical smears collected during gestation and at 12 months after delivery. Outcomes were defined as nonpersistence (clearance of the HPV in the 2nd sample), re-infection (detection of different types of HPV in the 2 samples), and type-specific HPV persistence (the same HPV type found in both samples). An unfavourable cytological outcome was considered when the second exam showed progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion or high squamous intraepithelial lesion. Ninety patients were studied. HPV DNA persistence occurred in 50% of the cases composed of type-specific persistence (30%) or re-infection (20%). A low CD4+T-cell count at entry was a risk factor for type-specific, re-infection, or HPV DNA persistence. The odds ratio (OR) was almost three times higher in the type-specific group when compared with the re-infection group (OR = 2.8; 95% confidence interval: 0.43-22.79). Our findings show that bonafide (type-specific) HPV persistence is a stronger predictor for the development of cytological abnormalities, highlighting the need for HPV typing as opposed to HPV DNA testing in the clinical setting. PMID:26872340

  20. Triaging HPV-positive women with normal cytology by p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology testing: baseline and longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Uijterwaal, Margot H; Polman, Nicole J; Witte, Birgit I; van Kemenade, Folkert J; Rijkaart, Dorien; Berkhof, Johannes; Balfoort-van der Meij, G A M A; Ridder, Ruediger; Snijders, Peter J F; Meijer, Chris J L M

    2015-05-15

    Primary human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening results in a 2-5% lower specificity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia Grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) compared to Pap cytology. To identify HPV-positive women with CIN2+, we retrospectively evaluated the cross-sectional and longitudinal performance of p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology in HPV-positive women with normal cytology participating in population-based cervical screening. Conventional Pap cytology specimens of 847 of these women derived from the VUSA-Screen study were dual-stained for p16/Ki-67. Cross-sectional clinical performance in detecting CIN3 or worse (CIN3+), and CIN2+ was compared to that of baseline HPV genotyping. Moreover, 5-year cumulative incidence risks (CIR) for CIN3+ (CIN2+) were determined. The sensitivity of p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology for CIN3+ (CIN2+) was 73.3% (68.8%) with a specificity of 70.0% (72.8%). HPV16/18 genotyping showed a sensitivity for CIN3+ (CIN2+) of 46.7% (43.8%), with a specificity of 78.3% (79.4%). The 5-year CIR for CIN3+ in HPV-positive women with normal cytology was 6.9%. Testing these women with p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology resulted in a significantly lower CIN3+ 5-year CIR of 3.3% (p = 0.017) in case of a negative test result. A negative HPV16/18 genotyping test result also led to a lower 5-year CIN3+ CIR of 3.6%. p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology detects more than 70% of underlying CIN3+ lesions in HPV-positive women with normal cytology at baseline and is therefore suitable for triaging these women to colposcopy. Furthermore, the CIN3+ 5-year CIR of 3.3% after a negative dual-stain result is significantly lower compared to the 5-year CIR of 6.9% in women without p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology triage.

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid cytological and biochemical characteristics in the presence of CNS neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Sérgio M de; Nanakanishi, Edna; Conto, Arnaldo J de; Souza, Luciana P; Antonelli Filho, Dario; Roda, Carlos D

    2007-09-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infiltration must be ruled out in patients with known neoplastic diseases and neurological symptoms. It was done a retrospective analysis of 1,948 CSF samples from patients with suspected malignant infiltration in the CNS, in order to evaluate the positivity rate of malignant cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples and correlate with cytochemical characteristics. Sixty-two percent of subjects had acute lymphocytic leukemia. Malignant cells were found in 24% of all CSF samples. Subjects with positive malignant cells had predominance of increased levels of CSF total protein (TP), glucose and total cytology (p<0.05). Mean total cell count in this group was 232 (SD 933) cells/mm(3), compared to 9 (SD 93) cells/mm(3) in the group without neoplasic cells (p=0.029). CSF TP specificity was 87% and negative predictive value (NPV) 96%. CSF total cell count specificity 86% and NPV 97%. Although sensitivity and positive predictive value were low. The presence of inflammatory cells and elevated TP found in patients with malignant cells in the CSF can aid in diagnosing CNS neoplasms.

  2. Barr body in fine needle aspiration cytology of ovarian malignancies.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Pallavi; Dey, Pranab

    2012-11-01

    The Barr body is the inactive X chromosome in a female somatic cell. It is readily identified as plano-convex structure of 2-3 micron in diameter on the periphery of the nuclear membrane. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of Barr body count in malignant ovarian tumors on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears. In this retrospective study, Barr body was counted in FNAC smears of 20 successive malignant ovarian lesions and expressed as percentage. Mean (±SD) Barr body score was 2.4 ± 2.58. Minimum Barr body count was 1 and maximum was 9. The gross reduction of Barr body in ovarian neoplasms is an interesting cytomorphologic finding.

  3. Fibromatosis Colli - A Rare Cytological Diagnosis In Infantile Neck Swellings

    PubMed Central

    Jetley, Sujata; Jairajpuri, Zeeba; Husain, Musharraf

    2014-01-01

    Fibromatosis colli or sternocleidomastoid tumour is a rare cause of benign neck mass in infants. It is a self limiting fibroblastic lesion usually presenting with torticollis and a history of birth trauma.It is one of the few causes in which Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is indicated in a neonate to confirm the diagnosis and to differentiate it from other congenital, inflammatory and neoplastic causes. FNAC provides a rapid, cost-effective, reliable, non invasive method of diagnosis resulting in conservative management of these lesions. We present two interesting cases of neck swelling in infants where FNAC performed as the first diagnostic procedure was instrumental in establishing the diagnosis of fibromatosis colli thus avoiding unnecessary surgical intervention. PMID:25584233

  4. Cytological characterization of Vicia oroboides Wulfen in Jacq.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, Monica; Frediani, M; Ravalli, C; Venora, G; Cremonini, R

    2009-07-01

    Vicia oroboides, a rare taxon belonging to section Atossa of subgenus Vicia, was recovered and analysed by means of cytological and karyological methods with the aim of both characterising this species and integrating our knowledge on phylogeny of subgenus Vicia. Automated karyotype analysis and nuclear DNA content have been determined after Feulgen's reaction; chromosome banding was performed by fluorochrome staining to evidence heterochromatic blocks along the chromosome complement. The chromosome number is in line with the values of the species of section Atossa; the GC- and AT-rich sites were identified by CMA and DAPI staining. Karyomorphological parameters, based on symmetry indices, provide information about the phylogenetic position of this species inside the subgenus Vicia. DNA content is reported for the first time.

  5. The cytology of a thyroid granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Mei; Wei, Chang-Kuo; Tseng, Chih-En

    2009-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) of the thyroid is rare. Before this report, only four cases of thyroid GCT have been reported, none of which presented a cytopathological examination. In this paper, we report the fine needle aspiration cytology and pathological analysis of a thyroid GCT from a 12-year-old girl who presented with a painless neck mass. The tumor cells were single, in syncytial clusters, or pseudofollicles, contained small round, oval, or spindle nuclei, indistinct nucleoli, and a large amount of grayish, granular fragile cytoplasm. The background contained granular debris and naked nuclei. A differential diagnosis of thyroid GCT with more frequent thyroid lesions containing cytoplasmic granules, including Hurthle cells, macrophages, follicular cells, and cells of black thyroid syndrome, was also performed.

  6. Myelography and cytology in the treatment of medulloblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, M.; Reigel, D.H.

    1981-06-01

    Eight of 22 children with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma had asymptomatic spinal cord involvement detected by myelography. Two additional patients had demonstrable spinal cord lesions at the time of relapse in the posterior fossa. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) cytology results were inaccurate in predicting cord involvement. Seven patients have relapsed 9 to 69 months from completion of radiotherapy. Three had initial cord involvement and also had subsequent cord involvement at the time of intracranial relapse or afterwards. Frontal lobe involvement as the initial site of relapse occurred in 3 patients. Computerized tomography has been valuable in the early detection of intracranial relapse. Three children are alive and well 10, 18 and 19 months, respectively, from time of relapse. All were retreated with radiotherapy in conjunction with misonidazole and subsequent chemotherapy.

  7. Intermediate filament: structure, function, and applications in cytology.

    PubMed

    Dey, Pranab; Togra, Jyoti; Mitra, Suvradeep

    2014-07-01

    Intermediate filament (IF) constitutes an important cytoskeletal component in nearly all the vertebrate cells. IFs are present both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. They play an important role in providing mechanical strength of the cell and tissue, growth and regeneration, cell survival and apoptosis, and finally cell migration. IFs are also expressed differentially in different body tissues. Therefore, judicious use of IF may provide the diagnosis and confirmation of different malignancies. This is particularly helpful in the diagnosis of metastatic malignant tumor from an unknown primary. Expression of IFs particularly cytokeratin and vimentin is also related to prognosis of tumors. In this review, we have discussed the basic structure, dynamics, distribution of IF in cells, and its role in diagnosis of cytology. Possible prognostic roles of IF are also discussed.

  8. DICOM-compatible format for analytical cytology data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.; Leif, Suzanne B.

    1998-04-01

    The addition of a list mode data type to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine standard, DICOM will enhance the storage and transmission of digital microscopy data and extend DICOM to include flow cytometry data. This would permit the present International Society for analytical Cytology Flow Cytometry Standard to be retired. DICOM includes: image graphics objects, specifications for describing: studies, reports, the acquisition of the data, work list management, and the individuals involved (physician, patient, etc.) The glossary of terms (objects) suitable for use with DICOM has been extended to include the collaborative effort of Logical Observation Identifier Names and Codes (LOINC) and Systematized Nomenclature of Human and Veterinary Medicine (SNOMED) to create a consistent, unambiguous clinical reference terminology. It also appears that DICOM will be a significant part of the Common Object Request Broker Architecture, CORBA.

  9. Virtual microscopy and digital cytology: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Giansanti, Daniele; Grigioni, Mauro; D'Avenio, Giuseppe; Morelli, Sandra; Maccioni, Giovanni; Bondi, Arrigo; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria

    2010-01-01

    The paper approaches a new technological scenario relevant for the introduction of the digital cytology (D-CYT) in the health service. A detailed analysis of the state of the art on the status of the introduction of D-CYT in the hospital and more in general in the dispersed territory has been conducted. The analysis was conducted in a form of review and was arranged into two parts: the first part focused on the technological tools needed to carry out a successful service (client server architectures, e-learning, quality assurance issues); the second part focused on issues oriented to help the introduction and evaluation of the technology (specific training in D-CYT, health technology assessment in-routine application, data format standards and picture archiving computerized systems (PACS) implementation, image quality assessment, strategies of navigation, 3D-virtual-reality potentialities). The work enlightens future scenarios of actions relevant for the introduction of the technology.

  10. Fine needle aspiration cytology: utilization in pediatric pathology.

    PubMed

    Layfield, L J; Reichman, A

    1990-01-01

    Fine needle aspiration can serve as the initial diagnostic modality for a wide variety of lesions within the pediatric age group. The utility of the technique depends on the clinical setting and histologic type of tumor under study. FNA is most valuable for staging and conformation of metastatic spread in small round cell malignancies. The use of aspiration cytology as the initial diagnostic procedure for these neoplasms is more controversial since this technique may deprive the clinician of valuable information (histologic subtype, oncogene status) now available only by examination of large tissue biopsies. Similarly, FNA can serve as a triage technique for the separation of patients harboring thyroid nodules or enlarged lymph nodes into operative candidates and non-operative candidates. As cytopathologists become more familiar with the appearance of pediatric neoplasms, this diagnostic technique will become more widely used, reducing the need for operative intervention in the diagnosis of many benign and reactive lesions.

