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Sample records for occluded hemodialysis native

  1. Mechanical Thrombectomy of Occluded Hemodialysis Native Fistulas and Grafts Using a Hydrodynamic Thrombectomy Catheter: Preliminary Experience

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sahni, Vikram, E-mail: vassahni@hotmail.com; Kaniyur, Sunil; Malhotra, Anmol

    2005-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a new hydrodynamic percutaneous thrombectomy catheter in the treatment of thrombosed hemodialysis fistulas and grafts. Twenty-two patients (median age: 47 years; range: 31-79 years) underwent mechanical thrombectomy for thrombosed hemodialysis fistulas or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts. In all cases, an Oasis hydrodynamic catheter was used. Five patients had native fistulas and 17 had PTFE grafts. Six patients required repeat procedures. All patients with native fistulas and 15 of the 17 with PTFE grafts also underwent angioplasty of the venous limb following the thrombectomy. Major outcome measures included technicalmore » success, clinical success, primary and secondary patency, and complication rates. Twenty-eight procedures were performed in total. The technical success rate was 100% and 90% and clinical success was 86% and 76% for native fistulas and grafts, respectively. The primary patency at 6 months was 50% and 59% for fistulas and grafts, respectively, and the secondary patency at 6 months was 75% and 70% for fistulas and grafts, respectively. Two patients died of unrelated causes during the follow-up period. The Oasis catheter is an effective mechanical device for the percutaneous treatment of thrombosed hemodialysis access. Our initial success rate showed that the technique is safe in the treatment of both native fistulas and grafts.« less

  2. High dose urokinase for restoration of patency of occluded permanent central venous catheters in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Shavit, L; Lifschitz, M; Plaksin, J; Grenader, T; Slotki, I

    2010-10-01

    Catheter thrombosis is common and results in inadequate dialysis treatment and, frequently, in catheter loss. Since dialysis treatment runs on a strict schedule, occluded catheters need to be restored in a timely and cost effective manner. We present a new shortened protocol of urokinase infusion that allows hemodialysis to be performed within 90 minutes. To chronic hemodialysis patients, who developed complete catheter occlusion, urokinase was infused simultaneously through both lumens of the catheter (125,000 units to each lumen) over 90 minutes. Technical success was defined as restoring blood pump speed to at least 250 ml/min. We determined the average time from catheter placement to first clot event (primary patency PP), recurrent clot event after urokinase treatment (secondary patency SP), catheter salvage rate and cause for removal. 37 catheters developed total thrombosis and urokinase was used to restore patency one or more times (total 47 treatments). Catheter salvage rate was 97 %. The average time of PP was 152 ± 56 days (7 - 784 days). Nine patients (30%) developed recurrent occlusion and the average time of SP was 64 ± 34 days (2 - 364 days). One catheter was removed because of dysfunction due to thrombosis. Other catheters were removed due to infection, fistula maturation or fell out spontaneously. Hemodialysis was performed immediately after treatment with blood speed of 250 ml/min in all patients. Our protocol is highly effective, short, and allows to restore patency of totally occluded central venous catheters with minimal disruption of the dialysis session.

  3. A retrospective comparative study of tunneled haemodialysis catheters inserted through occluded or collateral veins versus conventional methods.

    PubMed

    Powell, Steven; Chan, Tze Yuan; Bhat, Rammohan; Lam, Kimberly; Narlawar, Ranjeet S; Cullen, Nicola; Littler, Peter

    2010-08-01

    Tunneled hemodialysis catheters become essential in dialysis access when there is no possibility of using a functioning arteriovenous fistula. Collateral or occluded veins visible on ultrasound are used for puncture and passage of catheters into the central venous system. Chronically occluded veins are crossed with guidewires to allow dilatation and subsequent passage of hemodialysis catheters. We performed a retrospective analysis of patient demographics, comorbidities, procedural complications, functional survival, performance, and history of previous vascular access. The study group was compared with two control groups in which dialysis catheters were inserted either by radiologists in the interventional suite or by clinicians on the wards. Nineteen patients from the study group were compared with same number of patients in both control groups. The mean age of the study group was higher compared with the control groups. There was no significant difference in mean functional survival, infection rates, dialysis pump speeds in the first 2 weeks, and procedural complications between the study group and the controls. The study group had a significantly higher number of previous vascular access interventions, longer dialysis careers, and more comorbidities. Tunneled dialysis catheter placement by way of collateral or occluded veins appears safe and effective. These techniques give the operator further options when faced with patients possessing challenging vascular access. Indeed, there may be a case for preferential use of these veins to keep patent central veins in reserve.

  4. Glucose pump test can be used to measure blood flow rate of native arteriovenous fistula in chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Y C; Selcuk, N Y; Altıntepe, L; Güney, I; Yavuz, S

    2018-01-01

    In chronic hemodialysis patients, the low flow of vascular access may leads to inadequate dialysis, increased rate of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality. It was found that surveillance should be performed for native arteriovenous (AV) should not be performed for AV graft in various studies. However, surveillance was done in graft AV fistulas in most studies. Doppler ultrasonography (US) was suggested for surveillance of AV fistulas by the last vascular access guideline of National Kidney Foundation Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF KDOQI). The aim of study is to determine whether glucose pump test (GPT) is used for surveillance of native AV fistulas by using Doppler US as reference. In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US and GPT. For GPT, glucose was infused to 16 mL/min by pump and was measured at basal before the infusion and 11 s after the start of the infusion by glucometer. Doppler US was done by an expert radiologist. Used statistical tests were Mann-Whitney U test, Friedman test, regression analysis, and multiple regression analysis. Median values of blood flow rates measured by GPT (707 mL/min) and by Doppler US (700 mL/min) were not different (Z = 0.414, P = 0.678). Results of GPT and Doppler US measurements were positive correlate by regression analysis. The mean GPT value of diabetic patients (n = 39; 908 mL/min) was similar to that of nondiabetic patients (n = 54; 751 mL/min; Z = 1.31, P = 0.188). GPT values measured at three different dialysis session did not differ from each other that by Friedman test (F = 0.92, P = 0.39). This showed that GPT was stable and reliable. Glucose pump test can be used to measure blood flow rate of native AV fistula. GPT is an accurate and reliable test.

  5. Prevention of secondary hyperparathyroidism in hemodialysis patients: the key role of native vitamin D supplementation.

    PubMed

    Jean, G; Vanel, T; Terrat, J-C; Chazot, C

    2010-10-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a frequent complication in chronic kidney disease, especially in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Treatments for SHPT include calcitriol analogues (CA), phosphate binders, cinacalcet (CC), and surgical parathyroidectomy (PTX). This study aimed to assess the incidence and prevalence of SHPT in a single center during the period when native vitamin D (N-VitD) supplementation and CC treatment became available. All incident and prevalent HD patients were prospectively recorded and compared using 3 periods from 2004 to 2005 (period 1), 2006 to 2007 (period 2), and 2008 to 2009 (period 3). SHPT was diagnosed with serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels >300 pg/mL or the need for CA, CC, or PTX. Between periods 1 and 3, in incident patients (n=120 and 101), N-VitD prescription increased from 11% to 68% (P<0.0001), CA prescription remained stable (40%), and patients with PTH>300 pg/mL decreased from 40% to 12% (P<0.0001). In prevalent HD patients (n=235), N-VitD treatment increased from 55% to 91% (P<0.0001), whereas treatment with CA decreased from 67% to 17% (P<0.0001). Patients with serum PTH>300 pg/mL decreased from 38% to 13% (P<0.001), whereas patients with PTH<150 pg/mL remained stable (<30%). New CC prescriptions decreased from 45 to 3 (P<0.0001). Since 2004, SHPT has decreased drastically in incident and prevalent HD patients. The preventive role of N-VitD supplementation appears to be obvious and represents one more argument for its general recommendation in CKD patients. © 2010 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2010 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  6. Occluded Brescia-Cimino Hemodialysis Fistulas: Endovascular Treatment with Both Brachial Arterial and Venous Access Using the Pull-Through Technique

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Miyayama, Shiro; Matsui, Osamu; Taki, Keiichi

    2005-12-15

    We retrospectively evaluated the usefulness of both arterial and venous access with the pull-through technique in endovascular treatment of totally occluded Brescia-Cimino fistulas. We treated 26 patients (17 men, 9 women; age range 43-82 years, mean age 66 years) with occluded Brescia-Cimino fistulas. First, the occluded segment was traversed from the antegrade brachial arterial access using a microcatheter-guidewire system. Second, the vein was retrogradely punctured after confirmation of all diseased segments, and a 0.014- or 0.016-inch guidewire was pulled through the venous access when the occluded segment was long. All interventions including thrombolysis, thromboaspiration, angioplasty, and stent placement were performedmore » via the venous access. The occlusion was successfully crossed via the brachial arterial access in 23 patients (88%). In 2 patients it was done from the venous approach. In the remaining patient it was not possible to traverse the occluded segment. The pull-through technique was successful in all 19 attempts. Clinical success was achieved in 96%, the primary patency rates at 6, 12, and 18 months were 83%, 78%, and 69%, the primary assisted patency rates were 92%, 92%, and 72%, and the secondary patency rates were 92%, 92%, and 92%, respectively. Minor complications in 5 patients included venous perforation in 2 (8%), venous rupture in 1 (4%), and regional hematoma in 2 (8%). Our study suggests that endovascular treatments with both arterial and venous access using the pull-through technique are highly effective in restoring function in totally occluded Brescia-Cimino fistulas.« less

  7. Efficiency of delivery observed treatment in hemodialysis patients: the example of the native vitamin D therapy.

    PubMed

    Delanaye, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Fafin, Coraline; Dubois, Bernard E; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie; Moranne, Olivier

    2016-02-01

    Adherence to therapy is a relevant challenge in chronic hemodialysis patients. The directly observed therapy (DOT) could be an effective method to increase adherence for specific therapies. We aimed to study the performance of DOT versus home medication. We follow the impact of providing native vitamin D directly by the nurse after a dialysis session on the 25-hydroxyvitamin [25(OH)D] concentrations. In this observational study, we included 38 dialysis patients treated by stable dosage of cholecalciferol. DOT was implemented in December 2010. We considered the concentrations of 25-OH vitamin D three times before (T1 = June 2010, T2 = July 2010 and T3 = September 2010) and three times after the modification of prescription (T4 = February 2011, T5 = March 2011 and T6 = April 2011). Median age was 72 [62; 79] years and 48 % were diabetics. Mean body mass index was 26 ± 5 kg/m(2) and median dialysis vintage was 20 [8; 46] months. The patients were compared to themselves. Before DOT, median concentrations of 25(OH)D were 27 (14-36), 23 (17-31), 31 (22-38) ng/mL at T1, T2 and T3, respectively. When DOT was effective, the concentrations significantly increased to 34 (28-44), 35 (29-41), 39 (32-47) ng/mL at T4, T5 and T6, respectively. Before DOT, 19 patients (50 %) reached the target of 30 ng/mL. After DOT, 29 patients (76 %) reached the target concentration of 30 ng/mL. In hemodialysis patients, DOT is both simple and effective to increase the therapeutic impact to native vitamin D.

  8. Use of Nitinol Stents Following Recanalization of Central Venous Occlusions in Hemodialysis Patients

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rajan, Dheeraj K., E-mail: dheeraj.rajan@uhn.on.ca; Saluja, Jasdeep S.

    2007-07-15

    Purpose. To retrospectively review the patency of endovascular interventions with nitinol stent placement for symptomatic central venous occlusions in hemodialysis patients. Methods. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent endovascular interventions for dysfunctional hemodialysis grafts and fistulas was performed from April 2004 to August 2006. A total of 6 patients presented with arm and/or neck and facial swelling and left brachiocephalic vein occlusion. The study group consisted of 3 men and 3 women with a mean age of 79.5 years (SD 11.2 years). Of these 6 patients, 1 had a graft and 5 had fistulas in the left arm.more » The primary indication for nitinol stent placement was technical failure of angioplasty following successful traversal of occluded central venous segments. Patency was assessed from repeat fistulograms and central venograms performed when patients redeveloped symptoms or were referred for access dysfunction determined by the ultrasound dilution technique. No patients were lost to follow-up. Results. Nitinol stent placement to obtain technically successful recanalization of occluded venous segments was initially successful in 5 of 6 patients (83%). In 1 patient, incorrect stent positioning resulted in partial migration to the superior vena cava requiring restenting to prevent further migration. Clinical success was observed in all patients (100%). Over the follow-up period, 2 patients underwent repeat intervention with angioplasty alone. Primary patency was 83.3% (95% CI 0.5-1.2) at 3 months, and 66.7% at 6 and 12 months (0.2-1.1, 0.1-1.2). Secondary patency was 100% at 12 months with 3 patients censored over that time period. Mean primary patency was 10.4 months with a mean follow-up of 12.4 months. No complications related to recanalization of the occluded central venous segments were observed. Conclusion. Our initial experience has demonstrated that use of nitinol stents for central venous occlusion in hemodialysis patients is

  9. Stenosis detection in native hemodialysis fistulas with MDCT angiography.

    PubMed

    Heye, Sam; Maleux, Geert; Claes, Kathleen; Kuypers, Dirk; Oyen, Raymond

    2009-04-01

    The objective of our study was to assess the diagnostic value of 64-MDCT angiography in the evaluation of failing hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) in comparison with conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Thirty-six patients (22 men; mean age +/- SD, 65 +/- 15 years) with hemodialysis fistula dysfunction underwent MDCT angiography before DSA. Linear weighted kappa was used to calculate interobserver agreement for stenosis for both MDCT angiography and DSA on a 5-point scale. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for the detection of >/= 50% stenosis or occlusion on MDCT angiography was calculated using DSA as the standard of reference. Wilcoxon's signed rank test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to compare differences in image quality between MDCT angiography and DSA and between MDCT angiography with the patient's arm stretched overhead or alongside the body, respectively. Interobserver agreement for detecting stenosis was excellent for both DSA (kappa = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.81-0.91) and MDCT angiography (kappa = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.77-0.87). Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of MDCT angiography for detecting >/= 50% stenosis or occlusion was 92.0% (95% CI, 86.8-95.3%), 90.2% (77.8-96.3%), 92.8% (85.9-96.6%), 85.2% (72.3-92.9%), and 95.4% (89.0-98.3%), respectively. No significant difference in image quality was seen between MDCT angiography and DSA (p = 0.3008) or between MDCT angiography with the patient's arm stretched overhead or alongside the body (p = 0.2912). MDCT angiography is a reproducible and reliable imaging technique for detection of >/= 50% stenosis or occlusion in dysfunctional hemodialysis fistulas.

  10. Detection scheme for a partially occluded pedestrian based on occluded depth in lidar-radar sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Seong Kyung; Hyun, Eugin; Lee, Jin-Hee; Lee, Jonghun; Son, Sang Hyuk

    2017-11-01

    Object detections are critical technologies for the safety of pedestrians and drivers in autonomous vehicles. Above all, occluded pedestrian detection is still a challenging topic. We propose a new detection scheme for occluded pedestrian detection by means of lidar-radar sensor fusion. In the proposed method, the lidar and radar regions of interest (RoIs) have been selected based on the respective sensor measurement. Occluded depth is a new means to determine whether an occluded target exists or not. The occluded depth is a region projected out by expanding the longitudinal distance with maintaining the angle formed by the outermost two end points of the lidar RoI. The occlusion RoI is the overlapped region made by superimposing the radar RoI and the occluded depth. The object within the occlusion RoI is detected by the radar measurement information and the occluded object is estimated as a pedestrian based on human Doppler distribution. Additionally, various experiments are performed in detecting a partially occluded pedestrian in outdoor as well as indoor environments. According to experimental results, the proposed sensor fusion scheme has much better detection performance compared to the case without our proposed method.

  11. Upper limb grafts for hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Shemesh, David; Goldin, Ilya; Verstandig, Anthony; Berelowitz, Daniel; Zaghal, Ibrahim; Olsha, Oded

    2015-01-01

    Arteriovenous (AV) grafts are required for hemodialysis access when options for native fistulas have been fully exhausted, where they continue to play an important role in hemodialysis patients, offering a better alternative to central vein catheters. When planning autogenous accesses using Doppler ultrasound, adequate arterial inflow and venous outflow must be consciously preserved for future access creation with grafts. Efforts to improve graft patency include changing graft configuration, graft biology and hemodynamics. Industry offers early cannulation grafts to reduce central catheter use and a bioengineered graft is undergoing clinical studies. Although the outcome of AV grafts is inferior to fistulas, grafts can provide long-term hemodialysis access that is a better alternative to central venous catheters. AV grafts have significant drawbacks, mainly poor patency, infection and cost but also have some advantages: early maturation, ease of creation and needling and widespread availability. The outcome of AV graft surgery is variable from center to center. The primary patency rate for AV grafts is 58% at 6 months and the secondary patency rate is 76% at 6 months and 55% at 18 months. There are centers of excellence that report a 1 year secondary patency rate of up to 91%. In this review of the use of AV grafts for hemodialysis access in the upper extremities, technical issues involved in planning the access and performing the surgery in its different configurations are discussed and the role of surveillance and maintenance with their attendant surgical and radiological interventions is described.

  12. 64-slice MDCT angiography of upper extremity in assessment of native hemodialysis access.

    PubMed

    Wasinrat, Jitladda; Siriapisith, Thanongchai; Thamtorawat, Somrach; Tongdee, Trongtum

    2011-01-01

    To compare multidetector row computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography with conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the evaluation of vascular access stenoses in hemodialysis patients. Twenty-one consecutive patients were imaged with MDCT angiography and subsequent DSA. The superficial vein of leg was used as the route for intravenous administration. The vascular stenosis was assessed in not significant (<50% stenosis), moderate stenosis (50%-74% stenosis), severe stenosis (75%-99%), and total occlusion (100%). The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values were calculated for significant vascular stenosis using DSA as the standard reference. The sensitivity and specificity of MDCT angiography for the detection of significant hemodialysis vascular access were 100% (95% CI, 89.3%-100%) and 94.8% (95% CI, 89.1%-97.6%), respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 84.2% (95% CI, 68.1%-93.4%) and 100% (95% CI, 95.8%-100%), respectively. The accuracy of MDCT angiography for detection of significant stenoses was 95.9% (95% CI, 91.4%-97.0%). MDCT angiography provides excellent correlation in vascular stenosis as compared with DSA in hemodialysis access. Complete assessment of entire vascular segments could be performing with MDCT angiography in planning before endovascular intervention or surgical correction.

  13. Hemodialysis access - self care

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Renal failure - chronic-hemodialysis access; Chronic renal insufficiency - hemodialysis access; Chronic kidney failure - hemodialysis access; Chronic renal failure - hemodialysis access; dialysis - hemodialysis access

  14. Hemodialysis-related headache.

    PubMed

    Sav, Murat Yusuf; Sav, Tansu; Senocak, Elif; Sav, Nadide Melike

    2014-10-01

    Headache is one of the most frequently encountered neurological symptoms during hemodialysis. According to International Classification of Headache criteria dialysis-related headache was defined as the headache occurring during hemodialysis with no specific characteristic. It resolves spontaneously within 72 hours after the hemodialysis session ends. There are few studies in the literature investigating the clinical features of dialysis headache. The pathophysiology of hemodialysis-related headache is not known, but various triggering factors have been identified, including changes in blood pressure, serum sodium and magnesium levels during hemodialysis sessions, caffeine deprivation and stress. The aim of this article is to evaluate and analyze features of headache in patients undergoing hemodialysis. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  15. Some old drugs improve late primary patency rate of native arteriovenous fistulas in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Righetti, Marco; Ferrario, GianMichele; Serbelloni, Paola; Milani, Silvana; Tommasi, Adalberto

    2009-01-01

    Vascular access failure causes 20% of all hospitalizations of dialysis patients. Native arteriovenous fistulas, the best type of dialysis vascular access, have a 1-year primary patency rate that is extremely variable, ranging 40-80%. Neointimal hyperplasia is the most important cause of arteriovenous fistula late primary dysfunction. In recent years the arteriovenous fistula late primary patency rate has not improved because of the increase of old uremic patients with a high number of comorbidities and the lack of new therapeutic interventions. Therefore, we performed a long-term case-control study to analyze which factors or drugs may affect native arteriovenous fistula late primary patency rate in 60 incident hemodialysis patients. The arteriovenous fistula late primary patency rate was 75.1% after 12 months, 58.5% after 24 months, and 50% after 987 days. Homocysteine levels during follow-up had a significant direct association with vascular access failure (event vs. event-free 28.5+/-1.9 vs. 22.3+/-1.2 micromol/L, p<0.01). Folate values had a trend toward an inverse relationship with arteriovenous fistula failure (event vs. event-free 11.5+/-1.2 vs. 14.6 vs. 1.1 ng/mL, p=0.06). Patients treated with folic acid and/or statin had an arteriovenous fistula late primary patency rate significantly higher than patients without folic acid and statin therapy, respectively, 81.7% vs. 66% after 1 year and 71.5% vs. 39.1% after 2 years (p=0.02). Many other factors were not associated with vascular access failure. Statin and homocysteine-lowering folic acid therapy is associated with prolonged arteriovenous fistula survival. It is important to perform randomized trials to verify our observation.

  16. Intensive Hemodialysis Associates with Improved Survival Compared with Conventional Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Robert M.; Cuerden, Meaghan S.; Garg, Amit X.; Port, Friedrich; Austin, Peter C.; Moist, Louise M.; Pierratos, Andreas; Chan, Christopher T.; Zimmerman, Deborah; Lockridge, Robert S.; Couchoud, Cécile; Chazot, Charles; Ofsthun, Norma; Levin, Adeera; Copland, Michael; Courtney, Mark; Steele, Andrew; McFarlane, Philip A.; Geary, Denis F.; Pauly, Robert P.; Komenda, Paul; Suri, Rita S.

    2012-01-01

    Patients undergoing conventional maintenance hemodialysis typically receive three sessions per week, each lasting 2.5–5.5 hours. Recently, the use of more intensive hemodialysis (>5.5 hours, three to seven times per week) has increased, but the effects of these regimens on survival are uncertain. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to examine whether intensive hemodialysis associates with better survival than conventional hemodialysis. We identified 420 patients in the International Quotidian Dialysis Registry who received intensive home hemodialysis in France, the United States, and Canada between January 2000 and August 2010. We matched 338 of these patients to 1388 patients in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study who received in-center conventional hemodialysis during the same time period by country, ESRD duration, and propensity score. The intensive hemodialysis group received a mean (SD) 4.8 (1.1) sessions per week with a mean treatment time of 7.4 (0.87) hours per session; the conventional group received three sessions per week with a mean treatment time of 3.9 (0.32) hours per session. During 3008 patient-years of follow-up, 45 (13%) of 338 patients receiving intensive hemodialysis died compared with 293 (21%) of 1388 patients receiving conventional hemodialysis (6.1 versus 10.5 deaths per 100 person-years; hazard ratio, 0.55 [95% confidence interval, 0.34–0.87]). The strength and direction of the observed association between intensive hemodialysis and improved survival were consistent across all prespecified subgroups and sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, there is a strong association between intensive home hemodialysis and improved survival, but whether this relationship is causal remains unknown. PMID:22362910

  17. Survival of the first arteriovenous fistula in 96 patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Radoui, Aicha; Lyoussfi, Zineb; Haddiya, Intissar; Skalli, Zoubair; El Idrissi, Redouane; Rhou, Hakima; Ezzaitouni, Fatima; Ouzeddoun, Naima; El Mesnaoui, Abbes; Bayahia, Rabea; Benamar, Loubna

    2011-07-01

    Native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) represents the best vascular approach for chronic hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to determine the survival of the first AVF and to identify the factors responsible for poor AVF survival. A retrospective study was conducted on 96 chronic hemodialysis patients benefiting from the creation and cannulation of their first AVF at our center, with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year. We collected demographic, clinical, and biological data, as well as analyzed the following AVF characteristics: anatomic site, cannulation time, survival, and complications. To identify the predictive factors of poor AVF survival, we defined and compared two groups of patients on the basis of whether they lost their first AVF during the evolution. Patients' mean age was 42.1 ± 13 years, with predominantly female patients. Mean AVF cannulation time was 17.5 ± 24 days. AVF loss was mainly related to thrombosis in 29% of the cases and stenosis in 9.4%. AVF survival was 87%, 77%, 71%, 67%, and 64% after 1, 3, 5, 8, and 10 years of hemodialysis, respectively. In our study, the main factors associated with AVF loss were lengthy jugular venous catheters placement (p = 0.004), short AVF cannulation time after its creation (p = 0.03), and hypotension episodes during dialysis (p = 0.03). Long-term survival and quality of life in hemodialysis depend on an appropriate dialysis carried out-thanks to a correct vascular approach! According to the previously published data, survival of the first AVF can vary between 10% and 36% at 10 years. In our study, survival of the first native AVF was satisfying because it reached 64% at 10 years. Early AVF creation and prevention and management of its complications remain the safest and most comfortable solution to ensure AVF survival and thus a satisfying survival and quality of life in chronic hemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2011 Annals of Vascular Surgery Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Safety and efficacy of transcatheter closure of large patent ductus arteriosus in adults with a self-expandable occluder.

    PubMed

    Yu, Man-Li; Huang, Xin-Miao; Wang, Jia-Feng; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Zheng, Xing

    2009-11-01

    Most occurrences of large patent ductus arteriosus (PDAs) of > or =10 mm have been surgically closed, and transcatheter closure of these large PDAs was only reported in a few case reports. The present study reviewed our experience in transcatheter closure of such large PDAs with a Chinese self-expandable occluder, which is similar to but much cheaper than the Amplatzer occluder. From July 2000 to January 2008, 23 patients underwent transcatheter closure of large PDA > or =10 mm with this kind of occluder. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 38.0 (15.6) years (range 18-75 years). Radiographs of the chest, electrocardiograms, and echocardiograms were used for follow-up evaluation of the treatment within 1 day, 1 month, 6 months, and then every year after successful closure. The mean (SD) angiographic PDA diameter was 12.8 (2.6) mm (range 10-18 mm) and the mean occluder diameter was 18.0 (2.9) mm (range 16-22 mm). The occluders were delivered successfully and closed the PDA completely in 19 out of the 23 patients. Pulmonary arterial pressures decreased significantly after occlusion in patients with successful treatment: 67.3 (24.7) mmHg (range 29-122 mmHg) before occlusion and 42.3 (22.0) mmHg (range 19-98 mmHg) immediately after the procedure. Radiographs of the chest and echocardiograms showed that the diameters of the left atrium, left ventricle, and the main pulmonary artery decreased, and the ejection fraction (EF) increased at a mean (SD) follow-up of 36.3 (18.7) months (range 6-72 months). No severe complication occurred. The immediate and long-term outcomes suggested that transcatheter closure of PDAs with the native PDA occluder is a safe and effective treatment for adults with large PDA > or =10 mm.

  19. 21 CFR 870.1370 - Catheter tip occluder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Catheter tip occluder. 870.1370 Section 870.1370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1370 Catheter tip occluder...

  20. 21 CFR 870.1370 - Catheter tip occluder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Catheter tip occluder. 870.1370 Section 870.1370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1370 Catheter tip occluder...

  1. Decoding information about dynamically occluded objects in visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Erlikhman, Gennady; Caplovitz, Gideon P.

    2016-01-01

    During dynamic occlusion, an object passes behind an occluding surface and then later reappears. Even when completely occluded from view, such objects are experienced as continuing to exist or persist behind the occluder, even though they are no longer visible. The contents and neural basis of this persistent representation remain poorly understood. Questions remain as to whether there is information maintained about the object itself (i.e. its shape or identity) or, non-object-specific information such as its position or velocity as it is tracked behind an occluder as well as which areas of visual cortex represent such information. Recent studies have found that early visual cortex is activated by “invisible” objects during visual imagery and by unstimulated regions along the path of apparent motion, suggesting that some properties of dynamically occluded objects may also be neurally represented in early visual cortex. We applied functional magnetic resonance imaging in human subjects to examine the representation of information within visual cortex during dynamic occlusion. For gradually occluded, but not for instantly disappearing objects, there was an increase in activity in early visual cortex (V1, V2, and V3). This activity was spatially-specific, corresponding to the occluded location in the visual field. However, the activity did not encode enough information about object identity to discriminate between different kinds of occluded objects (circles vs. stars) using MVPA. In contrast, object identity could be decoded in spatially-specific subregions of higher-order, topographically organized areas such as ventral, lateral, and temporal occipital areas (VO, LO, and TO) as well as the functionally defined LOC and hMT+. These results suggest that early visual cortex may represent the dynamically occluded object’s position or motion path, while later visual areas represent object-specific information. PMID:27663987

  2. Effect of High-Cutoff Hemodialysis vs Conventional Hemodialysis on Hemodialysis Independence Among Patients With Myeloma Cast Nephropathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Bridoux, Frank; Carron, Pierre-Louis; Pegourie, Brigitte; Alamartine, Eric; Augeul-Meunier, Karine; Karras, Alexandre; Joly, Bertrand; Peraldi, Marie-Noëlle; Arnulf, Bertrand; Vigneau, Cécile; Lamy, Thierry; Wynckel, Alain; Kolb, Brigitte; Royer, Bruno; Rabot, Nolwenn; Benboubker, Lotfi; Combe, Christian; Jaccard, Arnaud; Moulin, Bruno; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Chevret, Sylvie; Fermand, Jean-Paul

    2017-12-05

    Cast nephropathy is the main cause of acute kidney injury in multiple myeloma and persistent reduction in kidney function strongly affects prognosis. Strategies to rapidly remove nephrotoxic serum-free light chains combined with novel antimyeloma agents have not been evaluated prospectively. To compare the hemodialysis independence rate among patients newly diagnosed with myeloma cast nephropathy treated with hemodialysis using a high-cutoff dialyzer (with very large membrane pores and high permeability to immunoglobulin light chains) or a conventional high-flux dialyzer (with small pores and lower permeability). Randomized clinical trial involving 98 patients with biopsy-proven myeloma cast nephropathy requiring hemodialysis treated at 48 French centers between July 2011 and June 2016; the final date of follow-up was June 29, 2016. Intensive hemodialysis (eight 5-hour sessions over 10 days) with either a high-cutoff dialyzer (46 patients) or a conventional high-flux dialyzer (48 patients). All patients received the same chemotherapy regimen of bortezomib and dexamethasone. Primary end point was hemodialysis independence at 3 months; secondary end points: hemodialysis independence rates at 6 and 12 months, hemodialysis- and chemotherapy-related adverse events, and death. Among 98 randomized patients, 94 (96%) (median age, 68.8 years [interquartile range, 61.2-75.3 years]; 45% women) were included in the modified intent-to-treat analysis. The hemodialysis independence rate at 3 months was 41.3% (n = 19) in the high-cutoff hemodialysis group vs 33.3% (n = 16) in the conventional hemodialysis group (between-group difference, 8.0% [95% CI, -12.0% to 27.9%], P = .42); at 6 months, the rate was 56.5% (n = 26) vs 35.4% (n = 17), respectively (between-group difference, 21.1% [95% CI, 0.9% to 41.3%], P = .04); and at 12 months, the rate was 60.9% (n = 28) vs 37.5% (n = 18) (between-group difference, 23.4% [95% CI, 3.2% to 43.5%], P = .02

  3. [Relationship between lethality of hemodialysis patients, erythropoietin dosage for renal anemia treatment and hemodialysis quality].

    PubMed

    Ziginskiene, Edita; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Bumblyte, Inga Arūne

    2003-01-01

    In December of 1999 and 2000 we visited all hemodialysis centers of Lithuania and collected data about all hemodialysis patients, using special questionnaires. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between lethality of hemodialysis patients, erythropoietin dosage for renal anemia treatment and hemodialysis quality. The patients with higher Kt/V, higher levels of iron and albumin, normal levels of phosphorus and parathyroid hormone (PTH) requested lower doses of erythropoietin (analysis of the patients who were on hemodialysis in 2000 more than 6 months). So, we can conclude that adequate hemodialysis procedure and good management of hemodialysis patient are leading to the decrease request of erythropoietin doses for anemia treatment. We compared two groups of patients in order to examine relationship between hemodialysis quality and lethality of hemodialysis patients. We selected incident patients registered in December of 1999 and we divided these patients in December of 2000 in two groups: a) 175 patients, who continued hemodialysis treatment and b) 41 patients, who died in 2000. The results revealed, that dead patients were elder, their duration of weekly hemodialysis was shorter, Hb concentration lower, they had worse nutritional status (blood albumin level was lower). Lethality was associated with underlying diseases such as diabetes, hypertensive nephropathy and renal amyloidosis.

  4. Effects of frequent hemodialysis on perceived caregiver burden in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network trials.

    PubMed

    Suri, Rita S; Larive, Brett; Hall, Yoshio; Kimmel, Paul L; Kliger, Alan S; Levin, Nathan; Tamura, Manjula Kurella; Chertow, Glenn M

    2014-05-01

    Patients receiving hemodialysis often perceive their caregivers are overburdened. We hypothesize that increasing hemodialysis frequency would result in higher patient perceptions of burden on their unpaid caregivers. In two separate trials, 245 patients were randomized to receive in-center daily hemodialysis (6 days/week) or conventional hemodialysis (3 days/week) while 87 patients were randomized to receive home nocturnal hemodialysis (6 nights/week) or home conventional hemodialysis for 12 months. Changes in overall mean scores over time in the 10-question Cousineau perceived burden scale were compared. In total, 173 of 245 (70%) and 80 of 87 (92%) randomized patients in the Daily and Nocturnal Trials, respectively, reported having an unpaid caregiver at baseline or during follow-up. Relative to in-center conventional dialysis, the 12-month change in mean perceived burden score with in-center daily hemodialysis was -2.1 (95% confidence interval, -9.4 to +5.3; P=0.58). Relative to home conventional dialysis, the 12-month change in mean perceived burden score with home nocturnal dialysis was +6.1 (95% confidence interval, -0.8 to +13.1; P=0.08). After multiple imputation for missing data in the Nocturnal Trial, the relative difference between home nocturnal and home conventional hemodialysis was +9.4 (95% confidence interval, +0.55 to +18.3; P=0.04). In the Nocturnal Trial, changes in perceived burden were inversely correlated with adherence to dialysis treatments (Pearson r=-0.35; P=0.02). Relative to conventional hemodialysis, in-center daily hemodialysis did not result in higher perceptions of caregiver burden. There was a trend to higher perceived caregiver burden among patients randomized to home nocturnal hemodialysis. These findings may have implications for the adoption of and adherence to frequent nocturnal hemodialysis.

  5. Transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defect with Occlutech Duct Occluder.

    PubMed

    Atik-Ugan, Sezen; Saltik, Irfan Levent

    2018-04-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus occluders are used for transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defects, as well as for closure of patent ductus arteriosus. The Occlutech Duct Occluder is a newly introduced device for transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus. Here, we present a case in which the Occlutech Duct Occluder was successfully used on a patient for the closure of a perimembraneous ventricular septal defect.

  6. Survival in Daily Home Hemodialysis and Matched Thrice-Weekly In-Center Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiannong; Gilbertson, David T.; Arneson, Thomas J.; Collins, Allan J.

    2012-01-01

    Frequent hemodialysis improves cardiovascular surrogates and quality-of-life indicators, but its effect on survival remains unclear. We used a matched-cohort design to assess relative mortality in daily home hemodialysis and thrice-weekly in-center hemodialysis patients between 2005 and 2008. We matched 1873 home hemodialysis patients with 9365 in-center patients (i.e., 1:5 ratio) selected from the prevalent population in the US Renal Data System database. Matching variables included first date of follow-up, demographic characteristics, and measures of disease severity. The cumulative incidence of death was 19.2% and 21.7% in the home hemodialysis and in-center patients, respectively. In the intention-to-treat analysis, home hemodialysis associated with a 13% lower risk for all-cause mortality than in-center hemodialysis (hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.78–0.97). Cause-specific mortality HRs were 0.92 (95% CI, 0.78–1.09) for cardiovascular disease, 1.13 (95% CI, 0.84–1.53) for infection, 0.63 (95% CI, 0.41–0.95) for cachexia/dialysis withdrawal, 1.06 (95% CI, 0.81–1.37) for other specified cause, and 0.59 (95% CI, 0.44–0.79) for unknown cause. Findings were similar using as-treated analyses. We did not detect statistically significant evidence of heterogeneity of treatment effects in subgroup analyses. In summary, these data suggest that relative to thrice-weekly in-center hemodialysis, daily home hemodialysis associates with modest improvements in survival. Continued surveillance should strengthen inference about causes of mortality and determine whether treatment effects are homogeneous throughout the dialysis population. PMID:22362906

  7. Treatment of central venous in-stent restenosis with repeat stent deployment in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ronald, James; Davis, Bradley; Guevara, Carlos J; Pabon-Ramos, Waleska M; Smith, Tony P; Kim, Charles Y

    2017-05-15

    To report patency rates for stent deployment for treatment of in-stent stenosis of the central veins of the chest in hemodialysis patients. A retrospective analysis was performed on 29 patients who underwent 35 secondary percutaneous transluminal stent (PTS) deployments for in-stent stenosis within the central veins that were refractory to angioplasty and ipsilateral to a functioning hemodialysis access (in-stent PTS group). For comparison, patency data were acquired for 47 patients who underwent 78 successful percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) procedures for in-stent stenosis (in-stent PTA group) and 55 patients who underwent 55 stent deployments within native central vein stenosis refractory to angioplasty (native vein PTS group). The 3-, 6-, and 12-month primary lesion patency for the in-stent PTS group was 73%, 57%, and 32%, respectively. The 3-, 6-, and 12-month primary patency for the in-stent PTA group was 70%, 38%, and 17% and for the native vein PTS group was 78%, 57%, and 26%, which were similar to the in-stent PTS group (p = 0.20 and 0.41, respectively). The 3-, 6-, and 12-month secondary access patency was 91%, 73%, and 65% for the in-stent PTS group. Sub-analysis of the in-stent PTS group revealed no difference in primary (p = 0.93) or secondary patency rates (p = 0.27) of bare metal stents (n = 23) compared with stent grafts (n = 12). Stent deployment for central vein in-stent stenosis refractory to angioplasty was associated with reasonable patency rates, which were similar to in-stent PTA and native vein PTS.

  8. Short daily hemodialysis is associated with lower plasma FGF23 levels when compared with conventional hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Zaritsky, Joshua; Rastogi, Anjay; Fischmann, George; Yan, Jieshi; Kleinman, Kenneth; Chow, Georgina; Gales, Barbara; Salusky, Isidro B.; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Background The utilization of short-term daily hemodialysis has increased over the last few years, but little is known on its effects on the control of serum phosphate and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels. Methods We therefore performed a cross-sectional study to compare FGF23 levels as well as other biochemical variables between 24 patients undergoing short daily hemodialysis using the NxStage System® and 54 patients treated with conventional in-center hemodialysis. FGF23 levels were measured using the second-generation Immutopics® C-terminal assay. Results Short daily hemodialysis patients were younger than patients on conventional hemodialysis but there were no differences between groups in the duration of end-stage renal disease nor in the number of patients with residual renal function. A greater number of short daily hemodialysis patients received vitamin D sterol therapy than did conventional in-center hemodialysis patients while there were no differences in the use of different phosphate binders and calcimimetic therapy between groups. Overall serum calcium, phosphorus and intact parathyroid hormone levels were similar between groups. While serum phosphorus levels correlated with FGF23 concentrations in each group separately [r = 0.522 (P < 0.01) and r = 0.42 (P < 0.01) in short daily and conventional in-center hemodialysis, respectively], FGF23 levels were lower [823 RU/mL (263, 2169)] in the patients receiving short daily hemodialysis than in patients treated with conventional hemodialysis [2521 RU/mL (909, 5556)] (P < 0.01 between groups). Conclusions These findings demonstrate that FGF23 levels are significantly lower in short daily hemodialysis patients and suggest that FGF23 levels may be a more sensitive biomarker of cumulative phosphate burden than single or multiple serum phosphorus determinations in patients treated with hemodialysis. PMID:24009282

  9. Short daily hemodialysis is associated with lower plasma FGF23 levels when compared with conventional hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Zaritsky, Joshua; Rastogi, Anjay; Fischmann, George; Yan, Jieshi; Kleinman, Kenneth; Chow, Georgina; Gales, Barbara; Salusky, Isidro B; Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2014-02-01

    The utilization of short-term daily hemodialysis has increased over the last few years, but little is known on its effects on the control of serum phosphate and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels. We therefore performed a cross-sectional study to compare FGF23 levels as well as other biochemical variables between 24 patients undergoing short daily hemodialysis using the NxStage System® and 54 patients treated with conventional in-center hemodialysis. FGF23 levels were measured using the second-generation Immutopics® C-terminal assay. Short daily hemodialysis patients were younger than patients on conventional hemodialysis but there were no differences between groups in the duration of end-stage renal disease nor in the number of patients with residual renal function. A greater number of short daily hemodialysis patients received vitamin D sterol therapy than did conventional in-center hemodialysis patients while there were no differences in the use of different phosphate binders and calcimimetic therapy between groups. Overall serum calcium, phosphorus and intact parathyroid hormone levels were similar between groups. While serum phosphorus levels correlated with FGF23 concentrations in each group separately [r=0.522 (P<0.01) and r=0.42 (P<0.01) in short daily and conventional in-center hemodialysis, respectively], FGF23 levels were lower [823 RU/mL (263, 2169)] in the patients receiving short daily hemodialysis than in patients treated with conventional hemodialysis [2521 RU/mL (909, 5556)] (P<0.01 between groups). These findings demonstrate that FGF23 levels are significantly lower in short daily hemodialysis patients and suggest that FGF23 levels may be a more sensitive biomarker of cumulative phosphate burden than single or multiple serum phosphorus determinations in patients treated with hemodialysis.

  10. A Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials Comparing Surgery versus Endovascular Therapy for Thrombosed Arteriovenous Fistulas and Grafts in Hemodialysis

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kuhan, G., E-mail: gkuhan@nhs.net; Antoniou, G. A.; Nikam, M.

    Purpose. To carry out a systematic review of randomized trials comparing surgery vs. endovascular therapy for occluded fistulas and grafts. Methods. All randomized trials which compared surgery and endovascular therapy for occluded fistulas and grafts were retrieved from 1990 onwards. The following search terms were used: 'haemodialysis,' 'thrombosis,' 'arteriovenous fistula,' 'arteriovenous shunt,' 'end stage renal failure' on Medline and PubMed. The results of the pooled data were analysed by a fixed-effect model. Results. There were no randomized trials comparing surgery vs. endovascular therapy for native fistulas and vein grafts. Six randomized studies reporting on 573 occluded grafts were identified. Technicalmore » success, need for access line and primary patency at 30 days were similar between the two groups (odds ratio [OR] 1.40, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.91-2.14; OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.44-1.34; and OR 1.15, 95 % CI 0.79-1.68, respectively). There was no significant difference in morbidity at 30 days between groups (OR 1.12, 95 % CI 0.67-1.86). There were no statistical difference between the two groups for 1 year primary patency (OR 2.08, 95 % CI 0.97-4.45). Primary assisted patency at 1 year was better with surgery (OR 3.03, 95 % CI 1.12-8.18) in a single study. Conclusion. Comparable results to surgery have been achieved with endovascular techniques for occluded prosthetic grafts for dialysis access. Long-term data comparing the two groups were lacking. Further trials designed to encompass variation in methods are warranted in order to obtain the best available evidence particularly for native fistulas.« less

  11. Causes of unplanned hemodialysis initiation.

    PubMed

    Gomis Couto, A; Teruel Briones, J L; Fernández Lucas, M; Rivera Gorrin, M; Rodríguez Mendiola, N; Jiménez Álvaro, S; Quereda Rodríguez-Navarro, C

    2011-01-01

    Half of patients starting chronic hemodialysis used a transient vascular catheter as a vascular access (unplanned initiation). An objective of the Quality Management Group of the Spanish Society of Nephrology is to achieve that 80% of the patients starting hemodialysis do it with an arteriovenous fistula. We want to review the causes of non-planned hemodialysis nowadays. In 2010, 43 patients had started chronic hemodialysis in the Hospital Ramón y Cajal in Madrid (Spain). Mean age was 61 years, 79% were men, the most frequent cause of chronic renal disease was the diabetes (23%) and Charlson Comorbidity Index was 6.3 ± 2.6. The unplanned hemodialysis occurred in 20 patients (47%), without any differences with the 23 patients who began planned hemodialysis, in none of the clinical or demographic parameters analyzed. The main cause of unplanned hemodialysis was the acute exacerbation of chronic kidney disease stage 3 or 4, previously stable, secondary to an unforeseeable intercurrent process (8 patients, 40% of the cases). One patient began after a non-recovery acute renal failure and in other 6 patients, the reason of unplanned hemodialysis initiation was not attributable to the operation Health System (in 3 cases unknown kidney chronic disease and in the other 3 cases it was patient´s responsibility). Only in 5 cases (25%), the cause could be corrigible. Most causes of unplanned hemodialysis does not come from the healthcare organization and therefore not easy to resolve it. Consequently, the objective of the Quality Group will be difficult to be achieved.

  12. Is incremental hemodialysis ready to return on the scene? From empiricism to kinetic modelling.

    PubMed

    Basile, Carlo; Casino, Francesco Gaetano; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-08-01

    Most people who make the transition to maintenance dialysis therapy are treated with a fixed dose thrice-weekly hemodialysis regimen without considering their residual kidney function (RKF). The RKF provides effective and naturally continuous clearance of both small and middle molecules, plays a major role in metabolic homeostasis, nutritional status, and cardiovascular health, and aids in fluid management. The RKF is associated with better patient survival and greater health-related quality of life, although these effects may be confounded by patient comorbidities. Preservation of the RKF requires a careful approach, including regular monitoring, avoidance of nephrotoxins, gentle control of blood pressure to avoid intradialytic hypotension, and an individualized dialysis prescription including the consideration of incremental hemodialysis. There is currently no standardized method for applying incremental hemodialysis in practice. Infrequent (once- to twice-weekly) hemodialysis regimens are often used arbitrarily, without knowing which patients would benefit the most from them or how to escalate the dialysis dose as RKF declines over time. The recently heightened interest in incremental hemodialysis has been hindered by the current limitations of the urea kinetic models (UKM) which tend to overestimate the dialysis dose required in the presence of substantial RKF. This is due to an erroneous extrapolation of the equivalence between renal urea clearance (Kru) and dialyser urea clearance (Kd), correctly assumed by the UKM, to the clinical domain. In this context, each ml/min of Kd clears the urea from the blood just as 1 ml/min of Kru does. By no means should such kinetic equivalence imply that 1 ml/min of Kd is clinically equivalent to 1 ml/min of urea clearance provided by the native kidneys. A recent paper by Casino and Basile suggested a variable target model (VTM) as opposed to the fixed model, because the VTM gives more clinical weight to the RKF and allows

  13. Hemolysis induced by PMIVSD occluder.

    PubMed

    Rao, D Sheshagiri; Barik, Ramachandra; Siva Prasad, Akula

    2016-09-01

    Hemolysis related to occluder, prosthetic valve, and prosthetic ring used for mitral valve annuloplasty are not very unusual. However, hemolysis related to transcathetor closure of post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal defect (PMIVSD) is infrequent. A close follow-up for spontaneous resolution with or without blood transfusion has been reported in a few cases. Occasionally, surgical retrieval is unavoidable or lifelong blood transfusion is required if surgery cannot be done because of higher risk. In this illustration, we have showed a close follow-up of a case of hemolysis induced by atrial septal occluder used for VSD closure after myocardial infarction. Despite successful device closure of PMIVSD which is difficult, a close watch is needed for complications like residual leak, device embolization, and hemolysis. Copyright © 2016 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Incremental short daily home hemodialysis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Toth-Manikowski, Stephanie M; Mullangi, Surekha; Hwang, Seungyoung; Shafi, Tariq

    2017-07-05

    Patients starting dialysis often have substantial residual kidney function. Incremental hemodialysis provides a hemodialysis prescription that supplements patients' residual kidney function while maintaining total (residual + dialysis) urea clearance (standard Kt/Vurea) targets. We describe our experience with incremental hemodialysis in patients using NxStage System One for home hemodialysis. From 2011 to 2015, we initiated 5 incident hemodialysis patients on an incremental home hemodialysis regimen. The biochemical parameters of all patients remained stable on the incremental hemodialysis regimen and they consistently achieved standard Kt/Vurea targets. Of the two patients with follow-up >6 months, residual kidney function was preserved for ≥2 years. Importantly, the patients were able to transition to home hemodialysis without automatically requiring 5 sessions per week at the outset and gradually increased the number of treatments and/or dialysate volume as the residual kidney function declined. An incremental home hemodialysis regimen can be safely prescribed and may improve acceptability of home hemodialysis. Reducing hemodialysis frequency by even one treatment per week can reduce the number of fistula or graft cannulations or catheter connections by >100 per year, an important consideration for patient well-being, access longevity, and access-related infections. The incremental hemodialysis approach, supported by national guidelines, can be considered for all home hemodialysis patients with residual kidney function.

  15. Hemodialysis: stressors and coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muayyad M; Al Nazly, Eman K

    2015-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is an irreversible and life-threatening condition. In Jordan, the number of ESRD patients treated with hemodialysis is on the rise. Identifying stressors and coping strategies used by patients with ESRD may help nurses and health care providers to gain a clearer understanding of the condition of these patients and thus institute effective care planning. The purpose of this study was to identify stressors perceived by Jordanian patients on hemodialysis, and the coping strategies used by them. A convenience sample of 131 Jordanian men and women was recruited from outpatients' dialysis units in four hospitals. Stressors perceived by participants on hemodialysis and the coping strategies were measured using Hemodialysis Stressor Scale, and Ways of Coping Scale-Revised. Findings showed that patients on hemodialysis psychosocial stressors scores mean was higher than the physiological stressors mean. Positive reappraisal coping strategy had the highest mean among the coping strategies and the lowest mean was accepting responsibility. Attention should be focused towards the psychosocial stressors of patients on hemodialysis and also helping patients utilize the coping strategies that help to alleviate the stressors. The most used coping strategy was positive reappraisal strategy which includes faith and prayer.

  16. Comparison of factors associated with occludable angle between american Caucasians and ethnic Chinese.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye Elaine; Li, Yingjie; Wang, Dandan; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan

    2013-11-21

    To determine if factors associated with gonioscopy-determined occludable angle among American Caucasians are similar to those found in ethnic Chinese. This is a prospective cross-sectional study with 120 American Caucasian, 116 American Chinese, and 116 mainland Chinese subjects. All three groups were matched for sex and age (40-80 years). Gonioscopy was performed for each subject (occludable angles = posterior trabecular meshwork not visible for ≥2 quadrants). Anterior segment optical coherence tomography and customized software was used to measure anterior segment biometry and iris parameters, including anterior chamber depth/width (ACD, ACW), lens vault (LV), and iris thickness/area/curvature. In both Chinese and Caucasians, eyes with occludable angles had smaller ACD and ACW, and larger LV and iris curvature than eyes with open angles (all P < 0.005). Chinese eyes had smaller ACD and ACW than Caucasian eyes (both P < 0.01) in the occludable angle cohort. Iris characteristics did not differ significantly between Chinese and Caucasians in the occludable angle cohort. Based on multivariate logistic regression, gonioscopy-determined occludable angle was significantly associated with LV, iris area, and sex (all P < 0.03) in Chinese; and with LV, ACD, iris thickness, age, and sex (all P < 0.04) in Caucasians. Several factors associated with occludable angle differed between Caucasians and Chinese, suggesting potentially different mechanisms in occludable angle development in the two racial groups. This is the first study to demonstrate that lens vault is an important anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter in the screening for angle closure in Caucasians. In addition, iris thickness was a significant predictor for occludable angles in Caucasians but was not in ethnic Chinese.

  17. Vascular occlusion with a balloon-expandable stent occluder.

    PubMed

    Moss, J G; Laborde, J C; Clem, M C; Rivera, F J; Encarnacion, C E; Meyer, K B; Palmaz, J C

    1994-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a new vascular occlusion device. The device was created by coating a balloon-expandable stent with a silicone sleeve that tapers to a blind-ended nozzle at its leading end. Once crimp-mounted on an angioplasty balloon catheter, the device is introduced over a guide wire through a small end hole in the nozzle. The device was tested for stability and occlusive ability. No migration was measured over a pulsatile pulse range of 50-300 mm Hg, and mean flow rate in the occluded vessel was reduced from 443 mL/min +/- 99 (standard deviation) to 1.9 mL/min +/- 2.7. Subsequently, 12 arteries were occluded in three dogs, and immediate vascular occlusion was achieved in all vessels. An arteriovenous fistula was created in another six dogs and was successfully occluded with the device. Follow-up arteriography at 3 months demonstrated persistent occlusion with no migration of the device. This new occlusive device offers immediate vascular occlusion with excellent stability.

  18. Closure of large patent ductus arteriosus using the Amplatzer Septal Occluder.

    PubMed

    García-Montes, José A; Camacho-Castro, Anahí; Sandoval-Jones, Juan P; Buendía-Hernández, Alfonso; Calderón-Colmenero, Juan; Patiño-Bahena, Emilia; Zabal, Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus has become the treatment of choice in many centres. In patients with large ducts and pulmonary hypertension, transcatheter closure has been achieved with success using the Amplatzer Duct Occluder or even the Amplatzer Muscular Ventricular Septal Defect Occluder. We present a series of 17 patients with large and hypertensive ductus arteriosus who were treated with an Amplatzer Septal Occluder. The group had 11 female patients (64.7%) and a mean age of 18.6±12.1 years. The haemodynamic and anatomical data are as follows: pulmonary artery systolic pressure 71.3±31.8 mmHg, pulmonary to systemic flow ratio 3.14±1.36, ductal diameter at the pulmonary end 12.5±3.8 mm, and at the aortic end 20.2±7.7 mm; 14 cases (82.3%) had type A ducts. In 11 patients, we began the procedure using a different device - six with duct occluder and five with ventricular septal occluder - and it was changed because of device embolisation in six (35.3%). All septal occluders were delivered successfully. Residual shunt was moderate in six patients (35.3%), mild in eight (47%), trivial in two (11.8%), and no shunt in one (5.9%). Pulmonary systolic pressure decreased to 48.9±10.8 mmHg after occlusion (p=0.0015). Follow-up in 15 patients (88.2%) for 28.4±14.4 months showed complete closure in all cases but one, and continuous decrease of the pulmonary systolic pressure to 31.4±10.5 mmHg. No complications at follow-up have been reported. The Amplatzer Septal Occluder is a good alternative to percutaneously treat large and hypertensive ductus arteriosus.

