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Sample records for occluded hemodialysis native

  1. Mechanical Thrombectomy of Occluded Hemodialysis Native Fistulas and Grafts Using a Hydrodynamic Thrombectomy Catheter: Preliminary Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Sahni, Vikram, E-mail: vassahni@hotmail.com; Kaniyur, Sunil; Malhotra, Anmol

    2005-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new hydrodynamic percutaneous thrombectomy catheter in the treatment of thrombosed hemodialysis fistulas and grafts. Twenty-two patients (median age: 47 years; range: 31-79 years) underwent mechanical thrombectomy for thrombosed hemodialysis fistulas or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts. In all cases, an Oasis hydrodynamic catheter was used. Five patients had native fistulas and 17 had PTFE grafts. Six patients required repeat procedures. All patients with native fistulas and 15 of the 17 with PTFE grafts also underwent angioplasty of the venous limb following the thrombectomy. Major outcome measures included technicalmore » success, clinical success, primary and secondary patency, and complication rates. Twenty-eight procedures were performed in total. The technical success rate was 100% and 90% and clinical success was 86% and 76% for native fistulas and grafts, respectively. The primary patency at 6 months was 50% and 59% for fistulas and grafts, respectively, and the secondary patency at 6 months was 75% and 70% for fistulas and grafts, respectively. Two patients died of unrelated causes during the follow-up period. The Oasis catheter is an effective mechanical device for the percutaneous treatment of thrombosed hemodialysis access. Our initial success rate showed that the technique is safe in the treatment of both native fistulas and grafts.« less

  2. High dose urokinase for restoration of patency of occluded permanent central venous catheters in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Shavit, L; Lifschitz, M; Plaksin, J; Grenader, T; Slotki, I

    2010-10-01

    Catheter thrombosis is common and results in inadequate dialysis treatment and, frequently, in catheter loss. Since dialysis treatment runs on a strict schedule, occluded catheters need to be restored in a timely and cost effective manner. We present a new shortened protocol of urokinase infusion that allows hemodialysis to be performed within 90 minutes. To chronic hemodialysis patients, who developed complete catheter occlusion, urokinase was infused simultaneously through both lumens of the catheter (125,000 units to each lumen) over 90 minutes. Technical success was defined as restoring blood pump speed to at least 250 ml/min. We determined the average time from catheter placement to first clot event (primary patency PP), recurrent clot event after urokinase treatment (secondary patency SP), catheter salvage rate and cause for removal. 37 catheters developed total thrombosis and urokinase was used to restore patency one or more times (total 47 treatments). Catheter salvage rate was 97 %. The average time of PP was 152 ± 56 days (7 - 784 days). Nine patients (30%) developed recurrent occlusion and the average time of SP was 64 ± 34 days (2 - 364 days). One catheter was removed because of dysfunction due to thrombosis. Other catheters were removed due to infection, fistula maturation or fell out spontaneously. Hemodialysis was performed immediately after treatment with blood speed of 250 ml/min in all patients. Our protocol is highly effective, short, and allows to restore patency of totally occluded central venous catheters with minimal disruption of the dialysis session.

  3. Stenosis detection in native hemodialysis fistulas with MDCT angiography.

    PubMed

    Heye, Sam; Maleux, Geert; Claes, Kathleen; Kuypers, Dirk; Oyen, Raymond

    2009-04-01

    The objective of our study was to assess the diagnostic value of 64-MDCT angiography in the evaluation of failing hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) in comparison with conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Thirty-six patients (22 men; mean age +/- SD, 65 +/- 15 years) with hemodialysis fistula dysfunction underwent MDCT angiography before DSA. Linear weighted kappa was used to calculate interobserver agreement for stenosis for both MDCT angiography and DSA on a 5-point scale. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for the detection of >/= 50% stenosis or occlusion on MDCT angiography was calculated using DSA as the standard of reference. Wilcoxon's signed rank test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare differences in image quality between MDCT angiography and DSA and between MDCT angiography with the patient's arm stretched overhead or alongside the body, respectively. Interobserver agreement for detecting stenosis was excellent for both DSA (kappa = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.81-0.91) and MDCT angiography (kappa = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.77-0.87). Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of MDCT angiography for detecting >/= 50% stenosis or occlusion was 92.0% (95% CI, 86.8-95.3%), 90.2% (77.8-96.3%), 92.8% (85.9-96.6%), 85.2% (72.3-92.9%), and 95.4% (89.0-98.3%), respectively. No significant difference in image quality was seen between MDCT angiography and DSA (p = 0.3008) or between MDCT angiography with the patient's arm stretched overhead or alongside the body (p = 0.2912). MDCT angiography is a reproducible and reliable imaging technique for detection of >/= 50% stenosis or occlusion in dysfunctional hemodialysis fistulas.

  4. Endovascular Recanalization of Chronically Occluded Native Arteries After Failed Bypass Surgery in Patients with Critical Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yin, Minyi; Wang, Wei; Huang, Xintian; Hong, Biao; Liu, Xiaobing; Li, Weimin; Lu, Xinwu; Lu, Min; Jiang, Mier

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and outcome of endovascular recanalization of native chronic total occlusions (CTO) in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) and lower extremities bypass graft failure. A retrospective review of CLI patients with failed lower limb grafts (>30 days after surgery) that underwent recanalization of native CTO was conducted in two institutions from January 2010 to June 2014. Twenty-eight patients (28 limbs) were included in the study, and all had limited surgical revascularization options. Demographics, procedural data, technical success, complications, vessel patency, limb salvage rates, and survival rates were analyzed. The mean follow-up period was 12.8 months. The technical success rate was 92.9% (26/28 limbs). The combined ipsilateral antegrade-retrograde approach was performed in nine limbs (32.1%). Major periprocedural (<30 days) complications included two myocardial infarctions (7.1%) and two stent thromboses (7.1%), resulting in one amputation. The ankle brachial index before discharge was significantly improved after recanalization (0.78 ± 0.08 vs. 0.31 ± 0.10, p < 0.01). The primary, assisted primary, and secondary patency rates at 12 months were 52.2, 65.8, and 82.2%, respectively. The limb salvage rate and amputation-free survival rate at 12 months were 91.6 and 87.0%, respectively. Endovascular recanalization of native CTO in patients with graft failure-related CLI is a feasible, safe, and effective procedure, with reasonable technical success, vessel patency, and limb salvage rates. The technique should be attempted before amputation in patients with limited surgical revascularization options.

  5. Hemodialysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... center, hemodialysis is usually done 3 times per week for about 4 hours at a time. People who choose to do ... at home may do dialysis treatment more frequently, 4-7 times per week for shorter hours each time. Your doctor will give you a ...

  6. Prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients: the key role of native vitamin D supplementation.

    PubMed

    Jean, G; Vanel, T; Terrat, J-C; Chazot, C

    2010-10-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a frequent complication in chronic kidney disease, especially in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Treatments for SHPT include calcitriol analogues (CA), phosphate binders, cinacalcet (CC), and surgical parathyroidectomy (PTX). This study aimed to assess the incidence and prevalence of SHPT in a single center during the period when native vitamin D (N-VitD) supplementation and CC treatment became available. All incident and prevalent HD patients were prospectively recorded and compared using 3 periods from 2004 to 2005 (period 1), 2006 to 2007 (period 2), and 2008 to 2009 (period 3). SHPT was diagnosed with serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels >300 pg/mL or the need for CA, CC, or PTX. Between periods 1 and 3, in incident patients (n=120 and 101), N-VitD prescription increased from 11% to 68% (P<0.0001), CA prescription remained stable (40%), and patients with PTH>300 pg/mL decreased from 40% to 12% (P<0.0001). In prevalent HD patients (n=235), N-VitD treatment increased from 55% to 91% (P<0.0001), whereas treatment with CA decreased from 67% to 17% (P<0.0001). Patients with serum PTH>300 pg/mL decreased from 38% to 13% (P<0.001), whereas patients with PTH<150 pg/mL remained stable (<30%). New CC prescriptions decreased from 45 to 3 (P<0.0001). Since 2004, SHPT has decreased drastically in incident and prevalent HD patients. The preventive role of N-VitD supplementation appears to be obvious and represents one more argument for its general recommendation in CKD patients. © 2010 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2010 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  7. Efficiency of delivery observed treatment in hemodialysis patients: the example of the native vitamin D therapy.

    PubMed

    Delanaye, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Fafin, Coraline; Dubois, Bernard E; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie; Moranne, Olivier

    2016-02-01

    Adherence to therapy is a relevant challenge in chronic hemodialysis patients. The directly observed therapy (DOT) could be an effective method to increase adherence for specific therapies. We aimed to study the performance of DOT versus home medication. We follow the impact of providing native vitamin D directly by the nurse after a dialysis session on the 25-hydroxyvitamin [25(OH)D] concentrations. In this observational study, we included 38 dialysis patients treated by stable dosage of cholecalciferol. DOT was implemented in December 2010. We considered the concentrations of 25-OH vitamin D three times before (T1 = June 2010, T2 = July 2010 and T3 = September 2010) and three times after the modification of prescription (T4 = February 2011, T5 = March 2011 and T6 = April 2011). Median age was 72 [62; 79] years and 48 % were diabetics. Mean body mass index was 26 ± 5 kg/m(2) and median dialysis vintage was 20 [8; 46] months. The patients were compared to themselves. Before DOT, median concentrations of 25(OH)D were 27 (14-36), 23 (17-31), 31 (22-38) ng/mL at T1, T2 and T3, respectively. When DOT was effective, the concentrations significantly increased to 34 (28-44), 35 (29-41), 39 (32-47) ng/mL at T4, T5 and T6, respectively. Before DOT, 19 patients (50 %) reached the target of 30 ng/mL. After DOT, 29 patients (76 %) reached the target concentration of 30 ng/mL. In hemodialysis patients, DOT is both simple and effective to increase the therapeutic impact to native vitamin D.

  8. Occluded Brescia-Cimino Hemodialysis Fistulas: Endovascular Treatment with Both Brachial Arterial and Venous Access Using the Pull-Through Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro; Matsui, Osamu; Taki, Keiichi

    2005-12-15

    We retrospectively evaluated the usefulness of both arterial and venous access with the pull-through technique in endovascular treatment of totally occluded Brescia-Cimino fistulas. We treated 26 patients (17 men, 9 women; age range 43-82 years, mean age 66 years) with occluded Brescia-Cimino fistulas. First, the occluded segment was traversed from the antegrade brachial arterial access using a microcatheter-guidewire system. Second, the vein was retrogradely punctured after confirmation of all diseased segments, and a 0.014- or 0.016-inch guidewire was pulled through the venous access when the occluded segment was long. All interventions including thrombolysis, thromboaspiration, angioplasty, and stent placement were performedmore » via the venous access. The occlusion was successfully crossed via the brachial arterial access in 23 patients (88%). In 2 patients it was done from the venous approach. In the remaining patient it was not possible to traverse the occluded segment. The pull-through technique was successful in all 19 attempts. Clinical success was achieved in 96%, the primary patency rates at 6, 12, and 18 months were 83%, 78%, and 69%, the primary assisted patency rates were 92%, 92%, and 72%, and the secondary patency rates were 92%, 92%, and 92%, respectively. Minor complications in 5 patients included venous perforation in 2 (8%), venous rupture in 1 (4%), and regional hematoma in 2 (8%). Our study suggests that endovascular treatments with both arterial and venous access using the pull-through technique are highly effective in restoring function in totally occluded Brescia-Cimino fistulas.« less

  9. Some old drugs improve late primary patency rate of native arteriovenous fistulas in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Righetti, Marco; Ferrario, GianMichele; Serbelloni, Paola; Milani, Silvana; Tommasi, Adalberto

    2009-01-01

    Vascular access failure causes 20% of all hospitalizations of dialysis patients. Native arteriovenous fistulas, the best type of dialysis vascular access, have a 1-year primary patency rate that is extremely variable, ranging 40-80%. Neointimal hyperplasia is the most important cause of arteriovenous fistula late primary dysfunction. In recent years the arteriovenous fistula late primary patency rate has not improved because of the increase of old uremic patients with a high number of comorbidities and the lack of new therapeutic interventions. Therefore, we performed a long-term case-control study to analyze which factors or drugs may affect native arteriovenous fistula late primary patency rate in 60 incident hemodialysis patients. The arteriovenous fistula late primary patency rate was 75.1% after 12 months, 58.5% after 24 months, and 50% after 987 days. Homocysteine levels during follow-up had a significant direct association with vascular access failure (event vs. event-free 28.5+/-1.9 vs. 22.3+/-1.2 micromol/L, p<0.01). Folate values had a trend toward an inverse relationship with arteriovenous fistula failure (event vs. event-free 11.5+/-1.2 vs. 14.6 vs. 1.1 ng/mL, p=0.06). Patients treated with folic acid and/or statin had an arteriovenous fistula late primary patency rate significantly higher than patients without folic acid and statin therapy, respectively, 81.7% vs. 66% after 1 year and 71.5% vs. 39.1% after 2 years (p=0.02). Many other factors were not associated with vascular access failure. Statin and homocysteine-lowering folic acid therapy is associated with prolonged arteriovenous fistula survival. It is important to perform randomized trials to verify our observation.

  10. Glucose pump test can be used to measure blood flow rate of native arteriovenous fistula in chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Y C; Selcuk, N Y; Altıntepe, L; Güney, I; Yavuz, S

    2018-01-01

    In chronic hemodialysis patients, the low flow of vascular access may leads to inadequate dialysis, increased rate of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. It was found that surveillance should be performed for native arteriovenous (AV) should not be performed for AV graft in various studies. However, surveillance was done in graft AV fistulas in most studies. Doppler ultrasonography (US) was suggested for surveillance of AV fistulas by the last vascular access guideline of National Kidney Foundation Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF KDOQI). The aim of study is to determine whether glucose pump test (GPT) is used for surveillance of native AV fistulas by using Doppler US as reference. In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US and GPT. For GPT, glucose was infused to 16 mL/min by pump and was measured at basal before the infusion and 11 s after the start of the infusion by glucometer. Doppler US was done by an expert radiologist. Used statistical tests were Mann-Whitney U test, Friedman test, regression analysis, and multiple regression analysis. Median values of blood flow rates measured by GPT (707 mL/min) and by Doppler US (700 mL/min) were not different (Z = 0.414, P = 0.678). Results of GPT and Doppler US measurements were positive correlate by regression analysis. The mean GPT value of diabetic patients (n = 39; 908 mL/min) was similar to that of nondiabetic patients (n = 54; 751 mL/min; Z = 1.31, P = 0.188). GPT values measured at three different dialysis session did not differ from each other that by Friedman test (F = 0.92, P = 0.39). This showed that GPT was stable and reliable. Glucose pump test can be used to measure blood flow rate of native AV fistula. GPT is an accurate and reliable test.

  11. 64-slice MDCT angiography of upper extremity in assessment of native hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Wasinrat, Jitladda; Siriapisith, Thanongchai; Thamtorawat, Somrach; Tongdee, Trongtum

    2011-01-01

    To compare multidetector row computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography with conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the evaluation of vascular access stenoses in hemodialysis patients. Twenty-one consecutive patients were imaged with MDCT angiography and subsequent DSA. The superficial vein of leg was used as the route for intravenous administration. The vascular stenosis was assessed in not significant (<50% stenosis), moderate stenosis (50%-74% stenosis), severe stenosis (75%-99%), and total occlusion (100%). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values were calculated for significant vascular stenosis using DSA as the standard reference. The sensitivity and specificity of MDCT angiography for the detection of significant hemodialysis vascular access were 100% (95% CI, 89.3%-100%) and 94.8% (95% CI, 89.1%-97.6%), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 84.2% (95% CI, 68.1%-93.4%) and 100% (95% CI, 95.8%-100%), respectively. The accuracy of MDCT angiography for detection of significant stenoses was 95.9% (95% CI, 91.4%-97.0%). MDCT angiography provides excellent correlation in vascular stenosis as compared with DSA in hemodialysis access. Complete assessment of entire vascular segments could be performing with MDCT angiography in planning before endovascular intervention or surgical correction.

  12. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  13. Primary Cutting Balloon Angioplasty for Treatment of Venous Stenoses in Native Hemodialysis Fistulas: Long-Term Results from Three Centers

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Rajesh; McBride, Kieran; Chakraverty, Sam

    2007-11-15

    Aim. To evaluate the technical success and patency rates following primary cutting balloon angioplasty for venous stenoses in native dialysis fistulas. Methods. Forty-one patients (26 men, 15 women; age range 26-82 years, average age 59 years) underwent 50 (repeat procedures in 9 patients) primary cutting balloon (PCB) angioplasty procedures in three institutions by three primary operators. The indication was primary stenosis in 21 patients, recurrent lesions in 15, and immature fistulas in 5. A PCB was used alone in 17 cases, but was followed by a larger standard balloon in 33 cases. Follow-up included ultrasound, flow analysis and urea reductionmore » ratio, and ranged from 2 to 30 months (mean 14 months). Results. The technical success rate was 98%. All procedures were relatively painless. Two PCBs burst and 4 leaked, but without causing any morbidity. Nineteen fistulas were still working at last follow-up. Primary patency rates at 6, 12, and 24 months using Kaplan-Meier analysis were 88%, 73%, and 34%, respectively, and the primary assisted patencies were 90%, 75%, and 50%, respectively. Conclusion. PCB angioplasty has high technical success and low complication rates. The long-term patency rates are favorable for PCB angioplasty and compare favorably with other series.« less

  14. Hemolysis induced by PMIVSD occluder.

    PubMed

    Rao, D Sheshagiri; Barik, Ramachandra; Siva Prasad, Akula

    2016-09-01

    Hemolysis related to occluder, prosthetic valve, and prosthetic ring used for mitral valve annuloplasty are not very unusual. However, hemolysis related to transcathetor closure of post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal defect (PMIVSD) is infrequent. A close follow-up for spontaneous resolution with or without blood transfusion has been reported in a few cases. Occasionally, surgical retrieval is unavoidable or lifelong blood transfusion is required if surgery cannot be done because of higher risk. In this illustration, we have showed a close follow-up of a case of hemolysis induced by atrial septal occluder used for VSD closure after myocardial infarction. Despite successful device closure of PMIVSD which is difficult, a close watch is needed for complications like residual leak, device embolization, and hemolysis. Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Home Hemodialysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... home hemodialysis: You do this three times a week for three to four hours or longer each time. You and your care partner are trained to do dialysis safely and to handle any problems that may come up. Training may take from several weeks to a few months. 2. Short daily home ...

  16. Hemodialysis-related headache.

    PubMed

    Sav, Murat Yusuf; Sav, Tansu; Senocak, Elif; Sav, Nadide Melike

    2014-10-01

    Headache is one of the most frequently encountered neurological symptoms during hemodialysis. According to International Classification of Headache criteria dialysis-related headache was defined as the headache occurring during hemodialysis with no specific characteristic. It resolves spontaneously within 72 hours after the hemodialysis session ends. There are few studies in the literature investigating the clinical features of dialysis headache. The pathophysiology of hemodialysis-related headache is not known, but various triggering factors have been identified, including changes in blood pressure, serum sodium and magnesium levels during hemodialysis sessions, caffeine deprivation and stress. The aim of this article is to evaluate and analyze features of headache in patients undergoing hemodialysis. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  17. A retrospective comparative study of tunneled haemodialysis catheters inserted through occluded or collateral veins versus conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Powell, Steven; Chan, Tze Yuan; Bhat, Rammohan; Lam, Kimberly; Narlawar, Ranjeet S; Cullen, Nicola; Littler, Peter

    2010-08-01

    Tunneled hemodialysis catheters become essential in dialysis access when there is no possibility of using a functioning arteriovenous fistula. Collateral or occluded veins visible on ultrasound are used for puncture and passage of catheters into the central venous system. Chronically occluded veins are crossed with guidewires to allow dilatation and subsequent passage of hemodialysis catheters. We performed a retrospective analysis of patient demographics, comorbidities, procedural complications, functional survival, performance, and history of previous vascular access. The study group was compared with two control groups in which dialysis catheters were inserted either by radiologists in the interventional suite or by clinicians on the wards. Nineteen patients from the study group were compared with same number of patients in both control groups. The mean age of the study group was higher compared with the control groups. There was no significant difference in mean functional survival, infection rates, dialysis pump speeds in the first 2 weeks, and procedural complications between the study group and the controls. The study group had a significantly higher number of previous vascular access interventions, longer dialysis careers, and more comorbidities. Tunneled dialysis catheter placement by way of collateral or occluded veins appears safe and effective. These techniques give the operator further options when faced with patients possessing challenging vascular access. Indeed, there may be a case for preferential use of these veins to keep patent central veins in reserve.

  18. Transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defect with Occlutech Duct Occluder.

    PubMed

    Atik-Ugan, Sezen; Saltik, Irfan Levent

    2018-04-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus occluders are used for transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defects, as well as for closure of patent ductus arteriosus. The Occlutech Duct Occluder is a newly introduced device for transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus. Here, we present a case in which the Occlutech Duct Occluder was successfully used on a patient for the closure of a perimembraneous ventricular septal defect.

  19. Photodynamic therapy for occluded biliary metal stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Joseph V. E.; Krasner, Neville; Sturgess, R.

    1999-02-01

    In this abstract we describe the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to recanalize occluded biliary metal stents. In patients with jaundice secondary to obstructed metal stents PDT was carried out 72 hours after the administration of m THPC. Red laser light at 652 nm was delivered endoscopically at an energy intensity of 50 J/cm. A week later endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram showed complete recanalization of the metal stent.

  20. Upper limb grafts for hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Shemesh, David; Goldin, Ilya; Verstandig, Anthony; Berelowitz, Daniel; Zaghal, Ibrahim; Olsha, Oded

    2015-01-01

    Arteriovenous (AV) grafts are required for hemodialysis access when options for native fistulas have been fully exhausted, where they continue to play an important role in hemodialysis patients, offering a better alternative to central vein catheters. When planning autogenous accesses using Doppler ultrasound, adequate arterial inflow and venous outflow must be consciously preserved for future access creation with grafts. Efforts to improve graft patency include changing graft configuration, graft biology and hemodynamics. Industry offers early cannulation grafts to reduce central catheter use and a bioengineered graft is undergoing clinical studies. Although the outcome of AV grafts is inferior to fistulas, grafts can provide long-term hemodialysis access that is a better alternative to central venous catheters. AV grafts have significant drawbacks, mainly poor patency, infection and cost but also have some advantages: early maturation, ease of creation and needling and widespread availability. The outcome of AV graft surgery is variable from center to center. The primary patency rate for AV grafts is 58% at 6 months and the secondary patency rate is 76% at 6 months and 55% at 18 months. There are centers of excellence that report a 1 year secondary patency rate of up to 91%. In this review of the use of AV grafts for hemodialysis access in the upper extremities, technical issues involved in planning the access and performing the surgery in its different configurations are discussed and the role of surveillance and maintenance with their attendant surgical and radiological interventions is described.

  1. Frequent hemodialysis in children.

    PubMed

    Warady, Bradley A; Fischbach, Michel; Geary, Denis; Goldstein, Stuart L

    2007-07-01

    Frequent hemodialysis is currently conducted in a limited number of pediatric dialysis centers. However, the preliminary experience with children who have undergone procedures such as "daily" intensive hemodiafiltration and nocturnal hemodialysis has been positive, with the allowance for unrestricted diets and fluid intake, the lack of need for phosphate binders, excellent metabolic and blood pressure control, and, in the case of hemodiafiltration, excellent growth. The provision of frequent daily hemodialysis with the NxStage System has also recently been introduced to pediatrics. An overview about what is currently understood regarding the technical and clinical application of these approaches to therapy for children with end-stage renal disease form the basis for this article and highlight the impact of the procedures to date and the need for additional experience and collaborative data collection.

  2. 21 CFR 870.1370 - Catheter tip occluder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catheter tip occluder. 870.1370 Section 870.1370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1370 Catheter tip occluder...

  3. 21 CFR 870.1370 - Catheter tip occluder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Catheter tip occluder. 870.1370 Section 870.1370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1370 Catheter tip occluder...

  4. Detection scheme for a partially occluded pedestrian based on occluded depth in lidar-radar sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Seong Kyung; Hyun, Eugin; Lee, Jin-Hee; Lee, Jonghun; Son, Sang Hyuk

    2017-11-01

    Object detections are critical technologies for the safety of pedestrians and drivers in autonomous vehicles. Above all, occluded pedestrian detection is still a challenging topic. We propose a new detection scheme for occluded pedestrian detection by means of lidar-radar sensor fusion. In the proposed method, the lidar and radar regions of interest (RoIs) have been selected based on the respective sensor measurement. Occluded depth is a new means to determine whether an occluded target exists or not. The occluded depth is a region projected out by expanding the longitudinal distance with maintaining the angle formed by the outermost two end points of the lidar RoI. The occlusion RoI is the overlapped region made by superimposing the radar RoI and the occluded depth. The object within the occlusion RoI is detected by the radar measurement information and the occluded object is estimated as a pedestrian based on human Doppler distribution. Additionally, various experiments are performed in detecting a partially occluded pedestrian in outdoor as well as indoor environments. According to experimental results, the proposed sensor fusion scheme has much better detection performance compared to the case without our proposed method.

  5. Safety and efficacy of transcatheter closure of large patent ductus arteriosus in adults with a self-expandable occluder.

    PubMed

    Yu, Man-Li; Huang, Xin-Miao; Wang, Jia-Feng; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Zheng, Xing

    2009-11-01

    Most occurrences of large patent ductus arteriosus (PDAs) of > or =10 mm have been surgically closed, and transcatheter closure of these large PDAs was only reported in a few case reports. The present study reviewed our experience in transcatheter closure of such large PDAs with a Chinese self-expandable occluder, which is similar to but much cheaper than the Amplatzer occluder. From July 2000 to January 2008, 23 patients underwent transcatheter closure of large PDA > or =10 mm with this kind of occluder. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 38.0 (15.6) years (range 18-75 years). Radiographs of the chest, electrocardiograms, and echocardiograms were used for follow-up evaluation of the treatment within 1 day, 1 month, 6 months, and then every year after successful closure. The mean (SD) angiographic PDA diameter was 12.8 (2.6) mm (range 10-18 mm) and the mean occluder diameter was 18.0 (2.9) mm (range 16-22 mm). The occluders were delivered successfully and closed the PDA completely in 19 out of the 23 patients. Pulmonary arterial pressures decreased significantly after occlusion in patients with successful treatment: 67.3 (24.7) mmHg (range 29-122 mmHg) before occlusion and 42.3 (22.0) mmHg (range 19-98 mmHg) immediately after the procedure. Radiographs of the chest and echocardiograms showed that the diameters of the left atrium, left ventricle, and the main pulmonary artery decreased, and the ejection fraction (EF) increased at a mean (SD) follow-up of 36.3 (18.7) months (range 6-72 months). No severe complication occurred. The immediate and long-term outcomes suggested that transcatheter closure of PDAs with the native PDA occluder is a safe and effective treatment for adults with large PDA > or =10 mm.

  6. Decoding information about dynamically occluded objects in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Erlikhman, Gennady; Caplovitz, Gideon P.

    2016-01-01

    During dynamic occlusion, an object passes behind an occluding surface and then later reappears. Even when completely occluded from view, such objects are experienced as continuing to exist or persist behind the occluder, even though they are no longer visible. The contents and neural basis of this persistent representation remain poorly understood. Questions remain as to whether there is information maintained about the object itself (i.e. its shape or identity) or, non-object-specific information such as its position or velocity as it is tracked behind an occluder as well as which areas of visual cortex represent such information. Recent studies have found that early visual cortex is activated by “invisible” objects during visual imagery and by unstimulated regions along the path of apparent motion, suggesting that some properties of dynamically occluded objects may also be neurally represented in early visual cortex. We applied functional magnetic resonance imaging in human subjects to examine the representation of information within visual cortex during dynamic occlusion. For gradually occluded, but not for instantly disappearing objects, there was an increase in activity in early visual cortex (V1, V2, and V3). This activity was spatially-specific, corresponding to the occluded location in the visual field. However, the activity did not encode enough information about object identity to discriminate between different kinds of occluded objects (circles vs. stars) using MVPA. In contrast, object identity could be decoded in spatially-specific subregions of higher-order, topographically organized areas such as ventral, lateral, and temporal occipital areas (VO, LO, and TO) as well as the functionally defined LOC and hMT+. These results suggest that early visual cortex may represent the dynamically occluded object’s position or motion path, while later visual areas represent object-specific information. PMID:27663987

  7. Intensive Hemodialysis Associates with Improved Survival Compared with Conventional Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Robert M.; Cuerden, Meaghan S.; Garg, Amit X.; Port, Friedrich; Austin, Peter C.; Moist, Louise M.; Pierratos, Andreas; Chan, Christopher T.; Zimmerman, Deborah; Lockridge, Robert S.; Couchoud, Cécile; Chazot, Charles; Ofsthun, Norma; Levin, Adeera; Copland, Michael; Courtney, Mark; Steele, Andrew; McFarlane, Philip A.; Geary, Denis F.; Pauly, Robert P.; Komenda, Paul; Suri, Rita S.

    2012-01-01

    Patients undergoing conventional maintenance hemodialysis typically receive three sessions per week, each lasting 2.5–5.5 hours. Recently, the use of more intensive hemodialysis (>5.5 hours, three to seven times per week) has increased, but the effects of these regimens on survival are uncertain. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to examine whether intensive hemodialysis associates with better survival than conventional hemodialysis. We identified 420 patients in the International Quotidian Dialysis Registry who received intensive home hemodialysis in France, the United States, and Canada between January 2000 and August 2010. We matched 338 of these patients to 1388 patients in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study who received in-center conventional hemodialysis during the same time period by country, ESRD duration, and propensity score. The intensive hemodialysis group received a mean (SD) 4.8 (1.1) sessions per week with a mean treatment time of 7.4 (0.87) hours per session; the conventional group received three sessions per week with a mean treatment time of 3.9 (0.32) hours per session. During 3008 patient-years of follow-up, 45 (13%) of 338 patients receiving intensive hemodialysis died compared with 293 (21%) of 1388 patients receiving conventional hemodialysis (6.1 versus 10.5 deaths per 100 person-years; hazard ratio, 0.55 [95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.87]). The strength and direction of the observed association between intensive hemodialysis and improved survival were consistent across all prespecified subgroups and sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, there is a strong association between intensive home hemodialysis and improved survival, but whether this relationship is causal remains unknown. PMID:22362910

  8. Cardi-O-Fix duct occluder versus Amplatzer duct occluder for closure of patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Ahmet; Demir, Ibrahim Halil; Saritaş, Türkay; Dedeoğlu, Reyhan; Yucel, Ilker Kemal; Demir, Fadli; Erdem, Abdullah

    2013-11-15

    We sought to investigate the safety, efficacy, and follow-up results of percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure using the novel Cardi-O-Fix duct occluder (CDO), a device similar to but less expensive than the Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO). We also aimed to compare these two devices in terms of results. Between March 2005 and May 2012, 167 patients diagnosed with moderate-to-large PDA underwent transcatheter closure. ADO was used in 56 (33.5%) patients with a mean age of 8.1 ± 11.9 years (3.6 months-56 years), whereas CDO was used in 111 (66.5%) patients with a mean age of 12.6 ± 14.6 years (4.8 months-63 years). The narrowest PDA diameter, the used device diameter, procedure time, fluoroscopy time, and residual shunt rates were similar between the two groups. Procedural success rate was 100% in both groups. Although the residual shunt rate was higher in the CDO group immediately after the procedure, the difference was not statistically significant (12.6 vs. 8.9%; P = 0.3). There was no statistically significant difference between groups at discharge and during follow-up. No deaths occurred in any of the groups, and there were no differences in complication rates during the short- and mid-term follow-up periods (CDO 7/111 vs. ADO 5/56; P = 0.5 π). The CDO can be used for PDA closure because of its safety, effectiveness, and simplicity in use. It is available in bigger sizes and can be used in patients with large defects. According to our short- and mid-term findings, the results it yields are similar to those of the ADO; thus, it may be the preferred choice owing to its low cost and large size variability. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Solar-Assisted Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Agar, John W. M.; Perkins, Anthony; Tjipto, Alwie

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Hemodialysis resource use—especially water and power, smarter processing and reuse of postdialysis waste, and improved ecosensitive building design, insulation, and space use—all need much closer attention. Regarding power, as supply diminishes and costs rise, alternative power augmentation for dialysis services becomes attractive. The first 12 months of a solar-assisted dialysis program in southeastern Australia is reported. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A 24-m2, 3-kWh rated solar array and inverter—total cost of A$16,219—has solar-assisted the dialysis-related power needs of a four-chair home hemodialysis training service. All array-created, grid-donated power and all grid-drawn power to the four hemodialysis machines and minireverse osmosis plant pairings are separately metered. After the grid-drawn and array-generated kilowatt hours have been billed and reimbursed at their respective commercial rates, financial viability, including capital repayment, can be assessed. Results From July of 2010 to July of 2011, the four combined equipment pairings used 4166.5 kWh, 9% more than the array-generated 3811.0 kWh. Power consumption at 26.7 c/kWh cost A$1145.79. Array-generated power reimbursements at 23.5 c/kWh were A$895.59. Power costs were, thus, reduced by 76.5%. As new reimbursement rates (60 c/kWh) take effect, system reimbursements will more than double, allowing both free power and potential capital pay down over 7.7 years. With expected array life of ∼30 years, free power and an income stream should accrue in the second and third operative decades. Conclusions Solar-assisted power is feasible and cost-effective. Dialysis services should assess their local solar conditions and determine whether this ecosensitive power option might suit their circumstance. PMID:22223614

  10. Causes of unplanned hemodialysis initiation.

    PubMed

    Gomis Couto, A; Teruel Briones, J L; Fernández Lucas, M; Rivera Gorrin, M; Rodríguez Mendiola, N; Jiménez Álvaro, S; Quereda Rodríguez-Navarro, C

    2011-01-01

    Half of patients starting chronic hemodialysis used a transient vascular catheter as a vascular access (unplanned initiation). An objective of the Quality Management Group of the Spanish Society of Nephrology is to achieve that 80% of the patients starting hemodialysis do it with an arteriovenous fistula. We want to review the causes of non-planned hemodialysis nowadays. In 2010, 43 patients had started chronic hemodialysis in the Hospital Ramón y Cajal in Madrid (Spain). Mean age was 61 years, 79% were men, the most frequent cause of chronic renal disease was the diabetes (23%) and Charlson Comorbidity Index was 6.3 ± 2.6. The unplanned hemodialysis occurred in 20 patients (47%), without any differences with the 23 patients who began planned hemodialysis, in none of the clinical or demographic parameters analyzed. The main cause of unplanned hemodialysis was the acute exacerbation of chronic kidney disease stage 3 or 4, previously stable, secondary to an unforeseeable intercurrent process (8 patients, 40% of the cases). One patient began after a non-recovery acute renal failure and in other 6 patients, the reason of unplanned hemodialysis initiation was not attributable to the operation Health System (in 3 cases unknown kidney chronic disease and in the other 3 cases it was patient´s responsibility). Only in 5 cases (25%), the cause could be corrigible. Most causes of unplanned hemodialysis does not come from the healthcare organization and therefore not easy to resolve it. Consequently, the objective of the Quality Group will be difficult to be achieved.

  11. A Taxonomy of 3D Occluded Objects Recognition Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimanizadeh, Shiva; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Saba, Tanzila; Al-ghamdi, Jarallah Saleh

    2016-03-01

    The overall performances of object recognition techniques under different condition (e.g., occlusion, viewpoint, and illumination) have been improved significantly in recent years. New applications and hardware are shifted towards digital photography, and digital media. This faces an increase in Internet usage requiring object recognition for certain applications; particularly occulded objects. However occlusion is still an issue unhandled, interlacing the relations between extracted feature points through image, research is going on to develop efficient techniques and easy to use algorithms that would help users to source images; this need to overcome problems and issues regarding occlusion. The aim of this research is to review recognition occluded objects algorithms and figure out their pros and cons to solve the occlusion problem features, which are extracted from occluded object to distinguish objects from other co-existing objects by determining the new techniques, which could differentiate the occluded fragment and sections inside an image.

  12. Hemodialysis: stressors and coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muayyad M; Al Nazly, Eman K

    2015-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is an irreversible and life-threatening condition. In Jordan, the number of ESRD patients treated with hemodialysis is on the rise. Identifying stressors and coping strategies used by patients with ESRD may help nurses and health care providers to gain a clearer understanding of the condition of these patients and thus institute effective care planning. The purpose of this study was to identify stressors perceived by Jordanian patients on hemodialysis, and the coping strategies used by them. A convenience sample of 131 Jordanian men and women was recruited from outpatients' dialysis units in four hospitals. Stressors perceived by participants on hemodialysis and the coping strategies were measured using Hemodialysis Stressor Scale, and Ways of Coping Scale-Revised. Findings showed that patients on hemodialysis psychosocial stressors scores mean was higher than the physiological stressors mean. Positive reappraisal coping strategy had the highest mean among the coping strategies and the lowest mean was accepting responsibility. Attention should be focused towards the psychosocial stressors of patients on hemodialysis and also helping patients utilize the coping strategies that help to alleviate the stressors. The most used coping strategy was positive reappraisal strategy which includes faith and prayer.

  13. 21 CFR 882.5150 - Intravascular occluding catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intravascular occluding catheter. 882.5150 Section 882.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5150 Intravascular...

  14. 21 CFR 882.5150 - Intravascular occluding catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intravascular occluding catheter. 882.5150 Section 882.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5150 Intravascular...

  15. Developments in Young Infants' Reasoning about Occluded Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiar, Andrea; Baillargeon, Renee

    2002-01-01

    Eight experiments were conducted to examine 3- and 3.5-month-old infants' responses to occlusion events. The results revealed two developments, one in infants' knowledge of when objects should and should not be occluded and the other in infants' ability to posit additional objects to make sense of events that would otherwise violate their…

  16. [Alternative hemodialysis regimens].

    PubMed

    Matos, Jorge Paulo Strogoff de; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo

    2010-03-01

    The mortality rate among patients on hemodialysis (HD) is extremely high. Remaining life expectancy for a patient initiating HD is only approximately one quarter of that of the general population at the same age bracket. The conventional HD regimen based on four-hour sessions three times a week was empirically established nearly four decades ago and needs to be revisited. Since the failure of the HEMO Study to demonstrate the clinical benefits of higher urea Kt/V for patients on conventional HD, an increasing interest for alternative HD regimens has emerged aiming at providing a treatment for improving survival rates. Short daily HD and long nocturnal HD stand out as the most promising alternative regimens. Economical obstacles which could hinder the clinical application of emerging knowledge in the field should be overcome.

  17. Ultrapure Water System for Hemodialysis Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-07-21

    The Change of Biomarkers CRP, CBC With the Use of Ultra Pure Water System for; Hemodialysis.; The Rate of Adverse Events Such as Hypotension During Hemodialysis Therapy With Ultra Pure Water; System as Compared to Conventional Water System.

  18. Serum 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 response to native vitamin D2 and D3 Supplementation in patients with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Graeff-Armas, Laura A; Kaufmann, Martin; Lyden, Elizabeth; Jones, Glenville

    2018-06-01

    While vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with end stage renal disease on dialysis and treatment with Vitamin D 2 and Vitamin D 3 is becoming increasingly common in these patients, little is known about 24,25(OH) 2 D 3 metabolite production. Some authors report that the CYP24A1 enzyme is upregulated in CKD, but reports of low serum levels of 24,25(OH) 2 D 3 in these patients bring this into question. Lack of substrate or increased clearance of the metabolite have been proposed as possible causes. We report serum 24,25(OH) 2 D 3 levels from three controlled trials of Vitamin D 2 and Vitamin D 3 supplementation which reached adequate levels of 25(OH)D in patients with end stage renal disease on dialysis. 680 samples from three controlled trials of Vitamin D 2 or Vitamin D 3 supplementation in CKD Stage 5D were available for analysis. The trials used single doses of 50,000 IU Vitamin D 3 , or 50,000 IU Vitamin D 2 , or weekly doses of 10,000 IU or 20,000 IU Vitamin D 3 . Blood samples were drawn at baseline and frequently over the ensuing 3-4 months. Serum 25(OH)D and 24,25(OH) 2 D 3 levels were measured using a novel, very sensitive LC-MS/MS-based method involving derivatization with DMEQ-TAD. Linear mixed effect regression models were used to compare the 3 studies and the interventions within studies over time. The subjects given Vitamin D 3 had significant increases in 25(OH)D levels. Serum 24,25(OH) 2 D 3 levels were low at baseline in the renal patients and rose slightly with native vitamin D supplementation, but these levels were lower than reports of 24,25(OH) 2 D 3 in healthy populations. We conclude that the enzymatic activity of CYP24A1 is abnormal in end stage renal patients on dialysis. These trials were registered on clinicaltrials.govNCT00511225 on 8/1/2007; NCT01325610 on 1/17/2011; and NCT01675557 on 8/28/2012. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Consequences of Frequent Hemodialysis: Comparison to Conventional Hemodialysis and Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, John B.

    2011-01-01

    The average life expectancy of a person on hemodialysis is less than 3 years and hasn't changed in 20 years. The Hemodialysis (HEMO) trial, a randomized trial to determine whether increasing urea removal to the maximum practical degree through a 3-times-a-week schedule, showed no difference in mortality in the treatment and control groups. Investigators speculated that the increment in functional waste removal in the HEMO study was too small to produce improvements in mortality. To test this hypothesis, the NIDDK funded the Frequent Hemodialysis Network, a consortium of centers testing whether patients randomized to intensive dialysis would demonstrate improved (reduced) left ventricular LV mass and quality of life. The trial has two arms: the daily (in-center) and the home (nocturnal) arms. Each arm has patients randomized to conventional dialysis or 6 days (or nights) of dialysis. The results of the HEMO trial will be reported in the fall of 2010. PMID:21686215

  20. Recognition of 3-D Scene with Partially Occluded Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Siwei; Wong, Andrew K. C...

    1987-03-01

    This paper presents a robot vision system which is capable of recognizing objects in a 3-D scene and interpreting their spatial relation even though some objects in the scene may be partially occluded by other objects. An algorithm is developed to transform the geometric information from the range data into an attributed hypergraph representation (AHR). A hypergraph monomorphism algorithm is then used to compare the AHR of objects in the scene with a set of complete AHR's of prototypes. The capability of identifying connected components and interpreting various types of edges in the 3-D scene enables us to distinguish objects which are partially blocking each other in the scene. Using structural information stored in the primitive area graph, a heuristic hypergraph monomorphism algorithm provides an effective way for recognizing, locating, and interpreting partially occluded objects in the range image.

  1. Externalized decondensed neutrophil chromatin occludes pancreatic ducts and drives pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Leppkes, Moritz; Maueröder, Christian; Hirth, Sebastian; Nowecki, Stefanie; Günther, Claudia; Billmeier, Ulrike; Paulus, Susanne; Biermann, Mona; Munoz, Luis E.; Hoffmann, Markus; Wildner, Dane; Croxford, Andrew L.; Waisman, Ari; Mowen, Kerri; Jenne, Dieter E.; Krenn, Veit; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Schett, Georg; Wirtz, Stefan; Neurath, Markus F.; Herrmann, Martin; Becker, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Ductal occlusion has been postulated to precipitate focal pancreatic inflammation, while the nature of the primary occluding agents has remained elusive. Neutrophils make use of histone citrullination by peptidyl arginine deiminase-4 (PADI4) in contact to particulate agents to extrude decondensed chromatin as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In high cellular density, NETs form macroscopically visible aggregates. Here we show that such aggregates form inside pancreatic ducts in humans and mice occluding pancreatic ducts and thereby driving pancreatic inflammation. Experimental models indicate that PADI4 is critical for intraductal aggregate formation and that PADI4-deficiency abrogates disease progression. Mechanistically, we identify the pancreatic juice as a strong instigator of neutrophil chromatin extrusion. Characteristic single components of pancreatic juice, such as bicarbonate ions and calcium carbonate crystals, induce aggregated NET formation. Ductal occlusion by aggregated NETs emerges as a pathomechanism with relevance in a plethora of inflammatory conditions involving secretory ducts. PMID:26964500

  2. AMPLATZER versus Figulla occluder for transcatheter patent foramen ovale closure.

    PubMed

    Trabattoni, Daniela; Gaspardone, Achille; Sgueglia, Gregory A; Fabbiocchi, Franco; Gioffrè, Gaetano; Montorsi, Piero; Calligaris, Giuseppe; Iamele, Maria; De Santis, Antonella; Bartorelli, Antonio L

    2017-04-20

    The aim of this observational study was to compare acute and 12-month results of percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) with two occluder devices. Between June 2007 and October 2014, 406 consecutive patients (48.1±13.3 years, 243 women) underwent percutaneous PFO closure with either the AMPLATZER (n=179) or the Figulla (n=227) device after a stroke or a transient ischaemic attack ascribed to the PFO. A right-to-left shunt grade >1 was previously detected in all patients and atrial septal aneurysm was present in 111 (27.5%) patients. Patients were followed up with a contrast transthoracic echocardiogram and clinically at 24 hours, six months, and 12 months after the procedure. A high procedural success was observed in both groups. Despite a trend towards a higher incidence of acute residual shunt immediately after device deployment among Figulla occluder patients, a residual grade ≥2 right-to-left shunt was observed in 4.5% of patients, independently of the device used for PFO closure. The only difference reported after Figulla device implantation was a lower rate of supraventricular arrhythmias (9% vs. 17%, p=0.02). According to this two-centre study, PFO closure appears safe and effective with the Figulla occluder as well as with the AMPLATZER device.

  3. Vascular occlusion with a balloon-expandable stent occluder.

    PubMed

    Moss, J G; Laborde, J C; Clem, M C; Rivera, F J; Encarnacion, C E; Meyer, K B; Palmaz, J C

    1994-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a new vascular occlusion device. The device was created by coating a balloon-expandable stent with a silicone sleeve that tapers to a blind-ended nozzle at its leading end. Once crimp-mounted on an angioplasty balloon catheter, the device is introduced over a guide wire through a small end hole in the nozzle. The device was tested for stability and occlusive ability. No migration was measured over a pulsatile pulse range of 50-300 mm Hg, and mean flow rate in the occluded vessel was reduced from 443 mL/min +/- 99 (standard deviation) to 1.9 mL/min +/- 2.7. Subsequently, 12 arteries were occluded in three dogs, and immediate vascular occlusion was achieved in all vessels. An arteriovenous fistula was created in another six dogs and was successfully occluded with the device. Follow-up arteriography at 3 months demonstrated persistent occlusion with no migration of the device. This new occlusive device offers immediate vascular occlusion with excellent stability.

  4. Hemodialysis and water quality.

    PubMed

    Coulliette, Angela D; Arduino, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Hemodialysis and Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Coulliette, Angela D.; Arduino, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed. PMID:23859187

  6. Proteomic Investigations into Hemodialysis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bonomini, Mario; Sirolli, Vittorio; Pieroni, Luisa; Felaco, Paolo; Amoroso, Luigi; Urbani, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The retention of a number of solutes that may cause adverse biochemical/biological effects, called uremic toxins, characterizes uremic syndrome. Uremia therapy is based on renal replacement therapy, hemodialysis being the most commonly used modality. The membrane contained in the hemodialyzer represents the ultimate determinant of the success and quality of hemodialysis therapy. Membrane’s performance can be evaluated in terms of removal efficiency for unwanted solutes and excess fluid, and minimization of negative interactions between the membrane material and blood components that define the membrane’s bio(in)compatibility. Given the high concentration of plasma proteins and the complexity of structural functional relationships of this class of molecules, the performance of a membrane is highly influenced by its interaction with the plasma protein repertoire. Proteomic investigations have been increasingly applied to describe the protein uremic milieu, to compare the blood purification efficiency of different dialyzer membranes or different extracorporeal techniques, and to evaluate the adsorption of plasma proteins onto hemodialysis membranes. In this article, we aim to highlight investigations in the hemodialysis setting making use of recent developments in proteomic technologies. Examples are presented of why proteomics may be helpful to nephrology and may possibly affect future directions in renal research. PMID:26690416

  7. Hemodialysis Tunneled Catheter Noninfectious Complications

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lisa M.; MacRae, Jennifer M.; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Clark, Edward; Dipchand, Christine; Kappel, Joanne; Lok, Charmaine; Luscombe, Rick; Moist, Louise; Oliver, Matthew; Pike, Pamela; Hiremath, Swapnil

    2016-01-01

    Noninfectious hemodialysis catheter complications include catheter dysfunction, catheter-related thrombus, and central vein stenosis. The definitions, causes, and treatment strategies for catheter dysfunction are reviewed below. Catheter-related thrombus is a less common but serious complication of catheters, requiring catheter removal and systemic anticoagulation. In addition, the risk factors, clinical manifestation, and treatment options for central vein stenosis are outlined. PMID:28270922

  8. Phosphate removal and hemodialysis conditions.

    PubMed

    Pohlmeier, R; Vienken, J

    2001-02-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is frequently found in hemodialysis patients, and the association with an increased risk of mortality has been demonstrated. Other authors have linked hyperphosphatemia to increased cardiovascular mortality. The normalization of phosphate plasma levels is therefore an important goal in the treatment of end-stage renal disease patients. Absorption of phosphate from the food exceeds the elimination through a hemodialysis treatment, and this leads to a chronic phosphate load for the majority of hemodialysis patients. This imbalance should be improved by either a reduction of phosphate absorption or an increased removal of phosphate. A reduction of phosphate absorption can be achieved by reducing the amount of phosphate in the diet or by the administration of phosphate binders. Unfortunately, these measures imply practical difficulties, for example, a lack of patient compliance or other side effects. When considering modifications of the hemodialysis treatment, an essential understanding of the kinetics of dialytic phosphate removal is mandatory. Phosphate is unevenly distributed in different compartments of the body. Only a very small amount of phosphate is present in the easily accessible plasma compartment. The major part of phosphate removed during hemodialysis originates from the cytoplasm of cells. A transfer from intracellular space to the plasma and further from the plasma to the dialysate is necessary. However, if we consider improvement to phosphate removal by dialysis procedures, full dialyzer clearance is effective in only the initial phase of the dialysis treatment. After this initial phase, the transfer rate for phosphate from the intracellular space to the plasma becomes the rate-limiting step for phosphate transport. Attempts to improve this transfer rate have recently been investigated by acidosis correction, but turned out not to be consistently successful. Furthermore, modifications of the treatment schedule have been described in

  9. Subintimal Recanalization of Occluded Stents: The Substent Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Diamantopoulos, Athanasios, E-mail: adiamant@upatras.gr; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Spiliopoulos, Stavros

    2013-08-01

    PurposeApplication of metal stents is complicated by neointimal hyperplasia leading to vessel restenosis and reocclusion. Treatment options in cases presenting with complete occlusion of the stented segment and recurrent critical limb ischemia (CLI) are limited. We present the option of the subintimal/substent technique in dealing with occluded stents.MethodsThe study included patients presenting with recurrent CLI due to impaired blood flow as a result of complete occlusion of previously inserted metal stents and unsuccessful intraluminal crossing of the lesion via either the antegrade or retrograde approach. In these cases, crossing the occlusion through the subintimal/substent plane was attempted. Primary end pointsmore » included technical success, safety of the procedure, clinical improvement, and limb salvage, while secondary end points were patient survival, primary patency, and vessel restenosis rates at 1-year follow-up. Study end points were calculated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.ResultsBetween July 2006 and October 2011, a total of 14 patients (mean age 69.14 {+-} 12.59 years, 12 men) were treated with the substent technique and included in the analysis. Technical success rate was 85.71 % (12 of 14), with a total lesion length of 193.57 {+-} 90.78 mm. The mean occluded stented segment length was 90.21 {+-} 44.34 mm. In 10 (83.33 %) of 12 cases, a new stent had to be placed by the side of the old occluded one, while the remaining two cases (16.67 %) were treated only with balloon angioplasty. No serious adverse events were noted during the immediate postprocedural period. All successfully treated patients improved clinically. Estimated limb salvage was 90.9 %, and patient survival rate was 90.0 % at 1 year's follow-up. Primary patency was 45.50 % and vessel restenosis 77.30 %.ConclusionSubintimal recanalization of occluded metal stents through the substent plane is a valuable alternative treatment option, especially in patients with recurrent CLI

  10. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Michele A.; Pereira, Candido

    1997-01-01

    A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000.degree. K. to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  11. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C.

    1997-03-18

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000 K to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  12. Recent development of transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect and patent foramen ovale with occluders.

    PubMed

    Tang, Baiyu; Su, Feng; Sun, Xiangke; Wu, Qin; Xing, Quansheng; Li, Suming

    2018-01-01

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) and patent foramen ovale (PFO) are common clinical congenital heart defects. As an effective method for the treatment of ASD and PFO, transcatheter closure with occluders presents many advantages, including safety, ease of operation, minimal invasiveness, and reduced complications. This contribution reviews the various types of occluders currently used in clinical applications and under development, including non degradable occluders, partially degradable occluders, and totally degradable occluders. A number of case studies are described in detail. Comparison is made on the treatment outcomes using different occulders. Future development of transcatheter closure is discussed, in particular the use of totally degradable occluders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 433-443, 2018. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Use of Nitinol Stents Following Recanalization of Central Venous Occlusions in Hemodialysis Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, Dheeraj K., E-mail: dheeraj.rajan@uhn.on.ca; Saluja, Jasdeep S.

    2007-07-15

    Purpose. To retrospectively review the patency of endovascular interventions with nitinol stent placement for symptomatic central venous occlusions in hemodialysis patients. Methods. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent endovascular interventions for dysfunctional hemodialysis grafts and fistulas was performed from April 2004 to August 2006. A total of 6 patients presented with arm and/or neck and facial swelling and left brachiocephalic vein occlusion. The study group consisted of 3 men and 3 women with a mean age of 79.5 years (SD 11.2 years). Of these 6 patients, 1 had a graft and 5 had fistulas in the left arm.more » The primary indication for nitinol stent placement was technical failure of angioplasty following successful traversal of occluded central venous segments. Patency was assessed from repeat fistulograms and central venograms performed when patients redeveloped symptoms or were referred for access dysfunction determined by the ultrasound dilution technique. No patients were lost to follow-up. Results. Nitinol stent placement to obtain technically successful recanalization of occluded venous segments was initially successful in 5 of 6 patients (83%). In 1 patient, incorrect stent positioning resulted in partial migration to the superior vena cava requiring restenting to prevent further migration. Clinical success was observed in all patients (100%). Over the follow-up period, 2 patients underwent repeat intervention with angioplasty alone. Primary patency was 83.3% (95% CI 0.5-1.2) at 3 months, and 66.7% at 6 and 12 months (0.2-1.1, 0.1-1.2). Secondary patency was 100% at 12 months with 3 patients censored over that time period. Mean primary patency was 10.4 months with a mean follow-up of 12.4 months. No complications related to recanalization of the occluded central venous segments were observed. Conclusion. Our initial experience has demonstrated that use of nitinol stents for central venous occlusion in hemodialysis patients is

  14. Intuitive physical reasoning about occluded objects by inexperienced chicks

    PubMed Central

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Questions concerning the role of nature and nurture in higher cognition appear to be intractable if one restricts one's attention to development in humans. However, in other domains, such as sensory development, much information has been gained from controlled rearing studies with animals. Here, we used a similar experimental strategy to investigate intuitive reasoning about occluded objects. Newborn domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) were reared singly with a small object that became their social partner. They were then accustomed to rejoin such an imprinting object when it was made to move and disappear behind either one of two identical opaque screens. After disappearance of the imprinting object, chicks were faced with two screens of different slants, or of different height or different width, which may or may not have been compatible with the presence of the imprinting object hidden beneath/behind them. Chicks consistently chose the screen of slant/height/width compatible with the presence of the object beneath/behind it. Preventing chicks from touching and pecking at the imprinting object before testing did not affect the results, suggesting that intuitive reasoning about physical objects is largely independent of specific experience of interaction with objects and of objects' occluding events. PMID:21270036

  15. Electronic eye occluder with time-counting and reflection control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karitans, V.; Ozolinsh, M.; Kuprisha, G.

    2008-09-01

    In pediatric ophthalmology 2 - 3 % of all the children are impacted by a visual pathology - amblyopia. It develops if a clear image isn't presented to the retina during an early stage of the development of the visual system. A common way of treating this pathology is to cover the better-seeing eye to force the "lazy" eye to learn seeing. However, children are often reluctant to wear such an occluder because they are ashamed or simply because they find it inconvenient. This fact requires to find a way how to track the regime of occlusion because results of occlusion is a hint that the actual regime of occlusion isn't that what the optometrist has recommended. We design an electronic eye occluder that allows to track the regime of eye occlusion. We employ real-time clock DS1302 providing time information from seconds to years. Data is stored in the internal memory of the CPU (EEPROM). The MCU (PIC16F676) switches on only if a mechanical switch is closed and temperature has reached a satisfactory level. The occlusion is registered between time moments when the infrared signal appeared and disappeared.

  16. Hemodialysis in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Narayan; Jha, Vivekanand

    2015-01-01

    Background Asia is the largest, most populous and most heterogeneous continent in the world. The number of patients with end-stage renal disease is growing rapidly in Asia. Summary A fully informed report on the status of dialysis therapies including hemodialysis (HD) is limited by the lack of systematic registries. Available data suggest remarkable heterogeneities, with some countries like Taiwan, Japan and Korea exhibiting well-established HD systems, high prevalence and universal access to all patients, while low- and low-middle income countries are unable to provide HD to eligible patients because of high cost and poor healthcare systems. Many Asian countries have unregulated dialysis units, with poor standards of delivery, quality control and outcome reporting. This leads to high mortality due to preventable complications like infections. Modeling data suggest that at least 2.9 million people need dialysis in Asia, which represents a gap in availability of dialysis to the tune of −66%. The population is projected to grow rapidly in the coming years. Several countries are expanding access to HD. Innovative modifications in dialysis practice are being made to optimize outcomes. It is important to develop robust systems of documentation and outcome reporting to evaluate the effects of such changes. HD needs to develop in conjunction with effective preventive programs and improvement of health systems. Key Messages The practice of HD in Asia is growing and evolving. Rapid expansion will improve the currently dismal access to care for large sections of the population. Quality issues need to be addressed if the full benefit of this therapy is to reach the population. Developed countries of Asia can provide substantial messages to developing economies. HD programs must develop in conjunction with prevention efforts. Facts from East and West (1) While developed Western and Asian countries provide end-stage renal disease patients full access to HD, healthcare systems

  17. [Relationship between lethality of hemodialysis patients, erythropoietin dosage for renal anemia treatment and hemodialysis quality].

    PubMed

    Ziginskiene, Edita; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Bumblyte, Inga Arūne

    2003-01-01

    In December of 1999 and 2000 we visited all hemodialysis centers of Lithuania and collected data about all hemodialysis patients, using special questionnaires. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between lethality of hemodialysis patients, erythropoietin dosage for renal anemia treatment and hemodialysis quality. The patients with higher Kt/V, higher levels of iron and albumin, normal levels of phosphorus and parathyroid hormone (PTH) requested lower doses of erythropoietin (analysis of the patients who were on hemodialysis in 2000 more than 6 months). So, we can conclude that adequate hemodialysis procedure and good management of hemodialysis patient are leading to the decrease request of erythropoietin doses for anemia treatment. We compared two groups of patients in order to examine relationship between hemodialysis quality and lethality of hemodialysis patients. We selected incident patients registered in December of 1999 and we divided these patients in December of 2000 in two groups: a) 175 patients, who continued hemodialysis treatment and b) 41 patients, who died in 2000. The results revealed, that dead patients were elder, their duration of weekly hemodialysis was shorter, Hb concentration lower, they had worse nutritional status (blood albumin level was lower). Lethality was associated with underlying diseases such as diabetes, hypertensive nephropathy and renal amyloidosis.

  18. Urea biosensor for hemodialysis monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.

    1999-01-12

    This research discloses an electrochemical sensor capable of detecting and quantifying urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures. The sensor is based upon measurement of the pH change produced in an aqueous environment by the products of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The sensor may be fabricated using methods amenable to mass fabrication, resulting in low-cost sensors and thus providing the potential for disposable use. In a typical application, the sensor could be used in treatment centers, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. The sensor can also be utilized to allow at-home testing to determine if dialysis was necessary. Such a home monitor is similar, in principle, to devices used for blood glucose testing by diabetics, and would require a blood droplet sample by using a finger prick. 9 figs.

  19. Urea biosensor for hemodialysis monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting and quantifying urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures. The sensor is based upon measurement of the pH change produced in an aqueous environment by the products of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The sensor may be fabricated using methods amenable to mass fabrication, resulting in low-cost sensors and thus providing the potential for disposable use. In a typical application, the sensor could be used in treatment centers, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. The sensor can also be utilized to allow at-home testing to determine if dialysis was necessary. Such a home monitor is similar, in principle, to devices used for blood glucose testing by diabetics, and would require a blood droplet sample by using a finger prick.

  20. [Dialysate and biocompatibility in hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Berland, Y

    1998-01-01

    This article summarise the main data in the literature on the role of bacteriological contamination of the dialysate fluid in inflammatory reactions in hemodialysis. Pyrogenic substances of small molecular weight from Gram-negative bacteria grown in dialysate can pass across intact dialyzer membrane to stimulate cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cellulosic hemodialysis membranes are more permeable to endotoxins than synthetic membranes. Polysulfone membranes and polyamide membranes are able to adsorb bacterial toxins on the dialysate side. The diffusive transfer of bacterial products across dialysis membrane from dialysate fluid was demonstrated. Transmembrane passage of cytokine-inducing bacterial products across reprocessed dialyzers is greater than across new dialyzers. Bacteriological contamination of the dialysate fluid is a problem which must be considered with much more care by nephrologists, especially as LAL test is unable to detect all the bacterial products which can contaminate the dialysate fluid.

  1. The Amplatz canine duct occluder: a novel device for patent ductus arteriosus occlusion.

    PubMed

    Nguyenba, Thaibinh P; Tobias, Anthony H

    2007-11-01

    The Amplatz canine duct occluder (ACDO) is a nitinol mesh device with a short waist that separates a flat distal disc from a cupped proximal disc. The device is designed to conform to the morphology of the canine patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). PDA dimensions are determined by angiography, and a guiding catheter is advanced into the main pulmonary artery via the aorta and PDA. An ACDO with a waist diameter approximately twice the angiographic minimal ductal diameter (MDD) is advanced via the catheter using an attached delivery cable until the flat distal disc deploys within the main pulmonary artery. The partially deployed ACDO, guiding catheter, and delivery cable are retracted until the distal disc engages the pulmonic ostium of the PDA. With the delivery cable stabilized, the catheter is retracted to deploy the waist across the pulmonic ostium and cupped proximal disc within the ductal ampulla. Tension on the delivery cable is released, and correct ACDO positioning and stability are confirmed by observing that the device assumes its native shape, back-and-forth maneuvering of the delivery cable, and a small contrast injection made through the guiding catheter. The delivery cable is detached and removed with the guiding catheter. To assess for any residual ductal flow, an angiogram is performed at the conclusion of the procedure, followed by Doppler echocardiography at 1 day and 3 months post-procedure. PDA occlusion in dogs with the ACDO is straightforward and extremely effective across a wide range of body weights, somatotypes, MDDs, and ductal morphologies.

  2. Psychological evaluation in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Ahmad; Kazemi, Reza; Toghiani, Ali; Mohebi, Bahareh; Tabatabaee, Mohammadreza Nilipour; Adibi, Neda

    2012-03-01

    End stage renal disease has a high burden of disease affecting patient's quality of life and this may dramatically shorten their life expectancy. These patients may be faced with serious stressors which are related to the disease and its treatment. Considering psychosocial problems in hemodialysis patients, we designed this study to evaluate depression, anxiety, social support and to determine temperament, character and correlation between these factors in hemodialysis patients. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study which was done on 218 hemodialysis patients in Isfahan during April-July 2011. Depression, anxiety, social support, temperament and character were evaluated in patients using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Persian version of Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS-P) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) questionnaires. 138 (63.3%) subjects were male. Mean age was 58.18 +/- 14.3 years. 95 (43.6%) participants had depression and 94 (43.1%) had anxiety. Family support had the highest score between social support subscales. Family support was significantly correlated with self-directedness (p = 0.012), cooperativeness (p = 0.03), self-transcendence (p = 0.018), reward dependence and friends support (p = 0.036) and cooperativeness and others support (p = 0.049). Physicians should be aware of depression and anxiety in hemodialysis patients. Our results showed that patients had a supportive relation with their family and it could be because of Iranian culture and religious believes. In terms of temperament and character, patients were tolerant, supportive, humble and sociable.

  3. Intramural esophageal bleeding in a hemodialysis patient

    PubMed Central

    Lien, J. W. K.; Dufresne, L. R.; Daly, D. S.

    1974-01-01

    A case of intramural esophageal hemorrhage in a hemodialysis patient is described. The hemorrhage followed an episode of vomiting and violent retching. Spontaneous resolution occurred with conservative management. The clinical course resembled that of previous case reports of intramural esophageal hemorrhage, whether or not associated with chronic renal failure and intermittent hemodialysis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:4434294

  4. Ileal Varices Treated with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Katsu; Toyota, Jouji; Karino, Yoshiyasu; Ohmura, Takumi; Akaike, Jun

    2009-01-01

    A 55-year-old man with hepatitis B virus antigen-positive liver cirrhosis was admitted to our hospital with anal bleeding. Colonoscopy revealed blood retention in the entire colon, but no bleeding lesion was found. Computed tomography images showed that vessels in the ileum were connected to the right testicular vein, and we suspected ileal varices to be the most probable cause of bleeding. We immediately performed double balloon enteroscopy, but failed to find any site of bleeding owing to the difficulty of fiberscope insertion with sever adhesion. Using a balloon catheter during retrograde transvenous venography, we found ileal varices communicating with the right testicular vein (efferent vein) with the superior mesenteric vein branch as the afferent vein of these varices. We performed balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration by way of the efferent vein of the varices and have detected no further bleeding in this patient one year after treatment. PMID:27956966

  5. Ileal Varices Treated with Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Katsu; Toyota, Jouji; Karino, Yoshiyasu; Ohmura, Takumi; Akaike, Jun

    2009-04-01

    A 55-year-old man with hepatitis B virus antigen-positive liver cirrhosis was admitted to our hospital with anal bleeding. Colonoscopy revealed blood retention in the entire colon, but no bleeding lesion was found. Computed tomography images showed that vessels in the ileum were connected to the right testicular vein, and we suspected ileal varices to be the most probable cause of bleeding. We immediately performed double balloon enteroscopy, but failed to find any site of bleeding owing to the difficulty of fiberscope insertion with sever adhesion. Using a balloon catheter during retrograde transvenous venography, we found ileal varices communicating with the right testicular vein (efferent vein) with the superior mesenteric vein branch as the afferent vein of these varices. We performed balloon occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration by way of the efferent vein of the varices and have detected no further bleeding in this patient one year after treatment.

  6. Model-based occluded object recognition using Petri nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuan; Hura, Gurdeep S.

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of Petri nets to model the process of the object matching between an image and a model under different 2D geometric transformations. This transformation finds its applications in sensor-based robot control, flexible manufacturing system and industrial inspection, etc. A description approach for object structure is presented by its topological structure relation called Point-Line Relation Structure (PLRS). It has been shown how Petri nets can be used to model the matching process, and an optimal or near optimal matching can be obtained by tracking the reachability graph of the net. The experiment result shows that object can be successfully identified and located under 2D transformation such as translations, rotations, scale changes and distortions due to object occluded partially.

  7. Form Perception of Partly Occluded Shapes in 4-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Tessa C. J.; Vrins, Sven; Dejonckheere, Peter J. N.; van Lier, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Two habituation experiments were conducted to investigate how 4-month-old infants perceive partly occluded shapes. In the first experiment, we presented a simple, partly occluded shape to the infants until habituation was reached. Then we showed either a probable completion (one that would be predicted on the basis of both local and global cues)…

  8. The Role of Good Form in Young Infants' Perception of Partly Occluded Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Scott P.; Bremner, J. Gavin; Slater, Alan M.; Mason, Uschi C.

    2000-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether 4-month-olds would attend to and utilize the global configuration ("good form") of a partly occluded, moving object to perceive its unit and coherence behind the occluder. Results indicated that curvature per se provided information in support of completion, in addition to global configuration and…

  9. Phonation Threshold Pressure Measurement with a Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titze, Ingo R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to determine if a semi-occluded vocal tract could be used to measure phonation threshold pressure. This is in contrast to the shutter technique, where an alternation between a fully occluded tract and an unoccluded tract is used. Method: Five male and 5 female volunteers phonated through a thin straw held…

  10. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Response to Cholecalciferol Supplementation in Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Andukuri, Radha; Barger-Lux, Janet; Heaney, Robert P.; Lund, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Recent understanding of extrarenal production of calcitriol has led to the exploration of native vitamin D treatment in dialysis patients. This paper reports the pharmacokinetics of 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to 10,333 IU cholecalciferol given weekly in subjects on chronic dialysis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 15 weeks of oral cholecalciferol in subjects with stage 5 CKD requiring maintenance hemodialysis was conducted from November of 2007 to March of 2010. The time course of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured over the course of treatment. Additionally, blood was drawn at baseline and last visit for calcium, phosphorus, calcitriol, and parathyroid hormone levels. Results The median (interquartile range) baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 13.3 (11.1–16.2) ng/ml for the treatment group and 15.2 (10.7–19.9) ng/ml for the placebo group. 25-hydroxyvitamin D steady state levels rose by 23.6 (19.2–29.9) ng/ml in the treatment group, and there was no change in the placebo group. Calcitriol levels also increased significantly in the treatment group. There were no significant changes in levels of calcium, albumin, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone in either group. Conclusions Cholecalciferol (10,333 IU) given weekly in patients on chronic hemodialysis produces a steady state in 25-hydroxyvitamin D of approximately 24 ng/ml. PMID:22798536

  11. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D response to cholecalciferol supplementation in hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Armas, Laura A G; Andukuri, Radha; Barger-Lux, Janet; Heaney, Robert P; Lund, Richard

    2012-09-01

    Recent understanding of extrarenal production of calcitriol has led to the exploration of native vitamin D treatment in dialysis patients. This paper reports the pharmacokinetics of 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to 10,333 IU cholecalciferol given weekly in subjects on chronic dialysis. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 15 weeks of oral cholecalciferol in subjects with stage 5 CKD requiring maintenance hemodialysis was conducted from November of 2007 to March of 2010. The time course of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured over the course of treatment. Additionally, blood was drawn at baseline and last visit for calcium, phosphorus, calcitriol, and parathyroid hormone levels. The median (interquartile range) baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 13.3 (11.1-16.2) ng/ml for the treatment group and 15.2 (10.7-19.9) ng/ml for the placebo group. 25-hydroxyvitamin D steady state levels rose by 23.6 (19.2-29.9) ng/ml in the treatment group, and there was no change in the placebo group. Calcitriol levels also increased significantly in the treatment group. There were no significant changes in levels of calcium, albumin, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone in either group. Cholecalciferol (10,333 IU) given weekly in patients on chronic hemodialysis produces a steady state in 25-hydroxyvitamin D of approximately 24 ng/ml.