  11. Intraoperative imprint cytology of ovarian transitional cell (Brenner) tumors: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rohit Inder; Rosen, Lauren; Reddy, Vijaya B; Bitterman, Pincas; Stemm, Matthew H; Gattuso, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    Literature on fine-needle aspiration of ovarian transitional cell tumor or Brenner tumors is sparse and mostly confined to isolated case reports of metastatic transitional cell tumors. We undertook a retrospective study of intraoperative imprint cytology of ovarian transitional cell tumors to better define the cytologic features of this uncommon ovarian tumor. Between 2005 and 2012, a total of 19 ovarian transitional cell tumors were recorded in our surgical pathology files, 10 of which had concomitant imprint cytologic material available for review. The 10 patients included in this study ranged in age between 43 and 73 years (mean age: 54 years). Nine neoplasms were histologically benign and one was borderline. Nine cases had satisfactory cytologic material for review. The cytologic features can be summarized as follows: the eight benign tumors showed abundant naked nuclei in the background, small and large clusters of tumor cells, abundant cytoplasm, smooth nuclear membranes, and lack of nuclear pleomorphism and mitoses. Single plasmacytoid cells with dense blue abundant cytoplasm, perinuclear vacuoles, nucleoli, microfollicle formation, nuclear grooves, binucleation/multinucleation, and extracellular eosinophilic material were some of the other features that were appreciated. The cytologic features of the one case of borderline transitional cell tumor were similar to those of the benign tumors except for the presence of rare mitoses, easily identifiable nuclear pleomorphism and irregular nuclear membranes. This study highlights some characteristic cytologic features of benign/borderline transitional cell tumors of the ovary which can be of help in recognizing this uncommon neoplasm.

  12. Quantitative risk stratification of oral leukoplakia with exfoliative cytology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; Li, Jianying; Liu, Xiaoyong; Liu, Xudong; Khawar, Waqaar; Zhang, Xinyan; Wang, Fan; Chen, Xiaoxin; Sun, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Exfoliative cytology has been widely used for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Test outcome is reported as "negative", "atypical" (defined as abnormal epithelial changes of uncertain diagnostic significance), and "positive" (defined as definitive cellular evidence of epithelial dysplasia or carcinoma). The major challenge is how to properly manage the "atypical" patients in order to diagnose OSCC early and prevent OSCC. In this study, we collected exfoliative cytology data, histopathology data, and clinical data of normal subjects (n=102), oral leukoplakia (OLK) patients (n=82), and OSCC patients (n=93), and developed a data analysis procedure for quantitative risk stratification of OLK patients. This procedure involving a step called expert-guided data transformation and reconstruction (EdTAR) which allows automatic data processing and reconstruction and reveals informative signals for subsequent risk stratification. Modern machine learning techniques were utilized to build statistical prediction models on the reconstructed data. Among the several models tested using resampling methods for parameter pruning and performance evaluation, Support Vector Machine (SVM) was found to be optimal with a high sensitivity (median>0.98) and specificity (median>0.99). With the SVM model, we constructed an oral cancer risk index (OCRI) which may potentially guide clinical follow-up of OLK patients. One OLK patient with an initial OCRI of 0.88 developed OSCC after 40 months of follow-up. In conclusion, we have developed a statistical method for qualitative risk stratification of OLK patients. This method may potentially improve cost-effectiveness of clinical follow-up of OLK patients, and help design clinical chemoprevention trial for high-risk populations.

  13. Intraoperative examination of sentinel lymph nodes using scrape cytology.

    PubMed

    Mannell, Aylwyn; Wium, Brunton; Thatcher, Charles

    2014-08-08

    Background. In breast cancer, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is widely used to assess the axilla when the nodes appear normal on palpation and ultrasonography. When the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are negative, no further dissection is required. Surgical dissection or radiotherapy of the axilla is indicated for macrometastases, as well as adjuvant therapy for macrometastases and micrometastasic spread.Aim. To determine the accuracy of scrape cytology (SC) for intraoperative examination of the SLNs.Methods. SLNB was performed in 100 patients with early breast cancer in whom the axillary nodes appeared normal on clinical examination and ultrasonography. None of the patients with negative SLNs or SLNs with micrometastases only (N1mic, 0.2 - 2 mm) had further axillary dissection. Patients with SLNs containing macrometastases (N1, >2 mm) underwent axillary lymph node dissection. The results of intraoperative cytology were compared with the histopathological findings on examination of serial paraffin-embedded sections of the SLNs.Results. Intraoperative SC identified SLN metastases in 20 patients: 17 had macrometastases and 3 micrometastases. Histopathological examination of the SLNs found macrometastases in 18 patients and micrometastases in 6. SC had a sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 100% for the detection of macrometastases. For micrometastatic spread, the sensitivity and specificity were 50% and 100%, respectively.Conclusion. SC is a rapid, sensitive technique for detection of macrometastases in the SLNs of women with breast cancer. The overall accuracy in identification of any metastatic spread (N1mic, N1) to the SLNs was 85%, rising to 94% in SLNs with macrometastases.

  14. The subthalamic nucleus. Part I: development, cytology, topography and connections.

    PubMed

    Marani, Enrico; Heida, Tjitske; Lakke, Egbert A J F; Usunoff, Kamen G

    2008-01-01

    This monograph (Part I of two volumes) on the subthalamic nucleus (STN) accentuates the gap between experimental animal and human information concerning subthalamic development, cytology, topography and connections. The light and electron microscopical cytology focuses on the open nucleus concept and the neuronal types present in the STN. The cytochemistry encompasses enzymes, NO, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), calcium binding proteins, and receptors (dopamine, cannabinoid, opioid, glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin, cholinergic, and calcium channels). The ontogeny of the subthalamic cell cord is also reviewed. The topography concerns the rat, cat, baboon and human STN. The descriptions of the connections are also given from a historical point of view. Recent tracer studies on the rat nigro-subthalamic connection revealed contralateral projections. Part II of the two volumes (volume 199) on the subthalamic nucleus (STN) starts with a systemic model of the basal ganglia to evaluate the position of the STN in the direct, indirect and hyperdirect pathways. A summary of in vitro studies is given, describing STN spontaneous activity as well as responses to depolarizing and hyperpolarizing inputs and high-frequency stimulation. STN bursting activity and the underlying ionic mechanisms are investigated. Deep brain stimulation used for symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease is discussed in terms of the elements that are influenced and its hypothesized mechanisms. This part of the monograph explores the pedunculopontine-subthalamic connections and summarizes attempts to mimic neurotransmitter actions of the pedunculopontine nucleus in cell cultures and high-frequency stimulation on cultured dissociated rat subthalamic neurons. STN cell models--single- and multi-compartment models and system-level models are discussed in relation to subthalamic function and dysfunction. Parts I and II are compared. PMID:18727483

  15. The Cytological Grading of Malignant Neoplasms of The Breast and Its Correlation With The Histological Grading

    PubMed Central

    Vasudev, Vidya; R., Rangaswamy; V., Geethamani

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Breast carcinoma is one of the leading causes of malignancy in females. The diagnosis of breast carcinoma is often made by fine needle aspiration cytology. Nuclear grading is an important prognostic factor. It is important to grade breast carcinomas, which will provide valuable information to the treating oncologists to plan their management. The purpose of this study was to compare the cytological grading and typing with the histological grading and typing and the regional lymph node metastasis. Methodology: This retrospective and prospective study was done on 60 cases with malignant and suspicious diagnoses on FNAC, which had histopathological correlations, from January 2004 to December 2007. The cytological grading was done by Robinson's Method and the histopathological grading was done by the modified Scarff Bloom Richardson method. Cytological and histological typings were also done. The statistical analysis was done by using the SPSS software: The Chi square test was used and a contingency tale analysis (cross tabs procedure) was also done. Results: The cytohistological grading correlation was accurate in 7 cases (100%) of grade 1, 22 cases (71%) of grade 3 and 9 cases (42.9%) of grade 2 cancers. The accuracy was 62.7% (P < 0.001). A higher cytological grade was associated with a nodal metastasis. (cc : 0.399, P < .006) The cytological typing was accurate in 44 cases out of the 60 cases. Interpretation and Conclusion: The cytological grade correlated well with the histological grading accuracy (62.7%) and a higher grade was associated with a nodal metastasis (P < 0.006), Hence the cytological grading and typing should be routinely incorporated in the cytology reports and they can be of great value in guiding the choice of the treatment protocols. PMID:23905097

  16. mRNA biomarker detection in liquid-based cytology: a new approach in the prevention of cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Del Pino, Marta; Svanholm-Barrie, Cecilia; Torné, Aureli; Marimon, Lorena; Gaber, Jina; Sagasta, Amaia; Persing, David H; Ordi, Jaume

    2015-02-01

    Several high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cell biomarkers have been proposed as possible candidates to identify patients harboring high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) of the uterine cervix. We aimed to determine the feasibility of the detection of the mRNA of six biomarkers in cervical smear specimens obtained by liquid-based cytology and to evaluate whether this approach might be useful in the identification of patients with HSIL. One-hundred and twenty three women referred to colposcopy in the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona were included in the study. After a thorough study, including Pap test, high-risk HPV testing (Hybrid Capture 2 test), and colposcopy with directed biopsy and/or endocervical curettage, 48 patients were diagnosed with HSIL, whereas 75 were classified as negative (n=28), or harboring low-grade SIL (n=47). CDKN2A/p16, BIRC5, MMP9, TOP2A, MCM5, and MKI67 mRNA expression was analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction in liquid-based cytology after the Pap test and Hybrid Capture 2 performance. The tissue expression of these biomarkers was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in the biopsy material. One-hundred and thirteen out of 123 (92%) liquid-based cytology yielded adequate material for mRNA analysis. TOP2A was the most sensitive (97%) biomarker for the detection of HSIL and CDKN2A/p16 the most specific (78%). The combination of TOP2A and CDKN2A/p16 showed a sensitivity of 96% (95% confidence interval (CI): 88-99) and a specificity of 71% (95% CI: 55-82). In the immunohistochemistry analysis, all biomarkers showed a high sensitivity but low specificity for HSIL, except CDKN2A/p16 which had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 63%. The combination of TOP2A and CDKN2A/p16 showed a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 91-100) and a specificity of 43% (95% CI: 32-55). The detection of mRNA of cell biomarkers in liquid-based cytology material is feasible. The combination TOP2A and CDKN2A/p16 has a

  17. P16INK4a: a potential diagnostic adjunct for prediction of high-grade cervical lesions in liquid-based cytology: with HPV testing and histological correlation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y P; Abdul Raub, S H; Mohd Dali, A Z H; Kassim, F; Visvalingam, V; Zakaria, Z; Kamaluddin, M A; Noor Akmal, S

    2016-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer and its precursors. Increased expression of high-risk hrHPV viral oncogenes in abnormal cells might increase the expression of p16INK4a. We aimed to determine the role of p16INK4a in detecting hrHPV-transformed epithelial cells in liquid-based cervical cytology, and compared the results with hrHPV DNA testing by realtime polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Fifty-seven cytological samples were tested for p16INK4a immunomarker and hrHPV DNA. Test performance of both tests was determined by comparing sensitivity, specificity and predictive values using available histological follow-up data as gold standard. Of 57 samples, 36 (63.2%) showed immunoreactivity for p16INK4a and 43 (75.4%) were hrHPV-infected. A fairly low concordance rate (k = 0.504) between p16INK4a immunolabelling and hrHPV DNA status was noted. For prediction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II and worse lesions, p16INK4a had a sensitivity and specificity of 93.5% and 60%; whereas hrHPV DNA testing had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 20%. Dual testing by combining p16INK4a and hrHPV showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 33.3%. In conclusion, p16INK4a is useful in predicting severity of the cytological abnormalities. Although p16INK4a is more specific but less sensitive than hrHPV in detecting high-grade cervical lesions, a combination of both tests failed to demonstrate significant improvement in diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and predictive value. Larger-scale prospective studies are required to assess further whether this biomarker should be routinely used as primary screening tool independently or in combination with hrHPV testing to improve diagnostic accuracy in cervical cytology. PMID:27568665

  18. P16INK4a: a potential diagnostic adjunct for prediction of high-grade cervical lesions in liquid-based cytology: with HPV testing and histological correlation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y P; Abdul Raub, S H; Mohd Dali, A Z H; Kassim, F; Visvalingam, V; Zakaria, Z; Kamaluddin, M A; Noor Akmal, S

    2016-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a necessary cause of cervical cancer and its precursors. Increased expression of high-risk hrHPV viral oncogenes in abnormal cells might increase the expression of p16INK4a. We aimed to determine the role of p16INK4a in detecting hrHPV-transformed epithelial cells in liquid-based cervical cytology, and compared the results with hrHPV DNA testing by realtime polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Fifty-seven cytological samples were tested for p16INK4a immunomarker and hrHPV DNA. Test performance of both tests was determined by comparing sensitivity, specificity and predictive values using available histological follow-up data as gold standard. Of 57 samples, 36 (63.2%) showed immunoreactivity for p16INK4a and 43 (75.4%) were hrHPV-infected. A fairly low concordance rate (k = 0.504) between p16INK4a immunolabelling and hrHPV DNA status was noted. For prediction of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) II and worse lesions, p16INK4a had a sensitivity and specificity of 93.5% and 60%; whereas hrHPV DNA testing had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 20%. Dual testing by combining p16INK4a and hrHPV showed sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 33.3%. In conclusion, p16INK4a is useful in predicting severity of the cytological abnormalities. Although p16INK4a is more specific but less sensitive than hrHPV in detecting high-grade cervical lesions, a combination of both tests failed to demonstrate significant improvement in diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and predictive value. Larger-scale prospective studies are required to assess further whether this biomarker should be routinely used as primary screening tool independently or in combination with hrHPV testing to improve diagnostic accuracy in cervical cytology.