  19. Comparison of Factors Associated With Occludable Angle Between American Caucasians and Ethnic Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ye Elaine; Li, Yingjie; Wang, Dandan; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To determine if factors associated with gonioscopy-determined occludable angle among American Caucasians are similar to those found in ethnic Chinese. Methods. This is a prospective cross-sectional study with 120 American Caucasian, 116 American Chinese, and 116 mainland Chinese subjects. All three groups were matched for sex and age (40–80 years). Gonioscopy was performed for each subject (occludable angles = posterior trabecular meshwork not visible for ≥2 quadrants). Anterior segment optical coherence tomography and customized software was used to measure anterior segment biometry and iris parameters, including anterior chamber depth/width (ACD, ACW), lens vault (LV), and iris thickness/area/curvature. Results. In both Chinese and Caucasians, eyes with occludable angles had smaller ACD and ACW, and larger LV and iris curvature than eyes with open angles (all P < 0.005). Chinese eyes had smaller ACD and ACW than Caucasian eyes (both P < 0.01) in the occludable angle cohort. Iris characteristics did not differ significantly between Chinese and Caucasians in the occludable angle cohort. Based on multivariate logistic regression, gonioscopy-determined occludable angle was significantly associated with LV, iris area, and sex (all P < 0.03) in Chinese; and with LV, ACD, iris thickness, age, and sex (all P < 0.04) in Caucasians. Conclusions. Several factors associated with occludable angle differed between Caucasians and Chinese, suggesting potentially different mechanisms in occludable angle development in the two racial groups. This is the first study to demonstrate that lens vault is an important anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter in the screening for angle closure in Caucasians. In addition, iris thickness was a significant predictor for occludable angles in Caucasians but was not in ethnic Chinese. PMID:24168992

  20. Hospitalization in daily home hemodialysis and matched thrice-weekly in-center hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Weinhandl, Eric D; Nieman, Kimberly M; Gilbertson, David T; Collins, Allan J

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a common cause of hospitalization in dialysis patients. Daily hemodialysis improves some parameters of cardiovascular function, but whether it associates with lower hospitalization risk is unclear. Observational cohort study using US Renal Data System data. Medicare-enrolled daily (5 or 6 sessions weekly) home hemodialysis (HHD) patients initiating NxStage System One use from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2009, and contemporary thrice-weekly in-center hemodialysis patients, matched 5 to 1. Daily HHD or thrice-weekly in-center hemodialysis. All-cause and cause-specific hospital admissions, hospital readmissions, and hospital days assessed from Medicare Part A claims. For 3,480 daily HHD and 17,400 thrice-weekly in-center hemodialysis patients in intention-to-treat analysis, the HR of all-cause admission for daily HHD versus in-center hemodialysis was 1.01 (95%CI, 0.98-1.03). Cause-specific admission HRs were 0.89 (95%CI, 0.86-0.93) for cardiovascular disease, 1.18 (95%CI, 1.13-1.23) for infection, 1.01 (95%CI, 0.93-1.09) for vascular access dysfunction, and 1.02 (95%CI, 0.99-1.06) for other morbidity. Regarding cardiovascular disease, first admission and readmission HRs for daily HHD versus in-center hemodialysis were 0.91 and 0.87, respectively. Regarding infection, first admission and readmission HRs were 1.35 and 1.03, respectively. Protective associations of daily HHD with heart failure and hypertensive disease were most pronounced, as were adverse associations of daily HHD with bacteremia/sepsis, cardiac infection, osteomyelitis, and vascular access infection. Results may be confounded by unmeasured factors, including vascular access type; information about dialysis frequency, duration, and dose was lacking; causes of admission may be misclassified; results may not apply to patients without Medicare coverage. All-cause hospitalization risk was similar in daily HHD and thrice-weekly in-center hemodialysis patients. However

  1. Phonation Threshold Pressure Measurement with a Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titze, Ingo R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to determine if a semi-occluded vocal tract could be used to measure phonation threshold pressure. This is in contrast to the shutter technique, where an alternation between a fully occluded tract and an unoccluded tract is used. Method: Five male and 5 female volunteers phonated through a thin straw held…

  2. Recent development of transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect and patent foramen ovale with occluders.

    PubMed

    Tang, Baiyu; Su, Feng; Sun, Xiangke; Wu, Qin; Xing, Quansheng; Li, Suming

    2018-01-01

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) and patent foramen ovale (PFO) are common clinical congenital heart defects. As an effective method for the treatment of ASD and PFO, transcatheter closure with occluders presents many advantages, including safety, ease of operation, minimal invasiveness, and reduced complications. This contribution reviews the various types of occluders currently used in clinical applications and under development, including non degradable occluders, partially degradable occluders, and totally degradable occluders. A number of case studies are described in detail. Comparison is made on the treatment outcomes using different occulders. Future development of transcatheter closure is discussed, in particular the use of totally degradable occluders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 433-443, 2018. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Impact of hemodialysis dose and frequency on survival of patients on chronic hemodialysis in Lithuania during 1998-2005.

    PubMed

    Stankuvienė, Asta; Ziginskienė, Edita; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Bumblytė, Inga Arūnė

    2010-01-01

    The question of the targets of dialysis dosing remains controversial since the beginning of the long-term dialysis treatment era. It is still uncertain if higher dialysis dose is better. The aim of our study was to investigate issues of dialysis dose in Lithuania during the period of 1998-2005 and to determine associations between hemodialysis dose and survival of patients on chronic hemodialysis. We analyzed data of all patients who started hemodialysis due to end-stage renal disease in Lithuania between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2005. The information about hemodialysis frequency, duration, and adequacy (according to Kt/V) was obtained from medical documentation. The overall survival rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Survival comparisons were made using the log-rank or Breslow tests. Univariate Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to select variables significantly associated with the risk of death; then these variables were included in multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. During the study period, from 2428 patients who started chronic hemodialysis, 58.5% of patients started hemodialysis three times a week. More than one-third (36.2%) of patients were dialyzed twice weekly, and 5.3% of patients started hemodialysis once weekly. Survival analysis revealed that patients dialyzed less than three times per week survived shorter than patients receiving a higher dialysis dose. Duration of HD session of ≤8 hours per week was an independent risk factor for mortality. A higher mean Kt/V was associated with better survival of patients on chronic hemodialysis. Dialysis frequency and weekly duration of HD sessions were dependent on HD accessibility in Lithuania during the period of 1998-2005. Better survival of patients on chronic hemodialysis was associated with a higher hemodialysis dose.

  4. Endovascular interventions of juxtaanastomotic stenoses and thromboses of hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Aenov; Korzets, Asher; Neyman, Haim; Ori, Yaakov; Baytner, Shlomo; Belenky, Alexander; Knieznik, Michael; Bachar, Gil N; Atar, Eli

    2009-01-01

    To assess the primary and secondary patency rates for juxtaanastomotic stenoses, with or without superimposed thromboses, of arteriovenous hemodialysis fistulas treated with angioplasty and to compare it with National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative treatment guidelines for stenosed and occluded arteriovenous fistulas (50% primary patency rate at 12 months). This study was a retrospective analysis, covering a period of 5(1/2) years. Forty-three hemodialysis patients were referred due to secondary fistula dysfunction, and angiography was diagnostic of a juxtaanastomotic lesion. Interventions consisted of standard angioplasty techniques along with thrombolysis and/or thrombectomy and intravascular stent placement as needed. Follow-up was performed at the attending dialysis center, and repeat angiography was performed as clinically required. Immediate postprocedural angiography demonstrated an angiographic success rate of 98%. Clinical success, with at least one session of normal dialysis, occurred in 95% of interventions. Primary patency rates at 12 months for the stenosed and stenosed/thrombosed fistulas were 56% and 64%, respectively. Secondary patency rates at 12 months were 64% and 63%, respectively. Half of the stenosed fistulas were patent at 1.5 years, 28% were patent at 4 years, and 13% remained patent at 6 years. No major complications were documented. Four minor complications, which did not require therapy, were noted. The results achieved are comparable to those reported for interventions at nonjuxtaanastomotic sites and exceed those quoted by the National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines. Angioplastic interventions in a juxtaanastomatic area of arteriovenous fistulas are safe, promote prolonged patency, and postpone the need for surgical intervention or creation of a new fistula.

  5. Intensive Home Hemodialysis: An Eye at the Past Looking for the Hemodialysis of the Future.

    PubMed

    Naso, Agostino; Scaparrotta, Giuseppe; Naso, Elena; Calò, Lorenzo A

    2015-09-01

    Multiple observational studies along with a limited number of randomized clinical trials suggest that intensive hemodialysis (IHD) not only improves outcomes for uremic patients undergoing chronic dialysis but does so with a more favorable cost/benefit ratio compared with conventional hemodialysis. As a result of this, there has been a rapid increase in the interest in home hemodialysis (HHD) as HHD represents the easiest means of implementing IHD. While HHD has generated increased interest given its association with better outcomes/reduced hospitalizations, there are very few randomized controlled trials comparing HHD with other hemodialysis methods. Reported HHD-associated increased survival benefits compared with in-center hemodialysis are from uncontrolled studies, which raise patient selection bias as underlying the differences found. Thus, while HHD draws increasing attention, studies that pay careful attention to the psychosocial, demographic, and clinical factors associated with patients selected to undergo HHD will be needed to ultimately demonstrate its benefits, clarify the clinical applications, and determine the limits of IHD use in dialysis patients. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Near-Death Experience in Patients on Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sharona

    2015-01-01

    Near-death experience (NDE) is a phenomenon that occurs when a person loses consciousness and senses a disconnection from the world around them. Patients on hemodialysis can experience multiple NDEs over their lifetime. An NDE during a hemodialysis session while connected to a hemodialysis machine can present challenges to this patient population and the nurses caring for them. The purpose of this article is to discuss the potential after effects of NDE in patients who experience this phenomenon while connected to a hemodialysis machine and to propose that nurses lead the healthcare team in addressing the after effects of NDE in patients on hemodialysis.

  7. A Taxonomy of 3D Occluded Objects Recognition Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimanizadeh, Shiva; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Saba, Tanzila; Al-ghamdi, Jarallah Saleh

    2016-03-01

    The overall performances of object recognition techniques under different condition (e.g., occlusion, viewpoint, and illumination) have been improved significantly in recent years. New applications and hardware are shifted towards digital photography, and digital media. This faces an increase in Internet usage requiring object recognition for certain applications; particularly occulded objects. However occlusion is still an issue unhandled, interlacing the relations between extracted feature points through image, research is going on to develop efficient techniques and easy to use algorithms that would help users to source images; this need to overcome problems and issues regarding occlusion. The aim of this research is to review recognition occluded objects algorithms and figure out their pros and cons to solve the occlusion problem features, which are extracted from occluded object to distinguish objects from other co-existing objects by determining the new techniques, which could differentiate the occluded fragment and sections inside an image.

  8. Consequences of Frequent Hemodialysis: Comparison to Conventional Hemodialysis and Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, John B.

    2011-01-01

    The average life expectancy of a person on hemodialysis is less than 3 years and hasn't changed in 20 years. The Hemodialysis (HEMO) trial, a randomized trial to determine whether increasing urea removal to the maximum practical degree through a 3-times-a-week schedule, showed no difference in mortality in the treatment and control groups. Investigators speculated that the increment in functional waste removal in the HEMO study was too small to produce improvements in mortality. To test this hypothesis, the NIDDK funded the Frequent Hemodialysis Network, a consortium of centers testing whether patients randomized to intensive dialysis would demonstrate improved (reduced) left ventricular LV mass and quality of life. The trial has two arms: the daily (in-center) and the home (nocturnal) arms. Each arm has patients randomized to conventional dialysis or 6 days (or nights) of dialysis. The results of the HEMO trial will be reported in the fall of 2010. PMID:21686215

  9. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography findings prior to hemodialysis vascular access creation: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Planken, R N; Leiner, T; Nijenhuis, R J; Duijm, L E; Cuypers, P W; Douwes-Draaijer, P; Van Der Sande, F M; Kessels, A G; Tordoir, J H M

    2008-01-01

    To determine prospectively the clinical value of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) for assessment of the arterial inflow and venous outflow prior to vascular access (VA) creation. Seventy-three patients underwent duplex ultrasonography (DUS) and CE-MRA prior to VA creation for detection of stenoses and occlusions. Two observers read the CE-MRA images for determination of inter-observer agreement. A VA was considered functional if it could be used for successful two-needle hemodialysis therapy within 2 months after creation. CE-MRA detected 6 stenosed, 8 occluded arterial vessel segments and 12 stenosed and 41 occluded venous vessel segments in 70 patients. Inter-observer agreement for detection of upper extremity arterial and venous stenoses and occlusions with CE-MRA was substantial to almost perfect (kappa values 0.76-0.96). CE-MRA detected lesions, not detected by DUS, that were associated with VA early failure and non-maturation in 33% of patients (7/21). Accessory veins detected preoperatively were the cause of VA non-maturation in a substantial group of patients (47%: 7/15). CE-MRA enables accurate detection of upper extremity arterial and venous stenosis and occlusions prior to VA creation. Preoperative CE-MRA identified arterial and venous stenoses, not detected by DUS that were associated with VA early failure and non-maturation. However, the use of gadolinium containing contrast media is currently contraindicated due the reported incidence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

  10. [Changes in hemodialysis adequacy in Lithuania during 1999-2005].

    PubMed

    Ziginskiene, Edita; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Sileikiene, Elvyra; Tamosaitis, Algirdas; Sirevicius, Virgilijus

    2007-01-01

    Despite the improvement of hemodialysis technique, mortality of chronic hemodialysis patients remains quite high. It considerably depends on dialysis adequacy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the adequacy of hemodialysis procedure and its changes in Lithuania during 1999-2005. Between 1999 and 2005 in December, all hemodialysis centers in Lithuania were annually visited, and data on the type of hemodialysis, duration of hemodialysis (hours per week), single-pool Kt/V were collected from all hemodialysis patients. The percentage of patients on bicarbonate hemodialysis sharply increased from 57.9% in 1999 to 100% in 2001 (P<0.001), and the duration of hemodialysis procedure increased (67.3% of hemodialysis patients were dialyzed 12 and more hours per week in 2005 vs. 41.3% in 1999, P<0.001). The percentage of patients who were dialyzed three times per week increased from 51% in 1999 to 77% in 2005 (P<0.001). The mean Kt/V was 0.81+/-0.53 in 1999, but it increased to 1.21+/-0.27 in 2005 (P<0.001). More than half (54%) of all hemodialysis patients in 2005 had Kt/V > or =1.2 vs. more than one-third (36%) in 1999 (P<0.001). The mean Kt/V of patients who were on dialysis three times per week was 1.25+/-0.6; two times per week, 1.30+/-0.8; and one time per week, 1.27+/-0.26 in 2003. In 2005, the results were 1.21+/-0.27, 1.22+/-0.26, and 1.16+/-0.29, respectively (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS. 1. The improvement of the quality of hemodialysis was observed in Lithuania during 1999-2005: a) from 2001, patients received only bicarbonate hemodialysis; b) weekly duration of hemodialysis increased; c) Kt/V improved. 2. Despite the improvement of hemodialysis quality, it is not optimal yet and is associated with insufficient duration of hemodialysis.

  11. The Study of Hemodialysis Effectiveness on the Change Rate of Lipid Peroxidation and L-Carnitine Level in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Isfahani, Maryam; Sheikh, Nasrin

    2010-01-01

    Carnitine is a small molecule widely present in all cells from prokaryotic to eukaryotic. It is an important element in β-oxidation of fatty acids. Carnitine is a scavenger of oxygen free radicals in mammalian tissues. Lack of carnitine in a hemodialysis patient can lead to carnitine deficiency. Oxidation of fatty acids and lipid metabolism are severly affected by carnitine deficiency. Oxidative stress is defined as imbalance between formation of free radicals and antioxidative defense mechanisms. It has been proposed to play a role in many disease states. In hemodialysis patients multiple factors can lead to a a high susceptibility to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to determine hemodialysis effectiveness on the change rate of serum L-carnitine and lipid peroxidation. 27 patients with chronic renal failure (24-80 yrs) who undergo hemodialysis for 6-12 months were selected (M= 17, F= 10). Malondialdehyde (MDA), as an indicator of lipid peroxidation was measured colorimetrically with a standard thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method. L-carnitine was measured with enzymatic UV method (ROCHE, Spectronic Genesis 2, 340 nm). The weight mean of L-carnitine before and after hemodialysis was 7.67±3.6 mg/l and 2.07±1.6 mg/l, respectively (P<0.001). The weight mean of pre-hemodialysis MDA was 4.17±1.24 µmol/l, following hemodialysis -4.98±1.2 µmol/l (P<0.001). Results showed that 55.6% of patients suffered from carnitine defciency. Serum carnitine was found to be decreased markedly after hemodialysis (P<0.001). Our findings indicated that oxidative stress in these patients is further exacerbated by hemodialysis, as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation. The relationship between serum L-carnitine and MDA before and after hemodialysis was observed (r=0.82; p<0.001; r=0.75; p<0.001). PMID:27683353

  12. Impact of National Clinical Guideline Recommendations for Revascularization of Persistently Occluded Infarct-Related Arteries on Clinical Practice in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Deyell, Marc W.; Buller, Christopher E.; Miller, Louis H.; Wang, Tracy Y.; Dai, David; Lamas, Gervasio A.; Srinivas, Vankeepuram S.; Hochman, Judith S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Occluded Artery Trial (OAT) was a large, randomized controlled trial published in 2006 that demonstrated no benefit to routine percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of persistently totally occluded infarct-related arteries (IRA) identified a minimum of 24 hours (on calendar days 3–28) after myocardial infarction (MI). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of OAT results and consequent change in guideline recommendations for PCI for treatment of persistently occluded IRAs. Methods We identified all patients enrolled in the CathPCI Registry, from 2005 to 2008, undergoing catheterization more than 24 hours after MI with a totally occluded native coronary artery and no major OAT exclusion criteria. We examined trends in monthly rates of PCI for occlusions after OAT publication and after guideline revisions. Because reporting of diagnostic catheterizations was not mandatory, we examined trends among hospitals in the highest quartile for reporting of diagnostic procedures. Results A total of 28 780 patient visits from 896 hospitals were included. Overall, we found no significant decline in the adjusted monthly rate of PCI of occlusions after publication of OAT (odds ratio [OR], 0.997; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.989–1.006) or after guideline revisions (OR, 1.007; 95% CI, 0.992–1.022). Among hospitals consistently reporting diagnostic catheterizations, there was no significant decline after OAT publication (OR, 1.018; 95% CI, 0.995–1.042), and there was a trend toward decline after guideline revisions (OR, 0.963; 95% CI, 0.920–1.000). Conclusion These findings suggest that the results of OAT and consequent guideline revisions have not, to date, been fully incorporated into clinical practice in a large cross-section of hospitals in the United States. PMID:21747002

  13. Portable home hemodialysis for kidney failure.

    PubMed

    Scott, A

    2007-11-01

    (1) Home hemodialysis has been in limited use in Canada for some time. Newer, portable hemodialysis machines that are easier for patients to operate may encourage the uptake of this technology. (2) One portable system is already available in the US. The NxStage System One hemodialysis machine operates on standard electric current, does not require plumbing or specialized disinfection, and is small enough for patients to travel with. (3) It is not yet clear whether the use of the NxStage system improves long-term survival and quality of life. (4) Home hemodialysis is less costly than conventional in-centre programs, but it is unknown whether these savings extend to portable devices.

  14. The effects of frequent nocturnal home hemodialysis: the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Nocturnal Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rocco, Michael V.; Lockridge, Robert S.; Beck, Gerald J.; Eggers, Paul W.; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Greene, Tom; Larive, Brett; Chan, Christopher T.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Copland, Michael; Hoy, Christopher D.; Lindsay, Robert M.; Levin, Nathan W.; Ornt, Daniel B.; Pierratos, Andreas; Pipkin, Mary F.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Stokes, John B.; Unruh, Mark L.; Star, Robert A.; Kliger, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Prior small studies have shown multiple benefits of frequent nocturnal hemodialysis compared to conventional three times per week treatments. To study this further, we randomized 87 patients to three times per week conventional hemodialysis or to nocturnal hemodialysis six times per week, all with single-use high-flux dialyzers. The 45 patients in the frequent nocturnal arm had a 1.82-fold higher mean weekly stdKt/Vurea, a 1.74-fold higher average number of treatments per week, and a 2.45-fold higher average weekly treatment time than the 42 patients in the conventional arm. We did not find a significant effect of nocturnal hemodialysis for either of the two coprimary outcomes (death or left ventricular mass (measured by MRI) with a hazard ratio of 0.68, or of death or RAND Physical Health Composite with a hazard ratio of 0.91). Possible explanations for the left ventricular mass result include limited sample size and patient characteristics. Secondary outcomes included cognitive performance, self-reported depression, laboratory markers of nutrition, mineral metabolism and anemia, blood pressure and rates of hospitalization, and vascular access interventions. Patients in the nocturnal arm had improved control of hyperphosphatemia and hypertension, but no significant benefit among the other main secondary outcomes. There was a trend for increased vascular access events in the nocturnal arm. Thus, we were unable to demonstrate a definitive benefit of more frequent nocturnal hemodialysis for either coprimary outcome. PMID:21775973

  15. Safety and efficacy of Cardi-O-fix occluder for percutaneous closure of a patent foramen ovale

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Enfa; Liu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yushun; Cheng, Gesheng; Du, Yajuan; He, Lu; Wang, Xingye; He, Xumei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Amplatzer occluder and Cardio-O-fix occluder are currently used in percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale. However, there is still a lack of relevant reports comparison the differences between them. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term and mid-term safety and efficacy of the Cardi-O-fix occluder in preventing recurrent cerebrovascular events in patients with a patent foramen ovale (PFO). Methods: We enrolled 246 patients (105 men) with a PFO from May 30, 2013 to March 30, 2015 in this single-center prospective study. All patients were treated by PFO interventional closure, with the Cardi-O-fix PFO occluder being used in 180 patients and the Amplatzer PFO occluder being utilized in the remaining 66 patients. After the procedure, we verified the safety and efficacy of different devices using contrast transthoracic echocardiography. Results: Neither recurrent stroke nor death was encountered during the follow-up of 12 months. Transient ischemic attack (TIA) was noted in 2 patients (1.1%) in the Cardi-O-fix PFO occluder group, and 1 patient suffered from TIA (1.5%) in the Amplatzer PFO occluder group. Among them, only 1 patient exhibited a small right to left shunt (RLS). There was no statistical difference in recurrent cerebral ischemic events. Three cases of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were observed in the Cardi-O-fix PFO occluder group. One reverted spontaneously to sinus rhythm and the other 2 cases had pharmacologic conversion to sinus rhythm. One case of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation occurred in the Amplatzer group, which underwent pharmacologic conversion to sinus rhythm. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups regarding incidence of arrhythmia. No occluder translocation, erosion, pericardial effusion, and puncture site bleeding were observed in the 2 groups within 12 months of follow-up. The complete closure rates of the Cardi-O-fix and Amplatzer PFO occluder devices at the 12 months after the

  16. [Survival of hemodialysis patients in Lithuania (data from all hemodialysis centers in the 1998-2005 cohort)].

    PubMed

    Stankuviene, Asta; Bumblyte, Inga Arūne; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Ziginskiene, Edita; Balciuviene, Vilma

    2007-01-01

    There is no any official renal registry in Lithuania, so in order to know the exact demographic statistics of patients on hemodialysis, we started to collect data since 1996. The aim of the study was to estimate the survival rate of hemodialysis patients and its dynamics, to compare survival in different groups of sex, age, primary renal disease, and to compare to survival of dialysis patients in Europe. We analyzed the data of all patients who started hemodialysis in Lithuania between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2005. The information was obtained from medical documentation. The total survival rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Maier method. During the study period, 2418 patients started hemodialysis (51.7% of males, 48.3% of females). Their mean age at the beginning of treatment was 56.19+/-16.12 years. Death occurred in 792 patients. The main cause of death was cardiovascular events, accounting for 32.3%. The total survival rate of hemodialysis patients in Lithuania at 1 year was 79.97%; at 2 years, 69.18%; at 5 years, 49.97%; at 7 years, 38.3%. Males lived longer than females (log rank P<0.05), but the mean age of females was greater, and survival rate adjusted for age did not differ between the groups. The highest survival rate was in the youngest group (0-19 years old), the lowest - in patients older than 75 years. Diabetic patients lived shorter than nondiabetic patients (log rank P<0.00001). Although patients who start hemodialysis have become older and their survival has been improving, in the 1998-2002 cohort survival was lower as compared to overall survival of patients on dialysis in European countries participating in ERA-EDTA registry. Survival of hemodialysis patients in Lithuania in the 1998-2005 cohort depended on age and primary renal disease and despite aging of population on hemodialysis has been improving.

  17. Form Perception of Partly Occluded Shapes in 4-Month-Old Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wit, Tessa C. J.; Vrins, Sven; Dejonckheere, Peter J. N.; van Lier, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Two habituation experiments were conducted to investigate how 4-month-old infants perceive partly occluded shapes. In the first experiment, we presented a simple, partly occluded shape to the infants until habituation was reached. Then we showed either a probable completion (one that would be predicted on the basis of both local and global cues)…

  18. Dynamic representation of partially occluded objects in primate prefrontal and visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hannah; Shea-Brown, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Successful recognition of partially occluded objects is presumed to involve dynamic interactions between brain areas responsible for vision and cognition, but neurophysiological evidence for the involvement of feedback signals is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that neurons in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) of monkeys performing a shape discrimination task respond more strongly to occluded than unoccluded stimuli. In contrast, neurons in visual area V4 respond more strongly to unoccluded stimuli. Analyses of V4 response dynamics reveal that many neurons exhibit two transient response peaks, the second of which emerges after vlPFC response onset and displays stronger selectivity for occluded shapes. We replicate these findings using a model of V4/vlPFC interactions in which occlusion-sensitive vlPFC neurons feed back to shape-selective V4 neurons, thereby enhancing V4 responses and selectivity to occluded shapes. These results reveal how signals from frontal and visual cortex could interact to facilitate object recognition under occlusion. PMID:28925354

  19. [Epidemiology of end-stage renal disease before starting hemodialysis and factors influencing hemodialysis survival].

    PubMed

    Ben Hamida, Fethi; Karoui, Cyrine; Abderrahim, Ezzeddine; Smaoui, Wided; Kaaroud, Hayet; Béji, Soumaya; Barbouche, Samia; Goucha, Rim; Ben Abdallah, Taieb; Ben Moussa, Fatma; Ben Maiz, Hédi; Kheder, Adel

    2007-03-01

    The incidence of end-stage renal failure is high and it is responsible for the increase of the rate of morbidity and mortality rates among our patients. The objective is to study patient characteristics before starting hemodialysis and to evaluate factors influencing their short and long term survival. This is a prospective study of 127 patients starting hemodialysis between June and December 2001. On May 31, 2005, their survival was analyzed according to different parameters. Patients were 77 males and 50 females. Their mean age was 51.4 +/- 16.1 years (15 to 78 years). Diabetes was observed in 33.9% of cases. Only 70.9% of patients were covered by a social service. Chronic renal failure was diagnosed at the end stage in 34.6% of cases. Before starting hemodialysis, only 4 patients were vaccinated against B hepatitis and arteriovenous fistula were not made in any patients. Pericarditis was observed in 9.4% of patients. Albuminemia was < 35 g/l in 60.5% of patients. First hemodialysis session was programmed in 53.5% of patients and realized urgently in 46.3% of patients. Patients were hemodialysed 4, 8 and 12 hours per week respectively in 16.5%, 15.8% and 67.7% of cases. On May 31, 2005, 35.4% of patients died. Their actuarial survivals at 3 months, 1 year and 4 years were respectively at 87.5%, 79.5% and 64.4%. Acturial survival was bad in patients with pericarditis, diabetes, hemodialysed less than 12 hours/week and when the first hemodialysis session was started urgently. The diagnosis of renal failure was frequently made at end-stage. There are no preparations before starting hemodialysis. We have to reinforce prevention programmes and increase the number of nephrologists and nephrology departments.

  20. Frequent hemodialysis in children.

    PubMed

    Warady, Bradley A; Fischbach, Michel; Geary, Denis; Goldstein, Stuart L

    2007-07-01

    Frequent hemodialysis is currently conducted in a limited number of pediatric dialysis centers. However, the preliminary experience with children who have undergone procedures such as "daily" intensive hemodiafiltration and nocturnal hemodialysis has been positive, with the allowance for unrestricted diets and fluid intake, the lack of need for phosphate binders, excellent metabolic and blood pressure control, and, in the case of hemodiafiltration, excellent growth. The provision of frequent daily hemodialysis with the NxStage System has also recently been introduced to pediatrics. An overview about what is currently understood regarding the technical and clinical application of these approaches to therapy for children with end-stage renal disease form the basis for this article and highlight the impact of the procedures to date and the need for additional experience and collaborative data collection.

  1. Identification and characterization of steady and occluded water in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Tong, Huiyan; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Hongwei; Tian, Yimei; Chen, Xi; Zhao, Weigao; Li, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Deterioration and leakage of drinking water in distribution systems have been a major issue in the water industry for years, which are associated with corrosion. This paper discovers that occluded water in the scales of the pipes has an acidic environment and high concentration of iron, manganese, chloride, sulfate and nitrate, which aggravates many pipeline leakage accidents. Six types of water samples have been analyzed under the flowing and stagnant periods. Both the water in the exterior of the tubercles and stagnant water carry suspended iron particles, which explains the occurrence of "red water" when the system hydraulic conditions change. Nitrate is more concentrated in occluded water under flowing condition in comparison with that in flowing water. However, the concentration of nitrate in occluded water under stagnant condition is found to be less than that in stagnant water. A high concentration of manganese is found to exist in steady water, occluded water and stagnant water. These findings impact secondary pollution and the corrosion of pipes and containers used in drinking water distribution systems. The unique method that taking occluded water from tiny holes which were drilled from the pipes' exteriors carefully according to the positions of corrosion scales has an important contribution to research on corrosion in distribution systems. And this paper furthers our understanding and contributes to the growing body of knowledge regarding occluded environments in corrosion scales. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of hemodialysis on leflunomide plasma concentrations.

    PubMed

    Beaman, Jasmine M; Hackett, L Peter; Luxton, Grant; Illett, Kenneth F

    2002-01-01

    To report on the influence of hemodialysis on the disposition of leflunomide in a woman with end-stage renal disease. A 65-year-old white woman with a history of diabetes, end-stage renal disease, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, and leg ulcers was admitted to the hospital with a flare in the symptoms of joint pain and vasculitis. Prior to admission, she had been treated for rheumatoid arthritis with methotrexate 7.5 mg once a week. Due to adverse effects from methotrexate and continuing painful joints, leflunomide was considered as a therapeutic alternative. A loading dose of 100 mg was followed two days later by a daily dose of 10 mg. The active metabolite of leflunomide (A771726) was measured before and after hemodialysis and between hemodialysis sessions over a period of 80 days. Pre- and post-hemodialysis concentrations were compared for 17 sessions during this time. Based on the initial measured concentrations, the leflunomide dose was increased to 20 mg/d for several weeks before being reduced to 15 mg due to elevated liver enzymes. Although renal pathways are responsible in part for excretion of A771726, the concentrations achieved in this patient at doses of 10-20 mg/d were at the low end of the range reported in the literature. It was shown that pre- and post-hemodialysis concentrations of A771726 did not differ significantly. Thus, the low concentrations of A771726 were not a result of the hemodialysis. Steady-state concentrations of A771726 in plasma were not affected by hemodialysis or renal impairment. Reduction of the dose of leflunomide in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis does not appear to be required.

  3. Hemodialysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... center, hemodialysis is usually done 3 times per week for about 4 hours at a time. People who choose to do ... at home may do dialysis treatment more frequently, 4-7 times per week for shorter hours each time. Your doctor will give you a ...

  4. Time course of spatial and feature selective attention for partly-occluded objects.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Tetsuko; Takeya, Ryuji

    2012-07-01

    Attention selects objects/groups as the most fundamental units, and this may be achieved by an attention-spreading mechanism. Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have found that attention-spreading is reflected by a decrease in the N1 spatial attention effect. The present study tested whether the electrophysiological attention effect is associated with the perception of object unity or amodal completion through the use of partly-occluded objects. ERPs were recorded in 14 participants who were required to pay attention to their left or right visual field and to press a button for a target shape in the attended field. Bilateral stimuli were presented rapidly, and were separated, connected, or connected behind an occluder. Behavioral performance in the connected and occluded conditions was worse than that in the separated condition, indicating that attention spread over perceptual object representations after amodal completion. Consistently, the late N1 spatial attention effect (180-220 ms post-stimulus) and the early phase (230-280 ms) of feature selection effects (target N2) at contralateral sites decreased, equally for the occluded and connected conditions, while the attention effect in the early N1 latency (140-180 ms) shifted most positively for the occluded condition. These results suggest that perceptual organization processes for object recognition transiently modulate spatial and feature selection processes in the visual cortex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D response to cholecalciferol supplementation in hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Armas, Laura A G; Andukuri, Radha; Barger-Lux, Janet; Heaney, Robert P; Lund, Richard

    2012-09-01

    Recent understanding of extrarenal production of calcitriol has led to the exploration of native vitamin D treatment in dialysis patients. This paper reports the pharmacokinetics of 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to 10,333 IU cholecalciferol given weekly in subjects on chronic dialysis. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 15 weeks of oral cholecalciferol in subjects with stage 5 CKD requiring maintenance hemodialysis was conducted from November of 2007 to March of 2010. The time course of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured over the course of treatment. Additionally, blood was drawn at baseline and last visit for calcium, phosphorus, calcitriol, and parathyroid hormone levels. The median (interquartile range) baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 13.3 (11.1-16.2) ng/ml for the treatment group and 15.2 (10.7-19.9) ng/ml for the placebo group. 25-hydroxyvitamin D steady state levels rose by 23.6 (19.2-29.9) ng/ml in the treatment group, and there was no change in the placebo group. Calcitriol levels also increased significantly in the treatment group. There were no significant changes in levels of calcium, albumin, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone in either group. Cholecalciferol (10,333 IU) given weekly in patients on chronic hemodialysis produces a steady state in 25-hydroxyvitamin D of approximately 24 ng/ml.

  6. Ultrapure Water System for Hemodialysis Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-07-21

    The Change of Biomarkers CRP, CBC With the Use of Ultra Pure Water System for; Hemodialysis.; The Rate of Adverse Events Such as Hypotension During Hemodialysis Therapy With Ultra Pure Water; System as Compared to Conventional Water System.

  7. Predicting Maintenance Doses of Vancomycin for Hospitalized Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    El Nekidy, Wasim S; El-Masri, Maher M; Umstead, Greg S; Dehoorne-Smith, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of death in patients undergoing hemodialysis. However, controversy exists about the optimal dose of vancomycin that will yield the recommended pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of 15-20 mg/L. To develop a data-driven model to optimize the accuracy of maintenance dosing of vancomycin for patients undergoing hemodialysis. A prospective observational cohort study was performed with 164 observations obtained from a convenience sample of 63 patients undergoing hemodialysis. All vancomycin doses were given on the floor after completion of a hemodialysis session. Multivariate linear generalized estimating equation analysis was used to examine independent predictors of pre-hemodialysis serum vancomycin concentration. Pre-hemodialysis serum vancomycin concentration was independently associated with maintenance dose ( B = 0.658, p < 0.001), baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of the drug ( B = 0.492, p < 0.001), and interdialytic interval ( B = -2.133, p < 0.001). According to the best of 4 models that were developed, the maintenance dose of vancomycin required to achieve a pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of 15-20 mg/L, if the baseline serum concentration of the drug was also 15-20 mg/L, was 5.9 mg/kg with interdialytic interval of 48 h and 7.1 mg/kg with interdialytic interval of 72 h. However, if the baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration was 10-14.99 mg/L, the required dose increased to 9.2 mg/kg with an interdialytic interval of 48 h and 10.0 mg/kg with an interdialytic interval of 72 h. The maintenance dose of vancomycin varied according to baseline pre-hemodialysis serum concentration of the drug and interdialytic interval. The current practice of targeting a pre-hemodialysis concentration of 15-20 mg/L may be difficult to achieve for the majority of patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  8. Recognition of partially occluded threat objects using the annealed Hopefield network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jung H.; Yoon, Sung H.; Park, Eui H.; Ntuen, Celestine A.

    1992-01-01

    Recognition of partially occluded objects has been an important issue to airport security because occlusion causes significant problems in identifying and locating objects during baggage inspection. The neural network approach is suitable for the problems in the sense that the inherent parallelism of neural networks pursues many hypotheses in parallel resulting in high computation rates. Moreover, they provide a greater degree of robustness or fault tolerance than conventional computers. The annealed Hopfield network which is derived from the mean field annealing (MFA) has been developed to find global solutions of a nonlinear system. In the study, it has been proven that the system temperature of MFA is equivalent to the gain of the sigmoid function of a Hopfield network. In our early work, we developed the hybrid Hopfield network (HHN) for fast and reliable matching. However, HHN doesn't guarantee global solutions and yields false matching under heavily occluded conditions because HHN is dependent on initial states by its nature. In this paper, we present the annealed Hopfield network (AHN) for occluded object matching problems. In AHN, the mean field theory is applied to the hybird Hopfield network in order to improve computational complexity of the annealed Hopfield network and provide reliable matching under heavily occluded conditions. AHN is slower than HHN. However, AHN provides near global solutions without initial restrictions and provides less false matching than HHN. In conclusion, a new algorithm based upon a neural network approach was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of the automated inspection of threat objects from x-ray images. The robustness of the algorithm is proved by identifying occluded target objects with large tolerance of their features.

  9. Extended hours hemodialysis and survival: extended hours, extended evidence?

    PubMed

    Wald, Ron; Perl, Jeffrey

    2016-12-01

    Extended-hours hemodialysis presents another approach to the intensification of therapy for maintenance hemodialysis recipients. Smaller studies have demonstrated several potential benefits with this modality, but the impact on patient-centered outcomes has been unclear. We review the largest published study to compare survival among patients who received extended-hours hemodialysis with those who received conventional hemodialysis. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 21 CFR 882.5150 - Intravascular occluding catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intravascular occluding catheter. 882.5150 Section 882.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5150 Intravascular...

  11. 21 CFR 882.5150 - Intravascular occluding catheter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intravascular occluding catheter. 882.5150 Section 882.5150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5150 Intravascular...

  12. Subintimal Recanalization of Occluded Stents: The Substent Technique

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Diamantopoulos, Athanasios, E-mail: adiamant@upatras.gr; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Spiliopoulos, Stavros

    2013-08-01

    PurposeApplication of metal stents is complicated by neointimal hyperplasia leading to vessel restenosis and reocclusion. Treatment options in cases presenting with complete occlusion of the stented segment and recurrent critical limb ischemia (CLI) are limited. We present the option of the subintimal/substent technique in dealing with occluded stents.MethodsThe study included patients presenting with recurrent CLI due to impaired blood flow as a result of complete occlusion of previously inserted metal stents and unsuccessful intraluminal crossing of the lesion via either the antegrade or retrograde approach. In these cases, crossing the occlusion through the subintimal/substent plane was attempted. Primary end pointsmore » included technical success, safety of the procedure, clinical improvement, and limb salvage, while secondary end points were patient survival, primary patency, and vessel restenosis rates at 1-year follow-up. Study end points were calculated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.ResultsBetween July 2006 and October 2011, a total of 14 patients (mean age 69.14 {+-} 12.59 years, 12 men) were treated with the substent technique and included in the analysis. Technical success rate was 85.71 % (12 of 14), with a total lesion length of 193.57 {+-} 90.78 mm. The mean occluded stented segment length was 90.21 {+-} 44.34 mm. In 10 (83.33 %) of 12 cases, a new stent had to be placed by the side of the old occluded one, while the remaining two cases (16.67 %) were treated only with balloon angioplasty. No serious adverse events were noted during the immediate postprocedural period. All successfully treated patients improved clinically. Estimated limb salvage was 90.9 %, and patient survival rate was 90.0 % at 1 year's follow-up. Primary patency was 45.50 % and vessel restenosis 77.30 %.ConclusionSubintimal recanalization of occluded metal stents through the substent plane is a valuable alternative treatment option, especially in patients with recurrent CLI

  13. Use of hemodialysis in meprobamate overdosage.

    PubMed

    Lobo, P I; Spyker, D; Surratt, P; Westervelt, F B

    1977-02-01

    A case of meprobamate overdosage successfully treated with hemodialysis is described. The patient was admitted 4 hours after an overdosage of meprobamate (30-40 g) deeply unconscious, hypotensive, in respiratory failure and with a serum meprobamate level of 50 mg/100 ml. Hemodialysis was instituted using a Gambro parallel flow dialyzer and a portable re-circulating dialyzate delivery system (Redy, CCi Life Systems). Meprobamate removal with hemodialysis was 672+/-167 mg/hr with a corresponding clearance of 61.97+/-9.9 ml/min. Drug removal with forced diuresis was 177+/-23.4 mg/hr. Metabolic degradation of the drug was approximately 482 mg/hr with a plasma disappearance rate of 5.2%/hr. No drug could be detected in the dialyzate fluid after its passage through the Redy re-circulating dialyzate system. Because of the rapidity of metabolic degradation of meprobamate, we feel that hemodialysis should be reserved for severe clinical intoxication and either compromised normal excretory routes or progressive clinical deterioration.

  14. The Role of Good Form in Young Infants' Perception of Partly Occluded Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Scott P.; Bremner, J. Gavin; Slater, Alan M.; Mason, Uschi C.

    2000-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether 4-month-olds would attend to and utilize the global configuration ("good form") of a partly occluded, moving object to perceive its unit and coherence behind the occluder. Results indicated that curvature per se provided information in support of completion, in addition to global configuration and…

  15. 21 CFR 876.5665 - Water purification system for hemodialysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Water purification system for hemodialysis. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5665 Water purification system for hemodialysis. (a) Identification. A water purification system for hemodialysis is a...

  16. 21 CFR 876.5665 - Water purification system for hemodialysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Water purification system for hemodialysis. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5665 Water purification system for hemodialysis. (a) Identification. A water purification system for hemodialysis is a...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5665 - Water purification system for hemodialysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Water purification system for hemodialysis. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5665 Water purification system for hemodialysis. (a) Identification. A water purification system for hemodialysis is a...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5665 - Water purification system for hemodialysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water purification system for hemodialysis. 876... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5665 Water purification system for hemodialysis. (a) Identification. A water purification system for hemodialysis is a...

  19. Survival after acute hemodialysis in Pennsylvania, 2005-2007: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ramer, Sarah J; Cohen, Elan D; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Unruh, Mark L; Barnato, Amber E

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about acute hemodialysis in the US. Here we describe predictors of receipt of acute hemodialysis in one state and estimate the marginal impact of acute hemodialysis on survival after accounting for confounding due to illness severity. This is a retrospective cohort study of acute-care hospitalizations in Pennsylvania from October 2005 to December 2007 using data from the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council. Exposure variable is acute hemodialysis; dependent variable is survival following acute hemodialysis. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine propensity to receive acute hemodialysis and then, for a Cox proportional hazards model, matched acute hemodialysis and non-acute hemodialysis patients 1∶5 on this propensity. In 2,131,248 admissions of adults without end-stage renal disease, there were 6,657 instances of acute hemodialysis. In analyses adjusted for predicted probability of death upon admission plus other covariates and stratified on age, being male, black, and insured were independent predictors of receipt of acute hemodialysis. One-year post-admission mortality was 43% for those receiving acute hemodialysis, compared to 13% among those not receiving acute hemodialysis. After matching on propensity to receive acute hemodialysis and adjusting for predicted probability of death upon admission, patients who received acute hemodialysis had a higher risk of death than patients who did not over at least 1 year of follow-up (hazard ratio 1·82, 95% confidence interval 1·68-1·97). In a populous US state, receipt of acute hemodialysis varied by age, sex, race, and insurance status even after adjustment for illness severity. In a comparison of patients with similar propensity to receive acute hemodialysis, those who did receive it were less likely to survive than those who did not. These findings raise questions about reasons for lack of benefit.

  20. Distribution and Determinants of Myocardial Perfusion Grade Following Late Mechanical Recanalization of Occluded Infarct-Related Arteries Postmyocardial Infarction: A Report From the Occluded Artery Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jorapur, Vinod; Steigen, Terje K.; Buller, Christopher E.; Dẑavík, Vladimír; Webb, John G.; Strauss, Bradley H.; Yeoh, Eunice E.S.; Kurray, Peter; Sokalski, Leszek; Machado, Mauricio C.; Kronsberg, Shari S.; Lamas, Gervasio A.; Hochman, Judith S.; John Mancini, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the distribution and determinants of myocardial perfusion grade (MPG) following late recanalization of persistently occluded infarct-related arteries (IRA). Background MPG reflects microvascular integrity. It is an independent prognostic factor following myocardial infarction, but has been studied mainly in the setting of early reperfusion. The occluded artery trial (OAT) enrolled stable patients with persistently occluded IRAs beyond 24 hr and up to 28 days post-MI. Methods Myocardial blush was assessed using TIMI MPG grading in 261 patients with TIMI 3 epicardial flow following IRA PCI. Patients demonstrating impaired (0–1) versus preserved (2–3) MPG were compared with regard to baseline clinical and pre-PCI angiographic characteristics. Results Impaired MPG was observed in 60 of 261 patients (23%). By univariate analysis, impaired MPG was associated with failed fibrinolytic therapy, higher heart rate, lower systolic blood pressure, lower ejection fraction, LAD occlusion, absence of collaterals (P < 0.01) and ST elevation MI, lower diastolic blood pressure, and higher systolic sphericity index (P < 0.05). By multivariable analysis, higher heart rate, LAD occlusion, absence of collaterals and higher systolic sphericity index (P < 0.01), and lower systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) were independently associated with impaired MPG. Conclusion Preserved microvascular integrity was present in a high proportion of patients following late recanalization of occluded IRAs post-MI. Presence of collaterals was independently associated with preserved MPG and likely accounted for the high frequency of preserved myocardial perfusion in this clinical setting. Impaired MPG was associated with baseline clinical and angiographic features consistent with larger infarct size. PMID:18798327

  1. Catching what we can't see: manual interception of occluded fly-ball trajectories.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Gianfranco; Delle Monache, Sergio; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Control of interceptive actions may involve fine interplay between feedback-based and predictive mechanisms. These processes rely heavily on target motion information available when the target is visible. However, short-term visual memory signals as well as implicit knowledge about the environment may also contribute to elaborate a predictive representation of the target trajectory, especially when visual feedback is partially unavailable because other objects occlude the visual target. To determine how different processes and information sources are integrated in the control of the interceptive action, we manipulated a computer-generated visual environment representing a baseball game. Twenty-four subjects intercepted fly-ball trajectories by moving a mouse cursor and by indicating the interception with a button press. In two separate sessions, fly-ball trajectories were either fully visible or occluded for 750, 1000 or 1250 ms before ball landing. Natural ball motion was perturbed during the descending trajectory with effects of either weightlessness (0 g) or increased gravity (2 g) at times such that, for occluded trajectories, 500 ms of perturbed motion were visible before ball disappearance. To examine the contribution of previous visual experience with the perturbed trajectories to the interception of invisible targets, the order of visible and occluded sessions was permuted among subjects. Under these experimental conditions, we showed that, with fully visible targets, subjects combined servo-control and predictive strategies. Instead, when intercepting occluded targets, subjects relied mostly on predictive mechanisms based, however, on different type of information depending on previous visual experience. In fact, subjects without prior experience of the perturbed trajectories showed interceptive errors consistent with predictive estimates of the ball trajectory based on a-priori knowledge of gravity. Conversely, the interceptive responses of subjects

  2. [Percutaneous closure of the patent ductus arteriosus in children with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II].

    PubMed

    Parra-Bravo, José Rafael; Osuna-Izaguirre, Manuel Alfredo; Beirana-Palencia, Luisa; Gálvez-Cancino, Franco; Martínez-Monterrosas, Christian; Lazo-Cárdenas, César; Reyes-Vargas, César

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, several devices have been used for the percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus, with its own limitations and risks. The Amplatzer Duct Occluder II has been designed to overcome those limitations and reduce risks. We described our initial series of patients who underwent percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II, emphasis on the technical aspects of the procedure. We reviewed the clinical records of 9 patients with patent ductus arteriosus who underwent percutaneous closure with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II. Median age was 24 months (range 8-51 months) and the median weight was 10.7kg (range 6-16.3kg). The minimal ductus arteriosus diameter was 2.7mm (1-5mm). Implantation was successful in all cases. The devices most commonly used (33.3%) were the dimensions 4-4mm (3 patients), in 2 patients were used 3-4mm and in the rest of the patients were employed occluder other sizes. Four cases showed slight residual flow immediately after implantation. Total closure was achieved in 24h in 8 of 9 patients (89%). There was no embolization of the occluder or deaths during the procedure and we only observed one minor complication. The Amplatzer Duct Occluder II in this series was effective in 89% of the patients at 24hs after the procedure and 100% follow-up. The implantation was safe and no major complications were observed. The occlusion rate is comparable to those reported for the Amplatzer Duct Occluder I. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Response to Cholecalciferol Supplementation in Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Andukuri, Radha; Barger-Lux, Janet; Heaney, Robert P.; Lund, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Recent understanding of extrarenal production of calcitriol has led to the exploration of native vitamin D treatment in dialysis patients. This paper reports the pharmacokinetics of 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to 10,333 IU cholecalciferol given weekly in subjects on chronic dialysis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 15 weeks of oral cholecalciferol in subjects with stage 5 CKD requiring maintenance hemodialysis was conducted from November of 2007 to March of 2010. The time course of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured over the course of treatment. Additionally, blood was drawn at baseline and last visit for calcium, phosphorus, calcitriol, and parathyroid hormone levels. Results The median (interquartile range) baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D level was 13.3 (11.1–16.2) ng/ml for the treatment group and 15.2 (10.7–19.9) ng/ml for the placebo group. 25-hydroxyvitamin D steady state levels rose by 23.6 (19.2–29.9) ng/ml in the treatment group, and there was no change in the placebo group. Calcitriol levels also increased significantly in the treatment group. There were no significant changes in levels of calcium, albumin, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone in either group. Conclusions Cholecalciferol (10,333 IU) given weekly in patients on chronic hemodialysis produces a steady state in 25-hydroxyvitamin D of approximately 24 ng/ml. PMID:22798536

  4. Proteomic Investigations into Hemodialysis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bonomini, Mario; Sirolli, Vittorio; Pieroni, Luisa; Felaco, Paolo; Amoroso, Luigi; Urbani, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The retention of a number of solutes that may cause adverse biochemical/biological effects, called uremic toxins, characterizes uremic syndrome. Uremia therapy is based on renal replacement therapy, hemodialysis being the most commonly used modality. The membrane contained in the hemodialyzer represents the ultimate determinant of the success and quality of hemodialysis therapy. Membrane’s performance can be evaluated in terms of removal efficiency for unwanted solutes and excess fluid, and minimization of negative interactions between the membrane material and blood components that define the membrane’s bio(in)compatibility. Given the high concentration of plasma proteins and the complexity of structural functional relationships of this class of molecules, the performance of a membrane is highly influenced by its interaction with the plasma protein repertoire. Proteomic investigations have been increasingly applied to describe the protein uremic milieu, to compare the blood purification efficiency of different dialyzer membranes or different extracorporeal techniques, and to evaluate the adsorption of plasma proteins onto hemodialysis membranes. In this article, we aim to highlight investigations in the hemodialysis setting making use of recent developments in proteomic technologies. Examples are presented of why proteomics may be helpful to nephrology and may possibly affect future directions in renal research. PMID:26690416

  5. Effectiveness of collateral vein embolization for salvage of immature native arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osman; Patel, Mikin; Ginsburg, Michael; Jilani, Danial; Funaki, Brian

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the value of collateral vein embolization (CVE) as a salvage treatment for nonmaturing native arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) in patients requiring hemodialysis. A total of 49 patients undergoing CVE (N = 65) for immature native AVFs at a single institution were reviewed. The study included 42 patients treated by 56 embolizations. Average fistula age at time of intervention was 18.2 weeks. Each patient underwent angiographic evaluation for fistula immaturity, with clinical success defined by initiation of single-session hemodialysis through the native fistula. Fistula maturity was achieved in 32 of 42 patients (76.2%). No major complications occurred. Average time from CVE to fistula maturity was 38.4 days. Angioplasty done with CVE was found in a statistically higher percentage of patients with fistula success versus failure (31.3% vs 8.3%; P = .039). Radiocephalic fistulae were seen in a higher percentage of fistula failures compared with successes, but the results were not statistically significant (83.3% vs 59.4%; P = .054). Thirty-four patients underwent CVE without angioplasty, which resulted in successful fistula maturation in 22 cases (64.7%). Radiocephalic fistulae were again seen in a higher percentage of fistula failures compared with successes, but the findings did not meet statistical significance (81.8% vs 54.5%; P = .052). Coil embolization of competing collateral vessels as a salvage treatment for nonfunctioning autologous AVFs is a viable treatment option in the majority of patients. Patients with radiocephalic fistulae may be at higher risk for primary fistula failure, but the present data are inconclusive. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Amodal representation of occluded surfaces: role of invisible stimuli in apparent motion correspondence.

    PubMed

    Shimojo, S; Nakayama, K

    1990-01-01

    A series of demonstrations were created where the perceived depth of targets was controlled by stereoscopic disparity. A closer object (a cloud) was made to jump back and forth horizontally, partially occluding a farther object (a full moon). The more distant moon appeared stationary even though the unoccluded portion of it, a crescent, changed position. Reversal of the relative depth of the moon and cloud gave a totally different percept: the crescent appeared to flip back and forth in the front depth plane. Thus, the otherwise-robust apparent motion of the moon crescents was completely abolished in the cloud-closer case alone. This motion-blocking effect is attributed to the 'amodal presence' of the occluded surface continuing behind the occluding surface. To measure the effect of this occluded 'invisible' surface quantitatively, a bistable apparent motion display was used (Ramachandran and Anstis 1983a): two small rectangular-shaped targets changed their positions back and forth between two frames, and the disparity of a large centrally positioned rectangle was varied. When the perceived depths supported the possibility of amodal completion behind the large rectangle, increased vertical motion of the targets was found, suggesting that the amodal presence of the targets behind the occluder had effectively changed the center position of the moving targets for purposes of motion correspondence. Amodal contours are literally 'invisible', yet it is hypothesized that they have a neural representation at sufficiently early stages of visual processing to alter the correspondence solving process for apparent motion.