  12. Impact of National Clinical Guideline Recommendations for Revascularization of Persistently Occluded Infarct-Related Arteries on Clinical Practice in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Deyell, Marc W.; Buller, Christopher E.; Miller, Louis H.; Wang, Tracy Y.; Dai, David; Lamas, Gervasio A.; Srinivas, Vankeepuram S.; Hochman, Judith S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Occluded Artery Trial (OAT) was a large, randomized controlled trial published in 2006 that demonstrated no benefit to routine percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of persistently totally occluded infarct-related arteries (IRA) identified a minimum of 24 hours (on calendar days 3–28) after myocardial infarction (MI). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of OAT results and consequent change in guideline recommendations for PCI for treatment of persistently occluded IRAs. Methods We identified all patients enrolled in the CathPCI Registry, from 2005 to 2008, undergoing catheterization more than 24 hours after MI with a totally occluded native coronary artery and no major OAT exclusion criteria. We examined trends in monthly rates of PCI for occlusions after OAT publication and after guideline revisions. Because reporting of diagnostic catheterizations was not mandatory, we examined trends among hospitals in the highest quartile for reporting of diagnostic procedures. Results A total of 28 780 patient visits from 896 hospitals were included. Overall, we found no significant decline in the adjusted monthly rate of PCI of occlusions after publication of OAT (odds ratio [OR], 0.997; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.989–1.006) or after guideline revisions (OR, 1.007; 95% CI, 0.992–1.022). Among hospitals consistently reporting diagnostic catheterizations, there was no significant decline after OAT publication (OR, 1.018; 95% CI, 0.995–1.042), and there was a trend toward decline after guideline revisions (OR, 0.963; 95% CI, 0.920–1.000). Conclusion These findings suggest that the results of OAT and consequent guideline revisions have not, to date, been fully incorporated into clinical practice in a large cross-section of hospitals in the United States. PMID:21747002

  13. OPCAB in patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Milani, Rodrigo; Brofman, Paulo Roberto Slud; Souza, José Augusto Moutinho de; Barboza, Laura; Guimarães, Maximiliano Ricardo; Barbosa, Alexandre; Varela, Alexandre Manoel; Ravagnelli, Marcel Rogers; Silva, Francisco Maia da

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the hospital outcomes of patients, with chronic renal insufficiency in the hemodialysis, submitted to OPCAB. Fifty-one patients with chronic renal insufficiency were submitted to OPCAB. Hemodialysis was performed on the day before and the day after the operation. Myocardial revascularization was performed using LIMA's suture and suction stabilization. Fifty-one patients, with an average of 61.28+/-11.09 years, were analyzed. Thirty patients (58.8%) were female. The predominant functional class was IV in 21 (41.1%) of the patients. The left ventricle ejection fraction was dire in 21 (41.1%) patients. The mean EUROSCORE of this series was 7.65+/-3.83 and the mean number of distal anastomosis was 3.1+/-0.78 per patient. The average time of mechanical ventilation was 3.78+/-4.35 hours and the mean ICU stay was 41.9+/-13.8 hours, while the average hospitalization was 6.5+/-1.31 days. In respect to complications, nine (17.6%) of the patients developed atrial fibrilation, and one (1.9%) patient presented with a case of ischemic stroke but had a good recovery during hospitalization. There were no deaths in this series. Chronic renal patients submitted to hemodialysis were always a high risk population for myocardial revascularization. In this series, the absence of extracorporeal circulation appeared to be safe and efficient in this special subgroup of patients. The operations were performed with low indices of complications, absence of deaths and relatively low stays in the ICU and in hospital.

  14. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography findings prior to hemodialysis vascular access creation: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Planken, R N; Leiner, T; Nijenhuis, R J; Duijm, L E; Cuypers, P W; Douwes-Draaijer, P; Van Der Sande, F M; Kessels, A G; Tordoir, J H M

    2008-01-01

    To determine prospectively the clinical value of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) for assessment of the arterial inflow and venous outflow prior to vascular access (VA) creation. Seventy-three patients underwent duplex ultrasonography (DUS) and CE-MRA prior to VA creation for detection of stenoses and occlusions. Two observers read the CE-MRA images for determination of inter-observer agreement. A VA was considered functional if it could be used for successful two-needle hemodialysis therapy within 2 months after creation. CE-MRA detected 6 stenosed, 8 occluded arterial vessel segments and 12 stenosed and 41 occluded venous vessel segments in 70 patients. Inter-observer agreement for detection of upper extremity arterial and venous stenoses and occlusions with CE-MRA was substantial to almost perfect (kappa values 0.76-0.96). CE-MRA detected lesions, not detected by DUS, that were associated with VA early failure and non-maturation in 33% of patients (7/21). Accessory veins detected preoperatively were the cause of VA non-maturation in a substantial group of patients (47%: 7/15). CE-MRA enables accurate detection of upper extremity arterial and venous stenosis and occlusions prior to VA creation. Preoperative CE-MRA identified arterial and venous stenoses, not detected by DUS that were associated with VA early failure and non-maturation. However, the use of gadolinium containing contrast media is currently contraindicated due the reported incidence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

  15. Effects of frequent hemodialysis on perceived caregiver burden in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network trials.

    PubMed

    Suri, Rita S; Larive, Brett; Hall, Yoshio; Kimmel, Paul L; Kliger, Alan S; Levin, Nathan; Tamura, Manjula Kurella; Chertow, Glenn M

    2014-05-01

    Patients receiving hemodialysis often perceive their caregivers are overburdened. We hypothesize that increasing hemodialysis frequency would result in higher patient perceptions of burden on their unpaid caregivers. In two separate trials, 245 patients were randomized to receive in-center daily hemodialysis (6 days/week) or conventional hemodialysis (3 days/week) while 87 patients were randomized to receive home nocturnal hemodialysis (6 nights/week) or home conventional hemodialysis for 12 months. Changes in overall mean scores over time in the 10-question Cousineau perceived burden scale were compared. In total, 173 of 245 (70%) and 80 of 87 (92%) randomized patients in the Daily and Nocturnal Trials, respectively, reported having an unpaid caregiver at baseline or during follow-up. Relative to in-center conventional dialysis, the 12-month change in mean perceived burden score with in-center daily hemodialysis was -2.1 (95% confidence interval, -9.4 to +5.3; P=0.58). Relative to home conventional dialysis, the 12-month change in mean perceived burden score with home nocturnal dialysis was +6.1 (95% confidence interval, -0.8 to +13.1; P=0.08). After multiple imputation for missing data in the Nocturnal Trial, the relative difference between home nocturnal and home conventional hemodialysis was +9.4 (95% confidence interval, +0.55 to +18.3; P=0.04). In the Nocturnal Trial, changes in perceived burden were inversely correlated with adherence to dialysis treatments (Pearson r=-0.35; P=0.02). Relative to conventional hemodialysis, in-center daily hemodialysis did not result in higher perceptions of caregiver burden. There was a trend to higher perceived caregiver burden among patients randomized to home nocturnal hemodialysis. These findings may have implications for the adoption of and adherence to frequent nocturnal hemodialysis.

  16. Short daily hemodialysis is associated with lower plasma FGF23 levels when compared with conventional hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Zaritsky, Joshua; Rastogi, Anjay; Fischmann, George; Yan, Jieshi; Kleinman, Kenneth; Chow, Georgina; Gales, Barbara; Salusky, Isidro B.; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Background The utilization of short-term daily hemodialysis has increased over the last few years, but little is known on its effects on the control of serum phosphate and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels. Methods We therefore performed a cross-sectional study to compare FGF23 levels as well as other biochemical variables between 24 patients undergoing short daily hemodialysis using the NxStage System® and 54 patients treated with conventional in-center hemodialysis. FGF23 levels were measured using the second-generation Immutopics® C-terminal assay. Results Short daily hemodialysis patients were younger than patients on conventional hemodialysis but there were no differences between groups in the duration of end-stage renal disease nor in the number of patients with residual renal function. A greater number of short daily hemodialysis patients received vitamin D sterol therapy than did conventional in-center hemodialysis patients while there were no differences in the use of different phosphate binders and calcimimetic therapy between groups. Overall serum calcium, phosphorus and intact parathyroid hormone levels were similar between groups. While serum phosphorus levels correlated with FGF23 concentrations in each group separately [r = 0.522 (P < 0.01) and r = 0.42 (P < 0.01) in short daily and conventional in-center hemodialysis, respectively], FGF23 levels were lower [823 RU/mL (263, 2169)] in the patients receiving short daily hemodialysis than in patients treated with conventional hemodialysis [2521 RU/mL (909, 5556)] (P < 0.01 between groups). Conclusions These findings demonstrate that FGF23 levels are significantly lower in short daily hemodialysis patients and suggest that FGF23 levels may be a more sensitive biomarker of cumulative phosphate burden than single or multiple serum phosphorus determinations in patients treated with hemodialysis. PMID:24009282

  17. Short daily hemodialysis is associated with lower plasma FGF23 levels when compared with conventional hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Zaritsky, Joshua; Rastogi, Anjay; Fischmann, George; Yan, Jieshi; Kleinman, Kenneth; Chow, Georgina; Gales, Barbara; Salusky, Isidro B; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2014-02-01

    The utilization of short-term daily hemodialysis has increased over the last few years, but little is known on its effects on the control of serum phosphate and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels. We therefore performed a cross-sectional study to compare FGF23 levels as well as other biochemical variables between 24 patients undergoing short daily hemodialysis using the NxStage System® and 54 patients treated with conventional in-center hemodialysis. FGF23 levels were measured using the second-generation Immutopics® C-terminal assay. Short daily hemodialysis patients were younger than patients on conventional hemodialysis but there were no differences between groups in the duration of end-stage renal disease nor in the number of patients with residual renal function. A greater number of short daily hemodialysis patients received vitamin D sterol therapy than did conventional in-center hemodialysis patients while there were no differences in the use of different phosphate binders and calcimimetic therapy between groups. Overall serum calcium, phosphorus and intact parathyroid hormone levels were similar between groups. While serum phosphorus levels correlated with FGF23 concentrations in each group separately [r=0.522 (P<0.01) and r=0.42 (P<0.01) in short daily and conventional in-center hemodialysis, respectively], FGF23 levels were lower [823 RU/mL (263, 2169)] in the patients receiving short daily hemodialysis than in patients treated with conventional hemodialysis [2521 RU/mL (909, 5556)] (P<0.01 between groups). These findings demonstrate that FGF23 levels are significantly lower in short daily hemodialysis patients and suggest that FGF23 levels may be a more sensitive biomarker of cumulative phosphate burden than single or multiple serum phosphorus determinations in patients treated with hemodialysis.

  18. Vascular access for hemodialysis: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Domenico; Benedetto, Filippo; Mondello, Placido; Pipitò, Narayana; Barillà, David; Spinelli, Francesco; Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Cernaro, Valeria; Buemi, Michele

    2014-01-01

    A well-functioning vascular access (VA) is a mainstay to perform an efficient hemodialysis (HD) procedure. There are three main types of access: native arteriovenous fistula (AVF), arteriovenous graft, and central venous catheter (CVC). AVF, described by Brescia and Cimino, remains the first choice for chronic HD. It is the best access for longevity and has the lowest association with morbidity and mortality, and for this reason AVF use is strongly recommended by guidelines from different countries. Once autogenous options have been exhausted, prosthetic fistulae become the second option of maintenance HD access alternatives. CVCs have become an important adjunct in maintaining patients on HD. The preferable locations for insertion are the internal jugular and femoral veins. The subclavian vein is considered the third choice because of the high risk of thrombosis. Complications associated with CVC insertion range from 5% to 19%. Since an increasing number of patients have implanted pacemakers and defibrillators, usually inserted via the subclavian vein and superior vena cava into the right heart, a careful assessment of risk and benefits should be taken. Infection is responsible for the removal of about 30%-60% of HD CVCs, and hospitalization rates are higher among patients with CVCs than among AVF ones. Proper VA maintenance requires integration of different professionals to create a VA team. This team should include a nephrologist, radiologist, vascular surgeon, infectious disease consultant, and members of the dialysis staff. They should provide their experience in order to give the best options to uremic patients and the best care for their VA.

  19. Vascular access for hemodialysis: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Domenico; Benedetto, Filippo; Mondello, Placido; Pipitò, Narayana; Barillà, David; Spinelli, Francesco; Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Cernaro, Valeria; Buemi, Michele

    2014-01-01

    A well-functioning vascular access (VA) is a mainstay to perform an efficient hemodialysis (HD) procedure. There are three main types of access: native arteriovenous fistula (AVF), arteriovenous graft, and central venous catheter (CVC). AVF, described by Brescia and Cimino, remains the first choice for chronic HD. It is the best access for longevity and has the lowest association with morbidity and mortality, and for this reason AVF use is strongly recommended by guidelines from different countries. Once autogenous options have been exhausted, prosthetic fistulae become the second option of maintenance HD access alternatives. CVCs have become an important adjunct in maintaining patients on HD. The preferable locations for insertion are the internal jugular and femoral veins. The subclavian vein is considered the third choice because of the high risk of thrombosis. Complications associated with CVC insertion range from 5% to 19%. Since an increasing number of patients have implanted pacemakers and defibrillators, usually inserted via the subclavian vein and superior vena cava into the right heart, a careful assessment of risk and benefits should be taken. Infection is responsible for the removal of about 30%–60% of HD CVCs, and hospitalization rates are higher among patients with CVCs than among AVF ones. Proper VA maintenance requires integration of different professionals to create a VA team. This team should include a nephrologist, radiologist, vascular surgeon, infectious disease consultant, and members of the dialysis staff. They should provide their experience in order to give the best options to uremic patients and the best care for their VA. PMID:25045278

  20. Comparison of factors associated with occludable angle between american Caucasians and ethnic Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye Elaine; Li, Yingjie; Wang, Dandan; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan

    2013-11-21

    To determine if factors associated with gonioscopy-determined occludable angle among American Caucasians are similar to those found in ethnic Chinese. This is a prospective cross-sectional study with 120 American Caucasian, 116 American Chinese, and 116 mainland Chinese subjects. All three groups were matched for sex and age (40-80 years). Gonioscopy was performed for each subject (occludable angles = posterior trabecular meshwork not visible for ≥2 quadrants). Anterior segment optical coherence tomography and customized software was used to measure anterior segment biometry and iris parameters, including anterior chamber depth/width (ACD, ACW), lens vault (LV), and iris thickness/area/curvature. In both Chinese and Caucasians, eyes with occludable angles had smaller ACD and ACW, and larger LV and iris curvature than eyes with open angles (all P < 0.005). Chinese eyes had smaller ACD and ACW than Caucasian eyes (both P < 0.01) in the occludable angle cohort. Iris characteristics did not differ significantly between Chinese and Caucasians in the occludable angle cohort. Based on multivariate logistic regression, gonioscopy-determined occludable angle was significantly associated with LV, iris area, and sex (all P < 0.03) in Chinese; and with LV, ACD, iris thickness, age, and sex (all P < 0.04) in Caucasians. Several factors associated with occludable angle differed between Caucasians and Chinese, suggesting potentially different mechanisms in occludable angle development in the two racial groups. This is the first study to demonstrate that lens vault is an important anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter in the screening for angle closure in Caucasians. In addition, iris thickness was a significant predictor for occludable angles in Caucasians but was not in ethnic Chinese.

  1. Comparison of Factors Associated With Occludable Angle Between American Caucasians and Ethnic Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ye Elaine; Li, Yingjie; Wang, Dandan; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To determine if factors associated with gonioscopy-determined occludable angle among American Caucasians are similar to those found in ethnic Chinese. Methods. This is a prospective cross-sectional study with 120 American Caucasian, 116 American Chinese, and 116 mainland Chinese subjects. All three groups were matched for sex and age (40–80 years). Gonioscopy was performed for each subject (occludable angles = posterior trabecular meshwork not visible for ≥2 quadrants). Anterior segment optical coherence tomography and customized software was used to measure anterior segment biometry and iris parameters, including anterior chamber depth/width (ACD, ACW), lens vault (LV), and iris thickness/area/curvature. Results. In both Chinese and Caucasians, eyes with occludable angles had smaller ACD and ACW, and larger LV and iris curvature than eyes with open angles (all P < 0.005). Chinese eyes had smaller ACD and ACW than Caucasian eyes (both P < 0.01) in the occludable angle cohort. Iris characteristics did not differ significantly between Chinese and Caucasians in the occludable angle cohort. Based on multivariate logistic regression, gonioscopy-determined occludable angle was significantly associated with LV, iris area, and sex (all P < 0.03) in Chinese; and with LV, ACD, iris thickness, age, and sex (all P < 0.04) in Caucasians. Conclusions. Several factors associated with occludable angle differed between Caucasians and Chinese, suggesting potentially different mechanisms in occludable angle development in the two racial groups. This is the first study to demonstrate that lens vault is an important anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter in the screening for angle closure in Caucasians. In addition, iris thickness was a significant predictor for occludable angles in Caucasians but was not in ethnic Chinese. PMID:24168992

  2. Phosphorus Effects of Mesoporous Bioactive Glass on Occlude Exposed Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Cheng-Hwei; Kung, Jung-Chang; Hsiao, Yu-Cheng; Shih, Chi-Jen; Chien, Chi-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    In recent studies, sealing of exposed dentinal tubules is generally considered as one of the most effective strategies to treat dentin hypersensitivity. Mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) is a potential material for treating dentin hypersensitivity due to its highly specific areas for dissolution and re-precipitated reaction for reduction in dentin permeability. The groups of commercial products of PerioGlas®, synthetic MBG and MBG without phosphorus (MBGNP) were compared. The MBG and MBGNP powders were prepared by the sol-gel method and mixed with different calculated ratios of phosphoric acid (PA) and then was brushed onto dentin surfaces. We used X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to investigate the physiochemistry and the occlusion ability of dentinal tubules. The results showed that MBG paste mixed with PA solution has a better ability for occluding dentinal tubules than MBGNP; it has a short reaction time and good operability. The major crystallite phase of MBG agents was monocalcium phosphate monohydrate [Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O] in the early stages of the reactions. MBG pastes that were mixed with 30% and 40% PA had the ability to create excellent penetration depth greater than 80 μm. These agents have the potential to treat dentin hypersensitivity. PMID:28788393

  3. Real life identification of partially occluded weapons in video frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempelmann, Christian F.; Arslan, Abdullah N.; Attardo, Salvatore; Blount, Grady P.; Sirakov, Nikolay M.

    2016-05-01

    We empirically test the capacity of an improved system to identify not just images of individual guns, but partially occluded guns and their parts appearing in a videoframe. This approach combines low-level geometrical information gleaned from the visual images and high-level semantic information stored in an ontology enriched with meronymic part-whole relations. The main improvements of the system are handling occlusion, new algorithms, and an emerging meronomy. Well-known and commonly deployed in ontologies, actual meronomies need to be engineered and populated with unique solutions. Here, this includes adjacency of weapon parts and essentiality of parts to the threat of and the diagnosticity for a weapon. In this study video sequences are processed frame by frame. The extraction method separates colors and removes the background. Then image subtraction of the next frame determines moving targets, before morphological closing is applied to the current frame in order to clean up noise and fill gaps. Next, the method calculates for each object the boundary coordinates and uses them to create a finite numerical sequence as a descriptor. Parts identification is done by cyclic sequence alignment and matching against the nodes of the weapons ontology. From the identified parts, the most-likely weapon will be determined by using the weapon ontology.

  4. Aspirex Thrombectomy in Occluded Dialysis Access: A Retrospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, Jules, E-mail: Jules.Dyer@nhs.net; Rosa, Joao; Chachlani, Menka

    PurposeThis study is the first to present the outcomes of the Straub Aspirex device for the salvage of occluded renal dialysis access fistulae.Materials and MethodsThis is a retrospective study, using data from the Renal Unit and Radiology Department database. It included all the patients between 2010 and 2014 who underwent percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy (PMT) treated by JD. Aspirex is an over-the-wire, 6–10 French catheter within which is a rapidly rotating helix which draws thrombus into a window near the tip which it then macerates and removes. Access survival was assessed using the Kaplan–Meier method, and multi-variant analysis was performed usingmore » the Cox proportional hazards model. Significance was considered if p < 0.05.ResultsA total of 27 procedures were performed for 19 patients. 13 had autologous arterio-venous fistulae, and 14 had synthetic (PTFE) arterio-venous grafts. 15 were males, 4 females. 100 % of the patients successfully had a channel of thrombus removed. This resulted in an 81.5 % initial clinical success, with primary patency rates of 53.6, 44.3 and 33 % by days 30, 90 and 480, respectively, without significant difference of any analysed covariates. No major complication (pulmonary embolus, paradoxical cerebral infarction, limb ischaemia or significant haemorrhage) occurred.ConclusionAspirex has rates of patency and complication similar to other PMT devices. No covariant studied affected outcome.« less

  5. Native Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Amid concerns from tribal leaders that No Child Left Behind testing is squeezing out electives that have traditionally covered their history and cultures, an ambitious brace of programs is making Native America part of the core curriculum at David Wolfle Elementary School and other schools in the western Washington State. By tapping into…

  6. Reengineering hemodialysis for the home environment.

    PubMed

    Treu, Denny

    2010-01-01

    Denny Treu of NxStage Medical, Inc., who has led the development of six dialysis systems with various companies, reports here on a home hemodialysis system that his company successfully designed specifically for home use.

  7. Portable home hemodialysis for kidney failure.

    PubMed

    Scott, A

    2007-11-01

    (1) Home hemodialysis has been in limited use in Canada for some time. Newer, portable hemodialysis machines that are easier for patients to operate may encourage the uptake of this technology. (2) One portable system is already available in the US. The NxStage System One hemodialysis machine operates on standard electric current, does not require plumbing or specialized disinfection, and is small enough for patients to travel with. (3) It is not yet clear whether the use of the NxStage system improves long-term survival and quality of life. (4) Home hemodialysis is less costly than conventional in-centre programs, but it is unknown whether these savings extend to portable devices.

  8. Effect of hemodialysis on leflunomide plasma concentrations.

    PubMed

    Beaman, Jasmine M; Hackett, L Peter; Luxton, Grant; Illett, Kenneth F

    2002-01-01

    To report on the influence of hemodialysis on the disposition of leflunomide in a woman with end-stage renal disease. A 65-year-old white woman with a history of diabetes, end-stage renal disease, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, and leg ulcers was admitted to the hospital with a flare in the symptoms of joint pain and vasculitis. Prior to admission, she had been treated for rheumatoid arthritis with methotrexate 7.5 mg once a week. Due to adverse effects from methotrexate and continuing painful joints, leflunomide was considered as a therapeutic alternative. A loading dose of 100 mg was followed two days later by a daily dose of 10 mg. The active metabolite of leflunomide (A771726) was measured before and after hemodialysis and between hemodialysis sessions over a period of 80 days. Pre- and post-hemodialysis concentrations were compared for 17 sessions during this time. Based on the initial measured concentrations, the leflunomide dose was increased to 20 mg/d for several weeks before being reduced to 15 mg due to elevated liver enzymes. Although renal pathways are responsible in part for excretion of A771726, the concentrations achieved in this patient at doses of 10-20 mg/d were at the low end of the range reported in the literature. It was shown that pre- and post-hemodialysis concentrations of A771726 did not differ significantly. Thus, the low concentrations of A771726 were not a result of the hemodialysis. Steady-state concentrations of A771726 in plasma were not affected by hemodialysis or renal impairment. Reduction of the dose of leflunomide in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis does not appear to be required.

  9. The relevance of dietary sodium in hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Mc Causland, Finnian R.; Waikar, Sushrut S.; Brunelli, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Since the earliest days of hemodialysis, dietary sodium restriction has been recommended as a therapeutic means to mitigate problems of extracellular volume overload, hypertension and inter-dialytic weight gain. Recently, there has been a proliferation of human subjects' research examining the potential effects of dietary sodium curtailment. Herein we examine the available evidence with respect to the effects of dietary sodium restriction on clinically relevant endpoints among hemodialysis patients. PMID:23129821

  10. Incremental short daily home hemodialysis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Toth-Manikowski, Stephanie M; Mullangi, Surekha; Hwang, Seungyoung; Shafi, Tariq

    2017-07-05

    Patients starting dialysis often have substantial residual kidney function. Incremental hemodialysis provides a hemodialysis prescription that supplements patients' residual kidney function while maintaining total (residual + dialysis) urea clearance (standard Kt/Vurea) targets. We describe our experience with incremental hemodialysis in patients using NxStage System One for home hemodialysis. From 2011 to 2015, we initiated 5 incident hemodialysis patients on an incremental home hemodialysis regimen. The biochemical parameters of all patients remained stable on the incremental hemodialysis regimen and they consistently achieved standard Kt/Vurea targets. Of the two patients with follow-up >6 months, residual kidney function was preserved for ≥2 years. Importantly, the patients were able to transition to home hemodialysis without automatically requiring 5 sessions per week at the outset and gradually increased the number of treatments and/or dialysate volume as the residual kidney function declined. An incremental home hemodialysis regimen can be safely prescribed and may improve acceptability of home hemodialysis. Reducing hemodialysis frequency by even one treatment per week can reduce the number of fistula or graft cannulations or catheter connections by >100 per year, an important consideration for patient well-being, access longevity, and access-related infections. The incremental hemodialysis approach, supported by national guidelines, can be considered for all home hemodialysis patients with residual kidney function.

  11. Is incremental hemodialysis ready to return on the scene? From empiricism to kinetic modelling.

    PubMed

    Basile, Carlo; Casino, Francesco Gaetano; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-08-01

    Most people who make the transition to maintenance dialysis therapy are treated with a fixed dose thrice-weekly hemodialysis regimen without considering their residual kidney function (RKF). The RKF provides effective and naturally continuous clearance of both small and middle molecules, plays a major role in metabolic homeostasis, nutritional status, and cardiovascular health, and aids in fluid management. The RKF is associated with better patient survival and greater health-related quality of life, although these effects may be confounded by patient comorbidities. Preservation of the RKF requires a careful approach, including regular monitoring, avoidance of nephrotoxins, gentle control of blood pressure to avoid intradialytic hypotension, and an individualized dialysis prescription including the consideration of incremental hemodialysis. There is currently no standardized method for applying incremental hemodialysis in practice. Infrequent (once- to twice-weekly) hemodialysis regimens are often used arbitrarily, without knowing which patients would benefit the most from them or how to escalate the dialysis dose as RKF declines over time. The recently heightened interest in incremental hemodialysis has been hindered by the current limitations of the urea kinetic models (UKM) which tend to overestimate the dialysis dose required in the presence of substantial RKF. This is due to an erroneous extrapolation of the equivalence between renal urea clearance (Kru) and dialyser urea clearance (Kd), correctly assumed by the UKM, to the clinical domain. In this context, each ml/min of Kd clears the urea from the blood just as 1 ml/min of Kru does. By no means should such kinetic equivalence imply that 1 ml/min of Kd is clinically equivalent to 1 ml/min of urea clearance provided by the native kidneys. A recent paper by Casino and Basile suggested a variable target model (VTM) as opposed to the fixed model, because the VTM gives more clinical weight to the RKF and allows

  12. Recanalisation of Chronically Occluded Remote Superficial Femoral Artery Endarterectomy Through Angioplasty for Limb Salvage

    SciTech Connect

    Husainy, Mohammad Ali, E-mail: m.husainy@nhs.net; Slim, Hani; Rashid, Hisham

    2017-02-15

    We report a novel application of balloon angioplasty to recanalise a chronically occluded remote endarterectomy superficial femoral artery. This patient previously had two occluded surgical bypass grafts in an attempt to revascularise the limb and presented with critical limb ischaemia and necrotic foot ulcerations. Following the angioplasty, the patient showed significant improvement in rest pain and healing of the ulcerations. This technique may be useful for limb salvage in patients where surgical options have been exhausted.

  13. Transcatheter Closure of Bilateral Multiple Huge Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations with Homemade Double-Umbrella Occluders

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong Hongshan, E-mail: zhonghongshan@hotmail.com; Xu Ke; Shao Haibo

    2008-07-15

    A 28-year-old man underwent successful transcatheter occlusion of three huge pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) using homemade double-umbrella occluders and stainless steel coils. Thoracic CT with three-dimensional reconstruction and pulmonary angiography were used for treatment planning and follow-up. The diameters of the feeding vessels were 11 mm, 13 mm, and 14 mm, respectively. This report demonstrates the novel design and utility of the double-umbrella occluder, an alternative tool for treatment of large PAVMs.

  14. Native Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benningfield, Damond

    2001-03-01

    People native to North America practiced their own version of astronomy. They tracked the motions of the Sun to help them decide when to plant crops, move their camps, and stage sacred rituals. Some tribes built great circles of stones to help them predict the changing seasons. Others built great mounds of earth to reflect the patterns they saw in the heavens and to align their ceremonial centers with the Sun and the Moon.

  15. Identification and characterization of steady and occluded water in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Tong, Huiyan; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Tian, Yimei; Chen, Xi; Zhao, Weigao; Li, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Deterioration and leakage of drinking water in distribution systems have been a major issue in the water industry for years, which are associated with corrosion. This paper discovers that occluded water in the scales of the pipes has an acidic environment and high concentration of iron, manganese, chloride, sulfate and nitrate, which aggravates many pipeline leakage accidents. Six types of water samples have been analyzed under the flowing and stagnant periods. Both the water in the exterior of the tubercles and stagnant water carry suspended iron particles, which explains the occurrence of "red water" when the system hydraulic conditions change. Nitrate is more concentrated in occluded water under flowing condition in comparison with that in flowing water. However, the concentration of nitrate in occluded water under stagnant condition is found to be less than that in stagnant water. A high concentration of manganese is found to exist in steady water, occluded water and stagnant water. These findings impact secondary pollution and the corrosion of pipes and containers used in drinking water distribution systems. The unique method that taking occluded water from tiny holes which were drilled from the pipes' exteriors carefully according to the positions of corrosion scales has an important contribution to research on corrosion in distribution systems. And this paper furthers our understanding and contributes to the growing body of knowledge regarding occluded environments in corrosion scales. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Safety, dose, and timing of reteplase in treating occluded central venous catheters in children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Terrill, Kelly R; Lemons, Richard S; Goldsby, Robert E

    2003-11-01

    Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, alteplase, began to be commonly used to restore the patency of occluded central venous catheters (CVCs) as urokinase production was halted in the late 1990s. However, alteplase often requires an extended dwell time to restore patency to occluded CVCs. In adults, reteplase, a newer thrombolytic agent, has been reported to restore patency to CVCs in 30 minutes. The authors prospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of reteplase in restoring patency to occluded CVCs in children with cancer. This was a dose escalation trial. The dose of reteplase was initiated at 0.1 units and increased by increments of 0.1 units to a maximum dose of 0.4 units. Each dose was tested on at least three participants. Time to patency after reteplase administration was recorded by nurses caring for the patients. Attempts to access the line occurred every 15 minutes for 1 hour. CVCs that remained occluded after 1 hour were treated with alteplase. Reteplase was administered to 15 clotted CVCs. Twelve of the 15 were cleared with an average dwell time of 38 minutes. The time to patency did not appear to correlate with the dose. No adverse events were reported. Reteplase can restore patency to occluded CVCs in a pediatric population. Reteplase appears to have comparable efficacy with alteplase, but reteplase may require shorter dwell times. A prospective, randomized, clinical trial is warranted to determine whether reteplase is as effective as alteplase in restoring patency to occluded CVCs.

  17. Extended hours hemodialysis and survival: extended hours, extended evidence?

    PubMed

    Wald, Ron; Perl, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    Extended-hours hemodialysis presents another approach to the intensification of therapy for maintenance hemodialysis recipients. Smaller studies have demonstrated several potential benefits with this modality, but the impact on patient-centered outcomes has been unclear. We review the largest published study to compare survival among patients who received extended-hours hemodialysis with those who received conventional hemodialysis. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 21 CFR 876.5665 - Water purification system for hemodialysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water purification system for hemodialysis. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5665 Water purification system for hemodialysis. (a) Identification. A water purification system for hemodialysis is a...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5665 - Water purification system for hemodialysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water purification system for hemodialysis. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5665 Water purification system for hemodialysis. (a) Identification. A water purification system for hemodialysis is a...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5665 - Water purification system for hemodialysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water purification system for hemodialysis. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5665 Water purification system for hemodialysis. (a) Identification. A water purification system for hemodialysis is a...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5665 - Water purification system for hemodialysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water purification system for hemodialysis. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5665 Water purification system for hemodialysis. (a) Identification. A water purification system for hemodialysis is a...

  2. Treating amblyopia in adults with prosthetic occluding contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Romo, Esperanza; Perez-Rico, Consuelo; Roldán-Díaz, Isabel; Arévalo-Serrano, Juan; Blanco, Román

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the feasibility, effectiveness and acceptability of using prosthetic occluding contact lenses (OCLs) to treat moderate amblyopia in adults and of the role of the multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) as a predictor of postamblyopic therapy. A comparative, prospective, interventional, case series pilot study with amblyopic adults (mean age: 40 years, range 20-50 years) allocated into two intervention groups: eye patching and OCL. The primary outcome variable was logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and secondary outcomes were mfVEP amplitude and latency and patients' health-related quality of life National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25). Significant improvements in pre- to postamblyopic therapy BCVA were seen at 1.5 months in the OCL group [0.29 logMAR, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10-0.47 versus 0.11 logMAR, 95% CI: 0.02-0.19; p < 0.001] and eye patching group (0.29 logMAR, 95% CI: 0.17-0.40 versus 0.18 logMAR, 95% CI: 0.12-0.23; p < 0.01). Post-treatment BCVA was inversely related to age (R: 0.009, 95% CI: -0.02 to -0.001; p = 0.04) and the presence of strabismus (R: -0.3, 95% CI: -0.434 to -0.17; p = 0.001). No significant changes in the number and size of the abnormal mfVEP amplitude and latency defects were observed after occlusion. The NEI VFQ-25 composite score showed significant improvement in the OCL users at 12 months compared to eye patching. Significant vision improvement can be achieved, making occlusion with OCLs an effective and more acceptable therapy for adults with amblyopia. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Percutaneous closure of the patent ductus arteriosus in children with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II].

    PubMed

    Parra-Bravo, José Rafael; Osuna-Izaguirre, Manuel Alfredo; Beirana-Palencia, Luisa; Gálvez-Cancino, Franco; Martínez-Monterrosas, Christian; Lazo-Cárdenas, César; Reyes-Vargas, César

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, several devices have been used for the percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus, with its own limitations and risks. The Amplatzer Duct Occluder II has been designed to overcome those limitations and reduce risks. We described our initial series of patients who underwent percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II, emphasis on the technical aspects of the procedure. We reviewed the clinical records of 9 patients with patent ductus arteriosus who underwent percutaneous closure with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II. Median age was 24 months (range 8-51 months) and the median weight was 10.7kg (range 6-16.3kg). The minimal ductus arteriosus diameter was 2.7mm (1-5mm). Implantation was successful in all cases. The devices most commonly used (33.3%) were the dimensions 4-4mm (3 patients), in 2 patients were used 3-4mm and in the rest of the patients were employed occluder other sizes. Four cases showed slight residual flow immediately after implantation. Total closure was achieved in 24h in 8 of 9 patients (89%). There was no embolization of the occluder or deaths during the procedure and we only observed one minor complication. The Amplatzer Duct Occluder II in this series was effective in 89% of the patients at 24hs after the procedure and 100% follow-up. The implantation was safe and no major complications were observed. The occlusion rate is comparable to those reported for the Amplatzer Duct Occluder I. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Closure of large patent ductus arteriosus using the Amplatzer Septal Occluder.

    PubMed

    García-Montes, José A; Camacho-Castro, Anahí; Sandoval-Jones, Juan P; Buendía-Hernández, Alfonso; Calderón-Colmenero, Juan; Patiño-Bahena, Emilia; Zabal, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus has become the treatment of choice in many centres. In patients with large ducts and pulmonary hypertension, transcatheter closure has been achieved with success using the Amplatzer Duct Occluder or even the Amplatzer Muscular Ventricular Septal Defect Occluder. We present a series of 17 patients with large and hypertensive ductus arteriosus who were treated with an Amplatzer Septal Occluder. The group had 11 female patients (64.7%) and a mean age of 18.6±12.1 years. The haemodynamic and anatomical data are as follows: pulmonary artery systolic pressure 71.3±31.8 mmHg, pulmonary to systemic flow ratio 3.14±1.36, ductal diameter at the pulmonary end 12.5±3.8 mm, and at the aortic end 20.2±7.7 mm; 14 cases (82.3%) had type A ducts. In 11 patients, we began the procedure using a different device - six with duct occluder and five with ventricular septal occluder - and it was changed because of device embolisation in six (35.3%). All septal occluders were delivered successfully. Residual shunt was moderate in six patients (35.3%), mild in eight (47%), trivial in two (11.8%), and no shunt in one (5.9%). Pulmonary systolic pressure decreased to 48.9±10.8 mmHg after occlusion (p=0.0015). Follow-up in 15 patients (88.2%) for 28.4±14.4 months showed complete closure in all cases but one, and continuous decrease of the pulmonary systolic pressure to 31.4±10.5 mmHg. No complications at follow-up have been reported. The Amplatzer Septal Occluder is a good alternative to percutaneously treat large and hypertensive ductus arteriosus.

  5. Survival in Daily Home Hemodialysis and Matched Thrice-Weekly In-Center Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiannong; Gilbertson, David T.; Arneson, Thomas J.; Collins, Allan J.

    2012-01-01

    Frequent hemodialysis improves cardiovascular surrogates and quality-of-life indicators, but its effect on survival remains unclear. We used a matched-cohort design to assess relative mortality in daily home hemodialysis and thrice-weekly in-center hemodialysis patients between 2005 and 2008. We matched 1873 home hemodialysis patients with 9365 in-center patients (i.e., 1:5 ratio) selected from the prevalent population in the US Renal Data System database. Matching variables included first date of follow-up, demographic characteristics, and measures of disease severity. The cumulative incidence of death was 19.2% and 21.7% in the home hemodialysis and in-center patients, respectively. In the intention-to-treat analysis, home hemodialysis associated with a 13% lower risk for all-cause mortality than in-center hemodialysis (hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.78–0.97). Cause-specific mortality HRs were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.78–1.09) for cardiovascular disease, 1.13 (95% CI, 0.84–1.53) for infection, 0.63 (95% CI, 0.41–0.95) for cachexia/dialysis withdrawal, 1.06 (95% CI, 0.81–1.37) for other specified cause, and 0.59 (95% CI, 0.44–0.79) for unknown cause. Findings were similar using as-treated analyses. We did not detect statistically significant evidence of heterogeneity of treatment effects in subgroup analyses. In summary, these data suggest that relative to thrice-weekly in-center hemodialysis, daily home hemodialysis associates with modest improvements in survival. Continued surveillance should strengthen inference about causes of mortality and determine whether treatment effects are homogeneous throughout the dialysis population. PMID:22362906

  6. Near-Death Experience in Patients on Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sharona

    2015-01-01

    Near-death experience (NDE) is a phenomenon that occurs when a person loses consciousness and senses a disconnection from the world around them. Patients on hemodialysis can experience multiple NDEs over their lifetime. An NDE during a hemodialysis session while connected to a hemodialysis machine can present challenges to this patient population and the nurses caring for them. The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential after effects of NDE in patients who experience this phenomenon while connected to a hemodialysis machine and to propose that nurses lead the healthcare team in addressing the after effects of NDE in patients on hemodialysis.

  7. Vitamin D deficiency and associated factors in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Jean, Guillaume; Charra, Bernard; Chazot, Charles

    2008-09-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in the general elderly population, and is related to an increased risk of osteoporosis, fractures, and cardiovascular calcification. Only limited data and no guidelines are available on vitamin D deficiency in hemodialysis patients. We aimed to assess the frequency of, and factors associated with, 25(OH) vitamin D deficiency in hemodialysis patients in a French dialysis center. In March 2006, we studied all prevalent hemodialysis patients who had not received native vitamin D supplements in the recent past. According to the Kidney Disease Outcomes and Quality Initiative guidelines, patients were assigned to the following 3 groups: group 1, with a sufficient vitamin D serum level (>75 nmol/L); group 2, with an insufficient level (25 to 75 nmol/L); and group 3, with severe deficiency (<25 nmol/L). Patients' characteristics and biochemical findings were compared between patients of groups 1 and 3. Of 253 patients, 11% patients were in group 1; 47% were in group 2; and 42% were in group 3. The proportions of female and diabetes patients were 42% and 34%, respectively. The mean (+/- SD) age of all patients was 66.7 +/- 14 years, and the mean duration of dialysis was 62 +/- 74 months, with a mean schedule of 3 x 6.5 hours and administration of a 1.5 mmol/L calcium dialysate. Concomitant treatment included alfacalcidol (66% of patients) and sevelamer (34% of patients) as a standard phosphate binder. Group 3 patients had a lower dialysis vintage (53 +/- 66 vs. 73 +/- 85 months, P < .05), a higher number of diabetes patients (45% vs. 21%, P < .05), a higher number of female patients (53% vs. 28%, P < .05), and a higher level of intact parathyroid hormone (260 +/- 227 vs. 213 +/- 153 pg/mL, P < .05) than group 1 patients. No relationship was found between vitamin D storage levels and bone markers, serum calcium, phosphorus, albumin, body mass index, normalized protein catabolic rate, radiologic vascular calcification score, and hip bone

  8. Amodal representation of occluded surfaces: role of invisible stimuli in apparent motion correspondence.

    PubMed

    Shimojo, S; Nakayama, K

    1990-01-01

    A series of demonstrations were created where the perceived depth of targets was controlled by stereoscopic disparity. A closer object (a cloud) was made to jump back and forth horizontally, partially occluding a farther object (a full moon). The more distant moon appeared stationary even though the unoccluded portion of it, a crescent, changed position. Reversal of the relative depth of the moon and cloud gave a totally different percept: the crescent appeared to flip back and forth in the front depth plane. Thus, the otherwise-robust apparent motion of the moon crescents was completely abolished in the cloud-closer case alone. This motion-blocking effect is attributed to the 'amodal presence' of the occluded surface continuing behind the occluding surface. To measure the effect of this occluded 'invisible' surface quantitatively, a bistable apparent motion display was used (Ramachandran and Anstis 1983a): two small rectangular-shaped targets changed their positions back and forth between two frames, and the disparity of a large centrally positioned rectangle was varied. When the perceived depths supported the possibility of amodal completion behind the large rectangle, increased vertical motion of the targets was found, suggesting that the amodal presence of the targets behind the occluder had effectively changed the center position of the moving targets for purposes of motion correspondence. Amodal contours are literally 'invisible', yet it is hypothesized that they have a neural representation at sufficiently early stages of visual processing to alter the correspondence solving process for apparent motion.

  9. Time course of spatial and feature selective attention for partly-occluded objects.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Tetsuko; Takeya, Ryuji

    2012-07-01

    Attention selects objects/groups as the most fundamental units, and this may be achieved by an attention-spreading mechanism. Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have found that attention-spreading is reflected by a decrease in the N1 spatial attention effect. The present study tested whether the electrophysiological attention effect is associated with the perception of object unity or amodal completion through the use of partly-occluded objects. ERPs were recorded in 14 participants who were required to pay attention to their left or right visual field and to press a button for a target shape in the attended field. Bilateral stimuli were presented rapidly, and were separated, connected, or connected behind an occluder. Behavioral performance in the connected and occluded conditions was worse than that in the separated condition, indicating that attention spread over perceptual object representations after amodal completion. Consistently, the late N1 spatial attention effect (180-220 ms post-stimulus) and the early phase (230-280 ms) of feature selection effects (target N2) at contralateral sites decreased, equally for the occluded and connected conditions, while the attention effect in the early N1 latency (140-180 ms) shifted most positively for the occluded condition. These results suggest that perceptual organization processes for object recognition transiently modulate spatial and feature selection processes in the visual cortex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of a Creon delayed-release pancreatic enzyme protocol for clearing occluded enteral feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, Janice L; Kurian, Rebecca M; Vuong, Jennifer; Dang, Kimberlyn; Kraft, Michael D

    2014-04-01

    Alkalinized Viokase pancreatic enzyme tablets restored patency to 71.9% of occluded Dobhoff tubes in a prospective study. After removal of Viokase tablets from the US market, the hospital protocol for unclogging enteral feeding tubes was adapted to use Creon pancreatic enzyme delayed-release capsules, despite the lack of published data. To evaluate the effectiveness of a Creon-based protocol to clear occluded enteral feeding tubes. This retrospective study included all adult and pediatric patients seen in the emergency department or in an inpatient setting who received Creon 12 000 units lipase delayed-release capsule dissolved in a solution of sodium bicarbonate 650 mg and sterile water for clearing occluded enteral feeding tubes between May 1 and November 30, 2010. The Creon protocol was deemed effective if tube clearance was documented in the medical record or if enteral feedings were resumed with no note regarding tube replacement. Alkalinized Creon delayed-release capsules were administered to 83 patients with a total of 118 clogged tubes. Three poorly documented cases and 5 tubes with mechanical clogs were excluded from data analysis. Patency was restored to 53 of 110 (48.2%) occluded tubes. More than 1 treatment course was attempted in 5 cases, with success in 3. An alkalinized Creon pancreatic enzyme protocol was effective in clearing approximately half of the occluded enteral feeding tubes in this retrospective study, an efficacy rate much less than that previously reported in the literature with a Viokase-based protocol.

  11. The future of hemodialysis membranes.

    PubMed

    Humes, H D; Fissell, W H; Tiranathanagul, K

    2006-04-01

    Hemodialytic treatment of patients with either acute or chronic renal failure has had a dramatic impact on the mortality rates of these patients. Unfortunately, this membrane-based therapy is still incomplete renal replacement, as the mortality and morbidity of these patients remain unacceptably high. Much progress must be made to improve the biocompatibility of hemodialysis membranes as well as their hydraulic and permselective properties to remove small solutes and 'middle molecules' in compact cartridges. The next directions of development will leverage materials and mechanical engineering technology, including microfluidics and nanofabrication, to further improve the clearance functions of the kidney to replicate glomerular permselectivity while retaining high rates of hydraulic permeability. The extension of membrane technology to biohybrid devices utilizing progenitor/stem cells will be another substantive advance for renal replacement therapy. The ability to not only replace solute and water clearance but also active reabsorptive transport and metabolic activity will add additional benefit to the therapy of patients suffering from renal failure. This area of translational research is rich in creative opportunities to improve the unmet medical needs of patients with either chronic or acute renal failure.

  12. Management of hemodialysis access infections.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sean V; Calligaro, Keith D; Dougherty, Matthew J

    2004-03-01

    Management of hemodialysis (HD) access infection is one of the most challenging and most common problems faced by surgeons, interventional radiologists, and nephrologists. The goal to eradicate infection is often at odds with the need to maintain access. Patients on HD are immunocompromised and typically have significant comorbid conditions placing them at high risk for the occurrence of access infection. Infection is most common with central-vein catheter access, followed by prosthetic arteriovenous grafts (AVG) and is rare with autogenous fistulas. The diagnosis is usually evident on physical exam, but it is not uncommon for these patients to present with atypical symptoms and lack of clinical findings. Although Staphylococcal species are the most common organism to cause infection, early empiric antimicrobial therapy should also include coverage for Gram-negative organisms. Management of central-vein catheter infection includes removal and delayed replacement or, in patients with mild clinical symptoms, catheter exchange over a guide wire. Our management of AVG infection includes total graft excision when patients present with sepsis or the entire graft is bathed in pus, subtotal graft excision when all of the graft is removed except a small oversewn cuff of prosthetic material on an underlying patent artery, and partial graft excision when only a limited infected portion of the graft is removed and a new graft is rerouted in adjacent sterile tissue to maintain patency of the original graft. This strategy has proven to be highly successful in the management of these complicated cases.

  13. [Vascular access guidelines for hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Hernández, J A; González Parra, E; Julián Gutiérrez, J M; Segarra Medrano, A; Almirante, B; Martínez, M T; Arrieta, J; Fernández Rivera, C; Galera, A; Gallego Beuter, J; Górriz, J L; Herrero, J A; López Menchero, R; Ochando, A; Pérez Bañasco, V; Polo, J R; Pueyo, J; Ruiz, Camps I; Segura Iglesias, R

    2005-01-01

    Quality of vascular access (VA) has a remarkable influence in hemodialysis patients outcomes. Dysfunction of VA represents a capital cause of morbi-mortality of these patients as well an increase in economical. Spanish Society of Neprhology, aware of the problem, has decided to carry out a revision of the issue with the aim of providing help in comprehensión and treatment related with VA problems, and achieving an homogenization of practices in three mayor aspects: to increase arteriovenous fistula utilization as first vascular access, to increment vascular access monitoring practice and rationalise central catheters use. We present a consensus document elaborated by a multidisciplinar group composed by nephrologists, vascular surgeons, interventional radiologysts, infectious diseases specialists and nephrological nurses. Along six chapters that cover patient education, creation of VA, care, monitoring, complications and central catheters, we present the state of the art and propose guidelines for the best practice, according different evidence based degrees, with the intention to provide help at the professionals in order to make aproppiate decissions. Several quality standars are also included.

  14. Erectile dysfunction in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Gorsane, Imen; Amri, Nadia; Younsi, Fathi; Helal, Imed; Kheder, Adel

    2016-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common problem seen among patients on hemodialysis (HD), but it is still a taboo subject in our country. The attention given to this sexual problem remained low, and the prevalence of ED among these patients has not been well characterized. We carried out this study in order to determine the prevalence and severity of ED in HD patients. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study in our HD unit in March 2013. ED was evaluated using the International Index Erection Function. Thirty patients with a mean age of 49.1 years were eligible for this study. The main causes of chronic kidney disease were hypertension (62.5%) and diabetes (41.6%). The prevalence of ED was 80%, including 33.3% severe ED. Plasma levels of gonadotropins: luteinizing hormone (LH), follicule-stimulating hormone were in the standards except for one patient who had an elevated level of LH. Prolactin was elevated in four cases. ED was present in 8.4% of patients before the discovery of renal failure and in 91.6% of patients at the beginning of dialysis. For 19 patients (79.1%), the ED had increased during the dialysis sessions. A significant number of our HD patients presented with ED of varying degrees. Nephrologists should pay attention to the problem of ED in order to improve the quality of their life.

  15. Survival of the first arteriovenous fistula in 96 patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Radoui, Aicha; Lyoussfi, Zineb; Haddiya, Intissar; Skalli, Zoubair; El Idrissi, Redouane; Rhou, Hakima; Ezzaitouni, Fatima; Ouzeddoun, Naima; El Mesnaoui, Abbes; Bayahia, Rabea; Benamar, Loubna

    2011-07-01

    Native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) represents the best vascular approach for chronic hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to determine the survival of the first AVF and to identify the factors responsible for poor AVF survival. A retrospective study was conducted on 96 chronic hemodialysis patients benefiting from the creation and cannulation of their first AVF at our center, with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year. We collected demographic, clinical, and biological data, as well as analyzed the following AVF characteristics: anatomic site, cannulation time, survival, and complications. To identify the predictive factors of poor AVF survival, we defined and compared two groups of patients on the basis of whether they lost their first AVF during the evolution. Patients' mean age was 42.1 ± 13 years, with predominantly female patients. Mean AVF cannulation time was 17.5 ± 24 days. AVF loss was mainly related to thrombosis in 29% of the cases and stenosis in 9.4%. AVF survival was 87%, 77%, 71%, 67%, and 64% after 1, 3, 5, 8, and 10 years of hemodialysis, respectively. In our study, the main factors associated with AVF loss were lengthy jugular venous catheters placement (p = 0.004), short AVF cannulation time after its creation (p = 0.03), and hypotension episodes during dialysis (p = 0.03). Long-term survival and quality of life in hemodialysis depend on an appropriate dialysis carried out-thanks to a correct vascular approach! According to the previously published data, survival of the first AVF can vary between 10% and 36% at 10 years. In our study, survival of the first native AVF was satisfying because it reached 64% at 10 years. Early AVF creation and prevention and management of its complications remain the safest and most comfortable solution to ensure AVF survival and thus a satisfying survival and quality of life in chronic hemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2011 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Modulation of occluding junctions alters the hematopoietic niche to trigger immune activation

    PubMed Central

    Khadilkar, Rohan J; Vogl, Wayne; Goodwin, Katharine

    2017-01-01

    Stem cells are regulated by signals from their microenvironment, or niche. During Drosophila hematopoiesis, a niche regulates prohemocytes to control hemocyte production. Immune challenges activate cell-signalling to initiate the cellular and innate immune response. Specifically, certain immune challenges stimulate the niche to produce signals that induce prohemocyte differentiation. However, the mechanisms that promote prohemocyte differentiation subsequent to immune challenges are poorly understood. Here we show that bacterial infection induces the cellular immune response by modulating occluding-junctions at the hematopoietic niche. Occluding-junctions form a permeability barrier that regulates the accessibility of prohemocytes to niche derived signals. The immune response triggered by infection causes barrier breakdown, altering the prohemocyte microenvironment to induce immune cell production. Moreover, genetically induced barrier ablation provides protection against infection by activating the immune response. Our results reveal a novel role for occluding-junctions in regulating niche-hematopoietic progenitor signalling and link this mechanism to immune cell production following infection. PMID:28841136

  17. Transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defects with nitinol wire occluders of type patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Wierzyk, Arkadiusz; Szkutnik, Małgorzata; Fiszer, Roland; Banaszak, Paweł; Pawlak, Szymon; Białkowski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular septal defects closure (VSD) depending on the anatomy and clinical setting can be performed surgically or by a hybrid and transcatheter approach. Two cases of children with VSD will be presented. Patients' defects were closed with various types of occluders made of nitinol wire mesh occluder, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) type. The first case was a 2.5-year-old boy after cardiosurgical correction of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). After the procedure, a significant haemodynamic residual VSD was observed, which was not successfully closed during the subsequent reoperation. Despite pharmacological treatment, symptoms of heart failure were observed in this patient. In echocardiographic images the residual VSD was presented as a tunnel-like dissection of the ventricular septum (length 6 mm and diameter 3.4 mm). The defect was closed via arterial access with an Amplatzer Duct Occluder II (ADO II). The procedure was successfully performed without any medical complications. In this child, a significant shunt reduction and a noticeable improvement in the patient's clinical status and diminished symptoms of heart failure were noticed. The second patient was a 4-year-old girl suffering from a multi-perforated perimembranous VSD accompanied by a ventricular septal defect with aneurysm. The defect was closed by a venous approach with a PDA Cardio-O-Fix occluder (very similar to ADO I). No short-term or long-term complications were visible during or after the procedure. Only a mild residual shunt through the VSD was observed 6 months afterwards. Transcatheter VSD closure with a proper morphology, with occluders of type Amplatzer Duct Occluder ADO I or ADO II, constitutes a safe and effective therapeutic alternative.

  18. Catching What We Can't See: Manual Interception of Occluded Fly-Ball Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Gianfranco; Delle Monache, Sergio; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Control of interceptive actions may involve fine interplay between feedback-based and predictive mechanisms. These processes rely heavily on target motion information available when the target is visible. However, short-term visual memory signals as well as implicit knowledge about the environment may also contribute to elaborate a predictive representation of the target trajectory, especially when visual feedback is partially unavailable because other objects occlude the visual target. To determine how different processes and information sources are integrated in the control of the interceptive action, we manipulated a computer-generated visual environment representing a baseball game. Twenty-four subjects intercepted fly-ball trajectories by moving a mouse cursor and by indicating the interception with a button press. In two separate sessions, fly-ball trajectories were either fully visible or occluded for 750, 1000 or 1250 ms before ball landing. Natural ball motion was perturbed during the descending trajectory with effects of either weightlessness (0 g) or increased gravity (2 g) at times such that, for occluded trajectories, 500 ms of perturbed motion were visible before ball disappearance. To examine the contribution of previous visual experience with the perturbed trajectories to the interception of invisible targets, the order of visible and occluded sessions was permuted among subjects. Under these experimental conditions, we showed that, with fully visible targets, subjects combined servo-control and predictive strategies. Instead, when intercepting occluded targets, subjects relied mostly on predictive mechanisms based, however, on different type of information depending on previous visual experience. In fact, subjects without prior experience of the perturbed trajectories showed interceptive errors consistent with predictive estimates of the ball trajectory based on a-priori knowledge of gravity. Conversely, the interceptive responses of subjects

  19. Catching what we can't see: manual interception of occluded fly-ball trajectories.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Gianfranco; Delle Monache, Sergio; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Control of interceptive actions may involve fine interplay between feedback-based and predictive mechanisms. These processes rely heavily on target motion information available when the target is visible. However, short-term visual memory signals as well as implicit knowledge about the environment may also contribute to elaborate a predictive representation of the target trajectory, especially when visual feedback is partially unavailable because other objects occlude the visual target. To determine how different processes and information sources are integrated in the control of the interceptive action, we manipulated a computer-generated visual environment representing a baseball game. Twenty-four subjects intercepted fly-ball trajectories by moving a mouse cursor and by indicating the interception with a button press. In two separate sessions, fly-ball trajectories were either fully visible or occluded for 750, 1000 or 1250 ms before ball landing. Natural ball motion was perturbed during the descending trajectory with effects of either weightlessness (0 g) or increased gravity (2 g) at times such that, for occluded trajectories, 500 ms of perturbed motion were visible before ball disappearance. To examine the contribution of previous visual experience with the perturbed trajectories to the interception of invisible targets, the order of visible and occluded sessions was permuted among subjects. Under these experimental conditions, we showed that, with fully visible targets, subjects combined servo-control and predictive strategies. Instead, when intercepting occluded targets, subjects relied mostly on predictive mechanisms based, however, on different type of information depending on previous visual experience. In fact, subjects without prior experience of the perturbed trajectories showed interceptive errors consistent with predictive estimates of the ball trajectory based on a-priori knowledge of gravity. Conversely, the interceptive responses of subjects

  20. Distribution and Determinants of Myocardial Perfusion Grade Following Late Mechanical Recanalization of Occluded Infarct-Related Arteries Postmyocardial Infarction: A Report From the Occluded Artery Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jorapur, Vinod; Steigen, Terje K.; Buller, Christopher E.; Dẑavík, Vladimír; Webb, John G.; Strauss, Bradley H.; Yeoh, Eunice E.S.; Kurray, Peter; Sokalski, Leszek; Machado, Mauricio C.; Kronsberg, Shari S.; Lamas, Gervasio A.; Hochman, Judith S.; John Mancini, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the distribution and determinants of myocardial perfusion grade (MPG) following late recanalization of persistently occluded infarct-related arteries (IRA). Background MPG reflects microvascular integrity. It is an independent prognostic factor following myocardial infarction, but has been studied mainly in the setting of early reperfusion. The occluded artery trial (OAT) enrolled stable patients with persistently occluded IRAs beyond 24 hr and up to 28 days post-MI. Methods Myocardial blush was assessed using TIMI MPG grading in 261 patients with TIMI 3 epicardial flow following IRA PCI. Patients demonstrating impaired (0–1) versus preserved (2–3) MPG were compared with regard to baseline clinical and pre-PCI angiographic characteristics. Results Impaired MPG was observed in 60 of 261 patients (23%). By univariate analysis, impaired MPG was associated with failed fibrinolytic therapy, higher heart rate, lower systolic blood pressure, lower ejection fraction, LAD occlusion, absence of collaterals (P < 0.01) and ST elevation MI, lower diastolic blood pressure, and higher systolic sphericity index (P < 0.05). By multivariable analysis, higher heart rate, LAD occlusion, absence of collaterals and higher systolic sphericity index (P < 0.01), and lower systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) were independently associated with impaired MPG. Conclusion Preserved microvascular integrity was present in a high proportion of patients following late recanalization of occluded IRAs post-MI. Presence of collaterals was independently associated with preserved MPG and likely accounted for the high frequency of preserved myocardial perfusion in this clinical setting. Impaired MPG was associated with baseline clinical and angiographic features consistent with larger infarct size. PMID:18798327

  1. Numerical procedure to determine geometric view factors for surfaces occluded by cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, P. L.

    1978-01-01

    A numerical procedure was developed to determine geometric view factors between connected infinite strips occluded by any number of infinite circular cylinders. The procedure requires a two-dimensional cross-sectional model of the configuration of interest. The two-dimensional model consists of a convex polygon enclosing any number of circles. Each side of the polygon represents one strip, and each circle represents a circular cylinder. A description and listing of a computer program based on this procedure are included in this report. The program calculates geometric view factors between individual strips and between individual strips and the collection of occluding cylinders.

  2. Technical aspects of home hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Alhomayeed, B; Lindsay, R M

    2009-03-01

    Home hemodialysis (HHD) has proved to be a useful form of renal replacement therapy. The economic advantage of HHD is well established and interest in it is renewed. Once it has been decided to establish a HHD program, a well developed strategic plan is required. This should address financial and logistical issues and establish policies that will address responsi-bilities of both patients and HD centers. The recruitment of patients is facilitated by ensuring that all incident patients have early access to an education program describing all forms of renal replacement therapy that the regional renal program provides. Patients and members of the pre-dialysis education program should understand the selection process criteria in advance. Once the assessment is completed and the patient agrees to the proceedings, a plan of action should be esta-blished for enrolling the patient into the program and initiating training. Patients' education pro-gram should take into consideration principles of adult learning. When choosing dialysis equip-ment for home use, the needs and preferences of the patients should be respected. As a rule of thumb, the equipment should be simple to use, yet still provide adequate and reliable therapy. De-ciding where to set up and position the HHD equipment is important. Installation of HHD ma-chine at home requires a continuous supply of accessories. Before establishing a HHD program, commitment of the dialysis center to provide and maintain the infrastructure of the program is mandatory. The estimated patients suitable for HHD are less than 15% of all prospective dialysis patients. Generally, those who are have greatly improved quality of life and by using modalities such as nocturnal and daily dialysis can have improved physical well-being with considerable potential cost savings.

  3. Depression in Iraqi hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Hamody, Abdul Raheem Taha; Kareem, Ali Kadhim; Al-Yasri, Abdul Rasoul Sultan; Sh Ali, Ala Abdul-Hussein

    2013-09-01

    Affective disorders, particularly depression, are the commonest and probably the most important psychopathological complication of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Depression has the potential to alter adversely the medical outcome of ESRD patients and the psychological stress can affect patient's adherence to medication regimen. In Iraq as well as many other Arab countries, the true prevalence of depression among ESRD patients is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of depression among a cohort of Iraqi hemodialysis (HD) patients and relate it to their socio-demographic characteristics. We recruited patients from two HD centers in Baghdad, excluding patients with history of depression or other psychiatric disorders prior to the initiation of HD. The Arabic version of diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) was used to diagnose depression. Beck's Depression Inventory was used to grade its severity. Clinical and laboratory data of the study group were documented and related to the diagnosis of depression. Seventy-five Iraqi patients on maintenance HD were included in the study. Patients' duration on HD ranged from six months to five years. The prevalence of depression among this cohort of HD patients was 80%. The prevalence of severe, moderate and mild depression was 25%, 50% and 25% respectively. The mean depression score was 17.1. Female gender, unemployment, and marital status had statistically significant associations with depression. Depression is common in this group of Iraqi HD patients and its prevalence is comparable to the results of similar studies in other societies.

  4. A Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials Comparing Surgery versus Endovascular Therapy for Thrombosed Arteriovenous Fistulas and Grafts in Hemodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhan, G., E-mail: gkuhan@nhs.net; Antoniou, G. A.; Nikam, M.

    Purpose. To carry out a systematic review of randomized trials comparing surgery vs. endovascular therapy for occluded fistulas and grafts. Methods. All randomized trials which compared surgery and endovascular therapy for occluded fistulas and grafts were retrieved from 1990 onwards. The following search terms were used: 'haemodialysis,' 'thrombosis,' 'arteriovenous fistula,' 'arteriovenous shunt,' 'end stage renal failure' on Medline and PubMed. The results of the pooled data were analysed by a fixed-effect model. Results. There were no randomized trials comparing surgery vs. endovascular therapy for native fistulas and vein grafts. Six randomized studies reporting on 573 occluded grafts were identified. Technicalmore » success, need for access line and primary patency at 30 days were similar between the two groups (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.91-2.14; OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.44-1.34; and OR 1.15, 95 % CI 0.79-1.68, respectively). There was no significant difference in morbidity at 30 days between groups (OR 1.12, 95 % CI 0.67-1.86). There were no statistical difference between the two groups for 1 year primary patency (OR 2.08, 95 % CI 0.97-4.45). Primary assisted patency at 1 year was better with surgery (OR 3.03, 95 % CI 1.12-8.18) in a single study. Conclusion. Comparable results to surgery have been achieved with endovascular techniques for occluded prosthetic grafts for dialysis access. Long-term data comparing the two groups were lacking. Further trials designed to encompass variation in methods are warranted in order to obtain the best available evidence particularly for native fistulas.« less

  5. Predicting Maintenance Doses of Vancomycin for Hospitalized Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    El Nekidy, Wasim S; El-Masri, Maher M; Umstead, Greg S; Dehoorne-Smith, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of death in patients undergoing hemodialysis. However, controversy exists about the optimal dose of vancomycin that will yield the recommended pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of 15-20 mg/L. To develop a data-driven model to optimize the accuracy of maintenance dosing of vancomycin for patients undergoing hemodialysis. A prospective observational cohort study was performed with 164 observations obtained from a convenience sample of 63 patients undergoing hemodialysis. All vancomycin doses were given on the floor after completion of a hemodialysis session. Multivariate linear generalized estimating equation analysis was used to examine independent predictors of pre-hemodialysis serum vancomycin concentration. Pre-hemodialysis serum vancomycin concentration was independently associated with maintenance dose ( B = 0.658, p < 0.001), baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of the drug ( B = 0.492, p < 0.001), and interdialytic interval ( B = -2.133, p < 0.001). According to the best of 4 models that were developed, the maintenance dose of vancomycin required to achieve a pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of 15-20 mg/L, if the baseline serum concentration of the drug was also 15-20 mg/L, was 5.9 mg/kg with interdialytic interval of 48 h and 7.1 mg/kg with interdialytic interval of 72 h. However, if the baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration was 10-14.99 mg/L, the required dose increased to 9.2 mg/kg with an interdialytic interval of 48 h and 10.0 mg/kg with an interdialytic interval of 72 h. The maintenance dose of vancomycin varied according to baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of the drug and interdialytic interval. The current practice of targeting a pre-hemodialysis concentration of 15-20 mg/L may be difficult to achieve for the majority of patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  6. Endovascular interventions of juxtaanastomotic stenoses and thromboses of hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Aenov; Korzets, Asher; Neyman, Haim; Ori, Yaakov; Baytner, Shlomo; Belenky, Alexander; Knieznik, Michael; Bachar, Gil N; Atar, Eli

    2009-01-01

    To assess the primary and secondary patency rates for juxtaanastomotic stenoses, with or without superimposed thromboses, of arteriovenous hemodialysis fistulas treated with angioplasty and to compare it with National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative treatment guidelines for stenosed and occluded arteriovenous fistulas (50% primary patency rate at 12 months). This study was a retrospective analysis, covering a period of 5(1/2) years. Forty-three hemodialysis patients were referred due to secondary fistula dysfunction, and angiography was diagnostic of a juxtaanastomotic lesion. Interventions consisted of standard angioplasty techniques along with thrombolysis and/or thrombectomy and intravascular stent placement as needed. Follow-up was performed at the attending dialysis center, and repeat angiography was performed as clinically required. Immediate postprocedural angiography demonstrated an angiographic success rate of 98%. Clinical success, with at least one session of normal dialysis, occurred in 95% of interventions. Primary patency rates at 12 months for the stenosed and stenosed/thrombosed fistulas were 56% and 64%, respectively. Secondary patency rates at 12 months were 64% and 63%, respectively. Half of the stenosed fistulas were patent at 1.5 years, 28% were patent at 4 years, and 13% remained patent at 6 years. No major complications were documented. Four minor complications, which did not require therapy, were noted. The results achieved are comparable to those reported for interventions at nonjuxtaanastomotic sites and exceed those quoted by the National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines. Angioplastic interventions in a juxtaanastomatic area of arteriovenous fistulas are safe, promote prolonged patency, and postpone the need for surgical intervention or creation of a new fistula.