  19. Genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) and co-infections in cervical cytologic specimens from two outpatient gynecological clinics in a region of southeast Spain

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution and co-infection occurrence was studied in cervical cytologic specimens from Murcia Region, (southeast Spain), to obtain information regarding the possible effect of the ongoing vaccination campaign against HPV16 and HPV18. Methods A total of 458 cytologic specimens were obtained from two outpatient gynecological clinics. These included 288 normal benign (N/B) specimens, 56 atypical squamous cell of undetermined significance (ASC-US), 75 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 39 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). HPV genotyping was performed using PCR and tube array hybridization. Results The most frequent genotype found was HPV16 (14.9% in N/B; 17.9% in ASC-US; 29.3% in LSIL and 33.3% HSIL). Distribution of other genotypes was heavily dependent on the cytologic diagnoses. Co-infections were found in 15.3% of N/B, 10.7% of ASC-US, 48% of LSIL and 25.6% of HSIL cases (significantly different at p < 0.001). Strikingly, in N/B diagnoses, genotypes from A5 species were found as coinfecting in all cases. Genotypes from A7 or A9 species appeared in co-infections in 56.5% and 54% respectively whereas genotypes from A6 species appeared in 25.1% of cases. Conclusion HPV vaccination might prevent 34.6% and 35.8% of LSIL and HSIL, respectively. Co-infection rate is dependent on both cytologic diagnosis and HPV genotype. Moreover, genotypes belonging to A5, A7 and A9 species are more often found as co-infections than genotype pertaining to A6 species. This suggests that phylogenetically related genotypes might have in common similar grades of dependency for cervical epithelium colonization. PMID:19664248

  20. The process of moving from a regionally based cervical cytology biobank to a national infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Perskvist, Nasrin; Norlin, Loreana; Dillner, Joakim

    2015-04-01

    This article addresses the important issue of the standardization of the biobank process. It reports on i) the implementation of standard operating procedures for the processing of liquid-based cervical cells, ii) the standardization of storage conditions, and iii) the ultimate establishment of nationwide standardized biorepositories for cervical specimens. Given the differences in the infrastructure and healthcare systems of various county councils in Sweden, these efforts were designed to develop standardized methods of biobanking across the nation. The standardization of cervical sample processing and biobanking is an important and widely acknowledged issue. Efforts to address these concerns will facilitate better patient care and improve research based on retrospective and prospective collections of patient samples and cohorts. The successful nationalization of the Cervical Cytology Biobank in Sweden is based on three vital issues: i) the flexibility of the system to adapt to other regional systems, ii) the development of the system based on national collaboration between the university and the county councils, and iii) stable governmental financing by the provider, the Biobanking and Molecular Resource Infrastructure of Sweden (BBMRI.se). We will share our experiences with biorepository communities to promote understanding of and advances in opportunities to establish a nationalized biobank which covers the healthcare of the entire nation.

  1. Cytology in the otorhinolaryngologist's domain - a study of 150 cases, emphasizing diagnostic utility and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Abrari, Andleeb; Ahmad, S Shamshad; Bakshi, Vandana

    2002-04-01

    150 patients with mass lesions in the head and neck area, excluding the CNS and thyroid gland were subjected to FNA cytodiagnosis. II out of 150 smears were considered unsatisfactory for diagnostic evaluation. Out of the 139 patients who yielded satisfactory smears, cytodiagnosis led to the following broad categories - inflammatory and non- neoplastic (24/139, 17.3%), benign neoplasm (60/139, 43.2%), suspicious for malignancy (14/139. 10%) and malignant neoplasms (41/139, 29.5%). Histopathologic follow- up was available in 120 cases. 15/24 with inflammatory lesions were not subjected to biopsy, rest 4 were lost to follow up (I had a suspicious smear and 3 the diagnosis of benign neoplasm). Correlation of cytodiagnoses with histopathology yielded the following results - 52 out of 57 patients with the cytodiagnosis of benign neoplasm and having, histologic follow up had concordance, while 39 out of 41 cytologic diagnoses of malignancy, correlated with histopathology.Out of surgically sampled 9 patients, with inflammatory smears, 8 were benign and 1 malignant. In the suspicious category 2 out of 13 surgically sampled patients had malignancy. Thus, excluding the suspicious smears the accuracy of diagnosis by FNAC in this study came to 93% and a sensitivity for cancer detection of 95%. We encountered a false negative rate of 9.0% and a false positive rate of 4.9%.The results are discussed, especially in the light of the misdiagnoses and ways at avoiding diagnostic : error.

  2. Molecular genetic testing of uveal melanoma from routinely processed and stained cytology specimens.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Benjamin N; Cebulla, Colleen M; Wakely, Paul E; Davidorf, Frederick H; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H

    2011-11-01

    In the following study we investigated the utility of molecular genetic testing of the DNA extracted from routinely stained and processed smears from uveal melanoma (UM). Smears from five uveal melanoma cell lines and 12 primary tumors were prepared and stained with Papanicolaou and Romanowsky stains. Genotyping was carried out utilizing 14 microsatellite markers on chromosomes 3, 6 and 8. Mutational screening for alterations in GNAQ and GNA11 genes was carried out by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The results were compared to those obtained through direct sequencing of frozen tumor tissues. High quality DNA was extracted from the stained slides with no difference in the efficiency of DNA extraction between the two staining techniques. The extracted DNA was of adequate quality for genotyping and mutational screening. DNA extracted from approximately 200 tumor cells is sufficient for reproducible testing of allelic imbalances and for studying the common somatic mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 genes. In conclusion, we presented the feasibility of utilizing routinely stained cytology smears from UM for molecular genetic testing. The DNA obtained is of sufficient quality to carry out genotyping for markers on chromosome 3, 6 and 8, as well as screening for somatic mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 genes.

  3. Cytological and molecular detection of Leishmania infantum in different tissues of clinically normal and sick cats.

    PubMed

    Chatzis, Manolis K; Andreadou, Margarita; Leontides, Leonidas; Kasabalis, Dimitrios; Mylonakis, Mathios; Koutinas, Alexandros F; Rallis, Timoleon; Ikonomopoulos, John; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N

    2014-05-28

    Natural infection of domestic cats by Leishmania infantum (synonym: L. chagasi) has been demonstrated in several European, Latin American, and Asian countries, and the estimated prevalence of infection, based mainly on blood PCR, ranges from 0.3% up to 60.6%. In this study we aimed to: (a) estimate the prevalence of the infection by L. infantum in clinically normal cats (group A; n=50) and in cats with various clinical signs (group B; n=50), living in an endemic region, by both cytological examination of four different tissues (lymph node, skin, bone marrow, and conjunctiva) and by PCR in four different tissues (blood, skin biopsies, bone marrow, and conjunctiva); (b) compare the diagnostic sensitivity of the above methods and evaluate for possible associations between their results; and (c) investigate the possible associations between infection by L. infantum and signalment, living conditions, season of sampling, and health status of the cats. The prevalence of the infection in the study population was 41% and did not differ (P=0.839) between group A (42%) and B (40%) cats. Lymph node, skin, bone marrow and conjunctiva cytology was always negative. Therefore, the diagnosis of the infection was based only on PCR in blood, skin biopsy, bone marrow and conjunctiva, which was positive in 13%, 18.2%, 16% and 3.1% of the cats, respectively. PCR was positive in only one of the four tissues in 80.5% of the infected cats. The results differed (P=0.014) among the four tissues and were less frequently positive in conjunctiva compared to skin biopsies and bone marrow (P=0.007 for both comparisons), thus highlighting the need for multiple tissue PCR testing in order to minimize false-negative results. More PCR-positive cats were found when sampling was performed during the period of sandfly activity (odds ratio: 2.44; P=0.022). Also, in group B cats, the likelihood of PCR-positivity was higher (odds ratio: 3.93; P=0.042) among those presenting at least one systemic clinical

  4. FINE-NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY OF HEAD AND NECK LYMPH NODES IN A TEN-YEAR PERIOD - SINGLE CENTER EXPERIENCE.

    PubMed

    Vasilj, Ankica; Katović, Sandra Kojić

    2015-09-01

    A wide spectrum of diseases including reactive processes, infections, lymphomas and metastatic tumors can cause enlargement of lymph nodes. The present study on 4062 patients with lymphadenopathy was conducted in the Department of Cytology, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center, Zagreb, during a 10-year period. Of 4062 patients with lymphadenopathy, 1624 were males and 2438 were females, age range from several months to 85 years. Of 4062 fine needle aspiration procedures, 232/4062 (5.7%) samples were nondiagnostic. Lymph node aspirates were benign in 2640/3830 (69%) and malignant in 1190/3830 (31%) cases. Hematologic disease (Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma) was diagnosed in 482/1190 (40.5%) and metastases in 708/1190 (59.5%) cases. Of 482 patients with hematologic disease, 48/482 (10%) had Hodgkin lymphomas and 434/482 (90%) non-Hodgkin lymphomas. In the group of malignant lymphadenopathy, there were 212/708 (30%) metastatic squamous cell carcinomas, 177/708 (25%) metastatic adenocarcinomas, 149/708 (21%) metastases of other carcinomas, and 170/708 (24%) metastases of other malignant tumors. The present study confirmed the fine needle aspiration cytology of enlarged head and neck lymph nodes to be an excellent first-line method to investigate the nature of the lesions. PMID:26666101

  5. Impact of immediate evaluation of touch imprint cytology from computed tomography guided core needle biopsies of mass lesions: Single institution experience

    PubMed Central

    Moghadamfalahi, Mana; Podoll, Mirna; Frey, Amy B.; Alatassi, Houda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Computed tomography (CT) guided core needle biopsy (CT-guided CNB) is a minimally invasive, safe and effective manner of tissue sampling in many organs. The aim of our study is to determine the impact of on-site evaluation of touch imprint cytology (TIC) to minimize the number of passes required to obtain adequate tissue for diagnosis. Design: A retrospective review of all CT-guided CNBs performed during 4 year period, where pathologists were present for on-site TIC evaluation. Each case was evaluated for the number of passes required before TIC was interpreted as adequate for diagnosis. Results: A total of 140 CT-guided CNBs were included in the study (liver, lung, kidney, sacral, paraspinal, omental, splenic and adrenal masses). Of the 140 cases, 109 were diagnosed as malignant, 28 as benign and three insufficient. In 106 cases (75.7%), the biopsies were determined adequate by TIC on the first pass, 19 cases (13%) on the second pass and 7 cases (5%) on the third pass. Only in 5 cases (3.6%), more than three passes were required before diagnostic material was obtained. Three cases (2.14%) were interpreted as inadequate both on TIC and on the final diagnosis. Of the biopsies deemed adequate on the first pass, 71% resulted in either termination of the procedure, or only one additional pass was obtained. In five cases, based on the TIC evaluation, a portion of the sample was sent for either flow cytometric analysis or cytogenetic studies. Conclusions: In the majority of cases, adequate material was obtained in the first pass of CT-guided CNB and once this was obtained, either no additional passes, or one additional pass was performed. This study demonstrates the utility of on-site evaluation in minimizing the number of passes required for obtaining adequate diagnostic material and for proper specimen triage for ancillary studies, which in turn decreases the risk to the patient and costs. However, tumor exhaustion in the tissue as a result of TIC is an

