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Sample records for obturator externus bursa

  1. Relationship between cup position and obturator externus muscle in total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is often challenging to find the causes for postoperative pain syndromes after total hip replacement, since they can be very allotropic. One possible cause is the muscular impingement syndrome. The most commonly known impingement syndrome is the psoas impingement. Another recently described impingement syndrome is the obturator externus muscle impingement. The aim of this study is to analyze pathological conditions of the Obturator externus and to show possible causes. Methods 40 patients who had undergone a total hip replacement were subjected to clinical and MRI examinations 12 months after the surgery. The Harris Hip Score (HHS) was used to analyze pain and function. Additionally, a satisfaction score and a pain score (VAS) were determined. The MRI allowed for the assessment of the spatial relation between the obturator externus muscle and the acetabulum. Also measured were the acetabular inclination angle as well as the volume and cross-sectional area of the obturator externus muscle. Results The patients were assigned to 3 groups in accordance with their MRI results. Group 1 patients (n = 18) showed no contact between the obturator externus and the acetabulum. Group 2 (n = 13) showed contact, and group 3 (n = 9) an additional clear displacement of the muscle in its course. It was not possible to establish a connection between the imaging findings, the HHS, the VAS, and patient satisfaction. What was striking, however, was a significant difference between the median inclination angle in group 1 (40° ± 5.4°) and group 3 (49° ± 4.7°) (p < 0.05), and the corresponding image-morphological pathology. The average inclination angle in group 2 was 43.3° ± 3.8° Conclusion Contact between the obturator externus muscle and the caudal acetabula border occurs frequently, but is only rarely accompanied by a painful muscular impingement. The position of the acetabula must be seen as one of the main risk factors for contact between the acetabula border

  2. Synthetic Bursae for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovchik, Christopher S.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic bursae are under development for incorporation into robot joints that are actuated by motor-driven cables in a manner similar to that of arthropod joints actuated by muscle-driven tendons. Like natural bursae, the synthetic bursae would serve as cushions and friction reducers. A natural bursa is a thin bladder filled with synovial fluid, which serves to reduce friction and provide a cushion between a bone and a muscle or a tendon. A synthetic bursa would be similar in form and function: It would be, essentially, a compact, soft roller consisting of a bladder filled with a non-Newtonian fluid. The bladder would be constrained to approximately constant volume. The synthetic bursa would cushion an actuator cable against one of the members of a robot joint and would reduce the friction between the cable and the member. Under load, the pressure in the bladder would hold the opposite walls of the bladder apart, making it possible for them to move freely past each other without rubbing.

  3. Dental obturation materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Elizabeth; Chudej, Lauren; Bilyeu, Brian; Brostow, Witold

    2006-10-01

    During the last decades, people have tried to develop a better material for use in dental obturation materials. This new material should meet the following requirements: durability, wear resistance, biocompatibility and chemical adhesion to dentin enamel. Wear resistance is very important and it is related with the service life of dental replacements. We have obtained aesthetically promising novel nano composites that can be used as dental replacements. The main objective of this work is to study the scratch and wear resistance of these nano composites. To meet this goal, scratch tests are performed using a micro scratch tester machine (CSEM), where a diamond indenter is used to make the scratch and the penetration of this indenter is measured with high resolution (7nm). We will be looking at the penetration depth (Rp) and the residual (or healing) depth (Rh) to calculate the percent recovery. These measurements represent the scratch resistance of the material.

  4. Appendicitis in an obturator hernia.

    PubMed

    Camerlinck, Michael; Vanhoenacker, Filip; De Vuyst, Dimitri; Quanten, Inge

    2011-04-01

    We present a case of a 79-year-old female with a history of pain at the right groin for 9 days. Computer tomography of the pelvis showed herniation of the appendix through the obturator canal with a huge abscess surrounding the right hip joint. Laparotomy was performed and histopathology confirmed a perforated necrotic tip of the herniated appendix. An obturator hernia is a rare hernia of the pelvic floor. It is most common in old, emaciated, multiparous women and can cause groin pain with extension to the medial aspect of the thigh. In case of incarceration of bowel, patients also present with obstruction. Isolated incarceration of the appendix, however, does not cause obstruction. The diagnosis of an obturator hernia is often delayed, due to a non-specific clinical presentation. CT scan may offer the clue to the correct diagnosis and should be performed in case of a possible obturator hernia.

  5. Imaging of the Bursae

    PubMed Central

    Hirji, Zameer; Hunjun, Jaspal S; Choudur, Hema N

    2011-01-01

    When assessing joints with various imaging modalities, it is important to focus on the extraarticular soft tissues that may clinically mimic joint pathology. One such extraarticular structure is the bursa. Bursitis can clinically be misdiagnosed as joint-, tendon- or muscle-related pain. Pathological processes are often a result of inflammation that is secondary to excessive local friction, infection, arthritides or direct trauma. It is therefore important to understand the anatomy and pathology of the common bursae in the appendicular skeleton. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to characterize the clinically relevant bursae in the appendicular skeleton using diagrams and corresponding multimodality images, focusing on normal anatomy and common pathological processes that affect them. The aim is to familiarize radiologists with the radiological features of bursitis. PMID:21966619

  6. [Obturator nerve block in transurethral surgery].

    PubMed

    Rubial Alvarez, M; Molins Gauna, N; Rubio Pascual, P; Martín Bermejo, P; Pamplona Casamayor, M

    1989-01-01

    The obturator nerve passes in close proximity to the bladder as it courses through the pelvis. During transurethral operations, resection may result in stimulation of the obturator nerve, causing violent adductor contraction. Bladder perforation and incomplete tumor resection are the most important complications. All techniques proposed since transurethral surgery began, until nowadays are reviewed: neuromuscular blockade, electric circuit modifications, transparietal endoscopic blockade, periprostatic and subvesical infiltration, obturator nerve blockade and the "3 in 1 block" described by Winnie. Practical advices are proposed finally.

  7. A Morphometric Study of the Obturator Nerve around the Obturator Foramen

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Se Yeong; Chang, Jae Chil; Bae, Hack Gun; Oh, Jae-Sang; Heo, Juneyoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obturator neuropathy is a rare condition. Many neurosurgeons are unfamiliar with the obturator nerve anatomy. The purpose of this study was to define obturator nerve landmarks around the obturator foramen. Methods Fourteen cadavers were studied bilaterally to measure the distances from the nerve root to relevant anatomical landmarks near the obturator nerve, including the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS), the pubic tubercle, the inguinal ligament, the femoral artery, and the adductor longus. Results The obturator nerve exits the obturator foramen and travels infero-medially between the adductors longus and brevis. The median distances from the obturator nerve exit zone (ONEZ) to the ASIS and pubic tubercle were 114 mm and 30 mm, respectively. The median horizontal and vertical distances between the pubic tubercle and the ONEZ were 17 mm and 27 mm, respectively. The shortest median distance from the ONEZ to the inguinal ligament was 19 mm. The median inguinal ligament lengths from the ASIS and the median pubic tubercle to the shortest point were 103 mm and 24 mm, respectively. The median obturator nerve lengths between the ONEZ and the adductor longus and femoral artery were 41 mm and 28 mm, respectively. Conclusion The obturator nerve exits the foramen 17 mm and 27 mm on the horizontal and sagittal planes, respectively, from the pubic tubercle below the pectineus muscle. The shallowest area is approximately one-fifth medially from the inguinal ligament. This study will help improve the accuracy of obturator nerve surgeries to better establish therapeutic plans and decrease complications. PMID:27226861

  8. Fracture resistance of roots obturated with novel hydrophilic obturation systems

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Vibha; Arora, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Comparative assessment of fracture resistance of roots obturated with three hydrophilic systems — novel CPoint system, Resilon/Epiphany system, and EndoSequence BC sealer; and one hydrophobic gold standard gutta-percha/AHPlus system. Materials and Methods: Ninety freshly extracted, human, single-rooted mandibular premolars were selected. The specimens were decoronated and standardized to a working length of 13 mm. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n = 15). In Group A, teeth were left unprepared and unfilled (negative control). Rest of the groups were prepared by using ProTaper system up to a master apical file F3; followed by which Group B was left unobturated (positive control); Group C, novel CPoint System; group D, Resilon/Epiphany system, Group E EndoSequence BC sealer, and Group F gutta-percha and AH Plus. Specimens were stored for 2 weeks at 100% humidity. Each group was then subjected to fracture testing by using a universal testing machine. The force required to fracture each specimen was recorded and the data was analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and Tukey's post-hoc test. Results: The hydrophilic obturation systems have shown to exhibit significantly higher fracture resistance as shown by the values in Groups C, D, and E (P < 0.05) when compared with Group F. Within hydrophilic groups there was significant difference between Group D and Groups C and E (P < 0.05), while Groups C and E had no significant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusion: In contrast to hydrophobic systems, hydrophilic systems showed higher fracture resistance in a single-rooted premolar. PMID:26069417

  9. Palatal obturators in patients after maxillectomy

    PubMed Central

    CARDELLI, P.; BIGELLI, E.; VERTUCCI, V.; BALESTRA, F.; MONTANI, M.; DE CARLI, S.; ARCURI, C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Prosthodontic management of palatal defects is fundamental to improve patient’s life undergoing to a maxillary surgical treatment. A lot of maxillary defects are a direct consequence of surgical treatment of malformations, neoplasms or trauma. The obturators are prosthesis used to close palatal defects after maxillectomy, to restore masticatory function and to improve speech. The primary goals of the obturator prosthesis are to preserve the remaining teeth and tissue and to provide comfort, function, and aesthetics to the patients. Different materials and retention methods are a characteristic of new types of obturators. PMID:25992263

  10. Obturator hernia. Embryology, anatomy, and surgical applications.

    PubMed

    Skandalakis, L J; Androulakis, J; Colborn, G L; Skandalakis, J E

    2000-02-01

    Obturator hernia is a rare clinical entity. In most cases, it produces small bowel obstruction with high morbidity and mortality. The embryology, anatomy, clinical picture, diagnosis, and surgery are presented in detail.

  11. 21 CFR 868.5650 - Esophageal obturator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Esophageal obturator. 868.5650 Section 868.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... patient during emergency resuscitation by occluding (blocking) the esophagus, thereby permitting...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5650 - Esophageal obturator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Esophageal obturator. 868.5650 Section 868.5650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... patient during emergency resuscitation by occluding (blocking) the esophagus, thereby permitting...

  13. [Obturator neuralgia (Howship-Romberg phenomenon)].

    PubMed

    Saurenmann, P; Brand, S

    1984-10-20

    A 73-year-old patient with obturator neuropathy presenting as disabling thigh pain is described. The clinical diagnosis was verified by electromyography. No indication for surgery could be found. The patient's discomfort was not influenced by common pain-killers, but was relieved by the antipsychotic drug Melleril.

  14. Modern Endodontic Principles. Part 5: Obturation.

    PubMed

    Darcey, James; Roudsari, Reza Vahid; Jawad, Sarra; Taylor, Carly; Hunter, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Once cleaning and shaping is complete the clinician must obturate the canal. There are many different materials and techniques available each with their own discrete advantages and disadvantages. Whichever technique is used, the goal is to seal the entire prepared length of the root canal. This paper describes how best this may be achieved. CPD/Clinical Relevance: It is incumbent on the clinician to ensure that once the canal has been prepared it is sealed from bacterial re-entry. PMID:27188127

  15. The nance obturator, a new fixed obturator for patients with cleft palate and fistula.

    PubMed

    Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali; Groper, John N; Tanner, Aaron M; Urata, Mark M; Panossian, Andre; Yen, Stephen L-K

    2012-07-01

    In patients with fistulas that impair function (e.g., feeding, resonance, intelligibility), obturators are used to improve feeding and reduce nasal air emission by occluding the abnormal opening between the oral and nasal cavities. This report describes a novel method for occluding an anterior palatal fistula in patients with cleft palates. The new design for a fixed obturator is based on the Nance appliance, which was originally used as a space maintainer, but has been redesigned for closing an anterior palatal fistula in a patient with cleft lip and palate. The Nance obturator may be used when the surgical closure of the fistula is not feasible and a removable device is not successful. As it is a fixed device, it does not require remaking with maxillary growth. The new design may also function as a fixed space maintainer to preserve molar anchorage and maxillary transverse width.

  16. Pes anserinus and anserine bursa: anatomical study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Je-Hun; Kim, Kyung-Jin; Jeong, Young-Gil; Lee, Nam Seob; Han, Seung Yun; Lee, Chang Gug; Kim, Kyung-Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the boundary of anserine bursa with the recommended injection site and shape on the insertion area of pes anserinus (PA), with the aim of improving clinical practice. Eighty six legs from 45 Korean cadavers were investigated. The mixed gelatin solution was injected to identify the shape of anserine bursa, and then the insertion site of the PA tendons was exposed completely and carefully dissected to identify the shape of the PA. The sartorius was inserted into the superficial layer and gracilis, and the semitendinosus was inserted into the deep layer on the medial surface of the tibia. The number of the semitendinosus tendons at the insertion site varied: 1 in 66% of specimens, 2 in 31%, and 3 in 3%. The gracilis and semitendinosus tendons were connected to the deep fascia of leg. Overall, the shape of the anserine bursa was irregularly circular. Most of the anserine bursa specimens reached the proximal line of the tibia, and some of the specimens reached above the proximal line of the tibia. In the medial view of the tibia, the anserine bursa was located posteriorly and superiorly from the tibia's midline, and it followed the lines of the sartorius muscle. The injection site for anserine bursa should be carried out at 20° from the vertical line medially and inferiorly, 15 or 20 mm deeply, and at the point of about 20 mm medial and 12 mm superior from inferomedial point of tibial tuberosity. PMID:24987549

  17. Rare cause of paraparesis: bilateral obturator neuropathy after hysterosalpingectomy.

    PubMed

    López-Blanco, Roberto; Mejía-Jiménez, Inmaculada; de Fuenmayor-Fernández de la Hoz, Carlos Pablo; Ruiz-Morales, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral obturator nerve injury during pelvic surgery is an infrequent cause of lower limb paraparesis. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with a large uterine leiomyoma who underwent simple total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingectomy. At 24 h after the surgery, the patient noticed loss of muscle strength when adducting both legs. She had no problem with other movements and no sensory or sphincter abnormalities. Neurological examination confirmed that there was loss of strength only in the adductor muscles, with preserved sensory function and reflexes, suggesting bilateral obturator nerve involvement. Pelvic MRI showed a small postsurgical haematoma in the Douglas recess, but far from the obturator nerves. 2 weeks later, electromyography showed positive sharp waves and low motor unit recruitment in the adductor magnus muscles, confirming acute, bilateral obturator nerve neuropathy. The few cases of bilateral obturator neuropathy that have been reported were mostly related to abdominopelvic interventions. PMID:26689250

  18. Dentinal defects before and after rotary root canal instrumentation with three different obturation techniques and two obturating materials

    PubMed Central

    Kumaran, Ponnuswamy; Sivapriya, Elangovan; Indhramohan, Jamuna; Gopikrishna, Velayutham; Savadamoorthi, K Subramani; Pradeepkumar, Angambakkam Rajasekharan

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the role of rotary root canal instrumentation followed by obturation with three different techniques and two different materials on the incidence of dentinal defects. Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty mandibular premolars were divided into eight groups (n = 20). Group I was left untreated and served as control. The other seven groups were prepared with profile rotary instruments till #40.06 taper. After preparation, group II was left unfilled, groups III, IV, and V were obturated with Gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer using passive technique, lateral compaction and warm vertical compaction, respectively. Groups VI, VII, and VIII were obturated with Resilon and Realseal sealer using passive technique, lateral compaction, and warm vertical compaction, respectively. Roots were then sectioned at 3, 6, and 9 mm from the apex and inspected under a stereomicroscope (50×) for dentinal defects. Chi-square test was performed to compare the incidence of dentinal defects between the groups (P < 0.05). Results: The unprepared control group had no dentinal defects. The instrumentation group (group II) and the obturation group (groups III-VIII) showed significantly more defects than the uninstrumented control group (group I) (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the root canal obturating techniques (group III-VIII) when compared with the instrumentation group (group II). On inter group comparison among the obturation groups the number of defects after lateral compaction with Gutta-percha (group IV) was significantly larger than passive Gutta-percha obturation (group III) (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The results suggest that root canal instrumentation significantly influenced the incidence of dentinal defects or fracture. Dentinal defects were more significantly attributed to the role of root canal instrumentation rather than the type of obturation technique or material. Lateral compaction with Gutta-percha significantly produces more

  19. A titanium and visible light-polymerized resin obturator.

    PubMed

    Rilo, Benito; da Silva, José Luis; Martinez-Insua, Arturo; Santana, Urbano

    2002-04-01

    Obturator prostheses are typically large, and their weight and size are often important design factors. This article describes the fabrication of an obturator prosthesis with a titanium framework and visible light-polymerized denture base resin. It is speculated that these low-density materials may produce prostheses lighter than similar ones made with conventional materials. An added advantage is that visible light-polymerizing resins facilitate relining. PMID:12011852

  20. Obturator neuropathy: a cause of exercise-related groin pain.

    PubMed

    Brukner, P; Bradshaw, C; McCrory, P

    1999-05-01

    Obturator neuropathy is a cause of exercise-related groin pain, particularly in those who play sports that involve much running, twisting and turning, and kicking. Symptoms include pain that begins insidiously at the adductor origin on the pubic bone and worsens with exercise. Diagnostic measures include reproduction of pain by stretching the pectineus muscle after exercise, electromyography, and a local anesthetic block of the obturator nerve. Surgery allows most patients to resume previous levels of activity.

  1. A titanium and visible light-polymerized resin obturator.

    PubMed

    Rilo, Benito; da Silva, José Luis; Martinez-Insua, Arturo; Santana, Urbano

    2002-04-01

    Obturator prostheses are typically large, and their weight and size are often important design factors. This article describes the fabrication of an obturator prosthesis with a titanium framework and visible light-polymerized denture base resin. It is speculated that these low-density materials may produce prostheses lighter than similar ones made with conventional materials. An added advantage is that visible light-polymerizing resins facilitate relining.

  2. Richter type of incarcerated obturator hernia; misery still continues.

    PubMed

    Jayant, Kumar; Agarwal, Rajendra; Agarwal, Swati

    2015-02-03

    Obturator hernia is a rare type of hernia which accounts for only 0.07-1.4% of all intra-abdominal hernias and 0.2-5.8% of small-intestinal obstructions. It develops predominantly in elderly underweight women. It has nonspecific early symptoms, so these hernias are usually discovered only after they have become incarcerated. Incarcerated obturator hernias are usually discovered on abdominal computed tomography scan or emergency surgery due to bowel obstruction. Here we present a case of a 65-year-old female who presented with intermittent abdominal pain, distension and nausea for last 3 days. She was a known case of hypothyroidism, taking Levothyroxine in inadequate dose. Her intial abdominal Xray was showing few air-fluid level with air present in rectum. She was initially managed conservatively but later developed features of peritonitis for which she was operated. In laparotomy, Richter type of right-sided incarcerated obturator hernia was discovered with a small necrotic area and perforation of small bowel. Bowel resection was performed and obturator hernia was closed with interrupted sutures. The patient recovered without complications. Obturator hernia, due to its rarity and nonspecific early symptoms, can still be misleading even to the most experienced clinicians. Delay in diagnosis of obturator hernia can lead to bowel necrosis and perforation with significant postoperative morbidity and mortality.

  3. Vibration analysis of obturator prostheses with different bulb height designs.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Makio; Oki, Meiko; Ozawa, Shogo; Inoue, Takaaki; Mukohyama, Hitoshi; Takato, Tsuyoshi; Ohyama, Takashi; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect on the vibratory characteristics of a cast hollow obturator prosthesis retainer when varying its bulb height. Bulb parts with high (H), middle (M), and low (L) lateral walls were prepared. A Vibration Generator was used to excite the three obturators, while a Laser-Doppler Vibrometer was employed to detect the vibrations at specified measurement points. The frequency response functions of each obturator were recorded on an FFT analyzer to enable their modal shapes to be identified. In addition, transient response simulations were carried out and the decay rate (DR) and the maximum amplitude (MA) of the rest and clasp parts of each obturator were obtained. These were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD test (p < 0.01). The modal shapes were almost the same in all obturators. Significant differences were found in DR in all pairs among the three obturator prostheses, with the DR of the L type being the highest. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in MA. We conclude that the L type is preferable from the standpoint of its vibratory characteristics.

  4. Defective bursa regeneration after irradiation of young thymectomized chickens

    SciTech Connect

    Bhogal, B.S.; Chi, D.S.; Galton, J.E.; Bell, M.K.; Thorbecke, G.J.

    1984-08-01

    The ability of the bursa of Fabricius to regenerate after gamma-irradiation and bone marrow reconstitution was examined in chickens thymectomized (TX) immediately after hatching. Irradiation (2 X 500 R) 3 weeks after hatching was followed by impaired bursa regeneration, as judged both by bursa/body weight ratios and by bursa follicle development 3-6 weeks later in TX as compared to control birds. Germinal center formation in the spleen was deficient, and immune responses to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) and B. abortus (BA) were moderately reduced in the TX as compared to control birds irradiated at 3 weeks but not in TX birds irradiated at 5 weeks of age.

  5. CT imaging features of obturator prostheses in patients following palatectomy or maxillectomy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V A; Hofstede, T M; Ginsberg, L E

    2011-01-01

    Palatal tumors are often treated with palatectomy or maxillectomy. The resulting surgical defect produces an oroantral communication. An obturator is a removable prosthesis used to close the palatal or maxillectomy defect. Fifteen patients who had undergone palatectomy or maxillectomy for carcinoma and subsequent obturator prosthesis placement were retrospectively studied. Obturators were characterized by Hounsfield units and were subdivided into 3 CT imaging groups: either hyperattenuated, hollow (air-containing), or heterogeneous (isoattenuated to hyperattenuated with internal foci of air). Eight patients had hyperattenuated obturators either representing acrylic resin or Trusoft. Four patients had hollow obturators also composed of acrylic resin or Trusoft. Three patients had heterogeneous obturators, which were composed of only Trusoft. The postoperative imaging of patients treated for palatal or maxillary tumors can be complicated by the presence of obturator prostheses. The intent of this article was to familiarize the reader with the CT imaging features of obturator prostheses. PMID:21799037

  6. Resistance to fracture of dental roots obturated with different materials.

    PubMed

    Celikten, Berkan; Uzuntas, Ceren Feriha; Gulsahi, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the vertical fracture resistance of roots obturated with different root canal filling materials and sealers. Crowns of 55 extracted mandibular premolar teeth were removed to provide root lengths of 13 mm. Five roots were saved as negative control group (canals unprepared and unfilled). Fifty root canals were instrumented and then five roots were saved as positive control group (canals prepared but unfilled). The remaining 45 roots were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 15 root/group) and obturated with the following procedures: in group 1, glass ionomer-based sealer and cone (ActiV GP obturation system); in group 2, bioceramic sealer and cone (EndoSequence BC obturation system); and in group 3, roots were filled with bioceramic sealer and cone (Smartpaste bio obturation system). All specimens were tested in a universal testing machine for measuring fracture resistance. For each root, the force at the time of fracture was recorded in Newtons. The statistical analysis was performed by using Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc test. There were no significant differences between the three experimental groups. The fracture values of three experimental and negative control groups were significantly higher than the positive control group. Within the limitations of this study, all materials increased the fracture resistance of instrumented roots. PMID:25756048

  7. Resistance to Fracture of Dental Roots Obturated with Different Materials

    PubMed Central

    Uzuntas, Ceren Feriha; Gulsahi, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the vertical fracture resistance of roots obturated with different root canal filling materials and sealers. Crowns of 55 extracted mandibular premolar teeth were removed to provide root lengths of 13 mm. Five roots were saved as negative control group (canals unprepared and unfilled). Fifty root canals were instrumented and then five roots were saved as positive control group (canals prepared but unfilled). The remaining 45 roots were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 15 root/group) and obturated with the following procedures: in group 1, glass ionomer-based sealer and cone (ActiV GP obturation system); in group 2, bioceramic sealer and cone (EndoSequence BC obturation system); and in group 3, roots were filled with bioceramic sealer and cone (Smartpaste bio obturation system). All specimens were tested in a universal testing machine for measuring fracture resistance. For each root, the force at the time of fracture was recorded in Newtons. The statistical analysis was performed by using Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc test. There were no significant differences between the three experimental groups. The fracture values of three experimental and negative control groups were significantly higher than the positive control group. Within the limitations of this study, all materials increased the fracture resistance of instrumented roots. PMID:25756048

  8. Thermographic assessment of root canal obturation using thermomechanical compaction.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, J J; Biagioni, P A; Lamey, P J; Hussey, D L

    1997-05-01

    The temperature changes on the root surface of 30 extracted human premolar teeth during thermomechanical root canal obturation with gutta-percha were determined using an infrared thermal imaging camera. Three handpiece rotational speeds of 8, 12 and 16 x 10(3) r.p.m. were used, in conjunction with a Gutta Condensor. On completion of the procedure, the quality of tooth canal obturation was examined radiographically. Under the conditions of this experiment, surface root temperature rises of > 97 degrees C were recorded during all three speed settings. The radiographic quality of obturation between the groups appeared not to be significantly different. The clinical relevance of these findings is uncertain, but the temperatures reported are of a magnitude to be of biological importance.

  9. Variation in the Obturator Vasculature During Routine Anatomy Dissection of a Cadaver.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Vishwajit; Singh, Seema; Sirohi, Neerja; Baruhee, Divya

    2016-08-01

    The obturator artery normally originates from the internal iliac artery while the obturator vein drains into the internal iliac vein. During a routine gross anatomy dissection class for undergraduate students at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, in 2016, a rare unilateral variation in the obturator vasculature was found in a female cadaver of approximately 55 years of age. In this case, the left obturator artery originated from the superior gluteal artery and the left obturator vein drained into the external iliac vein. Knowledge of such variations is necessary during hernia procedures, ligation of the internal iliac artery and muscle graft surgeries. PMID:27606118

  10. Variation in the Obturator Vasculature During Routine Anatomy Dissection of a Cadaver

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Vishwajit; Singh, Seema; Sirohi, Neerja; Baruhee, Divya

    2016-01-01

    The obturator artery normally originates from the internal iliac artery while the obturator vein drains into the internal iliac vein. During a routine gross anatomy dissection class for undergraduate students at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, in 2016, a rare unilateral variation in the obturator vasculature was found in a female cadaver of approximately 55 years of age. In this case, the left obturator artery originated from the superior gluteal artery and the left obturator vein drained into the external iliac vein. Knowledge of such variations is necessary during hernia procedures, ligation of the internal iliac artery and muscle graft surgeries. PMID:27606118

  11. Variation in the Obturator Vasculature During Routine Anatomy Dissection of a Cadaver

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Vishwajit; Singh, Seema; Sirohi, Neerja; Baruhee, Divya

    2016-01-01

    The obturator artery normally originates from the internal iliac artery while the obturator vein drains into the internal iliac vein. During a routine gross anatomy dissection class for undergraduate students at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, in 2016, a rare unilateral variation in the obturator vasculature was found in a female cadaver of approximately 55 years of age. In this case, the left obturator artery originated from the superior gluteal artery and the left obturator vein drained into the external iliac vein. Knowledge of such variations is necessary during hernia procedures, ligation of the internal iliac artery and muscle graft surgeries.

  12. Fabrication of Closed Hollow Bulb Obturator Using Thermoplastic Resin Material.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Bidhan; Hughes, E Richard; Kumar Singh, Raj; Suwal, Pramita; Parajuli, Prakash Kumar; Shrestha, Pragya; Sharma, Arati; Adhikari, Galav

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Closed hollow bulb obturators are used for the rehabilitation of postmaxillectomy patients. However, the time consuming process, complexity of fabrication, water leakage, and discoloration are notable disadvantages of this technique. This paper describes a clinical report of fabricating closed hollow bulb obturator using a single flask and one time processing method for an acquired maxillary defect. Hard thermoplastic resin sheet has been used for the fabrication of hollow bulb part of the obturator. Method. After fabrication of master cast conventionally, bulb and lid part of the defect were formed separately and joined by autopolymerizing acrylic resin to form one sized smaller hollow body. During packing procedure, the defect area was loaded with heat polymerizing acrylic resin and then previously fabricated smaller hollow body was adapted over it. The whole area was then loaded with heat cure acrylic. Further processes were carried out conventionally. Conclusion. This technique uses single flask which reduces laboratory time and makes the procedure simple. The thickness of hollow bulb can be controlled and light weight closed hollow bulb prosthesis can be fabricated. It also minimizes the disadvantages of closed hollow bulb obturator such as water leakage, bacterial infection, and discoloration.

  13. Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses: imaging photoelastic.

    PubMed

    Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Andreotti, Agda Marobo; Moreno, Amália

    2013-06-01

    Maxillary defects resulting from cancer, trauma, and congenital malformation affect the chewing efficiency and retention of dentures in these patients. The use of implant-retained palatal obturator dentures has improved the self-esteem and quality of life of several subjects. We evaluate the stress distribution of implant-retained palatal obturator dentures with different attachment systems by using the photoelastic analysis images. Two photoelastic models of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication were fabricated. One model received three implants on the left side of the alveolar ridge (incisive, canine, and first molar regions) and the other did not receive implants. Afterwards, a conventional palatal obturator denture (control) and two implant-retained palatal obturator dentures with different attachment systems (O-ring; bar-clip) were constructed. Models were placed in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions (incisive, canine, and first molar regions) by using a universal testing machine. The results were photographed and analyzed qualitatively using a software (Adobe Photoshop). The bar-clip system exhibited the highest stress concentration followed by the O-ring system and conventional denture (control). Images generated by the photoelastic method help in the oral rehabilitator planning. PMID:23143194

  14. Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses: imaging photoelastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Andreotti, Agda Marobo; Moreno, Amália

    2013-06-01

    Maxillary defects resulting from cancer, trauma, and congenital malformation affect the chewing efficiency and retention of dentures in these patients. The use of implant-retained palatal obturator dentures has improved the self-esteem and quality of life of several subjects. We evaluate the stress distribution of implant-retained palatal obturator dentures with different attachment systems by using the photoelastic analysis images. Two photoelastic models of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication were fabricated. One model received three implants on the left side of the alveolar ridge (incisive, canine, and first molar regions) and the other did not receive implants. Afterwards, a conventional palatal obturator denture (control) and two implant-retained palatal obturator dentures with different attachment systems (O-ring; bar-clip) were constructed. Models were placed in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions (incisive, canine, and first molar regions) by using a universal testing machine. The results were photographed and analyzed qualitatively using a software (Adobe Photoshop). The bar-clip system exhibited the highest stress concentration followed by the O-ring system and conventional denture (control). Images generated by the photoelastic method help in the oral rehabilitator planning.

  15. Fabrication of Closed Hollow Bulb Obturator Using Thermoplastic Resin Material

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Bidhan; Hughes, E. Richard; Kumar Singh, Raj; Suwal, Pramita; Parajuli, Prakash Kumar; Shrestha, Pragya; Sharma, Arati; Adhikari, Galav

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Closed hollow bulb obturators are used for the rehabilitation of postmaxillectomy patients. However, the time consuming process, complexity of fabrication, water leakage, and discoloration are notable disadvantages of this technique. This paper describes a clinical report of fabricating closed hollow bulb obturator using a single flask and one time processing method for an acquired maxillary defect. Hard thermoplastic resin sheet has been used for the fabrication of hollow bulb part of the obturator. Method. After fabrication of master cast conventionally, bulb and lid part of the defect were formed separately and joined by autopolymerizing acrylic resin to form one sized smaller hollow body. During packing procedure, the defect area was loaded with heat polymerizing acrylic resin and then previously fabricated smaller hollow body was adapted over it. The whole area was then loaded with heat cure acrylic. Further processes were carried out conventionally. Conclusion. This technique uses single flask which reduces laboratory time and makes the procedure simple. The thickness of hollow bulb can be controlled and light weight closed hollow bulb prosthesis can be fabricated. It also minimizes the disadvantages of closed hollow bulb obturator such as water leakage, bacterial infection, and discoloration. PMID:26491575

  16. Fiber-post bond strength in canals obturated with a cross-linked gutta-percha core obturator.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Nicola; Coero Borga, Francesco A; Alovisi, Mario; Bergantin, Emanuele; Marchionni, Silvia; Pasqualini, Damiano; Berutti, Elio

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the bond strength of fiber posts cemented in a root canal filled using various root-canal obturation techniques. A total of 33 monoradicular samples, treated endodontically, were randomly assigned to three groups according to the root-canal obturation technique: group 1, continuous-wave technique; group 2, plastic-obturator-core technique; and group 3, cross-linked gutta-percha obturator-core technique. Fiber posts were luted in each sample and each was sectioned perpendicular to the post axis. The push-out test was performed using a universal machine and the maximum failure load was recorded in MPa mm(-2) . Several samples were randomly chosen for scanning electron microscopy evaluation. The mean debris and dentinal tubule-opening scores were calculated separately in the coronal and apical portions. Bond strength was significantly higher in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3. Debris scores were significantly higher in the apical portion of groups 2 and 3 than in group 1. Within the limitations of this study it can be affirmed that thermoplasticized alpha gutta-percha seemed to worsen the cleaning of post-space walls and hence reduced fiber-post bond strength.

  17. Comparative Evaluation of Obturating Techniques in Primary Teeth: An in vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Vashista, Kriti; Sachdev, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The present study was undertaken to compare two methods of obturation in primary teeth by using lentulospirals and pressure syringe, radiographically. Materials and methods: Sixty teeth in subjects with mean age of 5.88 ± 1.58 years were obturated randomly using two different obturating techniques, i.e. group I: Thirty teeth obturated with pressure syringe, and group II: Thirty teeth obturated with lentulospiral. Quality of obturation and presence or absence of voids were assessed by taking radiographs after obturation was done using both the techniques. Results of quality of obturation were statistically analyzed using Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney’s test, whereas voids were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: No statistically significant difference between the quality of obturation using pressure syringe or lentulospiral (p > 0.05) was observed. However, significantly higher number of voids were found for lentulospiral technique as compared to pressure syringe (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Both the techniques were found to be equally efficient statistically, though lentulospiral produced more voids. How to cite this article: Vashista K, Sandhu M, Sachdev V. Comparative Evaluation of Obturating Techniques in Primary Teeth: An in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3): 176-180. PMID:26628851

  18. Management of maxillectomy defect with a hybrid hollow bulb obturator.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kamleshwar; Singh, Saumyendra V; Mishra, Niraj; Agrawal, Kaushal Kishor

    2013-01-01

    A woman having already undergone maxillectomy came to the department complaining of difficulty in eating and speech. During the construction of an obturator, the bulb area should be hollowed to reduce weight so that the teeth and supporting tissues are not stressed unnecessarily. The conventional open design drains fluid from the adjacent mucosa, possibly increasing the weight of the prosthesis, and is difficult to clean. The closed bulb design does not drain secretions and may cause obstruction and susceptibility to infection in the paranasal and pharyngeal regions, though it is easier to maintain. An alternative to the two designs, combining their advantages, is presented in this report. As the open hollow part of the obturator was shallow, it was easy to clean. Making the inferior part of the bulb hollow and closed led to a reduction in the overall weight of the prosthesis while increasing its resonance. PMID:23436886

  19. Creating a digitized database of maxillofacial prostheses (obturators): A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sumita, Yuka; Aswehlee, Amel; Yoshi, Shigen; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study aimed to create a digitized database of fabricated obturators to be kept for patients' potential emergency needs. MATERIALS AND METHODS A chairside intraoral scanner was used to scan the surfaces of an acrylic resin obturator. The scanned data was recorded and saved as a single standard tessellation language file using a three-dimensional modeling software. A simulated obturator model was manufactured using fused deposition modeling technique in a three-dimensional printer. RESULTS The entire obturator was successfully scanned regardless of its structural complexity, modeled as three-dimensional data, and stored in the digital system of our clinic at a relatively small size (19.6 MB). A simulated obturator model was then accurately manufactured from these data. CONCLUSION This study provides a proof-of-concept for the use of digital technology to create a digitized database of obturators for edentulous maxillectomy patients. PMID:27350857

  20. Ultrasound-guided steroid injection for obturator neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Hariharan

    2008-01-01

    Obturator neuralgia (ON) presents with pain in the groin, medial thigh, and sometimes the medial aspect of the knee. The causes include trauma, obturator hernia, pelvic cancer, pelvic surgery, hip surgery, following pelvic fractures, endometriosis, retroperitoneal hematoma, pregnancy, and delivery. Ultrasound (US) guidance facilitates real-time imaging, identification of vascular structures, and improves patient comfort in situations where nerve stimulation can be unpleasant. This is a case report of ON successfully treated with US-guided steroid injection. A 55-year-old man was referred to the pain clinic with groin pain and allodynia in the medial thigh and knee following a fall. He had tried multiple other therapies and none of them provided significant relief. Using a 10-5-MHz multi-frequency, 38-mm linear array transducer, the obturator nerve was scanned in both longitudinal and transverse directions. Under real-time imaging 10 mg of medroxy-progesterone in a volume of 1 mL was injected. Following the injection, a small area of the medial side of knee was still tender to light touch. A second injection was placed inferiorly and provided pain relief for more than 5 months. This successful demonstration of US guidance in ON may further encourage US guidance in pain clinic interventions.

  1. Obturator Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Pelvic Hematoma After Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jun H.; Abbott, Daniel; Gewirtz, Eric; Hauck, Ellen; Eun, Daniel D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obturator nerve injury is a known injury after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) and patients often present with motor and sensory deficits in the immediate postoperative period. We describe a 65-year-old male who presented with motor deficits, indicative of obturator neurapraxia after RALP upon waking from anesthesia. Work-up revealed an expansile hematoma possibly compressing the obturator nerve. After evacuation of the hematoma, the patient had immediate improvement of his neurologic deficits. Our patient's clinical vignette illustrates the importance of considering postsurgical hematoma in the differential diagnosis when patients present with signs and symptoms of obturator neurapraxia after RALP. PMID:27579444

  2. A hollow-bulb interim obturator for maxillary resection. A case report.

    PubMed

    Rilo, B; Dasilva, J L; Ferros, I; Mora, M J; Santana, U

    2005-03-01

    The treatment of hemimaxillectomy patients include the construction of an interim obturator in the wound healing period. With the aim of simplifying this process, we describe construction of an obturator in a short single visit, in the dental chair with no need for impressions or for laboratory services. The obturator comprises: (i) the surgical obturator and (ii) a hollow light-cured resin bulb built onto the base, and providing a large surface for bonding of the soft reline material. The advantages of this approach are rapid construction and ease of ongoing adjustment during the healing process. PMID:15707435

  3. Obturator Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Pelvic Hematoma After Robot-Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Song, Jun H; Kaplan, Joshua R; Abbott, Daniel; Gewirtz, Eric; Hauck, Ellen; Eun, Daniel D

    2016-01-01

    Obturator nerve injury is a known injury after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) and patients often present with motor and sensory deficits in the immediate postoperative period. We describe a 65-year-old male who presented with motor deficits, indicative of obturator neurapraxia after RALP upon waking from anesthesia. Work-up revealed an expansile hematoma possibly compressing the obturator nerve. After evacuation of the hematoma, the patient had immediate improvement of his neurologic deficits. Our patient's clinical vignette illustrates the importance of considering postsurgical hematoma in the differential diagnosis when patients present with signs and symptoms of obturator neurapraxia after RALP. PMID:27579444

  4. A hollow-bulb interim obturator for maxillary resection. A case report.

    PubMed

    Rilo, B; Dasilva, J L; Ferros, I; Mora, M J; Santana, U

    2005-03-01

    The treatment of hemimaxillectomy patients include the construction of an interim obturator in the wound healing period. With the aim of simplifying this process, we describe construction of an obturator in a short single visit, in the dental chair with no need for impressions or for laboratory services. The obturator comprises: (i) the surgical obturator and (ii) a hollow light-cured resin bulb built onto the base, and providing a large surface for bonding of the soft reline material. The advantages of this approach are rapid construction and ease of ongoing adjustment during the healing process.

  5. In vitro evaluation of carrier based obturation technique: a CBCT study

    PubMed Central

    Gambarini, Gianluca; Piasecki, Lucila; Schianchi, Giovanni; Di Nardo, Dario; Miccoli, Gabriele; Al Sudani, Dina; Di Giorgio, Roberto; Testarelli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aim The goal of the study was to compare the ability of two different carrier based obturation (CBO) techniques to reach working length and fill in three-dimensions root canal systems, by using CBCT. Materials and Methods Twenty-six extracted molars were scanned with CBCT and 40 curved canals were selected (between 30° and 90°) and divided in two similar groups (n=20). All canals were prepared up to size 25 taper .06 using nickel-titanium instrumentation. The canals in the Group SC were obturated using Soft-Core obturators (Kerr, Romulus, Mi, USA), while Group TH canals (n= 20) were obturated using Thermafil Endodontic Obturators (Tulsa Dental Products, Tulsa, OK, USA), strictly following manufacturers’ instructions for use. The obturations were analyzed by means of CBCT to measure the distance from the apical limit of obturation to the apical foramen and the presence of voids inside root canals. Results There was no significant difference between the two groups in the mean distance of the apical extent of the obturation (t test, p>0.05). Overfilling occurred in only 3 cases (2 in Group TH and 1 in Group SC). The percentages of voids in both groups were very low with no significant difference (Z test, p>0.05). Conclusions The two tested CBO techniques showed similar positive results in terms of performance, even if, after checking with verifiers, in most cases the size of the selected Soft-Core obturator was one size smaller than Thermafil. PMID:27486506

  6. Comparative Evaluation of Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Teeth Obturated with Resin Based Adhesive Sealers with Conventional Obturation Technique: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Langalia, Akshay K; Dave, Bela; Patel, Neeta; Thakkar, Viral; Sheth, Sona; Parekh, Vaishali

    2015-01-01

    Background: To compare fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth obturated with different resin-based adhesive sealers with a conventional obturation technique. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 Single canaled teeth were divided into five groups. The first group was taken as a negative control. The rest of the groups were shaped using ProFile rotary files (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). The second group was obturated with gutta-percha and a ZOE-based sealer Endoflas FS (Sanlor Dental Products, USA). The third group was obturated with gutta-percha and an epoxy-based sealer AH Plus (Dentsply, DeTrey, Germany). The fourth group was obturated with Resilon (Pentron Clinical Technologies, Wallingford, CT) and RealSeal sealer (Pentron Clinical Technologies). The fifth group was obturated with EndoREZ points and EndoREZ sealer (both from Ultradent, South Jordan, UT). Roots were then embedded into acrylic blocks and were then fixed into a material testing system and loaded with a stainless steel pin with a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min until fracture. The load at which the specimen fractured was recorded in Newtons. Results: It was found that forces at fracture were statistically significant for the newer resin systems, Resilon, and EndoREZ. Conclusion: It was concluded that roots obturated with newer resin systems (Resilon and EndoREZ) enhanced the root strength almost up to the level of the intact roots. PMID:25859099

  7. New hosts for the mite Ornithonyssus bursa in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Santillán, M Á; Grande, J M; Liébana, M S; Martínez, P; Díaz, L A; Bragagnolo, L A; Solaro, C; Galmes, M A; Sarasola, J H

    2015-12-01

    The mite Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese) (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae) is considered a poultry pest causing important infestations in chickens and it is considered a potential vector of arbovirus. Despite being considered a common parasite in wild birds, there is scarce published information about its potential hosts and effects on them. Here we present new bird hosts for O. bursa, assess the presence of Alphavirus, Flavivirus and Bunyavirus in mites from three host species, and discuss its potential impact on wild bird populations. We found O. bursa infecting five raptor and six passerine wild bird species. For nine of these species, this is the first record of infection by O. bursa. Although all analysed mites were negative for the examined arboviruses, the small sample size of mites does not allow further conclusions at the present moment. Because of the general nature of this ectoparasite, its presence in migratory long dispersal and endangered bird species, and the seropositivity for arboviruses in some of the species studied here, we consider it critical to assess the role of O. bursa and other ectoparasites as vectors and reservoirs of pathogens and as potential deleterious agents in wild bird populations. PMID:26258483

  8. New hosts for the mite Ornithonyssus bursa in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Santillán, M Á; Grande, J M; Liébana, M S; Martínez, P; Díaz, L A; Bragagnolo, L A; Solaro, C; Galmes, M A; Sarasola, J H

    2015-12-01

    The mite Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese) (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae) is considered a poultry pest causing important infestations in chickens and it is considered a potential vector of arbovirus. Despite being considered a common parasite in wild birds, there is scarce published information about its potential hosts and effects on them. Here we present new bird hosts for O. bursa, assess the presence of Alphavirus, Flavivirus and Bunyavirus in mites from three host species, and discuss its potential impact on wild bird populations. We found O. bursa infecting five raptor and six passerine wild bird species. For nine of these species, this is the first record of infection by O. bursa. Although all analysed mites were negative for the examined arboviruses, the small sample size of mites does not allow further conclusions at the present moment. Because of the general nature of this ectoparasite, its presence in migratory long dispersal and endangered bird species, and the seropositivity for arboviruses in some of the species studied here, we consider it critical to assess the role of O. bursa and other ectoparasites as vectors and reservoirs of pathogens and as potential deleterious agents in wild bird populations.

  9. Bilateral obturator hernia with intestinal obstruction: repair with a cigar roll technique.

    PubMed

    Tchanque, C N; Virmani, S; Teklehaimanot, N; Malamet, M D; McFarlane, K N; Lincoln, D; Jacobs, M J; Silapaswan, S

    2010-10-01

    Obturator hernia is an exceedingly rare pelvic hernia that occurs primarily in multiparous, elderly thin (>70 years of age) females. Here, we report a case of bilateral obturator hernia in an elderly female with high-grade small bowel obstruction repaired with a novel "cigar roll" technique.

  10. Successful obturator nerve repairing: Intraoperative sural nerve graft harvesting in endometrium cancer patient

    PubMed Central

    Harma, Müge; Sel, Görker; Açıkgöz, Bektaş; Harma, Mehmet İbrahim

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Intraoperative injury of obturator nerve is a rare complication of gynecologic surgeries, it has been reported especially in patients with endometriosis and genitourinary malignancies. Gynecologic patients undergoing open lymphadenectomy are at increased risk of obturator nerve injury. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 60-year-old woman with FIGO stage II Grade II endometrial adenocarcinoma underwent bilateral pelvic paraaortic lymphadenectomy. During right obturator lymph node dissection, the right obturator nerve was inadvertently transected with Harmonic scalpel sealing system. The graft was used to anastomose epyneurium of distal segment of obturator nerve to its counterpart in the proximal segment with 10–0 prolen suture. DISCUSSION In case of iatrogenic nerve transection, microsurgical end to end tension-free coaptation is advocated. In case of the obturator nerve is fixed and because of the thermal injury end to end alignment can not be achieved, nerve grafting is necessary. CONCLUSION According to our knowledge, successful immediate grafting of iatrogenically damaged obturator nerve during pelvic lymphadenectomy in our patient is the third report of such a case, but also it has a unique feature of being the first obturator nerve repairing case after dissected with tissue sealing system which causes large sealed area that does not make it possible to make end-to-end anastomosis without nerve harvesting. PMID:24814984

  11. Bacterial coronal leakage after obturation with three root canal sealers.

    PubMed

    Timpawat, S; Amornchat, C; Trisuwan, W R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage of root canals obturated with three root canal sealers, using Endodontalis faecalis as a microbial tracer to determine the length of time for bacteria to penetrate through the obturated root canal to the root apex. Seventy-five, single-rooted teeth with straight root canals had the crown cut off at the cementoenamel junction. Root canals were instrumented by a step-back technique. The prepared teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups of 19 teeth each and another 2 groups as positive and negative controls (9 teeth each). The experimental groups were dependent on the sealer used: AH-Plus, Apexit, and Ketac-Endo. The root canals were obturated using a lateral condensation technique. After 24 h the teeth were attached to microcentrifuge tubes with 2 mm of the root apex submerged in Brain Heart Infusion broth in glass test tubes. The coronal portions of the root canal filling materials were placed in contact with E. faecalis. The teeth were observed for bacterial leakage daily for 30 and 60 days. With the chi2 test for comparing pairs of groups at the 0.05 level (p < 0.05), there was no statistical difference between Ketac-Endo and AH-Plus (p > 0.06), but Apexit had significantly higher leakage (p < 0.05) at 30 days. After 60 days there was no statistical difference between Ketac-Endo and Apexit (p > 0.05), but Apexit leaked more than AH-Plus. The conclusion drawn from this experiment was that epoxy resin root canal sealer was found to be more adaptable to the root canal wall and filling material than a calcium hydroxide sealer when bacterial coronal leakage was studied.

  12. Measurement of the percentage of root filling in oval-shaped canals obturated with Thermafil Obturators and Beefill 2in1: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Collado-Castellanos, Nicolás; Alegre-Domingo, Teresa; Dolz-Solsona, María; Faus-Matoses, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to measure the percentage of root canal fillings in long oval canals obturated with thermoplasticized gutta-percha techniques, Beefill 2in1® and Thermafil Obturators®. Material and Methods Fifty four mandibular incisors were selected after bucco-lingual and mesio-distal radiographs showed at 5 mm from apex an internal long:short diameter ≥2. Teeth were instrumented with Protaper Universal and divided in two groups of 27. Group 1 was obturated with Thermafil Obturators® and group 2 with Beefill 2in1®. Two horizontal sections were cut at 5 and 7 mm from the apex and photographed in a stereo-microscope. The total area of the canal and filled canal in cross-sections were measured with AutoCad and the percentages of gutta-percha-sealer and voids in the canal were obtained. Results Both systems achieved high percentage of filled canal, Thermafil 96.8% and Beefill 2in1 98.9%. The percentages of voids in both groups were very low. No significant differences were found between the two groups . The percentage obtained at 5 and 7 mm from the apex in both groups showed no significant difference. Conclusions The percentages of filled canal (gutta-percha-sealer) were high and these two thermoplasticized techniques are suitable for long oval canals obturation. Key words:Long oval canal, oval canal, thermoplasticized obturation. PMID:26155350

  13. Bacterial penetration after obturation with four different root canal sealers.

    PubMed

    Yücel, Ali Cağin; Güler, Eda; Güler, Ahmet Umut; Ertaş, Ertan

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare bacterial penetration after obturation with lateral compaction technique using four different root canal sealers. This study was performed on 100 teeth including negative control (n = 10), positive control (n = 10), and experimental groups (n = 80). 80 teeth were randomly divided into five groups of 20 teeth each and obturated with AH 26 (A), AH Plus (AP), Sealapex (S), Ketac-Endo (K) root canal sealers. Evaluation was carried out for 60 days. After 30 days of comparing the bacterial penetration values, total penetration was observed in 85% of the Group AP, and group K, 80% of the group S, and 75% of the group A. According to the results of chi(2) test, there was no statistically significant difference observed between any groups (p > 0.05). After 60 days of comparing the bacterial penetration values, total penetration was observed in 100% of the group AP, group K, and group S and 95% of the group A. It may be concluded that under the conditions of this study, there was no difference in the bacterial penetration of the four root canal sealers tested at 30 and 60 days.

  14. Ultrasound guided obturator nerve block: a single interfascial injection technique.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong Heon; Jeong, Cheol Won; Lee, Hyun Jung; Yoon, Myung Ha; Kim, Woong Mo

    2011-12-01

    We describe a new technique of single interfascial injection for 25 patients scheduled for transurethral bladder tumor resection. An ultrasound probe was placed at the midline of inguinal crease and moved medially and caudally to visualize the fascial space between the adductor longus (or pectineus) and adductor brevis muscles. We injected 20 mL 1% lidocaine containing epinephrine into the interfascial space using a transverse plane approach to make an interfascial injection, not an intramuscular swelling pattern. And just distally, firm pressure was applied for 3 min. Afterwards, surgery was performed under spinal anesthesia. The time required for identification and location of the nerve was 20 ± 15 and 30 ± 15 s, respectively. Adductor muscle strength, which was measured with a sphygmomanometer, decreased in all patients, from 122 ± 26 mmHg before blockade to 63 ± 11 mmHg 5 min after blockade. No movement or palpable muscle twitching occurred in 23 cases, slight movement of the thigh not interfering with the surgical procedure was observed in 1 case, thus the obturator reflex was successfully inhibited in 96% of cases. Ultrasound-guided single interfascial injection is an easy and successful technique for obturator nerve block. PMID:21918855

  15. Obturator hernia revisited: surgical anatomy, embryology, diagnosis, and technique of repair.

    PubMed

    Stamatiou, Dimitrios; Skandalakis, Lee J; Zoras, Odysseas; Mirilas, Petros

    2011-09-01

    Obturator hernia is the protrusion of intraperitoneal or extraperitoneal organs or tissues through the obturator canal. The first case was published by de Ronsil in 1724. Obturator hernia is more common in older malnourished women due to loss of supporting connective tissue and the wider female pelvis. The hernia sac usually contains small bowel, especially ileum. It may follow the anterior or posterior division of the obturator nerve. In most cases, obturator hernia presents with intestinal obstruction of unknown cause. It may present with obturator neuralgia, as a palpable mass or, in cases of bowel necrosis, as ecchymosis of the thigh. A correct diagnosis is made in 20 to 30 per cent of cases. CT scan is considered the gold standard for diagnosis, whereas ultrasonography, contrast studies, herniography and plain films are less specific. Surgery is the only treatment option for obturator hernia. Hesitancy to intervene surgically for chronically ill patients results in high mortality. Transabdominal approach is indicated in cases of complete bowel obstruction or suspected peritonitis. The extra-abdominal approach is used in preoperatively diagnosed cases and in absence of bowel strangulation. The laparoscopic approach is minimally invasive and effectively reduces morbidity. The defect is closed using sutures, tissue flaps, or prosthetic mesh.

  16. Comparison of vertical forces during root canal filling with three different obturation techniques.

    PubMed

    Katalinić, Ivan; Baraba, Anja; Glavicić, Snjezana; Segović, Sanja; Anić, Ivica; Miletić, Ivana

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and compare vertical forces exerted during root canal obturation with the cold lateral condensation technique, Thermafil technique and ProTaper guttapercha. Fourty-five single-rooted permanent teeth were used in the study. All specimens were instrumented using the ProTaper rotating technique and were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 15 per group). In the first group, root canals were obturated using the cold lateral condensation technique. In the second group, the Thermafil technique was used to obturate root canals. In the last group, a ProTaper gutta-percha of the same taper as the instrumented root canals was used for root canal obturation. Vertical forces were measured using the device developed for simulation of endodontic treatment. The results showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0001) for vertical forces when cold lateral condensation obturation technique was used in comparison to other techniques. No statistically significant difference was found for vertical forces during obturation with Thermafil and ProTaper gutta-percha (p = 0.16). The cold lateral condensation technique exerted higher vertical forces in comparison to the Thermafil and ProTaper obturation techniques.

  17. Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses, part II: photoelastic imaging.

    PubMed

    Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Moreno, Amália; Zahoui, Abbas; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2014-06-01

    In part I of the study, two attachment systems [O-ring; bar-clip (BC)] were used, and the system with three individualized O-rings provided the lowest stress on the implants and the support tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution, through the photoelastic method, on implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses associated with different attachment systems: BOC--splinted implants with a bar connected to two centrally placed O-rings, and BOD--splinted implants with a BC connected to two distally placed O-rings (cantilever). One photoelastic model of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication with three parallel implants was fabricated. Afterward, two implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses with the two attachment systems described above were constructed. Each assembly was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions with implants by using a universal testing machine. The results were obtained through photograph record analysis of stress. The BOD system exhibited the highest stress concentration, followed by the BOC system. The O-ring, centrally placed on the bar, allows higher mobility of the prostheses and homogeneously distributes the stress to the region of the alveolar ridge and implants. It can be concluded that the use of implants with O-rings, isolated or connected with a bar, to rehabilitate maxillectomized patients allows higher prosthesis mobility and homogeneously distributes the stress to the alveolar ridge region, which may result in greater chewing stress distribution to implants and bone tissue. The clinical implication of the augmented bone support loss after maxillectomy is the increase of stress in the attachment systems and, consequently, a higher tendency for displacement of the prosthesis. PMID:24972360

  18. Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses, part II: photoelastic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Moreno, Amália; Zahoui, Abbas; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2014-06-01

    In part I of the study, two attachment systems [O-ring; bar-clip (BC)] were used, and the system with three individualized O-rings provided the lowest stress on the implants and the support tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution, through the photoelastic method, on implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses associated with different attachment systems: BOC-splinted implants with a bar connected to two centrally placed O-rings, and BOD-splinted implants with a BC connected to two distally placed O-rings (cantilever). One photoelastic model of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication with three parallel implants was fabricated. Afterward, two implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses with the two attachment systems described above were constructed. Each assembly was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions with implants by using a universal testing machine. The results were obtained through photograph record analysis of stress. The BOD system exhibited the highest stress concentration, followed by the BOC system. The O-ring, centrally placed on the bar, allows higher mobility of the prostheses and homogeneously distributes the stress to the region of the alveolar ridge and implants. It can be concluded that the use of implants with O-rings, isolated or connected with a bar, to rehabilitate maxillectomized patients allows higher prosthesis mobility and homogeneously distributes the stress to the alveolar ridge region, which may result in greater chewing stress distribution to implants and bone tissue. The clinical implication of the augmented bone support loss after maxillectomy is the increase of stress in the attachment systems and, consequently, a higher tendency for displacement of the prosthesis.

  19. Split Hollow Bulb Obturator to Rehabilitate Maxillary Defect: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Kasim; Mani, Umamaheswari; Saravanakumar, Prathibha; Kumar, S Prasanna; Arunachalam, Ravikumar

    2016-01-01

    The rehabilitation of a maxillectomy patient involves meticulous treatment planning and designing. Lack of retention and facial support and limited mouth opening are the major issues that lead to functional and psychological trauma in post-maxillectomy patients. The successful rehabilitation of a maxillary defect includes restoring the function, esthetics, and a complete obturation of the defect, enabling the patient to feed without nasal regurgitation. This case report describes the fabrication of an obturator with a modified design, namely a split-antral hollow bulb obturator and oral part that is retained with a ball attachment, for a patient with right-side acquired maxillary defect due to recurrent myxoma. The primary advantage of this modification is enhanced facial support and a self-retentive antral obturation that improved the quality of life of the patient after an extensive maxillectomy. PMID:27433414

  20. Split Hollow Bulb Obturator to Rehabilitate Maxillary Defect: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Umamaheswari; Saravanakumar, Prathibha; Kumar, S Prasanna; Arunachalam, Ravikumar

    2016-01-01

    The rehabilitation of a maxillectomy patient involves meticulous treatment planning and designing. Lack of retention and facial support and limited mouth opening are the major issues that lead to functional and psychological trauma in post-maxillectomy patients. The successful rehabilitation of a maxillary defect includes restoring the function, esthetics, and a complete obturation of the defect, enabling the patient to feed without nasal regurgitation. This case report describes the fabrication of an obturator with a modified design, namely a split-antral hollow bulb obturator and oral part that is retained with a ball attachment, for a patient with right-side acquired maxillary defect due to recurrent myxoma. The primary advantage of this modification is enhanced facial support and a self-retentive antral obturation that improved the quality of life of the patient after an extensive maxillectomy. PMID:27433414

  1. Analysis of the endogrammes developed during obturations on extracted teeth using system B.

    PubMed

    Blum, J Y; Cathala, C; Machtou, P; Micallef, J P

    2001-11-01

    The ability of an obturation technique to fill the root canal system tridimensionally depends partially on the timing and intensity of force applications. The aim of this study was to use the Endographe to analyze the forces and wedging effects developed in the root canal using a new obturation technique: System B. This system uses a heat plugger that simultaneously heats and pushes gutta-percha. The plugger was used to soften and move the gutta-percha apically during the down-pack stage. Two different methods, however, were used to withdraw the plugger from the compacted gutta-percha. One used the burst heat method, and the other was cold withdrawal. Five endodontists performed 50 obturations of prepared extracted teeth and 50 obturations of the "wedging effect" holder of the Endographe. The practitioner-obturation assignment was randomized. For each obturation the biggest plugger possible in relationship to the shape of the canal was chosen. For the obturation of the special holder the same tip was chosen. Endogrammes showed the force application and wedging effect sequences. The mean values for the vertical and horizontal forces and the wedging effect were, respectively, 16 +/- 2 N, 5 +/- 1 N, and 9 +/- 1 N. These results suggest that System B is one of the best techniques in terms of the developed vertical forces (low values) and the resulting wedging effect (high values) in relationship to the plasticity of the gutta-percha. The Endogrammes provide a new approach to the analysis of obturation techniques and a means to demonstrate correct and optimal manipulation of the new System B plugger. PMID:11716076

  2. Closed hollow bulb obturator--one-step fabrication: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Buzayan, Muaiyed M; Ariffin, Yusnidar T; Yunus, Norsiah

    2013-10-01

    A method is described for the fabrication of a closed hollow bulb obturator prosthesis using a hard thermoforming splint material and heat-cured acrylic resin. The technique allowed the thickness of the thermoformed bulb to be optimized for weight reduction, while the autopolymerized seal area was covered in heat-cured acrylic resin, thus eliminating potential leakage and discoloration. This technique permits the obturator prosthesis to be processed to completion from the wax trial denture without additional laboratory investing, flasking, and processing.

  3. Sealing ability of a novel hydrophilic vs. conventional hydrophobic obturation systems: A bacterial leakage study

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Vibha; Arora, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Comparative assessment of apical sealing ability of a novel Smart-Seal System, Resilon, and conventional Gutta-Percha system using a bacterial leakage model. Materials and Methods: Seventy freshly extracted human single rooted teeth with fully formed apices were randomly divided into three groups (20 each) and two control groups (5 positive and 5 negative). Teeth were de-coronated, and roots were standardized to a working length of 16 mm. Root canal preparation was done with rotary pro-taper file system in all groups. Group A was obturated using Smart-Seal system (Hydrophilic), Group B using Resilon/Epiphany system (Hydrophilic), and Group C using Gutta-Percha (GP)/AH plus system (Hydrophobic) in a single cone technique. Using Enterococcus faecalis, a split chamber bacterial leakage model was developed to evaluate the sealing ability of three obturation systems. Samples will be monitored every 24 hours for 60 days. Results: All three groups have shown leakage. Novel Smart-Seal System and Resilon have shown similar results and relatively lesser samples leaked in comparison to GP obturations at the end of the observation period. There was no significant difference amongst Resilon and Smart-Seal System (P > 0.05) but there was a significant difference amongst them when compared to GP obturations (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Hydrophilic obturations of the root canal shows a better resistance to bacterial leakage as compared to hydrophobic obturations. PMID:25657530

  4. A Case of External Compression of Femoral Vein by the Enlarged Iliopsoas Bursa with Long Term Edema

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kiyohito; Tanaka, Keizo; Hiraiwa, Takane; Tanaka, Kuniyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The iliopsoas bursa is the largest bursa in the region of hip joint. It is unusual that these bursa become symptomatic. However the bursa can compress femoral vein, leading to lower extremity edema. A 58-year-old man was referred to our department for his unilateral leg edema which had been treated as deep vein thrombosis without any favorable response. Magnetic resonance angiography was performed, which demonstrated enlarged iliopsoas bursa compressing his femoral vein. Surgical removal of the bursa was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient is free from symptoms with no evidence of recurrence. PMID:26131029

  5. A Case of External Compression of Femoral Vein by the Enlarged Iliopsoas Bursa with Long Term Edema.

    PubMed

    Natsume, Kayoko; Yamamoto, Kiyohito; Tanaka, Keizo; Hiraiwa, Takane; Tanaka, Kuniyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The iliopsoas bursa is the largest bursa in the region of hip joint. It is unusual that these bursa become symptomatic. However the bursa can compress femoral vein, leading to lower extremity edema. A 58-year-old man was referred to our department for his unilateral leg edema which had been treated as deep vein thrombosis without any favorable response. Magnetic resonance angiography was performed, which demonstrated enlarged iliopsoas bursa compressing his femoral vein. Surgical removal of the bursa was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient is free from symptoms with no evidence of recurrence.

  6. Rehabilitation of Oncology Patients with Hard Palate Defects Part 3: Construction of an Acrylic Hollow Box Obturator.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rahat; Altaie, Asmaa; Nattress, Brian

    2015-09-01

    This article will discuss the clinical stages in the fabrication of a definitive acrylic hollow box obturator to restore a hard palate defect. The first two papers described the restorative/surgical planning phase and the principles of obturator design. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Each of the clinical stages required to make a hollow box obturator must be performed to the highest possible standard to ensure than an optimal prosthesis.is fabricated.

  7. Bursae and abscess cavities communicating with the hip: diagnosis using arthrography and CT

    SciTech Connect

    Steinbach, L.S.; Schneider, R.; Goldman, A.B.; Kazam, E.; Ranawat, C.S.; Ghelman, B.

    1985-08-01

    Bursae or abscess cavities communicating with the hip joint were demonstrated by hip arthrography or by computed tomography (CT) in 40 cases. The bursae or abscess cavities were associated with underlying abnormalities in the hip, including painful hip prostheses, infection, and inflammatory or degenerative arthritis. Symptoms may be produced directly as a result of infection or indirectly as a result of inflammation or pressure on adjacent structures. Hip arthrography can confirm a diagnosis of bursae and abscess cavities communicating with the hip joint in patients with hip pain or soft-tissue masses around the groin. Differentiation of enlarged bursae from other abnormalities is important to avoid unnecessary or incorrect surgery.

  8. Dynamic intratubular biomineralization following root canal obturation with pozzolan‐based mineral trioxide aggregate sealer cement

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yeon‐Jee; Baek, Seung‐Ho; Kum, Kee‐Yeon; Shon, Won‐Jun; Woo, Kyung‐Mi

    2015-01-01

    Summary The application of mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA) cement during the root canal obturation is gaining concern due to its bioactive characteristic to form an apatite in dentinal tubules. In this regard, this study was to assess the biomineralization of dentinal tubules following root canal obturation by using pozzolan‐based (Pz‐) MTA sealer cement (EndoSeal MTA, Maruchi). Sixty curved roots (mesiobuccal, distobuccal) from human maxillary molars were instrumented and prepared for root canal obturation. The canals were obturated with gutta‐percha (GP) and Pz‐MTA sealer by using continuous wave of condensation technique. Canals obturated solely with ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental) or Pz‐MTA sealer were used for comparison. In order to evaluate the biomineralization ability under different conditions, the PBS pretreatment before the root canal obturation was performed in each additional samples. At dentin‐material interfaces, the extension of intratubular biomineralization was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. When the root canal was obturated with GP and Pz‐MTA sealer, enhanced biomineralization of the dentinal tubules beyond the penetrated sealer tag was confirmed under the SEM observation (p < 0.05). Mineralized apatite structures (calcium/phosphorous ratio, 1.45–1.89) connecting its way through the dentinal tubules were detected at 350–400 μm from the tubule orifice, and the pre‐crystallization seeds were also observed along the intra‐ and/or inter‐tubular collagen fiber. Intratubular biomineralization depth was significantly enhanced in all PBS pretreated canals (p < 0.05). Pz‐MTA cement can be used as a promising bioactive root canal sealer to enhance biomineralization of dentinal tubules under controlled environment. SCANNING 38:50–56, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Scanning Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26179659

  9. Dynamic intratubular biomineralization following root canal obturation with pozzolan-based mineral trioxide aggregate sealer cement.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeon-Jee; Baek, Seung-Ho; Kum, Kee-Yeon; Shon, Won-Jun; Woo, Kyung-Mi; Lee, WooCheol

    2016-01-01

    The application of mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA) cement during the root canal obturation is gaining concern due to its bioactive characteristic to form an apatite in dentinal tubules. In this regard, this study was to assess the biomineralization of dentinal tubules following root canal obturation by using pozzolan-based (Pz-) MTA sealer cement (EndoSeal MTA, Maruchi). Sixty curved roots (mesiobuccal, distobuccal) from human maxillary molars were instrumented and prepared for root canal obturation. The canals were obturated with gutta-percha (GP) and Pz-MTA sealer by using continuous wave of condensation technique. Canals obturated solely with ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental) or Pz-MTA sealer were used for comparison. In order to evaluate the biomineralization ability under different conditions, the PBS pretreatment before the root canal obturation was performed in each additional samples. At dentin-material interfaces, the extension of intratubular biomineralization was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. When the root canal was obturated with GP and Pz-MTA sealer, enhanced biomineralization of the dentinal tubules beyond the penetrated sealer tag was confirmed under the SEM observation (p < 0.05). Mineralized apatite structures (calcium/phosphorous ratio, 1.45-1.89) connecting its way through the dentinal tubules were detected at 350-400 μm from the tubule orifice, and the pre-crystallization seeds were also observed along the intra- and/or inter-tubular collagen fiber. Intratubular biomineralization depth was significantly enhanced in all PBS pretreated canals (p < 0.05). Pz-MTA cement can be used as a promising bioactive root canal sealer to enhance biomineralization of dentinal tubules under controlled environment.