  7. Endovascular Revascularization of Hemodialysis Thrombosed Grafts with the Hydrodynamic Thrombectomy Catheter. Our 7-Year Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bermudez, Patrícia, E-mail: pbermude@clinic.ub.es; Fontseré, Nestor, E-mail: fontsere@clinic.ub.es; Mestres, Gaspar, E-mail: gmestres@clinic.ub.es

    2017-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the efficacy and safety of the hydrodynamic thrombectomy catheter (AngioJet DVX) in the salvage of thrombosed hemodialysis vascular grafts.Materials and MethodsA retrospective study was designed, including all patients with occluded arteriovenous grafts treated with the AngioJet system between 2007 and 2014 in our institution. Outcomes included technical success, clinical success, complications, and primary and secondary patencies. Procedural success was defined as angiographic confirmation of flow restoration, the presence of a pulsatile thrill along the graft, and successful resumption of at least one hemodialysis session. Primary and secondary patencies after first AVG thrombectomy were calculated with Kaplan–Meier curves. Coxmore » regression was used to determine prognostic factors of primary patency after every thrombectomy episode.ResultsA total of 149 thrombectomies were performed in 68 grafts. After thrombectomy, endovascular treatment of one or more stenosis was performed in all cases. Technical success was 93% and clinical success was 86%. Complications occurred in 7 thrombectomies, most of them were minor except for one anastomosis rupture requiring surgery. Primary and secondary patencies were 52, 41, and 23 and 76, 68, and 57% at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. Independent prognostic factors of poor patency after every thrombectomy episode were the presence of residual thrombus (OR 1.831, P = 0.008) and time from last thrombosis (less than 1 month; and OR 7.116, P < 0.001).ConclusionPercutaneous mechanical thrombectomy with AngioJet is a safe technique with a high-clinical success rate. The presence of residual thrombus after thrombectomy and early re-occlusions are related to poorer results.« less

  8. Diffusive Silicon Nanopore Membranes for Hemodialysis Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Steven; Feinberg, Benjamin; Kant, Rishi; Chui, Benjamin; Goldman, Ken; Park, Jaehyun; Moses, Willieford; Blaha, Charles; Iqbal, Zohora; Chow, Clarence; Wright, Nathan; Fissell, William H.; Zydney, Andrew; Roy, Shuvo

    2016-01-01

    Hemodialysis using hollow-fiber membranes provides life-sustaining treatment for nearly 2 million patients worldwide with end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, patients on hemodialysis have worse long-term outcomes compared to kidney transplant or other chronic illnesses. Additionally, the underlying membrane technology of polymer hollow-fiber membranes has not fundamentally changed in over four decades. Therefore, we have proposed a fundamentally different approach using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques to create thin-flat sheets of silicon-based membranes for implantable or portable hemodialysis applications. The silicon nanopore membranes (SNM) have biomimetic slit-pore geometry and uniform pores size distribution that allow for exceptional permeability and selectivity. A quantitative diffusion model identified structural limits to diffusive solute transport and motivated a new microfabrication technique to create SNM with enhanced diffusive transport. We performed in vitro testing and extracorporeal testing in pigs on prototype membranes with an effective surface area of 2.52 cm2 and 2.02 cm2, respectively. The diffusive clearance was a two-fold improvement in with the new microfabrication technique and was consistent with our mathematical model. These results establish the feasibility of using SNM for hemodialysis applications with additional scale-up. PMID:27438878

  9. Use of hemodialysis in meprobamate overdosage.

    PubMed

    Lobo, P I; Spyker, D; Surratt, P; Westervelt, F B

    1977-02-01

    A case of meprobamate overdosage successfully treated with hemodialysis is described. The patient was admitted 4 hours after an overdosage of meprobamate (30-40 g) deeply unconscious, hypotensive, in respiratory failure and with a serum meprobamate level of 50 mg/100 ml. Hemodialysis was instituted using a Gambro parallel flow dialyzer and a portable re-circulating dialyzate delivery system (Redy, CCi Life Systems). Meprobamate removal with hemodialysis was 672+/-167 mg/hr with a corresponding clearance of 61.97+/-9.9 ml/min. Drug removal with forced diuresis was 177+/-23.4 mg/hr. Metabolic degradation of the drug was approximately 482 mg/hr with a plasma disappearance rate of 5.2%/hr. No drug could be detected in the dialyzate fluid after its passage through the Redy re-circulating dialyzate system. Because of the rapidity of metabolic degradation of meprobamate, we feel that hemodialysis should be reserved for severe clinical intoxication and either compromised normal excretory routes or progressive clinical deterioration.

  10. Relationship between platelet count and hemodialysis membranes

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Rabih; Saifan, Chadi; Barakat, Iskandar; Azzi, Yorg Al; Naboush, Ali; Saad, Marc; Sayegh, Suzanne El

    2013-01-01

    Background One factor associated with poor outcomes in hemodialysis patients is exposure to a foreign membrane. Older membranes are very bioincompatible and increase complement activation, cause leukocytosis by activating circulating factors, which sequesters leukocytes in the lungs, and activates platelets. Recently, newer membranes have been developed that were designed to be more biocompatible. We tested if the different “optiflux” hemodialysis membranes had different effects on platelet levels. Methods Ninety-nine maintenance hemodialysis patients with no known systemic or hematologic diseases affecting their platelets had blood drawn immediately prior to, 90 minutes into, and immediately following their first hemodialysis session of the week. All patients were dialyzed using a Fresenius Medical Care Optiflux polysulfone membrane F160, F180, or F200 (polysulfone synthetic dialyzer membranes, 1.6 m2, 1.8 m2, and 2.0 m2 surface area, respectively, electron beam sterilized). Platelet counts were measured from each sample by analysis using a CBC analyzer. Results The average age of the patients was 62.7 years; 36 were female and 63 were male. The mean platelet count pre, mid, and post dialysis was 193 (standard deviation ±74.86), 191 (standard deviation ±74.67), and 197 (standard deviation ±79.34) thousand/mm3, respectively, with no statistical differences. Conclusion Newer membranes have no significant effect on platelet count. This suggests that they are, in fact, more biocompatible than their predecessors and may explain their association with increased survival. PMID:23983482

  11. Hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Butani, Lavjay; Calogiuri, Gianfranco

    2017-06-01

    To describe hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. PubMed search of articles published during the past 30 years with an emphasis on publications in the past decade. Case reports and review articles describing hypersensitivity reactions in the context of hemodialysis. Pharmacologic agents are the most common identifiable cause of hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving hemodialysis. These include iron, erythropoietin, and heparin, which can cause anaphylactic or pseudoallergic reactions, and topical antibiotics and anesthetics, which lead to delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Many hypersensitivity reactions are triggered by complement activation and increased bradykinin resulting from contact system activation, especially in the context of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use. Several alternative pharmacologic preparations and dialyzer membranes are available, such that once an etiology for the reaction is established, recurrences can be prevented without affecting the quality of care provided to patients. Although hypersensitivity reactions are uncommon in patients receiving hemodialysis, they can be life-threatening. Moreover, considering the large prevalence of the end-stage renal disease population, the implications of such reactions are enormous. Most reactions are pseudoallergic and not mediated by immunoglobulin E. The multiplicity of potential exposures and the complexity of the environment to which patients on dialysis are exposed make it challenging to identify the precise cause of these reactions. Great diligence is needed to investigate hypersensitivity reactions to avoid recurrence in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Problems associated with hemodialysis and travel.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Richard W; Prout, Virginia; Haynes, Deborah; Edwards, Claire; Frankel, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    While there is a recognized risk of hepatitis C acquisition associated with dialysis away from the "home" center, there is little documented data on the effect that dialysis while traveling has on the dialysis patient's health. This study was designed to examine the incidence of travel within a hemodialysis population and to ascertain whether travel was associated with morbidity for patients on hemodialysis. Travel data were collected prospectively over a 6-month period, from April 2009, for all patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis across our dialysis centers. Biochemical, microbiological, and hematological parameters as well as hepatitis serology and antibiotic starts were recorded for 12 weeks prior to and following dialysis away from center. A total of 172 individuals traveled on 200 occasions. The blood stream infection rate for travelers with a central venous catheter was 0.25 versus 0.83/1,000 access days (p = 0.038) in the 12 weeks pre-travel versus post-travel. Parenteral and oral antibiotic starts were both significantly elevated post-travel and were mainly instituted for either chest or urinary sepsis. There was evidence of raised inflammatory markers and anemia on return to center but no evidence of hepatitis B or hepatitis C seroconversion. Travel and dialysis away from a patient's usual hemodialysis unit is a common occurrence but is associated with an increased risk of bacterial infection, anemia, and inflammatory response. This study provides evidence for the concern that hemodialysis away from center is associated with increased morbidity. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  13. Duration and Adverse Events of Non-cuffed Catheter in Patients With Hemodialysis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-09

    Renal Failure Chronic Requiring Hemodialysis; Central Venous Catheterization; Inadequate Hemodialysis Blood Flow; Venous Stenosis; Venous Thrombosis; Infection Due to Central Venous Catheter; Central Venous Catheter Thrombosis

  14. Cotton-Top Tamarins' ("Saguinus Oedipus") Expectations about Occluded Objects: A Dissociation between Looking and Reaching Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Laurie R.; Seelig, David; Hauser, Marc D.

    2006-01-01

    Recent work with human infants and toddlers suggests a dissociation between performance on looking and reaching tasks. Specifically, infants appear to generate accurate representations of occluded objects and their actions when tested in expectancy violation looking tasks but often fail to use this information when reaching for occluded objects.…

  15. Treatment of central venous in-stent restenosis with repeat stent deployment in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ronald, James; Davis, Bradley; Guevara, Carlos J; Pabon-Ramos, Waleska M; Smith, Tony P; Kim, Charles Y

    2017-05-15

    To report patency rates for stent deployment for treatment of in-stent stenosis of the central veins of the chest in hemodialysis patients. A retrospective analysis was performed on 29 patients who underwent 35 secondary percutaneous transluminal stent (PTS) deployments for in-stent stenosis within the central veins that were refractory to angioplasty and ipsilateral to a functioning hemodialysis access (in-stent PTS group). For comparison, patency data were acquired for 47 patients who underwent 78 successful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) procedures for in-stent stenosis (in-stent PTA group) and 55 patients who underwent 55 stent deployments within native central vein stenosis refractory to angioplasty (native vein PTS group). The 3-, 6-, and 12-month primary lesion patency for the in-stent PTS group was 73%, 57%, and 32%, respectively. The 3-, 6-, and 12-month primary patency for the in-stent PTA group was 70%, 38%, and 17% and for the native vein PTS group was 78%, 57%, and 26%, which were similar to the in-stent PTS group (p = 0.20 and 0.41, respectively). The 3-, 6-, and 12-month secondary access patency was 91%, 73%, and 65% for the in-stent PTS group. Sub-analysis of the in-stent PTS group revealed no difference in primary (p = 0.93) or secondary patency rates (p = 0.27) of bare metal stents (n = 23) compared with stent grafts (n = 12). Stent deployment for central vein in-stent stenosis refractory to angioplasty was associated with reasonable patency rates, which were similar to in-stent PTA and native vein PTS.

  16. Safety and efficacy of Cardi-O-fix occluder for percutaneous closure of a patent foramen ovale

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Enfa; Liu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yushun; Cheng, Gesheng; Du, Yajuan; He, Lu; Wang, Xingye; He, Xumei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Amplatzer occluder and Cardio-O-fix occluder are currently used in percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale. However, there is still a lack of relevant reports comparison the differences between them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term and mid-term safety and efficacy of the Cardi-O-fix occluder in preventing recurrent cerebrovascular events in patients with a patent foramen ovale (PFO). Methods: We enrolled 246 patients (105 men) with a PFO from May 30, 2013 to March 30, 2015 in this single-center prospective study. All patients were treated by PFO interventional closure, with the Cardi-O-fix PFO occluder being used in 180 patients and the Amplatzer PFO occluder being utilized in the remaining 66 patients. After the procedure, we verified the safety and efficacy of different devices using contrast transthoracic echocardiography. Results: Neither recurrent stroke nor death was encountered during the follow-up of 12 months. Transient ischemic attack (TIA) was noted in 2 patients (1.1%) in the Cardi-O-fix PFO occluder group, and 1 patient suffered from TIA (1.5%) in the Amplatzer PFO occluder group. Among them, only 1 patient exhibited a small right to left shunt (RLS). There was no statistical difference in recurrent cerebral ischemic events. Three cases of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were observed in the Cardi-O-fix PFO occluder group. One reverted spontaneously to sinus rhythm and the other 2 cases had pharmacologic conversion to sinus rhythm. One case of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation occurred in the Amplatzer group, which underwent pharmacologic conversion to sinus rhythm. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups regarding incidence of arrhythmia. No occluder translocation, erosion, pericardial effusion, and puncture site bleeding were observed in the 2 groups within 12 months of follow-up. The complete closure rates of the Cardi-O-fix and Amplatzer PFO occluder devices at the 12 months after the

  17. Balloon-Occluded Percutaneous Transhepatic Obliteration of Isolated Vesical Varices Causing Gross Hematuria

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Min Seok; Kim, Chul Sung

    2013-01-01

    Gross hematuria secondary to vesical varices is an unusual presentation. We report such a case recurrent gross hematuria in a male patient who had a history of bladder substitution with ileal segments that had been treated by balloon-occluded percutaneous transhepatic obliteration of vesical varices. PMID:23323037

  18. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... produced from coal seams. 270.302 Section 270.302 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural gas produced from coal seams must file an application with the jurisdictional agency which contains the...

  19. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... produced from coal seams. 270.302 Section 270.302 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural gas produced from coal seams must file an application with the jurisdictional agency which contains the...

  20. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... produced from coal seams. 270.302 Section 270.302 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural gas produced from coal seams must file an application with the jurisdictional agency which contains the...

  1. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... produced from coal seams. 270.302 Section 270.302 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural gas produced from coal seams must file an application with the jurisdictional agency which contains the...

  2. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... produced from coal seams. 270.302 Section 270.302 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural gas produced from coal seams must file an application with the jurisdictional agency which contains the...

  3. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract Voice Therapy Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapsner-Smith, Mara R.; Hunter, Eric J.; Kirkham, Kimberly; Cox, Karin; Titze, Ingo R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although there is a long history of use of semi-occluded vocal tract gestures in voice therapy, including phonation through thin tubes or straws, the efficacy of phonation through tubes has not been established. This study compares results from a therapy program on the basis of phonation through a flow-resistant tube (FRT) with Vocal…

  4. Percutaneous closure of a post-traumatic ventricular septal defect with a patent ductus arteriosus occluder.

    PubMed

    Xi, Er-Ping; Zhu, Jian; Zhu, Shui-Bo; Yin, Gui-Lin; Liu, Yong; Dong, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Feng

    2012-11-01

    Ventricular septal defects resulting from post-traumatic cardiac injury are very rare. Percutaneous closure has emerged as a method for treating this disorder. We wish to report our experience in three patients who underwent percutaneous closure of a post-traumatic ventricular septal defect with a patent ductus arteriosus occluder. We treated three patients with post-traumatic ventricular septal defects caused by stab wounds with knives. After the heart wound was repaired, patient examinations revealed ventricular septal defects with pulmonary/systemic flow ratios (Qp/Qs) of over 1.7. The post-traumatic ventricular septal defects were closed percutaneously with a patent ductus arteriosus occluder (Lifetech Scientific (Shenzhen) Co., LTD, Guangdong, China) utilizing standard techniques. Post-operative transthoracic echocardiography revealed no residual left-to-right shunt and indicated normal ventricular function. In addition, 320-slice computerized tomography showed that the occluder was well placed and exhibited normal morphology. Our experiences indicate that closure of a post-traumatic ventricular septal defect using a patent ductus arteriosus occluder is feasible, safe, and effective.

  5. Percutaneous closure of a post-traumatic ventricular septal defect with a patent ductus arteriosus occluder

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Er-Ping; Zhu, Jian; Zhu, Shui-Bo; Yin, Gui-Lin; Liu, Yong; Dong, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Feng

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ventricular septal defects resulting from post-traumatic cardiac injury are very rare. Percutaneous closure has emerged as a method for treating this disorder. We wish to report our experience in three patients who underwent percutaneous closure of a post-traumatic ventricular septal defect with a patent ductus arteriosus occluder. METHODS: We treated three patients with post-traumatic ventricular septal defects caused by stab wounds with knives. After the heart wound was repaired, patient examinations revealed ventricular septal defects with pulmonary/systemic flow ratios (Qp/Qs) of over 1.7. The post-traumatic ventricular septal defects were closed percutaneously with a patent ductus arteriosus occluder (Lifetech Scientific (Shenzhen) Co., LTD, Guangdong, China) utilizing standard techniques. RESULTS: Post-operative transthoracic echocardiography revealed no residual left-to-right shunt and indicated normal ventricular function. In addition, 320-slice computerized tomography showed that the occluder was well placed and exhibited normal morphology. CONCLUSION: Our experiences indicate that closure of a post-traumatic ventricular septal defect using a patent ductus arteriosus occluder is feasible, safe, and effective. PMID:23184204

  6. Voice Training and Therapy with a Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract: Rationale and Scientific Underpinnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titze, Ingo R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Voice therapy with a semi-occluded vocal tract has a long history. The use of lip trills, tongue trills, bilabial fricatives, humming, and phonation into tubes or straws has been hailed by clinicians, singing teachers, and voice coaches as efficacious for training and rehabilitation. Little has been done, however, to provide the…

  7. Treatment of patent ductus arteriosus by the use of an Amplatz canine ductal occluder device

    PubMed Central

    White, Pam

    2009-01-01

    A 7-month-old female, spayed border collie was referred to the Ontario Veterinary College due to a continuous murmur noted by the referring veterinarian prior to ovariohysterectomy. Auscultation confirmed a grade VI/VI continuous murmur. An echocardiogram confirmed patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). An Amplatz canine ductal occluder device was successfully placed for occlusion of blood flow though the ductus. PMID:19436449

  8. Dynamic representation of partially occluded objects in primate prefrontal and visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hannah; Shea-Brown, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Successful recognition of partially occluded objects is presumed to involve dynamic interactions between brain areas responsible for vision and cognition, but neurophysiological evidence for the involvement of feedback signals is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that neurons in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) of monkeys performing a shape discrimination task respond more strongly to occluded than unoccluded stimuli. In contrast, neurons in visual area V4 respond more strongly to unoccluded stimuli. Analyses of V4 response dynamics reveal that many neurons exhibit two transient response peaks, the second of which emerges after vlPFC response onset and displays stronger selectivity for occluded shapes. We replicate these findings using a model of V4/vlPFC interactions in which occlusion-sensitive vlPFC neurons feed back to shape-selective V4 neurons, thereby enhancing V4 responses and selectivity to occluded shapes. These results reveal how signals from frontal and visual cortex could interact to facilitate object recognition under occlusion. PMID:28925354

  9. Patent ductus arteriosus closure using Occlutech® Duct Occluder, experience in Port Elizabeth, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pepeta, Lungile; Greyling, Adele; Nxele, Mahlubandile Fintan; Makrexeni, Zongezile Masonwabe

    2017-01-01

    Background: Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) has become standard therapy. Experience with the Occlutech® Duct Occluder is limited. Methods: Data regarding ductal closure using Occlutech® Duct Occluder were reviewed and prospectively collected. Demographics, hemodynamic and angiographic characteristics, complications, and outcomes were documented. Results: From March 2013 to June 2016, 65 patients (43 females and 22 males) underwent percutaneous closure of the PDA using Occlutech® Duct Occluder. The median age of the patients was 11 months (range, 1–454 months) and the median weight was 8.5 kg (range 2.5–78 kg). The mean pulmonary artery median pressure was 27 mmHg (range, 12–100 mmHg) and the QP: Qs ratio median was 1.8 (range, 1–7.5), with a pulmonary vascular resistance mean of 2.7 WU (standard deviation [SD] ±2.1). Thirty-two patients had Krichenko Type A duct (49%); 7, Type C (11%); 4, Type D (6%); and 22, Type E (34%). The ductal size (narrowest diameter at the pulmonic end) mean was 3.5 mm (SD ± 1.9 mm). The screening time mean was 17.3 min (SD ± 11.6). Out of 63 patients with successful closure of the PDA using Occlutech® Duct Occluder, there were 15 patients with small PDAs; 25 with moderate PDAs, and 23 with large PDAs. In one patient, the device dislodged to the descending aorta, and in two patients, to the right pulmonary artery immediately following deployment, with successful percutaneous (two) and surgical (one) retrieval. Complete ductal occlusion was achieved in all 63 patients on day one. Conclusion: The Occlutech® Duct Occluder is a safe and effective device for closure of ducts in appropriately selected patients. PMID:28566820

  10. Closure of the patent ductus arteriosus with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II: a clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Karagöz, Tevfik; Akin, Alper; Ertuğrul, Ilker; Aykan, Hayrettin Hakan; Alehan, Dursun; Ozer, Sema; Ozkutlu, Süheyla

    2012-12-01

    The aim of our study was to share our clinical experience on cases with patent ductus arteriosus treated with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II. Between 2008 and 2012, 26 of 31 patients with patent ductus arteriosus underwent successful transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus using the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II. Mean age was 3.3 years and mean weight was 15.7 kilograms. The presence of a residual shunt, left pulmonary artery or aortic obstruction was explored by administering contrast material during the procedure. The patients were discharged 24 hours after the procedure. The procedure was successful in 26 of 31 patients and failed in five patients. According to the Krichenko classification, 26 patients had type A, one patient had type B and 4 patients had type C ductus. The mean narrowest ductus diameter was 3.2 mm and the mean ductus length was 6.7 mm. Complete angiographic occlusion occurred immediately after the procedure in 22 out of 26 patients in whom the ductus was closed successfully with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II. Complete occlusion was achieved in the remaining patients with residual shunt one month after the procedure. The procedure was preceded by closure with an Amplatzer Duct Occluder I in two patients and an Amplatzer Vascular Plug I in one patient. Amplatzer Duct Occluder II is highly effective in transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus. We think that an alternative closure device and alternative techniques can be attempted in patients with type C ductus. The success rate could increase with accumulating experience.

  11. Patent ductus arteriosus closure using Occlutech® Duct Occluder, experience in Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pepeta, Lungile; Greyling, Adele; Nxele, Mahlubandile Fintan; Makrexeni, Zongezile Masonwabe

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) has become standard therapy. Experience with the Occlutech® Duct Occluder is limited. Data regarding ductal closure using Occlutech® Duct Occluder were reviewed and prospectively collected. Demographics, hemodynamic and angiographic characteristics, complications, and outcomes were documented. From March 2013 to June 2016, 65 patients (43 females and 22 males) underwent percutaneous closure of the PDA using Occlutech® Duct Occluder. The median age of the patients was 11 months (range, 1-454 months) and the median weight was 8.5 kg (range 2.5-78 kg). The mean pulmonary artery median pressure was 27 mmHg (range, 12-100 mmHg) and the QP: Qs ratio median was 1.8 (range, 1-7.5), with a pulmonary vascular resistance mean of 2.7 WU (standard deviation [SD] ±2.1). Thirty-two patients had Krichenko Type A duct (49%); 7, Type C (11%); 4, Type D (6%); and 22, Type E (34%). The ductal size (narrowest diameter at the pulmonic end) mean was 3.5 mm (SD ± 1.9 mm). The screening time mean was 17.3 min (SD ± 11.6). Out of 63 patients with successful closure of the PDA using Occlutech® Duct Occluder, there were 15 patients with small PDAs; 25 with moderate PDAs, and 23 with large PDAs. In one patient, the device dislodged to the descending aorta, and in two patients, to the right pulmonary artery immediately following deployment, with successful percutaneous (two) and surgical (one) retrieval. Complete ductal occlusion was achieved in all 63 patients on day one. The Occlutech® Duct Occluder is a safe and effective device for closure of ducts in appropriately selected patients.

  12. Recognition of partially occluded threat objects using the annealed Hopefield network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jung H.; Yoon, Sung H.; Park, Eui H.; Ntuen, Celestine A.

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of partially occluded objects has been an important issue to airport security because occlusion causes significant problems in identifying and locating objects during baggage inspection. The neural network approach is suitable for the problems in the sense that the inherent parallelism of neural networks pursues many hypotheses in parallel resulting in high computation rates. Moreover, they provide a greater degree of robustness or fault tolerance than conventional computers. The annealed Hopfield network which is derived from the mean field annealing (MFA) has been developed to find global solutions of a nonlinear system. In the study, it has been proven that the system temperature of MFA is equivalent to the gain of the sigmoid function of a Hopfield network. In our early work, we developed the hybrid Hopfield network (HHN) for fast and reliable matching. However, HHN doesn't guarantee global solutions and yields false matching under heavily occluded conditions because HHN is dependent on initial states by its nature. In this paper, we present the annealed Hopfield network (AHN) for occluded object matching problems. In AHN, the mean field theory is applied to the hybird Hopfield network in order to improve computational complexity of the annealed Hopfield network and provide reliable matching under heavily occluded conditions. AHN is slower than HHN. However, AHN provides near global solutions without initial restrictions and provides less false matching than HHN. In conclusion, a new algorithm based upon a neural network approach was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of the automated inspection of threat objects from x-ray images. The robustness of the algorithm is proved by identifying occluded target objects with large tolerance of their features.

  13. Histopathology of Veins Obtained at Hemodialysis Arteriovenous Fistula Creation Surgery.

    PubMed

    Alpers, Charles E; Imrey, Peter B; Hudkins, Kelly L; Wietecha, Tomasz A; Radeva, Milena; Allon, Michael; Cheung, Alfred K; Dember, Laura M; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Shiu, Yan-Ting; Terry, Christi M; Farber, Alik; Beck, Gerald J; Feldman, Harold I; Kusek, John W; Himmelfarb, Jonathan

    2017-10-01

    Stenosis from venous neointimal hyperplasia is common in native arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). However, the preexisting histologic characteristics of veins at fistula creation, and associations thereof with baseline patient factors, have not been well characterized. In this study, we conducted histologic analysis of a segment of the vein used for anastomosis creation, obtained during AVF creation from 554 of the 602 participants in the multicenter Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Cohort Study. We quantified intimal and medial areas and lengths of the internal and external elastic lamina by morphometry and assessed venous wall cells by immunohistochemistry, extracellular matrix with Movat stain, and calcium deposition by alizarin red stain. We also studied a representative subset of veins for markers of monocyte/macrophage content, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and neoangiogenesis. Neointima occupied >20% of the lumen in 57% of fully circumferential vein samples, and neointimal hyperplasia associated positively with age and inversely with black race. The neointima was usually irregularly thickened, sometimes concentric, and contained α -smooth muscle actin-expressing cells of smooth muscle or myofibroblast origin. Proteoglycans admixed with lesser amounts of collagen constituted the predominant matrix in the neointima. In 82% of vein samples, the media of vessel walls contained large aggregates of collagen. A minority of veins expressed markers of inflammation, cell proliferation, cell death, calcification, or neoangiogenesis. In conclusion, we observed preexisting abnormalities, including neointimal hyperplasia and prominent accumulation of extracellular matrix, in veins used for AVF creation from a substantial proportion of this cohort. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. [Changes in hemodialysis adequacy in Lithuania during 1999-2005].

    PubMed

    Ziginskiene, Edita; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Sileikiene, Elvyra; Tamosaitis, Algirdas; Sirevicius, Virgilijus

    2007-01-01

    Despite the improvement of hemodialysis technique, mortality of chronic hemodialysis patients remains quite high. It considerably depends on dialysis adequacy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the adequacy of hemodialysis procedure and its changes in Lithuania during 1999-2005. Between 1999 and 2005 in December, all hemodialysis centers in Lithuania were annually visited, and data on the type of hemodialysis, duration of hemodialysis (hours per week), single-pool Kt/V were collected from all hemodialysis patients. The percentage of patients on bicarbonate hemodialysis sharply increased from 57.9% in 1999 to 100% in 2001 (P<0.001), and the duration of hemodialysis procedure increased (67.3% of hemodialysis patients were dialyzed 12 and more hours per week in 2005 vs. 41.3% in 1999, P<0.001). The percentage of patients who were dialyzed three times per week increased from 51% in 1999 to 77% in 2005 (P<0.001). The mean Kt/V was 0.81+/-0.53 in 1999, but it increased to 1.21+/-0.27 in 2005 (P<0.001). More than half (54%) of all hemodialysis patients in 2005 had Kt/V > or =1.2 vs. more than one-third (36%) in 1999 (P<0.001). The mean Kt/V of patients who were on dialysis three times per week was 1.25+/-0.6; two times per week, 1.30+/-0.8; and one time per week, 1.27+/-0.26 in 2003. In 2005, the results were 1.21+/-0.27, 1.22+/-0.26, and 1.16+/-0.29, respectively (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS. 1. The improvement of the quality of hemodialysis was observed in Lithuania during 1999-2005: a) from 2001, patients received only bicarbonate hemodialysis; b) weekly duration of hemodialysis increased; c) Kt/V improved. 2. Despite the improvement of hemodialysis quality, it is not optimal yet and is associated with insufficient duration of hemodialysis.

  15. The effects of frequent nocturnal home hemodialysis: the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Nocturnal Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rocco, Michael V.; Lockridge, Robert S.; Beck, Gerald J.; Eggers, Paul W.; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Greene, Tom; Larive, Brett; Chan, Christopher T.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Copland, Michael; Hoy, Christopher D.; Lindsay, Robert M.; Levin, Nathan W.; Ornt, Daniel B.; Pierratos, Andreas; Pipkin, Mary F.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Stokes, John B.; Unruh, Mark L.; Star, Robert A.; Kliger, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Prior small studies have shown multiple benefits of frequent nocturnal hemodialysis compared to conventional three times per week treatments. To study this further, we randomized 87 patients to three times per week conventional hemodialysis or to nocturnal hemodialysis six times per week, all with single-use high-flux dialyzers. The 45 patients in the frequent nocturnal arm had a 1.82-fold higher mean weekly stdKt/Vurea, a 1.74-fold higher average number of treatments per week, and a 2.45-fold higher average weekly treatment time than the 42 patients in the conventional arm. We did not find a significant effect of nocturnal hemodialysis for either of the two coprimary outcomes (death or left ventricular mass (measured by MRI) with a hazard ratio of 0.68, or of death or RAND Physical Health Composite with a hazard ratio of 0.91). Possible explanations for the left ventricular mass result include limited sample size and patient characteristics. Secondary outcomes included cognitive performance, self-reported depression, laboratory markers of nutrition, mineral metabolism and anemia, blood pressure and rates of hospitalization, and vascular access interventions. Patients in the nocturnal arm had improved control of hyperphosphatemia and hypertension, but no significant benefit among the other main secondary outcomes. There was a trend for increased vascular access events in the nocturnal arm. Thus, we were unable to demonstrate a definitive benefit of more frequent nocturnal hemodialysis for either coprimary outcome. PMID:21775973

  16. Intensive Home Hemodialysis: An Eye at the Past Looking for the Hemodialysis of the Future.

    PubMed

    Naso, Agostino; Scaparrotta, Giuseppe; Naso, Elena; Calò, Lorenzo A

    2015-09-01

    Multiple observational studies along with a limited number of randomized clinical trials suggest that intensive hemodialysis (IHD) not only improves outcomes for uremic patients undergoing chronic dialysis but does so with a more favorable cost/benefit ratio compared with conventional hemodialysis. As a result of this, there has been a rapid increase in the interest in home hemodialysis (HHD) as HHD represents the easiest means of implementing IHD. While HHD has generated increased interest given its association with better outcomes/reduced hospitalizations, there are very few randomized controlled trials comparing HHD with other hemodialysis methods. Reported HHD-associated increased survival benefits compared with in-center hemodialysis are from uncontrolled studies, which raise patient selection bias as underlying the differences found. Thus, while HHD draws increasing attention, studies that pay careful attention to the psychosocial, demographic, and clinical factors associated with patients selected to undergo HHD will be needed to ultimately demonstrate its benefits, clarify the clinical applications, and determine the limits of IHD use in dialysis patients. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Regional native plant strategies

    Treesearch

    Wendell G. Hassell

    1999-01-01

    Because of increasing public interest in native plants, regional groups have been cooperating to develop native species. The Federal Native Plants Initiative was formed in 1994 to coordinate and encourage the development and use of native plants. The program they developed includes public involvement, organizational structure, technical work groups, implementation...

  18. Native American Discursive Tactic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Jason Edward

    2013-01-01

    This essay derives from a course called ‘"The Rhetoric of Native America,’" which is a historical-critical survey of Native American primary texts. The course examines the rhetoric employed by Natives to enact social change and to build community in the face of exigencies. The main goal of exploring a native text (particularly, Simon…

  19. Lack of benefit from percutaneous intervention of persistently occluded infarct arteries after the acute phase of myocardial infarction is time independent: insights from Occluded Artery Trial

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Venu; Pearte, Camille A.; Buller, Christopher E.; Steg, Ph.Gabriel; Forman, Sandra A.; White, Harvey D.; Marino, Paolo N.; Katritsis, Demosthenes G.; Caramori, Paulo; Lasevitch, Ricardo; Loboz-Grudzien, Krystyna; Zurakowski, Aleksander; Lamas, Gervasio A.; Hochman, Judith S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims The Occluded Artery Trial (OAT) (n = 2201) showed no benefit for routine percutaneous intervention (PCI) (n = 1101) over medical therapy (MED) (n = 1100) on the combined endpoint of death, myocardial infarction (MI), and class IV heart failure (congestive heart failure) in stable post-MI patients with late occluded infarct-related arteries (IRAs). We evaluated the potential for selective benefit with PCI over MED for patients enrolled early in OAT. Methods and results We explored outcomes with PCI over MED in patients randomized to the ≤3 calendar days and ≤7 calendar days post-MI time windows. Earlier, times to randomization in OAT were associated with higher rates of the combined endpoint (adjusted HR 1.04/day: 99% CI 1.01–1.06; P < 0.001). The 48-month event rates for ≤3 days, ≤7 days post-MI enrolled patients were similar for PCI vs. MED for the combined and individual endpoints. There was no interaction between time to randomization defined as a continuous (P = 0.55) or categorical variable with a cut-point of 3 days (P = 0.98) or 7 days (P = 0.64) post-MI and treatment effect. Conclusion Consistent with overall OAT findings, patients enrolled in the ≤3 day and ≤7 day post-MI time windows derived no benefit with PCI over MED with no interaction between time to randomization and treatment effect. Our findings do not support routine PCI of the occluded IRA in trial-eligible patients even in the earliest 24–72 h time window. PMID:19028780

  20. Multimodal flow visualization and optimization of pneumatic blood pump for sorbent hemodialysis system.

    PubMed

    Shu, Fangjun; Parks, Robert; Maholtz, John; Ash, Steven; Antaki, James F

    2009-04-01

    Renal Solutions Allient Sorbent Hemodialysis System utilizes a two-chambered pneumatic pump (Pulsar Blood Pump, Renal Solutions, Inc., Warrendale, PA, USA) to avoid limitations associated with peristaltic pumping systems. Single-needle access is enabled by counter-pulsing the two pump chambers, thereby obviating compliance chambers or blood reservoirs. Each chamber propels 20 cc per pulse of 3 s (dual access) or 6 s (single access) duration, corresponding to a peak Reynolds number of approximately 8000 (based on inlet velocity and chamber diameter). A multimodal series of flow visualization studies (tracer particle, dye washout, and dye erosion) was conducted on a sequence of pump designs with varying port locations and diaphragms to improve the geometry with respect to risk of thrombogenesis. Experiments were conducted in a simplified flow loop using occluders to simulate flow resistance induced by tubing and dialyzer. Tracer visualization revealed flow patterns and qualitatively indicated turbulence intensity. Dye washout identified dwell volume and areas of flow stagnation for each design. Dye erosion results indicated the effectiveness and homogeneity of surface washing. Compared to a centered inlet which resulted in a fluid jet that produced two counter-rotating vortices, a tangential inlet introduced a single vortex, and kept the flow laminar. It also provided better surface washing on the pump inner surface. However, a tangential outlet did not present as much benefit as expected. On the contrary, it created a sharp defection to the flow when transiting from filling to ejection.

  1. Quadriplegia after parathyroidectomy in a hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Shih-Yu; Lin, Ho-Tien; Hu, Jenkin-S; Chan, Kwok-Hon; Tsou, Mei-Yung

    2011-03-01

    We present a case of post-operative iatrogenic quadriplegia, which occurred after subtotal parathyroidectomy. This patient was on long-term hemodialysis for 7 years. The need of prolonged neck extension for this procedure was probably the main risk factor for the spinal cord injury. Systemic hypotension which contributed to the injury in this case, should be anticipated and promptly treated to prevent further damage. Spinal deformities associated with end-stage renal disease may make such patients more susceptible. Since appropriate precautions against potential neurologic damage can be undertaken, we suggest that evaluating carefully for the pre-existing spinal stenosis before a procedure requiring prominent and prolonged hyper-extension of the neck, especially in long-term hemodialysis patients is of paramount importance. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Social support and conscientiousness in hemodialysis adherence.

    PubMed

    Moran, P J; Christensen, A J; Lawton, W J

    1997-01-01

    Previous conclusions regarding the role of social support in hemodialysis adherence are inconsistent, suggesting that other factors may moderate this relationship. Using the Five-Factor Model of Personality, we examined the hypothesis that conscientiousness would interact with social support in predicting fluid-intake and medication adherence in a sample of 56 chronic hemodialysis patients. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for demographic, clinical, and other personality variables) revealed a significant interaction between social support and conscientiousness. However, inconsistent with prediction, high support among patients with low conscientiousness was associated with poorer fluid-intake adherence, while support had little effect on fluid-intake adherence among high conscientiousness patients. No main or interactive effects were found for support or conscientiousness on a measure of medication adherence.

  3. [Epidemiology of end-stage renal disease before starting hemodialysis and factors influencing hemodialysis survival].

    PubMed

    Ben Hamida, Fethi; Karoui, Cyrine; Abderrahim, Ezzeddine; Smaoui, Wided; Kaaroud, Hayet; Béji, Soumaya; Barbouche, Samia; Goucha, Rim; Ben Abdallah, Taieb; Ben Moussa, Fatma; Ben Maiz, Hédi; Kheder, Adel

    2007-03-01

    The incidence of end-stage renal failure is high and it is responsible for the increase of the rate of morbidity and mortality rates among our patients. The objective is to study patient characteristics before starting hemodialysis and to evaluate factors influencing their short and long term survival. This is a prospective study of 127 patients starting hemodialysis between June and December 2001. On May 31, 2005, their survival was analyzed according to different parameters. Patients were 77 males and 50 females. Their mean age was 51.4 +/- 16.1 years (15 to 78 years). Diabetes was observed in 33.9% of cases. Only 70.9% of patients were covered by a social service. Chronic renal failure was diagnosed at the end stage in 34.6% of cases. Before starting hemodialysis, only 4 patients were vaccinated against B hepatitis and arteriovenous fistula were not made in any patients. Pericarditis was observed in 9.4% of patients. Albuminemia was < 35 g/l in 60.5% of patients. First hemodialysis session was programmed in 53.5% of patients and realized urgently in 46.3% of patients. Patients were hemodialysed 4, 8 and 12 hours per week respectively in 16.5%, 15.8% and 67.7% of cases. On May 31, 2005, 35.4% of patients died. Their actuarial survivals at 3 months, 1 year and 4 years were respectively at 87.5%, 79.5% and 64.4%. Acturial survival was bad in patients with pericarditis, diabetes, hemodialysed less than 12 hours/week and when the first hemodialysis session was started urgently. The diagnosis of renal failure was frequently made at end-stage. There are no preparations before starting hemodialysis. We have to reinforce prevention programmes and increase the number of nephrologists and nephrology departments.

  4. ACTIVE DELIVERY CABLE TUNED TO DEVICE DEPLOYMENT STATE: ENHANCED VISIBILITY OF NITINOL OCCLUDERS DURING PRE-CLINICAL INTERVENTIONAL MRI

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jamie A.; Saikus, Christina E.; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Barbash, Israel M.; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Franson, Dominique N.; Sonmez, Merdim; Slack, Michael C.; Lederman, Robert J.; Kocaturk, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To develop an active delivery system that enhances visualization of nitinol cardiac occluder devices during deployment under real-time MRI. Materials and Methods We constructed an active delivery cable incorporating a loopless antenna and a custom titanium microscrew to secure the occluder devices. The delivery cable was tuned and matched to 50Ω at 64 MHz with the occluder device attached. We used real-time balanced SSFP in a wide-bore 1.5T scanner. Device-related images were reconstructed separately and combined with surface-coil images. The delivery cable was tested in vitro in a phantom and in vivo in swine using a variety of nitinol cardiac occluder devices. Results In vitro, the active delivery cable provided little signal when the occluder device was detached and maximal signal with the device attached. In vivo, signal from the active delivery cable enabled clear visualization of occluder device during positioning and deployment. Device release resulted in decreased signal from the active cable. Post-mortem examination confirmed proper device placement. Conclusions The active delivery cable enhanced the MRI depiction of nitinol cardiac occluder devices during positioning and deployment, both in conventional and novel applications. We expect enhanced visibility to contribute to effectiveness and safety of new and emerging MRI-guided treatments. PMID:22707441

  5. Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Hemodialysis Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Manish

    2017-01-01

    Given the high comorbidity in patients on hemodialysis and the complexity of the dialysis treatment, it is remarkable how rarely a life-threatening complication occurs during dialysis. The low rate of dialysis emergencies can be attributed to numerous safety features in modern dialysis machines; meticulous treatment and testing of the dialysate solution to prevent exposure to trace elements, toxins, and pathogens; adherence to detailed treatment protocols; and extensive training of dialysis staff to handle medical emergencies. Most hemodialysis emergencies can be attributed to human error. A smaller number are due to rare idiosyncratic reactions. In this review, we highlight major emergencies that may occur during hemodialysis treatments, describe their pathogenesis, offer measures to minimize them, and provide specific interventions to prevent catastrophic consequences on the rare occasions when such emergencies arise. These emergencies include dialysis disequilibrium syndrome, venous air embolism, hemolysis, venous needle dislodgement, vascular access hemorrhage, major allergic reactions to the dialyzer or treatment medications, and disruption or contamination of the dialysis water system. Finally, we describe root cause analysis after a dialysis emergency has occurred to prevent a future recurrence. PMID:27831511

  6. Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Hemodialysis Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Saha, Manish; Allon, Michael

    2017-02-07

    Given the high comorbidity in patients on hemodialysis and the complexity of the dialysis treatment, it is remarkable how rarely a life-threatening complication occurs during dialysis. The low rate of dialysis emergencies can be attributed to numerous safety features in modern dialysis machines; meticulous treatment and testing of the dialysate solution to prevent exposure to trace elements, toxins, and pathogens; adherence to detailed treatment protocols; and extensive training of dialysis staff to handle medical emergencies. Most hemodialysis emergencies can be attributed to human error. A smaller number are due to rare idiosyncratic reactions. In this review, we highlight major emergencies that may occur during hemodialysis treatments, describe their pathogenesis, offer measures to minimize them, and provide specific interventions to prevent catastrophic consequences on the rare occasions when such emergencies arise. These emergencies include dialysis disequilibrium syndrome, venous air embolism, hemolysis, venous needle dislodgement, vascular access hemorrhage, major allergic reactions to the dialyzer or treatment medications, and disruption or contamination of the dialysis water system. Finally, we describe root cause analysis after a dialysis emergency has occurred to prevent a future recurrence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. International variations and trends in home hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Agar, John W M

    2009-05-01

    Home hemodialysis, once a valid, viable dialysis choice, faded as facility-based care was preferentially funded and supported through the 1970s and 1980s. It was simply more comfortable for providers, physicians, and nurses to capture dialysis patients through clinic schedules and clinical protocols. Home patients were unpredictable, out of sight and out of control, trouble, and best avoided. This was so except in Australia and New Zealand where funding and support remained strong for what was seen there as an effective, outcome-rich, and cost-effective modality. The renaissance of home hemodialysis began in Canada when home-based nocturnal dialysis emerged in the 1990s. Home patients soon appreciated the self-determination and re-employment opportunities that overnight dialysis delivered. This article explores the origins, the near demise, the foundations of renewal, and the now-expanding potential of home and nocturnal hemodialysis in regions as diverse as North America, Australia and New Zealand, South East Asia, the United Kingdom, and Finland. Home dialysis fed by cost containment, outcome success, patient acceptance, and new smart equipment has emerged as a bright new modality option. Trainee nephrologists would be wise to take more notice as this near ghost of the past forges an exciting future.

  8. Hospitalization in daily home hemodialysis and matched thrice-weekly in-center hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Weinhandl, Eric D; Nieman, Kimberly M; Gilbertson, David T; Collins, Allan J

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a common cause of hospitalization in dialysis patients. Daily hemodialysis improves some parameters of cardiovascular function, but whether it associates with lower hospitalization risk is unclear. Observational cohort study using US Renal Data System data. Medicare-enrolled daily (5 or 6 sessions weekly) home hemodialysis (HHD) patients initiating NxStage System One use from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2009, and contemporary thrice-weekly in-center hemodialysis patients, matched 5 to 1. Daily HHD or thrice-weekly in-center hemodialysis. All-cause and cause-specific hospital admissions, hospital readmissions, and hospital days assessed from Medicare Part A claims. For 3,480 daily HHD and 17,400 thrice-weekly in-center hemodialysis patients in intention-to-treat analysis, the HR of all-cause admission for daily HHD versus in-center hemodialysis was 1.01 (95%CI, 0.98-1.03). Cause-specific admission HRs were 0.89 (95%CI, 0.86-0.93) for cardiovascular disease, 1.18 (95%CI, 1.13-1.23) for infection, 1.01 (95%CI, 0.93-1.09) for vascular access dysfunction, and 1.02 (95%CI, 0.99-1.06) for other morbidity. Regarding cardiovascular disease, first admission and readmission HRs for daily HHD versus in-center hemodialysis were 0.91 and 0.87, respectively. Regarding infection, first admission and readmission HRs were 1.35 and 1.03, respectively. Protective associations of daily HHD with heart failure and hypertensive disease were most pronounced, as were adverse associations of daily HHD with bacteremia/sepsis, cardiac infection, osteomyelitis, and vascular access infection. Results may be confounded by unmeasured factors, including vascular access type; information about dialysis frequency, duration, and dose was lacking; causes of admission may be misclassified; results may not apply to patients without Medicare coverage. All-cause hospitalization risk was similar in daily HHD and thrice-weekly in-center hemodialysis patients. However

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis to epoxy resin in a hemodialysis cannula.

    PubMed

    Ng, P P; Leow, Y H; Ng, S K; Goh, C L

    1998-03-01

    A patient with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis presented with dermatitis, particularly over the arteriovenous fistulae sites on the forearm. Patch testing revealed a positive reaction to epoxy resin present in the glue that fixed the needle of the hemodialysis cannula.

  10. Effectiveness of hemodialysis in a case of severe valproate overdose.

    PubMed

    Nasa, Prashant; Sehrawat, Deepak; Kansal, Sudha; Chawla, Rajesh

    2011-04-01

    A case of severe sodium valproate overdose is presented in which medicinal management failed to reverse coma of the patient. High-flux hemodialysis was then used to eliminate sodium valproate. This case demonstrated the effectiveness of hemodialysis in not only decreasing valproate levels very rapidly but also as an effective anti-coma management.

  11. Effectiveness of hemodialysis in a case of severe valproate overdose

    PubMed Central

    Nasa, Prashant; Sehrawat, Deepak; Kansal, Sudha; Chawla, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    A case of severe sodium valproate overdose is presented in which medicinal management failed to reverse coma of the patient. High-flux hemodialysis was then used to eliminate sodium valproate. This case demonstrated the effectiveness of hemodialysis in not only decreasing valproate levels very rapidly but also as an effective anti-coma management. PMID:21814378

  12. 21 CFR 876.5665 - Water purification system for hemodialysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Water purification system for hemodialysis. 876.5665 Section 876.5665 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5665 Water purification system for hemodialysis. (a)...

  13. Transcatheter closure of left ventricle to right atrial communication using cera duct occluder.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Gnanavelu; Paul, G Justin; Mahadevan, Vaikom S

    Left ventricle-right atrial communication could be congenital (Gerbode defect) or acquired as a complication of surgery or infective endocarditis and leads to volume overloading of pulmonary circulation. Two types, direct and indirect types are known depending on the involvement of septal tricuspid leaflet. Transcatheter closure of this defect is feasible and appears an attractive alternative to surgical management. Various devices like Amplatzer duct occluder I, II, Muscular ventricular septal defect device etc. have been used to close this defect. We report two patients, a preteen boy with direct left ventricle-right atrial communication as post operative complication and an adult female with indirect communication who underwent transcatheter closure with Cera duct occluder (Lifetech Scientific (Shenzhen), China). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Translation in cardiovascular stents and occluders: From biostable to fully degradable

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yingying; Wong, Yee Shan; Ng, Herr Cheun Anthony; Boey, Freddy Y. C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in developed countries. Most academic research efforts in cardiovascular disease management focus on pharmacological interventions, or are concerned with discovering new disease markers for diagnosis and monitoring. Nonpharmacological interventions with therapeutic devices, conversely, are driven largely by novel materials and device design. Examples of such devices include coronary stents, heart valves, ventricular assist devices, and occluders for septal defects. Until recently, development of such devices remained largely with medical device companies. We trace the materials evolution story in two of these devices (stents and occluders), while also highlighting academic contributions, including our own, to the evolution story. Specifically, it addresses not only our successes, but also the challenges facing the translatability of concepts generated via academic research. PMID:29313029

  15. Transcatheter Retrieval of Embolized Atrial Septal Defect Occluder Device by Waist Capture Technique.

    PubMed

    Her, Ae-Young; Lim, Kyung-Hun; Shin, Eun-Seok

    2018-01-27

    This case study describes the successful percutaneous transcatheter retrieval of an embolized Amplatzer occluder device using the "waist capture technique" in a patient with an atrial septal defect. This technique allowed for stability of the Amplatzer device, compression of the atrial discs for easier removal, prevention of further embolization, and minimal injury to vasculature during device retrieval. This novel and effective technique can be used safely for the retrieval of Amplatzer devices in the venous system.

  16. Septic Complication After Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Duodenal Variceal Bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Akasaka, Thai; Shibata, Toshiya, E-mail: ksj@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Isoda, Hiroyoshi

    2010-12-15

    We report a 64-year-old woman with duodenal varices who underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) complicated by intraprocedural variceal rupture. The patient developed shivering and a fever higher than 40{sup o}C 3 days after the B-RTO procedure. A blood culture grew Entereobacter cloacoe. This case represents a rare septic complication of B-RTO for duodenal varices.

  17. Endovascular treatment of occluded and stenotic visceral vessels in patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Christofi, Georgia; Donas, Konstantinos P; Pitoulias, Georgios A; Torsello, Giovanni; Schwindt, Arne G; Stavroulakis, Konstantinos

    2017-02-01

    Objective Current evidence in the literature about endovascular treatment (ET) of visceral vessels in patients with chronic mesenterial ischemia (CMI) based on morphological characteristics is limited. The aim of this study was the evaluation of ET in occluded and stenotic visceral vessels. Methods Patients undergoing ET for CMI between November 2000 and November 2012 were included in this retrospective study. Primary measure outcome was the symptom-free survival (SFS). Secondary outcomes were primary (PPR), secondary patency (SPR) rates and technical success rate (TSR). A Cox-regression analysis identified risk factors for the primary and secondary measure outcomes. Results Forty patients were included in the present study (men: 21, mean age: 68). The overall number of vessels with intention-to-treat was 62. Fifty-two visceral arteries (18 occlusions and 34 stenoses) were successfully treated by endovascular means. The overall TSR was 84%. Visceral vessel occlusions and atherosclerotic disease of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) were identified as independent risk factors for poorer TSR ( p < 0.05). The 12-month SFS was 60%. The overall 12-month PPR and SPR were 71% and 94%, respectively. No significant differences were observed between occluded and stenotic vessels ( p > 0.05) concerning the PPR. On the other hand, the subgroup analysis revealed higher SPR among occluded visceral vessels ( p < 0.001) and coeliac axis lesions ( p < 0.001). Conclusions ET was associated with high incidence of symptoms recurrence despite the satisfying patency rates in both occluded and stenotic vessels. Additionally, visceral vessel occlusion and presence of atherosclerotic lesions in the SMA were associated with poorer TSR.

  18. A new coated nitinol occluder for transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defects in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Chen, Feng; Huang, Xinmiao; Zhao, Xianxian; Wu, Hong; Bai, Yuan; Qin, Yongwen

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated feasibility and safety of implanting the polyester-coated nitinol ventricular septal defect occluder (pcVSDO) in the canine model. VSD models were successfully established by transseptal ventricular septal puncture via the right jugular vein in 15 out of 18 canines. Two types of VSDOs were implanted, either with pcVSDOs (n = 8) as the new type occluder group or with the commercial ventricular septal defect occluders (VSDOs, n = 7, Shanghai Sharp Memory Alloy Co. Ltd.) as the control group. Sheath size was 10 French (10 Fr) in two groups. Then the general state of the canines was observed after implantation. ECG and TTE were performed, respectively, at 7, 30, 90 days of follow-up. The canines were sacrificed at these time points for pathological and scanning electron microscopy examination. The devices were successfully implanted in all 15 canines and were retrievable and repositionable. There was no thrombus formation on the device or occurrence of complete heart block. The pcVSDO surface implanted at day 7 was already covered with neotissue by gross examination, and it completed endothelialization at day 30, while the commercial VSDO was covered with the neotissue in 30th day and the complete endothelialization in 90th day. The study shows that pcVSDO is feasible and safe to close canine VSD model and has good biocompatibility and shorter time of endothelialization.

  19. Reduced Performance of Prey Targeting in Pit Vipers with Contralaterally Occluded Infrared and Visual Senses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qin; Deng, Huanhuan; Brauth, Steven E.; Ding, Li; Tang, Yezhong

    2012-01-01

    Both visual and infrared (IR) senses are utilized in prey targeting by pit vipers. Visual and IR inputs project to the contralateral optic tectum where they activate both multimodal and bimodal neurons. A series of ocular and pit organ occlusion experiments using the short-tailed pit viper (Gloydius brevicaudus) were conducted to investigate the role of visual and IR information during prey targeting. Compared with unoccluded controls, snakes with either both eyes or pit organs occluded performed more poorly in hunting prey although such subjects still captured prey on 75% of trials. Subjects with one eye and one pit occluded on the same side of the face performed as well as those with bilateral occlusion although these subjects showed a significant targeting angle bias toward the unoccluded side. Performance was significantly poorer when only a single eye or pit was available. Interestingly, when one eye and one pit organ were occluded on opposite sides of the face, performance was poorest, the snakes striking prey on no more than half the trials. These results indicate that, visual and infrared information are both effective in prey targeting in this species, although interference between the two modalities occurs if visual and IR information is restricted to opposite sides of the brain. PMID:22606229

  20. Template occluded SBA-15: An effective dissolution enhancer for poorly water-soluble drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingming, Fu; Liwei, Guo; Kang, Le; Tianyao, Wang; Jin, Lu

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to improve the dissolution rate of piroxicam by inclusion into template occluded SBA-15. Our strategy involves directly introducing piroxicam into as-prepared SBA-15 occluded with P123 (EO 20PO 70EO 20) by self assembling method in acetonitrile/methylene chloride mixture solution. Ultraviolet spectrometry experiment and thermogravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) profiles show that the piroxicam and P123 contents in the inclusion compound are 12 wt% and 28 wt%, respectively. X-ray powder diffraction and DSC analysis reveal that the included piroxicam is arranged in amorphous form. N 2 adsorption-desorption experiment indicates that the piroxicam has been introduced to the mesopores instead of precipitating at the outside of the silica material. The inclusion compound was submitted to in vitro dissolution tests, the results show that the piroxicam dissolve from template occluded inclusion compound more rapidly, than these from the piroxicam crystalline and template removed samples in all tested conditions. Thus a facile method to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drug was established, and this discovery opens a new avenue for the utilization of templates used for the synthesis of mesoporous materials.

  1. Indocyanine green videoangiography (ICGV)-guided surgery of parasagittal meningiomas occluding the superior sagittal sinus (SSS).

    PubMed

    d'Avella, Elena; Volpin, Francesco; Manara, Renzo; Scienza, Renato; Della Puppa, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    Maximal safe resection is the goal of correct surgical treatment of parasagittal meningiomas, and it is intimately related to the venous anatomy both near and directly involved by the tumor. Indocyanine green videoangiography (ICGV) has already been advocated as an intra-operative resourceful technique in brain tumor surgery for the identification of vessels. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ICGV in surgery of parasagittal meningiomas occluding the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). In this study, we prospectively analyzed clinical, radiological and intra-operative findings of patients affected by parasagittal meningioma occluding the SSS, who underwent ICGV assisted-surgery. Radiological diagnosis of complete SSS occlusion was pre-operatively established in all cases. ICGV was performed before dural opening, before and during tumor resection, at the end of the procedure. Five patients were included in our study. In all cases, ICGV guided dural opening, tumor resection, and venous management. The venous collateral pathway was easily identified and preserved in all cases. Radical resection was achieved in four cases. Surgery was uneventful in all cases. Despite the small number of patients, our study shows that ICG videoangiography could play a crucial role in guiding surgery of parasagittal meningioma occluding the SSS. Further studies are needed to define the role of this technique on functional and oncological outcome of these patients.

  2. Effect of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood on magnetic particle capture in occluded blood vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sayan; Banerjee, Moloy

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles drug carriers continue to attract considerable interest for drug targeting in the treatment of cancer and other pathological conditions. Magnetic carrier particles with surface-bound drug molecules are injected into the vascular system upstream from the desired target site, and are captured at the target site via a local applied magnetic field. Herein, a numerical investigation of steady magnetic drug targeting (MDT) using functionalized magnetic micro-spheres in partly occluded blood vessel having a 90° bent is presented considering the effects of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood. An Eulerian-Lagrangian technique is adopted to resolve the hemodynamic flow and the motion of the magnetic particles in the flow using ANSYS FLUENT. An implantable infinitely long cylindrical current carrying conductor is used to create the requisite magnetic field. Targeted transport of the magnetic particles in a partly occluded vessel differs distinctly from the same in a regular unblocked vessel. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of the insert configuration and its position from the central plane of the artery (zoffset), particle size (dp) and its magnetic property (χ) and the magnitude of current (I) on the "capture efficiency" (CE) is reported. Analysis shows that there exists an optimum regime of operating parameters for which deposition of the drug carrying magnetic particles in a target zone on the partly occluded vessel wall can be maximized. The results provide useful design bases for in vitro set up for the investigation of MDT in stenosed blood vessels.

  3. A New Coated Nitinol Occluder for Transcatheter Closure of Ventricular Septal Defects in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yong; Chen, Feng; Huang, Xinmiao; Zhao, Xianxian; Wu, Hong; Bai, Yuan; Qin, Yongwen

    2013-01-01

    Aims. This study evaluated feasibility and safety of implanting the polyester-coated nitinol ventricular septal defect occluder (pcVSDO) in the canine model. Methods and Results. VSD models were successfully established by transseptal ventricular septal puncture via the right jugular vein in 15 out of 18 canines. Two types of VSDOs were implanted, either with pcVSDOs (n = 8) as the new type occluder group or with the commercial ventricular septal defect occluders (VSDOs, n = 7, Shanghai Sharp Memory Alloy Co. Ltd.) as the control group. Sheath size was 10 French (10 Fr) in two groups. Then the general state of the canines was observed after implantation. ECG and TTE were performed, respectively, at 7, 30, 90 days of follow-up. The canines were sacrificed at these time points for pathological and scanning electron microscopy examination. The devices were successfully implanted in all 15 canines and were retrievable and repositionable. There was no thrombus formation on the device or occurrence of complete heart block. The pcVSDO surface implanted at day 7 was already covered with neotissue by gross examination, and it completed endothelialization at day 30, while the commercial VSDO was covered with the neotissue in 30th day and the complete endothelialization in 90th day. Conclusion. The study shows that pcVSDO is feasible and safe to close canine VSD model and has good biocompatibility and shorter time of endothelialization. PMID:24066289

  4. Gadolinium-enhanced digital subtraction angiography of hemodialysis fistulas: a diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Le Blanche, Alain-Ferdinand; Tassart, Marc; Deux, Jean-François; Rossert, Jérôme; Bigot, Jean-Michel; Boudghene, Frank

    2002-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and potential role of the contrast agent gadoterate meglumine for digital subtraction angiography as a single diagnostic procedure or before percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of malfunctioning native dialysis fistulas. Over a 20-month period, 23 patients (15 women, eight men) with an age range of 42-87 years (mean, 63 years) having end-stage renal insufficiency and with recent hemodialysis fistula surgical placement underwent gadoterate-enhanced digital subtraction angiography with a digital 1024 x 1024 matrix. Opacification was performed on the forearm, arm, and chest with the patient in the supine position using an injection (retrograde, n = 14; anterograde, n = 8; arterial, n = 1) of gadoterate meglumine into the perianastomotic fistula segment at a rate of 3 mL/sec for a total volume ranging from 24 to 32 mL. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was performed in three patients and required an additional 8 mL per procedure. Examinations were compared using a 3-step confidence scale and a two-radiologist agreement (Cohen's kappa statistic) for diagnostic and opacification quality. Tolerability was evaluated on the basis of serum creatinine levels and the development of complications. No impairment of renal function was found in the 15 patients who were not treated with hemodialysis. Serum creatinine level change varied from -11.9% to 11.6%. All studies were of diagnostic quality. The presence of stenosis (n = 14) or thrombosis (n = 3) in arteriovenous fistulas was shown with good interobserver agreement (kappa = 0.71-0.80) in relation to opacification quality (kappa = 0.59-0.84). No pain, neurologic complications, or allergiclike reactions occurred. Three percutaneous transluminal angioplasty procedures (brachiocephalic, n = 2; radiocephalic, n = 1) were successfully performed. Gadoterate-enhanced digital subtraction angiography is an effective and safe method to assess causes of malfunction of

  5. Native Health Research Database

    MedlinePlus

    ... Indian Health Board) Welcome to the Native Health Database. Please enter your search terms. Basic Search Advanced ... To learn more about searching the Native Health Database, click here. Tutorial Video The NHD has made ...

  6. Pan-nitinol occluder and special delivery device for closure of patent ductus arteriosus: a canine-model feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai-bin; Bai, Yuan; Zong, Gang-jun; Han, Lin; Li, Wei-ping; Lu, Yang; Qin, Yong-wen; Zhao, Xian-xian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a new type of occluder for patent ductus arteriosus. Patent ductus arteriosus was established in a canine model by anastomosing a length of autologous jugular vein to the descending aorta and the left pulmonary artery in an end-to-side fashion. Transcatheter closure of each patent ductus arteriosus was performed on 10 dogs, which were then monitored for as long as 6 months with aortography, echocardiography, and histologic evaluation. Transcatheter closure with use of the novel pan-nitinol device was successful in all canine models. Postoperative echocardiography showed that the location and shape of the occluders were normal, without any residual shunting. Further histologic evaluation confirmed that the occluder surface was completely endothelialized 3 months after implantation. Transcatheter patent ductus arteriosus closure with the pan-nitinol occluder can be performed safely and successfully in a canine model and shows good biological compatibility and low mortality rates.

  7. Effect of High-Cutoff Hemodialysis vs Conventional Hemodialysis on Hemodialysis Independence Among Patients With Myeloma Cast Nephropathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Bridoux, Frank; Carron, Pierre-Louis; Pegourie, Brigitte; Alamartine, Eric; Augeul-Meunier, Karine; Karras, Alexandre; Joly, Bertrand; Peraldi, Marie-Noëlle; Arnulf, Bertrand; Vigneau, Cécile; Lamy, Thierry; Wynckel, Alain; Kolb, Brigitte; Royer, Bruno; Rabot, Nolwenn; Benboubker, Lotfi; Combe, Christian; Jaccard, Arnaud; Moulin, Bruno; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Chevret, Sylvie; Fermand, Jean-Paul

    2017-12-05

    Cast nephropathy is the main cause of acute kidney injury in multiple myeloma and persistent reduction in kidney function strongly affects prognosis. Strategies to rapidly remove nephrotoxic serum-free light chains combined with novel antimyeloma agents have not been evaluated prospectively. To compare the hemodialysis independence rate among patients newly diagnosed with myeloma cast nephropathy treated with hemodialysis using a high-cutoff dialyzer (with very large membrane pores and high permeability to immunoglobulin light chains) or a conventional high-flux dialyzer (with small pores and lower permeability). Randomized clinical trial involving 98 patients with biopsy-proven myeloma cast nephropathy requiring hemodialysis treated at 48 French centers between July 2011 and June 2016; the final date of follow-up was June 29, 2016. Intensive hemodialysis (eight 5-hour sessions over 10 days) with either a high-cutoff dialyzer (46 patients) or a conventional high-flux dialyzer (48 patients). All patients received the same chemotherapy regimen of bortezomib and dexamethasone. Primary end point was hemodialysis independence at 3 months; secondary end points: hemodialysis independence rates at 6 and 12 months, hemodialysis- and chemotherapy-related adverse events, and death. Among 98 randomized patients, 94 (96%) (median age, 68.8 years [interquartile range, 61.2-75.3 years]; 45% women) were included in the modified intent-to-treat analysis. The hemodialysis independence rate at 3 months was 41.3% (n = 19) in the high-cutoff hemodialysis group vs 33.3% (n = 16) in the conventional hemodialysis group (between-group difference, 8.0% [95% CI, -12.0% to 27.9%], P = .42); at 6 months, the rate was 56.5% (n = 26) vs 35.4% (n = 17), respectively (between-group difference, 21.1% [95% CI, 0.9% to 41.3%], P = .04); and at 12 months, the rate was 60.9% (n = 28) vs 37.5% (n = 18) (between-group difference, 23.4% [95% CI, 3.2% to 43.5%], P = .02

  8. Native American Healing Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portman, Tarrell A. A.; Garrett, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Indigenous healing practices among Native Americans have been documented in the United States since colonisation. Cultural encapsulation has deterred the acknowledgement of Native American medicinal practices as a precursor to folk medicine and many herbal remedies, which have greatly influenced modern medicine. Understanding Native American…

  9. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  10. Impact of hemodialysis dose and frequency on survival of patients on chronic hemodialysis in Lithuania during 1998-2005.

    PubMed

    Stankuvienė, Asta; Ziginskienė, Edita; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Bumblytė, Inga Arūnė

    2010-01-01

    The question of the targets of dialysis dosing remains controversial since the beginning of the long-term dialysis treatment era. It is still uncertain if higher dialysis dose is better. The aim of our study was to investigate issues of dialysis dose in Lithuania during the period of 1998-2005 and to determine associations between hemodialysis dose and survival of patients on chronic hemodialysis. We analyzed data of all patients who started hemodialysis due to end-stage renal disease in Lithuania between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2005. The information about hemodialysis frequency, duration, and adequacy (according to Kt/V) was obtained from medical documentation. The overall survival rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Survival comparisons were made using the log-rank or Breslow tests. Univariate Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to select variables significantly associated with the risk of death; then these variables were included in multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. During the study period, from 2428 patients who started chronic hemodialysis, 58.5% of patients started hemodialysis three times a week. More than one-third (36.2%) of patients were dialyzed twice weekly, and 5.3% of patients started hemodialysis once weekly. Survival analysis revealed that patients dialyzed less than three times per week survived shorter than patients receiving a higher dialysis dose. Duration of HD session of ≤8 hours per week was an independent risk factor for mortality. A higher mean Kt/V was associated with better survival of patients on chronic hemodialysis. Dialysis frequency and weekly duration of HD sessions were dependent on HD accessibility in Lithuania during the period of 1998-2005. Better survival of patients on chronic hemodialysis was associated with a higher hemodialysis dose.

  11. Computational evaluation of aortic occlusion and the proposal of a novel, improved occluder: Constrained endo-aortic balloon occlusion.

    PubMed

    de Vaal, M H; Gee, M W; Stock, U A; Wall, W A

    2016-12-01

    Because aortic occlusion is arguably one of the most dangerous aortic manipulation maneuvers during cardiac surgery in terms of perioperative ischemic neurological injury, the purpose of this investigation is to assess the structural mechanical impact resulting from the use of existing and newly proposed occluders. Existing (clinically used) occluders considered include different cross-clamps (CCs) and endo-aortic balloon occlusion (EABO). A novel occluder is also introduced, namely, constrained EABO (CEABO), which consists of applying a constrainer externally around the aorta when performing EABO. Computational solid mechanics are employed to investigate each occluder according to a comprehensive list of functional requirements. The potential of a state of occlusion is also considered for the first time. Three different constrainer designs are evaluated for CEABO. Although the CCs were responsible for the highest strains, largest deformation, and most inefficient increase of the occlusion potential, it remains the most stable, simplest, and cheapest occluder. The different CC hinge geometries resulted in poorer performance of CC used for minimally invasive procedures than conventional ones. CEABO with a profiled constrainer successfully addresses the EABO shortcomings of safety, stability, and positioning accuracy, while maintaining its complexities of operation (disadvantage) and yielding additional functionalities (advantage). Moreover, CEABO is able to achieve the previously unattainable potential to provide a clinically determinable state of occlusion. CEABO offers an attractive alternative to the shortcomings of existing occluders, with its design rooted in achieving the highest patient safety. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Reduction of carbamylated albumin by extended hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Perl, Jeffrey; Kalim, Sahir; Wald, Ron; Goldstein, Marc B; Yan, Andrew T; Noori, Nazanin; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Wenger, Julia; Chan, Christopher; Thadhani, Ravi I; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Berg, Anders H

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Among conventional hemodialysis (CHD) patients, carbamylated serum albumin (C-Alb) correlates with urea and amino acid deficiencies and is associated with mortality. We postulated that reduction of C-Alb by intensive HD may correlate with improvements in protein metabolism and cardiac function. Methods One-year observational study of in-center nocturnal extended hemodialysis (EHD) patients and CHD control subjects. Thirty-three patients receiving 4-hour CHD who converted to 8-hour EHD were enrolled, along with 20 controls on CHD. Serum C-Alb, biochemistries, and cardiac MRI parameters were measured before and after 12 months of EHD. Findings EHD was associated with reduction of C-Alb (average EHD change -3.20 mmol/mol [95% CI -4.23, -2.17] compared to +0.21 [95% CI -1.11, 1.54] change in CHD controls, P < 0.001). EHD was also associated with increases in average essential amino acids (in standardized units) compared to CHD (+0.38 [0.08, 0.68 95%CI]) vs. -0.12 [-0.50, 0.27, 95% CI], P = 0.047). Subjects who reduced C-Alb more than 25% were found to have reduced left ventricular mass, increased urea reduction ratio, and increased serum albumin compared to nonresponders, and % change in C-Alb significantly correlated with % change in left ventricular mass. Discussion EHD was associated with reduction of C-Alb as compared to CHD, and reduction of C-Alb by EHD correlates with reduction of urea. Additional studies are needed to test whether reduction of C-Alb by EHD also correlates with improved clinical outcomes. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  13. Supporting hemodialysis patients: A phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Shahgholian, Nahid; Yousefi, Hojatollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic renal disease and hemodialysis cause numerous psychological, social, cultural, and spiritual challenges for both patients and their families. Overcoming these challenges is possible only through providing holistic support for the patients. Today, despite the support provided by family and professional caregivers for the patients, patients still express dissatisfaction with the support provided and believe it to be inadequate. In fact, patients and family caregivers and healthcare practitioners seem to have different understandings of the notion of support. Thus, the researcher decided to examine the concept of support from the viewpoint of hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive phenomenological research was conducted on 17 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who were undergoing hemodialysis. Purposive sampling was performed and continued until data saturation. Data were collected through 30–60 min unstructured interviews and analyzed using Colaizzi's method. Results: From the analysis of data, 4 themes (psychological support, accompaniment, social support, and spiritual support) and 11 sub-themes were obtained. Psychological support consisted of two sub-themes of psychological support by healthcare practitioners and emotional support by family and relatives. Accompaniment included three sub-themes of assistance in transportation, providing and using medicine, and daily activities. Social support was identified with four sub-themes of promotion of the society's understanding of the patients’ condition, improvement of communication with others, the need for employment, and independence. Spiritual support was identified with two sub-themes of the need for faith and trust in God or Imams and the need to resolve spiritual contradictions. Conclusion: The results showed that from the viewpoint of the participants, the concept of support consisted of psychological support, social support, accompanying the patient

  14. Home hemodialysis: beliefs, attitudes, and practice patterns.

    PubMed

    Jayanti, Anuradha; Morris, Julie; Stenvinkel, Peter; Mitra, Sandip

    2014-10-01

    There is increasing interest of the worldwide kidney community in home hemodialysis (HHD). This is due to emerging evidence of its superiority over conventional hemodialysis (HD), largely attributed to improved outcomes on intensive schedule HD, best deployed in patient's own homes. Despite published work in this area, universal uptake remains limited and reasons are poorly understood. All those who provide HD care were invited to participate in a survey on HHD, initiated to understand the beliefs, attitudes, and practice patterns of providers offering this therapy. The survey was developed and posted on the Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation-Educational (NDT-E) website. Two hundred and seventy-two responses were deemed suitable for complete analysis. It is apparent from the survey that there is great variability in the prevalence of HHD. Physicians have a great deal of interest in this modality, with majority viewing home as being the ideal location for the offer of intensive HD schedules (55%). A significant number (21%) feel intensive HD may be offered even outside the home setting. Those who offer this therapy do not see a financial disadvantage in it. Many units identify lack of appropriately trained personnel (35%) and funding for home adaptation (50.4%) as key barriers to widespread adoption of this therapy. Despite the interest and belief in this therapy among practitioners, HHD therapy is still not within reach of a majority of patients. Modifiable organizational, physician, and patient factors exist, which could potentially redefine the landscape of HHD provision. Well-designed systematic research of national and local barriers is needed to design interventions to help centers facilitate change. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  15. [The perfusion technologist: extracorporeal circulation and hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Degani, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In 1812, the French physiologist Le Gallois hypothesized a device for obtaining extracorporeal circulation (ECC), although it wasn't until 1939 that Gibbon described in detail a machine that could substitute both heart and lungs. In 1954, the US Cardiac Surgeon Lillhei invented 'cross circulation', and the era of open heart surgery began. The development of ECC has created a new profession in medicine, the 'Perfusion Technologist' who is not only responsible for ECC, but also for hemodialysis equipment when this is also required. The present review aims to summarize all issues related to this medical profession.