  6. Cytology, RAPD, and seed colour of progeny plants from Brassica rapa-alboglabra aneuploids and development of monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Heneen, W K; Jørgensen, R B

    2001-12-01

    Progeny plants from Brassica rapa-alboglabra aneuploids were characterized genetically by scoring random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers and seed colour and cytologically as to chromosome number and pairing. Sets of RAPD markers specific for each of the encountered eight alien Brassica alboglabra chromosomes were defined. The finding of subsets of markers associated with the presence or absence of alien chromosomes inferred the frequent occurrence of intergenomic genetic recombination and introgression. The chromosome numbers were in the range 2n = 20-28, with a maximum of seven alien B. alboglabra chromosomes and one trisomic B. rapa chromosome. Five types of monosomic addition lines were obtained, two of which have not been developed before. Differences in chromatin condensation patterns made it possible to differentiate between the B. rapa and B. alboglabra chromosomes at diakinesis, and to detect intergenomic homoeological pairing. In addition to the frequent formation of trivalents by homoeologous pairing of an alien B. alboglabra chromosome and a background B. rapa pair, occasional heteromorphic intergenomic bivalents and B. rapa univalents were encountered. Homoeological intergenomic pairing occurred between chromosomes with similar centromeric and karyotypic positions. Plants with structurally changed alien chromosomes were found. The RAPD and cytological data substantiated each other. Observations of the colour of sown and harvested seeds indicated that B. alboglabra chromosome 4 carries a gene for brown seed colour. It exerts its control embryonically, and thus it differs from chromosome 1 which controls seed colour maternally.

  7. Cytology of plasma cell rich effusion in cases of plasma cell neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Gochhait, Debasis; Dey, Pranab; Verma, Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple myeloma or plasmacytoma resulting in malignant effusion is rarely described in literature. Aims: In this paper, we have studied the seven rare cases of plasma cell infiltration in effusion fluid. Materials and Methods: We studied six cases of pleural fluid and one case of ascetic fluid. Detailed cytological features, clinical history, bone marrow examinations, serum electrophoresis, and immunofixation data were analyzed. Result: There were two cases of plasmacytoma, four cases of multiple myeloma, and one case of plasmablastic lymphoma. On cytology, all the cases showed excess plasma cells along with mesothelial cells and lymphocytes on effusion cytology smear. Conclusion: Plasma cell rich effusion in cases of plasma cell tumor is rare. However, on cytology these cases do not pose much problem if relevant history is known.

  8. Salivary gland anlage tumor: cytologic features in a case examined by fine-needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Bondeson, L; Andreasson, L; Olsson, M; Rausing, A

    1997-06-01

    The cytologic features in fine-needle aspirates from a rare benign nasopharyngeal salivary gland anlage tumor in a newborn boy are described and commented on, regarding therapeutically important differential diagnoses.

  9. [Possibilities of clinico-cytological diagnosis in contagious equine metritis (CEM)].

    PubMed

    Ullrich, E; Selbitz, H J; Schieck, R; Friedrich, U; Schulz, J

    1991-05-01

    Clinical, bacteriological and serological examinations on a 6 years old pony mare were performed. Cytological alterations in the genital tract were also recorded. A cellular reaction was seen after infection with T. equigenitalis. This reaction is an evidence for infection but it is not specific for this organism. Cytological studies should be performed on mares especially in cases of latent infections to complete bacteriological examination and to prevent false positive or negative results. PMID:1872793

  10. Fine needle aspiration cytology in the management of head and neck masses.

    PubMed

    Slack, R W; Croft, C B; Crome, L P

    1985-04-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology is a useful technique in the management of patients with masses in the head and neck, which is usually performed in co-operation with a specialized cytopathologist. It has not until recently been an investigation used frequently by British otolaryngologists. This study shows that an aspiration cytology service may be run with the aid of a general histopathologist and demonstrates that it is a valuable aid to diagnosis even without the services of a specialized cytopathologist. PMID:4028473

  11. Histopathology-like categories based on endometrial imprint cytology in dysfunctional uterine bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Baxi, Seema N.; Panchal, Nirav S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cytology of the endometrium is an underused technique in diagnostic pathology. It has been used in the past for endometrial hyperplasia and carcinoma. Only few studies have used cytology in the diagnosis of dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB). Endometrial imprint cytology has been rarely used except for application of immunocytochemistry in diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma. Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate whether it is possible to assign histopathology-like diagnosis by imprint cytology and also to evaluate its usefulness in the assessment of patients of dysfunctional uterine bleeding of low clinical suspicion. Materials and Methods: Imprint smears were made from 93 curettage materials during a study of DUB. Blinded analysis of imprint smears was performed by using McKenzie's criteria and some criteria devised for the requirements of this study. Results of cytology were correlated with histopathology. Statistical analysis was carried out by GraphpadInStat Demo. Results: Majority of the patterns classifiable in histopathology could also be classified in this study on imprint cytology. The overall sensitivity and specificity of cytology in the detection of endometrial patterns in DUB patients were 91.23% and 83.87%, respectively, although the sensitivities and specificities differ according to the phase of endometrium. Conclusion: Histopathology-like categories can be assigned on imprint smears in the diagnosis of DUB. Endometrial imprint cytology can be helpful in centers where histopathology laboratories are not available and even in well-established institutes. It is possible to improve the sensitivity and specificity with better imprinting techniques. PMID:26229245

  12. Integration of Tablet Technologies in the e-Laboratory of Cytology: A Health Technology Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Pochini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Although tablet systems are becoming a powerful technology, particularly useful in every application of medical imaging, to date no one has investigated the acceptance and performance of this technology in digital cytology. The specific aims of the work were (1) to design a health technology assessment (HTA) tool to assess, in terms of performance and acceptance, the introduction of tablet technologies (wearable, portable, and non portable) in the e-laboratories of cytology and (2) to test the tool in a first significant application of digital cytology. Materials and Methods: An HTA tool was proposed operating on a domain of five dimensions of investigation comprising the basic information of the product of digital cytology, the perceived subjective quality of images, the assessment of the virtual navigation on the e-slide, the assessment of the information and communication technologies features, and the diagnostic power. Six e-slides regarding studies of cervicovaginal cytology digitalized by means of an Aperio (www.aperio.com) scanner and uploaded onto the www.digitalslide.it Web site were used for testing the methodology on three different network connections. Results: Three experts of cytology successfully tested the methodology on seven tablets found suitable for the study in their own standard configuration. Specific indexes furnished by the tool indicated both a high degree of performance and subjective acceptance of the investigated technology. Conclusions: The HTA tool thus could be useful to investigate new tablet technologies in digital cytology and furnish stakeholders with useful information that may help them make decisions involving the healthcare system. From a global point of view the study demonstrates the feasibility of using the tablet technology in digital cytology. PMID:25290667

  13. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of terminal duct carcinoma of minor salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Frierson, H F; Covell, J L; Mills, S E

    1987-06-01

    The cytologic features of terminal duct carcinoma of the palate, as observed in a fine-needle aspiration specimen, are described and contrasted with the cytologic features reported for benign mixed tumor, basal-cell adenoma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Terminal duct carcinoma, at times, may be difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish from adenoid cystic carcinoma in fine-needle aspiration specimens. In most instances, this distinction may not be important.

  14. Sensitive detection of tumour cells in effusions by combining cytology and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH).

    PubMed

    Fiegl, M; Massoner, A; Haun, M; Sturm, W; Kaufmann, H; Hack, R; Krugmann, J; Fritzer-Szekeres, M; Grünewald, K; Gastl, G

    2004-08-01

    Diagnosis of malignant cells in effusions is important for staging procedures and resulting therapeutic decisions. Cytodiagnostics in effusions is sometimes difficult since reactive mesothelial cells can mimic malignant cells. We used fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) in single-colour or if appropriate in dual-colour evaluation to detect chromosomal aberrations in effusion cells as markers of malignancy, to raise the diagnostic yield. Cytologic and FISH evaluations--by using probes representing several chromosomes always including chromosomes 11 and 17--were performed in 358 effusion fluids. Cytology was positive for malignancy in 44.4% of all effusions, whereas FISH was positive in 53.9% (P=0.0001). The combination of cytology and FISH was diagnostic for malignancy in 60.9% of effusions. Diagnostic superiority of FISH was demonstrated in effusions from breast cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and in effusions from the entire group of gynaecological and gastrointestinal carcinomas. In transudates (effusion protein <2.5 g dl(-1)), malignant cells were detectable by cytology, FISH, and combined use of both methods in 18.6, 30, and 37.1% of effusions, respectively, suggesting that cytologic and molecular analysis should be performed also with transudates. In conclusion, FISH in combination with conventional cytology is a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for detecting malignant cells in effusions.

  15. Yield of closed pleural biopsy and cytology in exudative pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    Zuberi, Faisal Faiyaz; Zuberi, Bader Faiyaz; Ali, Syed Khalid; Hussain, Sagheer; Mumtaz, Farhana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine diagnostic yield of Closed Pleural Biopsy (CPB) and Cytology in Exudative Pleural Effusion (PE). Methods: This prospective comparative study was conducted at Chest Unit-II & Medical Unit-IV of Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi Pakistan from January 2011 till December 2014. Results: Ninety-four patients with exudative PE were finally included. The mean age (SD) was 44.0 (13.8) years. Overall Specific Diagnosis was reached in 76/94 patients; 46 Tuberculosis PE (TPE) & 30 Malignant PE (MPE). CPB diagnosed all TPE patients alone and 28/30 of MPE. Cytology diagnosed only 10/30 patients of MPE with 8 patients having both CPB & Cytology positive for malignancy whereas in the remaining two cases only Cytology positive. The sensitivity of CPB in detecting TPE and MPE was 93.9% and 82.4% respectively whereas specificity for both was 100%. The diagnostic yield of cytology in detecting MPE is only (33.3%). The diagnostic yield of CPB for TPE and MPE is 100% and 93.3% respectively. The overall specific diagnostic yield of CPB is 78.7%. Conclusion: CPB is better than pleural fluid cytology alone with the later adding little to diagnostic yield when both combined in distinguishing TPE from MPE, the two main differential of exudative PE in a TB-Endemic country. PMID:27182239

  16. High prevalence of cervical dysplasia in STD clinic patients warrants routine cytologic screening.

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, R M; Holmes, K K; Kiviat, N; Barker, E; Eschenbach, D A; DeJong, R

    1980-01-01

    The results of routine cervical cytology screening at a Planned Parenthood Center (PPC) clinic were compared to those at a nearby sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic in Seattle. Cervical cytologic findings were consistent with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), grades 1 (mild dysplasia), 2 (moderate dysplasia), or 3 (severe dysplasia to carcinoma in situ) in 502 (5.9 per cent) of 8,504 PPC patients and 87 (11.4 per cent) of 764 STD patients (p = .001). This rate for STD patients is five times that reported for the general population. Sixty-three PPC patients and 31 STD patients with screening smears consistent with CIN 1 or 2 underwent further prospective study by us, including repeated cytologic and colposcopic examinations. Thirty-seven (59 per cent) of 63 PPC patients and 26 (84 per cent) of 31 STD patients (p = .02) had at least on additional smear or colposcopy consistent with CIN and were advised to undergo cervical biopsy. Among those who underwent recommended biopsy, CIN was confirmed histologically in 15 (50 per cent) of 30 PPC patients and 11 (61 per cent) of 18 STD patients. Thus, the proportion of patients who had screening cytologic findings consistent with CIN, the proportion with persistent cytologic or colposcopic findings consistent with CIN on retesting, and the proportion of those biopsied who had histologically confirmed CIN, all were higher for STD than for PPC patients. There is a serious need for cytologic screening in STD clinics throughout the nation. PMID:6893526

  17. Prevalence of high risk human papillomavirus infection with different cervical cytological features among women undergoing health examination at the National Cancer Institute, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Laowahutanont, Piyawat; Karalak, Anant; Wongsena, Metee; Loonprom, Komson; Pukcharoen, Phuttalak; Jamsri, Paphawin; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn

    2014-01-01

    High-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is important in cervical cancer screening for triage colposcopy. The objective of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of HR HPV infection with different cervical cytological features among women undergoing health examination. A total of 2,897 women were retrospectively evaluated between May 2011 to December 2011. DNA was extracted from residual specimens collected during routine liquid-based cytology tests at the National Cancer Institute. Overall, HR HPV prevalence was 9.3% including 1.6% of HPV-16 and 0.4% of HPV-18. Of all 270 HPV positive samples, 211 (78.1% were HR-HPV non 16/18; 47 (17.4%) were HPV-16 and 12 (4.4%) were HPV-18. The prevalence of HPV infection was similar in all age groups, although a higher rate was observed in women age 31-40 years. Among women with normal cytology, HR HPV positive were found in 6.7%. In abnormal cytology, HR HPV were found 46.7% in atypical squamous cells (ASC), 54.8% in low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 80.0% in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). HPV-16 was detected in 8.6%, 6.4% and 12.0% of ASC, LSIL and HSIL, respectively. The results of this study provide baseline information on the HPV type distribution, which may be useful for clinicians to decide who should be monitored or treated more aggressively.