  7. Effects of six versus three times per week hemodialysis on physical performance, health, and functioning: Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Hall, Yoshio N; Larive, Brett; Painter, Patricia; Kaysen, George A; Lindsay, Robert M; Nissenson, Allen R; Unruh, Mark L; Rocco, Michael V; Chertow, Glenn M

    2012-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the effects of hemodialysis frequency on the disability of patients with ESRD. This study examined changes in physical performance and self-reported physical health and functioning among subjects randomized to frequent (six times per week) compared with conventional (three times per week) hemodialysis in both the Frequent Hemodialysis Network daily (n=245) and nocturnal (n=87) trials. The main outcome measures were adjusted change in scores over 12 months on the short physical performance battery (SPPB), RAND 36-item health survey physical health composite (PHC), and physical functioning subscale (PF) based on the intention to treat principle. Overall scores for SPPB, PHC, and PF were poor relative to population norms and in line with other studies in ESRD. In the Daily Trial, subjects randomized to frequent compared with conventional in-center hemodialysis experienced no significant change in SPPB (adjusted mean change of -0.20±0.19 versus -0.41±0.21, P=0.45) but experienced significant improvement in PHC (3.4±0.8 versus 0.4±0.8, P=0.009) and a relatively large change in PF that did not reach statistical significance. In the Nocturnal Trial, there were no significant differences among subjects randomized to frequent compared with conventional hemodialysis in SPPB (adjusted mean change of -0.92±0.44 versus -0.41±0.43, P=0.41), PHC (2.7±1.4 versus 2.1±1.5, P=0.75), or PF (-3.1±3.5 versus 1.1±3.6, P=0.40). Frequent in-center hemodialysis compared with conventional in-center hemodialysis improved self-reported physical health and functioning but had no significant effect on objective physical performance. There were no significant effects of frequent nocturnal hemodialysis on the same physical metrics.

  8. Endovascular Revascularization of Hemodialysis Thrombosed Grafts with the Hydrodynamic Thrombectomy Catheter. Our 7-Year Experience

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bermudez, Patrícia, E-mail: pbermude@clinic.ub.es; Fontseré, Nestor, E-mail: fontsere@clinic.ub.es; Mestres, Gaspar, E-mail: gmestres@clinic.ub.es

    2017-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the efficacy and safety of the hydrodynamic thrombectomy catheter (AngioJet DVX) in the salvage of thrombosed hemodialysis vascular grafts.Materials and MethodsA retrospective study was designed, including all patients with occluded arteriovenous grafts treated with the AngioJet system between 2007 and 2014 in our institution. Outcomes included technical success, clinical success, complications, and primary and secondary patencies. Procedural success was defined as angiographic confirmation of flow restoration, the presence of a pulsatile thrill along the graft, and successful resumption of at least one hemodialysis session. Primary and secondary patencies after first AVG thrombectomy were calculated with Kaplan–Meier curves. Coxmore » regression was used to determine prognostic factors of primary patency after every thrombectomy episode.ResultsA total of 149 thrombectomies were performed in 68 grafts. After thrombectomy, endovascular treatment of one or more stenosis was performed in all cases. Technical success was 93% and clinical success was 86%. Complications occurred in 7 thrombectomies, most of them were minor except for one anastomosis rupture requiring surgery. Primary and secondary patencies were 52, 41, and 23 and 76, 68, and 57% at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. Independent prognostic factors of poor patency after every thrombectomy episode were the presence of residual thrombus (OR 1.831, P = 0.008) and time from last thrombosis (less than 1 month; and OR 7.116, P < 0.001).ConclusionPercutaneous mechanical thrombectomy with AngioJet is a safe technique with a high-clinical success rate. The presence of residual thrombus after thrombectomy and early re-occlusions are related to poorer results.« less

  9. Influence of combination hemodialysis/hemoperfusion against score of depression in regular hemodialysis patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permatasari, T. D.; Thamrin, A.; Hanum, H.

    2018-03-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease, have a higher risk for psychological distress such as anxiety, depression and cognitive decline. Combination of Hemodialysis (HD)/hemoperfusion (HP) regularly able to eliminate uremic toxin with mild-to-large molecular weight better. HD/HP can remove metabolites, toxin, and pathogenic factors and regulate the water, electrolyte and acid-base balance to improve the quality of patient’s sleep and appetite also reduces itching of the skin, which in turn improve the quality and life expectancy. This research was a cross sectional research with a pre-experimental design conducted from July to September 2015 with 17 regular hemodialysis patients as samples. Inclusion criteria were regular hemodialysis patients and willingly participated in the research. The assessmentwas conducted using BDI to assess depression. To obtained the results, data were analyzed using T-Test and showed that that the average BDI score before the combination of HD/HP 18.59±9 to 8.18±2.83 after the combination (p<0.001). In conclusion, combination HD/HP can lower depression scores in patients with regular HD.

  10. Survival after Acute Hemodialysis in Pennsylvania, 2005–2007: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramer, Sarah J.; Cohen, Elan D.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Unruh, Mark L.; Barnato, Amber E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about acute hemodialysis in the US. Here we describe predictors of receipt of acute hemodialysis in one state and estimate the marginal impact of acute hemodialysis on survival after accounting for confounding due to illness severity. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of acute-care hospitalizations in Pennsylvania from October 2005 to December 2007 using data from the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council. Exposure variable is acute hemodialysis; dependent variable is survival following acute hemodialysis. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine propensity to receive acute hemodialysis and then, for a Cox proportional hazards model, matched acute hemodialysis and non-acute hemodialysis patients 1∶5 on this propensity. Results In 2,131,248 admissions of adults without end-stage renal disease, there were 6,657 instances of acute hemodialysis. In analyses adjusted for predicted probability of death upon admission plus other covariates and stratified on age, being male, black, and insured were independent predictors of receipt of acute hemodialysis. One-year post-admission mortality was 43% for those receiving acute hemodialysis, compared to 13% among those not receiving acute hemodialysis. After matching on propensity to receive acute hemodialysis and adjusting for predicted probability of death upon admission, patients who received acute hemodialysis had a higher risk of death than patients who did not over at least 1 year of follow-up (hazard ratio 1·82, 95% confidence interval 1·68–1·97). Conclusions In a populous US state, receipt of acute hemodialysis varied by age, sex, race, and insurance status even after adjustment for illness severity. In a comparison of patients with similar propensity to receive acute hemodialysis, those who did receive it were less likely to survive than those who did not. These findings raise questions about reasons for lack of benefit. PMID:25141028

  11. Risk factors of periodontal disease in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yue; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Cong-Xiao; Wei, Yu-Dan; Jiang, Li-Li; Zhu, Xiao-Yu; Du, Yu-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To explore the characteristics and relevant risk factors of periodontal disease (PD) among hemodialysis patients. Uremic patients on maintenance hemodialysis from November 2015 to March 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into a PD group and a non-PD group. Demographic and laboratory data were collected and analyzed. In all, 136 uremic patients (79 males and 57 females, aged 50.8 ± 15.3 years) on maintenance hemodialysis were included in this study. The incidence of PD increased with age. Hemodialysis patients most likely developed PD if they were male, smokers, or diabetic (P = .009, <.001, and <.001, respectively). Patients brushing their teeth twice daily had significantly less chance of developing PD as compared with those only brushing once daily (P < .001). Hemodialysis patients in the PD group had significantly higher levels of total cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fasting blood glucose, and peripheral white blood cell counts, compared with the non-PD group (all P < .001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that diabetes, total cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and peripheral white blood cell count were independent risk factors for developing PD, whereas teeth brushing twice daily and serum calcium were favorable factors for maintenance hemodialysis patients against PD. Identification of risk factors provides a theoretical basis for prevention and improvement of PD among maintenance hemodialysis patients. PMID:28858105

  12. Role of home blood pressure monitoring in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, R

    1999-04-01

    To investigate the use of manual home blood pressure (BP) monitoring in chronic hemodialysis patients, daily home BPs in 20 patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis were compared with the 44-hour interdialytic ambulatory BPs (ABPs). Each patient recorded home BPs for 2 consecutive weeks with a digital BP monitor three times daily. Prehemodialysis and posthemodialysis BPs were recorded by an oscillometric device in the hemodialysis unit during the same 2 weeks. ABPs were recorded either after the first or second hemodialysis session of the second week during a 44-hour interdialytic period using a Spacelab 90207 ABP monitor. ABP monitoring showed that BP decreased progressively after dialysis, decreased during the first night, and rapidly reached predialysis levels by the next morning. There was no decrease in BP during the second night. There was an excellent correlation between average systolic and diastolic ABP and respective home BPs. Prehemodialysis diastolic BPs were a good reflection of diastolic ABP, but there was more variability in predialysis systolic BP. Posthemodialysis BPs did not correlate with ABP. In patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis, home BPs more reliably reflected the overall BP than incenter BP readings. Predialysis, but not postdialysis, BP should be used as a screening tool to detect hypertension in the hemodialysis unit. Home BP monitoring should be used as a cost-effective means to diagnose occult hypertension in chronic hemodialysis patients.

  13. ACTIVE DELIVERY CABLE TUNED TO DEVICE DEPLOYMENT STATE: ENHANCED VISIBILITY OF NITINOL OCCLUDERS DURING PRE-CLINICAL INTERVENTIONAL MRI

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jamie A.; Saikus, Christina E.; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Barbash, Israel M.; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Franson, Dominique N.; Sonmez, Merdim; Slack, Michael C.; Lederman, Robert J.; Kocaturk, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To develop an active delivery system that enhances visualization of nitinol cardiac occluder devices during deployment under real-time MRI. Materials and Methods We constructed an active delivery cable incorporating a loopless antenna and a custom titanium microscrew to secure the occluder devices. The delivery cable was tuned and matched to 50Ω at 64 MHz with the occluder device attached. We used real-time balanced SSFP in a wide-bore 1.5T scanner. Device-related images were reconstructed separately and combined with surface-coil images. The delivery cable was tested in vitro in a phantom and in vivo in swine using a variety of nitinol cardiac occluder devices. Results In vitro, the active delivery cable provided little signal when the occluder device was detached and maximal signal with the device attached. In vivo, signal from the active delivery cable enabled clear visualization of occluder device during positioning and deployment. Device release resulted in decreased signal from the active cable. Post-mortem examination confirmed proper device placement. Conclusions The active delivery cable enhanced the MRI depiction of nitinol cardiac occluder devices during positioning and deployment, both in conventional and novel applications. We expect enhanced visibility to contribute to effectiveness and safety of new and emerging MRI-guided treatments. PMID:22707441

  14. Catching What We Can't See: Manual Interception of Occluded Fly-Ball Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Gianfranco; Delle Monache, Sergio; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Control of interceptive actions may involve fine interplay between feedback-based and predictive mechanisms. These processes rely heavily on target motion information available when the target is visible. However, short-term visual memory signals as well as implicit knowledge about the environment may also contribute to elaborate a predictive representation of the target trajectory, especially when visual feedback is partially unavailable because other objects occlude the visual target. To determine how different processes and information sources are integrated in the control of the interceptive action, we manipulated a computer-generated visual environment representing a baseball game. Twenty-four subjects intercepted fly-ball trajectories by moving a mouse cursor and by indicating the interception with a button press. In two separate sessions, fly-ball trajectories were either fully visible or occluded for 750, 1000 or 1250 ms before ball landing. Natural ball motion was perturbed during the descending trajectory with effects of either weightlessness (0 g) or increased gravity (2 g) at times such that, for occluded trajectories, 500 ms of perturbed motion were visible before ball disappearance. To examine the contribution of previous visual experience with the perturbed trajectories to the interception of invisible targets, the order of visible and occluded sessions was permuted among subjects. Under these experimental conditions, we showed that, with fully visible targets, subjects combined servo-control and predictive strategies. Instead, when intercepting occluded targets, subjects relied mostly on predictive mechanisms based, however, on different type of information depending on previous visual experience. In fact, subjects without prior experience of the perturbed trajectories showed interceptive errors consistent with predictive estimates of the ball trajectory based on a-priori knowledge of gravity. Conversely, the interceptive responses of subjects

  15. Endovascular Recanalization of Chronically Occluded Native Arteries After Failed Bypass Surgery in Patients with Critical Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yin, Minyi; Wang, Wei; Huang, Xintian; Hong, Biao; Liu, Xiaobing; Li, Weimin; Lu, Xinwu; Lu, Min; Jiang, Mier

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and outcome of endovascular recanalization of native chronic total occlusions (CTO) in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI) and lower extremities bypass graft failure. A retrospective review of CLI patients with failed lower limb grafts (>30 days after surgery) that underwent recanalization of native CTO was conducted in two institutions from January 2010 to June 2014. Twenty-eight patients (28 limbs) were included in the study, and all had limited surgical revascularization options. Demographics, procedural data, technical success, complications, vessel patency, limb salvage rates, and survival rates were analyzed. The mean follow-up period was 12.8 months. The technical success rate was 92.9% (26/28 limbs). The combined ipsilateral antegrade-retrograde approach was performed in nine limbs (32.1%). Major periprocedural (<30 days) complications included two myocardial infarctions (7.1%) and two stent thromboses (7.1%), resulting in one amputation. The ankle brachial index before discharge was significantly improved after recanalization (0.78 ± 0.08 vs. 0.31 ± 0.10, p < 0.01). The primary, assisted primary, and secondary patency rates at 12 months were 52.2, 65.8, and 82.2%, respectively. The limb salvage rate and amputation-free survival rate at 12 months were 91.6 and 87.0%, respectively. Endovascular recanalization of native CTO in patients with graft failure-related CLI is a feasible, safe, and effective procedure, with reasonable technical success, vessel patency, and limb salvage rates. The technique should be attempted before amputation in patients with limited surgical revascularization options.

  16. Problems associated with hemodialysis and travel.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Richard W; Prout, Virginia; Haynes, Deborah; Edwards, Claire; Frankel, Andrew H

    2014-01-01

    While there is a recognized risk of hepatitis C acquisition associated with dialysis away from the "home" center, there is little documented data on the effect that dialysis while traveling has on the dialysis patient's health. This study was designed to examine the incidence of travel within a hemodialysis population and to ascertain whether travel was associated with morbidity for patients on hemodialysis. Travel data were collected prospectively over a 6-month period, from April 2009, for all patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis across our dialysis centers. Biochemical, microbiological, and hematological parameters as well as hepatitis serology and antibiotic starts were recorded for 12 weeks prior to and following dialysis away from center. A total of 172 individuals traveled on 200 occasions. The blood stream infection rate for travelers with a central venous catheter was 0.25 versus 0.83/1,000 access days (p = 0.038) in the 12 weeks pre-travel versus post-travel. Parenteral and oral antibiotic starts were both significantly elevated post-travel and were mainly instituted for either chest or urinary sepsis. There was evidence of raised inflammatory markers and anemia on return to center but no evidence of hepatitis B or hepatitis C seroconversion. Travel and dialysis away from a patient's usual hemodialysis unit is a common occurrence but is associated with an increased risk of bacterial infection, anemia, and inflammatory response. This study provides evidence for the concern that hemodialysis away from center is associated with increased morbidity. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  17. [Incremental approach to hemodialysis: twice a week, or once weekly hemodialysis combined with low-protein low-phosphorus diet?].

    PubMed

    Bolasco, Piergiorgio; Caria, Stefania; Egidi, Maria Francesca; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2015-01-01

    The start of dialysis treatment is a critical step in the care management of chronic renal failure patients. When hemodialysis is performed three times a week, rapid loss of kidney function and of urine volume output generally occur and this represents an unfavorable prognostic factor. Instead, reducing frequency of hemodialysis sessions, as well as peritoneal dialysis, can contribute to a lesser decrease of residual renal function. Unfortunately, the existing protocols for an incremental hemodialysis approach are not particularly common and they are generally limited to a twice a week hemodialysis schedule. In addition to clinical and economic reasons, an incremental approach to ESRD also contributes to better social and psychological adaptation by the patients to the dramatic change in living conditions linked to the maintenance dialysis treatment. In patients who have attitude for low-protein nutritional therapy, a once weekly dialysis schedule combined with low-protein, low-phosphorus, normal to high energy diet in the remaining six days of the week can be implemented in selected patients. In our experience, this kind of program produced important clinical results and reduction in costs and hospitalization. When compared with a three times a week dialysis schedule, a greater protection of residual renal function and of urine volume output, lower increase in 2 microglobulin, better control of phosphorus and less consumption of phosphate binders and erythropoietin were observed. Careful clinical monitoring and nutrition is essential for the safety and optimization of infrequent hemodialysis. Long-term follow-up analysis shows favorable effects on the overall survival. Furthermore, twice a week hemodialysis is not the only option for an incremental approach of dialysis commencing. In patients who have a good attitude for low-protein nutritional therapy, its arrangement with a program of once weekly dialysis represents a real and effective alternative.

  18. Massive acetaminophen overdose: effect of hemodialysis on acetaminophen and acetylcysteine kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ghannoum, Marc; Kazim, Sara; Grunbaum, Ami M; Villeneuve, Eric; Gosselin, Sophie

    2016-07-01

    Early onset acidosis from mitochondrial toxicity can be observed in massive acetaminophen poisoning prior to the development of hepatotoxicity. In this context, the efficacy of acetylcysteine to reverse mitochondrial toxicity remains unclear and hemodialysis may offer prompt correction of acidosis. Unfortunately, toxicokinetics of acetaminophen and acetylcysteine during extracorporeal treatments hemodialysis have seldom been described. An 18-year-old woman presented to the emergency department 60 minutes after ingestion of 100 g of acetaminophen, and unknown amounts of ibuprofen and ethanol. Initial assessment revealed an agitated patient. Her mental status worsened and she required intubation for airway protection. Investigations showed metabolic acidosis with lactate peaking at 8.6 mmol/L. Liver and coagulation profiles remained normal. Acetaminophen concentration peaked at 981 μg/ml (6496 μmol/L). Pending hemodialysis, the patient received 100 g of activated charcoal and an acetylcysteine infusion at 150 mg/kg over 1 hour, followed by 12.5 mg/kg/h for 4 hours. During hemodialysis, the infusion was maintained at 12.5 mg/kg/h to compensate for expected removal before it was decreased to 6.25 mg/kg for 20 hours after hemodialysis. The patient rapidly improved during hemodialysis and was discharged 48 hours post-admission. The acetaminophen elimination half-life was 5.2 hours prior to hemodialysis, 1.9-hours during hemodialysis and 3.6 hours post hemodialysis. The acetaminophen and acetylcysteine clearances by A-V gradient during hemodialysis were 160.4 ml/min and 190.3 ml/min, respectively. Hemodialysis removed a total of 20.6 g of acetaminophen and 17.9 g of acetylcysteine. This study confirms the high dialyzability of both acetaminophen and acetylcysteine. Hemodialysis appears to be a beneficial therapeutic option in cases of massive acetaminophen ingestion with coma and lactic acidosis. Additionally, these results

  19. Effects of Six versus Three Times per Week Hemodialysis on Physical Performance, Health, and Functioning: Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Larive, Brett; Painter, Patricia; Kaysen, George A.; Lindsay, Robert M.; Nissenson, Allen R.; Unruh, Mark L.; Rocco, Michael V.; Chertow, Glenn M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Relatively little is known about the effects of hemodialysis frequency on the disability of patients with ESRD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study examined changes in physical performance and self-reported physical health and functioning among subjects randomized to frequent (six times per week) compared with conventional (three times per week) hemodialysis in both the Frequent Hemodialysis Network daily (n=245) and nocturnal (n=87) trials. The main outcome measures were adjusted change in scores over 12 months on the short physical performance battery (SPPB), RAND 36-item health survey physical health composite (PHC), and physical functioning subscale (PF) based on the intention to treat principle. Results Overall scores for SPPB, PHC, and PF were poor relative to population norms and in line with other studies in ESRD. In the Daily Trial, subjects randomized to frequent compared with conventional in-center hemodialysis experienced no significant change in SPPB (adjusted mean change of −0.20±0.19 versus −0.41±0.21, P=0.45) but experienced significant improvement in PHC (3.4±0.8 versus 0.4±0.8, P=0.009) and a relatively large change in PF that did not reach statistical significance. In the Nocturnal Trial, there were no significant differences among subjects randomized to frequent compared with conventional hemodialysis in SPPB (adjusted mean change of −0.92±0.44 versus −0.41±0.43, P=0.41), PHC (2.7±1.4 versus 2.1±1.5, P=0.75), or PF (−3.1±3.5 versus 1.1±3.6, P=0.40). Conclusions Frequent in-center hemodialysis compared with conventional in-center hemodialysis improved self-reported physical health and functioning but had no significant effect on objective physical performance. There were no significant effects of frequent nocturnal hemodialysis on the same physical metrics. PMID:22422538

  20. Modulation of occluding junctions alters the hematopoietic niche to trigger immune activation

    PubMed Central

    Khadilkar, Rohan J; Vogl, Wayne; Goodwin, Katharine

    2017-01-01

    Stem cells are regulated by signals from their microenvironment, or niche. During Drosophila hematopoiesis, a niche regulates prohemocytes to control hemocyte production. Immune challenges activate cell-signalling to initiate the cellular and innate immune response. Specifically, certain immune challenges stimulate the niche to produce signals that induce prohemocyte differentiation. However, the mechanisms that promote prohemocyte differentiation subsequent to immune challenges are poorly understood. Here we show that bacterial infection induces the cellular immune response by modulating occluding-junctions at the hematopoietic niche. Occluding-junctions form a permeability barrier that regulates the accessibility of prohemocytes to niche derived signals. The immune response triggered by infection causes barrier breakdown, altering the prohemocyte microenvironment to induce immune cell production. Moreover, genetically induced barrier ablation provides protection against infection by activating the immune response. Our results reveal a novel role for occluding-junctions in regulating niche-hematopoietic progenitor signalling and link this mechanism to immune cell production following infection. PMID:28841136

  1. AMPLATZER versus Figulla occluder for transcatheter patent foramen ovale closure.

    PubMed

    Trabattoni, Daniela; Gaspardone, Achille; Sgueglia, Gregory A; Fabbiocchi, Franco; Gioffrè, Gaetano; Montorsi, Piero; Calligaris, Giuseppe; Iamele, Maria; De Santis, Antonella; Bartorelli, Antonio L

    2017-04-20

    The aim of this observational study was to compare acute and 12-month results of percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) with two occluder devices. Between June 2007 and October 2014, 406 consecutive patients (48.1±13.3 years, 243 women) underwent percutaneous PFO closure with either the AMPLATZER (n=179) or the Figulla (n=227) device after a stroke or a transient ischaemic attack ascribed to the PFO. A right-to-left shunt grade >1 was previously detected in all patients and atrial septal aneurysm was present in 111 (27.5%) patients. Patients were followed up with a contrast transthoracic echocardiogram and clinically at 24 hours, six months, and 12 months after the procedure. A high procedural success was observed in both groups. Despite a trend towards a higher incidence of acute residual shunt immediately after device deployment among Figulla occluder patients, a residual grade ≥2 right-to-left shunt was observed in 4.5% of patients, independently of the device used for PFO closure. The only difference reported after Figulla device implantation was a lower rate of supraventricular arrhythmias (9% vs. 17%, p=0.02). According to this two-centre study, PFO closure appears safe and effective with the Figulla occluder as well as with the AMPLATZER device.

  2. Establishing Core Outcome Domains in Hemodialysis: Report of the Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology−Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) Consensus Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Allison; Manns, Braden; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Wheeler, David C.; Evangelidis, Nicole; Tugwell, Peter; Crowe, Sally; Van Biesen, Wim; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.; O’Donoghue, Donal; Tam-Tham, Helen; Shen, Jenny; Pinter, Jule; Larkins, Nicholas; Youssouf, Sajeda; Mandayam, Sreedhar; Ju, Angela; Craig, Jonathan C.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence-informed decision-making in clinical care and policy in nephrology is undermined by trials that selectively report a large number of heterogeneous outcomes, many of which are not patient-centered. The Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology−Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) Initiative convened an international consensus workshop on November 7, 2015, to discuss the identification and implementation of a potential core outcome set for all trials in hemodialysis. The purpose of this article is to report qualitative analyses of the workshop discussions, describing the key aspects to consider when establishing core outcomes in trials involving patients on hemodialysis. Key stakeholders including eight patients/caregivers and 47 health professionals (nephrologists, policy makers, industry, researchers) attended the workshop. Attendees suggested that identifying core outcomes required equitable stakeholder engagement to ensure relevance across patient populations; flexibility to consider evolving priorities over time; deconstruction of language and meaning for conceptual consistency and clarity; understanding of potential overlap and associations between outcomes; and an assessment of applicability to the range of interventions in hemodialysis. For implementation, they proposed that core outcomes must have simple, inexpensive and validated outcome measures that could be used in clinical care (quality ndicators) and trials (including pragmatic trials), and endorsement by regulatory agencies. Integrating these recommendations may foster acceptance and optimize the uptake and translation of core outcomes in hemodialysis, leading to more informative research, for better treatment, and improved patient outcomes. PMID:27497527

  3. Establishing Core Outcome Domains in Hemodialysis: Report of the Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) Consensus Workshop.

    PubMed

    Tong, Allison; Manns, Braden; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Wheeler, David C; Evangelidis, Nicole; Tugwell, Peter; Crowe, Sally; Van Biesen, Wim; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; O'Donoghue, Donal; Tam-Tham, Helen; Shen, Jenny I; Pinter, Jule; Larkins, Nicholas; Youssouf, Sajeda; Mandayam, Sreedhar; Ju, Angela; Craig, Jonathan C

    2017-01-01

    Evidence-informed decision making in clinical care and policy in nephrology is undermined by trials that selectively report a large number of heterogeneous outcomes, many of which are not patient centered. The Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) Initiative convened an international consensus workshop on November 7, 2015, to discuss the identification and implementation of a potential core outcome set for all trials in hemodialysis. The purpose of this article is to report qualitative analyses of the workshop discussions, describing the key aspects to consider when establishing core outcomes in trials involving patients on hemodialysis therapy. Key stakeholders including 8 patients/caregivers and 47 health professionals (nephrologists, policymakers, industry, and researchers) attended the workshop. Attendees suggested that identifying core outcomes required equitable stakeholder engagement to ensure relevance across patient populations, flexibility to consider evolving priorities over time, deconstruction of language and meaning for conceptual consistency and clarity, understanding of potential overlap and associations between outcomes, and an assessment of applicability to the range of interventions in hemodialysis. For implementation, they proposed that core outcomes must have simple, inexpensive, and validated outcome measures that could be used in clinical care (quality indicators) and trials (including pragmatic trials) and endorsement by regulatory agencies. Integrating these recommendations may foster acceptance and optimize the uptake and translation of core outcomes in hemodialysis, leading to more informative research, for better treatment and improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Survival with Three-Times Weekly In-Center Nocturnal Versus Conventional Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jianglin; Suri, Rita S.; Nesrallah, Gihad; Lindsay, Robert; Garg, Amit X.; Lester, Keith; Ofsthun, Norma; Lazarus, Michael; Hakim, Raymond M.

    2012-01-01

    Whether the duration of hemodialysis treatments improves outcomes remains controversial. Here, we evaluated survival and clinical changes associated with converting from conventional hemodialysis (mean=3.75 h/treatment) to in-center nocturnal hemodialysis (mean=7.85 h/treatment). All 959 consecutive patients who initiated nocturnal hemodialysis for the first time in 77 Fresenius Medical Care facilities during 2006 and 2007 were eligible. We used Cox models to compare risk for mortality during 2 years of follow-up in a 1:3 propensity score–matched cohort of 746 nocturnal and 2062 control patients on conventional hemodialysis. Two-year mortality was 19% among nocturnal hemodialysis patients compared with 27% among conventional patients. Nocturnal hemodialysis associated with a 25% reduction in the risk for death after adjustment for age, body mass index, and dialysis vintage (hazard ratio=0.75, 95% confidence interval=0.61–0.91, P=0.004). With respect to clinical features, interdialytic weight gain, albumin, hemoglobin, dialysis dose, and calcium increased on nocturnal therapy, whereas postdialysis weight, predialysis systolic blood pressure, ultrafiltration rate, phosphorus, and white blood cell count declined (all P<0.001). In summary, notwithstanding the possibility of residual selection bias, conversion to treatment with nocturnal hemodialysis associates with favorable clinical features, laboratory biomarkers, and improved survival compared with propensity score–matched controls. The potential impact of extended treatment time on clinical outcomes while maintaining a three times per week hemodialysis schedule requires evaluation in future clinical trials. PMID:22362905

  5. Recognition of 3-D Scene with Partially Occluded Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Siwei; Wong, Andrew K. C...

    1987-03-01

    This paper presents a robot vision system which is capable of recognizing objects in a 3-D scene and interpreting their spatial relation even though some objects in the scene may be partially occluded by other objects. An algorithm is developed to transform the geometric information from the range data into an attributed hypergraph representation (AHR). A hypergraph monomorphism algorithm is then used to compare the AHR of objects in the scene with a set of complete AHR's of prototypes. The capability of identifying connected components and interpreting various types of edges in the 3-D scene enables us to distinguish objects which are partially blocking each other in the scene. Using structural information stored in the primitive area graph, a heuristic hypergraph monomorphism algorithm provides an effective way for recognizing, locating, and interpreting partially occluded objects in the range image.

  6. Safety, dose, and timing of reteplase in treating occluded central venous catheters in children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Terrill, Kelly R; Lemons, Richard S; Goldsby, Robert E

    2003-11-01

    Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, alteplase, began to be commonly used to restore the patency of occluded central venous catheters (CVCs) as urokinase production was halted in the late 1990s. However, alteplase often requires an extended dwell time to restore patency to occluded CVCs. In adults, reteplase, a newer thrombolytic agent, has been reported to restore patency to CVCs in 30 minutes. The authors prospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of reteplase in restoring patency to occluded CVCs in children with cancer. This was a dose escalation trial. The dose of reteplase was initiated at 0.1 units and increased by increments of 0.1 units to a maximum dose of 0.4 units. Each dose was tested on at least three participants. Time to patency after reteplase administration was recorded by nurses caring for the patients. Attempts to access the line occurred every 15 minutes for 1 hour. CVCs that remained occluded after 1 hour were treated with alteplase. Reteplase was administered to 15 clotted CVCs. Twelve of the 15 were cleared with an average dwell time of 38 minutes. The time to patency did not appear to correlate with the dose. No adverse events were reported. Reteplase can restore patency to occluded CVCs in a pediatric population. Reteplase appears to have comparable efficacy with alteplase, but reteplase may require shorter dwell times. A prospective, randomized, clinical trial is warranted to determine whether reteplase is as effective as alteplase in restoring patency to occluded CVCs.

  7. Psychological evaluation in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Ahmad; Kazemi, Reza; Toghiani, Ali; Mohebi, Bahareh; Tabatabaee, Mohammadreza Nilipour; Adibi, Neda

    2012-03-01

    End stage renal disease has a high burden of disease affecting patient's quality of life and this may dramatically shorten their life expectancy. These patients may be faced with serious stressors which are related to the disease and its treatment. Considering psychosocial problems in hemodialysis patients, we designed this study to evaluate depression, anxiety, social support and to determine temperament, character and correlation between these factors in hemodialysis patients. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study which was done on 218 hemodialysis patients in Isfahan during April-July 2011. Depression, anxiety, social support, temperament and character were evaluated in patients using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Persian version of Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS-P) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) questionnaires. 138 (63.3%) subjects were male. Mean age was 58.18 +/- 14.3 years. 95 (43.6%) participants had depression and 94 (43.1%) had anxiety. Family support had the highest score between social support subscales. Family support was significantly correlated with self-directedness (p = 0.012), cooperativeness (p = 0.03), self-transcendence (p = 0.018), reward dependence and friends support (p = 0.036) and cooperativeness and others support (p = 0.049). Physicians should be aware of depression and anxiety in hemodialysis patients. Our results showed that patients had a supportive relation with their family and it could be because of Iranian culture and religious believes. In terms of temperament and character, patients were tolerant, supportive, humble and sociable.

  8. Transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defects with nitinol wire occluders of type patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Wierzyk, Arkadiusz; Szkutnik, Małgorzata; Fiszer, Roland; Banaszak, Paweł; Pawlak, Szymon; Białkowski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular septal defects closure (VSD) depending on the anatomy and clinical setting can be performed surgically or by a hybrid and transcatheter approach. Two cases of children with VSD will be presented. Patients' defects were closed with various types of occluders made of nitinol wire mesh occluder, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) type. The first case was a 2.5-year-old boy after cardiosurgical correction of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). After the procedure, a significant haemodynamic residual VSD was observed, which was not successfully closed during the subsequent reoperation. Despite pharmacological treatment, symptoms of heart failure were observed in this patient. In echocardiographic images the residual VSD was presented as a tunnel-like dissection of the ventricular septum (length 6 mm and diameter 3.4 mm). The defect was closed via arterial access with an Amplatzer Duct Occluder II (ADO II). The procedure was successfully performed without any medical complications. In this child, a significant shunt reduction and a noticeable improvement in the patient's clinical status and diminished symptoms of heart failure were noticed. The second patient was a 4-year-old girl suffering from a multi-perforated perimembranous VSD accompanied by a ventricular septal defect with aneurysm. The defect was closed by a venous approach with a PDA Cardio-O-Fix occluder (very similar to ADO I). No short-term or long-term complications were visible during or after the procedure. Only a mild residual shunt through the VSD was observed 6 months afterwards. Transcatheter VSD closure with a proper morphology, with occluders of type Amplatzer Duct Occluder ADO I or ADO II, constitutes a safe and effective therapeutic alternative.

  9. Treating mineral metabolism disorders in patients undergoing long hemodialysis: a search for an optimal strategy.

    PubMed

    Jean, Guillaume; Vanel, Thierry; Terrat, Jean-Claude; Hurot, Jean-Marc; Lorriaux, Christie; Mayor, Brice; Chazot, Charles

    2009-10-01

    In hemodialysis (HD) patients, mineral metabolism (MM) disorders have been associated with an increased mortality rate. We report the evolution of MM parameters in a stable HD population undergoing long hemodialysis by performing an annual cross-sectional analysis for every year from 1994 to 2008. The therapeutic strategy has changed: the dialysate calcium concentration has decreased from a mean of 1.7 +/- 0.1 to 1.5 +/- 0.07 mmol/L and has been adapted to parathyroid hormone serum levels (from 1 to 1.75 mmol/L). The use of calcium-based and aluminum-based phosphate binders has decreased and they have been replaced by sevelamer; alfacalcidol has partly been replaced by native vitamin D. The percentage of patients with a parathyroid hormone serum level between 150 and 300 pg/mL has increased from 9% to 67% (P<0.001); the percentage of patients with phosphataemia between 1.15 and 1.78 mmol/L has increased from 39% to 84% (P<0.001). The percentage of those with albumin-corrected calcemia between 2.1 and 2.37 mmol/L has increased from 29% to 61% (P<0.001), and that of patients with a calcium-phosphorous product (Ca x P) level >4.4 mmol/L decreased from 8.8% to 2% (P=0.02). Although patients undergo long and intensive HD treatment, MM disorders are common. However, an appropriate strategy, mostly consisting of native vitamin D supplementation, progressive replacement of calcium-based phosphate binders with non-calcium-based ones, and individualization of dialysis session duration and dialysate calcium concentration, would result in a drastic improvement.

  10. Home Hemodialysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... home hemodialysis: You do this three times a week for three to four hours or longer each time. You and your care partner are trained to do dialysis safely and to handle any problems that may come up. Training may take from several weeks to a few months. 2. Short daily home ...

  11. Phosphate removal and hemodialysis conditions.

    PubMed

    Pohlmeier, R; Vienken, J

    2001-02-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is frequently found in hemodialysis patients, and the association with an increased risk of mortality has been demonstrated. Other authors have linked hyperphosphatemia to increased cardiovascular mortality. The normalization of phosphate plasma levels is therefore an important goal in the treatment of end-stage renal disease patients. Absorption of phosphate from the food exceeds the elimination through a hemodialysis treatment, and this leads to a chronic phosphate load for the majority of hemodialysis patients. This imbalance should be improved by either a reduction of phosphate absorption or an increased removal of phosphate. A reduction of phosphate absorption can be achieved by reducing the amount of phosphate in the diet or by the administration of phosphate binders. Unfortunately, these measures imply practical difficulties, for example, a lack of patient compliance or other side effects. When considering modifications of the hemodialysis treatment, an essential understanding of the kinetics of dialytic phosphate removal is mandatory. Phosphate is unevenly distributed in different compartments of the body. Only a very small amount of phosphate is present in the easily accessible plasma compartment. The major part of phosphate removed during hemodialysis originates from the cytoplasm of cells. A transfer from intracellular space to the plasma and further from the plasma to the dialysate is necessary. However, if we consider improvement to phosphate removal by dialysis procedures, full dialyzer clearance is effective in only the initial phase of the dialysis treatment. After this initial phase, the transfer rate for phosphate from the intracellular space to the plasma becomes the rate-limiting step for phosphate transport. Attempts to improve this transfer rate have recently been investigated by acidosis correction, but turned out not to be consistently successful. Furthermore, modifications of the treatment schedule have been described in

  12. In-center hemodialysis attendance: patient perceptions of risks, barriers, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Chenitz, Kara B; Fernando, Michael; Shea, Judy A

    2014-04-01

    Missed hemodialysis treatments lead to increased morbidity and mortality in the end-stage renal disease population. Little is known about why patients have difficulty attending their scheduled in-center dialysis treatments. Semistructured interviews with 15 adherent and 15 nonadherent hemodialysis patients were conducted to determine patients' attitudes about dialysis, health beliefs and risk perception regarding missed treatments, barriers and facilitators to hemodialysis attendance, and recommendations to improve the system to facilitate dialysis attendance. Average time on dialysis was 2.5 years for the nonadherent group and 7.3 years in the adherent group. In both groups, patients felt that dialysis is life-saving and a necessity. A substantial number of patients in both groups understood that missing hemodialysis treatments is dangerous and several patients could clearly communicate the risk of skipping. The most common barriers to hemodialysis were inadequate or unreliable transportation (mentioned in both groups) and a lack of motivation to get to dialysis or that dialysis is not a priority (typically mentioned by the nonadherent group). Facilitators to hemodialysis attendance included explanations from the health care team regarding the risk of skipping and relationships with other dialysis patients. Patient recommendations to improve dialysis attendance included continued education about the risk of poor attendance and more accessible transportation. Patients did not feel that home dialysis would improve adherence. Hemodialysis patients must adhere to a complex and burdensome regimen. Through the elucidation of barriers and facilitators to hemodialysis attendance and through specific patient recommendations, at least three interventions may be further investigated to improve hemodialysis attendance: Improvement of the transportation system, education and supportive encouragement from the health care team, and peer support mentorship. © 2014 International

  13. Hepatitis C virus screening and management of seroconversions in hemodialysis facilities.

    PubMed

    Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Thompson, Nicola D

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, healthcare-associated exposure has increasingly been proved to be a means of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission, especially in hemodialysis facilities. The prevalence of HCV among hemodialysis patients is known to be several times greater than that of the general population of the United States, and chronic HCV infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality among these patients. During 2008-2011, HCV infection outbreaks were identified in multiple US hemodialysis facilities, resulting in at least 46 new HCV infections among hemodialysis patients. These outbreaks, linked to infection control breaches, also highlight the failure of some facilities to follow established guidelines for routine HCV antibody (anti-HCV) screening and response to new HCV infection among hemodialysis patients. Current national guidelines recommend screening of hemodialysis patients for anti-HCV on facility admission and, for susceptible patients, on a semiannual basis. Here, we seek to underscore the importance of compliance with national recommendations for anti-HCV screening of hemodialysis patients and actions to be taken in the event of possible HCV transmission within a hemodialysis facility. These include general steps to ensure that: hemodialysis patients are routinely screened for anti-HCV to facilitate early detection of new infections; newly infected patients are informed of the change in their HCV status and undergo clinical evaluation; and public health officials are notified of new HCV infections in a timely manner. We then focus on the need to assess infection control practices at the facility, with particular attention given to safe handling of injectable medications, hand hygiene and disinfection practices. In the absence of a vaccine, routine screening and adherence to standard infection control practices will remain the key strategies for preventing HCV transmission in hemodialysis units. Published 2013. This article is a U

  14. The mothers' experiences in the pediatrics hemodialysis unit.

    PubMed

    Mieto, Fernanda Stella Risseto; Bousso, Regina Szylit

    2014-01-01

    The need for hemodialysis exerts a deep impact on the lives of children and adolescents with end-stage kidney chronic failure and their mothers, who predominantly assume the care related to treatment. The hemodialysis requires that the mother accompanies the child during sessions at least three times a week and, since it is not a healing practice, they also experience the waiting for a kidney transplant, attributing different meanings to this experience. To understand what it means for the mothers to accompany the child in a Pediatric Hemodialysis Unit and to construct a theoretical model representing this experience. The Symbolic Interactionism was adopted as a theoretical model and the Grounded Theory as a methodological framework. Data were collected through interviews with 11 mothers. The comparative analysis of the data enabled the identification of two phenomena that compose the experience: "Seeing the child´s life being sucked by the hemodialysis machine" expresses the experiences of the mothers that generates new demands to comprehend the new health conditions of their children and "Giving new meaning to the dependence of the hemodialysis machine" that represents the strategies employed to endure the experience. The relationship of these phenomena allowed the identification of the main category: "Having the mother's life imprisoned by the hemodialysis machine", from which we propose a new theoretical model. The results of the study allow us to provide a theoretical ground for planning an assistance that meets the real needs of the mothers, identifying aspects that require intervention.

  15. Liver enzymes in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Liberato, Isabella Ramos de Oliveira; Lopes, Edmundo Pessoa de Almeida; Cavalcante, Maria Alina Gomes de Mattos; Pinto, Tiago Costa; Moura, Izolda Fernades; Loureiro Júnior, Luiz

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to analyze the serum levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and the hematocrit in patients with chronic kidney disease who were undergoing peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis. Twenty patients on peritoneal dialysis and 40 on hemodialysis were assessed, and the patients were matched according to the length of time that they had been on dialysis. Blood samples were collected (both before and after the session for those on hemodialysis) to measure the enzymes and the hematocrit. In the samples from the patients who were undergoing peritoneal dialysis, the aspartate and alanine aminotransferase levels were slightly higher compared with the samples collected from the patients before the hemodialysis session and slightly lower compared with the samples collected after the hemodialysis session. The levels of gamma-glutamyl transferase in the hemodialysis patients were slightly higher than the levels in the patients who were undergoing peritoneal dialysis. In addition, the levels of aminotransferases and gamma-glutamyl transferase that were collected before the hemodialysis session were significantly lower than the values collected after the session. The hematocrit levels were significantly lower in the patients who were on peritoneal dialysis compared with the patients on hemodialysis (both before and after the hemodialysis session), and the levels were also significantly lower before hemodialysis compared with after hemodialysis. The aminotransferase levels in the patients who were undergoing peritoneal dialysis were slightly higher compared with the samples collected before the hemodialysis session, whereas the aminotransferase levels were slightly lower compared with the samples collected after the session. The hematocrits and the aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase levels of the samples collected after the hemodialysis session were significantly higher than the samples collected before

  16. Developments in Young Infants' Reasoning about Occluded Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiar, Andrea; Baillargeon, Renee

    2002-01-01

    Eight experiments were conducted to examine 3- and 3.5-month-old infants' responses to occlusion events. The results revealed two developments, one in infants' knowledge of when objects should and should not be occluded and the other in infants' ability to posit additional objects to make sense of events that would otherwise violate their…

  17. Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Rose Anne; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Nishi, Letícia; Araujo, Silvana Marques

    2008-08-01

    Chronic renal insufficiency disease (CRI) leads to uremia in hemodialysis patients and induces a state of immunodepression that results in higher frequencies of infections and diarrhea. Hemodialysis patients resident in the city of Campo Mourão, Paraná, Brazil were analyzed from April 2006 through September 2007 for Blastocystis sp. and other intestinal parasites and for associated diarrhea. Fecal samples from 86 hemodialysis patients and 146 healthy (reference) persons were examined by standard methods for detecting ova, larvae and cysts, which included preservation in 10% formalin and the Kinyoun method. Thirty-three hemodialysis patients (45.1%) and 36 reference individuals (25.7%) were found to be parasitized. The differences in the percentages of parasitism and polyparasitism between the reference group and the chronic renal patients was significant (p= 0.0318 and 0.0019, respectively). Blastocystis sp. (18%-20.1%), Endolimax nana (14%-16.3%), Cryptosporidium sp. (4%-4.7%) and Entamoeba coli (4%-4.7%) were the most frequent protozoa found in the hemodialysis patients. Parasitism was not significantly associated with diarrhea (p=0.9947) or with decreased white blood cell counts (p=0.7046) in these individuals. Because parasitic infections may be an important comorbidity factor in hemodialysis patients, we suggest that parasitological stool examinations, especially for Blastocystis sp. and Cryptosporidium sp., be included in routine medical follow-up examinations of these patients.

  18. Percutaneous closure of a post-traumatic ventricular septal defect with a patent ductus arteriosus occluder.

    PubMed

    Xi, Er-Ping; Zhu, Jian; Zhu, Shui-Bo; Yin, Gui-Lin; Liu, Yong; Dong, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Feng

    2012-11-01

    Ventricular septal defects resulting from post-traumatic cardiac injury are very rare. Percutaneous closure has emerged as a method for treating this disorder. We wish to report our experience in three patients who underwent percutaneous closure of a post-traumatic ventricular septal defect with a patent ductus arteriosus occluder. We treated three patients with post-traumatic ventricular septal defects caused by stab wounds with knives. After the heart wound was repaired, patient examinations revealed ventricular septal defects with pulmonary/systemic flow ratios (Qp/Qs) of over 1.7. The post-traumatic ventricular septal defects were closed percutaneously with a patent ductus arteriosus occluder (Lifetech Scientific (Shenzhen) Co., LTD, Guangdong, China) utilizing standard techniques. Post-operative transthoracic echocardiography revealed no residual left-to-right shunt and indicated normal ventricular function. In addition, 320-slice computerized tomography showed that the occluder was well placed and exhibited normal morphology. Our experiences indicate that closure of a post-traumatic ventricular septal defect using a patent ductus arteriosus occluder is feasible, safe, and effective.

  19. Percutaneous closure of a post-traumatic ventricular septal defect with a patent ductus arteriosus occluder

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Er-Ping; Zhu, Jian; Zhu, Shui-Bo; Yin, Gui-Lin; Liu, Yong; Dong, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Feng

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ventricular septal defects resulting from post-traumatic cardiac injury are very rare. Percutaneous closure has emerged as a method for treating this disorder. We wish to report our experience in three patients who underwent percutaneous closure of a post-traumatic ventricular septal defect with a patent ductus arteriosus occluder. METHODS: We treated three patients with post-traumatic ventricular septal defects caused by stab wounds with knives. After the heart wound was repaired, patient examinations revealed ventricular septal defects with pulmonary/systemic flow ratios (Qp/Qs) of over 1.7. The post-traumatic ventricular septal defects were closed percutaneously with a patent ductus arteriosus occluder (Lifetech Scientific (Shenzhen) Co., LTD, Guangdong, China) utilizing standard techniques. RESULTS: Post-operative transthoracic echocardiography revealed no residual left-to-right shunt and indicated normal ventricular function. In addition, 320-slice computerized tomography showed that the occluder was well placed and exhibited normal morphology. CONCLUSION: Our experiences indicate that closure of a post-traumatic ventricular septal defect using a patent ductus arteriosus occluder is feasible, safe, and effective. PMID:23184204

  20. Photodynamic therapy for occluded biliary metal stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Joseph V. E.; Krasner, Neville; Sturgess, R.

    1999-02-01

    In this abstract we describe the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to recanalize occluded biliary metal stents. In patients with jaundice secondary to obstructed metal stents PDT was carried out 72 hours after the administration of m THPC. Red laser light at 652 nm was delivered endoscopically at an energy intensity of 50 J/cm. A week later endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram showed complete recanalization of the metal stent.

  1. Intramural esophageal bleeding in a hemodialysis patient

    PubMed Central

    Lien, J. W. K.; Dufresne, L. R.; Daly, D. S.

    1974-01-01

    A case of intramural esophageal hemorrhage in a hemodialysis patient is described. The hemorrhage followed an episode of vomiting and violent retching. Spontaneous resolution occurred with conservative management. The clinical course resembled that of previous case reports of intramural esophageal hemorrhage, whether or not associated with chronic renal failure and intermittent hemodialysis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 PMID:4434294

  2. Extended Duration Nocturnal Hemodialysis and Changes in Plasma Metabolite Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kalim, Sahir; Wald, Ron; Yan, Andrew T; Goldstein, Marc B; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Xu, Dihua; Berg, Anders H; Clish, Clary; Thadhani, Ravi; Rhee, Eugene P; Perl, Jeffrey

    2018-03-07

    In-center, extended duration nocturnal hemodialysis has been associated with variable clinical benefits, but the effect of extended duration hemodialysis on many established uremic solutes and other components of the metabolome is unknown. We determined the magnitude of change in metabolite profiles for patients on extended duration nocturnal hemodialysis. In a 52-week prospective, observational study, we followed 33 patients receiving conventional thrice weekly hemodialysis who converted to nocturnal hemodialysis (7-8 hours per session, three times per week). A separate group of 20 patients who remained on conventional hemodialysis (3-4 hours per session, three times per week) served as a control group. For both groups, we applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling on stored plasma samples collected from all participants at baseline and after 1 year. We examined longitudinal changes in 164 metabolites among those who remained on conventional hemodialysis and those who converted to nocturnal hemodialysis using Wilcoxon rank sum tests adjusted for multiple comparisons (false discovery rate <0.05). On average, the nocturnal group had 9.6 hours more dialysis per week than the conventional group. Among 164 metabolites, none changed significantly from baseline to study end in the conventional group. Twenty-nine metabolites changed in the nocturnal group, 21 of which increased from baseline to study end (including all branched-chain amino acids). Eight metabolites decreased after conversion to nocturnal dialysis, including l-carnitine and acetylcarnitine. By contrast, several established uremic retention solutes, including p -cresol sulfate, indoxyl sulfate, and trimethylamine N -oxide, did not change with extended dialysis. Across a wide array of metabolites examined, extended duration hemodialysis was associated with modest changes in the plasma metabolome, with most differences relating to metabolite increases, despite increased

  3. The effect of hemodialysis on balance measurements and risk of fall.

    PubMed

    Erken, Ertugrul; Ozelsancak, Ruya; Sahin, Safak; Yılmaz, Emine Ece; Torun, Dilek; Leblebici, Berrin; Kuyucu, Yunus Emre; Sezer, Siren

    2016-10-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have increased risk of falls and fall-related complications. Other than aging and factors related to chronic kidney disease, treatment of hemodialysis may also contribute to this increased risk. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the impairment of balance after a session of hemodialysis with a quantitative assessment and reveal an increased fall risk that would possibly be related to treatment of hemodialysis for patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Fifty-six patients with ESRD on chronic hemodialysis program and 53 healthy individuals were involved in this study. Fall Index percentages were calculated, and fall risk categories were determined for all patients and healthy controls using Tetrax posturography device (Sunlight Medical Ltd Israel). The patient group was evaluated twice for balance, before and after a routine session of hemodialysis. Fall Index scores of healthy controls were lower than that of ESRD patients (p = 0.001). In the patient group, we found the mean Fall Index to be significantly higher at the post-dialysis assessment compared to the pre-dialysis assessment (p = 0.003). The number of patients with high risk of falling also increased at the post-dialysis assessment yet the difference did not reach significance. Fall Index was correlated with the increase in age only at the pre-dialysis balance measurement (p = 0.038). Patients with better dialysis adequacy had significantly lower Fall Index scores than the others at the pre-dialysis balance measurement (p = 0.004). The difference was not significant at the post-dialysis measurement. In the current study, we evaluated the balance of ESRD patients before and after a routine session of hemodialysis treatment. This is the first study to investigate the effect of hemodialysis on balance, using an electronic posturographic balance system. We found the Fall Index score to be significantly higher after hemodialysis, indicating a negative

  4. The Language of Coping: Understanding Filipino Geriatric Patients' Hemodialysis Lived Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Chy, Mark Anthony S.; Concepcion, April Faye P.; Conferido, Alvin John C.; Coretico, Kristine I.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Hemodialysis is a process of removing metabolic waste, other poisons, and excess fluids from the blood and replacing essential blood constituents through a dialysis machine. With hemodialysis causing stress not only to physical status but also to…

  5. Statins Improve Long Term Patency of Arteriovenous Fistula for Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hao-Hsiang; Chang, Yu-Kang; Lu, Chia-Wen; Huang, Chi-Ting; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Hsu, Chih-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    The protective effects of statins against stenosis for permanent hemodialysis access have been repeatedly demonstrated in animal studies, but remain controversial in human studies. This study aims to evaluate the association between statin use and permanent hemodialysis access patency using a nationwide hemodialysis cohort. A total of 9862 pairs of statin users and non-users, matched by age and gender, were selected for investigation from 75404 new hemodialysis patients during 2000–2008. The effect of statins on permanent hemodialysis access patency was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. Compared with non-users, statin users had an overall 18% risk reduction in the composite endpoint in which angioplasty and recreation were combined (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.82 [95%CI, 0.78–0.87]) and 21% in recreation of permanent hemodialysis access (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.79 [95%CI, 0.69–0.80]). Specifically, the protective effect was found for arteriovenous fistula (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.78[95% CI, 0.73–0.82] for composite endpoint and 0.74 [95% CI, 0.69–0.80] for vascular recreation), but not for arteriovenous grafts (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.10 [95% CI, 0.98–1.24] and 0.94 [95% CI, 0.83–1.07]). Statins possess a protective effect for arteriovenous fistula against the recreation of permanent hemodialysis access. The results provide a pharmaco-epidemiologic link between basic research and clinical evidence. PMID:26902330

  6. Efficacy of a Creon delayed-release pancreatic enzyme protocol for clearing occluded enteral feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, Janice L; Kurian, Rebecca M; Vuong, Jennifer; Dang, Kimberlyn; Kraft, Michael D

    2014-04-01

    Alkalinized Viokase pancreatic enzyme tablets restored patency to 71.9% of occluded Dobhoff tubes in a prospective study. After removal of Viokase tablets from the US market, the hospital protocol for unclogging enteral feeding tubes was adapted to use Creon pancreatic enzyme delayed-release capsules, despite the lack of published data. To evaluate the effectiveness of a Creon-based protocol to clear occluded enteral feeding tubes. This retrospective study included all adult and pediatric patients seen in the emergency department or in an inpatient setting who received Creon 12 000 units lipase delayed-release capsule dissolved in a solution of sodium bicarbonate 650 mg and sterile water for clearing occluded enteral feeding tubes between May 1 and November 30, 2010. The Creon protocol was deemed effective if tube clearance was documented in the medical record or if enteral feedings were resumed with no note regarding tube replacement. Alkalinized Creon delayed-release capsules were administered to 83 patients with a total of 118 clogged tubes. Three poorly documented cases and 5 tubes with mechanical clogs were excluded from data analysis. Patency was restored to 53 of 110 (48.2%) occluded tubes. More than 1 treatment course was attempted in 5 cases, with success in 3. An alkalinized Creon pancreatic enzyme protocol was effective in clearing approximately half of the occluded enteral feeding tubes in this retrospective study, an efficacy rate much less than that previously reported in the literature with a Viokase-based protocol.