  16. Risk factors of periodontal disease in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yue; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Cong-Xiao; Wei, Yu-Dan; Jiang, Li-Li; Zhu, Xiao-Yu; Du, Yu-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To explore the characteristics and relevant risk factors of periodontal disease (PD) among hemodialysis patients. Uremic patients on maintenance hemodialysis from November 2015 to March 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into a PD group and a non-PD group. Demographic and laboratory data were collected and analyzed. In all, 136 uremic patients (79 males and 57 females, aged 50.8 ± 15.3 years) on maintenance hemodialysis were included in this study. The incidence of PD increased with age. Hemodialysis patients most likely developed PD if they were male, smokers, or diabetic (P = .009, <.001, and <.001, respectively). Patients brushing their teeth twice daily had significantly less chance of developing PD as compared with those only brushing once daily (P < .001). Hemodialysis patients in the PD group had significantly higher levels of total cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fasting blood glucose, and peripheral white blood cell counts, compared with the non-PD group (all P < .001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that diabetes, total cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and peripheral white blood cell count were independent risk factors for developing PD, whereas teeth brushing twice daily and serum calcium were favorable factors for maintenance hemodialysis patients against PD. Identification of risk factors provides a theoretical basis for prevention and improvement of PD among maintenance hemodialysis patients. PMID:28858105

  17. Role of home blood pressure monitoring in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, R

    1999-04-01

    To investigate the use of manual home blood pressure (BP) monitoring in chronic hemodialysis patients, daily home BPs in 20 patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis were compared with the 44-hour interdialytic ambulatory BPs (ABPs). Each patient recorded home BPs for 2 consecutive weeks with a digital BP monitor three times daily. Prehemodialysis and posthemodialysis BPs were recorded by an oscillometric device in the hemodialysis unit during the same 2 weeks. ABPs were recorded either after the first or second hemodialysis session of the second week during a 44-hour interdialytic period using a Spacelab 90207 ABP monitor. ABP monitoring showed that BP decreased progressively after dialysis, decreased during the first night, and rapidly reached predialysis levels by the next morning. There was no decrease in BP during the second night. There was an excellent correlation between average systolic and diastolic ABP and respective home BPs. Prehemodialysis diastolic BPs were a good reflection of diastolic ABP, but there was more variability in predialysis systolic BP. Posthemodialysis BPs did not correlate with ABP. In patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis, home BPs more reliably reflected the overall BP than incenter BP readings. Predialysis, but not postdialysis, BP should be used as a screening tool to detect hypertension in the hemodialysis unit. Home BP monitoring should be used as a cost-effective means to diagnose occult hypertension in chronic hemodialysis patients.

  18. Native American nurse leadership.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Lee A

    2004-07-01

    To identify which characteristics, wisdom, and skills are essential in becoming an effective Native American nurse leader. This will lead to the development of a curriculum suitable for Native American nurses. A qualitative, descriptive design was used for this study. Focus groups were conducted in Polson, Montana. A total of 67 Native and non-Native nurses participated. Sixty-seven percent of them were members of Indian tribes. Data were content analyzed using Spradley's ethnographic methodology. Three domains of analysis emerged: point of reference for the leader (individual, family, community), what a leader is (self-actualized, wise, experienced, political, bicultural, recognized, quiet presence, humble, spiritual, and visionary), and what a leader does (mentors, role models, communicates, listens, demonstrates values, mobilizes, and inspires). Native nurse leaders lead differently. Thus, a leadership curriculum suitable for Native nurses may lead to increased work productivity and therefore improved patient care for Native Americans.

  19. Vascular access in patients receiving hemodialysis in Libya.

    PubMed

    Alashek, Wiam A; McIntyre, Christopher W; Taal, Maarten W

    2012-01-01

    A native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) represents the optimal form of Vascular Access (VA) for patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). In Libya there are several barriers to AVF creation including lack of adequate preparation for dialysis and surgical services. We aimed to conduct the first comprehensive study of VA utilisation in HD patients in Libya. A prospective observational study included all adult patients receiving HD treatment in 25 HD facilities in Libya from May 2009 to Nov 2011. Researchers gathered data regarding VA through interviews with staff and patients as well as medical records. Patients with definitive VA were re-interviewed after 1 year. At baseline the majority of patients (91.9%; n=1573) were using permanent VA in the form of AVF or arteriovenous graft. Patients with permanent VA were more likely to be male and less likely to be diabetic than those with CVCs. Most patients had commenced HD using a temporary CVC (91.8%). VA-related complications were: thrombosis (46.7%), aneurysm (22.6%), infection (11.5%) and haemorrhage (10.2%). Incident VA thrombosis was reported by 14.7% in 1 year. Independent risk factors for incident thrombosis were female gender and diabetes. Hospitalisation for VA related complications was reported by 31.4%. Few patients in Libya initiate HD with definitive VA, but most achieve it thereafter. Improved dialysis preparation and increased provision of surgical services are required to increase the proportion of patients initiating HD with definitive VA and should be a priority in rebuilding health services in Libya after the recent conflict.

  20. Extended Duration Nocturnal Hemodialysis and Changes in Plasma Metabolite Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kalim, Sahir; Wald, Ron; Yan, Andrew T; Goldstein, Marc B; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Xu, Dihua; Berg, Anders H; Clish, Clary; Thadhani, Ravi; Rhee, Eugene P; Perl, Jeffrey

    2018-03-07

    In-center, extended duration nocturnal hemodialysis has been associated with variable clinical benefits, but the effect of extended duration hemodialysis on many established uremic solutes and other components of the metabolome is unknown. We determined the magnitude of change in metabolite profiles for patients on extended duration nocturnal hemodialysis. In a 52-week prospective, observational study, we followed 33 patients receiving conventional thrice weekly hemodialysis who converted to nocturnal hemodialysis (7-8 hours per session, three times per week). A separate group of 20 patients who remained on conventional hemodialysis (3-4 hours per session, three times per week) served as a control group. For both groups, we applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling on stored plasma samples collected from all participants at baseline and after 1 year. We examined longitudinal changes in 164 metabolites among those who remained on conventional hemodialysis and those who converted to nocturnal hemodialysis using Wilcoxon rank sum tests adjusted for multiple comparisons (false discovery rate <0.05). On average, the nocturnal group had 9.6 hours more dialysis per week than the conventional group. Among 164 metabolites, none changed significantly from baseline to study end in the conventional group. Twenty-nine metabolites changed in the nocturnal group, 21 of which increased from baseline to study end (including all branched-chain amino acids). Eight metabolites decreased after conversion to nocturnal dialysis, including l-carnitine and acetylcarnitine. By contrast, several established uremic retention solutes, including p -cresol sulfate, indoxyl sulfate, and trimethylamine N -oxide, did not change with extended dialysis. Across a wide array of metabolites examined, extended duration hemodialysis was associated with modest changes in the plasma metabolome, with most differences relating to metabolite increases, despite increased

  1. The home hemodialysis hub: physical infrastructure and integrated governance structure.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Mark R; Young, Bessie A; Fox, Sally J; Cleland, Calli J; Walker, Robert J; Masakane, Ikuto; Herold, Aaron M

    2015-04-01

    An effective home hemodialysis program critically depends on adequate hub facilities and support functions and on transparent and accountable organizational processes. The likelihood of optimal service delivery and patient care will be enhanced by fit-for-purpose facilities and implementation of a well-considered governance structure. In this article, we describe the required accommodation and infrastructure for a home hemodialysis program and a generic organizational structure that will support both patient-facing clinical activities and business processes. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  2. Errors in fluid balance with pump control of continuous hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M; Winney, R J

    1992-02-01

    The use of pumps both proximal and distal to the dialyzer during continuous hemodialysis provides control of dialysate and ultrafiltration flow rates, thereby reducing nursing time. However, we had noted unexpected severe extracellular fluid depletion suggesting that errors in pump delivery may be responsible. We measured in vitro the operation of various pumps under conditions similar to continuous hemodialysis. Fluid delivery of peristaltic and roller pumps varied with how the tubing set was inserted in the pump. Piston and peristaltic pumps with dedicated pump segments were more accurate. Pumps should be calibrated and tested under conditions simulating continuous hemodialysis prior to in vivo use.

  3. Holistic Care of Hemodialysis Access in Patients with Kidney Failure.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Michael V; Latham, Christine L

    2017-01-01

    Kidney failure requiring hemodialysis is a chronic illness that has physical, psychosocial, and financial consequences. Patients with kidney failure receiving hemodialysis need a renewed focus on self-care, prevention, and community-based health management to reduce healthcare costs and complications, and improve outcomes and quality of life, while living with an altered lifestyle. A holistic chronic care model was applied as a guideline for healthcare professionals involved with this population to more effectively engage people with kidney failure in their management of their hemodialysis access. Copyright© by the American Nephrology Nurses Association.

  4. Content in Native Literature Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    Including Native literature in school curricula is an important way of enhancing the Native student's self-concept and providing accurate Native cultural knowledge to Native and non-Native students alike. Nevertheless, Canadian school literature programs generally contain neither contemporary nor traditional Native literature. Some programs…

  5. [Hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Canaud, Bernard; Leray-Moragués, Hélène; Chenine-Koualef, Leila; Patrier, Laure

    2012-01-01

    Hemodialysis is the most advanced form of artificial renal support. It ensures the survival of almost 2 million patients wordwide. Considerable progress has been made in recent years thanks to a better understanding of uremia, optimization of treatment modalities and more personalized treatment schedules. Increase of uremic toxins removal, improvement of hemodynamic tolerance of the sessions, reduction of proinflammatory reactions due to the bioincompatibility system are major advances that may explain the reduction of morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. New technologies (nanotechnology, biotechnology, microelectronics) are now expected to introduce further progresses by miniaturizing devices and providing them with an "artificial intelligence" capable of interacting with the patient. The main obstacle remains ageing of uremic patients, increasing prevalence of comorbidities and shortage of social resources that are not conducive to innovation. By promoting a more physiological, longer and more effective hemodialysis performed at home with help of teledialysis monitoring that would probably be an interesting option to evaluate on a medico-economical point of view.

  6. Air contamination during hemodialysis should be minimized.

    PubMed

    Stegmayr, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    During preparation of the hemodialysis (HD) extracorporeal circuit (ECC) a priming solution is used to remove air from the tubes and dialyzer. Ultra sound techniques have verified micro embolic signals (MES) in the ECC that may derive from clots or gas embolies. In vitro studies could clarify that embolies of air develop within the ECC and also pass the safety systems such as air traps and enter the venous line that goes into the patient. Clinical studies have confirmed the presence of MES within the ECC that pass into the return-venous-line during conventional HD without inducing an alarm. In addition, studies confirmed that such MES were present within the AV fistula and subclavian vein, but also detected within the carotid artery. Autopsy studies revealed the presence of gas embolies surrounded by clots within the lung but also brain and myocardial tissue. This review will focus on how the MES develop and measures of how the exposure can be limited. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  7. Insertion of tunneled hemodialysis catheters without fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Motta Elias, Rosilene; da Silva Makida, Sonia Cristina; Abensur, Hugo; Martins Castro, Manuel Carlos; Affonso Moysés, Rosa Maria; Pereira, Benedito Jorge; Bueno de Oliveira, Rodrigo; Luders, Cláudio; Romão, João Egidio

    2010-01-01

    The tunneled cuffed catheter (TCC) is used as a bridge access for hemodialysis. Few prospective studies have been designed to evaluate conversion from non-tunneled to TCC without the use of fluoroscopy when performed by nephrologists. We performed an observational prospective cohort in incident patients receiving hemodialysis through a non-tunneled right jugular vein catheter. 130 procedures were performed in 122 patients (51+/-18 years). The success rate was 100%. There was a total of 26,546 catheter days. Ninety-one of the 130 catheters were removed during the study period. Life table analysis revealed primary patency rates of 92%, 82%, and 68% at 30, 60, and 120 days, respectively. Infection requiring catheter removal occurred at a frequency of 0.09 per 100 catheter days. Catheter malfunction requiring intervention occurred at a rate of 0.03 per 100 catheter days. Hypertension and duration of existing non-tunneled catheter of less than 2 weeks were independently associated with better TCC survival. The conversion from non-tunneled to TCC performed by nephrologists and without fluoroscopy may be safe by using the internal right jugular vein. The ideal time to do this procedure is within less than 2 weeks of existing non-tunneled catheter.

  8. The Fresenius Medical Care home hemodialysis system.

    PubMed

    Schlaeper, Christian; Diaz-Buxo, Jose A

    2004-01-01

    The Fresenius Medical Care home dialysis system consists of a newly designed machine, a central monitoring system, a state-of-the-art reverse osmosis module, ultrapure water, and all the services associated with a successful implementation. The 2008K@home hemodialysis machine has the flexibility to accommodate the changing needs of the home hemodialysis patient and is well suited to deliver short daily or prolonged nocturnal dialysis using a broad range of dialysate flows and concentrates. The intuitive design, large graphic illustrations, and step-by-step tutorial make this equipment very user friendly. Patient safety is assured by the use of hydraulic systems with a long history of reliability, smart alarm algorithms, and advanced electronic monitoring. To further patient comfort with their safety at home, the 2008K@home is enabled to communicate with the newly designed iCare remote monitoring system. The Aquaboss Smart reverse osmosis (RO) system is compact, quiet, highly efficient, and offers an improved hygienic design. The RO module reduces water consumption by monitoring the water flow of the dialysis system and adjusting water production accordingly. The Diasafe Plus filter provides ultrapure water, known for its long-term benefits. This comprehensive approach includes planning, installation, technical and clinical support, and customer service.

  9. Treating mineral metabolism disorders in patients undergoing long hemodialysis: a search for an optimal strategy.

    PubMed

    Jean, Guillaume; Vanel, Thierry; Terrat, Jean-Claude; Hurot, Jean-Marc; Lorriaux, Christie; Mayor, Brice; Chazot, Charles

    2009-10-01

    In hemodialysis (HD) patients, mineral metabolism (MM) disorders have been associated with an increased mortality rate. We report the evolution of MM parameters in a stable HD population undergoing long hemodialysis by performing an annual cross-sectional analysis for every year from 1994 to 2008. The therapeutic strategy has changed: the dialysate calcium concentration has decreased from a mean of 1.7 +/- 0.1 to 1.5 +/- 0.07 mmol/L and has been adapted to parathyroid hormone serum levels (from 1 to 1.75 mmol/L). The use of calcium-based and aluminum-based phosphate binders has decreased and they have been replaced by sevelamer; alfacalcidol has partly been replaced by native vitamin D. The percentage of patients with a parathyroid hormone serum level between 150 and 300 pg/mL has increased from 9% to 67% (P<0.001); the percentage of patients with phosphataemia between 1.15 and 1.78 mmol/L has increased from 39% to 84% (P<0.001). The percentage of those with albumin-corrected calcemia between 2.1 and 2.37 mmol/L has increased from 29% to 61% (P<0.001), and that of patients with a calcium-phosphorous product (Ca x P) level >4.4 mmol/L decreased from 8.8% to 2% (P=0.02). Although patients undergo long and intensive HD treatment, MM disorders are common. However, an appropriate strategy, mostly consisting of native vitamin D supplementation, progressive replacement of calcium-based phosphate binders with non-calcium-based ones, and individualization of dialysis session duration and dialysate calcium concentration, would result in a drastic improvement.

  10. [Outcome of transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect with modified double-disk occluder device].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; You, Xiao-hua; Zhao, Xian-xian; Hu, Jian-qiang; Cao, Jiang; Xu, Rong-liang; Wu, Hong; Chen, Shao-ping; Zhang, Jian-liang; Zheng, Xing; Qin, Yong-wen

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect (pmVSD) with modified double-disk occluder device (MDVO). Clinical data including clinical examination, electrocardiography daily after the procedure for a week, chest-X-rays and TTE before discharge and at 3-5 days after the procedure were analyzed from 604 patients underwent percutaneous closure of a pmVSD with MDVO at our department between December 2001 and December 2008. Procedure was successful in 576 out of 604 patients (95.4%) and 583 VSD occluders were placed. Endocarditis, thromboembolism, or deaths were not observed after procedure. Conduction block occurred in 81 patients (56 RBBB, 14 LBBB) and transient nonparoxysmal ventricular tachycardia in 31 patients after the procedure. Complete heart block occurred in 11 patients, 9 of them recovered in 3 weeks, permanent pacemaker was implanted in 2 patients (one had transient III degrees AVB before the procedure, the other underwent simultaneous closure of ventricular septal defect and atrial septal defect). Trivial/small residual shunts were found in 69 patients (12.0%). The residual shunts disappeared in 31 patients and remained unchanged in 38 patients (6.6%) 7 days after procedures. Aortic regurgitation developed in 5 patients (2 trivial/small, 3 small/moderate), and tricuspid regurgitation was present in 35 patients (32 trivial/small, 3 moderate). Five patients developed haemolysis (device retrieved via catheter in 1 patient due to persistent haemolysis, the other 4 patients recovered 3-14 days post procedure). Pseudoaneurysm of femoral artery occurred in 1 patient, and disappeared by pressure dressing. Device was successfully replaced in 2 patients with either device embolization (n = 1) or device misplacement (n = 1) after device retrieval by catheter. It is safe and effective to close congenital perimembranous ventricular septal defect with domestic-made occluder device.

  11. Identifying the Optimal Water-Occluding Earplugs: A Scientific Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Kovoor, Joshua; Al Hussaini, Ali; Backhouse, Steven

    2016-12-01

    Numerous types of water-occluding earplugs are available as a means of preventing infection in patients with external and middle ear disease. However, little is known about the comparative efficacies of these earplugs with prolonged water exposure. In this study, we assessed the water impermeability of various earplug materials to prolonged water exposure. Nine earplugs were tested: cotton wool mixed with petroleum jelly, cotton wool externally coated with petroleum jelly, Blu-Tack, foam earplugs, silicone putty, silicone earplugs, flanged earplugs, and hard and soft silicone custom-moulds. Precision-engineered cups were filled with 30 mL water and sealed with lids that contained a 10 mm diameter hole to simulate the ear canal. The aperture was occluded with different earplugs, and the cup was inverted. Computer software was used to record the water loss to the nearest 10 milligrams 720 times over a three-hour period. The test was repeated five times for each material. The water permeability onset, rate, and total amount of water loss varied markedly between the materials; cotton wool mixed with petroleum jelly demonstrated the fastest onset of leak and the highest rate of water loss (p < 0.00001), as well as the largest amount of cumulative water loss (p = 0.00213). The soft silicone custom-mould plugs, hard silicone custom-mould plugs, foam plugs, and silicone putty demonstrated no leaks. This study demonstrates a wide range of water permeabilities of commonly used ear-occluding materials during prolonged water exposure. We found that the generally suggested regimen of cotton wool mixed with petroleum jelly may be inefficacious for substantial periods of water exposure.

  12. Association between autistic traits and emotion adaptation to partially occluded faces.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chengwen; Burns, Edwin; Xu, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Prolonged exposure to a happy face makes subsequently presented faces appear sadder: the facial emotion aftereffect (FEA). People with autism spectrum disorders and their relatives have diminished holistic perception of faces. Levels of autism can be measured continuously in the general population by autistic traits using the autism-quotient (AQ). Prior work has not found any association between AQ and FEA in adults, possibly due to non-holistic processing strategies employed by those at the higher end of the spectrum. In the present study, we tested whether AQ was associated with FEA to partially occluded faces. We hypothesized that inferring emotion from such faces would require participants to process their viewable parts as a gestalt percept, thus we anticipated this ability would diminish as autistic traits increased. In Experiment 1, we partially occluded the adapting faces with aligned or misaligned opaque bars. Both conditions produced significant FEAs, with aftereffects and AQ negatively correlated. In Experiment 2, we adapted participants to obscured faces flickering in luminance, and manipulated the facilitation of holistic perception by varying the synchronization of this flickering. We found significant FEAs in all conditions, but abolished its association with AQ. In Experiment 3, we showed that the association between AQ and FEA in the occluded conditions in Experiment 1 was not due to the recognizability or perceived emotional intensity of our adaptors; although the overall FEAs were linked to emotional intensity. We propose that increasing autistic traits are associated with diminishing abilities in perceiving emotional faces as a gestalt percept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnetic targeting to enhance microbubble delivery in an occluded microarterial bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Saint Victor, M.; Carugo, D.; Barnsley, L. C.; Owen, J.; Coussios, C.-C.; Stride, E.

    2017-09-01

    Ultrasound and microbubbles have been shown to accelerate the breakdown of blood clots both in vitro and in vivo. Clinical translation of this technology is still limited, however, in part by inefficient microbubble delivery to the thrombus. This study examines the obstacles to delivery posed by fluid dynamic conditions in occluded vasculature and investigates whether magnetic targeting can improve microbubble delivery. A 2D computational fluid dynamic model of a fully occluded Y-shaped microarterial bifurcation was developed to determine: (i) the fluid dynamic field in the vessel with inlet velocities from 1-100 mm s-1 (corresponding to Reynolds numbers 0.25-25) (ii) the transport dynamics of fibrinolytic drugs; and (iii) the flow behavior of microbubbles with diameters in the clinically-relevant range (0.6-5 µm). In vitro experiments were carried out in a custom-built microfluidic device. The flow field was characterized using tracer particles, and fibrinolytic drug transport was assessed using fluorescence microscopy. Lipid-shelled magnetic microbubbles were fluorescently labelled to determine their spatial distribution within the microvascular model. In both the simulations and experiments, the formation of laminar vortices and an abrupt reduction of fluid velocity were observed in the occluded branch of the bifurcation, severely limiting drug transport towards the occlusion. In the absence of a magnetic field, no microbubbles reached the occlusion, remaining trapped in the first vortex, within 350 µm from the bifurcation center. The number of microbubbles trapped within the vortex decreased as the inlet velocity increased, but was independent of microbubble size. Application of a magnetic field (magnetic flux density of 76 mT, magnetic flux density gradient of 10.90 T m-1 at the centre of the bifurcation) enabled delivery of microbubbles to the occlusion and the number of microbubbles delivered increased with bubble size and with decreasing inlet velocity.

  14. The Cricoid Force Necessary to Occlude the Esophageal Entrance: Is There a Gender Difference?

    PubMed

    Zeidan, Ahed M; Salem, M Ramez; Bamadhaj, Munir; Mazoit, Jean-Xavier; Sadek, Hussein; Houjairy, Hassan; Abdulkhaleq, Kamal; Bamadhaj, Nabil

    2017-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis whether gender differences exist in the applied cricoid force necessary to prevent regurgitation. Real-time visual and dynamic means were used to assess the effectiveness of different applied cricoid forces in occluding the esophageal entrance in men (group 1) and in women (group 2). In anesthetized and paralyzed patients, the glottis and esophageal entrance were visualized with a Glidescope video laryngoscope. Trained operators performed cricoid pressure (CP) and gastric tube insertion trials. Successful gastric tube insertion in the presence of CP was considered ineffective CP, whereas unsuccessful insertion was considered effective CP. The applied cricoid forces were measured with a novel instrument, the cricometer. The first patient in each group received 20 N. The applied cricoid force in successive patients was determined by the response of the previous patient within the same group, using the up-and-down sequential allocation technique. In the 30 men and 30 women who qualified for the study, the median cricoid force (cricoid force = 50) that occluded the esophageal entrance was 30.8 N (95% confidence interval = 28.15-33.5) in men, and 18.7 N in women (95% confidence interval = 17.1-20.3; P < .0001). Patency of the esophageal entrance was observed when CP was not applied and when inadequate forces that allowed successful esophageal cannulation were used. The current study provides evidence that the median force necessary to occlude the esophageal entrance to prevent regurgitation is less in women compared with men. Applying the appropriate cricoid force in women should also decrease airway-related problems that tend to occur with the use of excessive forces. The findings of the current study may only be applicable to patients with normal body habitus.

  15. Transcutaneous closure of chronic broncho-pleuro-cutaneous fistula by duct occluder device

    PubMed Central

    Marwah, Vikas; Ravikumar, R; Rajput, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Amandeep

    2016-01-01

    Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a well known complication of several pulmonary conditions posing challenging management problem and is often associated with high morbidity and mortality. Though no consensus exists on a definite closure management algorithm, strategies for closure widely include various methods like tube thoracostomy with suction, open surgical closure, bronchoscopy directed glue, coiling and sealants which now also includes use of occlusion devices. We report a case in which a novel method of delivery and closure of recurrent post-operative broncho-pleuro-cutaneous fistula by a duct occluder device was done transcutaneously which has not been previously described in literature. PMID:27051115

  16. Inpatient Dialysis Unit Project Development: Redesigning Acute Hemodialysis Care.

    PubMed

    Day, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Executive leaders of an acute care hospital performed a market and financial analysis, and created a business plan to establish an inpatient hemodialysis unit operated by the hospital to provide safe, high-quality, evidence-based care to the population of individuals experiencing end stage renal disease (ESRD) within the community. The business plan included a SWOT (Strengths - Weaknesses - Opportunities - Threats) analysis to assess advantages of the hospital providing inpatient hemodialysis services versus outsourcing the services with a contracted agency. The results of the project were a newly constructed tandem hemodialysis room and an operational plan with clearly defined key performance indicators, process improvement initiatives, and financial goals. This article provides an overview of essential components of a business plan to guide the establishment of an inpatient hemodialysis unit. Copyright© by the American Nephrology Nurses Association.

  17. 21 CFR 876.5860 - High permeability hemodialysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Water Purification Components and Systems for Hemodialysis,” and (5) “Guidance for Hemodialyzer Reuse... hemodiafiltration. Using a hemodialyzer with a semipermeable membrane that is more permeable to water than the...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5860 - High permeability hemodialysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Water Purification Components and Systems for Hemodialysis,” and (5) “Guidance for Hemodialyzer Reuse... hemodiafiltration. Using a hemodialyzer with a semipermeable membrane that is more permeable to water than the...

  19. 21 CFR 876.5860 - High permeability hemodialysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Water Purification Components and Systems for Hemodialysis,” and (5) “Guidance for Hemodialyzer Reuse... hemodiafiltration. Using a hemodialyzer with a semipermeable membrane that is more permeable to water than the...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5860 - High permeability hemodialysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Water Purification Components and Systems for Hemodialysis,” and (5) “Guidance for Hemodialyzer Reuse... hemodiafiltration. Using a hemodialyzer with a semipermeable membrane that is more permeable to water than the...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5860 - High permeability hemodialysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Water Purification Components and Systems for Hemodialysis,” and (5) “Guidance for Hemodialyzer Reuse... hemodiafiltration. Using a hemodialyzer with a semipermeable membrane that is more permeable to water than the...

  2. Sublethal microcystin exposure and biochemical outcomes among hemodialysis patients

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacteria are commonly-occurring contaminants of surface waters worldwide. Microcystins, potent hepatotoxins, are among the best characterized cyanotoxins. During November, 2001, a group of 44 hemodialysis patients were exposed to microcystins via contaminated dialysate. Seru...

  3. Monocyte production of transforming growth factor beta in long-term hemodialysis: modulation by hemodialysis membranes.

    PubMed

    Mege, J L; Capo, C; Purgus, R; Olmer, M

    1996-09-01

    Cytokines are likely involved in hemodialysis-associated complications such as immunodeficiency and beta 2 microglobulin amyloidosis. Because transforming growth factors beta (TGF beta) exert immunosuppressive effects on lymphocytes, down-modulate monocyte functions, and promote fibrosis, we hypothesize that they participate in the deleterious effects of hemodialysis. We investigated the production of TGF beta 1 and TGF beta 2 by monocytes from controls and patients dialyzed with high-flux cellulose triacetate (CT) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes. The detection of both TGF beta s required an acidification step, suggesting that they are secreted as latent complexes. The spontaneous production of TGF beta 1 and TGF beta 2 was significantly higher in patients dialyzed with CT or PAN than in controls, but the oversecretion of TGF beta 1 was more sustained in CT-treated patients than in PAN-dialyzed patients. The production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was increased in both patient groups as compared with controls. In contrast to TGF beta 1, the increase was greater in PAN-treated patients than in CT-treated patients, and the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) was increased only in PAN-treated patients. Taken together, our results show that hemodialysis is associated with the oversecretion of monocyte cytokines. Moreover, the type of dialysis membrane specifically affects the balance between the secretion of suppressive cytokines such as TGF beta and that of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF alpha.

  4. Influence of combination hemodialysis/hemoperfusion against score of depression in regular hemodialysis patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permatasari, T. D.; Thamrin, A.; Hanum, H.

    2018-03-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease, have a higher risk for psychological distress such as anxiety, depression and cognitive decline. Combination of Hemodialysis (HD)/hemoperfusion (HP) regularly able to eliminate uremic toxin with mild-to-large molecular weight better. HD/HP can remove metabolites, toxin, and pathogenic factors and regulate the water, electrolyte and acid-base balance to improve the quality of patient’s sleep and appetite also reduces itching of the skin, which in turn improve the quality and life expectancy. This research was a cross sectional research with a pre-experimental design conducted from July to September 2015 with 17 regular hemodialysis patients as samples. Inclusion criteria were regular hemodialysis patients and willingly participated in the research. The assessmentwas conducted using BDI to assess depression. To obtained the results, data were analyzed using T-Test and showed that that the average BDI score before the combination of HD/HP 18.59±9 to 8.18±2.83 after the combination (p<0.001). In conclusion, combination HD/HP can lower depression scores in patients with regular HD.

  5. Dense Accumulation of Lipiodol Emulsion in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Nodule during Selective Balloon-occluded Transarterial Chemoembolization: Measurement of Balloon-occluded Arterial Stump Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Irie, Toshiyuki, E-mail: toshiyuki.irie.rq@hitachi.com; Kuramochi, Masashi, E-mail: masashi.kuramochi.sh@hitachi.com; Takahashi, Nobuyuki, E-mail: nbyktakahashiodn@yahoo.co.jp

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To reveal the mechanism of dense accumulation of lipiodol emulsion (LE) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during selective balloon-occluded transarterial chemoembolization (B-TACE). Methods. Balloon-occluded arterial stump pressure (BOASP) at the embolization portion was measured during selective B-TACE for 43 nodules in 42 patients. Fluoroscopy and digital subtraction angiography were prospectively observed during selective B-TACE to note whether dense LE accumulation in HCC occurred. The LE concentration ratio of HCC to embolized liver parenchyma (LECHL ratio) was also calculated for each treatment on the basis of the computed tomographic scan obtained immediately after selective B-TACE. The relationships between degree of LEmore » accumulation and the BOASP, as well as the LECHL ratio, were analyzed. Results. Arterial flow beyond the catheter tip was maintained even after balloon inflation. In 39 of 43 treatments, LE inflow into the nontumorous liver parenchyma ceased immediately after LE droplets were filled in arteries of the nontumorous liver parenchyma while LE inflow into the HCC nodule continued (group 1). More dense LE accumulation in HCC nodule was obtained in these 39 treatments. In four treatments, LE inflow both into the nontumorous liver parenchyma and into the HCC nodule continued, and no dense LE accumulation in HCC nodule was observed (group 2). In these four treatments, thick anastomotic vessels with collateral artery were noted. The BOASP in group 1 was (mean {+-} SD) 33.8 {+-} 12.8 mmHg (range 13-64 mmHg) and that in group 2 was 92.3 {+-} 7.4 mmHg (range 83-100 mmHg). There was a statistically significant difference in BOASP between groups (p = 0.00004, Welch's t test). The LECHL ratio in group 1 was 18.3 {+-} 13.9 (range 2.9-54.2) and that in group 2 was 2.6 {+-} 1.1 (range 1.7-4.2). There was a statistically significant difference in the LECHL ratio between the groups (p = 0.000034, Welch's t test). Conclusion. Selective B

  6. Safety and efficacy of nano lamellar TiN coatings on nitinol atrial septal defect occluders in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi xiong; Fu, Bu fang; Zhang, De yuan; Zhang, Zhi wei; Cheng, Yan; Sheng, Li yuan; Lai, Chen; Xi, Ting fei

    2013-04-01

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) occlusion devices made of nickel-titanium (NiTi) have a major shortcoming in that they release nickel into the body. We modified NiTi occluders using Arc Ion Plating technology. Nano lamellar titanium-nitrogen (TiN) coatings were formed on the surfaces of the occluders. The safety and efficacy of the modified NiTi occluders were evaluated in animal model. The results showed that 38 out of 39 rams (97%) survived at the end of the experiment. Fibrous capsules formed on the surfaces of the devices. Gradual endothelialization took place through the attachment of endothelial progenitor cells from the blood and the migration of endothelial cells from adjacent endocardium. The neo-endocardium formed more quickly in the coated group than in the uncoated group, as indicated by the evaluation of the six month study group. After TiN coating, there was no significant difference in endothelial cell cycle. TiN coating significantly reduced the release of nickel in both in vivo and in vitro indicating an improved biocompatibility of the nitinol ASD occluders. Superior and modified ASD occluders may provide a good choice for people with nickel allergies after sFDA registration, which is expected in one to two years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A prospective study of adjustment to hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Lev, E L; Owen, S V

    1998-10-01

    To examine (a) changes in subjects' self-care self-efficacy over time and (b) the relationship of subjects' self-care self-efficacy with adjustment to hemodialysis. A longitudinal design was used to study changes in self-care self-efficacy and associations between self-care self-efficacy and measures of adjustment: health status, mood distress, symptom distress, dialysis stress, and perceived adherence to fluid restriction. Subjects were recruited from 8 settings in the Northeast where outpatient hemodialysis treatment was administered. Sixty-four subjects were recruited to the study. Twenty-eight subjects completed 3 occasions of data collection. Data were collected on three occasions: (a) baseline-within 100 days of beginning treatment; (b) 4 months after beginning treatment; and (c) 8 months after beginning treatment. Eta-squared, a measure of practical significance, is reported for four factors of the self-care self-efficacy measure on each of the three occasions. Associations between self-care self-efficacy and measures of adjustment were examined by means of Pearson correlations. Eta-squared estimates showed generally positive changes occurring over time in subjects' self-care self-efficacy, health status, mood distress, symptom distress, dialysis stress, and perceived adherence to fluid restriction. Changes were more positive at 4-months than at 8-months after enrollment. Significant correlations (p < .05) occurred between self-care self-efficacy and mood states, health status, symptom distress, and perceived adherence to fluid restrictions. Correlations occurred more frequently between self-care self-efficacy and mood states than between self-care self-efficacy and other measures of adjustment. The study provided pilot data suggesting that hemodialysis patients' self-care self-efficacy and measures of adjustment change over time. Patients who had increased confidence in self-care strategies (self-efficacy) were associated with having more positive mood

  8. Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Rose Anne; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Nishi, Letícia; Araujo, Silvana Marques

    2008-08-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency disease (CRI) leads to uremia in hemodialysis patients and induces a state of immunodepression that results in higher frequencies of infections and diarrhea. Hemodialysis patients resident in the city of Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil were analyzed from April 2006 through September 2007 for Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites and for associated diarrhea. Fecal samples from 86 hemodialysis patients and 146 healthy (reference) persons were examined by standard methods for detecting ova, larvae and cysts, which included preservation in 10% formalin and the Kinyoun method. Thirty-three hemodialysis patients (45.1%) and 36 reference individuals (25.7%) were found to be parasitized. The differences in the percentages of parasitism and polyparasitism between the reference group and the chronic renal patients was significant (p= 0.0318 and 0.0019, respectively). Blastocystis sp. (18%-20.1%), Endolimax nana (14%-16.3%), Cryptosporidium sp. (4%-4.7%) and Entamoeba coli (4%-4.7%) were the most frequent protozoa found in the hemodialysis patients. Parasitism was not significantly associated with diarrhea (p=0.9947) or with decreased white blood cell counts (p=0.7046) in these individuals. Because parasitic infections may be an important comorbidity factor in hemodialysis patients, we suggest that parasitological stool examinations, especially for Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium sp., be included in routine medical follow-up examinations of these patients.

  9. Hemodialysis Arteriovenous Vascular Access Creation After Kidney Transplant Failure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Joyce C; Al-Jaishi, Ahmed; Perl, Jeffery; Garg, Amit X; Moist, Louise M

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about vascular access in patients starting hemodialysis therapy after kidney transplant failure. Retrospective cohort study. Adult patients (aged ≥18 years) who started hemodialysis therapy in Ontario, Canada, from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2010, after kidney transplant failure. Patient clinical and demographic characteristics. Proportion and timing of arteriovenous (AV) vascular access creation (fistula or graft) 12 months prior and up to 24 months after starting hemodialysis therapy. Event rates and outcome predictors. Our cohort included 683 patients with a mean age of 48 years and >50% with comorbidity index score < 3. In the 12 months predialysis and 24 months postdialysis, 16% and 47% of patients had an AV access created, respectively. In the postdialysis period, 13%, 26%, and 38% of patients had an AV access creation at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. History of coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, and peritoneal dialysis use prior to transplantation were associated with a lower likelihood of AV access creation. Residual selection bias from unmeasured variables beyond the data elements. In Ontario, AV access creation, both before and after starting hemodialysis therapy, is low in patients with kidney transplant failure despite their being younger and healthier compared to the overall hemodialysis population. This highlights the need for a predialysis care pathway in the transplantation clinic and an active strategy to identify this patient cohort receiving hemodialysis to align modality and access choices. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The mothers' experiences in the pediatrics hemodialysis unit.

    PubMed

    Mieto, Fernanda Stella Risseto; Bousso, Regina Szylit

    2014-01-01

    The need for hemodialysis exerts a deep impact on the lives of children and adolescents with end-stage kidney chronic failure and their mothers, who predominantly assume the care related to treatment. The hemodialysis requires that the mother accompanies the child during sessions at least three times a week and, since it is not a healing practice, they also experience the waiting for a kidney transplant, attributing different meanings to this experience. To understand what it means for the mothers to accompany the child in a Pediatric Hemodialysis Unit and to construct a theoretical model representing this experience. The Symbolic Interactionism was adopted as a theoretical model and the Grounded Theory as a methodological framework. Data were collected through interviews with 11 mothers. The comparative analysis of the data enabled the identification of two phenomena that compose the experience: "Seeing the child´s life being sucked by the hemodialysis machine" expresses the experiences of the mothers that generates new demands to comprehend the new health conditions of their children and "Giving new meaning to the dependence of the hemodialysis machine" that represents the strategies employed to endure the experience. The relationship of these phenomena allowed the identification of the main category: "Having the mother's life imprisoned by the hemodialysis machine", from which we propose a new theoretical model. The results of the study allow us to provide a theoretical ground for planning an assistance that meets the real needs of the mothers, identifying aspects that require intervention.

  11. Factors Affecting Infants’ Manual Search for Occluded Objects and the Genesis of Object Permanence

    PubMed Central

    Moore, M. Keith; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments systematically examined factors that influence infants’ manual search for hidden objects (N = 96). Experiment 1 used a new procedure to assess infants’ search for partially versus totally occluded objects. Results showed that 8.75-month-old infants solved partial occlusions by removing the occluder and uncovering the object, but these same infants failed to use this skill on total occlusions. Experiment 2 used sound-producing objects to provide a perceptual clue to the objects’ hidden location. Sound clues significantly increased the success rate on total occlusions for 10-month-olds, but not for 8.75-month-olds. An identity development account is offered for why infants succeed on partial occlusions earlier than total occlusions and why sound helps only the older infants. We propose a mechanism for how infants use object identity as a basis for developing a notion of permanence. Implications are drawn for understanding the dissociation between looking-time and search assessments of object permanence. PMID:18036668

  12. In Vitro Ability of a Novel Nanohydroxyapatite Oral Rinse to Occlude Dentine Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Robert G.; Chen, Xiaohui; Gillam, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of a novel nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) desensitizing oral rinse to occlude dentine tubules compared to selected commercially available desensitizing oral rinses. Methods. 25 caries-free extracted molars were sectioned into 1 mm thick dentine discs. The dentine discs (n = 25) were etched with 6% citric acid for 2 minutes and rinsed with distilled water, prior to a 30-second application of test and control oral rinses. Evaluation was by (1) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the dentine surface and (2) fluid flow measurements through a dentine disc. Results. Most of the oral rinses failed to adequately cover the dentine surface apart from the nHa oral rinse. However the hydroxyapatite, 1.4% potassium oxalate, and arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinses, appeared to be relatively more effective than the nHA test and negative control rinses (potassium nitrate) in relation to a reduction in fluid flow measurements. Conclusions. Although the novel nHA oral rinse demonstrated the ability to occlude the dentine tubules and reduce the fluid flow measurements, some of the other oral rinses appeared to demonstrate a statistically significant reduction in fluid flow through the dentine disc, in particular the arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinse. PMID:26161093

  13. Feasibility and safety of a new generation of gore septal occluder device in children.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Maristella; Tagliente, Maria R; Pirolo, Teodoro; Massari, Elena; Milella, Leonardo; Vairo, Ugo

    2016-12-01

    Transcatheter closure of an ostium secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) is now considered the standard care for most of children with the appropriate anatomy, and is a relatively well-tolerated procedure to reduce the clinical sequelae of ASD, with a low complication rate. The present case reports describe our clinical experience of the percutaneous closure of a secundum ASD in 10 children between December 2011 and November 2012, by means of a new generation of device, the GORE Septal Occluder device. The implantation was successful in all except two cases, the device being properly placed and deployed without malposition or embolization in the catheterization laboratory. No complications were related to the procedure. The successful implant was confirmed and no major adverse events were documented in the following 3-12 months. The new GORE Septal Occluder device appears to be a feasible, well-tolerated and successful tool for the closure of an ASD of 15 mm or less in childhood.

  14. The Role of Visual Area V4 in the Discrimination of Partially Occluded Shapes

    PubMed Central

    Kosai, Yoshito; El-Shamayleh, Yasmine; Fyall, Amber M.

    2014-01-01

    The primate brain successfully recognizes objects, even when they are partially occluded. To begin to elucidate the neural substrates of this perceptual capacity, we measured the responses of shape-selective neurons in visual area V4 while monkeys discriminated pairs of shapes under varying degrees of occlusion. We found that neuronal shape selectivity always decreased with increasing occlusion level, with some neurons being notably more robust to occlusion than others. The responses of neurons that maintained their selectivity across a wider range of occlusion levels were often sufficiently sensitive to support behavioral performance. Many of these same neurons were distinctively selective for the curvature of local boundary features and their shape tuning was well fit by a model of boundary curvature (curvature-tuned neurons). A significant subset of V4 neurons also signaled the animal's upcoming behavioral choices; these decision signals had short onset latencies that emerged progressively later for higher occlusion levels. The time course of the decision signals in V4 paralleled that of shape selectivity in curvature-tuned neurons: shape selectivity in curvature-tuned neurons, but not others, emerged earlier than the decision signals. These findings provide evidence for the involvement of contour-based mechanisms in the segmentation and recognition of partially occluded objects, consistent with psychophysical theory. Furthermore, they suggest that area V4 participates in the representation of the relevant sensory signals and the generation of decision signals underlying discrimination. PMID:24948811

  15. The localization of occluded matrix proteins in calcareous spicules of sea urchin larvae.

    PubMed

    Seto, Jong; Zhang, Yang; Hamilton, Patricia; Wilt, Fred

    2004-10-01

    The sea urchin embryo forms calcareous endoskeletal spicules composed of calcite and an occluded protein matrix. Though the latter is approximately 0.1% of of the mass, the composite has substantially altered material properties, e.g., conchoidal fracture planes and increased hardness. Experiments were conducted to examine the localization of matrix proteins occluded in the mineral by use of immunocytochemistry coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The isolated, unfixed spicules were etched under relatively gentle conditions and exposed to affinity purified antibodies made against two different matrix proteins, as well as an antibody to the entire constellation of matrix proteins. Immunogold tagged secondary antibody was used to observe antibody localization in the back scatter mode of SEM. All proteins examined were very widely distributed throughout the calcite, supporting a model of the structure in which a multiprotein assemblage is woven with fine texture around microcrystalline domains of calcite. Gentle etching revealed a laminar arrangement of calcite solubility, consistent with a stepwise deposition of matrix and mineral to increase girth of the spicule.

  16. Phonation Threshold Pressure Measurement With a Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Titze, Ingo R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article was to determine if a semi-occluded vocal tract could be used to measure phonation threshold pressure. This is in contrast to the shutter technique, where an alternation between a fully occluded tract and an unoccluded tract is used. Method Five male and 5 female volunteers phonated through a thin straw held between the lips. Oral pressure behind the lips was measured. Mathematical predictions of phonation threshold pressures were compared to the measured ones over a range of frequencies. Results It was shown that, for a 2.5-mm diameter straw, phonation threshold pressures were obtainable over a 2-octave range of fundamental frequency by all volunteers. In magnitude, the pressures agreed with the 0.2–0.5 kPa values obtained in previous investigations. Sensitivity to viscoelastic and geometric properties of the vocal folds was generally not compromised with greater oral impedance, but some differences were predicted theoretically in contrast to an open mouth configuration. Conclusion Because phonation threshold pressure is always dependent on vocal tract interaction, it may be advantageous to choose an exact and fixed oral semi-occlusion for the measurement and interpret the results in light of the known acoustic load. PMID:19641082

  17. Cochlear excitation by the near-field component during stimulation through the partially occluded round window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weddell, Thomas D.; Yarin, Yury M.; Drexl, Markus; Russell, Ian J.; Elliott, Stephen J.; Lukashkin, Andrei N.

    2015-12-01

    The round window membrane (RW) provides pressure relief when the cochlea is excited by sound. While normal function of the RW is important for effective stimulation of the cochlea through the conventional oval window route, the cochlea can be stimulated successfully in non-conventional ways (e.g. through bone conduction, through the RW, and through perforations in the cochlea's apical turn). We report measurements of cochlear function from guinea pigs when the cochlea was stimulated at acoustic frequencies by movements of a miniature magnet which partially occluded the RW. Neural response latencies to acoustic and RW stimulation were similar and taken to indicate that both means of stimulation resulted in the generation of conventional travelling waves along the cochlear partition. It was concluded that the relatively high impedance of the ossicles, as seen from the cochlea, enabled the region of the RW not occluded by the magnet, to act as a pressure shunt during RW stimulation. We propose that travelling waves, similar to those due to acoustic far-field pressure changes, are driven by a jet-like, near-field component of a complex fluid-pressure field, which is generated by the magnetically vibrated RW.

  18. Factors affecting infants' manual search for occluded objects and the genesis of object permanence.

    PubMed

    Moore, M Keith; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2008-04-01

    Two experiments systematically examined factors that influence infants' manual search for hidden objects (N=96). Experiment 1 used a new procedure to assess infants' search for partially versus totally occluded objects. Results showed that 8.75-month-old infants solved partial occlusions by removing the occluder and uncovering the object, but these same infants failed to use this skill on total occlusions. Experiment 2 used sound-producing objects to provide a perceptual clue to the objects' hidden location. Sound clues significantly increased the success rate on total occlusions for 10-month-olds, but not for 8.75-month-olds. An identity development account is offered for why infants succeed on partial occlusions earlier than total occlusions and why sound helps only the older infants. We propose a mechanism for how infants use object identity as a basis for developing a notion of permanence. Implications are drawn for understanding the dissociation between looking time and search assessments of object permanence.

  19. [Survival of hemodialysis patients in Lithuania (data from all hemodialysis centers in the 1998-2005 cohort)].

    PubMed

    Stankuviene, Asta; Bumblyte, Inga Arūne; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Ziginskiene, Edita; Balciuviene, Vilma

    2007-01-01

    There is no any official renal registry in Lithuania, so in order to know the exact demographic statistics of patients on hemodialysis, we started to collect data since 1996. The aim of the study was to estimate the survival rate of hemodialysis patients and its dynamics, to compare survival in different groups of sex, age, primary renal disease, and to compare to survival of dialysis patients in Europe. We analyzed the data of all patients who started hemodialysis in Lithuania between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2005. The information was obtained from medical documentation. The total survival rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Maier method. During the study period, 2418 patients started hemodialysis (51.7% of males, 48.3% of females). Their mean age at the beginning of treatment was 56.19+/-16.12 years. Death occurred in 792 patients. The main cause of death was cardiovascular events, accounting for 32.3%. The total survival rate of hemodialysis patients in Lithuania at 1 year was 79.97%; at 2 years, 69.18%; at 5 years, 49.97%; at 7 years, 38.3%. Males lived longer than females (log rank P<0.05), but the mean age of females was greater, and survival rate adjusted for age did not differ between the groups. The highest survival rate was in the youngest group (0-19 years old), the lowest - in patients older than 75 years. Diabetic patients lived shorter than nondiabetic patients (log rank P<0.00001). Although patients who start hemodialysis have become older and their survival has been improving, in the 1998-2002 cohort survival was lower as compared to overall survival of patients on dialysis in European countries participating in ERA-EDTA registry. Survival of hemodialysis patients in Lithuania in the 1998-2005 cohort depended on age and primary renal disease and despite aging of population on hemodialysis has been improving.

  20. Medication adherence among adult patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Alkatheri, Abdulmalik M; Alyousif, Sarah M; Alshabanah, Najla; Albekairy, Abdulkareem M; Alharbi, Shemylan; Alhejaili, Fayze F; Alsayyari, Abdullah A; Qandil, Abeer Ma; Qandil, Amjad M

    2014-07-01

    Medication adherence was assessed in 89 patients on hemodialysis (HD) at the King Abdul Aziz Medical City using an Arabic version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MASS-8). The results of the study revealed that 31.46% and 40.45% of the participants showed low and medium adherence, respectively, while 28.09% showed high medication adherence. Accordingly, 71.91% of the patients visiting the dialysis unit were considered medication non-adherent. While being of older age (P = 0.012), being married (P = 0.012) increased the level of adherence, being of medium level of education (P = 0.024) decreased adherence levels. On the other hand, gender, presence of a care-giver, number of members in the household and employment status seems to have no effect on the level of medication adherence. These results call upon the practitioners in HD units to develop intervention programs that can increase the level of medication adherence.

  1. Intradialytic Exercise is Medicine for Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Parker, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    When a person's kidneys fail, hemodialysis (HD) is the most common treatment modality. With a growing number of patients requiring this life-sustaining treatment, and with evidence illustrating the significant physical dysfunction of this population, encouraging exercise is essential. The use of intradialytic exercise, as a novel and efficient use of time during HD, is well established in Australia and some European nations; however, it is slower to start in North America. While a large number of small studies have demonstrated numerous benefits and safe delivery of intradialytic exercise training for patients with end-stage kidney disease, intradialytic exercise is rarely delivered as standard of care. It is of utmost importance for health care staff to overcome barriers and bring theory into practice. Included in this report are current recommendations from governing bodies, expert opinion, as well as established policies and procedures from a successful intradialytic exercise program in Canada.

  2. Listen to the Natives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prensky, Marc

    2006-01-01

    "Digital natives" refer to today's students because they are native speakers of technology, fluent in the digital language of computers, video games, and the Internet. Those who were not born into the digital world are referred to as digital immigrants. Educators, considered digital immigrants, have slid into the 21st century--and into the digital…

  3. Native American Entrepreneurship. Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Nicole

    Although Native Americans have owned and started the fewest small businesses of all U.S. minority groups, entrepreneurship is considered to be an efficient tool for alleviating their economic problems. Barriers to Native American entrepreneurship include poverty, scarce start-up capital, poor access to business education and technical assistance,…

  4. Traditional Native Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Agnes

    1985-01-01

    While Native myths and legends were educational tools to transmit tribal beliefs and history, traditional American Indian poetry served a ritualistic function in everyday life. Few traditional Native songs, which all poems were, survive; only Mayan and Aztec poems were written, and most of these were burned by a Spanish bishop. In addition, many…

  5. Electrocardiographic findings in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bignotto, Luís Henrique; Kallás, Marina Esteves; Djouki, Rafael Jorge Teixeira; Sassaki, Marcela Mayume; Voss, Guilherme Ota; Soto, Cristina Lopez; Frattini, Fernando; Medeiros, Flávia Silva Reis

    2012-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality among patients on dialysis. When considering all causes of death, about 30% are classified as cardiac arrest, death of unknown cause or cardiac arrhythmia. The increasing time of ventricular depolarization and repolarization, measured non-invasively by measuring the QT interval on the electrocardiogram at rest, has emerged as a predictor of complex ventricular arrhythmias, a major cause of sudden cardiac death. To determine the electrocardiographic alterations present in hemodialysis (HD) patients, measuring the QT interval and its relationship with clinical and laboratory variables. Patients above 18 years on dialysis were approached to participate in the study and, after consent, were submitted to the examination of 12-lead electrocardiogram. Clinical data were reviewed to assess the presence of comorbidities, as well as anthropometric and blood pressure measures. Blood samples were collected to determinate hemoglobin and serum levels of calcium, phosphorus and potassium. One hundred and seventy nine patients were included in the study. The majority of the patients were male (64.8%) and white (54.7%); the average age was 58.5 ± 14.7 years old. About 50% of all patients had, at least, one electrical conduction disturb. About 50% of all patients had QTc prolongation and experienced a significant increase in the frequency of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH), changes of the cardiac rhythm and bundle branch blocks, and a lower body mass index (BMI), when compared with normal QTc interval patients. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on hemodialysis had high frequency of abnormal electrocardiographic findings, including a high prevalence of patients with prolonged QTc interval. This study also found a significant association between prolonged QTc interval and the presence of Diabetes and lower values of BMI.

  6. Reduction of carbamylated albumin by extended hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    PERL, Jeffrey; KALIM, Sahir; WALD, Ron; GOLDSTEIN, Marc B.; YAN, Andrew T.; NOORI, Nazanin; KIAII, Mercedeh; WENGER, Julia; CHAN, Christopher; THADHANI, Ravi I.; KARUMANCHI, S. ANANTH; BERG, Anders H.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Among conventional hemodialysis (CHD) patients, carbamylated serum albumin (C-Alb) correlates with urea and amino acid deficiencies and is associated with mortality. We postulated that reduction of C-Alb by intensive HD may correlate with improvements in protein metabolism and cardiac function. Methods One-year observational study of in-center nocturnal extended hemodialysis (EHD) patients and CHD control subjects. Thirty-three patients receiving 4-hour CHD who converted to 8-hour EHD were enrolled, along with 20 controls on CHD. Serum C-Alb, biochemistries, and cardiac MRI parameters were measured before and after 12 months of EHD. Findings EHD was associated with reduction of C-Alb (average EHD change −3.20mmol/mol [95% CI −4.23, −2.17] compared to +0.21 [95% CI −1.11, 1.54] change in CHD controls, P<0.001). EHD was also associated with increases in average essential amino acids (in standardized units) compared to CHD (+0.38 [0.08, 0.68 95%CI]) vs. −0.12 [−0.50, 0.27, 95% CI], P=0.047). Subjects who reduced C-Alb more than 25% were found to have reduced left ventricular mass, increased urea reduction ratio, and increased serum albumin compared to nonresponders, and % change in C-Alb significantly correlated with % change in left ventricular mass. Discussion EHD was associated with reduction of C-Alb as compared to CHD, and reduction of C-Alb by EHD correlates with reduction of urea. Additional studies are needed to test whether reduction of C-Alb by EHD also correlates with improved clinical outcomes. PMID:27329430

  7. Why home hemodialysis? A systematic "marketing" analysis.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Ferraresi, Martina; Consiglio, Valentina; Scognamiglio, Stefania; Deagostini, Maria Chiara; Randone, Olga; Vigotti, Federica Neve; Calderale, Pasquale Mario

    2012-01-01

    Home hemodialysis (HHD) has met with alternating fortunes. The present revival of interest is due to lower costs and more frequent/efficient treatments. HHD is underdeveloped, and a marketing approach may help in defining development strategies. The aim of this study was to systematically review the recent literature (2000-2010) according to a marketing approach, defining the potential of HHD according to the classical marketing items: market size, growth rate, profitability, trends, keys for success, needs for structures and distribution channels. A Medline search was conducted for 2000-2010. The analysis took into account the recent trends in publication as a measure of interest, size and trends, while survival and costs were analyzed as keys for success. The issues of structures and distribution channels were arbitrarily considered as equivalent to the overall hemodialysis market. Interest in HHD is growing, as shown by the increasing number of published papers (9 in 2000, 52 in 2010); yet, clinical studies accounted for less than half of the papers. In the 138 clinical studies, quality of life (33 papers) and metabolism (16 papers) were the most studied topics. Survival and cost analyses were highly heterogeneous (the broad inclusion of nocturnal or quotidian dialysis has to be mentioned). Overall, survival was equal to, or better than, that for other modalities, including transplantation and peritoneal dialysis; costs compared favorably with hospital dialysis and were equivalent to those of peritoneal dialysis. The small "market" of HHD is increasing, with potential for further growth, the keys for success being equivalence or superiority of survival at equivalent or lower costs.

  8. Native SAD is maturing

    PubMed Central

    Rose, John P.; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Weiss, Manfred S.

    2015-01-01

    Native SAD phasing uses the anomalous scattering signal of light atoms in the crystalline, native samples of macromolecules collected from single-wavelength X-ray diffraction experiments. These atoms include sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, potassium and calcium. Native SAD phasing is challenging and is critically dependent on the collection of accurate data. Over the past five years, advances in diffraction hardware, crystallographic software, data-collection methods and strategies, and the use of data statistics have been witnessed which allow ‘highly accurate data’ to be routinely collected. Today, native SAD sits on the verge of becoming a ‘first-choice’ method for both de novo and molecular-replacement structure determination. This article will focus on advances that have caught the attention of the community over the past five years. It will also highlight both de novo native SAD structures and recent structures that were key to methods development. PMID:26175902

  9. Native SAD is maturing.

    PubMed

    Rose, John P; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Weiss, Manfred S

    2015-07-01

    Native SAD phasing uses the anomalous scattering signal of light atoms in the crystalline, native samples of macromolecules collected from single-wavelength X-ray diffraction experiments. These atoms include sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, potassium and calcium. Native SAD phasing is challenging and is critically dependent on the collection of accurate data. Over the past five years, advances in diffraction hardware, crystallographic software, data-collection methods and strategies, and the use of data statistics have been witnessed which allow 'highly accurate data' to be routinely collected. Today, native SAD sits on the verge of becoming a 'first-choice' method for both de novo and molecular-replacement structure determination. This article will focus on advances that have caught the attention of the community over the past five years. It will also highlight both de novo native SAD structures and recent structures that were key to methods development.

  10. Survival after acute hemodialysis in Pennsylvania, 2005-2007: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ramer, Sarah J; Cohen, Elan D; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Unruh, Mark L; Barnato, Amber E

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about acute hemodialysis in the US. Here we describe predictors of receipt of acute hemodialysis in one state and estimate the marginal impact of acute hemodialysis on survival after accounting for confounding due to illness severity. This is a retrospective cohort study of acute-care hospitalizations in Pennsylvania from October 2005 to December 2007 using data from the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council. Exposure variable is acute hemodialysis; dependent variable is survival following acute hemodialysis. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine propensity to receive acute hemodialysis and then, for a Cox proportional hazards model, matched acute hemodialysis and non-acute hemodialysis patients 1∶5 on this propensity. In 2,131,248 admissions of adults without end-stage renal disease, there were 6,657 instances of acute hemodialysis. In analyses adjusted for predicted probability of death upon admission plus other covariates and stratified on age, being male, black, and insured were independent predictors of receipt of acute hemodialysis. One-year post-admission mortality was 43% for those receiving acute hemodialysis, compared to 13% among those not receiving acute hemodialysis. After matching on propensity to receive acute hemodialysis and adjusting for predicted probability of death upon admission, patients who received acute hemodialysis had a higher risk of death than patients who did not over at least 1 year of follow-up (hazard ratio 1·82, 95% confidence interval 1·68-1·97). In a populous US state, receipt of acute hemodialysis varied by age, sex, race, and insurance status even after adjustment for illness severity. In a comparison of patients with similar propensity to receive acute hemodialysis, those who did receive it were less likely to survive than those who did not. These findings raise questions about reasons for lack of benefit.

  11. Survival after Acute Hemodialysis in Pennsylvania, 2005–2007: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramer, Sarah J.; Cohen, Elan D.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Unruh, Mark L.; Barnato, Amber E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about acute hemodialysis in the US. Here we describe predictors of receipt of acute hemodialysis in one state and estimate the marginal impact of acute hemodialysis on survival after accounting for confounding due to illness severity. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of acute-care hospitalizations in Pennsylvania from October 2005 to December 2007 using data from the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council. Exposure variable is acute hemodialysis; dependent variable is survival following acute hemodialysis. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine propensity to receive acute hemodialysis and then, for a Cox proportional hazards model, matched acute hemodialysis and non-acute hemodialysis patients 1∶5 on this propensity. Results In 2,131,248 admissions of adults without end-stage renal disease, there were 6,657 instances of acute hemodialysis. In analyses adjusted for predicted probability of death upon admission plus other covariates and stratified on age, being male, black, and insured were independent predictors of receipt of acute hemodialysis. One-year post-admission mortality was 43% for those receiving acute hemodialysis, compared to 13% among those not receiving acute hemodialysis. After matching on propensity to receive acute hemodialysis and adjusting for predicted probability of death upon admission, patients who received acute hemodialysis had a higher risk of death than patients who did not over at least 1 year of follow-up (hazard ratio 1·82, 95% confidence interval 1·68–1·97). Conclusions In a populous US state, receipt of acute hemodialysis varied by age, sex, race, and insurance status even after adjustment for illness severity. In a comparison of patients with similar propensity to receive acute hemodialysis, those who did receive it were less likely to survive than those who did not. These findings raise questions about reasons for lack of benefit. PMID:25141028

  12. [Current status of the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of hepatitis C in patients undergoing hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Yang, G L; Lei, X Z

    2017-03-20

    Patients undergoing hemodialysis have a higher rate of hepatitis C virus infection than the general population, and due to various factors including hemodialysis and immunosuppression, it is difficult to make a diagnosis. The appearance of direct-acting antiviral agents greatly promotes the treatment of hepatitis C, but there are still no adequate data on their effect and safety in patients undergoing hemodialysis. This article discusses the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of hepatitis C in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  13. [Percutaneous closure of ductus arteriosus and muscular ventricular defect with amplatzer occluder in a patient with severe pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    García-Montes, José Antonio; Zabal Cerdeira, Carlos; Calderón-Colmenero, Juan; Espínola, Nilda; Fernández de la Reguera, Guillermo; Buendía Hernández, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    Surgical treatment of multiple muscular ventricular septal defects with associated lesions and severe pulmonary hypertension has a high morbility and mortality. Closure of these defects by the Amplatzer muscular VSD occluder is an alternative to surgery, avoiding the need of cardiopulmonary bypass. We present the case of a 38 year-old woman with signs of heart failure in NYHA functional class IV, with two muscular ventricular septal defects, patent ductus arteriosus and severe pulmonary hypertension, that were treated with three Amplatzer muscular VSD occluders, with significant reduction of pulmonary pressure and functional class improvement.

  14. In vivo production of recombinant proteins using occluded recombinant AcMNPV-derived baculovirus vectors.

    PubMed

    Guijarro-Pardo, Eva; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Escribano, José M

    2017-12-01

    Trichoplusia ni insect larvae infected with vectors derived from the Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), are an excellent alternative to insect cells cultured in conventional bioreactors to produce recombinant proteins because productivity and cost-efficiency reasons. However, there is still a lot of work to do to reduce the manual procedures commonly required in this production platform that limit its scalability. To increase the scalability of this platform technology, a current bottleneck to be circumvented in the future is the need of injection for the inoculation of larvae with polyhedrin negative baculovirus vectors (Polh-) because of the lack of oral infectivity of these viruses, which are commonly used for production in insect cell cultures. In this work we have developed a straightforward alternative to obtain orally infective vectors derived from AcMNPV and expressing recombinant proteins that can be administered to the insect larvae (Trichoplusia ni) by feeding, formulated in the insect diet. The approach developed was based on the use of a recombinant polyhedrin protein expressed by a recombinant vector (Polh+), able to co-occlude any recombinant Polh- baculovirus vector expressing a recombinant protein. A second alternative was developed by the generation of a dual vector co-expressing the recombinant polyhedrin protein and the foreign gene of interest to obtain the occluded viruses. Additionally, by the incorporation of a reporter gene into the helper Polh+ vector, it was possible the follow-up visualization of the co-occluded viruses infection in insect larvae and will help to homogenize infection conditions. By using these methodologies, the production of recombinant proteins in per os infected larvae, without manual infection procedures, was very similar in yield to that obtained by manual injection of recombinant Polh- AcMNPV-based vectors expressing the same proteins. However, further analyses will be required for a

  15. Is It Worthwhile Treating Occluded Cold Stored Venous Allografts by Thrombolysis?

    PubMed

    Balaz, P; Wohlfahrt, P; Rokosny, S; Maly, S; Bjorck, M

    2016-09-01

    Thrombolysis has been reported to be suboptimal in occluded vein grafts and cryopreserved allografts, and there are no data on the efficacy of thrombolysis in occluded cold stored venous allografts. The aim was to evaluate early outcomes, secondary patency and limb salvage rates of thrombolysed cold stored venous allograft bypasses and to compare the outcomes with thrombolysis of autologous bypasses. This was a single center study of consecutive patients with acute and non-acute limb ischemia between September 1, 2000, and January 1, 2014, with occlusion of cold stored venous allografts, and between January 1, 2012, and January 1, 2014, with occlusion of autologous bypass who received intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy. Sixty-one patients with occlusion of an infrainguinal bypass using a cold stored venous allograft (n = 35) or an autologous bypass (n = 26) underwent percutaneous intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy. The median duration of thrombolysis was 20 h (IQR 18-24) with no difference between the groups (p = .14). The median follow up was 18.5 months (IQR 11.0-52.0). Secondary patency rates of thrombolysed bypass at 6 and 12 months were 44 ± 9% and 32 ± 9% in patients with a venous allograft bypass and 46 ± 10% and 22 ± 8% with an autologous bypass, with no difference between groups (p = .40). Limb salvage rates at 1, 6, and 12 months after thrombolysis in the venous allograft group were 83 ± 7%, 72 ± 8% and 63 ± 9%, and in the autologous group 91 ± 6%, 76 ± 9%, and 65 ± 13%, with no difference between groups (p = .69). Long-term results of thrombolysis of venous allograft bypasses are similar to those of autologous bypasses. Occluded cold stored venous allograft can be successfully re-opened in most cases with a favorable effect on limb salvage. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcatheter Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Children with the Occlutech Duct Occluder.

    PubMed

    Bilici, Meki; Demir, Fikri; Akın, Alper; Türe, Mehmet; Balık, Hasan; Kuyumcu, Mahir

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy and safety of transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with the Occlutech duct occluder (ODO) in children. We reviewed the clinical records of 71 patients who underwent percutaneous closure of PDA with an ODO between September 2014 and August 2016. The Occlutech duct occluder was applied to 71 patients during the study period (September 2014-August 2016), and the results were analyzed in this study. Forty-two of the patients were female and 29 male. The median age was 20.5 months (range, 6-194 months) and median weight was 16 kg (range, 6-68 kg). The PDA was classified as type A in 54 patients (76.1%), type E in 14 (19.7%), type C in 2 (2.8%) and type B in 1 (1.4%) based on the Krichenko classification. A standard ODO device was used for the transcatheter closure procedure in 66 patients and the long-shank ODO device in 5. In the echocardiographic measurement of PDA, the median smallest diameter was 2.7 mm (range, 1.5-7.0 mm), and in the angiographic measurement, the median smallest diameter was 2.5 mm (range, 1.5-6.5 mm). All 71 patients underwent successful PDA closure with the ODO. Angiography following the procedure showed complete closure in 47 patients (66.2%), mild residual shunt in 13 patients (18.3%) and a trivial shunt in 11 patients (15.5%). Color flow Doppler echocardiogpaphy at 24 h post-implantation showed that complete closure was achieved in 65 patients (91.5%), and 6 patients (8.5%) had mild residual shunt. All patients (100%) had complete closure at 30 days of follow-up. The results of this study showed that the Occlutech PDA occluder device is safe and effective in the closure of PDA. As the pulmonary artery side of the device is wider than the aortic side, protrusion toward the aortic side and embolization are prevented, but there is residual shunt in the early period, although this residual shunt disappeared after a few months.

  17. Non-native Ants Are Smaller than Related Native Ants.

    PubMed

    McGlynn, Terrence P

    1999-12-01

    I compare the sizes of non-native and native ants to evaluate how worker size may be related to the ability of a species to invade new habitats. I compare the size of 78 non-native ant species belonging to 26 genera with the size of native congeneric species; native ants are larger than non-native ants in 22 of 26 genera. Ants were sorted by genera into fighting and nonfighting groups, based on observations of interspecific interactions with other ant species. In all of the genera with monomorphic worker castes that fight during competition, the non-native species were smaller than the native species. The genera that engage in combat had a higher frequency of significantly smaller size in non-native ants. I selected Wasmannia auropunctata for further studies, to compare native and non-native populations. Specimens of W. auropunctata from non-native populations were smaller than conspecific counterparts from its native habitat. I consider hypotheses to explain why non-native ants are smaller in size than native ants, including the role of colony size in interspecific fights, changes in life history, the release from intraspecific fighting, and climate. The discovery that fighting non-natives are smaller than their closest native relatives may provide insight into the mechanisms for success of non-native species, as well as the role of worker size and colony size during interspecific competition.