  10. Effect of masticatory cycles on apical leakage of obturated teeth.

    PubMed

    Esber, S; Blum, J Y; Chazel, J C; Parahy, E

    1998-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of apical leakage due to masticatory cycles on root canal treatment. Twenty upper maxillary molars were first obturated using the warm vertical compaction technique. Four maxillary casts were then built, with each holding four of the sample molars. The molars were embedded in resin with the roots separated from the resin by means of a light silicon. The four remaining teeth served as controls and were not submitted to occlusal forces. A mechanical device to simulate masticatory cycles subjected the teeth to 0.5 x 10(6) cycles (group A), 10(6) cycles (group B), 2 x 10(6) cycles (group C), and 3 x 10(6) cycles (group D); the control was group E. The roots were placed in 2% methylene blue dye solution for 72 h and then sectioned longitudinally so that dye penetration could be measured. The mean values of dye penetration were: 3.70 +/- 0.69 mm, group A; 5.00 +/- 1.14 mm, group B; 6.00 +/- 1.01 mm, group C; 7.23 +/- 0.66 mm, group D; and 2.74 +/- 0.75 mm, group E. The value of dye penetration increased in correlation with the number of masticatory cycles. This in vitro study suggests the significant effect of masticatory loads on apical leakage. PMID:9641106

  11. Efficacy of ultrasound-guided obturator nerve block in transurethral surgery

    PubMed Central

    Thallaj, Ahmed; Rabah, Dany

    2011-01-01

    Background: During transurethral resection surgery (TUR), accidental stimulation of the obturator nerve can cause violent adductor contraction, leading to serious intraoperative complications. General anesthesia with muscle relaxation is currently the preferred technique for TUR surgery. Spinal anesthesia combined with obturator nerve block has also been used for TUR surgery in geriatric population. Blind, anatomical methods for identifying the obturator nerve are often unsatisfactory. Therefore, we conducted this prospective study to validate the efficacy of ultrasound-guided obturator nerve block (USONB) during TUR procedures. Methods: Eighteen male patients undergoing TURP surgery under spinal anesthesia were included in the study. Bilateral USONB with maximum 20 ml of 1% lidocaine per patient was performed. An independent observer was present to monitor any adduction movements during the operation and to record patient and surgeon satisfactions. Results: In all patients, obturator nerve was visualized from the first attempt, requiring an average of 4.3 min for blocking of each side. USONB was successful (97.2%) in preventing an adductor spasm in all except one patient. Patient’s and surgeon’s satisfaction were appropriate. In all patients, adductor muscle strength recovered fully within 2 h following the surgical procedure. Conclusions: USONB is safe and effective during TUR surgery. It provides optimal intra-and postoperative conditions. PMID:21655015

  12. Protection against apoptosis in chicken bursa and thymus cells by phorbol ester in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Asakawa, J.; Thorbecke, G.J. )

    1991-03-15

    Programmed suicide or apoptosis, due to activation of endogenous nucleases, occurs in immature CD4{sup {minus}}85{sup {minus}} mammalian thymus cells. Like the thymus, the bursa of Fabricius is a site of massive lymphopoiesis accompanied by cell death in vivo. In the present study the authors have, therefore, examined whether chicken bursa and thymus cells exhibit apoptosis. Bursa and thymus cells from SC chickens, 4-10 weeks of age, were incubated for 8-24 hrs with various reagents. Genomic DNA was isolated, electrophoresed in 3% Nusieve agarose gels, and examined for patterns of DNA fragmentation. A laddering of DNA in multiples of 200 base pairs, indicative of apoptosis, was observed with both bursa and thymus cells. These patterns of DNA fragmentation from bursa cells could be prevented by adding phorbol myristic acetate during culture and, more effectively, by PMA plus ionomycin, but not by ionomycin alone or by anti-{mu}. PMA did not affect the patterns of DNA fragmentation seen with spleen cells. Addition of the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporin inhibited the preventive effect of PMA on apoptosis. PMA also greatly promoted the survival of bursa cells in culture, as assayed by percentage cell death and by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation. It is concluded that bursa and thymus cells from the chicken exhibit apoptosis. The data further suggest that protein kinase C activation protects apoptosis in cultured bursa cells.

  13. Expression of the ephrin receptor B2 in the embryonic chicken bursa of Fabricius

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken B-cells develop in a specific organ, the bursa of Fabricius. To understand the bursal microenvironment guiding B-cell development, previous studies identified ephrin (Eph) receptor B2 (EphB2) gene transcripts in the embryonic bursa. We hypothesize that the EphB2 receptors and their ligands r...

  14. Comparison of obturator prosthesis fabricated using different techniques and its effect on the management of a hemipalatomaxillectomy patient

    PubMed Central

    Badadare, Mokshada M; Patil, Sanjayagouda B; Bhat, Sudhakara; Tambe, Abhijit

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic tumours involving the maxilla or mandible are usually treated with surgical resection. To prevent recurrence, extensive surgical intervention might be carried out leaving the patient with anatomical defects. However, rehabilitation of such patients with an obturator can improve function, facial form and social acceptance. In this case, we have evaluated the different designs and techniques of fabrication of an obturator prosthesis used for the rehabilitation of a hemipalatomaxillectomy patient. A 40-year-old man presented with a loose fitting obturator prosthesis. He had undergone hemipalatomaxillectomy for the treatment of an ameloblastoma 2 years earlier and had been using an obturator prosthesis since then. Hollow-bulb obturator prostheses were fabricated using two different methods, the lost salt and open lid techniques. The obturator prosthesis fabricated with the lost salt technique weighed less than the patient's old obturator. But the obturator fabricated using the open lid technique did not only considerably reduce the weight of the prosthesis but also improved health, function, aesthetics, phonetics and quality of life in this hemipalatomaxillectomy patient. PMID:25188927

  15. Intrapelvic obturator internus muscle injections: a novel fluoroscopic technique.

    PubMed

    Valovska, Assia; Zaccagnino, Michael P; Weaver, Michael J; Valovski, Ivan; Kaye, Alan David; Urman, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    The obturator internus (OI) muscle is important in adult chronic noninfectious pelvic, perineal, gluteal, and retrotrochanteric pain syndromes. Evaluation and management of these patients' pain can be challenging because of the complex anatomy of this region, broad differential diagnosis, and lack of specific physical examination findings. Consequently, several clinicians have advocated the use of image guided injections to assist in the accurate diagnosis of OI-related symptoms and provide symptomatic relief to affected patients. We present 2 case series describing a novel fluoroscopically guided contrast controlled transpectineal approach to intrapelvic OI injections. Unlike prior fluoroscopically guided OI injection techniques, the approach described in the present 2 cases utilized multiple standard pelvic views, thus facilitating optimal needle positioning in three-dimensional space. This technique utilized standard fluoroscopic pelvic views to accurately measure needle depth within the pelvic cavity permitting the bulk of the OI to be injected in a controlled and safe fashion. The first patient underwent a left intrapelvic OI muscle injection with bupivacaine 0.25% and 40 mg methylprednisolone. The average pre- and postprocedural visual analog pain scale scores were 5 out of 10 and 2 out of 10, respectively, with a self-reported 75% pain reduction. The second patient underwent a right intrapelvic OI muscle injection with bupivacaine 0.25% and 40 mg methylprednisolone. The average pre- and postprocedural visual analog scale scores were 8 out of 10 and 1 out of 10, respectively, with a self-reported 90% pain reduction. Larger scale studies should be undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and generalized accuracy of this technique.

  16. A Rare Metastatic Myositis Ossificans of Obturator Muscle Secondary to Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dell’Atti, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    The most frequent metastatic sites of the urothelial bladder cancers (UBCs) are bones, lungs, lymph nodes, liver, pleura, and brain. In the literature, skeletal muscle metastases from UBC have been rarely reported. We report a case of a 65-year-old male with metastatic myositis ossificans to obturator muscle 14 months after radical cystectomy performed for a muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma. An abdomen computed tomography scan showed a lesion of about 8 cm in diameter in the left obturator muscle with myositis ossificans aspect. Ultrasound guided biopsy specimen of the left obturator muscle revealed poorly differentiated metastatic urothelial carcinoma with malignant myositis ossificans aspects. The patient refused additional surgery and received systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy at the site of the lesion. The patient more than 6 months after treatment has a good performance status with a partial reduction of the mass and negative imaging for metastases in the follow-up. PMID:26500729

  17. A simplified technique of orthograde MTA obturation on the elected canals of posterior teeth: Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Wahengbam, Brucelee; Wahengbam, Pragya; Tikku, Aseem Prakash

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests a simplified technique of orthograde MTA obturation in less accessible canal(s) of posteriors teeth without using costly ultrasonics or specialised carrier. Essentially few finger pluggers, absorbent points and a simple canal projection method were used. The orifice(s) of the elected canal(s) to be obturated with MTA were projected onto the external occlusal surface for easy delivery and predictive instrumentation. The idea was based on 'easy access', 'working one canal with one mix at one time', 'thorough condensation' and 'removal of excess moisture'. In case I, palatal canal of tooth no. 2 with gross apical perforation and suspected VRF was obturated with MTA. And in Case II, tooth no. 19 presented with incomplete furcal fracture extending into the canal was obturated with MTA in all 3 canals unitarily. Dense homogenous MTA obturation was achieved and both cases healed uneventfully. PMID:24554868

  18. Modified snap-on attachment with 'O-ring' for two piece hollow bulb obturator.

    PubMed

    Gunasekar, C; Nasser, K S Gamal Abdul; Sabarigirinathan, C; Kumar, K Ram

    2013-01-01

    Restoration of near normal functions in patients who have been treated with hemimaxillectomy is generally difficult, in view of the restriction in mouth opening following healing of large surgical wound. Further, the extent and nature of the surgical defect differ from patient to patient. Thus, design of an obturator needs to be patient oriented. In this report, we describe a novel snap-on attachment with O-ring in a conventional two piece hollow bulb obturator for a 70-year-old male treated for carcinoma of the left maxilla and sinus. PMID:24047848

  19. Rehabilitation of Oncology Patients with Hard Palate Defects Part 2: Principles of Obturator Design.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rahat; Altaie, Asmaa; Nattress, Brian

    2015-06-01

    The first part of this series on the conventional rehabilitation of oncology patients with hard palate defects discussed the dental challenges posed by oncology patients and the surgical/restorative planning interface for conventional dental rehabilitation. This article will describe Aramany's classification of hard palate defects, Brown's classification of palatal defects and focus on the basic principles of obturator design which need to be appreciated when prosthetically rehabilitating a patient with a hard palate defect. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A good understanding of basic removable prosthodontic theory relating to denture design, dental materials science and head and neck anatomy is a prerequisite when designing an obturator for a patient. PMID:26964444

  20. Closed hollow bulb obturator--one-step fabrication: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Buzayan, Muaiyed M; Ariffin, Yusnidar T; Yunus, Norsiah

    2013-10-01

    A method is described for the fabrication of a closed hollow bulb obturator prosthesis using a hard thermoforming splint material and heat-cured acrylic resin. The technique allowed the thickness of the thermoformed bulb to be optimized for weight reduction, while the autopolymerized seal area was covered in heat-cured acrylic resin, thus eliminating potential leakage and discoloration. This technique permits the obturator prosthesis to be processed to completion from the wax trial denture without additional laboratory investing, flasking, and processing. PMID:23551843

  1. Micro-computed tomographic assessment of quality of obturation in the apical third with continuous wave vertical compaction and single match taper sized cone obturation techniques.

    PubMed

    Alshehri, Mohammed; Alamri, Hadi M; Alshwaimi, Emad; Kujan, Omar

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT) analysis was to compare the quality of obturation in the apical third of the root with the warm vertical compaction (WVC) and single matching taper sized cone (SMTSC) techniques. Mesial roots of 16 freshly extracted mandibular first molar teeth (with a total of 32 canals) were used. Canals in each mesial root were shaped to a size F3 Protaper and were randomly assigned to either continuous wave vertical compaction or single match tapered size cone technique. Volume of voids and gaps in the obturated roots were measured using micro-CT scanning at 1, 3, and 5 mm from the apex of the root. There was no statistically significant difference in the volume of voids measured at 1 mm (p > 0.05), 3 mm (p > 0.05) and 5 mm (p > 0.05) filled with either WVC and SMTSC techniques. The quality of obturation in the apical third of the root with the WVC and SMTSC techniques is comparable. SCANNING 38:352-356, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses over parallel and tilted implants: photoelastic imaging.

    PubMed

    Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Nobrega, Adhara Smith; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Andreotti, Agda Marobo; Moreno, Amália

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the stress distribution through the photoelastic method in implant-retained palatal obturators prostheses. Two photoelastic models with bucco-sinusal communication were fabricated, one model without implants and another with two parallel implants and one tilted in the molar region. A conventional obturator prosthesis and five implant-retained obturators dentures with different attachment systems were fabricated: OR, three individualized O-rings; BC, bar clip; BOC, implants splinted by bars associated with two O-rings positioned at the center of the bar; OD, implants splinted by bars associated with two O-rings positioned in distal cantilever; and BOD, implants splinted by bars with clips associated with two O-rings positioned in distal cantilever. Each assembly (model/attachment system/prosthesis) was positioned in a circular polariscope and a load of 100 N was applied on each implant. The results were obtained by observing the photographic record of the tensions in the photoelastic models resulting from the application of load. It can be observed that a larger amount of stress fringes on BC system. It was concluded that the attachment system has a direct influence on the stress distribution of implant-retained obturator prostheses, with the three individualized O-rings exhibiting the lowest stress values, and tilted implants presented a biomechanical behavior similar to parallel implants. PMID:24129983

  3. Difficult diagnosis: strangulated obturator hernia in an 88-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Leitch, Megan Kathleen; Yunaev, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The obturator hernia is a rare type of hernia that can present a diagnostic challenge for the clinician. We report a case of an 88-year-old woman who presented with a history of right iliac fossa pain, bilious vomiting and diarrhoea. Non-specific findings on examination and blood tests made the diagnosis difficult, however, a CT scan of her abdomen revealed the site of the obstruction and the patient was taken to theatre for emergency surgery. We review the literature with focus on the diagnosis of obturator hernias and the different surgical approaches used. The authors believe that this case is of educational value to healthcare professionals, particularly those working in general practice, emergency departments and on surgical teams. It highlights to doctors that patients with incarcerated obturator hernias can present with or without overt signs of intestinal obstruction and emphasises the fact that an obturator hernia can be an important cause of intestinal obstruction in a thin, elderly woman. PMID:27358098

  4. A South Indian cadaveric study on obturator neurovascular bundle with a special emphasis on high prevalence of 'venous corona mortis'.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Satheesha B; Deepthinath, R; Prasad, A M; Shetty, Surekha D; Aithal, Ashwini P

    2016-07-01

    Surgical procedures in the pelvic region are very challenging because of the complex anatomy of this region. "Corona mortis" is a term used to describe retro-pubic anastomosis between the obturator and external iliac vessels. It is considered as a key structure as significant haemorrhage may occur if the vessels are cut accidentally during pelvic surgeries. Earlier studies have documented a high frequency of venous anastomosis compared to its arterial counterpart. The objective of our study was to document the prevalence of venous corona mortis in South Indian human adult cadaveric pelvises. We conducted this study on 73 cadaveric pelvic halves. Out of the 73 hemi pelvises, 36 were normal without any variations of the obturator vessels while 37 hemi pelvises (51%) showed the presence of abnormal obturator vessels which proves to be a very high incidence in terms of variations. Out of the 37 hemi pelvises, 25 (68%) showed the presence of 2 obturator veins, out of which 1 was normal and the other was an abnormal obturator vein. 8 hemi pelvises (22%) had only abnormal obturator vein. Most of the abnormal obturator veins drained into the external iliac vein, while two veins drained into inferior epigastric veins. Venous corona mortis is said to be frequently encountered during surgery and is considered to be as important as arterial corona mortis in its clinical implications. Individual evaluation of this risky anatomical structure should be done prior to any surgical interventions.

  5. Influence of root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques on intra-operative pain during endodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Martín-González, Jenifer; Echevarría-Pérez, Marta; Sánchez-Domínguez, Benito; Tarilonte-Delgado, Maria L.; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; López-Frías, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the influence of root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques on intra-operative pain experienced by patients during endodontic therapy. Method and Materials: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Ponferrada and Sevilla, Spain, including 80 patients (46 men and 34 women), with ages ranged from 10 to 74 years, randomly recruited. Patient gender and age, affected tooth, pulpal diagnosis, periapical status, previous NSAID or antibiotic (AB) treatment, and root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques were recorded. After root canal treatment (RCT), patients completed a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) that ranked the level of pain. Results were analysed statistically using the Chi-square and ANOVA tests and logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean pain level during root canal treatment was 2.9 ± 3.0 (median = 2) in a VAS between 0 and 10. Forty percent of patients experienced no pain. Gender, age, arch, previous NSAIDs or AB treatment and anaesthetic type did not influence significantly the pain level (p > 0.05). Pain during root canal treatment was significantly greater in molar teeth (OR = 10.1; 95% C.I. = 1.6 - 63.5; p = 0.013). Root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques did not affect significantly patient’s pain during root canal treatment (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Patients feel more pain when RCT is carried out on molar teeth. The root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques do not affect significantly the patients’ pain during RCT. Key words:Anaesthesia, endodontic pain, pulpitis, root canal instrumentation, root canal obturation, rotary files. PMID:22549694

  6. Incidence of post obturation pain following single and multi visit root canal treatment in a teaching hospital of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, S; Khurshiduzzaman, M

    2014-04-01

    Post obturation pain is the pain of any degree after endodontic treatment. There are different opinions regarding incidence of post obturation pain related to single and multi visit root canal treatment. This prospective study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of post obturation pain in single visit and multi visit root canal treatment and to compare the incidence of pain between the two treatment groups. A total of 120 cases of endodontically involved asymptomatic non vital single rooted teeth were selected for this study. The patients were assigned and divided in to two treatment groups, sixty patients each. In single visit group, all teeth were prepared and filled using the standardized preparation and lateral condensation filling technique. In the multi visit treatment group, at the first appointment, the teeth were prepared, and dressed with calcium hydroxide paste for 7 days. At the second appointment, the teeth were prepared and obturated by using lateral condensation technique. The frequency of post obturation pain was recorded as no pain, slight, moderate and severe pain and evaluated at the day 1 and at the day 7 after obturation. The data were analyzed statistically by using SPSS version-12. P value <0.05 was taken as significant. The study showed that the post obturation pain in the single visit treatment group was more than multi visit treatment group, which is significant (p value <0.044). Out of the 120 patients, 86(71.7%) patients had no pain, 19(15.8%) had slight pain and 15(12.5%) patients had moderate pain at the day 1 after obturation. At the day 7 after obturation, 108(90%) patients had no pain, 9(7.5%) had slight pain and 3(2.5%) patients had moderate pain. No patient noticed severe pain during the follow up period. Older patient had significantly more post obturation pain than the younger patient. There was higher incidence of post obturation pain following the single visit root canal treatment. In multi visit root canal treatment with

  7. The inferior epigastric artery arising from the internal iliac artery via a common trunk with the obturator artery.

    PubMed

    Won, Hyung-Sun; Won, Hyung-Jin; Oh, Chang-Seok; Han, Seung-Ho; Chung, In-Hyuk; Kim, Dong-Hoan

    2012-12-01

    We report a rare case of a left inferior epigastric artery arising from the internal iliac artery via a common trunk with the obturator artery in an 84-year-old female cadaver. A common trunk for the inferior epigastric and obturator arteries firstly originated from the left internal iliac artery, at 3.0 mm below the bifurcation of the left common iliac artery. This trunk ran straight between the left external iliac artery and left external iliac vein, and was finally divided into the left inferior epigastric and left obturator arteries just superior to the inguinal ligament. PMID:23301197

  8. Bacterial colonization of the ovarian bursa in dogs with clinically suspected pyometra and in controls.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Alejandro; Boyen, Filip; Tas, Olaf; Kitshoff, Adriaan; Polis, Ingeborgh; Van Goethem, Bart; de Rooster, Hilde

    2014-10-15

    Septic peritonitis occurs relatively commonly in dogs. Secondary septic peritonitis is usually associated with perforation of intestines or infected viscera, such as the uterus in pyometra cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial flora in the ovarian bursae of intact bitches as a potential source of contamination. One hundred forty dogs, clinically suspected of pyometra, were prospectively enrolled. The control group consisted of 26 dogs that underwent elective ovariohysterectomies and 18 dogs with mammary gland tumors that were neutered at the time of mastectomy. Bacteriology samples were taken aseptically at the time of surgery from the bursae and the uterus in all dogs. Twenty-two dogs that were clinically suspected of pyometra had sterile uterine content ("mucometra" cases); the remaining 118 had positive uterine cultures ("pyometra" cases) and septic peritoneal fluid was present in 10% of these cases. Of the 118 pyometra cases, 9 had unilateral and 15 had bilateral bacterial colonization of their ovarian bursae. However, the bacteria from the ovarian bursa were similar to those recovered from the uterine pus in only half of the cases. Furthermore, positive bursae were also seen in one mucometra dog (unilateral) and in four control dogs (two unilateral and two bilateral). The data illustrate that the canine ovarian bursa can harbor bacteria. The biological importance of these isolations remains unclear.

  9. Bacterial colonization of the ovarian bursa in dogs with clinically suspected pyometra and in controls.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Alejandro; Boyen, Filip; Tas, Olaf; Kitshoff, Adriaan; Polis, Ingeborgh; Van Goethem, Bart; de Rooster, Hilde

    2014-10-15

    Septic peritonitis occurs relatively commonly in dogs. Secondary septic peritonitis is usually associated with perforation of intestines or infected viscera, such as the uterus in pyometra cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial flora in the ovarian bursae of intact bitches as a potential source of contamination. One hundred forty dogs, clinically suspected of pyometra, were prospectively enrolled. The control group consisted of 26 dogs that underwent elective ovariohysterectomies and 18 dogs with mammary gland tumors that were neutered at the time of mastectomy. Bacteriology samples were taken aseptically at the time of surgery from the bursae and the uterus in all dogs. Twenty-two dogs that were clinically suspected of pyometra had sterile uterine content ("mucometra" cases); the remaining 118 had positive uterine cultures ("pyometra" cases) and septic peritoneal fluid was present in 10% of these cases. Of the 118 pyometra cases, 9 had unilateral and 15 had bilateral bacterial colonization of their ovarian bursae. However, the bacteria from the ovarian bursa were similar to those recovered from the uterine pus in only half of the cases. Furthermore, positive bursae were also seen in one mucometra dog (unilateral) and in four control dogs (two unilateral and two bilateral). The data illustrate that the canine ovarian bursa can harbor bacteria. The biological importance of these isolations remains unclear. PMID:25127745

  10. Effect of 95% Ethanol as a Final Irrigant before Root Canal Obturation in Primary Teeth: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Thiruvenkadam, G; John, Baby; Priya, PR Geetha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Successful obturation in the primary teeth demands complete dryness of the root canal system. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 95% ethanol as the final irrigant before root canal obturation in primary teeth. Materials and methods: A total of 20 extracted primary mandibular canines were biomechanically prepared and pre-obturated volume of each tooth was assessed using spiral computed tomography (CT). The specimens were divided into two groups (n = 10): group 1, Metapex group; group 2, zinc oxide eugenol group. Each group was further divided randomly into two subgroups (n = 5): subgroup 1, canals were dried with 95% ethanol; subgroup 2, canals were blot dried with paper points with the last one appearing dry. All canals were obturated and the postobturated volume of each tooth was measured. The percentage of obturated volume (POV) was calculated using the formula: (postobturated volume/preobturated volume) × 100. The POV between the groups was statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon Signed rank test appropriately. Results: Root canals that were dried with ethanol showed better obturation than using paper points alone and the difference was statistically significant in both group 1 (p < 0.001) and group 2 (p < 0.002). Conclusion: Drying of the root canal system with 95% ethanol can result in better obturation in the primary teeth. How to cite this article: Thiruvenkadam G, Asokan S, John B, Geetha Priya PR. Effect of 95% Ethanol as a Final Irrigant before Root Canal Obturation in Primary Teeth: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):21-24. PMID:27274150

  11. An Alternative Approach to Combine Orbital Prosthesis and Obturator: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Soganci, Gokce; Yalug, Suat; Kocacikli, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This report describes a different approach for diminishing the movements of orbital prosthesis during mimic movements and chewing function. Mechanical devices such as magnets are used to enhance the retention in case lack of the implants. However rigid fixation of obturator and orbital prosthesis can result in movements of the orbital prosthesis during mastication. In this case obturator and orbital prosthesis are combined by magnets. However this combination is not rigid because of an active part which provides movement. This active part allows movements in a space constructed in the acrylic base of orbital prosthesis. Thus, the movements that may occur on orbital prosthesis during chewing can be diminished by this simple mechanism. Due to the fact that designing such a mechanism that minimizes the movements of the orbital prosthesis contributes patient’s comfort. PMID:21912502

  12. Aortobifemoral Reconstruction with Right Extra-Anatomic Obturator Foramen Bypass due to a Septic Groin

    PubMed Central

    Hinojosa, Carlos A.; Anaya-Ayala, Javier E.; Laparra-Escareno, Hugo; Lizola, Rene; Torres-Machorro, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    The aortic bifurcation and iliac vessels are common sites of atherosclerotic occlusive disease causing the clinical expression known as “Leriche’s syndrome”. An aortobifemoral bypass grafting in the setting of a septic groin remains a significant challenge to vascular surgeons. We present a 65-year-old male with complete occlusion of the distal aorta and iliac arteries; he had undergone a left axillo-femoral and femoral-femoral artery bypass 2 years prior to our evaluation. Owing to a complex graft infection in the right groin and worsening lower extremity ischemia, we performed an aortobifemoral reconstruction through the right obturator membrane. This report highlights the safety and efficacy of the obturator bypass for avoiding infected groins while preserving vascular continuity and durability with 78 months of secondary patency rate. PMID:27386453

  13. Angiolipoma located inside the obturator canal and supplied by the umbilical artery.

    PubMed

    Sarikcioglu, Levent; Demirel, Bahadir Murat; Ozsoy, Umut; Gurer, Elif Inanc; Oguz, Nurettin; Ucar, Yasar

    2007-01-01

    During dissection of the retropubic region of a 55-year-old female cadaver, we encountered an angiolipoma located inside the obturator canal which was connected to the wall of the urinary bladder by a fibrous cord. The angiolipoma was supplied by a branch originating from the umbilical artery. Microscopically the benign soft tissue tumor was characterized by lobules of mature adipocytes and densely distributed networks of small and larger blood vessels, thus resembling typical histological features of an angiolipoma. Both the uncommon location of the angiolipoma and the abnormal branch of the umbilical artery entering the obturator canal should be taken into account during surgical procedures in this region, such as for orthopedic pelvic procedures, hernia repair or bladder/urethra-related interventions (e.g. transobturator tape, tension-free vaginal tape, colposuspension).

  14. Avulsed Immature Permanent Central Incisors Obturated With Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Kahtani, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The endodontic management of immature permanent incisors in young children can be challenging. This case reported an avulsed immature maxillary central incisors that underwent complete endodontic obturation using mineral trioxide aggregate. A 10-year-old male who suffered a fall injury avulsed both his central incisors. The revascularization process was not possible due to patient compliance and geographic reasons. Mineral trioxide aggregate was utilized as a novel endodontic treatment. After one year post-injury, the teeth remained symptom-free, the clinical and radiographic follow-up showed evidence of healthy periodontium. How to cite this article: Al-Kahtani A. Avulsed Immature Permanent Central Incisors Obturated With Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Case Report. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(3):88-96. PMID:24155609

  15. Root surface temperature rises in vitro during root canal obturation using hybrid and microseal techniques.

    PubMed

    Lipski, Mariusz

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to measure the temperature rise on the outer surface of roots during filling with hybrid technique and Microseal. Twenty extracted human maxillary and mandibular premolars with a single canal were randomly divided into two groups of 10 teeth each. In the first group, the teeth were filled with hybrid technique (thermomechanical compaction with Engine Plugger used following lateral condensation of the apical part of the canal), the second group was filled using Microseal. After root canal obturation the filling material was removed and the obturation procedure was repeated. A total of 20 obturations in each group were performed. Temperature changes were measured using a thermal imaging camera. The temperature of certain regions of the mesial surface was analyzed and the highest temperature values were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. The mean increase of temperature during the hybrid technique with Engine Plugger was 23.8 degrees C, while during Microseal it was significantly lower (p = 0.000001) at 5.5 degrees C. The temperature rise generated by Microseal was below the critical level and should not damage supporting structures, however, the hybrid technique generated a relatively high temperature rise that may cause periodontal tissue damage.

  16. Sabots, Obturator and Gas-In-Launch Tube Techniques for Heat Flux Models in Ballistic Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Wilder, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    For thermal protection system (heat shield) design for space vehicle entry into earth and other planetary atmospheres, it is essential to know the augmentation of the heat flux due to vehicle surface roughness. At the NASA Ames Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF) ballistic range, a campaign of heat flux studies on rough models, using infrared camera techniques, has been initiated. Several phenomena can interfere with obtaining good heat flux data when using this measuring technique. These include leakage of the hot drive gas in the gun barrel through joints in the sabot (model carrier) to create spurious thermal imprints on the model forebody, deposition of sabot material on the model forebody, thereby changing the thermal properties of the model surface and unknown in-barrel heating of the model. This report presents developments in launch techniques to greatly reduce or eliminate these problems. The techniques include the use of obturator cups behind the launch package, enclosed versus open front sabot designs and the use of hydrogen gas in the launch tube. Attention also had to be paid to the problem of the obturator drafting behind the model and impacting the model. Of the techniques presented, the obturator cups and hydrogen in the launch tube were successful when properly implemented

  17. Surgical skills for laparoscopic resection of the bursa omentalis and lymph node scavenging with radical gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    ZOU, LIAO-NAN; HE, YAO-BIN; LI, HONG-MING; DIAO, DE-CHANG; MO, DE-LONG; WANG, WEI; WAN, JIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to inquire into the feasibility, surgical skills required and short-term effect of a laparoscopic resection of the bursa omentalis and lymph node scavenging with radical gastrectomy. In this study, the clinical data of 18 patients who received a laparoscopic resection of the bursa omentalis with radical gastrectomy in the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Guangdong Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Guangzhou, Guangdong, China) during the period between January 2012 and January 2014. A retrospective analysis was performed and the surgical duration, bursa omentalis resection time, amount of bleeding during the surgery, post-operative complications associated with the surgery, length of hospital stay, number of lymph nodes scavenged and short-term follow-up results were assessed. The results indicated that all of these 18 patients successfully received a resection of the bursa omentalis and no one required conversion to open surgery. The mean surgical duration was 289.3±30.3 min, the bursa omentalis resection time was 46.1±18.6 min and the amount of bleeding was recorded as 35.5±6.5 ml in these patients. No patients suffered from post-operative complications, such as pancreatic fistulae, anastomotic fistulae, intestinal obstructions or succumbing to the surgery, and no patients succumbed within a 6-month follow-up period. In conclusion, for advanced gastric carcinoma, laparoscopic resection of the bursa omentalis and lymph node scavenging with radical gastrectomy is feasible. In addition to meeting the requirement that the operator should be skilled and experienced in open bursa omentalis resection, and have well-knit basic skills in using a laparoscope, attention must also be paid to the construction of the surgical team. PMID:26170983

  18. Comparative evaluation of endodontic pressure syringe, insulin syringe, jiffy tube, and local anesthetic syringe in obturation of primary teeth: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Hiremath, Mallayya C.; Srivastava, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare four methods of root canal obturation in primary teeth using conventional radiography. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 root canals of primary molars were prepared and obturated with zinc oxide eugenol. Obturation methods compared were endodontic pressure syringe, insulin syringe, jiffy tube, and local anesthetic syringe. The root canal obturations were evaluated by conventional radiography for the length of obturation and presence of voids. The obtained data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: The results showed significant differences between the four groups for the length of obturation (P < 0.05). The endodontic pressure syringe showed the best results (98.5% optimal fillings) and jiffy tube showed the poor results (37.5% optimal fillings) for the length of obturation. The insulin syringe (79.2% optimal fillings) and local anesthetic syringe (66.7% optimal fillings) showed acceptable results for the length of root canal obturation. However, minor voids were present in all the four techniques used. Conclusions: Endodontic pressure syringe produced the best results in terms of length of obturation and controlling paste extrusion from the apical foramen. However, insulin syringe and local anesthetic syringe can be used as effective alternative methods. PMID:27433062

  19. [Elimination of the obturator reflex with prilocaine in transurethral resection of bladder tumors in combination with spinal and general anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Schwilick, R; Steinhoff, H

    1987-04-01

    During transurethral resection of bladder tumors under either spinal or general anesthesia without muscular relaxation, direct stimulation of the obturator nerve by the electroresectoscope is possible. The resulting obturator reflex may lead to severe complications, at the worst to a perforation of the bladder. Therefore, if resection in lateral bladder regions is necessary, blockade of the obturator nerve is often required to provide optimal conditions for transurethral resection of bladder tumors. To interrupt the obturator reflex are, we blocked the inguinal lumbar plexus using the "3-in-1-block" as described by Winnie because of its advantages compared to isolated blockade of the obturator nerve. Prilocaine 1% was the chosen local anesthetic because of its low tendency towards cardiac and cerebral side effects. Spinal anesthesia was induced with 3-4 ml hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5%. After the onset of analgesia, making use of a nerve stimulator, a "3-in-1-block" was completed with 30-35 ml prilocaine 1%. The study included over 90 patients. Firstly we observed the efficiency of the obturator motor block by the "3-in-1-block"; secondly clinical side effects of prilocaine were evaluated; and finally in 20 cases methemoglobin levels were measured before and 90 min after injection of prilocaine. A "3-in-1-block" with prilocaine 1% provided a good motor block of the obturator nerve. Neither clinical side effects nor relevant methemoglobinemia occurred. In 3 cases methemoglobin levels were elevated by 1%, whereas in the remaining 17 cases methemoglobin values were normal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Investigating early modern Ottoman consumer culture in the light of Bursa probate inventories.

    PubMed

    Karababa, Eminegül

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the development of early modern Ottoman consumer culture. In particular, the democratization of consumption, which is a significant indicator of the development of western consumer cultures, is examined in relation to Ottoman society. Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century probate inventories of the town of Bursa combined with literary and official sources are used in order to identify democratization of consumption and the macro conditions shaping this development. Findings demonstrate that commercialization, international trade, urbanization which created a fluid social structure, and the ability of the state to negotiate with guilds were possible contextual specificities which encouraged the democratization of consumption in the Bursa context.

  1. Suspected nitrite poisoning in pigs caused by Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik. ('herderstassie', shepherd's purse).

    PubMed

    Wiese, W J; Joubert, J P

    2001-09-01

    Nitrite poisoning in pigs was suspected when 4 of 18 pigs died in a piggery near Ellisras in the Northern Province. The pigs showed typical brownish discolouration of the blood at autopsy. It was established that they ingested vegetable tops and weeds from the adjacent garden as part of their daily ration. Of the available plants, only Capsella bursa-pastoris contained nitrites. The drinking water and some of the other plants tested positive for nitrates but not for nitrites. This is the first report of suspected nitrite poisoning in pigs caused by Capsella bursa-pastoris.

  2. Comparing the Apical Microleakage of Lateral Condensation and Chloroform Dip Techniques with a New Obturation Method

    PubMed Central

    Saatchi, Masoud; Barekatain, Behnaz; Behzadian, Masoumeh

    2011-01-01

    Background: The final objective of root canal therapy is to create a hermetic seal along the length of the root canal system. For this purpose, many methods and materials have been introduced. The purpose of this study was to compare the apical microleakage in a new obturation technique (true-tug-back) with two other obturation techniques (lateral condensation and chloroform dip technique). Methods: In this in vitro study 102 single canal teeth were selected. The crowns were removed, and the canals were prepared using step-back technique. The master apical file was K-file #40. The teeth were divided into 3 experimental groups of 32 teeth. First group were obturated with lateral condensation technique and second group with chloroform dip technique and the third group with true-tug-back technique. Six teeth were used as control group. The teeth were placed in incubator at 100% humidity and 37°c for three days. The roots of the teeth were coated with two layers of nail varnish except for the apical 2 millimeter. Teeth were placed in Methylene blue 2% for one week. The teeth were sectioned vertically and the depth of maximum dye penetration for each tooth was recorded by stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Dunkan test. Results: The mean liner dye penetration differences between lateral condensation group (6.88 ± 4.06 mm) and chloroform dip technique group (7.16 ± 3.37 mm) were not statistically significant (P = 0.719). The differences between true-tug-back group (3.15 ± 0.52 mm) and two other groups were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the true-tug-back technique can improve apical seal. Further studies are needed for this purpose. PMID:22132011

  3. Modified functional obturator for the consideration of facial growth in the mucoepidermoid carcinoma pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soung Min; Park, Min Woo; Cho, Young Ah; Myoung, Hoon; Lee, Jong Ho; Lee, Suk Keun

    2015-10-01

    Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a common salivary gland tumor in a adults but is very rare in pediatric patients. The standard treatment of MEC is en bloc resection with wide safety margins and subsequent reconstruction of the jaw, but few surgeons or pediatric specialists have experience with this procedure. An 11-year-old boy received a hemi-maxillectomy with subsequent application of the modified functional obturator (MFO) by the functional matrix concept of Moss. And the patient's face showed normal growth pattern. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the novel concept of pediatric maxillary reconstruction using MFO for the consideration of facial growth.

  4. Obturating teeth with wide open apices using mineral trioxide aggregate: a case report.

    PubMed

    Levenstein, H

    2002-07-01

    The conventional approach in handling a tooth with a wide open apex requiring endodontic treatment is by means of a procedure called apexification. The objective of treatment is to introduce calcium hydroxide mixed with sterile water or local anaesthetic into the root canal to create a hard-tissue-like formation or an apical plug to prevent extrusion of filling materials during obturation of teeth with wide open apices. This procedure may take anything from 6 months to 2 years. In 1999 a new material called mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was introduced to the dental profession for clinical use which has the ability to create an apical plug within a few weeks.

  5. Interim obturator in an infant with Treacher Collins syndrome: Review and chairside modification in impression making.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Sudhir; Aras, Meena; Bakshi, Sonika

    2011-10-01

    Treacher Collins syndrome has been described as a syndrome involving 1st and 2nd branchial arches, affecting various organs in the craniofacial region. Affected infants report with nasal regurgitation and minimal dietary intake due to cleft palate, consequently show delayed and retarded growth. The situation is further complicated when the repair of the palatal defect is postponed due to delayed milestones. At this juncture, it is of paramount importance to intervene prosthetically and close the defect with the aid of an interim obturator. Herein we describe a simple, yet successful, chairside approach to make an impression of an infant without the aid of any kind of anesthesia.

  6. Detection and phylogenetic characterization of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma marginale in Rhipicephalus bursa in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferrolho, Joana; Antunes, Sandra; Santos, Ana S; Velez, Rita; Padre, Ludovina; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Santos-Silva, Maria Margarida; Domingos, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Ticks are obligatory blood-sucking arthropod (Acari:Ixodida) ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals as well as humans. The incidence of tick-borne diseases is rising worldwide, challenging our approach toward diagnosis, treatment and control options. Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanzago, 1877, a two-host tick widely distributed in the Palearctic Mediterranean region, is considered a multi-host tick that can be commonly found on sheep, goats and cattle, and occasionally on horses, dogs, deer and humans. R. bursa is a species involved in the transmission of several tick-borne pathogens with a known impact on animal health and production. The aim of this study was to estimate R. bursa prevalence in Portugal Mainland and circulating pathogens in order to contribute to a better knowledge of the impact of this tick species. Anaplasma marginale and Theileria spp. were detected and classified using phylogenetic analysis. This is the first report of Theileria annulata and Theileria equi detection in R. bursa ticks feeding on cattle and horses, respectively, in Portugal. This study contributes toward the identification of currently circulating pathogens in this tick species as a prerequisite for developing future effective anti-tick control measures.

  7. Detection and phylogenetic characterization of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma marginale in Rhipicephalus bursa in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferrolho, Joana; Antunes, Sandra; Santos, Ana S; Velez, Rita; Padre, Ludovina; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Santos-Silva, Maria Margarida; Domingos, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Ticks are obligatory blood-sucking arthropod (Acari:Ixodida) ectoparasites of domestic and wild animals as well as humans. The incidence of tick-borne diseases is rising worldwide, challenging our approach toward diagnosis, treatment and control options. Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanzago, 1877, a two-host tick widely distributed in the Palearctic Mediterranean region, is considered a multi-host tick that can be commonly found on sheep, goats and cattle, and occasionally on horses, dogs, deer and humans. R. bursa is a species involved in the transmission of several tick-borne pathogens with a known impact on animal health and production. The aim of this study was to estimate R. bursa prevalence in Portugal Mainland and circulating pathogens in order to contribute to a better knowledge of the impact of this tick species. Anaplasma marginale and Theileria spp. were detected and classified using phylogenetic analysis. This is the first report of Theileria annulata and Theileria equi detection in R. bursa ticks feeding on cattle and horses, respectively, in Portugal. This study contributes toward the identification of currently circulating pathogens in this tick species as a prerequisite for developing future effective anti-tick control measures. PMID:26797395

  8. Lipoma arborescens arising in the extra-articular bursa of the knee joint.

    PubMed

    Minami, Shinji; Miyake, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Lipoma arborescens arising in the extra-articular bursa of the knee joint is extremely rare. We describe an 11-year-old boy who complained of a gradual swelling mass of the lateral knee joint. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a high signal intensity tumor on T1- and T2-weighted images with a thickened septa and nodular lesion that showed low signal intensity. The radiologist suggested the possible differential diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma. At operation, the tumor was found under the iliotibial tract and was not in contact with the knee joint. Histopathologically, this lesion was diagnosed as lipoma arborescens arising in the extra-articular bursa of the knee joint. On MRI, the appearance of lipoma arborescens arising in the extra-articular bursa of the knee joint differed from that of conventional intra-articular lipoma arborescens. In this report, we describe a case of extra-articular lipoma arborescens of the knee joint bursa and discuss the diagnosis and etiology. PMID:27382924

  9. Coxiella-like endosymbiont associated to the "Anatolian brown tick" Rhipicephalus bursa in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Raele, Donato Antonio; Galante, Domenico; Pugliese, Nicola; De Simone, Esther; Cafiero, Maria Assunta

    2015-01-01

    Several different ticks have been reported to harbor microbes related to Coxiella burnetii, the agent of the Q fever. Rhipicephalus bursa is an important vector of tick-borne diseases in livestock in Mediterranean area; it is also abundant in ovi-caprine farms with C. burnetii infection, in Southern Italy. 60 females of Rh. bursa (15 pools) and 40 their eggs (2 pools) were screened for C. burnetii by a conventional PCR targeting the insertion sequence IS1111 and by Loop mediated isothermal amplification assay (LAMP) targeting com1 gene. One of 15 tick pools (1/15) and both egg pools (2/2) were found positive by LAMP assay and negative by PCR targeting IS1111 gene. 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR from the LAMP-positive pools, amplicons were sequenced and found 95% similar to the corresponding sequences from C. burnetii. This let us to hypothesize the presence of a new Coxiella-like endosymbiont associated with Rh. bursa which could be vertically transmitted, described here for the first time. The lack of detection of IS1111 in Coxiella endosymbiont of Rh. bursa could be related to the possible absence of the Pathogenicity island of C. burnetii, to which IS1111s are associated.

  10. mRNA expression in different developmental stages of the chicken bursa of Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Fubo; Shan, Hu; Wang, Shu-Bai; Chen, Pu-Yan

    2016-08-01

    The bursa of Fabricius, the central humoral immune organ unique to birds, plays an important role in B-lymphocyte differentiation. In order to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of critical biological processes like B-cell immigration, differentiation, and final emigration, the transcriptional changes during embryonic and posthatch development of this organ were investigated. We generated a cDNA library from total RNA isolated from 3 representative developmental stages (embryonic day [ED] 10, posthatch d 2 and d 21). We generated over 70 million high-quality reads from the cDNA library by using deep sequencing. The uniquely mapped sequences of ED 10, d 2 and d 21 were 71087280, 59167491 and 70263675 respectively. All of the differential expressed genes were involved in Vitamin A metabolism, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, Wnt signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, Notch signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. The RNA-seq analysis provides a powerful method for analyzing the transcriptome and investigating the transcriptional changes of different development stages of bursa of Fabricius. The assembled bursa transcriptome provides an essential resource for future investigations about chicken Bursa development.

  11. Lipoma arborescens arising in the extra-articular bursa of the knee joint

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Shinji; Miyake, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Hirofumi

    2016-01-01

    Lipoma arborescens arising in the extra-articular bursa of the knee joint is extremely rare. We describe an 11-year-old boy who complained of a gradual swelling mass of the lateral knee joint. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a high signal intensity tumor on T1- and T2-weighted images with a thickened septa and nodular lesion that showed low signal intensity. The radiologist suggested the possible differential diagnosis of well-differentiated liposarcoma. At operation, the tumor was found under the iliotibial tract and was not in contact with the knee joint. Histopathologically, this lesion was diagnosed as lipoma arborescens arising in the extra-articular bursa of the knee joint. On MRI, the appearance of lipoma arborescens arising in the extra-articular bursa of the knee joint differed from that of conventional intra-articular lipoma arborescens. In this report, we describe a case of extra-articular lipoma arborescens of the knee joint bursa and discuss the diagnosis and etiology. PMID:27382924

  12. mRNA expression in different developmental stages of the chicken bursa of Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Fubo; Shan, Hu; Wang, Shu-Bai; Chen, Pu-Yan

    2016-08-01

    The bursa of Fabricius, the central humoral immune organ unique to birds, plays an important role in B-lymphocyte differentiation. In order to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of critical biological processes like B-cell immigration, differentiation, and final emigration, the transcriptional changes during embryonic and posthatch development of this organ were investigated. We generated a cDNA library from total RNA isolated from 3 representative developmental stages (embryonic day [ED] 10, posthatch d 2 and d 21). We generated over 70 million high-quality reads from the cDNA library by using deep sequencing. The uniquely mapped sequences of ED 10, d 2 and d 21 were 71087280, 59167491 and 70263675 respectively. All of the differential expressed genes were involved in Vitamin A metabolism, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, Wnt signaling pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, Jak-STAT signaling pathway, Notch signaling pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. The RNA-seq analysis provides a powerful method for analyzing the transcriptome and investigating the transcriptional changes of different development stages of bursa of Fabricius. The assembled bursa transcriptome provides an essential resource for future investigations about chicken Bursa development. PMID:26994188

  13. Photoelastic analysis to compare implant-retained and conventional obturator dentures.

    PubMed

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Ribeiro, Paula do Prado; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Haddad, Marcela Filiè; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Moreno, Amália

    2012-06-01

    The use of photoelastic analysis contributes to the rehabilitation of patients with oral-sinus-nasal sequelae, which in turn affect important functions such as chewing, swallowing, and speech. The prosthetic rehabilitation with implant-retained dentures is a suitable treatment option. The purpose of this study was to verify, by using a photoelastic analysis, the stress distribution in implant-retained palatal obturator dentures (relined or not) associated with different attachment systems (O-ring, bar-clip, and bar-clip associated with distally placed O-rings). Two photoelastic models were obtained from an experimental maxillary cast presenting an oral-nasal communication. One model had two 13-mm length implants placed on the left region. A total of eight colorless maxillary obturators were fabricated and subsequently four of them were relined with soft silicone soft, and three had attachment systems associated. The assembly (model/attachment system/prosthesis) was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N load was applied at 10 mm/s. The results showed that the denture relining influenced the distribution and amount of stress on the models. The O-ring group displayed the lowest stress levels, followed by bar-clip system associated with distally placed O-rings and bar-clip groups. PMID:22734733

  14. Photoelastic analysis to compare implant-retained and conventional obturator dentures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Prado Ribeiro, Paula do; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Haddad, Marcela Filiè; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Moreno, Amália

    2012-06-01

    The use of photoelastic analysis contributes to the rehabilitation of patients with oral-sinus-nasal sequelae, which in turn affect important functions such as chewing, swallowing, and speech. The prosthetic rehabilitation with implant-retained dentures is a suitable treatment option. The purpose of this study was to verify, by using a photoelastic analysis, the stress distribution in implant-retained palatal obturator dentures (relined or not) associated with different attachment systems (O-ring, bar-clip, and bar-clip associated with distally placed O-rings). Two photoelastic models were obtained from an experimental maxillary cast presenting an oral-nasal communication. One model had two 13-mm length implants placed on the left region. A total of eight colorless maxillary obturators were fabricated and subsequently four of them were relined with soft silicone soft, and three had attachment systems associated. The assembly (model/attachment system/prosthesis) was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N load was applied at 10 mm/s. The results showed that the denture relining influenced the distribution and amount of stress on the models. The O-ring group displayed the lowest stress levels, followed by bar-clip system associated with distally placed O-rings and bar-clip groups.

  15. Genomic signature of successful colonization of Eurasia by the allopolyploid shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris).

    PubMed

    Cornille, A; Salcedo, A; Kryvokhyzha, D; Glémin, S; Holm, K; Wright, S I; Lascoux, M

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidization is a dominant feature of flowering plant evolution. However, detailed genomic analyses of the interpopulation diversification of polyploids following genome duplication are still in their infancy, mainly because of methodological limits, both in terms of sequencing and computational analyses. The shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris) is one of the most common weed species in the world. It is highly self-fertilizing, and recent genomic data indicate that it is an allopolyploid, resulting from hybridization between the ancestors of the diploid species Capsella grandiflora and Capsella orientalis. Here, we investigated the genomic diversity of C. bursa-pastoris, its population structure and demographic history, following allopolyploidization in Eurasia. To that end, we genotyped 261 C. bursa-pastoris accessions spread across Europe, the Middle East and Asia, using genotyping-by-sequencing, leading to a total of 4274 SNPs after quality control. Bayesian clustering analyses revealed three distinct genetic clusters in Eurasia: one cluster grouping samples from Western Europe and Southeastern Siberia, the second one centred on Eastern Asia and the third one in the Middle East. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) supported the hypothesis that C. bursa-pastoris underwent a typical colonization history involving low gene flow among colonizing populations, likely starting from the Middle East towards Europe and followed by successive human-mediated expansions into Eastern Asia. Altogether, these findings bring new insights into the recent multistage colonization history of the allotetraploid C. bursa-pastoris and highlight ABC and genotyping-by-sequencing data as promising but still challenging tools to infer demographic histories of selfing allopolyploids. PMID:26607306

  16. Penetration of a resin-based filling material into lateral root canals and quality of obturation by different techniques.

    PubMed

    Michelotto, André Luiz da Costa; Moura-Netto, Cacio; Araki, Angela Toshie; Akisue, Eduardo; Sydney, Gilson Blitzkow

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the penetration of a resin/polyester polymer-based material (Resilon Real Seal; SybronEndo Corp., Orange, USA) into simulated lateral canals, and the quality of obturations by different techniques. A total of 30 standardized simulated canals were divided into three groups according to the technique of obturation used: MS (McSpadden), SB (SystemB/Obtura II), and LC (Lateral Condensation). To analyze the penetration of the filling material, the simulated canals were digitalized and the images were analyzed using the Leica QWIN Pro v2.3 software. The data of the middle and apical thirds were separately submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Tukey's test for the comparison of the techniques. Results showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between groups (LC < SB) in the middle third, and a significant difference (p < 0.05) between groups (LC < SB and MS < SB) in the apical third. To analyze the quality of the obturations, the canals were radiographed and evaluated by three examiners. The Kappa test on interexaminer agreement and the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test indicated no significant difference between filling techniques. It was concluded that Resilon achieves greater levels of penetration when associated with thermoplastic obturation techniques.

  17. Penetration of a resin-based filling material into lateral root canals and quality of obturation by different techniques.

    PubMed

    Michelotto, André Luiz da Costa; Moura-Netto, Cacio; Araki, Angela Toshie; Akisue, Eduardo; Sydney, Gilson Blitzkow

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the penetration of a resin/polyester polymer-based material (Resilon Real Seal; SybronEndo Corp., Orange, USA) into simulated lateral canals, and the quality of obturations by different techniques. A total of 30 standardized simulated canals were divided into three groups according to the technique of obturation used: MS (McSpadden), SB (SystemB/Obtura II), and LC (Lateral Condensation). To analyze the penetration of the filling material, the simulated canals were digitalized and the images were analyzed using the Leica QWIN Pro v2.3 software. The data of the middle and apical thirds were separately submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Tukey's test for the comparison of the techniques. Results showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between groups (LC < SB) in the middle third, and a significant difference (p < 0.05) between groups (LC < SB and MS < SB) in the apical third. To analyze the quality of the obturations, the canals were radiographed and evaluated by three examiners. The Kappa test on interexaminer agreement and the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test indicated no significant difference between filling techniques. It was concluded that Resilon achieves greater levels of penetration when associated with thermoplastic obturation techniques. PMID:25466332

  18. Coronal Microleakage of the Resilon and Gutta-Percha Obturation Materials with Epiphany SE Sealer: An in-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Maswary, Arwa Ahmed; Alhadainy, Hatem Abdel-Hameed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The coronal leakage of bacteria and other irritants to the root canal system is one of the main factors that may result in clinical failure and affect the long term success of endodontic treatment. The Resilon/Epiphany obturation system has been developed as an alternative to gutta-percha and traditional sealers. Aim This study aimed to evaluate and compare the coronal leakage between Resilon obturation material and gutta-percha using the same sealer. Materials and Methods In this in-vitro study, 72 freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth were used, and were sectioned at CEJ with 13mm length. The roots were randomly divided into four groups. In Group I, 30 roots were obturated using Resilon and Epiphany SE sealer, Group II, 30 roots were obturated using gutta-percha and Epiphany SE. Group III and Group IV, 12 roots were used as control groups (positive and negative). The coronal leakage was measured using the dye penetration technique. Data were statistically analysed by a One-Way ANOVA test. Results There was a significant difference between the two experimental groups where Resilon revealed less microleakage than gutta-percha group (p <0.05). Conclusion Resilon is a suitable replacement for gutta-percha on the basis of its increased resistance to microleakage, but it failed to provide complete hermetic coronal sealing. PMID:27437358

  19. Ability of New Obturation Materials to Improve the Seal of the Root Canal System – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Olsen, Mark; De-Deus, Gustavo; Eid, Ashraf A.; Chen, Ji-hua; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives New obturation biomaterials have been introduced over the past decade to improve the seal of the root canal system. However, it is not clear whether they have really produced a three-dimensional impervious seal that is important for reducing diseases associated with root canal treatment. Methods A review of the literature was performed to identify models that have been employed for evaluating the seal of the root canal system. Results and Significance In-vitro and in-vivo models are not totally adept at quantifying the seal of root canals obturated with classic materials. Thus, one has to resort to clinical outcomes to examine whether there are real benefits associated with the use of recently-introduced materials for obturating root canals. However, there is no facile answer because endodontic treatment outcomes are influenced by a host of other predictors that are more likely to take precedence over the influence of obturation materials. From the perspective of clinical performance, classic root filling materials have stood the test of time. Because many of the recently-introduced materials are so new, there is not enough evidence yet to support their ability to improve clinical performance. This emphasizes the need to translate anecdotal information into clinically relevant research data on new biomaterials. PMID:24321349

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Three Different Obturating Techniques Lateral Compaction, Thermafil and Calamus for Filling Area and Voids Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography: An Invitro study

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, Anil; Panwar, Nidhi R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The success of root canal treatment depends upon the proper sealing of root canal system. Improper apical seal leads to the microleakage which can be prevented by proper obturation technique. Aim To compare the quality of three different root canal obturation techniques: lateral compaction, Thermafil and Calamus by using cone beam computed tomography. Materials and Methods A total of 30 central incisors were selected. Biomechanical preparation was done by Reciproc file no 25. Teeth were divided into 3 groups of 10 teeth each according to the obturation technique i.e. Calamus, Thermafil and lateral compaction. Cone beam computed tomography was used to measure filling area and voids at coronal, middle and apical third of the root canal after obturation by different techniques. Data was statistically analysed by One-Way Anova and multiple comparison of Tukey HSD tests. Result The maximum amount of obturating material was observed in Calamus group followed by Thermafil and lateral compaction. Minimum voids were seen in obturation by Calamus technique. Conclusion Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that Calamus may be a good obturation technique. PMID:26436038

  1. Quality of Obturation Achieved by an Endodontic Core-carrier System with Crosslinked Gutta-percha Carrier in Single-rooted Canals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo-hua; Niu, Li-na; Selem, Lisa C.; Eid, Ashraf A.; Bergeron, Brian E.; Chen, Ji-hua; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study examined the quality of obturation in root canals obturated by GuttaCore, a gutta-percha-based core-carrier system with a cross-linked thermoset gutta-percha carrier, by comparing the incidence of gaps and voids identified from similar canals obturated by cold lateral compaction or warm vertical compaction. Methods Thirty single-rooted premolars with oval-shaped canals were shaped and cleaned, and obturated with one of the three obturation techniques (N=10): GuttaCore, warm vertical compaction or cold lateral compaction. Filled canals were scanned with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT); reconstructed images were analysed for the volumetric percentage of gaps and voids at 3 canal levels (0-4 mm, 4-8 mm and 8-12 mm from working length). The roots were subsequently sectioned at the 4-mm, 8-mm and 12-mm levels for analyses of the percentage of interfacial gaps, and area percentage of interfacial and intracanal voids, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine negative replicas of root sections. Data were analysed with parametric or non-parametric statistical methods at α=0.05. Results Both micro-CT and SEM data indicated that canals obturated with GuttaCore core-carriers had the lowest incidence of interfacial gaps and voids, although the results were not significantly different from canals obturated by warm vertical compaction. Both the GuttaCore and the warm vertical compaction groups, in turn, had significantly lower incidences of gaps and voids than the cold lateral compaction group. Conclusions Because of the similarity in obturation quality between GuttaCore and warm vertical compaction, practitioners may find the GuttaCore core-carrier technique a valuable alternative for obturation of oval-shaped canals. PMID:24769108

  2. Morphology of the Canine Omentum Part 2: The Omental Bursa and its Compartments Materialized and Explored by a Novel Technique.

    PubMed

    Doom, M; de Rooster, H; van Bergen, T; Gielen, I; Kromhout, K; Simoens, P; Cornillie, P

    2016-02-01

    The canine omental bursa is a virtual cavity enclosed by the greater and lesser omentum. While previous representations of this bursa were always purely schematic, a novel casting technique was developed to depict the three-dimensional organization of the omental bursa more consistently. A self-expanding polyurethane-based foam was injected into the omental bursa through the omental foramen in six dogs. After curing and the subsequent maceration of the surrounded tissues, the obtained three-dimensional casts could clearly and in a reproducible way reveal the omental vestibule, its caudal recess and the three compartments of the splenic recess. The cast proved to be an invaluable study tool to identify the landmarks that define the enveloping omentum. In addition, the polyurethane material can easily be discerned on computed tomographic images. When the casting technique is preceded by vascular injections, the blood vessels that supply the omentum can be outlined as well.

  3. Scratch and abrasion properties of polyurethane-based micro- and nano-hybrid obturation materials.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Miriam; Rodriguez, J Rogelio; Vargas, Susana; Guerra, J A; Brostow, Witold; Lobland, Haley E Hagg

    2013-06-01

    Polyurethane-based micro- and nano-hybrid composites were produced with controlled porosity to be used as obturation materials. In addition to hydroxyapatite (HAp) micro-particles in the composites, two different ceramics particle types were also added: alumina micro-particles and silica nano-particles. Particles of different sizes provide the materials with improved mechanical properties: the use of micro- and nano-particles produces a better packing because the nano-particles fill the interstitial space left by the micro-particles, rendering an improvement in the mechanical properties. The silica and alumina particles provide the materials with appropriate abrasion and scratching properties, while the HAp provides the required bio-acceptance. The polymeric matrix was a mono-component solvent-free polyurethane. The porosity was selected by controlling the chemical reaction.

  4. EVALUATION OF THE APICAL INFILTRATION AFTER ROOT CANAL DISRUPTION AND OBTURATION

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, João Eduardo; Hopp, Renato Nicolás; Bernabé, Pedro Felício Estrada; Nery, Mauro Juvenal; Otoboni, José Arlindo; Dezan, Elói

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate two root canal filling techniques used in teeth that had their apical foramen disrupted and compare the apical infiltration with an ideal clinical situation. Twenty-seven freshly extracted single-rooted teeth were selected and radiographed to confirm the existence of a single and straight root canal. The crowns were removed at a mean distance of 11 mm from the apex. The teeth had the root canals instrumented and were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=9): ND group - root canals were filled using the lateral compaction technique and no disruption was performed; DRF group - the apical constriction was disrupted by advancing a #40 K-file 1 mm beyond the original working length, the canals were reinstrumented to create an apical ledge at 1 mm from the apical foramen and were obturated with a master gutta-percha cone with same size as the last file used for reinstrumentation; DF group - the teeth had the apical constriction disrupted and the canals were obturated with a master gutta-percha cone that fit at 1 mm from the apex. The teeth were submitted to dye leakage test with Rhodamine B for 7 days, using vaccum on the initial 5 min. The teeth were sectioned longitudinally and the leakage was measured in a linear fashion from apex to crown. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between the groups that had the apical foramen disrupted (DF, DRF), but significant difference was found between the disrupted groups and the non-disrupted one (p<0.01). In conclusion, none of the evaluated techniques was able to prevent apical infiltration, so working length so the working length determination has to be established and maintained carefully. PMID:19089232

  5. Identification and characterization of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of gulls.

    PubMed

    Bodewes, R; van de Bildt, M W G; Schapendonk, C M E; van Leeuwen, M; van Boheemen, S; de Jong, A A W; Osterhaus, A D M E; Smits, S L; Kuiken, T

    2013-05-25

    Several viruses of the family of Adenoviridae are associated with disease in birds. Here we report the detection of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) that were found dead in the Netherlands in 2001. Histopathological analysis of the cloacal bursa revealed cytomegaly and karyomegaly with basophilic intranuclear inclusions typical for adenovirus infection. The presence of an adenovirus was confirmed by electron microscopy. By random PCR in combination with deep sequencing, sequences were detected that had the best hit with known adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coding sequences of the hexon, penton and polymerase genes indicates that this novel virus, tentatively named Gull adenovirus, belongs to the genus Aviadenovirus. The present study demonstrates that birds of the Laridae family are infected by family-specific adenoviruses that differ from known adenoviruses in other bird species.

  6. An important Norwegian contribution to the study of the bursae of the upper and lower extremities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    We present a critical analysis of the monograph of A.S.D. Synnestvedt (1869) “En anatomisk beskrivelse af de paa over- og underestremiteterne forekommende Bursae mucosae”. The analysis was completed using anatomical information from the historically oldest publications dealing with the bursae of the extremities: Albinus (1734), Monro (1788), Rosenmüller (1799). We are of the opinion that Synnestvedt's publication is important, not only historically but also as a source of information for recent medical practitioners. Synnestvedt's monograph has a wealth of literary citations, unambiguous opinions of seasoned anatomists regarding the structure and function of the synovial membrane, and detailed descriptions of dissections he performed on fetal and adult cadavers. The information in this publication may enhance the diagnosis of bursopathies and enthesopathies of the extremities. PMID:20860444

  7. [Changes of micellarity and lithogenicity of bile under conditions of transcutaneous electrostimulation and enterosorption in patients with obturation jaundice of nontumoral genesis].

    PubMed

    Dronov, O I; Prylutskyĭ, O I

    2010-05-01

    The conduction of pathogenetically substantiated treatment--enterosorption together with procedures of electrostimulation--in patients, suffering obturation jaundice of nontumoral genesis, secures favorable course of postoperative period, the hepatorenal insufficiency prophylaxis, and postcholecystectomy syndrome occurrence as well.

  8. Insight into the function of the obturator internus muscle in humans: observations with development and validation of an electromyography recording technique.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Paul W; McLean, Linda; Hodder, Joanne

    2014-08-01

    There are no direct recordings of obturator internus muscle activity in humans because of difficult access for electromyography (EMG) electrodes. Functions attributed to this muscle are based on speculation and include hip external rotation/abduction, and a role in stabilization as an "adjustable ligament" of the hip. Here we present (1) a technique to insert intramuscular EMG electrodes into obturator internus plus (2) the results of an investigation of obturator internus activity relative to that of nearby hip muscles during voluntary hip efforts in two hip positions and a weight-bearing task. Fine-wire electrodes were inserted with ultrasound guidance into obturator internus, gluteus maximus, piriformis and quadratus femoris in ten participants. Participants performed ramped and maximal isometric hip efforts (open kinetic chain) into flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, and internal/external rotation, and hip rotation to end range in standing. Analysis of the relationship between activity of the obturator internus and the other hip muscles provided evidence of limited contamination of the recordings with crosstalk. Obturator internus EMG amplitude was greatest during hip extension, then external rotation then abduction, with minimal to no activation in other directions. Obturator internus EMG was more commonly the first muscle active during abduction and external rotation than other muscles. This study describes a viable and valid technique to record obturator internus EMG and provides the first evidence of its activation during simple functions. The observation of specificity of activation to certain force directions questions the hypothesis of a general role in hip stabilisation regardless of force direction.

  9. Insight into the function of the obturator internus muscle in humans: observations with development and validation of an electromyography recording technique.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Paul W; McLean, Linda; Hodder, Joanne

    2014-08-01

    There are no direct recordings of obturator internus muscle activity in humans because of difficult access for electromyography (EMG) electrodes. Functions attributed to this muscle are based on speculation and include hip external rotation/abduction, and a role in stabilization as an "adjustable ligament" of the hip. Here we present (1) a technique to insert intramuscular EMG electrodes into obturator internus plus (2) the results of an investigation of obturator internus activity relative to that of nearby hip muscles during voluntary hip efforts in two hip positions and a weight-bearing task. Fine-wire electrodes were inserted with ultrasound guidance into obturator internus, gluteus maximus, piriformis and quadratus femoris in ten participants. Participants performed ramped and maximal isometric hip efforts (open kinetic chain) into flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, and internal/external rotation, and hip rotation to end range in standing. Analysis of the relationship between activity of the obturator internus and the other hip muscles provided evidence of limited contamination of the recordings with crosstalk. Obturator internus EMG amplitude was greatest during hip extension, then external rotation then abduction, with minimal to no activation in other directions. Obturator internus EMG was more commonly the first muscle active during abduction and external rotation than other muscles. This study describes a viable and valid technique to record obturator internus EMG and provides the first evidence of its activation during simple functions. The observation of specificity of activation to certain force directions questions the hypothesis of a general role in hip stabilisation regardless of force direction. PMID:24788026

  10. [An abdominal tumor of unusual nature. Synovial cyst in the iliopsoas bursa].

    PubMed

    Dyon, J F; Ben Salah, S; Baudain, P; De Marliave, H; Delannoy, P

    1987-01-01

    The authors report a case of tumour of the right iliac region in a 14 years old girl, disclosed by a light traumatism, without appreciable antecedents, nor locomotor disfunction. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed its cystic constitution. Surgically, there was a synovial cyst of the ilioinguinal area, cyst of the iliopsoas bursa, with a hip joint communication. It was resected and a partial recurrence occurred, corrected surgically three years later. A recent MRI showed the spontaneous development of a same cyst on the left side, asymptomatic at all. A non exhaustive survey of literature confirmed the iliopsoas synovial bursa is uncommonly pathologic, but a constant natural formation in man. Pathology occurs only in over sixty years old adults. This case seems to be the first pediatric case. The cyst of the psoas bursa is generally revealed by an inguinal swelling; abdominal growing is rare. Imaging with ultrasonography, computed tomography and RMI such as in this case, showed the cyst issued between the coxofemoral joint and the iliac psoas terminal tendon. It can grow in a retroperitoneal way. Pathogenic hypothesis are debated. In this bilateral case, etiology evoke an anatomic anomaly, in relation a joint communication.