  18. Usefulness of conventional transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis, staging and molecular characterization of pulmonary neoplasias by thin-prep based cytology: experience of a single oncological institute

    PubMed Central

    Ramieri, Maria Teresa; Marandino, Ferdinando; Visca, Paolo; Salvitti, Tommaso; Gallo, Enzo; Casini, Beatrice; Giordano, Francesca Romana; Frigieri, Claudia; Caterino, Mauro; Carlini, Sandro; Rinaldi, Massimo; Ceribelli, Anna; Pennetti, Annarita; Alò, Pier Luigi; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Filippetti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (c-TBNA) contributed to improve the bronchoscopic examination, allowing to sample lesions located even outside the tracheo-bronchial tree and in the hilo-mediastinal district, both for diagnostic and staging purposes. Methods We have evaluated the sensitivity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the c-TBNA performed during the 2005–2015 period for suspicious lung neoplasia and/or hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy at the Thoracic endoscopy of the Thoracic Surgery Department of the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome. Data from 273 consecutive patients (205 males and 68 females) were analyzed. Results Among 158 (58%) adequate specimens, 112 (41%) were neoplastic or contained atypical cells, 46 (17%) were negative or not diagnostic. We considered in the analysis first the overall period; then we compared the findings of the first [2005–2011] and second period [2012–2015] and, finally, only those of adequate specimens. During the overall period, sensibility and accuracy values were respectively of 53% and 63%, in the first period they reached 41% and 53% respectively; in the second period sensibility and accuracy reached 60% and 68%. Considering only the adequate specimens, sensibility and accuracy during the overall period were respectively of 80% and 82%; the values obtained for the first period were 68% and 72%. Finally, in the second period, sensibility reached 86% and accuracy 89%. Carcinoma-subtyping was possible in 112 cases, adenocarcinomas being diagnosed in 50 cases; further, in 30 cases molecular predictive data could be obtained. Conclusions The c-TBNA proved to be an efficient method for the diagnosis/staging of lung neoplasms and for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Endoscopist’s skill and technical development, associated to thin-prep cytology and to a rapid on site examination (ROSE), were able to provide by c-TBNA a

  19. Usefulness of conventional transbronchial needle aspiration in the diagnosis, staging and molecular characterization of pulmonary neoplasias by thin-prep based cytology: experience of a single oncological institute

    PubMed Central

    Ramieri, Maria Teresa; Marandino, Ferdinando; Visca, Paolo; Salvitti, Tommaso; Gallo, Enzo; Casini, Beatrice; Giordano, Francesca Romana; Frigieri, Claudia; Caterino, Mauro; Carlini, Sandro; Rinaldi, Massimo; Ceribelli, Anna; Pennetti, Annarita; Alò, Pier Luigi; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Filippetti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background Conventional transbronchial needle aspiration (c-TBNA) contributed to improve the bronchoscopic examination, allowing to sample lesions located even outside the tracheo-bronchial tree and in the hilo-mediastinal district, both for diagnostic and staging purposes. Methods We have evaluated the sensitivity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the c-TBNA performed during the 2005–2015 period for suspicious lung neoplasia and/or hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy at the Thoracic endoscopy of the Thoracic Surgery Department of the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome. Data from 273 consecutive patients (205 males and 68 females) were analyzed. Results Among 158 (58%) adequate specimens, 112 (41%) were neoplastic or contained atypical cells, 46 (17%) were negative or not diagnostic. We considered in the analysis first the overall period; then we compared the findings of the first [2005–2011] and second period [2012–2015] and, finally, only those of adequate specimens. During the overall period, sensibility and accuracy values were respectively of 53% and 63%, in the first period they reached 41% and 53% respectively; in the second period sensibility and accuracy reached 60% and 68%. Considering only the adequate specimens, sensibility and accuracy during the overall period were respectively of 80% and 82%; the values obtained for the first period were 68% and 72%. Finally, in the second period, sensibility reached 86% and accuracy 89%. Carcinoma-subtyping was possible in 112 cases, adenocarcinomas being diagnosed in 50 cases; further, in 30 cases molecular predictive data could be obtained. Conclusions The c-TBNA proved to be an efficient method for the diagnosis/staging of lung neoplasms and for the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Endoscopist’s skill and technical development, associated to thin-prep cytology and to a rapid on site examination (ROSE), were able to provide by c-TBNA a

  20. Accuracy of grading of urothelial carcinoma on urine cytology: an analysis of interobserver and intraobserver agreement

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Michelle D; Osunkoya, Adeboye O; Siddiqui, Momin T; Looney, Stephen W

    2012-01-01

    Background: Urine samples of known urothelial carcinoma were independently graded by 3 pathologists with (MS, MR) and without (AO) fellowship training in cytopathology using a modified version of the 2004 2-tiered World Health Organization classification system. By measuring interobserver and intraobserver agreement among pathologists, compared with the gold standard of biopsy/resection, specimen accuracy and reproducibility of grading in urine was determined. Methods: 44 urine cytology samples were graded as low or high-grade by 3 pathologists with a 2-3 week interval between grading. Pathologists were blinded to their and others’ grades and histologic diagnoses. Coefficient kappa was used to measure interobserver and intraobserver agreement among pathologists. Accuracy was measured by percentage agreement with the biopsy/resection separately for each pathologist, and for all pathologists and occasions combined. Results: The overall accuracy was 77% (95% C.I., 72% - 82%). Pathologist AO was significantly more accurate than MR on occasion 1 (p = 0.006) and 2 (p = 0.039). No other significant differences were found among the observers. Interobserver agreement using coefficient kappa was unacceptably low, with all but one of the kappa value being less than 0.40, the cutoff for a “fair” degree of agreement. Intraobserver agreement, as measured by coefficient kappa, was adequate. Conclusions: Our study underscores the lack of precision and subjective nature of grading urothelial carcinoma on urine samples. There was poor inter- and intraobserver agreement among pathologists despite fellowship training in cytopathology. Clinicians and cytopathologists should be mindful of this pitfall and avoid grading urothelial carcinoma on urine samples, especially since grading may impact patient management. PMID:23119105

  1. Methylation pattern of CDH1 promoter and its association with CDH1 gene expression in cytological cervical specimens

    PubMed Central

    Holubeková, Veronika; Mendelová, Andrea; Grendár, Marián; Meršaková, Sandra; Kapustová, Ivana; Jašek, Karin; Vaňochová, Andrea; Danko, Jan; Lasabová, Zora

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer mortality in females worldwide. Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is essential but insufficient to cause cervical cancer, and the clearance of HPV infection is mediated by the immune system. The deficit of molecules responsible for adhesion may play a role in the development of cervical cancer. E-cadherin is encoded by the cadherin 1 (CDH1) gene, and is involved in cell adhesion by forming adherens junctions. The aim of present study was to investigate the methylation pattern of the CDH1 promoter and to identify the association between CDH1 promoter hypermethylation, CDH1 gene expression and HPV infection in cervical specimens obtained from 93 patients with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs), high-grade SILs or squamous cell carcinomas, and from 47 patients with normal cervical cytology (HPV-negative). The methylation pattern of the CDH1 promoter was investigated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and quantitative pyrosequencing. CDH1 gene expression was measured by relative quantification. CDH1 methylation was significantly higher in both types of lesions and in cervical cancer than in normal samples, and CDH1 gene expression was significantly reduced during SIL progression (P=0.0162). However, the influence of HPV infection or HPV E6 expression on the methylation pattern of the CDH1 gene or its gene expression levels could not be confirmed. The present results support that the methylation of the CDH1 gene is age-related in patients with cervical lesions (P=0.01085), and therefore, older patients could be more susceptible to cancer than younger patients. The important methylation of the CDH1 promoter occurred near the transcription factor binding sites on nucleotides −13 and +103, which are close to the translational start codon. These results suggest that methylation at these sites may be an important event in the transcriptional regulation of E-cadherin, and

  2. Demonstration of carboxylesterase in cytology samples of human nasal respiratory epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, D.A.; Nikula, K.J.; Avila, K.

    1995-12-01

    The epithelial lining of the nasal airways is a target for responses induced by a variety of toxicant exposures. The high metabolic capacity of this tissue has been suggested to play a role in both protection of the airways through detoxication of certain toxicants, as well as in activation of other compounds to more toxic metabolites. Specifically, nasal carboxylesterase (CE) has been shown to mediate the toxicity of inhaled esters and acrylates by converting them to more toxic acid and alcohol metabolites which can be cytotoxic and/or carcinogenic to the nasal mucosa. Due to difficulties in extrapolating rodent models to human, new paradigms using human cells and tissues are essential to understanding and evaluating the metabolic processes in human nasal epithelium.

  3. Cytological and molecular characterization of three gametoclones of Citrus clementina

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Three gametoclonal plants of Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan., cv. Nules, designated ESP, FRA, and ITA (derived from three labs in Spain, France, and Italy, respectively), were selected for cytological and molecular characterization in order to elucidate genomic rearrangements provoked by haploidization. The study included comparisons of their ploidy, homozygosity, genome integrity, and gene dosage, using chromosome counting, flow cytometry, SSR marker genotyping, and array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH). Results Chromosome counting and flow cytometry revealed that ESP and FRA were haploid, but ITA was tri-haploid. Homozygous patterns, represented by a single peak (allele), were observed among the three plants at almost all SSR loci distributed across the entire diploid donor genome. Those few loci with extra peaks visualized as output from automated sequencing runs, generally low or ambiguous, might result from amplicons of paralogous members at the locus, non-specific sites, or unexpected recombinant alleles. No new alleles were found, suggesting the genomes remained stable and intact during gametogenesis and regeneration. The integrity of the haploid genome also was supported by array-CGH studies, in which genomic profiles were comparable to the diploid control. Conclusions The presence of few gene hybridization abnormalities, corroborated by gene dosage measurements, were hypothetically due to the segregation of hemizygous alleles and minor genomic rearrangements occurring during the haploidization procedure. In conclusion, these plants that are valuable genetic and breeding materials contain completely homozygous and essentially intact genomes. PMID:24020638

  4. Cytological and molecular characterization of Vicia barbazitae Ten. & Guss.

    PubMed

    Ruffini Castiglione, M; Frediani, M; Gelati, M T; Venora, G; Giorgetti, L; Caputo, P; Cremonini, R

    2012-07-01

    Vicia barbazitae, a taxon belonging to section Vicia of subgenus Vicia, was recovered and analysed by cytological, karyological and molecular methods with the aim of both proposing a general characterisation of this species and studying the relationships among the species of section Vicia . Phylogenetic relationships among the species of the section Vicia and those of the sections Microcarinae, Wiggersia and Atossa were also analysed. Automated karyotype analysis has been determined after Feulgen's reaction; chromosome banding was performed by sequence-specific fluorochrome staining. Fluorescent chromosome banding showed CMA(+)/DAPI(-) NOR-associated heterochromatin in the satellite pair. Karyomorphological parameters, based on symmetry indices, the dendrogram of linkage distance constructed on 37 chromosome parameters, as well as the molecular data based on internal transcribed spacer sequences provided information about phylogenetic position of this species inside the section Vicia and among the species belonging to the sections Microcarinae, Wiggersia, Atossa and Vicia. From our karyological and molecular results, it emerges that V. barbazitae can be considered a natural member of section Vicia.