  7. Diffusive Silicon Nanopore Membranes for Hemodialysis Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Steven; Feinberg, Benjamin; Kant, Rishi; Chui, Benjamin; Goldman, Ken; Park, Jaehyun; Moses, Willieford; Blaha, Charles; Iqbal, Zohora; Chow, Clarence; Wright, Nathan; Fissell, William H.; Zydney, Andrew; Roy, Shuvo

    2016-01-01

    Hemodialysis using hollow-fiber membranes provides life-sustaining treatment for nearly 2 million patients worldwide with end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, patients on hemodialysis have worse long-term outcomes compared to kidney transplant or other chronic illnesses. Additionally, the underlying membrane technology of polymer hollow-fiber membranes has not fundamentally changed in over four decades. Therefore, we have proposed a fundamentally different approach using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) fabrication techniques to create thin-flat sheets of silicon-based membranes for implantable or portable hemodialysis applications. The silicon nanopore membranes (SNM) have biomimetic slit-pore geometry and uniform pores size distribution that allow for exceptional permeability and selectivity. A quantitative diffusion model identified structural limits to diffusive solute transport and motivated a new microfabrication technique to create SNM with enhanced diffusive transport. We performed in vitro testing and extracorporeal testing in pigs on prototype membranes with an effective surface area of 2.52 cm2 and 2.02 cm2, respectively. The diffusive clearance was a two-fold improvement in with the new microfabrication technique and was consistent with our mathematical model. These results establish the feasibility of using SNM for hemodialysis applications with additional scale-up. PMID:27438878

  8. Numerical procedure to determine geometric view factors for surfaces occluded by cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, P. L.

    1978-01-01

    A numerical procedure was developed to determine geometric view factors between connected infinite strips occluded by any number of infinite circular cylinders. The procedure requires a two-dimensional cross-sectional model of the configuration of interest. The two-dimensional model consists of a convex polygon enclosing any number of circles. Each side of the polygon represents one strip, and each circle represents a circular cylinder. A description and listing of a computer program based on this procedure are included in this report. The program calculates geometric view factors between individual strips and between individual strips and the collection of occluding cylinders.

  9. [Auto-dialysis: an 11-year experience of a hemodialysis center in France].

    PubMed

    Montagnac, R; Schillinger, F

    1996-03-30

    Report 11 years of experience with self-managed hemodialysis in patients medically apt for extra-hospital dialysis and living close enough to small outpatient hemodialysis units to become totally self-sufficient. Among the 276 patients with chronic renal failure managed at the hemodialysis center at the Troyes hospital during the 11-year study period from 1984 through 1994, self-managed hemodialysis at small outpatient units was initiated in 127 (46%). None of these 127 patients required medical assistance or specific care during dialysis sessions. At initial hospital admission, only 60/127 (47%) were totally self-sufficient: 52 (41%) were later graft recipients; and 21 (16.5%) had to return to the hospital for a medical or surgical condition incompatible with extra-hospital care but all of these 21 patients remained self-sufficient. Extra-hospital hemodialysis in units close to the patients residence offers patients a better quality of life, even when medical assistance is required. All patients who require hemodialysis can thus be treated at lower cost without compromising quality of treatment. Perfect self-sufficiency may not be a goal in itself, but self-managed hemodialysis can be a very useful technique for patients without major medical problems. Continuing contact with the organizing hemodialysis center guarantees the safety of the system.

  10. Quality of Life and Self-Efficacy in Three Dialysis Modalities: Incenter Hemodialysis, Home Hemodialysis, and Home Peritoneal Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Linda S; Wilson, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated improved outcomes for patients on dialysis who have better quality of life and self-efficacy, but has focused almost exclusively on those receiving hemodialysis. The goal of this study was to describe the quality of life and self-efficacy of patients receiving incenter hemodialysis versus those receiving a home dialysis modality (hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis). The study utilized a correlational cross-sectional design and quota sampling methods. Participants were recruited from outpatient dialysis facilities and included 77 community dwelling adult patients who had been on dialysis for at least six months. Quality of life was measured using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life instrument, and self-efficacy was measured using the Strategies Used by People to Promote Health instrument. Findings suggest equal outcomes between treatment groups, with no contraindication to the use of home therapies.

  11. The influence of maintenance quality of hemodialysis machines on hemodialysis efficiency.

    PubMed

    Azar, Ahmad Taher

    2009-01-01

    Several studies suggest that there is a correlation between dose of dialysis and machine maintenance. However, in spite of the current practice, there are conflicting reports regarding the relationship between dose of dialysis or patient outcome, and machine maintenance. In order to evaluate the impact of hemodialysis machine maintenance on dialysis adequacy Kt/V and session performance, data were processed on 134 patients on 3-times-per-week dialysis regimens by dividing the patients into four groups and also dividing the hemodialysis machines into four groups according to their year of installation. The equilibrated dialysis dose eq Kt/V, urea reduction ratio (URR) and the overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) were calculated in each group to show the effect hemodialysis machine efficiency on the overall session performance. The average working time per machine per month was 270 hours. The cumulative number of hours according to the year of installation was: 26,122 hours for machines installed in 1998; 21,596 hours for machines installed in 1999, 8362 hours for those installed in 2003 and 2486 hours for those installed in 2005. The mean time between failures (MTBF) was 1.8, 2.1, 4.2 and 6 months between failures for machines installed in 1999, 1998, 2003 and 2005, respectively. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the dialysis dose eq Kt/V and URR were increased as the overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) increases with regular maintenance procedures. Maintenance has become one of the most expedient approaches to guarantee high machine dependability. The efficiency of dialysis machine is relevant in assuring a proper dialysis adequacy.

  12. Cotton-Top Tamarins' ("Saguinus Oedipus") Expectations about Occluded Objects: A Dissociation between Looking and Reaching Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Laurie R.; Seelig, David; Hauser, Marc D.

    2006-01-01

    Recent work with human infants and toddlers suggests a dissociation between performance on looking and reaching tasks. Specifically, infants appear to generate accurate representations of occluded objects and their actions when tested in expectancy violation looking tasks but often fail to use this information when reaching for occluded objects.…

  13. Inpatient Dialysis Unit Project Development: Redesigning Acute Hemodialysis Care.

    PubMed

    Day, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Executive leaders of an acute care hospital performed a market and financial analysis, and created a business plan to establish an inpatient hemodialysis unit operated by the hospital to provide safe, high-quality, evidence-based care to the population of individuals experiencing end stage renal disease (ESRD) within the community. The business plan included a SWOT (Strengths - Weaknesses - Opportunities - Threats) analysis to assess advantages of the hospital providing inpatient hemodialysis services versus outsourcing the services with a contracted agency. The results of the project were a newly constructed tandem hemodialysis room and an operational plan with clearly defined key performance indicators, process improvement initiatives, and financial goals. This article provides an overview of essential components of a business plan to guide the establishment of an inpatient hemodialysis unit. Copyright© by the American Nephrology Nurses Association.

  14. The relevance of dietary sodium in hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Mc Causland, Finnian R.; Waikar, Sushrut S.; Brunelli, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Since the earliest days of hemodialysis, dietary sodium restriction has been recommended as a therapeutic means to mitigate problems of extracellular volume overload, hypertension and inter-dialytic weight gain. Recently, there has been a proliferation of human subjects' research examining the potential effects of dietary sodium curtailment. Herein we examine the available evidence with respect to the effects of dietary sodium restriction on clinically relevant endpoints among hemodialysis patients. PMID:23129821

  15. Endovascular Revascularization of Chronically Thrombosed Arteriovenous Fistulas and Grafts for Hemodialysis: A Retrospective Study in 15 Patients With 18 Access Sites

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Weng Meijui; Chen, Matt Chiung-Yu, E-mail: jjychen@gmail.com; Chi Wenche

    2011-04-15

    The current study retrospectively evaluated whether endovascular revascularization of chronically thrombosed and long-discarded vascular access sites for hemodialysis was feasible. Technical and clinical success rates, postintervention primary and secondary patency rates, and complications were reported. During a 1-year period, we reviewed a total of 924 interventions performed for dysfunction and/or failed hemodialysis vascular access sites and permanent catheters in 881 patients. In patients whose vascular access-site problems were considered untreatable or were considered treatable with a high risk of failure and access-site abandonment, we attempted to revascularize (resurrect) the chronically occluded and long-discarded (mummy) vascular access sites. We attempted tomore » resurrect a total of 18 mummy access sites (mean age 46.6 {+-} 38.7 months; range 5-144) in 15 patients (8 women and 7 men; mean age 66.2 {+-} 11.5 years; age range 50-85) and had an overall technical success rate of 77.8%. Resurrection failure occurred in 3 fistulas and in 1 straight graft. The clinical success rate was 100% at 2 months after resurrection. In the 14 resurrected vascular access sites, 6 balloon-assisted maturation procedures were required in 5 fistulas; after access-site maturation, a total of 22 interventions were performed to maintain access-site patency. The mean go-through time for successful resurrection procedures was 146.6 {+-} 34.3 min (range 74-193). Postmaturation primary patency rates were 71.4 {+-} 12.1% at 30 days, 57.1 {+-} 13.2% at 60 days, 28.6 {+-} 13.4% at 90 days, and 19 {+-} 11.8% at 180 days. Postmaturation secondary patency rates were 100% at 30, 60, and 90 days and 81.8 {+-} 11.6% at 180 days. There were 2 major complications consisting of massive venous ruptures in 2 mummy access sites during balloon dilation; in both cases, prolonged balloon inflation failed to achieve hemostasis, but percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate glue seal-off was performed

  16. Closure of the patent ductus arteriosus with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II: a clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Karagöz, Tevfik; Akin, Alper; Ertuğrul, Ilker; Aykan, Hayrettin Hakan; Alehan, Dursun; Ozer, Sema; Ozkutlu, Süheyla

    2012-12-01

    The aim of our study was to share our clinical experience on cases with patent ductus arteriosus treated with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II. Between 2008 and 2012, 26 of 31 patients with patent ductus arteriosus underwent successful transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus using the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II. Mean age was 3.3 years and mean weight was 15.7 kilograms. The presence of a residual shunt, left pulmonary artery or aortic obstruction was explored by administering contrast material during the procedure. The patients were discharged 24 hours after the procedure. The procedure was successful in 26 of 31 patients and failed in five patients. According to the Krichenko classification, 26 patients had type A, one patient had type B and 4 patients had type C ductus. The mean narrowest ductus diameter was 3.2 mm and the mean ductus length was 6.7 mm. Complete angiographic occlusion occurred immediately after the procedure in 22 out of 26 patients in whom the ductus was closed successfully with the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II. Complete occlusion was achieved in the remaining patients with residual shunt one month after the procedure. The procedure was preceded by closure with an Amplatzer Duct Occluder I in two patients and an Amplatzer Vascular Plug I in one patient. Amplatzer Duct Occluder II is highly effective in transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus. We think that an alternative closure device and alternative techniques can be attempted in patients with type C ductus. The success rate could increase with accumulating experience.

  17. Hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Butani, Lavjay; Calogiuri, Gianfranco

    2017-06-01

    To describe hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. PubMed search of articles published during the past 30 years with an emphasis on publications in the past decade. Case reports and review articles describing hypersensitivity reactions in the context of hemodialysis. Pharmacologic agents are the most common identifiable cause of hypersensitivity reactions in patients receiving hemodialysis. These include iron, erythropoietin, and heparin, which can cause anaphylactic or pseudoallergic reactions, and topical antibiotics and anesthetics, which lead to delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. Many hypersensitivity reactions are triggered by complement activation and increased bradykinin resulting from contact system activation, especially in the context of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use. Several alternative pharmacologic preparations and dialyzer membranes are available, such that once an etiology for the reaction is established, recurrences can be prevented without affecting the quality of care provided to patients. Although hypersensitivity reactions are uncommon in patients receiving hemodialysis, they can be life-threatening. Moreover, considering the large prevalence of the end-stage renal disease population, the implications of such reactions are enormous. Most reactions are pseudoallergic and not mediated by immunoglobulin E. The multiplicity of potential exposures and the complexity of the environment to which patients on dialysis are exposed make it challenging to identify the precise cause of these reactions. Great diligence is needed to investigate hypersensitivity reactions to avoid recurrence in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Transcatheter Closure of Bilateral Multiple Huge Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations with Homemade Double-Umbrella Occluders

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhong Hongshan, E-mail: zhonghongshan@hotmail.com; Xu Ke; Shao Haibo

    2008-07-15

    A 28-year-old man underwent successful transcatheter occlusion of three huge pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) using homemade double-umbrella occluders and stainless steel coils. Thoracic CT with three-dimensional reconstruction and pulmonary angiography were used for treatment planning and follow-up. The diameters of the feeding vessels were 11 mm, 13 mm, and 14 mm, respectively. This report demonstrates the novel design and utility of the double-umbrella occluder, an alternative tool for treatment of large PAVMs.

  19. Recanalisation of Chronically Occluded Remote Superficial Femoral Artery Endarterectomy Through Angioplasty for Limb Salvage

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Husainy, Mohammad Ali, E-mail: m.husainy@nhs.net; Slim, Hani; Rashid, Hisham

    2017-02-15

    We report a novel application of balloon angioplasty to recanalise a chronically occluded remote endarterectomy superficial femoral artery. This patient previously had two occluded surgical bypass grafts in an attempt to revascularise the limb and presented with critical limb ischaemia and necrotic foot ulcerations. Following the angioplasty, the patient showed significant improvement in rest pain and healing of the ulcerations. This technique may be useful for limb salvage in patients where surgical options have been exhausted.

  20. Safety and efficacy of nano lamellar TiN coatings on nitinol atrial septal defect occluders in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi xiong; Fu, Bu fang; Zhang, De yuan; Zhang, Zhi wei; Cheng, Yan; Sheng, Li yuan; Lai, Chen; Xi, Ting fei

    2013-04-01

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) occlusion devices made of nickel-titanium (NiTi) have a major shortcoming in that they release nickel into the body. We modified NiTi occluders using Arc Ion Plating technology. Nano lamellar titanium-nitrogen (TiN) coatings were formed on the surfaces of the occluders. The safety and efficacy of the modified NiTi occluders were evaluated in animal model. The results showed that 38 out of 39 rams (97%) survived at the end of the experiment. Fibrous capsules formed on the surfaces of the devices. Gradual endothelialization took place through the attachment of endothelial progenitor cells from the blood and the migration of endothelial cells from adjacent endocardium. The neo-endocardium formed more quickly in the coated group than in the uncoated group, as indicated by the evaluation of the six month study group. After TiN coating, there was no significant difference in endothelial cell cycle. TiN coating significantly reduced the release of nickel in both in vivo and in vitro indicating an improved biocompatibility of the nitinol ASD occluders. Superior and modified ASD occluders may provide a good choice for people with nickel allergies after sFDA registration, which is expected in one to two years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cardi-O-Fix duct occluder versus Amplatzer duct occluder for closure of patent ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed

    Celebi, Ahmet; Demir, Ibrahim Halil; Saritaş, Türkay; Dedeoğlu, Reyhan; Yucel, Ilker Kemal; Demir, Fadli; Erdem, Abdullah

    2013-11-15

    We sought to investigate the safety, efficacy, and follow-up results of percutaneous patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure using the novel Cardi-O-Fix duct occluder (CDO), a device similar to but less expensive than the Amplatzer duct occluder (ADO). We also aimed to compare these two devices in terms of results. Between March 2005 and May 2012, 167 patients diagnosed with moderate-to-large PDA underwent transcatheter closure. ADO was used in 56 (33.5%) patients with a mean age of 8.1 ± 11.9 years (3.6 months-56 years), whereas CDO was used in 111 (66.5%) patients with a mean age of 12.6 ± 14.6 years (4.8 months-63 years). The narrowest PDA diameter, the used device diameter, procedure time, fluoroscopy time, and residual shunt rates were similar between the two groups. Procedural success rate was 100% in both groups. Although the residual shunt rate was higher in the CDO group immediately after the procedure, the difference was not statistically significant (12.6 vs. 8.9%; P = 0.3). There was no statistically significant difference between groups at discharge and during follow-up. No deaths occurred in any of the groups, and there were no differences in complication rates during the short- and mid-term follow-up periods (CDO 7/111 vs. ADO 5/56; P = 0.5 π). The CDO can be used for PDA closure because of its safety, effectiveness, and simplicity in use. It is available in bigger sizes and can be used in patients with large defects. According to our short- and mid-term findings, the results it yields are similar to those of the ADO; thus, it may be the preferred choice owing to its low cost and large size variability. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. [Evaluation of cardiac complications among chronic hemodialysis in Dakar].

    PubMed

    Moustapha, Cissé Mouhamadou; Tall, Lemrabott Ahmed; Maria, Faye; Khodia, Fall; Moustapha, Faye; Fary, Ka El Hadji; Abdou, Niang; Boucar, Diouf

    2016-01-01

    Hemodialysis is the first extrarenal treatment method that allowed supporting patients in terminal chronic failure in Senegal since 1997. 25 years later, we conducted this study to determine the type and the prevalence of different cardiovascular complications and identify the main cardiovascular risk factors. It is a retrospective study of 4 years. 38 patients treated at least 6 months in hemodialysis and cardiovascular explorations with a front chest x-ray, electrocardiogram and cardiac ultrasound. All patients who have not started hemodialysis, treated less than 6 months in hemodialysis, treaties in peritoneal dialysis or having raised cardiovascular explorations were excluded. For each selected patient, we collected data epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical and evolutionary aspects of cardiovascular complications. 38 patients were included in this study. The average age was 52 years ± 12.85 and the sex ratio H/F of 1.53. Initial nephropathy was dominated by the néphroangiosclérose followed by diabetic nephropathy. Clinically the signs of appeal are marked by the effort dyspnea palpitations, chest pain and physically by the HTA, anemia. Cardiovascular complications were dominated by hypertrophy (LVH) left ventricular, rhythm type of arrhythmia disorders valvular leakage (mitral and tricuspid) and cerebral vascular accident (stroke). The average impact of LVH according the HTA is 81%, by sex of 78.26% for men and 60% for women. At the end of the study, 27 patients were pursuing hemodialysis and 11 had died 6 (54%) of cardiovascular cause. Hemodialysis is a common purification technique in Senegal and its complications remain especially dominated by abuses cardiovascular.

  3. Hemodialysis Arteriovenous Vascular Access Creation After Kidney Transplant Failure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Joyce C; Al-Jaishi, Ahmed; Perl, Jeffery; Garg, Amit X; Moist, Louise M

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about vascular access in patients starting hemodialysis therapy after kidney transplant failure. Retrospective cohort study. Adult patients (aged ≥18 years) who started hemodialysis therapy in Ontario, Canada, from January 1, 2001, through December 31, 2010, after kidney transplant failure. Patient clinical and demographic characteristics. Proportion and timing of arteriovenous (AV) vascular access creation (fistula or graft) 12 months prior and up to 24 months after starting hemodialysis therapy. Event rates and outcome predictors. Our cohort included 683 patients with a mean age of 48 years and >50% with comorbidity index score < 3. In the 12 months predialysis and 24 months postdialysis, 16% and 47% of patients had an AV access created, respectively. In the postdialysis period, 13%, 26%, and 38% of patients had an AV access creation at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively. History of coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, and peritoneal dialysis use prior to transplantation were associated with a lower likelihood of AV access creation. Residual selection bias from unmeasured variables beyond the data elements. In Ontario, AV access creation, both before and after starting hemodialysis therapy, is low in patients with kidney transplant failure despite their being younger and healthier compared to the overall hemodialysis population. This highlights the need for a predialysis care pathway in the transplantation clinic and an active strategy to identify this patient cohort receiving hemodialysis to align modality and access choices. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Epidemiology, surveillance, and prevention of bloodstream infections in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Patel, Priti R; Kallen, Alexander J; Arduino, Matthew J

    2010-09-01

    Infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are particularly problematic, accounting for a substantial number of hospitalizations in these patients. Hospitalizations for BSI and other vascular access infections appear to have increased dramatically in hemodialysis patients since 1993. These infections frequently are related to central venous catheter (CVC) use for dialysis access. Regional initiatives that have shown successful decreases in catheter-related BSIs in hospitalized patients have generated interest in replicating this success in outpatient hemodialysis populations. Several interventions have been effective in preventing BSIs in the hemodialysis setting. Avoiding the use of CVCs in favor of access types with lower associated BSI risk is among the most important. When CVCs are used, adherence to evidence-based catheter insertion and maintenance practices can positively influence BSI rates. In addition, facility-level surveillance to detect BSIs and stimulate examination of vascular access use and care practices is essential to a comprehensive approach to prevention. This article describes the current epidemiology of BSIs in hemodialysis patients and effective prevention strategies to decrease the incidence of these devastating infections.

  5. Effects of music on complications during hemodialysis for chronic renal failure patients.

    PubMed

    Koca Kutlu, Adalet; Eren, Ayşe Gül

    2014-10-01

    The study was planned as a case-control study to examine the effects of music on some of the complications experienced by chronic renal failure (CRF) patients during hemodialysis. A total of 60 patients (30 intervention and 30 control) diagnosed with end-stage renal failure undergoing hemodialysis treatment participated in this study. The study was conducted in Manisa Merkez Efendi State Hospital Hemodialysis Unit and Manisa Özel Anemon Hemodialysis between April 2012 and July 2012. The intervention group listened 30 minutes in each session (12 total sessions) Turkish art music at the beginning of the third hour of their hemodialysis sessions. Patient Information Form and visual analog scale to assess pain, nausea, vomiting, and cramps during hemodialysis session were used. For the analysis of data, the number, percentage, chi-square test, and significance test of independent group differences between two averages were conducted. According to the findings of the study, the average of the intervention and control group ages, respectively, was 50.86 ± 11.3 and 55.13 ± 9.68. The primary duration of hemodialysis treatment for both intervention and control groups was "1 year and above" (70.0%). The intervention group's pain and nausea scores were lower than the control group for all 12 sessions. The difference between the intervention and the control group's pain scores was significant (P < 0.05). However, in pain scores from the first session to 12th session, continuous decreasing trend was not observed. According to the results, music can be used as an independent nursing practice for reduction of complications for CRF patients receiving hemodialysis treatment. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  6. Dental calculus formation in children and adolescents undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carla; Siqueira, Walter Luiz; Oliveira, Elizabeth; Nicolau, José; Primo, Laura Guimarães

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to determine whether dental calculus formation is really higher among patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis than among controls. Furthermore, the study evaluated correlations between dental calculus formation and dental plaque, variables that are related to renal disease and/or saliva composition. The Renal Group was composed of 30 patients undergoing hemodialysis, whereas the Healthy Group had 30 clinically healthy patients. Stimulated whole saliva and parotid saliva were collected. Salivary flow rate and calcium and phosphate concentrations were determined. In the Renal Group the saliva collection was carried out before and after a hemodialysis session. Patients from both groups received intraoral exams, oral hygiene instructions, and dental scaling. Three months later, the dental calculus was measured by the Volpe-Manhold method to determine the rate of dental calculus formation. The Renal Group presented a higher rate of dental calculus formation (p < 0.01). Correlation was observed between rate of dental calculus formation and whole saliva flow rate in the Renal Group after a hemodialysis session (r = 0.44, p < 0.05). The presence of dental calculus was associated with phosphate concentration in whole saliva from the Renal Group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, patients undergoing hemodialysis presented accelerated dental calculus formation, probably due to salivary variables.

  7. The home hemodialysis hub: physical infrastructure and integrated governance structure.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Mark R; Young, Bessie A; Fox, Sally J; Cleland, Calli J; Walker, Robert J; Masakane, Ikuto; Herold, Aaron M

    2015-04-01

    An effective home hemodialysis program critically depends on adequate hub facilities and support functions and on transparent and accountable organizational processes. The likelihood of optimal service delivery and patient care will be enhanced by fit-for-purpose facilities and implementation of a well-considered governance structure. In this article, we describe the required accommodation and infrastructure for a home hemodialysis program and a generic organizational structure that will support both patient-facing clinical activities and business processes. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  8. Effects of Frequent Hemodialysis on Ventricular Volumes and Left Ventricular Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Tom; Chertow, Glenn M.; Kliger, Alan S.; Stokes, John B.; Beck, Gerald J.; Daugirdas, John T.; Kotanko, Peter; Larive, Brett; Levin, Nathan W.; Mehta, Ravindra L.; Rocco, Michael; Sanz, Javier; Yang, Phillip C.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Higher left ventricular volume is associated with death in patients with ESRD. This work investigated the effects of frequent hemodialysis on ventricular volumes and left ventricular remodeling. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Frequent Hemodialysis Network daily trial randomized 245 patients to 12 months of six times per week versus three times per week in-center hemodialysis; the Frequent Hemodialysis Network nocturnal trial randomized 87 patients to 12 months of six times per week nocturnal hemodialysis versus three times per week predominantly home-based hemodialysis. Left and right ventricular end systolic and diastolic volumes, left ventricular mass, and ejection fraction at baseline and end of the study were ascertained by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The ratio of left ventricular mass/left ventricular end diastolic volume was used as a surrogate marker of left ventricular remodeling. In each trial, the effect of frequent dialysis on left or right ventricular end diastolic volume was tested between predefined subgroups. Results In the daily trial, frequent hemodialysis resulted in significant reductions in left ventricular end diastolic volume (−11.0% [95% confidence interval, −16.1% to −5.5%]), left ventricular end systolic volume (−14.8% [−22.7% to −6.2%]), right ventricular end diastolic volume (−11.6% [−19.0% to −3.6%]), and a trend for right ventricular end systolic volume (−11.3% [−21.4% to 0.1%]) compared with conventional therapy. The magnitude of reduction in left and right ventricular end diastolic volumes with frequent hemodialysis was accentuated among patients with residual urine output<100 ml/d (P value [interaction]=0.02). In the nocturnal trial, there were no significant changes in left or right ventricular volumes. The frequent dialysis interventions had no substantial effect on the ratio of left ventricular mass/left ventricular end diastolic volume in either

  9. [Control of viral hepatitis in Lithuanian hemodialysis centers in 1997-2001].

    PubMed

    Ziginskiene, Edita; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Kupcinskas, Limas; Stankuviene, Asta

    2003-01-01

    Hemodialysis patients are a high-risk group for hepatitis B and C virus infections. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of B and C viral hepatitis, level of its control among patients on hemodialysis. In December of 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001 we visited all hemodialysis centers of Lithuania and gathered information about these infections in patients on hemodialysis. Eleven percent (11.4%) of all hemodialysis patients were not examined for HB(s)Ag and 15.2% for anti-HCV, 67.3%--for anti-HB(s) and 57.7% for anti-HBc in 2001. The number of examined patients for the markers of hepatitis had increased in 2001 in comparison with 1997. The same number of hemodialysis patients with HB(s)Ag was found in each year of study (14% in 1997, 14.4% in 2001). We observed the decrease in percentage of anti-HCV positive patients from 23% in 1998 till 15.4% (p<0.01) in 2001. Only 10.6% hepatitis B virus vaccinated patients was registered in 2001 and this percentage increased if compared to 6.3% in 1999. About (1/4) of anti-HB(c) positive patients were HB(s)Ag positive in 2000-2001. Chronic hepatitis B could be diagnosed for them. The duration of hemodialysis of HB(s)Ag and anti-HCV positive patients was longer compared to HB(s)Ag and anti-HCV negative patients (p<0.001).

  10. Association of Proteinuria with Central Venous Catheter Use at Initial Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Ken J; Johnson, Eric S; Smith, Ning; Mosen, David M; Thorp, Micah L

    2017-01-01

    Central venous catheter (CVC) use is associated with increased mortality and complications in hemodialysis recipients. Although prevalent CVC use has decreased, incident use remains high. To examine characteristics associated with CVC use at initial dialysis, specifically looking at proteinuria as a predictor of interest. Retrospective cohort of 918 hemodialysis recipients from Kaiser Permanente Northwest who started hemodialysis from January 1, 2004, to January 1, 2014. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine an association of proteinuria with the primary outcome of CVC use. More than one-third (36%) of patients in our cohort started hemodialysis with an arteriovenous fistula, and 64% started with a CVC. Proteinuria was associated with starting hemodialysis with a CVC (likelihood ratio test, p < 0.001) after adjustment for age, peripheral vascular disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes, sex, race, and length of predialysis care. However, on pairwise comparison, only patients with midgrade proteinuria (0.5-3.5 g) had lower odds of starting hemodialysis with a CVC (odds ratio = 0.39, 95% confidence interval = 0.24-0.65). Proteinuria was associated with use of CVC at initial hemodialysis. However, a graded association did not exist, and only patients with midgrade proteinuria had significantly lower odds of CVC use. Our findings suggest that proteinuria is an explanatory finding for CVC use but may not have pragmatic value for decision making. Patients with lower levels of proteinuria may have a higher risk of starting dialysis with a CVC.

  11. [Parallels in development of hemodialysis service and kidney transplantations in Lithuania during 1996-2005].

    PubMed

    Ziginskiene, Edita; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Bumblyte, Inga Arūne; Santockiene, Lina; Dalinkeviciene, Egle; Kardauskaite, Zydrūne; Uogintaite, Jurgita; Motiejūnaite, Agne; Butautas, Ernestas; Vainauskas, Vaclovas; Macius, Kazimieras; Sakalauskiene, Marija; Steckis, Ricardas; Gaupsiene, Egle; Urbanaviciene, Jūrate; Labutiene, Vilma

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the changes in hemodialysis service, main demographic characteristics of hemodialysis patients in Lithuania during 1996-2005, and their correlation with the number of recipients on the kidney waiting list. During the study period, we annually visited all hemodialysis centers in Lithuania and collected data about all hemodialysis patients. There was a sharp increase in the number of hemodialysis centers (from 17 to 43), hemodialysis stations (from 25 to 100 per million population, P<0.001), hemodialysis patients (from 60 to 312 per million population, P<0.001), and new hemodialysis patients (from 54.3 to 95 per million population, P<0.01). The mean age of hemodialysis patients increased from 47.2+/-16.1 years in 1996 to 58.8+/-15.6 years in 2005 (P<0.001). Hemodialysis population became older. The percentage of patients aged more than 60 years increased from 22.8% to 53.2% (P<0.001) and aged more than 70 years from 5.4% to 24.4% (P<0.001). The frequency of chronic glomerulonephritis as underlying disease of end-stage renal disease decreased from 54.5% in 1996 to 21.1% in 2005 (P<0.001). There was an increase in the percentage of patients in whom end-stage renal disease was caused by diabetic (from 7.1% to 19.2%, P<0.01) and hypertensive nephropathies (from 3.1% to 13.9%, P<0.05) and chronic pyelonephritis (from 11.2% to 17.9%, P<0.01). The percentage of recipients on the kidney waiting list decreased from 71.4% in 1996 to 21.1% in 2005. In summary, during the last 9 years, hemodialysis service in Lithuania significantly expanded. The number of hemodialysis patients was continuously rising with predominance of diabetic, hypertensive, and elderly patients. Diabetic nephropathy, chronic glomerulonephritis, and pyelonephritis were the main underlying diseases of end-stage renal disease in hemodialysis patients in 2005. The percentage of recipients on the kidney waiting list decreased probably because of the rise in the number of

  12. Translation in cardiovascular stents and occluders: From biostable to fully degradable

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yingying; Wong, Yee Shan; Ng, Herr Cheun Anthony; Boey, Freddy Y. C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in developed countries. Most academic research efforts in cardiovascular disease management focus on pharmacological interventions, or are concerned with discovering new disease markers for diagnosis and monitoring. Nonpharmacological interventions with therapeutic devices, conversely, are driven largely by novel materials and device design. Examples of such devices include coronary stents, heart valves, ventricular assist devices, and occluders for septal defects. Until recently, development of such devices remained largely with medical device companies. We trace the materials evolution story in two of these devices (stents and occluders), while also highlighting academic contributions, including our own, to the evolution story. Specifically, it addresses not only our successes, but also the challenges facing the translatability of concepts generated via academic research. PMID:29313029

  13. Epidemiology, surveillance, and prevention of hepatitis C virus infections in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Patel, Priti R; Thompson, Nicola D; Kallen, Alexander J; Arduino, Matthew J

    2010-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the most common chronic blood-borne infection in the United States; the prevalence in maintenance hemodialysis patients substantially exceeds that in the general population. In hemodialysis patients, HCV infection has been associated with increased occurrence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and increased mortality. Injection drug use and receipt of blood transfusions before 1992 has accounted for most prevalent HCV infections in the United States. However, HCV transmission among patients undergoing hemodialysis has been documented frequently. Outbreak investigations have implicated lapses in infection control practices as the cause of HCV infections. Preventing these infections is an emerging priority for renal care providers, public health agencies, and regulators. Adherence to recommended infection control practices is effective in preventing HCV transmission in hemodialysis facilities. In addition, adoption of routine screening to facilitate the detection of incident HCV infections and hemodialysis-related transmission is an essential component of patient safety and infection prevention efforts. This article describes the current epidemiology of HCV infection in US maintenance hemodialysis patients and prevention practices to decrease its incidence and transmission. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections in Patients on Emergent Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Moreno, Christian A; Spiegel, Daniel; Yalamanchili, Venkata; Kuo, Elizabeth; Quinones, Henry; Sreeramoju, Pranavi V; Luby, James P

    2016-03-01

    This study had 2 objectives: (1) to describe the epidemiology of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who have no access to scheduled dialysis and (2) to evaluate whether a positive culture of the heparin-lock solution is associated with subsequent development of bacteremia. Retrospective observational cohort design for objective 1; and prospective cohort design for objective 2. The study was conducted in a 770-bed public academic tertiary hospital in Dallas, Texas. The participants were patients with ESRD undergoing scheduled or emergent hemodialysis. We reviewed the records of 147 patients who received hemodialysis between January 2011 and May 2011 and evaluated the rate of CRBSI in the previous 5 years. For the prospective study, we cultured the catheter heparin-lock solution in 62 consecutive patients between June 2012 and August 2012 and evaluated the incidence of CRBSI at 6 months. Of the 147 patients on emergent hemodialysis, 125 had a tunneled catheter, with a CRBSI rate of 2.61 per 1,000 catheter days. The predominant organisms were Gram-negative rods (GNR). In the prospective study, we found that the dialysis catheter was colonized more frequently in patients on emergent hemodialysis than in those on scheduled hemodialysis. Colonization with GNR or Staphylococcus aureus was associated with subsequent CRBSI at 6 months follow-up. Patients undergoing emergent hemodialysis via tunneled catheter are predisposed to Gram-negative CRBSI. Culturing the heparin-lock solution may predict subsequent episodes of CRBSI if it shows colonization with GNR or Staphylococcus aureus. Prevention approaches in this population need to be studied further.

  15. Uncemented total hip arthroplasty in chronic hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei-Chun; Shih, Chun-Hsiung; Ueng, Steve W; Shih, Hsin-Nung; Lee, Mel S

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Whether or not uncemented total hip arthroplasty (THA) can achieve durable fixation of implants to bone in patients on chronic hemodialysis is unknown. We analyzed the 2–13-year clinical outcomes of cementless THA in patients with end-stage renal diseases who were maintained on long-term hemodialysis. Patients and methods We reviewed the outcome of 23 consecutive uncemented THAs undertaken between 1993 and 2004, in patients with chronic renal failure who had been on long-term hemodialysis (2–18 years). 1 patient died and 2 patients were lost to follow-up within 2 years, leaving 20 hips (20 patients, median age 66 (38–81) years at the time of THA, 11 females) that were reviewed at median 7 (2–13) years postoperatively. Results Radiographic bone-ingrowth fixation of the components was found in 19 patients. 1 patient had aseptic loosening requiring revision surgery. The median d'Aubigne and Postel score was 10 (8–14) preoperatively and 15 (12–18) at final review. No prosthetic infections were found in any of the patients. Interpretation Uncemented THA shows promising medium-term results in patients receiving long-term hemodialysis. PMID:20175645

  16. Hypertension and hemodialysis: pathophysiology and outcomes in adult and pediatric populations.

    PubMed

    Van Buren, Peter N; Inrig, Jula K

    2012-03-01

    Hypertension is prevalent in adult and pediatric end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis. Volume overload is a primary factor contributing to hypertension, and attaining true dry weight remains a priority for nephrologists. Other contributing factors to hypertension include activation of the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems, endothelial cell dysfunction, arterial stiffness, exposure to hypertensinogenic drugs, and electrolyte imbalances during hemodialysis. Epidemiologic studies in adults show that uncontrolled hypertension results in cardiovascular morbidity, but reveal increased mortality risk at low blood pressure, so that it remains unclear what the target blood pressure should be. Despite the lack of a definitive BP target, gradual dry weight reduction should be the first intervention for BP control. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors have been shown to improve cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and are recommended as the initial pharmacologic therapy for hypertensive hemodialysis patients. Short-daily or nocturnal hemodialysis are also good therapeutic options for these patients. It is already established that hypertension in pediatric hemodialysis patients is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, and there is emerging evidence that the mechanisms causing hypertension are similar to adults. Hypertension in adult and pediatric hemodialysis patients warrants aggressive management, although clinical trial evidence of a target BP that improves mortality does not currently exist.

  17. Solar-Assisted Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Agar, John W. M.; Perkins, Anthony; Tjipto, Alwie

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Hemodialysis resource use—especially water and power, smarter processing and reuse of postdialysis waste, and improved ecosensitive building design, insulation, and space use—all need much closer attention. Regarding power, as supply diminishes and costs rise, alternative power augmentation for dialysis services becomes attractive. The first 12 months of a solar-assisted dialysis program in southeastern Australia is reported. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A 24-m2, 3-kWh rated solar array and inverter—total cost of A$16,219—has solar-assisted the dialysis-related power needs of a four-chair home hemodialysis training service. All array-created, grid-donated power and all grid-drawn power to the four hemodialysis machines and minireverse osmosis plant pairings are separately metered. After the grid-drawn and array-generated kilowatt hours have been billed and reimbursed at their respective commercial rates, financial viability, including capital repayment, can be assessed. Results From July of 2010 to July of 2011, the four combined equipment pairings used 4166.5 kWh, 9% more than the array-generated 3811.0 kWh. Power consumption at 26.7 c/kWh cost A$1145.79. Array-generated power reimbursements at 23.5 c/kWh were A$895.59. Power costs were, thus, reduced by 76.5%. As new reimbursement rates (60 c/kWh) take effect, system reimbursements will more than double, allowing both free power and potential capital pay down over 7.7 years. With expected array life of ∼30 years, free power and an income stream should accrue in the second and third operative decades. Conclusions Solar-assisted power is feasible and cost-effective. Dialysis services should assess their local solar conditions and determine whether this ecosensitive power option might suit their circumstance. PMID:22223614

  18. Computational evaluation of aortic occlusion and the proposal of a novel, improved occluder: Constrained endo-aortic balloon occlusion.

    PubMed

    de Vaal, M H; Gee, M W; Stock, U A; Wall, W A

    2016-12-01

    Because aortic occlusion is arguably one of the most dangerous aortic manipulation maneuvers during cardiac surgery in terms of perioperative ischemic neurological injury, the purpose of this investigation is to assess the structural mechanical impact resulting from the use of existing and newly proposed occluders. Existing (clinically used) occluders considered include different cross-clamps (CCs) and endo-aortic balloon occlusion (EABO). A novel occluder is also introduced, namely, constrained EABO (CEABO), which consists of applying a constrainer externally around the aorta when performing EABO. Computational solid mechanics are employed to investigate each occluder according to a comprehensive list of functional requirements. The potential of a state of occlusion is also considered for the first time. Three different constrainer designs are evaluated for CEABO. Although the CCs were responsible for the highest strains, largest deformation, and most inefficient increase of the occlusion potential, it remains the most stable, simplest, and cheapest occluder. The different CC hinge geometries resulted in poorer performance of CC used for minimally invasive procedures than conventional ones. CEABO with a profiled constrainer successfully addresses the EABO shortcomings of safety, stability, and positioning accuracy, while maintaining its complexities of operation (disadvantage) and yielding additional functionalities (advantage). Moreover, CEABO is able to achieve the previously unattainable potential to provide a clinically determinable state of occlusion. CEABO offers an attractive alternative to the shortcomings of existing occluders, with its design rooted in achieving the highest patient safety. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Experience and Self-Management of Fatigue in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Horigan, Ann E.; Schneider, Susan M.; Docherty, Sharron; Barroso, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue is a common and debilitating symptom for adult patients with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis and has been associated with decreased survival and quality of life. Patients on hemodialysis must find ways to manage their fatigue and mitigate its effects on their lives. Currently, there is no description of the experience of fatigue for patients on hemodialysis living in the U.S., nor is there any description of the ways in which they manage their fatigue. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive work was to describe the experience and self-management of fatigue. Several themes were identified which included: the nature of fatigue, management of fatigue, consequences of fatigue, and factors associated with fatigue. This information will be valuable to nephrology nurses as they continue to care for and educate patients on hemodialysis. PMID:23767335

  20. Holistic Care of Hemodialysis Access in Patients with Kidney Failure.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Michael V; Latham, Christine L

    2017-01-01

    Kidney failure requiring hemodialysis is a chronic illness that has physical, psychosocial, and financial consequences. Patients with kidney failure receiving hemodialysis need a renewed focus on self-care, prevention, and community-based health management to reduce healthcare costs and complications, and improve outcomes and quality of life, while living with an altered lifestyle. A holistic chronic care model was applied as a guideline for healthcare professionals involved with this population to more effectively engage people with kidney failure in their management of their hemodialysis access. Copyright© by the American Nephrology Nurses Association.

  1. Association of Proteinuria with Central Venous Catheter Use at Initial Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ken J; Johnson, Eric S; Smith, Ning; Mosen, David M; Thorp, Micah L

    2018-01-01

    Context Central venous catheter (CVC) use is associated with increased mortality and complications in hemodialysis recipients. Although prevalent CVC use has decreased, incident use remains high. Objective To examine characteristics associated with CVC use at initial dialysis, specifically looking at proteinuria as a predictor of interest. Design Retrospective cohort of 918 hemodialysis recipients from Kaiser Permanente Northwest who started hemodialysis from January 1, 2004, to January 1, 2014. Main Outcome Measures Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine an association of proteinuria with the primary outcome of CVC use. Results More than one-third (36%) of patients in our cohort started hemodialysis with an arteriovenous fistula, and 64% started with a CVC. Proteinuria was associated with starting hemodialysis with a CVC (likelihood ratio test, p < 0.001) after adjustment for age, peripheral vascular disease, congestive heart failure, diabetes, sex, race, and length of predialysis care. However, on pairwise comparison, only patients with midgrade proteinuria (0.5–3.5 g) had lower odds of starting hemodialysis with a CVC (odds ratio = 0.39, 95% confidence interval = 0.24–0.65). Conclusion Proteinuria was associated with use of CVC at initial hemodialysis. However, a graded association did not exist, and only patients with midgrade proteinuria had significantly lower odds of CVC use. Our findings suggest that proteinuria is an explanatory finding for CVC use but may not have pragmatic value for decision making. Patients with lower levels of proteinuria may have a higher risk of starting dialysis with a CVC. PMID:29236655

  2. Externalized decondensed neutrophil chromatin occludes pancreatic ducts and drives pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Leppkes, Moritz; Maueröder, Christian; Hirth, Sebastian; Nowecki, Stefanie; Günther, Claudia; Billmeier, Ulrike; Paulus, Susanne; Biermann, Mona; Munoz, Luis E.; Hoffmann, Markus; Wildner, Dane; Croxford, Andrew L.; Waisman, Ari; Mowen, Kerri; Jenne, Dieter E.; Krenn, Veit; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M.; Schett, Georg; Wirtz, Stefan; Neurath, Markus F.; Herrmann, Martin; Becker, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Ductal occlusion has been postulated to precipitate focal pancreatic inflammation, while the nature of the primary occluding agents has remained elusive. Neutrophils make use of histone citrullination by peptidyl arginine deiminase-4 (PADI4) in contact to particulate agents to extrude decondensed chromatin as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In high cellular density, NETs form macroscopically visible aggregates. Here we show that such aggregates form inside pancreatic ducts in humans and mice occluding pancreatic ducts and thereby driving pancreatic inflammation. Experimental models indicate that PADI4 is critical for intraductal aggregate formation and that PADI4-deficiency abrogates disease progression. Mechanistically, we identify the pancreatic juice as a strong instigator of neutrophil chromatin extrusion. Characteristic single components of pancreatic juice, such as bicarbonate ions and calcium carbonate crystals, induce aggregated NET formation. Ductal occlusion by aggregated NETs emerges as a pathomechanism with relevance in a plethora of inflammatory conditions involving secretory ducts. PMID:26964500

  3. Allergic contact dermatitis to epoxy resin in a hemodialysis cannula.

    PubMed

    Ng, P P; Leow, Y H; Ng, S K; Goh, C L

    1998-03-01

    A patient with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis presented with dermatitis, particularly over the arteriovenous fistulae sites on the forearm. Patch testing revealed a positive reaction to epoxy resin present in the glue that fixed the needle of the hemodialysis cannula.

  4. 21 CFR 876.5665 - Water purification system for hemodialysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Water purification system for hemodialysis. 876.5665 Section 876.5665 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5665 Water purification system for hemodialysis. (a)...

  5. Patent ductus arteriosus closure using Occlutech® Duct Occluder, experience in Port Elizabeth, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Pepeta, Lungile; Greyling, Adele; Nxele, Mahlubandile Fintan; Makrexeni, Zongezile Masonwabe

    2017-01-01

    Background: Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) has become standard therapy. Experience with the Occlutech® Duct Occluder is limited. Methods: Data regarding ductal closure using Occlutech® Duct Occluder were reviewed and prospectively collected. Demographics, hemodynamic and angiographic characteristics, complications, and outcomes were documented. Results: From March 2013 to June 2016, 65 patients (43 females and 22 males) underwent percutaneous closure of the PDA using Occlutech® Duct Occluder. The median age of the patients was 11 months (range, 1–454 months) and the median weight was 8.5 kg (range 2.5–78 kg). The mean pulmonary artery median pressure was 27 mmHg (range, 12–100 mmHg) and the QP: Qs ratio median was 1.8 (range, 1–7.5), with a pulmonary vascular resistance mean of 2.7 WU (standard deviation [SD] ±2.1). Thirty-two patients had Krichenko Type A duct (49%); 7, Type C (11%); 4, Type D (6%); and 22, Type E (34%). The ductal size (narrowest diameter at the pulmonic end) mean was 3.5 mm (SD ± 1.9 mm). The screening time mean was 17.3 min (SD ± 11.6). Out of 63 patients with successful closure of the PDA using Occlutech® Duct Occluder, there were 15 patients with small PDAs; 25 with moderate PDAs, and 23 with large PDAs. In one patient, the device dislodged to the descending aorta, and in two patients, to the right pulmonary artery immediately following deployment, with successful percutaneous (two) and surgical (one) retrieval. Complete ductal occlusion was achieved in all 63 patients on day one. Conclusion: The Occlutech® Duct Occluder is a safe and effective device for closure of ducts in appropriately selected patients. PMID:28566820

  6. Patent ductus arteriosus closure using Occlutech® Duct Occluder, experience in Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pepeta, Lungile; Greyling, Adele; Nxele, Mahlubandile Fintan; Makrexeni, Zongezile Masonwabe

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) has become standard therapy. Experience with the Occlutech® Duct Occluder is limited. Data regarding ductal closure using Occlutech® Duct Occluder were reviewed and prospectively collected. Demographics, hemodynamic and angiographic characteristics, complications, and outcomes were documented. From March 2013 to June 2016, 65 patients (43 females and 22 males) underwent percutaneous closure of the PDA using Occlutech® Duct Occluder. The median age of the patients was 11 months (range, 1-454 months) and the median weight was 8.5 kg (range 2.5-78 kg). The mean pulmonary artery median pressure was 27 mmHg (range, 12-100 mmHg) and the QP: Qs ratio median was 1.8 (range, 1-7.5), with a pulmonary vascular resistance mean of 2.7 WU (standard deviation [SD] ±2.1). Thirty-two patients had Krichenko Type A duct (49%); 7, Type C (11%); 4, Type D (6%); and 22, Type E (34%). The ductal size (narrowest diameter at the pulmonic end) mean was 3.5 mm (SD ± 1.9 mm). The screening time mean was 17.3 min (SD ± 11.6). Out of 63 patients with successful closure of the PDA using Occlutech® Duct Occluder, there were 15 patients with small PDAs; 25 with moderate PDAs, and 23 with large PDAs. In one patient, the device dislodged to the descending aorta, and in two patients, to the right pulmonary artery immediately following deployment, with successful percutaneous (two) and surgical (one) retrieval. Complete ductal occlusion was achieved in all 63 patients on day one. The Occlutech® Duct Occluder is a safe and effective device for closure of ducts in appropriately selected patients.

  7. Pan-nitinol occluder and special delivery device for closure of patent ductus arteriosus: a canine-model feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai-bin; Bai, Yuan; Zong, Gang-jun; Han, Lin; Li, Wei-ping; Lu, Yang; Qin, Yong-wen; Zhao, Xian-xian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a new type of occluder for patent ductus arteriosus. Patent ductus arteriosus was established in a canine model by anastomosing a length of autologous jugular vein to the descending aorta and the left pulmonary artery in an end-to-side fashion. Transcatheter closure of each patent ductus arteriosus was performed on 10 dogs, which were then monitored for as long as 6 months with aortography, echocardiography, and histologic evaluation. Transcatheter closure with use of the novel pan-nitinol device was successful in all canine models. Postoperative echocardiography showed that the location and shape of the occluders were normal, without any residual shunting. Further histologic evaluation confirmed that the occluder surface was completely endothelialized 3 months after implantation. Transcatheter patent ductus arteriosus closure with the pan-nitinol occluder can be performed safely and successfully in a canine model and shows good biological compatibility and low mortality rates.

  8. Gadolinium-enhanced digital subtraction angiography of hemodialysis fistulas: a diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Le Blanche, Alain-Ferdinand; Tassart, Marc; Deux, Jean-François; Rossert, Jérôme; Bigot, Jean-Michel; Boudghene, Frank

    2002-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and potential role of the contrast agent gadoterate meglumine for digital subtraction angiography as a single diagnostic procedure or before percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of malfunctioning native dialysis fistulas. Over a 20-month period, 23 patients (15 women, eight men) with an age range of 42-87 years (mean, 63 years) having end-stage renal insufficiency and with recent hemodialysis fistula surgical placement underwent gadoterate-enhanced digital subtraction angiography with a digital 1024 x 1024 matrix. Opacification was performed on the forearm, arm, and chest with the patient in the supine position using an injection (retrograde, n = 14; anterograde, n = 8; arterial, n = 1) of gadoterate meglumine into the perianastomotic fistula segment at a rate of 3 mL/sec for a total volume ranging from 24 to 32 mL. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was performed in three patients and required an additional 8 mL per procedure. Examinations were compared using a 3-step confidence scale and a two-radiologist agreement (Cohen's kappa statistic) for diagnostic and opacification quality. Tolerability was evaluated on the basis of serum creatinine levels and the development of complications. No impairment of renal function was found in the 15 patients who were not treated with hemodialysis. Serum creatinine level change varied from -11.9% to 11.6%. All studies were of diagnostic quality. The presence of stenosis (n = 14) or thrombosis (n = 3) in arteriovenous fistulas was shown with good interobserver agreement (kappa = 0.71-0.80) in relation to opacification quality (kappa = 0.59-0.84). No pain, neurologic complications, or allergiclike reactions occurred. Three percutaneous transluminal angioplasty procedures (brachiocephalic, n = 2; radiocephalic, n = 1) were successfully performed. Gadoterate-enhanced digital subtraction angiography is an effective and safe method to assess causes of malfunction of

  9. Sleep quality and spiritual well-being in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Rabiei, Leili; Khayri, Freidoon; Rashidi Nooshabadi, Mohammad Reza; Masoudi, Reza

    2014-07-01

    Sleep disorders are considered as one of the most important problems in hemodialysis patients, making their everyday life a serious hazard. Sleep quality of hemodialysis patients and consequences of sleep disorders on other aspects of health such as spiritual well-being are important issues. This study examined the relationship between spiritual well-being and quality of sleep in hemodialysis patients in Isfahan, Iran. This study was a correlation research, carried out on 190 hemodialysis patients. Data collection Questionnaires included demographic forms, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), and Ellison and Paloutzian spiritual well-being scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson correlation and linear regression analysis) at P < 0.05 significance level, by SPSS software version 18. Of 190 study participants, 163 (85.78%) with scores more than five index had sleep disturbances and 27 (14.12%) had no sleep disturbance; 3 (1.52%) had mild, 163 (85.78%) moderate, and 24 (12.30%) good spiritual health conditions. Pearson correlation test showed significant relationship between the sleep quality items of Pittsburg and spiritual well-being (P < 0.04, r = 0.149). Through the regression analyses of spiritual health, family, education, financial status, marital status, occupation, and use of sleep medication, the predictive power of these variables was found 0.417% and prediction of spiritual well-being was more than others (ß = 0.209). Considering bed as one of the most vital physical, mental, and emotional needs, it is very important in mental and spiritual well-being of hemodialysis patients as an influencing factor in mental relaxation and reducing disease tensions. Paying attention to sleep quality and spiritual well-being components of hemodialysis patients in formulating and promoting healthcare programs is recommended.

  10. Template occluded SBA-15: An effective dissolution enhancer for poorly water-soluble drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingming, Fu; Liwei, Guo; Kang, Le; Tianyao, Wang; Jin, Lu

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present work was to improve the dissolution rate of piroxicam by inclusion into template occluded SBA-15. Our strategy involves directly introducing piroxicam into as-prepared SBA-15 occluded with P123 (EO 20PO 70EO 20) by self assembling method in acetonitrile/methylene chloride mixture solution. Ultraviolet spectrometry experiment and thermogravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) profiles show that the piroxicam and P123 contents in the inclusion compound are 12 wt% and 28 wt%, respectively. X-ray powder diffraction and DSC analysis reveal that the included piroxicam is arranged in amorphous form. N 2 adsorption-desorption experiment indicates that the piroxicam has been introduced to the mesopores instead of precipitating at the outside of the silica material. The inclusion compound was submitted to in vitro dissolution tests, the results show that the piroxicam dissolve from template occluded inclusion compound more rapidly, than these from the piroxicam crystalline and template removed samples in all tested conditions. Thus a facile method to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drug was established, and this discovery opens a new avenue for the utilization of templates used for the synthesis of mesoporous materials.