  11. Identification and characterization of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of gulls

    SciTech Connect

    Bodewes, R.; Bildt, M.W.G. van de; Schapendonk, C.M.E.; Leeuwen, M. van; Boheemen, S. van; Jong, A.A.W. de; Osterhaus, A.D.M.E.; Smits, S.L.; Kuiken, T.

    2013-05-25

    Several viruses of the family of Adenoviridae are associated with disease in birds. Here we report the detection of a novel adenovirus in the cloacal bursa of herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) that were found dead in the Netherlands in 2001. Histopathological analysis of the cloacal bursa revealed cytomegaly and karyomegaly with basophilic intranuclear inclusions typical for adenovirus infection. The presence of an adenovirus was confirmed by electron microscopy. By random PCR in combination with deep sequencing, sequences were detected that had the best hit with known adenoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of complete coding sequences of the hexon, penton and polymerase genes indicates that this novel virus, tentatively named Gull adenovirus, belongs to the genus Aviadenovirus. The present study demonstrates that birds of the Laridae family are infected by family-specific adenoviruses that differ from known adenoviruses in other bird species. - Highlights: ► Lesions typical for adenovirus infection detected in cloacal bursa of dead gulls. ► Confirmation of adenovirus infection by electron microscopy and deep sequencing. ► Sequence analysis indicates that it is a novel adenovirus in the genus Aviadenovirus. ► The novel (Gull) adenovirus was detected in multiple organs of two species of gulls.

  12. PCR-Based Detection of Babesia ovis in Rhipicephalus bursa and Small Ruminants.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilnejad, Bijan; Tavassoli, Mousa; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Mardani, Karim; Jalilzadeh-Amin, Ghader; Golabi, Mostafa; Arjmand, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of Babesia ovis infection in adult Rhipicephalus bursa and small ruminants in West Azerbaijan province, Iran. Blood samples were collected from 280 sheep and 122 goats of forty randomly selected flocks. Specific B. ovis fragment was detected in 67 animals (16.7%), of which 52 animals (18.6%) were sheep and 15 animals (12.2%) goats (P < 0.05). Of the 848 R. bursa collected from naturally infested small ruminants and farm dogs, Babesia ovis was detected by PCR in salivary glands of 94 adult ticks. The frequency of B. ovis infection was higher in flocks with tick in comparison with animals without tick (P < 0.05). Positive amplification from blood of ruminants, ticks, oviposition ticks, eggs, and larvae was subjected to restriction digestion with HphI. One RFLP profile was produced. The PCR-RFLP results indicated that one strain of B. ovis exists in this area. The results showed that the PCR was useful method to investigate the epidemiology of small ruminants' babesiosis. Furthermore, R. Bursa, which can transovarially transmit B. ovis and as well as being widely distributed in West Azerbaijan province, Iran, might play an important role in the field as a natural vector of B. ovis.

  13. Obturator internus pyomyositis manifested as sciatica in a patient with subacute bacterial endocarditis: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei-Ching; Hsu, Jin-Yi; Chen, Michael Yu-Chih; Liang, Chung-Chao

    2016-07-01

    Pyomyositis is a pyogenic infection of the skeletal muscles causing myalgia and fever in patients. Hematogenous seeding engendered by persistent bacteremia and septic embolism is usually the underlying cause of the disease. Trauma, intravenous drug use, and immunodeficiency are the main predisposing factors.Obturator internus pyomyositis with sciatica has not previously been reported. We report a rare case of a patient with subacute bacterial endocarditis presenting with left buttock pain and sciatica.Computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis of obturator internus pyomyositis. The patient was discharged uneventfully after successful antibiotic treatment.The mortality rate of patients who have pyomyositis comorbid with another condition or disease is extremely high. Early diagnosis and aggressive management are imperative. PMID:27472717

  14. A simple method of enhancing retention in interim hollow bulb obturator in a case of an acquired palatal defect

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeyan, S.; Balu, K.; Devaki, V.; Ajay, R.

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary defects occur either as a result of surgical resection of malignant tumors of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses or of the congenital causes. Rehabilitation of the patients with maxillectomy defects presents a challenge in restoring the lost form, function and speech. Maxillary interim obturators in prosthetic reconstruction of the defects are often complicated with lack of adequate retention, stability, and support. This case report presents the simplified approach, to rehabilitate a case of sub-total maxillectomy due to squamous cell carcinoma of maxillary sinus, using a closed hollow bulb obturator prosthesis fabricated with a “U” loop and a modified buccal flange for enhanced retention of the prosthesis. PMID:26538969

  15. [Possibilities of ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of strangulation and obturation forms of commissural small intestine ileus].

    PubMed

    Legostaeva, T B; Kirillova, N Iu

    2001-01-01

    The main aim of this paper, by the authors' intention, was to attempt to study and provide evidence for that routine transabdominal sonography has great capacities in diagnosing small intestinal strangulation and obstruction ileus caused by commissures or tumors. The data of 48 cases of small intestinal ileus (27 of its strangulation form and 21 of its obturation one) were analyzed. The paper details guidelines on ultrasonographic techniques and the ultrasound semiotics of this pathology. It is the first time that the authors give individual methodological and semiotic approaches at sonography in this group of papers. They present a particularly clinical picture in combination with ultrasonographic data by providing their constant comparison, which serves as an additional support of the results of this paper. In the authors' opinion, the findings suggest that transabdominal sonography may be a successful basic diagnostic technique for strangulation and obturation forms of small intestinal ileus.

  16. Softening of the gutta-percha by laser irradiation and its thermal impact in the canal obturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega-Martínez, Roberto; Rodríguez-Rosales, Antonio; Calzada-Nova, Manuel; Copin-Tovar, Antonio

    1998-08-01

    An Argon Laser was employed as a thermal source for the softening of the guttapercha, which is used in the root canal obturation; the preliminary results showed this technique can be superior when compared with other techniques. The tests of sealing with methylene blue with an average penetration of 0.76 mm is obtained on the walls of the channel, with almost a zero risk on the surrounding tissues by effect of the temperature on the surface of the dental pieces.

  17. Pyomyositis of the obturator internus muscle extending to septic arthritis of the hip in a child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Amari, Rui; Yokoi, Hiromichi

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of primary pyomyositis in the obturator internus muscle. Pyomyositis involving muscles around the hip needs to be differentiated from septic arthritis because these infections show similar symptoms. Management with antibiotics can avoid the need for surgical intervention. Uncontrolled pyomyosistis can cause sequelae such as septic shock, osteomyelitis of adjacent bone, and septic arthritis. Awareness of this condition will facilitate correct diagnosis and early treatment.

  18. Evaluation of the Quality of Obturation with Obtura at Different Sizes of Apical Preparation Through Microleakage Testing

    PubMed Central

    Tanikonda, Rambabu; Sajjan, Girija S.; Lakshmi, B.H. Vijaya; Varma, K. Madhu; Satish, R. Kalyan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obturation of the root canal system is required to prevent recontamination of the root canal after cleaning and shaping procedures and to seal the root canal completely, both the apical and coronal avenues of potential leakage and to maintain the disinfected status. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the microleakage by dye leakage method at 1mm, 3mm and 5mm short of the apex with different sizes of apical preparation, obturated by Obtura. Materials and Methods Sixty freshly extracted human single rooted teeth were randomly distributed into six equal groups. Group I (control group) was obturated by lateral compaction technique. Group II to VI were experimental groups (apical preparations done upto ISO sizes 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 respectively), obturated by Obtura technique. After storing the samples at 100% humidity for seven days and one day in 2% methylene blue, the roots of the teeth were sectioned at 3mm short of the apex. They were observed under stereomicroscope at 20X magnification and the images were analysed for microleakage using the scoring criteria. The data obtained were analysed by One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey pair-wise multiple comparison test and p ≤ 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results The lowest mean microleakage score was seen in Group VI (0) and the highest mean leakage score was seen in Group II (1.5). There was statistically significant difference between Group II and Group V (p = 0.044), Group II and Group VI (p = 0.013). There was no significant difference between all the other groups (p> 0.05). Conclusion Comparison of microleakage between different groups from ISO sizes 20-60 recommends a minimum apical preparation of ISO size 30. PMID:27190948

  19. Biomechanical 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Obturator Protheses Retained with Zygomatic and Dental Implants in Maxillary Defects

    PubMed Central

    Akay, Canan; Yaluğ, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the stress distribution in the bone around zygomatic and dental implants for 3 different implant-retained obturator prostheses designs in a Aramany class IV maxillary defect using 3-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). Material\\Methods A 3-dimensional finite element model of an Aramany class IV defect was created. Three different implant-retained obturator prostheses were modeled: model 1 with 1 zygomatic implant and 1 dental implant, model 2 with 1 zygomatic implant and 2 dental implants, and model 3 with 2 zygomatic implants. Locator attachments were used as a superstructure. A 150-N load was applied 3 different ways. Qualitative analysis was based on the scale of maximum principal stress; values obtained through quantitative analysis are expressed in MPa. Results In all loading conditions, model 3 (when compared models 1 and 2) showed the lowest maximum principal stress value. Model 3 is the most appropirate reconstruction in Aramany class IV maxillary defects. Two zygomatic implants can reduce the stresses in model 3. The distribution of stresses on prostheses were more rational with the help of zygoma implants, which can distribute the stresses on each part of the maxilla. Conclusions Aramany class IV obturator prosthesis placement of 2 zygomatic implants in each side of the maxilla is more advantageous than placement of dental implants. In the non-defective side, increasing the number of dental implants is not as suitable as zygomatic implants. PMID:25714086

  20. The influence of obturation technique on sealer thickness and depth of sealer penetration into dentinal tubules evaluated by computer-aided digital analysis.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, Mithun; Neelakantan, Prasanna; Karpagavinayagam, Kumaraguru; Subba Rao, C V

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine sealer penetration into dentinal tubules and sealer thickness with different obturation materials and techniques, with the null hypothesis that sealer cement thickness and dentinal tubule penetration was not affected by obturation technique. This study used 180 freshly extracted human mandibular premolars. Samples were obturated using the lateral condensation technique with either gutta-percha (Group 1) or Resilon (Group 2), using AH Plus (subgroup A) or Epiphany (subgroup B) as a sealer. Other samples were obturated with One-Step Obturator (Group 3) using AH Plus or Epiphany sealer. The sealer thickness and sealer penetration into dentinal tubules was evaluated using stereomicroscopy and analysis of digital images using AutoCAD software at 5.0 mm, 3.0 mm, and 1.0 mm from the apex. The mean value of sealer thickness for Group 3 was significantly lower than the mean values of the other groups. There was no significant difference in the mean values between subgroups A and B for Group 1 or Group 3, whereas for Group 2, the mean value in subgroup A was significantly higher than the mean value in subgroup B. The greatest average frequency of the penetration of sealer cement was found at the 5.0 mm level, followed by the 3.0 mm level, which, in turn, was greater than at the 1.0 mm level. The thickness of the sealer cement is dependent on the obturation technique employed, while the penetration of the sealer into the dentinal tubules is independent of the obturation technique. PMID:22313823

  1. Sealing ability of three hydrophilic single-cone obturation systems: An in vitro glucose leakage study

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Vibha; Arora, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the corono-apical sealing ability of three single-cone obturation systems using a glucose leakage model. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 freshly extracted human maxillary single-rooted teeth was selected, and their crowns were cut. The root canal of each sample was instrumented using a rotary crown down technique and then divided into four experimental (n = 20 each) and two control groups (n = 5 each). Samples in the experimental groups were filled as follows: Group 1, cold lateral condensation using gutta-percha/AH Plus; group 2, single-cone C-points/smart-paste bio-sealer; group 3, single-cone bio-ceramic (BC) impregnated gutta-percha/endo-sequence BC sealer; group 4, single-cone Resilon/RealSeal SE after 7 days, the sealing ability of root canal fillings was tested at different time intervals using glucose leakage model. Glucose leakage values were measured using a spectrophotometer and statistically analyzed. Results: The four experimental groups presented significantly different glucose leakage values at all test periods (P < 0.05). At the end of the observation period, the cumulative glucose leakage values of groups 2 and 3 were significantly lower than those of groups 1 and 4 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: C-points/smart-paste Bio and BC impregnated gutta-percha/endo-sequence BC sealer combinations provided the superior sealing ability over the lateral condensation technique. PMID:25821383

  2. Static vs stochastic optimization: A case study of FTSE Bursa Malaysia sectorial indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah@Rozita

    2014-06-01

    Traditional portfolio optimization methods in the likes of Markowitz' mean-variance model and semi-variance model utilize static expected return and volatility risk from historical data to generate an optimal portfolio. The optimal portfolio may not truly be optimal in reality due to the fact that maximum and minimum values from the data may largely influence the expected return and volatility risk values. This paper considers distributions of assets' return and volatility risk to determine a more realistic optimized portfolio. For illustration purposes, the sectorial indices data in FTSE Bursa Malaysia is employed. The results show that stochastic optimization provides more stable information ratio.

  3. Static vs stochastic optimization: A case study of FTSE Bursa Malaysia sectorial indices

    SciTech Connect

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita

    2014-06-19

    Traditional portfolio optimization methods in the likes of Markowitz' mean-variance model and semi-variance model utilize static expected return and volatility risk from historical data to generate an optimal portfolio. The optimal portfolio may not truly be optimal in reality due to the fact that maximum and minimum values from the data may largely influence the expected return and volatility risk values. This paper considers distributions of assets' return and volatility risk to determine a more realistic optimized portfolio. For illustration purposes, the sectorial indices data in FTSE Bursa Malaysia is employed. The results show that stochastic optimization provides more stable information ratio.

  4. Dermatitis caused by the tropical fowl mite Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese) (Acari: Macronyssidae): a case report in humans.

    PubMed

    Mentz, Márcia Bohrer; Silva, Guilherme Liberato da; Silva, Carlos Eugênio

    2015-01-01

    We herein report human dermatitis caused by the tropical fowl mite Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese). The cases occurred in an apartment in a residential district of Porto Alegre City, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, where three members of the same family presented with pruritic lesions on the arms and legs. On inspecting the bathroom, several mites measuring approximately 1.0mm in length were observed coming from a nest of Rufous Hornero, Furnarius rufus (Gmelin). This is the first report of O. bursa in the urban area of Porto Alegre City, from a nest of F. rufus that bites humans. PMID:26676510

  5. Efficacy of ProTaper Retreatment System in Root Canals Obturated with Gutta-Percha Using Two Different Sealers and GuttaFlow.

    PubMed

    Siotia, Jaya; Acharya, Shashi Rashmi; Gupta, Sunil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare the efficacy of ProTaper retreatment files in removing three different obturating materials. Study Design. Forty-five human, single-rooted premolars were divided into three experimental groups. Group 1 was obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer, Group 2 was obturated with gutta-percha and zinc oxide eugenol sealer, and Group 3 was obturated with GuttaFlow. Retreatment was done using the ProTaper universal rotary retreatment files. Root halves were visualized using magnifying loops at 3X magnification and optical stereomicroscope at 10X magnification. Images were analyzed using AutoCAD 2004 software to calculate area of the remaining debris in the canal. For statistical analysis were used variance test and ANOVA. Results. Total debris/canal area ratio between the three groups showed a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). Conclusion. ProTaper retreatment system did not produce completely clean canals in any of the groups. However, it had the best efficacy towards removing silicon based obturating material GuttaFlow. PMID:22114598

  6. Root surface temperature rises in vitro during root canal obturation with thermoplasticized gutta-percha on a carrier or by injection.

    PubMed

    Lipski, Mariusz

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to measure the temperature rise on the outer root surfaces of teeth during four different root canal obturation techniques. Sixty extracted human maxillary and mandibular premolars with a single canal were used. After root canal cleaning and shaping, the teeth were randomly divided into four groups of 15 teeth each and obturated with Thermafil obturators or Soft-Core obturators using Ultrafil or Trifecta low-temperature thermoplasticized gutta-percha techniques. Temperature changes on the external mesial root surfaces were measured using a thermal imaging camera. Lower temperature rises were found for Ultrafil and Trifecta techniques (2.14 degrees C and 2.03 degrees C, respectively) than for Thermafil and Soft-Core techniques (3.87 degrees C and 3.67 degrees C, respectively). These findings suggest that solid core gutta-percha combined with low-temperature injectable gutta-percha obturation techniques may impose less risk for thermal damage to the surrounding periradicular tissues.

  7. [The investigation of malaria cases in Bursa between 2006-2008].

    PubMed

    Alver, Oktay; Atici, Efrail; Töre, Okan

    2009-01-01

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium parasites is one of the most common infectious diseases and an enormous public health problem. In this study, malaria cases detected and reported by the Malaria Control Dispensary of the Infectious Disease Division of Bursa Health Directory from October 2006 through December 2008 have been reported. The cases were evaluated according to age, gender, occupation and localization of the cases (indigenous or imported cases). A total of 23.416 blood smears were examined during this 26-month period and malaria parasite was found in 9 cases (0.038%). Of the 9 positive cases, 8 (88.9%) were male and 1 (11.1%) was female. Of these, 4 (44.5%) were acquired in Azarbajcan; 1 (1.1%) in Pakistan; 1 (1.1%) in Ghana; 1 (1.1%) in Sudan; 1 (1.1%) in an unknown Africa country; and 1 (1.1%) in the southeastern of Turkey. Except for three cases of foreign origin infected with Plasmodium falciparum, all the other cases were caused by Plasmodium vivax. The 0.05% decrease in malaria cases during the last 26-month, compared with prior data of malaria prevalence in Bursa, resulted primarily from a decrease in the number of cases acquired in Turkey. PMID:19598089

  8. Iliopsoas Bursa-Hip Capsule Connection Leading to Intra-abdominal Fluid Extravasation.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Daniel R; Moya-Angeler, Joaquin; Sierra, Rafael J

    2015-11-01

    Intra-abdominal fluid extravasation is a rare complication of hip arthroscopy, with a reported incidence of 0.16%. Associated risk factors include recent acetabular fracture, extra-articular procedures, iliopsoas tenotomy, and high fluid pump pressure. These previously reported risk factors were not present in the 48-year-old woman reported in this article. The patient elected to undergo hip arthroscopy for mechanical hip pain that persisted for 18 months. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a "normal variant communication [between] the iliopsoas bursa" and the hip capsule. Postoperative examination showed a tense, distended abdomen. After extubation, the patient had severe abdominal and pleuritic chest pain. Postoperative imaging showed significant retro- and intraperitoneal fluid extravasation. Ultrasound-guided paracentesis was used to drain the intraperitoneal fluid collection, with a significant decrease in pain. The patient returned home less than 24 hours later, with no further complications. The authors believe that the preexisting connection between the hip capsule and the iliopsoas bursa allowed the arthroscopy fluid to easily track proximally within the tendon sheath, despite relatively low fluid pump pressure. Surgeons should be aware of this possible "normal variant communication," which may be considered a relative contraindication to hip arthroscopy, especially in patients with arthritic changes on preoperative imaging. This must be addressed with the patient preoperatively, with proper counseling and patient selection. If arthroscopy is pursued, the surgical and anesthesia teams must be vigilant for signs of intra-abdominal fluid extravasation and must be prepared to treat this potentially serious complication.

  9. Sealing Ability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Calcium-Enriched Mixture Cement as Apical Barriers with Different Obturation Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Tabrizizade, Mahdi; Asadi, Yasin; Sooratgar, Aidin; Moradi, Saeed; Sooratgar, Hossein; Ayatollahi, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Endodontic treatment in pulpless immature teeth is challenging due to the lack of an apical stop. Insertion of an apical plug is an alternative to conventional long-term apexification with calcium hydroxide. The aim of this study was to compare the apical microleakage of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement as apical plugs with three different obturation techniques. Methods and Materials: This experimental study was conducted on 130 single rooted human teeth with one canal. Samples were randomly divided into 2 experimental groups (n=60) and two negative and positive control groups containing 5 samples each. After cleaning and shaping, an open apex configuration was prepared in all samples. MTA or CEM cement apical plugs with 5 mm thicknesses were placed. Then, each group was divided to 4 subgroups and the remaining space of root canals were filled with either lateral compaction or thermoplasticized injectable gutta-percha or was obturated by filling the entire canal with apical plug material. In one remaining subgroup the canal space was left unfilled. Microleakage was measured by the fluid filtration method and results were analyzed by means of the two-way ANOVA test. Results: There were no significant differences between microleakage of MTA and CEM cement apical plugs (P=0.92). The difference between three obturation methods was not significant, either (P=0.39). Conclusion: MTA and CEM cement have similar sealing ability as apical plugs and no significant difference was found in microleakage of the three groups. PMID:25386206

  10. Comparative evaluation of a novel smart-seal obturating system and its homogeneity of using cone beam computed tomography: In vitro simulated lateral canal study

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Shashank; Hegde, Vibha

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to evaluate and compare a novel polyamide polymer based obturating system and Gutta-percha and sealer in filling simulated lateral canals and their homogeneity when used for obturating the root canals. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 freshly extracted human single rooted teeth with fully formed apices were selected for this study. Teeth were de-coronated, and roots were standardized to a working length of 15 mm. Root canal preparation was carried out with rotary Protaper file system in all groups. The specimens were then randomly divided into three groups A, B, and C (n = 20). Ten samples from each group were decalcified and simulated lateral canals were made at 2, 4, and 6 mm from the root apex. Remaining ten samples from each group were maintained calcified. Group A was obturated with SmartSeal system (Prosmart-DRFP Ltd., Stamford, UK). Group B was obturated with sectional backfill method. Group C was obutrated with cold lateral compaction method (control). Decalcified samples from the respective groups were analyzed with digital radiography and photography and the measurement of the linear extension and area of lateral canal filling was done using UTHSCSA (UTHSCSA Image Tool for Windows version 3.0, San Antonio, TX, USA) software. Calcified samples were subjected to cone beam computed tomography image analysis sectioned axially. Results: Group A 92.46 ± 19.45 showed greatest extent of filling in lateral canals and denser homogeneity of oburation, followed by Group B 78.43 ± 26.45 and Group C 52.12 ± 36.67. Conclusions: Polyamide polymer obturation proved to have greater efficiency when compared with Gutta-percha system, when used for obturation with regards to adaptation of the sealer and penetration into the simulated lateral canals. PMID:25125851

  11. An in vitro comparative study of the adaptation and sealing ability of two carrier-based root canal obturators.

    PubMed

    Alkahtani, Ahmed; Al-Subait, Sara; Anil, Sukumaran

    2013-01-01

    The study was done to assess the sealing ability and adaptation of RealSeal 1, and to compare it with Thermafil. 65 single-rooted extracted teeth were selected and root canal treatment was performed. Root canals were obturated with RealSeal 1 or Thermafil. A double chamber bacterial leakage model using E. faecalis was developed to assess the sealing ability. Samples were monitored daily for 60 days. After the bacterial leakage test, samples were embedded in resin and sectioned horizontally at 2 and 4 mm from the apical foramen. Specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope and digitally photographed. AutoCAD software was used to measure the gap between the canal surface and obturation material. Results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for the bacterial leakage and t-test to compare the means of gap in RealSeal 1 and Thermafil at 2 and 4 mm. There was no significant difference between the RealSeal 1 and Thermafil with respect to leakage over time. At 2 mm and 4 mm, RealSeal 1 had significantly more gaps than Thermafil. From the observations it can be concluded that RealSeal 1 and Thermafil have comparable performance in terms of adaptation and sealing ability. PMID:23710141

  12. Fracture Resistance of Simulated Immature Teeth Obturated with Gutta-Percha or Resilon and Reinforced by Composite or Post

    PubMed Central

    Bolhari, Behnam; Mojazi Amiri, Elham; Kermanshah, Hamidreza; Ghabraei, Sholeh; Jamei, Azad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this ex- vivo study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth, obturated with Gutta-percha or Resilon and reinforced by either composite resin or fiber post. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four human maxillary incisors were divided into seven groups (n=12). Teeth in all groups were prepared until Peeso #5 (1.5mm) could be passed through the apex. Root ends received 4mm of MTA plug as an apical barrier. Groups received the followings: 1.Gutta-percha, 2.Resilon, 3.Gutta-percha + composite resin, 4.Resilon + composite resin, 5.Gutta-percha + fiber post, 6.Resilon + fiber post and 7.No obturation (control group). Access openings were filled with composite resin. Specimens were then subjected to oblique load using Instron Testing Machine. The mean peak load at fracture was recorded and analyzed using ANOVA. Results: Experimental groups had a significantly more fracture resistance than the control group (P< 0.05). No significant difference was seen between experimental groups. Teeth reinforced by fiber post showed favorable fracture resistance. Conclusion: Treatment plans used in this study increase the fracture resistance of immature teeth. Use of fiber posts in immature teeth, may be the most favorable clinically applicable technique. PMID:26056522

  13. An in vitro comparative study of the adaptation and sealing ability of two carrier-based root canal obturators.

    PubMed

    Alkahtani, Ahmed; Al-Subait, Sara; Anil, Sukumaran

    2013-01-01

    The study was done to assess the sealing ability and adaptation of RealSeal 1, and to compare it with Thermafil. 65 single-rooted extracted teeth were selected and root canal treatment was performed. Root canals were obturated with RealSeal 1 or Thermafil. A double chamber bacterial leakage model using E. faecalis was developed to assess the sealing ability. Samples were monitored daily for 60 days. After the bacterial leakage test, samples were embedded in resin and sectioned horizontally at 2 and 4 mm from the apical foramen. Specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope and digitally photographed. AutoCAD software was used to measure the gap between the canal surface and obturation material. Results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for the bacterial leakage and t-test to compare the means of gap in RealSeal 1 and Thermafil at 2 and 4 mm. There was no significant difference between the RealSeal 1 and Thermafil with respect to leakage over time. At 2 mm and 4 mm, RealSeal 1 had significantly more gaps than Thermafil. From the observations it can be concluded that RealSeal 1 and Thermafil have comparable performance in terms of adaptation and sealing ability.

  14. Inguinal or inguino-iliac/obturator lymph node dissection after positive inguinal sentinel lymph node in patients with cutaneous melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Glumac, Nebojsa; Hocevar, Marko; Zadnik, Vesna; Snoj, Marko

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to determine whether the presence of inguinal sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases smaller than 2 mm (micrometastases) subdivided according to the number of micrometastases predicts additional, non-sentinel inguinal, iliac or obturator lymph node involvement in completion lymph node dissection (CLND). Patients and methods. Positive inguinal SLN was detected in 58 patients (32 female, 26 male, median age 55 years) from 743 consecutive and prospectively enrolled patients with primary cutaneous melanoma stage I and II who were treated with SLN biopsy between 2001 and 2007. Results Micrometastases in inguinal SLN were detected in 32 patients, 14 were single, 2 were double, and 16 were multiple. Twenty-six patients had macrometastases. Conclusions No patient with any micrometastases or a single SLN macrometastasis in the inguinal region had any iliac/obturator non-sentinel metastases after CLND in our series. Furthermore, no patient with single SLN micrometastasis in the inguinal region had any non-sentinel metastases at all after CLND in our series. In these cases respective CLND might be omitted. PMID:23077465

  15. Retreatability of Root Canals Obturated Using Gutta-Percha with Bioceramic, MTA and Resin-Based Sealers

    PubMed Central

    Uzunoglu, Emel; Yilmaz, Zeliha; Sungur, Derya Deniz; Altundasar, Emre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the retreatability of root canals obturated with gutta-percha (GP) and three different endodontic sealers [iRoot SP (bioceramic sealer), MTA Fillapex (MTA-based sealer) and AH-26 (epoxy resin-based sealer)] using the ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTR) system. Methods and Materials: Forty extracted single-rooted human teeth were prepared with universal ProTaper files up to F4 (40/0.06). Specimens were randomly divided into four groups according to obturation technique/material: single-cone GP/AH-26, lateral compaction of GP/AH-26, single-cone GP/iRoot SP, and single-cone GP/MTA Fillapex. Root fillings were removed with PTR. The time taken to reach the working-length (TWL) was recorded. Roots were longitudinally sectioned and each half was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Three observers scored each third of all specimen. Obtained data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, Welch and Games-Howell tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: In single-cone GP/MTA Fillapex group the TWL was significantly shorter. The remnant of filling material in the apical and middle thirds of groups was similar and higher than the coronal thirds. Conclusion: None of the tested sealers were completely removed from the root canal system. PMID:25834591

  16. An In Vitro Comparative Study of the Adaptation and Sealing Ability of Two Carrier-Based Root Canal Obturators

    PubMed Central

    Alkahtani, Ahmed; Al-Subait, Sara; Anil, Sukumaran

    2013-01-01

    The study was done to assess the sealing ability and adaptation of RealSeal 1, and to compare it with Thermafil. 65 single-rooted extracted teeth were selected and root canal treatment was performed. Root canals were obturated with RealSeal 1 or Thermafil. A double chamber bacterial leakage model using E. faecalis was developed to assess the sealing ability. Samples were monitored daily for 60 days. After the bacterial leakage test, samples were embedded in resin and sectioned horizontally at 2 and 4 mm from the apical foramen. Specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope and digitally photographed. AutoCAD software was used to measure the gap between the canal surface and obturation material. Results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for the bacterial leakage and t-test to compare the means of gap in RealSeal 1 and Thermafil at 2 and 4 mm. There was no significant difference between the RealSeal 1 and Thermafil with respect to leakage over time. At 2 mm and 4 mm, RealSeal 1 had significantly more gaps than Thermafil. From the observations it can be concluded that RealSeal 1 and Thermafil have comparable performance in terms of adaptation and sealing ability. PMID:23710141

  17. Microstructure and diversity of the bursa copulatrix wall in Tortricidae (Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Lincango, Piedad; Fernández, Guillermo; Baixeras, Joaquín

    2013-05-01

    The inner surface and muscle structure of the bursa copulatrix are examined for the first time with Electron Microscopy in some representatives of the family Tortricidae (Lepidoptera). The internal microprotuberances reveal taxon dependent characters unstudied in the Lepidoptera until now. Acanthae occur in almost all taxa studied, whereas ctenidia and papillae are found only in representatives of Tortricinae and Olethreutinae, respectively. Muscles are radially arranged from the signa. Areas of muscle insertion on the bursal wall are not covered by other muscle fibers. Muscle attachments to evaginated areas, e.g. capitulum and diverticulum, suggest an apodeme role for these structures, correlated with long protruding signa. The potential evolutionary and adaptive significance of these new findings are discussed. PMID:23396268

  18. Generation of a Transposon Mutant Library in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis Using bursa aurealis.

    PubMed

    Yajjala, Vijaya Kumar; Widhelm, Todd J; Endres, Jennifer L; Fey, Paul D; Bayles, Kenneth W

    2016-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis is a genetic process that involves the random insertion of transposons into a genome resulting in the disruption of function of the genes in which they insert. Identification of the insertion sites through DNA sequencing allows for the identification of the genes disrupted and the creation of "libraries" containing a collection of mutants in which a large number of the nonessential genes have been disrupted. These mutant libraries have been a great resource for investigators to understand the various biological functions of individual genes, including those involved in metabolism, antibiotic susceptibility, and pathogenesis. Here, we describe the detailed methodologies for constructing a sequence defined transposon mutant library in both Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis using the mariner-based transposon, bursa aurealis.

  19. A Comparative in Vitro Study of Apical Microleakage with Five Obturation Techniques: Lateral Condensation, Soft-Core®, Obtura II®, Guttaflow® and Resilon®

    PubMed Central

    Pallarés, Antonio; Cabanillas, Cristina; Zarzosa, Ignacio; Victoria, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Aim A comparison was made between the root canal lateral condensation technique and other condensation techniques in which physical (temperature: Soft-Core®, Obtura II®) or chemical changes (condensation: Guttaflow®, Resilon®) may affect the dimensional stability of obturation and thus favor apical microleakage. Materials and methods A total of 212 single-root teeth removed for orthodontic or periodontal reasons were randomized to 5 groups of 40 teeth each. Six samples were used as positive controls, and another 6 as negative controls. The teeth were worked with the Hero 642 system, and each group was obturated using a different technique: lateral condensation, Obtura II®, Soft-Core®, Guttaflow® or Resilon®. The samples were immersed in black ink, and after 72 hours the teeth were transparentized using the technique described by Robertson. Filtration of the ink was measured under the stereoscopic microscope. Analysis of variance and post-hoc testing were used for the statistical analysis. Results The Soft-Core® obturated group showed significantly greater microleakage than the other groups, with no differences among the rest of the groups. Conclusions Under the conditions of this study, the teeth obturated with the Soft-Core® technique showed greater apical microleakage than the other systems.

  20. Effect of advanced irrigation protocols on self-expanding Smart-Seal obturation system: A scanning electron microscopic push-out bond strength study

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Vibha; Arora, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different final irrigation activation techniques affect the bond strength of self-expanding Smart-Seal obturation at the different thirds of root canal space. Materials and Methods: One hundred single-rooted human teeth were prepared using the Pro-Taper system to size F3, and a final irrigation regimen using 3% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA was performed. The specimens were randomly divided into five groups (n = 20) according to the final irrigation activation technique used as follows: No activation (control), manual dynamic activation (MDA), CanalBrush activation, ultrasonic activation (UA) and EndoActivator. Five specimens from each group were subjected to scanning electron microscopic observation for assessment of the smear layer removal after the final irrigation procedures. All remaining roots were then obturated with Smart-Seal obturation system. A push-out test was used to measure the bond strength between the root canal dentin and Smart-Seal paste. The data obtained from the push-out test were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post-hoc tests. Conclusions: It was observed that UA improved the bond strength of Smart-Seal obturation in the coronal and middle third and MDA/EndoActivator in the apical third of the root canal space. PMID:25684907

  1. Clinical and radiological evaluation of zinc oxide-eugenol and Maisto's paste as obturating materials in infected primary teeth--nine months study.

    PubMed

    Reddy, V V; Fernandes

    1996-06-01

    The present study, performed in-vivo, included 30 infected primary teeth in 26 children in the age group of 3-8 years. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of two obturating materials, zinc oxide-eugenol and Maisto's paste, in infected primary teeth. 30 teeth were divided into two groups of 15 teeth. Teeth in Group I were obturated using zinc oxide-eugenol and those in Group II were obturated using Maisto's paste. On clinical evaluation, teeth obturated with Maisto's paste showed 100% success. Five teeth that were overfilled with Maisto's paste showed complete resorption of excess material within 3 months while the two teeth overfilled with zinc oxide-eugenol showed incomplete resorption of the excess material even after 9 months. Zinc oxide-eugenol treated cases showed only 26.7% bone regeneration while in case of Maisto's paste, it was 93%. Complete healing of the inter-radicular pathology was seen with Maisto's paste. However, the pathology was present in 40% of the zinc oxide-eugenol treated teeth even after 9 months. Maisto's paste was thus seen to be superior to zinc oxide-eugenol both in clinical as well as radiological evaluation, done over a period of 9 months in relation to bone regeneration, healing of inter-radicular pathology and resorption of excess material.

  2. Postoperative pain after one-visit root-canal treatment on teeth with vital pulps: Comparison of three different obturation technique

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Ezpeleta, Luis O.; Gasco-Garcia, Carmen; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Martín-González, Jenifer; López-Frías, Francsico J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate and compare postoperative pain after one-visit root canal treatment (RCT) on teeth with vital pulps using three different obturation techniques. Study Design. Two hundred and four patients (105 men and 99 women) aged 12 to 77 years were randomly assigned into three treatments groups: cold lateral compaction of gutta-percha (LC), Thermafil technique (TT), and Backfill - Thermafil obturation technique (BT). Postoperative pain was recorded on a visual analogue scale (VAS) of 0 - 10 after 2 and 6 hours, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. Data were statistically analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results. In the total sample, 87% of patients experienced discomfort or pain in some moment between RCT and the seventh day. The discomfort experienced was weak, light, moderate and intense in 6%, 44%, 20% and 6% of the cases, respectively. Mean pain levels were 0.4 ± 0.4, 0.4 ± 0.3, and 1.4 ± 0.7 in LC, BT, and TT groups, respectively. Patients of TT group experienced a significantly higher mean pain level compared to other two groups (p < 0.0001). In TT group, all patients felt some level of pain at six hours after RCT. Conclusions. Postoperative pain was significantly associated with the obturation technique used during root canal treatment. Patients whose teeth were filled with Thermafil obturators (TT technique) showed significantly higher levels of discomfort than patients whose teeth were filled using any of the other two techniques. Key words:Postoperative pain, root-canal obturation, root-canal treatment, Thermafil. PMID:22322522

  3. Ipsilateral obturator type of hip dislocation with fracture shaft femur in a child: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Arjun, R H H; Kumar, Vishal; Saibaba, Balaji; John, Rakesh; Guled, Uday; Aggarwal, Sameer

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of traumatic hip dislocations in children is rising in this fast developing world along with increasing numbers of high-velocity road traffic accidents. Anterior dislocation of the hip has a lower incidence compared with posterior dislocation of the hip. We encountered a rare case of the obturator type of anteriorly dislocated hip associated with ipsilateral fracture of the shaft femur in an 11-year-old child. This is a highly unusual injury combination and the mechanism of injury is obscure. Only two similar cases have been reported in the English literature to date. Closed reduction of the hip using a hitherto undescribed technique and an intramedullary interlocking nail was performed in this case. At 6 months of follow-up, the fracture shaft femur has united and the child is bearing full weight on the limb. PMID:27128394

  4. Nickel Chloride (NiCl2) Induces Histopathological Lesions via Oxidative Damage in the Broiler's Bursa of Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shuang; Guo, Hongrui; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Tang, Kun; Li, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the histopathological lesions, oxidative damage, changes of immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) contents in the bursa of Fabricius and serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA) induced by dietary nickel chloride (NiCl2). Two hundred and eighty-one-day-old broilers were randomly divided into four groups and fed on a control diet and three experimental diets supplemented with 300, 600, and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. Lesions were observed in the NiCl2-treated groups. Histopathologically, lymphocytes were decreased in lymphoid follicles with thinner cortices and wider medullae. Concurrently, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the ability to inhibit hydroxyl radical and glutathione (GSH) contents were significantly (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) decreased, while malondialdehyde (MDA) contents were increased in the NiCl2-treated groups. The serum IgG, IgM, and bursa IgG and IgM contents were significantly (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01) lower in the NiCl2-treated groups than those in the control group. The above-mentioned results show that dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg can cause histopathological lesions via oxidative damage, which finally impairs the function of the bursa of Fabricius and reduces IgG and IgM contents of the serum and the bursa of Fabricius. The study is aimed to provide helpful materials for studies on Ni- or Ni compounds-induced B cell toxicity in both human and other animals in the future. PMID:26440478

  5. [Resection of a left obturator lymph node recurrence five years five months after surgery for rectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Takenoya, Takashi; Kobayashi, Yukari; Suda, Kouichi; Shimizu, Kazuki; Kikuichi, Masahiro

    2014-11-01

    A 62-year-old man with lower rectal cancer underwent abdominoperineal resection and dissection of the lateral pelvic lymph nodes. The cancer was staged at pT3pN0cM0, pStage II and did not show recurrence. Two years later, the patient had dysphagia and was diagnosed with esophageal cancer based on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) performed to detect distant metastasis revealed fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the left obturator lymph nodes, indicating rectal cancer recurrence. The patient received radiation therapy (60.4 Gy) for the recurrence. A PET/CT scan obtained 2 years 6 months after the initial rectal cancer resection revealed no FDG uptake. Uraciltegafur plus Leucovorin (UFT+LV) was started and continued for 6 months, but tumor enlargement was noted. Treatment was changed to LV, 5-fluorouracil, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI), but after 4 courses, the patient's carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels rose. The patient then received 4 courses of bevacizumab plus FOLFIRI. A CT scan revealed tumor shrinkage, so the patient received 4 more courses of this regimen. Five years postoperatively, the patient's CEA levels rose again. A PET/CT scan 4 months later revealed FDG uptake in the left obturator lymph nodes, indicative of rectal cancer recurrence. One month later, the lymph nodes were resected. The patient was subsequently recurrence free. Tumor marker measurement and PET/CT helped to assess the patient's condition. When cancer recurs in the lateral pelvic lymph nodes with no involvement of the pelvis and R0 resection is possible, resection should be considered if the patient is capable of undergoing surgery.

  6. Evaluation of Coronal Leakage Following Different Obturation Techniques and in-vitro Evalution Using Methylene Blue Dye Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Rachit; Sharma, Medhavi; Sharma, Deepak; Raisingani, Deepak; Vishnoi, Suchita; Singhal, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Coronal and apical leakage still remains one of the most important cause for endodontic failure in spite of the presence of advanced endodontic materials. The cause may attribute to different filling techniques, physical and chemical properties of sealers and presence or absence of smear layer assessment of coronal or apical leakage is used as a research method to compare the sealing ability of different techniques and endodontic materials. Aim To compare the coronal bacterial leakage using methylene blue in four different obturation techniques after protaper hand instrumentation. Materials and Methods Ninety extracted single-rooted teeth were instrumented to an apical preparation size F3 Protaper hand files. Twenty teeth were randomly obturated with lateral compaction, 20 with vertical compaction, 20 with combination of vertical and lateral compaction and 20 with Thermafil. Ten teeth were used for positive and negative controls (five teeth in each group). Teeth were kept in 100% humidity for 90 days, and then subjected coronally to Proteus vulgaris for 21 days to assess bacterial leakage. After bacterial challenge, methylene blue was placed coronally for another 21 days, and then scoring was done according to depth of dye leakage. Chi-square test was done for statistical analysis. Results Leakage as observed with combination of vertical and lateral compaction was significantly less than vertical compaction, lateral compaction and thermafil carriers during bacterial challenge. However, when dye was used it also showed statistically significant results with thermafil carriers showing the least leakage in comparison to vertical condensation, lateral condensation and combined groups. Conclusion The study concludes that two different methods i.e. bacterial and dye leakage revealed considerable variation on the same substrate Thus, due to the presence of variability among the results obtained by two different analytical methods used in the present study

  7. Bursa of Fabricius--mitotic index in the follicles of immunized and non-immunized chicks (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Betti, F; Borella, M I

    1979-01-01

    The mitotic index in the cortical compartment of the follicles of the bursa of Fabricius from chicks immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) is always higher when compaired with non-immunized ones. This mitotic index reachs its maximum 6 days after the SRBC injection, coincident with the highest serum antibody titer. The mitotic activity in the cortex of the follicles of the bursa of Fabricius is always higher than that of the medulla during the postembryonic development of chickens (PROCHAZKA, RODAK, KREJCI 1967). Otherwise it is almost established that the cortex is a zone of continuous lymphocyte proliferation, not occuring the same with the medulla. In addition these bursal histological structures are considered as 2 distinct compartments (GROSSI et al. 1974). The purpose of this paper is to study the response in the mitotic index of the cortical and medullary compartments of the follicles of the bursa of immunized and non-immunized chicks. To correlate possible changes in the mitotic index with circulating antibody levels, the serum antibody titer from the same birds was also recorded.

  8. Frequency of Penetration of the Digital Flexor Tendon Sheath and Distal Interphalangeal Joint Using a Direct Endoscopic Approach to the Navicular Bursa in Horses

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Sarah Elizabeth; García, Eugenio Cillán; Reardon, Richard J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the frequency of inadvertent penetration of the digital flexor tendon sheath (DFTS) and/or distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) when using a direct endoscopic approach to the navicular bursa, and to evaluate an alternate direct approach to the navicular bursa. Study Design Cadaveric study. Sample Population Equine cadaver limbs (n = 40 for direct; n = 12 for alternate approach). Methods Four surgeons performed the direct endoscopic approach to the navicular bursa on 10 limbs each. Frequencies of inadvertent synovial penetration and iatrogenic damage were compared between surgeons. Use of an alternate direct approach, adopting a straight parasagittal trajectory, was evaluated by 2 surgeons. Results Inadvertent synovial penetration occurred in 45% of limbs (DFTS 37.5%; DIPJ 17.5%; and both structures 10%). Successful bursa entry was achieved on the first attempt in 45% of limbs. Significant variation in frequency of inadvertent synovial penetration was observed between surgeons (range 10–80%). Inadvertent synovial penetration did not occur when using the alternate direct technique. Iatrogenic damage to navicular bone fibrocartilage and/or deep digital flexor tendon occurred in 55% of limbs using the direct endoscopic approach and in 0% of limbs using the alternate direct approach. Conclusion Because of the considerable risk of inadvertent penetration of the DFTS and/or the DIPJ when making a direct endoscopic approach to the navicular bursa, it is advisable to investigate for inadvertent penetration when treating navicular bursa sepsis using a direct approach. The alternate direct technique may reduce the risk of inadvertent penetration; however, the view within the bursa may be restricted. PMID:26971252

  9. Estimation of stochastic volatility with long memory for index prices of FTSE Bursa Malaysia KLCI

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Kho Chia; Kane, Ibrahim Lawal; Rahman, Haliza Abd; Bahar, Arifah; Ting, Chee-Ming

    2015-02-03

    In recent years, modeling in long memory properties or fractionally integrated processes in stochastic volatility has been applied in the financial time series. A time series with structural breaks can generate a strong persistence in the autocorrelation function, which is an observed behaviour of a long memory process. This paper considers the structural break of data in order to determine true long memory time series data. Unlike usual short memory models for log volatility, the fractional Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is neither a Markovian process nor can it be easily transformed into a Markovian process. This makes the likelihood evaluation and parameter estimation for the long memory stochastic volatility (LMSV) model challenging tasks. The drift and volatility parameters of the fractional Ornstein-Unlenbeck model are estimated separately using the least square estimator (lse) and quadratic generalized variations (qgv) method respectively. Finally, the empirical distribution of unobserved volatility is estimated using the particle filtering with sequential important sampling-resampling (SIR) method. The mean square error (MSE) between the estimated and empirical volatility indicates that the performance of the model towards the index prices of FTSE Bursa Malaysia KLCI is fairly well.

  10. The Tail Exponent for Stock Returns in Bursa Malaysia for 2003-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusli, N. H.; Gopir, G.; Usang, M. D.

    2010-07-01

    A developed discipline of econophysics that has been introduced is exhibiting the application of mathematical tools that are usually applied to the physical models for the study of financial models. In this study, an analysis of the time series behavior of several blue chip and penny stock companies in Main Market of Bursa Malaysia has been performed. Generally, the basic quantity being used is the relative price changes or is called the stock price returns, contains daily-sampled data from the beginning of 2003 until the end of 2008, containing 1555 trading days recorded. The aim of this paper is to investigate the tail exponent in tails of the distribution for blue chip stocks and penny stocks financial returns in six years period. By using a standard regression method, it is found that the distribution performed double scaling on the log-log plot of the cumulative probability of the normalized returns. Thus we calculate α for a small scale return as well as large scale return. Based on the result obtained, it is found that the power-law behavior for the probability density functions of the stock price absolute returns P(z)˜z-α with values lying inside and outside the Lévy stable regime with values α>2. All the results were discussed in detail.

  11. Atmospheric dry deposition fluxes of trace elements measured in Bursa, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, Yücel; Kural, Can

    2005-12-01

    Trace element dry deposition fluxes were measured using a smooth, greased, knife-edge surrogate surface (KSS) holding greased Mylar strips in Bursa, Turkey. Sampling program was conducted between October 2002 and June 2003 and 46 dry deposition samples were collected. The average fluxes of crustal metals (Mg, Ca, and Fe) were one to four orders of magnitude higher than the fluxes of anthropogenic metals. Trace element fluxes ranged from 3 (Cd) to 24,230 (Ca) microg m(-2) d(-1). The average trace element dry deposition fluxes measured in this study were similar to those measured in other urban areas. In addition, ambient air samples were also collected simultaneously with flux samples and concentrations of trace elements, collected with a TSP sampler, were between 0.7 and 4900 ng m(-3) for Cd and Ca, respectively. The overall trace element dry deposition velocities, calculated by dividing the fluxes to the particle phase concentrations ranged from 2.3+/-1.7 cm s(-1) (Pb) to 11.1+/-6.4 cm s(-1) (Ni). These values are in good agreement with the values calculated using similar techniques. The anthropogenic and crustal contributions were estimated by employing enrichment factors (EFs) calculated relative to the average crustal composition. Low EFs for dry deposition samples were calculated. This is probably due to contamination of local dust and its important contribution to the collected samples.

  12. Helminth infections of wild boars (Sus scrofa) in the Bursa province of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Senlik, B; Cirak, V Y; Girisgin, O; Akyol, C V

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the status of helminth infections in wild boars in the Bursa province of Turkey. For this purpose, during 2007-2008, 27 wild boars were necropsied and examined for helminths. Individual samples of tongue and diaphragm from 27 necropsied wild boars and an additional 22 tongue and diaphragm samples provided by hunters were examined by trichinoscopy and artificial digestion for Trichinella spp. larvae. Twenty animals (74%) were identified as being infected with at least one helminth species. Twelve species of helminths were detected, with the following prevalence rates: Metastrongylus apri (59%), Metastrongylus salmi (52%), Metastrongylus pudendotectus (52%), Dicrocoelium dendriticum (33%), Globocephalus urosubulatus (22%), Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (19%), Gongylonema pulchrum (11%), Physocephalus sexalatus (7%), Trichuris suis (7%), Ascarops strongylina (4%), Hyostrongylus rubidus (4%) and Taenia hydatigena larvae (4%). Generally, lungworms were the predominant helminths. The highest mean abundance was observed for M. pudendotectus, and the lowest was determined for T. hydatigena larvae. Significant differences in the prevalence and intensity were found for D. dendriticum with respect to host age and sex, respectively. The mean intensity of M. pudendotectus was significantly influenced by the sex and age of the wild boars. This study is the first report describing the presence of M. salmi, M. pudendotectus, D. dendriticum, G. urosubulatus, M. hirudinaceus, P. sexalatus, A. strongylina and H. rubidus in wild boars in Turkey. All analysed muscle samples were negative for Trichinella spp. larvae.

  13. Evaluation of radon concentration in well and tap waters in Bursa, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akar Tarim, U; Gurler, O; Akkaya, G; Kilic, N; Yalcin, S; Kaynak, G; Gundogdu, O

    2012-06-01

    (222)Rn measurements in water samples collected from 27 wells and 19 taps that were supplied from the investigated wells were conducted using the AlphaGUARD PQ 2000PRO radon gas analyser at sites across several geologic formations within the city of Bursa, Turkey. The measured radon concentrations ranged from 1.46 to 53.64 Bq l(-1) for well water and from 0.91 to 12.58 Bq l(-1) for tap water. Of the 27 sites sampled, only 7 had radon levels above the safe limit of 11.1 Bq l(-1) recommended by the USEPA. In general, all determined concentrations were well below the 100 Bq l(-1) revised reference level proposed by the European Union. These values of radon concentrations in water samples are compared with those reported from other countries. Doses resulting from the consumption of these waters were calculated. The minimum and the maximum annual mean effective doses due to (222)Rn intake through water consumption were 0.02 µSv a(-1) and 1.11 µSv a(-1), respectively. PMID:21990391

  14. Fabricating a tooth- and implant-supported maxillary obturator for a patient after maxillectomy with computer-guided surgery and CAD/CAM technology: A clinical report.

    PubMed

    Noh, Kwantae; Pae, Ahran; Lee, Jung-Woo; Kwon, Yong-Dae

    2016-05-01

    An obturator prosthesis with insufficient retention and support may be improved with implant placement. However, implant surgery in patients after maxillary tumor resection can be complicated because of limited visibility and anatomic complexity. Therefore, computer-guided surgery can be advantageous even for experienced surgeons. In this clinical report, the use of computer-guided surgery is described for implant placement using a bone-supported surgical template for a patient with maxillary defects. The prosthetic procedure was facilitated and simplified by using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) technology. Oral function and phonetics were restored using a tooth- and implant-supported obturator prosthesis. No clinical symptoms and no radiographic signs of significant bone loss around the implants were found at a 3-year follow-up. The treatment approach presented here can be a viable option for patients with insufficient remaining zygomatic bone after a hemimaxillectomy. PMID:26774316

  15. Perineural Dexmedetomidine as an Adjuvant Reduces the Median Effective Concentration of Lidocaine for Obturator Nerve Blocking: A Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuechun; Sun, Jian; Zhuang, Xinqi; Lv, Guoyi; Li, Yize; Wang, Haiyun; Wang, Guolin

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that the addition of dexmedetomidine to local anesthetics can prolong peripheral nerve blocks; however, it is not known whether dexmedetomidine can reduce the quantity of local anesthetic needed. We hypothesized that adding dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant to an obturator nerve block could reduce the median effective concentration of lidocaine. In this double-blinded randomized trial, 60 patients scheduled for elective transurethral resection of bladder tumors on the lateral wall were randomly divided into two groups: the control group (C group, n = 30) and the dexmedetomidine group (D group, n = 30). Two main branches of the obturator nerve (i.e., anterior and posterior) were identified using neural stimulation at the inguinal level, with only lidocaine used for the C group and 1 μg/kg dexmedetomidine combined with lidocaine used for the D group. The median effective concentration was determined by an up-and-down sequential trial. The ratio of two consecutive concentrations was 1.2. The median effective concentration (95% confidence interval) of lidocaine was 0.57% (0.54%-0.62%) in the C group and 0.29% (0.28%-0.38%) in the D group. The median effective concentration of lidocaine was significantly lower in the D group than in the C group (p < 0.05). These results indicate that dexmedetomidine (1 μg/kg) in combination with lidocaine for obturator nerve block decreases the median effective concentration of lidocaine. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02066727 PMID:27341450

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Fracture Resistance of Root Obturated with Resilon and Gutta-Percha Using Two Different Techniques: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Shiraguppi, Vijayakumar L.; Shivalingappa, Chandu Giriyapur; Desai, Niranjan; Azad, Antriksh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Present study evaluated the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth filled with Gutta percha and a new resin based obturating material (Resilon). Materials and Methods: A total of 150 freshly extracted Mandibular premolar with fully formed apices were selected and decoronated at cemento-enamel junction (CEJ). Teeth were divided into Group A and Group B of 75 teeth each. In Group A canals were prepared up to # no 40 K file and Group B up to #no 80 K file. Both the groups were sub divided into five group of 15 teeth each as control group (unfilled canals), lateral condensation with Gutta-percha using AH 26 sealer, vertical condensation with Gutta-percha using AH 26 sealer, lateral condensation with Resilon using resilon sealer, vertical condensation with Resilon using resilon sealer. Each specimen was subjected to compressive load using Universal testing machine. The force required to fracture was recorded and data were analysed by ANOVA, Duncan’s test and student T test. Result: The result showed that there is statistically significant difference among experimental groups (p < 0.05). The groups with the Resilon material displayed higher mean fracture loads than the Gutta percha groups. No statistically significant differences were observed between different preparation techniques. Conclusion: Obturating the canals with the new resin-based obturation material increases the in vitro fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth when compared with standard Gutta percha techniques. PMID:25954697

  17. To evaluate the influence of smear layer with different instruments and obturation methods on microleakage of root canal filled teeth: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Likhitkar, Manoj S.; Kulkarni, Shantaram V.; Burande, Aravind; Solanke, Vishal; Kumar, C. Sushil; Kamble, Babasaheb

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The success of root canal treatment depends on proper debridement, instrumentation, proper accessibility, and proper restoration. The presence of a smear layer is considered to be a significant factor. This in vitro study was conducted to assess the effect of the presence/absence of a smear layer on the microleakage of root canal filled teeth using different instruments and obturation methods. Materials and Methods: One hundred extracted mandibular premolars with closed apices and single roots were chosen and then divided into six groups, A to F, consisting of 15 teeth each. The control group included 10 teeth; 5 positive and 5 negative. The teeth were decoronated at the cementoenamel junction. Groups A, B, C, and D were instrumented with engine-driven rotary Protaper NiTi files. Groups E and F were instrumented with conventional stainless steel hand files. Groups A, C, and E were flushed with 3 ml of 17% EDTA to remove the smear layer prior to obturation. All teeth were flushed with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite solution and obturated with AH-Plus sealer with lateral condensation technique for Groups C, D, E, F and with thermoplasticized gutta-percha technique for Groups A and B. Using an electrochemical technique, leakages in the obturated canals were assessed for 45 days. The results were tabulated using Student's t-test (paired and unpaired t-test) with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software Version 21 (IBM Company, New York, USA). Results: Group A showed the lowest mean value at intervals of 10, 20, 30, and 45 days. There was no current flow in the negative controls during the test period. There was leakage in the positive controls within a few minutes of immersion. Conclusion: The results showed that rotary instrumentation contributed toward an exceptional preparation of root canals compared to hand instrumentation. Elimination of the smear layer enhanced the resistance to microleakage; thermoplasticized gutta

  18. Ore Mineralogy Features of Hayriye and Arapdede Mineralizations in (Inegol-Bursa) Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendir, Hüseyin; Kocatürk, Hüseyin; Cesur, Duru; Toygar, Özlem

    2016-04-01

    Western Anatolia (Turkey) experienced widespread Cenozoic magmatism after the collision between the Sakarya and Anatolide-Tauride continental blocks in the pre-middle Eocene. The widespread magmatic activity in NW Anatolia postdates this continental collisional event in the region. The following magmatic episode during the Oligocene and Early Miocene is known to have produced the widespread granitic plutons. Many skarn mineralization associated with plutons formed in the region (such as Hayriye and Arapdede Mineralizations). The Paleozoic aged Devlez Metabasite is the oldest unit of the study area. This unit includes amphibolite, glaucophane-lawsonite schist, muscovite schists. The unit has widely spread in area. This units are overlain unconformably by the Geyiktepe Marbles. Paleocene aged Domaniç granitoidic intrusives cut other rock series and located as a batholite. Magmatic units present porphyric and holocrystalline textures. Granitoidic intrusions are represented by tonalite, tonalite porphyr, granodiorite, granodiorite porphyr, granite, diorite, diorite porphyries. The Domaniç granitoid intruded in to the metamorphides during Paleocene and caused formations of skarn zones and related Cu-Pb-Zn mineralizations along the contacts. Mineralizations are known in the locations named as Arapdede and Hayriye. The mineralizations occur along the metamorphites - plutonics contact, in the pockets and fractures extending towards marble. The thickness of the mineralized bodies can reach up to 1 -2 m. Primary minerals are galenite, magnetite, pyrite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite at Hayriye mineralizations and sphalerite, galenite, chalcopyrite and pyrite minerals at the Arapdede mineralizations. This study supported by ESOGU BAP (201115031) Keywords: Ore mineralogy, mineralization, Cu-Pb-Zn deposits, Inegöl (Bursa).

  19. A mathematical model of mucilage expansion in myxospermous seeds of Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse)

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wenni; Jeng, Dong-Sheng; Toorop, Peter E.; Squire, Geoffrey R.; Iannetta, Pietro P. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Myxospermy is a term which describes the ability of a seed to produce mucilage upon hydration. The mucilage is mainly comprised of plant cell-wall polysaccharides which are deposited during development of those cells that comprise the seed coat (testa). Myxospermy is more prevalent among those plant species adapted to surviving on arid sandy soils, though its significance in determining the ecological fitness of plants is unclear. In this study, the first mathematical model of myxospermous seed mucilage expansion is presented based on seeds of the model plant species Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse). Methods The structures underpinning the expansion process were described using light, electron and time-lapse confocal micrographs. The data and experimental observations were used to create a mathematical model of myxospermous seed mucilage expansion based on diffusion equations. Key Results The mucilage expansion was rapid, taking 5 s, during which the cell mucilage volume increased 75-fold. At the level of the seed, this represented a 6-fold increase in seed volume and a 2·5-fold increase in seed surface area. These increases were shown to be a function of water uptake (16 g water g−1 mucilage dry weight), and relaxation of the polymers which comprised the mucilage. In addition, the osmotic pressure of the seed mucilage, estimated by assessing the mucilage expansion of seeds hydrated in solutions of varying osmotic pressure, was –0·54 MPa (equivalent to 0·11 m or 6·6 g L−1 NaCl). Conclusions The results showed that the mucilage may be characterized as hydrogel and seed-mucilage expansion may be modelled using the diffusion equation described. The potential of myxospermous seeds to affect the ecological services provided by soil is discussed briefly. PMID:22112439

  20. Experimental evidence for the ectodermal origin of the epithelial anlage of the chicken bursa of Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Nándor; Oláh, Imre

    2010-09-01

    The bursa of Fabricius (BF) is a central lymphoid organ of birds responsible for B-cell maturation within bursal follicles of epithelial origin. Despite the fundamental importance of the BF to the birth of B lymphocytes in the immune system, the embryological origin of the epithelial component of the BF remains unknown. The BF arises in the tail bud, caudal to the cloaca and in close association with the cloacal membrane, where the anal invagination (anal sinus) of ectoderm and the caudal endodermal wall of the cloaca are juxtaposed. Serial semi-thin sections of the tail bud show that the anal sinus gradually transforms into the bursal duct and proctodeum, which joins the distal part of the cloaca during late embryogenesis. These anatomical findings raise the possibility that the ectoderm may contribute to the epithelial anlage of the BF. The expression of sonic hedgehog and its receptor in the embryonic gut, but not in the BF, further supports an ectodermal origin for the bursal rudiment. Using chick-quail chimeras, quail tail bud ectoderm was homotopically transplanted into ectoderm-ablated chick, resulting in quail-derived bursal follicle formation. Chimeric bursal anlagen were generated in vitro by recombining chick bursal mesenchyme with quail ectoderm or endoderm and grafting the recombination into the chick coelomic cavity. After hematopoietic cell colonization, bursal follicles formed only in grafts containing BF mesenchyme and tail bud ectoderm. These results strongly support the central role of the ectoderm in the development of the bursal epithelium and hence in the maturation of B lymphocytes.

  1. Localization of Trk neurotrophin receptor-like proteins in avian primary lymphoid organs (thymus and bursa of Fabricius).

    PubMed

    Ciriaco, E; Dall'Aglio, C; Hannestad, J; Huerta, J J; Laurà, R; Germanà, G; Vega, J A

    1996-09-01

    The avian thymus and bursa of Fabricius are the specific organs where the maturation and differentiation of T- and B-lymphocytes, respectively, take place. In the mammalian lymphoid organs mRNAs of the neurotrophins and their receptors have been identified but their localization at the protein level remains still unknown. This study was undertaken to analyze the localization of the Trk family of tyrosine kinase receptors in the avian primary lymphoid organs (thymus and bursa of Fabricius) during the posthatching development using immunohistochemistry. These proteins serve as essential constituents of the high affinity receptors for neurotrophins. In the thymus of all groups of age specific immunoreactivity (IR) was observed for all three Trks: TrkA-like IR was found labelling medullary epithelial cells and a subpopulation of cortical epithelial cells; TrkB-like IR was found in the medullar dendritic cells and cortical macrophages; TrkC-like IR labelled the cortical epithelial cells and scattered medullar clusters of epithelial cells (including Hassal's corpuscles). Quantitative analysis revealed age-dependent decrease in the area occupied by TrkA-like IR in the cortex, and age-dependent increase in the medulla; no changes were detected in the area occupied by TrkB-like IR; the TrkC-like immunoreactive cells increase from 7 to 30 days and then decrease. Regarding to the bursa of Fabricius, TrkA-and TrkC-like IR were exclusively found in the epithelial cells of the follicle associated and the interfollicular epithelia, as well as TrkC-like IR in some medullary reticular epithelial cells of adult animals. Nevertheless, TrkB-like IR labelled extrafollicular unidentified cells in 7 days old animals, and the follicular secretory dendritic cells at 30 and 60 post-hatching. The area occupied by the medullary TrkB-like IR cells increased between 30 and 60 days. No immunostaining of lymphocytes was observed for any of the assessed antigens. The blood vessels of both the

  2. Re-establishing apical patency after obturation with Gutta-percha and two novel calcium silicate-based sealers

    PubMed Central

    Agrafioti, Anastasia; Koursoumis, Anastasios D.; Kontakiotis, Evangelos G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Aim of the present study was to evaluate the retreatability and reestablishment of apical patency of two calcium silicate-based sealers, TotalFill BC Sealer (BCS) and mineral trioxide aggregate Fillapex (MTA F), versus AH Plus, when used in combination with Gutta-percha (GP). Materials and Methods: The canals of 54 single-rooted anterior teeth were instrumented and filled with GP/AH Plus (Group A), GP/MTA F (Group B), or GP/BCS (Group C) using continuous wave obturation technique. The groups were subdivided into subgroups with the master-GP cone placed to the working length (WL) or intentionally 2 mm short. The retreatment procedures were performed using ultrasonics, chloroform, rotary, and hand files. The ability to establish the patency and reach WL was determined as well as the time taken to reach WL was calculated in minutes. Furthermore, the samples were observed under a dental, optical microscope, after vertically splitting them. Results: The WL and patency were reestablished in 100% of specimens in all groups. The Mann–Whitney U-test indicated that there was a significant difference in the amount of time required to reach WL between the groups (P < 0.05) with group GP/BCS short of the WL showing the most amount of time to be retreated. Conclusion: The novel calcium silicate-based sealers are negotiable under simple root canal anatomy. However, the conventional retreatment techniques are not able to fully remove them. PMID:26929681

  3. Toxic effect of NiCl2 on development of the bursa of Fabricius in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shuang; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Wu, Bangyuan; Guo, Hongrui

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted with objective of evaluating the toxic effects of nickel chloride (NiCl2) on development of bursa of Fabricius in broilers fed on diets supplemented with 0, 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days by using the methods of experimental pathology, flow cytometry (FCM), and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results showed that dietary NiCl2 in 300 mg/kg and over induced toxic suppression in the bursal development, which was characterized by decreasing lymphocytes histopathologically and relative weight, increasing G0/G1 phase (a prolonged nondividing state), reducing S phase (DNA replication) and proliferating index, and increasing percentages of apoptotic cells. Concurrently, the mRNA expression levels of bax, cytochrome c (cyt c), apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 (Apaf-1), caspase-3, caspase-6, caspase-7 and caspase-9 were increased and the bcl-2 mRNA expression levels were decreased. The toxic suppression of bursal development finally impaired humoral immunity duo to the reduction of B lymphocyte population and B lymphocyte activity in the broiler chicken. This study provides new evidences for further studying the effect mechanism of Ni and Ni compoundson B-cell or bursa of Fabricius. PMID:26683707

  4. Toxic effect of NiCl2 on development of the bursa of Fabricius in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shuang; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Wang, Xun; Wu, Bangyuan; Guo, Hongrui

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted with objective of evaluating the toxic effects of nickel chloride (NiCl2) on development of bursa of Fabricius in broilers fed on diets supplemented with 0, 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days by using the methods of experimental pathology, flow cytometry (FCM), and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The results showed that dietary NiCl2 in 300 mg/kg and over induced toxic suppression in the bursal development, which was characterized by decreasing lymphocytes histopathologically and relative weight, increasing G0/G1 phase (a prolonged nondividing state), reducing S phase (DNA replication) and proliferating index, and increasing percentages of apoptotic cells. Concurrently, the mRNA expression levels of bax, cytochrome c (cyt c), apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 (Apaf-1), caspase-3, caspase-6, caspase-7 and caspase-9 were increased and the bcl-2 mRNA expression levels were decreased. The toxic suppression of bursal development finally impaired humoral immunity duo to the reduction of B lymphocyte population and B lymphocyte activity in the broiler chicken. This study provides new evidences for further studying the effect mechanism of Ni and Ni compoundson B-cell or bursa of Fabricius. PMID:26683707

  5. Retrieval of Green's Functions from Ambient Noise Measurements in the Adana and Bursa Basins of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakirci, Taciser; Kaslilar, Ayse; Kocaoglu, Argun

    2014-05-01

    Records of ambient seismic noise (ASN) field are widely used to obtain seismic velocity structures at both engineering and global scales. Two well-known methods commonly employed to obtain shear-wave velocity profiles, in engineering seismology, are the frequency-wavenumber (FK) transform and spatial auto-correlation (SPAC) methods that are based on the analysis of ASN field recorded by 2D sensor arrays. At global scale on the other hand, seismic velocity structure is determined by the Green's function retrieved from cross-correlation of the ASN recorded between two seismic stations. In the last decade, this approach has become complementary or almost alternative to the conventional methods of surface wave tomography used to investigate the velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle. Similarly, in recent years, the Green's functions estimated from ASN have also been used to investigate the shear-wave velocity structure of basins and their site amplification properties. This work presents the Rayleigh wave Green's functions retrieved from the vertical-component ASN data recorded in the Bursa and Adana basins of Turkey. This constitutes the first stage of our research whose objective is to investigate whether velocity structures of these basins can reliably be obtained from tomographic inversion. The continuous data used in our study were recorded between 2010 and 2013 by the national seismic networks operated by Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) of Bosphorus University and Earthquake Research Department (ERD) of Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency of Turkey. For both basins, distances between station pairs are in the range of 30-200 km. In this distance range, the Green's functions reveal Rayleigh waves with the periods of 6 to 30 s. Group velocity dispersion analysis carried out by the multiple filtering technique show that the group velocities are estimated to be in the range of 2.5-4.0 km/s. Observed variation of group

  6. [A severe cutaneous anthrax case complicated with sepsis in Bursa, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Durmuş, Gül; Yeşilyurt, Murat; Karagöz, Alper; Demir, Canan; Eren, Nilüfer; Kılıç, Selçuk

    2013-07-01

    Anthrax is a zoonotic infection caused by Bacillus anthracis. Although the incidence of disease has been decreasing in Turkey, it is still endemic in some regions of the country. The cutaneous form of disease is the most common clinical form, usually benign and rarely causes bacteriemia and sepsis. In this report, a case of cutaneous anthrax complicated with sepsis where B.anthracis was isolated from blood and wound cultures, was presented. A 53-years-old male living in Bursa province (northwestern Turkey), admitted to the emergency ward with high fever and a lesion on the right arm. His history indicated that he is dealing with livestock breeding and injured his arm during slaughtering of a sick lamb. The infection started as a black colored painless ulcer with 2 cm in diameter on his right elbow. The case was hospitalized and penicillin G therapy was started with the preliminary diagnosis of anthrax. Bullous lesions occurred around the wound, got necrosis and integrated with the first lesion. Gram stained slides from the bullous lesions revealed capsulated gram-positive bacilli under light microscope. Gram-positive bacilli were also isolated from bullous lesions and the blood cultures. The isolates were identified and confirmed as B.anthracis by conventional and molecular methods. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by E-test method and the isolates were found to be susceptible to ampicillin, tetracyclin, tigecyclin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, gentamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, clarithromycin, vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin and rifampicin. The lesion became surrounded by an extensive erythema and edema and expanded to the whole arm. Moxifloxacin was initiated due to the fact that clinical progress. During the second week of the therapy, a black colored scar was observed on the wound while hyperemia and edema regressed. The necrotic tissue debridated to accelerate healing and rest of the skin defect was planned for reconstruction. The

  7. A Study on Evaluation of the Biology Projects Submitted to the TUBITAK Secondary Education Research Projects Contest from the Bursa Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeren Özer, Dilek; Güngör, Sema Nur; Özkan, Muhlis

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates, through the employment of scientific methods and techniques, a total of 107 Biology projects submitted by secondary education students to the Bursa Region Coordinatorship of TUBITAK (a region which encompasses the municipalities of Afyonkarahisar, Balikesir, Bilecik, Canakkale, Eskisehir, Kutahya, and Yalova). The projects…

  8. Rehabilitation of a cystic mixed dentition mandible following marsupialization with a multipurpose acrylic splint acting as a space maintainer and an obturator.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, M S; Yazdanie, N; Faheemuddin, M

    2011-01-01

    Radicular cysts are the most common odontogenic cystic lesions of inflammatory origin which can be managed by marsupialisation specially if the cyst is large and is in relation to the vital structures. This article presents a case in which a radicular cyst was present in association with grossly carious deciduous molars and has been treated by marsupialisation. Postoperatively a surgical splint was inserted to maintain the patency of the bone cavity. This obturator splint also acts as a space maintainer to prevent space loss and ensure unimpeded eruption of permanent premolars.