  5. Combined biochemical and cytological analysis of membrane trafficking using lectins.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Gareth W; Kail, Mark; Hollinshead, Michael; Vaux, David J

    2013-10-01

    We have tested the application of high-mannose-binding lectins as analytical reagents to identify N-glycans in the early secretory pathway of HeLa cells during subcellular fractionation and cytochemistry. Post-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) pre-Golgi intermediates were separated from the ER on Nycodenz-sucrose gradients, and the glycan composition of each gradient fraction was profiled using lectin blotting. The fractions containing the post-ER pre-Golgi intermediates are found to contain a subset of N-linked α-mannose glycans that bind the lectins Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA), Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA), and Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA) but not lectins binding Golgi-modified glycans. Cytochemical analysis demonstrates that high-mannose-containing glycoproteins are predominantly localized to the ER and the early secretory pathway. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that GNA colocalizes with the ER marker protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and the COPI coat protein β-COP. In situ competition with concanavalin A (ConA), another high-mannose specific lectin, and subsequent GNA lectin histochemistry refined the localization of N-glyans containing nonreducing mannosyl groups, accentuating the GNA vesicular staining. Using GNA and treatments that perturb ER-Golgi transport, we demonstrate that lectins can be used to detect changes in membrane trafficking pathways histochemically. Overall, we find that conjugated plant lectins are effective tools for combinatory biochemical and cytological analysis of membrane trafficking of glycoproteins.

  6. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: the added value of cytology.

    PubMed

    Roelens, Marie; Dossier, Claire; Fenneteau, Odile; Couque, Nathalie; Da Costa, Lydie

    2016-06-01

    We report the case of a 2 year-old boy hospitalized into the emergency room for influenza pneumonia infection. The evolution was marked by a respiratory distress syndrome, a severe hemolytic anemia, associated with thrombocytopenia and kidney failure. First, a diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) has been judiciously suggested due to the classical triad: kidney failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. But, strikingly, blood smears do not exhibit schizocytes, but instead ghosts and hemighosts, some characteristic features of a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Our hypothesis has been confirmed by enzymatic dosage and molecular biology. The unusual initial aplastic feature of this anemia could be the result of a transient erythroblastopenia due to the viral agent, at the origin of the G6PD crisis on a background of a major erythrocyte anti-oxydant enzyme defect. This case of G6PD defect points out the continuously importance of the cytology, which was able to redirect the diagnosis by the hemighost and ghost detection.

  7. The solution to the cytological paradox of isomorphy

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    Cells with polyploid nuclei are generally larger than cells of the same organism or species with nonpolyploid nuclei. However, no such change of cell size with ploidy level is observed in those red algae which alternate isomorphic haploid with diploid generations. The results of this investigation reveal the explanation. Nuclear DNA content and other parameters were measured in cells of the filamentous red alga Griffithsia pacifica. Nuclei of the diploid generation contain twice the DNA content of those of the haploid generation. However, all cells except newly formed reproductive cells are multinucleate. The nuclei are arranged in a nearly perfect hexagonal array just beneath the cell surface. When homologous cells of the two generations are compared, although the cell size is nearly identical, each nucleus of the diploid cell is surrounded by a region of cytoplasm (a "domain") nearly twice that surrounding a haploid nucleus. Cytoplasmic domains associated with a diploid nucleus contain twice the number of plastids, and consequently twice the amount of plastid DNA, than is associated with the domain of a haploid nucleus. Thus, doubling of ploidy is reflected in doubling of the size and organelle content of the domain associated with each nucleus. However, cell size does not differ between homologous cells of the two generations, because total nuclear DNA (sum of the DNA in all nuclei in a cell) per cell does not differ. This is the solution to the cytological paradox of isomorphy. PMID:3818798

  8. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: the added value of cytology.

    PubMed

    Roelens, Marie; Dossier, Claire; Fenneteau, Odile; Couque, Nathalie; Da Costa, Lydie

    2016-06-01

    We report the case of a 2 year-old boy hospitalized into the emergency room for influenza pneumonia infection. The evolution was marked by a respiratory distress syndrome, a severe hemolytic anemia, associated with thrombocytopenia and kidney failure. First, a diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) has been judiciously suggested due to the classical triad: kidney failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. But, strikingly, blood smears do not exhibit schizocytes, but instead ghosts and hemighosts, some characteristic features of a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Our hypothesis has been confirmed by enzymatic dosage and molecular biology. The unusual initial aplastic feature of this anemia could be the result of a transient erythroblastopenia due to the viral agent, at the origin of the G6PD crisis on a background of a major erythrocyte anti-oxydant enzyme defect. This case of G6PD defect points out the continuously importance of the cytology, which was able to redirect the diagnosis by the hemighost and ghost detection. PMID:27101632

  9. Relationship between prostatomegaly, prostatic mineralization, and cytologic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Christina A; Westropp, Jodi L; Pollard, Rachel E

    2009-01-01

    Canine prostatic disease is commonly evaluated with abdominal ultrasound and radiographs. Mineralization of the prostate is often reported, but the clinical relevance of this finding is currently not known. The-purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between ultrasonographic and radiographic prostate mineralization and the final diagnosis. Medical records of 55 dogs with evidence of prostatomegaly or prostatic mineralization and a cytologic diagnosis were evaluated. Radiographs and ultrasound images were assessed for caudal retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, vertebral lesions, or other signs of metastasis, and mineralization was assessed semiquantitatively. Twenty-two of 55 (40%) dogs had prostatic neoplasia. Regarding neoplasia, mineralization in neutered dogs had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100%, a negative predictive value (NPV) of 50%, and a sensitivity and specificity of 84% and 100%, respectively. Mineralization in intact dogs had a PPV of 22%, an NPV of 96%, and a sensitivity and specificity of 67% and 77%, respectively. All neutered dogs with prostatomegaly but not prostatic neoplasia had bacterial prostatitis and were castrated within the previous 3 months. Intact dogs with prostatomegaly and mineralization but not neoplasia had paraprostatic cysts (n = 3), benign prostatic hyperplasia (n = 2) or prostatitis (n = 2). Mineralization score was not indicative of neoplasia. In conclusion, neutered dogs with prostatic mineralization were very likely to have prostatic neoplasia. Intact dogs were unlikely to have prostatic neoplasia if no mineralization was found on radiographs or ultrasound.

  10. Fine-needle aspiration cytology of a primary ectopic meningioma.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Arif; Gokden, Murat; Hanna, Ehab Y

    2002-05-01

    Meningiomas are benign tumors derived from arachnoid cells. Most commonly an intracranial lesion, meningiomas may be found extracranially in various anatomic sites. A 23-yr-old white female presented with left-sided palpable mass located submucosally in the floor of the mouth. CT scan revealed no evidence of mass elsewhere in the head and neck region. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) showed loose and cohesive cellular fragments with lobular growth pattern and uniform round or ovoid cells. The diagnosis of low-grade salivary gland neoplasm, not further classified, was made. The tumor was locally excised. The differential diagnoses of an extracranial meningioma and pleomorphic adenoma were discussed at the frozen section. Based on light microscopic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic (EM) findings, the final diagnosis of an ectopic meningioma was rendered. Ectopic meningiomas may pose a diagnostic challenge to clinicians and cytopathologists. It is easily forgotten in the list of differential diagnosis at an ectopic site. Primary ectopic meningioma in a region containing salivary gland(s) may mimic benign and low-grade malignant salivary gland tumors in FNAC.

  11. Evaluation of RNA and DNA extraction from liquid-based cytology specimens.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tomomi; Asano, Aya; Shimada, Keiji; Tatsumi, Yoshihiro; Obayashi, Chiho; Konishi, Noboru

    2016-10-01

    Molecular diagnosis using DNA and RNA derived from malignant tumors and molecular biological tools such as the quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (qPCR) is a commonly used technique in clinical pathology. In this report, we compared the qualitative extraction of RNA and DNA from cancer cells fixed using several liquid-based cytology (LBC) kits. Ten to 1,000 cells from the T24 urinary bladder cancer cell line and SKG-II cervical cancer cell line were fixed with 55% methanol and three different methanol-based LBC solutions. The mRNA levels of CD44 in T24 cells and E7 in SKG-II cells and DNA levels of p53 in T24 cells and E7 in SKG-II cells were analyzed by qPCR. mRNA and DNA extracted from T24 and/or SKG-II cells fixed with methanol-based LBC solutions were efficiently detected, but to differing degrees, by qPCR. mRNA, and DNA from cells fixed with a formaldehyde-containing fixative liquid were detected at significantly low copy numbers by qPCR. Our results demonstrate that LBC systems are powerful tools for cytopathology and immunocytochemistry applications. However, the appropriate fixative must be selected for cell preservation when a small number of LBC samples is used for molecular testing, particularly in RNA-based molecular analyses. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:833-840. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27357064

  12. Evaluation of RNA and DNA extraction from liquid-based cytology specimens.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tomomi; Asano, Aya; Shimada, Keiji; Tatsumi, Yoshihiro; Obayashi, Chiho; Konishi, Noboru

    2016-10-01

    Molecular diagnosis using DNA and RNA derived from malignant tumors and molecular biological tools such as the quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (qPCR) is a commonly used technique in clinical pathology. In this report, we compared the qualitative extraction of RNA and DNA from cancer cells fixed using several liquid-based cytology (LBC) kits. Ten to 1,000 cells from the T24 urinary bladder cancer cell line and SKG-II cervical cancer cell line were fixed with 55% methanol and three different methanol-based LBC solutions. The mRNA levels of CD44 in T24 cells and E7 in SKG-II cells and DNA levels of p53 in T24 cells and E7 in SKG-II cells were analyzed by qPCR. mRNA and DNA extracted from T24 and/or SKG-II cells fixed with methanol-based LBC solutions were efficiently detected, but to differing degrees, by qPCR. mRNA, and DNA from cells fixed with a formaldehyde-containing fixative liquid were detected at significantly low copy numbers by qPCR. Our results demonstrate that LBC systems are powerful tools for cytopathology and immunocytochemistry applications. However, the appropriate fixative must be selected for cell preservation when a small number of LBC samples is used for molecular testing, particularly in RNA-based molecular analyses. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:833-840. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Salivary gland masses: the diagnostic value of fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Cardillo, M R

    1990-01-01

    A series of 165 needle aspirates (134 from the parotid gland, 26 from the submandibular glands, and nine from the palate) was studied. Seventeen aspirates (12.14%) were inadequate for evaluation; 25 were excluded because they came from branchial cysts. Of the remaining 123 samples from major and minor salivary glands, 107 (76.42%) were negative for malignancy and 16 (11.42%) were positive. Benign, non-neoplastic lesions were diagnosed in 53.27% of the aspirates and benign tumors in 46.72%. The cytodiagnoses were compared with the subsequent histological findings in ten of the 57 non-neoplastic lesions, 16 of the 50 benign neoplasms, and ten of the 16 malignant neoplasms. Despite problems of interpretation, in all cases where comparison was possible, the cytodiagnoses were confirmed by the histologic report. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is superior to other investigations such as scialography, computed tomography (CT) and CT scialography, commonly used in salivary gland disease. As underlined by the results of this study, aspiration biopsy cytology will identify lesions that are not clinically obvious and provide the surgeon with the required preoperative information.