  18. Statins Improve Long Term Patency of Arteriovenous Fistula for Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hao-Hsiang; Chang, Yu-Kang; Lu, Chia-Wen; Huang, Chi-Ting; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Hsu, Chih-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The protective effects of statins against stenosis for permanent hemodialysis access have been repeatedly demonstrated in animal studies, but remain controversial in human studies. This study aims to evaluate the association between statin use and permanent hemodialysis access patency using a nationwide hemodialysis cohort. A total of 9862 pairs of statin users and non-users, matched by age and gender, were selected for investigation from 75404 new hemodialysis patients during 2000–2008. The effect of statins on permanent hemodialysis access patency was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. Compared with non-users, statin users had an overall 18% risk reduction in the composite endpoint in which angioplasty and recreation were combined (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.82 [95%CI, 0.78–0.87]) and 21% in recreation of permanent hemodialysis access (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.79 [95%CI, 0.69–0.80]). Specifically, the protective effect was found for arteriovenous fistula (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.78[95% CI, 0.73–0.82] for composite endpoint and 0.74 [95% CI, 0.69–0.80] for vascular recreation), but not for arteriovenous grafts (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.10 [95% CI, 0.98–1.24] and 0.94 [95% CI, 0.83–1.07]). Statins possess a protective effect for arteriovenous fistula against the recreation of permanent hemodialysis access. The results provide a pharmaco-epidemiologic link between basic research and clinical evidence. PMID:26902330

  19. The Study of Hemodialysis Effectiveness on the Change Rate of Lipid Peroxidation and L-Carnitine Level in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Isfahani, Maryam; Sheikh, Nasrin

    2010-01-01

    Carnitine is a small molecule widely present in all cells from prokaryotic to eukaryotic. It is an important element in β-oxidation of fatty acids. Carnitine is a scavenger of oxygen free radicals in mammalian tissues. Lack of carnitine in a hemodialysis patient can lead to carnitine deficiency. Oxidation of fatty acids and lipid metabolism are severly affected by carnitine deficiency. Oxidative stress is defined as imbalance between formation of free radicals and antioxidative defense mechanisms. It has been proposed to play a role in many disease states. In hemodialysis patients multiple factors can lead to a a high susceptibility to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to determine hemodialysis effectiveness on the change rate of serum L-carnitine and lipid peroxidation. 27 patients with chronic renal failure (24-80 yrs) who undergo hemodialysis for 6-12 months were selected (M= 17, F= 10). Malondialdehyde (MDA), as an indicator of lipid peroxidation was measured colorimetrically with a standard thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method. L-carnitine was measured with enzymatic UV method (ROCHE, Spectronic Genesis 2, 340 nm). The weight mean of L-carnitine before and after hemodialysis was 7.67±3.6 mg/l and 2.07±1.6 mg/l, respectively (P<0.001). The weight mean of pre-hemodialysis MDA was 4.17±1.24 µmol/l, following hemodialysis -4.98±1.2 µmol/l (P<0.001). Results showed that 55.6% of patients suffered from carnitine defciency. Serum carnitine was found to be decreased markedly after hemodialysis (P<0.001). Our findings indicated that oxidative stress in these patients is further exacerbated by hemodialysis, as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation. The relationship between serum L-carnitine and MDA before and after hemodialysis was observed (r=0.82; p<0.001; r=0.75; p<0.001). PMID:27683353

  20. The Language of Coping: Understanding Filipino Geriatric Patients' Hemodialysis Lived Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Chy, Mark Anthony S.; Concepcion, April Faye P.; Conferido, Alvin John C.; Coretico, Kristine I.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Hemodialysis is a process of removing metabolic waste, other poisons, and excess fluids from the blood and replacing essential blood constituents through a dialysis machine. With hemodialysis causing stress not only to physical status but also to…

  1. Glucose Transporters are Abundant in Cells with "Occluding" Junctions at the Blood-Eye Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harik, Sami I.; Kalaria, Rajesh N.; Whitney, Paul M.; Andersson, Lars; Lundahl, Per; Ledbetter, Steven R.; Perry, George

    1990-06-01

    We studied the distribution of the "erythroid/brain" glucose transporter protein in the human and rat eye by immunocytochemistry with monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to the C terminus of the human erythrocyte glucose transporter. We found intense immunocytochemical staining in the endothelium of microvessels of the retina, optic nerve, and iris but not in microvessels of the choroid, ciliary body, sclera, and other retro-orbital tissues. In addition, we found marked immunocytochemical staining of retinal pigment epithelium, ciliary body epithelium, and posterior epithelium of the iris. The common feature of all those endothelial and epithelial cells that stained intensely for the glucose transporter is the presence of "occluding" intercellular junctions, which constitute the anatomical bases of the blood-eye barriers. We propose that a high density of the glucose transporter is a biochemical concomitant of epithelial and endothelial cells with barrier characteristics, at least in tissues that have a high metabolic requirement for glucose.

  2. Balloon-occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (BRTO): Technique and Intraprocedural Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Saher S.; Saad, Wael E. A.

    2011-01-01

    Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) is an endovascular technique used as a therapeutic adjunct or alternative to transjugular intrahepatic shunts (TIPS) in the management of gastric varices. Occlusion balloons are strategically placed to modulate flow within the gastrorenal or gastrocaval shunt to allow stagnation of the sclerosant material within the gastric varix. The approach and complexity of the procedure depends on the anatomic classification of inflow and outflow veins of the varix. Ethanolamine oleate has been described as the main sclerosant used in this procedure. Recently, foam sclerosants have gained popularity as alternative embolization agents, which provide the advantage of better variceal wall contact and potentially less dose of sclerosant. PMID:22942548

  3. Particle Filtering with Region-based Matching for Tracking of Partially Occluded and Scaled Targets*

    PubMed Central

    Nakhmani, Arie; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Visual tracking of arbitrary targets in clutter is important for a wide range of military and civilian applications. We propose a general framework for the tracking of scaled and partially occluded targets, which do not necessarily have prominent features. The algorithm proposed in the present paper utilizes a modified normalized cross-correlation as the likelihood for a particle filter. The algorithm divides the template, selected by the user in the first video frame, into numerous patches. The matching process of these patches by particle filtering allows one to handle the target’s occlusions and scaling. Experimental results with fixed rectangular templates show that the method is reliable for videos with nonstationary, noisy, and cluttered background, and provides accurate trajectories in cases of target translation, scaling, and occlusion. PMID:22506088

  4. The influence of maintenance quality of hemodialysis machines on hemodialysis efficiency.

    PubMed

    Azar, Ahmad Taher

    2009-01-01

    Several studies suggest that there is a correlation between dose of dialysis and machine maintenance. However, in spite of the current practice, there are conflicting reports regarding the relationship between dose of dialysis or patient outcome, and machine maintenance. In order to evaluate the impact of hemodialysis machine maintenance on dialysis adequacy Kt/V and session performance, data were processed on 134 patients on 3-times-per-week dialysis regimens by dividing the patients into four groups and also dividing the hemodialysis machines into four groups according to their year of installation. The equilibrated dialysis dose eq Kt/V, urea reduction ratio (URR) and the overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) were calculated in each group to show the effect hemodialysis machine efficiency on the overall session performance. The average working time per machine per month was 270 hours. The cumulative number of hours according to the year of installation was: 26,122 hours for machines installed in 1998; 21,596 hours for machines installed in 1999, 8362 hours for those installed in 2003 and 2486 hours for those installed in 2005. The mean time between failures (MTBF) was 1.8, 2.1, 4.2 and 6 months between failures for machines installed in 1999, 1998, 2003 and 2005, respectively. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the dialysis dose eq Kt/V and URR were increased as the overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) increases with regular maintenance procedures. Maintenance has become one of the most expedient approaches to guarantee high machine dependability. The efficiency of dialysis machine is relevant in assuring a proper dialysis adequacy.

  5. Endovascular Revascularization of Chronically Thrombosed Arteriovenous Fistulas and Grafts for Hemodialysis: A Retrospective Study in 15 Patients With 18 Access Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Weng Meijui; Chen, Matt Chiung-Yu, E-mail: jjychen@gmail.com; Chi Wenche

    2011-04-15

    The current study retrospectively evaluated whether endovascular revascularization of chronically thrombosed and long-discarded vascular access sites for hemodialysis was feasible. Technical and clinical success rates, postintervention primary and secondary patency rates, and complications were reported. During a 1-year period, we reviewed a total of 924 interventions performed for dysfunction and/or failed hemodialysis vascular access sites and permanent catheters in 881 patients. In patients whose vascular access-site problems were considered untreatable or were considered treatable with a high risk of failure and access-site abandonment, we attempted to revascularize (resurrect) the chronically occluded and long-discarded (mummy) vascular access sites. We attempted tomore » resurrect a total of 18 mummy access sites (mean age 46.6 {+-} 38.7 months; range 5-144) in 15 patients (8 women and 7 men; mean age 66.2 {+-} 11.5 years; age range 50-85) and had an overall technical success rate of 77.8%. Resurrection failure occurred in 3 fistulas and in 1 straight graft. The clinical success rate was 100% at 2 months after resurrection. In the 14 resurrected vascular access sites, 6 balloon-assisted maturation procedures were required in 5 fistulas; after access-site maturation, a total of 22 interventions were performed to maintain access-site patency. The mean go-through time for successful resurrection procedures was 146.6 {+-} 34.3 min (range 74-193). Postmaturation primary patency rates were 71.4 {+-} 12.1% at 30 days, 57.1 {+-} 13.2% at 60 days, 28.6 {+-} 13.4% at 90 days, and 19 {+-} 11.8% at 180 days. Postmaturation secondary patency rates were 100% at 30, 60, and 90 days and 81.8 {+-} 11.6% at 180 days. There were 2 major complications consisting of massive venous ruptures in 2 mummy access sites during balloon dilation; in both cases, prolonged balloon inflation failed to achieve hemostasis, but percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate glue seal-off was performed

  6. Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus with Nit-Occlud coils.

    PubMed

    Celiker, Alpay; Aypar, Ebru; Karagöz, Tevfik; Dilber, Embiya; Ceviz, Naci

    2005-08-01

    The detachable coils have been successfully used for transcatheter occlusion of small- to moderate-sized patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). We report our experience regarding the use of the Nit-Occlud coils (NOCs) for transcatheter PDA and major aortopulmonary collateral (MAPCA) occlusion. Single NOCs were used to close PDA in 26 patients, and one small and two large MAPCAs in two patients. Mean age and weight of the patients were 7.7 +/- 5.4 years and 20.6 +/- 11.6 kg. Mean minimum duct diameter was 2.8 +/- 0.8 mm; ampulla, 8.7 +/- 2.4 mm; and PDA length, 9.3 +/- 4.4 mm. Mean pulmonary artery pressure ranged from 9 to 51 mm Hg and pulmonary/systemic flow ratio from 1.1 to 5.8. Ductal shape was conical in 24 patients. Route of approach was venous in 23 and arterial in 3. Successful coil implantation was achieved in 24/26 (92.3%). Mean procedure and fluoroscopy time were 67.2 +/- 22.1 and 14.9 +/- 6.5 min. The three MAPCAs were also successfully occluded using NOC Medium and Flex. Postimplantation angiograms revealed no leak in 3, a trace or small leak in 17, and a medium leak in 4 patients. Mean follow-up was 7 +/- 5 months. Complete occlusion was achieved in 17/24 (71%) at 24 hr, 19/24 (79%) by 1 month, 13/15 (87%) by 3 months, 14/15 (93%) by 6 months, and 10/11 (90%) by 12 months postprocedure. Hemolysis, late embolization, duct recanalization, and flow disturbances were not observed. Transcatheter occlusion of moderate-sized PDAs and MAPCAs using NOCs seems to offer a safe, simple, and controlled method in pediatric patients.

  7. Endoscopic management of occluded metal biliary stents: Metal versus 10F plastic stents

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Won Jae; Ryu, Ji Kon; Lee, Jung Won; Ahn, Dong-Won; Kim, Yong-Tae; Yoon, Yong Bum; Woo, Sang Myung; Lee, Woo Jin

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To compare the efficacy of self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) with 10F plastic stents (PSs) in the endoscopic management of occluded SEMSs. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 56 patients who underwent SEMS insertion for palliation of unresectable malignant biliary obstruction between 2000 and 2007 and subsequent endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD) with SEMS or PS for initial SEMS occlusion between 2000 and 2008. RESULTS: Subsequent ERBD with SEMS was performed in 29 patients and with PS in 27. The median time to stent occlusion after subsequent ERBD was 186 d in the SEMS group and 101 d in the PS group (P = 0.118). Overall median stent patency was 79 d for the SEMS group and 66 d for the PS group (P = 0.379). The mean number of additional biliary drainage procedures after subsequent ERBD in patients that died (n = 50) during the study period was 2.54 ± 4.12 for the SEMS group and 1.85 ± 1.95 for the PS group (P = 0.457). The mean total cost of additional biliary drainage procedures after the occlusion of subsequent SEMS or PS was $410.04 ± 692.60 for the SEMS group and $630.16 ± 671.63 for the PS group (P = 0.260). Tumor ingrowth as the cause of initial SEMS occlusion was the only factor associated with a shorter time to subsequent stent occlusion (101 d for patients with tumor ingrowth vs 268 d for patients without tumor ingrowth, P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Subsequent ERBD with PSs offered similar patency and number of additional biliary drainage procedures compared to SEMSs in the management of occluded SEMS. PMID:21072899

  8. Endoscopic management of occluded metal biliary stents: metal versus 10F plastic stents.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Won Jae; Ryu, Ji Kon; Lee, Jung Won; Ahn, Dong-Won; Kim, Yong-Tae; Yoon, Yong Bum; Woo, Sang Myung; Lee, Woo Jin

    2010-11-14

    To compare the efficacy of self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) with 10F plastic stents (PSs) in the endoscopic management of occluded SEMSs. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 56 patients who underwent SEMS insertion for palliation of unresectable malignant biliary obstruction between 2000 and 2007 and subsequent endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD) with SEMS or PS for initial SEMS occlusion between 2000 and 2008. Subsequent ERBD with SEMS was performed in 29 patients and with PS in 27. The median time to stent occlusion after subsequent ERBD was 186 d in the SEMS group and 101 d in the PS group (P = 0.118). Overall median stent patency was 79 d for the SEMS group and 66 d for the PS group (P = 0.379). The mean number of additional biliary drainage procedures after subsequent ERBD in patients that died (n = 50) during the study period was 2.54 ± 4.12 for the SEMS group and 1.85 ± 1.95 for the PS group (P = 0.457). The mean total cost of additional biliary drainage procedures after the occlusion of subsequent SEMS or PS was $410.04 ± 692.60 for the SEMS group and $630.16 ± 671.63 for the PS group (P = 0.260). Tumor ingrowth as the cause of initial SEMS occlusion was the only factor associated with a shorter time to subsequent stent occlusion (101 d for patients with tumor ingrowth vs 268 d for patients without tumor ingrowth, P = 0.008). Subsequent ERBD with PSs offered similar patency and number of additional biliary drainage procedures compared to SEMSs in the management of occluded SEMS.

  9. An Infectious Pseudoaneurysm Caused by Ventricular Septal Defect Occluder in Patent Ductus Arteriosus Closure in a Two-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Li, Dingyang; Qiu, Qiu; Jin, Jing; Zhang, Changdong; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Gangcheng

    2017-12-12

    We present a case of an infectious pseudoaneurysm after patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure with a ventricular septal defect (VSD) occluder in a two-year-old child. The aneurysm grew rapidly but was successfully removed in time and the patient survived. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an infectious pseudoaneurysm caused by VSD occluder in PDA closure.

  10. Epidemiology, surveillance, and prevention of bloodstream infections in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Patel, Priti R; Kallen, Alexander J; Arduino, Matthew J

    2010-09-01

    Infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are particularly problematic, accounting for a substantial number of hospitalizations in these patients. Hospitalizations for BSI and other vascular access infections appear to have increased dramatically in hemodialysis patients since 1993. These infections frequently are related to central venous catheter (CVC) use for dialysis access. Regional initiatives that have shown successful decreases in catheter-related BSIs in hospitalized patients have generated interest in replicating this success in outpatient hemodialysis populations. Several interventions have been effective in preventing BSIs in the hemodialysis setting. Avoiding the use of CVCs in favor of access types with lower associated BSI risk is among the most important. When CVCs are used, adherence to evidence-based catheter insertion and maintenance practices can positively influence BSI rates. In addition, facility-level surveillance to detect BSIs and stimulate examination of vascular access use and care practices is essential to a comprehensive approach to prevention. This article describes the current epidemiology of BSIs in hemodialysis patients and effective prevention strategies to decrease the incidence of these devastating infections.

  11. Dental calculus formation in children and adolescents undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carla; Siqueira, Walter Luiz; Oliveira, Elizabeth; Nicolau, José; Primo, Laura Guimarães

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to determine whether dental calculus formation is really higher among patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis than among controls. Furthermore, the study evaluated correlations between dental calculus formation and dental plaque, variables that are related to renal disease and/or saliva composition. The Renal Group was composed of 30 patients undergoing hemodialysis, whereas the Healthy Group had 30 clinically healthy patients. Stimulated whole saliva and parotid saliva were collected. Salivary flow rate and calcium and phosphate concentrations were determined. In the Renal Group the saliva collection was carried out before and after a hemodialysis session. Patients from both groups received intraoral exams, oral hygiene instructions, and dental scaling. Three months later, the dental calculus was measured by the Volpe-Manhold method to determine the rate of dental calculus formation. The Renal Group presented a higher rate of dental calculus formation (p < 0.01). Correlation was observed between rate of dental calculus formation and whole saliva flow rate in the Renal Group after a hemodialysis session (r = 0.44, p < 0.05). The presence of dental calculus was associated with phosphate concentration in whole saliva from the Renal Group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, patients undergoing hemodialysis presented accelerated dental calculus formation, probably due to salivary variables.

  12. Large native ungulates

    Treesearch

    Bryce Rickel

    2005-01-01

    This chapter addresses the large native ungulates (American bison (Bos bison), elk (Cervus elaphus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) of the grasslands. The information presented includes...

  13. A unified computational model of the development of object unity, object permanence, and occluded object trajectory perception.

    PubMed

    Franz, A; Triesch, J

    2010-12-01

    The perception of the unity of objects, their permanence when out of sight, and the ability to perceive continuous object trajectories even during occlusion belong to the first and most important capacities that infants have to acquire. Despite much research a unified model of the development of these abilities is still missing. Here we make an attempt to provide such a unified model. We present a recurrent artificial neural network that learns to predict the motion of stimuli occluding each other and that develops representations of occluded object parts. It represents completely occluded, moving objects for several time steps and successfully predicts their reappearance after occlusion. This framework allows us to account for a broad range of experimental data. Specifically, the model explains how the perception of object unity develops, the role of the width of the occluders, and it also accounts for differences between data for moving and stationary stimuli. We demonstrate that these abilities can be acquired by learning to predict the sensory input. The model makes specific predictions and provides a unifying framework that has the potential to be extended to other visual event categories. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dentinal tubules occluded by bioactive glass-containing toothpaste exhibit high resistance toward acidic soft drink challenge.

    PubMed

    Bakri, M M; Hossain, M Z; Razak, F A; Saqina, Z H; Misroni, A A; Ab-Murat, N; Kitagawa, J; Saub, R B

    2017-06-01

    Dentine hypersensitivity is a common problem attributed by patent dentinal tubules. Ingredients incorporated in toothpastes aim to occlude patent dentinal tubules to minimize the dentine hypersensitivity. However, frequent consumption of acidic soft drinks may reverse the dentinal tubules' occlusion. In this in vitro study, the efficacy of dentinal tubules occluded by commercially available toothpastes to withstand different durations of an acidic soft drink challenge was investigated. One hundred and twenty dentine discs were divided into three groups. The discs from each group were brushed with toothpaste containing bioactive glass, arginine and control toothpaste. Each group was then divided into four subgroups and exposed to acidic soft drink over four different time durations. The scoring and the percentage of occluded dentinal tubules by Novamin-containing toothpaste was significantly better compared with arginine or the control toothpaste. Acidic soft drink challenge reduced the extent of dentinal tubules occlusion along with time. Dentinal tubules occluded by Novamin-containing toothpaste withstand the acidic challenge comparatively for a longer period. The findings demonstrated that occlusion of dentinal tubules is more efficient by the bioactive glass-containing toothpaste and thus may contribute to its better resistance to acidic soft drink challenge. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  15. Peginesatide in patients with anemia undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Fishbane, Steven; Schiller, Brigitte; Locatelli, Francesco; Covic, Adrian C; Provenzano, Robert; Wiecek, Andrzej; Levin, Nathan W; Kaplan, Mark; Macdougall, Iain C; Francisco, Carol; Mayo, Martha R; Polu, Krishna R; Duliege, Anne-Marie; Besarab, Anatole

    2013-01-24

    Peginesatide, a synthetic peptide-based erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), is a potential therapy for anemia in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. We conducted two randomized, controlled, open-label studies (EMERALD 1 and EMERALD 2) involving patients undergoing hemodialysis. Cardiovascular safety was evaluated by analysis of an adjudicated composite safety end point--death from any cause, stroke, myocardial infarction, or serious adverse events of congestive heart failure, unstable angina, or arrhythmia--with the use of pooled data from the two EMERALD studies and two studies involving patients not undergoing dialysis. In the EMERALD studies, 1608 patients received peginesatide once monthly or continued to receive epoetin one to three times a week, with the doses adjusted as necessary to maintain a hemoglobin level between 10.0 and 12.0 g per deciliter for 52 weeks or more. The primary efficacy end point was the mean change from the baseline hemoglobin level to the mean level during the evaluation period; noninferiority was established if the lower limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval was -1.0 g per deciliter or higher in the comparison of peginesatide with epoetin. The aim of evaluating the composite safety end point in the pooled cohort was to exclude a hazard ratio with peginesatide relative to the comparator ESA of more than 1.3. In an analysis involving 693 patients from EMERALD 1 and 725 from EMERALD 2, peginesatide was noninferior to epoetin in maintaining hemoglobin levels (mean between-group difference, -0.15 g per deciliter; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.30 to -0.01 in EMERALD 1; and 0.10 g per deciliter; 95% CI, -0.05 to 0.26 in EMERALD 2). The hazard ratio for the composite safety end point was 1.06 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.26) with peginesatide relative to the comparator ESA in the four pooled studies (2591 patients) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.77 to 1.17) in the EMERALD studies. The proportions of patients with adverse and serious

  16. Value of doppler ultrasonography in the study of hemodialysis peripheral vascular access dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Moreno Sánchez, T; Martín Hervás, C; Sola Martínez, E; Moreno Rodríguez, F

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of duplex Doppler ultrasonography in the study of hemodialysis peripheral vascular access dysfunction and to analyze the resistance index and flow in the afferent artery. We prospectively studied 178 patients with 178 peripheral vascular accesses that were dysfunctional in at least three consecutive hemodialysis sessions. Patients underwent duplex Doppler ultrasonography and clinical and laboratory follow-up for three months (provided angiography findings were negative). We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and coefficients of probability. We studied the morphology of the afferent artery, the arteriovenous anastomosis, and the efferent vein, and we measured the resistance index and the flow of the afferent artery, the diameter of the anastomosis, and the flow and peak systolic velocity in the efferent vein. The final sample consisted of 159 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative coefficients of probability were 0,98 (95% CI: 0,88-1.00), 0,74 (95% CI: 0,66-0,81), 0,96, 0,82, 3.7, and 0,03, respectively. The resistance index was less than 0,5 in 78.5% of the peripheral vascular accesses with normal function and greater than 0,5 in 86.1% of the dysfunctional peripheral vascular accesses. We found aneurysms in 19 of the native peripheral vascular accesses and pseudoaneurysms in 7 of the prosthetic grafts. Inverted flow was seen in 57 peripheral vascular accesses. Duplex Doppler ultrasonography is an efficacious method for detecting and characterizing stenosis and thrombosis in peripheral vascular accesses, and it provides information about the morphology and hemodynamics. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Establishing Core Outcome Domains in Hemodialysis: Report of the Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) Consensus Workshop.

    PubMed

    Tong, Allison; Manns, Braden; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Wheeler, David C; Evangelidis, Nicole; Tugwell, Peter; Crowe, Sally; Van Biesen, Wim; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; O'Donoghue, Donal; Tam-Tham, Helen; Shen, Jenny I; Pinter, Jule; Larkins, Nicholas; Youssouf, Sajeda; Mandayam, Sreedhar; Ju, Angela; Craig, Jonathan C

    2017-01-01

    Evidence-informed decision making in clinical care and policy in nephrology is undermined by trials that selectively report a large number of heterogeneous outcomes, many of which are not patient centered. The Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) Initiative convened an international consensus workshop on November 7, 2015, to discuss the identification and implementation of a potential core outcome set for all trials in hemodialysis. The purpose of this article is to report qualitative analyses of the workshop discussions, describing the key aspects to consider when establishing core outcomes in trials involving patients on hemodialysis therapy. Key stakeholders including 8 patients/caregivers and 47 health professionals (nephrologists, policymakers, industry, and researchers) attended the workshop. Attendees suggested that identifying core outcomes required equitable stakeholder engagement to ensure relevance across patient populations, flexibility to consider evolving priorities over time, deconstruction of language and meaning for conceptual consistency and clarity, understanding of potential overlap and associations between outcomes, and an assessment of applicability to the range of interventions in hemodialysis. For implementation, they proposed that core outcomes must have simple, inexpensive, and validated outcome measures that could be used in clinical care (quality indicators) and trials (including pragmatic trials) and endorsement by regulatory agencies. Integrating these recommendations may foster acceptance and optimize the uptake and translation of core outcomes in hemodialysis, leading to more informative research, for better treatment and improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Establishing Core Outcome Domains in Hemodialysis: Report of the Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology−Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) Consensus Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Allison; Manns, Braden; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Wheeler, David C.; Evangelidis, Nicole; Tugwell, Peter; Crowe, Sally; Van Biesen, Wim; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.; O’Donoghue, Donal; Tam-Tham, Helen; Shen, Jenny; Pinter, Jule; Larkins, Nicholas; Youssouf, Sajeda; Mandayam, Sreedhar; Ju, Angela; Craig, Jonathan C.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence-informed decision-making in clinical care and policy in nephrology is undermined by trials that selectively report a large number of heterogeneous outcomes, many of which are not patient-centered. The Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology−Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) Initiative convened an international consensus workshop on November 7, 2015, to discuss the identification and implementation of a potential core outcome set for all trials in hemodialysis. The purpose of this article is to report qualitative analyses of the workshop discussions, describing the key aspects to consider when establishing core outcomes in trials involving patients on hemodialysis. Key stakeholders including eight patients/caregivers and 47 health professionals (nephrologists, policy makers, industry, researchers) attended the workshop. Attendees suggested that identifying core outcomes required equitable stakeholder engagement to ensure relevance across patient populations; flexibility to consider evolving priorities over time; deconstruction of language and meaning for conceptual consistency and clarity; understanding of potential overlap and associations between outcomes; and an assessment of applicability to the range of interventions in hemodialysis. For implementation, they proposed that core outcomes must have simple, inexpensive and validated outcome measures that could be used in clinical care (quality ndicators) and trials (including pragmatic trials), and endorsement by regulatory agencies. Integrating these recommendations may foster acceptance and optimize the uptake and translation of core outcomes in hemodialysis, leading to more informative research, for better treatment, and improved patient outcomes. PMID:27497527

  19. DNA unwinding by ring-shaped T4 helicase gp41 is hindered by tension on the occluded strand.

    PubMed

    Ribeck, Noah; Saleh, Omar A

    2013-01-01

    The replicative helicase for bacteriophage T4 is gp41, which is a ring-shaped hexameric motor protein that achieves unwinding of dsDNA by translocating along one strand of ssDNA while forcing the opposite strand to the outside of the ring. While much study has been dedicated to the mechanism of binding and translocation along the ssDNA strand encircled by ring-shaped helicases, relatively little is known about the nature of the interaction with the opposite, 'occluded' strand. Here, we investigate the interplay between the bacteriophage T4 helicase gp41 and the ss/dsDNA fork by measuring, at the single-molecule level, DNA unwinding events on stretched DNA tethers in multiple geometries. We find that gp41 activity is significantly dependent on the geometry and tension of the occluded strand, suggesting an interaction between gp41 and the occluded strand that stimulates the helicase. However, the geometry dependence of gp41 activity is the opposite of that found previously for the E. coli hexameric helicase DnaB. Namely, tension applied between the occluded strand and dsDNA stem inhibits unwinding activity by gp41, while tension pulling apart the two ssDNA tails does not hinder its activity. This implies a distinct variation in helicase-occluded strand interactions among superfamily IV helicases, and we propose a speculative model for this interaction that is consistent with both the data presented here on gp41 and the data that had been previously reported for DnaB.

  20. Cognitive function and adherence of older adults undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Hain, Debra J

    2008-01-01

    As the number of older adults undergoing hemodialysis increases, it is important for nurses to consider cognitive impairment as a contributing factor to non-adherence. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify cognitive markers that nurses can use to alert them to potential problems with adherence among older adults undergoing hemodialysis. Stories of the health challenge of making lifestyle change were analyzed with a linguistic analysis software program. A standardized instrument (3MS) that measures global cognitive function was administered. Determination of adherence level was the last activity of data collection. In this sample (n=63), 39.7% of the participants had evidence of cognitive impairment (3MS score less than 80); 58.2% of the 39.7% had evidence of non-adherence. There was a significant relationship between word use and cognitive function (p < .01). Cognitive impairment is prevalent among older adults undergoing hemodialysis and words might be a proxy for recognizing this.

  1. Infection and hemodialysis access: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vineet; Yassin, Mohamed H

    2013-06-01

    The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has almost doubled over past 2 decades. Despite decreasing overall hospital admission rates for ESRD population, the rate of infection-related hospitalizations has steadily increased. Infection remains the second most common cause of mortality in this patient population. Specifically, in the hemodialysis (HD) patients, the vascular access related infections are the most common identifiable source of infection. This concise review provides an update on the bacteremia related to vascular access primarily the catheters (Catheter Related Blood Stream Infection- CRBSI) in HD patients emphasizing on the determinants ranging from the epidemiology to pathogenesis, risk factors, cost implications and prevention. Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococci, and Enterococci are the most common causative microorganisms implicated in CRBSI. The pathogenesis of CRBSI includes organism entry into the blood stream followed by adherence to catheter, colonization and biofilm formation. Vascular access type, catheter position, and prior bacteremic episodes are strongly associated with blood stream infection. Preventive measures should be multidisciplinary in nature and should include avoidance of central venous catheters, best practices for catheter care, surveillance, antimicrobial catheter lock solutions, and use of antibiotic impregnated catheters.

  2. Anxiety in Patients Treated with Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Scott D; Cukor, Daniel; Kimmel, Paul L

    2016-12-07

    Anxiety is a common yet frequently overlooked psychiatric symptom in patients with ESRD treated with hemodialysis (HD). Anxiety is characterized by disruptive feelings of uncertainty, dread, and fearfulness. A variety of common medical complaints may be manifestations of an anxiety disorder, including palpitations, tremors, indigestion, numbness/tingling, nervousness, shortness of breath, diaphoresis, and fear. It is essential for the clinician to rule out specific medical conditions, including cardiovascular, pulmonary, and neurologic diseases, before ascribing these symptoms to an anxiety disorder. In addition, there is considerable overlap between the symptoms of anxiety and those of depression and uremia. This psychiatric condition has a significant adverse impact on patients' perception of quality of life. Little is known regarding the prevalence and impact of anxiety disorders in patients with ESRD treated with HD; however, many of the seemingly irrational behaviors of patients, or behaviors which place them in conflict with staff and physicians, such as behavioral noncompliance, may be the expression of an underlying anxiety disorder. In this review, we present three clinical vignettes, highlighting the impact of anxiety disorders in patients with ESRD treated with HD. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  3. Central Venous Occlusion in the Hemodialysis Patient.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Vinay Narasimha; Eason, Joseph B; Allon, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Central venous stenosis (CVS) is encountered frequently among hemodialysis patients. Prior ipsilateral central venous catheterization and cardiac rhythm device insertions are common risk factors, but CVS can also occur in the absence of this history. Chronic CVS can cause thrombosis with partial or complete occlusion of the central vein at the site of stenosis. CVS is frequently asymptomatic and identified as an incidental finding during imaging studies. Symptomatic CVS presents most commonly as an upper- or lower-extremity edema ipsilateral to the CVS. Previously unsuspected CVS may become symptomatic after placement of an ipsilateral vascular access. The likelihood of symptomatic CVS may be affected by the central venous catheter (CVC) location; CVC side; duration of CVC dependence; type, location, and blood flow of the ipsilateral access; and extent of collateral veins. Venous angiography is the gold standard for diagnosis. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement can improve the stenosis and alleviate symptoms, but CVS typically recurs frequently, requiring repeated interventions. Refractory symptomatic CVS may require ligation of the ipsilateral vascular access. Because no available treatment option is curative, the goal should be to prevent CVS by minimizing catheters and central vein instrumentation in patients with chronic kidney disease and dialysis patients. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological effects of electrolyzed water in hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Masaaki; Kabayama, Shigeru; Nakano, Hirofumi; Zhu, Wan-Jun; Terawaki, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Keisuke; Katoh, Kiyoshi; Satoh, Toshinobu; Ito, Sadayoshi

    2009-01-01

    The application of electrolyzed water (EW) at the cathode side to manufacture reverse osmosis (RO) water and hemodialysis (HD) solution can actually lead to less oxidative capacity in chemical terms. The present study examined the biological actions of this water on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), and the clinical feasibility of applying this technology to HD treatment. RO water using EW (e-RO) exhibited less chemiluminescence in luminol-hydrogen peroxide and higher dissolved hydrogen levels (-99.0 ppb) compared with control RO water. The effects of e-RO on PMN viability were tested. HD using e-RO was performed for 12 consecutive sessions in 8 patients for the feasibility test. Basal cellular viability and function to generate superoxide radicals of PMNs were better preserved by e-RO application. In the clinical trial, reductions of blood pressure were noted, but no adverse events were observed. There were no changes in the blood dialysis parameters, although methylguanidine levels were significantly decreased at the end of study. The present study demonstrated the capacity of e-RO to preserve the viability of PMNs, and the clinical feasibility of applying this water for HD treatment. The clinical application of this technology may improve the bio-compatibility of HD treatment. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. [Evaluation of cardiac complications among chronic hemodialysis in Dakar].

    PubMed

    Moustapha, Cissé Mouhamadou; Tall, Lemrabott Ahmed; Maria, Faye; Khodia, Fall; Moustapha, Faye; Fary, Ka El Hadji; Abdou, Niang; Boucar, Diouf

    2016-01-01

    Hemodialysis is the first extrarenal treatment method that allowed supporting patients in terminal chronic failure in Senegal since 1997. 25 years later, we conducted this study to determine the type and the prevalence of different cardiovascular complications and identify the main cardiovascular risk factors. It is a retrospective study of 4 years. 38 patients treated at least 6 months in hemodialysis and cardiovascular explorations with a front chest x-ray, electrocardiogram and cardiac ultrasound. All patients who have not started hemodialysis, treated less than 6 months in hemodialysis, treaties in peritoneal dialysis or having raised cardiovascular explorations were excluded. For each selected patient, we collected data epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical and evolutionary aspects of cardiovascular complications. 38 patients were included in this study. The average age was 52 years ± 12.85 and the sex ratio H/F of 1.53. Initial nephropathy was dominated by the néphroangiosclérose followed by diabetic nephropathy. Clinically the signs of appeal are marked by the effort dyspnea palpitations, chest pain and physically by the HTA, anemia. Cardiovascular complications were dominated by hypertrophy (LVH) left ventricular, rhythm type of arrhythmia disorders valvular leakage (mitral and tricuspid) and cerebral vascular accident (stroke). The average impact of LVH according the HTA is 81%, by sex of 78.26% for men and 60% for women. At the end of the study, 27 patients were pursuing hemodialysis and 11 had died 6 (54%) of cardiovascular cause. Hemodialysis is a common purification technique in Senegal and its complications remain especially dominated by abuses cardiovascular.

  6. Sleep quality and spiritual well-being in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Rabiei, Leili; Khayri, Freidoon; Rashidi Nooshabadi, Mohammad Reza; Masoudi, Reza

    2014-07-01

    Sleep disorders are considered as one of the most important problems in hemodialysis patients, making their everyday life a serious hazard. Sleep quality of hemodialysis patients and consequences of sleep disorders on other aspects of health such as spiritual well-being are important issues. This study examined the relationship between spiritual well-being and quality of sleep in hemodialysis patients in Isfahan, Iran. This study was a correlation research, carried out on 190 hemodialysis patients. Data collection Questionnaires included demographic forms, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), and Ellison and Paloutzian spiritual well-being scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis) at P < 0.05 significance level, by SPSS software version 18. Of 190 study participants, 163 (85.78%) with scores more than five index had sleep disturbances and 27 (14.12%) had no sleep disturbance; 3 (1.52%) had mild, 163 (85.78%) moderate, and 24 (12.30%) good spiritual health conditions. Pearson correlation test showed significant relationship between the sleep quality items of Pittsburg and spiritual well-being (P < 0.04, r = 0.149). Through the regression analyses of spiritual health, family, education, financial status, marital status, occupation, and use of sleep medication, the predictive power of these variables was found 0.417% and prediction of spiritual well-being was more than others (ß = 0.209). Considering bed as one of the most vital physical, mental, and emotional needs, it is very important in mental and spiritual well-being of hemodialysis patients as an influencing factor in mental relaxation and reducing disease tensions. Paying attention to sleep quality and spiritual well-being components of hemodialysis patients in formulating and promoting healthcare programs is recommended.

  7. A Trial of Extending Hemodialysis Hours and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Meg J; Zuo, Li; Gray, Nicholas A; de Zoysa, Janak R; Chan, Christopher T; Gallagher, Martin P; Monaghan, Helen; Grieve, Stuart M; Puranik, Rajesh; Lin, Hongli; Eris, Josette M; Zhang, Ling; Xu, Jinsheng; Howard, Kirsten; Lo, Serigne; Cass, Alan; Perkovic, Vlado

    2017-06-01

    The relationship between increased hemodialysis hours and patient outcomes remains unclear. We randomized (1:1) 200 adult recipients of standard maintenance hemodialysis from in-center and home-based hemodialysis programs to extended weekly (≥24 hours) or standard (target 12-15 hours, maximum 18 hours) hemodialysis hours for 12 months. The primary outcome was change in quality of life from baseline assessed by the EuroQol 5 dimension instrument (3 level) (EQ-5D). Secondary outcomes included medication usage, clinical laboratory values, vascular access events, and change in left ventricular mass index. At 12 months, median weekly hemodialysis hours were 24.0 (interquartile range, 23.6-24.0) and 12.0 (interquartile range, 12.0-16.0) in the extended and standard groups, respectively. Change in EQ-5D score at study end did not differ between groups (mean difference, 0.04 [95% confidence interval, -0.03 to 0.11]; P =0.29). Extended hours were associated with lower phosphate and potassium levels and higher hemoglobin levels. Blood pressure (BP) did not differ between groups at study end. Extended hours were associated with fewer BP-lowering agents and phosphate-binding medications, but were not associated with erythropoietin dosing. In a substudy with 95 patients, we detected no difference between groups in left ventricular mass index (mean difference, -6.0 [95% confidence interval, -14.8 to 2.7] g/m 2 ; P =0.18). Five deaths occurred in the extended group and two in the standard group ( P =0.44); two participants in each group withdrew consent. Similar numbers of patients experienced vascular access events in the two groups. Thus, extending weekly hemodialysis hours did not alter overall EQ-5D quality of life score, but was associated with improvement in some laboratory parameters and reductions in medication burden. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00649298). Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections in Patients on Emergent Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Moreno, Christian A; Spiegel, Daniel; Yalamanchili, Venkata; Kuo, Elizabeth; Quinones, Henry; Sreeramoju, Pranavi V; Luby, James P

    2016-03-01

    This study had 2 objectives: (1) to describe the epidemiology of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who have no access to scheduled dialysis and (2) to evaluate whether a positive culture of the heparin-lock solution is associated with subsequent development of bacteremia. Retrospective observational cohort design for objective 1; and prospective cohort design for objective 2. The study was conducted in a 770-bed public academic tertiary hospital in Dallas, Texas. The participants were patients with ESRD undergoing scheduled or emergent hemodialysis. We reviewed the records of 147 patients who received hemodialysis between January 2011 and May 2011 and evaluated the rate of CRBSI in the previous 5 years. For the prospective study, we cultured the catheter heparin-lock solution in 62 consecutive patients between June 2012 and August 2012 and evaluated the incidence of CRBSI at 6 months. Of the 147 patients on emergent hemodialysis, 125 had a tunneled catheter, with a CRBSI rate of 2.61 per 1,000 catheter days. The predominant organisms were Gram-negative rods (GNR). In the prospective study, we found that the dialysis catheter was colonized more frequently in patients on emergent hemodialysis than in those on scheduled hemodialysis. Colonization with GNR or Staphylococcus aureus was associated with subsequent CRBSI at 6 months follow-up. Patients undergoing emergent hemodialysis via tunneled catheter are predisposed to Gram-negative CRBSI. Culturing the heparin-lock solution may predict subsequent episodes of CRBSI if it shows colonization with GNR or Staphylococcus aureus. Prevention approaches in this population need to be studied further.

  9. Hemodialysis as a treatment of severe accidental hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Caluwé, Rogier; Vanholder, Raymond; Dhondt, Annemieke

    2010-03-01

    We describe a case of severe accidental hypothermia (core body temperature 23.2 degrees C) successfully treated with hemodialysis in a diabetic patient with preexisting renal insufficiency. Consensus exists about cardiopulmonary bypass as the treatment of choice in cases of severe accidental hypothermia with cardiac arrest. Prospective randomized controlled trials comparing the different rewarming modalities for hemodynamically stable patients with hypothermia, however, are lacking. In our opinion, the choice of a rewarming technique should be patient tailored, knowing that hemodialysis is an efficient, minimally invasive, and readily available technique with the advantage of providing electrolyte support.

  10. Benefits of a holistic breathing technique in patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Ruth; Leither, Thomas W; Sindelir, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    Health-related quality of life and heart rate variability are often depressed in patients on hemodialysis. This pilot program used a simple holistic, self-directed breathing technique designed to improve heart rate variability, with the hypothesis that improving heart rate variability would subsequently enhance health-related quality of life. Patient self-reported benefits included reductions in anxiety, fatigue, insomnia, and pain. Using holistic physiologic techniques may offer a unique and alternative tool for nurses to help increase health-related quality of life in patients on hemodialysis.

  11. Quality of Life and Self-Efficacy in Three Dialysis Modalities: Incenter Hemodialysis, Home Hemodialysis, and Home Peritoneal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Linda S; Wilson, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated improved outcomes for patients on dialysis who have better quality of life and self-efficacy, but has focused almost exclusively on those receiving hemodialysis. The goal of this study was to describe the quality of life and self-efficacy of patients receiving incenter hemodialysis versus those receiving a home dialysis modality (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis). The study utilized a correlational cross-sectional design and quota sampling methods. Participants were recruited from outpatient dialysis facilities and included 77 community dwelling adult patients who had been on dialysis for at least six months. Quality of life was measured using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life instrument, and self-efficacy was measured using the Strategies Used by People to Promote Health instrument. Findings suggest equal outcomes between treatment groups, with no contraindication to the use of home therapies.

  12. [Incremental approach to hemodialysis: twice a week, or once weekly hemodialysis combined with low-protein low-phosphorus diet?].

    PubMed

    Bolasco, Piergiorgio; Caria, Stefania; Egidi, Maria Francesca; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2015-01-01

    The start of dialysis treatment is a critical step in the care management of chronic renal failure patients. When hemodialysis is performed three times a week, rapid loss of kidney function and of urine volume output generally occur and this represents an unfavorable prognostic factor. Instead, reducing frequency of hemodialysis sessions, as well as peritoneal dialysis, can contribute to a lesser decrease of residual renal function. Unfortunately, the existing protocols for an incremental hemodialysis approach are not particularly common and they are generally limited to a twice a week hemodialysis schedule. In addition to clinical and economic reasons, an incremental approach to ESRD also contributes to better social and psychological adaptation by the patients to the dramatic change in living conditions linked to the maintenance dialysis treatment. In patients who have attitude for low-protein nutritional therapy, a once weekly dialysis schedule combined with low-protein, low-phosphorus, normal to high energy diet in the remaining six days of the week can be implemented in selected patients. In our experience, this kind of program produced important clinical results and reduction in costs and hospitalization. When compared with a three times a week dialysis schedule, a greater protection of residual renal function and of urine volume output, lower increase in 2 microglobulin, better control of phosphorus and less consumption of phosphate binders and erythropoietin were observed. Careful clinical monitoring and nutrition is essential for the safety and optimization of infrequent hemodialysis. Long-term follow-up analysis shows favorable effects on the overall survival. Furthermore, twice a week hemodialysis is not the only option for an incremental approach of dialysis commencing. In patients who have a good attitude for low-protein nutritional therapy, its arrangement with a program of once weekly dialysis represents a real and effective alternative.

  13. The role of microphysics in the development of mesoscale areas of high winds around occluded cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, T. P.; Knippertz, P.; Blyth, A.

    2012-04-01

    Extratropical cyclones are an integral part of the weather in north-western Europe and can be associated with heavy precipitation and strong winds. While synoptic-scale aspects of these storms are often satisfactorily forecast several days in advance, mesoscale features within these systems such as bands of heavy rain or localized wind maxima, which are often the cause of the most damaging effects, are significantly less well understood and predicted by operational forecasts. Accurate predictions of the location, timing and intensity of these features are, however, highly important for the mitigation of the adverse effects that they bring. This is one of the motivations for the UK consortium DIAMET (DIAbatic influences on Mesoscale structures in ExtraTropical storms) that is focused on improving the understanding and predictability of these potentially damaging mesoscale features embedded within larger synoptic-scale extratropical storms. The project is based around a number of field campaigns using the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe146 research aircraft along with other remote and in-situ measurements. An overview of the project will be presented by Geraint Vaughan in this session. This study analyses the effects of microphysics on the mesoscale dynamics within extratropical storms, in particular the high wind areas around occluded fronts wrapped around the core of a matured cyclonic storm. It has been hypothesized that evaporation and melting of hydrometeors in this region can lead to downward momentum transport and thereby increase near-surface winds (sometimes referred to as sting jets). The main tool for this study is the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. High-resolution simulations are run for several cases from the DIAMET field campaigns to examine how the development of strong winds around occluded fronts is affected by the microphysics. The model results using different microphysics schemes are compared with the

  14. Thulium fiber laser recanalization of occluded ventricular catheters in an ex vivo tissue model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchens, Thomas C.; Gonzalez, David A.; Hardy, Luke A.; McLanahan, C. Scott; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2017-04-01

    Hydrocephalus is a chronic medical condition that occurs in individuals who are unable to reabsorb cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) created within the ventricles of the brain. Treatment requires excess CSF to be diverted from the ventricles to another part of the body, where it can be returned to the vascular system via a shunt system beginning with a catheter within the ventricle. Catheter failures due to occlusion by brain tissues commonly occur and require surgical replacement of the catheter. In this preliminary study, minimally invasive clearance of occlusions is explored using an experimental thulium fiber laser (TFL), with comparison to a conventional holmium: yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG) laser. The TFL utilizes smaller optical fibers (<200-μm OD) compared with holmium laser (>450-μm OD), providing critical extra cross-sectional space within the 1.2-mm-inner-diameter ventricular catheter for simultaneous application of an endoscope for image guidance and a saline irrigation tube for visibility and safety. TFL ablation rates using 100-μm core fiber, 33-mJ pulse energy, 500-μs pulse duration, and 20- to 200-Hz pulse rates were compared to holmium laser using a 270-μm core fiber, 325-mJ, 300-μs, and 10 Hz. A tissue occluded catheter model was prepared using coagulated egg white within clear silicone tubing. An optimal TFL pulse rate of 50 Hz was determined, with an ablation rate of 150 μm/s and temperature rise outside the catheter of ˜10°C. High-speed camera images were used to explore the mechanism for removal of occlusions. Image guidance using a miniature, 0.7-mm outer diameter, 10,000 pixel endoscope was explored to improve procedure safety. With further development, simultaneous application of TFL with small fibers, miniature endoscope for image guidance, and irrigation tube for removal of tissue debris may provide a safe, efficient, and minimally invasive method of clearing occluded catheters in the treatment of hydrocephalus.

  15. Native American medicine.

    PubMed

    Cohen, K

    1998-11-01

    This article summarizes common principles, practices, and ethics of Native American healing, the traditional medicine of North America. Native American healing, spirituality, culture, and, in modern times, political, social, and economic concerns are closely intertwined. Intuition and spiritual awareness are a healer's most essential diagnostic tools. Therapeutic methods include prayer, music, ritual purification, herbalism, massage, ceremony, and personal innovations of individual healers. A community of friends, family, and helpers often participate in the healing intervention and help to alleviate the alienation caused by disease. A healthy patient has a healthy relationship with his or her community and, ultimately, with the greater community of nature known as "All Relations." The goal of Native American healing is to find wholeness, balance, harmony, beauty, and meaning. "Healing," making whole, is as important as curing disease; at times they are identical.

  16. [Pharmacokinetics of salazosulfapyridine in a hemodialysis patient].

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yuji; Fujimaki, Toshihisa; Sakurai, Yusei

    2003-06-01

    The patient was a 62-year-old female. Total gastrectomy was performed due to gastric ulcer in 1969. She was diagnosed as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in 1985 and was developed to amyloidosis in 1991. She was started on hemodialysis (HD) for chronic renal failure in 1996. In 1998, her arthralgia was aggravated, and 100 mg/day of bucillamine was administered on the day of HD. Her arthralgia persisted, and switching to salazosulfapyridine (SASP) was considered. As there were no standards and no reports for the use of SASP in HD patients, we examined the pharmacokinetics of SASP and its metabolites, and compared our patient with the results of phase one study in normal subjects in Japan. In this case, the blood concentration of SASP was similar to that in healthy controls after single administration of 500 mg of SASP on the day of non-HD, while the concentration of sulfapyridine (SP) was higher than that in healthy donors. However, the blood concentrations of SASP, SP, and N4-acetyl-SP (AcSP) at 24 hours after administration were similar to those obtained in healthy men. SASP was not dialyzed, while about half of SP and AcSP, were dialyzed. In a five-day consecutive administration study also, the blood concentrations of these compounds on Day 5 were similar to those of phase one study, suggesting no accumulation. No adverse drug reaction was observed. As this case had the past history of total gastrectomy and amyloidosis, it is possible that this result is influenced by the factors. Therefore it is necessary to examine pharmacokinetics of SASP and its metabolites beforehand when administering this agent to other HD/RA patients.

  17. ["Getting to zero infections" in hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Gianluca; Finotto, Giuseppe; Talaia, Marinella; Nappo, Angelo; Dolla, Caterina; Di Vico, Maria Cristina; Diena, Davide; Linsalata, Antonio; Guarena, Cesare; Barbaro, Silvana; Biancone, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    We describe two measures adopted in hemodialysis outpatient population in order to reduce Central Venous Catheter (CVC) related infections. The first is a nurse staff training in the field project and the second deals with the employment of chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing devices. These actions were performed after high infection rates were observed through a dedicated register. In the limited assistance dialysis center, direct observation (12/2012-02/2013) quantified the gap between the observed and expected health care behaviour. Training needs were defined and a 40 hours nurse staff training in the field was performed on two occasions. In the hospital dialysis center, we introduced alcoholic 2% chlorhexidine solution and chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing devices to the exit site (CHG-Tegaderm and BioPatch). Infections (cumulatively bacteremia/sepsis/skin exit/subcutaneous tunnel) were monitored continuously. Infection rates at the two locations were progressively reduced, reaching a value of zero at the limited assistance center. Nurse staff training in the field produced: two patient reports and three CVC management protocols, Italian language translation of the "The 5 moments of dialysis" WHO poster, alcoholic 2% chlorhexidine adoption to exit-site medication and improvement of environment cleaning/sanitation actions. Our experience shows that continuously monitoring infection rates represents the first step for timely corrective action. The continuous updating of health personnel, codified prevention measures and an ongoing commitment to raise awareness in a routine practice, allows us to obtain the goal of "getting to zero infections". The staff training produced equal or superior results compared to the isolated use of new chlorhexidine-impregnated dressing devices.

  18. Complications Following Balloon-Occluded Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy for Pelvic Malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Sugimoto, Koji; Hirota, Shozo; Imanaka, Kazufumi

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and causes of complications associated with balloon-occluded arterial infusion chemotherapy (BOAI) for pelvic malignancies. Methods: In 34 courses of BOAI in 22 patients with pelvic malignancies, we analyzed the incidence of complications as well as the effect of the dose of the anticancer drugs, the infusion site, and the number of BOAI administrations on these complications. Complications were divided into two categories: cystitis-like symptoms and neurological complications such as pain, numbness, and paresthesia of the lower extremities and the hip. Results: Eleven patients (50%) suffered from complications, seven (31.8%) from neurological complications and four (18.2%)more » from cystitis-like symptoms. The complications appeared in 14 courses (42.4%) of BOAI, neurological complications in 10 (30.3%) and cystitis-like symptoms in four (12.1%). A high dose of anti-cancer drugs and infusion from the anterior division tended to induce neurological complications more frequently; however, the cystitis-like symptoms were not related to any factors. Conclusion: Our results indicate that a smaller dose of anti-cancer drugs should be infused from the bilateral internal iliac arteries for safer pelvic BOAI.« less

  19. Expertise differences in anticipatory judgements during a temporally and spatially occluded task.

    PubMed

    Causer, Joe; Smeeton, Nicholas J; Williams, A Mark

    2017-01-01

    There is contradictory evidence surrounding the role of critical cues in the successful anticipation of penalty kicks in soccer. In the current study, skilled and less-skilled soccer goalkeepers were required to anticipate when viewing penalty kicks that were both spatially (full body; hip region) and temporally (-160 ms, -80 ms before, foot-ball contact) occluded. The skilled group outperformed the less-skilled group in all conditions. Participants performed better in the full body condition when compared to hip region condition. Performance in the hip only condition was significantly better than chance for the skilled group across all occlusion conditions. However, the less-skilled group were no better than chance in the hip condition for the early occlusion points when predicting direction and height. Later temporal occlusion conditions were associated with increased performance both in the correct response and correct direction analyses, but not for correct height. These data suggest that postural information solely from the hip region may be used by skilled goalkeepers to make accurate predictions of penalty kick direction, however, information from other sources are needed in order to make predictions of height. Findings demonstrate how the importance of anticipation cues evolve over time, which has implications for the design of training programs to enhance perceptual-cognitive skill.

  20. Differential Adsorption of Occluded and Nonoccluded Insect-Pathogenic Viruses to Soil-Forming Minerals

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Peter D.; Richards, Andrew R.; Williams, Trevor

    2006-01-01

    Soil represents the principal environmental reservoir of many insect-pathogenic viruses. We compared the adsorption and infectivity of one occluded and two nonoccluded viruses, Helicoverpa armigera single nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaSNPV) (Baculoviridae), Cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) (Dicistroviridae), and Invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV-6) (Iridoviridae), respectively, in mixtures with a selection of soil-forming minerals. The relative infective titers of HaSNPV and CrPV were unchanged or slightly reduced in the presence of different minerals compared to their titers in the absence of the mineral. In contrast, the infective titer of IIV-6 varied according to the mineral being tested. In adsorption studies, over 98% of HaSNPV occlusion bodies were adsorbed by all the minerals, and a particularly high affinity was observed with ferric oxide, attapulgite, and kaolinite. In contrast, the adsorption of CrPV and IIV-6 differed markedly with mineral type, with low affinity to bentonites and high affinity to ferric oxide and kaolinite. We conclude that interactions between soil-forming minerals and insect viruses appear to be most important in nucleopolyhedroviruses, followed by invertebrate iridescent viruses, and least important in CrPV, which may reflect the ecology of these pathogens. Moreover, soils with a high content of iron oxides or kaolinite would likely represent highly effective reservoirs for insect-pathogenic viruses. PMID:16820456

  1. Laser scoop desobliteration: a method for minimally invasive remote recanalization of chronically occluded superficial femoral arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heneweer, Carola; Siggelkow, Markus; Helle, Michael; Petzina, Rainer; Wulff, Asmus; Schaefer, Joost P.; Berndt, Rouven; Rusch, Rene; Wedel, Thilo; Klaws, Guenther; Müller-Gerbl, Magdalena; Röcken, Christoph; Jansen, Olav; Lutter, Georg; Cremer, Joachim; Groß, Justus

    2015-02-01

    Stenosis and occlusion of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) are most common in arterial occlusive disease. There are numerous interventional, surgical, and combined approaches to reconstitute maximum blood supply to the lower limb; however, despite intense clinical research, the long-term success rates are still poor. We present the first results with a catheter prototype for laser-based minimal invasive endarterectomy, called laser scoop desobliteration (LSD). The tip of a glass fiber containing a catheter was modified with a spatula head design and connected to an ultraviolet laser. It was tested in cadavers fixed with the Thiel embalming technique preserving tissue consistency, flexibility, and plasticity. After longitudinal arteriotomy of the SFA, a circular dissection between media and adventitia was performed. Then the LSD catheter was inserted and propagated with a progress of 1 mm/s. Afterward, the atheroma core, which showed a plain surface without substantial attaching tissue debris, was removed. Histological examination of the vessel wall showed that the dissection was performed at the media/adventitia interface. In summary, the constructed LSD catheter allowed a rapid and easy way to perform an endarterectomy, thereby offering an innovative approach in the treatment of chronic occluded SFA.

  2. Balloon-Occluded Carbon Dioxide Gas Angiography for Internal Iliac Arteriography and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Kishino, Mitsuhiro; Nakaminato, Shuichiro; Kitazume, Yoshio; Miyasaka, Naoyuki; Kudo, Toshifumi; Saida, Yukihisa; Tateishi, Ukihide

    2018-07-01

    The usefulness of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) gas digital subtraction angiography (DSA) has been reported for patients with renal insufficiency and allergy to iodinated contrast agents. However, CO 2 gas cannot replace the iodinated contrast agent in all cases owing to some disadvantages. We describe balloon-occluded CO 2 DSA (B-CO 2 DSA) as an improved CO 2 DSA procedure for interventions in the internal iliac artery (IIA) region and compare the quality of images obtained using conventional CO 2 DSA and B-CO 2 DSA. B-CO 2 DSA-guided embolization was performed for one case of genital bleeding with an acute anaphylactic reaction to the iodinated contrast agent and for three cases of type II endoleaks after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair with renal dysfunction. A 9-mm occlusion balloon catheter was placed just after the orifice of the IIA. Then, 10-15 ml of CO 2 gas was injected manually via the catheter with and without balloon occlusion. The quality of sequential digital subtraction angiograms was analyzed based on a scoring criterion. In all four cases, image quality was improved with B-CO 2 DSA; the poor quality of images without balloon occlusion was because of reflux of the CO 2 gas. B-CO 2 DSA improves the image quality of CO 2 DSA in the IIA region and is useful for vascular intervention. Level IV.

  3. Transcatheter closure of moderate-to-large patent ductus arteriosus in infants using Amplatzer duct occluder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jou-Kou; Wu, Mei-Hwan; Lin, Ming-Tai; Chiu, Shuenn-Nan; Chen, Chun-An; Chiu, Hsin-Hui

    2010-02-01

    There are difficulties in transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in infants. The 46 infants (mean age 6.2+/-2.7 months; mean body weight 6.3+/-1.6 kg) who underwent PDA closure using the Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO). The indication for using an ADO was a ductus diameter > or =2.5 or 3 mm. Device diameter selected was 1-3 mm larger than ductal diameter. The mean systolic pulmonary artery pressure was 40.9+/-18.2 mmHg. The mean Qp/Qs ratio was 3.1+/-1.2. The mean ductus diameter was 3.3+/-0.8 mm. ADO was successfully deployed in 45 patients. Failure occurred in 1 case. The mean diameter of device used was 5.4+/-1.1 mm. No severe complications occurred. At the 1-month echocardiographic follow-up, a small residual shunt was present in 4 of 45 patients and had disappeared in all 4 patients at the 3-month follow-up. One patient developed a moderate degree of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction 2.3 years after the procedure. Transcatheter closure of PDA in infants using the ADO is a safe and effective method.

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract Voice Therapy Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Eric J.; Kirkham, Kimberly; Cox, Karin; Titze, Ingo R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although there is a long history of use of semi-occluded vocal tract gestures in voice therapy, including phonation through thin tubes or straws, the efficacy of phonation through tubes has not been established. This study compares results from a therapy program on the basis of phonation through a flow-resistant tube (FRT) with Vocal Function Exercises (VFE), an established set of exercises that utilize oral semi-occlusions. Method Twenty subjects (16 women, 4 men) with dysphonia and/or vocal fatigue were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment conditions: (a) immediate FRT therapy, (b) immediate VFE therapy, (c) delayed FRT therapy, or (d) delayed VFE therapy. Subjects receiving delayed therapy served as a no-treatment control group. Results Voice Handicap Index (Jacobson et al., 1997) scores showed significant improvement for both treatment groups relative to the no-treatment group. Comparison of the effect sizes suggests FRT therapy is noninferior to VFE in terms of reduction in Voice Handicap Index scores. Significant reductions in Roughness on the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (Kempster, Gerratt, Verdolini Abbott, Barkmeier-Kraemer, & Hillman, 2009) were found for the FRT subjects, with no other significant voice quality findings. Conclusions VFE and FRT therapy may improve voice quality of life in some individuals with dysphonia. FRT therapy was noninferior to VFE in improving voice quality of life in this study. PMID:25675335

  5. Controlling the hydration of the skin though the application of occluding barrier creams

    PubMed Central

    Sparr, Emma; Millecamps, Danielle; Isoir, Muriel; Burnier, Véronique; Larsson, Åsa; Cabane, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The skin is a barrier membrane that separates environments with profoundly different water contents. The barrier properties are assured by the outer layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC), which controls the transepidermal water loss. The SC acts as a responding membrane, since its hydration and permeability vary with the boundary condition, which is the activity of water at the outer surface of the skin. We show how this boundary condition can be changed by the application of a barrier cream that makes a film with a high resistance to the transport of water. We present a quantitative model that predicts hydration and water transport in SC that is covered by such a film. We also develop an experimental method for measuring the specific resistance to water transport of films made of occluding barrier creams. Finally, we combine the theoretical model with the measured properties of the barrier creams to predict how a film of cream changes the activity of water at the outer surface of the SC. Using the known variations of SC permeability and hydration with the water activity in its environment (i.e. the relative humidity), we can thus predict how a film of barrier cream changes SC hydration. PMID:23269846

  6. Controlling the hydration of the skin though the application of occluding barrier creams.

    PubMed

    Sparr, Emma; Millecamps, Danielle; Isoir, Muriel; Burnier, Véronique; Larsson, Åsa; Cabane, Bernard

    2013-03-06

    The skin is a barrier membrane that separates environments with profoundly different water contents. The barrier properties are assured by the outer layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC), which controls the transepidermal water loss. The SC acts as a responding membrane, since its hydration and permeability vary with the boundary condition, which is the activity of water at the outer surface of the skin. We show how this boundary condition can be changed by the application of a barrier cream that makes a film with a high resistance to the transport of water. We present a quantitative model that predicts hydration and water transport in SC that is covered by such a film. We also develop an experimental method for measuring the specific resistance to water transport of films made of occluding barrier creams. Finally, we combine the theoretical model with the measured properties of the barrier creams to predict how a film of cream changes the activity of water at the outer surface of the SC. Using the known variations of SC permeability and hydration with the water activity in its environment (i.e. the relative humidity), we can thus predict how a film of barrier cream changes SC hydration.

  7. Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Gastric Varices: Concept, Basic Techniques, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Wael E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with gastric variceal bleeding require a multidisciplinary team approach including hepatologists, endoscopists, diagnostic radiologists, and interventional radiologists. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is the first-line diagnostic and management tool for bleeding gastric varices, as it is in all upper gastrointestinal bleeding scenarios. In the United States when endoscopy fails to control gastric variceal bleeding, a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) traditionally is performed along the classic teachings of decompressing the portal circulation. However, TIPS has not shown the same effectiveness in controlling gastric variceal bleeding that it has with esophageal variceal bleeding. For the past 2 decades, the balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) procedure has become common practice in Asia for the management of gastric varices. BRTO is gaining popularity in the United States. It has been shown to be effective in controlling gastric variceal bleeding with low rebleed rates. BRTO has many advantages over TIPS in that it is less invasive and can be performed on patients with poor hepatic reserve and those with encephalopathy (and may even improve both). However, its by-product is occlusion of a spontaneous hepatofugal (TIPS equivalent) shunt, and thus it is contradictory to the traditional American doctrine of portal decompression. Indeed, BRTO causes an increase in portal hypertension, with potential aggravation of esophageal varices and ascites. This article discusses the concept, technique, and outcomes of BRTO within the broader management of gastric varices. PMID:23729982

  8. Holographic quantitative imaging of sample hidden by turbid medium or occluding objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, V.; Miccio, L.; Merola, F.; Memmolo, P.; Gennari, O.; Paturzo, Melania; Netti, P. A.; Ferraro, P.

    2015-03-01

    Digital Holography (DH) numerical procedures have been developed to allow imaging through turbid media. A fluid is considered turbid when dispersed particles provoke strong light scattering, thus destroying the image formation by any standard optical system. Here we show that sharp amplitude imaging and phase-contrast mapping of object hidden behind turbid medium and/or occluding objects are possible in harsh noise conditions and with a large field-of view by Multi-Look DH microscopy. In particular, it will be shown that both amplitude imaging and phase-contrast mapping of cells hidden behind a flow of Red Blood Cells can be obtained. This allows, in a noninvasive way, the quantitative evaluation of living processes in Lab on Chip platforms where conventional microscopy techniques fail. The combination of this technique with endoscopic imaging can pave the way for the holographic blood vessel inspection, e.g. to look for settled cholesterol plaques as well as blood clots for a rapid diagnostics of blood diseases.

  9. RETINAL DEEP CAPILLARY ISCHEMIA ASSOCIATED WITH AN OCCLUDED CONGENITAL RETINAL MACROVESSEL.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Taiji; Ogata, Nahoko

    2017-01-01

    To report the case of a patient with an occluded congenital retinal macrovessel accompanied by retinal deep capillary ischemia. A 38-year-old woman presented with a 2-day history of a paracentral scotoma of her right eye. Fundus photograph showed a dilated congenital retinal macrovessel with arteriovenous anastomosis, an intravascular white region indicating the thrombus at arteriovenous anastomotic region, and an area of retinal whitening temporal to the fovea. The spectral domain optical coherence tomography images through the area of retinal whitening showed a thickening and highly reflectivity at the level of the inner nuclear layer, which is likely due to the deep capillary ischemia. After 6 weeks, spectral domain optical coherence tomography images through the same area demonstrated a thinning and atrophy of only the inner nuclear layer, and the patient's paracentral scotoma persisted. Acute capillary hemodynamic changes caused deep capillary ischemia. The spectral domain optical coherence tomography showed a highly reflective lesion at the level of the inner nuclear layer in the acute phase.

  10. Sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to venous distension in an occluded limb.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Leuenberger, Urs A; Gao, Zhaohui; Sinoway, Lawrence I

    2011-12-01

    We recently showed that a fixed volume (i.e., 40 ml) of saline infused into the venous circulation of an arterially occluded vascular bed increases muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and blood pressure. In the present report, we hypothesized that the volume and rate of infusion would influence the magnitude of the sympathetic response. Blood pressure, heart rate, and MSNA were assessed in 13 young healthy subjects during forearm saline infusions (arrested circulation). The effects of different volumes of saline (i.e., 2%, 3%, 4%, or 5% forearm volume at 30 ml/min) and different rates of infusion (i.e., 5% forearm volume at 10, 20, or 30 ml/min) were evaluated. MSNA and blood pressure responses were linked with the infusion volume. Infusion of 5% of forearm volume evoked greater MSNA responses than did infusion of 2% of forearm volume (Δ11.6 ± 1.9 vs. Δ3.1 ± 1.8 bursts/min and Δ332 ± 105 vs. Δ38 ± 32 units/min, all P < 0.05). Moreover, greater MSNA responses were evoked by saline infusion at 30 ml/min than 10 ml/min (P < 0.05). Sonographic measurements confirmed that the saline infusions induced forearm venous distension. The results suggest that volume and rate of saline infusion are important factors in evoking sympathetic activation. We postulate that venous distension contributes to cardiovascular autonomic adjustment in humans.

  11. Gonioscopy findings and prevalence of occludable angles in a Burmese population: the Meiktila Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Casson, R J; Newland, H S; Muecke, J; McGovern, S; Abraham, L M; Shein, W K; Selva, D; Aung, T

    2007-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of preglaucomatous angle-closure disease in central Myanmar. A population-based survey of inhabitants >or=40 years in the Meiktila District was carried out; 2481 subjects were identified, 2076 participated and 2060 underwent gonioscopy of at least one eye. Eyes with angles traditionally described as "occludable" were recorded as primary angle-closure suspects (PACS); eyes with PACS and peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS), or an increased intraocular pressure but without primary angle-closure glaucoma, were recorded as primary angle closure (PAC). The prevalence of PACS in at least one eye was 5.7% (95% CI 4.72 to 6.62); prevalence increased with age and was more common in women (p<0.001). The prevalence of PAC in at least one eye was 1.50% (95% CI 1.47 to 1.53). All participants with PAS had at least 90 degrees of closure (range 90-360 degrees). The prevalence of preglaucomatous angle-closure disease (PACS and PAC) in this population was 5.7% and 1.5%, respectively. PACS was more common in women, and its prevalence increased with age.

  12. Laser restoration of flow in occluded ventricular shunts for pediatric neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christens-Barry, William A.; Guarnieri, Michael; Carson, Benjamin S.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the use of short pulses of infrared ((lambda) equals 2.09 micrometers ) light from a Ho:YAG laser to photofragment occlusions and restore flow in ventricular shunts, which provide the sole means of maintaining proper intracranial pressure in hydrocephalus patients. These experiments employed model tissues, a polymeric model compound, and patient explants in order to determine appropriate pulse energies and delivery rates for removal of occlusions material. Laser energy doses and rates of occlusion removal were established for these materials. Laser energy doses that do not damage the shunt device or surrounding tissue were identified. Optical fibers (25 ga. or smaller) can be introduced through the dome of current shunt devices and threaded to the occlusion site. Clinical application will require the continued development of an introducer tool for the transcutaneous insertion of the optical fiber into the shunt device and irrigation techniques for removing the occlusion detritus generated by photofragmentation treatment. Using this approach, a minimally invasive and benign procedure for in situ restoration of flow in occluded neurological implant devices becomes possible.