  9. Selenoproteins and heat shock proteins play important roles in immunosuppression in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens with selenium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Khoso, Pervez Ahmed; Yang, Zijiang; Liu, Chunpeng; Li, Shu

    2015-11-01

    Selenium (Se) is necessary for the immune system in chicken and mediates its physiological functions through selenoproteins. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are indispensable for maintaining normal cell function and for directing the immune response. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Se deficiency on the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels of selenoproteins and Hsps as well as immune functions in the chicken bursa of Fabricius. Two groups of chickens, namely the control and Se-deficient (L group) groups, were reared for 55 days. The chickens were offered a basal diet, which contained 0.15 mg Se/kg in the diet fed to the control group and 0.033 mg Se/kg in the diet fed to the L group. We performed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to detect the mRNA expression levels of selenoproteins and Hsps on days 15, 25, 35, 45 and 55. Western blotting was used to determine the protein expression levels of Hsps on days 35, 45 and 55, and immune functions were assessed through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on days 15, 35, and 55. The data showed that the mRNA expression levels of selenoproteins, such as Txnrd1, Txnrd2, Txnrd3, Dio1, Dio2, Dio3, GPx1, GPx2, GPx3 GPx4, Sepp1, Selo, Sel-15, Sepx1, Sels, Seli, Selu, Selh, and SPS2, were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the L group compared with the control group. Additionally, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Hsps (Hsp27, Hsp40, Hsp60, Hsp70, and Hsp90) were also significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the L group. The expression levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-1β, IFN-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and TNF-α was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the L group compared with the control group. Our results show that immunosuppression was accompanied by a downregulation of mRNA expression levels of selenoproteins and an upregulation of the Hsp mRNA expression levels. Thus, Se deficiency causes defects in the chicken bursa of

  10. Concurrent Fowlpox and Candidiasis Diseases in Backyard Chickens with Unusual Pox Lesions in the Bursa of Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Fusae; Yamamoto, Yu; Sato, Yasuo; Fukunari, Kazuhiro; Murata, Ken-Ichi; Yaegashi, Gakuji; Goto, Makiko; Murakami, Ryukoh

    2016-09-01

    Concurrent fowlpox and candidiasis diseases occurred in a backyard chicken flock. Four deceased chickens (one Nagoya breed and three white silkie chickens) were examined for diagnosis. At necropsy, white curd-like plaques were observed in the crop. Fungal elements that stained positive for Candida albicans with immunohistochemistry were distributed throughout the tongue, choanal mucosa, esophagus, and crop. Typical fowlpox lesions, composed of proliferating epithelial cells with ballooning degeneration and viral intracytoplasmic inclusions, were observed in the conjunctiva, nasal mucosa, and skin around the cloaca. Interestingly, hyperplastic interfollicular epithelium with rare virus inclusions was observed in the bursa of Fabricius (BF). Some bursal follicles were replaced by proliferating epithelial cells. These proliferating cells immunohistochemically stained positive for cytokeratin. PCR and subsequent genetic sequencing detected the C. albicans gene in the crop, and fowlpox virus genes in the BF. These results indicate that this outbreak was a rare presentation of fowlpox in spontaneously infected chickens, with unusual pox lesions in the BF. PMID:27610735

  11. Gracilaria bursa-pastoris (Gmelin) Silva extract attenuates ultraviolet B radiation-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Piao, M J; Kim, K C; Zheng, J; Yao, C W; Cha, J W; Kang, H K; Yoo, E S; Koh, Y S; Ko, M H; Lee, N H; Hyun, Jin Won

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the protective effects of an ethanol extract derived from the red alga Gracilaria bursa-pastoris (Gmelin) Silva (GBE) on ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated human HaCaT keratinocytes. GBE exhibited scavenging activity against intracellular reactive oxygen species that were induced by either hydrogen peroxide or UVB radiation. In addition, both the superoxide anion and the hydroxyl radical were scavenged by GBE in cell-free systems. GBE absorbed light in the UVB range (280-320 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum and lessened the extent of UVB-induced oxidative damage to cellular lipids, proteins, and DNA. Finally, GBE-treated keratinocytes showed a reduction in UVB-induced apoptosis, as exemplified by fewer apoptotic bodies. These results suggest that GBE exerts cytoprotective actions against UVB-stimulated oxidative stress by scavenging ROS and absorbing UVB rays, thereby attenuating injury to cellular constituents and preventing cell death.

  12. Production and genetic analysis of partial hybrids in intertribal crosses between Brassica species (B. rapa, B. napus) and Capsella bursa-pastoris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hai-Feng; Wang, Hua; Li, Zai-Yun

    2007-10-01

    Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic (2n = 4x = 32) is a natural double-low (erucic acid < 1%, glucosinolates < 30 micromol/g) germplasm and shows high degree of resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Hybridizations were carried out between two Brassica species viz. B. rapa (2n = 20) and B. napus (2n = 38) as female and C. bursa-pastoris as male parent to introduce these desirable traits into cultivated Brassica species. Majority of F(1) plants resembled female parents in morphology and only a few expressed some characters of male parent, including the white petals. Based on cytological observation of somatic cells, the F(1) plants were classified into five types: two types from the cross with B. rapa, type I had 2n = 27-29; type II had 2n = 20; three types from the crosses with B. napus, type III was haploids with 2n = 19; type IV had 2n = 29; type V had 2n = 38. One to two chromosomes of C. bursa-pastoris were detected in pollen mother cells (PMCs) of type I plant by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), together with chromosomal segments in ovary cells and PMCs of some F1 plants. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) bands specific for the male parent, novel for two parents and absent bands in Brassica parents were generated in majority of F1 plants, even in Brassica-types and haploids, indicating the introgressions at various levels from C. bursa-pastoris and genomic alterations following hybridization. Some Brassica-type progeny plants had reduced contents of erucic acid and glucosinolates associated with improved resistance to S. sclerotiorum. The cytological and molecular mechanisms behind these results are discussed.

  13. Effect of Diclazuril on the Bursa of Fabricius Morphology and SIgA Expression in Chickens Infected with Eimeria tenella

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bian-hua; Liu, Li-li; Liu, Jeffrey; Yuan, Fu-wei; Tian, Er-jie; Wang, Hong-wei

    2015-01-01

    The effects of diclazuril on the bursa of Fabricius (BF) structure and secretory IgA (SIgA) expression in chickens infected with Eimeria tenella were examined. The morphology of the BF was observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, while ultrastructural changes were monitored by transmission electron microscopy. E. tenella infection caused the BF cell volumes to decrease, irregularly arranged, as well as, enlargement of the intercellular space. Diclazuril treatment alleviated the physical signs of damages associated with E. tenella infection. The SIgA expression in BF was analyzed by immunohistochemistry technique. The SIgA expression increased significantly by 350.4% (P<0.01) after E. tenella infection compared to the normal control group. With the treatment of diclazuril, the SIgA was relatively fewer in the cortex, and the expression level was significantly decreased by 46.7% (P<0.01) compared with the infected and untreated group. In conclusion, E. tenella infection in chickens induced obvious harmful changes in BF morphological structure and stimulated the expression of SIgA in the BF. Diclazuril treatment effectively alleviated the morphological changes. This result demonstrates a method to develop an immunological strategy in coccidiosis control. PMID:26797433

  14. Age-related changes of the noradrenergic and acetylcholinesterase reactive nerve fibres innervating the pigeon bursa of Fabricius.

    PubMed

    Ciriaco, E; Ricci, A; Bronzetti, E; Mammola, C L; Germanà, G; Vega, J A

    1995-05-01

    Age-dependent changes in the innervation of the pigeon (Columba livia, L.) bursa of Fabricius, from hatching to 120 days of age, were studied by fluorescence-histochemical and neurochemical methods for demonstrating noradrenergic and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-reactive nerve fibres respectively. The distribution of both nerve fibre types was largely perivascular. Furthermore, a few isolated nerve fiber profiles were observed beneath the bursal epithelium, in the interfollicular septa and in the follicular cortex. No nerve fibre profiles reaching the medulla of the lymphoid follicles were observed. In addition to nerve fibres, AChE reactive neuron-like cells were encountered within the capsule and interfollicular septa. AChE reactivity was also found in dendritic-like cells localized in the cortical and cortico-medullary border. No changes in the density of perivascular noradrenergic innervation were noticeable during the ages studied, whereas the density of AChE-reactive fibres supplying vessels reached the adult pattern at 30 days, and then remained unvaried. The density of non-perivascular nerve fiber profiles, specially the AChE reactive type, increased until 30 days, remained unchanged until 75 days and then increased with aging (90-120 days). The interrelationship between the autonomic nervous system and the immune system is discussed.

  15. Infected and apoptotic cells in the IBDV-infected bursa of Fabricius, studied by double-labelling techniques.

    PubMed

    Nieper, H; Teifke, J P; Jungmann, A; Lohr, C V; Muller, H

    1999-06-01

    Infections of young chickens with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) result in depletion of lymphoid cells of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) due to necrosis and apoptotic processes. Interactions between IBDV and lymphoid cells were investigated by labelling paraffin-embedded tissue sections of infected BF with combinations of either immunohistochemistry (IHC), in situ hybridization (ISH) or in situ TUNEL reaction (IST). With regard to specificity and sensitivity, results of ISH were comparable to those of IHC. By double-labelling it was shown, for the first time, that viral antigen was present in most of the apoptotic cells. This suggests that IBDV may be directly involved in the induction of the apoptotic process. However, some cells also showed either viral antigen or DNA fragmentation, especially at the early stages of infection. It should be taken into account, therefore, that the apoptotic processes might also be induced by IBDV through indirect interaction between cells. Remarkably, in some of the infected lymphoid cells ISH signals were observed in the nucleolus. PMID:26915384

  16. Estimation of soil erosion risk within an important agricultural sub-watershed in Bursa, Turkey, in relation to rapid urbanization.

    PubMed

    Ozsoy, Gokhan; Aksoy, Ertugrul

    2015-07-01

    This paper integrates the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) with a GIS model to investigate the spatial distribution of annual soil loss and identify areas of soil erosion risk in the Uluabat sub-watershed, an important agricultural site in Bursa Province, Turkey. The total soil loss from water erosion was 473,274 Mg year(-1). Accordingly, 60.3% of the surveyed area was classified into a very low erosion risk class while 25.7% was found to be in high and severe erosion risk classes. Soil loss had a close relationship with land use and topography. The most severe erosion risk typically occurs on ridges and steep slopes where agriculture, degraded forest, and shrubs are the main land uses and cover types. Another goal of this study was to use GIS to reveal the multi-year urbanization status caused by rapid urbanization that constitutes another soil erosion risk in this area. Urbanization has increased by 57.7% and the most areal change was determined in class I lands at a rate of 80% over 25 years. Urbanization was identified as one of the causes of excessive soil loss in the study area. PMID:26059559

  17. Estimation of soil erosion risk within an important agricultural sub-watershed in Bursa, Turkey, in relation to rapid urbanization.

    PubMed

    Ozsoy, Gokhan; Aksoy, Ertugrul

    2015-07-01

    This paper integrates the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) with a GIS model to investigate the spatial distribution of annual soil loss and identify areas of soil erosion risk in the Uluabat sub-watershed, an important agricultural site in Bursa Province, Turkey. The total soil loss from water erosion was 473,274 Mg year(-1). Accordingly, 60.3% of the surveyed area was classified into a very low erosion risk class while 25.7% was found to be in high and severe erosion risk classes. Soil loss had a close relationship with land use and topography. The most severe erosion risk typically occurs on ridges and steep slopes where agriculture, degraded forest, and shrubs are the main land uses and cover types. Another goal of this study was to use GIS to reveal the multi-year urbanization status caused by rapid urbanization that constitutes another soil erosion risk in this area. Urbanization has increased by 57.7% and the most areal change was determined in class I lands at a rate of 80% over 25 years. Urbanization was identified as one of the causes of excessive soil loss in the study area.

  18. Cellular composition of the bone marrow in the chicken. II. Effect of age and the influence of the bursa of Fabricius on the size of cellular compartments

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, B.; Rosse, C.

    1981-01-01

    The blood and bone marrow of New Hampshire chicks were analyzed quantitatively from the time of hatch to 8 weeks of age. Hormonal bursectomy was performed by treating embryonating eggs on the 11th day of incubation with testosterone propionate (TP) which resulted in severe hypogammaglobulinemia and complete atrophy of the bursa of Fabricius. TP-treated birds exhibited some lymphocytopenia, reduced splenic weight, and lack of plasma cells in their bone marrow. The number of cells per milligram bone marrow was comparable in normal and TP-treated birds, falling in the range reported for laboratory rodents. The chick medullary hemopoiesis is characterized by the predominance of erythroblasts throughout early development; granulocytes and lymphocytes represent much smaller cellular compartments than in rodents. In the chick granulocytes tend to decrease after hatch, whereas in rodents they tend to increase. The normal chick shows a temporary increase in marrow lymphocytes after hatch, similar to that observed in some young rodents, but on a much smaller scale. Hormonal bursectomy did not prevent the development of a lymphocyte population in the bone marrow. These cells were fewer in TP-treated birds at hatch and at 4 weeks than in normal birds, but at 8 weeks of age normal and bursectomized chicks had comparable numbers of lymphocytes in their marrow. Although some lymphocytes in avain bone marrow may depend on the bursa of Fabricius for their development, a substantial proportion of bone marrow lymphocytes in the chick are bursa independent. The cell surface phenotype and site of origin of these cells remains to be investigated. 40 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  19. [Ocurrence of Ornithonyssus bursa (Berlese, 1888) (Acari: Macronyssidae) on Megascops choliba (tropical screech-owl) and Pitangus sulphuratus (great kiskadee) nestlings in the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Carolina S; Coimbra, Marco A A; Müller, Gertrud; Brum, João Guilherme W

    2009-01-01

    The Center for Rehabilitation of Wildlife and Center for Selection of Wild Animal of the Federal University of Pelotas has attended two nestlings of Megascops choliba (tropical screech-owl) (Strigiformes - Strigidae) and two of Pitangus sulphuratus (great kiskadee) (Passeriformes - Tyrannidae) heavily parasitized by mites, in May 2005 and December 2006, respectively. The nestlings and the nest of P. sulphuratus were collected in the Pelotas urban area after severe storms. The mites were removed, clarified in lactofenol, permanently mounted in Hoyer's medium and identified as Ornithonyssus bursa (Acari - Macronyssidae). Megascops choliba and Pitangus sulphuratus are reported as host of Ornithonyssus bursa in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. PMID:20040213

  20. In-vitro evaluation of the effect of canal curvature on adaptation of gutta-percha in canals obturated with HEROfill system by CBCT.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Mina; Talati, Ali; Mortazavi, Mohammad; Zarch, Hosein Hoseini; Javidi, Maryam; Bidokhty, Hamid Abbaszadeh

    2011-03-01

    A hermetic seal of the root canal space following canal preparation is important in endodontics. This study evaluated the effect of canal curve on adaptation of gutta-percha to dentinal walls of canals obturated using the Herofill system. For this in vitro study, 80 mesial roots of mature human first molars with length of 16 mm, curve between 5° and 45°, and no caries or resorption of the root surface were selected. A cone beam computed tomography system was used to evaluate the presence or absence of a gap in the samples. Photographs were taken in three sections: 2 mm above the curve, at the curve and 2 mm below the curve. The gap area was identified using Photoshop and AutoCAD software. Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze the data mounted in a castcurve. There were significant differences between the two lateral condensation groups with various curves; roots with more curve had more gaps. When the Herofill and lateral condensation groups were compared without considering the sections and curve, there was a significant difference between these groups and the Herofill group had less gaps. The Herofill system is an alternative to the lateral condensation technique in severely curved canals. PMID:21467814

  1. An in vitro comparative evaluation of different intraorifice barriers on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated roots obturated with gutta-percha

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Abhishek; Arora, Vipin; Jha, Padmanabh; Nikhil, Vineeta; Bansal, Parul

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare and evaluate the root reinforcement potential of four different intraorifice barriers: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), fiber-reinforced composite (FRC), and nanohybrid composite (NC). Materials and Methods: Seventy-five mandibular premolars were decoronated to a standardized length, and prepared and obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. Except for control specimens, the coronal 3-mm gutta-percha was removed and filled with different materials. The specimens (75) were divided into five groups (n = 15) on the basis of the intraorifice barrier material used. Group 1: MTA, Group 2: RMGIC, Group 3: FRC, Group 4: NC, Group 5: no barrier (control). Fracture resistance of the specimens was tested. Results: Fracture resistance of roots was significantly affected by the type of intraorifice barrier used and the following pattern was observed: RMGIC > FRC > NC > MTA. Conclusion: Intraorifice barriers can be regarded as a viable choice to reduce the occurrence of postendodontic root fractures. Among the four tested materials, RMGIC showed the maximum reinforcement. PMID:27099413

  2. In-vitro evaluation of the effect of canal curvature on adaptation of gutta-percha in canals obturated with HEROfill system by CBCT.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Mina; Talati, Ali; Mortazavi, Mohammad; Zarch, Hosein Hoseini; Javidi, Maryam; Bidokhty, Hamid Abbaszadeh

    2011-03-01

    A hermetic seal of the root canal space following canal preparation is important in endodontics. This study evaluated the effect of canal curve on adaptation of gutta-percha to dentinal walls of canals obturated using the Herofill system. For this in vitro study, 80 mesial roots of mature human first molars with length of 16 mm, curve between 5° and 45°, and no caries or resorption of the root surface were selected. A cone beam computed tomography system was used to evaluate the presence or absence of a gap in the samples. Photographs were taken in three sections: 2 mm above the curve, at the curve and 2 mm below the curve. The gap area was identified using Photoshop and AutoCAD software. Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze the data mounted in a castcurve. There were significant differences between the two lateral condensation groups with various curves; roots with more curve had more gaps. When the Herofill and lateral condensation groups were compared without considering the sections and curve, there was a significant difference between these groups and the Herofill group had less gaps. The Herofill system is an alternative to the lateral condensation technique in severely curved canals.

  3. In vitro infrared thermographic assessment of root surface temperatures generated by high-temperature thermoplasticized injectable gutta-percha obturation technique.

    PubMed

    Lipski, Mariusz

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to measure the temperature rises on the outer surface of roots produced by high-temperature thermoplasticized injectable gutta-percha technique. Thirty extracted human teeth with a single canal (15 maxillary central incisors and 15 mandibular central incisors) were used in this study. After root canal cleaning and shaping, the teeth were obturated with the injected gutta-percha heated to 160 degrees C (Obtura II). Temperature changes on the whole mesial outer surface of the roots was measured using an infrared thermal imaging camera. It showed that the use of gutta-percha heated to 160 degrees C to fill the maxillary central incisors and mandibular central incisors resulted in the rises of the root surface temperature by 8.5 degrees C and 22.1 degrees C, respectively. In conclusion, the injection of the gutta-percha heated to 160 degrees C into the root canal of maxillary central incisors produces temperature on the outer root surfaces below the theoretical critical level and, therefore, should not cause damage to supporting periradicular tissues. The injection of gutta-percha into the root canal space of the mandibular central incisors in vitro, resulted in an elevation of the root surface temperature by more than 10 degrees C.

  4. CbCBF from Capsella bursa-pastoris enhances cold tolerance and restrains growth in Nicotiana tabacum by antagonizing with gibberellin and affecting cell cycle signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mingqi; Xu, Ming; Wu, Lihua; Shen, Chen; Ma, Hong; Lin, Juan

    2014-06-01

    Plant cells respond to cold stress via a regulatory mechanism leading to enhanced cold acclimation accompanied by growth retardation. The C-repeat binding factor (CBF) signaling pathway is essential for cold response of flowering plants. Our previously study documented a novel CBF-like gene from the cold-tolerant Capsella bursa-pastoris named CbCBF, which was responsive to chilling temperatures. Here, we show that CbCBF expression is obviously responsive to chilling, freezing, abscisic acid, gibberellic acid (GA), indoleacetic acid or methyl jasmonate treatments and that the CbCBF:GFP fusion protein was localized to the nucleus. In addition, CbCBF overexpression conferred to the cold-sensitive tobacco plants enhanced tolerance to chilling and freezing, as well as dwarfism and delayed flowering. The leaf cells of CbCBF overexpression tobacco lines attained smaller sizes and underwent delayed cell division with reduced expression of cyclin D genes. The dwarfism of CbCBF transformants can be partially restored by GA application. Consistently, CbCBF overexpression reduced the bioactive gibberellin contents and disturbed the expression of gibberellin metabolic genes in tobacco. Meanwhile, cold induced CbCBF expression and cold tolerance in C. bursa-pastoris are reduced by GA. We conclude that CbCBF confers cold resistance and growth inhibition to tobacco cells by interacting with gibberellin and cell cycle pathways, likely through activation of downstream target genes.

  5. Potential Cost-Effectiveness of RSV Vaccination of Infants and Pregnant Women in Turkey: An Illustration Based on Bursa Data

    PubMed Central

    Pouwels, Koen B.; Bozdemir, Sefika E.; Yegenoglu, Selen; Celebi, Solmaz; McIntosh, E. David; Unal, Serhat; Postma, Maarten J.; Hacimustafaoglu, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Background Worldwide, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is considered to be the most important viral cause of respiratory morbidity and mortality among infants and young children. Although no active vaccine is available on the market yet, there are several active vaccine development programs in various stages. To assess whether one of these vaccines might be a future asset for national immunization programs, modeling the costs and benefits of various vaccination strategies is needed. Objectives To evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of RSV vaccination of infants and/or pregnant women in Turkey. Methods A multi-cohort static Markov model with cycles of one month was used to compare the cost-effectiveness of vaccinated cohorts versus non-vaccinated cohorts. The 2014 Turkish birth cohort was divided by twelve to construct twelve monthly birth cohorts of equal size (111,459 new-borns). Model input was based on clinical data from a multicenter prospective study from Bursa, Turkey, combined with figures from the (inter)national literature and publicly available data from the Turkish Statistical Institute (TÜÏK). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were expressed in Turkish Lira (TL) per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Results Vaccinating infants at 2 and 4 months of age would prevent 145,802 GP visits, 8,201 hospitalizations and 48 deaths during the first year of life, corresponding to a total gain of 1650 QALYs. The discounted ICER was estimated at 51,969 TL (26,220 US $ in 2013) per QALY gained. Vaccinating both pregnant women and infants would prevent more cases, but was less attractive from a pure economic point of view with a discounted ICER of 61,653 TL (31,106 US $ in 2013) per QALY. Vaccinating only during pregnancy would result in fewer cases prevented than infant vaccination and a less favorable ICER. Conclusion RSV vaccination of infants and/or pregnant women has the potential to be cost-effective in Turkey. Although using

  6. Major causes of organ/carcass condemnation and financial loss estimation in animals slaughtered at two abattoirs in Bursa Province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yibar, Artun; Selcuk, Ozgur; Senlik, Bayram

    2015-01-01

    An abattoir survey was conducted from July 2012 to December 2012 to determine the major causes of organ and carcass condemnation and to estimate the associated direct financial loss at two abattoirs in Bursa Province in Turkey. A total of 22,872 sheeps and 5363 cattle were examined by postmortem inspection using standard inspection procedures. The total economic loss in two abattoirs was estimated from the summation of organ and carcass condemnation in six-month period. The retail prices of offal (lung, liver, kidney, heart, and spleen) and kg price of cattle and sheep carcasses were obtained from local markets. The results of postmortem examination indicated that a total of 658 (2.33%) offals and 93 (0.32%) carcasses were condemned. While the main causes of organ condemnation were hydatidosis and fasciolosis, carcasses were condemned mainly due to tuberculosis and jaundice. The total revenue in 2012 for all animals (164,080 sheeps and 56,035 cattle) slaughtered in 15 abattoirs in Bursa Province was 144,401,765 USD. This study showed that financial loss due to organ and carcass condemnations at two abattoirs in six-month period was 245,483 USD (0.17% of the total annual revenue of all slaughtered animals at 15 abattoirs). In sheep, six-month financial loss was estimated at 3281 USD and 4015 USD from organ condemnation due to fasciolosis and hydatidosis, respectively. In cattle, total loss was calculated as 4042 USD and 12,321 USD due to fasciolosis and hydatidosis, respectively. A common cause of carcass condemnation in cattle was tuberculosis, totalling 214,995 USD in losses, whereas condemnation due to tuberculosis was not determined in sheep. The current study also showed that six-month monetary losses from carcass condemnation of sheep and cattle due to jaundice were 8099 USD and 6026 USD, respectively. From the data obtained in this study, it can be concluded that bacterial and parasitic diseases remain common and cause considerable economic loss in Bursa

  7. Migration of calcium deposits into subacromial-subdeltoid bursa and into humeral head as a rare complication of calcifying tendinitis: sonography and imaging.

    PubMed

    Della Valle, Valeria; Bassi, Emilio Maria; Calliada, Fabrizio

    2015-09-01

    Calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder is a common condition characterized by the deposition of calcium, predominantly hydroxyapatite crystals, in the rotator cuff. A rare complication of this condition is the migration of calcium deposits from tendons, usually the supraspinatus, into the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa or into the humeral greater tuberosity. These complications are responsible for intense acute shoulder pain and functional disability. Patient anamnesis and clinical symptoms must be considered to make the diagnosis, but imaging, particularly sonography, is often necessary, showing a typical presentation related to the locations of calcium deposits. We present sonographic and other imaging features of subacromial-subdeltoid bursitis and humeral osteitis related to the migration of calcium.

  8. Antibacterial activity of Tribulus terrestris and its synergistic effect with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra against oral pathogens: an in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Soleimanpour, Saman; Sedighinia, Fereshteh Sadat; Safipour Afshar, Akbar; Zarif, Reza; Ghazvini, Kiarash

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this study, antimicrobial activities of an ethanol extract of Tribulus terrestris aloneand in combination with Capsella bursa-pastoris and Glycyrrhiza glabra were examined in vitro against six pathogens namely Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Actinomyces viscosus, Enterococcus faecalis Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Materials and methods: Antibacterial activities of the extracts were examined using disc and well diffusion methods and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ethanol extracts were determined against these microorganisms using agar and broth dilution methods. Chlorhexidine was used as positive control. Results: Tribulus terrestris extract exhibited good antibacterial activity against all bacteria. Antibacterial activity of mixed extract was evaluated and exhibited that mixed extract was more effective against all bacteria than any of the cases alone which indicates the synergistic effect between these three extracts (p˂0.05). No strain showed resistance against these extracts. In agar dilution, Tribulus terrestris exhibited MIC values ranging from 35.0 to 20.0 mg/ml and mixed extract showed MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 5.0 mg/ml. The results of broth dilution method were consistent with the findings of the agar dilution method. Conclusion: This in-vitro study was a preliminary evaluation of antibacterial activity of the plants. It provided scientific evidence to support uses of T. terrestris and its mixture with C. bursa-pastoris and G. glabra for the treatment of oral infections. In-vivo studies are also required to better evaluate the effect of these extracts. PMID:26101754

  9. Transgenic tobacco plants over expressing cold regulated protein CbCOR15b from Capsella bursa-pastoris exhibit enhanced cold tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lihua; Zhou, Mingqi; Shen, Chen; Liang, Jing; Lin, Juan

    2012-09-15

    Low temperature is among the most significant abiotic stresses, restricting the habitats of sessile plants and reducing crop productivity. Cold regulated (COR) genes are low temperature-responsive genes expressing under regulation of a specific signal transduction pathway, which is designated C-repeat-binding-factor (CBF) signaling pathway. In the present article, cold bioassay showed that the transcript level of cold regulated gene CbCOR15b from shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris) was obviously elevated under cold treatments. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and GUS report system revealed that unlike AtCOR15b, CbCOR15b expressed not only in leaves but also in stems and maturation zone of roots. When transgenic tobacco plants ectopically expressing CbCOR15b were exposed to chilling and freezing temperatures, they displayed more cold tolerance compared to control plants. According to the electrolyte leakage, the relative water content, the glucose content and the phenotype observation, CbCOR15b transformants suffered less damage under cold stress. Further investigation of the subcellular localization of CbCOR15b by transient expression of fusion protein CbCOR15b-GFP revealed that it was localized exclusively in the chloroplasts of tobacco mesophyll cells and in the cytoplasm of onion epidermal cells. It can be concluded that CbCOR15b which located in the chloroplasts and in the cytoplasm of cells without chloroplasts was involved in cold response of C. bursa-pastoris and conferred enhanced cold tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants.

  10. CbRCI35, a Cold Responsive Peroxidase from Capsella bursa-pastoris Regulates Reactive Oxygen Species Homeostasis and Enhances Cold Tolerance in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mingqi; Li, Weiwei; Zheng, Ye; Lin, Ping; Yao, Xiaohua; Lin, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature affects gene regulatory networks and alters cellular metabolism to inhibit plant growth. Peroxidases are widely distributed in plants and play a large role in adjusting and controlling reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis in response to abiotic stresses such as low temperature. The Rare Cold-Inducible 35 gene from Capsella bursa-pastoris (CbRCI35) belongs to the type III peroxidase family and has been reported to be a cold responsive gene in plants. Here we performed an expressional characterization of CbRCI35 under cold and ionic liquid treatments. The promoter of CbRCI35 was also cloned and its activity was examined using the GUS reporter system. CbRCI35 protein was localized in the cytoplasm according to sequence prediction and GFP fusion assay. Heterologous expression tests revealed that CbRCI35 conferred enhanced resistance to low temperature and activated endogenous cold responsive signaling in tobacco. Furthermore, in the normal condition the ROS accumulation was moderately enhanced while after chilling exposure superoxide dismutase activity was increased in CbRCI53 transgenic plants. The ROS metabolism related genes expression was altered accordingly. We conclude that CbRCI35 modulates ROS homeostasis and contributes to cold tolerance in plants.

  11. Development of B cells expressing surface immunoglobulin molecules that lack V(D)J-encoded determinants in the avian embryo bursa of Fabricius

    PubMed Central

    Sayegh, Camil E.; Demaries, Sandra L.; Iacampo, Sandra; Ratcliffe, Michael J. H.

    1999-01-01

    Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement in avian B cell precursors generates surface Ig receptors of limited diversity. It has been proposed that specificities encoded by these receptors play a critical role in B lineage development by recognizing endogenous ligands within the bursa of Fabricius. To address this issue directly we have introduced a truncated surface IgM, lacking variable region domains, into developing B precursors by retroviral gene transfer in vivo. Cells expressing this truncated receptor lack endogenous surface IgM, and the low level of endogenous Ig rearrangements that have occurred within this population of cells has not been selected for having a productive reading frame. Such cells proliferate rapidly within bursal epithelial buds of normal morphology. In addition, despite reduced levels of endogenous light chain rearrangement, those light chain rearrangements that have occurred have undergone variable region diversification by gene conversion. Therefore, although surface expression of an Ig receptor is required for bursal colonization and the induction of gene conversion, the specificity encoded by the prediversified receptor is irrelevant and, consequently, there is no obligate ligand for V(D)J-encoded determinants of prediversified avian cell surface IgM receptor. PMID:10485907

  12. Subacromial bursa block is an effective alternative to interscalene block for postoperative pain control after arthroscopic subacromial decompression: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Aamer; Morris, Matthew W J; Freeman, Jennifer V; Cort, Jonathan M; Rayner, Philip R; Shahane, Shantanu A

    2008-01-01

    Subacromial decompression surgery is associated with significant postoperative pain. We compared interscalene block (ISB) with subacromial bursa block (SBB). Sixty consecutive patients with subacromial impingement syndrome, scheduled for arthroscopic subacromial decompression surgery, were randomized into 3 groups receiving ISB (n = 19), SBB (n = 19), or no block (n = 15 [controls]). Patients with rotator cuff tears were excluded (n = 7). The postoperative consumption of morphine, time to the first bolus of morphine, oral analgesia, pain, sickness, and sedation scores were recorded. The pain scores in the ISB and SBB groups were lower than those in the control group in the first 12 hours postoperatively. The control group consumed more morphine (mean, 32.3 mg) compared with the SBB group (mean, 21.21 mg) and ISB group (mean, 14.00 mg) (P < .001). The time to first bolus was earlier in the control group (mean, 42.1 minutes) compared with both the SBB (mean, 92.6 minutes) and ISB (mean, 119.0 minutes) groups (P < .001). The oral analgesic intake was less in the SBB and ISB groups than in the controls (P = .004). Although ISB remains the gold standard, SBB provides effective, safe, and easily administered postoperative analgesia in patients with an intact rotator cuff undergoing arthroscopic subacromial decompression.

  13. Behavior of chars from Bursa Mustafa Kemal Pasa Alpagut and Balkesir Dursunbey Cakiirca Lignite (Turkey) during non-catalytic and catalytic gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Bozkurt, Y.; Misirlioglu, Z.; Sinag, A.; Tekes, A.T.; Canel, M.

    2008-07-01

    The reactivities of chars obtained by pyrolysis of Bursa Mustafa Kemal Pasa Alpagut lignite and Balkesir Dursunbey Cakiirca lignite (Turkey) at different temperatures were determined by CO{sub 2} gasification and by combustion with O{sub 2}. Catalytic effect of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} on the CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gasification reactivity of chars was investigated. Gasification tests were performed in the fixed bed reactors operating at ambient pressure. Reactivity of chars during the CO{sub 2} gasification reactions was determined by calculating the reaction rate constants and reactivity of chars during the O{sub 2} gasification was determined by using ignition temperatures of the samples. Activation energies and Arrhenius constants of the chars on the CO{sub 2} gasification reactions were also calculated by the help of Arrhenius curves. The activation energy for CO{sub 2} gasification was generally decreased with pyrolysis temperature, due to the different surface characteristics and different nature of carbon atoms gasified as the gasification reactions proceed. Generally, the increase in pyrolysis temperature leads to an increase in gasification reactivity with CO{sub 2}. The reactivity of chars in catalytic gasification was higher than the corresponding non-catalytic reactivity of the same chars. Ignition temperature increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature.

  14. Growth hormone expression in stromal and non-stromal cells in the bursa of Fabricius during bursal development and involution: Causal relationships?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Méndez, A J; Luna-Acosta, J L; Carranza, M; Harvey, S; Arámburo, C; Luna, M

    2010-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is expressed in the chicken bursa of Fabricius (BF), an organ that undergoes three distinct developmental stages: rapid growth (late embryogenesis until 6-8 weeks of age [w]), plateaued growth (between 10 and 15w), and involution (after 18-20w). The distribution and abundance of GH-immunoreactivity (GH-IR) and GH mRNA expression in stromal and non-stromal bursal cells during development, as well as the potential anti-apoptotic effect of GH in bursal cell survival were the focus of this study. GH mRNA expression was mainly in the epithelial layer and in epithelial buds at embryonic day (ED) 15; at 2w it was widely distributed within the follicle and in the interfollicular epithelium (IFE); at 10w it clearly diminished in the epithelium; whereas at 20w it occurred in only a few cortical cells and in the connective tissue. Parallel changes in the relative proportion of GH mRNA expression (12, 21, 13, 1%) and GH-IR (19, 18, 11, <3%) were observed at ED 15, 2w, 10w, and 20w, respectively. During embryogenesis, GH-IR co-localized considerably with IgM-IR, but scarcely with IgG-IR, whereas the opposite was observed after hatching. Significant differences in bursal cell death occurred during development, with 9.3% of cells being apoptotic at ED 15, 0.4% at 2w, 0.23% at 10w, and 21.1% at 20w. Addition of GH increased cultured cell survival by a mechanism that involved suppression (up to 41%) of caspase-3 activity. Results suggest that autocrine/paracrine actions of bursal GH are involved in the differentiation and proliferation of B lymphocytes and in BF growth and cell survival in embryonic and neonatal chicks, whereas diminished GH expression in adults may result in bursal involution.

  15. Forsythiaside attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in the bursa of Fabricius of chickens by downregulating the NF-κB signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, GUANGDONG; ZHAO, YULIAN; LI, HE; WU, YUE; LI, XIANXIAN; HAN, QIANG; DAI, CHONGSHAN; LI, YANHUA

    2014-01-01

    Forsythiaside, a phenylethanoside product isolated from air-dried fruits of Forsythia suspensa, has been demonstrated to exhibit antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities in vitro. However, its mechanism and the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced injury on the bursa of Fabricius (BF) of chickens are poorly understood. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of forsythiaside on LPS-induced acute inflammation. In addition, the potential molecular mechanisms of forsythiaside were analyzed in the BF, a special immune organ in chickens. Forty 15-day-old chickens were randomly divided into control, LPS and LPS plus forsythiaside (30 or 60 mg/kg) groups (n=10 for each group). In the LPS plus forsythiaside (30 or 60 mg/kg) groups, the chickens were orally administered with forsythiaside at doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg for seven days. At 21 days old, the chickens were intravenously injected with 200 μg/kg body weight LPS. Chickens in the control and LPS groups were only administered with vehicle or LPS, respectively, at day 21. At 3 h post-injection, the body temperature and nitric oxide (NO) levels were analyzed. In addition, the levels and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1β, and the mRNA expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS), were examined in the BFs isolated from the chickens. The results revealed that forsythiaside was able to attenuate the LPS-induced inflammatory responses in the BFs of the chickens. The mechanisms by which forsythiaside exerted its anti-inflammatory effect were found to correlate with the inhibition of IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and COX-2 production, via the inactivation of NF-κB, indicating that the NF-κB-iNOS-NO signaling pathway may be important in this process. PMID:24348786

  16. Characterization of suppressor T cells for antibody production by chicken spleen cells. II. Comparison of CT8+ cells from concanavalin A-injected normal and bursa cell-injected agammaglobulinaemic chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Quere, P; Bhogal, B S; Thorbecke, G J

    1990-01-01

    The phenotypes of two different types of suppressor T cells in the chicken, both capable of inhibiting secondary antibody responses in vitro, were determined. The first of these, induced by injection of concanavalin A (Con A) into normal chickens, was CT8+, TcR2+ (alpha beta), CT4-, TcR1- (gamma delta). These cells appeared to exhibit histamine type 2 (H2) receptors, as they adhered to cimetidine-BSA-coated dishes. Moreover, cimetidine added to the medium at 2 x 10(-4) M completely prevented the suppression induced by these suppressor cells. The second type of 'suppressor' T-cell studied, induced in agammaglobulinaemic (A gamma) chickens by injection of bursa cells, exhibited the same phenotype, but was insensitive to cimetidine and did not adhere to cimetidine-BSA-coated dishes, indicating heterogeneity with respect to H2 receptor expression on CT8+ chicken T cells with suppressor activity. The results also showed that a relatively larger proportion of CT8+ than of CT4+ cells adhered to cimetidine-BSA-coated dishes and thus appeared to be H2 receptor positive. TcR1 (gamma delta) cells did not contribute significantly to the antigen non-specific suppressor effects examined in this study. PMID:2149123

  17. Quality improvement of photopolimerizable-cement root canal obturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupato Conrado, Luis A.; Frois, Iris M.; Amaro Zangaro, Renato; Munin, Egberto; Kuranaga, Carlos; Dias da Silva, Marcos; do Carmo de Andrade Nono, Maria; Cerquiera Rezende, Mirabel

    2003-06-01

    The sealing cements commonly used for endodontic applications are of the type cured through chemical reactions. During the polymerization process, mechanical contractions are not uncommon, leading to a non-perfect sealing. Photopolymerizable cements usually presents superior performance as compared to those chemically activated. However, difficulties in carrying the light to difficult-to-reach regions like the dental apex preclude those material of being accepted in the dental office routine. This work reports on a novel technique which allow the light curing of photopolymerizable cements in endodontic applications. A special light guide had been developed to allow the curing light to reach and polymerize the sealing cement in the apex region. The technique was tested by using single-root human teeth with normal canal morphology. The Ultradent EndoREZ root canal sealer and a resin-based photopolymerizable filler specially developed for the current application had been used. The cone-shaped light guide was introduced into treated canals filled with the photopolymerizable material, up to the apical region. Light from an argon laser was launched onto the light guide for polymerization. All test samples were immersed in methylene-blue solution for microleakage testing. All samples treated with the self-polymerizable material presented dye penetration to some extent. No sample within the group which had the filling material polymerized by using the light guide presented dye penetration through the canal wall.

  18. Magnet-Retained Facial Prosthesis Combined with Maxillary Obturator

    PubMed Central

    Hatami, Mahnaz; Badrian, Hamid; Samanipoor, Siamak; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho

    2013-01-01

    Prosthetic rehabilitation of the midfacial defects has always perplexed prosthodontists. These defects lead to functional and esthetic deficiencies. The purpose of this clinical case report was the presentation of the prosthetic rehabilitation of an extraoral-intraoral defect using two-piece prosthesis magnetically connected. This prosthesis has dramatically improved the patient's speech, mastication, swallowing, and esthetic. PMID:23738151

  19. The association between hip muscle cross-sectional area, muscle strength, and bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Ahedi, Harbeer; Aitken, Dawn; Scott, David; Blizzard, Leigh; Cicuttini, Flavia; Jones, Graeme

    2014-07-01

    Studies examining the association between muscle size, muscle strength, and bone mineral density (BMD) are limited. Thus, this study aimed to describe the association between hip muscles cross-sectional area (CSA), muscle strength, and BMD of the hip and spine. A total of 321 subjects from the Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort study with a right hip MRI scan conducted between 2004 and 2006 were included. Hip muscles were measured on MR images by OsiriX (Geneva) software measuring maximum muscle CSA (cm(2)) of gluteus maximus, obturator externus, gemelli, quadratus femoris, piriformis, pectineus, sartorius, and iliopsoas. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured total hip, femoral neck, and spine BMD, and lower limb muscle strength was assessed by dynamometer. Muscle CSA of the hip flexors (pectineus, sartorius, and iliopsoas) and the hip rotators, obturator externus, and quadratus femoris were associated with both total hip and femoral neck BMD (all p < 0.05). The associations between CSA of pectineus and sartorius and BMD were stronger in women (p = 0.01-0.001) compared to men (p = 0.12-0.54). Additionally, only gemelli CSA was associated with BMD of the spine (p = 0.002). Gluteus maximus and piriformis showed no relationship with BMD. CSA of most hip muscles (except gluteus maximus and gemelli) were positively associated with leg strength (p = 0.02 to <0.001). Lastly, leg strength was weakly associated with BMD (p = 0.11-0.007). Hip muscle CSA, and to a lesser extent muscle strength, were positively associated with hip BMD. These data suggest that both higher muscle mass and strength may contribute to the maintenance of bone mass and prevention of disease progression in older adults. PMID:24829114

  20. Mosses beta radioactivity in Katirli mountain-Bursa, TURKEY

    SciTech Connect

    Kahraman, A. G.; Kaynak, G.; Akkaya, G.; Gultekin, A.; Gurler, O.; Yalcin, S.

    2007-04-23

    Mosses are one of the most widely used procedures to determine via plant of radioactive contamination. The high concentrating capacity of mosses may be used as bioindicator of environmental radioactive contamination. In this study, the mosses were collected in region of Katirli Mountain in northwestern Turkey, activities were determined using TENNELEC LB 1000-PW detector. Samples of mosses growing on soil, rock, and tree bark were collected.

  1. Nonsurgical Endodontic Retreatment of Advanced Inflammatory External Root Resorption Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Obturation

    PubMed Central

    Utneja, Shivani; Garg, Gaurav; Arora, Shipra; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory external root resorption is one of the major complications after traumatic dental injury. In this case report, we describe treatment of a maxillary central incisor affected by severe, perforating external root resorption. An 18-year-old patient presented with a previously traumatized, root-filled maxillary central incisor associated with pain and sinus tract. Radiographic examination revealed periradicular lesion involving pathologic resorption of the apical region of the root and lateral root surface both mesially and distally. After removal of the root canal filling, the tooth was disinfected with intracanal triple antibiotic paste for 2 weeks. The antibiotic dressing was then removed, and the entire root canal was filled with mineral trioxide aggregate. The endodontic access cavity was restored with composite resin. After 18 months, significant osseous healing of the periradicular region and lateral periodontium had occurred with arrest of external root resorption, and no clinical symptoms were apparent. PMID:23304567

  2. [An obturator prosthesis in a patient with perfect dentition. Functional, esthetic approach].

    PubMed

    Razouk, O; Sidibe, C A; Dichamp, J; Bertrand, J C

    1994-01-01

    A prosthesis was implanted immediately after operation for a velo-palatal tissue defect in an active young female patient in order to avoid function, psychological and social complications involved with this mutilation. The three classical steps of the process were performed: immediate implantation of the prosthesis, temporary prosthesis, definitive prosthesis. Anchoring to the teeth maintained the prosthesis in position. A functional print is always needed to obtain perfect closure. A metallic bridge links the retention part and the obstructive part. The device is effective, discrete, functional and well-tolerated by the patient.

  3. Fatty degeneration of gluteus minimus muscle as a predictor of falls.

    PubMed

    Kiyoshige, Yoshiro; Watanabe, Emi

    2015-01-01

    The cause of falls is multifactorial, however, hip fractures in elderly would be prevented if accidental falls are predictable. We assessed magnetic resonance images of 38 patients with groin pain after taking a fall whose fracture could not be detected by plain X-rays, and 45 patients with no episode of falls. Their ages were over 65 years. Fatty degeneration of muscles, gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, obturator externus, adductor longus, rectus femoris and iliopsoas muscles, were evaluated by Goutallier's staging. Odds ratio was calculated by a logistic regression analysis allocating dependent variable for falls and independent variables for Goutallier's stage, age and gender. The fatty degeneration of gluteus maximus muscle was generalized, while that of gluteus minimus muscle was unevenly distributed, especially in anterior area. Gluteus minimus muscle initiated its fatty degeneration earlier than gluteus medius muscle. Odds ratio of falling was 3.2 (95% confidence intervals: 1, 14, 8.94) for Goutallier' stage of the gluteus medius muscle. Fatty degeneration of gluteus medius muscle has a crucial role in providing stability of the pelvis including hip joint. Evaluating fatty streaks in the gluteus minimus muscle could help give early indication to those who have a higher risk of falling. PMID:25440137

  4. Can local muscles augment stability in the hip? A narrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Retchford, T H; Crossley, K M; Grimaldi, A; Kemp, J L; Cowan, S M

    2013-03-01

    Hip pain and dysfunction are increasingly recognised as important causes of morbidity in younger and older adults. Pathology compromising the passive stability of the hip joint, including acetabular labral injury, may lead to increased femoral head translation, greater joint contact pressures and ultimately degenerative hip disease. Activation of hip muscles may play an important role in augmenting the stability in the normal and the passively unstable hip. Research at other joints suggests that the local, rather than global, muscles are well suited to provide subtle joint compression, limiting translation, with minimal metabolic cost. Based on the known characteristics of local muscles and the limited research available on hip muscles, it is proposed that the local hip muscles; quadratus femoris, gluteus minimus, gemelli, obturator internus and externus, iliocapsularis and the deep fibres of iliopsoas, may be primary stabilisers of the hip joint. Interventions aimed at restoring isolated neuromuscular function of the primary hip stabilisers may be considered when treating people with passive hip instability prior to commencing global muscle rehabilitation. Finally, further research is needed to investigate the potential association between function of the hip muscles (including muscles likely to have a role in stabilising the hip) and hip pathology affecting hip stability such as acetabular labral lesions.

  5. Mineral and whole-rock geochemistry of the Topuk Granitoid (Bursa, Western Anatolia, Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orhan, Ayşe; Demirbilek, Mehmet; Mutlu, Halim

    2014-05-01

    The Eocene aged Topuk Granitoid exposing in the Tavşanlı Zone at south of the Izmir-Ankara Suture Zone is one of the granitoids which were formed as a result of collision of the Anatolide-Tauride block with the Sakarya continent in the late Cretaceous. Nearly east-west extending, elliptical shaped Topuk Granitoid was intruded into the Paleozoic and Mesozoic metamorphites and upper Cretaceous ophiolitic rocks. The intrusion is in granodiorite composition and contains spherical/ellipsoidal mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) with composition of monzodiorite to monzogabbro. The granitoid which contains xenoliths is frequently cut by porphyritic granodiorite, granite aplite and quartz dikes at the margins. Topuk Granitoid is represented by an I-type pluton with medium to high K calc-alkaline affinity and metaluminous melt composition. Ocean ridge granite (ORG) normalized element distributions show that the granitoid, dikes and MME's have similar patterns. A significant enrichment of LIL (Rb, Ba, K, Th and Sr) elements and relatively depletion of HFS (Ta, Nb, Ce, Hf, Y, Zr and Ti) elements are indicative of formation from hybrid magma in a subduction environment. In tectonic discrimination diagrams (Ta -Yb and Rb-Y+Nb), samples of the Topuk Granitoid are plotted into the volcanic arc granite (VAG) field which is characteristic for the post collision granites. The results of mineral chemistry show that plagioclases are in oligoclase-andesine (An20-49) composition, amphiboles are of magnesio-hornblende and biotites are of Fe-Mg-biotite composition. In the Al2O3-FeO-MgO diagram biotite minerals are accompanied by amphibole and other ferromagnesian minerals and represent biotites of calc-alkaline orogenic zones. Calculations based on the hornblende-barometer indicate that the calc-alkaline magma was crystallized under pressure of 2-6 kbars (mean=4 kbars) and at depth of 7-20 km (mean=12 km). The whole-rock and mineral chemistry data show that the Topuk Granitoid was formed by the interaction of post-collisional, calc-alkaline, metaluminous and I-type coeval felsic and mafic magmas at shallow depths under similar physicochemical conditions. Keywords: Turkey, Western Anatolia, Topuk Granitoid, geochemistry. Acknowledgement: This study is supported by the Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK; YDABAG-111Y289).

  6. Solitary synovial chondromatosis arising in the gluteus maximus bursa: computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Noriko; Nambu, Atsushi; Tago, Masao; Shibuya, Isao; Kawamoto, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Chondral tumors in soft tissue are referred to as soft-tissue chondromas or extraskeletal chondromas, or as synovial chondromatosis if they arise in synovial tissue. We report the case of a 29-year-old man with synovial chondromatosis, also called synovial osteochondromatosis, which appeared in a solitary and extra-articular form. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography, the central portion of the tumor showed similar characteristics to bone marrow, despite the absence of any connection to adjacent bone. T2-weighted imaging displayed marked peripheral hyperintensity consistent with a cartilaginous area. These findings suggested the presence of enchondral ossification and were similar to those of skeletal osteochondroma, with the exception of the absence of attachment to bone. MRI is useful for distinguishing solitary synovial chondromatosis from other lesions, such as myositis ossificans, extraskeletal chondrosarcoma, and parosteal osteosarcoma. PMID:26998347

  7. [Helminth parasites of Hyla arborea (Linneaus, 1758) (tree frog) collected from Bursa, Edirne and Sakarya].

    PubMed

    Yildirimhan, Hikmet Sami; Altunel, F Naci; Uğurtaş, Ismail H

    2006-01-01

    Twenty-seven tree frogs (Hyla arborea ) were collected from 3 different regions of Turkey from 1995-2000 in order to detect helminths . As a result of our survey, 1 Monogenea species and 2 Nematoda species were found. These are Polystoma skrjabini, Cosmocerca ornata and Oswaldocruzia filiformis. This is the second time Polystoma skrjabini has been recorded for this host, while this is the first time Cosmocerca ornata and Oswaldocruzia filiformis have been recorded for this host.

  8. Effect of bursa Fabricius extracts on antibody production in bursectomized or bursal cell autografted chickens.

    PubMed Central

    Baba, T; Okuno, Y

    1976-01-01

    Restoration and enhancement of immune response against BSA antigen was achieved by 5-day consecutive doses of BF estract from 4-5-week-old chickens, in birds which had been surgically bursectomized or given BF-cell autografts at 17 days of age. A similar 5-day treatment with other tissue extract, i.e. liver, spleen, pancreas or intestine, or with LPS of E. coli, in contrast, failed to provide such restoration or enhancement. PMID:61937

  9. Comparison of Endodontic Retreatment in Teeth Obturated With Resilon or Gutta-Percha: A Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Ciro; Maia, Conceição; Vale, Fábio; Gadê-Neto, Cícero; Carvalho, Lilian; Oliveira, Hanieri; Carvalho, Rejane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Retreatment of endodontically treated teeth is a challenge that requires complete removal of the previous filling material. Several techniques are indicated for this procedure. The present review tries to identify the most efficient method for extirpation of Resilon (RS) root fillings and to compare the speed and efficacy of RS and gutta-percha (GP) root filling removal. Methods and Materials: Three trained evaluators conducted a search through three major databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library and Lilacs) over the articles published in the period from 2001 to 2014. The search keywords were Epiphany Sealer, Resilon, Retreatment and Removal Procedure. Results: Twelve articles were included in the final sample (three in vitro studies and nine randomized trials). Conclusion: The ProTaper (manual or rotatory) system in combination with chemical solvents is the most efficient method for removing Resilon root filling. Retreatment of Resilon is more rapid and associated with less remnants of debris. PMID:26523136

  10. Surgically Relevant Bony and Soft Tissue Anatomy of the Proximal Femur

    PubMed Central

    Philippon, Marc J.; Michalski, Max P.; Campbell, Kevin J.; Goldsmith, Mary T.; Devitt, Brian M.; Wijdicks, Coen A.; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hip endoscopy facilitates the treatment of extra-articular disorders of the proximal femur. Unfortunately, current knowledge of proximal femur anatomy is limited to qualitative descriptions and lacks surgically relevant landmarks. Purpose: To provide a quantitative and qualitative analysis of proximal femur anatomy in reference to surgically relevant bony landmarks. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Fourteen cadaveric hemipelvises were dissected. A coordinate measuring device measured dimensions and interrelationships of the gluteal muscles, hip external rotators, pectineus, iliopsoas, and joint capsule in reference to osseous landmarks. Results: The vastus tubercle, superomedial border of the greater trochanter, and femoral head-neck junction were distinct and reliable osseous landmarks. The anteroinferior tip of the vastus tubercle was 17.1 mm (95% CI: 14.5, 19.8 mm) anteroinferior to the center of the gluteus medius lateral insertional footprint and was 22.9 mm (95% CI: 20.1, 25.7 mm) inferolateral to the center of the gluteus minimus insertional footprint. The insertions of the piriformis, conjoint tendon of the hip (superior gemellus, obturator internus, and inferior gemellus), and obturator externus were identified relative to the superomedial border of the greater trochanter. The relationship of the aforementioned footprints were 49% (95% CI: 43%, 54%), 42% (95% CI: 33%, 50%), and 64% (95% CI: 59%, 69%) from the anterior (0%) to posterior (100%) margins of the superomedial border of the greater trochanter, respectively. The hip joint capsule attached distally on the proximal femur 18.2 mm (95% CI: 14.2, 22.2 mm) from the head-neck junction medially on average. Conclusion: The vastus tubercle, superomedial border of the greater trochanter, and the femoral head-neck junction were reliable osseous landmarks for the identification of the tendinous and hip capsular insertions on the proximal femur. Knowledge of the

  11. Diffusely infiltrated lymphoid areas of the bursa of Fabricius (DIA) and of the cloaca: an embryological study with morphological analogies.

    PubMed Central

    Dolfi, A; Lupetti, M; Bianchi, F; Michelucci, S

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to verify whether the origin of the DIA is ectodermal or endodermal. A rabbit serum against the epithelial cells of the final portion of the cloaca was prepared. The indirect immunofluorescence method was applied to strips obtained with a cryostat, carefully cut in such a way as to include a part of the cloaca, the burso-cloacal stalk, the DIA, and the bursal plicae. In this way, it was possible to demonstrate that the epithelium of the cloaca, of the burso-cloacal stalk, and of the DIA exhibited an intense fluorescence that could not be observed at the level of the epithelium of the bursal plicae. These findings would appear to indicate that the DIA, like the cloaca and the burso-cloacal stalk, is ectodermal in origin. Furthermore, histological study revealed that the DIA exhibits close structural analogies with the dorsal wall of the cloaca. In both areas, unorganized lymphoid infiltrations of the tunica propria can be seen, and the epithelium does not show any follicle-associated epithelial cells. The glands often assume the aspect of dilated crypts containing intestinal transit material. The epithelium of these glands reveals lymphoid infiltrations at various points, and it is not uncommon to detect accumulations of cells in their lumina. Several groups of eosinophilic granulocytes can also be observed in the tunica propria of these two areas, with a clear predominance at the level of the DIA. These similarities between the cloaca and the DIA might lead one to suppose the existence of a functional as well as a morphological correspondence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:3417544

  12. COHb Level and High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T in 2012 in Bursa, Turkey: A Retrospective Single-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Huysal, Kagan; Ustundag Budak, Yasemin; Aydin, Ufuk; Demirci, Hakan; Turk, Tamer; Karadag, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Background Intoxication due to carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the most common types of poisoning. Cardiac effects of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) range from simple arrhythmias to myocardial infarction. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between blood carboxyhemoglobin and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) level with a highly sensitive assay in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Patients and Methods This retrospective study was conducted on 141 (54 males and 87 females) patients, with acute CO intoxication, admitted to the Sevket Yilmaz research and education hospital emergency unit during a one-year period (January 2012 - January 2013). The patients were divided into three groups based on COHb levels: Group I, mild COHb level < 15%; Group II, COHb between 15% and 25%; Group III, severe acute CO intoxication COHb levels > 25%. COHb, hs-cTnT (Stat), creatine kinase (CK) and creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) levels were measured on admission. Results The mean age of the patients was 38 ± 16 years. COHb levels ranged from 8 to 35. hs-cTnT levels on inclusion in this study were slightly different between the groups (P = 0.05). COHb levels with hs-cTnT values were weakly correlated (r = 0.173, P = 0.041); on the other hand, CK-MB levels were not correlated with COHb (r = 0.013, P = 0.883). Conclusions In patients without clear signs of myocardial infarction, even mild CO poisoning was associated with quantifiable circulating levels of hs-cTnT when TnT was measured using a highly sensitive assay in the current study patients. Plasma levels of the hs-TnT and CK-MB assays were not correlated with the COHb levels in the current study patients. PMID:27437130

  13. Bursitis and Tendinitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... tendons, or skin. Bursae are found throughout the body. Bursitis occurs when a bursa becomes inflamed (redness and increased fluid in the bursa). A tendon is a flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects muscles to ...

  14. Radiographic and anatomic landmarks to approach the anterior capsule in hip arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Salas, Antonio Porthos

    2015-12-01

    Hip arthroscopy (HA) is considered to be a very difficult and demanding surgical procedure, special instruments, an image intensifier and a fracture table or hip distractor are required to access the hip joint, the most common and worldwide used HA technique is entering blindly to the central compartment with the use of fluoroscopy and continuous distraction; with the potential danger if performed in unskillful hands of labral penetrations, labral resections and scuffing of the femoral head cartilage. Our technique describes the arthroscopic management of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), performing a preoperative planning using radiographic and anatomic landmarks to approach the anterior capsule without the use of fluoroscopy. Access to the hip joint is made extra-articularly from the peritrochanteric compartment palpating the greater trochanter and posteriorly penetrating the iliotibial band sliding the arthroscopic sheath and obturator from the trochanteric border to the anterior femoral neck to visualize the anterior capsule bursa and anterior capsule fibers and posteriorly following our previous landmarks perform an anterior oblique Inverted 'T' or 'H' capsulotomy with a radiofrequency wand to access the cam-type impingement and distraction is made under direct controlled arthroscopic vision. Our technique in HA aiming the anterior capsule using radiographic and anatomic landmarks is safe, reliable and reproducible in FAI with big cams, deep sockets and cases with mild arthritis where the capsule is thick, stiff and calcified. PMID:27011869

  15. Radiographic and anatomic landmarks to approach the anterior capsule in hip arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hip arthroscopy (HA) is considered to be a very difficult and demanding surgical procedure, special instruments, an image intensifier and a fracture table or hip distractor are required to access the hip joint, the most common and worldwide used HA technique is entering blindly to the central compartment with the use of fluoroscopy and continuous distraction; with the potential danger if performed in unskillful hands of labral penetrations, labral resections and scuffing of the femoral head cartilage. Our technique describes the arthroscopic management of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), performing a preoperative planning using radiographic and anatomic landmarks to approach the anterior capsule without the use of fluoroscopy. Access to the hip joint is made extra-articularly from the peritrochanteric compartment palpating the greater trochanter and posteriorly penetrating the iliotibial band sliding the arthroscopic sheath and obturator from the trochanteric border to the anterior femoral neck to visualize the anterior capsule bursa and anterior capsule fibers and posteriorly following our previous landmarks perform an anterior oblique Inverted ‘T’ or ‘H’ capsulotomy with a radiofrequency wand to access the cam-type impingement and distraction is made under direct controlled arthroscopic vision. Our technique in HA aiming the anterior capsule using radiographic and anatomic landmarks is safe, reliable and reproducible in FAI with big cams, deep sockets and cases with mild arthritis where the capsule is thick, stiff and calcified. PMID:27011869

  16. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential, and HPLC Analysis of Stictic and Usnic Acids of Three Usnea Species from Uludag Mountain (Bursa, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Oran, Seyhan; Sahin, Saliha; Sahinturk, Pinar; Ozturk, Sule; Demir, Cevdet

    2016-01-01

    In this study, antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of Usnea intermedia, U. filipendula, and U. fulvoreagens and their stictic and usnic acid contents were investigated. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents were evaluated in acetone, ethanol, and methanol extracts of these three species. Antioxidant activity was measured by ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] method and total phenolic contents were measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the determination of lichen acids. It can be concluded from stictic and usnic acids contents that the order of solvent efficiency is acetone > ethanol > methanol and acetone > methanol > ethanol, respectively. Broth microdilution method was performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the methanol extracts of three Usnea species. The MIC values of all the extracts ranged from 64 µg/mL to 512 µg/mL for all the bacterial strains that were tested in this study, and all the Fluoro quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli isolates (except for E101) were sensitive to the methanol extracts of the three Usnea species. This paper is the first study to determine the stictic acid content in U. intermedia and U. filipendula. Our findings indicate that these three Usnea species could be used as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. PMID:27642324

  17. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential, and HPLC Analysis of Stictic and Usnic Acids of Three Usnea Species from Uludag Mountain (Bursa, Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Oran, Seyhan; Sahin, Saliha; Sahinturk, Pinar; Ozturk, Sule; Demir, Cevdet

    2016-01-01

    In this study, antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of Usnea intermedia, U. filipendula, and U. fulvoreagens and their stictic and usnic acid contents were investigated. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents were evaluated in acetone, ethanol, and methanol extracts of these three species. Antioxidant activity was measured by ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] method and total phenolic contents were measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the determination of lichen acids. It can be concluded from stictic and usnic acids contents that the order of solvent efficiency is acetone > ethanol > methanol and acetone > methanol > ethanol, respectively. Broth microdilution method was performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the methanol extracts of three Usnea species. The MIC values of all the extracts ranged from 64 µg/mL to 512 µg/mL for all the bacterial strains that were tested in this study, and all the Fluoro quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli isolates (except for E101) were sensitive to the methanol extracts of the three Usnea species. This paper is the first study to determine the stictic acid content in U. intermedia and U. filipendula. Our findings indicate that these three Usnea species could be used as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents.