  14. The rodent estrous cycle: characterization of vaginal cytology and its utility in toxicological studies.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Jerome M; Murr, Ashley S; Cooper, Ralph L

    2007-04-01

    While an evaluation of the estrous cycle in laboratory rodents can be a useful measure of the integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian reproductive axis, it can also serve as a way of insuring that animals exhibiting abnormal cycling patterns are disincluded from a study prior to exposure to a test compound. Assessment of vaginal cytology in regularly cycling animals also provides a means to establish a comparable endocrine milieu for animals at necropsy. The procedure for obtaining a vaginal smear is relatively non-invasive and is one to which animals can become readily accustomed. It requires few supplies, and with some experience the assessments can be easily performed in fresh, unstained smears, or in fixed, stained ones. When incorporated as an adjunct to other endpoint measures, a determination of a female's cycling status can contribute important information about the nature of a toxicant insult to the reproductive system. In doing so, it can help to integrate the data into a more comprehensive mechanistic portrait of the effect, and in terms of risk assessment, may provide some indication of a toxicant's impact on human reproductive physiology.

  15. Pleural effusion: Role of pleural fluid cytology, adenosine deaminase level, and pleural biopsy in diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Biswajit; Sharma, Sudershan Kumar; Negi, Rameshwar Singh; Gupta, Neelam; Jaswal, Virender Mohan Singh; Niranjan, Narsimhalu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study is designed to evaluate the role of pleural fluid analysis in diagnosing pleural diseases and to study the advantages and disadvantages of thoracocentasis and pleural biopsy. Materials and Methods: We prospectively included 66 consecutive indoor patients over a duration of 1 year. Pleural fluid was collected and cytological smears were made from the fluid. Plural biopsy was done in the same patient by Cope needle. Adequate pleural biopsy tissue yielding specific diagnosis was obtained in 47 (71.2%) cases. Results: Tuberculosis was the commonest nonneoplastic lesion followed by chronic nonspecific pleuritis comprising 60% and 33.3% of the nonneoplastic cases respectively and tuberculosis was predominantly diagnosed in the younger age group. Majority (70.8%) of malignancy cases were in the age group of >50-70. Adenocarcinoma was found to be the commonest (66.7%) malignant neoplasm in the pleurae followed by small-cell carcinoma (20.8%). Conclusion: Pleural biopsy is a useful and minimally invasive procedure. It is more sensitive and specific than pleural fluid smears.

  16. Screening for Cervical Cancer Precursors With p16/Ki-67 Dual-Stained Cytology: Results of the PALMS Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pap cytology is known to be more specific but less sensitive than testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) for the detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). We assessed whether p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology, a biomarker combination indicative of transforming HPV infections, can provide high sensitivity for CIN2+ in screening while maintaining high specificity. Results were compared with Pap cytology and HPV testing. Methods A total of 27349 women 18 years or older attending routine cervical cancer screening were prospectively enrolled in five European countries. Pap cytology, p16/Ki-67 immunostaining, and HPV testing were performed on all women. Positive test results triggered colposcopy referral, except for women younger than 30 years with only positive HPV test results. Presence of CIN2+ on adjudicated histology was used as the reference standard. Two-sided bias-corrected McNemar P values were determined. Results The p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology positivity rates were comparable with the prevalence of abnormal Pap cytology results and less than 50% of the positivity rates observed for HPV testing. In women of all ages, dual-stained cytology was more sensitive than Pap cytology (86.7% vs 68.5%; P < .001) for detecting CIN2+, with comparable specificity (95.2% vs 95.4%; P = .15). The relative performance of the tests was similar in both groups of women: younger than age 30 and 30 years or older. HPV testing in women 30 years or older was more sensitive than dual-stained cytology (93.3% vs 84.7%; P = .03) but less specific (93.0% vs 96.2%; P < .001). Conclusions The p16/Ki-67 dual-stained cytology combines superior sensitivity and noninferior specificity over Pap cytology for detecting CIN2+. It suggests a potential role of dual-stained cytology in screening, especially in younger women where HPV testing has its limitations. PMID:24096620

  17. Basal-cell adenoma of the salivary gland: a benign adenoma that cytologically mimics adenoid cystic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stanley, M W; Horwitz, C A; Henry, M J; Burton, L G; Lowhagen, T

    1988-01-01

    We describe the fine-needle aspiration cytology of two cases of basal-cell adenoma (BCA) of the parotid gland. Both consisted of groups of small uniform cells with scant cytoplasm and occasional single cells. Small amounts of metachromatic stroma were present in smears from one case. The cytologic and histologic similarities between (BCA) and the solid type of adenoid cystic carcinoma are emphasized. Unequivocal distinction between these two entities may not be possible by cytologic criteria alone.

  18. Complexity of nearshore strontium-to-calcium ratio variability in a core sample of the massive coral Siderastrea siderea obtained in Coral Bay, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reich, Christopher D.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Hickey, T. Don; Morrison, Jennifer M.; Flannery, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Strontium-to-calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) were measured on the skeletal matrix of a core sample from a colony of the massive coral Siderastrea siderea collected in Coral Bay, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Strontium and calcium are incorporated into the coral skeleton during the precipitation of aragonite by the coral polyps and their ratio is highly temperature dependent. The robustness of this temperature dependence makes Sr/Ca a reliable proxy for sea surface temperature (SST). Details presented from the St. John S. siderea core indicate that terrestrial inputs of sediment and freshwater can disrupt the chemical balance and subsequently complicate the utility of Sr/Ca in reconstructing historical SST. An approximately 44-year-long record of Sr/Ca shows that an annual SST signal is recorded but with an increasing Sr/Ca trend from 1980 to present, which is likely the result of runoff from the mountainous terrain of St. John. The overwhelming influence of the terrestrial fingerprint on local seawater chemistry makes utilizing Sr/Ca as a SST proxy in nearshore environments very difficult.

  19. Confirmation of immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangement by polymerase chain reaction using surgically obtained, paraffin-embedded samples to diagnose primary palate mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Shigehiro; Yokomizo, Naoko; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Kouhei

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intraoral mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a rare lymphoma that has a good prognosis if diagnosed correctly and treated in time. Presentation of case A 64-year-old woman was referred to our department with asymptomatic swelling of the left hard palate. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass in the left hard palate. We performed a pre-surgery biopsy; however, it was difficult to differentiate MALT lymphoma from other reactive lymphoproliferative disorders via gross or microscopic examination. Although the lesion was completely excised, histological findings did not allow a definitive diagnosis due to an absence of visible monoclonality. We then performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded surgical samples. Capillary electrophoresis showed monoclonal peaks of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement, thus facilitating a definitive diagnosis of MALT lymphoma. Discussion PCR technique is rapid, accurate, and enables a definitive diagnosis without relying on traditional histological or molecular diagnostic techniques, such as Southern blotting. Conclusion We suggest that, if histological examination is ambiguous or fresh material is insufficient, PCR can be performed using paraffin-embedded materials to definitively diagnose low-grade lymphomas, such as MALT lymphoma. PMID:25841155

  20. Type-specific prevalence of human papillomavirus by cervical cytology among women in Brasov, Romania.

    PubMed

    Moga, Marius Alexandru; Irimie, Marius; Oanta, Alexandru; Pascu, Alina; Burtea, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    The oncogenic role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in triggering cervical cancer, the second most common cancer in women worldwide, is well established. Romania ranks in first place in Europe in terms of the incidence of cervical cancer. Geographical widespread data on HPV type-distribution are essential for estimating the impact of HPV vaccines and cervical cancer screening programmes. In this study we aimed to identify the prevalence of HPV genotypes and to establish correlations with abnormal cervical cytology among the female population of Brasov County, Romania. A total of 1,000 women aged 17.3-57 years, attending routine cervical examination in the Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Brasov, Romania, and undergoing both cytological examination and HPV genotyping were screened. Infection with 35 different HPV genotypes was detected in 39.6% of cytological specimens. Overall HPV infections were highest in young women under 25 years (p<0.0001), in which cervical cytological abnormalities also reached the highest prevalence. Patients infected by HPV-16 or HPV-18 showed the highest prevalence of cervical cytological abnormalities. Some 48.2% of women with abnormal cytology were infected with high-risk HPV types whereas less than 3% of them were infected only with low-risk HPV types. Our study showed that the prevalence of high-risk HPV infection among Romanian women is higher compared to other studies in other geographic areas. Thus, we consider that in areas where there is an increased prevalence of high-risk HPV infections, HPV genotyping should be performed in all women aged between 18 and 45 years, and Pap test should be performed every 6 months in women with high-risk HPV infection, even those with previous normal cervical cytology.

  1. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in young Italian women with normal cytology: how should we adapt the national vaccination policy?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection. In Italy, HPV vaccination is now offered free of charge to 12-year-old females. However, some regional health authorities have extended free vaccination to other age-groups, especially to girls under 18 years of age. We conducted a multicentre epidemiological study to ascertain the prevalence of different genotypes of HPV in young Italian women with normal cytology, with the aim of evaluating the possibility of extending vaccination to older females. Methods The study was performed in 2010. Women aged 16–26 years with normal cytology were studied. Cervical samples were analyzed to identify the presence of HPV by PCR amplification of a segment of ORF L1 (450 bp). All positive HPV-DNA samples underwent viral genotype analysis by means of a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Results Positivity for at least one HPV genotype was found in 18.2% of the 566 women recruited: 48.1% in the 16–17 age-class, 15.4 in the 18–20 age-class, 21.9% in the 21–23 age-class, and 15.5% in the 24–26 age-class; 10.1% of women were infected by at least one high-risk HPV genotype. HPV-16 was the most prevalent genotype. Only 4 (0.7%), 4 (0.7%) and 3 (0.5%) women were infected by HPV-18, HPV-6 and HPV-11, respectively. Of the HPV-DNA-positive women, 64.1% presented only one viral genotype, while 24.3% had multiple infections. The HPV genotypes most often involved in multiple infections were high-risk. A high prevalence was noted in the first years of sexual activity (48.1% of HPV-DNA-positive women aged 16–17 years); HPV prevalence subsequently declined and stabilized. The estimate of cumulative proportions of young women free from any HPV infection at each age was evaluated; 93.3% and 97.1% of 26 year-old women proved free from HPV-16 and/or HPV-18 and from HPV-6 and/or HPV-11, respectively. Conclusions Our findings confirm the crucial importance of conducting studies on

  2. Quantification of Leishmania (Viannia) Kinetoplast DNA in Ulcers of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Reveals Inter-site and Inter-sampling Variability in Parasite Load

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Milagros; Valencia, Braulio M.; Jara, Marlene; Alba, Milena; Boggild, Andrea K.; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Arevalo, Jorge; Adaui, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a skin disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Few studies have assessed the influence of the sample collection site within the ulcer and the sampling method on the sensitivity of parasitological and molecular diagnostic techniques for CL. Sensitivity of the technique can be dependent upon the load and distribution of Leishmania amastigotes in the lesion. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay for Leishmania (Viannia) minicircle kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) detection and parasite load quantification in biopsy and scraping samples obtained from 3 sites within each ulcer (border, base, and center) as well as in cytology brush specimens taken from the ulcer base and center. A total of 248 lesion samples from 31 patients with laboratory confirmed CL of recent onset (≤3 months) were evaluated. The kDNA-qPCR detected Leishmania DNA in 97.6% (242/248) of the examined samples. Median parasite loads were significantly higher in the ulcer base and center than in the border in biopsies (P<0.0001) and scrapings (P = 0.0002). There was no significant difference in parasite load between the ulcer base and center (P = 0.80, 0.43, and 0.07 for biopsy, scraping, and cytology brush specimens, respectively). The parasite load varied significantly by sampling method: in the ulcer base and center, the descending order for the parasite load levels in samples was: cytology brushes, scrapings, and biopsies (P<0.0001); in the ulcer border, scrapings had higher parasite load than biopsies (P<0.0001). There was no difference in parasite load according to L. braziliensis and L. peruviana infections (P = 0.4). Conclusion/Significance Our results suggest an uneven distribution of Leishmania amastigotes in acute CL ulcers, with higher parasite loads in the ulcer base and center, which has implications for bedside collection of diagnostic specimens. The use of scrapings and cytology brushes is