  11. Acute Kidney Injury before Dialysis Initiation Predicts Adverse Outcomes in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Timmy; Shah, Silvi; Leonard, Anthony C; Parikh, Pratik; Thakar, Charuhas V

    2018-06-07

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients is highest during the first year of dialysis. The impact of pre-ESRD AKI events on long-term outcomes in incident ESRD patients remains unknown. We evaluated a retrospective cohort of 47,341 incident hemodialysis patients from the United States Renal Data System with linked Medicare data for at least 2 years prior to hemodialysis initiation. We examined the impact of pre-ESRD AKI events in the 2-year pre-ESRD period on the type of vascular access used at hemodialysis initiation (central venous catheter (CVC) versus arteriovenous access), and 1-year all-cause mortality after initiating hemodialysis. The mean age was 72 ± 11 years. Of the study cohort, 18% initiated hemodialysis with arteriovenous access, and 54% of patients had at least one pre-ESRD AKI event. One-year, all-cause mortality was 32%. Compared to 75% for patients without a pre-ESRD AKI event, 89% of patients with a pre-ESRD AKI event initiated hemodialysis with CVC than arteriovenous access (p < 0.001). A pre-ESRD AKI event was associated with lower adjusted odds of starting hemodialysis with an arteriovenous access (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.44-0.50, p < 0.001), and higher adjusted odds of 1-year mortality (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.30-1.42, p < 0.001). An AKI event prior to initiating hemodialysis independently increases the risk of CVC use and predicts 1-year mortality. Improving processes of care after AKI events may improve dialysis outcomes in patients who progress to ESRD. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Evaluation of Assays for Measurement of Serum (Anti)oxidants in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Eugene H. J. M.; Antarorov, Risto

    2014-01-01

    Background. Various biomarkers and assays have been used for assessment of (anti)oxidant status in hemodialysis patients, including those intended for measurement of serum total (anti)oxidants, most often as a part of panel biomarkers. Methods. Serum (anti)oxidant status was measured in 32 chronically hemodialyzed patients and in 47 healthy persons, using two oxidations and three antioxidant assays. Results. The patients before the hemodialysis session have had higher values of total oxidants in comparison to the healthy persons, with a further increase during the hemodialysis. These findings were confirmed with both oxidation assays, but they differ in the percentage of increase and the statistical significance. All three antioxidant assays showed significantly higher values of the total serum antioxidants in the patients before the hemodialysis session in comparison to the healthy persons, and their significant decrease during the hemodialysis. However, the assays differ in the percentage of decrease, its statistical significance, and the correlations with uric acid. Conclusion. The variability of results of total (anti)oxidants which are obtained using different assays should be taken into account when interpreting data from clinical studies of oxidative stress, especially in complex pathologies such as chronic hemodialysis. PMID:24982909

  13. Identifying the Optimal Water-Occluding Earplugs: A Scientific Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Kovoor, Joshua; Al Hussaini, Ali; Backhouse, Steven

    2016-12-01

    Numerous types of water-occluding earplugs are available as a means of preventing infection in patients with external and middle ear disease. However, little is known about the comparative efficacies of these earplugs with prolonged water exposure. In this study, we assessed the water impermeability of various earplug materials to prolonged water exposure. Nine earplugs were tested: cotton wool mixed with petroleum jelly, cotton wool externally coated with petroleum jelly, Blu-Tack, foam earplugs, silicone putty, silicone earplugs, flanged earplugs, and hard and soft silicone custom-moulds. Precision-engineered cups were filled with 30 mL water and sealed with lids that contained a 10 mm diameter hole to simulate the ear canal. The aperture was occluded with different earplugs, and the cup was inverted. Computer software was used to record the water loss to the nearest 10 milligrams 720 times over a three-hour period. The test was repeated five times for each material. The water permeability onset, rate, and total amount of water loss varied markedly between the materials; cotton wool mixed with petroleum jelly demonstrated the fastest onset of leak and the highest rate of water loss (p < 0.00001), as well as the largest amount of cumulative water loss (p = 0.00213). The soft silicone custom-mould plugs, hard silicone custom-mould plugs, foam plugs, and silicone putty demonstrated no leaks. This study demonstrates a wide range of water permeabilities of commonly used ear-occluding materials during prolonged water exposure. We found that the generally suggested regimen of cotton wool mixed with petroleum jelly may be inefficacious for substantial periods of water exposure.

  14. Extended-hours hemodialysis is associated with lower mortality risk in patients with end-stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Rivara, Matthew B.; Adams, Scott V.; Kuttykrishnan, Sooraj; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Cheung, Alfred K.; Katz, Ronit; Molnar, Miklos Z.; Ravel, Vanessa; Soohoo, Melissa; Streja, Elani; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Mehrotra, Rajnish

    2016-01-01

    Extended-hours hemodialysis offers substantially longer treatment time compared to conventional hemodialysis schedules and is associated with improved fluid and electrolyte control and favorable cardiac remodeling. However, whether extended-hours hemodialysis improves survival remains unclear. Therefore, we determined the association between extended-hours compared to conventional hemodialysis and the risk of all-cause mortality in a nationally representative cohort of patients initiating maintenance dialysis in the United States from 2007 to 2011. Survival analyses using causal inference modeling with marginal structural models were performed to compare mortality risk among 1,206 individuals undergoing thrice weekly extended-hours hemodialysis or 111,707 patients receiving conventional hemodialysis treatments. The average treatment time per session for extended-hours hemodialysis was 399 minutes compared to 211 minutes for conventional therapy. The crude mortality rate with extended-hours hemodialysis was 6.4 deaths per 100 patient-years compared with 14.7 deaths per 100 patient-years for conventional hemodialysis. In the primary analysis, patients treated with extended-hours hemodialysis had a 33% lower adjusted risk of death compared to those who were treated with a conventional regimen (95% confidence interval: 7% to 51%). Additional analyses accounting for analytical assumptions regarding exposure and outcome, facility-level confounders, and prior modality history were similar. Thus, in this large nationally representative cohort, treatment with extended-hours hemodialysis was associated with a lower risk for mortality compared to treatment with conventional in-center therapy. Adequately powered randomized clinical trials comparing extended-hours to conventional hemodialysis are required to confirm these findings. PMID:27555118

  15. Propensity-Matched Mortality Comparison of Incident Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Weinhandl, Eric D.; Gilbertson, David T.; Arneson, Thomas J.; Snyder, Jon J.; Collins, Allan J.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary comparisons of mortality in matched hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients are lacking. We aimed to compare survival of incident hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients by intention-to-treat analysis in a matched-pair cohort and in subsets defined by age, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. We matched 6337 patient pairs from a retrospective cohort of 98,875 adults who initiated dialysis in 2003 in the United States. In the primary intention-to-treat analysis of survival from day 0, cumulative survival was higher for peritoneal dialysis patients than for hemodialysis patients (hazard ratio 0.92; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.00, P = 0.04). Cumulative survival probabilities for peritoneal dialysis versus hemodialysis were 85.8% versus 80.7% (P < 0.01), 71.1% versus 68.0% (P < 0.01), 58.1% versus 56.7% (P = 0.25), and 48.4% versus 47.3% (P = 0.50) at 12, 24, 36, and 48 months, respectively. Peritoneal dialysis was associated with improved survival compared with hemodialysis among subgroups with age <65 years, no cardiovascular disease, and no diabetes. In a sensitivity analysis of survival from 90 days after initiation, we did not detect a difference in survival between modalities overall (hazard ratio 1.05; 95% CI 0.96 to 1.16), but hemodialysis was associated with improved survival among subgroups with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In conclusion, despite hazard ratio heterogeneity across patient subgroups and nonconstant hazard ratios during the follow-up period, the overall intention-to-treat mortality risk after dialysis initiation was 8% lower for peritoneal dialysis than for matched hemodialysis patients. These data suggest that increased use of peritoneal dialysis may benefit incident ESRD patients. PMID:20133483

  16. Lack of benefit from percutaneous intervention of persistently occluded infarct arteries after the acute phase of myocardial infarction is time independent: insights from Occluded Artery Trial

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Venu; Pearte, Camille A.; Buller, Christopher E.; Steg, Ph.Gabriel; Forman, Sandra A.; White, Harvey D.; Marino, Paolo N.; Katritsis, Demosthenes G.; Caramori, Paulo; Lasevitch, Ricardo; Loboz-Grudzien, Krystyna; Zurakowski, Aleksander; Lamas, Gervasio A.; Hochman, Judith S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims The Occluded Artery Trial (OAT) (n = 2201) showed no benefit for routine percutaneous intervention (PCI) (n = 1101) over medical therapy (MED) (n = 1100) on the combined endpoint of death, myocardial infarction (MI), and class IV heart failure (congestive heart failure) in stable post-MI patients with late occluded infarct-related arteries (IRAs). We evaluated the potential for selective benefit with PCI over MED for patients enrolled early in OAT. Methods and results We explored outcomes with PCI over MED in patients randomized to the ≤3 calendar days and ≤7 calendar days post-MI time windows. Earlier, times to randomization in OAT were associated with higher rates of the combined endpoint (adjusted HR 1.04/day: 99% CI 1.01–1.06; P < 0.001). The 48-month event rates for ≤3 days, ≤7 days post-MI enrolled patients were similar for PCI vs. MED for the combined and individual endpoints. There was no interaction between time to randomization defined as a continuous (P = 0.55) or categorical variable with a cut-point of 3 days (P = 0.98) or 7 days (P = 0.64) post-MI and treatment effect. Conclusion Consistent with overall OAT findings, patients enrolled in the ≤3 day and ≤7 day post-MI time windows derived no benefit with PCI over MED with no interaction between time to randomization and treatment effect. Our findings do not support routine PCI of the occluded IRA in trial-eligible patients even in the earliest 24–72 h time window. PMID:19028780

  17. Relationship between platelet count and hemodialysis membranes

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Rabih; Saifan, Chadi; Barakat, Iskandar; Azzi, Yorg Al; Naboush, Ali; Saad, Marc; Sayegh, Suzanne El

    2013-01-01

    Background One factor associated with poor outcomes in hemodialysis patients is exposure to a foreign membrane. Older membranes are very bioincompatible and increase complement activation, cause leukocytosis by activating circulating factors, which sequesters leukocytes in the lungs, and activates platelets. Recently, newer membranes have been developed that were designed to be more biocompatible. We tested if the different “optiflux” hemodialysis membranes had different effects on platelet levels. Methods Ninety-nine maintenance hemodialysis patients with no known systemic or hematologic diseases affecting their platelets had blood drawn immediately prior to, 90 minutes into, and immediately following their first hemodialysis session of the week. All patients were dialyzed using a Fresenius Medical Care Optiflux polysulfone membrane F160, F180, or F200 (polysulfone synthetic dialyzer membranes, 1.6 m2, 1.8 m2, and 2.0 m2 surface area, respectively, electron beam sterilized). Platelet counts were measured from each sample by analysis using a CBC analyzer. Results The average age of the patients was 62.7 years; 36 were female and 63 were male. The mean platelet count pre, mid, and post dialysis was 193 (standard deviation ±74.86), 191 (standard deviation ±74.67), and 197 (standard deviation ±79.34) thousand/mm3, respectively, with no statistical differences. Conclusion Newer membranes have no significant effect on platelet count. This suggests that they are, in fact, more biocompatible than their predecessors and may explain their association with increased survival. PMID:23983482

  18. Interventions to improve hemodialysis adherence: a systematic review of randomized-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Matteson, Michelle L; Russell, Cynthia

    2010-10-01

    Over 485,000 people in the United States have chronic kidney disease, a progressive kidney disease that may lead to hemodialysis. Hemodialysis involves a complex regimen of treatment, medication, fluid, and diet management. In 2005, over 312,000 patients were undergoing hemodialysis in the United States. Dialysis nonadherence rates range from 8.5% to 86%. Dialysis therapy treatment nonadherence, including treatment, medication, fluid, and diet nonadherence, significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this paper is to systematically review randomized-controlled trial intervention studies designed to increase treatment, medication, fluid, and diet adherence in adult hemodialysis patients. A search of Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1982 to May 2008), MEDLINE (1950 to May 2008), PsycINFO (1806 to May 2008), and all Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Reviews (Cochran DSR, ACP Journal Club, DARE, and CCTR) was conducted to identify randomized-controlled studies that tested the efficacy of interventions to improve adherence in adult hemodialysis patients. Eight randomized-controlled trials met criteria for inclusion. Six of the 8 studies found statistically significant improvement in adherence with the intervention. Of these 6 intervention studies, all studies had a cognitive component, with 3 studies utilizing cognitive/behavioral intervention strategies. Based on this systematic review, interventions utilizing a cognitive or cognitive/behavioral component appear to show the most promise for future study. © 2010 The Authors. Hemodialysis International © 2010 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  19. [Effects of distance between residence and hemodialysis unit on cardiovascular complications and treatments of maintenance hemodialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Zha, Yan; Yang, Xia; He, Shan; Xie, Ying; Huang, Rong-sai; Xiong, Hong-yan; Sun, Zhao-lin

    2013-06-11

    To explore the effects of etiological classification and the distance between residence and hemodialysis unit on cardiovascular complications and treatments in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. A total of 756 MHD patients were collected from 12 hemodialysis centers of Guiyang, China between January 2011 and May 2012. Their distribution characteristics and correlations were based on medical records. And statistical analyses were performed. The ratio of males and females was 1.45: 1. And their mean age was (49.1 ± 14.7) years old. And 496 (65.6%) cases suffered from cardiovascular complications. The analysis of multi-factor Logistic regression revealed that distance between residence and dialysis unit was an independent risk factor of cardiovascular complications. The group of the farthest distance ( > 30 km) had the worst influence on dialysis adequacy Kt/V score, urea clearance rate, dialysis frequency and time per week. And the levels of blood phosphorus, triglyceride and cholesterol in the fourth group had marked elevations. It had a significant positive correlation with distance (P < 0.05). The distance between residence and dialysis unit is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular complications in MHD patients. The farthest distance ( > 30 km) has the greatest influence on dialysis adequacy.

  20. Dentinal tubules occluded by bioactive glass-containing toothpaste exhibit high resistance toward acidic soft drink challenge.

    PubMed

    Bakri, M M; Hossain, M Z; Razak, F A; Saqina, Z H; Misroni, A A; Ab-Murat, N; Kitagawa, J; Saub, R B

    2017-06-01

    Dentine hypersensitivity is a common problem attributed by patent dentinal tubules. Ingredients incorporated in toothpastes aim to occlude patent dentinal tubules to minimize the dentine hypersensitivity. However, frequent consumption of acidic soft drinks may reverse the dentinal tubules' occlusion. In this in vitro study, the efficacy of dentinal tubules occluded by commercially available toothpastes to withstand different durations of an acidic soft drink challenge was investigated. One hundred and twenty dentine discs were divided into three groups. The discs from each group were brushed with toothpaste containing bioactive glass, arginine and control toothpaste. Each group was then divided into four subgroups and exposed to acidic soft drink over four different time durations. The scoring and the percentage of occluded dentinal tubules by Novamin-containing toothpaste was significantly better compared with arginine or the control toothpaste. Acidic soft drink challenge reduced the extent of dentinal tubules occlusion along with time. Dentinal tubules occluded by Novamin-containing toothpaste withstand the acidic challenge comparatively for a longer period. The findings demonstrated that occlusion of dentinal tubules is more efficient by the bioactive glass-containing toothpaste and thus may contribute to its better resistance to acidic soft drink challenge. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  1. Anatomic brain disease in hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although dialysis patients are at high risk of stroke and have a high burden of cognitive impairment, there are few reports of anatomic brain findings in the hemodialysis population. Using magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, we compared the prevalence of brain abnormalities in hemodialysis pati...

  2. Electronic eye occluder with time-counting and reflection control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karitans, V.; Ozolinsh, M.; Kuprisha, G.

    2008-09-01

    In pediatric ophthalmology 2 - 3 % of all the children are impacted by a visual pathology - amblyopia. It develops if a clear image isn't presented to the retina during an early stage of the development of the visual system. A common way of treating this pathology is to cover the better-seeing eye to force the "lazy" eye to learn seeing. However, children are often reluctant to wear such an occluder because they are ashamed or simply because they find it inconvenient. This fact requires to find a way how to track the regime of occlusion because results of occlusion is a hint that the actual regime of occlusion isn't that what the optometrist has recommended. We design an electronic eye occluder that allows to track the regime of eye occlusion. We employ real-time clock DS1302 providing time information from seconds to years. Data is stored in the internal memory of the CPU (EEPROM). The MCU (PIC16F676) switches on only if a mechanical switch is closed and temperature has reached a satisfactory level. The occlusion is registered between time moments when the infrared signal appeared and disappeared.

  3. Duration and Adverse Events of Non-cuffed Catheter in Patients With Hemodialysis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-09

    Renal Failure Chronic Requiring Hemodialysis; Central Venous Catheterization; Inadequate Hemodialysis Blood Flow; Venous Stenosis; Venous Thrombosis; Infection Due to Central Venous Catheter; Central Venous Catheter Thrombosis

  4. Relationship between instantaneous wave-free ratio and fractional flow reserve in patients receiving hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Yuta; Arashi, Hiroyuki; Otsuki, Hisao; Yamaguchi, Junichi; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa

    2017-06-22

    Instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) is a vasodilator-free index and is reported to have a good correlation with fractional flow reserve (FFR). Hemodialysis patients exhibit left ventricular hypertrophy, reduced arterial compliance, and impaired microcirculation. Such a coronary flow condition in these patients may influence the relationship between iFR and FFR. This study assessed the impact of hemodialysis on the relationship between iFR and FFR. The study enrolled 196 patients with 265 stenoses who underwent assessment via iFR, FFR assessment, and right heart catheterization. A good correlation between iFR and FFR was observed in hemodialysis patients. iFR in the hemodialysis group was significantly lower than in the non-hemodialysis group (0.81 ± 0.13 vs. 0.86 ± 0.13, p = 0.005), although no significant difference was found in FFR and percentage diameter stenosis. An iFR value of 0.84 was found to be equivalent to an FFR value of 0.8 in hemodialysis patients, which was lower than the standard predictive iFR range for ischemia. Vasodilator-free assessment by iFR could be beneficial in evaluating intermediate coronary stenosis in patients receiving hemodialysis. However, the threshold for iFR abnormality needs adjustment in hemodialysis patients, and larger clinical trials are required to confirm the results in this specific subset.

  5. A unified computational model of the development of object unity, object permanence, and occluded object trajectory perception.

    PubMed

    Franz, A; Triesch, J

    2010-12-01

    The perception of the unity of objects, their permanence when out of sight, and the ability to perceive continuous object trajectories even during occlusion belong to the first and most important capacities that infants have to acquire. Despite much research a unified model of the development of these abilities is still missing. Here we make an attempt to provide such a unified model. We present a recurrent artificial neural network that learns to predict the motion of stimuli occluding each other and that develops representations of occluded object parts. It represents completely occluded, moving objects for several time steps and successfully predicts their reappearance after occlusion. This framework allows us to account for a broad range of experimental data. Specifically, the model explains how the perception of object unity develops, the role of the width of the occluders, and it also accounts for differences between data for moving and stationary stimuli. We demonstrate that these abilities can be acquired by learning to predict the sensory input. The model makes specific predictions and provides a unifying framework that has the potential to be extended to other visual event categories. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. White thrombus formation in blood tubing lines in a chronic hemodialysis unit.

    PubMed

    Watnick, Suzanne; Stooksbury, Michael; Winter, Rolf; Riscoe, Michael; Cohen, David M

    2008-03-01

    Previous reports have described white particulate matter in banked blood components, but no prior public reports describe such matter in blood tubing during the course of routine in-center hemodialysis. This report describes the events, investigations, and preliminary conclusions associated with the spontaneous formation of adherent white thrombus in the venous and arterial blood lines during routine in-center hemodialysis treatments. Design setting, participants, & measurements: This investigation occurred at the Portland Veterans Administration Medical Center (PVAMC) Hemodialysis Unit from October 2006 through April 2007. Sixty-eight variables regarding demographics, medical history and dialysis treatments were collected on our 34 chronic hemodialysis outpatients. Over a 5-wk interval, 62% (21 of 34) of the chronic hemodialysis patients unexpectedly developed a white precipitate adhering to the lumenal surface of their dialysis blood tubing, with 73 of 580 chronic dialysis treatments exhibiting the phenomenon. Microscopic and biochemical analyses were consistent with white thrombus, formed by an aggregation of platelets and fibrin. An alert was issued and other in-center hemodialysis units noted similar findings. This was remedied by the removal of specific tubing. Both patient-specific and tubing-specific factors may have been operative. Although patient safety was not adversely affected, assessment of clinical and manufacturing variables potentially affecting platelet activation is warranted.

  7. High-efficiency postdilution online hemodiafiltration reduces all-cause mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Maduell, Francisco; Moreso, Francesc; Pons, Mercedes; Ramos, Rosa; Mora-Macià, Josep; Carreras, Jordi; Soler, Jordi; Torres, Ferran; Campistol, Josep M; Martinez-Castelao, Alberto

    2013-02-01

    Retrospective studies suggest that online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) may reduce the risk of mortality compared with standard hemodialysis in patients with ESRD. We conducted a multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial in which we assigned 906 chronic hemodialysis patients either to continue hemodialysis (n=450) or to switch to high-efficiency postdilution OL-HDF (n=456). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, and secondary outcomes included cardiovascular mortality, all-cause hospitalization, treatment tolerability, and laboratory data. Compared with patients who continued on hemodialysis, those assigned to OL-HDF had a 30% lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.53-0.92; P=0.01), a 33% lower risk of cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.44-1.02; P=0.06), and a 55% lower risk of infection-related mortality (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.21-0.96; P=0.03). The estimated number needed to treat suggested that switching eight patients from hemodialysis to OL-HDF may prevent one annual death. The incidence rates of dialysis sessions complicated by hypotension and of all-cause hospitalization were lower in patients assigned to OL-HDF. In conclusion, high-efficiency postdilution OL-HDF reduces all-cause mortality compared with conventional hemodialysis.

  8. Diabetic ketoacidosis producing extreme hyperkalemia in a patient with type 1 diabetes on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Hodaka; Funazaki, Shunsuke; Kakei, Masafumi; Hara, Kazuo; Ishikawa, San-E

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a critical complication of type 1 diabetes associated with water and electrolyte disorders. Here, we report a case of DKA with extreme hyperkalemia (9.0 mEq/L) in a patient with type 1 diabetes on hemodialysis. He had a left frontal cerebral infarction resulting in inability to manage his continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump. Electrocardiography showed typical changes of hyperkalemia, including absent P waves, prolonged QRS interval and tented T waves. There was no evidence of total body water deficit. After starting insulin and rapid hemodialysis, the serum potassium level was normalized. Although DKA may present with hypokalemia, rapid hemodialysis may be necessary to resolve severe hyperkalemia in a patient with renal failure. Patients with type 1 diabetes on hemodialysis may develop ketoacidosis because of discontinuation of insulin treatment.Patients on hemodialysis who develop ketoacidosis may have hyperkalemia because of anuria.Absolute insulin deficit alters potassium distribution between the intracellular and extracellular space, and anuria abolishes urinary excretion of potassium.Rapid hemodialysis along with intensive insulin therapy can improve hyperkalemia, while fluid infusions may worsen heart failure in patients with ketoacidosis who routinely require hemodialysis.

  9. Association between autistic traits and emotion adaptation to partially occluded faces.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chengwen; Burns, Edwin; Xu, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Prolonged exposure to a happy face makes subsequently presented faces appear sadder: the facial emotion aftereffect (FEA). People with autism spectrum disorders and their relatives have diminished holistic perception of faces. Levels of autism can be measured continuously in the general population by autistic traits using the autism-quotient (AQ). Prior work has not found any association between AQ and FEA in adults, possibly due to non-holistic processing strategies employed by those at the higher end of the spectrum. In the present study, we tested whether AQ was associated with FEA to partially occluded faces. We hypothesized that inferring emotion from such faces would require participants to process their viewable parts as a gestalt percept, thus we anticipated this ability would diminish as autistic traits increased. In Experiment 1, we partially occluded the adapting faces with aligned or misaligned opaque bars. Both conditions produced significant FEAs, with aftereffects and AQ negatively correlated. In Experiment 2, we adapted participants to obscured faces flickering in luminance, and manipulated the facilitation of holistic perception by varying the synchronization of this flickering. We found significant FEAs in all conditions, but abolished its association with AQ. In Experiment 3, we showed that the association between AQ and FEA in the occluded conditions in Experiment 1 was not due to the recognizability or perceived emotional intensity of our adaptors; although the overall FEAs were linked to emotional intensity. We propose that increasing autistic traits are associated with diminishing abilities in perceiving emotional faces as a gestalt percept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Errors in fluid balance with pump control of continuous hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M; Winney, R J

    1992-02-01

    The use of pumps both proximal and distal to the dialyzer during continuous hemodialysis provides control of dialysate and ultrafiltration flow rates, thereby reducing nursing time. However, we had noted unexpected severe extracellular fluid depletion suggesting that errors in pump delivery may be responsible. We measured in vitro the operation of various pumps under conditions similar to continuous hemodialysis. Fluid delivery of peristaltic and roller pumps varied with how the tubing set was inserted in the pump. Piston and peristaltic pumps with dedicated pump segments were more accurate. Pumps should be calibrated and tested under conditions simulating continuous hemodialysis prior to in vivo use.

  11. Estimating patient-borne water and electricity costs in home hemodialysis: a simulation

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, Matthew; Rideout, Wes; Shah, Nikhil; Reintjes, Frances; Chen, Justin Z.; Burrell, Robert; Pauly, Robert P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Home hemodialysis is associated with lower costs to the health care system compared with conventional facility-based hemodialysis because of lower staffing and overhead costs, and by transferring the treatment cost of utilities (water and power) to the patient. The purpose of this study was to determine the utility costs of home hemodialysis and create a formula such that patients and renal programs can estimate the annual patient-borne costs involved with this type of treatment. Methods: Seven common combinations of treatment duration and dialysate flows were replicated 5 times using various combinations of home hemodialysis and reverse osmosis machines. Real-time utility (electricity and water) consumption was monitored during these simulations. A generic formula was developed to allow patients and programs to calculate a more precise estimate of utility costs based on individual combinations of dialysis intensity, frequency and utility costs unique to any patient. Results: Using typical 2014 utility costs for Edmonton, the most expensive prescription was for nocturnal home hemodialysis (8 h at 300 mL/min, 6 d/wk), which resulted in a utility cost of $1269 per year; the least expensive prescription was for conventional home hemodialysis (4 h at 500 mL/min, 3 d/wk), which cost $420 per year. Water consumption makes up most of this expense, with electricity accounting for only 12% of the cost. Interpretation: We show that a substantial cost burden is transferred to the patient on home hemodialysis, which would otherwise be borne by the renal program. PMID:28401120

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B and C among hemodialysis patients in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Mhalla, S; Hammoud, R; Frih, A; Kadri, Y; El Argoubi, A; Elmay, M; Mastouri, M

    2018-05-01

    Hemodialysis patients are at increased risk of infection by hepatitis C and B viruses, which are significant causes of mortality and morbidity. Prevention of their transmission in hemodialysis units remains a challenge worldwide. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of these two infections and to explore major risk factors among patients on chronic hemodialysis. We performed a cross-sectional study of 109 hemodialysis patients (mean duration of hemodialysis of seven years) between 2012 and 2014 in a Teaching Hospital of Monastir, Tunisia. Hepatitis B and C serological markers were searched for using a chemiluminescent assay. Genome detection was performed using a commercially available quantitative real-time PCR test. A total of 109 hemodialysis patients were enrolled (75 males and 34 females). Ages ranged from 21 to 81 years. Six (5.5%) of these 109 patients had HBV infection defined by a positive HBsAg in four (3.7%) patients and by a detectable DNA associated with an "isolated anti-HBc" profile in the remaining two patients. Hepatitis C was observed in eight patients (7.3%) and five of them had detectable RNA. Hemodialysis duration ˃5years was the main risk factor for hepatitis C infection (P=0.01; OR: 3.11; 95% CI [1.57-13.71]). Our findings confirm the downward trend of the prevalence of both hepatitis B and C infections among Tunisian hemodialysis patients. Hemodialysis duration remains the main risk factor for hepatitis C infection. Occult hepatitis B infection should be suspected and investigated, especially among patients with an "isolated anti-HBc" profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Patient perspectives on fluid management in chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kimberly; Coston, Melinda; Glock, Kimberly; Elasy, Tom A; Wallston, Kenneth A; Ikizler, T Alp; Cavanaugh, Kerri L

    2010-09-01

    We sought to describe the perspectives and experiences of chronic hemodialysis (CHD) patients regarding self-care and adherence to fluid restrictions. Semistructured focus groups. Two outpatient hemodialysis centers. Nineteen patients on chronic hemodialysis. Patients were asked a series of open-ended questions to encourage discussion about the management of fluid restriction within the broad categories of general knowledge, knowledge sources or barriers, beliefs and attitudes, self-efficacy, emotion, and self-care skills. We analyzed session transcripts using the theoretical framework of content analysis to identify themes generated by the patients. Patients discussed both facilitators and barriers to fluid restriction, which we categorized into six themes: knowledge, self-assessment, psychological factors, social, physical, and environmental. Psychological factors were the most common barriers to fluid restriction adherence, predominantly involving lack of motivation. Knowledge was the most discussed facilitator with accurate self-assessment, positive psychological factors, and supportive social contacts also playing a role. Dialysis providers were most commonly described as the source of dialysis information (54%), but learning through personal experience was also frequently noted (28%). Interventions to improve fluid restriction adherence of chronic hemodialysis patients should target motivational issues, assess and improve patient knowledge, augment social support, and facilitate accurate self-assessment of fluid status. (c) 2010 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Laser Recanalization of Central Venous Occlusion to Salvage a Threatened Arteriovenous Fistula.

    PubMed

    Rambhia, Sagar; Janko, Matthew; Hacker, Robert I

    2018-07-01

    Central venous occlusion is conventionally managed with balloon angioplasty, stent extension, or sharp recanalization. Here, we describe recanalization of a chronically occluded innominate vein using excimer laser after conventional techniques were unsuccessful. Patient clinical improvement and fistula patency have been sustained 2 years postintervention. This technique may provide new hemodialysis access options for patients who would not otherwise be candidates for hemodialysis access on the ipsilateral side of a central venous occlusion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness of hemodialysis in a case of severe valproate overdose.

    PubMed

    Nasa, Prashant; Sehrawat, Deepak; Kansal, Sudha; Chawla, Rajesh

    2011-04-01

    A case of severe sodium valproate overdose is presented in which medicinal management failed to reverse coma of the patient. High-flux hemodialysis was then used to eliminate sodium valproate. This case demonstrated the effectiveness of hemodialysis in not only decreasing valproate levels very rapidly but also as an effective anti-coma management.

  16. Efficacy of vitamin E-bonded polysulfone dialyzer and polysulfone dialyzer on a series of non-anticoagulant hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Torato, Toshihiro; Doi, Kent; Negishi, Kousuke; Hamasaki, Yoshifumi; Satonaka, Hiroshi; Hanafusa, Norio; Noiri, Eisei

    2013-01-01

    Non-anticoagulant hemodialysis is conducted occasionally at limited numbers of hospitals on an empirical basis. This study examines the efficacy of polysulfone and vitamin E-bonded polysulfone dialyzer for non-anticoagulant hemodialysis. These dialyzers were assigned one after the other for a vintage hemodialysis patient complicated with uncontrollable bleeding. The patient's vital and console data throughout non-anticoagulant hemodialysis were monitored serially. Both dialyzers were reasonably applicable to hemodialysis without major clotting. The scheduled treatment period was completed. Vitamin E-bonded polysulfone dialyzer was superior to non-anticoagulant hemodialysis based on venous pressure observed during treatment.

  17. Urea biosensor for hemodialysis monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor capable of detecting and quantifying urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures. The sensor is based upon measurement of the pH change produced in an aqueous environment by the products of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The sensor may be fabricated using methods amenable to mass fabrication, resulting in low-cost sensors and thus providing the potential for disposable use. In a typical application, the sensor could be used in treatment centers, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. The sensor can also be utilized to allow at-home testing to determine if dialysis was necessary. Such a home monitor is similar, in principle, to devices used for blood glucose testing by diabetics, and would require a blood droplet sample by using a finger prick.

  18. Urea biosensor for hemodialysis monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Glass, R.S.

    1999-01-12

    This research discloses an electrochemical sensor capable of detecting and quantifying urea in fluids resulting from hemodialysis procedures. The sensor is based upon measurement of the pH change produced in an aqueous environment by the products of the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The sensor may be fabricated using methods amenable to mass fabrication, resulting in low-cost sensors and thus providing the potential for disposable use. In a typical application, the sensor could be used in treatment centers, in conjunction with an appropriate electronics/computer system, in order to determine the hemodialysis endpoint. The sensor can also be utilized to allow at-home testing to determine if dialysis was necessary. Such a home monitor is similar, in principle, to devices used for blood glucose testing by diabetics, and would require a blood droplet sample by using a finger prick. 9 figs.

  19. Endovascular treatment of occluded and stenotic visceral vessels in patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia.

    PubMed

    Christofi, Georgia; Donas, Konstantinos P; Pitoulias, Georgios A; Torsello, Giovanni; Schwindt, Arne G; Stavroulakis, Konstantinos

    2017-02-01

    Objective Current evidence in the literature about endovascular treatment (ET) of visceral vessels in patients with chronic mesenterial ischemia (CMI) based on morphological characteristics is limited. The aim of this study was the evaluation of ET in occluded and stenotic visceral vessels. Methods Patients undergoing ET for CMI between November 2000 and November 2012 were included in this retrospective study. Primary measure outcome was the symptom-free survival (SFS). Secondary outcomes were primary (PPR), secondary patency (SPR) rates and technical success rate (TSR). A Cox-regression analysis identified risk factors for the primary and secondary measure outcomes. Results Forty patients were included in the present study (men: 21, mean age: 68). The overall number of vessels with intention-to-treat was 62. Fifty-two visceral arteries (18 occlusions and 34 stenoses) were successfully treated by endovascular means. The overall TSR was 84%. Visceral vessel occlusions and atherosclerotic disease of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) were identified as independent risk factors for poorer TSR ( p < 0.05). The 12-month SFS was 60%. The overall 12-month PPR and SPR were 71% and 94%, respectively. No significant differences were observed between occluded and stenotic vessels ( p > 0.05) concerning the PPR. On the other hand, the subgroup analysis revealed higher SPR among occluded visceral vessels ( p < 0.001) and coeliac axis lesions ( p < 0.001). Conclusions ET was associated with high incidence of symptoms recurrence despite the satisfying patency rates in both occluded and stenotic vessels. Additionally, visceral vessel occlusion and presence of atherosclerotic lesions in the SMA were associated with poorer TSR.

  20. Current status and standards for establishment of hemodialysis units in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Ki; Kim, Kiwon

    2013-01-01

    The number of hemodialysis patients and dialysis facilities is increasing each year, but there are no surveillance programs validating that the services and equipment of each hemodialysis unit meet specified safety and quality standards. There is a concern that excessive competition and illegal activities committed by some dialysis facilities may violate patients' right to health. Contrastingly, developed countries often have their own survey program to provide initial certification and monitoring to ensure that these clinics continue to meet basic requirements. Because hemodialysis units provide renal replacement therapy to critical patients suffering from severe chronic renal failure, appropriate legal regulation is important for the provision of initial certification and maintenance of facility, equipment, and human resource quality. Therefore, several standards providing minimum requirements for the area of hemodialysis unit, equipment for emergency care, physician and nurse staffs, water purification and quality management are urgently needed. PMID:23682218

  1. Serum Soluble (Pro)Renin Receptor Levels in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Amari, Yoshifumi; Morimoto, Satoshi; Nakajima, Fumitaka; Ando, Takashi; Ichihara, Atsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    The (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] is cleaved by furin to generate soluble (P)RR [s(P)RR], which reflects the status of the tissue renin-angiotensin system. Hemodialysis patients have advanced atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between serum s(P)RR levels and background factors, including indices of atherosclerosis, in hemodialysis patients. Serum s(P)RR levels were measured in hemodialysis patients and clearance of s(P)RR through the membrane of the dialyzer was examined. Furthermore, relationships between serum s(P)RR levels and background factors were assessed. Serum s(P)RR levels were significantly higher in hemodialysis patients (30.4 ± 6.1 ng/ml, n = 258) than those in subjects with normal renal function (21.4 ± 6.2 ng/ml, n = 39, P < 0.0001). Clearance of s(P)RR and creatinine were 56.9 ± 33.5 and 147.6 ± 9.50 ml/min, respectively. Serum s(P)RR levels were significantly higher in those with ankle-brachial index (ABI) of < 0.9, an indicator of severe atherosclerosis, than those with ABI of ≥ 0.9 (32.2 ± 5.9 and 30.1 ± 6.2 ng/ml, respectively, P < 0.05). An association between low ABI and high serum s(P)RR levels was observed even after correction for age, history of smoking, HbA1c, and LDL-C. Serum s(P)RR levels were significantly higher in hemodialysis patients when compared with subjects with normal renal function, although s(P)RR is dialyzed to some extent, but to a lesser extent than creatinine. High serum s(P)RR levels may be associated with atherosclerosis independent of other risk factors, suggesting that serum s(P)RR could be used as a marker for atherosclerotic conditions in hemodialysis patients. PMID:27367528

  2. Effectiveness of hemodialysis in a case of severe valproate overdose

    PubMed Central

    Nasa, Prashant; Sehrawat, Deepak; Kansal, Sudha; Chawla, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    A case of severe sodium valproate overdose is presented in which medicinal management failed to reverse coma of the patient. High-flux hemodialysis was then used to eliminate sodium valproate. This case demonstrated the effectiveness of hemodialysis in not only decreasing valproate levels very rapidly but also as an effective anti-coma management. PMID:21814378

  3. Vascular Access Creation before Hemodialysis Initiation and Use: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jaishi, Ahmed A.; Lok, Charmaine E.; Garg, Amit X.; Zhang, Joyce C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives In Canada, approximately 17% of patients use an arteriovenous access (fistula or arteriovenous graft) at commencement of hemodialysis, despite guideline recommendations promoting its timely creation and use. It is unclear if this low pattern of use is attributable to the lack of surgical creation or a high nonuse rate. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Using large health care databases in Ontario, Canada, a population-based cohort of adult patients (≥18 years old) who initiated hemodialysis as their first form of RRT between 2001 and 2010 was studied. The aims were to (1) estimate the proportion of patients who had an arteriovenous access created before starting hemodialysis and the proportion who successfully used it at hemodialysis start, (2) test for secular trends in arteriovenous access creation, and (3) estimate the effect of late nephrology referral and patient characteristics on arteriovenous access creation. Results There were 17,183 patients on incident hemodialysis. The mean age was 65.8 years, 60% were men, and 40% were referred late to a nephrologist; 27% of patients (4556 of 17,183) had one or more arteriovenous accesses created, and the median time between arteriovenous access creation and hemodialysis start was 184 days. When late referrals were excluded, 39% of patients (4007 of 10,291) had one or more arteriovenous accesses created, and 27% of patients (2724 of 10,291) used the arteriovenous access. Since 2001, there has been a decline in arteriovenous access creation before hemodialysis initiation. Women, higher numbers of comorbidities, and rural residence were consistently associated with lower rates of arteriovenous access creation. These results persisted even after removing patients with <6 months nephrology care or who had AKI 6 months before starting hemodialysis. Conclusions In Canada, arteriovenous access creation before hemodialysis initiation is low, even among patients followed by a nephrologist

  4. Vascular access creation before hemodialysis initiation and use: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaishi, Ahmed A; Lok, Charmaine E; Garg, Amit X; Zhang, Joyce C; Moist, Louise M

    2015-03-06

    In Canada, approximately 17% of patients use an arteriovenous access (fistula or arteriovenous graft) at commencement of hemodialysis, despite guideline recommendations promoting its timely creation and use. It is unclear if this low pattern of use is attributable to the lack of surgical creation or a high nonuse rate. Using large health care databases in Ontario, Canada, a population-based cohort of adult patients (≥18 years old) who initiated hemodialysis as their first form of RRT between 2001 and 2010 was studied. The aims were to (1) estimate the proportion of patients who had an arteriovenous access created before starting hemodialysis and the proportion who successfully used it at hemodialysis start, (2) test for secular trends in arteriovenous access creation, and (3) estimate the effect of late nephrology referral and patient characteristics on arteriovenous access creation. There were 17,183 patients on incident hemodialysis. The mean age was 65.8 years, 60% were men, and 40% were referred late to a nephrologist; 27% of patients (4556 of 17,183) had one or more arteriovenous accesses created, and the median time between arteriovenous access creation and hemodialysis start was 184 days. When late referrals were excluded, 39% of patients (4007 of 10,291) had one or more arteriovenous accesses created, and 27% of patients (2724 of 10,291) used the arteriovenous access. Since 2001, there has been a decline in arteriovenous access creation before hemodialysis initiation. Women, higher numbers of comorbidities, and rural residence were consistently associated with lower rates of arteriovenous access creation. These results persisted even after removing patients with <6 months nephrology care or who had AKI 6 months before starting hemodialysis. In Canada, arteriovenous access creation before hemodialysis initiation is low, even among patients followed by a nephrologist. Better understanding of the barriers and influencers of arteriovenous access creation is

  5. White Thrombus Formation in Blood Tubing Lines in a Chronic Hemodialysis Unit

    PubMed Central

    Watnick, Suzanne; Stooksbury, Michael; Winter, Rolf; Riscoe, Michael; Cohen, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Previous reports have described white particulate matter in banked blood components, but no prior public reports describe such matter in blood tubing during the course of routine in-center hemodialysis. This report describes the events, investigations, and preliminary conclusions associated with the spontaneous formation of adherent white thrombus in the venous and arterial blood lines during routine in-center hemodialysis treatments. Design setting, participants, & measurements: This investigation occurred at the Portland Veterans Administration Medical Center (PVAMC) Hemodialysis Unit from October 2006 through April 2007. Sixty-eight variables regarding demographics, medical history and dialysis treatments were collected on our 34 chronic hemodialysis outpatients. Results: Over a 5-wk interval, 62% (21 of 34) of the chronic hemodialysis patients unexpectedly developed a white precipitate adhering to the lumenal surface of their dialysis blood tubing, with 73 of 580 chronic dialysis treatments exhibiting the phenomenon. Microscopic and biochemical analyses were consistent with white thrombus, formed by an aggregation of platelets and fibrin. An alert was issued and other in-center hemodialysis units noted similar findings. This was remedied by the removal of specific tubing. Conclusions: Both patient-specific and tubing-specific factors may have been operative. Although patient safety was not adversely affected, assessment of clinical and manufacturing variables potentially affecting platelet activation is warranted. PMID:18184880

  6. High-Efficiency Postdilution Online Hemodiafiltration Reduces All-Cause Mortality in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Moreso, Francesc; Pons, Mercedes; Ramos, Rosa; Mora-Macià, Josep; Carreras, Jordi; Soler, Jordi; Torres, Ferran; Campistol, Josep M.; Martinez-Castelao, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective studies suggest that online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) may reduce the risk of mortality compared with standard hemodialysis in patients with ESRD. We conducted a multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial in which we assigned 906 chronic hemodialysis patients either to continue hemodialysis (n=450) or to switch to high-efficiency postdilution OL-HDF (n=456). The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, and secondary outcomes included cardiovascular mortality, all-cause hospitalization, treatment tolerability, and laboratory data. Compared with patients who continued on hemodialysis, those assigned to OL-HDF had a 30% lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.53–0.92; P=0.01), a 33% lower risk of cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.44–1.02; P=0.06), and a 55% lower risk of infection-related mortality (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.21–0.96; P=0.03). The estimated number needed to treat suggested that switching eight patients from hemodialysis to OL-HDF may prevent one annual death. The incidence rates of dialysis sessions complicated by hypotension and of all-cause hospitalization were lower in patients assigned to OL-HDF. In conclusion, high-efficiency postdilution OL-HDF reduces all-cause mortality compared with conventional hemodialysis. PMID:23411788

  7. Save life and improve quality: report from the 5th Congress of International Society for Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Chun; Lim, Lee-Moay; Chang, Jer-Ming; Misra, Madhukar

    2014-01-01

    The 5th congress of International Society for Hemodialysis took place last August 3-5, 2012 at the Grand Hotel in Taipei and focused on "Save Life and Improve Quality." It attracted a total of 927 participants from 18 countries. The full spectrum of hemodialysis was covered with plenary lectures and symposiums delivered by experts from different subspecialties in nephrology starting from the history of hemodialysis, mineral bone disease, microinflammation and advanced techniques in hemodialysis. It was followed by critical care in nephrology, anemia, and nutrition in dialysis. Last but not the least, natural disasters and medical economics in hemodialysis were also discussed extensively. This special article will highlight the authentic contributions and innovative clinical presentations from the meeting. © 2013 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  8. Monocyte production of transforming growth factor beta in long-term hemodialysis: modulation by hemodialysis membranes.

    PubMed

    Mege, J L; Capo, C; Purgus, R; Olmer, M

    1996-09-01

    Cytokines are likely involved in hemodialysis-associated complications such as immunodeficiency and beta 2 microglobulin amyloidosis. Because transforming growth factors beta (TGF beta) exert immunosuppressive effects on lymphocytes, down-modulate monocyte functions, and promote fibrosis, we hypothesize that they participate in the deleterious effects of hemodialysis. We investigated the production of TGF beta 1 and TGF beta 2 by monocytes from controls and patients dialyzed with high-flux cellulose triacetate (CT) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes. The detection of both TGF beta s required an acidification step, suggesting that they are secreted as latent complexes. The spontaneous production of TGF beta 1 and TGF beta 2 was significantly higher in patients dialyzed with CT or PAN than in controls, but the oversecretion of TGF beta 1 was more sustained in CT-treated patients than in PAN-dialyzed patients. The production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was increased in both patient groups as compared with controls. In contrast to TGF beta 1, the increase was greater in PAN-treated patients than in CT-treated patients, and the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) was increased only in PAN-treated patients. Taken together, our results show that hemodialysis is associated with the oversecretion of monocyte cytokines. Moreover, the type of dialysis membrane specifically affects the balance between the secretion of suppressive cytokines such as TGF beta and that of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF alpha.

  9. Vitamin D deficiency and associated factors in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Jean, Guillaume; Charra, Bernard; Chazot, Charles

    2008-09-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in the general elderly population, and is related to an increased risk of osteoporosis, fractures, and cardiovascular calcification. Only limited data and no guidelines are available on vitamin D deficiency in hemodialysis patients. We aimed to assess the frequency of, and factors associated with, 25(OH) vitamin D deficiency in hemodialysis patients in a French dialysis center. In March 2006, we studied all prevalent hemodialysis patients who had not received native vitamin D supplements in the recent past. According to the Kidney Disease Outcomes and Quality Initiative guidelines, patients were assigned to the following 3 groups: group 1, with a sufficient vitamin D serum level (>75 nmol/L); group 2, with an insufficient level (25 to 75 nmol/L); and group 3, with severe deficiency (<25 nmol/L). Patients' characteristics and biochemical findings were compared between patients of groups 1 and 3. Of 253 patients, 11% patients were in group 1; 47% were in group 2; and 42% were in group 3. The proportions of female and diabetes patients were 42% and 34%, respectively. The mean (+/- SD) age of all patients was 66.7 +/- 14 years, and the mean duration of dialysis was 62 +/- 74 months, with a mean schedule of 3 x 6.5 hours and administration of a 1.5 mmol/L calcium dialysate. Concomitant treatment included alfacalcidol (66% of patients) and sevelamer (34% of patients) as a standard phosphate binder. Group 3 patients had a lower dialysis vintage (53 +/- 66 vs. 73 +/- 85 months, P < .05), a higher number of diabetes patients (45% vs. 21%, P < .05), a higher number of female patients (53% vs. 28%, P < .05), and a higher level of intact parathyroid hormone (260 +/- 227 vs. 213 +/- 153 pg/mL, P < .05) than group 1 patients. No relationship was found between vitamin D storage levels and bone markers, serum calcium, phosphorus, albumin, body mass index, normalized protein catabolic rate, radiologic vascular calcification score, and hip bone

  10. [Current status of the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of hepatitis C in patients undergoing hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Yang, G L; Lei, X Z

    2017-03-20

    Patients undergoing hemodialysis have a higher rate of hepatitis C virus infection than the general population, and due to various factors including hemodialysis and immunosuppression, it is difficult to make a diagnosis. The appearance of direct-acting antiviral agents greatly promotes the treatment of hepatitis C, but there are still no adequate data on their effect and safety in patients undergoing hemodialysis. This article discusses the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of hepatitis C in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  11. Transcatheter closure of left ventricle to right atrial communication using cera duct occluder.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Gnanavelu; Paul, G Justin; Mahadevan, Vaikom S

    Left ventricle-right atrial communication could be congenital (Gerbode defect) or acquired as a complication of surgery or infective endocarditis and leads to volume overloading of pulmonary circulation. Two types, direct and indirect types are known depending on the involvement of septal tricuspid leaflet. Transcatheter closure of this defect is feasible and appears an attractive alternative to surgical management. Various devices like Amplatzer duct occluder I, II, Muscular ventricular septal defect device etc. have been used to close this defect. We report two patients, a preteen boy with direct left ventricle-right atrial communication as post operative complication and an adult female with indirect communication who underwent transcatheter closure with Cera duct occluder (Lifetech Scientific (Shenzhen), China). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Effect of a newly developed charging chamber for the treatment of hypotension during hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Tadayoshi; Fujii, Zenzo; Minami, Masae; Matsumoto, Machiko; Matsuzaki, Masunori

    2006-01-01

    We developed a new method of hemodialysis using a charging chamber for treatment of hemodialysis patients with hypotension occurring during the latter half of hemodialysis (collapse). The purpose of this method was to recover systolic blood pressure (BP) by returning a part of blood within the chamber into the body circulation when hemodialysis collapse occurred. Using this method, systolic BP recovery (DeltaBP) in ten hemodialysis patients (4 males, 6 females, mean age 66.0 years old) was compared to a control group treated with intravenous administration of 20 ml of 10% NaCl. When hemodialysis collapse occurred, 60 ml of blood within the chamber in this method and 20 ml of 10% NaCl intravenously in the control group were administered and systolic BP was measured 20 minutes later. The results showed that DeltaBP using this method was 26.0 mm Hg (ANOVA: p = 0.0072), while in the control group it was 30.2 mm Hg (ANOVA: p = 0.0003), and there was no significant difference between the systolic BP recovery of both groups (paired t test: p = 0.4196).

  13. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... produced from coal seams. 270.302 Section 270.302 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural gas produced from coal seams must file an application with the jurisdictional agency which contains the...

  14. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... produced from coal seams. 270.302 Section 270.302 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural gas produced from coal seams must file an application with the jurisdictional agency which contains the...

  15. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... produced from coal seams. 270.302 Section 270.302 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural gas produced from coal seams must file an application with the jurisdictional agency which contains the...

  16. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... produced from coal seams. 270.302 Section 270.302 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural gas produced from coal seams must file an application with the jurisdictional agency which contains the...

  17. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... produced from coal seams. 270.302 Section 270.302 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural gas produced from coal seams must file an application with the jurisdictional agency which contains the...

  18. Intuitive physical reasoning about occluded objects by inexperienced chicks

    PubMed Central

    Chiandetti, Cinzia; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Questions concerning the role of nature and nurture in higher cognition appear to be intractable if one restricts one's attention to development in humans. However, in other domains, such as sensory development, much information has been gained from controlled rearing studies with animals. Here, we used a similar experimental strategy to investigate intuitive reasoning about occluded objects. Newborn domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) were reared singly with a small object that became their social partner. They were then accustomed to rejoin such an imprinting object when it was made to move and disappear behind either one of two identical opaque screens. After disappearance of the imprinting object, chicks were faced with two screens of different slants, or of different height or different width, which may or may not have been compatible with the presence of the imprinting object hidden beneath/behind them. Chicks consistently chose the screen of slant/height/width compatible with the presence of the object beneath/behind it. Preventing chicks from touching and pecking at the imprinting object before testing did not affect the results, suggesting that intuitive reasoning about physical objects is largely independent of specific experience of interaction with objects and of objects' occluding events. PMID:21270036

  19. Prognostic impact of peritonitis in hemodialysis patients: A national-wide longitudinal study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Chia; Wu, Patricia W.; Chang, Chee-Jen; Tian, Ya-Chung; Yang, Chih-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background Peritonitis has been independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients. However, there are few reports on peritonitis in hemodialysis patients. We aim at investigating both the risk profiles and prognostic impact of peritonitis in hemodialysis patients. Methods This nation-wide longitudinal study uses claims data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 80,733 incident hemodialysis patients of age ≥ 20 years without a history of peritonitis were identified between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2009. Predictors of peritonitis events were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratio for mortality attributed to peritonitis exposure. Results Of 80,733 incident hemodialysis patients over a 13-year study period, peritonitis was diagnosed in 935 (1.16%), yielding an incidence rate of 2.91 per 1000 person-years. Female gender, liver cirrhosis and polycystic kidney disease were three of the most significant factors for peritonitis in both non-diabetic and diabetic hemodialysis patients. The cumulative survival rate of patients with peritonitis was 38.8% at 1 year and 10.1% at 5 years. A time-dependent Cox multivariate analysis showed that peritonitis had significantly increased hazard ratio for all cause mortality. Additionally, the risk of mortality remained significantly higher for non-diabetic hemodialysis patients that experienced peritonitis. Conclusions The risk of peritonitis in hemodialysis patients is higher in female gender, liver cirrhosis and polycystic kidney disease. Although peritonitis is a rare condition, it is associated with significantly poorer outcome in hemodialysis patients. PMID:28301536

  20. Prognostic impact of peritonitis in hemodialysis patients: A national-wide longitudinal study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yueh-An; Tu, Kun-Hua; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Wu, Patricia W; Chang, Chee-Jen; Tian, Ya-Chung; Yang, Chih-Wei; Chu, Pao-Hsien

    2017-01-01

    Peritonitis has been independently associated with increased morbidity and mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients. However, there are few reports on peritonitis in hemodialysis patients. We aim at investigating both the risk profiles and prognostic impact of peritonitis in hemodialysis patients. This nation-wide longitudinal study uses claims data obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A total of 80,733 incident hemodialysis patients of age ≥ 20 years without a history of peritonitis were identified between January 1, 1998 and December 31, 2009. Predictors of peritonitis events were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. Time-dependent Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratio for mortality attributed to peritonitis exposure. Of 80,733 incident hemodialysis patients over a 13-year study period, peritonitis was diagnosed in 935 (1.16%), yielding an incidence rate of 2.91 per 1000 person-years. Female gender, liver cirrhosis and polycystic kidney disease were three of the most significant factors for peritonitis in both non-diabetic and diabetic hemodialysis patients. The cumulative survival rate of patients with peritonitis was 38.8% at 1 year and 10.1% at 5 years. A time-dependent Cox multivariate analysis showed that peritonitis had significantly increased hazard ratio for all cause mortality. Additionally, the risk of mortality remained significantly higher for non-diabetic hemodialysis patients that experienced peritonitis. The risk of peritonitis in hemodialysis patients is higher in female gender, liver cirrhosis and polycystic kidney disease. Although peritonitis is a rare condition, it is associated with significantly poorer outcome in hemodialysis patients.