  18. Ultrasound-guided retro-calcaneal bursa corticosteroid injection for refractory Achilles tendinitis in patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathy: efficacy and follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Puja; Aggarwal, Amita

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound (US)-guided corticosteroid injection has been shown to be safe and effective for varied causes of plantar fasciitis; however, its use for Achilles tendinitis is controversial. We studied the efficacy and changes in US findings at Achilles enthesitis after corticosteroid injection in patients with spondyloarthropathy (SpA). Patients with SpA with symptomatic Achilles enthesitis, refractory to 6 weeks of full-dose NSAIDs, were offered US-guided local corticosteroid injection. Injected entheses were examined by US (both B mode and power Doppler) at baseline and 6 weeks after injection. Standard OMERACT definitions were used to define enthesitis. Achilles tendon thickness >5.29 mm, 2 cm proximal to insertion in long axis, was considered thickened. Twenty-seven symptomatic Achilles tendons (in 18 patients) were injected with 20 mg methylprednisolone under US guidance baseline, and 6-week follow-up US features were compared. All patients reported improvement in pain (VAS) in the affected tendon after injection (p < 0.0001). Simultaneously, improvement in local inflammatory changes were noted, in the form of significant reduction in tendon thickness (p < 0.0001), vascularity (p < 0.0001), peritendinous oedema (p = 0.001), bursitis and bursal vascularity (p < 0.001 and < 0.0001, respectively). There was no change in bone erosions and enthesophyte. None of the patients had tendon rupture or other injection-related complications at 6 weeks of follow-up. US-guided local corticosteroid injection is an effective and safe modality for refractory Achilles enthesitis in patients with SpA and leads to reversion of acute changes at entheseal site. PMID:26894910

  19. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential, and HPLC Analysis of Stictic and Usnic Acids of Three Usnea Species from Uludag Mountain (Bursa, Turkey)

    PubMed Central

    Oran, Seyhan; Sahin, Saliha; Sahinturk, Pinar; Ozturk, Sule; Demir, Cevdet

    2016-01-01

    In this study, antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of Usnea intermedia, U. filipendula, and U. fulvoreagens and their stictic and usnic acid contents were investigated. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents were evaluated in acetone, ethanol, and methanol extracts of these three species. Antioxidant activity was measured by ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] method and total phenolic contents were measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used for the determination of lichen acids. It can be concluded from stictic and usnic acids contents that the order of solvent efficiency is acetone > ethanol > methanol and acetone > methanol > ethanol, respectively. Broth microdilution method was performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the methanol extracts of three Usnea species. The MIC values of all the extracts ranged from 64 µg/mL to 512 µg/mL for all the bacterial strains that were tested in this study, and all the Fluoro quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli isolates (except for E101) were sensitive to the methanol extracts of the three Usnea species. This paper is the first study to determine the stictic acid content in U. intermedia and U. filipendula. Our findings indicate that these three Usnea species could be used as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. PMID:27642324

  20. Bursitis of the heel

    MedlinePlus

    ... bursa acts as a cushion and lubricant between tendons or muscles sliding over bone. There are bursas ... the heel. It is where the large Achilles tendon connects the calf muscles to the heel bone. ...

  1. Identification and characterization of two distinct bursal B-cell subpopulations following infectious bursal disease virus infection of White Leghorn chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an immunosuppressive virus which primarily infects IgM, B-cells in the bursa of Fabricius. Flow cytometric analysis was used to phenotype B-cell populations in the bursa and spleen following IBDV infection. In the bursa, two IgM B-cell subpopulations, desig...

  2. Comparative analysis of trunk muscle activities in climbing of during upright climbing at different inclination angles

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byung-Joon; Kim, Joong-Hwi; Kim, Jang-Hwan; Choi, Byeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to provide evidence for the therapeutic exercise approach through a compative analysis of muscle activities according to climbing wall inclination. [Subjects and Methods] Twentyfour healthy adult subjects without climbing experience performed static exercises at a therapeutic climbing at with various inclination angles (0°, 10°, 20°), and the activities of the trunk muscles (rectus abdominis, obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, erector spinae) were measured using surface electromyography (EMG) for 7 seconds. [Results] Significant differences were found between the inclination angles of 10° and 0°, as well as 20° in the rectus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, right obliquus externus abdominis, and right erector spinae. [Conclusion] Based on measurements of trunk muscle activity in a static climbing standing position at different angles, significant changes in muscle activity appear to be induced at 10 degrees. Therefore, the results appear to provide clinically relevant evidence. PMID:26644661

  3. Detection of cell mediated immune response to avian influenza viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In birds, lymphomyeloid tissues develop from epithelial (Bursa of Fabricus or thymus) or mesenchymal tissue which are populated by heamatopoietic stem cells. These stem cells develop directly into immunologically competent B (bursa) and T (thymus) cells. Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is a part of the...

  4. 75 FR 35291 - Foreign Futures and Options Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... business with customers in Malaysia as well as in the U.S.; and such firm and its principals and employees... products to certain governmental and institutional customers located in the U.S.); 59 FR 42156 (August 17... an exemption to firms designated by Bursa Malaysia Derivatives Berhad (Bursa Derivatives),...

  5. [Manufacturing of a new gastric-tube for anesthesia and its clinical applications].

    PubMed

    Ou, Chang-Huai; Ou, Chang-Dai

    2006-03-01

    A new gastric-tube for anesthesia has been manufactured by adding a bursa of the stomach bottom and a bursa for locking the stomach to the conventional gastric-tube. The clinical applications on trial show that vomiting, returning of the gastric juice, misinhalation can be prevented efficiently in the patients during the operation, thus greatly increasing the safety of operational anesthesia.

  6. Use of Orbital Conformer to Improve Speech in Patients with Confluent Maxillectomy and Orbital Defects.

    PubMed

    Colebeck, Amanda C; Kase, Michael T; Nichols, Cindy B; Golden, Marjorie; Huryn, Joseph M

    2016-04-01

    The basic objective in prosthetic restoration of confluent maxillary and orbital defects is to achieve a comfortable, cosmetically acceptable prosthesis that restores speech, deglutition, and mastication. It is a challenging task complicated by the size and shape of the defects. The maxillary obturator prosthesis often satisfies the objective of adequate deglutition; however, orbital defects that are not obturated in the medial, septal, or posterior walls allow air to escape, negatively impacting phonation. This article describes a technique to achieve favorable prosthetic rehabilitation in a patient with a maxillectomy and ipsilateral orbital exenteration. The prosthetic components include maxillary obturator, orbital conformer, and orbital prosthesis connected using rigid magnetic attachments. PMID:25953143

  7. Use of Orbital Conformer to Improve Speech in Patients with Confluent Maxillectomy and Orbital Defects.

    PubMed

    Colebeck, Amanda C; Kase, Michael T; Nichols, Cindy B; Golden, Marjorie; Huryn, Joseph M

    2016-04-01

    The basic objective in prosthetic restoration of confluent maxillary and orbital defects is to achieve a comfortable, cosmetically acceptable prosthesis that restores speech, deglutition, and mastication. It is a challenging task complicated by the size and shape of the defects. The maxillary obturator prosthesis often satisfies the objective of adequate deglutition; however, orbital defects that are not obturated in the medial, septal, or posterior walls allow air to escape, negatively impacting phonation. This article describes a technique to achieve favorable prosthetic rehabilitation in a patient with a maxillectomy and ipsilateral orbital exenteration. The prosthetic components include maxillary obturator, orbital conformer, and orbital prosthesis connected using rigid magnetic attachments.

  8. Bacterial leakage of GuttaFlow-filled root canals compared with Resilon/Epiphany and Gutta-percha/AH26-filled root canals.

    PubMed

    Kangarlou, Ali; Dianat, Omid; Esfahrood, Zeinab Rezaei; Asharaf, Hengameh; Zandi, Babak; Eslami, Gita

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess bacterial apical leakage in root canals obturated with GuttaFlow and compare this with the leakage of root canals obturated with Resilon/Epiphany or Gutta-percha/AH26. A total of 55 single-rooted human teeth were divided randomly into three experimental (n = 15) and two control groups (n = 5). Following a standardised preparation, the teeth were obturated with either GuttaFlow, Resilon/Epiphany or Gutta-percha/AH26. A two-chamber bacterial model using Enterococcus faecalis was employed to assess bacterial apical leakage for a period of 60 days. A Kruskal-Wallis test showed no significant differences between the seal of root canals obturated with GuttaFlow, Resilon/Ephiphany or Gutta-percha/AH26. PMID:22432820

  9. Robot-assisted removal of a lymphocyst causing severe neuralgic pain and adductor atrophy.

    PubMed

    Cazzaniga, Giorgio; Borgfeldt, Christer; Wallengren, Nils-Olof; Persson, Jan

    2011-12-01

    Following a robot-assisted radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy for early-stage cervical cancer, a 53-year-old woman was diagnosed with a 50-mm right-sided pelvic lymphocyst by the use of vaginal ultrasonography. She gradually developed intermittent increasingly severe neuralgic pain mimicking a meralgia paresthetica. A neurolysis was proposed by the neurosurgeons. Awaiting this intervention, a pelvic MRI revealed a partial atrophy of the ipsilateral adductor muscles and a probable entrapment of the obturator nerve by the lymphocyst as an alternative cause of the pain. Using a four-arm da Vinci-S-HD robot the lymphocyst, located deep in the right obturator fossa and surrounding the obturator nerve, was completely removed, sparing the partially atrophic obturator nerve. No bleeding occurred. The surgery time was 95 min. At 10 months' follow-up the patient was relieved of her pain with no signs of a new lymphocyst. PMID:27628122

  10. [Nonsurgical retreatment of lateral radiopacity after surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Arias de Luxan, A

    1990-01-01

    A case report is presented of an upper central incisor with incomplete endodontic procedure evidencing a radiolucent image that was treated by apicoectomy and retroamalgam. A year later the periapical lesion had healed completely but a new lateral radiolucency is observed. A reentry of the canal is performed eliminating the old obturating material, biomechanical preparation and obturation with sealer and thermo gutta-percha. The lesion was cured in nine months.

  11. [Nonsurgical retreatment of lateral radiopacity after surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Arias de Luxan, A

    1990-01-01

    A case report is presented of an upper central incisor with incomplete endodontic procedure evidencing a radiolucent image that was treated by apicoectomy and retroamalgam. A year later the periapical lesion had healed completely but a new lateral radiolucency is observed. A reentry of the canal is performed eliminating the old obturating material, biomechanical preparation and obturation with sealer and thermo gutta-percha. The lesion was cured in nine months. PMID:1964068

  12. [APPLICATION OF FISTULA PLUG WITH THE FIBRIN ADHESIVE IN TREATMENT OF RECTAL FISTULAS].

    PubMed

    Aydinova, P R; Aliyev, E A

    2015-05-01

    Results of surgical treatment of 21 patients, suffering high transsphincteric and extrasphincteric rectal fistulas, were studied. In patients of Group I the fistula passage was closed, using fistula plug obturator; and in patients of Group II--by the same, but preprocessed by fibrin adhesive. The fistula aperture germeticity, prophylaxis of rude cicatrices development in operative wound zone, promotion of better fixation of bioplastic material were guaranteed, using fistula plug obturator with preprocessing, using fibrin adhesive. PMID:26419026

  13. The hyal and ventral branchial muscles in caecilian and salamander larvae: homologies and evolution.

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Haas, Alexander

    2011-05-01

    Amphibians (Lissamphibia) are characterized by a bi-phasic life-cycle that comprises an aquatic larval stage and metamorphosis to the adult. The ancestral aquatic feeding behavior of amphibian larvae is suction feeding. The negative pressure that is needed for ingestion of prey is created by depression of the hyobranchial apparatus as a result of hyobranchial muscle action. Understanding the homologies of hyobranchial muscles in amphibian larvae is a crucial step in understanding the evolution of this important character complex. However, the literature mostly focuses on the adult musculature and terms used for hyal and ventral branchial muscles in different amphibians often do not reflect homologies across lissamphibian orders. Here we describe the hyal and ventral branchial musculature in larvae of caecilians (Gymnophiona) and salamanders (Caudata), including juveniles of two permanently aquatic salamander species. Based on previous alternative terminology schemes, we propose a terminology for the hyal and ventral branchial muscles that reflects the homologies of muscles and that is suited for studies on hyobranchial muscle evolution in amphibians. We present a discussion of the hyal and ventral branchial muscles in larvae of the most recent common ancestor of amphibians (i.e. the ground plan of Lissamphibia). Based on our terminology, the hyal and ventral branchial musculature of caecilians and salamanders comprises the following muscles: m. depressor mandibulae, m. depressor mandibulae posterior, m. hyomandibularis, m. branchiohyoideus externus, m. interhyoideus, m. interhyoideus posterior, m. subarcualis rectus I, m. subarcualis obliquus II, m. subarcualis obliquus III, m. subarcualis rectus II-IV, and m. transversus ventralis IV. Except for the m. branchiohyoideus externus, all muscles considered herein can be assigned to the ground plan of the Lissamphibia with certainty. The m. branchiohyoideus externus is either apomorphic for the Batrachia (frogs

  14. The hyal and ventral branchial muscles in caecilian and salamander larvae: homologies and evolution.

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Haas, Alexander

    2011-05-01

    Amphibians (Lissamphibia) are characterized by a bi-phasic life-cycle that comprises an aquatic larval stage and metamorphosis to the adult. The ancestral aquatic feeding behavior of amphibian larvae is suction feeding. The negative pressure that is needed for ingestion of prey is created by depression of the hyobranchial apparatus as a result of hyobranchial muscle action. Understanding the homologies of hyobranchial muscles in amphibian larvae is a crucial step in understanding the evolution of this important character complex. However, the literature mostly focuses on the adult musculature and terms used for hyal and ventral branchial muscles in different amphibians often do not reflect homologies across lissamphibian orders. Here we describe the hyal and ventral branchial musculature in larvae of caecilians (Gymnophiona) and salamanders (Caudata), including juveniles of two permanently aquatic salamander species. Based on previous alternative terminology schemes, we propose a terminology for the hyal and ventral branchial muscles that reflects the homologies of muscles and that is suited for studies on hyobranchial muscle evolution in amphibians. We present a discussion of the hyal and ventral branchial muscles in larvae of the most recent common ancestor of amphibians (i.e. the ground plan of Lissamphibia). Based on our terminology, the hyal and ventral branchial musculature of caecilians and salamanders comprises the following muscles: m. depressor mandibulae, m. depressor mandibulae posterior, m. hyomandibularis, m. branchiohyoideus externus, m. interhyoideus, m. interhyoideus posterior, m. subarcualis rectus I, m. subarcualis obliquus II, m. subarcualis obliquus III, m. subarcualis rectus II-IV, and m. transversus ventralis IV. Except for the m. branchiohyoideus externus, all muscles considered herein can be assigned to the ground plan of the Lissamphibia with certainty. The m. branchiohyoideus externus is either apomorphic for the Batrachia (frogs

  15. Agar polysaccharides from Gracilaria species (Rhodophyta, Gracilariaceae).

    PubMed

    Marinho-Soriano, E

    2001-07-26

    Yield, physical and chemical properties of agar from three agarophytes species (Gracilaria gracilis, G. dura and G. bursa-pastoris) were determined. The agar yield from the three species varied significantly (P<0.01). The highest yields of agar (34.8%) and the lowest (30%) were obtained from G. bursa-pastoris and G. gracilis, respectively. Highest gel strength (630+/-15 g cm(-2)) was obtained from agar extracted from G. gracilis and lowest from G. bursa-pastoris (26+/-3.6 g cm(-2)). The values of 3,6-anhydrogalactose were similar for G. gracilis and G. dura and there were no significant differences among the species. The sulfate contents varied significantly (P<0.01) and the higher value was obtained from G. bursa-pastoris. Among the three species, G. gracilis showed superior agar quality than the other two species, hence it can be considered a good potential source for industrial use.

  16. Trochanteric bursitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... walking Joint stiffness Swelling and warmth of the hip joint Catching and clicking sensation You may notice the ... physical therapy if you have trouble moving the joint. Other ... your hip will function just fine without the inflamed bursa. ...

  17. The operative treatment of scapulothoracic bursitis in professional pitchers.

    PubMed

    Sisto, D J; Jobe, F W

    1986-01-01

    Four professional pitchers with resistant scapulothoracic bursitis who have required surgical excision of the thickened bursa are reported. The average time duration of symptoms prior to surgery was 18.8 months. Conservative therapy consisting of rest, shoulder exercises, antiinflammatory medications, and cortisone injections failed to resolve the bursitis, and each pitcher was unable to compete secondary to pain. The incision was posterior, just distal to the tip of the scapula. The specimens contained cleft-like spaces lined by synovial tissue consistent with a bursa. All four pitchers returned to professional baseball the year following surgical excision of the bursa. We recommend early, aggressive, conservative therapy for scapulothoracic bursitis in the throwing athlete. Pitchers with a thickened, resistant scapulothoracic bursitis should have the bursa surgically excised.

  18. 9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... bacteriological examination of cull chicks from egg-type and meat-type chicken flocks and waterfowl, exhibition... of heart, lung, liver, and spleen tissues. Include the proximal wall of the bursa of Fabricius...

  19. 9 CFR 147.17 - Laboratory procedure recommended for the bacteriological examination of cull chicks and poults...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... bacteriological examination of cull chicks from egg-type and meat-type chicken flocks and waterfowl, exhibition... of heart, lung, liver, and spleen tissues. Include the proximal wall of the bursa of Fabricius...

  20. Rotator cuff problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that attach to the bones of the shoulder ... Rotator cuff tendinitis refers to irritation of these tendons and inflammation of the bursa (a normally smooth ...

  1. Rotator cuff - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... rotator cuff is a group of muscles and tendons that attach to the bones of the shoulder ... problems include: Tendinitis , which is irritation of the tendons and inflammation of the bursa (a normally smooth ...

  2. Digestive Organ in the Female Reproductive Tract Borrows Genes from Multiple Organ Systems to Adopt Critical Functions

    PubMed Central

    Meslin, Camille; Plakke, Melissa S.; Deutsch, Aaron B.; Small, Brandon S.; Morehouse, Nathan I.; Clark, Nathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent adaptive challenges are often met with the evolution of novel physiological traits. Although there are specific examples of single genes providing new physiological functions, studies on the origin of complex organ functions are lacking. One such derived set of complex functions is found in the Lepidopteran bursa copulatrix, an organ within the female reproductive tract that digests nutrients from the male ejaculate or spermatophore. Here, we characterized bursa physiology and the evolutionary mechanisms by which it was equipped with digestive and absorptive functionality. By studying the transcriptome of the bursa and eight other tissues, we revealed a suite of highly expressed and secreted gene products providing the bursa with a combination of stomach-like traits for mechanical and enzymatic digestion of the male spermatophore. By subsequently placing these bursa genes in an evolutionary framework, we found that the vast majority of their novel digestive functions were co-opted by borrowing genes that continue to be expressed in nonreproductive tissues. However, a number of bursa-specific genes have also arisen, some of which represent unique gene families restricted to Lepidoptera and may provide novel bursa-specific functions. This pattern of promiscuous gene borrowing and relatively infrequent evolution of tissue-specific duplicates stands in contrast to studies of the evolution of novelty via single gene co-option. Our results suggest that the evolution of complex organ-level phenotypes may often be enabled (and subsequently constrained) by changes in tissue specificity that allow expression of existing genes in novel contexts, such as reproduction. The extent to which the selective pressures encountered in these novel roles require resolution via duplication and sub/neofunctionalization is likely to be determined by the need for specialized reproductive functionality. Thus, complex physiological phenotypes such as that found in the bursa offer

  3. An in-vitro comparative study for assessment of apical sealing ability of Epiphany/AH Plus sealer with Resilon/gutta-percha root canal filling materials

    PubMed Central

    Sultana, Meraj; Musani, Mohammad A.; Ahmed, Iffat M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Endodontic treatment is directed to eliminate microbial challenges from the root canal system and to create a complete seal. The aim of this study was to assess the apical sealing ability of resin-based Epiphany-Resilon root canal filling system and to compare it with the sealing abilities of different combinations of AH Plus, gutta-percha, Epiphany, and Resilon. Materials and Methods: One hundred extracted human maxillary incisor roots were treated endodontically. The samples were divided into groups A, B, C, and D, with each group containing 25 samples. Group A: Canals obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer; Group B: Canals obturated with Resilon and Epiphany; Group C: Canals obturated with gutta-percha and Epiphany; Group D: Control group canals obturated with gutta-percha without a sealer. The sealing ability of each of the obturation techniques was tested using the dye penetration method followed by the clearing method using alcohol. Stereo microscope was used to measure the extent of dye penetration. Statistical data analysis was performed using analysis of variance and Tukey tests. Results: Microleakage was found in all the four groups. Apical extent of mean microleakage was maximum for gutta-percha, followed by Gutta-percha + AH-plus and Gutta-percha + Epiphany, and the least with Resilon + Epiphany. Statistically significant difference (P < 0.01) was seen in the apical leakage. Conclusion: All the samples tested showed microleakage. The “Epiphany soft resin endodontic obturation system” showed a superior result compared to other obturation materials. PMID:27583220

  4. [Spatial organization of the lesser peritoneal sac during the early stages of human ontogeny].

    PubMed

    Krutsiak, V N; Voĭtiv, Iu Ia

    1984-12-01

    In 63 series of histological sections of human embryos and prefetuses (4-13 weeks) and in 30 corpses of fetuses and stillborns it has been stated that during the 4th week certain changes occur resulting in formation of the lesser peritoneal sac. It further develops into 3 sections: vestibulum bursae omentalis, bursa omentalis proper and cavity of the omentum majus. Spatial-temporal organization of the lesser peritoneal sac is neither connected with development of separate organs or structures, nor with independent growth, but with the process of development of the whole organocomplex of the upper part of the abdominal cavity, formation of topography and organs' fixation, growth peculiarities of the dorsal mesogastrium. The bursa omentalis proper is forming at the expense of retransformation of the hepatogastric pocket, dependent on growth of the dorsal mesogastrium and on a change in the stomach position. The vestibulum bursae omentalis appears in connection with development and formation of the liver topography, lesser omentum and duodenum. The right pulmoesophagial pocket is interrupted by a developing diaphragm with formation of the superior torsion of the bursa omentalis. Disorders in fixation processes of the organs in the superior part of the abdominal cavity and formation of the bursa omentalis topography can serve as a morphological prerequisite for cysts developing in the retroperitoneal space and hernias of the foramen epiploicum.

  5. Lumbo-pelvic stability and electromyography of abdominal muscles in ballet dancers.

    PubMed

    Negrão Filho, R de Faria; Silva, L Alves; Monteiro, T Lombardi; Alves, N; de Carvalho, A Cesinando; de Azevedo, F Mícolis

    2009-01-01

    Evaluating the ability to rectify and maintain lumbar adjustment can contribute toward the understanding of the behavior of abdominal muscles and their participation in the stability of pelvic muscles in dancers during the posterior pelvic tilt and double straight leg lowering tests. Nine healthy volunteers (male and female ballet dancers; age mean: 25.9 +/- 7.37 years) underwent maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC), isometric voluntary contraction at 50% of MIVC, posterior pelvic tilt (PPT) and double straight leg lowering (DSLL) tests. The tests were carried out in a single day, with 3 repetitions each. During the tests, electromygraphic signals of the rectus abdominis, obliquus internus and obliquus externus were recorded. The signal acquisition system was made up of bipolar surface electrodes, electrogoniometer and an electromechanic device (pressure sensor), which were connected to a signal conditioner module. Root mean square values of each muscle during the DSLL and PPT were converted into percentage of activation of 50% MIVC. Lower back pressure was submitted to the same process. ANOVA with repeated measures was performed, with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. The results revealed that all dancers were able to maintain posterior pelvic tilt and there was trend toward greater activation of the bilateral obliquus internus muscle. In an attempt to keep the pelvic region stabilized during DSLL, there was a greater contribution from the obliquus externus muscle in relation to other abdominal muscles.

  6. Molecular Prevalence of Acarapis Mite Infestations in Honey Bees in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ah-Jin; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Noh, Jin-Hyeong; Kim, Young-Ha; Yoo, Mi-Sun; Kang, Seung-Won; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Shin, Sung Shik

    2015-06-01

    Acarapis mites, including Acarapis woodi, Acarapis externus, and Acarapis dorsalis, are parasites of bees which can cause severe damage to the bee industry by destroying colonies and decreasing honey production. All 3 species are prevalent throughout many countries including UK, USA, Iran, Turkey, China, and Japan. Based on previous reports of Acarapis mites occurring in northeast Asia, including China and Japan, we investigated a survey of Acarapis mite infestations in honey bees in Korean apiaries. A total of 99 colonies of Apis mellifera were sampled from 5 provinces. The head and thorax of 20 bees from each colony were removed for DNA extraction. PCR assays were performed with 3 primer sets, including T, A, and K primers. Results indicated that 42.4% (42/99) of samples were Acarapis-positive by PCR assay which were sequenced to identify species. Each sequence showed 92.6-99.3% homology with reference sequences. Based on the homology, the number of colonies infected with A. dorsalis was 32 which showed the highest infection rate among the 3 species, while the number of colonies infected with A. externus and A. woodi was 9 and 1, respectively. However, none of the Acarapis mites were morphologically detected. This result could be explained that all apiaries in the survey used acaricides against bee mites such as Varroa destructor and Tropilaelaps clareae which also affect against Acarapis mites. Based on this study, it is highly probable that Acarapis mites as well as Varroa and Tropilaelaps could be prevalent in Korean apiaries.

  7. In Vitro Effects of External Pressure Changes on the Sealing Ability under Simulated Diving Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Stoetzer, Marcus; Ruecker, Martin; Koch, Andreas; Ziebolz, Dirk; Kokemüller, Horst; Kaempf, Christina; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; von See, Constantin

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To measure and validate the permeability of pressure changes in correlation to different root filling techniques. Methods. Eighty extracted single-rooted teeth were randomly assigned to one of eight groups of ten teeth. Following standardized instrumentation and irrigation, root canal fillings were performed using either cold lateral condensation, a warm carrier-based gutta-percha obturation technique, a warm carrier-based Resilon, or warm gutta-percha compaction with the downpack/backfill technique. After insertion of a pressure sensor within the pulp chamber ten teeth of each group then underwent simulated dives with pressure measurement and the other ten a dye penetration test during simulated dives to 5.0 bar. Differences were analyzed statistically (P < 0.05) using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results. When the warm carrier-based gutta-percha obturation technique and vertical gutta-percha obturation techniques were used, there was significant lower intrapulpal pressure to experimental chamber pressure (P > 0.05). When cold lateral condensation or carrier-based Resilon as used, pressure was sometimes almost completely equalized. Conclusions. Warm gutta-percha obturation techniques provide a largely pressure-tight seal whereas the Resilon obturation technique and cold lateral condensation appear to be unsuitable to pressure changes. PMID:23119172

  8. [Distortion and vertical fracture of the root: effect produced by condenser design].

    PubMed

    Dang, D A; Walton, R E

    1990-01-01

    The incidence of vertical root fractures and the amount of root distortion created during lateral condensation of gutta-percha with either D11 spreaders or B-finger pluggers were evaluated in vitro. Fifty-five extracted human, single-rooted teeth were instrumented using the step-back flare technique. Ten teeth served as positive controls (obturation to the point of fracture) and five teeth as negative controls (prepared but not obtured). Strain gauges were attached to the root surfaces. In the experimental group, 20 teeth were obturated using a D11 spreader and 20 with a B-finger plugger. Recordings were made of root distortion (expansion) created during obturation. Then, after sectioning the teeth, root surfaces of obturated samples were examined for fractures under the scanning electron microscope. Only the more tapered spreader, the D11, produces vertical root fractures, although very few in number. Also, the D11 spreader caused greater root distortion than did the B-finger plugger.

  9. [Distortion and vertical fracture of the root: effect produced by condenser design].

    PubMed

    Dang, D A; Walton, R E

    1990-01-01

    The incidence of vertical root fractures and the amount of root distortion created during lateral condensation of gutta-percha with either D11 spreaders or B-finger pluggers were evaluated in vitro. Fifty-five extracted human, single-rooted teeth were instrumented using the step-back flare technique. Ten teeth served as positive controls (obturation to the point of fracture) and five teeth as negative controls (prepared but not obtured). Strain gauges were attached to the root surfaces. In the experimental group, 20 teeth were obturated using a D11 spreader and 20 with a B-finger plugger. Recordings were made of root distortion (expansion) created during obturation. Then, after sectioning the teeth, root surfaces of obturated samples were examined for fractures under the scanning electron microscope. Only the more tapered spreader, the D11, produces vertical root fractures, although very few in number. Also, the D11 spreader caused greater root distortion than did the B-finger plugger. PMID:1964071

  10. Fracture resistance exhibited by endodontically treated and retreated teeth shaped by ProTaper NEXT versus WaveOne: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Khalap, Neha Deepak; Hegde, Vibha; Kokate, Sharad

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the fracture resistance exhibited by teeth after primary endodontic treatment and retreatment. Materials and Methods: One hundred freshly extracted human teeth were selected. 20 samples served as control (untreated). Eighty experimental samples were divided into two groups (n = 40) for instrumentation using rotary Protaper NEXT (PTN) or reciprocating WaveOne (WO) files and obturated using warm lateral compaction. Half of the samples (n = 20) from each group were subjected to a load. The remaining half were subjected to retreatment using Protaper universal retreatment files (RFs) followed by a file larger than the master apical file used in groups 1 and 2 and reobturated. Group A: Control, Group B: PTN + obturation, Group C: WO + obturation, Group D: RF + PTN + obturation and Group E: RF + WO + obturation. The retreatment specimens were also subjected to load and the readings acquired were statistically analyzed. Result: When compared between the groups, control group exhibited the highest fracture resistance (P < 0.01). When multiple tests were performed, Group E exhibited significantly less fracture resistance (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Endodontic treatment and retreatment both results in lowering the fracture resistance of a tooth. PMID:26752838

  11. Preventive and therapeutic effects of sugar cane extract on cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression in chickens.

    PubMed

    El-Abasy, Moshira; Motobu, Maki; Nakamura, Kikuyasu; Koge, Kenji; Onodera, Takashi; Vainio, Olli; Toivanen, Paavo; Hirota, Yoshikazu

    2004-08-01

    Effects of oral administration of sugar cane extract (SCE) on immunosuppression in chickens treated with cyclophosphamide (CPA) were evaluated. Three-week-old inbred chickens were inoculated into the crop with SCE (500 mg/kg/day) for three consecutive days before or after injection of CPA 12 or 20 mg/chicken. At the last day of SCE or CPA treatment, all chickens were immunized intravenously with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and Brucella abortus (BA). Chickens administered SCE showed a significant increase in body weight, gain in body weight/day, relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius and antibody responses to SRBC and BA than untreated control chickens. Chickens injected with CPA alone showed significantly decreased body weight, gain in body weight/day, relative weight of the bursa and antibody responses to SRBC and BA, showing immunosuppression in the bursa-dependent immune system. All chickens administered SCE before or after the treatment with CPA showed significantly higher values in body weight, gain in body weight/day, relative bursal weight and antibody responses to both antigens, when compared to chickens treated with CPA alone. In histological examination, chickens administered SCE showed a typical bursa with well constituted follicles, although chickens treated with CPA alone showed a severely atrophied bursa with rudimentary follicles and enormous proliferation of interfollicular connective tissue. Chickens treated with SCE and CPA showed a well-reconstituted bursa with almost normal structure. These results suggest that SCE has functionally and morphologically reconstituting effects on the bursa-dependent immune system in immunosuppressed chickens induced by injection of CPA.

  12. Rehabilitation of an Edentulous Maxilla in a Patient with Isolated Cleft Palate.

    PubMed

    Valizadeh, Bardia; Barzanji, S Agrin; Patel, Mital; Shahdad, Shakeel

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to discuss the use of short dental implants in cleft patients, the construction of an implant-retained obturator and the use of a Createch milled titanium bar with three Locator overdenture attachments incorporated within the bar. CPD/Clinical Relevance: Implant-retained obturators offer a possible solution for treating patients with isolated cleft palate who are struggling with dentures due to the unfavourable soft and hard tissue profile. This paper demonstrates how to manage such patients and shows all the clinical and laboratory stages involved. PMID:27439268

  13. Subway mandibular buccal defect blocked with two part prosthesis unified by Earth magnets.

    PubMed

    Punjani, Shikha; Arora, Aman; Upadhyaya, Viram

    2013-03-01

    This clinical report describes the fabrication of a two-piece obturator used to close the mandibular buccal defect. Two-piece obturator prosthesis was fabricated with clear heat cure acrylic resin to be used during the healing period following the marsupialization of odontogenic keratocyst which had lead to the loss of portions of the mandibular buccal region. The prosthesis fabricated in two parts was joined by the rare earth magnets. Retention was increased by lining the prosthesis with tissue conditioner material engaging the undercut. PMID:24431709

  14. Subway mandibular buccal defect blocked with two part prosthesis unified by Earth magnets.

    PubMed

    Punjani, Shikha; Arora, Aman; Upadhyaya, Viram

    2013-03-01

    This clinical report describes the fabrication of a two-piece obturator used to close the mandibular buccal defect. Two-piece obturator prosthesis was fabricated with clear heat cure acrylic resin to be used during the healing period following the marsupialization of odontogenic keratocyst which had lead to the loss of portions of the mandibular buccal region. The prosthesis fabricated in two parts was joined by the rare earth magnets. Retention was increased by lining the prosthesis with tissue conditioner material engaging the undercut.

  15. Standard reference values for musculoskeletal ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, W; Schmidt, H; Schicke, B; Gromnica-Ihle, E

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To determine standard reference values for musculoskeletal ultrasonography in healthy adults. Methods: Ultrasonography was performed on 204 shoulders, elbows, hands, hips, knees, and feet of 102 healthy volunteers (mean age 38.4 years; range 20–60; 54 women) with a linear probe (10–5 MHz; Esaote Technos MP). Diameters of tendons, bursae, cartilage, erosions, hypoechoic rims around tendons and at joints were measured with regard to established standard scans. Mean, minimum, and maximum values, as well as two standard deviations (2 SD) were determined. Mean values ±2 SD were defined as standard reference values. Results: Hypoechoic rims were normally present in joints and tendon sheaths owing to physiological synovial fluid and/or cartilage. Similarly, fluid was found in the subdeltoid bursa in 173/204 (85%), at the long biceps tendon in 56 (27%), in the suprapatellar recess in 158 (77%), in the popliteal bursae in 32 (16%), and in the retrocalcaneal bursa in 49 (24%). Erosions of >1 mm were seen at the humeral head in 47 (23%). Values for important intervals were determined. The correlation between two investigators was 0.96 (0.78–0.99). The reliability of follow up investigations was 0.83 (0.52–0.99). Conclusions: Fluid in bursae as well as hypoechoic rims within joints and around tendons are common findings in healthy people. This study defines standard reference values for musculoskeletal ultrasonography to prevent misinterpretation of normal fluid as an anatomical abnormality. PMID:15249327

  16. Effects of season on the yield and quality of agar from Gracilaria species (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Marinho-Soriano, E; Bourret, E

    2003-12-01

    The effect of season on yield and physical properties of agars extracted from Gracia gracilis and G. bursa-pastoris were determined. The agar yield from G. gracilis was maximum during spring (30%) and minimum during autumn (19%). In G. bursa-pastoris, the agar yield was greatest in summer (36%) and lowest in winter (23%). Agar yield from G. bursa-pastoris was positively correlated with temperature (r=0.94; P<0.01) and salinity (r=0.97; P<0.01) and negatively with nitrogen content (r=-0.93; P<0.01). Agar gel strengths fluctuated from 229 to 828 gcm(-2) and 23 to 168 gcm(-2) for G. gracilis and G. bursa-pastoris, respectively. The gelling temperature showed significant seasonal variation for both species. Chemical analysis of agar from the two seaweeds indicated variation in 3,6-anhydrogalactose and sulfate content (P<0.01). Furthermore, there was an inverse correlation between the two chemical variables. In general, agar extracted from G. gracilis possessed better qualities than agar extracted from G. bursa-pastoris and can be considered a candidate for industrial use.

  17. Olecranon Bursitis Caused by Candida parapsilosis in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gamarra-Hilburn, Carla F; Rios, Grissel; Vilá, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Septic bursitis is usually caused by bacterial organisms. However, infectious bursitis caused by fungi is very rare. Herein, we present a 68-year-old woman with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis who developed pain, erythema, and swelling of the right olecranon bursa. Aspiration of the olecranon bursa showed a white blood cell count of 3.1 × 10(3)/μL (41% neutrophils, 30% lymphocytes, and 29% monocytes). Fluid culture was positive for Candida parapsilosis. She was treated with caspofungin 50 mg intravenously daily for 13 days followed by fluconazole 200 mg orally daily for one week. She responded well to this treatment but had recurrent swelling of the bursa. Bursectomy was recommended but she declined this option. This case, together with other reports, suggests that the awareness of uncommon pathogens, their presentation, and predisposing risk factors are important to establish an early diagnosis and prevent long-term complications. PMID:27595032

  18. An unusual case of lipoma arborescens.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, H R; Chaturvedi, A; Peach, C

    2016-09-01

    Introduction Lipoma arborescens is a rare condition of the synovial lining. It is particularly uncommon in the bicipitoradial bursae of the elbow. Case Report A 68-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of anterior elbow pain and swelling causing discomfort. Radiography demonstrated reactive changes of radial tuberosity and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed lipoma arborescens of the bicipitoradial bursa with distal biceps tendinopathy. A bicipital bursa bursectomy and lipoma excision was performed. Gross pathology and histology was consistent with lipoma arborescens. Three months postoperatively, our patient had full range of motion and good strength. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first published case report of lipoma arborescens affecting the elbow. Recognising the differential diagnoses of anterior elbow pain and the characteristic imaging is essential for accurate diagnosis. PMID:27241604

  19. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis in the diagnosis of infectious bursal disease.

    PubMed

    Raj, G D; Thangavelu, A; Elankumaran, S; Koteeswaran, A

    2000-06-01

    The rocket immunoelectrophoresis (RIE) test was used for the qualitative detection and quantitative estimation of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) specific antigen in experimentally infected chickens and samples collected from suspected outbreaks. The IBDV specific antigen was detected in the bursae of experimentally inoculated chickens up to 5 days post infection (PI) by the agar gel precipitation (AGP) test and 7 days PI by the RIE test. The RIE detected IBDV specific antigen in a significantly greater number of samples collected from the field outbreaks than the conventional AGP test. Exudative bursae were found to have a higher antigen content than haemorrhagic bursae and are recommended as the material of choice for diagnosis of IBD. This test could also be used to quantify IBDV specific antigen in commercial killed vaccines.

  20. Olecranon Bursitis Caused by Candida parapsilosis in a Patient with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rios, Grissel

    2016-01-01

    Septic bursitis is usually caused by bacterial organisms. However, infectious bursitis caused by fungi is very rare. Herein, we present a 68-year-old woman with long-standing rheumatoid arthritis who developed pain, erythema, and swelling of the right olecranon bursa. Aspiration of the olecranon bursa showed a white blood cell count of 3.1 × 103/μL (41% neutrophils, 30% lymphocytes, and 29% monocytes). Fluid culture was positive for Candida parapsilosis. She was treated with caspofungin 50 mg intravenously daily for 13 days followed by fluconazole 200 mg orally daily for one week. She responded well to this treatment but had recurrent swelling of the bursa. Bursectomy was recommended but she declined this option. This case, together with other reports, suggests that the awareness of uncommon pathogens, their presentation, and predisposing risk factors are important to establish an early diagnosis and prevent long-term complications. PMID:27595032

  1. Investigations on live vaccines against infectious bursal disease of chicks.

    PubMed

    Yadin, H; Hoekstra, J; Oei, H L; van Roozelaar, D J

    1980-01-01

    Summary Four live virus vaccines against Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) were studied with regard to their safety, immune response and applicability. None of the vaccines caused clinical symptoms or had an adverse impact on bodyweight. Differences between these vaccins were observed in their effect on the Bursa/ Bodyweight Ratio and the severity of the microscopical lesions of the bursa Fabricii. The immunosuppressive effect of IBD vaccination at one day of age on the response to Newcastle disease vaccine applied was rather low. Three of the four vaccines induced antibodies associated with protection against challenge. Vaccination of SPF rearing chickens by drinking water at an age of 15 weeks produced an antibody response (Agar Gel Precipitin Test) whereas at an age of 23, 32 and 60 weeks it did not. Chickens of all age groups responded serologically to an intramusculair vaccination. A correlation was found between the immunological response and the effect of the vaccines on the bursa Fabricii.

  2. Infectious Bursal Agent Vaccination of Chicks from Infectious Bursal Agent-vaccinated Dams

    PubMed Central

    Ide, P. R.

    1979-01-01

    Chicks from infectious bursal agent-vaccinated broiler breeders were vaccinated with a commercial infectious bursal agent vaccine at intervals after hatching. Bursas from some of these chicks were examined for infectious bursal agent-specific fluorescence four days after vaccination and bursas from others were examined for histological lesions of infectious bursal disease 21 days after vaccination. Serological studies were conducted to determine if active immunity to infectious bursal agent followed vaccination. Chicks failed to develop immunity if their levels of maternally-derived serum neutralizing antibody were in excess of approximately log2 7 at the time of vaccination. When antibody titres fell below this level, vaccination usually resulted in infectious bursal agent virus replication in the bursa and consequential bursal damage but was followed by development of active immunity. PMID:219952

  3. Olecranon extrabursal endoscopic bursectomy.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chen G; McGuire, Duncan T; Morse, Levi P; Bain, Gregory I

    2013-09-01

    Olecranon bursitis is a common clinical problem. It is often managed conservatively because of the high rates of wound complications with the conventional open surgical technique. Conventional olecranon bursoscopy utilizes an arthroscope and an arthroscopic shaver, removing the bursa from inside-out. We describe an extrabursal endoscopic technique where the bursa is not entered but excised in its entirety under endoscopic vision. A satisfactory view is obtained with less morbidity than the open method, while still avoiding a wound over the sensitive point of the olecranon. PMID:23970201

  4. Two new species of Oswaldocruzia (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina: Molineoidea) parasites of the cane toad Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Anura) from Peru.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    Two new species of Oswaldocruzia, O. manuensis sp. nov., and O. urubambaensis sp. nov. are described and illustrated from Peru, these are parasites of the cane toad Rhinella marina. O. manuensis is characterized by having cervical alae which are not well developed, ridges without chitinous supports, caudal bursa type II and branches of fork of dissimilar length. O. urubambaensis is characterized by a caudal bursa of type I, ridges with chitinous supports, a thin cephalic vesicle and origin of rays 9 in tip of the dorsal trunk. PMID:23377910

  5. Bursal depths of lesser snow and small Canada geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.

    1969-01-01

    Bursa of Fabricius depths of 88 lesser snow geese (Anser c. caerulescens) and 69 small Canada geese (Branta canadensis hutchinsii/parvipes complex) were measured. Bursal depths were unreliable indicators of age-classes of lesser snow geese and small Canada geese; previously, the same had been found to be true for large Canada geese (B. c. interior). Regression in size or closure of the bursa first occurred at 17-20 months of age (yearlings) in lesser snow geese and small Canada geese, but at 29-32 months of age (2-year-olds) in large Canada geese.

  6. Interspinous bursitis in an athlete.

    PubMed

    DePalma, M J; Slipman, C W; Siegelman, E; Bayruns, T J; Bhargava, A; Frey, M E; Chin, K R

    2004-09-01

    We present a case of L2/3 interspinous bursitis treated with extraspinal injections. No previous investigations have used fluoroscopically guided spinal injections to confirm the clinical relevance of the MRI features of this type of bursae. Autopsy studies have revealed an increased incidence of interspinous lumbar bursal cavities with advancing age. Afflicted patients present with localised, midline lower lumbar pain exacerbated by extension. In young athletes these symptoms can mimic spondylolysis. MRI is useful in detecting soft-tissue injury of the posterior elements. Fluoroscopically guided diagnostic and therapeutic extraspinal injections can be used for confirmation and treatment of pain from such bursae.

  7. Arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming or repair under nerve blocks: Which nerves should be blocked?

    PubMed Central

    Taha, AM; Abd-Elmaksoud, AM

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the role of the sciatic and obturator nerve blocks (in addition to femoral block) in providing painless arthroscopic medial meniscus trimming/repair. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with medial meniscus tear, who had been scheduled to knee arthroscopy, were planned to be included in this controlled prospective double-blind study. The patients were randomly allocated into three equal groups; FSO, FS, and FO. The femoral, sciatic, and obturator nerves were blocked in FSO groups. The femoral and sciatic nerves were blocked in FS group, while the femoral and obturator nerves were blocked in FO group. Intraoperative pain and its causative surgical maneuver were recorded. Results: All the patients (n = 7, 100%) in FO group had intraoperative pain. The research was terminated in this group but completed in FS and FSO groups (40 patients each). During valgus positioning of the knee for surgical management of the medial meniscus tear, the patients in FS group experienced pain more frequently than those in FSO group (P = 0.005). Conclusion: Adding a sciatic nerve block to the femoral nerve block is important for painless knee arthroscopy. Further adding of an obturator nerve block may be needed when a valgus knee position is required to manage the medial meniscus tear. PMID:27375382

  8. Management of Six Root Canals in Mandibular First Molar

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Fabio de Almeida; Sousa, Bruno Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning, shaping, and obturation of the root canal system. This clinical case describes conventional root canal treatment of an unusual mandibular first molar with six root canals. The prognosis for endodontic treatment in teeth with abnormal morphology is unfavorable if the clinician fails to recognize extra root canals. PMID:25685156

  9. Modification of scuba regulator for IPPV.

    PubMed

    Poulton, T J; Littleton, E K; Raudenbush, J

    1985-06-01

    Attention is appropriately being focused on the performance of adequate cardiopulmonary resuscitation in aquatic situations. We modified the second stage (mouthpiece) of a standard scuba regulator to permit intermittent positive pressure ventilation using either a mask or an esophageal obturator airway. Tests demonstrated the inexpensive modification to function adequately for emergency ventilation.

  10. Hepatic subcapsular extension of pelvic lymphocele after radical retropubic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Bauer, J J; McLeod, D G

    1998-05-01

    Lymphoceles are a rare symptomatic complication after radical prostatectomy occurring in less than 5% of cases. We present a case of a symptomatic lymphocele that occurred after a radical retropubic prostatectomy and obturator lymphadenectomy. The lymphocele dissected along the retroperitoneum and extended into the hepatic subcapsular space and became secondarily infected with Candida albicans.

  11. Effect of post space preparation on the sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate and Gutta-percha: A bacterial leakage study

    PubMed Central

    Metgud, Sandeep S; Shah, Harsh H; Hiremath, Hemalatha T; Agarwal, Deepali; Reddy, Kartik

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of post space preparation on the sealing ability of teeth obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Gutta-percha. Materials and Methods: Fifty intact human mandibular premolars, after decoronation and biomechanical preparation, were randomly divided into three experimental groups. In Group A (n = 10), the canals were obturated with Gutta-percha using cold lateral compaction technique, followed by immediate post space preparation. In Group B (n = 10), the canals were obturated with 8 mm of MTA and in Group C (n = 10), sectional obturation with 4 mm of MTA was done, followed by delayed post space preparation. All specimens were subjected to bacterial leakage analysis, and the occurrence of turbidity was checked. Results: All specimens in the lateral compaction group leaked. The mean number of days at which leakage was observed in Groups A, B and C were 18.5 days, 93.6 days and 95.5 days. Conclusions: MTA can be considered as an alternative to Gutta-percha as an apical third restorative material for teeth indicated for post and core, as it demonstrates better-sealing ability compared with Gutta-percha. Further, the removal of set MTA for post space preparation does not disrupt the integrity of the remaining apical MTA. PMID:26180414

  12. Homology of the jaw muscles in lizards and snakes-a solution from a comparative gnathostome approach.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Homology or shared evolutionary origin of jaw adductor muscles in lizards and snakes has been difficult to establish, although snakes clearly arose within the lizard radiation. Lizards typically have temporal adductors layered lateral to medial, and in snakes the muscles are arranged in a rostral to caudal pattern. Recent work has suggested that the jaw adductor group in gnathostomes is arranged as a folded sheet; when this theory is applied to snakes, homology with lizard morphology can be seen. This conclusion revisits the work of S.B. McDowell, J Herpetol 1986; 20:353-407, who proposed that homology involves identity of m. levator anguli oris and the loss of m. adductor mandibulae externus profundus, at least in "advanced" (colubroid) snakes. Here I advance the folded sheet hypothesis across the whole snake tree using new and literature data, and provide a solution to this homology problem.

  13. Ontogenetic changes of trunk muscle structure in the Japanese black salamander (Hynobius nigrescens).

    PubMed

    Omura, Ayano; Anzai, Wataru; Koyabu, Daisuke; Endo, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    We investigated ontogenetic changes in the trunk muscles of the Japanese black salamander (Hynobius nigrescens) before, during and after metamorphosis. Given that amphibians change their locomotive patterns with metamorphosis, we hypothesized that they may also change the structure of their trunk muscles. The trunk muscles were macroscopically observed, and the weight ratios of each trunk muscle group were quantified at six different developmental stages. Immediately after hatching, we found that the lateral hypaxial muscle was composed of one thick M. ventralis, from ventral edge of which M. transversus abdominis arose later, followed by M. obliquus externus and M. rectus abdominis. The weight ratios of the dorsal and abdominal muscles to the trunk muscles increased with growth. We suggest that a single thick and large lateral hypaxial muscle facilitates swimming during early developmental stages. The increase in the weight ratios of the dorsal and abdominal muscles with growth possibly assists with gravity resistance necessary for terrestrial life.

  14. Ontogenetic changes of trunk muscle structure in the Japanese black salamander (Hynobius nigrescens)

    PubMed Central

    OMURA, Ayano; ANZAI, Wataru; KOYABU, Daisuke; ENDO, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    We investigated ontogenetic changes in the trunk muscles of the Japanese black salamander (Hynobius nigrescens) before, during and after metamorphosis. Given that amphibians change their locomotive patterns with metamorphosis, we hypothesized that they may also change the structure of their trunk muscles. The trunk muscles were macroscopically observed, and the weight ratios of each trunk muscle group were quantified at six different developmental stages. Immediately after hatching, we found that the lateral hypaxial muscle was composed of one thick M. ventralis, from ventral edge of which M. transversus abdominis arose later, followed by M. obliquus externus and M. rectus abdominis. The weight ratios of the dorsal and abdominal muscles to the trunk muscles increased with growth. We suggest that a single thick and large lateral hypaxial muscle facilitates swimming during early developmental stages. The increase in the weight ratios of the dorsal and abdominal muscles with growth possibly assists with gravity resistance necessary for terrestrial life. PMID:25816856

  15. Retention of fiber posts to the optimally and over-prepared dowel spaces

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Hesham Ibrahim; Elshinawy, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the retention of glass fiber post cemented with self-adhesive resin cement into optimum and over-prepared root canals following obturation in the presence of either eugenol (EB) or calcium hydroxide (CB)-based sealers. MATERIALS AND METHODS Roots of extracted premolars were endodontically-treated in 5 groups (n = 10). Roots of Group 1 (control) were left with no obturation and then optimally prepared to receive endodontic dowels. Other root canals were obturated with gutta-percha in the presence of either eugenol-based (Groups 2 and 4) or calcium hydroxide-based (Groups 3 and 5) sealer. Dowel spaces were prepared with optimal diameter in Groups 2 and 3, one size larger in Groups 4 and 5. Standardized fiber posts were luted to the prepared spaces using self-adhesive resin cement and itsretention was then tested on an universal testing machine. Both one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD comparisons (α=0.05) were used to identifythe significance of inter-group retention differences. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of both optimally and over-prepared dowel spaces was also considered to figure the nature of their interior out. RESULTS The post retention was significantly higher to the non-obturated, optimally-prepared dowel spaces of Group 1 compared to the obturated, optimally-prepared ones of Groups 2 and 3. For each dowel space diameter, root canals obturated using CB of Groups 3 and 5 showed significantly higher dowel retention compared to those obturated using EB of Groups 2 and 4. Post retention to the over-prepared dowel spaces of Groups 4 and 5 was significantly higher than that recorded for the optimally-prepared ones of Groups 1-3. SEM images revealed traces of endodontic sealer and gutta-percha on the walls of the optimally-prepared dowel spaces. CONCLUSION Despite the adverse effect of endodontic sealers on the retention of fiber posts, the over-preparation of dowel spaces helps to improve the retention. PMID:23508925

  16. The Head and Neck Anatomy of Sea Turtles (Cryptodira: Chelonioidea) and Skull Shape in Testudines

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Marc E. H.; Werneburg, Ingmar; Curtis, Neil; Penrose, Rod; O’Higgins, Paul; Fagan, Michael J.; Evans, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sea turtles (Chelonoidea) are a charismatic group of marine reptiles that occupy a range of important ecological roles. However, the diversity and evolution of their feeding anatomy remain incompletely known. Methodology/Principal Findings Using computed tomography and classical comparative anatomy we describe the cranial anatomy in two sea turtles, the loggerhead (Caretta caretta) and Kemp’s ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), for a better understanding of sea turtle functional anatomy and morphological variation. In both taxa the temporal region of the skull is enclosed by bone and the jaw joint structure and muscle arrangement indicate that palinal jaw movement is possible. The tongue is relatively small, and the hyoid apparatus is not as conspicuous as in some freshwater aquatic turtles. We find several similarities between the muscles of C. caretta and L. kempii, but comparison with other turtles suggests only one of these characters may be derived: connection of the m. adductor mandibulae internus into the Pars intramandibularis via the Zwischensehne. The large fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis from the jugal seems to be a characteristic feature of sea turtles. Conclusions/Significance In C. caretta and L. kempii the ability to suction feed does not seem to be as well developed as that found in some freshwater aquatic turtles. Instead both have skulls suited to forceful biting. This is consistent with the observation that both taxa tend to feed on relatively slow moving but sometimes armoured prey. The broad fleshy origin of the m. adductor mandibulae externus Pars superficialis may be linked to thecheek region being almost fully enclosed in bone but the relationship is complex. PMID:23144831

  17. Molecular Prevalence of Acarapis Mite Infestations in Honey Bees in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ah-Jin; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Noh, Jin-Hyeong; Kim, Young-Ha; Yoo, Mi-Sun; Kang, Seung-Won; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Shin, Sung Shik

    2015-01-01

    Acarapis mites, including Acarapis woodi, Acarapis externus, and Acarapis dorsalis, are parasites of bees which can cause severe damage to the bee industry by destroying colonies and decreasing honey production. All 3 species are prevalent throughout many countries including UK, USA, Iran, Turkey, China, and Japan. Based on previous reports of Acarapis mites occurring in northeast Asia, including China and Japan, we investigated a survey of Acarapis mite infestations in honey bees in Korean apiaries. A total of 99 colonies of Apis mellifera were sampled from 5 provinces. The head and thorax of 20 bees from each colony were removed for DNA extraction. PCR assays were performed with 3 primer sets, including T, A, and K primers. Results indicated that 42.4% (42/99) of samples were Acarapis-positive by PCR assay which were sequenced to identify species. Each sequence showed 92.6-99.3% homology with reference sequences. Based on the homology, the number of colonies infected with A. dorsalis was 32 which showed the highest infection rate among the 3 species, while the number of colonies infected with A. externus and A. woodi was 9 and 1, respectively. However, none of the Acarapis mites were morphologically detected. This result could be explained that all apiaries in the survey used acaricides against bee mites such as Varroa destructor and Tropilaelaps clareae which also affect against Acarapis mites. Based on this study, it is highly probable that Acarapis mites as well as Varroa and Tropilaelaps could be prevalent in Korean apiaries. PMID:26174825

  18. Comparison of Push-out Bond Strength of Gutta-percha to Root Canal Dentin in Single-cone and Cold Lateral Compaction Techniques with AH Plus Sealer in Mandibular Premolars.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Hadi; Rahimi, Saeed; Forough Reyhani, Mohammad; Galledar, Saeedeh; Mokhtari Zonouzi, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. The single-cone technique has gained some popularity in some European countries. The aim of the present study was to compare the push-out bond strength of gutta-percha to root canal dentin with the single-cone and cold lateral compaction canal obturation techniques. Materials and methods . The root canals of 58 human mandibular premolars were prepared using modified crown-down technique with ProTaper rotary files up to #F3as a master apical file (MAF) and divided randomly into groups A and B based on canal obturation technique. In group A (n = 29) the root canals were obturated with single-cone technique with #F3(30/.09) ProTaper gutta-percha, which was matched with MAF in relation to diameter, taper and manufacturer; in group B (n = 29) the canals were obturated with gutta-percha using cold lateral compaction technique. In both groups AH plus sealer were used. After two weeks of incubation, three 2-mm slices were prepared at a distance of 2 mm from the coronal surface and push-out test was carried out. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics using independent samples t-test. Results. There were statistically significant differences between two groups. The mean push-out bond strength was higher in group B (lateral compaction technique) compared to group A (single-cone technique; P < 0.05). Conclusion . Use of single-cone technique for obturation of root canals resulted in a lower bond strength compared to cold lateral compaction technique.

  19. Comparison of Push-out Bond Strength of Gutta-percha to Root Canal Dentin in Single-cone and Cold Lateral Compaction Techniques with AH Plus Sealer in Mandibular Premolars

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari, Hadi; Rahimi, Saeed; Forough Reyhani, Mohammad; Galledar, Saeedeh; Mokhtari Zonouzi, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. The single-cone technique has gained some popularity in some European countries. The aim of the present study was to compare the push-out bond strength of gutta-percha to root canal dentin with the single-cone and cold lateral compaction canal obturation techniques. Materials and methods. The root canals of 58 human mandibular premolars were prepared using modified crown-down technique with ProTaper rotary files up to #F3as a master apical file (MAF) and divided randomly into groups A and B based on canal obturation technique. In group A (n = 29) the root canals were obturated with single-cone technique with #F3(30/.09) ProTaper gutta-percha, which was matched with MAF in relation to diameter, taper and manufacturer; in group B (n = 29) the canals were obturated with gutta-percha using cold lateral compaction technique. In both groups AH plus sealer were used. After two weeks of incubation, three 2-mm slices were prepared at a distance of 2 mm from the coronal surface and push-out test was carried out. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics using independent samples t-test. Results. There were statistically significant differences between two groups. The mean push-out bond strength was higher in group B (lateral compaction technique) compared to group A (single-cone technique; P < 0.05). Conclusion. Use of single-cone technique for obturation of root canals resulted in a lower bond strength compared to cold lateral compaction technique. PMID:26889358

  20. Assessment of the quality of life in maxillectomy patients: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pradeep; Alvi, Habib Ahmad; Rao, Jitendra; Jurel, Sunit Kumar; Kumar, Lakshya; Aggarwal, Himanshi

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE To longitudinally assess the quality of life in maxillectomy patients rehabilitated with obturator prosthesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty-six subjects were enrolled in the span of 16 months, out of which six were dropouts. Subjects (age group 20-60 years) with maxillary defects, irrespective of the cause, planned for definite obturator prosthesis, were recruited. The Hindi version of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Head and Neck version 1 of Quality of Life Questionnaire was used before surgical intervention and one month after definitive obturator. Questionnaire includes 35 questions related to the patient's physical health, well being, psychological status, social relation and environmental conditions. The data were processed with statistical package for social science (SPSS). Probability level of P<.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS The quality of life after rehabilitation with obturator prosthesis was 81.48% (±13.64) on average. On item-level, maximum mean scores were obtained for items problem with teeth (1.87 ± 0.94), pain in mouth (1.80 ± 0.92), trouble in eating (1.70 ± 0.88), trouble in talking to other people (1.60 ± 1.22), problems in swallowing solid food (1.57 ± 1.22) and bothering appearance (1.53 ± 1.04); while minimum scores were obtained for the items coughing (1.17 ± 0.38), hoarseness of voice (1.17 ± 0.53), painful throat (1.13 ± 0.43), trouble in having social contacts with friends (1.10 ± 0.40) and trouble having physical contacts with family or friends (1.10 ± 0.31). CONCLUSION Obturator prosthesis is a highly positive and non-invasive approach to improve the quality of life of patients with maxillectomy defects. PMID:23507671

  1. [Direct endoscopic approach improves prognosis of septic-synovitis in the horse].

    PubMed

    ter Braake, F

    The medical records of 71 horses with sepic arthritis, bursitis, or tenosynovitis, treated between 1996 and 2001 at Dierenkliniek Enmeloord, were reviewed. A total number of 81 joints, tendon sheaths and bursae were treated (21 tarsi, 17 digital tendon sheaths, 14 metacarpo/metatarso-phalangeal joints, 12 stifles, 6 carpi, 4 coffin joints, 2 navicular bursae, 1 elbow joint, 1 proximal-interphalangeal joint, 1 tarsal sheath, 1 bursa calcanei subtendineum). The aetiology in 42 cases was a penetrating wound (group 1), in 4 cases an intra-articular injection, and in 2 cases arthroscopic surgery (group II), and in 13 cases septic arthritis in young foals (group III); in 10 cases the aetiology was unknown (group V). A total of 93 endoscopic lavages was performed on 81 joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae (1-3 lavages, mean 1.18 lavage per synovial structure). Survival rates were 95% for group I, 100% for group II, 73% for group III and 100% for group IV. Horses were discharged after 4-73 days of hospitalization (mean 20 days). Longterm follow-up revealed a survival rate of 92% for group I, 100% for group II, 67% for group III, and 90% for group IV. Of the surviving horses, 89% were sound and 11% had some degree of residual lameness. It is concluded that instant aggressive treatment using endoscopic techniques yields the best results so far and is therefore recommended.

  2. Histopathological characterization and shedding dynamics of guineafowl (Numida meleagris) intravenously infected with a H6N2 low pathogenicity Avian Influenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guineafowl of different ages were inoculated intravenously with an H6N2 wild waterfowl-origin low-pathogenicity type A avian influenza virus (LPAI). No evidence of clinical disease was observed. The examined infected birds had atrophy of the spleen, thymus, and cloacal bursa when compared to the n...

  3. Histopathological characterization and shedding dynamics of LPAI H6N2 in Guinea fowls (Numida meleagris) infected experimentally

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guineafowl of different ages were inoculated intravenously with a H6N2 wild waterfowl-origin low-pathogenicity type A influenza virus. No evidence of clinical disease was observed. The examined infected birds had atrophy of the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius when compared to the non-infect...

  4. The geyser sign and torn rotator cuff: clinical significance and pathomechanics.

    PubMed

    Craig, E V

    1984-12-01

    The geyser radiographic sign on shoulder arthrogram is characterized by leakage of dye from the glenohumeral joint into the subdeltoid bursa. The dye outlines the acromioclavicular joint. It is usually an indication of a full-thickness cuff tear of long duration. The clinical occurrence and pathomechanics of this finding indicate that repair is generally difficult.

  5. LAPAROSCOPIC SALPINGECTOMY IN TWO CAPTIVE LEOPARDS (PANTHERA PARDUS) USING A SINGLE PORTAL ACCESS SYSTEM.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Marthinus J; Monnet, Eric; Kirberger, Robert M; Schoeman, Johan P

    2015-12-01

    Laparoscopic salpingectomy was performed in two adult leopards (Panthera pardus) using a single portal access system, with a multicannulated single-incision laparoscopic surgery port, without any complications. The poorly developed ovarian bursa provided easy access to the uterine tube for salpingectomy. Laparoscopic salpingectomy can be safely performed in the leopard using a single portal access system.

  6. A Study on the Evaluation of Science Projects of Primary School Students Based on Scientific Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gungor, Sema Nur; Ozer, Dilek Zeren; Ozkan, Muhlis

    2013-01-01

    This study re-evaluated 454 science projects that were prepared by primary school students between 2007 and 2011 within the scope of Science Projects Event for Primary School Students. Also, submitted to TUBITAK BIDEB Bursa regional science board by MNE regional work groups in accordance with scientific research methods and techniques, including…

  7. Opinions of Teachers and Parents about Time Spent by Students at School, Lesson Hours, Break Times, Holidays and School Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokce, Feyyat

    2012-01-01

    Amount of time spent at school is one of the mostly discussed educational matters. The present study was carried out to put forward the relationship between the time spent at school and learning acquisitions. In the study, 52 parents living in Bursa and 59 teachers were asked for their opinions. According to the data, while nearly half of the…

  8. Burnout Syndrome Levels of Teachers in Special Education Schools in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucuksuleymanoglu, Ruyam

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether burnout levels of special education teachers working with hearing, orthopedic and mentally impaired students in Bursa, Turkey differ according to some independent variables such as gender, family status, years of teaching experience, educational background and school type. A descriptive approach…

  9. Functional morphology of the copulatory organs of a reed beetle and a shining leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Donaciinae, Criocerinae) using X-ray micro-computed tomography *

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Michael; Uhl, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Abstract For more than 100 years it has been known that the sclerotised median lobe of beetles harbours a membranous structure (the "internal sac" or "endophallus") which is everted during copula inside the female genital tract. In order to explore the functional role of this structure and those associated with it, we cryofixed copulating pairs of Donacia semicuprea and Lilioceris lilii and studied the relative position of the elements of the copulatory apparatus of males and females by micro-computer-tomography. We found that the everted endophallus fills the lumen of the bursa copulatrix completely. Our data suggest that in Lilioceris lilii the tip of the sclerotised distal part of the ejaculatory duct, the flagellum, is positioned exactly over the opening of the spermathecal duct inside the bursa copulatrix. The mouth of the bursa copulatrix in Donacia semicuprea is armed with a strong muscle ring, and the whole wall of the bursa is covered externally with a layer of muscle fibres. These morphological differences correspond with differences in mating behaviour: In reed beetles (Donaciinae), females seemingly can control mating to a higher degree than in lily beetles (Lilioceris spp.). PMID:26798321

  10. The geyser sign and torn rotator cuff: clinical significance and pathomechanics.

    PubMed

    Craig, E V

    1984-12-01

    The geyser radiographic sign on shoulder arthrogram is characterized by leakage of dye from the glenohumeral joint into the subdeltoid bursa. The dye outlines the acromioclavicular joint. It is usually an indication of a full-thickness cuff tear of long duration. The clinical occurrence and pathomechanics of this finding indicate that repair is generally difficult. PMID:6499313

  11. Functional morphology of the copulatory organs of a reed beetle and a shining leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Donaciinae, Criocerinae) using X-ray micro-computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Michael; Uhl, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    For more than 100 years it has been known that the sclerotised median lobe of beetles harbours a membranous structure (the "internal sac" or "endophallus") which is everted during copula inside the female genital tract. In order to explore the functional role of this structure and those associated with it, we cryofixed copulating pairs of Donacia semicuprea and Lilioceris lilii and studied the relative position of the elements of the copulatory apparatus of males and females by micro-computer-tomography. We found that the everted endophallus fills the lumen of the bursa copulatrix completely. Our data suggest that in Lilioceris lilii the tip of the sclerotised distal part of the ejaculatory duct, the flagellum, is positioned exactly over the opening of the spermathecal duct inside the bursa copulatrix. The mouth of the bursa copulatrix in Donacia semicuprea is armed with a strong muscle ring, and the whole wall of the bursa is covered externally with a layer of muscle fibres. These morphological differences correspond with differences in mating behaviour: In reed beetles (Donaciinae), females seemingly can control mating to a higher degree than in lily beetles (Lilioceris spp.). PMID:26798321

  12. Pathogenesis and protective efficacy of attenuated Meq null rMd5 virus in maternal antibody negative and commercial chickens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A serotype 1 Marek’s disease Meq null virus (rMd5'Meq) has been shown to be an excellent vaccine in maternal antibody positive (MAb+) chickens. The only drawback of this non-oncogenic virus is that, like parental rMd5, it retains the ability to induce bursa and thymus atrophy (BTA) in MAb- chickens....

  13. LAPAROSCOPIC SALPINGECTOMY IN TWO CAPTIVE LEOPARDS (PANTHERA PARDUS) USING A SINGLE PORTAL ACCESS SYSTEM.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Marthinus J; Monnet, Eric; Kirberger, Robert M; Schoeman, Johan P

    2015-12-01

    Laparoscopic salpingectomy was performed in two adult leopards (Panthera pardus) using a single portal access system, with a multicannulated single-incision laparoscopic surgery port, without any complications. The poorly developed ovarian bursa provided easy access to the uterine tube for salpingectomy. Laparoscopic salpingectomy can be safely performed in the leopard using a single portal access system. PMID:26667558

  14. A new species of nematode (Molineidae) from Rhinella marina (Amphibia: Bufonidae) in Guerrero, México.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Torres, Nallely; García-Prieto, Luis; Osorio-Sarabia, David; Violante-González, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Oswaldocruzia lamotheargumedoi n. sp., inhabiting the intestine of the cane toad, Rhinella marina (L.), in Laguna de Coyuca, Guerrero, México, is described here. The new species differs from 10 congeners infecting bufonid hosts because it has a type I bursa. In contrast, 7 of these species have type II bursa and 3 more a type III bursa. The species most similar to the species described herein is Oswaldocruzia pipiens Walton, 1929 . These 2 species share traits such as body size, bursa type, presence of cervical alae, and dorsal ray morphology. Nevertheless, both species can be distinguished based on the number of synlophe ridges at mid-body (54-56 for O. lamotheargumedoi vs. 45-48 for O. pipiens) and by the presence of a chitinous support in the long, and well developed, cervical alae of O. pipiens. In the new species, these structures are short, poorly developed, and lack chitinous support. Previous records of species of Oswaldocruzia in México include Oswaldocruzia subauricularis (Rudolphi, 1819) Travassos, 1917 in the Neotropical Realm and O. pipiens in the Nearctic.