  13. Native plant diversity increases herbivory to non-natives

    PubMed Central

    Pearse, Ian S.; Hipp, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    There is often an inverse relationship between the diversity of a plant community and the invasibility of that community by non-native plants. Native herbivores that colonize novel plants may contribute to diversity–invasibility relationships by limiting the relative success of non-native plants. Here, we show that, in large collections of non-native oak trees at sites across the USA, non-native oaks introduced to regions with greater oak species richness accumulated greater leaf damage than in regions with low oak richness. Underlying this trend was the ability of herbivores to exploit non-native plants that were close relatives to their native host. In diverse oak communities, non-native trees were on average more closely related to native trees and received greater leaf damage than those in depauperate oak communities. Because insect herbivores colonize non-native plants that are similar to their native hosts, in communities with greater native plant diversity, non-natives experience greater herbivory. PMID:25232143

  14. Liver enzymes in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Liberato, Isabella Ramos de Oliveira; Lopes, Edmundo Pessoa de Almeida; Cavalcante, Maria Alina Gomes de Mattos; Pinto, Tiago Costa; Moura, Izolda Fernades; Loureiro Júnior, Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to analyze the serum levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and the hematocrit in patients with chronic kidney disease who were undergoing peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis. Twenty patients on peritoneal dialysis and 40 on hemodialysis were assessed, and the patients were matched according to the length of time that they had been on dialysis. Blood samples were collected (both before and after the session for those on hemodialysis) to measure the enzymes and the hematocrit. In the samples from the patients who were undergoing peritoneal dialysis, the aspartate and alanine aminotransferase levels were slightly higher compared with the samples collected from the patients before the hemodialysis session and slightly lower compared with the samples collected after the hemodialysis session. The levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase in the hemodialysis patients were slightly higher than the levels in the patients who were undergoing peritoneal dialysis. In addition, the levels of aminotransferases and gamma-glutamyl transferase that were collected before the hemodialysis session were significantly lower than the values collected after the session. The hematocrit levels were significantly lower in the patients who were on peritoneal dialysis compared with the patients on hemodialysis (both before and after the hemodialysis session), and the levels were also significantly lower before hemodialysis compared with after hemodialysis. The aminotransferase levels in the patients who were undergoing peritoneal dialysis were slightly higher compared with the samples collected before the hemodialysis session, whereas the aminotransferase levels were slightly lower compared with the samples collected after the session. The hematocrits and the aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels of the samples collected after the hemodialysis session were significantly higher than the samples collected before

  15. [Ergometric results of r-erythropoietin treatment of hemodialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Hortian, B; Schmidt, R; Wüstenberg, P W; Dörp, E; Schumann, L; Winkler, R; Klinkmann, H

    1990-05-15

    To investigate the effect of partial correction of anemia in patients maintained by chronic intermittent hemodialysis on exercise capacity, patients underwent a bicycle acido-ergometry before and after treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin. The results demonstrate a (subjective) improvement of exercise capacity without any evidence for that in the pH values.

  16. Implementation and Analysis of Hemodialysis in the Unit Operations Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madihally, Sundararajan V.; Lewis, Randy S.

    2007-01-01

    To enhance bioengineering in the chemical engineering curriculum, a Unit Operations experiment simulating the hemodialysis of creatinine was implemented. The blood toxin creatinine was used for developing a more realistic dialysis experiment. A dialysis model is presented that allows students to assess the validity of model assumptions. This work…

  17. Uncemented total hip arthroplasty in chronic hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Chun; Shih, Chun-Hsiung; Ueng, Steve W; Shih, Hsin-Nung; Lee, Mel S

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Whether or not uncemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) can achieve durable fixation of implants to bone in patients on chronic hemodialysis is unknown. We analyzed the 2–13-year clinical outcomes of cementless THA in patients with end-stage renal diseases who were maintained on long-term hemodialysis. Patients and methods We reviewed the outcome of 23 consecutive uncemented THAs undertaken between 1993 and 2004, in patients with chronic renal failure who had been on long-term hemodialysis (2–18 years). 1 patient died and 2 patients were lost to follow-up within 2 years, leaving 20 hips (20 patients, median age 66 (38–81) years at the time of THA, 11 females) that were reviewed at median 7 (2–13) years postoperatively. Results Radiographic bone-ingrowth fixation of the components was found in 19 patients. 1 patient had aseptic loosening requiring revision surgery. The median d'Aubigne and Postel score was 10 (8–14) preoperatively and 15 (12–18) at final review. No prosthetic infections were found in any of the patients. Interpretation Uncemented THA shows promising medium-term results in patients receiving long-term hemodialysis. PMID:20175645

  18. Methotrexate for rheumatoid arthritis patients who are on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Al-Hasani, Hasanein; Roussou, Euthalia

    2011-12-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) can be toxic to patients suffering from end stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis even at low doses. This increase in toxicity is more notable in terms of bone marrow suppression in the form of pancytopenia. Many methods of elimination including dialysis itself have been proven ineffective, and alternate treatments with anti-TNF alpha blockers can be considered.

  19. 21 CFR 876.5820 - Hemodialysis system and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... chair without a scale, the dialyzer holder set, dialysis tie gun and ties, and hemodialysis start/stop..., dialyzer holder set, and dialysis tie gun and ties. The devices subject to this paragraph (b)(2) are exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of part 807 of this chapter subject to the...

  20. Second-Degree Interatrial Block in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Enriquez, Andres; D'Amato, Anna; de Luna, Antoni Bayes; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Interatrial conduction delays manifest as a prolonged P-wave duration on surface ECG and the term interatrial block (IAB) has been coined. They are usually fixed, but cases of intermittent IAB have been described, suggesting functional conduction block at the Bachmann bundle region. We report 2 cases of patients on chronic hemodialysis therapy presenting with intermittent IAB. PMID:25755895

  1. Recurrent white thrombi formation in hemodialysis tubing: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Kiran P; Yeo, Wee-Song; Liu, Isaac Desheng; Ekambaram, Sudha; Azar, Mohammed; Yap, Hui-Kim; Ng, Kar-Hui

    2015-01-15

    While the appearance of red clots in the dialyzer is a common phenomenon in every hemodialysis unit, the occurrence of white thrombi in the tubing is relatively rare. We describe an adolescent male with recurrent white thrombi formation in the hemodialysis tubing. This patient had chronic renal failure from focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, but was no longer nephrotic at the time of the thrombi formation. He had a history of recurrent thrombosis of his vascular access. However, no pro-thrombotic risk factors could be identified. White particulate matter, measuring 1 to 3mm in size, and adherent to the arterial and venous blood tubing lines was found during the rinse back of a hemodialysis session. This was associated with a 60% decrease in his platelet count. Light microscopic examination of the deposits revealed the presence of platelet aggregates. He subsequently developed thrombosis of his arteriovenous graft six hours later. The white thrombi recurred at the next dialysis session, as well as six months later. These episodes occurred regardless of the type of dialysis machine or tubing, and appeared to resolve with an increase in heparin dose. Recurrent white thrombi formation can occur in the hemodialysis tubing of a patient with no identifiable pro-thrombotic factors. The white thrombi may be a harbinger of arteriovenous graft thrombosis and may be prevented by an increase in heparin dose.

  2. Contracting with outpatient hemodialysis patients to improve adherence to treatment.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, J K; Beeken, J E; Whitney, F W; Reyes, A A

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between contingency contracting and adherence to prescribed therapy in outpatient chronic hemodialysis patients. A quasi-experimental, pretest/posttest design was used. The sample included 15 hemodialysis patients, 6 in the phosphorus group and 9 in the weight-gain group. The study was conducted at an outpatient hemodialysis center in a Midwestern rural state. Specific variables investigated were interdialytic weight gains and serum phosphorus levels that reflect adherence to fluid restrictions and to taking phosphate-binding medications. Weekly interviews were conducted with each patient and content analysis of interview data was completed to identify categories related to adherence and nonadherence. Pre- and postcontract weight gains and phosphorus levels were analyzed with a paired two sample t-test. The categories related to adherence and nonadherence included physiological, psychological, environmental, locus of control/self-control/self-praise, economical, medical, knowledge deficit, health benefits, family support, and social support. Adherence to taking phosphate-binding medication responded more favorably to contingency contracting than did adherence to fluid restrictions. Chronic outpatient hemodialysis patients in the sample responded to the use of contingency contracting and developed techniques to remember to take phosphate-binding medications in order to lower serum phosphorus medications.

  3. Patient perspectives on fluid management in chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kimberly; Coston, Melinda; Glock, Kimberly; Elasy, Tom A; Wallston, Kenneth A; Ikizler, T Alp; Cavanaugh, Kerri L

    2010-09-01

    We sought to describe the perspectives and experiences of chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients regarding self-care and adherence to fluid restrictions. Semistructured focus groups. Two outpatient hemodialysis centers. Nineteen patients on chronic hemodialysis. Patients were asked a series of open-ended questions to encourage discussion about the management of fluid restriction within the broad categories of general knowledge, knowledge sources or barriers, beliefs and attitudes, self-efficacy, emotion, and self-care skills. We analyzed session transcripts using the theoretical framework of content analysis to identify themes generated by the patients. Patients discussed both facilitators and barriers to fluid restriction, which we categorized into six themes: knowledge, self-assessment, psychological factors, social, physical, and environmental. Psychological factors were the most common barriers to fluid restriction adherence, predominantly involving lack of motivation. Knowledge was the most discussed facilitator with accurate self-assessment, positive psychological factors, and supportive social contacts also playing a role. Dialysis providers were most commonly described as the source of dialysis information (54%), but learning through personal experience was also frequently noted (28%). Interventions to improve fluid restriction adherence of chronic hemodialysis patients should target motivational issues, assess and improve patient knowledge, augment social support, and facilitate accurate self-assessment of fluid status. (c) 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rebuilding Native American Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyhis, Don; Simonelli, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Wellbriety Movement in Native American communities draws on the wisdom and participation of traditional elders. Beginning with a basic community teaching called the Four Laws of Change and the Healing Forest Model, the Wellbriety Movement blends Medicine Wheel knowledge with the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous to provide culture-specific…

  5. Native American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs

    1990-01-01

    Examines an 1876 letter from a missionary to Ferdinand V. Hayden in the context of the U.S. government's policy of instituting religious education and training for Native Americans. Provides a photocopy of the letter and outlines class activities designed to help students analyze the document. (DB)

  6. The Native American Speaks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromberg, Walter; And Others

    This publication is the product of several workshops and is aimed at multi-ethnic integration of teacher attitudes, curriculum content, and teaching techniques. The 7 articles and 3 bibliographies, contributed by Native American consultants, emphasize recognition and alteration of bias in teacher attitudes, curriculum content, and teaching…

  7. Native American Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, Carl D., Comp.; And Others

    Focusing on the Southeastern American Indian cultures, this Native American resource guide is designed for use in the elementary and secondary schools of the East Baton Rouge Parish and is a product of a 1975 Indian Advisory Committee composed of Indian parents, teachers, and staff members. Objectives of these materials require the Indian student,…

  8. Native American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, C. Fayne; And Others

    Designed to accommodate a semester course in Native American Literature for secondary students, this teacher's guide includes a general introduction, a statement of the philosophy and goals upon which it is predicated, a nine-week block on post-Columbian literature, a nine-week block on oral literature, separate appendices for each block, a…

  9. Exploring Native American Symbolism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Phoebe

    This paper described the events and results of a workshop on Native American symbolism presented to educators and held in Kansas City, Missouri. The presenter maintained that some of the most crucial problems facing U.S. educators and students are caused by racial misunderstandings, and that the universality of artistic expression can be a vehicle…

  10. The Native American Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Russell

    1989-01-01

    Describes the American Indian "Holocaust," decimation of Indian populations following European discovery of the Americas. European and African diseases, warfare with Europeans, and genocide reduced native populations from 75 million to only a few million. Discusses population statistics and demographic effects of epidemics, continuing infection,…

  11. Amplatzer angled duct occluder for closure of patent ductus arteriosus larger than the aorta in an infant.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmi, I B; Chitra, N; Rajasri, R; Prabhudeva, A N

    2005-01-01

    Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) by Amplatzer duct occluder is the treatment of choice. However, closure of very large ducts in infants with low weight is a challenge for the interventionalist because a large device may obstruct the aorta or left pulmonary artery. Difficulty is also encountered in advancing the device around the curve of the right ventricular outflow tract toward the pulmonary artery; this curve is tight, more or less at a right angle in infants, leading to kinking of the sheath, which increases fluoroscopic time. This is the first reported case of a very large PDA (8.7 mm), larger than the aorta (8.2 mm), successfully closed by an Amplatzer angled duct occluder in an infant weighing 5 kg.

  12. NATIVE HEALTH DATABASES: NATIVE HEALTH RESEARCH DATABASE (NHRD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Native Health Databases contain bibliographic information and abstracts of health-related articles, reports, surveys, and other resource documents pertaining to the health and health care of American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Canadian First Nations. The databases provide i...

  13. Hemodialysis Hospitalizations and Readmissions: The Effects of Payment Reform

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kevin F.; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2004 the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) changed reimbursement for physicians and advanced practitioners caring for patients receiving hemodialysis from a capitated to a tiered fee-for-service system, encouraging increased face-to-face visits. This early version of a pay-for-performance initiative targeted a care process: more frequent provider visits in hemodialysis. While more frequent provider visits in hemodialysis are associated with fewer hospitalizations and re-hospitalizations, it is unknown whether encouraging more frequent visits through reimbursement policy also yielded these benefits. Study Design We used a retrospective cohort, interrupted time-series study design to examine whether the 2004 nephrologist reimbursement reform led to reduced hospitalizations and re-hospitalizations. We also used published data to estimate a range of annual economic costs associated with more frequent visits. Setting & Participants Medicare beneficiaries in the United States receiving hemodialysis in the two years prior to and following reimbursement reform. Predictor The two years following nephrologist reimbursement reform. Outcomes Odds of hospitalization and 30-day hospital readmission for all causes and fluid overload; US dollars. Results We found no significant change in all-cause hospitalization or re-hospitalization, and slight reductions in hospitalization and re-hospitalization for fluid overload following reimbursement reform; the estimated economic cost associated with additional visits ranged from $13 to $87 million per year, depending on who (physicians or advanced practitioners) spent additional time visiting patients and how much additional effort was involved. Limitations Due to limited information about how much additional time providers spent seeing patients after reimbursement reform, we could only examine a range of potential economic costs associated with the reform. Conclusions A Medicare reimbursement policy designed to

  14. Reversible primary hypothyroidism in Japanese patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Sanai, T; Inoue, T; Okamura, K; Sato, K; Yamamoto, K; Abe, T; Node, K; Tsuruya, K; Iida, M

    2008-02-01

    The presence or absence of hypothyroidism was assessed in 152 consecutive Japanese patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis. Eight patients who had undergone treatment for thyroid disease before starting hemodialysis therapy, and 3 patients with amyloidosis due to rheumatoid arthritis were excluded. Of the remaining 141 hemodialysis patients, 14 (9.9%) (9 males and 5 females, aged 69.1 A+/- 8.8 years with a mean duration of hemodialysis of 69 A+/- 51 months) were in a hypothyroid state, defined as a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level > 5 mU/l. Antithyroid peroxidase antibodies were positive in only 1 of the 14 patients, while antithyroglobulin antibodies were negative in all of these patients. After iodide restriction, the serum TSH level decreased in all the patients from a mean of 16.49 A+/- 22.80 to 4.44 A+/- 3.35 mU/l after 1 month, 4.25 A+/- 2.24 mU/l after 2 months and 3.97 A+/- 2.22 mU/l after 3 months. The 3 months of iodide restriction were also associated with decreases in systolic blood pressure (142 A+/- 19 to 125 A+/- 16 mmHg, p < 0.05), diastolic blood pressure (79 A+/- 13 to 72 A+/- 9 mmHg, p < 0.05) and thyroid gland volume estimated by ultrasonography (13.7 A+/- 6.3 to 11.6 A+/- 5.2 ml, p < 0.05). A high prevalence of reversible primary hypothyroidism was found in end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis. Retention of excess iodide may be the mechanism responsible for reversible hypothyroidism rather than immunological perturbations. It is, therefore, recommended to attempt iodide restriction before starting l-thyroxine replacement therapy.

  15. Diagnostic discordance for hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Miller, Loren G; Daar, Eric S

    2005-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with an increase in proinflammatory cytokine levels. Similar changes are seen in maintenance hemodialysis patients with malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia syndrome (MICS), which is associated with poor clinical outcomes in this population. We hypothesized that HCV transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), a sensitive qualitative molecular test for HCV RNA, may identify maintenance hemodialysis patients with HCV infection not detected by means of antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA), particularly in those with MICS. We evaluated HCV status in 314 maintenance hemodialysis patients by using HCV antibody EIA (version 2.0; Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) and HCV TMA (Bayer Diagnostics Laboratories, Berkeley, CA). Twenty-five patients (8%) were EIA positive (EIA+)/TMA+; 4 patients (1%), EIA+/TMA negative (TMA-), and 22 patients (7%), EIA-/TMA+. In the 47 TMA+ patients, the sensitivity of EIA for HCV infection was only 53%. TMA+ patients had lower albumin levels and higher tumor necrosis factor alpha and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase levels than TMA- patients. EIA+/TMA+ patients were more likely than EIA-/TMA+ or EIA-/TMA- patients to have hypoalbuminemia and higher iron and transaminase levels. Of all TMA+ patients, EIA- patients were more likely to have diabetes, be on dialysis therapy longer, and have lower liver enzyme levels and higher proinflammatory cytokine levels, including tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6. Maintenance hemodialysis patients infected with HCV according to TMA have clinical features suggestive of MICS. In this population, HCV EIA appears to have a low sensitivity for the identification of HCV infection, which may be caused by the confounding effect of MICS or other demographic or clinical factors. These apparently false-negative HCV antibody test results are seen in persons with a longer time on hemodialysis therapy, mirroring observations in other populations with serious

  16. [Perinatal complications in patients with chronic renal insufficiency on hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Rodríguez, Juan Gustavo; del Angel-García, Guadalupe

    2010-09-01

    Pregnant patients with chronic renal insufficiency treated with hemodialysis experience adverse perinatal results. To compare perinatal complications of patients with chronic renal insufficiency undergoing hemodialysis who become pregnant vs. the complications of women with chronic renal insufficiency not undergoing dialysis but who then require dialysis during gestation. Transversal and retrospective study that included three patients with chronic renal insufficiency on chronic hemodialysis who became pregnant (group A) and three patients with chronic renal insufficiency without hemodialysis at the time of conception but who required dialysis during gestation (group B). Perinatal results were compared. Statistical analysis was performed with measures of central tendency and dispersion and Student t-test. Group A had 25 sessions vs. group B with 29 hemodialysis sessions (p = 0.88). Maternal complications were anemia 100% (six cases), Cesarean delivery 83.3% (group A 2 cases vs. group B 2 cases), preeclampsia 50% (group A 2 cases vs. group B 1 case), uncontrolled hypertension 50% (group A 2 cases vs. group B 1 case), preterm delivery 50% (group A 2 cases vs. group B 1 case), transfusion 33.3% (group A 2 cases), polyhydramnios 33.3% (group A 1 case vs. group B 1 case) and abortion 16.6% (group A 1 case). Fetal complications included fetal loss 16.6% (group A 1 case), neonatal mortality 33.3% (group A 1 cases vs. group B 1 case), prematurity 50% (group A2 cases vs. group B 1 case), fetal distress 50% (group A 1 case vs. group B 2 cases), respiratory failure 33.3% (group A 2 cases) and fetal growth restriction 16.6% (group A 1 case). Frequency of perinatal complications is elevated in both groups.

  17. Short and long nightly hemodialysis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lockridge, Robert S; Pipkin, Mary

    2008-07-01

    When hemodialysis first started in the United States in the 1960s, a large percentage of patients performed their treatments at home. However, because of reimbursement issues, home hemodialysis (HHD) gradually succumbed to an in-center approach and eventually a mindset. Since the introduction of nightly HHD by Uldall and Pierratos in 1993, there has been a resurgence of interest in HHD. This paper describes the different types of home hemodialysis being performed as of December 31, 2007 in this country. Because neither the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) nor the End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Networks break down home dialysis into the different modalities, a provider questionnaire was sent out to 2 major providers, a number of mid-level providers and other providers known to do HHD. In addition, a questionnaire was sent out to 3 machine providers to obtain the number of patients using their machine for HHD as of December 31, 2007. The results showed that 91.7% of patients are dialyzing in-center, 7.3% are doing peritoneal dialysis, and 0.7% are doing HHD. Currently about 1% of ESRD patients in the United States are doing home hemodialysis. NxStage, however, has started 1000 patients in the past year on short-daily home hemodialysis. Patients are beginning to understand that there are better options than 3 times a week in-center dialysis. And as a result of the "HEMO Study," nephrologists now believe that longer and more frequent dialysis is a better therapy for ESRD patients. Therefore, promotion of HHD should become a priority for the renal community in the future.

  18. Efficacy of vitamin E-bonded polysulfone dialyzer and polysulfone dialyzer on a series of non-anticoagulant hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Torato, Toshihiro; Doi, Kent; Negishi, Kousuke; Hamasaki, Yoshifumi; Satonaka, Hiroshi; Hanafusa, Norio; Noiri, Eisei

    2013-01-01

    Non-anticoagulant hemodialysis is conducted occasionally at limited numbers of hospitals on an empirical basis. This study examines the efficacy of polysulfone and vitamin E-bonded polysulfone dialyzer for non-anticoagulant hemodialysis. These dialyzers were assigned one after the other for a vintage hemodialysis patient complicated with uncontrollable bleeding. The patient's vital and console data throughout non-anticoagulant hemodialysis were monitored serially. Both dialyzers were reasonably applicable to hemodialysis without major clotting. The scheduled treatment period was completed. Vitamin E-bonded polysulfone dialyzer was superior to non-anticoagulant hemodialysis based on venous pressure observed during treatment.

  19. Retrieval of large Occlutech Figula Flex septal defect occluders using a commercially available bioptome: proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Stanimir; Tanase, Daniel; Genz, Thomas; Ewert, Peter; Naumann, Susanne; Pozza, Robert Dalla; Eicken, Andreas

    2018-07-01

    This study aimed to develop a method for retrieval of the new meshed nitinol atrial septal defect occluders - Ceraflex and Occlutech. The newly developed atrial septal defect occluders have potential benefits considering implantation, but concerns regarding their removal in case of embolisation have been raised. Over 21 years, 1449 patients underwent interventional atrial septal defect occlusion in our institution. We reviewed the cases of embolisation of the device, developed a strategy for device removal, and tested it on the benchside and in animal tests. In 11 patients (0.8%), the intended atrial septal defect occlusion was complicated by an embolisation of the device. In contrast to the Amplatzer septal occluders, retrieval of Occlutech devices larger than 16 mm with snare techniques was impossible. In benchside tests, this was confirmed and a new method for removal of large meshed devices was developed. This involved the commercially available Maslanka® biopsy forceps. The feasibility of this technique in vivo was tested in a pig model. During animal tests, using the Maslanka biopsy forceps it was possible to interventionally retrieve embolised Ceraflex and Occlutech devices of different sizes - 10, 16, 30, and 40 mm - into a 12-F sheath. It was impossible to retrieve Occlutech and Ceraflex devices larger than 16 mm into a large sheath in vivo and during benchside tests. However, this was feasible on the bench and in vivo using the Maslanka biopsy forceps even with the largest available devices.

  20. Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop: Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2003-01-01

    The Native Peoples-Native Homelands Climate Change Workshop was held on October 28 through November 01,1998, as part of a series of workshops being held around the U.S. to improve the understanding of the potential consequences of climate variability and change for the Nation. This workshop was specifically designed by Native Peoples to examine the impacts of climate change and extreme weather variability on Native Peoples and Native Homelands from an indigenous cultural and spiritual perspective and to develop recommendations as well as identify potential response actions. The workshop brought together interested Native Peoples, representatives of Tribal governments, traditional elders, Tribal leaders, natural resource managers, Tribal College faculty and students, and climate scientists fiom government agencies and universities. It is clear that Tribal colleges and universities play a unique and critical role in the success of these emerging partnerships for decision-making in addition to the important education function for both Native and non-Native communities such as serving as a culturally-appropriate vehicle for access, analysis, control, and protection of indigenous cultural and intellectual property. During the discussions between scientists and policy-makers from both Native and non-Native communities, a number of important lessons emerged which are key to building more effective partnerships between Native and non-Native communities for collaboration and decision-making for a more sustainable future. This talk summarizes the key issues, recommendations, and lessons learned during this workshop.

  1. Grassland bird associations with introduced and native grass Conservation Reserve Program fields in the Southern High Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Thomas R.; Boal, Clint W.; Lucia, Duane

    2009-01-01

    We examined relative abundances of grassland birds among Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields seeded with 2 monocultures of introduced grass species and 2 mixes of native grasses in the Southern High Plains of Texas. We assessed bird compositions among these 4 cover types and between the cover types pooled into categories of introduced and native fields. Breeding season bird diversity and total abundance did not differ among cover types or between introduced and native fields. Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum), Cassin's Sparrows (Aimophila cassinii), and Western Meadowlarks (Sturnella neglecta) accounted for more than 90% of breeding season detections. Grasshopper Sparrows were the most abundant and found in all cover types. Cassin's Sparrows were 38% to 170% more abundant among the native seed mix without buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides) compared to 3 other cover types. Although this association was statistically lost when cover types were pooled into introduced or native fields (U = 93.5, P = 0.91), the species was still 50% more abundant among native CRP than introduced CRP fields. Meadowlarks occurred ubiquitously but at very low numbers during the breeding season. During winter, avian abundance was 44% greater among native CRP than introduced CRP fields. Meadowlarks, Homed Larks (Eremophila alpestris), and Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) accounted for 94% of all winter detections. Meadowlarks occurred ubiquitously, but Horned Larks and Savannah Sparrows were 157% and 96% more abundant, respectively, among native CRP than introduced CRP fields. Our data suggest that monocultures of introduced grasses may benefit some bird species but also that native seed mixes may have a more positive influence through increased diversity and abundance of grassland birds. However, pooling cover types into the broader categories of introduced or native grasses may dampen or occlude biologically meaningful results. It may be prudent to avoid

  2. Save life and improve quality: report from the 5th Congress of International Society for Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Chun; Lim, Lee-Moay; Chang, Jer-Ming; Misra, Madhukar

    2014-01-01

    The 5th congress of International Society for Hemodialysis took place last August 3-5, 2012 at the Grand Hotel in Taipei and focused on "Save Life and Improve Quality." It attracted a total of 927 participants from 18 countries. The full spectrum of hemodialysis was covered with plenary lectures and symposiums delivered by experts from different subspecialties in nephrology starting from the history of hemodialysis, mineral bone disease, microinflammation and advanced techniques in hemodialysis. It was followed by critical care in nephrology, anemia, and nutrition in dialysis. Last but not the least, natural disasters and medical economics in hemodialysis were also discussed extensively. This special article will highlight the authentic contributions and innovative clinical presentations from the meeting. © 2013 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  3. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  4. Chronic Hemodialysis Therapy in the West.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Michael V

    2015-12-01

    Chronic hemodialysis (HD) in the 1960s encompassed a wide variety of prescriptions from twice weekly to five times per week HD. Over time, HD prescriptions in the West became standardized at three times per week, 2.5-4 h per session, with occasional additional treatments for volume overload. When clinical trials of dialysis dose failed to show significant benefit of extending time compared with the traditional dialysis prescription, interest in more frequent HD was renewed. Consequently, there has been growth in home HD therapies as well as alternative dialysis prescriptions. Data from recent randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits and risks of these more frequent therapies, with surprising differences in outcomes between short daily HD and long nocturnal HD. More frequent therapies improve control of both hypertension and hyperphosphatemia, but at the expense of increased vascular access complications and, at least for nocturnal HD, a faster loss of residual renal function. In the West, the standard HD prescription is three treatments per week with a minimal time of 3.0 h and dialysis is performed in an outpatient dialysis center. A minority of patients will have a fourth treatment per week for volume issues. Alternative HD prescriptions, although rare, are more available compared to the recent past. (1) While developed Western and Asian countries provide end-stage renal disease patients full access to HD, healthcare systems from South and South-East Asia can offer access to HD only to a limited fraction of the patients in need. Even though the annual costs of HD are much lower in less developed countries (for instance 30 times lower in India compared to the US), patients often cannot afford costs not covered by health insurance. (2) The recommended dialysis pattern in the West is at least three sessions weekly with high-flux dialyzers. Studies from Shanghai and Taiwan might however indicate a benefit of twice versus thrice weekly sessions. In

  5. Depressive affect in incident hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Larkin, John W; Wingard, Rebecca L; Jiao, Yue; Rosen, Sophia; Ma, Lin; Usvyat, Len A; Maddux, Franklin W

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of depressive affect is not well defined in the incident hemodialysis (HD) population. We investigated the prevalence of and associated risk factors and hospitalization rates for depressive affect in incident HD patients. Methods We performed a prospective investigation using the Patient Health Questionnaire 2 (PHQ2) depressive affect assessment. From January to July of 2013 at 108 in-center clinics randomly selected across tertiles of baseline quality measures, we contacted 577 and 543 patients by telephone for depressive affect screening. PHQ2 test scores range from 0 to 6 (scores  ≥3 suggest the presence of depressive affect). The prevalence of depressive affect was measured at 1–30 and 121–150 days after initiating HD; depressive affect risk factors and hospitalization rates by depressive affect status at 1–30 days after starting HD were computed. Results Of 1120 contacted patients, 340 completed the PHQ2. In patients screened at 1–30 or 121–150 days after starting HD, depressive affect prevalence was 20.2% and 18.5%, respectively (unpaired t-test, P = 0.7). In 35 patients screened at both time points, there were trends for lower prevalence of depressive affect at the end of incident HD, with 20.0% and 5.7% of patients positive for depressive affect at 1–30 and 121–150 days, respectively (paired t-test, P = 0.1). Hospitalization rates were higher in patients with depressive affect during the first 30 days, exhibiting 1.5 more admissions (P < 0.001) and 10.5 additional hospital days (P = 0.008) per patient-year. Females were at higher risk for depressive affect at 1–30 days (P = 0.01). Conclusions The prevalence of depressive affect in HD patients is high throughout the incident period. Rates of hospital admissions and hospital days are increased in incident HD patients with depressive affect. PMID:29423211

  6. Depressive affect in incident hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Kathryn A; Larkin, John W; Wingard, Rebecca L; Jiao, Yue; Rosen, Sophia; Ma, Lin; Usvyat, Len A; Maddux, Franklin W

    2018-02-01

    The prevalence of depressive affect is not well defined in the incident hemodialysis (HD) population. We investigated the prevalence of and associated risk factors and hospitalization rates for depressive affect in incident HD patients. We performed a prospective investigation using the Patient Health Questionnaire 2 (PHQ2) depressive affect assessment. From January to July of 2013 at 108 in-center clinics randomly selected across tertiles of baseline quality measures, we contacted 577 and 543 patients by telephone for depressive affect screening. PHQ2 test scores range from 0 to 6 (scores  ≥3 suggest the presence of depressive affect). The prevalence of depressive affect was measured at 1-30 and 121-150 days after initiating HD; depressive affect risk factors and hospitalization rates by depressive affect status at 1-30 days after starting HD were computed. Of 1120 contacted patients, 340 completed the PHQ2. In patients screened at 1-30 or 121-150 days after starting HD, depressive affect prevalence was 20.2% and 18.5%, respectively (unpaired t -test, P = 0.7). In 35 patients screened at both time points, there were trends for lower prevalence of depressive affect at the end of incident HD, with 20.0% and 5.7% of patients positive for depressive affect at 1-30 and 121-150 days, respectively (paired t -test, P = 0.1). Hospitalization rates were higher in patients with depressive affect during the first 30 days, exhibiting 1.5 more admissions (P < 0.001) and 10.5 additional hospital days (P = 0.008) per patient-year. Females were at higher risk for depressive affect at 1-30 days (P = 0.01). The prevalence of depressive affect in HD patients is high throughout the incident period. Rates of hospital admissions and hospital days are increased in incident HD patients with depressive affect.

  7. Sensorineural hearing loss in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Jakić, Marko; Mihaljević, Dubravka; Zibar, Lada; Jakić, Marijana; Kotromanović, Zeljko; Roguljić, Hrvoje

    2010-03-01

    Chronic renal failure affects all organ systems. Senses are not exception and hearing impairment is common, particularly sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The term SNOS of unknown origin or uremic deafness is related to only a smaller part of the cases with unclear etiology of the impairment. The study searched for SNOS in 66 chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients, mean age 51.50 +/- 12.70 years. They were treated by HD for 69.70 +/- 53.80 months. The relation between the severity of the impairment and the patients' age, duration of HD treatment (months) and a set of laboratory parameters typical for chronic HD patients was examined. The aim of the study was to detect potential causes of the impairment. The increased hearing threshold (HT) of above 20 dB for all frequencies was found in 42 patients (mean HT 26 +/- 10.50 dB), for speaking area frequencies in 22 patients (mean HT 19.70 +/- 8.80 dB), and in 56 patients for high frequencies (mean HT 41.70 +/- 19.70 dB). The significant positive correlation of HT was found only with the patients' age (r = 0.49, p < 0.01). The patients older than 45 years had higher mean HT than those younger, and those older than 65 also had higher HT than the younger ones. Patients with pathological value of HT were significantly more common among the older subgroup of patients, when divided according to the age at both cutoff values of 45 and of 60 years. Mean HT did not differ significantly according to the duration of HD treatment (subgroups A- no longer than 60 months, B- from 61 to 120 months, and C- longer than 120 months). The patients with pathological HT did not differ significantly in frequency among those subgroups, and the subgroups were not different according to the mean age (A--50.30 +/- 13.20 years; B--51.40 +/- 12.75 years; C--55.80 +/- 10.55 years). In conclusion, our results along with other authors'published data report on SNHL as very frequent finding among chronic HD patients and suggest multifactorial etiology

  8. Influence of hydrogen-occluding-silica on migration and apoptosis in human esophageal cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, many studies have shown that hydrogen gas or hydrogen water can reduce the levels of reactive oxygen species in the living body. Molecular hydrogen has antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects and a preventive effect on oxidative stress-induced cell death. In the present study, we investigated solidified hydrogen-occluding-silica (H 2 -silica) that can release molecular hydrogen into cell culture medium because the use of hydrogen gas has strict handling limitations in hospital and medical facilities and laboratories, owing to its physicochemical characteristics. Human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (KYSE-70) cells and normal human esophageal epithelial cells (HEEpiCs) were used to investigate the effects of H 2 -silica on cell viability and proliferation. Cell migration was examined with wound healing and culture-insert migration assays. The intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species were evaluated with a nitroblue tetrazolium assay. To assess the apoptotic status of the cells, the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 were analyzed by western blot. The results showed that KYSE-70 cells and HEEpiCs were generally inhibited by H 2 -silica administration, and there was a significant proliferation-inhibitory effect in an H 2 -silica concentration-dependent manner compared with the control group ( P < 0.05) in KYSE-70. Apoptosis-inducing effect on KYSE-70 cells was observed in 10, 300, 600, and 1,200 ppm H 2 -silica, and only 1,200 ppm H 2 -silica caused a 2.4-fold increase in apoptosis in HEEpiCs compared with the control group as the index of Bax/Bcl-2. H 2 silica inhibited cell migration in KYSE-70 cells, and high concentrations had a cytotoxic effect on normal cells. These findings should provide insights into the mechanism of inhibition of H 2 -silica on human cancer cells in vitro .

  9. Is the new Occlutech duct occluder an appropriate device for transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus?

    PubMed

    Godart, François; Houeijeh, Ali; Domanski, Olivia; Guillaume, Marie-Paule; Brard, Mélanie; Lucron, Hugues

    2018-06-15

    To describe our initial experience with the Occlutech Duct Occluder (ODO) for percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Retrospective review of patients undergoing transcatheter PDA closure with the ODO in 2 academic centers. From April 2013 to September 2017, 42 patients underwent PDA closure. Median age at implantation was 34 months (range 4 months-68 years) and median weight was 12 kg (range 4.1-57 kg). Ducts were Krichenko type A duct (n = 34), type E (n = 6), and type C (n = 2). The mean duct diameter was 3.76 mm (range 1.69 to 9.95 mm, median 3.1 mm). Implantation succeeded in all. There was neither device embolization nor hemolysis. At device release, immediate angiogram showed a small residual shunt in 54.7%. During follow-up, Doppler echocardiography demonstrated 71% of full occlusion at day one, rising to 95% at one month and 100% at one year and half after implantation. The mean maximal systolic pressure gradient in left pulmonary artery was 4.2 ± 4.3 mm and across the distal aortic arch 5.4 ± 4.7 mm Hg. No patient had any significant stenosis with clinical relevance. ODO is safe and effective in transcatheter closure of PDA including relatively large sized ducts. The results are satisfactory with a high level of full occlusion and a low rate of complications. Further evaluation with larger studies and longer follow-up will be required to confirm these preliminary good results. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus using the AMPLATZER™ duct occluder II (ADO II).

    PubMed

    Gruenstein, Daniel H; Ebeid, Makram; Radtke, Wolfgang; Moore, Phillip; Holzer, Ralf; Justino, Henri

    2017-05-01

    The study purpose is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the ADO II device for closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in children. Transcatheter treatment of PDA has been evolving for 40+ years and is the treatment of choice. The AMPLATZER™ Duct Occluder (ADO) device was developed for larger diameter ducts and is not ideal in all PDAs. ADO II was developed for small to moderate-sized ducts. This is a single-arm, multicenter study evaluating safety and efficacy of the ADO II device. Patients <18 years were screened for a PDA ≤5.5 mm in diameter and 3-12 mm in length. Right and left heart catheterization was performed, and hemodynamic data were obtained at the time of implant. The diameter of the left pulmonary artery (LPA) and descending aorta, and the presence of any pre-existing pressure gradients across the LPA or aortic arch were assessed at baseline and 6 months post-implant. A total of 192 patients were enrolled. The median implant time was 74 min. Median fluoroscopy time was 12 min. A retrograde (aortic) approach was used in 33% of procedures and demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in fluoroscopy time (P value = 0.0018) compared to an antegrade approach. The device was successfully implanted in 93% of patients, with complete closure in 98% of successful implantations. In this prospective study, the ADO II was safe and effective for closure of small to moderate PDAs. Implantation is simple and the ability for retrograde aortic delivery reduces procedure-related radiation exposure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  12. Permanent vascular access survival in children on long-term chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Briones, Liliana; Diaz Moreno, Alexia; Sierre, Sergio; Lopez, Laura; Lipsich, José; Adragna, Marta

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study is to report a single-center experience regarding the management and outcome of permanent vascular accesses (VA) in children on chronic hemodialysis (HD). We analyzed the survival of permanent VA in 79 pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease patients on chronic HD between January 2000 and December 2008. One hundred and thirty-seven VA [89 native fistulas (AVFs) and 48 grafts (AVGs)] were created in 79 children. The creation of AVFs was significantly more frequent in children weighing >25 kg and AVGs in children weighing <25 kg (p = 0.003). The 1-year primary patency rate was 50% for AVF and 30% for AVG. The secondary patency rates at 1, 2, and 3 years for AVFs were 73, 50, and 20% and for AVGs were 64, 36, and 20%, respectively. The total number of surgical and endovascular interventions was significantly higher in AVGs (p

  13. Oral intradialytic nutritional supplement use and mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Daniel E; Tighiouart, Hocine; Ladik, Vladimir; Meyer, Klemens B; Zager, Philip G; Johnson, Douglas S

    2014-02-01

    Hemodialysis patients have high mortality rates, potentially reflecting underlying comorbid conditions and ongoing catabolism. Intradialytic oral nutritional supplements may reduce this risk. Retrospective propensity-matched cohort. Maintenance hemodialysis patients treated at Dialysis Clinic Inc facilities who were initiated on a nutritional supplement protocol in September to October 2010 were matched using a propensity score to patients at facilities at which the protocol was not used. Prescription of the protocol, whereby hemodialysis patients with serum albumin levels ≤3.5g/dL would initiate oral protein supplementation during the dialysis procedure. Sensitivity analyses matched on actual supplement intake during the first 3 study months. Covariates included patient and facility characteristics, which were used to develop the propensity scores and adjust multivariable models. All-cause mortality, ascertained though March 2012. Of 6,453 eligible patients in 101 eligible hemodialysis facilities, the protocol was prescribed to 2,700, and 1,278 of these were propensity matched to controls. Mean age was 61 ± 15 (SD) years and median dialysis vintage was 34 months. There were 258 deaths among protocol assignees versus 310 among matched controls during a mean follow-up of 14 months. In matched analyses, protocol prescription was associated with a 29% reduction in the hazard of all-cause mortality (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.58-0.86); adjustment had minimal impact on models. In time-dependent models incorporating change in albumin level, protocol status remained significant but was attenuated in models incorporating a 30-day lag. Similar results were seen in sensitivity analyses of 439 patients receiving supplements who were propensity-matched to controls, with 116 deaths among supplement users versus 140 among controls (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.60-1.05), achieving statistical significance in adjusted models. Observational design, potential residual confounding

  14. Adipokines and nutritional status for patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Małgorzewicz, S; Aleksandrowicz-Wrona, E; Owczarzak, A; Debska-Slizień, A; Rutkowski, B; Łysiak-Szydłowska, W

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the serum concentration of adipokines, such as leptin, adiponectin, and resistin, and assess its relation to nutritional and inflammatory parameters in both overweight and normal weight patients on maintenance hemodialysis. A total of 36 hemodialysis patients (27 M, 9 F; mean age 55.3 +/- 12 yr.) were examined and 23 additional healthy volunteers were recruited as the control group. The concentrations of leptin, leptin receptor, adiponectin, resistin, IL-6, TNFa and CRP were measured by ELISA. Assessment of nutritional status was determined by the levels of albumin, BMI, percentage of body fat (%F), lean body mass (LBM), and Subjective Global Assessment Score (SGA). According to the SGA 7-points score and the albumin level, 20 patients were of good nutritional status (6-7 points), while 16 patients were mildly malnourished (4-5 points). The concentrations of CRP, resistin, adiponectin, and TNFa were statistically higher in hemodialysis patients than in the control group (p pound 0.05). The adiponectin level was inversely correlated with %F (R Spearman=-0.3; p pound 0.05). The level of leptin was positively correlated with %F as well as with BMI and SGA scores (R Spearman=0.4; p pound 0.05). Although there was no significant difference in the nutritional status between the nonoverweight (BMI 18.5-24.99) and overweight (BMI (3)25.0) groups of patients, in the nonoverweight group there were 12 patients (54.5%) with signs of mild malnutrition compared to 4 malnourished patients (28.5%) in the overweight group. Nonoverweight patients presented significantly lower leptin concentration (12.7 vs 27.8 ug/l) and higher adiponectin level (38.9 vs 32.5 ng/ml) when compared to overweight patients. The levels of IL-6 and TNFa were higher in the nonoverweight group of patients. Overweight patients also had shorter durations of stay in the hemodialysis program (30.5 vs. 87.6 months). The results of our study indicate that lean hemodialysis

  15. Hemodialysis and nutritional status in children: malnutrition and cachexia.

    PubMed

    Fischbach, Michel; Dheu, Céline; Seuge, Laure; Orfanos, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common state in chronic hemodialyzed children. More than malnutrition, which infers that dietary supplementation would be curative, cachexia, which implies loss of protein stores, are combined factors of impaired linear growth and reduced muscle mass in uremic patients. Adequate diet to prevent malnutrition is of major importance. But to avoid cachexia in children on chronic hemodialysis, the management of acidosis, inflammation, abnormal metabolic rate, and endocrine disturbances should not, be forgotten. Daily hemodialysis regimen using convective flow therapy and ultrapure dialysate, i.e., on line hemodiafiltration together with growth hormone therapy, appears as a hopeful strategy for the chronic dialyzed child to achieve catch-up growth, a parameter of optimal nutrition.

  16. The Physician-Patient Working Alliance in Hemodialysis Treatment.

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Jairo N; Rubinstein, Sofia; Reyes, Mariela; Iampornpipopchai, Pichet; Mujeeb, Shanza; Smith, Carroll R; Toporovsky, Arielle

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the role of psychological and social factors, including the physician-patient working alliance, have emerged as integral components of medical care for patients with a myriad of health conditions. The current study examines a model comprised of psychological-interpersonal factors and the extent to which it explains patient satisfaction with and adherence to hemodialysis treatment. One hundred and seven adults with end-stage renal disease who were receiving regular outpatient hemodialysis participated in the study. Path analyses show that the physician-patient working alliance indirectly predicts patient adherence through patient satisfaction and patients' outcome expectations. The working alliance directly predicts patients' quality of life. It is concluded that consistent with previous research, the physician-patient working alliance is a significant factor in predicting key patient behaviors in medical care.

  17. The effects of aromatherapy on pruritus in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ro, You-Ja; Ha, Hyae-Chung; Kim, Chun-Gill; Yeom, Hye-A

    2002-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of aromatherapy on pruritus in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis. The participants were 29 adult patients living in Seoul, Korea. Thirteen patients were assigned to the experimental group and received the aromatherapy massage on the arm 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Pruritus score, skin pH, stratum corneum hydration, and pruritus-related biochemical markers were measured before and after the treatment. The results showed that pruritus score was significantly decreased after aromatherapy. Skin pH showed no significant changes in either group while stratum corneum hydration increased significantly in the experimental group after aromatherapy. The results support the use aromatherapy as a useful and effective method of managing pruritus in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  18. Hemodialysis patient beliefs by stage of fluid adherence.

    PubMed

    Welch, J L

    2001-04-01

    Fluid limitations are difficult for hemodialysis patients to follow, and factors related to fluid adherence are not well known. The primary purpose of this study, which was guided by the health belief model and the transtheoretical model for behavior change, was to determine whether differences exist in perceived benefits, barriers, susceptibility, seriousness, or self-efficacy among individuals in different stages of fluid adherence. In a cross-sectional descriptive design, 148 persons (mean age=53.9 years; 52% male) were interviewed using a structured format. Hemodialysis patients in the action/maintenance stage perceived significantly more benefits to fluid adherence than persons in the precontemplation stage. Persons who were in the action/maintenance stage perceived they were significantly more susceptible to pulmonary edema than persons in the contemplation stage. Stage-appropriate interventions may be needed to target specific beliefs about fluid adherence. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Direct cost of monitoring conventional hemodialysis conducted by nursing professionals.

    PubMed

    Lima, Antônio Fernandes Costa

    2017-04-01

    to analyze the mean direct cost of conventional hemodialysis monitored by nursing professionals in three public teaching and research hospitals in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. this was a quantitative, explorative and descriptive investigation, based on a multiple case study approach. The mean direct cost was calculated by multiplying (clocked) time spent per procedure by the unit cost of direct labor. Values were calculated in Brazilian real (BRL). Hospital C presented the highest mean direct cost (BRL 184.52), 5.23 times greater than the value for Hospital A (BRL 35.29) and 3.91 times greater than Hospital B (BRL 47.22). the costing method used in this study can be reproduced at other dialysis centers to inform strategies aimed at efficient allocation of necessary human resources to successfully monitor conventional hemodialysis.

  20. A Primer on Hemodialysis From an Interventional Radiology Perspective.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Rahul A; Sheth, Anil U

    2017-03-01

    Interventional radiologists play a central role in the care of patients with end-stage renal disease receiving renal replacement therapy. Ensuring that a patient׳s dialysis access remains suitable for high-quality dialysis is of paramount importance. However, although much has been spoken and written about endovascular techniques and outcomes based on angiographic criteria, little is generally known regarding the function and therefore the requirements of hemodialysis. In this article, we provide a heuristic overview of the mechanics of hemodialysis, with an emphasis on the "breaking points" in the extracorporeal circuit that trigger a patient׳s referral to Interventional Radiology. We also describe how dialysis quality is increasingly becoming linked with dialysis reimbursements. It is thus becoming progressively incumbent on the interventional radiologist to not only ensure that a patient receives high-quality outpatient dialysis but also that the patient׳s dialysis center meets its performance metrics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Successful Pregnancy Using the NxStage Home Hemodialysis System

    PubMed Central

    Brahmbhatt, Yasmin; Ikeme, Arinze; Bhogal, Navjyot; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy in the setting of the uremic milieu of renal disease has a lower success rate than in the normal population and is a rare event. While intensified renal replacement therapy (RRT) during pregnancy can lead to improved outcomes, most studies have focused on nocturnal hemodialysis as the main RRT in pregnancy. Although thousands of patients use the home NxStage System One short daily hemodialysis (SDHD) machine in the United States, pregnancy outcomes with this therapy are unknown. The NxStage System One uses low-volume dialysate and hence small and middle molecule clearance may differ compared to conventional therapies and affect pregnancy outcomes. We report a case of a successful conception and pregnancy using the home NxStage system. The NxStage system may provide an alternative to the more routinely used NHD or standard SDHD therapies for women of childbearing age. PMID:26949554

  2. Frequent hemodialysis with NxStage system in pediatric patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Stuart L; Silverstein, Douglas M; Leung, Jocelyn C; Feig, Daniel I; Soletsky, Beth; Knight, Cathy; Warady, Bradley A

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence from adult hemodialysis (HD) patient studies reveal improved biochemical control and reported health-related quality of life after transition from conventional thrice weekly to daily home maintenance HD treatment. Published pediatric frequent dialysis experiences demonstrate similar improvement but all used conventional HD machines, which employ a treated municipal water supply, thereby frequently exposing patients to proinflammatory components. We report our pediatric experience with six-times-weekly HD using the NxStage system, which uses sterile dialysis fluid to provide dialysis in the home or center setting. Four patients (weight range 38-61.4 kg) completed the 16-week study. Patients exhibited progressive reductions in casual pretreatment systolic and diastolic blood pressures, discontinuation of antihypertensive medications, and decreased blood pressure load by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Mean serum phosphorus improved without change in phosphorus binder medication, and all three patients with a normalized protein catabolic rate <1 g/kg per day at the beginning of the study improved to a normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) of >1.1 g/kg per day. Patients reported no adverse effects. Variable changes in proinflammatory cytokine levels were observed. We suggest that frequent HD with the NxStage system be considered for children who would benefit from home-based maintenance dialysis.

  3. Management of occluded self-expanding biliary metal stents in malignant biliary disease.

    PubMed

    Nennstiel, Simon; Tschurtschenthaler, Isolde; Neu, Bruno; Algül, Hana; Bajbouj, Monther; Schmid, Roland M; von Delius, Stefan; Weber, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    Occlusion of self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) in malignant biliary obstruction occurs in up to 40% of patients. This study aimed to compare the different techniques to resolve stent occlusion in our collective of patients. Patients with malignant biliary obstruction and occlusion of biliary metal stent at a tertiary referral endoscopic center were retrospectively identified between April 1, 1994 and May 31, 2014. The clinical records were further analyzed regarding the characteristics of patients, malignant strictures, SEMS, management strategies, stent patency, subsequent interventions, survival time and case charges. A total of 108 patients with biliary metal stent occlusion were identified. Seventy-nine of these patients were eligible for further analysis. Favored management was plastic stent insertion in 73.4% patients. Second SEMS were inserted in 12.7% patients. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and mechanical cleansing were conducted in a minority of patients. Further analysis showed no statistically significant difference in median overall secondary stent patency (88 vs. 143 days, P = 0.069), median survival time (95 vs. 192 days, P = 0.116), median subsequent intervention rate (53.4% vs. 40.0%, P = 0.501) and median case charge (€5145 vs. €3473, P = 0.803) for the treatment with a second metal stent insertion compared to plastic stent insertion. In patients with survival time of more than three months, significantly more patients treated with plastic stents needed re-interventions than patients treated with second SEMS (93.3% vs. 57.1%, P = 0.037). In malignant biliary strictures, both plastic and metal stent insertions are feasible strategies for the treatment of occluded SEMS. Our data suggest that in palliative biliary stenting, patients especially those with longer expected survival might benefit from second SEMS insertion. Careful patient selection is important to ensure a proper decision for either management

  4. Inhibitions by hydrogen-occluding silica microcluster to melanogenesis in human pigment cells and tyrosinase reaction.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shinya; Saitoh, Yasukazu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-melanogenetic efficacy of hydrogen-occluding silica microcluster (H2-Silica), which is a silsesquioxane-based compound with hydrogen interstitially embedded in a matrix of caged silica, against melanogenesis in HMV-II human melanoma cells and L-DOPA-tyrosinase reaction [EC1.14.18.1]. HMV-II cells were subjected to oxidative stress by ultraviolet ray-A (UVA) exposure of 3-times of 0.65 J/cm2 summed up to 1.95 J/cm2. After UVA irradiation, HMV-II cells were stimulated to produce melanin by 2.72-fold more abundantly than unirradiated control. When HMV-II cells were treated with H2-Silica of 20 ppm or kojic acid of 28.4 ppm before and after UVA-irradiation, the amount of melanin was repressed to 12.2% or 14.5% as compared to that of UVA-irradiated control, respectively. That is, H2-Silica exhibited a comparable efficacy to the whitening agent kojic acid. The H2-Silica could prevent melanogenesis in HMV-II cells by low-level doses at 1-10 ppm, and cell viability and apoptosis event did not change even by high-level doses at 100-1000 ppm. On the contrary, kojic acid was cytotoxic at the concentration of 14-28 ppm or more. By microscopic observation, H2-Silica suppressed such properties indicative of melanin-rich cells as cellular hypertrophy, cell process formation, and melanogenesis around the outside of nuclei. The enzymatic assay using L-DOPA and mushroom tyrosinase demonstrated that H2-Silica restrained UVA-mediated melanin formation owing to down-regulation of tyrosinase activity, which could be attributed to scavenging of free radicals and inhibition of L-DOPA-to-dopachrome oxidation by hydrogen released from H2-Silica. Thus H2-Silica has a potential to prevent melanin production against UVA and serves as a skin-lightening ingredient for supplements or cosmetics.

  5. Limited protection of macro-aggregate-occluded organic carbon in Siberian steppe soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Norbert; Mikutta, Robert; Shibistova, Olga; Puzanov, Alexander; Silanteva, Marina; Grebennikova, Anna; Fuß, Roland; Guggenberger, Georg

    2017-05-01

    Macro-aggregates especially in agricultural steppe soils are supposed to play a vital role for soil organic carbon (OC) stabilization at a decadal timescale. While most research on soil OC stabilization in steppes focused on North American prairie soils of the Great Plains with information mainly provided by short-term incubation experiments, little is known about the agricultural steppes in southwestern Siberia, though they belong to the greatest conversion areas in the world and occupy an area larger than that in the Great Plains. To quantify the proportion of macro-aggregate-protected OC under different land use as function of land use intensity and time since land use change (LUC) from pasture to arable land in Siberian steppe soils, we determined OC mineralization rates of intact (250-2000 µm) and crushed (< 250 µm) macro-aggregates in long-term incubations over 401 days (20 °C; 60 % water holding capacity) along two agricultural chronosequences in the Siberian Kulunda steppe. Additionally, we incubated bulk soil (< 2000 µm) to determine the effect of LUC and subsequent agricultural use on a fast and a slow soil OC pool (labile vs. more stable OC), as derived from fitting exponential-decay models to incubation data. We hypothesized that (i) macro-aggregate crushing leads to increased OC mineralization due to an increasing microbial accessibility of a previously occluded labile macro-aggregate OC fraction, and (ii) bulk soil OC mineralization rates and the size of the fast OC pool are higher in pasture than in arable soils with decreasing bulk soil OC mineralization rates and size of the fast OC pool as land use intensity and time since LUC increase. Against our hypothesis, OC mineralization rates of crushed macro-aggregates were similar to those of intact macro-aggregates under all land use regimes. Macro-aggregate-protected OC was almost absent and accounted for < 1 % of the total macro-aggregate OC content and to a maximum of 8 ± 4 % of mineralized OC

  6. Restoration of Patency to Central Airways Occluded by Malignant Endobronchial Tumors Using Intratumoral Injection of Cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Hiren J; Begnaud, Abbie; Penley, Andrea M; Wynne, John; Malhotra, Paras; Fernandez-Bussy, Sebastian; Cope, Jessica; Shuster, Jonathan J; Jantz, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    -center retrospective study and a subjective primary outcome measure, we have demonstrated the feasibility of improving the patency of central airways that are largely or completely occluded by endobronchial malignant tumor using intraluminal injection of cisplatin. Additional longer-term, larger-scale safety and comparative effectiveness studies of this palliative treatment modality are warranted.

  7. Anthropometric Indicators Predict Metabolic Syndrome Diagnosis in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Barbara Perez; Ponce, Daniela; Caramori, Jacqueline Costa Teixeira

    2016-06-01

    Obesity has been considered the key in metabolic syndrome (MetS) development, and fat accumulation may be responsible for the occurrence of metabolic abnormalities in hemodialysis patients. The use of gold-standard methods to evaluate obesity is limited, and anthropometric measures may be the simplest methods. However, no study has investigated the association between anthropometric indexes and MetS in these patients. Therefore, the aim was to determine which anthropometric indexes had the best association and prediction for MetS in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Cross-sectional study that included patients older than 18 years, undergoing hemodialysis for at least 3 months. Patients with liver disease and cancer or those receiving corticosteroids or antiretroviral therapy were excluded. Diagnostic criteria from Harmonizing Metabolic Syndrome were used for the diagnosis of MetS. Anthropometric indexes evaluated were body mass index (BMI); percent standard of triceps skinfold thickness and of middle arm muscle circumference; waist circumference (WC); sagittal abdominal diameter; neck circumference; waist-to-hip, waist-to-thigh, and waist-to-height ratios; sagittal index; conicity index; and body fat percentage. Ninety-eight patients were included, 54.1% male, and mean age was 57.8 ± 12.9 years. The prevalence of MetS was 74.5%. Individuals with MetS had increased accumulation of abdominal fat and general obesity. Waist-to-height ratio was the variable independently associated with MetS diagnosis (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.34; P < .01) and that better predicts MetS, followed by WC and BMI (area under the curve of 0.840, 0.836, and 0.798, respectively, P < .01). Waist-to-height ratio was the best anthropometric predictor of MetS in maintenance hemodialysis patients. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  8. Skin autofluorescence predicts cardiovascular mortality in patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Kanno, Makoto; Watanabe, Kimio; Hayashi, Yoshimitsu; Asahi, Koichi; Suzuki, Hodaka; Sato, Keiji; Sakaue, Michiaki; Terawaki, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Masaaki; Miyata, Toshio; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2014-10-01

    Tissue accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) is thought to contribute to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Skin autofluorescence, a non-invasive measure of AGE accumulation using autofluorescence of the skin under ultraviolet light, has been reported to be an independent predictor of mortality associated with CVD in Caucasian patients on chronic hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of skin autofluorescence on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in non-Caucasian (Japanese) patients on chronic hemodialysis. Baseline skin autofluorescence was measured with an autofluorescence reader in 128 non-Caucasian (Japanese) patients on chronic hemodialysis. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality was monitored prospectively during a period of 6 years. During the follow-up period, 42 of the 128 patients died; 19 of those patients died of CVD. Skin autofluorescence did not have a significant effect on all-cause mortality. However, age, carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), serum albumin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), skin autofluorescence and pre-existing CVD were significantly correlated with cardiovascular mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed skin autofluorescence (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 3.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]1.67-9.43), serum albumin (adjusted HR 0.05; 95% CI 0.01-0.32), and hsCRP (adjusted HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.18-2.05) to be independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. The present study suggests that skin autofluorescence is an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality in non-Caucasian (Japanese) patients on chronic hemodialysis. © 2014 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2014 International Society for Apheresis.

  9. Adherence to treatment and hospitalization risk in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Vaiciuniene, Ruta; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Ziginskiene, Edita; Skarupskiene, Inga; Bumblyte, Inga A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether adherence to treatment is associated with hospitalization risk in hemodialysis patients. We completed a cohort analysis of risk factors during 1 census month (November) and 1 year of follow-up during 5 consecutive years (2002-2006) in all end-stage renal disease patients hemodialyzed in the Kaunas region. During the census month, we collected data on noncompliance defined as (i) skipping of a hemodialysis (HD) session, (ii) shortening of 1 or more HD sessions, (iii) presence of hyperkalemia, (iv) presence of hyperphosphatemia, or (v) interdialytic weight gain (IDWG). In addition, data on age, sex, disability status, comorbidities, anemia control, malnutrition and inflammation, calcium-phosphorus metabolism and hospitalization rate were collected. Relative risk of hospitalization was estimated using Cox regression evaluating time to first hospitalization. We analyzed 559 patients for a total of 1,163 patient-years during the 5 years of the study. On multivariate analysis, adjusting for ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, higher number of comorbid conditions, higher systolic blood pressure before dialysis, worse disability status, lower hemoglobin, albumin and urea before dialysis, the relative risk for hospitalization increased by 1.1 for every additional percentage point of IDWG and by 1.19 with each 1 mmol/L rise of serum phosphorus level. Skipping or shortening of hemodialysis sessions and serum potassium level were not associated with hospitalization. Higher IDWG and higher serum levels of phosphorus independently increased the relative risk of hospitalizations in hemodialysis patients. With skipped and shortened dialysis sessions, higher serum potassium level was not associated with hospitalization risk.

  10. [Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome at a chronic hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Alaoui, Hassan; Belhadj, Ayoub; Aissaoui, Younes; Seddiki, Rachid; Zoubir, Mohamed; Bougalem, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome is an acute and systemic infectious syndrome associated with the super-antigenic activity of staphylococcal toxins. It is a pathology that is rather rare but remains burdened with a considerable mortality despite the therapeutic management. The gateway is usually cutaneous with secondary bacteremic spread could be subject to preventive measures. We report the case of a rapidly fatal staphylococcal toxic shock, developed in a chronic hemodialysis whose entry from the arteriovenous fistula was suspected.

  11. Aldosterone and mortality in hemodialysis patients: role of volume overload.

    PubMed

    Hung, Szu-Chun; Lin, Yao-Ping; Huang, Hsin-Lei; Pu, Hsiao-Fung; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2013-01-01

    Elevated aldosterone is associated with increased mortality in the general population. In patients on dialysis, however, the association is reversed. This paradox may be explained by volume overload, which is associated with lower aldosterone and higher mortality. We evaluated the relationship between aldosterone and outcomes in a prospective cohort of 328 hemodialysis patients stratified by the presence or absence of volume overload (defined as extracellular water/total body water >48%, as measured with bioimpedance). Baseline plasma aldosterone was measured before dialysis and categorized as low (<140 pg/mL), middle (140 to 280 pg/mL) and high (>280 pg/mL). Overall, 36% (n = 119) of the hemodialysis patients had evidence of volume overload. Baseline aldosterone was significantly lower in the presence of volume overload than in its absence. During a median follow-up of 54 months, 83 deaths and 70 cardiovascular events occurred. Cox multivariate analysis showed that by using the low aldosterone as the reference, high aldosterone was inversely associated with decreased hazard ratios for mortality (0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.76) and first cardiovascular event (0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.78) in the presence of volume overload. In contrast, high aldosterone was associated with an increased risk for mortality (1.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-3.75) and first cardiovascular event (2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-4.15) in the absence of volume overload. The inverse association of aldosterone with adverse outcomes in hemodialysis patients is due to the confounding effect of volume overload. These findings support treatment of hyperaldosteronemia in hemodialysis patients who have achieved strict volume control.

  12. The impact of hemodialysis on erythrocyte membrane cytoskeleton proteins.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Maria; Bober, Joanna; Wiatrow, Jerzy; Stępniewska, Joanna; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2015-02-03

    Hemodialysis (HD) is one of the methods of renal replacement therapy, but it also contributes to an increase in oxidative stress. Hemodialysis leads to changes in the erythrocyte cytoskeleton structure, whilst the presence of glucose in the dialysis fluid which activates the pentose phosphate pathway contributes to the intensification of oxidative stress. Available literature lacks reports on the effect of glucose in the dialytic fluid on the composition of proteins of the cell membrane cytoskeleton. Red blood cells for this analysis were collected from patients with chronic renal failure treated with hemodialysis using both glucose-containing and glucose-free dialysis fluid. Following the preparation of membranes, the electrophoretic separation of proteins was performed in denaturing conditions according to Laemmli. The level of tryptophan in membranes was determined by spectrofluorimetry, whilst the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was determined by measuring the reduction of oxidated NADP. Hemodialysis in both groups of patients resulted in a statistically significant reduction of tryptophan as an oxidative stress indicator when compared to the control group. Moreover, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the group of patients was higher than in the control group, and following the HD procedure it decreased, which may have been caused by a reduced concentration of dialyzed glucose. The HD procedure affects the structure of the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeleton, which is reflected in the concentration changes in individual proteins and in their mutual relationships corresponding to vertical and horizontal interactions stabilizing the structure of the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeleton. These changes may contribute to the shortening of cell lifespan.

  13. Vascular access choice in incident hemodialysis patients: a decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Drew, David A; Lok, Charmaine E; Cohen, Joshua T; Wagner, Martin; Tangri, Navdeep; Weiner, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    Hemodialysis vascular access recommendations promote arteriovenous (AV) fistulas first; however, it may not be the best approach for all hemodialysis patients, because likelihood of successful fistula placement, procedure-related and subsequent costs, and patient survival modify the optimal access choice. We performed a decision analysis evaluating AV fistula, AV graft, and central venous catheter (CVC) strategies for patients initiating hemodialysis with a CVC, a scenario occurring in over 70% of United States dialysis patients. A decision tree model was constructed to reflect progression from hemodialysis initiation. Patients were classified into one of three vascular access choices: maintain CVC, attempt fistula, or attempt graft. We explicitly modeled probabilities of primary and secondary patency for each access type, with success modified by age, sex, and diabetes. Access-specific mortality was incorporated using preexisting cohort data, including terms for age, sex, and diabetes. Costs were ascertained from the 2010 USRDS report and Medicare for procedure costs. An AV fistula attempt strategy was found to be superior to AV grafts and CVCs in regard to mortality and cost for the majority of patient characteristic combinations, especially younger men without diabetes. Women with diabetes and elderly men with diabetes had similar outcomes, regardless of access type. Overall, the advantages of an AV fistula attempt strategy lessened considerably among older patients, particularly women with diabetes, reflecting the effect of lower AV fistula success rates and lower life expectancy. These results suggest that vascular access-related outcomes may be optimized by considering individual patient characteristics. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Hemodialysis tunneled central venous catheters: five-year outcome analysis.

    PubMed

    Mandolfo, Salvatore; Acconcia, Pasqualina; Bucci, Raffaella; Corradi, Bruno; Farina, Marco; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Stucchi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Tunneled central venous catheters (tCVCs) are considered inferior to arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) and grafts in all nephrology guidelines. However, they are being increasingly used as hemodialysis vascular access. The purpose of this study was to document the natural history of tCVCs and determine the rate and type of catheter replacement. This was a prospective study of 141 patients who underwent hemodialysis with tCVCs between January 2008 and December 2012. The patients used 154 tCVCs. Standard protocols about management of tCVCs, according to European Renal Best Practice, were well established. All catheters were inserted in the internal jugular vein. Criteria for catheter removal were persistent bloodstream infection, detection of an outbreak of catheter-related bloodstream (CRBS) infections, or catheter dysfunction. Event rates were calculated per 1,000 catheter days; tCVC cumulative survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Catheter replacement occurred in 15 patients (0.29 per 1,000 days); catheter dysfunction was the main cause of replacement (0.18 per 1,000 days), typically within 12 months of surgical insertion. A total of 53 CRBS events in 36 patients were identified (0.82 per 1,000 days); 17 organisms, most commonly Gram-positive pathogens, were isolated; 87% of CVC infections were treated by systemic antibiotics associated with lock therapy. tCVC cumulative survival was 91% at 1 year, 88% at 2 years and 85% at 4 years. Our data show a high survival rate of tCVCs in hemodialysis patients, with low incidence of catheter dysfunction and CRBS events. These data justify tCVC use for hemodialysis vascular access, also as first choice, especially in patients with exhausted peripheral access and limited life expectancy.

  15. Hospital treatment for fluid overload in the Medicare hemodialysis population.

    PubMed

    Arneson, Thomas J; Liu, Jiannong; Qiu, Yang; Gilbertson, David T; Foley, Robert N; Collins, Allan J

    2010-06-01

    Fluid overload in hemodialysis patients sometimes requires emergent dialysis, but the magnitude of this care has not been characterized. This study aimed to estimate the magnitude of fluid overload treatment episodes for the Medicare hemodialysis population in hospital settings, including emergency departments. Point-prevalent hemodialysis patients were identified from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Renal Management Information System and Standard Analytical Files. Fluid overload treatment episodes were defined by claims for care in inpatient, hospital observation, or emergency department settings with primary discharge diagnoses of fluid overload, heart failure, or pulmonary edema, and dialysis performed on the day of or after admission. Exclusion criteria included stays >5 days. Cost was defined as total Medicare allowable costs for identified episodes. Associations between patient characteristics and episode occurrence and cost were analyzed. For 25,291 patients (14.3%), 41,699 care episodes occurred over a mean follow-up time of 2 years: 86% inpatient, 9% emergency department, and 5% hospital observation. Heart failure was the primary diagnosis in 83% of episodes, fluid overload in 11%, and pulmonary edema in 6%. Characteristics associated with more frequent events included age <45 years, female sex, African-American race, causes of ESRD other than diabetes, dialysis duration of 1 to 3 years, fewer dialysis sessions per week at baseline, hospitalizations during baseline, and most comorbid conditions. Average cost was $6,372 per episode; total costs were approximately $266 million. Among U.S. hemodialysis patients, fluid overload treatment is common and expensive. Further study is necessary to identify prevention opportunities.

  16. Seroprevalence occurrence of viral hepatitis and HIV among hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Inass Mahmood Abid; Mahdi, Batool Mutar

    2018-05-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) were on maintenance invasive hemodialysis (HD) procedure. This procedure by itself affects immunity of the patients and became more susceptible to viral infections. to investigate the occurrence of HBV, HCV and HIV infections in patients with hemodialysis. A retrospective study of 430 end-stage renal failure patients, referred to hemodialysis department at XXXX Teaching Hospital, Baghdad-Iraq from January-2015 to January-2017. Patients were investigated for HBs-Ag using enzyme-labeled antigen test (Foresight-EIA-USA), HCV- Abs (IgG) specific immunoglobulin using an HCV enzyme-labeled antigen test (Foresight-EIA-USA)and anti - HIV Abs (IgG) using enzyme-labeled antigen test (Foresight-EIA-USA). The frequency of HBV infection in the first year was not significant between males (1.11%) and females (0.00%) (P = 0.295). About HCV also there are no significant differences between males (12.63%) and females (9.31%) (P = 0.347). After one year of follow up the frequencies of HBV and HCV were not significant between two sexes. Additionally, no any one of the patients had HIV infection. This study brings a light on that HBV and HCV were having the same frequencies in both genders and lower occurrence with time. Furthermore, HIV was not detected in those patients.