  1. Short and long nightly hemodialysis in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lockridge, Robert S; Pipkin, Mary

    2008-07-01

    When hemodialysis first started in the United States in the 1960s, a large percentage of patients performed their treatments at home. However, because of reimbursement issues, home hemodialysis (HHD) gradually succumbed to an in-center approach and eventually a mindset. Since the introduction of nightly HHD by Uldall and Pierratos in 1993, there has been a resurgence of interest in HHD. This paper describes the different types of home hemodialysis being performed as of December 31, 2007 in this country. Because neither the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) nor the End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Networks break down home dialysis into the different modalities, a provider questionnaire was sent out to 2 major providers, a number of mid-level providers and other providers known to do HHD. In addition, a questionnaire was sent out to 3 machine providers to obtain the number of patients using their machine for HHD as of December 31, 2007. The results showed that 91.7% of patients are dialyzing in-center, 7.3% are doing peritoneal dialysis, and 0.7% are doing HHD. Currently about 1% of ESRD patients in the United States are doing home hemodialysis. NxStage, however, has started 1000 patients in the past year on short-daily home hemodialysis. Patients are beginning to understand that there are better options than 3 times a week in-center dialysis. And as a result of the "HEMO Study," nephrologists now believe that longer and more frequent dialysis is a better therapy for ESRD patients. Therefore, promotion of HHD should become a priority for the renal community in the future.

  2. Sudden cardiac death in hemodialysis patients: an in-depth review.

    PubMed

    Green, Darren; Roberts, Paul R; New, David I; Kalra, Philip A

    2011-06-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of death in hemodialysis patients, accounting for death in up to one-quarter of this population. Unlike in the general population, coronary artery disease and heart failure often are not the underlying pathologic processes for SCD; accordingly, current risk stratification tools are inadequate when assessing these patients. Factors assuming greater importance in hemodialysis patients may include left ventricular hypertrophy, electrolyte shift, and vascular calcification. Knowledge regarding SCD in hemodialysis patients is insufficient, in part reflecting the lack of an agreed-on definition of SCD in this population, although epidemiologic studies suggest the most common times for SCD to occur are toward the end of the long 72-hour weekend interval between dialysis sessions and in the 12 hours immediately after hemodialysis. Accordingly, it is hypothesized that the dialysis procedure itself may have important implications for SCD. Supporting this is recognition that hemodialysis is associated with both ventricular arrhythmias and dynamic electrocardiographic changes. Importantly, echocardiography and electrocardiography may show changes that are modifiable by alterations to dialysis prescription. The most effective preventative strategy in the general population, implanted cardioverter-defibrillator devices, are less effective in the presence of chronic kidney disease and have not been studied adequately in dialysis patients. Last, many dialysis patients experience SCD despite not fulfilling current criteria for implantation, making appropriate allocation of defibrillators uncertain. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Coping with Treatment-Related Stress: Effects on Patient Adherence in Hemodialysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Alan J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relation of coping to adherence among 57 hemodialysis patients. As predicted, coping efforts involving planful problem solving were associated with more favorable adherence when used in response to stressors involving a relatively controllable aspect of the hemodialysis context. For less controllable stressors, coping efforts…

  4. Factors Associated with Quality of Life among Hemodialysis Patients in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Md. Yusop, Nor Baizura; Yoke Mun, Chan; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Beng Huat, Choo

    2013-01-01

    Although hemodialysis treatment has greatly increased the life expectancy of end stage renal disease patients, low quality of life among hemodialysis patients is frequently reported. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the relationship between medical history, hemodialysis treatment and nutritional status with the mental and physical components of quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Respondents (n=90) were recruited from Hospital Kuala Lumpur and dialysis centres of the National Kidney Foundation of Malaysia. Data obtained included socio-demography, medical history, hemodialysis treatment and nutritional status. Mental and physical quality of life were measured using the Mental Composite Summary (MCS) and Physical Composite Summary (PCS) of the Short-Form Health Survey 36-items, a generic core of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form. Two summary measures and total SF-36 was scored as 0–100, with a higher score indicating better quality of life. Approximately 26 (30%) of respondents achieved the body mass index (24 kg/m2) and more than 80% (n=77) achieved serum albumin level (>35.0 mg/dL) recommended for hemodialysis patients. The majority of respondents did not meet the energy (n=72, 80%) and protein (n=68,75%) recommendations. The total score of SF-36 was 54.1±19.2, while the score for the mental and physical components were 45.0±8.6 and 39.6±8.6, respectively. Factors associated with a higher MCS score were absence of diabetes mellitus (p=0.000) and lower serum calcium (p=0.004), while higher blood flow (p=0.000), higher serum creatinine (p=0.000) and lower protein intake (p=0.006) were associated with a higher PCS score. To improve the overall quality of life of hemodialysis patients, a multidisciplinary intervention that includes medical, dietetic and psychosocial strategies that address factors associated with mental and physical quality of life are warranted to reduce further health complications and to improve quality of life

  5. Isolation and identification of environmental mycobacteria in the waters of a hemodialysis center.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Flávio Garcia; Leandro, Luís Fernando; Montanari, Lilian Bueno; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Sato, Daisy Nakamura; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; de Andrade Prince, Karina; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2013-07-01

    The use of poorly treated water during hemodialysis may lead to contamination with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). This study aimed to isolate and identify NTM species in the water of a Brazilian hemodialysis center. We collected 210 samples of water from the hydric system of the unit (post-osmosis system, hemodialysis rooms, reuse system, and hemodialysis equipment) and from the municipal supply network; we isolated the NTM by a classic microbiological technique and identified them by the PCR restriction enzyme pattern of the hsp65 gene (PRA). Fifty-one (24.3 %) of the collected samples tested positive for NTM; both the municipal supply network (2 samples, 3.2 %) and the hydric system of the hemodialysis center (49 samples, 96.1 %) contained NTM. We isolated and identified potentially pathogenic bacteria such as Mycobacterium lentiflavum (59.0 %) and M. kansasii (5.0 %), as well as rarely pathogenic bacteria like M. gordonae (24.0 %), M. gastri (8.0 %), and M. szulgai (4.0 %). The ability of NTM to cause diseases is well documented in the literature. Therefore, the identification of NTM in the water of a Brazilian hemodialysis center calls for more effective water disinfection procedures in this unit.

  6. Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Hemodialysis Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Saha, Manish; Allon, Michael

    2017-02-07

    Given the high comorbidity in patients on hemodialysis and the complexity of the dialysis treatment, it is remarkable how rarely a life-threatening complication occurs during dialysis. The low rate of dialysis emergencies can be attributed to numerous safety features in modern dialysis machines; meticulous treatment and testing of the dialysate solution to prevent exposure to trace elements, toxins, and pathogens; adherence to detailed treatment protocols; and extensive training of dialysis staff to handle medical emergencies. Most hemodialysis emergencies can be attributed to human error. A smaller number are due to rare idiosyncratic reactions. In this review, we highlight major emergencies that may occur during hemodialysis treatments, describe their pathogenesis, offer measures to minimize them, and provide specific interventions to prevent catastrophic consequences on the rare occasions when such emergencies arise. These emergencies include dialysis disequilibrium syndrome, venous air embolism, hemolysis, venous needle dislodgement, vascular access hemorrhage, major allergic reactions to the dialyzer or treatment medications, and disruption or contamination of the dialysis water system. Finally, we describe root cause analysis after a dialysis emergency has occurred to prevent a future recurrence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention of Hemodialysis Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Manish

    2017-01-01

    Given the high comorbidity in patients on hemodialysis and the complexity of the dialysis treatment, it is remarkable how rarely a life-threatening complication occurs during dialysis. The low rate of dialysis emergencies can be attributed to numerous safety features in modern dialysis machines; meticulous treatment and testing of the dialysate solution to prevent exposure to trace elements, toxins, and pathogens; adherence to detailed treatment protocols; and extensive training of dialysis staff to handle medical emergencies. Most hemodialysis emergencies can be attributed to human error. A smaller number are due to rare idiosyncratic reactions. In this review, we highlight major emergencies that may occur during hemodialysis treatments, describe their pathogenesis, offer measures to minimize them, and provide specific interventions to prevent catastrophic consequences on the rare occasions when such emergencies arise. These emergencies include dialysis disequilibrium syndrome, venous air embolism, hemolysis, venous needle dislodgement, vascular access hemorrhage, major allergic reactions to the dialyzer or treatment medications, and disruption or contamination of the dialysis water system. Finally, we describe root cause analysis after a dialysis emergency has occurred to prevent a future recurrence. PMID:27831511

  8. [Dialysate and biocompatibility in hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Berland, Y

    1998-01-01

    This article summarise the main data in the literature on the role of bacteriological contamination of the dialysate fluid in inflammatory reactions in hemodialysis. Pyrogenic substances of small molecular weight from Gram-negative bacteria grown in dialysate can pass across intact dialyzer membrane to stimulate cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cellulosic hemodialysis membranes are more permeable to endotoxins than synthetic membranes. Polysulfone membranes and polyamide membranes are able to adsorb bacterial toxins on the dialysate side. The diffusive transfer of bacterial products across dialysis membrane from dialysate fluid was demonstrated. Transmembrane passage of cytokine-inducing bacterial products across reprocessed dialyzers is greater than across new dialyzers. Bacteriological contamination of the dialysate fluid is a problem which must be considered with much more care by nephrologists, especially as LAL test is unable to detect all the bacterial products which can contaminate the dialysate fluid.

  9. DNA unwinding by ring-shaped T4 helicase gp41 is hindered by tension on the occluded strand.

    PubMed

    Ribeck, Noah; Saleh, Omar A

    2013-01-01

    The replicative helicase for bacteriophage T4 is gp41, which is a ring-shaped hexameric motor protein that achieves unwinding of dsDNA by translocating along one strand of ssDNA while forcing the opposite strand to the outside of the ring. While much study has been dedicated to the mechanism of binding and translocation along the ssDNA strand encircled by ring-shaped helicases, relatively little is known about the nature of the interaction with the opposite, 'occluded' strand. Here, we investigate the interplay between the bacteriophage T4 helicase gp41 and the ss/dsDNA fork by measuring, at the single-molecule level, DNA unwinding events on stretched DNA tethers in multiple geometries. We find that gp41 activity is significantly dependent on the geometry and tension of the occluded strand, suggesting an interaction between gp41 and the occluded strand that stimulates the helicase. However, the geometry dependence of gp41 activity is the opposite of that found previously for the E. coli hexameric helicase DnaB. Namely, tension applied between the occluded strand and dsDNA stem inhibits unwinding activity by gp41, while tension pulling apart the two ssDNA tails does not hinder its activity. This implies a distinct variation in helicase-occluded strand interactions among superfamily IV helicases, and we propose a speculative model for this interaction that is consistent with both the data presented here on gp41 and the data that had been previously reported for DnaB.

  10. Hepatitis B and C prevalence among hemodialysis patients in the West Bank hospitals, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Al Zabadi, Hamzeh; Rahal, Hani; Fuqaha, Rasha

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis B and C virus infection is a lead cause of morbidity and mortality among hemodialysis patients. Yet, little research has focused on the morbidity measures of these serious disorders in low and middle income countries. The study aims to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C among hemodialysis patients in the West Bank hospitals in Palestine. A retrospective medical records review design was performed for all governmental and private hospitals in the West Bank which provide hemodialysis services for the patients. Data was retrieved from the patients' medical files and from the computerized health information system in some hemodialysis centers. SPSS software version 16 was used for data entry and analysis. In overall, 868 hemodialysis patients attending nine hemodialysis hospitals in the West Bank was recruited. The overall prevalence of hepatitis B virus was found to be 3.8% (33 cases) with a range from 0.0% (in Jericho and Qalqelia districts) to 11.8% (in Bethlehem district). Regarding hepatitis C virus, the overall prevalence was estimated around 7.4% (64 cases) with a range from 2.9% (in Nablus district) to 15.9% (in Qalqelia district). Although relatively low prevalence of both hepatitis B and C virus was found in a couple of hemodialysis hospitals, some higher prevalence values urge for the implementation of stricter infection prevention measures and more effective follow up procedures.

  11. Quality-of-care indicators among remote-dwelling hemodialysis patients: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephanie; Bello, Aminu; Wiebe, Natasha; Manns, Braden; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Klarenbach, Scott; Pelletier, Rick; Tonelli, Marcello

    2013-08-01

    We hypothesized that the higher mortality for hemodialysis patients who live farther from the closest attending nephrologist compared with patients living closer might be due to lower quality of care. Population-based longitudinal study. All adult maintenance hemodialysis patients with measurements of quality-of-care indicators initiating hemodialysis therapy between January 2001 and June 2010 in Northern Alberta, Canada. Hemodialysis patients were classified into categories based on the distance by road from their residence to the closest nephrologist: ≤50 (referent), 50.1-150, 150.1-300, and >300 km. Quality-of-care indicators were based on published guidelines. Quality-of-care indicators at 90 days following initiation of hemodialysis therapy and, in a secondary analysis, at 1 year. Measurements were available for 1,784 patients. At baseline, the proportions of patients residing in each category were 69% for ≤50 km to closest nephrologist; 17%, 50.1-150 km; 7%, 150.1-300 km; and 7%, >300 km. Those who lived farther away from the closest nephrologist were less likely to have seen a nephrologist 90 days prior to the initiation of hemodialysis therapy (P for trend = 0.008) and were less likely to receive Kt/V of 1.2 (adjusted OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.30-0.84; P for trend = 0.01). Remote location also was associated with suboptimal levels of phosphate control (P for trend = 0.005). There were no differences in the prevalence of arteriovenous fistulas or grafts or hemoglobin levels across distance categories. Registry data with limited data for non-guideline-based quality indicators. Although several quality-of-care indicators were less common in remote-dwelling hemodialysis patients, these differences do not appear sufficient to explain the previously noted disparities in clinical outcomes by residence location. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of Emergency-Only vs Standard Hemodialysis With Mortality and Health Care Use Among Undocumented Immigrants With End-stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Lilia; Tuot, Delphine; Raghavan, Rajeev; Linas, Stuart; Zoucha, Jeff; Sweeney, Lena; Vangala, Chandan; Hull, Madelyne; Camacho, Mario; Keniston, Angela; McCulloch, Charles E; Grubbs, Vanessa; Kendrick, Jessica; Powe, Neil R

    2018-02-01

    Undocumented immigrants with end-stage renal disease have variable access to hemodialysis in the United States despite evidence-based standards for frequency of dialysis care. To determine whether mortality and health care use differs among undocumented immigrants who receive emergency-only hemodialysis vs standard hemodialysis (3 times weekly at a health care center). A retrospective cohort study was conducted of undocumented immigrants with incident end-stage renal disease who initiated emergency-only hemodialysis (Denver Health, Denver, Colorado, and Harris Health, Houston, Texas) or standard (Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, San Francisco, California) hemodialysis between January 1, 2007, and July 15, 2014. Access to emergency-only hemodialysis vs standard hemodialysis. The primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes were health care use (acute care days and ambulatory care visits) and rates of bacteremia. Outcomes were adjusted for propensity to undergo emergency hemodialysis vs standard hemodialysis. A total of 211 undocumented patients (86 women and 125 men; mean [SD] age, 46.5 [14.6] years; 42 from the standard hemodialysis group and 169 from the emergency-only hemodialysis group) initiated hemodialysis during the study period. Patients receiving standard hemodialysis were more likely to initiate hemodialysis with an arteriovenous fistula or graft and had higher albumin and hemoglobin levels than patients receiving emergency-only hemodialysis. Adjusting for propensity score, the mean 3-year relative hazard of mortality among patients who received emergency-only hemodialysis was nearly 5-fold (hazard ratio, 4.96; 95% CI, 0.93-26.45; P = .06) greater compared with patients who received standard hemodialysis. Mean 5-year relative hazard of mortality for patients who received emergency-only hemodialysis was more than 14-fold (hazard ratio, 14.13; 95% CI, 1.24-161.00; P = .03) higher than for those who received standard hemodialysis after

  13. [Tuberculosis among chronic hemodialysis patients in Togo: Report of 10 cases].

    PubMed

    Tsevi, Mawufemo Yawovi; Sabi, Akomola Kossi; Lawson-Ananissoh, Laté Mawuli; Noto-Kadou-Kaza, Befa; Amekoudi, Eyram Yoan

    2017-02-01

    To determine the frequency of tuberculosis among hemodialysis patients in Togo, specify its different localizations and identify its diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. This was a retrospective study over a period of 5 years (2010-2015). It includes the records of periodic hemodialysis patients in the Nephrology Department of the Sylvanus-Olympio University Teaching Hospital in Lomé. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was selected on the basis of clinical and laboratory data. The specific treatment has involved the association of 4 antituberculosis, which was adapted to the renal function. Of 91 chronic hemodialysis patients treated in Hospital Sylvanus-Olympio hemodialysis center, 10 cases (10.9%) of tuberculosis were diagnosed. The mean age was 37.3±12.8 years, and the sex ratio was 1.5. The median time to onset of tuberculosis after initiation of hemodialysis was 16.8±9 months. Extrapulmonary sites are found in 100% of cases (5 had both peritoneal and pleural localization, only 5 had pleural localization). The tuberculin skin test was positive in 4 patients (40%). The search for Mycobacterium tuberculosis was unsuccessful in all types of samples. Tuberculosis treatment was generally tolerated. Two patients (20%) had died during treatment. Tuberculosis is relatively common in hemodialysis patients. Diagnosis is difficult and may be based on the therapeutic trial. Copyright © 2016 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. OPCAB in patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Milani, Rodrigo; Brofman, Paulo Roberto Slud; Souza, José Augusto Moutinho de; Barboza, Laura; Guimarães, Maximiliano Ricardo; Barbosa, Alexandre; Varela, Alexandre Manoel; Ravagnelli, Marcel Rogers; Silva, Francisco Maia da

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the hospital outcomes of patients, with chronic renal insufficiency in the hemodialysis, submitted to OPCAB. Fifty-one patients with chronic renal insufficiency were submitted to OPCAB. Hemodialysis was performed on the day before and the day after the operation. Myocardial revascularization was performed using LIMA's suture and suction stabilization. Fifty-one patients, with an average of 61.28+/-11.09 years, were analyzed. Thirty patients (58.8%) were female. The predominant functional class was IV in 21 (41.1%) of the patients. The left ventricle ejection fraction was dire in 21 (41.1%) patients. The mean EUROSCORE of this series was 7.65+/-3.83 and the mean number of distal anastomosis was 3.1+/-0.78 per patient. The average time of mechanical ventilation was 3.78+/-4.35 hours and the mean ICU stay was 41.9+/-13.8 hours, while the average hospitalization was 6.5+/-1.31 days. In respect to complications, nine (17.6%) of the patients developed atrial fibrilation, and one (1.9%) patient presented with a case of ischemic stroke but had a good recovery during hospitalization. There were no deaths in this series. Chronic renal patients submitted to hemodialysis were always a high risk population for myocardial revascularization. In this series, the absence of extracorporeal circulation appeared to be safe and efficient in this special subgroup of patients. The operations were performed with low indices of complications, absence of deaths and relatively low stays in the ICU and in hospital.

  15. Multimodal flow visualization and optimization of pneumatic blood pump for sorbent hemodialysis system.

    PubMed

    Shu, Fangjun; Parks, Robert; Maholtz, John; Ash, Steven; Antaki, James F

    2009-04-01

    Renal Solutions Allient Sorbent Hemodialysis System utilizes a two-chambered pneumatic pump (Pulsar Blood Pump, Renal Solutions, Inc., Warrendale, PA, USA) to avoid limitations associated with peristaltic pumping systems. Single-needle access is enabled by counter-pulsing the two pump chambers, thereby obviating compliance chambers or blood reservoirs. Each chamber propels 20 cc per pulse of 3 s (dual access) or 6 s (single access) duration, corresponding to a peak Reynolds number of approximately 8000 (based on inlet velocity and chamber diameter). A multimodal series of flow visualization studies (tracer particle, dye washout, and dye erosion) was conducted on a sequence of pump designs with varying port locations and diaphragms to improve the geometry with respect to risk of thrombogenesis. Experiments were conducted in a simplified flow loop using occluders to simulate flow resistance induced by tubing and dialyzer. Tracer visualization revealed flow patterns and qualitatively indicated turbulence intensity. Dye washout identified dwell volume and areas of flow stagnation for each design. Dye erosion results indicated the effectiveness and homogeneity of surface washing. Compared to a centered inlet which resulted in a fluid jet that produced two counter-rotating vortices, a tangential inlet introduced a single vortex, and kept the flow laminar. It also provided better surface washing on the pump inner surface. However, a tangential outlet did not present as much benefit as expected. On the contrary, it created a sharp defection to the flow when transiting from filling to ejection.

  16. Establishing a Core Outcome Measure for Fatigue in Patients on Hemodialysis: A Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) Consensus Workshop Report.

    PubMed

    Ju, Angela; Unruh, Mark; Davison, Sara; Dapueto, Juan; Dew, Mary Amanda; Fluck, Richard; Germain, Michael; Jassal, Sarbjit V; Obrador, Gregorio; O'Donoghue, Donal; Josephson, Michelle A; Craig, Jonathan C; Viecelli, Andrea; O'Lone, Emma; Hanson, Camilla S; Manns, Braden; Sautenet, Benedicte; Howell, Martin; Reddy, Bharathi; Wilkie, Caroline; Rutherford, Claudia; Tong, Allison

    2018-03-15

    Fatigue is one of the most highly prioritized outcomes for patients and clinicians, but remains infrequently and inconsistently reported across trials in hemodialysis. We convened an international Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) consensus workshop with stakeholders to discuss the development and implementation of a core outcome measure for fatigue. 15 patients/caregivers and 42 health professionals (clinicians, researchers, policy makers, and industry representatives) from 9 countries participated in breakout discussions. Transcripts were analyzed thematically. 4 themes for a core outcome measure emerged. Drawing attention to a distinct and all-encompassing symptom was explicitly recognizing fatigue as a multifaceted symptom unique to hemodialysis. Emphasizing the pervasive impact of fatigue on life participation justified the focus on how fatigue severely impaired the patient's ability to do usual activities. Ensuring relevance and accuracy in measuring fatigue would facilitate shared decision making about treatment. Minimizing burden of administration meant avoiding the cognitive burden, additional time, and resources required to use the measure. A core outcome measure that is simple, is short, and includes a focus on the severity of the impact of fatigue on life participation may facilitate consistent and meaningful measurement of fatigue in all trials to inform decision making and care of patients receiving hemodialysis. Copyright © 2018 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of three patent foramen ovale closure devices in a randomized trial (Amplatzer versus CardioSEAL-STARflex versus Helex occluder).

    PubMed

    Taaffe, Margaret; Fischer, Evelyn; Baranowski, Andreas; Majunke, Nicolas; Heinisch, Corinna; Leetz, Michaela; Hein, Ralph; Bayard, Yves; Büscheck, Franziska; Reschke, Madlen; Hoffmann, Ilona; Wunderlich, Nina; Wilson, Neil; Sievert, Horst

    2008-05-01

    This randomized trial compared procedural complications and 30-day clinical outcomes of 3 patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure devices (Amplatzer, Helex, and CardioSEAL-STARflex). It examined 660 patients (361 men, 299 women, mean age 49.3+/-1.9 years), with 220 patients per group. All patients had a history of paradoxical embolism. All PFO closures were successful technically. Exchange of devices for others was most frequently required for the Helex occluder (7 of 220) and 2 of 220 in either of the other groups. Three device embolizations in the Helex group were retrieved and replaced successfully. One patient with a Helex occluder developed a transient ischemic attack and recovered without treatment. A hemopericardium in that group was punctured without affecting the device. One tamponade in the Amplatzer group required surgical device explantation. In 8 of 660 patients in the CardioSEAL-STARflex group, thrombi resolved after anticoagulation. Sixteen patients (11 in the CardioSEAL-STARflex group, 3 in the Amplatzer group, and 2 in the Helex group) had episodes of atrial fibrillation. PFOs were closed completely in 143 of 220 patients (65%) in the Amplatzer group, 116 of 220 patients (52.7%) in the Helex group, and 137 of 220 patients (62.3%) in the CardioSEAL-STARflex group at 30 days with significant differences between the Helex and Amplatzer occluders (p=0.0005) and the Helex and CardioSEAL-STARflex occluders (p=0.0003). PFO closure can be performed safely with each device. In conclusion, the Helex occluder embolized more frequently. Device thrombus formation and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were more common with the CardioSEAL-STARflex occluder.

  18. Extended-hours hemodialysis is associated with lower mortality risk in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Rivara, Matthew B; Adams, Scott V; Kuttykrishnan, Sooraj; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Cheung, Alfred K; Katz, Ronit; Molnar, Miklos Z; Ravel, Vanessa; Soohoo, Melissa; Streja, Elani; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Mehrotra, Rajnish

    2016-12-01

    Extended-hours hemodialysis offers substantially longer treatment time compared to conventional hemodialysis schedules and is associated with improved fluid and electrolyte control and favorable cardiac remodeling. However, whether extended-hours hemodialysis improves survival remains unclear. Therefore, we determined the association between extended-hours compared to conventional hemodialysis and the risk of all-cause mortality in a nationally representative cohort of patients initiating maintenance dialysis in the United States from 2007 to 2011. Survival analyses using causal inference modeling with marginal structural models were performed to compare mortality risk among 1206 individuals undergoing thrice weekly extended-hours hemodialysis or 111,707 patients receiving conventional hemodialysis treatments. The average treatment time per session for extended-hours hemodialysis was 399 minutes compared to 211 minutes for conventional therapy. The crude mortality rate with extended-hours hemodialysis was 6.4 deaths per 100 patient-years compared with 14.7 deaths per 100 patient-years for conventional hemodialysis. In the primary analysis, patients treated with extended-hours hemodialysis had a 33% lower adjusted risk of death compared to those who were treated with a conventional regimen (95% confidence interval: 7% to 51%). Additional analyses accounting for analytical assumptions regarding exposure and outcome, facility-level confounders, and prior modality history were similar. Thus, in this large nationally representative cohort, treatment with extended-hours hemodialysis was associated with a lower risk for mortality compared to treatment with conventional in-center therapy. Adequately powered randomized clinical trials comparing extended-hours to conventional hemodialysis are required to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reversible primary hypothyroidism in Japanese patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Sanai, T; Inoue, T; Okamura, K; Sato, K; Yamamoto, K; Abe, T; Node, K; Tsuruya, K; Iida, M

    2008-02-01

    The presence or absence of hypothyroidism was assessed in 152 consecutive Japanese patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis. Eight patients who had undergone treatment for thyroid disease before starting hemodialysis therapy, and 3 patients with amyloidosis due to rheumatoid arthritis were excluded. Of the remaining 141 hemodialysis patients, 14 (9.9%) (9 males and 5 females, aged 69.1 A+/- 8.8 years with a mean duration of hemodialysis of 69 A+/- 51 months) were in a hypothyroid state, defined as a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level > 5 mU/l. Antithyroid peroxidase antibodies were positive in only 1 of the 14 patients, while antithyroglobulin antibodies were negative in all of these patients. After iodide restriction, the serum TSH level decreased in all the patients from a mean of 16.49 A+/- 22.80 to 4.44 A+/- 3.35 mU/l after 1 month, 4.25 A+/- 2.24 mU/l after 2 months and 3.97 A+/- 2.22 mU/l after 3 months. The 3 months of iodide restriction were also associated with decreases in systolic blood pressure (142 A+/- 19 to 125 A+/- 16 mmHg, p < 0.05), diastolic blood pressure (79 A+/- 13 to 72 A+/- 9 mmHg, p < 0.05) and thyroid gland volume estimated by ultrasonography (13.7 A+/- 6.3 to 11.6 A+/- 5.2 ml, p < 0.05). A high prevalence of reversible primary hypothyroidism was found in end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis. Retention of excess iodide may be the mechanism responsible for reversible hypothyroidism rather than immunological perturbations. It is, therefore, recommended to attempt iodide restriction before starting l-thyroxine replacement therapy.

  20. Frequency of and risk factors for poor cognitive performance in hemodialysis patients

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are few detailed data on cognition in patients undergoing dialysis. We evaluated the frequency of and risk factors for poor cognitive performance using detailed neurocognitive testing. In this cross-sectional cohort study, 314 hemodialysis patients from 6 Boston-area hemodialysis units underwe...

  1. A Trial of Extending Hemodialysis Hours and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Meg J; Zuo, Li; Gray, Nicholas A; de Zoysa, Janak R; Chan, Christopher T; Gallagher, Martin P; Monaghan, Helen; Grieve, Stuart M; Puranik, Rajesh; Lin, Hongli; Eris, Josette M; Zhang, Ling; Xu, Jinsheng; Howard, Kirsten; Lo, Serigne; Cass, Alan; Perkovic, Vlado

    2017-06-01

    The relationship between increased hemodialysis hours and patient outcomes remains unclear. We randomized (1:1) 200 adult recipients of standard maintenance hemodialysis from in-center and home-based hemodialysis programs to extended weekly (≥24 hours) or standard (target 12-15 hours, maximum 18 hours) hemodialysis hours for 12 months. The primary outcome was change in quality of life from baseline assessed by the EuroQol 5 dimension instrument (3 level) (EQ-5D). Secondary outcomes included medication usage, clinical laboratory values, vascular access events, and change in left ventricular mass index. At 12 months, median weekly hemodialysis hours were 24.0 (interquartile range, 23.6-24.0) and 12.0 (interquartile range, 12.0-16.0) in the extended and standard groups, respectively. Change in EQ-5D score at study end did not differ between groups (mean difference, 0.04 [95% confidence interval, -0.03 to 0.11]; P =0.29). Extended hours were associated with lower phosphate and potassium levels and higher hemoglobin levels. Blood pressure (BP) did not differ between groups at study end. Extended hours were associated with fewer BP-lowering agents and phosphate-binding medications, but were not associated with erythropoietin dosing. In a substudy with 95 patients, we detected no difference between groups in left ventricular mass index (mean difference, -6.0 [95% confidence interval, -14.8 to 2.7] g/m 2 ; P =0.18). Five deaths occurred in the extended group and two in the standard group ( P =0.44); two participants in each group withdrew consent. Similar numbers of patients experienced vascular access events in the two groups. Thus, extending weekly hemodialysis hours did not alter overall EQ-5D quality of life score, but was associated with improvement in some laboratory parameters and reductions in medication burden. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00649298). Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  2. Rocuronium-sugammadex use for electroconvulsive therapy in a hemodialysis patient: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kurita, Shigeaki; Moriwaki, Katsuyuki; Shiroyama, Kazuhisa; Sanuki, Mikako; Toyota, Yukari; Takebayashi, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Recently, rocuronium with subsequent use of sugammadex was proposed for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) as an alternative to succinylcholine. Because sugammadex is cleared via the kidney with no metabolism, it is unknown that rocuronium-sugammadex use is safe in hemodialysis patients who received ECT. In this case report, we used rocuronium with subsequent administration of sugammadex in a 69-year-old female, hemodialysis patient, scheduled for ten ECT sessions for severe major depression. In the initial eight sessions, we tested the feasibility of rocuronium-sugammadex use for ECT. During the series of four ECT sessions, we measured plasma concentrations for the sum of sugammadex and sugammadex-rocuronium complex and observed whether possible residual sugammadex affected muscle relaxation during subsequent sessions of ECT. The results showed the feasibility of rocuronium-sugammadex use as muscle relaxants for ECT in patients undergoing hemodialysis. However, an accumulation of sugammadex did occur even after two sessions of hemodialysis, and residual sugammadex decreased the effect of the rocuronium given in the subsequent ECT sessions. Rocuronium-sugammadex was successfully utilized as muscle relaxants for ECT in this patient. Our experience in this case may indicate that if succinylcholine is contraindicated, rocuronium-sugammadex can be an alternative method for muscle relaxation during ECT in patients undergoing hemodialysis. When this rocuronium-sugammadex procedure is used, the effect of residual sugammadex after hemodialysis on the subsequently administered rocuronium should be considered.

  3. Reengineering hemodialysis for the home environment.

    PubMed

    Treu, Denny

    2010-01-01

    Denny Treu of NxStage Medical, Inc., who has led the development of six dialysis systems with various companies, reports here on a home hemodialysis system that his company successfully designed specifically for home use.

  4. Magnetic targeting to enhance microbubble delivery in an occluded microarterial bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Saint Victor, M.; Carugo, D.; Barnsley, L. C.; Owen, J.; Coussios, C.-C.; Stride, E.

    2017-09-01

    Ultrasound and microbubbles have been shown to accelerate the breakdown of blood clots both in vitro and in vivo. Clinical translation of this technology is still limited, however, in part by inefficient microbubble delivery to the thrombus. This study examines the obstacles to delivery posed by fluid dynamic conditions in occluded vasculature and investigates whether magnetic targeting can improve microbubble delivery. A 2D computational fluid dynamic model of a fully occluded Y-shaped microarterial bifurcation was developed to determine: (i) the fluid dynamic field in the vessel with inlet velocities from 1-100 mm s-1 (corresponding to Reynolds numbers 0.25-25) (ii) the transport dynamics of fibrinolytic drugs; and (iii) the flow behavior of microbubbles with diameters in the clinically-relevant range (0.6-5 µm). In vitro experiments were carried out in a custom-built microfluidic device. The flow field was characterized using tracer particles, and fibrinolytic drug transport was assessed using fluorescence microscopy. Lipid-shelled magnetic microbubbles were fluorescently labelled to determine their spatial distribution within the microvascular model. In both the simulations and experiments, the formation of laminar vortices and an abrupt reduction of fluid velocity were observed in the occluded branch of the bifurcation, severely limiting drug transport towards the occlusion. In the absence of a magnetic field, no microbubbles reached the occlusion, remaining trapped in the first vortex, within 350 µm from the bifurcation center. The number of microbubbles trapped within the vortex decreased as the inlet velocity increased, but was independent of microbubble size. Application of a magnetic field (magnetic flux density of 76 mT, magnetic flux density gradient of 10.90 T m-1 at the centre of the bifurcation) enabled delivery of microbubbles to the occlusion and the number of microbubbles delivered increased with bubble size and with decreasing inlet velocity.

  5. Change in Lactate Levels After Hemodialysis in Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Hourmozdi, Justin J; Gill, Jasreen; Miller, Joseph B; Markin, Abraham; Adams, Beth; Soi, Vivek; Jaehne, Anja K; Taylor, Andrew R; Langberg, Sam; Rodriguez, Lauren; Fox, Carynne; Uduman, Junior; Yessayan, Lenar T; Rivers, Emanuel P

    2018-06-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease commonly visit the emergency department (ED). The purpose of this investigation is to examine the prevalence of baseline abnormal lactate levels and to evaluate the effects of hemodialysis on serum lactate levels. This was a prospective observational cohort study performed at an outpatient dialysis facility at an urban tertiary care hospital. The study consisted of 226 patients with end-stage renal disease who were receiving long-term hemodialysis and were enrolled during a 2-day period at the beginning of December 2015. Blood drawn for lactate levels was immediately analyzed before and after hemodialysis sessions. All patients completed their hemodialysis sessions. The prevalence of an abnormal lactate level (greater than 1.8 mmol/L) before hemodialysis was 17.7% (n=40). Overall, lactate levels decreased by 27% (SD 35%) after hemodialysis, with a decrease of 37% (SD 31%) for subgroups with a lactate level of 1.9 to 2.4 mmol/L, and 62% (SD 14%) with a lactate of 2.5 to 3.9 mmol/L. The data presented help providers understand the prevalence of abnormal lactate values in an outpatient end-stage renal disease population. After hemodialysis, lactate levels decreased significantly. This information may help medical providers interpret lactate values when patients with end-stage renal disease present to the ED. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hemodialysis clearance of glyphosate following a life-threatening ingestion of glyphosate-surfactant herbicide.

    PubMed

    Garlich, F M; Goldman, M; Pepe, J; Nelson, L S; Allan, M J; Goldstein, D A; Goldfarb, D S; Hoffman, R S

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of glyphosate-surfactant herbicides (GlySH) can result in acute kidney injury, electrolyte abnormalities, acidosis, cardiovascular collapse, and death. In severe toxicity, the use of hemodialysis is reported, but largely unsupported by kinetic analysis. We report the dialysis clearance of glyphosate following a suicidal ingestion of a glyphosate-containing herbicide. A 62-year-old man was brought to the emergency department (ED) 8.5 h after drinking a bottle of commercial herbicide containing a 41% solution of glyphosate isopropylamine, in polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA) surfactant and water. He was bradycardic and obtunded with respiratory depression necessitating intubation and mechanical ventilation. Initial laboratory results were significant for the following: pH, 7.11; PCO2, 64 mmHg; PO2, 48 mmHg; potassium, 7.8 mEq/L; Cr 3.3, mg/dL; bicarbonate, 22 mEq/L; anion gap, 18 mEq/L; and lactate, 7.5 mmol/L. Acidosis and hyperkalemia persisted despite ventilation and fluid resuscitation. The patient underwent hemodialysis 16 h post ingestion, after which he demonstrated resolution of acidosis and hyperkalemia, and improvement in clinical status. Serum glyphosate concentrations were drawn prior to, during, and after hemodialysis. The extraction ratio and hemodialysis clearance were calculated to be 91.8% and 97.5 mL/min, respectively. We demonstrate the successful clearance of glyphosate using hemodialysis, with corresponding clinical improvement in a patient with several poor prognostic factors (advanced age, large volume ingested, and impaired consciousness). The effects of hemodialysis on the surfactant compound are unknown. Hemodialysis can be considered when severe acidosis and acute kidney injury complicate ingestion of glyphosate-containing products.

  7. Changes in urine volume and serum albumin in incident hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Eriguchi, Rieko; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Rhee, Connie M; Chou, Jason A; Tortorici, Amanda R; Mathew, Anna T; Kim, Taehee; Soohoo, Melissa; Streja, Elani; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2017-10-01

    Hypoalbuminemia is a predictor of poor outcomes in dialysis patients. Among hemodialysis patients, there has not been prior study of whether residual kidney function or decline over time impacts serum albumin levels. We hypothesized that a decline in residual kidney function is associated with an increase in serum albumin levels among incident hemodialysis patients. In a large national cohort of 38,504 patients who initiated hemodialysis during 1/2007-12/2011, we examined the association of residual kidney function, ascertained by urine volume and renal urea clearance, with changes in serum albumin over five years across strata of baseline residual kidney function, race, and diabetes using case-mix adjusted linear mixed effects models. Serum albumin levels increased over time. At baseline, patients with greater urine volume had higher serum albumin levels: 3.44 ± 0.48, 3.50 ± 0.46, 3.57 ± 0.44, 3.59 ± 0.45, and 3.65 ± 0.46 g/dL for urine volume groups of <300, 300-<600, 600-<900, 900-<1,200, and ≥1,200 mL/day, respectively (P trend  < 0.001). Over time, urine volume and renal urea clearance declined and serum albumin levels rose, while the baseline differences in serum albumin persisted across groups of urinary volume. In addition, the rate of decline in residual kidney function was not associated with the rate of change in albumin. Hypoalbuminemia in hemodialysis patients is associated with lower residual kidney function. Among incident hemodialysis patients, there is a gradual rise in serum albumin that is independent of the rate of decline in residual kidney function, suggesting that preservation of residual kidney function does not have a deleterious impact on serum albumin levels. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  8. The Effect of Stress Management Training on Hope in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Poorgholami, Farzad; Abdollahifard, Sareh; Zamani, Marzieh; Kargar Jahromi, Marzieh; Badiyepeyma Jahromi, Zohreh

    2015-11-18

    Chronic renal failure exposes patients to the risk of several complications, which will affect every aspect of patient's life, and eventually his hope. This study aims to determine the effect of stress management group training on hope in hemodialysis patients. In this quasi-experimental single-blind study, 50 patients with renal failure undergoing hemodialysis at Motahari Hospital in Jahrom were randomly divided into stress management training and control groups. Sampling was purposive, and patients in stress management training group received 60-minute in-person training by the researcher (in groups of 5 to 8 patients) before dialysis, over 5 sessions, lasting 8 weeks, and a researcher-made training booklet was made available to them in the first session. Patients in the control group received routine training given to all patients in hemodialysis department. Patients' hope was recorded before and after intervention. Data collection tools included demographic details form, checklist of problems of hemodialysis patients and Miller hope scale (MHS). Data were analyzed in SPSS-18, using Chi-square, one-way analysis of variance, and paired t-test. Fifty patients were studied in two groups of 25 each. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of age, gender, or hope before intervention. After 8 weeks of training, hope reduced from 95.92±12.63 to 91.16±11.06 (P=0.404) in the control group, and increased from 97.24±11.16 to 170.96±7.99 (P=0.001) in the stress management training group. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in hope scores after the intervention. Stress management training by nurses significantly increased hope in hemodialysis patients. This low cost intervention can be used to improve hope in hemodialysis patients.

  9. Determinants of Slow Walking Speed in Ambulatory Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzawa, Ryota; Kutsuna, Toshiki; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Yoneki, Kei; Harada, Manae; Ishikawa, Ryoma; Watanabe, Takaaki; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Walking ability is significantly lower in hemodialysis patients compared to healthy people. Decreased walking ability characterized by slow walking speed is associated with adverse clinical events, but determinants of decreased walking speed in hemodialysis patients are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with slow walking speed in ambulatory hemodialysis patients. Subjects were 122 outpatients (64 men, 58 women; mean age, 68 years) undergoing hemodialysis. Clinical characteristics including comorbidities, motor function (strength, flexibility, and balance), and maximum walking speed (MWS) were measured and compared across sex-specific tertiles of MWS. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to examine whether clinical characteristics and motor function could discriminate between the lowest, middle, and highest tertiles of MWS. Significant and common factors that discriminated the lowest and highest tertiles of MWS from other categories were presence of cardiac disease (lowest: odds ratio [OR] = 3.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26–8.83, P<0.05; highest: OR = 2.84, 95% CI = 1.18–6.84, P<0.05), leg strength (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.40–0.95, P<0.05; OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.39–0.82, P<0.01), and standing balance (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.63–0.92, P<0.01; OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.68–0.97, P<0.05). History of fracture (OR = 3.35, 95% CI = 1.08–10.38; P<0.05) was a significant factor only in the lowest tertile. Cardiac disease, history of fracture, decreased leg strength, and poor standing balance were independently associated with slow walking speed in ambulatory hemodialysis patients. These findings provide useful data for planning effective therapeutic regimens to prevent decreases in walking ability in ambulatory hemodialysis patients. PMID:27018891

  10. Atypical familial Mediterranean fever developed in a long-term hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Makino, Toshiyuki; Ohara, Yoshitatsu; Kobayashi, Namiko; Kono, Yohei; Nomizu, Ayumu; Ichijo, Mariko; Mori, Yutaro; Matsui, Noriaki; Kishida, Dai; Toda, Takayuki

    2018-04-01

    Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is usually an autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disease characterized by recurrent attacks of fever and serositis. FMF develops before the age of 20 years in 90% of patients. It has intervals of 1 week to several years between attacks, which leads to renal dysfunction-amyloidosis. We report a case of atypical FMF that developed in a long-term hemodialysis patient. A 65-year-old Japanese female undergoing hemodialysis for 32 years was referred to our hospital with a fever of unknown origin (FUO) following cervical laminoplasty. The fever occurred as recurrent attacks accompanied by oligoarthralgia of the left hip and knee. We suspected FMF because of recurrent self-limited febrile attacks, although the patient showed atypical clinical features such as late-onset and highly frequent attacks. After receiving treatment, she achieved a complete response to colchicine. Therefore, a diagnosis of FMF was made based on the Tel-Hashomer criteria, which was confirmed by genetic testing. The case suggests that FMF may be of note in long-term hemodialysis patients developing FUO. © 2017 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  11. Fifty years of hemodialysis access literature: The fifty most cited publications in the medical literature.

    PubMed

    Skripochnik, Edvard; O'Connor, David J; Trestman, Eric B; Lipsitz, Evan C; Scher, Larry A

    2018-02-01

    Objectives The modern era of hemodialysis access surgery began with the publication in 1966 by Brescia et al. describing the use of a surgically created arteriovenous fistula. Since then, the number of patients on chronic hemodialysis and the number of publications dealing with hemodialysis access have steadily increased. We have chronicled the increase in publications in the medical literature dealing with hemodialysis access by evaluating the characteristics of the 50 most cited articles. Methods We queried the Science Citation Index from the years 1960-2014. Articles were selected based on a subject search and were ranked according to the number of times they were cited in the medical literature. Results The 50 most frequently cited articles were selected for further analysis and the number of annual publications was tracked. The landmark publication by Dr Brescia et al. was unequivocally the most cited article dealing with hemodialysis access (1109 citations). The subject matter of the papers included AV fistula and graft (9), hemodialysis catheter (9), complications and outcomes (24), and other topics (8). Most articles were published in nephrology journals (33), with fewer in surgery (7), medicine (7), and radiology (3) journals. Of the 17 journals represented, Kidney International was the clear leader, publishing 18 articles. There has been an exponential rise in the frequency of publications regarding dialysis access with 42 of 50 analyzed papers being authored after 1990. Conclusion As the number of patients on hemodialysis has increased dramatically over the past five decades, there has been a commensurate increase in the overall number of publications related to hemodialysis access.

  12. Splenic Abscess Associated with Endocarditis in a Patient on Hemodialysis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Cho, Min Seok; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Soo Wan; Kim, Nam Ho

    2005-01-01

    Splenic abscess is an unusual condition usually seen in immunocompromised patients or associated with intravenous drug abuses. Several conditions including trauma, immunodeficiency, corticosteroid and/or immunosuppressive therapy and diabetes mellitus have been listed under the predisposing factors for a splenic abscess. Splenic abscess in a patient on hemodialysis is a rare but life-threatening condition if not corrected. We describe a case of splenic abscess with bacterial endocarditis on maintenance hemodialysis. He had staphylococcal septicemia secondary to bacterial endocarditis at the mitral valve from the dialysis accesssite infection. Although hematologic seeding from endocarditis has been the predisposing factor for splenic abscess, we postulate that access-site infections may predispose hemodialysis patients to splenic abscess. Splenic abscess may be considered as one of the causes when patients on hemodialysis develop unexplained fever. PMID:15832007

  13. Balloon-Occluded Percutaneous Transhepatic Obliteration of Isolated Vesical Varices Causing Gross Hematuria

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Min Seok; Kim, Chul Sung

    2013-01-01

    Gross hematuria secondary to vesical varices is an unusual presentation. We report such a case recurrent gross hematuria in a male patient who had a history of bladder substitution with ileal segments that had been treated by balloon-occluded percutaneous transhepatic obliteration of vesical varices. PMID:23323037

  14. [Influence of Uncertainty and Uncertainty Appraisal on Self-management in Hemodialysis Patients].

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyung Suk; Lee, Chang Suk; Yang, Young Hee

    2015-04-01

    This study was done to examine the relation of uncertainty, uncertainty appraisal, and self-management in patients undergoing hemodialysis, and to identify factors influencing self-management. A convenience sample of 92 patients receiving hemodialysis was selected. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and medical records. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlations and multiple regression analysis with the SPSS/WIN 20.0 program. The participants showed a moderate level of uncertainty with the highest score being for ambiguity among the four uncertainty subdomains. Scores for uncertainty danger or opportunity appraisals were under the mid points. The participants were found to perform a high level of self-management such as diet control, management of arteriovenous fistula, exercise, medication, physical management, measurements of body weight and blood pressure, and social activity. The self-management of participants undergoing hemodialysis showed a significant relationship with uncertainty and uncertainty appraisal. The significant factors influencing self-management were uncertainty, uncertainty opportunity appraisal, hemodialysis duration, and having a spouse. These variables explained 32.8% of the variance in self-management. The results suggest that intervention programs to reduce the level of uncertainty and to increase the level of uncertainty opportunity appraisal among patients would improve the self-management of hemodialysis patients.

  15. Extreme hyperglycemia with ketoacidosis and hyperkalemia in a patient on chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arvin; Rohrscheib, Mark; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2008-10-01

    A patient on hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease secondary to diabetic nephropathy was admitted in a coma with Kussmaul breathing and hypertension (232/124 mmHg). She had extreme hyperglycemia (1884 mg/dL), acidosis (total CO(2) 4 mmol/L), hyperkalemia (7.2 mmol/L) with electrocardiographic abnormalities, and hypertonicity (330.7 mOsm/kg). Initial treatment with insulin drip resulted in a decrease in serum potassium to 5.3 mmol/L, but no significant change in mental status or other laboratory parameters. Hemodialysis of 1.75 hours resulted in rapid decline in serum glucose and tonicity and rapid improvement of the acidosis, but no change in mental status, which began to improve slowly after the hemodialysis was stopped, but with ongoing treatment with continuous insulin infusion. The rate of decline in tonicity during hemodialysis (14.5 mOsm/kg/h) was high, raising concerns about neurological complications. In this case, extreme hyperglycemia with ketoacidosis, hyperkalemia, and coma developing in a hemodialysis patient responded to insulin infusion. Monitoring of the clinical status and the pertinent laboratory values is required to assess the need for other therapeutic measures including volume and potassium replacement and emergency dialysis. The indications for and risks of emergency dialysis in this setting are not clearly defined.

  16. Measuring pain in patients undergoing hemodialysis: a review of pain assessment tools

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Chandani; Cameron, Karen; Murphy, Laura; Battistella, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing hemodialysis frequently report pain with multifactorial causes, not limited to that experienced directly from hemodialysis treatment. Their pain may be nociceptive, neuropathic, somatic or visceral in nature. Despite this, pain in this population remains under-recognized and under-treated. Although several tools have been used to measure pain in patients undergoing hemodialysis as reported in the literature, none of them have been validated specifically in this population. The objective for this review was to compare and contrast these pain assessment tools and discuss their clinical utility in this patient population. Methods To identify pain assessment tools studied in patients undergoing hemodialysis, a literature search was performed in PubMed and Medline. An expert panel of dialysis and pain clinicians reviewed each tool. Each pain assessment tool was assessed on how it is administered and scored, its psychometric properties such as reliability, validity and responsiveness to change, and its clinical utility in a hemodialysis population. Brief Pain Inventory, McGill Pain Questionnaire, Pain Management Index, Edmonton Symptom Assessment System, Visual Analogue Scale and Faces Pain Scale were evaluated and compared. Results This assessment will help clinicians practicing in nephrology to determine which of these pain assessment tools is best suited for use in their individual clinical practice. PMID:25852910

  17. Hemodialysis as a treatment of severe accidental hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Caluwé, Rogier; Vanholder, Raymond; Dhondt, Annemieke

    2010-03-01

    We describe a case of severe accidental hypothermia (core body temperature 23.2 degrees C) successfully treated with hemodialysis in a diabetic patient with preexisting renal insufficiency. Consensus exists about cardiopulmonary bypass as the treatment of choice in cases of severe accidental hypothermia with cardiac arrest. Prospective randomized controlled trials comparing the different rewarming modalities for hemodynamically stable patients with hypothermia, however, are lacking. In our opinion, the choice of a rewarming technique should be patient tailored, knowing that hemodialysis is an efficient, minimally invasive, and readily available technique with the advantage of providing electrolyte support.

  18. International variations and trends in home hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Agar, John W M

    2009-05-01

    Home hemodialysis, once a valid, viable dialysis choice, faded as facility-based care was preferentially funded and supported through the 1970s and 1980s. It was simply more comfortable for providers, physicians, and nurses to capture dialysis patients through clinic schedules and clinical protocols. Home patients were unpredictable, out of sight and out of control, trouble, and best avoided. This was so except in Australia and New Zealand where funding and support remained strong for what was seen there as an effective, outcome-rich, and cost-effective modality. The renaissance of home hemodialysis began in Canada when home-based nocturnal dialysis emerged in the 1990s. Home patients soon appreciated the self-determination and re-employment opportunities that overnight dialysis delivered. This article explores the origins, the near demise, the foundations of renewal, and the now-expanding potential of home and nocturnal hemodialysis in regions as diverse as North America, Australia and New Zealand, South East Asia, the United Kingdom, and Finland. Home dialysis fed by cost containment, outcome success, patient acceptance, and new smart equipment has emerged as a bright new modality option. Trainee nephrologists would be wise to take more notice as this near ghost of the past forges an exciting future.

  19. Cognitive Dysfunction in Patients with Renal Failure Requiring Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Thimmaiah, Rohini; Murthy, K. Krishna; Pinto, Denzil

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Renal failure patients show significant impairment on measures of attention and memory, and consistently perform significantly better on neuropsychological measures of memory and attention, approximately 24 hours after hemodialysis treatment. The objectives are to determine the cognitive dysfunction in patients with renal failure requiring hemodialysis. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 subjects comprising of 30 renal failure patients and 30 controls were recruited. The sample was matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. The tools used were the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination and the Brief Cognitive Rating Scale. Results: The patients showed high cognitive dysfunction in the pre-dialysis group, in all the five dimensions (concentration, recent memory, past memory, orientation and functioning, and self-care), and the least in the 24-hour post dialysis group. This difference was found to be statistically significant (P=0.001). Conclusion: Patients with renal failure exhibited pronounced cognitive impairment and these functions significantly improved after the introduction of hemodialysis. PMID:23439613

  20. Cognitive function and adherence of older adults undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Hain, Debra J

    2008-01-01

    As the number of older adults undergoing hemodialysis increases, it is important for nurses to consider cognitive impairment as a contributing factor to non-adherence. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify cognitive markers that nurses can use to alert them to potential problems with adherence among older adults undergoing hemodialysis. Stories of the health challenge of making lifestyle change were analyzed with a linguistic analysis software program. A standardized instrument (3MS) that measures global cognitive function was administered. Determination of adherence level was the last activity of data collection. In this sample (n=63), 39.7% of the participants had evidence of cognitive impairment (3MS score less than 80); 58.2% of the 39.7% had evidence of non-adherence. There was a significant relationship between word use and cognitive function (p < .01). Cognitive impairment is prevalent among older adults undergoing hemodialysis and words might be a proxy for recognizing this.