  15. A new species of Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 (Scorpiones, Euscorpiidae) from Marmara Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yağmur, Ersen Aydın; Tropea, Gioele

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 is described based on specimens collected from Bursa Province, in Marmara Region of Turkey. It is characterized by a mesotrichous trichobothrial pattern (Pv= 8, et= 6, em=4, eb= 4), medium size and light coloration. Euscorpius (Euscorpius) rahsenae sp. n. is the second species of the subgenus Euscorpius recognizedin Turkey. PMID:23794835

  16. Intramuscular migration of calcific tendinopathy in the rotator cuff: ultrasound appearance and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Becciolini, Marco; Bonacchi, Giovanni; Galletti, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    Calcific tendinopathy of the shoulder is a common condition caused by calcium hydroxyapatite crystals, affecting the tendons of the rotator cuff. Among uncommon complication, one is the migration of the calcium in the subacromion-subdeltoid bursa. More rare is the intraosseous migration. We present four cases of an even more rare condition, not well described in literature yet, the intramuscular migration of calcium.

  17. Campylobacter can remain in various organs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Day old broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and inoculated either orally or intracloacally with a characterized strain of Campylobacter jejuni. After 1 hr, 1day and 1wk post inoculation, the thymus, spleen, liver/gallbladder, bursa of Fabricius and ceca were aseptically removed ...

  18. Achilles Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Five ailments which can cause pain in the achilles tendon area are: (1) muscular strain, involving the stretching or tearing of muscle or tendon fibers; (2) a contusion, inflammation or infection called tenosynovitis; (3) tendonitis, the inflammation of the tendon; (4) calcaneal bursitis, the inflammation of the bursa between the achilles tendon…

  19. Regulatory organization of the staphylococcal sae locus.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Rajan P; Novick, Richard P

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes an investigation of the complex internal regulatory circuitry of the staphylococcal sae locus and the impact of modifying this circuitry on the expression of external genes in the sae regulon. The sae locus contains four genes, the saeR and S two-component signalling module (TCS), and saeP and Q, two upstream genes of hitherto unknown function. It is expressed from two promoters, P(A)sae, which transcribes only the TCS, and P(C)sae, which transcribes the entire locus. A bursa aurealis (bursa) transposon insertion in saeP in a derivative of Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325 has a profound effect on sae function. It modifies the activity of the TCS, changing the expression of many genes in the sae regulon, even though transcription of the TCS (from P(A)sae) is not interrupted. Moreover, these effects are not due to disruption of saeP since an in-frame deletion in saeP has essentially no phenotype. The phenotype of S. aureus strain Newman is remarkably similar to that of the saeP : : bursa and this similarity is explained by an amino acid substitution in the Newman saeS gene that is predicted to modify profoundly the signalling function of the protein. This concurrence suggests that the saeP : : bursa insertion affects the signalling function of saeS, a suggestion that is supported by the ability of an saeQR clone, but not an saeR clone, to complement the effects of the saeP : : bursa insertion.

  20. Comparison of root canal filling quality by mineral trioxide aggregate and gutta percha cones/AH plus sealer.

    PubMed

    Jho, Wonkyung; Park, Jeong-Won; Kim, Euiseong; Song, Minju; Seo, Deok-Gyu; Yang, Dong-Kyu; Shin, Su-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the quality of canal filling using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and gutta-percha (GP) in root canals, and to investigate the differences in the percentage of voids between mesial and distal canals by using microcomputed tomography. Twenty-two extracted human mandibular molars were instrumented using rotary files. Two teeth without canal fillings served as negative controls, and the other teeth were obturated with either ProRoot(®) MTA or gutta-percha and AH Plus(®) sealer. Obturated teeth were scanned with microcomputed tomography, and the percentage of voids (V%) was calculated. These specimens were also examined under a scanning electron microscope. The MTA group showed a significantly higher V% than the GP groups (p<0.05). The mesial canal groups showed significantly higher V% than did the distal canal groups (p<0.05). In orthograde filling, MTA exhibited significantly lower filling quality than did GP.

  1. Complications of radical hysterectomy: clinical experience of 115 early stage cervical cancers.

    PubMed

    Zorlu, C G; Aydoğlu, T; Ergün, Y; Kuşçu, E; Cobanoğlu, O; Koçak, S

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical experience of 115 women with early stage cervical cancer who had been operated in our Gynecologic Oncology Clinic. Of these, 85 were in stage I, and 30 in stage II. Intraoperative complications occurred in 16 patients including 3 cases concerning bladder, 1 ureter, 1 aorta, 5 v.cava inferior, 1 internal iliac a., 3 internal iliac v., 1 obturator nerve and 1 rectovaginal septum hematoma formation. Postoperative complications were observed in 38 patients. These were 14 bladder dysfunctions, 10 lymphocyst formations, 6 urinary infections, 12 wound infections, 3 pelvic infections, 2 eviscerations and 1 incisional hernia. However, no death occurred due to intraoperative or postoperative complications. Pelvic lymph node metastases were observed in 32 patients of whom 17 had only unilateral involvement, most often in the obturator region. Para-aortic lymph node metastases were diagnosed in 4 patients, all of whom were in stage II.

  2. A New Leptoceratopsid (Ornithischia, Ceratopsia) with a Unique Ischium from the Upper Cretaceous of Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    He, Yiming; Makovicky, Peter J; Wang, Kebai; Chen, Shuqing; Sullivan, Corwin; Han, Fenglu; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    The partial skeleton of a leptoceratopsid dinosaur, Ischioceratops zhuchengensis gen. et sp. nov., was excavated from the bone-beds of the Upper Cretaceous Wangshi Group of Zhucheng, Shandong Province, China. This fossil represents the second leptoceratopsid dinosaur specimen recovered from the Kugou locality, a highly productive site in Zhucheng. The ischium of the new taxon is morphologically unique among known Dinosauria, flaring gradually to form an obturator process in its middle portion and resembling the shaft of a recurve bow. An elliptical fenestra perforates the obturator process, and the distal end of the shaft forms an axehead-shaped expansion. The discovery of Ischioceratops increases the known taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity of the Leptoceratopsidae. PMID:26701114

  3. Access cavity preparation.

    PubMed

    Adams, N; Tomson, P L

    2014-03-01

    Each stage of root canal treatment should be carried out to the highest possible standard. The access cavity is arguably the most important technical stage, as subsequent preparation of the root canal(s) can be severely comprised if this is not well executed. Inadequate access can lead to canals being left untreated, poorly disinfected, difficult to shape and obturate, and may ultimately lead to the failure of the treatment. This paper highlights common features in root canal anatomy and outlines basic principles for locating root canals and producing a good access cavity. It also explores each phase of the preparation in detail and offers suggestions of instruments that have been specifically designed to overcome potential difficulties in the process. Good access design and preparation will result in an operative environment which will facilitate cleaning, shaping and obturation of the root canal system in order to maximise success.

  4. Investigation of starting transients in the thermally choked ram accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnham, E. A.; Hinkey, J. B.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the starting transients of the thermally choked ram accelerator is presented in this paper. Construction of a highly instrumented tube section and instrumentation inserts provide high resolution experimental pressure, luminosity, and electromagnetic data of the starting transients. Data obtained prior to and following the entrance diaphragm show detailed development of shock systems in both combustible and inert mixtures. With an evacuated launch tube, starting the diffuser is possible at any Mach number above the Kantrowitz Mach number. The detrimental effects and possible solutions of higher launch tube pressures and excessive obturator leakage (blow-by) are discussed. Ignition of a combustible mixture is demonstrated with both perforated and solid obturators. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Data obtained from these starting experiments enhance the understanding of the ram accelerator, as well as assist in the validation of unsteady, chemically reacting CFD codes.

  5. A New Leptoceratopsid (Ornithischia, Ceratopsia) with a Unique Ischium from the Upper Cretaceous of Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    He, Yiming; Makovicky, Peter J.; Wang, Kebai; Chen, Shuqing; Sullivan, Corwin; Han, Fenglu; Xu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    The partial skeleton of a leptoceratopsid dinosaur, Ischioceratops zhuchengensis gen. et sp. nov., was excavated from the bone-beds of the Upper Cretaceous Wangshi Group of Zhucheng, Shandong Province, China. This fossil represents the second leptoceratopsid dinosaur specimen recovered from the Kugou locality, a highly productive site in Zhucheng. The ischium of the new taxon is morphologically unique among known Dinosauria, flaring gradually to form an obturator process in its middle portion and resembling the shaft of a recurve bow. An elliptical fenestra perforates the obturator process, and the distal end of the shaft forms an axehead-shaped expansion. The discovery of Ischioceratops increases the known taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity of the Leptoceratopsidae. PMID:26701114

  6. MicroSeal systems and modified technique.

    PubMed

    Maggiore, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    The MicroSeal technique was introduced in 1996 and consists of a nickel-titanium (NiTi) spreader, a NiTi condenser, a gutta percha heater, a gutta percha syringe, and a special formulation of gutta percha available in cones or in cartridges. It is considered a thermomechanical compaction technique that uses a rotary instrument to plasticize the gutta percha and move it within the root canal apically and laterally. The MicroSeal technique together with the author's modifications may be a very important tool in the hands of the endodontist. The MicroSeal system is able to preserve a conservative preparation and provide an adequate penetration by the obturation instruments in the apical third. Knowledge of the technique's indications and limitations represents an important step in the learning curve for those practitioners who are willing to incorporate a new obturation method into their clinical techniques. PMID:15066515

  7. An in vitro assessment of gutta-percha coating of new carrier-based root canal fillings.

    PubMed

    Alhashimi, Raghad Abdulrazzaq; Foxton, Richard; Romeed, Shihab; Deb, Sanjukta

    2014-01-01

    The first aim of this paper was to evaluate the push-out bond strength of the gutta-percha coating of Thermafil and GuttaCore and compare it with that of gutta-percha used to coat an experimental hydroxyapatite/polyethylene (HA/PE) obturator. The second aim was to assess the thickness of gutta-percha around the carriers of GuttaCore and HA/PE obturators using microcomputed tomography ( μ CT). Ten (size 30) 1 mm thick samples of each group (Thermafil, GuttaCore, and HA/PE) were prepared. An orthodontic wire with a diameter of 0.5 mm was attached to the plunger of an Instron machine in order to allow the push-out testing of the gutta-percha coating. Five samples of (GuttaCore and HA/PE) were scanned using μ CT. The data obtained were analysed with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test. HA/PE obturators exhibited significantly higher push-out bond strength (P < 0.001) determined at 6.84 ± 0.96 than those of Guttacore around 3.75 ± 0.75 and Thermafil at 1.5 ± 0.63. GuttaCore demonstrated significantly higher bond strength than Thermafil (P < 0.001). μ CT imaging revealed that the thickness of gutta-percha around the experimental HA/PE carrier was homogeneously distributed. The bondability and thickness of gutta-percha coating around HA/PE carriers were superior to those of GuttaCore and Thermafil obturators.

  8. Effects of Clinical Training and Case Difficulty on the Radiographic Quality of Root Canal Fillings Performed by Dental Students in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alsulaimani, Reem Siraj; Al-Manei, Kholod Khalil; A. Alsubait, Sara; AlAqeely, Razan Shafik; A. M. Al-Shehri, Sharifa; M. Al-Madi, Ebtissam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of training duration and case difficulty on the radiographic quality of root canal fillings performed by dental students in Saudi Arabia. Methods and Materials: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted at King Saud University. Root canal treatments performed by 55 dental students from 2012-2014 were included in the study. Each student treated at least five teeth during the first year of clinical endodontic training and another five teeth during the second year. Case difficulty was assessed based on tooth position in the dental arch and preoperative conditions. The radiographic quality of the root canal filling was evaluated by two endodontists blinded to treatment completion date. The evaluation criteria were adequate obturation, presence of mishaps and preparation taper. The data were statistically analysed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses; and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Inadequate obturation and mishaps were significantly less prevalent in teeth treated after 2 years of clinical training. The odds ratios for inadequate obturation and mishaps increased significantly as tooth position moved posteriorly. Inadequate obturation and more mishaps were significantly more prevalent in teeth with preoperative conditions. Preparation taper was not significantly affected by training duration or case difficulty. Conclusion: The quality of root canal fillings performed by Saudi students was adversely affected by case difficulty. The radiographic quality of root canal fillings improved significantly after 2 years of clinical training. Preparation taper outcome is likely dependent on the preparation technique and instrument taper. PMID:26523143

  9. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    PubMed

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment.

  10. Gluing Gastric Varices in 2012: Lessons Learnt Over 25 Years

    PubMed Central

    Saraswat, Vivek A; Verma, Abhai

    2012-01-01

    Bleeding from gastric varices (GV) continues to pose a challenge to the endoscopist and no consensus has been reached on the best way for treating these patients. Gastric variceal obturation (GVO) with the tissue adhesive, N-2-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBC), is considered the treatment of first-choice for this condition in most parts of the world. The liquid monomer polymerizes into a solid cast, obturating the vessel within 10–20 s of coming in contact with ionic solutions such as blood. Gastric variceal obturation achieves hemostasis in over 90% of patients with active bleeding, eradicates GV in over 80% of these patients, and re-bleeding occurs in 3–30%. These results are comparable with those of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS; over 90% hemostasis in acute bleeding with re-bleeding in 15–30%). Though, there has been no direct comparison with GVO, balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration of GV (BRTO) achieves near 100% obliteration with recurrence in 0–10% and is superior to TIPS for hemostasis in active bleeding when used in combination with transcatheter sclerotherapy. Several complications have been described for GVO including thromboembolic complications which occur in 0.5–4.3% and may be devastating in some. Many of the complications and the variability in results of GVO can be attributed to variations in injection technique. The use of a standardized injection technique has been reported to achieve 100% hemostasis and obliteration with 6.9% re-bleeding and no embolic complications. Gastric variceal obturation with NBC continues to be the first-choice therapy for GV bleeding outside Japan. Adherence to a standard injection technique will maximize hemostasis and eradication of GV while minimizing complications of therapy. PMID:25755406

  11. Endodontic therapy in a postirradiated child: review of the literature and report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kielbassa, A M; Attin, T; Schaller, H G; Hellwig, E

    1995-06-01

    Exodontia of extremely carious teeth leads to a significant risk of osteoradionecrosis in patients who have undergone radiotherapy. In these patients, endodontic treatment could be an alternative. Successful root canal therapy in a girl who had been irradiated for head and neck neoplasms is reported. The results indicated that use of calcium hydroxide to obturate the root canals is a viable method of postirradiation endodontics in primary teeth. PMID:8602421

  12. Disappeared roots: a case report.

    PubMed

    Arathi, R; Kundabala, M; Karen, B

    2008-03-01

    Tooth resorption is a perplexing problem for all dental practitioners. The etiologic factors are vague, the diagnoses are educated guesses and, often, the chosen treatment does not prevent the rapid disappearance of the calcified dental tissues. This becomes all the more confusing if the tooth in question is a pulpally involved young permanent tooth. Presented in this report is the case of an upper first young permanent molar that underwent complete root resorption following root canal therapy and obturation. PMID:18408271

  13. An In Vitro Assessment of Gutta-Percha Coating of New Carrier-Based Root Canal Fillings

    PubMed Central

    Alhashimi, Raghad Abdulrazzaq; Foxton, Richard; Romeed, Shihab; Deb, Sanjukta

    2014-01-01

    The first aim of this paper was to evaluate the push-out bond strength of the gutta-percha coating of Thermafil and GuttaCore and compare it with that of gutta-percha used to coat an experimental hydroxyapatite/polyethylene (HA/PE) obturator. The second aim was to assess the thickness of gutta-percha around the carriers of GuttaCore and HA/PE obturators using microcomputed tomography (μCT). Ten (size 30) 1 mm thick samples of each group (Thermafil, GuttaCore, and HA/PE) were prepared. An orthodontic wire with a diameter of 0.5 mm was attached to the plunger of an Instron machine in order to allow the push-out testing of the gutta-percha coating. Five samples of (GuttaCore and HA/PE) were scanned using μCT. The data obtained were analysed with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test. HA/PE obturators exhibited significantly higher push-out bond strength (P < 0.001) determined at 6.84 ± 0.96 than those of Guttacore around 3.75 ± 0.75 and Thermafil at 1.5 ± 0.63. GuttaCore demonstrated significantly higher bond strength than Thermafil (P < 0.001). μCT imaging revealed that the thickness of gutta-percha around the experimental HA/PE carrier was homogeneously distributed. The bondability and thickness of gutta-percha coating around HA/PE carriers were superior to those of GuttaCore and Thermafil obturators. PMID:24987727

  14. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    PubMed

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment. PMID:2638021

  15. Clinical applications of visible light-cured resin in maxillofacial prosthetics. Part I: Denture base and reline material.

    PubMed

    Shifman, A

    1990-11-01

    A visible light-cured resin system enables the dentist to accomplish chairside relining of removable prosthesis. The material is pliable and can be initially cured in the mouth with the regular hand-held visible light. A special unit is needed to completely cure the material, which thereafter is comparable in quality to heat-polymerized acrylic resin. The value of this system for the practice of maxillofacial prosthetics is demonstrated by the ease of relining of various devices and obturator prostheses.

  16. Endodontic Considerations in Three-canalled Premolars: A Practical Update

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Giardino, Luciano; Asgary, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The most difficult clinical considertions in orthograde root canal treatment are generally related to the anatomy of the teeth. Three-canalled maxillary and mandibular premolars (mini-molars) have been reported in several studies. The purpose of this paper was to review various aspects of three-canalled premolars including incidence, clinical and radiographic diagnosis, racial predisposition, access cavity preparation, instrumentation and obturation. PMID:27141223

  17. [Modified lateral condensation (microbiological analysis)].

    PubMed

    Jácome Musule, J L; Vázquez del Mercado, M A; Hernández, J L; Granillo, N E

    1989-05-01

    In order to ascertain the presence of endodontobacterial flora, an in vivo microbiological study on fifty human teeth with necrotic pulp and periapical bone destruction, is submitted. The study verifies elimination of bacteria through a technique for the preparation of root canals. Results of this research ratify the presence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, as well as the means to inhibit them. That will allow performing obturation under optimal conditions, thus increasing assurance of success in the endodontic therapy.

  18. SU-E-T-157: Evaluation and Comparison of Doses to Pelvic Lymph Nodes and to Point B with 3D Image Guided Treatment Planning for High Dose Brachytherapy for Treatment of Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandare, N.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To estimate and compare the doses received by the obturator, external and internal iliac lymph nodes and point Methods: CT-MR fused image sets of 15 patients obtained for each of 5 fractions of HDR brachytherapy using tandem and ring applicator, were used to generate treatment plans optimized to deliver a prescription dose to HRCTV-D90 and to minimize the doses to organs at risk (OARs). For each set of image, target volume (GTV, HRCTV) OARs (Bladder, Rectum, Sigmoid), and both left and right pelvic lymph nodes (obturator, external and internal iliac lymph nodes) were delineated. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were generated for pelvic nodal groups (left and right obturator group, internal and external iliac chains) Per fraction DVH parameters used for dose comparison included dose to 100% volume (D100), and dose received by 2cc (D2cc), 1cc (D1cc) and 0.1 cc (D0.1cc) of nodal volume. Dose to point B was compared with each DVH parameter using 2 sided t-test. Pearson correlation were determined to examine relationship of point B dose with nodal DVH parameters. Results: FIGO clinical stage varied from 1B1 to IIIB. The median pretreatment tumor diameter measured on MRI was 4.5 cm (2.7– 6.4cm).The median dose to bilateral point B was 1.20 Gy ± 0.12 or 20% of the prescription dose. The correlation coefficients were all <0.60 for all nodal DVH parameters indicating low degree of correlation. Only 2 cc of obturator nodes was not significantly different from point B dose on t-test. Conclusion: Dose to point B does not adequately represent the dose to any specific pelvic nodal group. When using image guided 3D dose-volume optimized treatment nodal groups should be individually identified and delineated to obtain the doses received by pelvic nodes.

  19. An in vitro assessment of gutta-percha coating of new carrier-based root canal fillings.

    PubMed

    Alhashimi, Raghad Abdulrazzaq; Foxton, Richard; Romeed, Shihab; Deb, Sanjukta

    2014-01-01

    The first aim of this paper was to evaluate the push-out bond strength of the gutta-percha coating of Thermafil and GuttaCore and compare it with that of gutta-percha used to coat an experimental hydroxyapatite/polyethylene (HA/PE) obturator. The second aim was to assess the thickness of gutta-percha around the carriers of GuttaCore and HA/PE obturators using microcomputed tomography ( μ CT). Ten (size 30) 1 mm thick samples of each group (Thermafil, GuttaCore, and HA/PE) were prepared. An orthodontic wire with a diameter of 0.5 mm was attached to the plunger of an Instron machine in order to allow the push-out testing of the gutta-percha coating. Five samples of (GuttaCore and HA/PE) were scanned using μ CT. The data obtained were analysed with one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test. HA/PE obturators exhibited significantly higher push-out bond strength (P < 0.001) determined at 6.84 ± 0.96 than those of Guttacore around 3.75 ± 0.75 and Thermafil at 1.5 ± 0.63. GuttaCore demonstrated significantly higher bond strength than Thermafil (P < 0.001). μ CT imaging revealed that the thickness of gutta-percha around the experimental HA/PE carrier was homogeneously distributed. The bondability and thickness of gutta-percha coating around HA/PE carriers were superior to those of GuttaCore and Thermafil obturators. PMID:24987727

  20. Effect of thermoplastic filling techniques on the push-out strength of root sealing materials.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Zigomar Hideo Fecchio Nasser; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Correa; Raucci Neto, Walter; Rached-Junior, Fuad Jacob Abi; Souza-Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Silva, Silvio Rocha Corrêa da; Alfredo, Edson

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of two thermoplastic obturation systems (MicroSeal and Obtura II) on bond strength of different sealers to intraradicular dentin. Sixty root canals of human canines were prepared using ProTaper rotary files (crown-down technique) and irrigated with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA. The root canals were filled by MicroSeal, Obtura II, or lateral compaction techniques using AH Plus and Epiphany SE. 1.5 mm thick root slices were subjected to the push-out test. ANOVA and Tukey's test showed that the bond strength values (MPa) observed in the groups obturated with MicroSeal (2.96 ± 2.72) and Obtura II (2.68 ± 2.18) did not significantly differ from each other (p > 0.05) but were significantly higher than that observed in the group obturated with lateral condensation (2.01 ± 1.48; p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in strength (p > 0.05) among the root canal thirds (cervical: 2.44 ± 2.03; middle: 2.50 ± 2.27; and apical: 2.70 ± 2.34). Adhesive failures were predominant (60%) in all groups. In conclusion, MicroSeal and Obtura II techniques, using AH plus sealer, increased the resistance to displacement of the filling material, when compared with lateral compaction. Moreover, when used with Epiphany SE, these obturation systems did not affect the bond strength of the material to root dentin. PMID:26676199

  1. Intraoral-extraoral combination prosthesis: improving retention using interconnecting magnets.

    PubMed

    Engelen, Marloes; van Heumen, Celeste C M; Merkx, Matthias A W; Meijer, Gert J

    2014-01-01

    Osseointegrated implants have been well documented for retaining an obturator prosthesis as well as a facial prosthesis. However, when the defect extends to both the facial area and the maxilla, it is difficult to rehabilitate those defects to the satisfaction of the patient, especially in cases where implants cannot be placed on both sites. This case report describes the use of magnets to connect two prostheses, thereby increasing retention and patient comfort.

  2. [Changes in the therapy of pulpal diseases and periapical lesions according to the articles published in the journal Fogorvosi Szemle during the past 100 years (1908-2008)].

    PubMed

    Nemes, Júlia; Duhaj, Szilvia; Nyárasdy, Ida

    2008-08-01

    Present review makes an attempt to summarize the Hungarian endodontic literature of pulpal and periodontal diseases, published during the past 100 years. The experimental examinations and clinical studies make it possible to follow the changes in the methods and in the medicines, used in the field of pulpal treatment. The overview gives us information about the problem of disinfection, shaping, measuring, and obturation of root canal. PMID:19055128

  3. Ixodid ticks parasitizing Iberian red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus) and European wild boar (Sus scrofa) from Spain: geographical and temporal distribution.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Fernández-de-Mera, Isabel G; Acevedo, Pelayo; Höfle, Ursula; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortazár, Christian

    2006-08-31

    Commercial hunting of Spanish wild ungulates has made them an important economic resource. Wild ungulates may have an important role in the maintenance of ixodid tick populations, and also as reservoirs of pathogens. We studied the ixodid ticks that parasitize Iberian red deer and European wild boar from Spain. Ixodid ticks (n=6,336) were collected from 431 Iberian red deer and 142 wild boar in different regions of Spain. We found 10 different ixodid tick species parasitizing Iberian red deer, mainly Hyalomma marginatum marginatum (63.7%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (7.9%) and R. bursa (7.5%). R. (Boophilus) annulatus was only collected in the province of Cádiz (southern Spain). We found 8 ixodid tick species on the wild boar, mainly Hy. m. marginatum (68.7%), R. bursa (14.6%) and Dermacentor marginatus (9.3%). We found one adult Hy. marginatum rufipes and one adult Hy. anatolicum excavatum parasitizing wild boar from south-central Spain. Mean prevalence of ixodid ticks was 41.3+/-0.08% (n=475) and 31+/-0.09% (n=284) and intensity of parasitization was 13.9+/-0.2 (n=283) and 13.6+/-0.3 (n=130) ticks/animal for Iberian red deer and wild boar, respectively. Only 5 of the 13 ixodid tick species found were shared by Iberian red deer and wild boar. This finding could indicate a host preference when Iberian red deer and wild boar share common habitats. In both Iberian red deer and wild boar from south-central Spain the monthly relative frequencies of Hy. m. marginatum and R. bursa presented an inverse pattern. The highest Hy. m. marginatum relative frequencies coincided with the lowest R. bursa relative frequencies along the year. R. bursa and I. ricinus were present in areas from northern to southern Spain while Hyalomma sp. and D. marginatus were exclusively collected in the two southern thirds of Spain. Haemaphysalis sp. and D. reticulatus were collected in northern Spain. Hy. m. marginatum and R. bursa were present during the whole year in red deer and wild

  4. Clinical and radiographic assessment of mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide as apexification agents in traumatized young permanent anterior teeth: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Damle, S. G.; Bhattal, Hiteshwar; Damle, Dhanashree; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Loomba, Ashish; Singla, Sumit

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and traditionally used calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) in inducing root end formation of immature roots of traumatized young permanent anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 22 nonvital, immature permanent maxillary incisors. Samples were allotted into two groups - Group I MTA and Group II Ca(OH)2 Success rate was determined based upon the time duration required for apical barrier formation. The canals were obturated using gutta-percha points in MTA group, after 24 h, whereas in Ca(OH)2 group, obturation was carried out after radiographic confirmation of the apical barrier. The clinical and radiographic evaluation was carried out at a follow-up periods of 3, 6, and 9 months and statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS version 15.0 statistical analysis software (Chi-square test and fisher exact test). Results: In MTA Group, barrier formation was observed in 90.90% of the patients after 9 months whereas in Ca(OH)2 Group, the same was observed in 81.81%. The mean time required for barrier formation in MTA group was 4.90 months and 5.33 months in Ca(OH)2 group. Conclusion: MTA and Ca(OH)2, as medicaments for apexification, were comparable in terms of the evaluation parameters. However, MTA was beneficial in terms of immediate obturation of immature roots with wide open apices. PMID:27274351

  5. Fluoride Varnish as Root Canal Sealer: A Scanning Electron Microscopy and Bacterial Penetration Study

    PubMed Central

    Parirokh, Masoud; Talebizad, Mohammad; Forghani, Farshid Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akabar; Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Goddousi, Jamileh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study was carried out to evaluate the bacterial leakage of root canal fillings when cavity varnish containing 5% fluoride (Duraflur) was used as root canal sealer. Methods and Materials: Root canals of 88 straight single-rooted teeth were prepared. Eighty teeth were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (n=20) and two positive and negative control groups of ten each. The roots in group I and II were obturated with gutta-percha and AH-26 sealer using lateral condensation technique. The root canal walls in group II were coated with a layer of varnish before obturation. In group III the canals were obturated with gutta-percha and fluoride varnish as the sealer. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) was used to determine the bacterial leakage during 90 days. The Kaplan Meier survival analysis was used for assessing the leakage and log rank test was used for pairwise comparison. The rest of eight single rooted teeth were selected for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation with 5000× magnification. Results: Leakage occurred between 20 to 89 days. Group III showed significantly less bacterial penetration than groups I and II (P=0.001 and P=0.011, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between group I and II (P>0.05). SEM evaluation showed that the varnish had covered all dentinal tubules. Conclusion: The present study showed promising results for the use of fluoride varnish as root canal sealer but further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed. PMID:25598813

  6. Experimental polyethylene-hydroxyapatite carrier-based endodontic system: an in vitro study on dynamic thermomechanical properties, sealing ability, and measurements of micro-computed tomography voids.

    PubMed

    Alhashimi, Raghad A; Mannocci, Francesco; Sauro, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    The dynamic thermomechanical properties, sealing ability, and voids formation of an experimental obturation hydroxyapatite-reinforced polyethylene (HA/PE) composite/carrier system were investigated and compared with those of a commercial system [GuttaCore (GC)]. The HA/PE system was specifically designed using a melt-extrusion process. The viscoelastic properties of HA/PE were determined using a dynamic thermomechanical analyser. Human single-rooted teeth were endodontically instrumented and obturated using HA/PE or GC systems, and then sealing ability was assessed using a fluid filtration system. In addition, micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to quantify apparent voids within the root-canal space. The data were statistically analysed using one-way anova and post hoc tests. The HA/PE composite exhibited important modulus and damping changes with an increase of temperature. The HA/PE system was more flexible than GC as the modulus of GC appeared to be significantly higher than that of HA/PE as a result of the high positive glass transition temperature (Tg ). However, HA/PE and GC presented similar sealing abilities. In conclusion, because sealing ability and voids formation were comparable between the tested materials, the experimental HA/PE system may be considered a suitable alternative material for root-canal obturation. Moreover, HA/PE possesses specific viscoelastic behaviour and lower melting points, which may facilitate root-canal retreatments.

  7. Effect of masticatory cycles on tooth compression and resultant leakage of amalgam retrofills.

    PubMed

    Blum, J Y; Esber, S; Parahy, E; Franquin, J C

    1997-10-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of changes in tooth structure due to masticatory cycles on amalgam retrofillings performed to different cavity depths. Forty upper maxillary first molars were tested. In the obturated palatal root apical amalgam was inserted to different depths (1.5 and 3 mm). Eight casts were built, each having four sample molars. To block the teeth, the vestibular roots were embedded in resin (palatal root was left free). The eight remaining retrofilled teeth served as controls and were not submitted to occlusal forces. A mechanical device to simulate masticatory cycles subjected the teeth to 500,000 to three million cycles. Leakage was assessed from dye penetration observations. The values of microleakage were analyzed and compared, and strain gauges were used to assess structural modifications to the tooth. The leakage of all retrofilled obturations increased in correlation with the number of masticatory cycles. At three million cycles, root length compression was 0.3 +/- 0.02%. Leakage was significantly less for the deeper cavity preparations at all stages. This in vitro study suggests a significant effect by root compression due to masticatory loads on the leakage of retrofilled amalgam obturations. PMID:9587270

  8. Prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Cheng-Fei; Chu, Chun-Hung; Zhu, Xiao-Fei

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of patients requiring endodontic retreatment for apical periodontitis. Patients with apical periodontitis who were referred for endodontic retreatment were examined. The type and quality of the restoration, symptoms, quality of obturation were recorded. During retreatment, an oral rinse sample and root canal sample were cultured using brain-heart infusion agar and bile esculinazide agar to select for E. faecalis. The 16S rRNA technique was used to identify E. faecalis. A total of 32 women and 22 men (mean age: 38 years; s.d.: 11 years) and 58 teeth were studied. The prevalence of E. faecalis was 19% in the saliva and 38% in the root canals. The odds that root canals harbored E. faecalis were increased if the saliva habored this bacterium (odds ratio=9.7; 95% confidence interval=1.8–51.6; P<0.05). Teeth with unsatisfactory root obturation had more cultivable bacterial species in root canals than teeth with satisfactory root obturation (P<0.05). E. faecalis is more common in root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis than in saliva. The prevalence of E. faecalis in root canals is associated with the presence of E. faecalis in saliva. PMID:22422085

  9. Angiography of the corpus cavernosum penis in the pony stallion during erection and quiescence.

    PubMed

    Bartels, J E; Beckett, S D; Brown, B G

    1984-07-01

    Serial arteriography was used to determine the vascular pattern and blood flow in the penis of the pony stallion. Ponies were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, and catheters were surgically introduced into the internal pudendal and obturator arteries. The vascular anatomy was visualized by angiography via image-intensified fluoroscopy and was recorded on 70-mm film at 3 frames/s or by direct radiography. Blood flow into the corpus cavernosum penis (CCP) was limited during quiescence because the blood was immediately shunted into the venous system. After vasodilation with mild stimulation from an electroejaculator, there was increased filling of the CCP and corpus spongiosum penis. Contrast medium injected into the internal pudendal artery entered the bulb of the penis during peak erection, but medium injected into the obturator artery could not enter the crus penis during peak erection. The contrast medium stopped in the obturator artery at the edge of the ischiocavernous muscles due to the occlusion of the deep arteries of the penis by contraction of these muscles. When contrast medium was injected directly into the CCP near the glans to outline the body of the penis, there was no evidence of venous outlets along the body.

  10. Marginal adaptation of newer root canal sealers to dentin: A SEM study

    PubMed Central

    Polineni, Swapnika; Bolla, Nagesh; Mandava, Pragna; Vemuri, Sayesh; Mallela, Madhusudana; Gandham, Vijaya Madhuri

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This in vitro study evaluated and compared the marginal adaptation of three newer root canal sealers to root dentin. Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted human single-rooted teeth with completely formed apices were taken. Teeth were decoronated, and root canals were instrumented. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10) based upon the sealer used. Group 1 - teeth were obturated with epoxy resin sealer (MM-Seal). Group 2 - teeth were obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) based sealer (MTA Fillapex), Group 3 - teeth were obturated with bioceramic sealer (EndoSequence BC sealer). Later samples were vertically sectioned using hard tissue microtome and marginal adaptation of sealers to root dentin was evaluated under coronal and apical halves using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and marginal gap values were recorded. Results: The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple post hoc test. The highest marginal gap was seen in Group 2 (apical-16680.00 nm, coronal-10796 nm) and the lowest marginal gap was observed in Group 1 (apical-599.42 nm, coronal-522.72 nm). Coronal halves showed superior adaptation compared to apical halves in all the groups under SEM. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study epoxy resin-based MM-Seal showed good marginal adaptation than other materials tested. PMID:27563187

  11. Detection of exercise load-associated differences in hip muscles by texture analysis.

    PubMed

    Nketiah, G; Savio, S; Dastidar, P; Nikander, R; Eskola, H; Sievänen, H

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether specific physical exercise loading is associated with texture parameters from hip muscles scanned with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Ninety-one female athletes representing five distinct exercise-loading groups (high-impact, odd-impact, low-impact, nonimpact and high-magnitude) and 20 nonathletic female controls underwent MRI of the hip. Texture parameters were computed from the MRI images of four hip muscles (gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, iliopsoas and obturator internus). Differences in muscle texture between the athlete groups and the controls were evaluated using Mann-Whitney U-test. Significant (P < 0.05) textural differences were found between the high-impact (triple and high jumpers) and the control group in gluteus medius, iliopsoas and obturator internus muscles. Texture of the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius and obturator internus muscles differed significantly between the odd impact (soccer and squash players) and the control group. Textures of all studied muscles differed significantly between the low impact (endurance runners) and the controls. Only the gluteus medius muscle differed significantly between the nonimpact (swimmers) and the controls. No significant difference in muscle texture was found between the high-magnitude (powerlifters) and the control group. In conclusion, MRI texture analysis provides a quantitative method capable of detecting textural differences in hip muscles that are associated with specific types of long-term exercise loadings.

  12. Experimental polyethylene-hydroxyapatite carrier-based endodontic system: an in vitro study on dynamic thermomechanical properties, sealing ability, and measurements of micro-computed tomography voids.

    PubMed

    Alhashimi, Raghad A; Mannocci, Francesco; Sauro, Salvatore

    2016-06-01

    The dynamic thermomechanical properties, sealing ability, and voids formation of an experimental obturation hydroxyapatite-reinforced polyethylene (HA/PE) composite/carrier system were investigated and compared with those of a commercial system [GuttaCore (GC)]. The HA/PE system was specifically designed using a melt-extrusion process. The viscoelastic properties of HA/PE were determined using a dynamic thermomechanical analyser. Human single-rooted teeth were endodontically instrumented and obturated using HA/PE or GC systems, and then sealing ability was assessed using a fluid filtration system. In addition, micro-computed tomography (μCT) was used to quantify apparent voids within the root-canal space. The data were statistically analysed using one-way anova and post hoc tests. The HA/PE composite exhibited important modulus and damping changes with an increase of temperature. The HA/PE system was more flexible than GC as the modulus of GC appeared to be significantly higher than that of HA/PE as a result of the high positive glass transition temperature (Tg ). However, HA/PE and GC presented similar sealing abilities. In conclusion, because sealing ability and voids formation were comparable between the tested materials, the experimental HA/PE system may be considered a suitable alternative material for root-canal obturation. Moreover, HA/PE possesses specific viscoelastic behaviour and lower melting points, which may facilitate root-canal retreatments. PMID:27041355

  13. Oral rehabilitation after surgical removal of pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Tamae, Adriano Caires; Silva, Pedro Ivo Santos; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Iyda, Mariana Garib; Moreno, Amalia; Magro-Filho, Osvaldo; Bertoz, André Pinheiro Magalhães

    2011-11-01

    Although tumors of minor salivary glands are rare, the pleomorphic adenoma is the most common pathology among the benign neoplasm and can be found with high prevalence in the junction between hard palate and soft palate. The treatment of choice for most of maxillary tumors is surgical through either a total or partial maxillectomy. However, surgical defects caused by such type of treatment lead to both clinical and psychologic disorders for the patient. The immediate oral rehabilitation using interim palate obturator after maxillectomy provides optimization on the healing process, recovers the stomatognathic functions after surgery, and avoids psychosocial sequelae for the patients. This clinical report aimed to present the rehabilitation with immediate palate obturator of a patient who underwent a partial maxillectomy due to a hard palate pleomorphic adenoma of minor salivary glands. We report the clinical importance of the prosthetic rehabilitation and the improvements on both quality of life and stomatognathic functions of this patient. It can be concluded that the immediate rehabilitation of the patient after partial maxillectomy by using an interim palate obturator was a great option and provided clinical benefits in the immediate postoperative period, improving the patient’s quality of life, allowing the patient’s reinsertion into society, and reducing the surgical treatment sequelae.

  14. Twisting and bending: the functional role of salamander lateral hypaxial musculature during locomotion.

    PubMed

    Bennett, W O; Simons, R S; Brainerd, E L

    2001-06-01

    The function of the lateral hypaxial muscles during locomotion in tetrapods is controversial. Currently, there are two hypotheses of lateral hypaxial muscle function. The first, supported by electromyographic (EMG) data from a lizard (Iguana iguana) and a salamander (Dicamptodon ensatus), suggests that hypaxial muscles function to bend the body during swimming and to resist long-axis torsion during walking. The second, supported by EMG data from lizards during relatively high-speed locomotion, suggests that these muscles function primarily to bend the body during locomotion, not to resist torsional forces. To determine whether the results from D. ensatus hold for another salamander, we recorded lateral hypaxial muscle EMGs synchronized with body and limb kinematics in the tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. In agreement with results from aquatic locomotion in D. ensatus, all four layers of lateral hypaxial musculature were found to show synchronous EMG activity during swimming in A. tigrinum. Our findings for terrestrial locomotion also agree with previous results from D. ensatus and support the torsion resistance hypothesis for terrestrial locomotion. We observed asynchronous EMG bursts of relatively high intensity in the lateral and medial pairs of hypaxial muscles during walking in tiger salamanders (we call these 'alpha-bursts'). We infer from this pattern that the more lateral two layers of oblique hypaxial musculature, Mm. obliquus externus superficialis (OES) and obliquus externus profundus (OEP), are active on the side towards which the trunk is bending, while the more medial two layers, Mm. obliquus internus (OI) and transversus abdominis (TA), are active on the opposite side. This result is consistent with the hypothesis proposed for D. ensatus that the OES and OEP generate torsional moments to counteract ground reaction forces generated by forelimb support, while the OI and TA generate torsional moments to counteract ground reaction forces from hindlimb

  15. The Comparative Efficacy of Different Files in The Removal of Different Sealers in Simulated Root Canal Retreatment- An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kanaparthy, Aruna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Root canal treatment enjoys a high success rate all over the world and has saved billions of teeth from extraction. However, there are instances of failure, the main causes being insufficient cleaning and inadequate obturation. In such cases the most conservative treatment option would be non-surgical retreatment. It requires regaining access to the entire root canal system through removal of the original root canal filling thus permitting further cleaning and re- obturation. Removal of gutta-percha and sealer becomes a critical step to gain access to the root canal system, remove necrotic tissue debris, bacteria and infected dentin. Aim To compare and evaluate the efficacy of manual hand Hedstrom files and two rotary retreatment file systems ProTaper Universal retreatment files and MtwoR (retreatment) files in the removal of root canal filling material during root canal retreatment and the influence of the type of sealers zinc oxide eugenol and AH plus on the presence of remaining debris in the reinstrumented canals in the apical, middle and coronal third. Materials and Methods Sixty single rooted human premolar teeth were divided into 3 Groups of 20 teeth each Group I (20 Teeth): prepared using hand K Files, Group II (20 Teeth): prepared using ProTaper rotary system and Group III (20 Teeth): prepared using Mtwo rotary system. In Groups- IA, IIA, IIIA: (10 teeth each) Obturation was done using Zinc Oxide Eugenol sealer and gutta percha. In Groups- IB, IIB, IIIB: (10 teeth each) obturation was done with AH Plus sealer and gutta percha. All the teeth were subjected to retreatment. Groups IA and IB with Hedstrom files, Groups IIA and IIB with ProTaper retreatment files and for Groups IIIA and IIIB with Mtwo retreatment Files. The roots were longitudinally split and were observed under a stereomicroscope for remaining amount of filling material on the canal walls. Statistical analysis was done using One–way ANOVA (Analysis of variance) test and Tukey

  16. Acarological studies in two protected areas of Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Iori, A; Di Paolo, M

    1999-09-01

    In the present note are reported the results of preliminary studies on tick distribution in two wildlife areas of Abruzzo (National Park of Abruzzo, a mountainous area, approximately 40,000 ha, in Central Apennines, interesting Abruzzo, Latium and Molise regions) and Latium (Capocotta-Castel Porziano Presidential reserve, on the Tyrrhenian coast, 30 km from Rome). Sampling of ticks from domestic and wild mammals as well as from vegetation, was performed in three different areas of the National Park in 1995. Tick species identified include Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum, Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor marginatus, Ixodes ricinus, I. hexagonus. The presence of I. ricinus was discontinuous and sporadic. In Capocotta estate, samplings were performed bimonthly from March to November 1997 in an restricted area (1 ha) with typical Mediterranean flora and fauna. The following species were collected: I. ricinus, Haemaphysalis concinna, D. marginatus, R. bursa, Hy. marginatum. There was a high dominance of I. ricinus and H. concinna. PMID:11071544

  17. Osteochondroma mimicking deep vein thrombosis in a young cricketer.

    PubMed

    Watura, Christopher; Patel, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Osteochondromas are bony outgrowths covered by thin cartilaginous caps, accounting for 35% of all benign bone tumours. The majorities are solitary and usually arise at the metaphysis of long bones. They may be associated with bursa formation, while vascular complications are rare. We report a 34-year-old man who presented with a 2-week history of pain, stiffness and swelling of the left lower leg following a cricket match. Clinically, a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) was suspected but D-dimer test was negative. Initial Doppler ultrasound scan (USS) was reported as showing a haematoma and possible DVT. A repeat Doppler USS did not detect a DVT, however the popliteal vein appeared collapsed and a pedunculated osteochondroma of the proximal tibia was found. An MRI confirmed this and also showed an extensive oedema around the calf muscles tracking distally in all compartments, most likely the result of a ruptured bursa.

  18. Generation of serotype 1/serotype 2 reassortant viruses of the infectious bursal disease virus and their investigation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zierenberg, Kati; Raue, Rüdiger; Nieper, Hermann; Islam, Md Rafiqul; Eterradossi, Nicolas; Toquin, Didier; Müller, Hermann

    2004-09-15

    Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the causative agent of acute or immunosuppressive disease in chickens. Serotype 1 strains are pathogenic whereas serotype 2 strains neither cause disease nor protect against infection with the serotype 1 strains. The target organ of serotype 1 strains is the bursa Fabricii (BF). The molecular determinants of this tropism, and therefore pathogenicity, are poorly understood. IBDV is a non-enveloped icosahedral virus particle of 60 nm in diameter, which contains two genome segments of double-stranded RNA. Here, the generation of interserotypic reassortants using the reverse genetics approach is reported. The results of in vitro and in vivo investigations show that genome segment A determines the bursa tropism of IBDV, whereas segment B is involved in the efficiency of viral replication; they further indicate the significance of the interaction of the polymerase (segment B) with the structural protein VP3 (segment A) or the viral genome for efficient virus formation and replication. PMID:15325078

  19. Formicitylenchus oregonensis n. g., n. sp. (Allantonematidae: Nematoda), the first tylenchid parasite of ants, with a review of nematodes described from ants.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George

    2003-09-01

    The first tylenchid parasite of ants, Formicitylenchus oregonensis n. g., n. sp., is described from a queen carpenter ant Camponotus vicinus Mayr in Western Oregon, USA. The new genus is characterised by the excretory pore anterior to the nerve-ring and rounded tails in the free-living adults, a stylet bearing basal thickenings in the free-living female, a smaller stylet lacking basal thickenings in the male and a short, crenulate leptoderan bursa. The mature parasitic female is light yellow and ovoviviparous. F. oregonensis n. sp. is closely related to members of Metaparasitylenchus Wachek, 1955, with species parasitising beetles living under bark or in rotten wood, a habitat similar to that of carpenter ants. However, males of Metaparasitylenchus are characterised by a fairly long tail with a broad peloderan bursa. It is suggested that this case of tylenchid parasitism in ants is an example of environmental host selection. A review of the described nematode parasites of ants is presented.

  20. Effect of exposure to operant-controlled microwaves on certain blood and immunological parameters in the young chick

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, L.A.; Morrison, W.D.; Bate, L.; Otten, L.; Hunter, B.; Pei, D.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Twenty-two 1-wk-old broiler chicks (Gallus domesticus) were housed at 16 C and operantly conditioned to activate either a 250-W infrared bulb (control) or a microwave generator delivering 13 mW/cm2 (treated). Plasma corticosterone concentration did not differ between groups (P greater than .05) at 4 wk of age. At that time the birds were killed, and post-mortem examination revealed no treatment differences in gross morphology of the chicks or in weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius (P greater than .05). Histological study of comparable segments of spleen, bursa, adrenal, and thyroid tissue did not show differences in any of the chosen parameters (P greater than .05). Heterophil:lymphocyte ratios, packed cell volume, and total plasma protein content were similar between groups (P greater than .05). These results suggest that operant exposure to low density microwave radiation did not result in stress or immunological disturbances.

  1. Reliable screening technique for evaluation of wild crucifers against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.).

    PubMed

    Singh, S P; Kumar, Sandeep; Singh, Y P; Singh, Ram

    2014-12-01

    Wild crucifers namely Arabidopsis thaliana, Brassica fruticulosa, B. rugosa, B. spinescens, B. tournefortii, Camelina sativa, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Crambe abysinnica, Cronopus didymus, Diplotaxis assurgens, D. gomez-campoi, D. muralis, D. siettiana, D. tenuisiliqua, Enatharocarpus lyratus, Lepidium sativum and Sinapis alba along with five cultivated Brassica species including B. rapa (BSH-1), B. juncea (Rohini), B. napus (GSC-6), B. carinata (DLSC-2) and Eruca sativa (T-27) were screened against mustard aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) with a standardized technique under definite level of aphid pressure developed using specially designed cages. Observations have revealed that B. fruticulosa, B. spinescens, Camelina sativa, Crambe abysinnica and Lepidium sativum were resistant to mustard aphid L. erysimi with aphid infestation index (AII) ≤ 1. Capsella bursa-pastoris was highly susceptible to bean aphid, Aphis fabae during its vegetative stage (with 100% mortality). Other genotypes were found in the range of 'susceptible' to 'highly susceptible' with AII ranging 3-5.

  2. Anserina bursitis. A treatable cause of knee pain in patients with degenerative arthritis.

    PubMed

    Brookler, M I; Mongan, E S

    1973-07-01

    The anserina bursa is located on the medial surface of the tibia deep to the tendons of the sartorius, gracilis, and semimembranosus muscles and superficial to the insertion of the tibial collateral ligament. Knee pain, a palpable swelling of the bursa, and tenderness over the medial anterior aspect of the tibia just below the knee are the hallmarks of anserina bursitis. In a three-year period, 24 patients with anserina bursitis were seen in a rheumatology clinic. All but one were women, 18 were obese, and only four were under 50 years old. Knee x-ray studies showed degenerative arthritis in 20 of the 24 patients. In ten, varus knee deformities were present, while three had valgus deformities. Ultrasound or local steroid injections gave dramatic relief in all but one patient.

  3. Anserina Bursitis—A Treatable Cause of Knee Pain in Patients with Degenerative Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Brookler, Morton I.; Mongan, Edward S.

    1973-01-01

    The anserina bursa is located on the medial surface of the tibia deep to the tendons of the sartorius, gracilis, and semimembranosus muscles and superficial to the insertion of the tibial collateral ligament. Knee pain, a palpable swelling of the bursa, and tenderness over the medial anterior aspect of the tibia just below the knee are the hallmarks of anserina bursitis. In a three-year period, 24 patients with anserina bursitis were seen in a rheumatology clinic. All but one were women, 18 were obese, and only four were under 50 years old. Knee x-ray studies showed degenerative arthritis in 20 of the 24 patients. In ten, varus knee deformities were present, while three had valgus deformities. Ultrasound or local steroid injections gave dramatic relief in all but one patient. PMID:4731586

  4. Association between trochanteric bursitis, osteoarthrosis and total hip arthroplasty☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto; Loss, Felipe; de Freitas Spinelli, Leandro; Furian, Roque; Silva, Marcelo Faria; Zanatta, Júlia Mazzuchello; Boschin, Leonardo Carbonera; Gonçalves, Ramiro Zilles; Yépez, Anthony Kerbes

    2014-01-01

    Objective this was an epidemiological study on trochanteric bursitis at the time of performing total hip arthroplasty. Methods sixty-two sequential patients who underwent total hip arthroplasty due to osteoarthrosis, without any previous history of trochanteric bursitis, were evaluated. The bursas were collected and evaluated histologically. Results there were 35 female patients (56.5%) and 27 male patients (43.5%), with a mean age of 65 years (±11). Trochanteric bursitis was conformed histologically in nine patients (14.5%), of whom six were female (66.7%) and three were male (33.3%). Conclusions 14.5% of the bursas analyzed presented inflammation at the time that the primary total hip arthroplasty due to osteoarthrosis was performed, and the majority of the cases of bursitis were detected in female patients. PMID:26229811

  5. Enhanced index tracking modeling in portfolio optimization with mixed-integer programming z approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siew, Lam Weng; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah Hj.; Ismail, Hamizun bin

    2014-09-01

    Enhanced index tracking is a popular form of portfolio management in stock market investment. Enhanced index tracking aims to construct an optimal portfolio to generate excess return over the return achieved by the stock market index without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index. The objective of this paper is to construct an optimal portfolio using mixed-integer programming model which adopts regression approach in order to generate higher portfolio mean return than stock market index return. In this study, the data consists of 24 component stocks in Malaysia market index which is FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index from January 2010 until December 2012. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio of mixed-integer programming model is able to generate higher mean return than FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index return with only selecting 30% out of the total stock market index components.

  6. Effects of talc on the rat ovary.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, T C; Fox, H; Buckley, C H; Henderson, W J; Griffiths, K

    1984-02-01

    Exposure of rat ovaries to talc was accomplished by intrabursal injection. As early as 1 and up to 18 months after treatment, the ovaries and associated tissue were cystic in appearance; these changes were the result of bursal distention. Histologically the ovarian tissue was decreased in amount and spread as a remnant on the inner wall of the bursa. In four to 10 treated animals but in no controls, focal areas of papillary change were noted in the surface epithelium of the ovary. Polarized light and electron microscope microanalysis confirmed the presence of talc in the surface epithelium, ovarian cortex, and connective tissue matrix of the bursa. Although the changes in the ovarian surface may be related to direct effects of talc exposure, it is postulated that these changes might also be related to constant exposure to the high concentrations of steroid hormones which have undoubtedly accumulated in the intrabursal space.

  7. Interaction between ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and pathogenic nematodes (Nematoda): susceptibility of tick species at various developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Samish, M; Alekseev, E; Glazer, I

    1999-11-01

    The virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) to tick species under laboratory conditions is reported. The susceptibility of larval, nymphal, and adult stages of the ticks Hyalomma excavatum (Koch), Rhipicephalus bursa (Canestrini & Fanz), and R. sanguineus (Latereille) to 2 strains of Steinernema carpocapsae and 3 strains of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were compared in laboratory assays. Preimaginal stages of ticks were found to be more resistant to the nematodes than were adult ticks which exhibited 80-100% mortality in a dish containing 5,000 infective juveniles of H. bacteriophora IS-3 or IS-5 strains isolated in Israel. These 2 strains were found to be much more virulent to unfed adult ticks than were the other isolates. No marked difference was found between engorged ticks and unfed adults of R. sanguineus or H. excavatum in terms of mortality, whereas engorged males and unfed females of R. bursa were significantly more susceptible than unfed males or engorged females. PMID:10593074

  8. Dynamic digestive physiology of a female reproductive organ in a polyandrous butterfly.

    PubMed

    Plakke, Melissa S; Deutsch, Aaron B; Meslin, Camille; Clark, Nathan L; Morehouse, Nathan I

    2015-05-15

    Reproductive traits experience high levels of selection because of their direct ties to fitness, often resulting in rapid adaptive evolution. Much of the work in this area has focused on male reproductive traits. However, a more comprehensive understanding of female reproductive adaptations and their relationship to male characters is crucial to uncover the relative roles of sexual cooperation and conflict in driving co-evolutionary dynamics between the sexes. We focus on the physiology of a complex female reproductive adaptation in butterflies and moths: a stomach-like organ in the female reproductive tract called the bursa copulatrix that digests the male ejaculate (spermatophore). Little is known about how the bursa digests the spermatophore. We characterized bursa proteolytic capacity in relation to female state in the polyandrous butterfly Pieris rapae. We found that the virgin bursa exhibits extremely high levels of proteolytic activity. Furthermore, in virgin females, bursal proteolytic capacity increases with time since eclosion and ambient temperature, but is not sensitive to the pre-mating social environment. Post copulation, bursal proteolytic activity decreases rapidly before rebounding toward the end of a mating cycle, suggesting active female regulation of proteolysis and/or potential quenching of proteolysis by male ejaculate constituents. Using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, we report identities for nine proteases actively transcribed by bursal tissue and/or expressed in the bursal lumen that may contribute to observed bursal proteolysis. We discuss how these dynamic physiological characteristics may function as female adaptations resulting from sexual conflict over female remating rate in this polyandrous butterfly.

  9. Description of Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) from Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ali Asghar; Vaid, Shavish; Hussain, Abid; Ahmad, Rakeeb

    2015-12-01

    Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. from humus in Jammu and Kashmir, India, is described and illustrated. The new genus is characterized by a small body; slightly setoff labial region; long tubular gymnostom; prominently cuticularized cheilostom; absence of glottoid apparatus; monoprodelphic reproductive system; vulva (V) = 81 to 84; spicules with trifurcated distal ends, simple gubernaculum, peloderan bursa with eight pairs of bursal papillae arranged in 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 arrangement. PMID:26941466

  10. Description of Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) from Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ali Asghar; Vaid, Shavish; Hussain, Abid; Ahmad, Rakeeb

    2015-12-01

    Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. from humus in Jammu and Kashmir, India, is described and illustrated. The new genus is characterized by a small body; slightly setoff labial region; long tubular gymnostom; prominently cuticularized cheilostom; absence of glottoid apparatus; monoprodelphic reproductive system; vulva (V) = 81 to 84; spicules with trifurcated distal ends, simple gubernaculum, peloderan bursa with eight pairs of bursal papillae arranged in 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 arrangement.

  11. Intramuscular migration of calcific tendinopathy in the rotator cuff: ultrasound appearance and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Becciolini, Marco; Bonacchi, Giovanni; Galletti, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    Calcific tendinopathy of the shoulder is a common condition caused by calcium hydroxyapatite crystals, affecting the tendons of the rotator cuff. Among uncommon complication, one is the migration of the calcium in the subacromion-subdeltoid bursa. More rare is the intraosseous migration. We present four cases of an even more rare condition, not well described in literature yet, the intramuscular migration of calcium. PMID:27635162

  12. Tenosynovial Osteochondromatosis of the Flexor Hallucis Longus in a Division I Tennis Player.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Timothy W; Hogrefe, Christopher P; Hall, Mederic M; Amendola, Annunziato

    2015-11-01

    Tenosynovial (extra-articular) chondromatosis (TC) is a condition characterized by the cartilaginous proliferation of synovial cells derived from the synovial lining of bursa and tendon sheaths. These lesions are often multinodular and most commonly present with complaints of swelling or pain. Treatment of TC primarily entails surgical excision. There are no known reports of TC in collegiate athletes. We present a case of TC in a Division I tennis player. PMID:25514138

  13. Description of Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabditidae) from Jammu and Kashmir, India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ali Asghar; Vaid, Shavish; Hussain, Abid; Ahmad, Rakeeb

    2015-01-01

    Distorhabditis poonchiana n. gen., n. sp. from humus in Jammu and Kashmir, India, is described and illustrated. The new genus is characterized by a small body; slightly setoff labial region; long tubular gymnostom; prominently cuticularized cheilostom; absence of glottoid apparatus; monoprodelphic reproductive system; vulva (V) = 81 to 84; spicules with trifurcated distal ends, simple gubernaculum, peloderan bursa with eight pairs of bursal papillae arranged in 1 + 1 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 2 arrangement. PMID:26941466

  14. Urotocus rossittensis (Trematoda: Digenea: Leucochloriidae) in the scarlet-rumped tanager, Ramphocelus passerinii, and common bush tanager, Chlorospingus ophthalmicus (Passeriformes: Thraupidae), from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica, with taxonomic revision of the genus and revised key to the leuchochloridiid-like Brachylaimoidea.

    PubMed

    Zamparo, David; Brooks, Daniel R

    2006-06-01

    Urotocus rossittensis occurs in the bursa Fabricii of the scarlet-rumped tanager, Ramphocelus passerinii, and the common bush tanager, Chlorospingus ophthalmicus, from the Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Morphological examination of type material of U. fusiformis and U. kenyensis and Costa Rican specimens suggests that U. fusiformis and U. kenyensis are indistinguishable from U. rossittensis. Confirmed accounts of Urotocus spp. refer to a single adult morphotype whose geographic distribution includes the Palearctic, Africa, Nearctic, and northern Neotropics.

  15. Dynamic digestive physiology of a female reproductive organ in a polyandrous butterfly

    PubMed Central

    Plakke, Melissa S.; Deutsch, Aaron B.; Meslin, Camille; Clark, Nathan L.; Morehouse, Nathan I.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Reproductive traits experience high levels of selection because of their direct ties to fitness, often resulting in rapid adaptive evolution. Much of the work in this area has focused on male reproductive traits. However, a more comprehensive understanding of female reproductive adaptations and their relationship to male characters is crucial to uncover the relative roles of sexual cooperation and conflict in driving co-evolutionary dynamics between the sexes. We focus on the physiology of a complex female reproductive adaptation in butterflies and moths: a stomach-like organ in the female reproductive tract called the bursa copulatrix that digests the male ejaculate (spermatophore). Little is known about how the bursa digests the spermatophore. We characterized bursa proteolytic capacity in relation to female state in the polyandrous butterfly Pieris rapae. We found that the virgin bursa exhibits extremely high levels of proteolytic activity. Furthermore, in virgin females, bursal proteolytic capacity increases with time since eclosion and ambient temperature, but is not sensitive to the pre-mating social environment. Post copulation, bursal proteolytic activity decreases rapidly before rebounding toward the end of a mating cycle, suggesting active female regulation of proteolysis and/or potential quenching of proteolysis by male ejaculate constituents. Using transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, we report identities for nine proteases actively transcribed by bursal tissue and/or expressed in the bursal lumen that may contribute to observed bursal proteolysis. We discuss how these dynamic physiological characteristics may function as female adaptations resulting from sexual conflict over female remating rate in this polyandrous butterfly. PMID:25994634

  16. The painful shoulder: when to inject and when to refer.

    PubMed

    Codsi, Michael J

    2007-07-01

    Physicians can usually diagnose the cause of shoulder pain by performing a focused history and physical examination and ordering anteroposterior and lateral radiographs. Treatment depends on the cause and can include physical therapy, injections of corticosteroids into the joint space or bursa, and surgery. This paper reviews the diagnosis and treatment of impingement syndrome, adhesive capsulitis, rotator cuff tears, and arthritis of the glenohumeral joint and acromioclavicular (AC) joint.

  17. Exophiala oligosperma Causing Olecranon Bursitis

    PubMed Central

    Bossler, A. D.; Richter, S. S.; Chavez, A. J.; Vogelgesang, S. A.; Sutton, D. A.; Grooters, A. M.; Rinaldi, M. G.; de Hoog, G. S.; Pfaller, M. A

    2003-01-01

    A 62-year-old male with a history of Wegener's granulomatosis and immunosuppressive therapy presented with chronic olecranon bursitis. A black velvety mould with brown septate hyphae and tapered annellides was isolated from a left elbow bursa aspirate and was identified as an Exophiala species. Internal transcribed sequence rRNA sequencing showed the isolate to be identical to Exophiala oligosperma. The patient was successfully treated with aspiration and intrabursal amphotericin B. PMID:14532219

  18. Exophiala oligosperma causing olecranon bursitis.

    PubMed

    Bossler, A D; Richter, S S; Chavez, A J; Vogelgesang, S A; Sutton, D A; Grooters, A M; Rinaldi, M G; de Hoog, G S; Pfaller, M A

    2003-10-01

    A 62-year-old male with a history of Wegener's granulomatosis and immunosuppressive therapy presented with chronic olecranon bursitis. A black velvety mould with brown septate hyphae and tapered annellides was isolated from a left elbow bursa aspirate and was identified as an Exophiala species. Internal transcribed sequence rRNA sequencing showed the isolate to be identical to Exophiala oligosperma. The patient was successfully treated with aspiration and intrabursal amphotericin B. PMID:14532219

  19. Tenosynovial Osteochondromatosis of the Flexor Hallucis Longus in a Division I Tennis Player.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Timothy W; Hogrefe, Christopher P; Hall, Mederic M; Amendola, Annunziato

    2015-11-01

    Tenosynovial (extra-articular) chondromatosis (TC) is a condition characterized by the cartilaginous proliferation of synovial cells derived from the synovial lining of bursa and tendon sheaths. These lesions are often multinodular and most commonly present with complaints of swelling or pain. Treatment of TC primarily entails surgical excision. There are no known reports of TC in collegiate athletes. We present a case of TC in a Division I tennis player.

  20. Histopathologic Characterization and Shedding Dynamics of Guineafowl (Numida meleagris) Intravenously Infected with a H6N2 Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza Virus.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Kiril M; Zarkov, Ivan S; Dinev, Ivan; Goujgoulova, Gabriela V; Miller, Patti J; Suarez, David L

    2016-05-01

    Guineafowl of different ages were inoculated intravenously with a H6N2 wild waterfowl-origin low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV). No clinical disease was observed. The infected birds had atrophy of the spleen, thymus, and cloacal bursa when compared with the noninfected control groups. The central and peripheral lymphoid tissues presented either lymphoproliferative or degenerative lesions that increased in intensity from 14 to 21 days postinoculation (DPI). Lymphoid depletion was present in the bursa, thymic lobes, and spleen T-dependent zone. In contrast, lymphoid proliferation was observed in liver, pancreas, and spleen B-dependent zone. Bronchus associated lymphoid tissue hyperplasia was observed in the lungs of the birds at 14 and 21 DPI. The virus was detected by virus isolation and reverse transcription PCR from both oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs with higher isolation rates from the latter. Most birds from the LPAIV inoculated groups shed virus up to 7 DPI. The virus was infrequently isolated from lung, kidney, liver, bursa, or spleen of infected birds until 14 DPI and from two samples (kidney and spleen, 1-yr-old birds) at 21 DPI. These data indicate that the wild bird-origin LPAIV used in this study caused pantropic infection in guineafowl when inoculated intravenously. PMID:27309068

  1. The anatomical footprint of the Achilles tendon: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Ballal, M S; Walker, C R; Molloy, A P

    2014-10-01

    We dissected 12 fresh-frozen leg specimens to identify the insertional footprint of each fascicle of the Achilles tendon on the calcaneum in relation to their corresponding muscles. A further ten embalmed specimens were examined to confirm an observation on the retrocalcaneal bursa. The superficial part of the insertion of the Achilles tendon is represented by fascicles from the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle, which is inserted over the entire width of the inferior facet of the calcaneal tuberosity. In three specimens this insertion was in continuity with the plantar fascia in the form of periosteum. The deep part of the insertion of the Achilles tendon is made of fascicles from the soleus tendon, which insert on the medial aspect of the middle facet of the calcaneal tuberosity, while the fascicles of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius tendon insert on the lateral aspect of the middle facet of the calcaneal tuberosity. A bicameral retrocalcaneal bursa was present in 15 of the 22 examined specimens. This new observation and description of the insertional footprint of the Achilles tendon and the retrocalcaneal bursa may allow a better understanding of the function of each muscular part of the gastrosoleus complex. This may have clinical relevance in the treatment of Achilles tendinopathies.

  2. Susceptibility of chicken lymphoid cells to infectious bursal disease virus does not correlate with the presence of specific binding sites.

    PubMed

    Nieper, H; Müller, H

    1996-06-01

    Pathogenic serotype 1 strains of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) replicate efficiently in lymphoid cells of the bursa of Fabricius of chicken. Lymphoid cells in other organs are not susceptible. Apathogenic serotype 2 strains do not replicate in lymphoid bursa cells or in other lymphoid cells. Chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF), however, efficiently replicate strains of either serotype. Binding studies showed that strains of both IBDV serotypes bind to lymphoid cells isolated from the bursa, thymus or spleen, indicating that restriction of IBDV replication to lymphoid B cells is not determined by the presence of specific receptor sites. The specificity of binding was demonstrated by saturation and competition experiments. These revealed the presence of different receptors: CEF had receptors common to both serotypes and specific ones for each serotype. Receptor sites common to both serotypes were also present on lymphoid cells; however, additional serotype-specific sites were only demonstrated for the apathogenic serotype 2 strain. Strains of both serotypes specifically bound to proteins with molecular masses of 40 kDa and 46 kDa, exposed on the surface of CEF and lymphoid cells. Competition experiments indicated that these proteins might represent the common receptor sites of IBDV. PMID:8683211

  3. [Prevalence of herd specific factors and limb disorders, and their associations in intensive swine production].

    PubMed

    Lahrmann, Karl Heinz; Steinberg, Christina; Dahms, Susanne; Heller, Peter

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal observational study in 180 pig breeding herds was performed to calculate prevalences of herd specific factors as well as typical limb disorders and to estimate their associations in a 2-step regression analysis. Regarding herd size, genetics, feeding and weight gain herds were distributed almost equal. The population density and the hygiene status were considered proper in most herds. In the farrowing units partially slatted floors of metal or plastic with slats > 9 mm, in the weaning units fully slatted floors of plastic, and in the rearing units fully slatted floors of concrete were most common. Less than 6% of the farms housed their pigs on solid concrete with straw bedding. Herd prevalences of fault floors varied between 18 and 43%. As a herd health problem (morbidity > 25%) claw hematomas and limb abrasions in just 1-week old piglets, overgrown claws and bursa swellings in weaned pigs, and bursa swellings in rearing pigs were wide spread. Leg deformations by osteopathy or arthritis occurred only sporadically. In the risk analysis claw hematomas of piglets were associated with slatted floors, particulary with slats < 10 mm. Abrasions were associated with concrete and rough floor surfaces at all. Overgrown claws and bursa swellings in weaned and in rearing pigs were associated with damaged, slippery or rough floor surfaces. Other associations were not detected. The quality of floor might be more important than the type of housing.