  17. [Incidence and risk factors for infections from hemodialysis catheters].

    PubMed

    Jean, G

    2001-01-01

    We report here a revue of hemodialysis catheter-related infections data published since 1985. The reported prevalence of bacteremia is 1 to 20% of catheters, and incidence is 0.72 to 9/1000 catheter-days. Local infection is reported in 6 to 63% of catheters and in 1 to 5/1000 catheter-days. Tunneled catheters and implantables chambers reported less infection rate. The most severe complication is endocarditis (4% rate). Death occurs in 8 to 20% of cases. Reported microbial data show that Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is responsible for most infections ahead of non-aureus Staphylococcus. SA skin colonisation is a risk factor for catheter colonisation and the first step of infection. On the other hand, the host immunity impairment in hemodialysis patients seems a significant risk factor. Iron overload, specially after blood transfusions, older age, diabetes mellitus, low serum albumin level, previous history of bacteremia and immunosuppressive treatment have been frequently involved. Other catheter-related factors are time of use, absence of tunnel and use for parenteral nutrition. Nurses plans, dressing type and frequency, nurses work experience are also important. In spite of recent progress in risk factor understanding, hemodialysis-related infection remains frequent. Multicentre studies are necessary to better evaluated care protocols and new catheter material.

  18. Quality of life on hemodialysis and inflammation: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Bacci, M R; Adami, F; Figueiredo, F W S; Alves, B C A; da Veiga, G L; Fonseca, F L A

    2018-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent worldwide. Patients with CKD on hemodialysis are more likely to present behavioral changes and worse quality of life as a result of their routine and complications. They also have higher levels of cytokines. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between the inflammatory profile and quality of life measured by KDOQL-SF36 in hemodialysis outpatients. Patients older than 21 years of age and on routine hemodialysis for at least 6 months with treatment on a regular weekly basis were included and their anthropometric parameters and serum inflammatory markers were evaluated. Thirty patients consented to participate. Homocysteine (Hcy) levels were correlated with worse glomerular filtration rate (GFR; P=0.003) and creatinine (P=0.002). IL-6 was not correlated with worse nutritional status taking into account body mass index (BMI; kg/m2; P=0.83). On the other hand, TNF-alpha was positively correlated with albumin (P=0.008), nutritional status by BMI (P=0.04), and nutritional status by arm circumference area (P=0.04). IL-6 was correlated with activity limitation (P=0.02) and Hcy with work status (P=0.04). Hcy was correlated with nutritional status and inflammatory markers. In this population, the majority of the sections in KDOQL-SF36 were not correlated with cytokines levels.

  19. Quality of life on hemodialysis and inflammation: a descriptive analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bacci, M.R.; Adami, F.; Figueiredo, F.W.S.; Alves, B.C.A.; da Veiga, G.L.; Fonseca, F.L.A.

    2018-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent worldwide. Patients with CKD on hemodialysis are more likely to present behavioral changes and worse quality of life as a result of their routine and complications. They also have higher levels of cytokines. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between the inflammatory profile and quality of life measured by KDOQL-SF36 in hemodialysis outpatients. Patients older than 21 years of age and on routine hemodialysis for at least 6 months with treatment on a regular weekly basis were included and their anthropometric parameters and serum inflammatory markers were evaluated. Thirty patients consented to participate. Homocysteine (Hcy) levels were correlated with worse glomerular filtration rate (GFR; P=0.003) and creatinine (P=0.002). IL-6 was not correlated with worse nutritional status taking into account body mass index (BMI; kg/m2; P=0.83). On the other hand, TNF-alpha was positively correlated with albumin (P=0.008), nutritional status by BMI (P=0.04), and nutritional status by arm circumference area (P=0.04). IL-6 was correlated with activity limitation (P=0.02) and Hcy with work status (P=0.04). Hcy was correlated with nutritional status and inflammatory markers. In this population, the majority of the sections in KDOQL-SF36 were not correlated with cytokines levels. PMID:29694512

  20. Hemodialysis Catheter Heat Transfer for Biofilm Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Ian P; Sturtevant, Rachael; Heung, Michael; Solomon, Michael J; Younger, John G; VanEpps, J Scott

    2016-01-01

    Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are not easily treated, and many catheters (e.g., hemodialysis catheters) are not easily replaced. Biofilms (the source of infection) on catheter surfaces are notoriously difficult to eradicate. We have recently demonstrated that modest elevations of temperature lead to increased staphylococcal susceptibility to vancomycin and significantly soften the biofilm matrix. In this study, using a combination of microbiological, computational, and experimental studies, we demonstrate the efficacy, feasibility, and safety of using heat as an adjuvant treatment for infected hemodialysis catheters. Specifically, we show that treating with heat in the presence of antibiotics led to additive killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis with similar trends seen for Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The magnitude of temperature elevation required is relatively modest (45-50°C) and similar to that used as an adjuvant to traditional cancer therapy. Using a custom-designed benchtop model of a hemodialysis catheter, positioned with tip in the human vena cava as well as computational fluid dynamic simulations, we demonstrate that these temperature elevations are likely achievable in situ with minimal increased in overall blood temperature.

  1. Cognitive Dysfunction in Patients with Renal Failure Requiring Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Thimmaiah, Rohini; Murthy, K. Krishna; Pinto, Denzil

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Renal failure patients show significant impairment on measures of attention and memory, and consistently perform significantly better on neuropsychological measures of memory and attention, approximately 24 hours after hemodialysis treatment. The objectives are to determine the cognitive dysfunction in patients with renal failure requiring hemodialysis. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 subjects comprising of 30 renal failure patients and 30 controls were recruited. The sample was matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. The tools used were the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination and the Brief Cognitive Rating Scale. Results: The patients showed high cognitive dysfunction in the pre-dialysis group, in all the five dimensions (concentration, recent memory, past memory, orientation and functioning, and self-care), and the least in the 24-hour post dialysis group. This difference was found to be statistically significant (P=0.001). Conclusion: Patients with renal failure exhibited pronounced cognitive impairment and these functions significantly improved after the introduction of hemodialysis. PMID:23439613

  2. Relationships between appetite and quality of life in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zabel, Rachel; Ash, Susan; King, Neil; Juffs, Philip; Bauer, Judith

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the association between appetite and kidney-disease specific quality of life in maintenance hemodialysis patients. Quality of life (QoL) was measured using the kidney disease quality of life survey. Appetite was measured using self-reported categories and a visual analog scale. Other nutritional parameters included Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PGSGA), dietary intake, body mass index and biochemical markers C-reactive protein and albumin. Even in this well nourished sample (n=62) of hemodialysis patients, PGSGA score (r=-0.629), subjective hunger sensations (r=0.420) and body mass index (r=-0.409) were all significantly associated with the physical health domain of QoL. As self-reported appetite declined, QoL was significantly lower in nine domains which were mostly in the SF36 component and covered social functioning and physical domains. Appetite and other nutritional parameters were not as strongly associated with the Mental Health domain and Kidney Disease Component Summary Domains. Nutritional parameters, especially PGSGA score and appetite, appear to be important components of the physical health domain of QoL. As even small reductions in nutritional status were associated with significantly lower QoL scores, monitoring appetite and nutritional status is an important component of care for hemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sexual dysfunction in women with ESRD requiring hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Strippoli, Giovanni F M; Vecchio, Mariacristina; Palmer, Suetonia; De Berardis, Giorgia; Craig, Jonathan; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Johnson, David; Pellegrini, Fabio; Nicolucci, Antonio; Sciancalepore, Michela; Saglimbene, Valeria; Gargano, Letizia; Bonifati, Carmen; Ruospo, Marinella; Navaneethan, Sankar D; Montinaro, Vincenzo; Stroumza, Paul; Zsom, Marianna; Torok, Mariatta; Celia, Eduardo; Gelfman, Ruben; Bednarek-Skublewska, Anna; Dulawa, Jan; Graziano, Giusi; Gentile, Giorgio; Ferrari, Juan Nin; Santoro, Antonio; Zucchelli, Annalisa; Triolo, Giorgio; Maffei, Stefano; Hegbrant, Jörgen; Wollheim, Charlotta; De Cosmo, Salvatore; Manfreda, Valeria M

    2012-06-01

    The few existing studies of sexual dysfunction in women on hemodialysis are limited by small sample size. This large, cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence and correlates of female sexual dysfunction in advanced kidney disease. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, METHODS: A total of 1472 women with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis were recruited to a multinational, cross-sectional study conducted within a collaborative dialysis network in Europe and South America. Sexual dysfunction was identified by the Female Sexual Function Index. Correlates of self-reported sexual dysfunction were identified by regression analyses. Of the 1472 women, 659 completed questionnaires (45%). More than half (362 of 659 [55%]) lived with a partner, and 232 of 659 (35%) reported being sexually active. Of these 659 respondents, 555 (84%) reported sexual dysfunction. Women with a partner (282 of 362 [78%]) were less likely to report sexual dysfunction than those without a partner (273 of 297 [92%]) (P<0.001). Sexual dysfunction was independently associated with age, depressive symptoms, less education, menopause, diabetes, and diuretic therapy. Nearly all women who were not wait-listed for a kidney transplant and were living without a partner (249 of 260 [96%]) reported sexual dysfunction. More than half (128 of 232 [55%]) of sexually active women reported sexual dysfunction, associated with age, depressive symptoms, menopause, low serum albumin, and diuretic therapy. This descriptive study suggests most women on hemodialysis experience sexual problems. Additional research on the relevance of sexual dysfunction to symptom burden and quality of life in these women is needed.

  4. [Medication adherence of 65 patients in hemodialysis in Togo].

    PubMed

    Sabi, K A; Noto-Kadou-Kaza, B; Amekoudi, Y E; Tsevi, M C; Sylla, F; Kossidze, K; Gnionsahe, D A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess adherence in people on hemodialysis and determine the factors of poor adherence. This cross-sectional study took place throughout the month of September, 2012, in the hemodialysis center of the Sylvanus Olympio University Hospital, the only such center in Togo. The study included 65 patients, with a mean age of 49.5 years (range: 22 to 77 years), more often men (sex ratio: 1.82) and married (74 %). More than half (58%) had completed secondary education, while 73% belonged to the least advantaged socioeconomic class; 61 (94%) had health insurance, and 57% had been on dialysis for 1 to 4 years. The compliance rate was 11%. The main factors associated with good adherence were marital status (p = 0.0339) and the patient's general health status (p = 0.001). Treatment fatigue (p = 0.0347), forgetfulness (p = 0.0001), dosage forms and drug characteristics (p = 0.0198) were all factors of noncompliance. Therapeutic non-compliance was proportional to the number of drugs prescribed (p = 0.4263). Adherence in hemodialysis patients in Togo is very poor.

  5. Antitumor activity of nivolumab on hemodialysis after renal allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Ong, Michael; Ibrahim, Andrea Marie; Bourassa-Blanchette, Samuel; Canil, Christina; Fairhead, Todd; Knoll, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Nivolumab (Opdivo™) is a novel IgG4 subclass programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibiting antibody that has demonstrated breakthrough-designation anti-tumor activity. To date, clinical trials of nivolumab and other checkpoint inhibitors have generally excluded patients with solid organ transplantation and patients with concurrent immunosuppression. However, organ transplant recipients are at high-risk of development of malignancy as a result of suppressed immune surveillance of cancer. We illustrate the outcomes of a 63 year-old type I diabetic female patient who developed pulmonary metastatic, BRAF wild-type cutaneous melanoma 10 years after renal transplantation. After downward titration of the patient's immunosuppressive medications and extensive multidisciplinary review, she was treated with nivolumab in the first-line setting. Within 1 week of administration, the patient experienced acute renal allograft rejection, renal failure and concurrent diabetic ketoacidosis due to steroid therapy. Allograft function did not return, but patient made a full clinical recovery after being placed on hemodialysis. Subsequently, the patient had clinical disease progression off therapy and required re-challenge with nivolumab on hemodialysis, resulting in ongoing clinical and radiographic response. This case illustrates multiple practical challenges and dangers of administering anti-PD1 immune checkpoint inhibitors to patients with solid-organ transplantation including need for titration of immunosuppressive medications, risks of allograft rejection, and treatment during hemodialysis.

  6. Cardiac veins: collateral venous drainage pathways in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Evrim; Algin, Oktay

    2016-07-12

    Venous anomalies are diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Subclavian or superior vena cava stenosis can be developed and venous return can be achieved via cardiac veins and coronary sinus in patients with central venous catheter for long-term hemodialysis. These types of abnormalities are not extremely rare especially in patients with a history of central venous catheter placement. Detection of these anomalies and subclavian vein stenosis before the surgical creation of hemodialysis fistulae or tunneled central venous catheter placement may prevent unnecessary interventions in those patients. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) technique can give further information when compared with fluoroscopy or digital subtraction angiography in the management of these patients. This case report describes interesting aspects of central vein complications in hemodialysis patients. As a conclusion, there are limited data about thoracic venous return, and further prospective studies with large patient number are required. MDCT with 3D reconstruction is particularly useful for the accurate evaluation of venous patency, variations, and collateral circulation. Also it is an excellent tool for choosing and planning treatment.

  7. [The history of home hemodialysis and its likely revival].

    PubMed

    Ralli, Chiara; Imperiali, Patrizio; Duranti, Ennio

    2016-01-01

    The home extracorporeal hemodialysis, which aroused a great interest in the past, has not kept its promises due to the complexity and expectations for family involvement in treatment management. In the United States NxStage One portable system was proposed and designed for home use. In this work we describe, starting from the history of home hemodialysis, the method with NxStage system by comparing it with the conventional HD in 5 patients. The dialysis efficiency was similar between the two treatments, even if home hemodialysis showed a reduction in serum urea, creatinine and phosphorus. At the same time phosphate binders use decreased with an increase in serum calcium while hemoglobin increased reducing doses of erythropoietin. The method was successful in the training of the patients and their partners during hospital training and at home. Patients have shown great enthusiasm at the beginning and during the therapy, which is developed around the users personal needs, being able to decide at its own times during 24 hours according to personal needs, in addition to faster recovery after the dialysis. This method certainly improved the patients' wellness and increased their autonomy.

  8. Clinical performance targets and quality of life in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Mazairac, Albert H A; de Wit, G Ardine; Grooteman, Muriel P C; Penne, E Lars; van der Weerd, Neelke C; den Hoedt, Claire H; Lévesque, Renée; van den Dorpel, Marinus A; Nubé, Menso J; Ter Wee, Piet M; Blankestijn, Peter J; Bots, Michiel L

    2012-01-01

    Patients value health-related quality of life (HRQOL) over survival. It was our aim to study the relation between attainment of widely accepted performance targets and HRQOL in hemodialysis patients. This study included baseline data from 715 hemodialysis patients from 29 dialysis centers. Six clinical performance targets, as recommended by the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI), were evaluated: single-pool Kt/V (≥1.2), hemoglobin (11-13 g/dl), vascular access (fistula), phosphorus (2.3-4.5 mg/dl), parathyroid hormone (150-300 pg/ml), and blood pressure (predialysis <140/90 and postdialysis <130/ 80 mm Hg). After correction for case-mix and multiple comparisons, no association was found between the 6 KDOQI clinical performance targets and the 14 HRQOL domains, or between the number of performance targets reached and HRQOL. Attainment with widely accepted clinical performance targets was not related to the HRQOL of hemodialysis patients. Hence, in clinical guidelines, HRQOL should be adopted as an explicit treatment goal for these individuals. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Long-Term Results of Transcatheter Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Infants Using Amplatzer Duct Occluder

    PubMed Central

    Behjati-Ardakani, Mostafa; Behjati-Ardakani, Mohammad-Amin; Hosseini, Seyed-Habibolla; Noori, Noormohammad

    2013-01-01

    Objective Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is one of the most frequently seen congenital heart diseases. Its closure is recommended because of the risk of infective endocardis, as well as morbidity and mortality in the long. The aim of this study was to assess the long term results of the transcatheter closure of PDA in infants using amplatzer duct occlude (ADO). Methods From May 2004 to September 2011, forty eight infants underwent transcatheter closure of PDA. A lateral or right anterior oblique view aortogram was done to locate PDA and to measure its size. Before discharge, repeat aortogram was performed to evaluate eventual residual shunt and to confirm the appropriate deployment of the ADO. Follow up evaluations were done with transthoracic echocardiography at discharge, 1 month, 6 months, 12 months and yearly thereafter. Findings The mean age of patients at procedure was 9.18±2.32 (range 3 to 12) months, mean weight 6.73±1.16 (range 4.5 to 10.1) kg. The PDA occluded completely in 20 out of the 48 patients. Twenty four patients had trivial or mild shunt and two patients had moderate residual shunt which disappeared in one patient within 24 hours and other patient with moderate shunt in 1 month. One patient (age 8 months) had mild LPA stenosis. The device emobolization occurred in two patients, immediately after the procedure in one and during night in the other patient Conclusion The long term results suggested that transcatheter closure of PDA using Amplatzer duct occluder is a safe and effective treatment in infants less than 1 year of age with minimal complications. PMID:24427494

  10. [Lung perfusion studies after percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus using the Amplatzer Duct Occluder in children].

    PubMed

    Parra-Bravo, José Rafael; Apolonio-Martínez, Adriana; Estrada-Loza, María de Jesús; Beirana-Palencia, Luisa Gracia; Ramírez-Portillo, César Iván

    2015-01-01

    The closure of patent ductus arteriosus with multiple devices has been associated with a reduction in lung perfusion. We evaluated the pulmonary perfusion after percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder device using perfusion lung scan. Thirty patients underwent successful percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus occlusions using the Amplatzer Duct Occluder device were included in this study. Lung perfusion scans were preformed 6 months after the procedure. Peak flow velocities and protrusion of the device were analyzed by Doppler echocardiography. A left lung perfusion<40% was considered abnormal. The device implantation was successful in all patients. Average perfusion of left lung was 44.7±4.9% (37.8-61.4). Five patients (16.6%) showed decreased perfusion of the left lung. Age, low weight, the length of the ductus arteriosus and the minimum and maximum diameter/length of the ductus arteriosus ratio were statistically significant in patients with abnormalities of lung perfusion. It was observed protrusion the device in 6 patients with a higher maximum flow rate in the left pulmonary artery. The left lung perfusion may be compromised after percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder. The increased flow velocity in the origin of the left pulmonary artery can be a poor indicator of reduction in pulmonary perfusion and can occur in the absence of protrusion of the device. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Management of occluded metal stents in malignant biliary obstruction: similar outcomes with second metal stents compared to plastic stents

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Tilak; Desai, Svetang; Haque, Mahfuzul; Dakik, Hassan; Fisher, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Background Covered or uncovered self expandable metallic stents (SEMS) placed in patients with malignant biliary obstruction can occlude in 19–40%, but optimal management is unclear. Aim We sought to summarize current evidence regarding management of occluded SEMS in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. Methods Two investigators independently searched Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science using pre-defined search criteria, and reviewed bibliographies of included studies. Data were independently abstracted by two investigators, and analyzed using RevMan. We compared strategies of second SEMS versus plastic stents with respect to the following outcomes: rate of second stent re-occlusion, duration of second stent patency, and survival. Results Ten retrospective studies met inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Management options described were placement of an uncovered SEMS (n=125), covered SEMS (n=106), plastic stent (n=135), percutaneous biliary drain (n=7), mechanical cleaning (n=18), or microwave coagulation (n=7). Relative risk of re-occlusion was not significantly different in patients with second SEMS compared to plastic stents (RR 1.24, 95% CI 0.92, 1.67, I2= 0, p 0.16). Duration of second stent patency was not significantly different between patients who received second SEMS versus plastic stents (weighted mean difference 0.46, 95% CI −0.30, 1.23, I2=83%). Survival was not significantly different among patients who received plastic stents versus SEMS (weighted mean difference −1.13, 95% CI −2.33, 0.07, I2 86%, p 0.07). Conclusions Among patients with malignant biliary obstruction and occluded SEMS, available evidence suggests a strategy of placing a plastic stent may be as effective as second SEMS. Limitations of these findings were that all studies were retrospective and heterogeneity between studies was detected for two of the outcomes. PMID:22732833

  12. Long-term outcome of 154 patients receiving balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration for gastric fundal varices.

    PubMed

    Imai, Yukinori; Nakazawa, Manabu; Ando, Satsuki; Sugawara, Kayoko; Mochida, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to clarify the long-term outcome of therapeutic strategies including balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) for patients with gastric fundal varices. The subjects were 154 patients with gastric fundal varices fulfilling the criteria for receiving B-RTO. In patients showing variceal bleeding, endoscopic therapies and/or balloon tamponade was performed to achieve hemostasis. B-RTO was accomplished with injection of 5% ethanolamine oleate through a standard balloon catheter except for patients with atypical varices, in whom a microballoon catheter was used to occlude drainage vessels other than a gastrorenal shunt. In patients complicated with esophageal varices at baseline, endoscopic therapies were performed following B-RTO. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration was performed successfully in 147 patients (95%), including 15 patients using a microballoon catheter. Complete variceal obliteration was achieved in all patients. Additional endoscopic therapies for esophageal varices were performed in 31 patients. Gastric varices did not recur in any of these patients. The cumulative survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years after B-RTO were 91%, 76%, and 72%, respectively. Child-Pugh scores and hepatocellular carcinoma complication were identified as prognostic factors associated with survival rates. The cumulative exacerbation rates of esophageal varices at 1, 3, and 5 years were 13%, 20%, and 27%, respectively, and rupture developed in six patients, which were successfully treated with endoscopic therapies. Therapeutic strategies including B-RTO with a microballoon catheter were useful to achieve a favorable outcome in patients with gastric fundal varices especially in those manifesting Child-Pugh class-A liver damage and/or those without hepatocellular carcinoma complication. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. 2.5-month-old infants' reasoning about when objects should and should not be occluded.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, A; Baillargeon, R

    1999-09-01

    The present research examined 2.5-month-old infants' reasoning about occlusion events. Three experiments investigated infants' ability to predict whether an object should remain continuously hidden or become temporarily visible when passing behind an occluder with an opening in its midsection. In Experiment 1, the infants were habituated to a short toy mouse that moved back and forth behind a screen. Next, the infants saw two test events that were identical to the habituation event except that a portion of the screen's midsection was removed to create a large window. In one event (high-window event), the window extended from the screen's upper edge; the mouse was shorter than the bottom of the window and thus did not become visible when passing behind the screen. In the other event (low-window event), the window extended from the screen's lower edge; although the mouse was shorter than the top of the window and hence should have become fully visible when passing behind the screen, it never appeared in the window. The infants tended to look equally at the high- and low-window events, suggesting that they were not surprised when the mouse failed to appear in the low window. However, positive results were obtained in Experiment 2 when the low-window event was modified: a portion of the screen above the window was removed so that the left and right sections of the screen were no longer connected (two-screens event). The infants looked reliably longer at the two-screens than at the high-window event. Together, the results of Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that, at 2.5 months of age, infants possess only very limited expectations about when objects should and should not be occluded. Specifically, infants expect objects (1) to become visible when passing between occluders and (2) to remain hidden when passing behind occluders, irrespective of whether these have openings extending from their upper or lower edges. Experiment 3 provided support for this interpretation. The

  14. Transcatheter closure of a large patent ductus arteriosus in a young child using the Amplatzer duct occluder.

    PubMed

    Jan, S-L; Hwang, B; Fu, Y-C; Chi, C-S

    2005-01-01

    The Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO) provides a safe and effective therapy for patients with moderate- to large-sized patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), but there have been few reports of transcatheter closure of very large PDAs in young children and infants. We report a successful transcatheter closure of a very large PDA, 10.5 mm in diameter at the narrowest point, with a 14/12-mm ADO. To our knowledge, this is the largest PDA ever closed by an interventional method in such a young child.

  15. Management of a large atrial septal occluder embolized to the left ventricular outflow tract without the use of cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Loh, Joshua P; Satler, Lowell F; Slack, Michael C

    2014-09-01

    Transcatheter closure of secundum-type atrial septal defects (ASDs) using the AMPLATZER™ Septal Occluder (ASO) has been in use for more than a decade since its US Food and Drug Administration approval in 2001. Device embolization remains an uncommon complication, which can sometimes occur after the initial deployment. Previous reports of ASO devices embolized to the left ventricle have primarily been managed by open-heart surgical retrieval. We present a case of an ASO device embolized to the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) 18 hr after initial implantation, which was successfully retrieved percutaneously, followed by successful closure of the ASD using a larger device. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Impact of hypovitaminosis D and alfacalcidol therapy on survival of hemodialysis patients: results from the French ARNOS study.

    PubMed

    Jean, G; Lataillade, D; Genet, L; Legrand, E; Kuentz, F; Moreau-Gaudry, X; Fouque, D

    2011-01-01

    In chronic kidney disease and dialysis patients, vitamin D deficiency is associated with mortality. In some observational studies, calcitriol analogue therapy was associated with a better survival rate in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels and alfacalcidol therapy with HD patients' outcomes. We measured baseline 25-OHD levels using a cross-sectional analysis in 648 HD prevalent patients from the regional ARNOS French cohort. A 42-month survival analysis was applied according to serum 25-OHD level and calcitriol analogue therapy. The prevalence of 25-OHD insufficiency <30 ng/ml was high (73%), with only 22% taking native vitamin D supplementation. A baseline 25-OHD level above the median value (18 ng/ml) was associated with lower all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR), 0.73 (0.5-0.96); p = 0.02] after adjustment for age, gender, dialysis vintage, calcemia, phosphatemia, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Only in monovariate analysis was low-dose oral alfacalcidol therapy associated with a better survival rate in patients with and without 25-OHD deficiency [HR, 0.7 (0.5-0.92); p = 0.05]. Our study shows that, among prevalent HD patients, low 25-OHD levels affect mortality. Alfacalcidol therapy, especially in small doses, may provide compensation, but this needs to be further confirmed using prospective controlled studies comparing native and active vitamin D compounds. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. [Auto-dialysis: an 11-year experience of a hemodialysis center in France].

    PubMed

    Montagnac, R; Schillinger, F

    1996-03-30

    Report 11 years of experience with self-managed hemodialysis in patients medically apt for extra-hospital dialysis and living close enough to small outpatient hemodialysis units to become totally self-sufficient. Among the 276 patients with chronic renal failure managed at the hemodialysis center at the Troyes hospital during the 11-year study period from 1984 through 1994, self-managed hemodialysis at small outpatient units was initiated in 127 (46%). None of these 127 patients required medical assistance or specific care during dialysis sessions. At initial hospital admission, only 60/127 (47%) were totally self-sufficient: 52 (41%) were later graft recipients; and 21 (16.5%) had to return to the hospital for a medical or surgical condition incompatible with extra-hospital care but all of these 21 patients remained self-sufficient. Extra-hospital hemodialysis in units close to the patients residence offers patients a better quality of life, even when medical assistance is required. All patients who require hemodialysis can thus be treated at lower cost without compromising quality of treatment. Perfect self-sufficiency may not be a goal in itself, but self-managed hemodialysis can be a very useful technique for patients without major medical problems. Continuing contact with the organizing hemodialysis center guarantees the safety of the system.

  18. Coping with Treatment-Related Stress: Effects on Patient Adherence in Hemodialysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Alan J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relation of coping to adherence among 57 hemodialysis patients. As predicted, coping efforts involving planful problem solving were associated with more favorable adherence when used in response to stressors involving a relatively controllable aspect of the hemodialysis context. For less controllable stressors, coping efforts…

  19. Anatomic brain disease in hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although dialysis patients are at high risk of stroke and have a high burden of cognitive impairment, there are few reports of anatomic brain findings in the hemodialysis population. Using magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, we compared the prevalence of brain abnormalities in hemodialysis pati...

  20. Frequency of and risk factors for poor cognitive performance in hemodialysis patients

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are few detailed data on cognition in patients undergoing dialysis. We evaluated the frequency of and risk factors for poor cognitive performance using detailed neurocognitive testing. In this cross-sectional cohort study, 314 hemodialysis patients from 6 Boston-area hemodialysis units underwe...

  1. Relationship between instantaneous wave-free ratio and fractional flow reserve in patients receiving hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Yuta; Arashi, Hiroyuki; Otsuki, Hisao; Yamaguchi, Junichi; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa

    2017-06-22

    Instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) is a vasodilator-free index and is reported to have a good correlation with fractional flow reserve (FFR). Hemodialysis patients exhibit left ventricular hypertrophy, reduced arterial compliance, and impaired microcirculation. Such a coronary flow condition in these patients may influence the relationship between iFR and FFR. This study assessed the impact of hemodialysis on the relationship between iFR and FFR. The study enrolled 196 patients with 265 stenoses who underwent assessment via iFR, FFR assessment, and right heart catheterization. A good correlation between iFR and FFR was observed in hemodialysis patients. iFR in the hemodialysis group was significantly lower than in the non-hemodialysis group (0.81 ± 0.13 vs. 0.86 ± 0.13, p = 0.005), although no significant difference was found in FFR and percentage diameter stenosis. An iFR value of 0.84 was found to be equivalent to an FFR value of 0.8 in hemodialysis patients, which was lower than the standard predictive iFR range for ischemia. Vasodilator-free assessment by iFR could be beneficial in evaluating intermediate coronary stenosis in patients receiving hemodialysis. However, the threshold for iFR abnormality needs adjustment in hemodialysis patients, and larger clinical trials are required to confirm the results in this specific subset.

  2. [Effects of distance between residence and hemodialysis unit on cardiovascular complications and treatments of maintenance hemodialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Zha, Yan; Yang, Xia; He, Shan; Xie, Ying; Huang, Rong-sai; Xiong, Hong-yan; Sun, Zhao-lin

    2013-06-11

    To explore the effects of etiological classification and the distance between residence and hemodialysis unit on cardiovascular complications and treatments in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. A total of 756 MHD patients were collected from 12 hemodialysis centers of Guiyang, China between January 2011 and May 2012. Their distribution characteristics and correlations were based on medical records. And statistical analyses were performed. The ratio of males and females was 1.45: 1. And their mean age was (49.1 ± 14.7) years old. And 496 (65.6%) cases suffered from cardiovascular complications. The analysis of multi-factor Logistic regression revealed that distance between residence and dialysis unit was an independent risk factor of cardiovascular complications. The group of the farthest distance ( > 30 km) had the worst influence on dialysis adequacy Kt/V score, urea clearance rate, dialysis frequency and time per week. And the levels of blood phosphorus, triglyceride and cholesterol in the fourth group had marked elevations. It had a significant positive correlation with distance (P < 0.05). The distance between residence and dialysis unit is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular complications in MHD patients. The farthest distance ( > 30 km) has the greatest influence on dialysis adequacy.

  3. [Parallels in development of hemodialysis service and kidney transplantations in Lithuania during 1996-2005].

    PubMed

    Ziginskiene, Edita; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Bumblyte, Inga Arūne; Santockiene, Lina; Dalinkeviciene, Egle; Kardauskaite, Zydrūne; Uogintaite, Jurgita; Motiejūnaite, Agne; Butautas, Ernestas; Vainauskas, Vaclovas; Macius, Kazimieras; Sakalauskiene, Marija; Steckis, Ricardas; Gaupsiene, Egle; Urbanaviciene, Jūrate; Labutiene, Vilma

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the changes in hemodialysis service, main demographic characteristics of hemodialysis patients in Lithuania during 1996-2005, and their correlation with the number of recipients on the kidney waiting list. During the study period, we annually visited all hemodialysis centers in Lithuania and collected data about all hemodialysis patients. There was a sharp increase in the number of hemodialysis centers (from 17 to 43), hemodialysis stations (from 25 to 100 per million population, P<0.001), hemodialysis patients (from 60 to 312 per million population, P<0.001), and new hemodialysis patients (from 54.3 to 95 per million population, P<0.01). The mean age of hemodialysis patients increased from 47.2+/-16.1 years in 1996 to 58.8+/-15.6 years in 2005 (P<0.001). Hemodialysis population became older. The percentage of patients aged more than 60 years increased from 22.8% to 53.2% (P<0.001) and aged more than 70 years from 5.4% to 24.4% (P<0.001). The frequency of chronic glomerulonephritis as underlying disease of end-stage renal disease decreased from 54.5% in 1996 to 21.1% in 2005 (P<0.001). There was an increase in the percentage of patients in whom end-stage renal disease was caused by diabetic (from 7.1% to 19.2%, P<0.01) and hypertensive nephropathies (from 3.1% to 13.9%, P<0.05) and chronic pyelonephritis (from 11.2% to 17.9%, P<0.01). The percentage of recipients on the kidney waiting list decreased from 71.4% in 1996 to 21.1% in 2005. In summary, during the last 9 years, hemodialysis service in Lithuania significantly expanded. The number of hemodialysis patients was continuously rising with predominance of diabetic, hypertensive, and elderly patients. Diabetic nephropathy, chronic glomerulonephritis, and pyelonephritis were the main underlying diseases of end-stage renal disease in hemodialysis patients in 2005. The percentage of recipients on the kidney waiting list decreased probably because of the rise in the number of

  4. Introduced brown trout alter native acanthocephalan infections in native fish.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Rachel A; Townsend, Colin R; Poulin, Robert; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2011-09-01

    1. Native parasite acquisition provides introduced species with the potential to modify native host-parasite dynamics by acting as parasite reservoirs (with the 'spillback' of infection increasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) or sinks (with the 'dilution' of infection decreasing the parasite burdens of native hosts) of infection. 2. In New Zealand, negative correlations between the presence of introduced brown trout (Salmo trutta) and native parasite burdens of the native roundhead galaxias (Galaxias anomalus) have been observed, suggesting that parasite dilution is occurring. 3. We used a multiple-scale approach combining field observations, experimental infections and dynamic population modelling to investigate whether native Acanthocephalus galaxii acquisition by brown trout alters host-parasite dynamics in native roundhead galaxias. 4. Field observations demonstrated higher infection intensity in introduced trout than in native galaxias, but only small, immature A. galaxii were present in trout. Experimental infections also demonstrated that A. galaxii does not mature in trout, although parasite establishment and initial growth were similar in the two hosts. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that trout may serve as an infection sink for the native parasite. 5. However, dynamic population modelling predicts that A. galaxii infections in native galaxias should at most only be slightly reduced by dilution in the presence of trout. Rather, model exploration indicates parasite densities in galaxias are highly sensitive to galaxias predation on infected amphipods, and to relative abundances of galaxias and trout. Hence, trout presence may instead reduce parasite burdens in galaxias by either reducing galaxias density or by altering galaxias foraging behaviour. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2011 British Ecological Society.

  5. In-center hemodialysis attendance: patient perceptions of risks, barriers, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Chenitz, Kara B; Fernando, Michael; Shea, Judy A

    2014-04-01

    Missed hemodialysis treatments lead to increased morbidity and mortality in the end-stage renal disease population. Little is known about why patients have difficulty attending their scheduled in-center dialysis treatments. Semistructured interviews with 15 adherent and 15 nonadherent hemodialysis patients were conducted to determine patients' attitudes about dialysis, health beliefs and risk perception regarding missed treatments, barriers and facilitators to hemodialysis attendance, and recommendations to improve the system to facilitate dialysis attendance. Average time on dialysis was 2.5 years for the nonadherent group and 7.3 years in the adherent group. In both groups, patients felt that dialysis is life-saving and a necessity. A substantial number of patients in both groups understood that missing hemodialysis treatments is dangerous and several patients could clearly communicate the risk of skipping. The most common barriers to hemodialysis were inadequate or unreliable transportation (mentioned in both groups) and a lack of motivation to get to dialysis or that dialysis is not a priority (typically mentioned by the nonadherent group). Facilitators to hemodialysis attendance included explanations from the health care team regarding the risk of skipping and relationships with other dialysis patients. Patient recommendations to improve dialysis attendance included continued education about the risk of poor attendance and more accessible transportation. Patients did not feel that home dialysis would improve adherence. Hemodialysis patients must adhere to a complex and burdensome regimen. Through the elucidation of barriers and facilitators to hemodialysis attendance and through specific patient recommendations, at least three interventions may be further investigated to improve hemodialysis attendance: Improvement of the transportation system, education and supportive encouragement from the health care team, and peer support mentorship. © 2014 International

  6. Hepatitis C virus screening and management of seroconversions in hemodialysis facilities.

    PubMed

    Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Thompson, Nicola D

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, healthcare-associated exposure has increasingly been proved to be a means of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission, especially in hemodialysis facilities. The prevalence of HCV among hemodialysis patients is known to be several times greater than that of the general population of the United States, and chronic HCV infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality among these patients. During 2008-2011, HCV infection outbreaks were identified in multiple US hemodialysis facilities, resulting in at least 46 new HCV infections among hemodialysis patients. These outbreaks, linked to infection control breaches, also highlight the failure of some facilities to follow established guidelines for routine HCV antibody (anti-HCV) screening and response to new HCV infection among hemodialysis patients. Current national guidelines recommend screening of hemodialysis patients for anti-HCV on facility admission and, for susceptible patients, on a semiannual basis. Here, we seek to underscore the importance of compliance with national recommendations for anti-HCV screening of hemodialysis patients and actions to be taken in the event of possible HCV transmission within a hemodialysis facility. These include general steps to ensure that: hemodialysis patients are routinely screened for anti-HCV to facilitate early detection of new infections; newly infected patients are informed of the change in their HCV status and undergo clinical evaluation; and public health officials are notified of new HCV infections in a timely manner. We then focus on the need to assess infection control practices at the facility, with particular attention given to safe handling of injectable medications, hand hygiene and disinfection practices. In the absence of a vaccine, routine screening and adherence to standard infection control practices will remain the key strategies for preventing HCV transmission in hemodialysis units. Published 2013. This article is a U

  7. Exploring Native and Non-Native Intuitions of Word Frequency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Norbert; Dunham, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    Asked native and nonnative speakers to give judgments of frequency for near synonyms in second-language lexical sets and compared those responses to modern corpus word counts. Native speakers were able to discern the core word in lexical sets either 77% or 85%, and nonnative speakers at 71% or 79%. (Author/VWL)

  8. Effectiveness of collateral vein embolization for salvage of immature native arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osman; Patel, Mikin; Ginsburg, Michael; Jilani, Danial; Funaki, Brian

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the value of collateral vein embolization (CVE) as a salvage treatment for nonmaturing native arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) in patients requiring hemodialysis. A total of 49 patients undergoing CVE (N = 65) for immature native AVFs at a single institution were reviewed. The study included 42 patients treated by 56 embolizations. Average fistula age at time of intervention was 18.2 weeks. Each patient underwent angiographic evaluation for fistula immaturity, with clinical success defined by initiation of single-session hemodialysis through the native fistula. Fistula maturity was achieved in 32 of 42 patients (76.2%). No major complications occurred. Average time from CVE to fistula maturity was 38.4 days. Angioplasty done with CVE was found in a statistically higher percentage of patients with fistula success versus failure (31.3% vs 8.3%; P = .039). Radiocephalic fistulae were seen in a higher percentage of fistula failures compared with successes, but the results were not statistically significant (83.3% vs 59.4%; P = .054). Thirty-four patients underwent CVE without angioplasty, which resulted in successful fistula maturation in 22 cases (64.7%). Radiocephalic fistulae were again seen in a higher percentage of fistula failures compared with successes, but the findings did not meet statistical significance (81.8% vs 54.5%; P = .052). Coil embolization of competing collateral vessels as a salvage treatment for nonfunctioning autologous AVFs is a viable treatment option in the majority of patients. Patients with radiocephalic fistulae may be at higher risk for primary fistula failure, but the present data are inconclusive. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spectral analysis of airflow sounds in patent versus occluded tracheostomy tubes: a pilot study in tracheostomized adult patients.

    PubMed

    Rao, A J; Niwa, H; Watanabe, Y; Fukuta, S; Yanagita, N

    1990-05-01

    Cannula occlusion is a life-threatening postoperative complication of tracheostomy. Current management largely relies on nursing care for prevention of fatalities because no proven mechanical, machine-based support monitoring exists. The objective of this paper was to address the problem of monitoring the state of cannula patency, based on analysis of airflow acoustic spectral patterns in tracheostomized adult patients in the patent and partially occluded cannula. Tracheal airflow sounds were picked up via a condenser microphone air-coupled to the skin just below the tracheal stoma. Signal output from Mic was amplified, high-pass filtered, digital tape-recorded, and analyzed on a mainframe computer. Although airflow frequencies for patient cannulae were predominantly low-pitched (0.1 to 0.3 kHz), occluded tubes had discrete high-pitched spectral peaks (1.3 to 1.6 kHz). These results suggest that frequency analysis of airflow sounds can identify a change in the status of cannula patency.

  10. ST-depression in right precordial leads with inferior STEMI and occluded right coronary artery: intertwined anatomy and ischemic areas.

    PubMed

    De Gennaro, Luisa; Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Ruggiero, Massimo; Rutigliano, David; Locuratolo, Nicola; Di Biase, Matteo; Caldarola, Pasquale

    2017-10-01

    Right coronary artery (RCA) occlusion in inferior acute myocardial infarction is usually heralded by ST-elevation both in inferior and in right precordial leads. We report the case of a 68-year-old male, who presented marked ST-elevation in inferior leads, mirrored by ST-depression in anterior-septal and lateral leads. Right precordial lead electrocardiogram unexpectedly showed ST-depression V1R-V5R leads. Coronary angiography showed mid-left anterior descending (LAD) coronary near-complete occlusion with distal wrapping LAD. Left circumflex artery was not occluded, while RCA was occluded mid tract. The patient was treated with coronary angioplasty on RCA and LAD. Absence of ST-elevation in right precordial leads may be presumably explained by the presence of a large ischemic area distal to mid-LAD near-occlusive stenosis and of a long-wrapping LAD. Complex coronary anatomy and intertwined ischemic areas may underlie apparently discording electrocardiograms.

  11. Effects of six versus three times per week hemodialysis on physical performance, health, and functioning: Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Hall, Yoshio N; Larive, Brett; Painter, Patricia; Kaysen, George A; Lindsay, Robert M; Nissenson, Allen R; Unruh, Mark L; Rocco, Michael V; Chertow, Glenn M

    2012-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the effects of hemodialysis frequency on the disability of patients with ESRD. This study examined changes in physical performance and self-reported physical health and functioning among subjects randomized to frequent (six times per week) compared with conventional (three times per week) hemodialysis in both the Frequent Hemodialysis Network daily (n=245) and nocturnal (n=87) trials. The main outcome measures were adjusted change in scores over 12 months on the short physical performance battery (SPPB), RAND 36-item health survey physical health composite (PHC), and physical functioning subscale (PF) based on the intention to treat principle. Overall scores for SPPB, PHC, and PF were poor relative to population norms and in line with other studies in ESRD. In the Daily Trial, subjects randomized to frequent compared with conventional in-center hemodialysis experienced no significant change in SPPB (adjusted mean change of -0.20±0.19 versus -0.41±0.21, P=0.45) but experienced significant improvement in PHC (3.4±0.8 versus 0.4±0.8, P=0.009) and a relatively large change in PF that did not reach statistical significance. In the Nocturnal Trial, there were no significant differences among subjects randomized to frequent compared with conventional hemodialysis in SPPB (adjusted mean change of -0.92±0.44 versus -0.41±0.43, P=0.41), PHC (2.7±1.4 versus 2.1±1.5, P=0.75), or PF (-3.1±3.5 versus 1.1±3.6, P=0.40). Frequent in-center hemodialysis compared with conventional in-center hemodialysis improved self-reported physical health and functioning but had no significant effect on objective physical performance. There were no significant effects of frequent nocturnal hemodialysis on the same physical metrics.

  12. Reflecting on Native Speaker Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The issues surrounding native speakers (NSs) and nonnative speakers (NNSs) as teachers (NESTs and NNESTs, respectively) in the field of teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) are a current topic of interest. In many contexts, the native speaker of English is viewed as the model teacher, thus putting the NEST into a position of…

  13. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  14. Native American Adult Reader III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Lovern Root, Ed.

    This reader, one of three designed to provide adults in basic education/GED programs with meaningful material based on Native American cultures, includes selections appropriate for advanced reading ability (grade 7 and above). The twelve readings focus on culture, history, and contemporary concerns of Native Americans. Each selection includes a…

  15. Native Americans in Physical Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westberg, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Three Native American physical therapists share stories of their careers, including educational background; motivation to enter the field; and experiences as a volunteer in Vietnam and working with the Indian Health Service and various rehabilitation programs. Advice on appropriate preparation in the sciences is offered to Native students…

  16. Alaska Natives In Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohout, Karen; Kleinfeld, Judith

    This study examines changes in the entrance and success rates of Native students in Alaska colleges from 1963 to 1972, a time when special college recruitment and assistance programs were being developed. Information is based on the college records of those Natives who entered college for the first time at the University of Alaska at Fairbanks…

  17. Earth's Caretakers: Native American Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyberg, Lisa M., Ed.

    Written by Native American teachers and by teachers of Native Americans, this book presents examples of ways to learn respect for the Earth and its people. The hope is that students will learn to walk softly upon the Earth and to respect all living things. Lessons and activities engage elementary and middle school students in a four-step…

  18. Listening Natively across Perceptual Domains?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langus, Alan; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Uysal, Ertugrul; Pirmoradian, Sahar; Marino, Caterina; Asaadi, Sina; Eren, Ömer; Toro, Juan M.; Peña, Marcela; Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Nespor, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Our native tongue influences the way we perceive other languages. But does it also determine the way we perceive nonlinguistic sounds? The authors investigated how speakers of Italian, Turkish, and Persian group sequences of syllables, tones, or visual shapes alternating in either frequency or duration. We found strong native listening effects…

  19. Ohiyesa's Path: Reclaiming Native Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Adrienne Brant; Renville, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    As Natives have assumed increasing authority and responsibility for tribal and federally funded and administered schools, a more balanced and enlightened view is emerging. Notable among these events is the recognition of the critical need to shift emphasis to the untapped heritage of more recently recognized and acknowledged Native American…

  20. Native American Curriculum Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Melanie, Ed.

    This guide aims to assist the faculty member who wishes to integrate Native American materials into core courses of the curriculum. The first section is a bibliography of over 350 entries, primarily books and journal articles, arranged in the following categories: Native American bibliographies and general sources, history, economics,…

  1. Native Music in College Curricula?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Loran

    1986-01-01

    Culminating a 10-year effort to include the study of Native Americans and their music as it reflects cultural realities, life, thought, religion, and history as a choice in requirements for graduation, the elective course, "Native Music of North America," is now recognized at Washington State University as meeting both…

  2. Education and the Native American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannucilli, Mary V.

    Traditionally, Native Americans educated their children through the oral transmission of beliefs and values. Christian missions dominated Indian education from the 16th to the 19th century and began the process of erasing Native American identity and culture. After the Civil War, control of 73 Indian agencies was assigned to 13 religious…

  3. Massive acetaminophen overdose: effect of hemodialysis on acetaminophen and acetylcysteine kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ghannoum, Marc; Kazim, Sara; Grunbaum, Ami M; Villeneuve, Eric; Gosselin, Sophie

    2016-07-01

    Early onset acidosis from mitochondrial toxicity can be observed in massive acetaminophen poisoning prior to the development of hepatotoxicity. In this context, the efficacy of acetylcysteine to reverse mitochondrial toxicity remains unclear and hemodialysis may offer prompt correction of acidosis. Unfortunately, toxicokinetics of acetaminophen and acetylcysteine during extracorporeal treatments hemodialysis have seldom been described. An 18-year-old woman presented to the emergency department 60 minutes after ingestion of 100 g of acetaminophen, and unknown amounts of ibuprofen and ethanol. Initial assessment revealed an agitated patient. Her mental status worsened and she required intubation for airway protection. Investigations showed metabolic acidosis with lactate peaking at 8.6 mmol/L. Liver and coagulation profiles remained normal. Acetaminophen concentration peaked at 981 μg/ml (6496 μmol/L). Pending hemodialysis, the patient received 100 g of activated charcoal and an acetylcysteine infusion at 150 mg/kg over 1 hour, followed by 12.5 mg/kg/h for 4 hours. During hemodialysis, the infusion was maintained at 12.5 mg/kg/h to compensate for expected removal before it was decreased to 6.25 mg/kg for 20 hours after hemodialysis. The patient rapidly improved during hemodialysis and was discharged 48 hours post-admission. The acetaminophen elimination half-life was 5.2 hours prior to hemodialysis, 1.9-hours during hemodialysis and 3.6 hours post hemodialysis. The acetaminophen and acetylcysteine clearances by A-V gradient during hemodialysis were 160.4 ml/min and 190.3 ml/min, respectively. Hemodialysis removed a total of 20.6 g of acetaminophen and 17.9 g of acetylcysteine. This study confirms the high dialyzability of both acetaminophen and acetylcysteine. Hemodialysis appears to be a beneficial therapeutic option in cases of massive acetaminophen ingestion with coma and lactic acidosis. Additionally, these results

  4. Comparison of three patent foramen ovale closure devices in a randomized trial (Amplatzer versus CardioSEAL-STARflex versus Helex occluder).

    PubMed

    Taaffe, Margaret; Fischer, Evelyn; Baranowski, Andreas; Majunke, Nicolas; Heinisch, Corinna; Leetz, Michaela; Hein, Ralph; Bayard, Yves; Büscheck, Franziska; Reschke, Madlen; Hoffmann, Ilona; Wunderlich, Nina; Wilson, Neil; Sievert, Horst

    2008-05-01

    This randomized trial compared procedural complications and 30-day clinical outcomes of 3 patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure devices (Amplatzer, Helex, and CardioSEAL-STARflex). It examined 660 patients (361 men, 299 women, mean age 49.3+/-1.9 years), with 220 patients per group. All patients had a history of paradoxical embolism. All PFO closures were successful technically. Exchange of devices for others was most frequently required for the Helex occluder (7 of 220) and 2 of 220 in either of the other groups. Three device embolizations in the Helex group were retrieved and replaced successfully. One patient with a Helex occluder developed a transient ischemic attack and recovered without treatment. A hemopericardium in that group was punctured without affecting the device. One tamponade in the Amplatzer group required surgical device explantation. In 8 of 660 patients in the CardioSEAL-STARflex group, thrombi resolved after anticoagulation. Sixteen patients (11 in the CardioSEAL-STARflex group, 3 in the Amplatzer group, and 2 in the Helex group) had episodes of atrial fibrillation. PFOs were closed completely in 143 of 220 patients (65%) in the Amplatzer group, 116 of 220 patients (52.7%) in the Helex group, and 137 of 220 patients (62.3%) in the CardioSEAL-STARflex group at 30 days with significant differences between the Helex and Amplatzer occluders (p=0.0005) and the Helex and CardioSEAL-STARflex occluders (p=0.0003). PFO closure can be performed safely with each device. In conclusion, the Helex occluder embolized more frequently. Device thrombus formation and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were more common with the CardioSEAL-STARflex occluder.

  5. Vulnerability of freshwater native biodiversity to non-native ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Background/Question/Methods Non-native species pose one of the greatest threats to native biodiversity. The literature provides plentiful empirical and anecdotal evidence of this phenomenon; however, such evidence is limited to local or regional scales. Employing geospatial analyses, we investigate the potential threat of non-native species to threatened and endangered aquatic animal taxa inhabiting unprotected areas across the continental US. We compiled distribution information from existing publicly available databases at the watershed scale (12-digit hydrologic unit code). We mapped non-native aquatic plant and animal species richness, and an index of cumulative invasion pressure, which weights non-native richness by the time since invasion of each species. These distributions were compared to the distributions of native aquatic taxa (fish, amphibians, mollusks, and decapods) from the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) database. We mapped the proportion of species listed by IUCN as threatened and endangered, and a species rarity index per watershed. An overlay analysis identified watersheds experiencing high pressure from non-native species and also containing high proportions of threatened and endangered species or exhibiting high species rarity. Conservation priorities were identified by generating priority indices from these overlays and mapping them relative to the distribution of protected areas across the US. Results/Conclusion

  6. Association of Emergency-Only vs Standard Hemodialysis With Mortality and Health Care Use Among Undocumented Immigrants With End-stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Lilia; Tuot, Delphine; Raghavan, Rajeev; Linas, Stuart; Zoucha, Jeff; Sweeney, Lena; Vangala, Chandan; Hull, Madelyne; Camacho, Mario; Keniston, Angela; McCulloch, Charles E; Grubbs, Vanessa; Kendrick, Jessica; Powe, Neil R

    2018-02-01

    Undocumented immigrants with end-stage renal disease have variable access to hemodialysis in the United States despite evidence-based standards for frequency of dialysis care. To determine whether mortality and health care use differs among undocumented immigrants who receive emergency-only hemodialysis vs standard hemodialysis (3 times weekly at a health care center). A retrospective cohort study was conducted of undocumented immigrants with incident end-stage renal disease who initiated emergency-only hemodialysis (Denver Health, Denver, Colorado, and Harris Health, Houston, Texas) or standard (Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California) hemodialysis between January 1, 2007, and July 15, 2014. Access to emergency-only hemodialysis vs standard hemodialysis. The primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes were health care use (acute care days and ambulatory care visits) and rates of bacteremia. Outcomes were adjusted for propensity to undergo emergency hemodialysis vs standard hemodialysis. A total of 211 undocumented patients (86 women and 125 men; mean [SD] age, 46.5 [14.6] years; 42 from the standard hemodialysis group and 169 from the emergency-only hemodialysis group) initiated hemodialysis during the study period. Patients receiving standard hemodialysis were more likely to initiate hemodialysis with an arteriovenous fistula or graft and had higher albumin and hemoglobin levels than patients receiving emergency-only hemodialysis. Adjusting for propensity score, the mean 3-year relative hazard of mortality among patients who received emergency-only hemodialysis was nearly 5-fold (hazard ratio, 4.96; 95% CI, 0.93-26.45; P = .06) greater compared with patients who received standard hemodialysis. Mean 5-year relative hazard of mortality for patients who received emergency-only hemodialysis was more than 14-fold (hazard ratio, 14.13; 95% CI, 1.24-161.00; P = .03) higher than for those who received standard hemodialysis after

  7. Bioimpedance-Guided Fluid Management in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Guillén, Marta; Wabel, Peter; Fontseré, Néstor; Carrera, Montserrat; Campistol, José Maria; Maduell, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Achieving and maintaining optimal fluid status remains a major challenge in hemodialysis therapy. The aim of this interventional study was to assess the feasibility and clinical consequences of active fluid management guided by bioimpedance spectroscopy in chronic hemodialysis patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Fluid status was optimized prospectively in 55 chronic hemodialysis patients over 3 months (November 2011 to February 2012). Predialysis fluid overload was measured weekly using the Fresenius Body Composition Monitor. Time-averaged fluid overload was calculated as the average between pre- and postdialysis fluid overload. The study aimed to bring the time-averaged fluid overload of all patients into a target range of 0.5±0.75 L within the first month and maintain optimal fluid status until study end. Postweight was adjusted weekly according to a predefined protocol. Results Time-averaged fluid overload in the complete study cohort was 0.9±1.6 L at baseline and 0.6±1.1 L at study end. Time-averaged fluid overload decreased by −1.20±1.32 L (P<0.01) in the fluid-overloaded group (n=17), remained unchanged in the normovolemic group (n=26, P=0.59), and increased by 0.59±0.76 L (P=0.02) in the dehydrated group (n=12). Every 1 L change in fluid overload was accompanied by a 9.9 mmHg/L change in predialysis systolic BP (r=0.55, P<0.001). At study end, 76% of all patients were either on time-averaged fluid overload target or at least closer to target than at study start. The number of intradialytic symptoms did not change significantly in any of the subgroups. Conclusions Active fluid management guided by bioimpedance spectroscopy was associated with an improvement in overall fluid status and BP. PMID:23949235

  8. Apixaban Pharmacokinetics at Steady State in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Mavrakanas, Thomas A; Samer, Caroline F; Nessim, Sharon J; Frisch, Gershon; Lipman, Mark L

    2017-07-01

    It is unclear whether warfarin is protective or harmful in patients with ESRD and atrial fibrillation. This state of equipoise raises the question of whether alternative anticoagulants may have a therapeutic role. We aimed to determine apixaban pharmacokinetics at steady state in patients on hemodialysis. Seven patients received apixaban 2.5 mg twice daily for 8 days. Blood samples were collected before and after apixaban administration on days 1 and 8 (nondialysis days). Significant accumulation of the drug was observed between days 1 and 8 with the 2.5-mg dose. The area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 hours increased from 628 to 2054 ng h/ml ( P <0.001). Trough levels increased from 45 to 132 ng/ml ( P <0.001). On day 9, after a 2.5-mg dose, apixaban levels were monitored hourly during dialysis. Only 4% of the drug was removed. After a 5-day washout period, five patients received 5 mg apixaban twice daily for 8 days. The area under the concentration-time curve further increased to 6045 ng h/ml ( P =0.03), and trough levels increased to 218 ng/ml ( P =0.03), above the 90th percentile for the 5-mg dose in patients with preserved renal function. Apixaban 2.5 mg twice daily in patients on hemodialysis resulted in drug exposure comparable with that of the standard dose (5 mg twice daily) in patients with preserved renal function and might be a reasonable alternative to warfarin for stroke prevention in patients on dialysis. Apixaban 5 mg twice daily led to supratherapeutic levels in patients on hemodialysis and should be avoided. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. Residual urine output and postoperative mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Feng; Wu, Vin-Cent; Ko, Wen-Je; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chen, Yung-Ming; Li, Wen-Yi; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Chao, Anne; Huang, Tao-Min; Chang, Fan-Chi; Chen, Shih-I; Shiao, Chih-Chung; Wang, Wei-Jie; Tsai, Hung-Bin; Tsai, Pi-Ru; Hu, Fu-Chang; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2009-09-01

    The relationship between residual urine output and postoperative survival in maintenance hemodialysis patients is unknown. To explore the relationship between amount of urine before surgery and postoperative mortality and differences between postoperative nonanuria and anuria in maintenance hemodialysis patients. A total of 109 maintenance hemodialysis patients underwent major operations. Anuria was defined as urine output <30 mL in the 8 hours before the first session of postoperative dialysis. Propensity scores for postoperative anuria were developed. Postoperative residual urine output was 159.2 mL/8 h (SD, 115.1) in 33 patients; 76 patients were anuric. Preoperative residual urine output and adequate perioperative blood transfusion were positively related to postoperative urine output. Propensity-adjusted 30-day mortality was associated with postoperative anuria (odds ratio [OR], 4.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-17.96; P = .03), prior stroke (OR, 4.46; 95% CI, 1.43-13.89; P = .01) and higher disease severity (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21; P = .049) at the first postoperative dialysis. OR of 30-day mortality was 5.38 for nonanuria to anuria vs nonanuria to nonanuria (P = .03) and 5.13 for preoperative anuria vs nonanuria to nonanuria (P = .01). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, 30-day mortality differed significantly among patients for nonanuria to nonanuria, anuria, and nonanuria to anuria (log rank, P = .045). Patients with preoperative nonanuria and postoperative anuria had higher mortality than did patients with no anuria before and after surgery and patients with anuria before surgery. Postoperative residual urine output is an important surrogate marker for disease severity.

  10. Blood leak alarm interference by hydoxocobalamin is hemodialysis machine dependent.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Clarke, M E; Cobb, J; Daubert, G P; Rathore, V S; Aston, L S; Poppenga, R H; Ford, J B; Owen, K P; Albertson, T E

    2012-12-01

    Hydroxocobalamin has been reported to interfere with the blood leak alarm on hemodialysis machines making it difficult to use this treatment modality after hydroxocobalamin infusion. The objective was to determine if this interference with hydroxocobalamin occurs across hemodialysis machines by different manufacturers. Additionally, we aimed to see if this represented a colorimetric interference alone or if it is the optical properties of hydroxocobalamin. Hydroxocobalamin was reconstituted per package insert. Food coloring was added to 0.9% saline to create the colors of the visual spectrum. Optical properties of absorbance and transmittance were measured. Hydroxocobalamin and the saline solutions were infused into the Fresenius 2008K™ and the Gambro Phoenix X36™ machines. Times were recorded from the start of the machine until the solution finished or the alarm triggered. When evaluating the Gambro Phoenix X36™ machine and dialysis circuit; the alarm did not trigger. In contrast, the blood leak alarm on the Fresenius 2008K™ machine was tripped by both the red solution and hydoxocobalamin infused per the package insert. The alarm stopped the machine between 128 and 132 seconds for the red solution and between 30 and 35 seconds with the hydroxocobalamin. Membranes of the circuits where the alarm tripped were examined and remained intact without blood. Results were validated on different machines with new circuits. Hydroxocobalamin infusion per package insert and the red saline solution prepared with Red Dye 40 both triggered the blood leak alarm and stopped the Fresenius 2008K™ machine. However, this was not true for the Gambro Phoenix X36™ machine as the alarm never triggered. The interference with the Fresenius 2008K™ appears colorimetric due to normal saline with Red Dye 40 triggering the alarm. We alert physicians to become familiar with the properties of individual dialysis machines prior to use of hydroxocobalamin. When facing difficulties with

  11. Variables associated with time of recovery after hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Bossola, Maurizio; Di Stasio, Enrico; Antocicco, Manuela; Silvestri, Patrizia; Tazza, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship among time of recovery after hemodialysis (TIRD) and the demographic, social, clinical and laboratory characteristics of hemodialysis patients of a Mediterranean country. One hundred hemodialysis patients were invited to answer the following question: "How long does it take you to recover from a dialysis session?" Demographic, clinical (Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI], Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] and Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS]) and laboratory variables were recorded, and fatigue qualities (FQs) were assessed through 5 questions: Do you feel tired much of the time? (general); Do you feel that life is empty? (emotional); Do you have trouble concentrating? (cognitive); Do you have difficulty sleeping? (sleepiness); Do you have muscle weakness? (weakness); and Do you feel full of energy? (lack of energy). The means ± SD of TIRD was 205.5 ± 198.6 minutes: 79 patients reported a TIRD

  12. Percutaneous Catheterization of the Internal Jugular Vein for Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Yeum, Chung Ho; Kim, Soo Wan; Nah, Myong Yun; Ma, Seong Kwon; Ko, Jung Hee; Kim, Nam Ho; Choi, Ki Chul

    2001-01-01

    Objectives The present study was aimed at evaluating the clinical experiences in the internal jugular venous catheterization for hemodialysis. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the data on internal jugular venous catheterization at Chonnam National University Hospital from May 2000 to Februrary 2001. Results There were 132 uremic patients with a total of 150 attempts of internal jugular cannulation. Overall success rate was 90.9% with average puncture trials of 2.3±2.1. 124 (82.7%) of the catheterization attempts were made on the right side and 26 (17.3%) were made on the left. The catheters were left in place from 2 to 87 days with an average of 19.5±15.3 days per catheter. The dialysis sessions per catheter were from 2 to 58 with an average of 11.3±6.8. The mean blood flow during hemodialysis immediately after catheterization was 213.4±42.2 ml/min. Thirty two (21.3%) patients had early complications. These included carotid artery puncture (11.3%), local bleeding (4.7%), local pain (3.3%), neck hematoma (0.7%) and malposition of the catheter (1.3%). Seventeen (11.3%) patients had late complications. These included fever or infection (11.3%), inadequate blood flow rate (3.3%) and inadvertent withdrawal (2.0%). There was no catheter-related mortality. Conclusions Our experiences revealed that the internal jugular vein catheterization is relatively safe and efficient for temporary vascular access for hemodialysis. PMID:11855153

  13. Burnout Syndrome Among Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Nurses.

    PubMed

    Karakoc, Ayten; Yilmaz, Murvet; Alcalar, Nilufer; Esen, Bennur; Kayabasi, Hasan; Sit, Dede

    2016-11-01

    Burnout, a syndrome with 3 dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduction of personal accomplishment, is very common among hemodialysis nurses, while data are scarce regarding the prevalence of burnout syndrome (BS) among peritoneal dialysis (PD) nurses. This study aimed to assess and compare demographic and professional characteristics and burnout levels in hemodialysis and PD nurses, and to investigate factors that increase the level of burnout in dialysis nurses. A total of 171 nurses from 44 dialysis centers in Turkey were included in a cross-sectional survey study. Data were collected using a questionnaire defining the social and demographic characteristics and working conditions of the nurses as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory for assessment of burnout level. There was no significant difference in the level of burnout between the hemodialysis and PD nurses groups. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scores were higher among the shift workers, nurses who had problems in interactions with the other team members, and those who wanted to leave the unit, as well as the nurses who would not attend training programs. In addition, male sex, younger age, limited working experience, more than 50 hours of working per week, and working in dialysis not by choice were associated with higher depersonalization scores. Personal accomplishment score was lower among the younger nurses who had problems in their interactions with the doctors, who would not regularly attend training programs, and who felt being medically inadequate. Improving working conditions and relations among colleagues, and also providing further dialysis education are necessary for minimizing burnout syndrome. Burnout reduction programs should mainly focus on younger professionals.

  14. Fatigue experienced by patients receiving maintenance dialysis in hemodialysis units.

    PubMed

    Letchmi, Santhna; Das, Srijit; Halim, Hasliza; Zakariah, Farid Azizul; Hassan, Hamidah; Mat, Samsiah; Packiavathy, Ruth

    2011-03-01

    The fatigue that is observed in patients who are undergoing dialysis is usually associated with an impaired quality of life. The present cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2009 in three hemodialysis units in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In this study, the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory and Depression Anxiety and Stress Score 21 were used to determine the level of fatigue, depression, anxiety, and stress of patients who were undergoing dialysis. The data were obtained from a calculated sample of 116 and a total of 103 respondents participated in the study. A total of 56 (54.4%) and 47 (45.6%) respondents experienced a high level and a low level of fatigue, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the duration of treatment and the level of fatigue. The respondents who had been receiving treatment for > 2 years experienced more fatigue, compared to the respondents who had been undergoing hemodialysis for > 2 years. There was a significant difference in relation to the age of the participants regarding the level of fatigue. No significant relationship between the sex of the participants, anemia, depression, anxiety, stress, and the level of fatigue was observed. Special attention needs to be paid to both the younger and older adults who are receiving treatment. In addition, proper planning is needed for the patients regarding their daily activities in order to reduce fatigue. Nurses who work in hemodialysis units are recommended to provide exercise classes or group therapy in order to boost the energy levels among patients who are undergoing dialysis. Health professionals should provide appropriate treatment for patients who are experiencing fatigue in order to prevent any other complications that could arise. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Objectives and Design of the Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Study

    PubMed Central

    Dember, Laura M.; Imrey, Peter B.; Beck, Gerald J.; Cheung, Alfred K.; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Huber, Thomas S.; Kusek, John W.; Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Vazquez, Miguel A.; Alpers, Charles E.; Robbin, Michelle L.; Vita, Joseph A.; Greene, Tom; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Feldman, Harold I.

    2014-01-01

    Background A large proportion of newly created arteriovenous fistulas cannot be used for dialysis because they fail to mature adequately to support the hemodialysis blood circuit. The Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation (HFM) Study was designed to elucidate clinical and biological factors associated with fistula maturation outcomes. Study Design Multicenter prospective cohort study. Setting & Participants Approximately 600 patients undergoing creation of a new hemodialysis fistula will be enrolled at 7 centers in the United States and followed up for as long as 4 years. Predictors Clinical, anatomical, biological, and process-of-care attributes identified pre-operatively, intra-operatively, or post-operatively. Outcomes The primary outcome is unassisted clinical maturation defined as successful use of the fistula for dialysis for four weeks without any maturation-enhancing procedures. Secondary outcomes include assisted clinical maturation, ultrasound-based anatomical maturation, fistula procedures, fistula abandonment, and central venous catheter use. Measurements Pre-operative ultrasound arterial and venous mapping, flow-mediated and nitroglycerin-mediated brachial artery dilation, arterial pulse wave velocity, and venous distensibility; intra-operative vein tissue collection for histopathological and molecular analyses; post-operative ultrasounds at 1 day, 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and prior to fistula intervention and initial cannulation. Results Assuming complete data, no covariate adjustment, and unassisted clinical maturation of 50%, there will be 80% power to detect ORs of 1.83 and 1.61 for dichotomous predictor variables with exposure prevalences of 20% and 50%, respectively. Limitations Exclusion of two-stage transposition fistulas limits generalizability. The requirement for study visits may result in a cohort that is healthier than the overall population of patients undergoing fistula creation. Conclusions The HFM Study will be of sufficient size and scope to 1

  16. Mineral metabolism, mortality, and morbidity in maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Block, Geoffrey A; Klassen, Preston S; Lazarus, J Michael; Ofsthun, Norma; Lowrie, Edmund G; Chertow, Glenn M

    2004-08-01

    Mortality rates in ESRD are unacceptably high. Disorders of mineral metabolism (hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, and secondary hyperparathyroidism) are potentially modifiable. For determining associations among disorders of mineral metabolism, mortality, and morbidity in hemodialysis patients, data on 40,538 hemodialysis patients with at least one determination of serum phosphorus and calcium during the last 3 mo of 1997 were analyzed. Unadjusted, case mix-adjusted, and multivariable-adjusted relative risks of death were calculated for categories of serum phosphorus, calcium, calcium x phosphorus product, and intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) using proportional hazards regression. Also determined was whether disorders of mineral metabolism were associated with all-cause, cardiovascular, infection-related, fracture-related, and vascular access-related hospitalization. After adjustment for case mix and laboratory variables, serum phosphorus concentrations >5.0 mg/dl were associated with an increased relative risk of death (1.07, 1.25, 1.43, 1.67, and 2.02 for serum phosphorus 5.0 to 6.0, 6.0 to 7.0, 7.0 to 8.0, 8.0 to 9.0, and >/=9.0 mg/dl). Higher adjusted serum calcium concentrations were also associated with an increased risk of death, even when examined within narrow ranges of serum phosphorus. Moderate to severe hyperparathyroidism (PTH concentrations >/=600 pg/ml) was associated with an increase in the relative risk of death, whereas more modest increases in PTH were not. When examined collectively, the population attributable risk percentage for disorders of mineral metabolism was 17.5%, owing largely to the high prevalence of hyperphosphatemia. Hyperphosphatemia and hyperparathyroidism were significantly associated with all-cause, cardiovascular, and fracture-related hospitalization. Disorders of mineral metabolism are independently associated with mortality and morbidity associated with cardiovascular disease and fracture in hemodialysis patients.