  1. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of apixaban in subjects with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Tirucherai, Giridhar; Marbury, Thomas C; Wang, Jessie; Chang, Ming; Zhang, Donglu; Song, Yan; Pursley, Janice; Boyd, Rebecca A; Frost, Charles

    2016-05-01

    An open-label, parallel-group, single-dose study was conducted to assess the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of apixaban in 8 subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis compared with 8 subjects with normal renal function. A single oral 5-mg dose of apixaban was administered once to healthy subjects and twice to subjects with ESRD, separated by ≥7 days: 2 hours before (on hemodialysis) and immediately after a 4-hour hemodialysis session (off hemodialysis). Blood samples were collected for determination of apixaban pharmacokinetic parameters, measures of clotting (prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time), and anti-factor Xa (FXa) activity. Compared with healthy subjects, apixaban Cmax and AUCinf were 10% lower and 36% higher, respectively, in subjects with ESRD off hemodialysis. Hemodialysis in subjects with ESRD was associated with reductions in apixaban Cmax and AUCinf of 13% and 14%, respectively. The percent change from baseline in clotting measures was similar in healthy subjects and subjects with ESRD, and differences in anti-FXa activity were similar to differences in apixaban concentration. A single 5-mg oral dose of apixaban was well tolerated in both groups. In conclusion, ESRD resulted in a modest increase (36%) in apixaban AUC and no increase in Cmax , and hemodialysis had a limited impact on apixaban clearance. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  2. [Perinatal complications in patients with chronic renal insufficiency on hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Rodríguez, Juan Gustavo; del Angel-García, Guadalupe

    2010-09-01

    Pregnant patients with chronic renal insufficiency treated with hemodialysis experience adverse perinatal results. To compare perinatal complications of patients with chronic renal insufficiency undergoing hemodialysis who become pregnant vs. the complications of women with chronic renal insufficiency not undergoing dialysis but who then require dialysis during gestation. Transversal and retrospective study that included three patients with chronic renal insufficiency on chronic hemodialysis who became pregnant (group A) and three patients with chronic renal insufficiency without hemodialysis at the time of conception but who required dialysis during gestation (group B). Perinatal results were compared. Statistical analysis was performed with measures of central tendency and dispersion and Student t-test. Group A had 25 sessions vs. group B with 29 hemodialysis sessions (p = 0.88). Maternal complications were anemia 100% (six cases), Cesarean delivery 83.3% (group A 2 cases vs. group B 2 cases), preeclampsia 50% (group A 2 cases vs. group B 1 case), uncontrolled hypertension 50% (group A 2 cases vs. group B 1 case), preterm delivery 50% (group A 2 cases vs. group B 1 case), transfusion 33.3% (group A 2 cases), polyhydramnios 33.3% (group A 1 case vs. group B 1 case) and abortion 16.6% (group A 1 case). Fetal complications included fetal loss 16.6% (group A 1 case), neonatal mortality 33.3% (group A 1 cases vs. group B 1 case), prematurity 50% (group A2 cases vs. group B 1 case), fetal distress 50% (group A 1 case vs. group B 2 cases), respiratory failure 33.3% (group A 2 cases) and fetal growth restriction 16.6% (group A 1 case). Frequency of perinatal complications is elevated in both groups.

  3. Contracting with outpatient hemodialysis patients to improve adherence to treatment.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, J K; Beeken, J E; Whitney, F W; Reyes, A A

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between contingency contracting and adherence to prescribed therapy in outpatient chronic hemodialysis patients. A quasi-experimental, pretest/posttest design was used. The sample included 15 hemodialysis patients, 6 in the phosphorus group and 9 in the weight-gain group. The study was conducted at an outpatient hemodialysis center in a Midwestern rural state. Specific variables investigated were interdialytic weight gains and serum phosphorus levels that reflect adherence to fluid restrictions and to taking phosphate-binding medications. Weekly interviews were conducted with each patient and content analysis of interview data was completed to identify categories related to adherence and nonadherence. Pre- and postcontract weight gains and phosphorus levels were analyzed with a paired two sample t-test. The categories related to adherence and nonadherence included physiological, psychological, environmental, locus of control/self-control/self-praise, economical, medical, knowledge deficit, health benefits, family support, and social support. Adherence to taking phosphate-binding medication responded more favorably to contingency contracting than did adherence to fluid restrictions. Chronic outpatient hemodialysis patients in the sample responded to the use of contingency contracting and developed techniques to remember to take phosphate-binding medications in order to lower serum phosphorus medications.

  4. Association between serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and bicarbonate in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bicik, Zerrin; Coskun, Abdurrahman; Serteser, Mustafa; Bulur, Atilla; Mese, Meral; Unsal, Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    Acidosis is associated with protein-energy malnutrition, inflammation, and bone disease, and low bicarbonate levels have been implicated in higher mortality rates in chronic kidney disease. Recently, the concentration of serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) has become accepted as a prognostic marker in hemodialysis patients. This study determined the relationship between PAPP-A and bicarbonate levels in these patients. The study enrolled 65 hemodialysis patients (41 males, 24 females) and 26 control subjects (11 males, 15 females). Serum PAPP-A, intact parathormone (iPTH), calcium, phosphorus (P), and bicarbonate levels were measured. Correlations between PAPP-A and bicarbonate, iPTH, calcium, and phosphorus were evaluated. Median PAPP-A levels were significantly higher in hemodialysis patients [15.1 (<0.03-158.8) ng/ml] than in control subjects [6.6 (<0.03-16.4) ng/ml] (P < 0.05). There were statistically significant correlations between serum PAPP-A and bicarbonate, iPTH, and P in hemodialysis patients but not in control subjects. Elevation of serum PAPP-A has been found in hemodialysis patients and its significant correlation with bicarbonate suggests that it may be a prognostic factor. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Targeted complement inhibition as a promising strategy for preventing inflammatory complications in hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    DeAngelis, Robert A.; Reis, Edimara S.; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Hemodialysis is the most common method used to remove waste and hazardous products of metabolism in patients suffering from renal failure. Hundreds of thousands of people with end-stage renal disease undergo hemodialysis treatment in the United States each year. Strikingly, the 5-year survival rate for all dialysis patients is only 35%. Most of the patients succumb to cardiovascular disease that is exacerbated by the chronic induction of inflammation caused by contact of the blood with the dialysis membrane. The complement system, a strong mediator of pro-inflammatory networks, is a key contributor to such biomaterial-induced inflammation. Though only evaluated in experimental ex vivo settings, specific targeting of complement activation during hemodialysis has uncovered valuable information that points towards the therapeutic use of complement inhibitors as means to control the unwelcomed inflammatory responses and consequent pathologies in hemodialysis patients. PMID:22964235

  6. Phonation Threshold Pressure Measurement With a Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Titze, Ingo R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article was to determine if a semi-occluded vocal tract could be used to measure phonation threshold pressure. This is in contrast to the shutter technique, where an alternation between a fully occluded tract and an unoccluded tract is used. Method Five male and 5 female volunteers phonated through a thin straw held between the lips. Oral pressure behind the lips was measured. Mathematical predictions of phonation threshold pressures were compared to the measured ones over a range of frequencies. Results It was shown that, for a 2.5-mm diameter straw, phonation threshold pressures were obtainable over a 2-octave range of fundamental frequency by all volunteers. In magnitude, the pressures agreed with the 0.2–0.5 kPa values obtained in previous investigations. Sensitivity to viscoelastic and geometric properties of the vocal folds was generally not compromised with greater oral impedance, but some differences were predicted theoretically in contrast to an open mouth configuration. Conclusion Because phonation threshold pressure is always dependent on vocal tract interaction, it may be advantageous to choose an exact and fixed oral semi-occlusion for the measurement and interpret the results in light of the known acoustic load. PMID:19641082

  7. Adipokines and nutritional status for patients on maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Małgorzewicz, S; Aleksandrowicz-Wrona, E; Owczarzak, A; Debska-Slizień, A; Rutkowski, B; Łysiak-Szydłowska, W

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the serum concentration of adipokines, such as leptin, adiponectin, and resistin, and assess its relation to nutritional and inflammatory parameters in both overweight and normal weight patients on maintenance hemodialysis. A total of 36 hemodialysis patients (27 M, 9 F; mean age 55.3 +/- 12 yr.) were examined and 23 additional healthy volunteers were recruited as the control group. The concentrations of leptin, leptin receptor, adiponectin, resistin, IL-6, TNFa and CRP were measured by ELISA. Assessment of nutritional status was determined by the levels of albumin, BMI, percentage of body fat (%F), lean body mass (LBM), and Subjective Global Assessment Score (SGA). According to the SGA 7-points score and the albumin level, 20 patients were of good nutritional status (6-7 points), while 16 patients were mildly malnourished (4-5 points). The concentrations of CRP, resistin, adiponectin, and TNFa were statistically higher in hemodialysis patients than in the control group (p pound 0.05). The adiponectin level was inversely correlated with %F (R Spearman=-0.3; p pound 0.05). The level of leptin was positively correlated with %F as well as with BMI and SGA scores (R Spearman=0.4; p pound 0.05). Although there was no significant difference in the nutritional status between the nonoverweight (BMI 18.5-24.99) and overweight (BMI (3)25.0) groups of patients, in the nonoverweight group there were 12 patients (54.5%) with signs of mild malnutrition compared to 4 malnourished patients (28.5%) in the overweight group. Nonoverweight patients presented significantly lower leptin concentration (12.7 vs 27.8 ug/l) and higher adiponectin level (38.9 vs 32.5 ng/ml) when compared to overweight patients. The levels of IL-6 and TNFa were higher in the nonoverweight group of patients. Overweight patients also had shorter durations of stay in the hemodialysis program (30.5 vs. 87.6 months). The results of our study indicate that lean hemodialysis

  8. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Illness Perceptions in Minority Patients Undergoing Maintenance Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngmee; Pavlish, Carol; Evangelista, Lorraine S.; Kopple, Joel D.; Phillips, Linda R.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether racial/ethnic differences in illness perceptions exist among patients on maintenance hemodialysis. One hundred sixty-one patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (20% African Americans, 44% Hispanics, 9% Filipinos, and 27% Koreans) completed the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire. Korean participants had higher emotional disturbance than their counterparts, whereas African-American participants had higher negative perceptions of personal intervention or medical treatment controlling their disease. This study indicates that patients from different racial/ethnic backgrounds undergoing maintenance hemodialysis may perceive their disease differently. This phenomenon could affect clinical outcomes and may require different therapeutic approaches. PMID:22480051

  9. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Michele A.; Pereira, Candido

    1997-01-01

    A method for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000.degree. K. to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  10. Social support and conscientiousness in hemodialysis adherence.

    PubMed

    Moran, P J; Christensen, A J; Lawton, W J

    1997-01-01

    Previous conclusions regarding the role of social support in hemodialysis adherence are inconsistent, suggesting that other factors may moderate this relationship. Using the Five-Factor Model of Personality, we examined the hypothesis that conscientiousness would interact with social support in predicting fluid-intake and medication adherence in a sample of 56 chronic hemodialysis patients. Hierarchical regression analyses (controlling for demographic, clinical, and other personality variables) revealed a significant interaction between social support and conscientiousness. However, inconsistent with prediction, high support among patients with low conscientiousness was associated with poorer fluid-intake adherence, while support had little effect on fluid-intake adherence among high conscientiousness patients. No main or interactive effects were found for support or conscientiousness on a measure of medication adherence.

  11. An Infectious Pseudoaneurysm Caused by Ventricular Septal Defect Occluder in Patent Ductus Arteriosus Closure in a Two-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Li, Dingyang; Qiu, Qiu; Jin, Jing; Zhang, Changdong; Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Gangcheng

    2017-12-12

    We present a case of an infectious pseudoaneurysm after patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure with a ventricular septal defect (VSD) occluder in a two-year-old child. The aneurysm grew rapidly but was successfully removed in time and the patient survived. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an infectious pseudoaneurysm caused by VSD occluder in PDA closure.

  12. Concurrence of Serum Creatinine and Albumin with Lower Risk for Death in Twice-Weekly Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jialin; Streja, Elani; Soohoo, Melissa; Chen, Joline L.T.; Rhee, Connie M.; Kim, Taehee; Molnar, Miklos Z.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Objective Markers of better nutritional status including both higher levels of serum albumin (as a measure of visceral proteins) and creatinine (as a measure of the muscle mass) are associated with lower mortality in conventional (thrice-weekly) hemodialysis patients. However, data for these associations in twice-weekly hemodialysis patients, in whom less frequent hemodialysis may confound nutritional predictors, are lacking. Design, Settings and Subjects We identified 1,113 twice-weekly and matched 4,448 thrice-weekly hemodialysis patients from a large national dialysis cohort of incident hemodialysis patients over 5 years (2007-2011). Mortality risk, adjusted for potential confounders, was examined across two-by-two combinations of serum creatinine (<6 mg/dl vs. ≥6 mg/dl) and albumin (<3.5 g/dl vs. ≥3.5 g/dl) for each treatment frequency yielding a total of eight groups. Results Patients were 70±14 years old and included 48% women, and 55% diabetics. Using the thrice-weekly hemodialysis patients with creatinine≥6mg/dl and albumin≥3.5g/dl as reference, patients with creatinine<6mg/dl and albumin<3.5g/dl had a 1.8-fold higher risk of mortality (HR: 1.75, 95%CI: 1.33-2.30) in twice-weekly and 2.2-fold increased risk of mortality (HR: 2.21, 95%CI: 1.81-2.70) in thrice-weekly hemodialysis patients, respectively in fully adjusted models adjusted for demographics, comorbidities and markers of malnutrition and inflammation. A test for interaction showed there was no significant difference in albumin creatinine mortality associations between twice-weekly and thrice-weekly hemodialysis patients (p-for-interaction 0.7667). Conclusions Surrogate markers of higher visceral protein and muscle mass combined may confer greatest survival in both twice-weekly and thrice-weekly hemodialysis patients. PMID:27528412

  13. Grassland bird associations with introduced and native grass Conservation Reserve Program fields in the Southern High Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Thomas R.; Boal, Clint W.; Lucia, Duane

    2009-01-01

    We examined relative abundances of grassland birds among Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) fields seeded with 2 monocultures of introduced grass species and 2 mixes of native grasses in the Southern High Plains of Texas. We assessed bird compositions among these 4 cover types and between the cover types pooled into categories of introduced and native fields. Breeding season bird diversity and total abundance did not differ among cover types or between introduced and native fields. Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum), Cassin's Sparrows (Aimophila cassinii), and Western Meadowlarks (Sturnella neglecta) accounted for more than 90% of breeding season detections. Grasshopper Sparrows were the most abundant and found in all cover types. Cassin's Sparrows were 38% to 170% more abundant among the native seed mix without buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides) compared to 3 other cover types. Although this association was statistically lost when cover types were pooled into introduced or native fields (U = 93.5, P = 0.91), the species was still 50% more abundant among native CRP than introduced CRP fields. Meadowlarks occurred ubiquitously but at very low numbers during the breeding season. During winter, avian abundance was 44% greater among native CRP than introduced CRP fields. Meadowlarks, Homed Larks (Eremophila alpestris), and Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis) accounted for 94% of all winter detections. Meadowlarks occurred ubiquitously, but Horned Larks and Savannah Sparrows were 157% and 96% more abundant, respectively, among native CRP than introduced CRP fields. Our data suggest that monocultures of introduced grasses may benefit some bird species but also that native seed mixes may have a more positive influence through increased diversity and abundance of grassland birds. However, pooling cover types into the broader categories of introduced or native grasses may dampen or occlude biologically meaningful results. It may be prudent to avoid

  14. The Relation between Perceived Social Support and Anxiety in Patients under Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Davaridolatabadi, Elham; Abdeyazdan, Gholamhossein

    2016-03-01

    The increase in the number of patients under hemodialysis treatment is a universal problem. With regard to the fact that there have been few social-psychological studies conducted on patients under hemodialysis treatment, the current study was conducted to investigate anxiety and perceived social support and the relation between them among these patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 126 patients under hemodialysis treatment in Isfahan in 2012. After randomly selecting a hospital with a hemodialysis ward, purposive sampling was conducted. Data collection tools included state-trait anxiety and perceived social support inventory. The data were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Among the participants, 68.3% received average perceived social support. In addition, perceiving the tangible dimension of support was lower compared to other dimensions (Mean 40.02). Level of trait and state anxiety (65 and 67.5%) of over half of the participants was average. There was in inverse relationship between state and trait anxiety and total perceived social support and emotional and information dimensions (r = -0.340, r = -0.229). State and trait anxiety had the highest relation with emotional and information dimension of social support, respectively. Patients under hemodialysis treatment suffer from numerous psychological and social problems. Low awareness and emotional problems result in the increase of anxiety and reduction of perceived social support. Reduction of social support has negative effect on treatment outcomes.

  15. Reduced Performance of Prey Targeting in Pit Vipers with Contralaterally Occluded Infrared and Visual Senses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qin; Deng, Huanhuan; Brauth, Steven E.; Ding, Li; Tang, Yezhong

    2012-01-01

    Both visual and infrared (IR) senses are utilized in prey targeting by pit vipers. Visual and IR inputs project to the contralateral optic tectum where they activate both multimodal and bimodal neurons. A series of ocular and pit organ occlusion experiments using the short-tailed pit viper (Gloydius brevicaudus) were conducted to investigate the role of visual and IR information during prey targeting. Compared with unoccluded controls, snakes with either both eyes or pit organs occluded performed more poorly in hunting prey although such subjects still captured prey on 75% of trials. Subjects with one eye and one pit occluded on the same side of the face performed as well as those with bilateral occlusion although these subjects showed a significant targeting angle bias toward the unoccluded side. Performance was significantly poorer when only a single eye or pit was available. Interestingly, when one eye and one pit organ were occluded on opposite sides of the face, performance was poorest, the snakes striking prey on no more than half the trials. These results indicate that, visual and infrared information are both effective in prey targeting in this species, although interference between the two modalities occurs if visual and IR information is restricted to opposite sides of the brain. PMID:22606229

  16. [Treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioiodine during hemodialysis: Report of one case].

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Claudia; Báez, María Soledad; Bate, Anabel; Opazo, Claudio; Troncoso, Mauricio

    2017-05-01

    Although radioiodine (131-I) can be used as treatment of hyperthyroidism for patients in hemodialysis, its use is limited and the experience is mainly related to differentiated thyroid carcinoma. We report a 58 years old female on hemodialysis with recurrent hyperthyroidism after propylthiouracil treatment. She was successfully treated with 131-I and four months after the intervention her euthyroid state was confirmed. We measured 131-I activity in blood, dialysate liquid and other waste products, as well as patient radiation exposure rates. We found that 131-I elimination was prolonged through time with no major dependence on hemodialysis, as opposed to the elimination of 131-I in patients with thyroid carcinoma. This was probably due to high radiotracer uptake in hyper functioning thyroid tissue. Conversely, radiation content in dialysate wastes or equipment was minimal. Furthermore, the rate of both environmental exposure and exposure of nursing staff in charge of hemodialysis sessions, was minimal and met international security standards. In conclusion, I-131 therapy showed both appropriate effectiveness and safety in this case and may be considered as a suitable treatment alternative to thyroidectomy when antithyroid drugs are unsuccessful.

  17. Spiritual Well-Being, Depression, and Stress Among Hemodialysis Patients in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Musa, Ahmad S; Pevalin, David J; Al Khalaileh, Murad A A

    2017-10-01

    The spiritual dimension of a patient's life is an important factor that may mediate detrimental impacts on mental health. The lack of research investigating spiritual well-being, religiosity, and mental health among Jordanian hemodialysis patients encouraged this research. This study explored levels of spiritual well-being and its associations with depression, anxiety, and stress. A quantitative, cross-sectional correlational study. A sample of 218 Jordanian Muslim hemodialysis patients completed a structured, self-administered questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear multivariate regression models. The hemodialysis patients had, on average, relatively low levels of spiritual well-being, moderate depression, severe anxiety, and mild to moderate stress. The results of the regression models indicated that aspects of spiritual well-being were negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress, but only existential well-being consistently retained significant associations after controlling for religious well-being, religiosity, and sociodemographic variables. Greater spiritual and existential well-being of Jordanian hemodialysis patients were significantly associated with less depression, anxiety, and stress. It appears that these patients use religious and spiritual beliefs and practices as coping mechanisms to overcome their depression, anxiety, and stress. The implications for holistic clinical practice are explored.

  18. Proton Pump Inhibitor Use and Magnesium Concentrations in Hemodialysis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Akio; Ohkido, Ichiro; Yokoyama, Keitaro; Mafune, Aki; Urashima, Mitsuyoshi; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium concentration is a proven predictor of mortality in hemodialysis patients. Recent reports have indicated that proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use affects serum magnesium levels, however few studies have investigated the relationship between PPI use and magnesium levels in hemodialysis patients. This study aimed to clarify the association between PPI use and serum magnesium levels in hemodialysis patients. We designed this cross sectional study and included 1189 hemodialysis patients in stable condition. Associations between PPI and magnesium-related factors, as well as other possible confounders, were evaluated using a multiple regression model. We defined hypomagnesemia as a value < 2.0 mg/dL, and created comparable logistic regression models to assess the association between PPI use and hypomagnesemia. PPI use is associated with a significantly lower mean serum magnesium level than histamine 2 (H2) receptor antagonists or no acid-suppressive medications (mean [SD] PPI: 2.52 [0.45] mg/dL; H2 receptor antagonist: 2.68 [0.41] mg/dL; no acid suppressive medications: 2.68 [0.46] mg/dL; P = 0.001). Hypomagnesemia remained significantly associated with PPI (adjusted OR, OR: 2.05; 95% CI: 1.14–3.69; P = 0.017). PPI use is associated with an increased risk of hypomagnesemia in hemodialysis patients. Future prospective studies are needed to explore magnesium replacement in PPI users on hemodialysis. PMID:26618538

  19. Oral intradialytic nutritional supplement use and mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Daniel E; Tighiouart, Hocine; Ladik, Vladimir; Meyer, Klemens B; Zager, Philip G; Johnson, Douglas S

    2014-02-01

    Hemodialysis patients have high mortality rates, potentially reflecting underlying comorbid conditions and ongoing catabolism. Intradialytic oral nutritional supplements may reduce this risk. Retrospective propensity-matched cohort. Maintenance hemodialysis patients treated at Dialysis Clinic Inc facilities who were initiated on a nutritional supplement protocol in September to October 2010 were matched using a propensity score to patients at facilities at which the protocol was not used. Prescription of the protocol, whereby hemodialysis patients with serum albumin levels ≤3.5g/dL would initiate oral protein supplementation during the dialysis procedure. Sensitivity analyses matched on actual supplement intake during the first 3 study months. Covariates included patient and facility characteristics, which were used to develop the propensity scores and adjust multivariable models. All-cause mortality, ascertained though March 2012. Of 6,453 eligible patients in 101 eligible hemodialysis facilities, the protocol was prescribed to 2,700, and 1,278 of these were propensity matched to controls. Mean age was 61 ± 15 (SD) years and median dialysis vintage was 34 months. There were 258 deaths among protocol assignees versus 310 among matched controls during a mean follow-up of 14 months. In matched analyses, protocol prescription was associated with a 29% reduction in the hazard of all-cause mortality (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.58-0.86); adjustment had minimal impact on models. In time-dependent models incorporating change in albumin level, protocol status remained significant but was attenuated in models incorporating a 30-day lag. Similar results were seen in sensitivity analyses of 439 patients receiving supplements who were propensity-matched to controls, with 116 deaths among supplement users versus 140 among controls (HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.60-1.05), achieving statistical significance in adjusted models. Observational design, potential residual confounding

  20. Hemodialysis Hospitalizations and Readmissions: The Effects of Payment Reform

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kevin F.; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2004 the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) changed reimbursement for physicians and advanced practitioners caring for patients receiving hemodialysis from a capitated to a tiered fee-for-service system, encouraging increased face-to-face visits. This early version of a pay-for-performance initiative targeted a care process: more frequent provider visits in hemodialysis. While more frequent provider visits in hemodialysis are associated with fewer hospitalizations and re-hospitalizations, it is unknown whether encouraging more frequent visits through reimbursement policy also yielded these benefits. Study Design We used a retrospective cohort, interrupted time-series study design to examine whether the 2004 nephrologist reimbursement reform led to reduced hospitalizations and re-hospitalizations. We also used published data to estimate a range of annual economic costs associated with more frequent visits. Setting & Participants Medicare beneficiaries in the United States receiving hemodialysis in the two years prior to and following reimbursement reform. Predictor The two years following nephrologist reimbursement reform. Outcomes Odds of hospitalization and 30-day hospital readmission for all causes and fluid overload; US dollars. Results We found no significant change in all-cause hospitalization or re-hospitalization, and slight reductions in hospitalization and re-hospitalization for fluid overload following reimbursement reform; the estimated economic cost associated with additional visits ranged from $13 to $87 million per year, depending on who (physicians or advanced practitioners) spent additional time visiting patients and how much additional effort was involved. Limitations Due to limited information about how much additional time providers spent seeing patients after reimbursement reform, we could only examine a range of potential economic costs associated with the reform. Conclusions A Medicare reimbursement policy designed to

  1. The cost of starting and maintaining a large home hemodialysis program.

    PubMed

    Komenda, Paul; Copland, Michael; Makwana, Jay; Djurdjev, Ogdjenka; Sood, Manish M; Levin, Adeera

    2010-06-01

    Home extended hours hemodialysis improves some measurable biological and quality-of-life parameters over conventional renal replacement therapies in patients with end-stage renal disease. Published small studies evaluating costs have shown savings in terms of ongoing operating costs with this modality. However, all estimates need to include the total costs, including infrastructure, patient training, and maintenance; patient attrition by death, transplantation, technique failure; and the necessity of in-center dialysis. We describe a comprehensive funding model for a large centrally administered but locally delivered home hemodialysis program in British Columbia, Canada that covered 122 patients, of which 113 were still in the program at study end. The majority of patients performed home nocturnal hemodialysis in this 2-year retrospective study. All training periods, both in-center and in-home dialysis, medications, hospitalizations, and deaths were captured using our provincial renal database and vital statistics. Comparative data from the provincial database and pricing models were used for costing purposes. The total comprehensive costs per patient-incorporating startup, home, and in-center dialysis; medications; home remodeling; and consumables-was $59,179 for years 2004-2005 and $48,648 for 2005-2006. The home dialysis patients required multiple in-center dialysis runs, significantly contributing to the overall costs. Our study describes a valid, comprehensive funding model delineating reliable cost estimates of starting and maintaining a large home-based hemodialysis program. Consideration of hidden costs is important for administrators and planners to take into account when designing budgets for home hemodialysis.

  2. Correlates of physical activity level among hemodialysis patients in Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wong, S W; Chan, Y M; Lim, T S

    2011-12-01

    There is mounting evidence demonstrating the importance of adequate physical activity to promote better well-being among hemodialysis patients. Available data pertaining to the levels of physical activity and its determinants among hemodialysis patients is, however, scarce in Malaysia. The objectives of this study are hence to determine the levels of physical activity and it associated factors among hemodialysis patients. A total of 70 subjects were recruited from three dialysis centres in Selangor. A face-to-face interview was conducted to obtain socio-demographic data and subjects' knowledge on dietary sources. Medical history, biochemical parameters and weight status were obtained from medical records. Physical activity level (PAL) was assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). A total of 81.4% and 18.6% of the respondents had low and moderate PALs, respectively. Thus, none of the respondents had high PAL. Serum creatinine, education level, personal income and knowledge score on potassium-related medical complications were factors found to correlate significantly with PAL. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that higher PAL was predicted by a lower knowledge score on dietary sodium source, higher education and higher serum creatinine. Despite consistent documentation of the potential positive impact of physical exercise on hemodialysis outcomes, the level of physical activity remains low among these patients. It is hoped that these findings can add to the existing body of knowledge and serve as a supporting document for the formulation of appropriate interventions to improve the status of physical activity among hemodialysis patients in Malaysia.

  3. Analysis of the levels of endotoxin and β-d-glucan in the synovial fluid of hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Shiota, E; Maekawa, M; Kono, T

    2001-12-01

    Abstract We analyzed the levels of endotoxin and β-d-glucan, which possibly induce cytokine production, in the synovial fluid of patients on long-term hemodialysis and compared the results to those in patients with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. We studied 42 knees in 42 hemodialysis patients, 21 in 21 osteoarthritis patients, and 26 in 26 rheumatoid arthritis patients. The mean ages were 60.7, 63.2, and 59.7 years, respectively. The duration of hemodialysis in the long-term hemodialysis group averaged 14.0 years. The concentrations of endotoxin and β-d-glucan in the synovial fluid of these three groups were measured. The concentration of endotoxin was the same in the three groups. However, the concentration of β-d-glucan was significantly higher in long-term hemodialysis patients. This finding suggests that β-d-glucan may have some relation to the pathogenesis of the synovitis which exists in the hydrarthrosis of long-term hemodialysis patients.

  4. Diagnostic discordance for hepatitis C virus infection in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Miller, Loren G; Daar, Eric S

    2005-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with an increase in proinflammatory cytokine levels. Similar changes are seen in maintenance hemodialysis patients with malnutrition-inflammation-cachexia syndrome (MICS), which is associated with poor clinical outcomes in this population. We hypothesized that HCV transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), a sensitive qualitative molecular test for HCV RNA, may identify maintenance hemodialysis patients with HCV infection not detected by means of antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA), particularly in those with MICS. We evaluated HCV status in 314 maintenance hemodialysis patients by using HCV antibody EIA (version 2.0; Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL) and HCV TMA (Bayer Diagnostics Laboratories, Berkeley, CA). Twenty-five patients (8%) were EIA positive (EIA+)/TMA+; 4 patients (1%), EIA+/TMA negative (TMA-), and 22 patients (7%), EIA-/TMA+. In the 47 TMA+ patients, the sensitivity of EIA for HCV infection was only 53%. TMA+ patients had lower albumin levels and higher tumor necrosis factor alpha and serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase levels than TMA- patients. EIA+/TMA+ patients were more likely than EIA-/TMA+ or EIA-/TMA- patients to have hypoalbuminemia and higher iron and transaminase levels. Of all TMA+ patients, EIA- patients were more likely to have diabetes, be on dialysis therapy longer, and have lower liver enzyme levels and higher proinflammatory cytokine levels, including tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6. Maintenance hemodialysis patients infected with HCV according to TMA have clinical features suggestive of MICS. In this population, HCV EIA appears to have a low sensitivity for the identification of HCV infection, which may be caused by the confounding effect of MICS or other demographic or clinical factors. These apparently false-negative HCV antibody test results are seen in persons with a longer time on hemodialysis therapy, mirroring observations in other populations with serious

  5. Quality of Sleep and its Relationship to Quality of Life in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Parvan, Kobra; lakdizaji, Sima; Roshangar, Fariborz; Mostofi, Mahtab

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Despite many advances in the treatment of chronic renal failure, the quality of sleep in patients who suffer from this disease is at the risk. The high prevalence of sleep disorders in hemodialysis patients, which is concomitant with physical, behavioral, and psychological problems, has always affected these patients' quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to determine the relationship between quality of sleep and quality of life in hemodialysis patients. Methods: By using a descriptive and correlational design, this study was conducted on 245 hemodialysis patients in 2012. Patients were selected by convenience sampling from the hemodialysis ward of four training hospitals of Tabriz and Maragheh. Quality of sleep was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the quality of life for patients was measured by the Kidney Disease Quality Of Life questionnaire (KDQOL-SF). Results: 83.3% of hemodialysis patients had poor quality of sleep. Poor quality of life was significantly associated with poor quality of sleep. There was a significant negative correlation between global PSQI and important aspects of quality of life including physical health, symptoms and problems, the impact of kidney disease on daily life, burden of kidney disease, mental health, social support, and sexual function. Conclusion: The low quality of sleep in hemodialysis patients has an effect on the deterioration of their quality of life. Therefore, training, counseling, and advocacy programs should be developed to improve the patients' quality of sleep and quality of life, especially those with lower education level and income, and older people. PMID:25276738

  6. Vascular Access Outcomes Reported in Maintenance Hemodialysis Trials: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Viecelli, Andrea K; O'Lone, Emma; Sautenet, Benedicte; Craig, Jonathan C; Tong, Allison; Chemla, Eric; Hooi, Lai-Seong; Lee, Timmy; Lok, Charmaine; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Quinn, Robert R; Vachharajani, Tushar; Vanholder, Raymond; Zuo, Li; Irish, Ashley B; Mori, Trevor A; Pascoe, Elaine M; Johnson, David W; Hawley, Carmel M

    2018-03-01

    Many randomized controlled trials have been performed with the goal of improving outcomes related to hemodialysis vascular access. If the reported outcomes are relevant and measured consistently to allow comparison of interventions across trials, such trials can inform decision making. This study aimed to assess the scope and consistency of vascular access outcomes reported in contemporary hemodialysis trials. Systematic review. Adults requiring maintenance hemodialysis. All randomized controlled trials and trial protocols reporting vascular access outcomes identified from ClinicalTrials.gov, Embase, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialized Register from January 2011 to June 2016. Any hemodialysis-related intervention. The frequency and characteristics of vascular access outcome measures were analyzed and classified. From 168 relevant trials, 1,426 access-related outcome measures were extracted and classified into 23 different outcomes. The 3 most common outcomes were function (136 [81%] trials), infection (63 [38%]), and maturation (31 [18%]). Function was measured in 489 different ways, but most frequently reported as "mean access blood flow (mL/min)" (37 [27%] trials) and "number of thromboses" (30 [22%]). Infection was assessed in 136 different ways, with "number of access-related infections" being the most common measure. Maturation was assessed in 44 different ways at 15 different time points and most commonly characterized by vein diameter and blood flow. Patient-reported outcomes, including pain (19 [11%]) and quality of life (5 [3%]), were reported infrequently. Only a minority of trials used previously standardized outcome definitions. Restricted sampling frame for feasibility and focus on contemporary trials. The reporting of access outcomes in hemodialysis trials is very heterogeneous, with limited patient-reported outcomes and infrequent use of standardized outcome measures. Efforts to standardize outcome reporting for vascular

  7. Symptom Burden among Latino Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease and Access to Standard or Emergency-Only Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Lilia; Hull, Madelyne; Keniston, Angela; Chonchol, Michel; Hasnain-Wynia, Romana; Fischer, Stacy

    2018-05-30

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have a high symptom burden and this negatively impacts health-related quality of life. Little is known about the symptom burden of Latinos with ESRD and variable access to hemodialysis. To estimate the symptom burden of Latinos with ESRD and access to standard or emergency-only hemodialysis. Observational descriptive study of Latino adults with ESRD receiving standard or emergency-only hemodialysis. Patients completed the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System Revised: Renal (ESAS-r:Renal). We used descriptive statistics and propensity score adjustment to conduct the analysis. ESAS-r:Renal. Participants (N = 67) had a mean age of 58 years (standard deviation [SD] ±13) and a mean Charlson Comorbidity Index of 6.6 ± 2.5, and had been on hemodialysis a mean of 42 months (SD ±43). On average, Latinos with ESRD experienced 7 (SD ±3) symptoms with a mean of 5 ± 3 symptoms reported as moderate or severe. After adjusting for propensity score, emergency-only hemodialysis patients reported experiencing more nausea compared to standard hemodialysis patients (odds ratio 8.95, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-68.31, p = 0.03). Latinos with ESRD have a high symptom burden and compared to patients with standard hemodialysis, patients who rely on emergency-only hemodialysis report more nausea. A national treatment strategy that provides standard hemodialysis for undocumented immigrants with ESRD is an important next step.

  8. Method of preparing sodalite from chloride salt occluded zeolite

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C.

    1997-03-18

    A method is described for immobilizing waste chloride salts containing radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material for permanent disposal starting with a substantially dry zeolite and sufficient glass to form leach resistant sodalite with occluded radionuclides and hazardous nuclear material. The zeolite and glass are heated to a temperature up to about 1000 K to convert the zeolite to sodalite and thereafter maintained at a pressure and temperature sufficient to form a sodalite product near theoretical density. Pressure is used on the formed sodalite to produce the required density.

  9. Febuxostat improves endothelial function in hemodialysis patients with hyperuricemia: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, Yuki; Kikuchi, Kan; Tsuruta, Yukio; Sasaki, Yuko; Moriyama, Takahito; Itabashi, Mitsuyo; Takei, Takashi; Uchida, Keiko; Akiba, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Ken; Nitta, Kosaku

    2015-10-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is often found in both hyperuricemia and hemodialysis patients. Recent studies have shown that treating hyperuricemia with allopurinol improves endothelial dysfunction. This study is performed to assess the effect of febuxostat on endothelial dysfunction in hemodialysis patients with hyperuricemia. We randomly assigned 53 hemodialysis patients with hyperuricemia to a febuxostat (10 mg daily) group and a control group and measured flow-mediated dilation, serum uric acid (UA) levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, malondialdehyde-modified low-density lipoprotein (MDA-LDL), and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) at baseline and at the end of a 4-week study period. Flow-mediated dilation increased from 5.3% ± 2.4% to 8.9% ± 3.6% in the febuxostat group but did not change significantly in the control group. Treatment with febuxostat resulted in a significant decrease in serum UA level and a significant decrease in MDA-LDL compared with baseline, but no significant difference was observed in hsCRP level or blood pressure. No significant differences were observed in the control group. Febuxostat improved endothelial dysfunction and reduced serum UA levels and oxidative stress in hemodialysis patients with hyperuricemia. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  10. [Medication adherence of 65 patients in hemodialysis in Togo].

    PubMed

    Sabi, K A; Noto-Kadou-Kaza, B; Amekoudi, Y E; Tsevi, M C; Sylla, F; Kossidze, K; Gnionsahe, D A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess adherence in people on hemodialysis and determine the factors of poor adherence. This cross-sectional study took place throughout the month of September, 2012, in the hemodialysis center of the Sylvanus Olympio University Hospital, the only such center in Togo. The study included 65 patients, with a mean age of 49.5 years (range: 22 to 77 years), more often men (sex ratio: 1.82) and married (74 %). More than half (58%) had completed secondary education, while 73% belonged to the least advantaged socioeconomic class; 61 (94%) had health insurance, and 57% had been on dialysis for 1 to 4 years. The compliance rate was 11%. The main factors associated with good adherence were marital status (p = 0.0339) and the patient's general health status (p = 0.001). Treatment fatigue (p = 0.0347), forgetfulness (p = 0.0001), dosage forms and drug characteristics (p = 0.0198) were all factors of noncompliance. Therapeutic non-compliance was proportional to the number of drugs prescribed (p = 0.4263). Adherence in hemodialysis patients in Togo is very poor.

  11. Hemodialysis Catheter Heat Transfer for Biofilm Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Ian P; Sturtevant, Rachael; Heung, Michael; Solomon, Michael J; Younger, John G; VanEpps, J Scott

    2016-01-01

    Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are not easily treated, and many catheters (e.g., hemodialysis catheters) are not easily replaced. Biofilms (the source of infection) on catheter surfaces are notoriously difficult to eradicate. We have recently demonstrated that modest elevations of temperature lead to increased staphylococcal susceptibility to vancomycin and significantly soften the biofilm matrix. In this study, using a combination of microbiological, computational, and experimental studies, we demonstrate the efficacy, feasibility, and safety of using heat as an adjuvant treatment for infected hemodialysis catheters. Specifically, we show that treating with heat in the presence of antibiotics led to additive killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis with similar trends seen for Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The magnitude of temperature elevation required is relatively modest (45-50°C) and similar to that used as an adjuvant to traditional cancer therapy. Using a custom-designed benchtop model of a hemodialysis catheter, positioned with tip in the human vena cava as well as computational fluid dynamic simulations, we demonstrate that these temperature elevations are likely achievable in situ with minimal increased in overall blood temperature.

  12. Recurrent white thrombi formation in hemodialysis tubing: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sathe, Kiran P; Yeo, Wee-Song; Liu, Isaac Desheng; Ekambaram, Sudha; Azar, Mohammed; Yap, Hui-Kim; Ng, Kar-Hui

    2015-01-15

    While the appearance of red clots in the dialyzer is a common phenomenon in every hemodialysis unit, the occurrence of white thrombi in the tubing is relatively rare. We describe an adolescent male with recurrent white thrombi formation in the hemodialysis tubing. This patient had chronic renal failure from focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, but was no longer nephrotic at the time of the thrombi formation. He had a history of recurrent thrombosis of his vascular access. However, no pro-thrombotic risk factors could be identified. White particulate matter, measuring 1 to 3mm in size, and adherent to the arterial and venous blood tubing lines was found during the rinse back of a hemodialysis session. This was associated with a 60% decrease in his platelet count. Light microscopic examination of the deposits revealed the presence of platelet aggregates. He subsequently developed thrombosis of his arteriovenous graft six hours later. The white thrombi recurred at the next dialysis session, as well as six months later. These episodes occurred regardless of the type of dialysis machine or tubing, and appeared to resolve with an increase in heparin dose. Recurrent white thrombi formation can occur in the hemodialysis tubing of a patient with no identifiable pro-thrombotic factors. The white thrombi may be a harbinger of arteriovenous graft thrombosis and may be prevented by an increase in heparin dose.

  13. Computational fluid dynamics study of the end-side and sequential coronary artery bypass anastomoses in a native coronary occlusion model.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Kaoru; Jin, Wei Wei; Liu, Hao; Matsumiya, Goro

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the haemodynamic patterns in each anastomosis fashion using a computational fluid dynamic study in a native coronary occlusion model. Fluid dynamic computations were carried out with ANSYS CFX (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA) software. The incision lengths for parallel and diamond anastomoses were fixed at 2 mm. Native vessels were set to be totally occluded. The diameter of both the native and graft vessels was set to be 2 mm. The inlet boundary condition was set by a sample of the transient time flow measurement which was measured intraoperatively. The diamond anastomosis was observed to reduce flow to the native outlet and increase flow to the bypass outlet; the opposite was observed in the parallel anastomosis. Total energy efficiency was higher in the diamond anastomosis than the parallel anastomosis. Wall shear stress was higher in the diamond anastomosis than in the parallel anastomosis; it was the highest at the top of the outlet. A high oscillatory shear index was observed at the bypass inlet in the parallel anastomosis and at the native inlet in the diamond anastomosis. The diamond sequential anastomosis would be an effective option for multiple sequential bypasses because of the better flow to the bypass outlet than with the parallel anastomosis. However, flow competition should be kept in mind while using the diamond anastomosis for moderately stenotic vessels because of worsened flow to the native outlet. Care should be taken to ensure that the fluid dynamics patterns are optimal and prevent future native and bypass vessel disease progression.

  14. Interventional nephrology: Physical examination as a tool for surveillance for the hemodialysis arteriovenous access.

    PubMed

    Salman, Loay; Beathard, Gerald

    2013-07-01

    The prospective recognition of stenosis affecting dialysis vascular access and its prospective treatment is important in the management of the hemodialysis patient. Surveillance by physical examination is easily learned, easily performed, quickly done, and economical. In addition, it has a level of accuracy and reliability equivalent to other approaches that require special instrumentation. Physical examination should be part of any education to all hemodialysis care givers. This review presents the basic principles of physical examination of the hemodialysis vascular access and discusses the evidence behind its value.

  15. Patient Care Staffing Levels and Facility Characteristics in U.S. Hemodialysis Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Laura A. G.; Xin, Wenjun; Norris, Keith C.; Yan, Guofen

    2013-01-01

    Background Higher numbers of registered nurses per patient have been associated with improved patient outcomes in acute care facilities. Variation and associations of patient-care staffing levels and hemodialysis facility characteristics have not been previously examined. Study Design Cross-sectional study using Poisson regression to examine associations betwee patient-care staffing levels and hemodialysis facility characteristics. Setting & Participants 4,800 U.S. hemodialysis facilities in the 2009 CMS ESRD Annual Facility Survey (CMS-2744), USRDS. Predictors Facility characteristics, including profit status, freestanding status, chain affiliatio and geographic region, adjusted for facility size, capacity, functional type, and urbanicity. Outcomes Patient care staffing levels, including ratios of Registered Nurses (RN), Licensed Practical Nurses (LPN), Patient Care Technicians (PCT), composite staff (RN+LPN+PCT), Social Workers, and Dietitians to in-center hemodialysis patients. Results After adjusting for background facility characteristics, the ratios of RNs and LPNs to patients were 35% (p<0.001) and 42% (p<0.001) lower, but the PCT-to-patient ratio was 16% (p<0.001) higher in for-profit facilities than those in nonprofit facilities (Rate ratio, 0.65, 95%CI, 0.63–0.68; 0.58, 0.51–0.65; 1.16, 1.12–1.19; respectively). Regionally, compared to the Northeast, the adjusted RN-to-patient ratio was 14% (p< 0.001) lower in the Midwest, 25% (p< 0.001) lower in the South, and 18% (p< 0.001) lower in the West. Even after additional adjustments, the large for-profit chains had significantly lower RN and LPN ratios than the largest nonprofit chain, but a significantly higher PCT-to-patient ratio. The overall composite staffing levels were also lower in for-profit and chain-affiliated facilities. The patterns hold when the hospital-based units were excluded. Limitations Nursing hours were not available. Conclusions The significant variation in patient-care staffing

  16. Quadriplegia after parathyroidectomy in a hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Chieh; Huang, Shih-Yu; Lin, Ho-Tien; Hu, Jenkin-S; Chan, Kwok-Hon; Tsou, Mei-Yung

    2011-03-01

    We present a case of post-operative iatrogenic quadriplegia, which occurred after subtotal parathyroidectomy. This patient was on long-term hemodialysis for 7 years. The need of prolonged neck extension for this procedure was probably the main risk factor for the spinal cord injury. Systemic hypotension which contributed to the injury in this case, should be anticipated and promptly treated to prevent further damage. Spinal deformities associated with end-stage renal disease may make such patients more susceptible. Since appropriate precautions against potential neurologic damage can be undertaken, we suggest that evaluating carefully for the pre-existing spinal stenosis before a procedure requiring prominent and prolonged hyper-extension of the neck, especially in long-term hemodialysis patients is of paramount importance. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Medication adherence in Greek hemodialysis patients: the contribution of depression and health cognitions.

    PubMed

    Theofilou, Paraskevi

    2013-06-01

    Several studies have shown that non-adherence is a common and increasing problem among individuals with chronic illnesses, including hemodialysis patients. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of depression and health cognitions on medication adherence among patients undergoing hemodialysis. A sample of 168 participants was recruited from six general hospitals in the broader area of Athens, consisting of patients undergoing in-center hemodialysis. Measurements were conducted with the following instruments: the Medication Adherence Rating Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC) scale. The results indicated that medication adherence was associated positively with the dimensions of internal and doctor-attributed health locus of control, measured by the MHLC. It was also related negatively to depression, measured by the CES-D. The present study demonstrates the importance of depression in understanding the medication adherence of hemodialysis patients, as well as the contribution of heath cognitions.

  18. Adherence to treatment and hospitalization risk in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Vaiciuniene, Ruta; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Ziginskiene, Edita; Skarupskiene, Inga; Bumblyte, Inga A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether adherence to treatment is associated with hospitalization risk in hemodialysis patients. We completed a cohort analysis of risk factors during 1 census month (November) and 1 year of follow-up during 5 consecutive years (2002-2006) in all end-stage renal disease patients hemodialyzed in the Kaunas region. During the census month, we collected data on noncompliance defined as (i) skipping of a hemodialysis (HD) session, (ii) shortening of 1 or more HD sessions, (iii) presence of hyperkalemia, (iv) presence of hyperphosphatemia, or (v) interdialytic weight gain (IDWG). In addition, data on age, sex, disability status, comorbidities, anemia control, malnutrition and inflammation, calcium-phosphorus metabolism and hospitalization rate were collected. Relative risk of hospitalization was estimated using Cox regression evaluating time to first hospitalization. We analyzed 559 patients for a total of 1,163 patient-years during the 5 years of the study. On multivariate analysis, adjusting for ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, higher number of comorbid conditions, higher systolic blood pressure before dialysis, worse disability status, lower hemoglobin, albumin and urea before dialysis, the relative risk for hospitalization increased by 1.1 for every additional percentage point of IDWG and by 1.19 with each 1 mmol/L rise of serum phosphorus level. Skipping or shortening of hemodialysis sessions and serum potassium level were not associated with hospitalization. Higher IDWG and higher serum levels of phosphorus independently increased the relative risk of hospitalizations in hemodialysis patients. With skipped and shortened dialysis sessions, higher serum potassium level was not associated with hospitalization risk.

  19. The impact of hemodialysis on erythrocyte membrane cytoskeleton proteins.

    PubMed

    Olszewska, Maria; Bober, Joanna; Wiatrow, Jerzy; Stępniewska, Joanna; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2015-02-03

    Hemodialysis (HD) is one of the methods of renal replacement therapy, but it also contributes to an increase in oxidative stress. Hemodialysis leads to changes in the erythrocyte cytoskeleton structure, whilst the presence of glucose in the dialysis fluid which activates the pentose phosphate pathway contributes to the intensification of oxidative stress. Available literature lacks reports on the effect of glucose in the dialytic fluid on the composition of proteins of the cell membrane cytoskeleton. Red blood cells for this analysis were collected from patients with chronic renal failure treated with hemodialysis using both glucose-containing and glucose-free dialysis fluid. Following the preparation of membranes, the electrophoretic separation of proteins was performed in denaturing conditions according to Laemmli. The level of tryptophan in membranes was determined by spectrofluorimetry, whilst the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was determined by measuring the reduction of oxidated NADP. Hemodialysis in both groups of patients resulted in a statistically significant reduction of tryptophan as an oxidative stress indicator when compared to the control group. Moreover, the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the group of patients was higher than in the control group, and following the HD procedure it decreased, which may have been caused by a reduced concentration of dialyzed glucose. The HD procedure affects the structure of the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeleton, which is reflected in the concentration changes in individual proteins and in their mutual relationships corresponding to vertical and horizontal interactions stabilizing the structure of the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeleton. These changes may contribute to the shortening of cell lifespan.

  20. Recruitment and training for home hemodialysis: experience and lessons from the Nocturnal Dialysis Trial.

    PubMed

    Pipkin, Mary; Eggers, Paul W; Larive, Brett; Rocco, Michael V; Stokes, John B; Suri, Rita S; Lockridge, Robert S

    2010-09-01

    We assessed perceived barriers and incentives to home hemodialysis and evaluated potential correlates with the duration of home hemodialysis training. Surveys were sent to the principal investigator and study coordinator for each clinical center in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Nocturnal Trial. Baseline data were obtained on medical comorbidities, cognitive and physical functioning, sessions required for home hemodialysis training, and costs of home renovations. The most commonly perceived barriers included lack of patient motivation, unwillingness to change from in-center modality, and fear of self-cannulation. The most common incentives were greater scheduling flexibility and reduced travel time. The median costs for home renovations varied between $1191 and $4018. The mean number of home hemodialysis training sessions was 27.7 +/- 10.4 (11-59 days). Average training time was less for patients with experience in either self-care or both self-care and cannulation. The number of training sessions was unrelated to the score on the Modified Mini Mental Status or Trailmaking B tests or patient's education level. Training time also did not correlate with the SF-36 Physical Function subscale but did with the modified Charlson comorbidity score and older patient age. Lack of patient or family motivation and fear of the dialysis process are surmountable barriers for accepting home hemodialysis as a modality for renal replacement therapy. Formal education and scores on cognitive function tests are not predictors of training time.

  1. Increased risk of acute pancreatitis in patients with chronic hemodialysis: a 4-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Sheng-Wen; Lee, Yi-Kung; Hsu, Chen-Yang; Lee, Ching-Chih; Su, Yung-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The risk of acute pancreatitis in patients on long-term peritoneal dialysis is higher as compared to the general population. However, the relationship between long-term hemodialysis and acute pancreatitis has never been established. We investigated the incidence of acute pancreatitis among patients on long-term hemodialysis in Taiwan to evaluate if there is a higher risk of acute pancreatitis in comparison to the general population. We utilized a National Health Insurance (NHI) claims data sample containing one million beneficiaries. We followed all adult beneficiaries from January 1, 2007 until December 31, 2010 to see if they had been hospitalized for acute pancreatitis during this period. We further identified patients on chronic hemodialysis and compared their risk of acute pancreatitis with the general population. This study included 2603 patients with long-term hemodialysis and 773,140 patients without hemodialysis. After controlling for age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index Score, geographic region, socioeconomic status and urbanization level, the adjusted hazard ratio was 3.44 (95% Confidence interval, 2.5-4.7). The risk of acute pancreatitis in patients on long-term hemodialysis is significantly higher in comparison to the general population.

  2. The Insufficiency Intake of Dietary Micronutrients Associated with Malnutrition-Inflammation Score in Hemodialysis Population

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Long; Yuan, Zhimin; Chen, Jianping; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The relations between dietary micronutrient, nutritional status and inflammation in hemodialysis patients are still unclear. A cross-sectional study was performed in hemodialysis population. 75 hemodialysis patients from South China participated in the dietary and nutritional assessment. Clinical and dietary data were collected. Nutritional status was assessed by Malnutrition-Inflammation Score (MIS) in addition to related anthropometric measurements. And according to the MIS score, the whole hemodialysis patients were divided into normal nutrition group and malnutrition group. The results showed that mid arm circumference (MAC) negatively correlated with MIS (r = −0.425; P = 0.002). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for MAC was 0.737 (0.614–0.859). Comparing with the normal nutritional group, lower dietary selenium (Se), copper (Cu), iodine (I) and manganese (Mn) intake were observed among patients with malnutrition (P<0.05). While no significant differences of diverse vitamins were found. In conclusion, MAC was effective indicator for assessing nutritional and inflammatory status (P<0.05). The reduction of dietary Se, Cu, I and Mn intake level may be alarming markers for malnutrition and inflammatory status in hemodialysis patients. PMID:23825573

  3. Uncertainty, the Overbearing Lived Experience of the Elderly People Undergoing Hemodialysis: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Sahaf, Robab; Sadat Ilali, Ehteram; Peyrovi, Hamid; Akbari Kamrani, Ahmad Ali; Spahbodi, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    The chronic kidney disease is a major health concern. The number of the elderly people with chronic renal failure has increased across the world. Dialysis is an appropriate therapy for the elderly, but it involves certain challenges. The present paper reports uncertainty as part of the elderly experiences of living with hemodialysis. This qualitative study applied Max van Manen interpretative phenomenological analysis to explain and explore experiences of the elderly with hemodialysis. Given the study inclusion criteria, data were collected using in-depth unstructured interviews with nine elderly undergoing hemodialysis, and then analyzed according to Van Manen 6-stage methodological approach. One of the most important findings emerging in the main study was "uncertainty", which can be important and noteworthy, given other aspects of the elderly life (loneliness, despair, comorbidity of diseases, disability, and mental and psychosocial problems). Uncertainty about the future is the most psychological concerns of people undergoing hemodialysis. The results obtained are indicative of the importance of paying attention to a major aspect in the life of the elderly undergoing hemodialysis, uncertainty. A positive outlook can be created in the elderly through education and increased knowledge about the disease, treatment and complications.