  4. Immunomodulatory effect of baculovirus in chickens: How it modifies the immune response against infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Chimeno Zoth, Silvina; Carballeda, Juan Manuel; Gravisaco, María José; Lucero, María Soledad; Richetta, Matías; Gómez, Evangelina; Berinstein, Analía

    2016-07-01

    Several reports have shown that baculoviruses (BVs) have strong adjuvant properties on the mammalian immune system. Recent studies of our group demonstrated the ability of BV to stimulate the innate immunity in chickens. In this investigation, we aimed to assess the potential antiviral effect of BV given both, before and after infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). In the first case, specific pathogen free chickens were intravenously inoculated with 5 × 10(7) pfu of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus and 3 h later were orally administered 2.5 × 10(5) egg infectious doses 50 of IBDV. In the second case, chickens received IBDV 3 h before BV inoculation. Five days later, chickens were bled and euthanized. RNA from the bursa was analyzed for cytokine production. Also, bursae were used for virus recovery, and processed for lymphocyte isolation. The results showed that the administration of BV 3 h after the inoculation with IBDV produced important changes in the effect that IBDV causes in the bursa. BV reduced the infiltration of T lymphocytes, decreased the expression pattern of IL-6 and IFN-γ and inhibited IBDV replication. The results herein presented demonstrate that this Lepidopteran virus shows antiviral activity in chickens under experimental conditions. Investigations under field conditions have to be done to probe this strategy as a valuable sanitary tool for the treatment and prevention of chicken diseases. PMID:27063861

  5. Evaluation of the potential for interspecific hybridization between Camelina sativa and related wild Brassicaceae in anticipation of field trials of GM camelina.

    PubMed

    Julié-Galau, Stéphane; Bellec, Yannick; Faure, Jean-Denis; Tepfer, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) is a re-emergent oilseed crop that is also becoming important as a model for applied projects based on studies in Arabidopsis thaliana, since the two species are closely related members of the tribe Camelineae of the Brassicaeae. Since camelina can be transformed genetically by floral dip, genetically modified (GM) camelina is being created in many laboratories, and small-scale field trials are already being conducted in the US and Canada. Although camelina does not cross-fertilize Brassica crop species, such as oilseed rape, nothing was known about its ability to cross with other members of the tribe Camelineae, which in addition to arabidopsis includes the widespread weed, shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris). We have tested the ability of camelina to cross with arabidopsis and C. bursa-pastoris, as well as with the more distantly related Cardamine hirsuta, tribe cardamineae. No seeds were produced in crosses with arabidopsis, and a few seeds were obtained in crosses with C. hirsuta, but the embryos aborted at an early stage of development. A few seeds were also obtained in crosses with C. bursa-pastoris, which germinated to produce plants of a phenotype intermediate to that of the parents, but the hybrids were both male and female sterile. Therefore, the likelihood of pollen-mediated gene flow from camelina to these related species is low. PMID:23793580

  6. Effect of biomass-sulfur interaction on ash composition and agglomeration for the co-combustion of high-sulfur lignite coals and olive cake in a circulating fluidized bed combustor.

    PubMed

    Varol, Murat; Atimtay, Aysel T

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of biomass-sulfur interaction on ash composition and agglomeration for the co-combustion of high-sulfur lignite coals and olive cake in a circulating fluidized bed combustor. The tests included co-combustion of 50-50% by wt. mixtures of Bursa-Orhaneli lignite+olive cake and Denizli-Kale lignite+olive cake, with and without limestone addition. Ash samples were subjected to XRF, XRD and SEM/EDS analyses. While MgO was high in the bottom ash for Bursa-Orhaneli lignite and olive cake mixture, Al2O3 was high for Denizli-Kale lignite and olive cake mixture. Due to high Al2O3 content, Muscovite was the dominant phase in the bottom ash of Denizli Kale. CaO in the bottom ash has increased for both fuel mixtures due to limestone addition. K was in Arcanite phase in the co-combustion test of Bursa/Orhaneli lignite and olive cake, however, it mostly appeared in Potassium Calcium Sulfate phase with limestone addition.

  7. A ranking efficiency unit by restrictions using DEA models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsad, Roslah; Abdullah, Mohammad Nasir; Alias, Suriana

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a comparison regarding the efficiency shares of listed companies in Bursa Malaysia was made, through the application of estimation method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). In this study, DEA is used to measure efficiency shares of listed companies in Bursa Malaysia in terms of the financial performance. It is believed that only good financial performer will give a good return to the investors in the long run. The main objectives were to compute the relative efficiency scores of the shares in Bursa Malaysia and rank the shares based on Balance Index with regard to relative efficiency. The methods of analysis using Alirezaee and Afsharian's model were employed to this study; where the originality of Charnes, Cooper and Rhode model (CCR) with assumption of constant return to scale (CRS) still holds. This method of ranking relative efficiency of decision making units (DMUs) was value-added by using Balance Index. From the result, the companies that were recommended for investors based on ranking were NATWIDE, YTL and MUDA. These companies were the top three efficient companies with good performance in 2011 whereas in 2012 the top three companies were NATWIDE, MUDA and BERNAS.

  8. Activations of Deep Lumbar Stabilizing Muscles by Transcutaneous Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation of Lumbar Paraspinal Regions

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung Ok; Ahn, Sang Ho; Jones, Rodney; Cho, Hee Kyung; Jung, Gil Su; Cho, Yun Woo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate changes in lumbar multifidus (LM) and deep lumbar stabilizing abdominal muscles (transverse abdominis [TrA] and obliquus internus [OI]) during transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) of lumbar paraspinal L4-L5 regions using real-time ultrasound imaging (RUSI). Methods Lumbar paraspinal regions of 20 healthy physically active male volunteers were stimulated at 20, 50, and 80 Hz. Ultrasound images of the LM, TrA, OI, and obliquus externus (OE) were captured during stimulation at each frequency. Results The thicknesses of superficial LM and deep LM as measured by RUSI were greater during NMES than at rest for all three frequencies (p<0.05). The thicknesses in TrA, OI, and OE were also significantly greater during NMES of lumbar paraspinal regions than at rest (p<0.05). Conclusion The studied transcutaneous NMES of the lumbar paraspinal region significantly activated deep spinal stabilizing muscle (LM) and the abdominal lumbar stabilizing muscles TrA and OI as evidenced by RUSI. The findings of this study suggested that transcutaneous NMES might be useful for improving spinal stability and strength in patients having difficulty initiating contraction of these muscles. PMID:25229029

  9. Glutamate and GABA concentration changes in the globus pallidus internus of Parkinson's patients during performance of implicit and declarative memory tasks: a report of two subjects.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Robert J; Gjini, Klevest; Darrow, David; Varga, Georgeta; Robinson, Jennifer L; Nadasdy, Zoltan

    2015-03-01

    The basal ganglia, typically associated with motor function, are involved in human cognitive processes, as demonstrated in behavioral, lesion, and noninvasive functional neuroimaging studies. Here we report task-contingent changes in concentrations of the neurotransmitters glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the globus pallidus internus (GPi) of two patients with Parkinson's disease undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery by utilizing in-vivo microdialysis measurements during performance of implicit and declarative memory tasks. Performance of an implicit memory task (weather prediction task-WPT) was associated with increased levels of glutamate and GABA in the GPi compared to their concentrations at baseline. On the other hand, performance of a declarative memory task (verbal learning task-VLT) was associated with decreased levels of glutamate and GABA in GPi compared to baseline during the encoding and immediate recall phase with less conclusive results during the delayed recall phase. These results are in line with hypothesized changes in these neurotransmitter levels: an increase of excitatory (Glu) input from subthalamic nucleus (STN) to GPi during implicit memory task performance and a decrease of inhibitory inputs (GABA) from globus pallidus externus (GPe) and striatum to GPi during declarative memory performance. Consistent with our previous report on in-vivo neurotransmitter changes during tasks in STN, these data provide corroborative evidence for the direct involvement of basal ganglia in cognitive functions and complements our model of the functional circuitry of basal ganglia in the healthy and Parkinson's disease affected brain.

  10. Pelvic and hind limb musculature of Staurikosaurus pricei (Dinosauria: Saurischia).

    PubMed

    Grillo, Orlando N; Azevedo, Sergio A K

    2011-03-01

    The study of pelvic and hind limb bones and muscles in basal dinosaurs is important for understanding the early evolution of bipedal locomotion in the group. The use of data from both extant and extinct taxa placed into a phylogenetic context allowed to make well-supported inferences concerning most of the hind limb musculature of the basal saurischian Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970 (Santa Maria Formation, Late Triassic of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil). Two large concavities in the lateral surface of the ilium represent the origin of the muscles iliotrochantericus caudalis plus iliofemoralis externus (in the anterior concavity) and iliofibularis (in the posterior concavity). Muscle ambiens has only one head and originates from the pubic tubercle. The origin of puboischiofemoralis internus 1 possibly corresponds to a fossa in the ventral margin of the pré-acetabular iliac process. This could represent an intermediate stage prior to the origin of a true pré-acetabular fossa. Muscles caudofemorales longus et brevis were likely well developed, and Staurikosaurus is unique in bearing a posteriorly projected surface for the origin of caudofemoralis brevis.

  11. Jaw myology and bite force of the monk parakeet (Aves, Psittaciformes).

    PubMed

    Carril, Julieta; Degrange, Federico J; Tambussi, Claudia P

    2015-07-01

    Psittaciform birds exhibit novelties in jaw bone structure and musculature that are associated with strong bite forces. These features include an ossified arcus suborbitalis and the muscles ethmomandibularis and pseudomasseter. We analyse the jaw musculature of the monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) to enable future studies aimed at understanding craniofacial development, morphology, function and evolution. We estimate bite force based on muscle dissections, physiological cross-sectional area and skull biomechanical modelling. We also compare our results with available data for other birds and traced the evolutionary origin of the three novel diagnostic traits. Our results indicate that, in Myiopsitta, (i) the arcus suborbitalis is absent and the orbit is ventrally closed by an elongate processus orbitalis and a short ligamentum suborbitale; (ii) the ethmomandibularis muscle is a conspicuous muscle with two bellies, with its origin on the anterior portion of the septum interorbitale and insertion on the medial aspect of the mandible; (iii) the pseudomasseter muscle consists of some fibers arising from the m. adductor mandibulae externus superficialis, covering the lateral surface of the arcus jugalis and attaches by an aponeurotic sheet on the processus orbitalis; (iv) a well-developed adductor mandibulae complex is present; (v) the bite force estimation relative to body mass is higher than that calculated for other non-psittaciform species; and (vi) character evolution analysis revealed that the absence of the arcus suborbitalis and the presence of the m. pseudomassseter are the ancestral conditions, and mapping is inconclusive about presence of one or two bellies of the m. ethmomandibularis.

  12. Cranial musculature in the larva of the caecilian, Ichthyophis kohtaoensis (Lissamphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Haas, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Within the Gymnophiona (caecilians) oviparous species with biphasic life-cycles possess a free living semi-aquatic larval stage that feeds in aquatic habitats. The larvae pass through a metamorphosis to a purely terrestrial adult stage. It is likely that the cranial morphology of caecilian larvae has specializations for aquatic feeding. However, little is known about the cranial morphology, and the cranial musculature is especially neglected in the literature. This study provides a detailed description of the jaw and hyobranchial musculature in larval stages of a caecilian. We studied late embryonic and early larval specimens of Ichthyophis kohtaoensis. Furthermore, we compared and homologized the cranial muscles found in larval I. kohtaoensis with the muscles described for adult caecilians. Most cranial muscles of larval I. kohtaoensis are also present in the adult, except for the m. levator mandibulae externus and the m. subarcualis obliquus II. Our results were compared with the data available for larval frogs and salamanders in order to hypothesize the cranial musculature in the larva of the most recent common ancestor of the Lissamphibia. Larval caecilians, frog tadpoles, and salamander larvae share many characters in their cranial musculature, which, consequently, can be assigned to the lissamphibian ground pattern. However, the m. pterygoideus and the m. levator quadrati are unique to the Gymnophiona.

  13. Postural- and respiratory-related activities of abdominal muscles during post-exercise hyperventilation.

    PubMed

    David, Pascal; Terrien, Jérémy; Petitjean, Michel

    2015-05-01

    The present study focuses on the role of superficial abdominal muscles revealed by electromyographic recordings during the maintenance of a bipedal stance perturbed by post-exercise hyperventilation. Twelve healthy subjects performed six 30-s postural tests: one pre-exercise test while breathing quietly, then one test every minute for the 5 min immediately following a maximum-intensity, incremental cycling exercise test. Displacement of the centre of pressure in the sagittal plane was monitored over time. Myoelectric activities of the obliquus externus (OE), obliquus internus (OI) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles were recorded by surface electromyography (EMG). Metabolic parameters were measured with a portable telemetric device. The change in ventilatory drive induced by exercise was accompanied by a significant increase in both postural sway parameters and EMG activities. For OE and OI, the increased EMG activities were prominent during expiration, whereas OI was silent during inspiration. OE and RA were activated during both expiration and inspiration. It is concluded that the compensation of respiratory disturbances of the erect posture appears to be less effective when minute ventilation increases. The patterns of muscle activity suggest that abdominal muscles are controlled differentially and that their functional coordination is dependent on the respiratory demand.

  14. Occultifur kilbournensis f.a. sp. nov., a new member of the Cystobasidiales associated with maize (Zea mays) cultivation.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Cletus P; Robnett, Christie J

    2015-05-01

    During a study of microorganisms associated with maize (Zea mays) cultivation, yeasts were isolated from overwintered stalks, cobs and surrounding soil, which were collected from an agricultural field in south-central Illinois, USA. Predominant among isolates were two species of Cryptococcus (Cr. flavescens, Cr. magnus) and a red yeast that D1/D2 LSU rRNA gene sequences revealed to be a new species of the basidiomycete yeast genus Occultifur. The species, which was not detected in the same field during the growing season, is described here as Occultifur kilbournensis (MycoBank number MB 811259; type strain NRRL Y-63695, CBS 13982, GenBank numbers, D1/D2 LSU rRNA gene, KP413160, ITS, KP413162; allotype strain NRRL Y-63699, CBS 13983). Mixture of the type and allotype strains resulted in formation of hyphae with clamp connections and a small number of apparent basidia following incubation on 5% malt extract agar at 15 °C for 2 months. In view of the uncertainty of the life cycle, the new species is being designated as forma asexualis. From analysis of D1/D2 and ITS nucleotide sequences, the new species is most closely related to Occultifur externus. PMID:25761862

  15. Reliability of Abdominal Muscle Stiffness Measured Using Elastography during Trunk Rehabilitation Exercises.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, David; Wan, Alan; McPhee, Megan; Tucker, Kylie; Hug, François

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intra-session and inter-rater reliability of shear modulus measured in abdominal muscles during two commonly used trunk stability exercises. Thirty healthy volunteers performed a series of abdominal hollow and abdominal brace tasks. Supersonic shear imaging was used to measure the shear modulus (considered an index of muscle tension) of the four anterior trunk muscles: obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, transversus abdominis and rectus abdominis. Because of measurement artifacts, internus abdominis and transversus abdominis data were not analyzed for 36.7% and 26.7% of the participants, respectively. These participants exhibited thicker superficial fat layers than the others. For the remaining participants, fair to excellent intra-session and inter-rater reliability was observed with moderate to high intra-class coefficients (0.45-0.97) and low to moderate standard error of measurement values (0.38-3.53 kPa). Reliability values were consistently greater for superficial than for deeper muscles.

  16. The effects of transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the activation of deep lumbar stabilizing muscles of patients with lumbar degenerative kyphosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Jin Hyun; Jung, Gil Su; Baek, Seung Ok; Jones, Rodney; Ahn, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effectiveness of three different neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) protocols for the deep lumbar stabilizing muscles of patients with lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with LDK were recruited. Three stimulation protocols were investigated: stimulation of the abdominal muscles (protocol A); stimulation of the lumbar muscles (protocol B); and simultaneous stimulation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles (protocol A+B). Images of the obliquus externus (OE), obliquus internus (OI), transversus abdominis (TrA), and lumbar multifidus (LM) muscles were captured by real-time ultrasound imaging (RUSI). [Results] The thickness of LM was significantly greater during stimulation than at rest for all three protocols. Thicknesses of the abdominal muscles (TrA, OI, and OE) were significantly greater during stimulation than at rest for protocols A and A+B. Thickness increases in LM were significantly greater during protocols B and A+B, but not during protocol A. Thickness increases in the abdominal muscles (TrA, OI, and OE) were significantly greater during protocols A and A+B, but not during protocol B. [Conclusion] NMES can significantly activate the deep lumbar stabilizing muscles of patients with LDK. Protocol A+B of NMES is recommended to aid postural correction and low back pain (LBP) in patients with LDK. PMID:27064323

  17. The effects of transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the activation of deep lumbar stabilizing muscles of patients with lumbar degenerative kyphosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Jin Hyun; Jung, Gil Su; Baek, Seung Ok; Jones, Rodney; Ahn, Sang Ho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effectiveness of three different neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) protocols for the deep lumbar stabilizing muscles of patients with lumbar degenerative kyphosis (LDK). [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with LDK were recruited. Three stimulation protocols were investigated: stimulation of the abdominal muscles (protocol A); stimulation of the lumbar muscles (protocol B); and simultaneous stimulation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles (protocol A+B). Images of the obliquus externus (OE), obliquus internus (OI), transversus abdominis (TrA), and lumbar multifidus (LM) muscles were captured by real-time ultrasound imaging (RUSI). [Results] The thickness of LM was significantly greater during stimulation than at rest for all three protocols. Thicknesses of the abdominal muscles (TrA, OI, and OE) were significantly greater during stimulation than at rest for protocols A and A+B. Thickness increases in LM were significantly greater during protocols B and A+B, but not during protocol A. Thickness increases in the abdominal muscles (TrA, OI, and OE) were significantly greater during protocols A and A+B, but not during protocol B. [Conclusion] NMES can significantly activate the deep lumbar stabilizing muscles of patients with LDK. Protocol A+B of NMES is recommended to aid postural correction and low back pain (LBP) in patients with LDK. PMID:27064323

  18. Reliability of Abdominal Muscle Stiffness Measured Using Elastography during Trunk Rehabilitation Exercises.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, David; Wan, Alan; McPhee, Megan; Tucker, Kylie; Hug, François

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intra-session and inter-rater reliability of shear modulus measured in abdominal muscles during two commonly used trunk stability exercises. Thirty healthy volunteers performed a series of abdominal hollow and abdominal brace tasks. Supersonic shear imaging was used to measure the shear modulus (considered an index of muscle tension) of the four anterior trunk muscles: obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, transversus abdominis and rectus abdominis. Because of measurement artifacts, internus abdominis and transversus abdominis data were not analyzed for 36.7% and 26.7% of the participants, respectively. These participants exhibited thicker superficial fat layers than the others. For the remaining participants, fair to excellent intra-session and inter-rater reliability was observed with moderate to high intra-class coefficients (0.45-0.97) and low to moderate standard error of measurement values (0.38-3.53 kPa). Reliability values were consistently greater for superficial than for deeper muscles. PMID:26746381

  19. Movement disorders induced by deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Baizabal-Carvallo, José Fidel; Jankovic, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation represents a major advance in the treatment of several types of movement disorders. However, during stimulation new movement disorders may emerge, thus limiting the positive effects of this therapy. These movement disorders may be induced by: 1) stimulation of the targeted nucleus, 2) stimulation of surrounding tracts and nuclei, and 3) as a result of dose adjustment of accompanying medications, such as reduction of dopaminergic drugs in patients with Parkinson's disease. Various dyskinesias, blepharospasm, and apraxia of eyelid opening have been described mainly with subthalamic nucleus stimulation, whereas hypokinesia and freezing of gait have been observed with stimulation of the globus pallidus internus. Other deep brain stimulation-related movement disorders include dyskinesias associated with stimulation of the globus pallidus externus and ataxic gait as a side effect of chronic bilateral stimulation of the ventral intermediate nucleus of thalamus. These movement disorders are generally reversible and usually resolved once the stimulation is reduced or turned off. This, however, typically leads to loss of benefit of the underlying movement disorder which can be re-gained by using different contacts, changing targets or stimulation parameters, and adjusting pharmacological therapy. New and innovative emerging technologies and stimulation techniques may help to prevent or overcome the various deep brain stimulation-induced movement disorders. In this review we aim to describe the clinical features, frequency, pathophysiology, and strategies for treatment of these iatrogenic movement disorders. PMID:26806438

  20. Beacon-like immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus of domestic chick.

    PubMed

    Esposito, V; de Girolamo, P; Gargiulo, G; Dun, N J

    2006-12-01

    Beacon-immunoreactive (B-ir) fibres and neurons in the hypothalamus of the domestic chick (Gallus domesticus) were studied using an immunohistochemical technique in order to verify the presence and elucidate the pattern of distribution of this novel peptide in an avian brain. B-ir neurons were seen in the n. supraopticus, pars ventralis and pars externus; n. magnocellularis preopticus, pars dorsalis, medialis and ventralis; n. preopticus periventricularis; n. suprachiasmaticus, pars medialis; n. ventrolateralis thalami. Only few B-ir cells were scattered in the most anterior part of the lateral hypothalamic area. B-ir fibres, appearing as thin punctuate structures, were seen mainly along the walls of the third ventricle and in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Labelled fibres and terminals were located in the external and internal zones of the anterior and posterior median eminence. In particular, fibre terminals were seen close to the capillary loops of the hypothalamo-hypophysial portal system. The anatomical data of the present study regarding the distribution of B-ir in the chick hypothalamus suggest that beacon may play a key role in the regulation of the neuroendocrine system by acting as a neuromodulator and/or neurotransmitter.

  1. DBS in Tourette syndrome: where are we standing now?

    PubMed

    Andrade, Pablo; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle

    2016-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has emerged as an established effective and safe treatment option for a small subset of patients with severe Tourette syndrome (TS) refractory to psychological and pharmacological treatments. Several targets have been implicated in the study of the effects of DBS on TS symptomatology. The targets applied for DBS in TS include the thalamus, the globus pallidus internus, the internal capsule/nucleus accumbens, the globus pallidus externus and the subthalamic nucleus. In the majority of studies there has been a significant clinical benefit on tics. Nevertheless, the best target has not been defined yet. Up until now, only five double blind randomized controlled trials have been carried out worldwide for a total of 32 patients. Thus, the new recommendations for DBS in TS emphasize the importance of standardized recordings of all pre-, intra-, and postoperative data to optimize the registration of patients so that results can be compared. Recent reports have shown that standard continuous DBS for TS patients may not be the most optimal paradigms to pursue. Adaptive stimulation and the use of human-computer interfaces might in the future optimize the results of DBS in TS because of the paroxysmal nature of the disease. PMID:27209036

  2. Retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy and other procedures in the upper retroperitoneum using a balloon dissection technique.

    PubMed

    Rassweiler, J J; Henkel, T O; Stoch, C; Greschner, M; Becker, P; Preminger, G M; Schulman, C C; Frede, T; Alken, P

    1994-01-01

    This article describes a hydraulic balloon dissection technique. The retroperitoneum is developed via a small lumbodorsal incision between the edges of the musculus latissimus dorsi and musculus obliquus externus and then after visualization of its correct position the balloon catheter is filled with 500-1,200 ml of warm normal saline (according to patient size). The device consists of the finger of a surgeon's glove ligated around the end of a rigid bladder catheter. The balloon insufflation is maintained for 5 min to guarantee adequate hemostasis. Recently, we have replaced the balloon catheter by a balloon trocar sheath allowing direct endoscopic control of the hydraulic dissection. After retrieval of the balloon the CO2 insufflator is connected to the first trocar. All secondary trocars are placed under endoscopic control. The hydraulic dissection techniques also enable optimal creation of an effective pneumoperitoneum in children. Until now, we have used this technique for twelve procedures in the upper retroperitoneum including five nephrectomies, two nephroureterectomies, one tumor nephrectomy, one nephropexy, one renal cyst marsupialization and two renal biopsies. Up to now we have encountered no major complications. Three of the nephrectomized patients had undergone multiple previous abdominal surgical interventions. The retroperitoneal approach allows the surgeon to apply similar dissecting techniques as used in respective open procedures. It has become the routine approach for laparoscopic procedures in benign renal disease. This procedure can be performed even in cases with previous abdominal surgery.

  3. The muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of a 6-month-old Crocodylus niloticus (Reptilia: Crocodylia).

    PubMed

    Fechner, R; Schwarz-Wings, D

    2013-06-01

    The muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of crocodilians play an important role in their ventilatory mechanism. Yet the anatomy and homology of these muscles is poorly understood. To gain new insights into the anatomy of the crocodilian infrapubic abdominal wall, we dissected a specimen of Crocodylus niloticus. Origin and insertion of the muscles, as well as their arrangement relative to each other was examined in great detail. The findings were compared with those of other crocodilian taxa to detect potential variability of the muscles of interest. The homology of the muscles was studied by comparing the muscles of the crocodilian infrapubic abdominal wall with those of other diapsids. In Crocodylus niloticus, the infrapubic abdominal wall consists of four muscles: Musculus truncocaudalis, M. ischiotruncus, and Mm. rectus abdominis externus and internus. The arrangement of the muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of Crocodylus niloticus is consistent with that found in most other crocodilian taxa. In some crocodilian taxa, an additional muscle, M. ischiopubis, is found. In the remaining diapsids, only M. rectus abdominis is present. The crocodilian M. truncocaudalis, M. ischiotruncus and, if present, M. ischiopubis appear to be derivates of M. rectus abdominis; the development of those might be related to the evolution of the unique crocodilian ventilatory mechanism.

  4. Muscle activity during functional coordination training: implications for strength gain and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Marie B; Andersen, Lars L; Kirk, Niels; Pedersen, Mogens T; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if different types, body positions, and levels of progression of functional coordination exercises can provide sufficiently high levels of muscle activity to improve strength of the neck, shoulder, and trunk muscles. Nine untrained women were familiarized with 7 functional coordination exercises 12 times during 4 weeks before testing. Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity was obtained from rectus abdominus, erector spinae, obliquus externus, and trapezius during the exercises with 2-4 levels of progression. Electromyography was normalized to the maximal EMG activity during maximal voluntary contractions, and a p value < 0.05 was considered significant. All recorded muscles reached sufficiently high levels of activity during the coordination exercises for strength gain (>60% of maximal EMG activity). Type of exercise played a significant role for the attained muscle activity. Body position during the exercises was important for the activity of the erector spinae, and level of progression was important for the activity of the trapezius. The findings indicate that depending on type, body position, and level of progression, functional coordination training can be performed with a muscle activity sufficient for strength gain. Functional coordination training may therefore be a good choice for prevention or rehabilitation of musculoskeletal pain or injury in the neck, shoulder, or trunk muscles.

  5. Cranial musculature in the larva of the caecilian, Ichthyophis kohtaoensis (Lissamphibia: Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Haas, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Within the Gymnophiona (caecilians) oviparous species with biphasic life-cycles possess a free living semi-aquatic larval stage that feeds in aquatic habitats. The larvae pass through a metamorphosis to a purely terrestrial adult stage. It is likely that the cranial morphology of caecilian larvae has specializations for aquatic feeding. However, little is known about the cranial morphology, and the cranial musculature is especially neglected in the literature. This study provides a detailed description of the jaw and hyobranchial musculature in larval stages of a caecilian. We studied late embryonic and early larval specimens of Ichthyophis kohtaoensis. Furthermore, we compared and homologized the cranial muscles found in larval I. kohtaoensis with the muscles described for adult caecilians. Most cranial muscles of larval I. kohtaoensis are also present in the adult, except for the m. levator mandibulae externus and the m. subarcualis obliquus II. Our results were compared with the data available for larval frogs and salamanders in order to hypothesize the cranial musculature in the larva of the most recent common ancestor of the Lissamphibia. Larval caecilians, frog tadpoles, and salamander larvae share many characters in their cranial musculature, which, consequently, can be assigned to the lissamphibian ground pattern. However, the m. pterygoideus and the m. levator quadrati are unique to the Gymnophiona. PMID:17154285

  6. Effects of Fourteen-Day Bed Rest on Trunk Stabilizing Functions in Aging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sarabon, Nejc; Rosker, Jernej

    2015-01-01

    Bed rest has been shown to have detrimental effects on structural and functional characteristics of the trunk muscles, possibly affecting trunk and spinal stability. This is especially important in populations such as aging adults with often altered trunk stabilizing functions. This study examined the effects of a fourteen-day bed rest on anticipatory postural adjustments and postural reflex responses of the abdominal wall and back muscles in sixteen adult men. Postural activation of trunk muscles was measured using voluntary quick arm movement and sudden arm loading paradigm. Measurements were conducted prior to the bed rest, immediately after, and fourteen days after the bed rest. Immediately after the bed rest, latencies of anticipatory postural adjustments showed significant shortening, especially for the obliquus internus and externus muscles. After a fourteen-day recuperation period, anticipatory postural adjustments reached a near to complete recovery. On the contrary, reactive response latencies increased from pre-bed-rest to both post-bed-rest measurement sessions. Results indicate an important effect of bed rest on stabilizing functions of the trunk muscles in elderly adults. Moreover, there proved to be a significant deterioration of postural reactive responses that outlasted the 14-day post-bed-rest rehabilitation. PMID:26601104

  7. A direct GABAergic output from the basal ganglia to frontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Arpiar; Oldenburg, Ian A.; Berezovskii, Vladimir K.; Johnson, Caroline A.; Kingery, Nathan D.; Elliott, Hunter L.; Xie, Tiao; Gerfen, Charles R.; Sabatini, Bernardo L.

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are phylogenetically conserved subcortical nuclei necessary for coordinated motor action and reward learning1. Current models postulate that the BG modulate cerebral cortex indirectly via an inhibitory output to thalamus, bidirectionally controlled by the BG via direct (dSPNs) and indirect (iSPNs) pathway striatal projection neurons2–4. The BG thalamic output sculpts cortical activity by interacting with signals from sensory and motor systems5. Here we describe a direct projection from the globus pallidus externus (GP), a central nucleus of the BG, to frontal regions of the cerebral cortex (FC). Two cell types make up the GP-FC projection, distinguished by their electrophysiological properties, cortical projections and expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), a synthetic enzyme for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh). Despite these differences, ChAT+ cells, which have been historically identified as an extension of the nucleus basalis (NB), as well as ChAT− cells, release the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) and are inhibited by iSPNs and dSPNs of dorsal striatum. Thus GP-FC cells comprise a direct GABAergic/cholinergic projection under the control of striatum that activates frontal cortex in vivo. Furthermore, iSPN inhibition of GP-FC cells is sensitive to dopamine 2 receptor signaling, revealing a pathway by which drugs that target dopamine receptors for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders can act in the BG to modulate frontal cortices. PMID:25739505

  8. Coordinated reset stimulation in a large-scale model of the STN-GPe circuit

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Martin; Hauptmann, Christian; Tass, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Synchronization of populations of neurons is a hallmark of several brain diseases. Coordinated reset (CR) stimulation is a model-based stimulation technique which specifically counteracts abnormal synchrony by desynchronization. Electrical CR stimulation, e.g., for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), is administered via depth electrodes. In order to get a deeper understanding of this technique, we extended the top-down approach of previous studies and constructed a large-scale computational model of the respective brain areas. Furthermore, we took into account the spatial anatomical properties of the simulated brain structures and incorporated a detailed numerical representation of 2 · 104 simulated neurons. We simulated the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus externus (GPe). Connections within the STN were governed by spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP). In this way, we modeled the physiological and pathological activity of the considered brain structures. In particular, we investigated how plasticity could be exploited and how the model could be shifted from strongly synchronized (pathological) activity to strongly desynchronized (healthy) activity of the neuronal populations via CR stimulation of the STN neurons. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of specific stimulation parameters especially the electrode position on the stimulation outcome. Our model provides a step forward toward a biophysically realistic model of the brain areas relevant to the emergence of pathological neuronal activity in PD. Furthermore, our model constitutes a test bench for the optimization of both stimulation parameters and novel electrode geometries for efficient CR stimulation. PMID:25505882

  9. Double-powered free gracilis muscle transfer for smile reanimation: A longitudinal optoelectronic study.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Frigerio, Alice; Mapelli, Andrea; Tarabbia, Filippo; Annoni, Isabella; Colombo, Valeria; Latiff, Mahfuz; Pimenta Ferreira, Claudia L; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Sidequersky, Fernanda V; Zago, Matteo; Biglioli, Federico

    2015-07-01

    The choice of the motor donor nerve is a crucial point in free flap transfer algorithms. In the case of unilateral facial paralysis, the contralateral healthy facial nerve can provide coordinated smile animation and spontaneous emotional expression, but with unpredictable axonal ingrowth into the recipient muscle. Otherwise, the masseteric nerve ipsilateral to the paralysis can provide a powerful neural input, without a spontaneous trigger of the smile. Harvesting a bulky muscular free flap may enhance the quantity of contraction but esthetic results are unpleasant. Therefore, the logical solution for obtaining high amplitude of smiling combined with spontaneity of movement is to couple the neural input: the contralateral facial nerve plus the ipsilateral masseteric nerve. Thirteen patients with unilateral dense facial paralysis underwent a one-stage facial reanimation with a gracilis flap powered by a double donor neural input, provided by both the ipsilateral masseteric nerve (coaptation by an end-to-end neurorrhaphy with the obturator nerve) and the contralateral facial nerve (coaptation through a cross-face nerve graft: end-to-end neurorrhaphy on the healthy side and end-to-side neurorrhaphy on the obturator nerve, distal to the masseteric/obturator neurorrhaphy). Their facial movements were evaluated with an optoelectronic motion analyzer. Before surgery, on average, the paretic side exhibited a smaller total three-dimensional mobility than the healthy side, with a 52% activation ratio and >30% of asymmetry. After surgery, the differences significantly decreased (analysis of variance (ANOVA), p < 0.05), with an activation ratio between 75% (maximum smile) and 91% (maximum smile with teeth clenching), and <20% of asymmetry. Similar modifications were seen for the performance of spontaneous smiles. The significant presurgical asymmetry of labial movements reduced after surgery. The use of a double donor neural input permitted both movements that were similar

  10. Discrimination potential of root canal treated tooth in forensic dentistry.

    PubMed

    Khalid, K; Yousif, S; Satti, A

    2016-07-01

    Forensic Odontology is a vital component of forensic science and one branch involves the application of dental science to the identification of unknown human remains. The aim of this study is to investigate the discriminatory potential for identification of the radiographic morphology of obturated single root canals. Thirty periapical radiographs of patients having endodontic treatment of single rooted canals were selected randomly from the data bank of the digital X- ray system present in the restorative department, University of Science and Technology, Sudan. The post-operative radiographs were considered as an ant-mortem data "Set 1". Ten radiographs from the thirty were reprinted, labelled from (A-J) and considered as a post-mortem data "Set 2". This post-mortem group of 10 radiographs "Set 2" would be compared with the ante-mortem group of 30 radiographs comprising "Set 1". These two sets of radiographs would be examined by 40 dentally trained personnel. The thirty radiographs comprising "Set 1" and the 10 radiographs comprising "Set 2" were provided to each of the examiners who were asked to match the individual post-mortem radiographs ("Set 2") with the ante-mortem radiographs ("Set1"). The result demonstrated that 34 examiners achieved a success rate of 100%, 4 examiners achieved a success rate of 97.5% (1 mismatch) and 2 examiners achieved a success rate of 95% (2 mismatches). The radiographic images of obturated single-rooted teeth in this study were shown to have highly- specific morphological features. It is proposed that, in cases where the ante and post-mortem radiographs of a single-rooted obturated canal show similar morphology, this commonality of morphology can be used as a tool in the identification process.

  11. The Adoption of New Endodontic Technology by Indian Dental Practitioners: A Questionnaire Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ruchi; Rai, Rochna

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To ascertain the adoption of new endodontic technology in general dental practice in India in 2011. Methodology: A postal questionnaire survey comprising 26 questions was sent to 700 general dental practitioners. The questions covered professional activity, root canal preparation and instrumentation, choice of irrigants and intracanal medicaments, choice of obturation techniques and other aspects of endodontics. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Chi-square (χ2) test at 0.05 level of significance. Results: The overall response rate was 88%. The results showed that rubber dams were used by 27% of dental practitioners in India. The most widely used irrigant was sodium hypochlorite, which was used by 33% of the respondents. Thirty nine percent of the practitioners were still incorporating only hand files during the cleaning and shaping phase of treatment. The technique of choice was both step back and crown down (35%). Calcium hydroxide was found to be the most frequently used (62%) intracanal medicament. Lateral condensation with guttapercha (61%) was the most common method used for obturation. Majority used zinc oxide eugenol as a sealer (55%). The post obturation restoration was done mostly by composite material (46%). Most of the respondents placed crowns after root canal treatment. Digital radiography was reported as being used by 17% of the respondents. There was no difference between males and females with respect to the incorporation of new technologies in dentistry. They had been incorporated significantly more by respondents who held postgraduate qualifications and had professional activities of <5 years. Conclusion: The results indicated that new endodontic technology and materials are slowly being incorporated in clinical practice of endodontics in India. This survey shows the importance of continuing dental education for practitioners to update their knowledge. PMID:24392420

  12. Device and materials for in vitro evaluation of forces developed to teeth and periodontal structures during dental practices

    PubMed Central

    Palamidakis, Fotios D; Panou, Athanasia; Papadokostaki, Kyriaki G; Leontakianakos, George; Stathopoulos, Vassilis N

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at providing a gauge device (Ekontak et al Gauge K-Device) in order to analyze the forces applied to teeth and periodontal tissues during dental practices in vitro. This force gauge device can be used in the investigation of the possible defect generation to tooth structures when overloaded forces are applied during dental procedures in vitro. Ekontak et al Gauge K-Device consists of three units: the specimen’s holder, a high-performance digital force gauge, and the support frame. The holder was fabricated by an Al alloy providing a steady detachable attachment between the specimens and the force gauge’s pin connector. The clinical simulation was achieved with the use of a proper silicone material, selected to provide similar elastic behavior with the human periodontal ligament and to join the teeth inside a solid matrix of an acrylic resin. The digital force gauge is a high-speed collection and recording (1000 Hz) product coupled with data recording software. The forces developed to 15 specimens’ root canals during lateral condensation and vertical compaction of cold gutta-percha obturation procedures were monitored, saved as graphs, CSV, and excel files and presented over time. The forces developed during vertical compaction (mean maximum force per obturation circle = 13.22 N) were more excessive than those during lateral condensation (mean maximum force per obturation circle = 10.14 N). In conclusion, Ekontak et al Gauge K-Device is provided as a modern gauge device, capable of performing clinical simulation in vitro, under the terms of its protocol. PMID:24019850

  13. Comparison of bacterial leakage resistance of various root canal filling materials and methods: Confocal laser-scanning microscope study.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ji Hee; Chung, Jin; Na, Hee-Sam; Park, Eunjoo; Kwak, Sangwon; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the bacterial leakage resistance and root canal lining efficacy of various root canal filling materials and methods by using confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM). Sixty extracted human premolars with mature apex and single root canal were randomly divided into 2 control groups and 4 experimental groups. Group CW was filled with continuous wave technique using gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. Group GC was coated with AH-Plus sealer and then obturated with soften GuttaCore. Group GF was obturated using GuttaFlow and gutta-percha. Group EM was filled with EndoSeal MTA and gutta-percha using ultrasonic vibration. The AH-Plus, GuttaFlow, and EndoSeal were labeled with Hoechst 33342 to facilitate fluorescence. The obturated root tip was incubated with Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-stained E. faecalis for 14 days. CLSM was performed to evaluate the sealer distribution and bacterial leakage for the apical 1-, 2-, 3-mm specimens. Statistically significant differences were determined by 1-way ANOVA with Tukey's post-hoc test and Pearson's correlation analysis. Group EM showed the better sealer distribution score than the other groups (p < 0.05). Group CW and group GC exhibited the less bacterial leakage than the group GF, while group EM showed the similar bacterial leakage score with the groups CW and GC. There was no significant correlation between the sealer distribution and bacterial leakage (p > 0.05). Under the conditions of this study, different root canal filling materials and methods showed different efficacy for canal distribution and bacterial leakage resistance.

  14. Stereomicroscopic Evaluation of Sealing Ability of Four Different Root Canal Sealers- An invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Chandak, Manoj; Jain, Pradeep; Patni, Mona Jain; Jain, Sumeet; Mishra, Prashant; Jain, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The most commonly used core material for root canal filling is gutta-percha and as the gutta-percha by itself cannot obturate the complete root canal system, owing to its poor sealing properties hence, a sealer is used in combination with root filling material. Sealer is more important than the core obturating material. Sealer plays a secondary role by merely reinforcing (binding or luting) the gutta-percha to the canal walls, however, it is now confirmed that the sealer has a prime role in sealing the canal by blocking the irregularities between the canal space and the core filling material. Aim To investigate the effectiveness of the apical seal obtained by different sealers used in conjugation with cold lateral condensation technique of obturation using gutta-percha under stereomicroscope. Materials and Methods One hundred single-rooted extracted human permanent teeth with a single root canal were used in this in-vitro study. The sealers tested were conventional Zinc oxide eugenol sealer, Apexit, AH-Plus and Roekoseal Automix (RSA). The specimens were examined under a stereomicroscope. For the analysis of data Snedocor’s F test for the quality of variances among the experimental group and control group (One-Way ANOVA) were employed. Results The polydimethylsiloxane endodontic root canal sealer RSA provided a significantly better apical seal followed by AH plus and Apexit whereas conventional zinc oxide eugenol showed the lowest sealing ability. Conclusion It was concluded that there were statistically significant differences amongst the experimental groups. The shrinkage related to setting and potential dissolution might risk the proper seal of the root canal leading to treatment failure. PMID:27656560

  15. Double-powered free gracilis muscle transfer for smile reanimation: A longitudinal optoelectronic study.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Frigerio, Alice; Mapelli, Andrea; Tarabbia, Filippo; Annoni, Isabella; Colombo, Valeria; Latiff, Mahfuz; Pimenta Ferreira, Claudia L; Rabbiosi, Dimitri; Sidequersky, Fernanda V; Zago, Matteo; Biglioli, Federico

    2015-07-01

    The choice of the motor donor nerve is a crucial point in free flap transfer algorithms. In the case of unilateral facial paralysis, the contralateral healthy facial nerve can provide coordinated smile animation and spontaneous emotional expression, but with unpredictable axonal ingrowth into the recipient muscle. Otherwise, the masseteric nerve ipsilateral to the paralysis can provide a powerful neural input, without a spontaneous trigger of the smile. Harvesting a bulky muscular free flap may enhance the quantity of contraction but esthetic results are unpleasant. Therefore, the logical solution for obtaining high amplitude of smiling combined with spontaneity of movement is to couple the neural input: the contralateral facial nerve plus the ipsilateral masseteric nerve. Thirteen patients with unilateral dense facial paralysis underwent a one-stage facial reanimation with a gracilis flap powered by a double donor neural input, provided by both the ipsilateral masseteric nerve (coaptation by an end-to-end neurorrhaphy with the obturator nerve) and the contralateral facial nerve (coaptation through a cross-face nerve graft: end-to-end neurorrhaphy on the healthy side and end-to-side neurorrhaphy on the obturator nerve, distal to the masseteric/obturator neurorrhaphy). Their facial movements were evaluated with an optoelectronic motion analyzer. Before surgery, on average, the paretic side exhibited a smaller total three-dimensional mobility than the healthy side, with a 52% activation ratio and >30% of asymmetry. After surgery, the differences significantly decreased (analysis of variance (ANOVA), p < 0.05), with an activation ratio between 75% (maximum smile) and 91% (maximum smile with teeth clenching), and <20% of asymmetry. Similar modifications were seen for the performance of spontaneous smiles. The significant presurgical asymmetry of labial movements reduced after surgery. The use of a double donor neural input permitted both movements that were similar

  16. Effect of intracanal medicaments on push-out bond strength of Smart-Seal system

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Vibha; Arora, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effects of calcium hydroxide (CH), triple and double antibiotic pastes (DAPs) on the bond strength of Smart-Seal obturation, C-points with Endosequence Bio-ceramic (BC) sealer to the root canal dentin. Materials and Methods: Sixty-four freshly extracted single-rooted human mandibular premolars were de-coronated and prepared using rotary Pro-taper system with full sequence till F3. The specimens were randomly divided into a control group (without intracanal dressing) and 3 experimental groups that received an intracanal dressing with either CH, DAP, or triple antibiotic paste (TAP) (n = 16). The intracanal dressing was removed after 3 weeks by rinsing with 10 mL 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, followed by 10 mL 3% sodium hypochlorite. The root canals were then obturated with C-points and Endosequence BC sealer. A push-out test was used to measure the bond strength between the root canal dentin and the obturating system. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post-hoc test. Results: The push-out bond strength values were significantly affected by the intracanal medicaments (P < 0.001), but not by the root canal thirds (P > 0.05). In the middle and apical third, the bond strength of the TAP group was higher than those of the CH and DAP groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The DAP and CH did not affect the bond strength of the novel hydrophilic obutrating system. TAP improved the bond strength of Smart-Seal system in the middle and apical thirds. PMID:26430308

  17. EFFECT OF EUGENOL-BASED ENDODONTIC SEALER ON THE ADHESION OF INTRARADICULAR POSTS CEMENTED AFTER DIFFERENT PERIODS

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Larissa Lustosa Lima; Giovani, Alessandro Rogério; Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa Silva; Vansan, Luiz Pascoal; Alfredo, Edson; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Paulino, Silvana Maria

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated in vitro the influence of an eugenol-based sealer (EndoFill) on the retention of stainless steel prefabricated posts cemented with zinc phosphate and resin-based (Panavia F) cements after different periods of root canal obturation, using the pull-out test. Material and methods: Sixty upper canines were decoronated and the roots were embedded in resin blocks. The specimens were distributed into 3 groups, according to the period elapsed between canal obturation and post cementation: Group I - immediately; Group II - 72 h and Group III - 4 months. The groups were subdivided according to the type of cement used for post cementation: A - zinc phosphate and B - Panavia F. Following the experimental periods, specimens were subjected to pull- out test in an Instron machine with application of tensile force at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until post dislodgement. The maximum forces required for post removal were recorded (kN) and means were subjected to statistical analysis by 2-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test (α=0.001) Results: There were statistically significant differences (p<0.01) between the posts cemented with zinc phosphate cement (0.2112 kN) and Panavia F (0.0501 kN). However, no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found between the three post cementation periods, regardless of the cement. Conclusions: It was concluded that the eugenol-based sealer influenced the tensile strength of the posts cemented with the resin cement, but had no influence on the time waited between root canal obturation and post space preparation/post cementation. PMID:20027430

  18. [Surgical treatment of primary multiple tumoral lesions of the large intestine].

    PubMed

    Todurov, I M; Belianskiĭ, L S; Perekhrestenko, A V

    2008-03-01

    Experience of treatment of 37 patients, suffering primarily-multiple cancer of large intestine, including 17--with synchronous and 20--metachronous tumors, and an acute obturational ileus of large intestine, is presented. There was conducted the analysis and peculiarities of surgical tactics suggested as well as various methods of such patients treatment were determined. The investigation results trust the necessity of application of individual perioperative tactics in patients, suffering primarily-multiple tumors of large intestine leading to achieve better outcomes of their surgical treatment.

  19. Rehabilitation of an edentulous cleft lip and palate patient with a soft palate defect using a bar-retained, implant-supported speech-aid prosthesis: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Hakan Tuna, S; Pekkan, Gurel; Buyukgural, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    Prosthetic rehabilitation of an edentulous cleft lip and palate patient with a combined hard and soft palate defect is a great challenge, due to the lack of retention of the obturator prosthesis as a result of its weight and the inability to obtain a border seal. Dental implants improve the retention, stability, and occlusal function of prostheses when used in carefully selected cleft lip and palate cases. This clinical report presents an edentulous unilateral cleft lip and palate patient who has hard and soft palate defects and an atrophied maxilla, treated with an implant-supported speech-aid prosthesis. PMID:19115799

  20. Re-attachment of Subgingivally Oblique Fractured Central Incisor Using a Fiber Post

    PubMed Central

    Adanir, Necdet; Ok, Evren; Erdek, Yesim

    2008-01-01

    This case report presents a 32 year old male with an oblique fractured maxillary right central incisor. The procedure used to repair the fracture included flap surgery with an intrasulcular incision and endodontic treatment. The root canal was filled with a root canal sealer and gutta-percha. After root canal obturation, fragments were luted with composite resin using a glass fibers post. After 12 months, clinical and radiographic examinations showed a stable reattachment of the fragments, good aesthetics and periodontal health. (Eur J Dent 2008;2:138–141) PMID:19212525

  1. Possibilities of Nd: YAG laser utilization in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Frank

    The thermic effect caused by the shrinkage and the drying of the tissues is used for cutting, denaturation, and coagulation of tissues with simultaneous filling of the blood and lymphatic vessels. The surgical Nd:YAG lasers, whose utilization is based on photothermic effects, have 120 W power and are used in neurosurgery, dermatology, gastroenterology, gynecology, urology, lung sickness, and jaw and vessel surgery. The treatment of tumors is particularly interesting because of the total destruction of the ill tissue, the homogeneity of the necrose and the obturation of the blood and lymphatic vessels. In all cases, the laser is a better solution for the patients and allows a shorter stay in hospital.

  2. [Radiographic and histological study of a case of apexification in a human molar].

    PubMed

    Sahli, C C

    1989-01-01

    A case of apexification in a lower right second molar is described. Radiographs demonstrate apical closure with a different morphological pattern from that of the lower left second molar. Following extraction, after 15 months, serial histologic sections show calcified tissue obturating the apical foramen, well adapted to the initial dentin and cementum walls. Inside some small areas containing connective tissue with capillaries can be observed. The histologic and radiographic observations indicate that apical closure occurs as a result of differentiation of periodontal apical cells.

  3. Modern Endodontic Principles Part 3: Preparation.

    PubMed

    Darcey, James; Taylor, Carly; Roudsari, Reza Vahid; Jawad, Sarra; Hunter, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of instrumentation is to facilitate irrigation and allow controlled obturation. This article will revisit methods of instrumentation of the root canal system with consideration given to length determination, apical preparation and the concept of patency filing. It will discuss hand instrumentation and rotary preparation looking at emerging technology such as reciprocating systems and the self-adjusting file. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Mechanical preparation of the root canal system is of fundamental importance in achieving success, creating a more easily managed environment from a biological perspective.

  4. A novel technique of impression procedure in a hemimaxillectomy patient with microstomia.

    PubMed

    Deogade, Suryakant C

    2012-01-01

    A restricted mouth opening in hemimaxillectomy patient can create a significant problem with the insertion and the removal of the obturator prosthesis. Even it poses a problem in impression making due to small oral opening. A modification of the standard impression procedure is often necessary to accomplish an acceptable impression in the fabrication of a successful prosthesis. Sectional trays are a good option for such patients. This paper describes a novel technique of impression procedure and a method of fabricating a sectional tray with the anterior and the posterior locking mechanism for a hemimaxillectomy patient with limited oral opening.

  5. Argon laser application to endodontics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blankenau, Richard J.; Ludlow, Marvin; Anderson, David

    1993-07-01

    The application of laser technology to endodontics has been studied for some time. At the present time several major problems are being investigated: (1) removal of infected tissues, (2) sterilization of canals, (3) obturation of canals, and (4) preservation of the vitality of supporting tissues. This list is not intended to imply other problems do not exist or have been solved, but it is a starting point. This paper reviews some of the literature that relates to laser applications to endodontics and concludes with some of the findings from our investigation.

  6. Bladder Cancer Patterns of Pelvic Failure: Implications for Adjuvant Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, Brian C.; Guzzo, Thomas J.; He Jiwei; Vaughn, David J.; Keefe, Stephen M.; Vapiwala, Neha; Deville, Curtiland; Bekelman, Justin E.; Tucker, Kai; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Christodouleas, John P.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: Local-regional failures (LFs) after cystectomy with or without chemotherapy are common in locally advanced disease. Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) could reduce LFs, but toxicity has discouraged its use. Modern RT techniques with improved normal tissue sparing have rekindled interest but require knowledge of pelvic failure patterns to design treatment volumes. Methods and Materials: Five-year LF rates after radical cystectomy plus pelvic node dissection with or without chemotherapy were determined for 8 pelvic sites among 442 urothelial bladder carcinoma patients. The impact of pathologic stage, margin status, nodal involvement, and extent of node dissection on failure patterns was assessed using competing risk analysis. We calculated the percentage of patients whose sites of LF would have been completely encompassed within various hypothetical clinical target volumes (CTVs) for postoperative radiation. Results: Compared with stage {<=}pT2, stage {>=}pT3 patients had higher 5-year LF rates in virtually all pelvic sites. Among stage {>=}pT3 patients, margin status significantly altered the failure pattern whereas extent of node dissection and nodal positivity did not. In stage {>=}pT3 patients with negative margins, failure occurred predominantly in the iliac/obturator nodes and uncommonly in the cystectomy bed and/or presacral nodes. Of these patients in whom failure subsequently occurred, 76% would have had all LF sites encompassed within CTVs covering only the iliac/obturator nodes. In stage {>=}pT3 with positive margins, cystectomy bed and/or presacral nodal failures increased significantly. Only 57% of such patients had all LF sites within CTVs limited to the iliac/obturator nodes, but including the cystectomy bed and presacral nodes in the CTV when margins were positive increased the percentage of LFs encompassed to 91%. Conclusions: Patterns of failure within the pelvis are summarized to facilitate design of adjuvant RT protocols. These data suggest

  7. Prosthetic rehabilitation of palatal perforation in a patient with ‘syphilis: the great imitator’

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Varsha; Vaithilingam, Yuvraj; Livingstone, David; Pillai, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Syphilis is a sexually transmissible disease caused by treponema palladium, a microaerophilic spirochete. Syphilis may progress from primary to tertiary stage if left unnoticed and untreated. Dentists should be vigilant and suspect sexually transmitted infections such as syphilis in the differential diagnosis of oral inflammatory or ulcerative lesions with palatal perforation. Moreover, it is imperative that dentists should have knowledge about its stages, characteristic features, oral presentation and prosthetic rehabilitation. This case report describes a case of tertiary syphilis with palatal perforation and the prosthetic rehabilitation of the defect with a prosthetic obturator. PMID:24891485

  8. A technique for using short term soft liners as complete dentures final impression material.

    PubMed

    Baslas, Varun; Singh, Saumyendra V; Aggarwal, Himanshi; Kaur, Simranjeet; Singh, Kamleshwar; Agarwal, Kaushal K

    2014-01-01

    Tissue conditioners can be used to condition abused tissues, record functional impressions, make temporary relining for surgical splints and obturators, and for other clinical applications, mainly because of their specific viscoelasticity. Their function in complete denture fabrication is debatable but their use as a functional impression material has been proved. The present article describes a technique for using tissue conditioners as functional impression materials. Correct method of usage, manipulation, specific properties as impression materials and precautions in different situations for obtaining accurate impressions has been highlightened.

  9. Prosthetic Management of a Nasal Septal Defect using a Custom Made Unilateral Intranasal Stent: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Harshakumar; Rodrigues, Sheela Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Various etiologies including congenital malformations, infections, trauma, iatrogenic causes or complications of systemic diseases can result in perforation of the nasal septum. The common symptoms associated with such defects include difficulty in breathing, nasal twang in voice, rhinorrhea, etc. Obturation can be achieved by insertion of a unilateral nasal stent. An attempt has been made in the present report to address the prosthetic management of pateint having nasal septum perforation utilizing a unilateral, custom made heat cured acrylic stent and the details of the technique are presented. PMID:27656584

  10. Efficacy of Different Methods for Removing Root Canal Filling Material in Retreatment - An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mariswamy, Annapoorna Ballagere

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although success of endodontic therapy has significantly improved in the last few decades due to the introduction of novel materials and techniques, failures of endodontic therapy requiring re-treatment still comprise a significant percentage of patients requiring root canal treatment. Aim To evaluate and compare the effective removal of gutta percha and sealer, amount of apical debris extrusion and time required for gutta percha removal using various endodontic files. Materials and Methods Total 48 extracted mandibular premolars were mounted on acrylic blocks and endodontic procedure was carried out using size 40 K file and obturated using guttapercha and zinc oxide eugenol sealer. After one month storage, samples were decoronated, mounted on screw capped vials and subjected to removal of obturated material by four instruments: H files, safe sided H files, protaper universal retreatment rotary system and ultrasonic retreatment tip, grouped as 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Only 2mm of obturated material from the coronal part was removed using no. 3 Gates Glidden drill, guttapercha was softened with a drop of xylene for 2 mins for each canal and retreatment was performed. The retreatment procedure was said to be complete when no visible debris were observed on the instrument flutes. The samples split into two halves and examined under stereomicroscope, photographed, assessed using AUTOCAD software and percentage of remaining filling material in coronal, middle, apical thirds of the canal was calculated in mm2. Retreatment time was recorded in seconds and apically extruded debris was assessed by microbalance in grams for each tooth. The data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Scheffe’s post hoc test through SPSS for windows (v 16.0). Results The ultrasonic retreatment tip had less percentage of residual guttapercha/sealer, shorter mean operating time and little apical extrusion with a significant difference (p<0.05) between the

  11. Idiopathic odontoma formation following avulsion of immature permanent incisors: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Motokawa, W; Braham, R L; Taniguchi, K

    1990-01-01

    From the findings of Case 1 and those cases reviewed in the literature it would appear that overfilling a canal with gutta percha prevents continued root formation after reimplantation of the tooth. The canal should be underfilled, therefore, if gutta percha is used as the obturating medium. Consequently, the authors recommend that calcium hydroxide be used as the root canal filling material of choice after reimplanting immature permanent teeth subsequent to traumatic avulsion. Since, however, calcium hydroxide paste tends to be resorbed, periodic refilling of the canal with the paste is required. Case 2 emphasizes the importance of periodic postoperative radiographic evaluation for several years after traumatic avulsion of immature permanent teeth.

  12. Bilateral presence of two root canals in maxillary central incisors: A rare case study.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, M; Gokul, Kannan; Ramaprabha, B; Lakshmi, Amudha

    2014-04-01

    Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning and shaping followed by complete obturation of the canal system. Therefore, endodontic therapy requires specific and complete knowledge of the internal and external dental anatomy, and its variations in presentation. The internal anatomy of the maxillary central incisor is well-known and usually presents one root canal system. This case report describes an endodontic treatment of traumatized both maxillary central incisors with two canal systems. Knowledge of dental anatomy is fundamental for proper endodontic practice. When root canal treatment is performed, the clinician should be aware that both external and internal anatomy may be abnormal.

  13. [Radiographic and histological study of a case of apexification in a human molar].

    PubMed

    Sahli, C C

    1989-01-01

    A case of apexification in a lower right second molar is described. Radiographs demonstrate apical closure with a different morphological pattern from that of the lower left second molar. Following extraction, after 15 months, serial histologic sections show calcified tissue obturating the apical foramen, well adapted to the initial dentin and cementum walls. Inside some small areas containing connective tissue with capillaries can be observed. The histologic and radiographic observations indicate that apical closure occurs as a result of differentiation of periodontal apical cells. PMID:2640033

  14. Failure of endodontic treatment: The usual suspects

    PubMed Central

    Tabassum, Sadia; Khan, Farhan Raza

    2016-01-01

    Inappropriate mechanical debridement, persistence of bacteria in the canals and apex, poor obturation quality, over and under extension of the root canal filling, and coronal leakage are some of the commonly attributable causes of failure. Despite the high success rate of endodontic treatment, failures do occur in a large number of cases and most of the times can be attributed to the already stated causes. With an ever increasing number of endodontic treatments being done each day, it has become imperative to avoid or minimize the most fundamental of reasons leading to endodontic failure. This paper reviews the most common causes of endodontic failure along with radiographic examples. PMID:27011754

  15. Modern Endodontic Principles Part 3: Preparation.

    PubMed

    Darcey, James; Taylor, Carly; Roudsari, Reza Vahid; Jawad, Sarra; Hunter, Mark

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of instrumentation is to facilitate irrigation and allow controlled obturation. This article will revisit methods of instrumentation of the root canal system with consideration given to length determination, apical preparation and the concept of patency filing. It will discuss hand instrumentation and rotary preparation looking at emerging technology such as reciprocating systems and the self-adjusting file. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Mechanical preparation of the root canal system is of fundamental importance in achieving success, creating a more easily managed environment from a biological perspective. PMID:26749789

  16. The combination of a mineral trioxide aggregate and an adhesive restorative approach to treat a crown-root fracture coupled with lateral root perforation in a mandibular second molar: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Wang, S; Ni, L

    2009-01-01

    The current paper describes a modified treatment procedure for a traumatized mandibular left second molar resulting in a crown-root fracture and root perforation with the fracture line below the gingival attachment and alveolar bone crest. After the mobile crown-root fragment was extracted, the root perforation was obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and the subgingival defect was directly repaired with polyacid-modified resin composites (Ionosite Baseline). A 24-month recall showed no evidence of periodontal inflammation and no adverse symptoms, and the treated tooth exhibited good healing and normal function. PMID:19678457

  17. Endodontic treatment of a taurodontic premolar with five canals.

    PubMed

    Demiryürek, Ebru Özsezer; Gönülol, Nihan; Bulucu, Bilinç

    2013-08-01

    Taurodontism is a morpho-anatomical abnormality in the shape of a tooth. An enlarged pulp chamber, apical displacement of the pulpal floor and no constriction at the level of the cemento-enamel junction are the characteristic features. Special care is required in all aspects of endodontic treatment of a taurodontal tooth, including identifying the orifice, canal exploration, cleaning, shaping and obturation of the root canal. This case report describes the successful endodontic treatment of a taurodontic mandibular second premolar with five root canals. PMID:23890265

  18. Fate of pulpectomized deciduous teeth: Bilateral odontogenic cyst?

    PubMed Central

    Sandhyarani, B.; Noorani, Hina; Shivaprakash, P. K.; Dayanand, A. Huddar

    2016-01-01

    Pulpectomy is preferably more conservative treatment option than the extraction of deciduous teeth despite few undesirable consequences of obturating materials of which odontogenic cysts are one. This article aims to report a case of an 11-year-old female child having bilateral odontogenic cysts, i.e., radicular and infected dentigerous cyst followed by pulpectomy of deciduous molars using zinc oxide eugenol which was surgically enucleated and followed up to 6 months until satisfactory healing of bone was observed. The article also emphasizes on the importance of regular follow-up of the pulpectomized tooth which can be harmful otherwise. PMID:27307677

  19. Significance of the follicular pathway for dermal substance penetration quantified by laser Doppler flowmetry.

    PubMed

    Vandersee, Staffan; Erdmenger, Ute; Patzelt, Alexa; Beyer, Marc; Meinke, Martina C; Darvin, Maxim E; Koscielny, Jürgen; Lademann, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    The understanding of transdermal substance penetration pathways remains an important field for the development of future topical drugs and cosmetics. Laser Doppler flowmetry is a well-established method for evaluating cutaneous perfusion. In a study on 6 healthy male volunteers, we topically applied the vasoactive substance benzyl nicotinate on two test areas with open and obturated hair follicles and measured changes in the blood flow by Doppler flowmetry. Contrary to occluded follicles, the application onto the test area with open follicles led to a statistically significant perfusion increase within the first 5 minutes, emphasizing the importance of the follicular pathway for epidermal penetration.

  20. Apical microleakage evaluation of system B compared with cold lateral technique: In vitro study.

    PubMed

    Farea, Manal; Masudi, Sam'an; Wan Bakar, Wan Zaripah

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the apical sealing ability of cold lateral and system B root filling techniques using dye penetration. Eighty-six extracted single-rooted human teeth were prepared and randomly divided into two experimental groups to be obturated by cold lateral condensation (n = 33) and system B (n = 33). The remaining 20 teeth served as positive and negative controls. The roots were embedded for 72 h in methylene blue dye solution and sectioned transversely for dye penetration evaluation using stereomicroscope. The results of this study showed that cold lateral condensation leaked significantly more (P < 0.001) than system B technique. PMID:20666748

  1. Expansion of Gutta-percha in contact with various concentrations of zinc oxide-eugenol sealer: A three-dimensional volumetric study using spiral computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Tilakchand, Mahima; Jain, Abhishek; Naik, Balaram

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the three-dimensional expansion of Gutta-percha (GP), at various powder/liquid ratios, of a zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE)-based sealer using spiral computed tomography (SCT). Materials and Methods: Thirty-five freshly extracted human mandibular premolars were selected for this study. Cleaning and shaping were performed in all the teeth initially with hand K-files up to #25 and finally with RaCe rotary instruments (25/06). Teeth were randomly divided into five groups of 7 teeth each. Specimens were scanned using SCT. They were then viewed both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, with a constant thickness of 1 mm/slice. The volume of root canal in each tooth was estimated. Obturation was performed by GP points (25/04) and ZOE-based root canal sealer in all groups with different powder-liquid ratio. Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, had powder/liquid ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4, respectively, while in the control group, no sealer was used. The obturation was performed by sealer coated single cone GP. A second SCT scan was performed to determine the volume of GP and sealer in all four groups 1 day after obturation. The third and fourth SCT scans were taken 7 and 30 days after obturation, respectively. The mean volume of GP per group was calculated. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Inter-group comparisons were done using Scheffe post hoc multiple comparisons test. Results: All groups with sealer showed expansion of GP at both 7th day and 30th day, which was statistically significant from the GP volume at 1st day. Groups 2 and 3 with powder/liquid ratio of 1:2 and 1:3 gave the highest mean volume values during 30 days period and showed significant expansion in comparison with Groups 1 and 4 with powder/liquid ratio of 1:1 and 1:4, respectively. Conclusion: Increasing the ratio of eugenol in sealer resulted in the volumetric expansion of GP. However, further studies should be performed to confirm the expansion of

  2. Viral competition and maternal immunity influence the clinical disease caused by very virulent infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Jackwood, Daral J

    2011-09-01

    The very virulent form of infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV) causes an immunosuppressive disease that is further characterized by the rapid onset of morbidity and high mortality in susceptible chickens. In 2009, vvIBDV was first reported in California, U. S. A., and since that time only a few cases of acute infectious bursal disease attributed to vvIBDV have been recognized in California. In other countries where vvIBDV has become established, it rapidly spreads to most poultry-producing regions. Two factors that may be involved in limiting the spread or reducing the severity of the clinical disease caused by vvIBDV in the U. S. A. are maternal immunity and competition with endemic variant strains of the virus. In this study, the ability of vvIBDV to infect and cause disease in maternally immune layer chickens was examined at weekly intervals over a 5-wk period during which their neutralizing maternal antibodies waned. Birds inoculated with vvIBDV at 2, 3, and 4 wk of age seemed healthy throughout the duration of the experiment, but macroscopic and microscopic lesions were observed in their bursa tissues. A real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay also confirmed the presence of vvIBDV RNA in their bursa tissues, indicating this virus was infecting the birds even at 2 wk of age when neutralizing maternal antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus were still relatively high (> 2000 geometric mean antibody titer). No mortality was observed in any birds when inoculated at 2, 3, or 4 wk of age; however, inoculation at 5 and 6 wk of age resulted in 10% and 20% mortality, respectively. Three experiments on the competition between vvIBDV and the two variant viruses T1 and FF6 were conducted. In all three experiments, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) birds that were inoculated with only the vvIBDV became acutely moribund, and except for Experiment 1 (62% mortality) all succumbed to the infection within 4 days of being exposed. When the

  3. Efficacy of Recombinant HVT-IBD Vaccines Administered to Broiler Chicks from a Single Breeder Flock at 30 and 60 Weeks of Age.