  3. Low interobserver agreement in cytology grading of mucinous pancreatic neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Sigel, Carlie; Edelweiss, Marcia; Tong, Leung Chu; Magda, Joanna; Oen, Handy; Sigel, Keith; Zakowski, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying high grade features in pancreatic mucinous neoplasms (MN) is important for patient management. It is not clear if MNs can be graded with reproducibility in routine practice. We evaluated interobserver variability in grading MNs and identification of neoplastic mucin in endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspirations (EUS-FNA). Methods We created a 54 case grading set from histologically confirmed MNs (N=44) and nonmucinous lesions (NML) with abundant gastrointestinal contamination (N=10). Six observers received a tutorial, reviewed pre-screened slides, and recorded: 1) a diagnosis according to a 6-tiered system (TS) (nondiagnostic (NDX), atypical (ATP), mucinous cyst low grade (LG), mucinous cyst high grade (HG), suspicious for adenocarcinoma (SSPA), positive for adenocarcinoma (PA)); 2) a diagnosis with cyst fluid CEA (CEADX); and 3) the presence of neoplastic mucin. Interobserver agreement (IOA ) was evaluated by calculation of Kappa coefficients. Diagnostic accuracy was not evaluated. Results IOA was lowest for 6-TS (K=0.13, P<.001). CEADX was available for 18 (33%) cases, including 6/24 (25%) of LG. CEADX modestly improved IOA for combined tiers of the 6-TS with ATP and LG as separate categories. The highest IOA was with a 3-TS (NDX, ATP/LG, HG/SSPA/PA; K=0.28, P<.001) and various 4-TS (K=0.22-0.23). IOA was low for neoplastic mucin (K=0.15, P<.001). Conclusions In a study using simulated cytology practice, observers showed fair IOA for grading MNs and low IOA for identifying neoplastic mucin. Knowledge of cyst fluid CEA level modestly improved IOA for low grade lesions. PMID:25355052

  4. A centralised cytology screening programme for cervical cancer in Florence.

    PubMed Central

    Palli, D; Carli, S; Cecchini, S; Venturini, A; Piazzesi, G; Buiatti, E

    1990-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a centralised population based cervical cytology screening programme. DESIGN--The study was a case-control investigation. SETTING--Cases and controls were confined to the province of Florence. PARTICIPANTS--191 out of 208 cases of cervical cancer in women less than 75 years old at diagnosis in the period 1982-85 were interviewed. For each case three living controls were selected, strictly matched by year of birth and district of residence; in all 573 controls were eventually identified. Of these, 15 had had a hysterectomy (2.6%) and were excluded, and a further 18 (3.2%) did not take part for other reasons, leaving a total of 540 controls. MEASUREMENT AND RESULTS--Screening history was taken from a computerised archive for both cases and controls. A mail questionnaire was used to collect information on several potential confounding variables. For women screened only once in comparison with those never screened, the reduction in risk was about 70% (odds ratio 0.29. 95% confidence limits 0.15-0.55), while the reduction was even greater for those screened twice or more. No trend of increasing risk with increasing interval since last test was shown: considering separately women who had only had one test and those who had had two or more tests, the risk estimates were stable across different time intervals since the last test. CONCLUSIONS--There is a strong protective effect against developing invasive cervical cancer through participation in the screening programme. PMID:2348148

  5. Findings in uterine biopsies obtained by laparotomy from bitches with unexplained infertility or pregnancy loss: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Mir, Fernando; Fontaine, Emmanuel; Albaric, Olivier; Greer, Marty; Vannier, Florence; Schlafer, Donald H; Fontbonne, Alain

    2013-01-15

    Surgical uterine biopsies (SUBs) were obtained by laparotomy from 14 bitches with unexplained infertility whose pregnancy was not confirmed (NCP group) and from 7 bitches that had experienced unexplained pregnancy loss (PL). SUBs were obtained during the luteal phase of the cycle in 16 of 21 bitches. Overall, the biopsied uterine tissues presented obvious alterations in 17 of 21 cases. In the NCP group, 11 of 14 bitches had varying degrees of uterine lesions. In this group, six of nine bitches with macroscopically normal uteri presented histopathologic changes in the endometrium. All bitches with macroscopic modifications (five of 14) presented endometrial changes. Cytologic examination of the uterine fluid revealed eosinophilic amorphous material, erythrocytes, and a low number of degenerated leukocytes. On histopathologic examination, the most common lesion was fibrosis with degeneration of the endometrial glands (FDEGs six of 11), followed by endometritis (four of 11), cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) (two of 11) and pseudoplacentational endometrial hyperplasia (PEH) (two of 11). Other lesions were adenomyosis, mucometra, and an endometrial polyp (one each of 11). Mixed lesions were present in four of the 11 bitches. In the PL group, macroscopic modifications consisted of intraluminal uterine dilatation (seven of seven) and presence of ovarian cysts (three of 7). Cytologic examination of the uterine content revealed high leukocyte counts. Histopathologic endometrial changes were found in six of seven bitches and included endometritis (three of seven), PEH (two of 6), pyometra (one of six), and CEH together with mucometra (one of six). Research of infectious agents was performed in 20 of 21 cases. Surprisingly, no bacteria or viruses were isolated from the uterine lumen in any of the cases. When the SUB was performed in diestrus, a medical treatment with aglepristone or with prostaglandins was established to avoid the risk of postoperative-induced pyometra

  6. Study of lymph node lesions with fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathology along with immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Manna, Asim Kumar; Mondal, Rajib Kumar; Pathak, Swapan

    2013-05-01

    Lymphadenopathy is one of the commonest clinical presentations of the patients attending hospital outdoor. Aetiology varies from Inflammatory process to malignant conditions. Fine needle aspiration cytology has become an integral part of the initial diagnosis. Histology remains the gold standard. But there exists some gray zones both in cytology and histology where immunohistochemistry plays a major role for final diagnosis. In this study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the importance of immunohistochemistry in this field. Fifty cases were studied. Clinical history was noted and examination done. All cases were examined both cytologically and histologically. Immunocytochemistry was done in all the cases by monoclonal antibody against p53 and Ki67. The results were tabulated and analysed according to unpaired 't' test. Reactive hyperplasia was present in maximum number followed by tuberculosis, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Hodgkin's lymphoma. All of these lesions showed statistically significant difference in p53 and Ki67 expression both in cytology and in histology. To conclude, fine needle aspiration cytology is an adjuvant to histology for early diagnosis and immunohistochemistry can help us in the gray zones.

  7. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer using cytological images: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Saha, Monjoy; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2016-10-01

    Cytological evaluation by microscopic image-based characterization [imprint cytology (IC) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC)] plays an integral role in primary screening/detection of breast cancer. The sensitivity of IC and FNAC as a screening tool is dependent on the image quality and the pathologist's level of expertise. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is used to assists the pathologists by developing various machine learning and image processing algorithms. This study reviews the various manual and computer-aided techniques used so far in breast cytology. Diagnostic applications were studied to estimate the role of CAD in breast cancer diagnosis. This paper presents an overview of image processing and pattern recognition techniques that have been used to address several issues in breast cytology-based CAD including slide preparation, staining, microscopic imaging, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and diagnostic classification. This review provides better insights to readers regarding the state of the art the knowledge on CAD-based breast cancer diagnosis to date. PMID:27528421

  8. Computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer using cytological images: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Saha, Monjoy; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Chakraborty, Chandan

    2016-10-01

    Cytological evaluation by microscopic image-based characterization [imprint cytology (IC) and fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC)] plays an integral role in primary screening/detection of breast cancer. The sensitivity of IC and FNAC as a screening tool is dependent on the image quality and the pathologist's level of expertise. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is used to assists the pathologists by developing various machine learning and image processing algorithms. This study reviews the various manual and computer-aided techniques used so far in breast cytology. Diagnostic applications were studied to estimate the role of CAD in breast cancer diagnosis. This paper presents an overview of image processing and pattern recognition techniques that have been used to address several issues in breast cytology-based CAD including slide preparation, staining, microscopic imaging, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and diagnostic classification. This review provides better insights to readers regarding the state of the art the knowledge on CAD-based breast cancer diagnosis to date.

  9. Conjunctival impression cytology fails to detect subclinical vitamin A deficiency in young children.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M M; Mahalanabis, D; Wahed, M A; Islam, M; Habte, D; Khaled, M A; Alvarez, J O

    1995-07-01

    Thirty-four asymptomatic children, ages 5-35 mo, were studied to compare the conjunctival impression cytology technique with the relative dose response test in detection of subclinical vitamin A deficiency. Conjunctival smears were collected from the infero-temporal-bulbar conjunctiva of each eye with a strip of cellulose acetate filter paper and transferred onto a glass slide. Venous blood was drawn at 0 and 5 h after administration of an oral dose of 1000 micrograms of retinol palmitate (relative dose response test). An increase in serum retinol concentration (> or = 20%) in the 5-h value was considered indicative of an inadequate liver store of vitamin A and hence subclinical vitamin A deficiency. Of the 34 children, 26 (76.5%) had moderate to severe protein-energy malnutrition. Only three children (9%) had abnormal conjunctival impression cytology, whereas 23 (68%) had abnormal relative dose response. Even more striking was the finding that only two of the 23 children with abnormal relative dose response had abnormal conjunctival impression cytology. The results suggest that the conjunctival impression cytology test has poor agreement with the relative dose response test results in assessing vitamin A status in young children. If relative dose response is considered an acceptable reference method for assessing vitamin A status, then the conjunctival impression cytology test cannot be considered a valid measure of subclinical vitamin A deficiency in this population. PMID:7616303

  10. A study of fine needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland lesions with histopathological corroboration.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Anjali; Das, Tushar Kanti; Raha, Kalpana; Hati, Ganesh Chandra; Mitra, Pradip Kumar; Dasgupta, Anjali

    2005-06-01

    The diagnostic utility of fine needle aspiration cytology as initial work up of salivary gland enlargement was assessed in one hundred and eighty-five salivary gland specimens over three years period and corroborated with histopathology, whenever feasible. All smears were evaluated according to cell size, amount of cytoplasm, cytologic atypia and presence of lymphocytes. (a) Variable cytologic appearances of pleomorphic salivary adenoma were observed. (b) Cellular pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma showed basaloid cell features. (c) Tumours with intermediate size cells and bland cytology included low grade muco-epidermoid carcinoma and cystic lesions. (d) Warthin's tumour, oncocytoma, salivary duct carcinoma and high grade muco-epidermoid carcinoma revealed large cells and abundant cytoplasm with or without atypia. A major diagnostic categories were inflammatory lesions (n = 7 5), cystic lesions (n = 9), benign tumours (n = 81), malignant neoplasms (n = 1 8) and normal acinar pattern (n = 2). Malignant tumours included muco-epidermoid carcinoma (n = 5), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 3), acinic cell carcinoma (n = 2), adenocarcinoma (n= 2), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1), undifferentiated carcinoma (n= 4) and malignant lymphoma (n = 1). Histopathological correlation was possible in 40% of benign and 80% of malignant neoplasms. The overall sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy were very high. So it can be concluded that fine needle aspiration cytology can play important role in early diagnosis and subsequent therapeutic planning of salivary gland lesions.

  11. Review of fine-needle aspiration cytology of salivary gland neoplasms, with emphasis on differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mukunyadzi, Perkins

    2002-12-01

    The widespread use of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of salivary gland lesions in many centers is testimony to its usefulness and acceptance as a diagnostic technique. Many pertinent questions concerning a mass arising in the salivary gland can be answered by evaluation of FNA cytologic material, and these include whether the mass is truly of salivary gland origin, whether the lesion is inflammatory or neoplastic, and if neoplastic, whether benign or malignant. On diagnosis of a neoplastic salivary gland lesion, the next important issue is to correctly classify the tumor, particularly if malignant. Specific cytologic diagnoses can be achieved in the majority