  17. Intravenous iron administration strategies and anemia management in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Michels, Wieneke M; Jaar, Bernard G; Ephraim, Patti L; Liu, Yang; Miskulin, Dana C; Tangri, Navdeep; Crews, Deidra C; Scialla, Julia J; Shafi, Tariq; Sozio, Stephen M; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Cook, Courtney J; Meyer, Klemens B; Boulware, L Ebony

    2017-01-01

    The effect of maintenance intravenous (IV) iron administration on subsequent achievement of anemia management goals and mortality among patients recently initiating hemodialysis is unclear. We performed an observational cohort study, in adult incident dialysis patients starting on hemodialysis. We defined IV administration strategies over a 12-week period following a patient's initiation of hemodialysis; all those receiving IV iron at regular intervals were considered maintenance, and all others were considered non-maintenance. We used multivariable models adjusting for demographics, clinical and treatment parameters, iron dose, measures of iron stores and pro-infectious and pro-inflammatory parameters to compare these strategies. The outcomes under study were patients' (i) achievement of hemoglobin (Hb) of 10-12 g/dL, (ii) more than 25% reduction in mean weekly erythropoietin stimulating agent (ESA) dose and (iii) mortality, ascertained over a period of 4 weeks following the iron administration period. Maintenance IV iron was administered to 4511 patients and non-maintenance iron to 8458 patients. Maintenance IV iron administration was not associated with a higher likelihood of achieving an Hb between 10 and 12 g/dL {adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.01 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93-1.09]} compared with non-maintenance, but was associated with a higher odds of achieving a reduced ESA dose of 25% or more [OR 1.33 (95% CI 1.18-1.49)] and lower mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.73 (95% CI 0.62-0.86)]. Maintenance IV iron strategies were associated with reduced ESA utilization and improved early survival but not with the achievement of Hb targets. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  18. Transcatheter Closure of a Chronic Iatrogenic Arteriovenous Fistula Between the Carotid Artery and the Brachiocephalic Vein with an Amplatzer Duct Occluder in Combination with a Carotid Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Stasek, Josef, E-mail: stasek@fnhk.c; Lojik, Miroslav; Bis, Josef

    2009-05-15

    We report an original method of transcatheter closure of an arteriovenous fistula using the combination of an Amplatzer PDA occluder and a carotid stent. The fistula was between the left carotid artery and the brachiocephalic vein. The patient had significant left-to-right shunt and was highly symptomatic. Due to the large orifice and pseudoaneurysmatic enlargement of the fistula, we had to use a large Amplatzer PDA occluder and the protruding part of the PDA device disk had to be covered with a carotid stent. The fistula was completely closed. The patient stopped having symptoms and, 2 years after the procedure, themore » effect persists.« less

  19. Infliximab treatment in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranju; Cuchacovich, Raquel; Huang, Wenqun; Espinoza, Luis R

    2002-03-01

    We describe a 60-year-old woman with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and endstage renal disease secondary to hypertensive nephrosclerosis undergoing hemodialysis. She had tried multiple antirheumatic medications; however, their usefulness was limited due to toxic side effects or lack of efficacy. She was then treated with chimeric antitumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody (infliximab), which resulted in immediate improvement in clinical and laboratory measures. After about 2 years of therapy, no side effects have been observed. This report expands the spectrum of infliximab to include RA patients with renal insufficiency.

  20. Opioid Analgesics and Adverse Outcomes among Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Julie H; McCulloch, Charles E; Steinman, Michael A; Grimes, Barbara A; Johansen, Kirsten L

    2018-05-07

    Patients on hemodialysis frequently experience pain and may be particularly vulnerable to opioid-related complications. However, data evaluating the risks of opioid use in patients on hemodialysis are limited. Using the US Renal Data System, we conducted a cohort study evaluating the association between opioid use (modeled as a time-varying exposure and expressed in standardized oral morphine equivalents) and time to first emergency room visit or hospitalization for altered mental status, fall, and fracture among 140,899 Medicare-covered adults receiving hemodialysis in 2011. We evaluated risk according to average daily total opioid dose (>60 mg, ≤60 mg, and per 60-mg dose increment) and specific agents (per 60-mg dose increment). The median age was 61 years old, 52% were men, and 50% were white. Sixty-four percent received opioids, and 17% had an episode of altered mental status (15,658 events), fall (7646 events), or fracture (4151 events) in 2011. Opioid use was associated with risk for all outcomes in a dose-dependent manner: altered mental status (lower dose: hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 1.34; higher dose: hazard ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.56 to 1.78; hazard ratio, 1.29 per 60 mg; 95% confidence interval, 1.26 to 1.33), fall (lower dose: hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 1.36; higher dose: hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 1.61; hazard ratio, 1.04 per 60 mg; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.05), and fracture (lower dose: hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.33 to 1.56; higher dose: hazard ratio, 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.44 to 1.89; hazard ratio, 1.04 per 60 mg; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.05). All agents were associated with a significantly higher hazard of altered mental status, and several agents were associated with a significantly higher hazard of fall and fracture. Opioids were associated with adverse outcomes in patients on hemodialysis, and this risk

  1. Association of serum pentosidine with arterial stiffness in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zhou, YiLun; Yu, ZeXing; Jia, HuiMin; Sun, Fang; Ma, LiJie; Guo, RuiJun; Peng, LiRen; Cui, TaiGen

    2010-03-01

    Pentosidine is an advanced glycation end product (AGE). The present study was undertaken to investigate the association of serum pentosidine with carotid distensibility as a measure of arterial stiffness in hemodialysis patients. One hundred and three patients on maintenance hemodialysis were recruited. The distensibility coefficient of the common carotid artery was evaluated by an ultrasonic phase-locked echo-tracking system. Serum pentosidine was measured by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Serum albumin, lipid profile, calcium, phosphorus, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) levels were also measured. Correlation was determined by linear and multiple stepwise regression analysis. Serum pentosidine level studied in hemodialysis patients was 0.54 +/- 0.13 microg/mL. No significant difference in serum pentosidine level was noted between patients with and without diabetes (0.59 +/- 0.10 microg/mL vs. 0.53 +/- 0.13 microg/mL, P = 0.062) as well as between patients with and without prior cardiovascular disease (CVD) history (0.56 +/- 0.14 microg/mL vs. 0.53 +/- 0.12 microg/mL, P = 0.206). In multivariate regression analysis, only age (beta = 0.363, P < 0.001) and ox-LDL (beta = 0.262, P = 0.004) were identified as independent determinants for serum pentosidine. Serum pentosidine was significantly correlated with carotid distensibility (r = -0.387, P < 0.001), as well as age, ox-LDL, and hs-CRP. After adjustment for age, blood pressure, history of diabetes, prior CVD history, lipid profile, calcium, phosphorus, iPTH, hs-CRP, and ox-LDL, serum pentosidine was still negatively correlated with distensibility (beta = -0.175, P = 0.044). Serum pentosidine was independently associated with carotid distensibility in hemodialysis patients. This finding suggested that the accumulation of AGE might be an important pathway in the development of arterial stiffness in end

  2. Factors affecting the availability and use of hemodialysis facilities.

    PubMed

    Cleary, P D; Schlesinger, M; Blumenthal, D

    1991-01-01

    This article describes factors related to the geographic distribution of hemodialysis facilities and the relationship between availability and use. Such facilities tend to be concentrated in the same types of areas as other medical resources, and the number of medical specialists in an area is related to the rate of treatment for renal diseases. The proportion of treatment stations in an area owned by for-profit organizations is not related to the total treatment rate, but the market share of for-profit facilities is positively related to in-center treatment and negatively related to home treatment.

  3. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of apixaban in subjects with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Tirucherai, Giridhar; Marbury, Thomas C; Wang, Jessie; Chang, Ming; Zhang, Donglu; Song, Yan; Pursley, Janice; Boyd, Rebecca A; Frost, Charles

    2016-05-01

    An open-label, parallel-group, single-dose study was conducted to assess the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of apixaban in 8 subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis compared with 8 subjects with normal renal function. A single oral 5-mg dose of apixaban was administered once to healthy subjects and twice to subjects with ESRD, separated by ≥7 days: 2 hours before (on hemodialysis) and immediately after a 4-hour hemodialysis session (off hemodialysis). Blood samples were collected for determination of apixaban pharmacokinetic parameters, measures of clotting (prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time), and anti-factor Xa (FXa) activity. Compared with healthy subjects, apixaban Cmax and AUCinf were 10% lower and 36% higher, respectively, in subjects with ESRD off hemodialysis. Hemodialysis in subjects with ESRD was associated with reductions in apixaban Cmax and AUCinf of 13% and 14%, respectively. The percent change from baseline in clotting measures was similar in healthy subjects and subjects with ESRD, and differences in anti-FXa activity were similar to differences in apixaban concentration. A single 5-mg oral dose of apixaban was well tolerated in both groups. In conclusion, ESRD resulted in a modest increase (36%) in apixaban AUC and no increase in Cmax , and hemodialysis had a limited impact on apixaban clearance. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  4. Association of Proteinuria with Central Venous Catheter Use at Initial Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Ken J; Johnson, Eric S; Smith, Ning; Mosen, David M; Thorp, Micah L

    2017-01-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) use is associated with increased mortality and complications in hemodialysis recipients. Although prevalent CVC use has decreased, incident use remains high. To examine characteristics associated with CVC use at initial dialysis, specifically looking at proteinuria as a predictor of interest. Retrospective cohort of 918 hemodialysis recipients from Kaiser Permanente Northwest who started hemodialysis from January 1, 2004, to January 1, 2014. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine an association of proteinuria with the primary outcome of CVC use. More than one-third (36%) of patients in our cohort started hemodialysis with an arteriovenous fistula, and 64% started with a CVC. Proteinuria was associated with starting hemodialysis with a CVC (likelihood ratio test, p < 0.001) after adjustment for age, peripheral vascular disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes, sex, race, and length of predialysis care. However, on pairwise comparison, only patients with midgrade proteinuria (0.5-3.5 g) had lower odds of starting hemodialysis with a CVC (odds ratio = 0.39, 95% confidence interval = 0.24-0.65). Proteinuria was associated with use of CVC at initial hemodialysis. However, a graded association did not exist, and only patients with midgrade proteinuria had significantly lower odds of CVC use. Our findings suggest that proteinuria is an explanatory finding for CVC use but may not have pragmatic value for decision making. Patients with lower levels of proteinuria may have a higher risk of starting dialysis with a CVC.

  5. Change in Lactate Levels After Hemodialysis in Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Hourmozdi, Justin J; Gill, Jasreen; Miller, Joseph B; Markin, Abraham; Adams, Beth; Soi, Vivek; Jaehne, Anja K; Taylor, Andrew R; Langberg, Sam; Rodriguez, Lauren; Fox, Carynne; Uduman, Junior; Yessayan, Lenar T; Rivers, Emanuel P

    2018-06-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease commonly visit the emergency department (ED). The purpose of this investigation is to examine the prevalence of baseline abnormal lactate levels and to evaluate the effects of hemodialysis on serum lactate levels. This was a prospective observational cohort study performed at an outpatient dialysis facility at an urban tertiary care hospital. The study consisted of 226 patients with end-stage renal disease who were receiving long-term hemodialysis and were enrolled during a 2-day period at the beginning of December 2015. Blood drawn for lactate levels was immediately analyzed before and after hemodialysis sessions. All patients completed their hemodialysis sessions. The prevalence of an abnormal lactate level (greater than 1.8 mmol/L) before hemodialysis was 17.7% (n=40). Overall, lactate levels decreased by 27% (SD 35%) after hemodialysis, with a decrease of 37% (SD 31%) for subgroups with a lactate level of 1.9 to 2.4 mmol/L, and 62% (SD 14%) with a lactate of 2.5 to 3.9 mmol/L. The data presented help providers understand the prevalence of abnormal lactate values in an outpatient end-stage renal disease population. After hemodialysis, lactate levels decreased significantly. This information may help medical providers interpret lactate values when patients with end-stage renal disease present to the ED. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interventions to improve hemodialysis adherence: a systematic review of randomized-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Matteson, Michelle L; Russell, Cynthia

    2010-10-01

    Over 485,000 people in the United States have chronic kidney disease, a progressive kidney disease that may lead to hemodialysis. Hemodialysis involves a complex regimen of treatment, medication, fluid, and diet management. In 2005, over 312,000 patients were undergoing hemodialysis in the United States. Dialysis nonadherence rates range from 8.5% to 86%. Dialysis therapy treatment nonadherence, including treatment, medication, fluid, and diet nonadherence, significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this paper is to systematically review randomized-controlled trial intervention studies designed to increase treatment, medication, fluid, and diet adherence in adult hemodialysis patients. A search of Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to May 2008), MEDLINE (1950 to May 2008), PsycINFO (1806 to May 2008), and all Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Reviews (Cochran DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, and CCTR) was conducted to identify randomized-controlled studies that tested the efficacy of interventions to improve adherence in adult hemodialysis patients. Eight randomized-controlled trials met criteria for inclusion. Six of the 8 studies found statistically significant improvement in adherence with the intervention. Of these 6 intervention studies, all studies had a cognitive component, with 3 studies utilizing cognitive/behavioral intervention strategies. Based on this systematic review, interventions utilizing a cognitive or cognitive/behavioral component appear to show the most promise for future study. © 2010 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2010 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  7. Hepatitis B and C prevalence among hemodialysis patients in the West Bank hospitals, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Al Zabadi, Hamzeh; Rahal, Hani; Fuqaha, Rasha

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis B and C virus infection is a lead cause of morbidity and mortality among hemodialysis patients. Yet, little research has focused on the morbidity measures of these serious disorders in low and middle income countries. The study aims to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C among hemodialysis patients in the West Bank hospitals in Palestine. A retrospective medical records review design was performed for all governmental and private hospitals in the West Bank which provide hemodialysis services for the patients. Data was retrieved from the patients' medical files and from the computerized health information system in some hemodialysis centers. SPSS software version 16 was used for data entry and analysis. In overall, 868 hemodialysis patients attending nine hemodialysis hospitals in the West Bank was recruited. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B virus was found to be 3.8% (33 cases) with a range from 0.0% (in Jericho and Qalqelia districts) to 11.8% (in Bethlehem district). Regarding hepatitis C virus, the overall prevalence was estimated around 7.4% (64 cases) with a range from 2.9% (in Nablus district) to 15.9% (in Qalqelia district). Although relatively low prevalence of both hepatitis B and C virus was found in a couple of hemodialysis hospitals, some higher prevalence values urge for the implementation of stricter infection prevention measures and more effective follow up procedures.

  8. Diabetic ketoacidosis producing extreme hyperkalemia in a patient with type 1 diabetes on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hodaka; Funazaki, Shunsuke; Kakei, Masafumi; Hara, Kazuo; Ishikawa, San-E

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a critical complication of type 1 diabetes associated with water and electrolyte disorders. Here, we report a case of DKA with extreme hyperkalemia (9.0 mEq/L) in a patient with type 1 diabetes on hemodialysis. He had a left frontal cerebral infarction resulting in inability to manage his continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump. Electrocardiography showed typical changes of hyperkalemia, including absent P waves, prolonged QRS interval and tented T waves. There was no evidence of total body water deficit. After starting insulin and rapid hemodialysis, the serum potassium level was normalized. Although DKA may present with hypokalemia, rapid hemodialysis may be necessary to resolve severe hyperkalemia in a patient with renal failure. Patients with type 1 diabetes on hemodialysis may develop ketoacidosis because of discontinuation of insulin treatment.Patients on hemodialysis who develop ketoacidosis may have hyperkalemia because of anuria.Absolute insulin deficit alters potassium distribution between the intracellular and extracellular space, and anuria abolishes urinary excretion of potassium.Rapid hemodialysis along with intensive insulin therapy can improve hyperkalemia, while fluid infusions may worsen heart failure in patients with ketoacidosis who routinely require hemodialysis.

  9. Transcatheter closure of hemodynamic significant patent ductus arteriosus in 32 premature infants by amplatzer ductal occluder additional size-ADOIIAS.

    PubMed

    Morville, Patrice; Akhavi, Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    The advent of Amplatzer Duct Occluder II additional Size (ADOIIAS) provided the potential to close hemodynamic significant patent ductus arteriosus (HSPDA) and to analyze the feasibility, safety and efficacy of the device. Treatment of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in very premature neonates is still a dilemma for the neonatalogist who has to consider its significance and has to choose among different treatment options. Because surgical ligation and medical therapy both have their drawbacks, interventional catheterization might provide an alternative means of closing HSPDA. Between September 2013 and June 2015, 32 premature infants with complications related to HSPDA defined by ultrasound (US) underwent transcatheter closure. The procedure was performed in the catheterization laboratory by venous cannulation without angiography. The position of the occluder was directed by X-ray and US. In particular we looked at procedural details, device size selection, complications, and short and mid-term outcomes. Thirty two premature infants, all of whom had clinical complications related to HSPDA, born at gestational ages ranging between 23.6 and 36 weeks (mean ± standard deviation 28 ± 3 weeks) underwent attempted transcatheter PDA closure using the ADOIIAS. Their mean age and weight at the time of procedure was 25 days (range 8-70 days) and 1373 g (range 680-2480 g), respectively. Ten infants weighed ≤1,000g. All ducts were tubular. The mean PDA and device waist diameters were 3.2 ± 0.6mm (range 2.2-4) and 4.4 ± 0.6 mm, respectively, and the mean PDA and device lengths 5.2 ± 2.0 mm (range 2-10) and 3.4 ± 1.3 mm. Median fluoroscopy and procedural times were 11 min (range 3-24) and 28 min (range 10-90), respectively. Complete closure was achieved in all but one patient. There was no device migration. A left pulmonary artery (LPA) obstruction developed in one patient. Five infants died. Four deaths were related to complications of

  10. Production of recombinant human beta2-microglobulin for scintigraphic diagnosis of amyloidosis in uremia and hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Linke, R P; Schäeffer, J; Gielow, P; Lindner, P; Lottspeich, F; Plückthun, A; Weiss, E H

    2000-02-01

    Amyloid of beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) origin can be diagnosed using 131I-radiolabelled-beta2m scintigraphy in patients with uremia and hemodialysis treatment. As the tracer beta2m is isolated from another patient, it carries the common risks, including viral infections such as Hepatitis B, C and HIV, which are associated with human plasma products. In order to exclude these risks we have produced recombinant human beta2m (rhbeta2m) in Escherichia coli. The expression vector pASK40DeltaLbeta2m(His)5 contains a C-terminal (His)5-tag for purification via immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). Size exclusion chromatography on a Superose 12 column represents the second step of purification. The isolated rhbeta2mH5 reacted in an immunochemically identical manner to native human beta2m, and showed a single band of approximately 11.8 kDa in Western blot analysis and revealed a single spot in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed a single peak at the expected molecular mass of 12 415.8 Da. Uniformity was further proven by crystallization and N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis. The rhbeta2mH5 protein was then produced under conditions that allow the intravenous use in humans. Intraveneously applied indium-111-labelled rhbeta2mH5 was monitored in hemodialysed patients with and without known beta2m-amyloidosis. The tracer was localized specifically to particular areas known to contain amyloid. Thus, this rhbeta2mH5 preparation is suitable for detecting amyloid-containing organs of the beta2m-class in vivo and fulfils the requirements of a tracer for common use. Finally, the use of indium-111 instead of iodine-131 has reduced the radioactive load and resulted in higher resolution.

  11. Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B and C among hemodialysis patients in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Mhalla, S; Hammoud, R; Frih, A; Kadri, Y; El Argoubi, A; Elmay, M; Mastouri, M

    2018-05-01

    Hemodialysis patients are at increased risk of infection by hepatitis C and B viruses, which are significant causes of mortality and morbidity. Prevention of their transmission in hemodialysis units remains a challenge worldwide. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of these two infections and to explore major risk factors among patients on chronic hemodialysis. We performed a cross-sectional study of 109 hemodialysis patients (mean duration of hemodialysis of seven years) between 2012 and 2014 in a Teaching Hospital of Monastir, Tunisia. Hepatitis B and C serological markers were searched for using a chemiluminescent assay. Genome detection was performed using a commercially available quantitative real-time PCR test. A total of 109 hemodialysis patients were enrolled (75 males and 34 females). Ages ranged from 21 to 81 years. Six (5.5%) of these 109 patients had HBV infection defined by a positive HBsAg in four (3.7%) patients and by a detectable DNA associated with an "isolated anti-HBc" profile in the remaining two patients. Hepatitis C was observed in eight patients (7.3%) and five of them had detectable RNA. Hemodialysis duration ˃5years was the main risk factor for hepatitis C infection (P=0.01; OR: 3.11; 95% CI [1.57-13.71]). Our findings confirm the downward trend of the prevalence of both hepatitis B and C infections among Tunisian hemodialysis patients. Hemodialysis duration remains the main risk factor for hepatitis C infection. Occult hepatitis B infection should be suspected and investigated, especially among patients with an "isolated anti-HBc" profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Survival with Three-Times Weekly In-Center Nocturnal Versus Conventional Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianglin; Suri, Rita S.; Nesrallah, Gihad; Lindsay, Robert; Garg, Amit X.; Lester, Keith; Ofsthun, Norma; Lazarus, Michael; Hakim, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Whether the duration of hemodialysis treatments improves outcomes remains controversial. Here, we evaluated survival and clinical changes associated with converting from conventional hemodialysis (mean=3.75 h/treatment) to in-center nocturnal hemodialysis (mean=7.85 h/treatment). All 959 consecutive patients who initiated nocturnal hemodialysis for the first time in 77 Fresenius Medical Care facilities during 2006 and 2007 were eligible. We used Cox models to compare risk for mortality during 2 years of follow-up in a 1:3 propensity score–matched cohort of 746 nocturnal and 2062 control patients on conventional hemodialysis. Two-year mortality was 19% among nocturnal hemodialysis patients compared with 27% among conventional patients. Nocturnal hemodialysis associated with a 25% reduction in the risk for death after adjustment for age, body mass index, and dialysis vintage (hazard ratio=0.75, 95% confidence interval=0.61–0.91, P=0.004). With respect to clinical features, interdialytic weight gain, albumin, hemoglobin, dialysis dose, and calcium increased on nocturnal therapy, whereas postdialysis weight, predialysis systolic blood pressure, ultrafiltration rate, phosphorus, and white blood cell count declined (all P<0.001). In summary, notwithstanding the possibility of residual selection bias, conversion to treatment with nocturnal hemodialysis associates with favorable clinical features, laboratory biomarkers, and improved survival compared with propensity score–matched controls. The potential impact of extended treatment time on clinical outcomes while maintaining a three times per week hemodialysis schedule requires evaluation in future clinical trials. PMID:22362905

  13. Effects of music on complications during hemodialysis for chronic renal failure patients.

    PubMed

    Koca Kutlu, Adalet; Eren, Ayşe Gül

    2014-10-01

    The study was planned as a case-control study to examine the effects of music on some of the complications experienced by chronic renal failure (CRF) patients during hemodialysis. A total of 60 patients (30 intervention and 30 control) diagnosed with end-stage renal failure undergoing hemodialysis treatment participated in this study. The study was conducted in Manisa Merkez Efendi State Hospital Hemodialysis Unit and Manisa Özel Anemon Hemodialysis between April 2012 and July 2012. The intervention group listened 30 minutes in each session (12 total sessions) Turkish art music at the beginning of the third hour of their hemodialysis sessions. Patient Information Form and visual analog scale to assess pain, nausea, vomiting, and cramps during hemodialysis session were used. For the analysis of data, the number, percentage, chi-square test, and significance test of independent group differences between two averages were conducted. According to the findings of the study, the average of the intervention and control group ages, respectively, was 50.86 ± 11.3 and 55.13 ± 9.68. The primary duration of hemodialysis treatment for both intervention and control groups was "1 year and above" (70.0%). The intervention group's pain and nausea scores were lower than the control group for all 12 sessions. The difference between the intervention and the control group's pain scores was significant (P < 0.05). However, in pain scores from the first session to 12th session, continuous decreasing trend was not observed. According to the results, music can be used as an independent nursing practice for reduction of complications for CRF patients receiving hemodialysis treatment. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  14. Vascular Access Creation before Hemodialysis Initiation and Use: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jaishi, Ahmed A.; Lok, Charmaine E.; Garg, Amit X.; Zhang, Joyce C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives In Canada, approximately 17% of patients use an arteriovenous access (fistula or arteriovenous graft) at commencement of hemodialysis, despite guideline recommendations promoting its timely creation and use. It is unclear if this low pattern of use is attributable to the lack of surgical creation or a high nonuse rate. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Using large health care databases in Ontario, Canada, a population-based cohort of adult patients (≥18 years old) who initiated hemodialysis as their first form of RRT between 2001 and 2010 was studied. The aims were to (1) estimate the proportion of patients who had an arteriovenous access created before starting hemodialysis and the proportion who successfully used it at hemodialysis start, (2) test for secular trends in arteriovenous access creation, and (3) estimate the effect of late nephrology referral and patient characteristics on arteriovenous access creation. Results There were 17,183 patients on incident hemodialysis. The mean age was 65.8 years, 60% were men, and 40% were referred late to a nephrologist; 27% of patients (4556 of 17,183) had one or more arteriovenous accesses created, and the median time between arteriovenous access creation and hemodialysis start was 184 days. When late referrals were excluded, 39% of patients (4007 of 10,291) had one or more arteriovenous accesses created, and 27% of patients (2724 of 10,291) used the arteriovenous access. Since 2001, there has been a decline in arteriovenous access creation before hemodialysis initiation. Women, higher numbers of comorbidities, and rural residence were consistently associated with lower rates of arteriovenous access creation. These results persisted even after removing patients with <6 months nephrology care or who had AKI 6 months before starting hemodialysis. Conclusions In Canada, arteriovenous access creation before hemodialysis initiation is low, even among patients followed by a nephrologist

  15. Vascular access creation before hemodialysis initiation and use: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaishi, Ahmed A; Lok, Charmaine E; Garg, Amit X; Zhang, Joyce C; Moist, Louise M

    2015-03-06

    In Canada, approximately 17% of patients use an arteriovenous access (fistula or arteriovenous graft) at commencement of hemodialysis, despite guideline recommendations promoting its timely creation and use. It is unclear if this low pattern of use is attributable to the lack of surgical creation or a high nonuse rate. Using large health care databases in Ontario, Canada, a population-based cohort of adult patients (≥18 years old) who initiated hemodialysis as their first form of RRT between 2001 and 2010 was studied. The aims were to (1) estimate the proportion of patients who had an arteriovenous access created before starting hemodialysis and the proportion who successfully used it at hemodialysis start, (2) test for secular trends in arteriovenous access creation, and (3) estimate the effect of late nephrology referral and patient characteristics on arteriovenous access creation. There were 17,183 patients on incident hemodialysis. The mean age was 65.8 years, 60% were men, and 40% were referred late to a nephrologist; 27% of patients (4556 of 17,183) had one or more arteriovenous accesses created, and the median time between arteriovenous access creation and hemodialysis start was 184 days. When late referrals were excluded, 39% of patients (4007 of 10,291) had one or more arteriovenous accesses created, and 27% of patients (2724 of 10,291) used the arteriovenous access. Since 2001, there has been a decline in arteriovenous access creation before hemodialysis initiation. Women, higher numbers of comorbidities, and rural residence were consistently associated with lower rates of arteriovenous access creation. These results persisted even after removing patients with <6 months nephrology care or who had AKI 6 months before starting hemodialysis. In Canada, arteriovenous access creation before hemodialysis initiation is low, even among patients followed by a nephrologist. Better understanding of the barriers and influencers of arteriovenous access creation is

  16. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  17. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Illness Perceptions in Minority Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngmee; Pavlish, Carol; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Kopple, Joel D.; Phillips, Linda R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether racial/ethnic differences in illness perceptions exist among patients on maintenance hemodialysis. One hundred sixty-one patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (20% African Americans, 44% Hispanics, 9% Filipinos, and 27% Koreans) completed the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire. Korean participants had higher emotional disturbance than their counterparts, whereas African-American participants had higher negative perceptions of personal intervention or medical treatment controlling their disease. This study indicates that patients from different racial/ethnic backgrounds undergoing maintenance hemodialysis may perceive their disease differently. This phenomenon could affect clinical outcomes and may require different therapeutic approaches. PMID:22480051

  18. Interventional nephrology: Physical examination as a tool for surveillance for the hemodialysis arteriovenous access.

    PubMed

    Salman, Loay; Beathard, Gerald

    2013-07-01

    The prospective recognition of stenosis affecting dialysis vascular access and its prospective treatment is important in the management of the hemodialysis patient. Surveillance by physical examination is easily learned, easily performed, quickly done, and economical. In addition, it has a level of accuracy and reliability equivalent to other approaches that require special instrumentation. Physical examination should be part of any education to all hemodialysis care givers. This review presents the basic principles of physical examination of the hemodialysis vascular access and discusses the evidence behind its value.

  19. The effect of hemodialysis on balance measurements and risk of fall.

    PubMed

    Erken, Ertugrul; Ozelsancak, Ruya; Sahin, Safak; Yılmaz, Emine Ece; Torun, Dilek; Leblebici, Berrin; Kuyucu, Yunus Emre; Sezer, Siren

    2016-10-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have increased risk of falls and fall-related complications. Other than aging and factors related to chronic kidney disease, treatment of hemodialysis may also contribute to this increased risk. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the impairment of balance after a session of hemodialysis with a quantitative assessment and reveal an increased fall risk that would possibly be related to treatment of hemodialysis for patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Fifty-six patients with ESRD on chronic hemodialysis program and 53 healthy individuals were involved in this study. Fall Index percentages were calculated, and fall risk categories were determined for all patients and healthy controls using Tetrax posturography device (Sunlight Medical Ltd Israel). The patient group was evaluated twice for balance, before and after a routine session of hemodialysis. Fall Index scores of healthy controls were lower than that of ESRD patients (p = 0.001). In the patient group, we found the mean Fall Index to be significantly higher at the post-dialysis assessment compared to the pre-dialysis assessment (p = 0.003). The number of patients with high risk of falling also increased at the post-dialysis assessment yet the difference did not reach significance. Fall Index was correlated with the increase in age only at the pre-dialysis balance measurement (p = 0.038). Patients with better dialysis adequacy had significantly lower Fall Index scores than the others at the pre-dialysis balance measurement (p = 0.004). The difference was not significant at the post-dialysis measurement. In the current study, we evaluated the balance of ESRD patients before and after a routine session of hemodialysis treatment. This is the first study to investigate the effect of hemodialysis on balance, using an electronic posturographic balance system. We found the Fall Index score to be significantly higher after hemodialysis, indicating a negative

  20. Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of a Gastric Vascular Malformation: An Innovative Approach to Treatment of a Rare Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Hansing, Catherine E., E-mail: catherine.e.hansing.mil@mail.mil; Marquardt, Joseph P.; Sutton, Daniel M.

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a high-flow form of a vascular malformation, which can be found anywhere in the body. While historically treated surgically, a multidisciplinary approach utilizing multiple specialties and treatment modalities is now commonly employed. In order to effectively treat an AVM, the nidus must be targeted and eradicated, which can be done via multiple approaches. We present the case of a 43-year-old male with a gastric wall AVM, which was initially incompletely treated using a percutaneous transarterial approach. The gastric AVM was noted to have dominant drainage through a gastrorenal shunt; therefore, Balloon-occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (BRTO) wasmore » utilized to eradicate the AVM nidus. This case illustrates the utility of Interventional Radiology, specifically BRTO, as another treatment option for challenging AVMs.« less

  1. Multicenter Off-Label Use of Nit-Occlud Coil in Retrograde Closure of Small Patent Ductus Arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Zanjani, Keyhan Sayadpour; Sobhy, Rodina; El-Kaffas, Rania; El-Sisi, Amal

    2017-04-01

    We studied the safety and efficacy of closing patent ductus arteriosus by Nit-Occlud coils via retrograde approach. This is a retrospective study of 46 attempts to close ducts by this method in two hospitals in Egypt and Iran. Ductus arteriosus was crossed by left or right Judkins or endhole catheters. The coil was delivered via the same catheter or the provided endhole catheter after exchange. The procedure was successful in 42 out of 46 attempts. Fluoroscopy and procedural times were significantly shorter when the catheter was not exchanged. This method is effective and safe for the closure of small ducts. Crossing the duct and delivering the coil by a left Judkins catheter is the easiest and fastest way to perform this method.

  2. Interventional Closure of a Patent Ductus Arteriosus Using an Amplatz Canine Duct Occluder in an Alpaca Cria.

    PubMed

    Chapel, E C; Lozier, J; Lakritz, J; Schober, K E

    2017-07-01

    A 6-month old female alpaca cria presented to The Ohio State University for evaluation of a cardiac murmur. Echocardiography revealed a left-to-right shunting patent ductus arteriosus, a restrictive left-to-right shunting perimembranous ventricular septal defect, and secondary moderate left atrial and ventricular dilation. Aortic root angiography demonstrated a type IIA patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Interventional closure of the PDA was successfully performed, without complication, using an Amplatz canine duct occluder. This case report describes the materials and methods used for interventional closure of a PDA in an alpaca cria. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Turning calcium carbonate into a cost-effective wastewater-sorbing material by occluding waste dye.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dan-Hua; Gao, Hong-Wen

    2010-01-01

    to the Langmuir isothermal adsorption with the binding constant (K) of 5.24 x 10(4) M(-1) and the Gibbs free energy change (Delta G) of -26.9 kJ/mol. The molar ratio of Ca(2+) to CO(3) (2-) and APRB was calculated to be 1:0.94:0.0102, i.e., approximately 92 CaCO(3) molecules occluded only one APRB. Approximately 78% of the inclusion aggregates are between 3 and 20 mm and the particles are global-like with 50-100 nm. The element mapping on Ca, S, and C indicated APRB distributed a lot of CaCO(3), i.e., the APRB layer may be pressed between both sides of CaCO(3) layers. The molar ratio of Ca to S was calculated to 44, i.e., 88 CaCO(3) molecules carried one APRB, according to the above data. During the growing of CaCO(3) particles, APRB may be attracted into the temporary electric double layer in micelle form by the strong charge interaction between sulfonic groups of APRB and Ca(2+) and the hydrophobic stack of long alkyl chains. Four dyes were adsorbed: reactive brilliant red X-3B and weak acid green GS as anionic dyes and EV and MB as cationic dyes. The removals of EV and MB are extremely obvious and the saturation adsorption of EV and MB just neutralized all the negative charges in the inclusion particles. The selectivity demonstrated the ion-pair attraction, i.e., the cationic adsorption capacity depends on the negative charge number of the inclusion material. By fitting the Langmuir isotherm model, the monolayer adsorptions of EV and MB were confirmed. Their K values were calculated to be 2.4 x 10(6) and 7.3 x 10(5) M(-1), and Delta G was calculated to be 36.4 and -33.4 kJ/mol. The adsorption of four POPs on the material obeyed the lipid-water partition law, and their partition coefficients (K (pw)) were calculated to be 9,342 L/kg for Phe, 7,301 L/kg for Flu, 1,226 L/kg for Bip, and 870 L/kg for Bpa. The K (pw) is the direct ratio to their lipid-water partition coefficients (K (ow)) with 0.314 of slope. Besides this, a cost-effective CaCO(3)/APRB inclusion

  4. Immediate effects of the semi-occluded vocal tract exercise with LaxVox® tube in singers.

    PubMed

    Fadel, Congeta Bruniere Xavier; Dassie-Leite, Ana Paula; Santos, Rosane Sampaio; Santos, Celso Gonçalves Dos; Dias, Cláudio Antônio Sorondo; Sartori, Denise Jussara

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the immediate effects of the semi-occluded vocal tract exercise (SOVTE) using the LaxVox® tube in singers. Participants were 23 singers, classical singing students, aged 18 to 47 years (mean age = 27.2 years). First, data was collected through the application of a demographic questionnaire and the recording of sustained emission - vowel /ε/, counting 1-10, and a music section from the participants' current repertoire. After that, the participants were instructed and performed the SOVTE using the LaxVox® tube for three minutes. Finally, the same vocal samples were collected immediately after SOVTE performance and the singers responded to a questionnaire on their perception regarding vocal changes after the exercise. The vocal samples were analyzed by referees (speech-language pathologists and singing teachers) and by means of acoustic analysis. Most of the singers reported improved voice post-exercise in both tasks - speech and singing. Regarding the perceptual assessment (sustained vowel, speech, and singing), the referees found no difference between pre- and post-exercise emissions. The acoustic analysis of the sustained vowel showed increased Fundamental Frequency (F0) and reduction of the Glottal to Noise Excitation (GNE) ratio post-exercise. The semi-occluded vocal tract exercise with LaxVox® tube promotes immediate positive effects on the self-assessment and acoustic analysis of voice in professional singers without vocal complains. No immediate significant changes were observed with respect to auditory-perceptual evaluation of speech and singing.

  5. Production of Carbon Occluded in Phytolith Is Season-Dependent in a Bamboo Forest in Subtropical China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhang-Ting; Jiang, Pei-Kun; Chang, Scott Xiaochuan; Zhang, Yan; Ying, Yu-Qi

    2014-01-01

    Carbon (C) occluded in phytolith (PhytOC) is a stable form of C; when PhytOC is returned to the soil through litterfall it is stored in the soil which can be an effective way for long-term C sequestration. However, few estimates on the rate of PhytOC input to the soil are available. To better understand the seasonal dynamics of PhytOC production and the annual rate of stable C sequestration through PhytOC input, we quantified the monthly litterfall, phytolith and PhytOC return to the soil over a year in a typical Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) forest in subtropical China. The monthly litterfall ranged between 14.81 and 131.18 g m−2, and the phytolith concentration in the monthly litterfall samples ranged between 47.21 and 101.68 g kg−1 of litter mass, with the PhytOC concentration in the phytolith ranged between 29.4 and 44.9 g kg−1 of phytolith, equivalent to 1.8–3.6 g kg−1 of PhytOC in the litterfall (based on litterfall dry mass). The amount of phytolith input to the soil system was 292.21±69.12 (mean±SD) kg ha−1 yr−1, sequestering 41.45±9.32 kg CO2−e ha−1 yr−1 of C in the studied Lei bamboo forest. This rate of C sequestration through the formation of PhytOC found in this study falls within the range of rates for other grass-type species reported in the literature. We conclude that return of C occluded in phytolith to the soil can be a substantial source of stable soil C and finding means to increase PhytOC storage in the soil should be able to play a significant role in mitigating the rapidly increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. PMID:25188462

  6. Application of Cardio-O-Fix occluders for transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus and interatrial communications: Preliminary experience.

    PubMed

    Białkowski, Jacek; Szkutnik, Małgorzata; Fiszer, Roland; Głowacki, Jan; Banaszak, Paweł; Zembala, Marian

    2010-01-01

    Transcatheter treatment has become the method of choice for treating many heart defects. Recently, Cardio-O-Fix occluder (COF) - a new, self-expandable nitinol wire-mesh device very similar to the Amplatzer device - has been introduced into clinical practice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first publication related to its application. Five patients aged from six months to 69 years were included in the study: two with atrial septal defect (ASD), one with patent foramen ovale (PFO) after cryptogenic stroke, and two with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). These latter two comprised one six month old infant with co-existent hypertrophied cardiomyopathy, and a 53 year-old woman with recanalized PDA after previous ligation. All were treated percutaneously with COF. There was no preliminary patient selection. The only limitation was the size of the devices in our possession (16 and 22 mm ASD COF, 25 PFO COF, 4/6 and 6/8 PDA COF). The implantation technique was the same as previously described for Amplatzer occluders. All procedures were finished successfully with complete closure of the shunt. No complications were observed during a six month follow-up. In the child with PDA, we observed decrease of gradient from 80 to 60 mm Hg in hypertrophied left ventricular outflow tract, although a small protrusion of PDA-COF device was noted in the descending aorta (8 mm Hg gradient in ECHO). In the patient with recanalized PDA, the procedure was performed after arterio-venous loop creation. Mean fluoroscopy time was 4.4 (range from 1.6 to 11) minutes. Our preliminary experience indicates that the application of Cardio-O-Fix devices is safe and effective.

  7. Hand interception of occluded motion in humans: a test of model-based vs. on-line control

    PubMed Central

    Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Two control schemes have been hypothesized for the manual interception of fast visual targets. In the model-free on-line control, extrapolation of target motion is based on continuous visual information, without resorting to physical models. In the model-based control, instead, a prior model of target motion predicts the future spatiotemporal trajectory. To distinguish between the two hypotheses in the case of projectile motion, we asked participants to hit a ball that rolled down an incline at 0.2 g and then fell in air at 1 g along a parabola. By varying starting position, ball velocity and trajectory differed between trials. Motion on the incline was always visible, whereas parabolic motion was either visible or occluded. We found that participants were equally successful at hitting the falling ball in both visible and occluded conditions. Moreover, in different trials the intersection points were distributed along the parabolic trajectories of the ball, indicating that subjects were able to extrapolate an extended segment of the target trajectory. Remarkably, this trend was observed even at the very first repetition of movements. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of model-based control, but not with on-line control. Indeed, ball path and speed during the occlusion could not be extrapolated solely from the kinematic information obtained during the preceding visible phase. The only way to extrapolate ball motion correctly during the occlusion was to assume that the ball would fall under gravity and air drag when hidden from view. Such an assumption had to be derived from prior experience. PMID:26133803

  8. Hand interception of occluded motion in humans: a test of model-based vs. on-line control.

    PubMed

    La Scaleia, Barbara; Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    Two control schemes have been hypothesized for the manual interception of fast visual targets. In the model-free on-line control, extrapolation of target motion is based on continuous visual information, without resorting to physical models. In the model-based control, instead, a prior model of target motion predicts the future spatiotemporal trajectory. To distinguish between the two hypotheses in the case of projectile motion, we asked participants to hit a ball that rolled down an incline at 0.2 g and then fell in air at 1 g along a parabola. By varying starting position, ball velocity and trajectory differed between trials. Motion on the incline was always visible, whereas parabolic motion was either visible or occluded. We found that participants were equally successful at hitting the falling ball in both visible and occluded conditions. Moreover, in different trials the intersection points were distributed along the parabolic trajectories of the ball, indicating that subjects were able to extrapolate an extended segment of the target trajectory. Remarkably, this trend was observed even at the very first repetition of movements. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of model-based control, but not with on-line control. Indeed, ball path and speed during the occlusion could not be extrapolated solely from the kinematic information obtained during the preceding visible phase. The only way to extrapolate ball motion correctly during the occlusion was to assume that the ball would fall under gravity and air drag when hidden from view. Such an assumption had to be derived from prior experience. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Reperfusion of occluded branch retinal arteries by transluminal Nd:YAG laser embolysis combined with intravenous thrombolysis of urokinase

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Fang; Du, Shanshuang; Zhao, Xiquan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To report successful treatment with transluminal Nd:YAG laser embolysis (TYE) combined with urokinase thrombolysis for reperfusion of occluded branch retinal arteries with visible emboli. Methods: A total of 34 eyes from 34 patients with acute, severe vision loss secondary to a branch retinal artery occlusion with visible emboli and retinal whitening were examined. Each patient was administered TYE therapy, which focused on the embolus, using an ocular contact lens; a 0.3–0.9 mJ laser pulse was delivered directly and gradually according to the reaction. Fundus photographs and fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) were obtained before and immediately after the laser treatment. All patients received urokinase thrombolysis therapy drops intravenously for 5 days at 10–20 u/d. The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 14 months after therapy. The morphological characteristics of FFA associated with obstruction recovery of arterial fluorescence filling and visual function were analyzed. Results: After TYE therapy, FFA examinations showed that the retinal artery and its branches exhibited completely restored blood flow without obstruction in 13 eyes, accounting for 38.2% of the cases. The blood flow was mostly recovered in 11 eyes (32.4% of patients). FFA examinations following the combined intravenous urokinase thrombolysis therapy showed that the retinal artery and its branches exhibited completely restored blood flow after obstruction in 16 eyes (47.1% of patients). The blood flow was mostly recovered in 15 eyes (44.1% of patients). Conclusion: TYE combined with urokinase thrombolysis is effective for reperfusion of occluded branch retinal arteries and improving visual recovery in patients with visible emboli. PMID:29162667

  10. Efficacy of electrocoagulation in sealing the cystic artery and cystic duct occluded with only one absorbable clip during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang-Ping; Cao, Jin-Lin; Yang, Ren-Rong; Guo, Hong-Rong; Li, Zhao-Hui; Guo, Hai-Ying; Shao, Yin-Can; Liu, Gui-Bao

    2014-02-01

    Even though laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) emerged over 20 years ago, controversies persist with regard to the best method to ligate the cystic duct and artery. We proposed to assess the effectiveness and safety of electrocoagulation to seal the cystic artery and cystic duct after their occlusion with only one absorbable clip. We retrospectively compared the clinical data for 635 patients undergoing LC using electrocoagulation to seal the cystic artery and cystic duct that were occluded with only one absorbable clip (Group 1) and 728 patients undergoing LC using titanium clips (Group 2). In parallel, 30 rabbits randomized into six groups underwent cholecystectomy. After cystic duct ligation with absorbable or titanium clips, the animals were sacrificed 1, 3, or 6 months later, and intraabdominal adhesions were assessed after celiotomy. The mean operative time was significantly shorter (41.6 versus 58.9 minutes, P<.01) in Group 1 than in Group 2. No cystic duct leaks occurred in any patients from Group 1, compared with seven leaks among the 728 (0.96%) patients from Group 2 (P<.05). The morbidity was significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (3.43% versus 1.58%). Mean intraoperative blood loss and hospitalization length were not significantly different between the two groups, and no deaths occurred in either group. In animal experiments, adhesion was tighter for absorbable than for titanium clips, but fibrous tissue encapsulation was thinner at the site of titanium clips. Electrocoagulation of the cystic artery and cystic duct that were occluded with only one absorbable clip is safe and effective during LC. This approach is associated with shortened operative times and reduced leakage, compared with the standard method using metal clips.

  11. Amplatzer vascular plug for arteriovenous hemodialysis access occlusion: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Bui, J T; Gaba, R C; Knuttinen, M G; West, D L; Owens, C A

    2009-01-01

    The Amplatzer Vascular Plug (AVP; AGA Medical, Golden Valley, MN) is a recently developed self-expanding metallic device indicated for peripheral vascular embolizations. Herein, we describe use of this device in the treatment of vascular complications related to arteriovenous hemodialysis fistulas and grafts. This HIPAA compliant retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board with informed consent waived. Six patients with problematic arteriovenous access underwent access occlusion using the AVP. Procedure indications included vascular steal syndrome in five patients, and enlarging vascular aneurysms in one patient. Contraindications for surgical correction were determined by the referring surgeon. AVP embolizations were performed using devices oversized by 50% introduced through vascular sheaths positioned within vein segments just beyond the arteriovenous anastomoses. Noninvasive evaluation of the involved extremity was performed pre- and post-embolization in addition to clinical follow-up examinations. Measured outcomes included success of angiographic occlusion, improvement in distal arterial flow, AVP number, AVP diameter, time to access occlusion, and clinical symptomatic improvement. Technical success was 100%, with complete arteriovenous access occlusion accomplished in all cases, with an average of 1.5 AVPs used per patient. Mean time to access occlusion was 19.3 minutes. Angiographic improvement in distal arterial flow was immediately evident and resolution of clinical symptoms occurred in all patients, with mean long-term follow-up of 16 months. No procedure-related complications were encountered. The Amplatzer Vascular Plug provides a minimally invasive and efficacious method for embolization of problematic arteriovenous hemodialysis access.

  12. Habitual coffee consumption enhances attention and vigilance in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Nikić, Petar M; Andrić, Branislav R; Stojimirović, Biljana B; Trbojevic-Stanković, Jasna; Bukumirić, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Coffee drinking is the main source of caffeine intake among adult population in the western world. It has been reported that low to moderate caffeine intake has beneficial effect on alertness and cognitive functions in healthy subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of habitual coffee consumption on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients. In a cross-sectional study, 86 patients from a single-dialysis centre underwent assessment by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool and evaluation for symptoms of fatigue, mood, and sleep disorders by well-validated questionnaires. The habitual coffee use and the average daily caffeine intake were estimated by participants' response to a dietary questionnaire. Sixty-seven subjects (78%) consumed black coffee daily, mostly in low to moderate dose. Cognitive impairment was found in three-quarters of tested patients. Normal mental performance was more often in habitual coffee users (25% versus 16%). Regular coffee drinkers achieved higher mean scores on all tested cognitive domains, but a significant positive correlation was found only for items that measure attention and concentration (P = 0.024). Moderate caffeine intake by habitual coffee consumption could have beneficial impact on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients due to selective enhancement of attention and vigilance.

  13. Calcium absorption response to cholecalciferol supplementation in hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Armas, Laura A G; Zena, Mohsen; Lund, Richard; Heaney, Robert P

    2013-06-01

    Recent understanding of extrarenal production of calcitriol has led to the use of more vitamin D supplementation in CKD populations. This paper reports the effect of cholecalciferol supplementation on calcium absorption. Paired calcium absorption tests were done before and after 12-13 weeks of 20,000 IU weekly cholecalciferol supplementation in 30 participants with stage 5 CKD on hemodialysis. The study was conducted from April to December of 2011. Calcium absorption was tested with a standardized meal containing 300 mg calcium carbonate intrinsically labeled with (45)Ca; 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were measured. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D rose from 14.2 ng/ml (11.5-18.5) at baseline to 49.3 ng/ml (42.3-58.1) at the end of the study (P<0.001). 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D rose from 15.1 (10.5-18.8) pg/ml at baseline to 20.5 (17.0-24.7) pg/ml at the end of the study (P<0.001). The median baseline calcium absorption was 12% (7%-17%) and 12% (7%-16%) at the end of study. Patients with stage 5 CKD on hemodialysis had very low calcium absorption values at baseline, and cholecalciferol supplementation that raised 25(OH)D levels to 50 ng/ml had no effect on calcium absorption.

  14. Cardiovascular Impact in Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis: Clinical Management Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Chirakarnjanakorn, Srisakul; Navaneethan, Sankar D.; Francis, Gary S.; Tang, W.H. Wilson

    2017-01-01

    Patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis develop both structural and functional cardiovascular abnormalities. Despite improvement of dialysis technology, cardiovascular mortality of this population remains high. The pathophysiological mechanisms of these changes are complex and not well understood. It has been postulated that several non-traditional, uremic-related risk factors, especially the long-term uremic state, which may affect the cardiovascular system. There are many cardiovascular changes that occur in chronic kidney disease including left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, microvascular disease, accelerated atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. These structural and functional changes in patients receiving chronic dialysis make them more susceptible to myocardial ischemia. Hemodialysis itself may adversely affect the cardiovascular system due to non-physiologic fluid removal, leading to hemodynamic instability and initiation of systemic inflammation. In the past decade there has been growing awareness that pathophysiological mechanisms cause cardiovascular dysfunction in patients on chronic dialysis, and there are now pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies that may improve the poor quality of life and high mortality rate that these patients experience. PMID:28108129

  15. Seroprevalence occurrence of viral hepatitis and HIV among hemodialysis patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Inass Mahmood; Mutar Mahdi, Batool

    2018-05-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) were on maintenance invasive haemodialysis (HD) procedure. This procedure by itself affects immunity of the patients and they become more susceptible to viral infections. We investigate the occurrence of HBV HCV and HIV infections in patients with hemodialysis. A retrospective study of 430 endstage renal failure patients referred to hemodialysis department at AlKindy Teaching Hospital Baghdad, Iraq from January 2015 to January 2017 was conducted. Patients were investigated for HBsAg using enzymelabeled antigen test (ForesightEIAUSA) HCV Abs (IgG) specific immunoglobulin using a HCV enzymelabeled antigen test (ForesightEIAUSA) and anti HIV Abs (IgG) using enzymelabeled antigen test (ForesightEIAUSA). The frequency of HBV infection in the first year was not significant between males (111%) and females (000%)(P = 0295). About HCV also there are no significant differences between males (1263%) and females (931%)(P = 0347). After one year of follow up the frequencies of HBV and HCV were not significant between two sexes. Additionally none of the patients had an HIV infection. This study brings to light that HBV and HCV have the same frequencies in both genders and lower occurrence with time. Furthermore HIV was not detected in those patients.

  16. Seroprevalence occurrence of viral hepatitis and HIV among hemodialysis patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Inass Mahmood; Mutar Mahdi, Batool

    2018-05-01

    Background: Patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) were on maintenance invasive haemodialysis (HD) procedure. This procedure by itself affects immunity of the patients and became more susceptible to viral infections. Aim of the study: to investigate the occurrence of HBV, HCV and HIV infections in patients with hemodialysis. Patients and methods: A retrospective study of 430 end-stage renal failure patients, referred to hemodialysis department at Al-Kindy Teaching Hospital, Baghdad-Iraq from Junuary-2015 to Junuary-2017. Patients were investigated for HBs-Ag using enzyme-labeled antigen test (Foresight-EIA-USA ), HCV- Abs (IgG) specific immunoglobulin using a HCV enzyme-labeled antigen test (Foresight-EIA-USA) and anti HIV Abs (IgG) using enzyme-labeled antigen test (Foresight-EIA-USA). Results: The frequency of HBV infection in the first year was not significant between males (1.11%) and females (0.00%)(P = 0.295). About HCV also there are no significant differences between males (12.63%) and females (9.31%)(P = 0.347). After one year of follow up the frequencies of HBV and HCV were not significant between two sexes. Additionally, no any one of the patients had HIV infection. Conclusions: This study brings a light on that HBV and HCV were having the same frequencies in both genders and lower occurrence with time. Furthermore, HIV was not detected in those patients.

  17. Effect of nandrolone decanonate on paraoxonase activity in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Argani, Hassan; Rahbaninoubar, Mohammad; Rashtchizadeh, Nadereh

    2005-12-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of nandrolone decanonate (ND) on HDL-C, apolipoproteins and paraoxonase (PON) activity in stable hemodialysis patients. 64 hemodialysis patients were treated with ND at a dose of 100 mg/I.M./week for 4 months. HDL-C, Apo-AI, Apo B, concentrations and PON activity were measured before and after 2 and 4 months of treatment as well as 2 months after withdrawing the treatment. After 4 months of treatment, an elevation in the serum levels of Apo B (P<0.0001) and a marked decrease in the concentration of HDL-C (P<0.0001), Apo-AI (P<0.0001) and PON activity (P<0.0001) were found. A significant correlation between PON and both Apo-AI (r=0.270, P<0.04) and HDL-C (r=0.455, P<0.0001) and also between HDL-C and Apo-AI (r=0.305, P<0.02) were found. Results revealed the adverse effects of ND on apolipoprotein levels in our study population. It is possible that ND reduces PON activity mostly by reducing both the HDL-C and Apo-AI levels.

  18. Physical Activity in Hemodialysis Patients Measured by Triaxial Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Edimar Pedrosa; Reboredo, Maycon Moura; Carvalho, Erich Vidal; Teixeira, Daniel Rodrigues; Carvalho, Laís Fernanda Caldi d'Ornellas; Filho, Gilberto Francisco Ferreira; de Oliveira, Julio César Abreu; Sanders-Pinheiro, Helady; Chebli, Júlio Maria Fonseca; de Paula, Rogério Baumgratz; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle

    2015-01-01

    Different factors can contribute to a sedentary lifestyle among hemodialysis (HD) patients, including the period they spend on dialysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate characteristics of physical activities in daily life in this population by using an accurate triaxial accelerometer and to correlate these characteristics with physiological variables. Nineteen HD patients were evaluated using the DynaPort accelerometer and compared to nineteen control individuals, regarding the time spent in different activities and positions of daily life and the number of steps taken. HD patients were more sedentary than control individuals, spending less time walking or standing and spending more time lying down. The sedentary behavior was more pronounced on dialysis days. According to the number of steps taken per day, 47.4% of hemodialysis patients were classified as sedentary against 10.5% in control group. Hemoglobin level, lower extremity muscle strength, and physical functioning of SF-36 questionnaire correlated significantly with the walking time and active time. Looking accurately at the patterns of activity in daily life, HDs patients are more sedentary, especially on dialysis days. These patients should be motivated to enhance the physical activity. PMID:26090432

  19. [Adherence to pharmacological treatment in adult patients undergoing hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Sgnaolin, Vanessa; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth Prado Lima

    2012-06-01

    Adherence to treatment in patients on hemodialysis is not a simple process. Strategies to promote adherence will meet the need for improvements in the process of orientation concerning the disease and its pharmacological treatment. To identify compliance with pharmacological treatment of patients on hemodialysis and the main factors related to it we used the Adherence Scale. Observational, descriptive and cross-sectional study. Interviews were conducted to collect socioeconomic, pharmacological data, as well as those regarding self-reported adherence to drug. Out of the 65 participants, 55.4% showed non-compliance. The mean number of drugs used was 4.1 ± 2.5 (self-report) and 6.2 ± 3.0 (prescription). Statistical analysis showed significant differences concerning compliance at different ages (> 60 years are more adherent). A significant proportion of patients have difficulty to comply with treatment and the main factor was forgetfulness. Regarding age, elderly patients are more adherent to treatment. The low level of knowledge about the used drugs may be one of the reasons for the lack of adherence, and the patient's orientation process by a team of multiprofessionals involved in assisting is a strategy to promote adherence.

  20. Fluctuation of Ultrafiltration Coefficient of Hemodialysis Membrane During Reuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif, Idam; Christin

    2010-12-01

    Hemodialysis treatment for patient with kidney failure is to regulate body fluid and to excrete waste products of metabolism. The patient blood and the dialyzing solution (dialysate) are flowed counter currently in a dialyzer to allow volume flux of fluid and diffusion of solutes from the blood to the dialysate through a semipermiable membrane. The volume flux of fluid depends on the hydrostatic and the osmotic pressure difference between the blood and the dialysate. It also depends on the membrane parameter that represents how the membrane allows the fluid and the solutes to move across as a result of the pressure difference, known as the ultrafiltration coefficient Kuf. The coefficient depends on the number and the radius of membrane pores for the movement of the fluids and the solutes across the membrane. The measured membrane ultrafiltration coefficient of reused dialyzer shows fluctuation between one uses to another without any significant trend of change. This indicates that the cleaning process carried out before reuse does not cause perfect removal of clots that happen in the previous use. Therefore the unblocked pores are forced to work hardly to obtain targeted volume flux in a certain time of treatment. This may increase the unblocked pore radius. Reuse is stopped when there is indication of blood leakage during the hemodialysis treatment.

  1. Slow nocturnal home hemodialysis (SNHHD)--one year later.

    PubMed

    Ouwendyk, M; Pierratos, A; Francoeur, R; Wallace, L; Sit, W; Vas, S

    1996-01-01

    High costs and overcrowding of dialysis centres are leading to a global crisis in health care provision. We are developing slow nocturnal home hemodialysis (SNHHD) in which patients dialyze for eight to 10 hours during sleep five to seven nights per week. Vascular access is by means of the Cook silastic jugular catheter. Special precautions are taken to prevent accidental disconnection and air embolism. Dialysis functions are remotely monitored on computer via a modem by trained staff. Five patients have completed five to seven weeks of training and have been successfully performing SNHHD single-handedly (three out of five patients live alone) for 14, 14, 11, 10 and four months respectively. All have discontinued their phosphate binders and increased dietary phosphate intake. Compared with conventional hemodialysis (CHD) results, average pre-dialysis urea and creatinine levels are remarkably reduced to 9.6 mmol/l and 486 umol/l respectively. The average cumulative weekly Kt/V for CHD is 5.0 as compared to 7.7 while on SNHHD. Four out of five patients report sleeping soundly and experience greatly increased energy and stamina. Their days are entirely free. Repeated in-situ re-use of the dialyzer and blood lines will reduce the patient's work and make SNHHD a very inexpensive modality. SNHHD appears to be a widely applicable treatment with many advantages to both the patient and the health care system.

  2. Nutritional profile of hemodialysis patients concerning treatment time.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Livia de Almeida; Andrade, Bárbara Danelon; Moreira, Michelle Andrade; Nascimento, Roberto de Paula; Macedo, Isabela Dariú; Aguiar, Aline Silva de

    2017-01-01

    The mortality of the population with chronic kidney disease (CKD) on hemodialysis (HD) is very high and the protein-energy malnutrition stands out as one of the most common consequences in relation to this condition. To evaluate the association between time of hemodialysis and nutritional parameters of patients. It is a cross-sectional study with secondary data, developed of the University Hospital of the Federal University of Juiz de Fora (HU/UFJF). This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (Nº 1.233.142), a total of 36 patients. The medical records and collected data were analyzed for anthropometric markers, biochemical and diet, considering two groups: HD time less than three and greater than or equal to three years. There was reduction of mass of somatic protein with increased duration of HD. In relation to food intake was observed that in patients with increased duration of dialysis, an increase in average consumption of protein / kg of weight, calories, phosphorus and potassium, with a significant difference from the mean protein intake / kg (p = 0.04) and phosphorus (p = 0.045). Increasing HD time has altered body composition of patients, indicating a decline in the nutritional status of these individuals. HD patients are a risk group for protein-energy malnutrition, where HD time interferes with the nutritional status and food profile of the patient. The group HD time greater than or equal to 3 years presented worsening nutritional status.

  3. Determinants of compliance behaviours among patients undergoing hemodialysis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yoke Mun; Zalilah, Mohd Shariff; Hii, Sing Ziunn

    2012-01-01

    Patients with end stage renal disease often fail to follow prescribed dietary and fluid regimen, leading to undesirable outcomes. This study aimed to examine and identify factors influencing dietary, fluid, medication and dialysis compliance behaviours in patients undergoing hemodialysis. This was a cross-sectional study which employed purposive sampling design. A total of 188 respondents were recruited from 14 dialysis centres in Malaysia between 2008-2011. Self-reported compliance behaviours and biochemical measurements were used as evaluation tools. Compliance rates of dietary, fluid, medication and dialysis were 27.7%, 24.5%, 66.5% and 91.0%, respectively. Younger, male, working patients and those with longer duration on hemodialysis were found more likely to be non-compliant. Lacks of adequate knowledge, inadequate self-efficacy skills, forgetfulness and financial constraints were the major perceived barriers towards better compliance to fluid, dietary, medication and dialysis, respectively. Healthcare professionals should recognise the factors hindering compliance from the patients' perspective while assisting them with appropriate skills in making necessary changes possible.

  4. Prolonged hypophosphatemia following parathyroidectomy in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Altun, Eda; Paydas, Saime; Kaya, Bulent; Balal, Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common problem in patients with end-stage renal disease. In cases with severe and resistant SHPT, surgical parathyroidectomy (PTX) is recommended. Hungry bone syndrome (HBS) following surgical PTX is most often associated with hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia. The mechanisms for the HBS are not clear, and a method for its prevention has not been established. We present three hemodialysis patients with persistant hypophosphatemia after PTX. In our parathyroidectomized patients, hypocalcemia could be corrected with calcium and vitamin D treatment, but hypophosphatemia continued for eight months in one patient and in two other patients until the last visit (10 and 2 months, respectively). Predisposing factors such as old age, diabetes mellitus and parathyroid adenoma were not found in our patients. All three patients were younger (<35 years old) and anuric. Hemodialysis durations were seven, three and two years. In summary, HBS presented with hypocalcemia, and especially hypophosphatemia cannot be developed uncommonly and may persist for a long time following PTX in HD patients.

  5. Infective endocarditis in a hemodialysis patient: a dreaded complication.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Claudia; Moosa, Mohammed R

    2007-10-01

    Infection is the most common cause of death in hemodialysis patients, after cardiovascular disease. Dialysis access infections, with secondary septicemia, contribute significantly to patient mortality. The most common source is temporary catheterization. Bacteremia occurs commonly in patients receiving hemodialysis, with infective endocarditis being a relatively uncommon, but potentially lethal complication. Valvular calcification is the most significant risk factor. The diagnosis of infective endocarditis is made clinically and confirmed with the echocardiographic modified Duke's criteria. The most common pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus and the mitral valve is the most common site. Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis is commonly associated with embolic phenomenon. A high index of suspicion is critical in the early recognition and management of infective endocarditis. However, prevention of bacteremia is undoubtedly the best strategy with the early placement of arteriovenous fistulae. In the case of temporary catheterization, the use of topical mupirocin or polysporin and gentamicin and/or citrate locking is beneficial. Although catheter salvage has not been studied in randomized trials, catheter removal remains standard therapy during bacteremia.

  6. Cardiovascular impact in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis: Clinical management considerations.

    PubMed

    Chirakarnjanakorn, Srisakul; Navaneethan, Sankar D; Francis, Gary S; Tang, W H Wilson

    2017-04-01

    Patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis develop both structural and functional cardiovascular abnormalities. Despite improvement of dialysis technology, cardiovascular mortality of this population remains high. The pathophysiological mechanisms of these changes are complex and not well understood. It has been postulated that several non-traditional, uremic-related risk factors, especially the long-term uremic state, which may affect the cardiovascular system. There are many cardiovascular changes that occur in chronic kidney disease including left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, microvascular disease, accelerated atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. These structural and functional changes in patients receiving chronic dialysis make them more susceptible to myocardial ischemia. Hemodialysis itself may adversely affect the cardiovascular system due to non-physiologic fluid removal, leading to hemodynamic instability and initiation of systemic inflammation. In the past decade there has been growing awareness that pathophysiological mechanisms cause cardiovascular dysfunction in patients on chronic dialysis, and there are now pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies that may improve the poor quality of life and high mortality rate that these patients experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The new standard of fluids for hemodialysis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kawanishi, Hideki; Masakane, Ikuto; Tomo, Tadashi

    2009-01-01

    The standard of fluids for hemodialysis is being evaluated by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and will be decided within a few years. In 2008, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy (JSDT) proposed the standard of fluids for hemodialysis by taking the draft ISO standard into consideration and the circumstances in Japan. It was characteristically a standard for Japan, where the central dialysis fluid delivery system (CDDS) is routinely used. In addition, the therapeutic application of each dialysis fluid is clarified. Since high-performance dialyzers are frequently employed in Japan, the standard recommends that ultrapure dialysis fluid be used for all dialysis modalities at all dialysis facilities. It also recommends that the dialysis equipment safety management committee at each facility validate the microbiological qualities of online-prepared substitution fluid, making the responsibility of the dialysis facility clear. This standard is more rigid than those of other countries, and is expected to contribute to improvements in the survival outcome of dialysis patients. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Experimental Interactions of Components of Hemodialysis Units with Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, W. H.; Shinoda, B. A.; Mason, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    An in vitro model test system for estimation of the blood compatibility of hemodialysis membranes and tubing is described. The model test system consists of a modified hemodialysis unit and blood pump through which fresh citrated human blood is circulated. The effects of the use of different pump and tubing types upon hematologic and blood coagulation parameters are described. Preexposure of test surfaces to albumin appeared to enhance blood compatibility characteristics of the model test system, whereas preexposure to a high density lipoprotein preparation or a proteinpolysaccharide preparation was without appreciable benefit. Use of blood from subjects receiving aspirin resulted in enhanced blood compatibility in the test system as did use of heparin. Use of Warfarin or dextran did not appear to enhance blood compatibility of test surfaces under the conditions of this test system. Dialysis membranes and tubing which formed parts of the test system were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy in control tests and in tests for effects of proteins and antithrombotic agents. ImagesFig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11Fig 12Fig 13Fig 14Fig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4 PMID:4825611

  9. Habitual Coffee Consumption Enhances Attention and Vigilance in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nikić, Petar M.; Andrić, Branislav R.; Stojimirović, Biljana B.; Trbojevic-Stanković, Jasna; Bukumirić, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Coffee drinking is the main source of caffeine intake among adult population in the western world. It has been reported that low to moderate caffeine intake has beneficial effect on alertness and cognitive functions in healthy subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of habitual coffee consumption on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients. Methods. In a cross-sectional study, 86 patients from a single-dialysis centre underwent assessment by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool and evaluation for symptoms of fatigue, mood, and sleep disorders by well-validated questionnaires. The habitual coffee use and the average daily caffeine intake were estimated by participants' response to a dietary questionnaire. Results. Sixty-seven subjects (78%) consumed black coffee daily, mostly in low to moderate dose. Cognitive impairment was found in three-quarters of tested patients. Normal mental performance was more often in habitual coffee users (25% versus 16%). Regular coffee drinkers achieved higher mean scores on all tested cognitive domains, but a significant positive correlation was found only for items that measure attention and concentration (P = 0.024). Conclusions. Moderate caffeine intake by habitual coffee consumption could have beneficial impact on cognitive function in hemodialysis patients due to selective enhancement of attention and vigilance. PMID:24895603

  10. Temporal data mining for the quality assessment of hemodialysis services.

    PubMed

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Larizza, Cristiana; Magni, Paolo; Bellazzi, Roberto

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the temporal data mining aspects of a research project that deals with the definition of methods and tools for the assessment of the clinical performance of hemodialysis (HD) services, on the basis of the time series automatically collected during hemodialysis sessions. Intelligent data analysis and temporal data mining techniques are applied to gain insight and to discover knowledge on the causes of unsatisfactory clinical results. In particular, two new methods for association rule discovery and temporal rule discovery are applied to the time series. Such methods exploit several pre-processing techniques, comprising data reduction, multi-scale filtering and temporal abstractions. We have analyzed the data of more than 5800 dialysis sessions coming from 43 different patients monitored for 19 months. The qualitative rules associating the outcome parameters and the measured variables were examined by the domain experts, which were able to distinguish between rules confirming available background knowledge and unexpected but plausible rules. The new methods proposed in the paper are suitable tools for knowledge discovery in clinical time series. Their use in the context of an auditing system for dialysis management helped clinicians to improve their understanding of the patients' behavior.

  11. Access thrombosis, hospitalization, and hematocrit level in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Heard, K A; Russell, T A

    2000-12-01

    Are occurrences of vascular access thrombosis and hospitalization higher in hemodialysis patients with hematocrits (Hcts) > 36% compared to those < 36%? This 12-month retrospective study included 30 male hemodialysis patients who received erythropoietin (rHuEPO) for at least 6 months. Sixty percent (n = 18) had arteriovenous fistulas and 40% (n = 12) had polytetrafluoroethylene grafts. The mean age was 59.6 years. Twenty patients during 216 patient months had a mean Hct < 36% with five thromboses (2.3%). Ten patients during 118 patient months had a mean Hct > 36% with four thromboses (3.4%). There was no statistically significant difference between the thrombosis rates in the two groups. There were four hospitalizations in 118 patient months in the > 36% group (3.4%). There were 33 hospitalizations in 216 patient months in the < 36% group (15.3%). This is 4.5 times higher than the > 36% group. Our data suggest that Hcts > 36% are not associated with increased thrombosis and are associated with lower hospitalization rates.

  12. Dietary protein and nutritional supplements in conventional hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Sabatino, Alice; Piotti, Giovanni; Cosola, Carmela; Gandolfini, Ilaria; Kooman, Jeroen P; Fiaccadori, Enrico

    2018-06-17

    Protein energy wasting (PEW) is a condition commonly occurring among patients with ESRD on hemodialysis. PEW is characterized by depletion of protein and energy stores and is caused by multiple factors relate