    PubMed

    Gelb, Jack; Jackwood, Daral J; Brannick, Erin M; Ladman, Brian S

    2016-09-01

    The efficacy of commercially available recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys-infectious bursal disease (rHVT-IBD) virus vaccines was studied in broiler chickens derived from an IBDV-vaccinated breeder flock at 30 wk of age (Trial 1) and 60 wk of age (Trial 2). In parallel, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens were used to evaluate vaccine efficacy to control for the effects of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) associated with the broiler chickens. Broilers and SPF leghorns were vaccinated subcutaneously in the neck at 1 day of age with Vaxxitek® HVT+IBD or Vectormune® HVT-IBD vaccines and were placed in isolators. On 10, 14, 18, 22, and 26 days postvaccination (DPV), vaccinated and nonvaccinated broilers and SPF leghorns were bled prior to challenge via the oral-nasal route with infectious bursal disease (IBD) reference strains ST-C, Delaware variant E (Del E), or contemporary field isolates DMV/5038/07 or FF6. Microscopic lesion assessment of the bursa was useful for assessing IBDV challenge in both rHVT-IBD-vaccinated broiler and SPF leghorn chickens. In general, rHVT-IBD vaccines induced greater protection as the time between vaccination and challenge increased. Based on incidence of microscopic lesions (IML) of bursa tissue, Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccination of SPF leghorns induced protection by 18 DPV and continued to protect 22 DPV and 26 DPV in Trials 1 and 2. Vectormune HVT-IBD vaccine induced protection of SPF leghorns by 18 or 22 DPV in Trial 1, depending upon the IBDV challenge strain. However, the onset of protection was delayed until 22 or 26 DPV in Trial 2. With either commercial vaccine, rHVT-IBD vaccination of broiler chickens was not as effective as was observed in SPF leghorns, based on IML of bursa tissue. However, Vaxxitek HVT+IBD vaccination protected broilers following challenge with ST-C in both Trial 1 (30-wk-old breeder progeny) and Trial 2 (60-wk-old breeder progeny). Partial protection against FF6 (Trial 1) and DMV/5038

  4. Shockwave application in calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder--prediction of outcome by imaging.

    PubMed

    Maier, M; Stäbler, A; Lienemann, A; Köhler, S; Feitenhansl, A; Dürr, H R; Pfahler, M; Refior, H J

    2000-01-01

    This prospective study examined 62 patients (65 shoulders) with chronic courses of calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder before and after low-energy extracorporeal shockwave application (ESWA) in order to identify variables associated with the outcome of this treatment. Before ESWA, radiographs and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the affected shoulders were obtained in order to document the size and morphology of the calcifications and the contrast media reactions in areas of interest (deposit, synovia, bursae), respectively. In addition, a clinical evaluation was performed. After ESWA (mean follow-up 18.2 months), clinical evaluations of all 65 shoulders revealed an increase in the Constant score from 44% to 78% (p < 0.0001). While size (p = 0.61) and morphology (p = 0.7) of the deposits before ESWA were not associated with the clinical outcome, negative contrast reactions around the deposits (p) = 0.0001), synovia (p = 0.0049) and bursae (p < 0.01) were associated with improved clinical outcomes. After the total study group was divided into two groups, one with Constant scores > or = 75% (n = 43) and the other with scores < 75% (n = 22), the positive predictive value (ppv), specificity (sp) and sensitivity (se) were determined for the negative reaction around the deposit (ppv: 0.94; sp: 0.95; se: 0.38), synovia (ppv: 0.84; sp: 0.82; se: 0.49) and bursae (ppv: 0.86; sp: 0.86; se: 0.44). In 5 cases (7.7%), surgery of the affected shoulder during the follow-up period was performed. No major side-effects were seen in the study group. In conclusion, our results suggest that in patients with chronic calcifying tendinitis, the absence of contrast enhancement, especially around the deposit, is a strong predictive parameter of a positive clinical outcome of ESWA.

  5. Arthroscopic transtendinous repair of articular-sided pasta (partial articular supraspinatus tendon avulsion) injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Lu, Liangyu; Lu, Zhe; Xiao, Lei; Kang, Yifan; Wang, Zimin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical efficacy of arthroscopic transtendinous repair of partial articular-sided PASTA (partial articular supraspinatus tendon avulsion) injury. Methods: From February 2011 to July 2014, 12 cases of PASTA, aged 29 to 72 years with an average of 52.9 ± 13.3 years, were treated arthoscopically. To repair PASTA, articular-sided rotator cuff tear was explored, injury site was punctured and labeled with PDS absorbable monofilament suture (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ, USA) suture, subacromial bursa was cleaned up with acromioplasty, and integrity of bursa-side rotator cuff was assessed. Then with arthroscope in glenohumeral joint, footprint of the bursa-side supraspinatus tendon was preserved, rivets were introduced into the joint through supraspinatus tendon, joint-side partial tear was sutured, and anatomical reconstruction of the rotator cuff footprint was established. The patients were followed up post-operatively for 12-36 months, average 22 ± 7.3 months. The clinical outcomes were emulated with ASES (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons) Shoulder Score system and UCLA (University of California at Los Angeles) Shoulder rating scale. Results: The post-operative ASES score was 89.7 ± 5.6, higher than the pre-operative one 49.8 ± 9.8 (t = 12.25, P <0.0001). While UCLA scale increased from the pre-operative 17.3, ± 3.3 to the post-operative 30.4 ± 3.2 points (t = 9.87, P <0.0001), with a satisfaction rate of 11/12 (91.7%). Conclusion: Trans-tendon repair is ideal for PASTA with advantage of maximal preservation of the normal rotator cuff tissue, anatomical reconstruction of the rotator cuff footprint and stable fixation of tendon-bone interface. PMID:25784979

  6. Immunological status of the progeny of breeder hens kept on ochratoxin A (OTA)-contaminated feed.

    PubMed

    Zahoor-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Khan, Ahrar; Javed, Ijaz; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the immunological status of the progeny of breeder hens kept on ochratoxin A (OTA)-contaminated feed. For this purpose, 84 White Leghorn (WL) layer breeder hens (40-weeks-of-age) were divided into seven groups (A-G). Hens in the Group A were fed a commercial layer ration while those in Groups B-G were kept on a diet amended with 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0, or 10.0 mg OTA/kg, respectively, for 3 weeks. Fertile eggs were set for hatching on the weekly basis to get the progeny of each week separately. Hatched chicks (n = 10 from each group) were euthanized at Day 14 of age, and their immunological organs weighed and fixed in neutral buffered formalin. An indirect immunoperoxidase method was applied to study the frequency of immunoglobulin(s)-bearing cells in the spleen and bursa of Fabricius from these progeny. From other chicks within each set, at Day 16 of age, lymphoblastogenic responses against an intradermal administration of phytohemagglutinin (PHA-P) were determined. Relative weights of the bursa of Fabricius and of the thymus were significantly lower in the progeny of hens fed OTA-contaminated diet for 14 and 21 days. The frequencies of IgA-, IgG-, and IgM-bearing cells were also significantly (P ≤ 0.05) lower in the bursa of Fabricius and spleen of the progeny chicks obtained from dams fed the OTA-mixed diet. Progeny chicks obtained from the breeder hens fed higher doses of OTA showed significantly lower responses to PHA-P than did counterpart chicks from control hens. The findings of this study suggested that there were immunosuppressive effects from OTA in the progeny obtained from breeder hens kept on OTA-contaminated diets.

  7. Evidence that somatostatin is localized and synthesized in lymphoid organs

    SciTech Connect

    Aguila, M.C.; McCann, S.M. ); Dees, W.L.; Haensly, W.E. )

    1991-12-15

    Because several peptides originally found in the pituitary as within the central nervous system have been localized in lymphoid tissues and because somatostatin (somatotropin-release-inhibiting hormone, SRIH) can act on cells of the immune system, the authors searched for this peptide in lymphoid organs. The authors demonstrated that SRIH mRNA exists in lymphoid tissue, albeit in smaller levels that in the periventricular region of the hypothalamus, the brain region that contains the highest level of this mRNA. SRIH mRNA was found in the spleen and thymus of male rats and in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius of the chicken. Its localization in the Bursa indicates that the peptide must be present in B lymphocytes since this is the site of origin of B lymphocytes in birds. The SRIH concentration in these lymphoid organs as determined by radioimmunoassay was greater in the thymus than in the spleen of the rat. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry revealed the presence of SRIH-positive cells in clusters inside the white pulp and more dispersed within the red pulp of the spleen of both the rat and the chicken. The thymus from these species also contained SRIH-positive cells within the medulla and around the corticomedullary junction. In the chicken, there were large cluster of SRIH-positive cells in the medullary portion of each nodule of the bursa of Fabricius. The results indicate that SRIH is synthesized and stored in cells of the immune system. SRIH may be secreted from these cells to exert paracrine actions that alter the function of immune cells in spleen and thymus.

  8. In vivo imaging reveals an essential role of vasoconstriction in rupture of the ovarian follicle at ovulation

    PubMed Central

    Migone, Fernando F.; Cowan, Robert G.; Williams, Rebecca M.; Gorse, Kiersten J.; Zipfel, Warren R.; Quirk, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of the ovarian follicle releases the oocyte at ovulation, a timed event that is critical for fertilization. It is not understood how the protease activity required for rupture is directed with precise timing and localization to the outer surface, or apex, of the follicle. We hypothesized that vasoconstriction at the apex is essential for rupture. The diameter and blood flow of individual vessels and the thickness of the apical follicle wall were examined over time to expected ovulation using intravital multiphoton microscopy. Vasoconstriction of apical vessels occurred within hours preceding follicle rupture in wild-type mice, but vasoconstriction and rupture were absent in Amhr2cre/+SmoM2 mice in which follicle vessels lack the normal association with vascular smooth muscle. Vasoconstriction is not simply a response to reduced thickness of the follicle wall; vasoconstriction persisted in wild-type mice when thinning of the follicle wall was prevented by infusion of protease inhibitors into the ovarian bursa. Ovulation was inhibited by preventing the periovulatory rise in the expression of the vasoconstrictor endothelin 2 by follicle cells of wild-type mice. In these mice, infusion of vasoconstrictors (either endothelin 2 or angiotensin 2) into the bursa restored the vasoconstriction of apical vessels and ovulation. Additionally, infusion of endothelin receptor antagonists into the bursa of wild-type mice prevented vasoconstriction and follicle rupture. Processing tissue to allow imaging at increased depth through the follicle and transabdominal ultrasonography in vivo showed that decreased blood flow is restricted to the apex. These results demonstrate that vasoconstriction at the apex of the follicle is essential for ovulation. PMID:26842836

  9. Role of naturally occurring genome segment reassortment in the pathogenicity of IBDV field isolates in Three-Yellow chickens.

    PubMed

    He, Xiumiao; Chen, Guo; Yang, Lin; Xuan, Jincai; Long, Han; Wei, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Reassortment among genome segments of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) field isolates was reported frequently worldwide, however the pathogenicity of the reassortant field IBDV is poorly understood. In this paper, a pathogenicity study on four representative IBDV field strains isolated from Southern China between 2005 and 2011 was conducted. Twenty-eight-day-old Three-Yellow chickens were divided into four groups and were inoculated intraocularly with one of the four field IBDV strains, namely NN1172, NN1005, GD10111 and JS7, respectively. The mortality and relative weight of bursa and thymus were subsequently determined in the acute phase of infection. In addition, B cells, T cells (CD4(+) and CD8(+)) and virus were quantified in the bursa of Fabricius and thymus, respectively, by flow cytometry and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that isolate NN1172, of which parts of segment A and B encoding the hypervariable (v) region of viral protein (VP2) and VP1, respectively, derived from vvIBDV strains, showed the most severe pathogenicity, and caused the most severe bursal B cell depletion as well as CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell infiltration in the bursa of Fabricius. However, the virus induced the strongest decrease in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the thymus and exhibited the most efficient viral replication in the target organs. Isolate NN1005, whose vVP2 derived from vvIBDV and VP1 from unidentified origin, exhibited relatively lower pathogenicity compared to NN1172. The other two isolates, JS7 and GD10111, of which the vVP2 derived from vvIBDV and intermediate IBDV, and VP1 from 002-73 and attenuated IBDV, respectively, showed the lowest level of virulence. Our results suggest that various IBDV field isolates with different natural segment reassortments exhibit differential pathogenicity after infection of commercial Three-Yellow chickens.

  10. Isolation and characterization of a reovirus from common eiders (Somateria mollissima) from Finland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hollmen, T.; Franson, J. Christian; Kilpi, Mikael; Docherty, D.E.; Hansen, W.R.; Hario, Martti

    2002-01-01

    Samples of brain, intestine, liver, lung, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were collected from five common eider (Somateria mollissima) duckling carcasses during a die-off in the western Gulf of Finland (59??50???N, 23??15???E) in June 1996. No viral activity was observed in specific-pathogen-free chicken embryos inoculated with tissue suspensions, but samples of bursa of Fabricius from three birds were positive when inoculated into Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) embryo fibroblasts. The isolates were characterized as nonenveloped RNA viruses and possessed several characteristics of the genus Orthoreovirus. Virus particles were icosahedral with a mean diameter of 72 nm and were stable at pH 3.0; their genome was separated into 10 segments by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings experimentally infected with the eider reovirus showed elevated serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase enzymes and focal hemorrhages in the liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius. During 1997-99, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to the isolated virus ranged from 0 to 86% in 302 serum samples collected from incubating eider hens at three nesting areas along coastal Finland. The highest seroprevalence was found in Hanko in 1999, just weeks before reports of an uninvestigated mortality event resulting in the death of an estimated 98% of ducklings at that location. These findings raise the question of potential involvement of the virus in poor duckling survival and eider population declines observed in several breeding areas along coastal Finland since the mid-1980s.

  11. Duck plague in free-flying waterfowl observed during the Lake Andes epizootic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Proctor, S.J.; Pearson, G.L.; Leibovitz, L.

    1975-01-01

    The first major epizootic of duck plague in free-flying waterfowl occurred at Lake Andes, South Dakota, in January and February, 1973. Duck plague was diagnosed in black ducks, mallards, pintail-mallard hybrids, redheads, common mergansers, common golden eyes, canvasbacks, American widgeon, wood ducks, and Canada geese, indicating the general susceptibility of ducks to duck plague. Clinical signs observed in mallards were droopiness, polydipsia, lethargy, reduced wariness, weakness, reluctance to fly, swimming in circles, bloody diarrhea, bloody fluid draining from the nares and bill, and terminal convulsions.Because the mallard was the most numerous and heavily infected species during the Lake Andes epizootic, gross and microscopic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, heart, lung, bone marrow, pancreas, and ovaries were described. Lesions of the esophagus and cloaca were in the stratified submucosal glands. In the small and large intestine, lesions were located in lymphocytic aggregates, lamina propria, and crypt epithelium. Hemorrhages and necrosis of hepatocytes and bile duct epithelium were noted in the liver. Diffuse necrosis of lymphocytic and reticuloendothelial tissue were evident in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus. Hemorrhages in other tissues such as the lung and heart were often associated with lymphoid nodules, while those in organs such as the pancreas were associated with acinar necrosis. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were seen in stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus and cloaca, crypt epithelium of the intestine, hepatocytes, bile duct epithelium, cells of Hassel's corpuscles, splenic periarteriolar reticular cells, and epithelial cells in the bursa of Fabricius.

  12. Feeding a diet contaminated with ochratoxin A for broiler chickens at the maximum level recommended by the EU for poultry feeds (0.1 mg/kg). 2. Effects on meat quality, oxidative stress, residues and histological traits.

    PubMed

    Pozzo, L; Cavallarin, L; Antoniazzi, S; Guerre, P; Biasibetti, E; Capucchio, M T; Schiavone, A

    2013-05-01

    The European Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC indicates that the maximum tolerable level of ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry feeds is 0.1 mg OTA/kg. Thirty-six 1-day-old male broiler chicks were divided into two groups, a control (basal diet) and an OTA (basal diet + 0.1 mg OTA/kg) group. The OTA concentration was quantified in serum, liver, kidney, breast and thigh samples. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content were evaluated in the liver, kidney, breast and thigh samples. The glutathione (GSH) content, and catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in the liver and kidney samples. Histopathological traits were evaluated for the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and liver samples. Moreover, the chemical composition of the meat was analysed in breast and thigh samples. In the OTA diet-fed animals, a serum OTA concentration of 1.15 ± 0.35 ng/ml was found, and OTA was also detected in kidney and liver at 3.58 ± 0.85 ng OTA/g f.w. and 1.92 ± 0.21 ng OTA/g f.w., respectively. The TBARS content was higher in the kidney of the ochratoxin A group (1.53 ± 0.18 nmol/mg protein vs. 0.91 ± 0.25 nmol/mg protein). Feeding OTA at 0.1 mg OTA/kg also resulted in degenerative lesions in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius and liver. The maximum tolerable level of 0.1 mg OTA/kg, established for poultry feeds by the EU, represents a safe limit for the final consumer, because no OTA residues were found in breast and thigh meat. Even though no clinical signs were noticed in the birds fed the OTA-contaminated diet, moderate histological lesions were observed in the liver, spleen and bursa of Fabricius.

  13. Hyperpigmentation Results in Aberrant Immune Development in Silky Fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus Brisson)

    PubMed Central

    Han, Deping; Wang, Shuxiang; Hu, Yanxin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Dong, Xianggui; Yang, Zu; Wang, Jiankui; Li, Junying; Deng, Xuemei

    2015-01-01

    The Silky Fowl (SF) is known for its special phenotypes and atypical distribution of melanocytes among internal organs. Although the genes associated with melanocyte migration have been investigated substantially, there is little information on the postnatal distribution of melanocytes in inner organs and the effect of hyperpigmentation on the development of SF. Here, we analyzed melanocyte distribution in 26 tissues or organs on postnatal day 1 and weeks 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, and 23. Except for the liver, pancreas, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland, melanocytes were distributed throughout the body, primarily around blood vessels. Interaction between melanocytes and the tissue cells was observed, and melanin was transported by filopodia delivery through engulfed and internalized membrane-encapsulated melanosomes. SFs less than 10 weeks old have lower indices of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius than White Leghorns (WLs). The expression levels of interferon-γ and interlukin-4 genes in the spleen, and serum antibody levels against H5N1 and infectious bursal disease virus were lower in SF than in WL. We also found immune organ developmental difference between Black-boned and non-Black- boned chickens from SFs and WLs hybrid F2 population. However, degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius occurred later in SF than in WL after sexual maturity. Analysis of apoptotic cells and apoptosis-associated Bax and Bcl-2 proteins indicated that apoptosis is involved in degeneration of the thymus and bursa of Fabricius. Therefore, these results suggest that hyperpigmentation in SF may have a close relationship with immune development in SF, which can provide an important animal model to investigate the roles of melanocyte. PMID:26047316

  14. A field study on the significance of vaccination against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) at the optimal time point in broiler flocks with maternally derived IBDV antibodies.

    PubMed

    Block, Hermann; Meyer-Block, Karen; Rebeski, Dierk E; Scharr, Heike; de Wit, Sjaak; Rohn, Karl; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2007-10-01

    The right strategy for infectious bursal disease (IBD) control and its success rate under field conditions depends on hygiene management, IBD field pressure, level and variation in maternally derived IBD antibodies, and the IBD vaccine strains to be used. Usually, standard vaccination programmes are used, which are not always adapted to the specific conditions on the farm and to the immune status of chickens. Employing the "Deventer formula" may help to estimate the optimal time for vaccination for a specific flock based on the maternally derived antibody level, its variation, the genetic background of the chicken, and the IBD vaccine strain. Two field studies with 16 or 20 commercial broiler flocks were conducted, applying an intermediate IBD vaccine before, at the best, and after the estimated optimal vaccination time estimated by the "Deventer formula". These studies showed that flocks IBD-vaccinated between 1 day before, at, or up to 3 days after the estimated optimal time point developed detectable humoral immunity up to 14 days post vaccination. If birds had been vaccinated more than 1 day before the calculated optimal vaccination date, the humoral immune response was delayed or non-detectable until slaughter. The induction of humoral immunity correlated with the incidence of bursa lesions and IBDV detection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. As indicated in this study, under field conditions bursa lesions may develop later than predicted based on experimental experiences. The late incidence of bursa lesions after vaccination may be confused with field virus-induced lesions, in which case sequencing may offer a valuable tool for differentiation. PMID:17899465

  15. Protothecosis: report of a case with 20-year follow-up, and review of previously published cases.

    PubMed

    Todd, John R; King, John W; Oberle, Arnold; Matsumoto, Tadahiko; Odaka, Yoshinobu; Fowler, Marjorie; Pore, R Scott; Shahan, Tracy Allan; Yin, Lijia; Sanusi, Irwan D

    2012-10-01

    We present a Prototheca wickerhamii wound infection case that failed treatment with ketoconazole but was cured with amphotericin-B plus tetracycline. The patient was immunocompetent but had had local steroid injections. We reviewed another 159 cases from the literature. Prototheca has infected many areas of the human body, but most often skin, olecranon bursa, or wounds. Prior treatment with steroids and immune deficiencies are contributing factors. Itraconazole and fluconazole are reasonable initial treatments for patients with mild infections. For serious infections, or for infections that have failed azole treatment, amphotericin-B is the treatment of choice. PMID:22571772

  16. Giant iliopsoas bursitis: a complication of chronic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Claire-Louise; Meaney, James F M; Rana, Haider; McCarthy, Eoghan M; Howard, Donough; Cunnane, Gaye

    2010-03-01

    Iliopsoas bursitis is a poorly recognized cause of hip pain that requires early recognition to avoid potentially serious complications caused by compression of adjacent structures. It can occur in the setting of trauma in athletes or those who engage in heavy labor and is also associated with acute or chronic arthritis. We describe the cases of 2 patients, one of whom developed a femoral neuropathy, while the other had marked venous compression of the lower limb resulting from enlargement of the iliopsoas bursa. Magnetic resonance imaging offers the most accurate information on the extent of the problem. Recalcitrant cases may require bursectomy in addition to treatment of the underlying cause. PMID:20216129

  17. Endoscopic bursectomy and iliotibial tract release as a treatment for refractory greater trochanteric pain syndrome: a new endoscopic approach with early results.

    PubMed

    Govaert, Louise H M; van Dijk, C Niek; Zeegers, Adelgunde V C M; Albers, Gerardus H R

    2012-12-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is associated with excessive tension between the iliotibial band (ITB) and the greater trochanter. Several endoscopic procedures have been reported, but in most cases the endoscopic approach only consists of a bursectomy. The ITB and fascia lata act as a lateral tension band to resist tensile strains on the concave aspect of the femur and are often implicated as the source of GTPS. We therefore believe that the ITB must be addressed. We describe an endoscopic technique to release the ITB and remove the bursa and conclude that endoscopic bursectomy with cross incision of the ITB is a safe approach to treat patients with refractory GTPS. PMID:23766989

  18. Arthroscopic Scapulothoracic Decompression for Snapping Scapula Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Michael; Kasik, Connor; Dietzel, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Snapping scapula syndrome at the superomedial corner of the scapula can lead to significant shoulder dysfunction. Bursectomy with or without partial scapulectomy is currently the most beneficial primary method of treatment in patients in whom nonoperative therapy fails. Arthroscopic access to the scapulothoracic space is simple and reproducible with the technique described in this report. The bursal tissue can be cleared, optimizing visualization of the scapulothoracic space and the anatomic structures. Arthroscopic decompression of the scapulothoracic bursa and resection of the superomedial corner of the scapula are highlighted in a video example. PMID:26870637

  19. Arthroscopic Scapulothoracic Decompression for Snapping Scapula Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saper, Michael; Kasik, Connor; Dietzel, Douglas

    2015-12-01

    Snapping scapula syndrome at the superomedial corner of the scapula can lead to significant shoulder dysfunction. Bursectomy with or without partial scapulectomy is currently the most beneficial primary method of treatment in patients in whom nonoperative therapy fails. Arthroscopic access to the scapulothoracic space is simple and reproducible with the technique described in this report. The bursal tissue can be cleared, optimizing visualization of the scapulothoracic space and the anatomic structures. Arthroscopic decompression of the scapulothoracic bursa and resection of the superomedial corner of the scapula are highlighted in a video example. PMID:26870637

  20. A new species of Biacantha (Nematoda: Molineidae), a parasite of the common vampire bat from the Yungas, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Mirna C; Ramallo, Geraldine; Claps, Lucía E; Miotti, M Daniela

    2012-12-01

    A new species of Biacantha Wolfgang, 1954 (Nematoda: Molineidae), is described from the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus Geoffroy and St. Hilaire, 1810, from northwest Argentina. Biacantha normaliae n. sp. Oviedo, Ramallo, and Claps, is characterized by the disposition and number of ridges of the synlophe, the excretory pore located on a knob, 2 lateral processes on the tail of females, the male caudal bursa morphology, and lack of gubernaculum. This is the first species of nematode described in a vampire bat from Argentina.

  1. Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. VIII. Fergusobia from small galls on shoot buds, with descriptions of four new species.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kerrie A; Bartholomaeus, Faerlie; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Ye, Weimin; Taylor, Gary S; Thomas, W Kelley

    2014-08-28

    Small shoot bud galls induced by the Fergusobia (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae)/Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) mutualism occur on various Eucalyptus spp. Four new species of Fergusobia, collected from small shoot bud galls on Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. gomphocephala and E. leucoxylon, are described. Fergusobia gomphocephalae Davies n. sp. is morphologically characterized by a combination of a small C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a variable, conoid tail, a small C-shaped infective female with a hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate or J-shaped male with a broad tail, angular spicule and short peloderan bursa. Fergusobia leucoxylonae Davies n. sp. has a C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a conoid tail with a narrowly rounded tip, an arcuate infective female with a broadly rounded tail tip, and an almost straight to barely J-shaped male with angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicule and short bursa. Fergusobia schmidti Davies & Bartholomaeus n. sp. has an arcuate to open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a relatively large body diameter, relatively long stylet and small tail with a broadly rounded tail tip, an open C-shaped infective female with a broadly rounded to hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate to barely J-shaped male with spicules angular at about 33% of their length and peloderan bursa arising at about half body length. Fergusobia sporangae Davies n. sp. has an arcuate to open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a relatively long stylet and a broadly rounded tail tip, an arcuate infective female with a short tail with a broadly rounded to hemispherical tip, and an arcuate to barely J-shaped male with angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicule and short peloderan bursa. Various forms of small shoot bud galls are described. From phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the D2/D3 expansion segment of the large subunit rRNA gene, the four new species belong to two sister clades of Fergusobia. The larval shield morphology of their associated

  2. Incidence and surgical importance of the posterior gastric artery.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, K; Prates, J C; DiDio, L J

    1978-01-01

    In a series of 61 adult cadavers, the posterior gastric artery was found in 38 (62.3%), originating from the superior aspect of the mid-third of the splenic artery. The posterior gastric artery, running behind the parietal peritoneum of the omental bursa, produced a peritoneal fold before reaching the posterior wall of the superior portion of the gastric body, near the cardiac region, and the fundus. Its high incidence, hidden origin, deep course, and distribution make this artery very important for surgical procedures relating to the stomach, pancreas, spleen, and celiac region. It may be crucial, especially if partial gastric resection of splenectomy have obliterated other gastric vessels. PMID:629615

  3. Iliotibial band syndrome: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Eric J; Kim, Suezie; Calcei, Jacob G; Park, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Iliotibial band syndrome is a common overuse injury typically seen in runners, cyclists, and military recruits. Affected patients report lateral knee pain associated with repetitive motion activities. The diagnosis is usually made based on a characteristic history and physical examination, with imaging studies reserved for cases of recalcitrant disease to rule out other pathologic entities. Several etiologies have been proposed for iliotibial band syndrome, including friction of the iliotibial band against the lateral femoral epicondyle, compression of the fat and connective tissue deep to the iliotibial band, and chronic inflammation of the iliotibial band bursa. The mainstay of treatment is nonsurgical; however, in persistent or chronic cases, surgical management is indicated.

  4. Comparison between antigen-capture ELISA and conventional methods used for titration of infectious bursal disease virus.

    PubMed

    Hassan, M K; Saif, Y M; Shawky, S

    1996-01-01

    Two antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (polyclonal and monoclonal AC-ELISAs) were developed and evaluated for titration of infectious bursal disease viruses (IBDVs) propagated in different host systems, namely BGM-70 continuous cell line, primary chicken embryo fibroblast cells, and chicken bursa of Fabricius. The polyclonal system was more sensitive (P < 0.05) than the monoclonal system but both were specific as indicated by the negative results obtained with three non-IBDVs. The results revealed that the conventional systems used for titration of IBDVs (cell cultures and embryonating chicken eggs) were more sensitive than the polyclonal AC-ELISA.

  5. A new genus and species of fish leeches Dolichobdella rubra, gen. n., sp. n., (Clitellata, Hirudinida, Piscicolidae) from the northern Sea ofJapan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utevsky, Serge Y.; Chernyshev, Alexei V.

    2013-02-01

    A new species of fish leeches, Dolichobdella rubra gen. n., sp. n., was found in samples collected by RV Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev in the northern Sea of Japan from 470-528 m during the joint Russian-German expedition SoJaBio (Sea of Japan Biodiversity Studies) in August 2010. The leech does not exceed 13 mm in length and has the following morphological characteristics: body elongated, smooth, lacking gills and pulsatile vesicles; eyes and ocelli absent; coloration reddish; female gonopore larger than male one; 6pairs of testisacs; accessory glands, conductive tissue and copulatory area present; ovisacs short; bursa long; coelomic system reduced.

  6. Acute Calcific Bursitis After Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Barbotage of Rotator Cuff Calcific Tendinopathy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bo-Sung; Lee, Seung Hak; Cho, Yung; Chung, Sun Gun

    2016-08-01

    Ultrasound-guided percutaneous barbotage is an effective treatment for rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy, providing rapid and substantial pain relief. We present the case of a 49-year-old woman with aggravated pain early after ultrasound-guided barbotage of a large calcific deposit in the supraspinatus tendon. Subsequent examination revealed a thick calcification spreading along the subacromial-subdeltoid bursa space, suggesting acute calcific bursitis complicated by barbotage. Additional barbotage alleviated her pain completely. Therefore, a high index of suspicion for acute calcific bursitis is required in patients with unresolved or aggravated pain after barbotage. Repeated barbotage could be effective for this condition. PMID:26902864

  7. A new species of Biacantha (Nematoda: Molineidae), a parasite of the common vampire bat from the Yungas, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Mirna C; Ramallo, Geraldine; Claps, Lucía E; Miotti, M Daniela

    2012-12-01

    A new species of Biacantha Wolfgang, 1954 (Nematoda: Molineidae), is described from the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus Geoffroy and St. Hilaire, 1810, from northwest Argentina. Biacantha normaliae n. sp. Oviedo, Ramallo, and Claps, is characterized by the disposition and number of ridges of the synlophe, the excretory pore located on a knob, 2 lateral processes on the tail of females, the male caudal bursa morphology, and lack of gubernaculum. This is the first species of nematode described in a vampire bat from Argentina. PMID:22924934

  8. Prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle and sheep northeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mehdi Aghamohammad; Raoofi, Afshin; Hosseini, Arman; Mehrara, Mohammad Reza; Amininajafi, Fatemeh

    2016-09-01

    A survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of hard tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle and sheep north of Iran. The aim of study was to determine the prevalence of hard ticks on cattle and sheep in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. A total of 26 ticks were collected from 22 infested cattle and 26 ticks were collected from 12 infested sheep during activating seasons of ticks in 2013-2014. The species collected from cattle and sheep were Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma asiaticum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The results show that these are dominant tick species in the surveyed area. PMID:27605782

  9. A new genus and species of Heligmonellidae (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina) parasitic in Delomys dorsalis (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) from Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Digiani, María Celina; Kinsella, John M

    2014-10-01

    Alippistrongylus bicaudatus gen. et sp. n. (Nematoda: Heligmonellidae) is described from the striped Atlantic forest rat, Delomys dorsalis (Hensel) (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae), from the province of Misiones in Argentina. The new genus and species is characterised by a synlophe of 21 unequal ridges in both sexes without a gradient in size, with two ridges weakly sclerotised and oriented perpendicularly in the dorsal left quadrant; males with a highly dissymmetrical bursa with a hypertrophied right lobe, and females with a dorsal conical appendage just posterior to the vulva, conferring a two-tailed appearance to the female worms.

  10. Age-related alterations in the vertebral spinous processes and intervening soft tissues: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Sartoris, D J; Resnick, D; Tyson, R; Haghighi, P

    1985-11-01

    A radiologic-pathologic correlative investigation of the normal age-related alterations in the spinous processes and intervening soft tissues was performed using cadaveric spines and both ancient and modern macerated vertebral specimens. Extreme lordosis in the cervical or lumbar spine results in spinous process apposition, formation of interspinous bursae, eburnation with osteophytosis, and creation of synovial articulations. A concomitant degenerative enthesopathy involves the supraspinous or interspinous ligamentous attachments in any spinal segment. The differential diagnosis of this phenomenon, the clinical significance of which in a given patient is controversial, includes rheumatoid and other inflammatory arthritides as well as crystal deposition disease.

  11. Schulzia chiribita n. sp. (Nematoda, Trichostrongylina, Molineoidea) parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian) from Peru.

    PubMed

    Durette-Desset, M C; Florindez, D T; Morales, E

    2000-03-01

    A third species of the genus Schulzia Travassos, 1937 a parasite of Leptodactylus rhodonotus (Amphibian, Leptodactylidae) originating from Peru is described. By the pattern of the caudal bursa, the specimens are closely related to the two other species. They are distinguished from Schulzia uzu Lent & Santos, 1989, parasite from Atelopus oxyrhynchus in Venezuela, by the shape of the ovejector and from Schulzia travassosi Durette-Desset, Baker & Vaucher, 1985, parasite from Bufo crucifer in Brasil, Bufo granulosus and Leptodactylus bufonius in Paraguay, by the shape of the spicules. The presence of a new species in Peru points out the wide geographic distribution of the genus in the Neotropical region. PMID:10743644

  12. Endoscopic bursectomy and iliotibial tract release as a treatment for refractory greater trochanteric pain syndrome: a new endoscopic approach with early results.

    PubMed

    Govaert, Louise H M; van Dijk, C Niek; Zeegers, Adelgunde V C M; Albers, Gerardus H R

    2012-12-01

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is associated with excessive tension between the iliotibial band (ITB) and the greater trochanter. Several endoscopic procedures have been reported, but in most cases the endoscopic approach only consists of a bursectomy. The ITB and fascia lata act as a lateral tension band to resist tensile strains on the concave aspect of the femur and are often implicated as the source of GTPS. We therefore believe that the ITB must be addressed. We describe an endoscopic technique to release the ITB and remove the bursa and conclude that endoscopic bursectomy with cross incision of the ITB is a safe approach to treat patients with refractory GTPS.

  13. The lateral synovial recess of the knee: anatomy and role in chronic Iliotibial band friction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, W C; Sanders, B L

    1996-10-01

    The tissue deep to the iliotibial band (ITB) and its relationship to the lateral knee joint capsule was studied anatomically and the histopathology of this tissue in chronic iliotibial band friction syndrome (ITBFS) was examined. Findings show that the tissue under the ITB consists of a synovium that is a lateral extension and invagination of the actual knee joint capsule and is not a separate bursa as described in the literature. Additionally, in cases of chronic ITBFS seen in young elite athletes, synovial tissue taken from this lateral synovial recess reveals histological evidence of inflammation and hyperplasia that suggests its involvement in the pathological process.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of sports injuries of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Raymond; Riley, Geoffrey M; Steinbach, Lynne S

    2003-02-01

    Many abnormalities seen in the elbow result from trauma, often from sports such as baseball and tennis. Elbow problems are frequently related to the medial tension-lateral compression phenomenon, where repeated valgus stress produces flexor-pronator strain, ulnar collateral ligament sprain, ulnar traction spurring, and ulnar neuropathy. Lateral compression causes osteochondral lesions of the capitellum and radial head, degenerative arthritis, and loose bodies. Other elbow abnormalities seen on magnetic resonance imaging include radial collateral ligament injuries, biceps and triceps tendon injuries, other nerve entrapment syndromes, loose bodies, osseous and soft-tissue trauma, arthritis, and masses, including bursae.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, L S; Fritz, R C; Tirman, P F; Uffman, M

    1997-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides useful information regarding the elbow joint. Many abnormalities seen in the elbow are a result of trauma, often from sports such as baseball and tennis. Elbow problems are frequently related to the medial tension-lateral compression phenomenon where repeated valgus stress produces flexor-pronator strain, ulnar collateral ligament sprain, ulnar traction spurring, and ulnar neuropathy. The lateral compression causes osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum and radial head, degenerative arthritis, and loose bodies. Other elbow abnormalities seen on MRI include radial collateral ligament injuries, biceps and triceps tendon injuries, other nerve entrapment syndromes, loose bodies, osseous and soft tissue trauma, arthritis, and masses, including bursae.

  16. Perspectives in ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal interventions

    PubMed Central

    Daftary, Aditya Ravindra; Karnik, Alpana Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography (USG) is a safe, easily available, and cost-effective modality, which has the additional advantage of being real time for imaging and image-guided interventions of the musculoskeletal system. Musculoskeletal interventions are gaining popularity in sports and rehabilitation for rapid healing of muscle and tendon injuries in professional athletes, healing of chronic tendinopathies, aspiration of joint effusions, periarticular bursae and ganglia, and perineural injections in acute and chronic pain syndromes. This article aims to provide an overview of the spectrum of musculoskeletal interventions that can be done under USG guidance both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:26288519

  17. Ultrasound-Guided Interventional Procedures About the Shoulder: Anatomy, Indications, and Techniques.

    PubMed

    Pourcho, Adam M; Colio, Sean W; Hall, Mederic M

    2016-08-01

    Chronic and acute shoulder pain and dysfunction are common complaints among patients. Shoulder pain may be the result of abnormality involving the rotator cuff, subacromial-subdeltoid bursa, biceps tendon, glenoid labrum, glenohumeral joint, acromioclavicular joint, sternoclavicular joint, or glenohumeral joint capsule. Ultrasound-guided (USG) procedures of the shoulder are well established for interventional management. Ultrasound provides the advantages of excellent soft tissue resolution, injection accuracy, low cost, accessibility, portability, lack of ionizing radiation, and the ability to perform real-time image-guided procedures. The purpose of this article is to review common indications and effective techniques for USG injections about the shoulder. PMID:27468666

  18. Comparative evaluation of fracture resistance of root dentin to resin sealers and a MTA sealer: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mandava, Jyothi; Chang, Pin Chen; Roopesh, B; Faruddin, Md Ghazan; Anupreeta, A; Uma, Ch

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endodontic obturating materials should form monoblocks, reinforcing the treated teeth against fracture. Aim: To evaluate and compare the effect of two resin sealers and a MTA sealer on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods: Fifty single-rooted mandibular premolars, decoronated at cemento-enamel junction, were divided into 5 groups (n = 10 each). Group 1 and group 2 served as negative and positive controls. Cleaning and shaping of root canals was done using ProTaper rotary files and 3% sodium hypochlorite irrigation. Obturation was done using AH plus (Dentsply, Germany) (group 3), MetaSEAL (Parkell, USA) (group 4), MTA Fillapex (Angeles, Brazil) (group 5) sealers and gutta-percha. Teeth were subjected to vertical loading using a universal testing machine and the point at which fracture of the roots occurred was recorded. The data was subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by pair-wise comparison using Tukey's Post-hoc test. Results: AH Plus showed better fracture resistance among the sealer groups. Statistically, no significant difference was found between MetaSEAL and Fillapex groups. Conclusion: MTA Fillapex as a root canal sealer was not able to reinforce the tooth against fracture. PMID:24554862

  19. Nanodiamond-Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Kim, Sue Vin; Limansubroto, Adelheid Nerisa; Yen, Albert; Soundia, Akrivoula; Wang, Cun-Yu; Shi, Wenyuan; Hong, Christine; Tetradis, Sotirios; Kim, Yong; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K; Ho, Dean

    2015-11-24

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable, inert, and biocompatible. While filling the root canal space with GP is the standard of care for endodontic therapies, it has exhibited limitations including leakage, root canal reinfection, and poor mechanical properties. To address these challenges, clinicians have explored the use of alternative root filling materials other than GP. Among the classes of materials that are being explored as novel endodontic therapy platforms, nanodiamonds (NDs) may offer unique advantages due to their favorable properties, particularly for dental applications. These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others. This study developed a ND-embedded GP (NDGP) that was functionalized with amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic commonly used for endodontic infection. Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP. In addition, digital radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging demonstrated that obturation of root canals with NDGP could be achieved using clinically relevant techniques. Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin. This study demonstrates a promising path toward NDGP implementation in future endodontic therapy for improved treatment outcomes.

  20. Push-out bond strength of gutta-percha with a new bioceramic sealer in the presence or absence of smear layer.

    PubMed

    Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Gorjestani, Hedayat; Nasseh, Allen Ali; Hoseini, Atefeh; Mohammadi, Maryam; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the bond strength of a new bioceramic sealer (EndoSequence BC Sealer) and AH Plus in the presence or absence of smear layer. Extracted single-rooted human teeth were prepared and randomly divided into four groups. In groups 1 and 3, the root canals were finally irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl and smear layer was not removed, but in groups 2 and 4, the root canals were finally irrigated with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCl in order to remove the smear layer. In groups 1 and 2, the root canals were obturated with gutta-percha/AH Plus, but in groups 3 and 4, obturation was performed with gutta-percha/EndoSequence BC Sealer. Push-out bond strength and failure modes were evaluated. The bond strength of gutta-percha/AH Plus and gutta-percha/EndoSequence BC Sealer was not significantly different (P = 0.89). The presence or absence of smear layer did not significantly affect the bond strength of filling materials (P = 0.69). The mode of bond failure was mainly cohesive for all groups. In conclusion, the bond strength of the new bioceramic sealer was equal to that of AH Plus with or without the smear layer.

  1. Are obligatory apomicts invested in the pollen tube transmitting tissue? Comparison of the micropyle ultrastructure between sexual and apomictic dandelions (Asteraceae, Lactuceae).

    PubMed

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Świątek, Piotr; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Majeský, Ľuboš; Marciniuk, Jolanta; Stolarczyk, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    With the exception of the sunflower, little information concerning the micropyle ultrastructure of the family Asteraceae is available. The aim of our study was to compare the micropyle structure in amphimictic and apomictic dandelions. Ultrastructural studies using buds and flowers during anthesis have been done on the micropyle of the sexual and apomictic Taraxacum. In all of the species that were examined, the micropylar canal was completely filled with ovule transmitting tissue and the matrix that was produced by these cells. The ovule transmitting tissue was connected to the ovarian transmitting tissue. The micropyle was asymmetrical because the integument epidermis that forms the transmitting tissue was only on the funicular side. There was a cuticle between the obturator cells and epidermal cells on the other side of integument. The micropylar transmitting tissue cells and theirs matrix reached the synergid apex. The cytoplasm of the transmitting tissue cells was especially rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), dictyosomes, and mitochondria. No major differences were detected between the micropyle structure of the amphimictic and apomictic species; thus, a structural reduction of obturator does not exist. The ovule transmitting tissue is still active in apomictic dandelions despite the presence of the embryo and endosperm. Differences and similarities between the micropyle structure in the Asteraceae that have been studied to date are discussed. PMID:25652809

  2. Nonsurgical endodontic retreatment of fused teeth with transposition: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Noites, Rita Brandão; Martins, Miguel André Duarte; Paulo, Manuel Pedro da Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    Tooth transposition is a disorder in which a permanent tooth develops and erupts in the normal position of another permanent tooth. Fusion and gemination are developmental disturbances presenting as the union of teeth. This article reports the nonsurgical retreatment of a very rare case of fused teeth with transposition. A patient was referred for endodontic treatment of her maxillary left first molar in the position of the first premolar, which was adjacent to it on the distobuccal side. Orthopantomography and periapical radiography showed two crowns sharing the same root, with a root canal treatment and an associated periapical lesion. Tooth fusion with transposition of a maxillary molar and a premolar was diagnosed. Nonsurgical endodontic retreatment was performed. At four yr follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic and the radiolucency around the apical region had decreased, showing the success of our intervention. The diagnosis and treatment of fused teeth require special attention. The canal system should be carefully explored to obtain a full understanding of the anatomy, allowing it to be fully cleaned and obturated. Thermoplastic techniques were useful in obtaining hermetic obturation. A correct anatomical evaluation improves the set of treatment options under consideration, leading to a higher likelihood of esthetically and functionally successful treatment. PMID:27200284

  3. An in vitro comparison of the intraradicular dentin bond strength of Resilon and gutta-percha.

    PubMed

    Skidmore, Lance J; Berzins, David W; Bahcall, James K

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the micropush-out bond strength of Resilon to that of gutta-percha. Extracted human anterior teeth were used for evaluation. The crowns were removed and the root canals were instrumented with Gates Glidden drills and 0.06 Profile rotary files. Instrumentation was performed with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite irrigation and a final rinse of 17% EDTA. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups. Gutta-percha group: obturation with gutta-percha and Kerr Pulp Canal Sealer EWT. Resilon group: obturation with Resilon points, Epiphany Primer, and Root Canal Sealant. The teeth were cut perpendicular to their long axis to obtain a series of 1.0 mm thick disks (n = 15 per group). Micropush-out bond strengths to root canal dentin were measured. The results show that the mean bond strength to root canal dentin was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the Resilon/Epiphany group as compared to the gutta-percha/Kerr Pulp Canal Sealer EWT group.

  4. Synthesis and characterizations of a fluoride-releasing dental restorative material.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Samad; Aamer, Sidra; Chaudhry, Aqif Anwar; Wong, Ferranti S L; Ur Rehman, Ihtesham

    2013-08-01

    The aim was to develop an obturating material which has the tendency to release fluoride and minimize interfaces with tooth. Nano-fluorapatite (nFA) powder was synthesized by sol-gel. The composite based on polyurethane (PU) was obtained by chemically binding the nFA (10, 15, 20%wt/wt) to the diisocyanate component by utilizing in-situ polymerization. The procedure involved stepwise addition of monomeric units of PU, and optimizing the reagent concentrations to synthesize composite. The structural, phase and morphological analysis of nFA was evaluated. The structural, fluoride release and in-vitro adhesion analysis with tooth structure of PU/nFA was conducted. For fluoride release analysis the samples were stored in artificial saliva and deionized water for periodical time intervals. Bond strength of composites was analyzed by push-out test. Chemical linkage was achieved between PU and nFA without intermediate coupling agent. The insignificant difference of fluoride release pattern was observed in artificial saliva and (p≥0.05) deionized water. The PU/nFA composite provided sustained release of fluoride over a long period of time. The composite showed more adhesion toward tooth structure with the increase in concentration of nFA. Bond strength of composite was in accordance with root canal filling material, hence, the material with anti-cariogenic properties can be used as an obturating material.

  5. [Lymphadenectomy and prostate cancer: a statement of the committee of cancerology of the French Association of Urology].

    PubMed

    Salomon, L; Peyromaure, M; Fromont, G; Rozet, F; Eiss, D; Bastide, C; Beuzeboc, P; Gachignard, N; Cormier, L; Hennequin, C; Mongiat-Artus, P; Soulié, M

    2012-07-01

    Lymph node invasion is the first step of metastatic evolution of prostate cancer. In this case, today, no local treatment should be proposed. Detection of lymph node invasion is performed by CT-scan and RMI, which show hypertrophied nodes. No difference in term of sensibility and specificity is observed between CT-scan and RMI. Invaded nodes are defined by modifications of size, form, and aspect of the architecture of nodes. Sentinel node belongs to expert centers. Surgical lymphadenectomy remains the best way to evaluate lymph node status. Limited to ilio-obturator land, it underestimates the risk of lymph node invasion: Extended lymph node excision defined by the association of bilateral ilio-obturator, internal iliaca and external iliaca lymphadenectomy should be systematically proposed to intermediate and high risk prostate cancer. A "well done" lymphadenectomy is represented by more than 10 nodes removed. Lymph node invasion represents bad prognosis. However, therapeutic value and influence of prognosis of lymphadenectomy in prostate cancer is still not established. Therefore, one or two invade lymph nodes represented a population of patients with better prognosis, specially if no capsular effraction is observed. After radical prostatectomy, in case of lymph node invasion, immediate hormonotherapy is the standard; however, this treatment is discussed in case of low number of invaded nodes (one or two) and if postoperative PSA is equal to zero. In this case, radiotherapy is still in evaluation and chemotherapy has no indication.

  6. Comparison of bond strength of different endodontic sealers to root dentin: An in vitro push-out test

    PubMed Central

    Madhuri, G. Vijaya; Varri, Sujana; Bolla, Nagesh; Mandava, Pragna; Akkala, Lakshmi Swathi; Shaik, Jaheer

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the bond strength of four different endodontic sealers to root dentin through push-out test design. Materials and Methods: Forty single-rooted teeth with completely formed apices were selected. Teeth were decoronated, and working length was determined. Instrumentation and irrigation were performed. The teeth were divided into four groups based upon the sealer used. Group 1: Bioceramic sealer (Endosequence), Group 2: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) based sealer (MTA Fill apex), Group 3: Epoxy resin based sealer (MM-Seal), and Group 4: Dual cure resin-based sealer (Hybrid Root Seal). Manipulation and application of the sealer was done as per the manufacturer instructions. All the teeth were obturated using 6% gutta-percha. After obturation, each tooth was prepared for push-out test with root slices of 2 mm thickness using universal testing machine. Results: The highest bond strength was found in Group 1 (Endosequence) (P < 0.05) compared to other groups. The lowest bond strength was found in Group 2 (MTA Fill apex). Statistical analysis is done by two-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls multiple post hoc. Conclusion: The push-out bond strength of Bioceramic sealer was highest followed by resin-based sealer and lowest bond strength was observed in MTA-based sealer.

  7. Are obligatory apomicts invested in the pollen tube transmitting tissue? Comparison of the micropyle ultrastructure between sexual and apomictic dandelions (Asteraceae, Lactuceae).

    PubMed

    Płachno, Bartosz J; Świątek, Piotr; Kozieradzka-Kiszkurno, Małgorzata; Majeský, Ľuboš; Marciniuk, Jolanta; Stolarczyk, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    With the exception of the sunflower, little information concerning the micropyle ultrastructure of the family Asteraceae is available. The aim of our study was to compare the micropyle structure in amphimictic and apomictic dandelions. Ultrastructural studies using buds and flowers during anthesis have been done on the micropyle of the sexual and apomictic Taraxacum. In all of the species that were examined, the micropylar canal was completely filled with ovule transmitting tissue and the matrix that was produced by these cells. The ovule transmitting tissue was connected to the ovarian transmitting tissue. The micropyle was asymmetrical because the integument epidermis that forms the transmitting tissue was only on the funicular side. There was a cuticle between the obturator cells and epidermal cells on the other side of integument. The micropylar transmitting tissue cells and theirs matrix reached the synergid apex. The cytoplasm of the transmitting tissue cells was especially rich in rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), dictyosomes, and mitochondria. No major differences were detected between the micropyle structure of the amphimictic and apomictic species; thus, a structural reduction of obturator does not exist. The ovule transmitting tissue is still active in apomictic dandelions despite the presence of the embryo and endosperm. Differences and similarities between the micropyle structure in the Asteraceae that have been studied to date are discussed.

  8. Vaginal reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lesavoy, M.A.

    1985-05-01

    Vaginal reconstruction can be an uncomplicated and straightforward procedure when attention to detail is maintained. The Abbe-McIndoe procedure of lining the neovaginal canal with split-thickness skin grafts has become standard. The use of the inflatable Heyer-Schulte vaginal stent provides comfort to the patient and ease to the surgeon in maintaining approximation of the skin graft. For large vaginal and perineal defects, myocutaneous flaps such as the gracilis island have been extremely useful for correction of radiation-damaged tissue of the perineum or for the reconstruction of large ablative defects. Minimal morbidity and scarring ensue because the donor site can be closed primarily. With all vaginal reconstruction, a compliant patient is a necessity. The patient must wear a vaginal obturator for a minimum of 3 to 6 months postoperatively and is encouraged to use intercourse as an excellent obturator. In general, vaginal reconstruction can be an extremely gratifying procedure for both the functional and emotional well-being of patients.

  9. In vitro infrared thermographic assessment of root surface temperature rises during thermafil retreatment using system B.

    PubMed

    Lipski, Mariusz; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure the temperature rise on the outer root surface during retreatment of Thermafil using the System B HeatSource. Twenty extracted human maxillary premolars were filled with Thermafil with plastic carriers and divided into two groups of 10 teeth each. In group 1, Thermafil obturators were retrieved using System B HeatSource fitted with a medium plugger at a temperature of 225 degrees C. The plugger was placed first on the buccal, then on the lingual of the plastic carrier for 5 s each. This melted the gutta-percha and softened the plastic carrier. In group 2, Thermafil obturators were retrieved in the same manner except that the heated plugger was placed for 8 s. The temperature changes on the outer root surfaces were recorded using a thermal imaging camera. Thermafil retreatment in vitro using a System B HeatSource causes temperature rises ranging from 26.7 degrees C to 46.0 degrees C. This finding could possibly have implications for creating injury of the periodontal tissues.

  10. Initiation of combustion in the thermally choked ram accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruckner, A. P.; Burnham, E. A.; Knowlen, C.; Hertzberg, A.; Bogdanoff, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The methodology for initiating stable combustion in a ram accelerator operating in the thermally choked mode is presented in this paper. The ram accelerator is a high velocity ramjet-in-tube projectile launcher whose principle of operation is similar to that of an airbreathing ramjet. The subcaliber projectile travels supersonically through a stationary tube filled with a premixed combustible gas mixture. In the thermally choked propulsion mode subsonic combustion takes place behind the base of the projectile and leads to thermal choking, which stabilizes a normal shock system on the projectile, thus producing forward thrust. Projectiles with masses in the 45-90 g range have been accelerated to velocities up to 2650 m/sec in a 38 mm bore, 16 m long accelerator tube. Operation of the ram accelerator is started by injecting the projectile into the accelerator tube at velocities in the 700 - 1300 m/sec range by means of a conventional gas gun. A specially designed obturator, which seals the bore of the gun during this initial acceleration, enters the ram accelerator together with the projectile. The interaction of the obturator with the propellant gas ignites the gas mixture and establishes stable combustion behind the projectile.

  11. In vitro Study on Apical Sealing Ability of Nano-Hydroxyapatite-Filled Epoxy Resin Based Endodontic Sealer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masudi, S. M.; Luddin, N.; Mohamad, D.; Alkashakhshir, J. J.; Adnan, R.; Ramli, R. A.

    2010-03-01

    The objectives of this in vitro study were to evaluate the apical sealing ability of experimental nano hydroxyapatite (HA)-filled epoxy resin based endodontic sealer and to compare it with the commercial AH26 sealant. A total of 76 extracted human anterior teeth were instrumented using NiTi files and randomly divided into two groups of 33 teeth each and two control groups of 5 teeth each. The first group was obturated using gutta-percha with AH26 sealer. The second group was obturated with the nano HA-filled epoxy resin based sealer. All teeth were coated with nail polish except 2 mm from foramen apical and then suspended in 2% methylene blue for 7 days. All teeth were sectioned longitudinally for measuring penetration of the dye using stereo-microscope (x36). The result showed that there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in apical sealing ability between AH26 silver-free sealer and nano HA sealer.

  12. Nonsurgical endodontic retreatment of fused teeth with transposition: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Miguel Agostinho Beco Pinto; Noites, Rita Brandão; Martins, Miguel André Duarte; Paulo, Manuel Pedro da Fonseca

    2016-05-01

    Tooth transposition is a disorder in which a permanent tooth develops and erupts in the normal position of another permanent tooth. Fusion and gemination are developmental disturbances presenting as the union of teeth. This article reports the nonsurgical retreatment of a very rare case of fused teeth with transposition. A patient was referred for endodontic treatment of her maxillary left first molar in the position of the first premolar, which was adjacent to it on the distobuccal side. Orthopantomography and periapical radiography showed two crowns sharing the same root, with a root canal treatment and an associated periapical lesion. Tooth fusion with transposition of a maxillary molar and a premolar was diagnosed. Nonsurgical endodontic retreatment was performed. At four yr follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic and the radiolucency around the apical region had decreased, showing the success of our intervention. The diagnosis and treatment of fused teeth require special attention. The canal system should be carefully explored to obtain a full understanding of the anatomy, allowing it to be fully cleaned and obturated. Thermoplastic techniques were useful in obtaining hermetic obturation. A correct anatomical evaluation improves the set of treatment options under consideration, leading to a higher likelihood of esthetically and functionally successful treatment. PMID:27200284

  13. Reconstruction of complex oro-facial defects using the myocutaneous sub-mental artery flap.

    PubMed

    Saleh, D B; Fourie, L; Mizen, K D

    2014-07-01

    Oro-facial defects require reconstruction that provides suitable colour match and texture. Moreover inner and outer cheek lining and bulk are key considerations. In cases of severe oro-facial infections concomitant mandibular abnormality, for example trismus, can mandate the need for tissue to obturate mandibular defects. We assessed the use of the myocutaneous sub-mental artery flap (MSA) in non-oncological patients with such defects. Twenty two consecutive patients were included in this case series. All patients were survivors of Cancrum Oris (NOMA). Demographic details, nutritional status and co-morbidities were recorded. Defects were classified according to the tissues destroyed; cheek, mandible, oral cavity, lip(s), nose and eye(s). Simultaneous procedures carried out were recorded. The surgical anatomy of the MSA is described. All patients had composite defects of the cheek and oral cavity plus another local anatomical structure. Adjunct procedures such as trismus release were carried out in 18/22 patients. Four patients required a return to theatre. There was no trismus recurrence observed. No flap losses were incurred. The MSA is a robust flap with minimal incidence of major complications. The MSA negates the need for microsurgical tissue transfer. Furthermore the MSA provides adequate bulk to obturate these defects. Future applications of the MSA may include complex oro-facial oncological defects. PMID:24209385

  14. Improving the detection of acetabular osteolysis using oblique radiographs.

    PubMed

    Southwell, D G; Bechtold, J E; Lew, W D; Schmidt, A H

    1999-03-01

    Visualisation of periacetabular osteolysis by standard anteroposterior (AP) radiographs underestimates the extent of bone loss around a metal-backed acetabular component. We have assessed the effectiveness of standard radiological views in depicting periacetabular osteolysis, and recommend additional projections which make these lesions more visible. This was accomplished using a computerised simulation of radiological views and a radiological analysis of simulated defects placed at regular intervals around the perimeter of a cadaver acetabulum. The AP view alone showed only 38% of the defects over all of the surface of the cup and failed to depict a 3 mm lesion over 83% of the cup. When combined with the AP view, additional 45 degree obturator-oblique and iliac-oblique projections increased the depiction, showing 81% of the defects. The addition of the 60 degree obturator-oblique view further improved the visualisation of posterior defects, increasing the rate of detection to 94%. Based on this analysis, we recommend using at least three radiographic views when assessing the presence and extent of acetabular osteolysis. PMID:10204936

  15. A comparative evaluation of the canal centering ability of three rotary nickel-titanium retreatment systems in the mesio-buccal canals of mandibular first molars using computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Gogulnath, Deenadhayalan; Rajan, Rajendran Mathan; Arathy, Ganesh; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam

    2015-01-01

    Background: During endodontic retreatment, relative difficulty exists in removing the filling material and maintaining the canal anatomy. Usage of nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary retreatment instruments is widely accepted, but there is a lack of adequate literature evidence about their canal centering ability. Aim: To compare the canal centering ability of rotary NiTi retreatment systems. Materials and Methods: Mandibular first molars with mesiobuccal canals with canal access angle of 20-40° were used. Canals prepared until ISO 25, 0.06 taper. Obturated with three different techniques lateral compaction, Thermafil, and Resilon/Epiphany. Retreatment was carried using three different systems ProTaper retreatment, Mtwo R and REndo. Specimens were subjected to computed tomography analysis at coronal, middle, and apical third of the root canal preobturation and postretreatment procedure. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey test. Results: No statistically significant difference with three retreatment systems. Variation existed among all the subgroups at the coronal, middle, and apical third of the root canal. Conclusion: All retreatment systems with three obturation techniques showed eccentricity within acceptable limits. REndo, MtwoR showed better canal centering and ProTaper retreatment system showed tendency for eccentric canal preparation, especially in apical third. PMID:26180417

  16. Comparison of bond strength of different endodontic sealers to root dentin: An in vitro push-out test

    PubMed Central

    Madhuri, G. Vijaya; Varri, Sujana; Bolla, Nagesh; Mandava, Pragna; Akkala, Lakshmi Swathi; Shaik, Jaheer

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the bond strength of four different endodontic sealers to root dentin through push-out test design. Materials and Methods: Forty single-rooted teeth with completely formed apices were selected. Teeth were decoronated, and working length was determined. Instrumentation and irrigation were performed. The teeth were divided into four groups based upon the sealer used. Group 1: Bioceramic sealer (Endosequence), Group 2: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) based sealer (MTA Fill apex), Group 3: Epoxy resin based sealer (MM-Seal), and Group 4: Dual cure resin-based sealer (Hybrid Root Seal). Manipulation and application of the sealer was done as per the manufacturer instructions. All the teeth were obturated using 6% gutta-percha. After obturation, each tooth was prepared for push-out test with root slices of 2 mm thickness using universal testing machine. Results: The highest bond strength was found in Group 1 (Endosequence) (P < 0.05) compared to other groups. The lowest bond strength was found in Group 2 (MTA Fill apex). Statistical analysis is done by two-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls multiple post hoc. Conclusion: The push-out bond strength of Bioceramic sealer was highest followed by resin-based sealer and lowest bond strength was observed in MTA-based sealer. PMID:27656067

  17. Intraorifice sealing ability of different materials in endodontically treated teeth: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Bandish; Irani, Rukshin S.; Sathe, Sucheta; Hegde, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Background: Microbial contamination of the pulp space is one of the major factors associated with endodontic failure. Thus, in addition to a three dimentional apical filling a coronal seal for root canal fillings has been recommended. Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the intra-orifice sealing ability of three experimental materials after obturation of the root canal system. Materials and Methods: Fourty single rooted mandibular premolars were decoronated, cleaned, shaped and obturated. Gutta-percha was removed to the depth of 3.5 mm from the orifice with a heated plugger. Ten specimens each were sealed with Light Cure Glass Ionomer Cement (LCGIC), Flowable Composite (Tetric N-Flow), and Light Cure Glass Ionomer Cement with Flowable Composite in Sandwich Technique along with a positive control respectively and roots submerged in Rhodamine-B dye in vacuum for one week. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned and leakage measured using a 10X stereomicroscope and graded for depth of leakage. Results: According to the results of the present study LC GIC + Tetric N Flow demonstrated significantly better seal (P < 0.01) than LC GIC. However there was no statistically significant difference in leakage (P > 0.01) between Tetric N-Flow and LCGIC+Tetric N-Flow groups. Conclusion: In the current study LCGIC+Tetric N-Flow was found to be superior over other experimental materials as intra-orifice barriers. PMID:24944446

  18. A spiking Basal Ganglia model of synchrony, exploration and decision making.

    PubMed

    Mandali, Alekhya; Rengaswamy, Maithreye; Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2015-01-01

    To make an optimal decision we need to weigh all the available options, compare them with the current goal, and choose the most rewarding one. Depending on the situation an optimal decision could be to either "explore" or "exploit" or "not to take any action" for which the Basal Ganglia (BG) is considered to be a key neural substrate. In an attempt to expand this classical picture of BG function, we had earlier hypothesized that the Indirect Pathway (IP) of the BG could be the subcortical substrate for exploration. In this study we build a spiking network model to relate exploration to synchrony levels in the BG (which are a neural marker for tremor in Parkinson's disease). Key BG nuclei such as the Sub Thalamic Nucleus (STN), Globus Pallidus externus (GPe) and Globus Pallidus internus (GPi) were modeled as Izhikevich spiking neurons whereas the Striatal output was modeled as Poisson spikes. The model is cast in reinforcement learning framework with the dopamine signal representing reward prediction error. We apply the model to two decision making tasks: a binary action selection task (similar to one used by Humphries et al., 2006) and an n-armed bandit task (Bourdaud et al., 2008). The model shows that exploration levels could be controlled by STN's lateral connection strength which also influenced the synchrony levels in the STN-GPe circuit. An increase in STN's lateral strength led to a decrease in exploration which can be thought as the possible explanation for reduced exploratory levels in Parkinson's patients. Our simulations also show that on complete removal of IP, the model exhibits only Go and No-Go behaviors, thereby demonstrating the crucial role of IP in exploration. Our model provides a unified account for synchronization, action section, and explorative behavior. PMID:26074761

  19. Effects of muscle fiber type on glycolytic potential and meat quality traits in different Tibetan pig muscles and their association with glycolysis-related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shen, L Y; Luo, J; Lei, H G; Jiang, Y Z; Bai, L; Li, M Z; Tang, G Q; Li, X W; Zhang, S H; Zhu, L

    2015-11-13

    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition, glycolytic potential, mitochondrial content, and gene expression related to energy metabolism were analyzed in eight muscles from Tibetan pigs, to study how meat quality develops in different muscle tissues. The muscles were classified into three clusters, based on MyHC composition: masseter, trapezius, and latissimus dorsi as 'slow-oxidative-type'; psoas major and semimembranosus as 'intermediate-type'; and longissimus dorsi, obliquus externus abdominis, and semitendinosus as 'fast-glycolytic-type'. The 'slow-oxidative-type' muscles had the highest MyHC I and MyHC IIA content (P < 0.01); 'intermediate-type' muscles, the highest MyHC IIx content (P < 0.01); and 'fast-glycolytic-type' muscles, the highest MyHC IIb content (P < 0.01). The pH values measured in 'slow-oxidative-type' muscles were higher than those in the other clusters were; however, the color of 'fast-glycolytic-type' muscles was palest (P < 0.01). Mitochondrial content increased in the order: fast-glycolytic-type < intermediate-type < slow-oxidative-type. In the 'slow-oxidative-type' muscles, the expression levels of genes related to ATP synthesis were higher, but were lower for those related to glycogen synthesis and glycolysis. Mitochondrial content was significantly positively correlated with MyHC I content, but negatively correlated with MyHC IIb content. MyHC I and mitochondrial content were both negatively correlated with glycolytic potential. Overall, muscles used frequently in exercise had a higher proportion of type I fibers. 'Slow-oxidative-type' muscles, rich in type I fibers with higher mitochondrial and lower glycogen and glucose contents, had a higher ATP synthesis efficiency and lower glycolytic capacity, which contributed to their superior meat quality.

  20. Intraguild predation and cannibalism among larvae of detritivorous caddisflies in subalpine wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wissinger, S.A.; Sparks, G.B.; Rouse, G.L.; Brown, W.S.; Steltzer, H.

    1996-01-01

    Comparative data from subalpine wetlands in Colorado indicate that larvae of the limnephilid caddisflies, Asynarchus nigriculus and Limnephilus externus, are reciprocally abundant among habitats - Limnephilus larvae dominate in permanent waters, whereas Asynarchus larvae dominate in temporary basins. The purpose of this paper is to report on field and laboratory experiments that link this pattern of abundance to biotic interactions among larvae. In the first field experiment, growth and survival were compared in single and mixed species treatments in littoral enclosures. Larvae, which eat mainly vascular plant detritus, grew at similar rates among treatments in both temporary and permanent habitats suggesting that exploitative competition is not important under natural food levels and caddisfly densities. However, the survival of Limnephilus larvae was reduced in the presence of Asynarchus larvae. Subsequent behavioral studies in laboratory arenas revealed that Asynarchus larvae are extremely aggressive predators on Limnephilus larvae. In a second field experiment we manipulated the relative sizes of larvae and found that Limnephilus larvae were preyed on only when Asynarchus larvae had the same size advantage observed in natural populations. Our data suggest that the dominance of Asynarchus larvae in temporary habitats is due to asymmetric intraguild predation (IGP) facilitated by a phenological head start in development. These data do not explain the dominance of Limnephilus larvae in permanent basins, which we show elsewhere to be an indirect effect of salamander predation. Behavioral observations also revealed that Asynarchus larvae are cannibalistic. In contrast to the IGP on Limnephilus larvae, Asynarchus cannibalism occurs among same-sized larvae and often involves the mobbing of one victim by several conspecifics. In a third field experiment, we found that Asynarchus cannibalism was not density-dependent and occurred even at low larval densities. We