  4. A Peer-to-Peer Mentoring Program for In-Center Hemodialysis: A Patient-Centered Quality Improvement Program.

    PubMed

    St Clair Russell, Jennifer; Southerland, Shiree; Huff, Edwin D; Thomson, Maria; Meyer, Klemens B; Lynch, Janet R

    2017-01-01

    A patient-centered quality improvement program implemented in one Virginia hemodialysis facility sought to determine if peer-to-peer (P2P) programs can assist patients on in-center hemodialysis with self-management and improve outcomes. Using a single-arm, repeatedmeasurement, quasi-experimental design, 46 patients participated in a four-month P2P intervention. Outcomes include knowledge, self-management behaviors, and psychosocial health indicators: self-efficacy, perceived social support, hemodialysis social support, and healthrelated quality of life (HRQoL). Physiological health indicators included missed and shortened treatments, arteriovenous fistula placement, interdialytic weight gain, serum phosphorus, and hospitalizations. Mentees demonstrated increased knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived social support, hemodialysis social support, and HRQoL. Missed treatments decreased. Mentors experienced increases in knowledge, self-management, and social support. A P2P mentoring program for in-center hemodialysis can benefit both mentees and mentors. Copyright© by the American Nephrology Nurses Association.

  5. Vascular access for hemodialysis: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Domenico; Benedetto, Filippo; Mondello, Placido; Pipitò, Narayana; Barillà, David; Spinelli, Francesco; Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Cernaro, Valeria; Buemi, Michele

    2014-01-01

    A well-functioning vascular access (VA) is a mainstay to perform an efficient hemodialysis (HD) procedure. There are three main types of access: native arteriovenous fistula (AVF), arteriovenous graft, and central venous catheter (CVC). AVF, described by Brescia and Cimino, remains the first choice for chronic HD. It is the best access for longevity and has the lowest association with morbidity and mortality, and for this reason AVF use is strongly recommended by guidelines from different countries. Once autogenous options have been exhausted, prosthetic fistulae become the second option of maintenance HD access alternatives. CVCs have become an important adjunct in maintaining patients on HD. The preferable locations for insertion are the internal jugular and femoral veins. The subclavian vein is considered the third choice because of the high risk of thrombosis. Complications associated with CVC insertion range from 5% to 19%. Since an increasing number of patients have implanted pacemakers and defibrillators, usually inserted via the subclavian vein and superior vena cava into the right heart, a careful assessment of risk and benefits should be taken. Infection is responsible for the removal of about 30%-60% of HD CVCs, and hospitalization rates are higher among patients with CVCs than among AVF ones. Proper VA maintenance requires integration of different professionals to create a VA team. This team should include a nephrologist, radiologist, vascular surgeon, infectious disease consultant, and members of the dialysis staff. They should provide their experience in order to give the best options to uremic patients and the best care for their VA.

  6. Vascular access for hemodialysis: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Domenico; Benedetto, Filippo; Mondello, Placido; Pipitò, Narayana; Barillà, David; Spinelli, Francesco; Ricciardi, Carlo Alberto; Cernaro, Valeria; Buemi, Michele

    2014-01-01

    A well-functioning vascular access (VA) is a mainstay to perform an efficient hemodialysis (HD) procedure. There are three main types of access: native arteriovenous fistula (AVF), arteriovenous graft, and central venous catheter (CVC). AVF, described by Brescia and Cimino, remains the first choice for chronic HD. It is the best access for longevity and has the lowest association with morbidity and mortality, and for this reason AVF use is strongly recommended by guidelines from different countries. Once autogenous options have been exhausted, prosthetic fistulae become the second option of maintenance HD access alternatives. CVCs have become an important adjunct in maintaining patients on HD. The preferable locations for insertion are the internal jugular and femoral veins. The subclavian vein is considered the third choice because of the high risk of thrombosis. Complications associated with CVC insertion range from 5% to 19%. Since an increasing number of patients have implanted pacemakers and defibrillators, usually inserted via the subclavian vein and superior vena cava into the right heart, a careful assessment of risk and benefits should be taken. Infection is responsible for the removal of about 30%–60% of HD CVCs, and hospitalization rates are higher among patients with CVCs than among AVF ones. Proper VA maintenance requires integration of different professionals to create a VA team. This team should include a nephrologist, radiologist, vascular surgeon, infectious disease consultant, and members of the dialysis staff. They should provide their experience in order to give the best options to uremic patients and the best care for their VA. PMID:25045278

  7. The NKF-NUS hemodialysis trial protocol - a randomized controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of a self management intervention for hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Griva, Konstadina; Mooppil, Nandakumar; Seet, Penny; Krishnan, Deby Sarojiuy Pala; James, Hayley; Newman, Stanton P

    2011-01-28

    Poor adherence to treatment is common in patients on hemodialysis which may increase risk for poor clinical outcomes and mortality. Self management interventions have been shown to be effective in improving compliance in other chronic populations. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of a recently developed group based self management intervention for hemodialysis patients compared to standard care. This is a multicentre parallel arm block randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a four session group self management intervention for hemodialysis patients delivered by health care professionals compared to standard care. A total of 176 consenting adults maintained on hemodialysis for a minimum of 6 months will be randomized to receive the self management intervention or standard care. Primary outcomes are biochemical markers of clinical status and adherence. Secondary outcomes include general health related quality of life, disease-specific quality of life, mood, self efficacy and self-reported adherence. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, immediately post-intervention and at 3 and 9 months post-intervention by an independent assessor and analysed on intention to treat principles with linear mixed-effects models across all time points. A qualitative component will examine which aspects of program participants found particularly useful and any barriers to change. The NKF-NUS intervention builds upon previous research emphasizing the importance of empowering patients in taking control of their treatment management. The trial design addresses weaknesses of previous research by use of an adequate sample size to detect clinically significant changes in biochemical markers, recruitment of a sufficiently large representative sample, a theory based intervention and careful assessment of both clinical and psychological endpoints at various follow up points. Inclusion of multiple dependent variables allows us to assess the broader impact on the intervention

  8. The NKF-NUS hemodialysis trial protocol - a randomized controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of a self management intervention for hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Poor adherence to treatment is common in patients on hemodialysis which may increase risk for poor clinical outcomes and mortality. Self management interventions have been shown to be effective in improving compliance in other chronic populations. The aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of a recently developed group based self management intervention for hemodialysis patients compared to standard care. Methods/Design This is a multicentre parallel arm block randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a four session group self management intervention for hemodialysis patients delivered by health care professionals compared to standard care. A total of 176 consenting adults maintained on hemodialysis for a minimum of 6 months will be randomized to receive the self management intervention or standard care. Primary outcomes are biochemical markers of clinical status and adherence. Secondary outcomes include general health related quality of life, disease-specific quality of life, mood, self efficacy and self-reported adherence. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, immediately post-intervention and at 3 and 9 months post-intervention by an independent assessor and analysed on intention to treat principles with linear mixed-effects models across all time points. A qualitative component will examine which aspects of program participants found particularly useful and any barriers to change. Discussion The NKF-NUS intervention builds upon previous research emphasizing the importance of empowering patients in taking control of their treatment management. The trial design addresses weaknesses of previous research by use of an adequate sample size to detect clinically significant changes in biochemical markers, recruitment of a sufficiently large representative sample, a theory based intervention and careful assessment of both clinical and psychological endpoints at various follow up points. Inclusion of multiple dependent variables allows us to assess the

  9. Activation of Basophils Is a New and Sensitive Marker of Biocompatibility in Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Aljadi, Zenib; Mansouri, Ladan; Nopp, Anna; Paulsson, Josefin M; Winqvist, Ola; Russom, Aman; Ståhl, Mårten; Hylander, Britta; Jacobson, Stefan H; Lundahl, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The hemodialysis procedure involves contact between peripheral blood and the surface of dialyzer membranes, which may lead to alterations in the pathways of innate and adaptive immunity. We aimed to study the effect of blood–membrane interaction on human peripheral basophils and neutrophils in hemodialysis with high- and low-permeability polysulfone dialyzers. The surface expression of CD203c (basophil selection marker) and CD63 (activation marker) after activation by the bacterial peptide formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) or anti-Fcε receptor I (FcεRI) antibody and the absolute number of basophils was investigated before and after hemodialysis with each of the dialyzers. Moreover, the expression on neutrophils of CD11b, the CD11b active epitope, and CD88 was analyzed in the same groups of individuals. The expression of CD63 in basophils following activation by fMLP was significantly higher in the patient group compared with that in healthy controls, but no differences were observed after activation by anti-FcεRI. During the hemodialysis procedure, the low-flux membrane induced up-regulation of CD63 expression on basophils, while passage through the high-flux membrane did not significantly alter the responsiveness. In addition, the absolute number of basophils was unchanged after hemodialysis with either of the dialyzers and compared with healthy controls. We found no significant differences in the expression of the neutrophil activation markers (CD11b, the active epitope of CD11b, and CD88) comparing the two different dialyzers before and after dialysis and healthy controls. Together, these findings suggest that alterations in basophil activity may be a useful marker of membrane bioincompatibility in hemodialysis. PMID:24712758

  10. C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Hemodialysis patients are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Higher than expected cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this population has been attributed to dislipidemia as well as inflammation. The causes of inflammation in hemodialysis patients are multifactorial. Several markers were used for the detection of inflammatory reaction in patients with chronic renal disease. These markers can be used for the prediction of future cardiovascular events. Among the several parameters of inflammatory markers, serum, CRP is well known and its advantages for the detection of inflammation and its predictor ability has been evaluated in several studies. This review addressed the associated factors and markers of inflammation in hemodialysis patients. In addition, their ability in predicting future atherosclerosis and effect of treatment has been reviewed. However, this context particularly in using CRP as a prediction marker of inflammation and morbidity requires further studies. PMID:24009946

  11. C-reactive protein and other markers of inflammation in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Hemodialysis patients are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease. Higher than expected cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in this population has been attributed to dislipidemia as well as inflammation. The causes of inflammation in hemodialysis patients are multifactorial. Several markers were used for the detection of inflammatory reaction in patients with chronic renal disease. These markers can be used for the prediction of future cardiovascular events. Among the several parameters of inflammatory markers, serum, CRP is well known and its advantages for the detection of inflammation and its predictor ability has been evaluated in several studies. This review addressed the associated factors and markers of inflammation in hemodialysis patients. In addition, their ability in predicting future atherosclerosis and effect of treatment has been reviewed. However, this context particularly in using CRP as a prediction marker of inflammation and morbidity requires further studies.

  12. Indocyanine green videoangiography (ICGV)-guided surgery of parasagittal meningiomas occluding the superior sagittal sinus (SSS).

    PubMed

    d'Avella, Elena; Volpin, Francesco; Manara, Renzo; Scienza, Renato; Della Puppa, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    Maximal safe resection is the goal of correct surgical treatment of parasagittal meningiomas, and it is intimately related to the venous anatomy both near and directly involved by the tumor. Indocyanine green videoangiography (ICGV) has already been advocated as an intra-operative resourceful technique in brain tumor surgery for the identification of vessels. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ICGV in surgery of parasagittal meningiomas occluding the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). In this study, we prospectively analyzed clinical, radiological and intra-operative findings of patients affected by parasagittal meningioma occluding the SSS, who underwent ICGV assisted-surgery. Radiological diagnosis of complete SSS occlusion was pre-operatively established in all cases. ICGV was performed before dural opening, before and during tumor resection, at the end of the procedure. Five patients were included in our study. In all cases, ICGV guided dural opening, tumor resection, and venous management. The venous collateral pathway was easily identified and preserved in all cases. Radical resection was achieved in four cases. Surgery was uneventful in all cases. Despite the small number of patients, our study shows that ICG videoangiography could play a crucial role in guiding surgery of parasagittal meningioma occluding the SSS. Further studies are needed to define the role of this technique on functional and oncological outcome of these patients.

  13. Benefits of a holistic breathing technique in patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Ruth; Leither, Thomas W; Sindelir, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    Health-related quality of life and heart rate variability are often depressed in patients on hemodialysis. This pilot program used a simple holistic, self-directed breathing technique designed to improve heart rate variability, with the hypothesis that improving heart rate variability would subsequently enhance health-related quality of life. Patient self-reported benefits included reductions in anxiety, fatigue, insomnia, and pain. Using holistic physiologic techniques may offer a unique and alternative tool for nurses to help increase health-related quality of life in patients on hemodialysis.

  14. Value of doppler ultrasonography in the study of hemodialysis peripheral vascular access dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Moreno Sánchez, T; Martín Hervás, C; Sola Martínez, E; Moreno Rodríguez, F

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of duplex Doppler ultrasonography in the study of hemodialysis peripheral vascular access dysfunction and to analyze the resistance index and flow in the afferent artery. We prospectively studied 178 patients with 178 peripheral vascular accesses that were dysfunctional in at least three consecutive hemodialysis sessions. Patients underwent duplex Doppler ultrasonography and clinical and laboratory follow-up for three months (provided angiography findings were negative). We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and coefficients of probability. We studied the morphology of the afferent artery, the arteriovenous anastomosis, and the efferent vein, and we measured the resistance index and the flow of the afferent artery, the diameter of the anastomosis, and the flow and peak systolic velocity in the efferent vein. The final sample consisted of 159 patients. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative coefficients of probability were 0,98 (95% CI: 0,88-1.00), 0,74 (95% CI: 0,66-0,81), 0,96, 0,82, 3.7, and 0,03, respectively. The resistance index was less than 0,5 in 78.5% of the peripheral vascular accesses with normal function and greater than 0,5 in 86.1% of the dysfunctional peripheral vascular accesses. We found aneurysms in 19 of the native peripheral vascular accesses and pseudoaneurysms in 7 of the prosthetic grafts. Inverted flow was seen in 57 peripheral vascular accesses. Duplex Doppler ultrasonography is an efficacious method for detecting and characterizing stenosis and thrombosis in peripheral vascular accesses, and it provides information about the morphology and hemodynamics. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Hemodialysis Tunneled Catheter Noninfectious Complications

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Lisa M.; MacRae, Jennifer M.; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Clark, Edward; Dipchand, Christine; Kappel, Joanne; Lok, Charmaine; Luscombe, Rick; Moist, Louise; Oliver, Matthew; Pike, Pamela; Hiremath, Swapnil

    2016-01-01

    Noninfectious hemodialysis catheter complications include catheter dysfunction, catheter-related thrombus, and central vein stenosis. The definitions, causes, and treatment strategies for catheter dysfunction are reviewed below. Catheter-related thrombus is a less common but serious complication of catheters, requiring catheter removal and systemic anticoagulation. In addition, the risk factors, clinical manifestation, and treatment options for central vein stenosis are outlined. PMID:28270922

  16. Adherence to hemodialysis dietary sodium recommendations: influence of patient characteristics, self-efficacy, and perceived barriers.

    PubMed

    Clark-Cutaia, Maya N; Ren, Dianxu; Hoffman, Leslie A; Burke, Lora E; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2014-03-01

    To identify characteristics of hemodialysis patients most likely to experience difficulty adhering to sodium restrictions associated with their dietary regimen. Secondary analysis using baseline data from an ongoing randomized clinical trial examining the effects of a technology-supported behavioral intervention on dietary sodium intake in hemodialysis patients. Thirteen dialysis centers in southwestern Pennsylvania. We included 122 participants (61% women; 48% African American) aged 61 ± 14 years undergoing maintenance, intermittent hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease. Normalized dietary sodium intake, adjusted interdialytic weight gain, perceived problems, and self-efficacy for restricting dietary sodium. Younger participants were more likely to report problems managing their hemodialysis diet and low self-efficacy for restricting sodium intake. Consistent with these findings, younger participants had a higher median sodium intake and higher average adjusted interdialytic weight gain. Females reported more problems managing their diet. Race, time on dialysis, and perceived income adequacy did not seem to influence outcome measures. Our findings suggest that patients who are younger and female encounter more difficulty adhering to the hemodialysis regimen. Hence, there may be a need to individualize counseling and interventions for these individuals. Further investigation is needed to understand the independent effects of age and gender on adherence to hemodialysis dietary recommendations and perceived self-efficacy. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Amplatz canine duct occluder: a novel device for patent ductus arteriosus occlusion.

    PubMed

    Nguyenba, Thaibinh P; Tobias, Anthony H

    2007-11-01

    The Amplatz canine duct occluder (ACDO) is a nitinol mesh device with a short waist that separates a flat distal disc from a cupped proximal disc. The device is designed to conform to the morphology of the canine patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). PDA dimensions are determined by angiography, and a guiding catheter is advanced into the main pulmonary artery via the aorta and PDA. An ACDO with a waist diameter approximately twice the angiographic minimal ductal diameter (MDD) is advanced via the catheter using an attached delivery cable until the flat distal disc deploys within the main pulmonary artery. The partially deployed ACDO, guiding catheter, and delivery cable are retracted until the distal disc engages the pulmonic ostium of the PDA. With the delivery cable stabilized, the catheter is retracted to deploy the waist across the pulmonic ostium and cupped proximal disc within the ductal ampulla. Tension on the delivery cable is released, and correct ACDO positioning and stability are confirmed by observing that the device assumes its native shape, back-and-forth maneuvering of the delivery cable, and a small contrast injection made through the guiding catheter. The delivery cable is detached and removed with the guiding catheter. To assess for any residual ductal flow, an angiogram is performed at the conclusion of the procedure, followed by Doppler echocardiography at 1 day and 3 months post-procedure. PDA occlusion in dogs with the ACDO is straightforward and extremely effective across a wide range of body weights, somatotypes, MDDs, and ductal morphologies.

  18. Improving adherence and biomedical markers in hemodialysis patients: the effects of relaxation therapy.

    PubMed

    Pasyar, Nilofar; Rambod, Masoume; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Rafii, Forough; Pourali-Mohammadi, Nasrin

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of Benson's relaxation technique in improving the hemodialysis patients' dietary and fluid adherence and biomedical markers. This randomized controlled trial with a pre-post test design was conducted on 86 hemodialysis patients randomly divided into an intervention (receiving Benson's relaxation technique) and a control group (usual care). The setting of the study was two hemodialysis units affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. The patients listened to the audiotape of Benson's relaxation technique twice a day each time for 20min for 8 weeks. Dietary and fluid adherence and some biomedical markers were measured in both the intervention and the control group at baseline and at the 8th week after the intervention. The results showed significant differences between the two groups regarding blood urea nitrogen and phosphate as dietary adherence and interdialytic weight gain as fluid adherence in the 8th week of the intervention (P<0.05). Also, a significant difference was found between the two groups concerning blood glucose level after the intervention (P<0.05). This study highlighted the importance of Benson's relaxation technique in improvement of adherence and some biomedical markers in hemodialysis patients. Thus, Benson's relaxation therapy could be used as a part of the nursing care practice for hemodialysis patients and those suffering from chronic diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of occult HBV among hemodialysis patients in two districts in the northern part of the West Bank, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Dumaidi, Kamal; Al-Jawabreh, Amer

    2014-10-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection is the case with undetectable HBsAg, but positive for HBV DNA in liver tissue and/or serum. Occult hepatitis B infection among hemodialysis patients in Palestine has been understudied. In this study, 148 hemodialysis patients from 2 northern districts in Palestine, Jenin (89) and Tulkarem (59), were investigated for occult hepatitis B, HBV, HCV infections with related risk factors. ELISA and PCR were used for the detection of anti-HBc and viral DNA, respectively. The overall prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among the study group was 12.5% (16/128). Occult hepatitis B infection is more prevalent among males with most cases (15/16) from Jenin District. About one-third (42/132) of the hemodialysis patients were anti-HBc positive. Approximately 27% of the hemodialysis patients were infected with HCV. Around 20% (28/140) were positive for HBV DNA, but only 8.2% (12/146) of the hemodialysis patients were positive for HBsAg. The comparison between hemodialysis patients with occult hepatitis B infection and those without occult hepatitis B infection for selected risk factors and parameters as liver Enzyme, age, sex, HCV infection, blood transfusion, kidney transplant, anti-HBc, and vaccination showed no statistical significance between both categories. Duration of hemodialysis significantly affected the rate of HCV infection. HCV is significantly higher in hemodialysis patients with both Diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among hemodialysis patients is high; requiring stringent control policies. HBsAg assay is insufficient test for accurate diagnosis of HBV infection among hemodialysis patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Incremental Hemodialysis, Residual Kidney Function, and Mortality Risk in Incident Dialysis Patients: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Obi, Yoshitsugu; Streja, Elani; Rhee, Connie M.; Ravel, Vanessa; Amin, Alpesh N.; Cupisti, Adamasco; Chen, Jing; Mathew, Anna T.; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2016-01-01

    Background Maintenance hemodialysis is typically prescribed thrice-weekly irrespective of patient's residual kidney function (RKF). We hypothesized that a less frequent schedule at hemodialysis initiation is associated with greater preservation of RKF without compromising survival among patients with substantial RKF. Study Design A longitudinal cohort Setting & Participants 23,645 patients who initiated maintenance hemodialysis in a large dialysis organization in the United States (1/2007–12/2010), who had available RKF data during the first 91 days (or quarter) of dialysis, and who survived the first year. Predictor Incremental (routine twice-weekly for >6 continuous weeks during the first 91 days upon transition to dialysis) versus conventional (thrice-weekly) hemodialysis regimens during the same time. Outcomes Changes in renal urea clearance (KRU) and urine volume (UV) during one year after the first quarter, and survival after the first year. Results Among 23,645 included patients, 51% had substantial KRU (≥3.0 mL/min/1.73m2) at baseline. Compared to 8,068 patients with conventional hemodialysis regimen matched based on baseline KRU, UV, age, gender, diabetes, and central venous catheter use, 351 patients with incremental regimen exhibited 16% (95% CI, 5%-28%) and 15% (95% CI, 2%-30%) more preserved KRU and UV at second quarter, respectively, which remained across the following quarters. Incremental regimen showed higher mortality risk in patients with inadequate baseline KRU (≤3.0 mL/min/1.73m2; HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.07-2.44), but not in those with higher baseline KRU (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.76-1.28). Results were similar in subgroup defined by baseline UV of 600 mL/day. Limitations Potential selection bias and wide CIs. Conclusions Among incident hemodialysis patients with substantial RKF, incremental hemodialysis may be a safe treatment regimen and associated with greater preservation of RKF while higher mortality is observed after a year in those with

  1. β-Blocker Dialyzability and Mortality in Older Patients Receiving Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Stephanie N.; Fleet, Jamie L.; Roberts, Matthew A.; Hackam, Daniel G.; Oliver, Matthew J.; Suri, Rita S.; Quinn, Robert R.; Ozair, Sundus; Beyea, Michael M.; Kitchlu, Abhijat; Garg, Amit X.

    2015-01-01

    Some β-blockers are efficiently removed from the circulation by hemodialysis (“high dialyzability”) whereas others are not (“low dialyzability”). This characteristic may influence the effectiveness of the β-blockers among patients receiving long-term hemodialysis. To determine whether new use of a high-dialyzability β-blocker compared with a low-dialyzability β-blocker associates with a higher rate of mortality in patients older than age 66 years receiving long-term hemodialysis, we conducted a propensity-matched population-based retrospective cohort study using the linked healthcare databases of Ontario, Canada. The high-dialyzability group (n=3294) included patients initiating atenolol, acebutolol, or metoprolol. The low-dialyzability group (n=3294) included patients initiating bisoprolol or propranolol. Initiation of a high- versus low-dialyzability β-blocker was associated with a higher risk of death in the following 180 days (relative risk, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 1.8; P<0.01). Supporting this finding, we repeated the primary analysis in a cohort of patients not receiving hemodialysis and found no significant association between dialyzability and the risk of death (relative risk, 1.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 1.3; P=0.71). β-Blocker exposure was not randomly allocated in this study, so a causal relationship between dialyzability and mortality cannot be determined. However, our findings should raise awareness of this potentially important drug characteristic and prompt further study. PMID:25359874

  2. Effectiveness of Self-Care Education on the Enhancement of the Self-Esteem of Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Poorgholami, Farzad; Javadpour, Shohreh; Saadatmand, Vahid; Jahromi, Marzieh Kargar

    2015-06-12

    The assessment of self-esteem in hemodialysis people is becoming increasingly important and necessary. Low self-esteem as a problem in patients undergoing hemodialysis decreases adherence to treatment. The researcher intends to carry out a study in order to investigate the effect of self-care education on enhancement of the self-esteem of patients undergoing hemodialysis in Iran. This is a quasi-experimental study. The subjects of the study who were selected based on purposive sampling method consisted of 50 patients with advanced chronic renal disease treated with hemodialysis. Before the intervention, two questionnaires were completed by patients. There was no intervention in the control group and the patients received only routine care in the hospital. In the experimental group, the hemodialysis patients received 5 consecutive one-hour training sessions by the researcher. Then the Rosenberg scale was filled out by the patients 2 month later. According to the results, Paired t-test showed a significant difference between the mean self-esteem score in both groups before and after intervention. Increasing the knowledge and awareness of hemodialysis patients must constitute a cornerstone of therapy and an integral part of nursing responsibilities. Nurses should educate the patients about self-care behaviors and remind them of the dangerous complications of abandoning these.

  3. alpha-Ketoglutarate application in hemodialysis patients improves amino acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Riedel, E; Nündel, M; Hampl, H

    1996-01-01

    In hemodialysis patients, free amino acids and alpha-ketoacids in plasma were determined by fluorescence HPLC to assess the effect of alpha-ketoglutarate administration in combination with the phosphate binder calcium carbonate on the amino acid metabolism. During 1 year of therapy in parallel to inorganic phosphate, urea in plasma decreased significantly, histidine, arginine and proline as well as branched chain alpha-ketoacids, in particular alpha-ketoisocaproate, a regulator of protein metabolism, increased. Thus, administration of alpha-ketoglutarate with calcium carbonate effectively improves amino acid metabolism in hemodialysis patients as it decreases hyperphosphatemia.

  4. Novel equations to estimate lean body mass in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Noori, Nazanin; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Bross, Rachelle; Lee, Martin; Oreopoulos, Antigone; Benner, Deborah; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Kopple, Joel D; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2011-01-01

    Lean body mass (LBM) is an important nutritional measure representing muscle mass and somatic protein in hemodialysis patients, for whom we developed and tested equations to estimate LBM. A study of diagnostic test accuracy. The development cohort included 118 hemodialysis patients with LBM measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and near-infrared (NIR) interactance. The validation cohort included 612 additional hemodialysis patients with LBM measured using a portable NIR interactance technique during hemodialysis. 3-month averaged serum concentrations of creatinine, albumin, and prealbumin; normalized protein nitrogen appearance; midarm muscle circumference (MAMC); handgrip strength; and subjective global assessment of nutrition. LBM measured using DEXA in the development cohort and NIR interactance in validation cohorts. In the development cohort, DEXA and NIR interactance correlated strongly (r = 0.94, P < 0.001). DEXA-measured LBM correlated with serum creatinine level, MAMC, and handgrip strength, but not with other nutritional markers. Three regression equations to estimate DEXA-measured LBM were developed based on each of these 3 surrogates and sex, height, weight, and age (and urea reduction ratio for the serum creatinine regression). In the validation cohort, the validity of the equations was tested against the NIR interactance-measured LBM. The equation estimates correlated well with NIR interactance-measured LBM (R² ≥ 0.88), although in higher LBM ranges, they tended to underestimate it. Median (95% confidence interval) differences and interquartile range for differences between equation estimates and NIR interactance-measured LBM were 3.4 (-3.2 to 12.0) and 3.0 (1.1-5.1) kg for serum creatinine and 4.0 (-2.6 to 13.6) and 3.7 (1.3-6.0) kg for MAMC, respectively. DEXA measurements were obtained on a nondialysis day, whereas NIR interactance was performed during hemodialysis treatment, with the likelihood of confounding by volume status

  5. Novel Equations to Estimate Lean Body Mass in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Noori, Nazanin; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Bross, Rachelle; Lee, Martin; Oreopoulos, Antigone; Benner, Deborah; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Kopple, Joel D; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2010-01-01

    Background Lean body mass (LBM) is an important nutritional measure representing muscle mass and somatic protein in hemodialysis patients, in whom we developed and tested equations to estimate LBM. Study Design A study of diagnostic test accuracy. Setting and Participants The development cohort included 118 hemodialysis patients, with LBM measured using dual-energy -X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and near-infrared (NIR) interactance. The validation cohort included 612 additional hemodialysis patients with LBM measured using portable NIR interactance technique during hemodialysis. Index Tests 3-month averaged serum concentrations of creatinine, albumin and prealbumin, normalized protein-nitrogen-appearance, mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), handgrip strength, and subjective global assessment of nutrition. Reference Test LBM measured via DEXA in the development cohort and via NIR interactance in validation cohorts. Results In the development cohort, DEXA and NIR interactance were strongly correlated (r=0.94, p<0.001). DEXA-measured LBM correlated with serum creatinine, MAMC, handgrip strength but not with other nutritional markers. Three regression equations to estimate DEXA-measured LBM were developed based on each of these three surrogates and gender, height, weight, and age (and urea reduction ratio for the serum creatinine regression). In the validation cohort, the validity of the equations were tested against the NIR interactance measured LBM. The equation estimates correlated well with NIR interactance measured LBM (R221 ≥0.88), although in higher LBM ranges they tended to underestimate it. Median differences between equation estimates and NIR interactance-measured LBM were 3.4 (25th–75th percentile, −3.2 to 12.0) and 3.0 (25th–75th percentile, 1.1–5.1) kg for serum creatinine and 4.0 (25th–75th percentile, −2.6 to 13.6) and 3.7 (25th–75th percentile, 1.3–6.0) kg for MAMC. Limitations DEXA measurements were performed on a non-dialysis day

  6. There's no place like home: 35-year patient survival on home hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jerry Z; Rhee, Connie M; Ferrey, Antoney; Li, Alex; Jin, Anna; Chang, Yongen; Reddy, Uttam; Lau, Wei Ling; Chou, Jason; Inrig, Jula; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2018-05-01

    The vast majority of maintenance dialysis patients suffer from poor long-term survival rates and lower levels of health-related quality of life. However, home hemodialysis is a historically significant dialysis modality that has been associated with favorable outcomes as well as greater patient autonomy and control, yet only represents a small minority of the total dialysis performed in the United States. Some potential disadvantages of home hemodialysis include vascular access complications, infection-related hospitalizations, patient fatigue, and attrition. In addition, current barriers and challenges in expanding the utilization of this modality include limited patient and provider education and technical expertise. Here we report a 65-year old male with end-stage renal disease due to Alport's syndrome who has undergone 35 years of uninterrupted thrice-weekly home hemodialysis (ie, every Sunday, Tuesday, and Thursday evening, each session lasting 3 to 3¼ hours in length) using a conventional hemodialysis machine who has maintained a high functional status allowing him to work 6-8 hours per day. The patient has been able to liberalize his dietary and fluid intake while only requiring 3-4 liters of ultrafiltration per treatment, despite having absence of residual kidney function. Through this case of extraordinary longevity and outcomes after 35 years of dialysis and a review of the literature, we illustrate the history of home hemodialysis, its significant clinical and psychosocial advantages, as well as the barriers that hinder its widespread adaptation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Septic Complication After Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Duodenal Variceal Bleeding

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Akasaka, Thai; Shibata, Toshiya, E-mail: ksj@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Isoda, Hiroyoshi

    2010-12-15

    We report a 64-year-old woman with duodenal varices who underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) complicated by intraprocedural variceal rupture. The patient developed shivering and a fever higher than 40{sup o}C 3 days after the B-RTO procedure. A blood culture grew Entereobacter cloacoe. This case represents a rare septic complication of B-RTO for duodenal varices.

  8. [The history of home hemodialysis and its likely revival].

    PubMed

    Ralli, Chiara; Imperiali, Patrizio; Duranti, Ennio

    2016-01-01

    The home extracorporeal hemodialysis, which aroused a great interest in the past, has not kept its promises due to the complexity and expectations for family involvement in treatment management. In the United States NxStage One portable system was proposed and designed for home use. In this work we describe, starting from the history of home hemodialysis, the method with NxStage system by comparing it with the conventional HD in 5 patients. The dialysis efficiency was similar between the two treatments, even if home hemodialysis showed a reduction in serum urea, creatinine and phosphorus. At the same time phosphate binders use decreased with an increase in serum calcium while hemoglobin increased reducing doses of erythropoietin. The method was successful in the training of the patients and their partners during hospital training and at home. Patients have shown great enthusiasm at the beginning and during the therapy, which is developed around the users personal needs, being able to decide at its own times during 24 hours according to personal needs, in addition to faster recovery after the dialysis. This method certainly improved the patients' wellness and increased their autonomy.

  9. [DOPPS estimate of patient life years attributable to modifiable hemodialysis practices in France].

    PubMed

    Canaud, Bernard; Combe, Christian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Eichleay, Margaret A; Pisoni, Ronald L; Port, Friedrich K

    2008-07-01

    In this study, we used a prevalent cross-sectional sample of French hemodialysis patients from Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) 2 (2002-2004) to determine the percentage of patients whose values failed to meet targets in six different areas of hemodialysis practice (dialysis dose, anemia, serum phosphorus (PO(4)), serum calcium (Ca), serum albumin and catheter use for vascular access). Cox survival models, with adjustments for patient characteristics, were used for these analyses to estimate mortality hazard ratios (HR). Based on the mortality HR, the fraction of patients outside each target and the total HD population in France, we estimated the number of patient life years that could potentially be gained if every chronic, in-center hemodialysis patient in France who is currently outside of the specified target was able to achieve it. The proportion of patients failing to meet one of the six practice targets in France varied from 15% (dialysis dose) to 75% (albumin) while the percentage of patients complying with all six targets was restricted to 1.2%. The relative risk of mortality (RR) associated with being outside these targets varied from 1.12 to 1.46. Based on these two measures the life-years survival was estimated. The projected number of patients and life years potentially gained from adherence to the six targets was estimated close to 10,600 years-patient. In conclusion, this study suggests large opportunities to improve hemodialysis patient care in France still exist. Compliance with two major practice targets, such as albumin and restriction of catheter use will save highly significant life years of hemodialysis patient. Implementing and strict adherence to national and international guidelines should serve as a basic inspiration for continual improvement of hemodialysis patient care.

  10. Uncertainty, the Overbearing Lived Experience of the Elderly People Undergoing Hemodialysis: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Sahaf, Robab; Sadat Ilali, Ehteram; Peyrovi, Hamid; Akbari Kamrani, Ahmad Ali; Spahbodi, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The chronic kidney disease is a major health concern. The number of the elderly people with chronic renal failure has increased across the world. Dialysis is an appropriate therapy for the elderly, but it involves certain challenges. The present paper reports uncertainty as part of the elderly experiences of living with hemodialysis. Methods: This qualitative study applied Max van Manen interpretative phenomenological analysis to explain and explore experiences of the elderly with hemodialysis. Given the study inclusion criteria, data were collected using in-depth unstructured interviews with nine elderly undergoing hemodialysis, and then analyzed according to Van Manen 6-stage methodological approach. Results: One of the most important findings emerging in the main study was “uncertainty”, which can be important and noteworthy, given other aspects of the elderly life (loneliness, despair, comorbidity of diseases, disability, and mental and psychosocial problems). Uncertainty about the future is the most psychological concerns of people undergoing hemodialysis. Conclusion: The results obtained are indicative of the importance of paying attention to a major aspect in the life of the elderly undergoing hemodialysis, uncertainty. A positive outlook can be created in the elderly through education and increased knowledge about the disease, treatment and complications. PMID:28097174

  11. Reviewing and comparing self-concept in patients undergoing hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Shahgholian, Nahid; Tajdari, Setareh; Nasiri, Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chronic renal disease is a health problem in today’s world. In the end-stages of renal disease patients depend upon alternative therapies including dialysis for their survival. However, dialysis causes several stressors on physical, mental and social performance of patients. The present study aimed to review and compare the self-concept in patients undergoing hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study including two groups of patients, undergoing hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, who referred to Al-Zahra and Ali Asghar Hospitals, which are affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. These groups were compared to the control group. Data were collected through completing the form of demographic characteristics and a questionnaire, written by the researcher, pertaining to the self-concept which was collected by the samples. The data were analyzed by the Software SPSS version 18. Findings: ANOVA (analysis of variance) showed that statistically there was a significant difference between mean score of self-concept in the three physical (body-image), psychological, and social self aspects in the two groups of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis with the control group; however, Duncan’s post-hoc analysis showed no significant difference between mean score of self-concept in the three mentioned aspects in the two groups of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Furthermore, ANOVA (analysis of variance) showed that there was no significant difference between mean score of the spiritual aspect of the self-concept in the two groups of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis with the control group. Duncan’s post-hoc analysis also showed no significant difference in this aspect between the two groups of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Conclusions: Patients undergoing dialysis have many psychological disorders and the type of dialysis is not of much importance in this regard; therefore, adequate

  12. Fibroblast growth factor-23 levels in maintenance hemodialysis patients in India.

    PubMed

    Anandh, U; Mandavkar, P; Das, B; Rao, S

    2017-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) levels start rising early in patients with chronic kidney disease and is implicated in cardiovascular and overall mortality of hemodialysis patients. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study in stable dialysis patients looking into the levels of FGF-23 in hemodialysis patients and its association with various demographic and biochemical variables and mortality. A total of 91 patients were enrolled in the study. The mean FGF-23 levels were very high (1152.7 pg/ml). FGF-23 levels were significantly associated with serum phosphorus and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in univariate and multivariate analysis. No significant association between FGF-23 and cardiovascular comorbidities and overall mortality was seen. FGF-23 levels rise exponentially in maintenance hemodialysis patients. There is a strong association between FGF-23 and phosphorus and PTH levels. No association between FGF-23 and mortality was noted in our patients.

  13. Non-adherence in patients on chronic hemodialysis: an international comparison study.

    PubMed

    Kugler, Christiane; Maeding, Ilona; Russell, Cynthia L

    2011-01-01

    Adherence to diet and fluid restrictions by adults on hemodialysis treatment is challenging. This study compared non-adherence (NA) to diet and fluid restrictions between adult US and German hemodialysis patients, and assessed potential predictors for NA. A cross-sectional multicenter comparative study of 456 adult hemodialysis patients was conducted in 12 outpatient-based hemodialysis centers in the United States and Germany. NA was based on self-report using the Dialysis Diet and Fluid Non-adherence Questionnaire (DDFQ). Laboratory marker, interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) and dialysis adequacy (Kt/V) information were obtained from medical records. Mean time on dialysis was 50 months (range 3-336); mean age was 62 years (range 19-91), with the majority of patients (89.7%) being white. Self-reported frequency of NA to diet was 80.4% and to fluid 75.3% in the total sample. The degree of NA to diet and fluid differed significantly, with the US patients (68.1% vs. 61.1%) reporting less NA when compared with German (81.6% vs. 79.0%) patients (p<0.0001). Phosphorus, albumin, IDWG and Kt/V levels were higher in the US compared with the German subsample (all p<0.0001; IDWG p<0.003). Generalized regression models revealed that education (p<0.01) and smoking (p<0.01) predicted NA to diet, whereas single marital status (p<0.008) and male sex (p<0.04) were independent predictors for NA to fluid. NA persists as one of the most challenging tasks in health care of patients with chronic conditions, including hemodialysis patients. Our findings suggest that patient, condition-related, socioeconomic and health care system-related factors may contribute to NA to diet and fluid restrictions.

  14. Nephrologists’ Perspectives on Defining and Applying Patient-Centered Outcomes in Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.; Wheeler, David C.; van Biesen, Wim; Tugwell, Peter; Manns, Braden; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Harris, Tess; Crowe, Sally; Ju, Angela; O’Lone, Emma; Evangelidis, Nicole; Craig, Jonathan C.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives Patient centeredness is widely advocated as a cornerstone of health care, but it is yet to be fully realized, including in nephrology. Our study aims to describe nephrologists’ perspectives on defining and implementing patient-centered outcomes in hemodialysis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Face-to-face, semistructured interviews were conducted with 58 nephrologists from 27 dialysis units across nine countries, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Germany, Singapore, and New Zealand. Transcripts were thematically analyzed. Results We identified five themes on defining and implementing patient-centered outcomes in hemodialysis: explicitly prioritized by patients (articulated preferences and goals, ascertaining treatment burden, defining hemodialysis success, distinguishing a physician-patient dichotomy, and supporting shared decision making), optimizing wellbeing (respecting patient choice, focusing on symptomology, perceptible and tangible, and judging relevance and consequence), comprehending extensive heterogeneity of clinical and quality of life outcomes (distilling diverse priorities, highly individualized, attempting to specify outcomes, and broadening context), clinically hamstrung (professional deficiency, uncertainty and complexity in measurement, beyond medical purview, specificity of care, mechanistic mindset [focused on biochemical targets and comorbidities], avoiding alarm, and paradoxical dilemma), and undermined by system pressures (adhering to overarching policies, misalignment with mandates, and resource constraints). Conclusions Improving patient-centered outcomes is regarded by nephrologists to encompass strategies that address patient goals and improve wellbeing and treatment burden in patients on hemodialysis. However, efforts are hampered by ambiguities about how to prioritize, measure, and manage the plethora of critical comorbidities and broader

  15. The Choice of Hemodialysis Membrane Affects Bisphenol A Levels in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Bosch-Panadero, Enrique; Sanchez-Ospina, Didier; Camarero, Vanesa; Pérez-Gómez, Maria V.; Saez-Calero, Isabel; Abaigar, Pedro; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesus; González-Parra, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a component of some dialysis membranes, accumulates in CKD. Observational studies have linked BPA exposure to kidney and cardiovascular injury in humans, and animal studies have described a causative link. Normal kidneys rapidly excrete BPA, but insufficient excretion may sensitize patients with CKD to adverse the effects of BPA. Using a crossover design, we studied the effect of dialysis with BPA-containing polysulfone or BPA-free polynephron dialyzers on BPA levels in 69 prevalent patients on hemodialysis: 28 patients started on polysulfone dialyzers and were switched to polynephron dialyzers; 41 patients started on polynephron dialyzers and were switched to polysulfone dialyzers. Results were grouped for analysis. Mean BPA levels increased after one hemodialysis session with polysulfone dialyzers but not with polynephron dialyzers. Chronic (3-month) use of polysulfone dialyzers did not significantly increase predialysis serum BPA levels, although a trend toward increase was detected (from 48.8±6.8 to 69.1±10.1 ng/ml). Chronic use of polynephron dialyzers reduced predialysis serum BPA (from 70.6±8.4 to 47.1±7.5 ng/ml, P<0.05). Intracellular BPA in PBMCs increased after chronic hemodialysis with polysulfone dialyzers (from 0.039±0.002 to 0.043±0.001 ng/106 cells, P<0.01), but decreased with polynephron dialyzers (from 0.045±0.001 to 0.036±0.001 ng/106 cells, P<0.01). Furthermore, chronic hemodialysis with polysulfone dialyzers increased oxidative stress in PBMCs and inflammatory marker concentrations in circulation. In vitro, polysulfone membranes released significantly more BPA into the culture medium and induced more cytokine production in cultured PBMCs than did polynephron membranes. In conclusion, dialyzer BPA content may contribute to BPA burden in patients on hemodialysis. PMID:26432902

  16. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Hemodialysis Patients - The CORDIAL Study

    PubMed Central

    Burmeister, Jayme Eduardo; Mosmann, Camila Borges; Costa, Veridiana Borges; Saraiva, Ramiro Tubino; Grandi, Renata Rech; Bastos, Juliano Peixoto; Gonçalves, Luiz Felipe; Rosito, Guido Aranha

    2014-01-01

    Background There are scarce epidemiological data on cardiovascular risk profile of chronic hemodialysis patients in Brazil. Objective The CORDIAL study was designed to evaluate cardiovascular risk factors and follow up a hemodialysis population in a Brazilian metropolitan city. Methods All patients undergoing regular hemodialysis for chronic renal failure in all fifteen nephrology centers of Porto Alegre were considered for inclusion in the baseline phase of the CORDIAL study. Clinical, laboratory and demographic data were obtained in medical records and in structured individual interviews performed in all patients by trained researchers. Results A total of 1215 patients were included (97.3% of all hemodialysis patients in the city of Porto Alegre). Their average age was 58.3 years old, 59.5% were male and 62.8% were white. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors observed was 87.5% for hypertension, 84.7% for dyslipidemia, 73.1% for sedentary lifestyle, 53.7% for tobacco use, and 35.8% for diabetes. In a multivariate adjusted analysis, we found that sedentary lifestyle (p = 0.032, PR 1.08 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.15), dyslipidemia (p = 0.019, PR 1.08 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.14), and obesity (p < 0.001, PR 1.96 - 95%CI: 1.45-2.63) were more frequent in women; and hypertension (p = 0.018, PR 1.06 - 95%CI: 1.01-1.11) and tobacco use (p = 0.006, PR 2.7 - 95%CI: 1.79-4.17) were more often found among patients under 65 years old. Sedentary lifestyle was independently associated with time in dialysis less than 12 months (p < 0.001, PR 1.23 - 95% CI: 1.14-1.33). Conclusion Hemodialysis patients in this southern metropolitan Brazilian city have a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors resembling many northern countries. PMID:24759948

  17. Effect of switching unfractionated heparin to low-molecular-weight heparin on serum potassium in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ezzatzadegan Jahromi, Shahrokh; Mahmoodi, Mohammad Saleh; Behroozi, Fatemeh; Roozbeh, Jamshid; Emamghoreishi, Fatemeh

    2014-11-01

    Unfractionated (UF) heparin is the most common anticoagulant used during hemodialysis. Failure of the kidneys to excrete potassium as well as heparin-induced reduction of aldosterone synthesis put hemodialysis patients at risk of hyperkalemia. It has not yet been clearly known whether hyperkalemia is also induced by low-molecular-weight (LMW) heparins. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of switching UF heparin to LMW heparin enoxaparin, as an anticoagulant during hemodialysis, on serum potassium level in patients on hemodialysis. In two hemodialysis units, 58 patients were randomly assigned into two groups, to receive two different anticoagulation protocols for 3 weeks; one group continued to receive their routine dose of UF heparin, 5000 units, and the other received enoxaparin, 0.5 mg/kg, at the beginning of each hemodialysis session. While there was no significant difference between baseline blood measurements of the two groups in terms of kidney function tests and electrolytes, following 3 weeks of the study, the mean serum potassium level decreased from 4.9 ± 0.8 mEq/L to 4.5 ± 0.5 mEq/L in the LMW heparin group (P = .001); however, there was no change in the mean serum potassium level in those who continued to receive their usual dose of UF heparin. In a subgroup analysis, diabetic patients in the enoxaparin group did not experience significant reduction in serum potassium levels. Our study revealed the role of LMW heparins as a potential alternative to UF heparins in the hemodialysis patients with hyperkalemia.

  18. Hemodialysis knowledge and medical adherence in African Americans diagnosed with end stage renal disease: results of an educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Wells, Janie R

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this three-group quasi-experimental research study was to describe the relationship between hemodialysis knowledge and perceived medical adherence to a prescribed treatment regimen in African Americans diagnosed with end stage renal disease and to determine if an educational intervention improved hemodialysis knowledge and medical adherence. Eighty-five African Americans participated in this study using the Life Options Hemodialysis Knowledge Test and the Medical Outcomes Study Measures of Patient Adherence tools. No significant correlation was found between hemodialysis knowledge and medical adherence. Paired sample t-tests revealed significantly higher hemodialysis knowledge scores in the post-test group compared to the pre-test group, t(26) = -3.79, p < 0.01. Additionally, no significant differences were found between pre- and post-intervention in medical adherence. This study suggests that more education is needed to improve the knowledge level of African-American patients on hemodialysis.

  19. 21 CFR 876.5860 - High permeability hemodialysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Water Purification Components and Systems for Hemodialysis,” and (5) “Guidance for Hemodialyzer Reuse... hemodiafiltration. Using a hemodialyzer with a semipermeable membrane that is more permeable to water than the...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5860 - High permeability hemodialysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Water Purification Components and Systems for Hemodialysis,” and (5) “Guidance for Hemodialyzer Reuse... hemodiafiltration. Using a hemodialyzer with a semipermeable membrane that is more permeable to water than the...

  1. 21 CFR 876.5860 - High permeability hemodialysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Water Purification Components and Systems for Hemodialysis,” and (5) “Guidance for Hemodialyzer Reuse... hemodiafiltration. Using a hemodialyzer with a semipermeable membrane that is more permeable to water than the...

  2. 21 CFR 876.5860 - High permeability hemodialysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Water Purification Components and Systems for Hemodialysis,” and (5) “Guidance for Hemodialyzer Reuse... hemodiafiltration. Using a hemodialyzer with a semipermeable membrane that is more permeable to water than the...

  3. 21 CFR 876.5860 - High permeability hemodialysis system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Water Purification Components and Systems for Hemodialysis,” and (5) “Guidance for Hemodialyzer Reuse... hemodiafiltration. Using a hemodialyzer with a semipermeable membrane that is more permeable to water than the...

  4. Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis and pseudoporphyric bullous dermatosis in a hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Sabanis, Nikos; Paschou, Eleni; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Kalaitzoglou, Asterios; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Vasileiou, Sotiris; Amplianitis, Ioannis

    2016-07-01

    Hemodialysis patients present with a broad spectrum of specific and nonspecific skin disorders, which rarely coexist. We report an exceptional case of a hemodialysis patient that developed acquired reactive perforating collagenosis and pseudoporphyric bullous dermatosis on the basis of common skin disorders which include hyperpigmentation, pruritus, xerosis cutis, and Linsday's nails. Interestingly, our patient presented with two unusual but distinctive cutaneous dermopathies on the background of other commonly seen skin alterations. The patient was successfully treated with allopurinol and N-acetylcysteine. Avoidance of potentially triggering factors such as alcohol, sunlight exposure and certain medication was recommended. Thus, increasing clinical awareness, assiduous investigation and early treatment of skin disorders are required to improve the prognosis and quality of life in this patient population. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  5. Estimation of liver parameters and oxidative stress in chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis in Erbil governorate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakey, Musher Ismail Salih; Abdoulrahman, Kamaran Kaiani

    2017-09-01

    The present study aims to evaluate iron related parameters in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients on hemodialysis (HD). The study was carried out in Kidney Dialysis Center of Hawler Teaching Hospital in Erbil governorate. This study comprised (76) patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis and 41 healthy subjects as a control group of same ages. All hemodialysis patients were taking erythropoietin. The blood samples were taken from the patients before and after the process of hemodialysis for liver parameters and oxidative stress estimations. The results of this study showed lower levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, total bilirubin, total protein and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), while higher levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), direct bilirubin and malondialdeyhde (MDA) before analysis was seen. Hemodialysis causes increasing in AST, ALT, albumin, total bilirubin, total protein and decreasing in ALP, direct bilirubin MDA and TAC.

  6. Iliopsoas abscess as a complication of tunneled jugular vein catheterization in a hemodialysis patient.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Po-Jen; Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Leu, Jyh-Gang; Fang, Yu-Wei

    2015-04-01

    Iliopsoas abscess is a rare complication in hemodialysis patients that is mainly due to adjacent catheterization, local acupuncture, discitis, and bacteremia. Herein, we report a 47-year-old woman undergoing regular hemodialysis via a catheter in the internal jugular vein who presented with low back pain and dyspnea. A heart murmur suggested the presence of catheter-related endocarditis, and this was confirmed by an echocardiogram and a blood culture of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. A computed tomography indicated a pulmonary embolism and an incidental finding of iliopsoas abscess. Following surgical intervention and intravenous daptomycin, the patient experienced full recovery and a return to usual activities. This case indicates that an iliopsoas abscess can be related to a jugular vein catheter, which is apparently facilitated by infective endocarditis. The possibility of iliopsoas abscess should be considered when a hemodialysis patient presents with severe low back pain, even when there is no history of adjacent mechanical intervention. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  7. Pulse wave velocity is associated with cognitive impairment in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Angermann, Susanne; Baumann, Marcus; Wassertheurer, Siegfried; Mayer, Christopher Clemens; Steubl, Dominik; Hauser, Christine; Suttmann, Yana; Reichelt, Anna-Lena; Satanovskij, Robin; Lorenz, Georg; Lukas, Moritz; Haller, Bernhard; Heemann, Uwe; Grimmer, Timo; Schmaderer, Christoph

    2017-07-01

    Cognitive impairment in hemodialysis patients is common and associated with adverse outcomes. So far, the underlying pathogenesis remains unclear. Therefore, we examined the potential relationship between cognitive impairment and three different categories of risk factors with particular focus on arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV). A total of 201 chronic hemodialysis patients underwent cognitive testing under standardized conditions using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Demographic data including cardiovascular risk factors, dialysis-associated factors as well as factors related to chronic kidney disease (CKD) were analyzed. To account for arterial stiffness, PWV was measured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoried with an oscillometric device that records brachial blood pressure along with pulse waves. In our cohort, 60.2% of patients showed pathological MoCA test results indicating cognitive impairment. PWV was significantly associated with cognitive impairment apart from age, educational level, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. High prevalence of cognitive impairment in hemodialysis patients was confirmed. For the first time, an association between cognitive impairment and arterial stiffness was detected in a larger cohort of hemodialysis patients. Concerning the underlying pathogenesis of cognitive impairment, current results revealed a potential involvement of arterial stiffness, which has to be further evaluated in future studies. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  8. Treatment of acute kidney injury secondary to oak intoxication with hemodialysis in a miniature zebu.

    PubMed

    Davy-Moyle, Rachel B; Londoño, Leo; Nelson, Elizabeth A; Bandt, Carsten

    2018-06-13

    To describe the successful management of acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to oak intoxication using hemodialysis in a miniature zebu. A 1-year-old male intact miniature zebu was presented for evaluation of a 2-day history of lethargy, anorexia, decreased urine production, and dry, firm stool. Initial diagnostics revealed severe azotemia and the bull was presumptively diagnosed with AKI secondary to oak intoxication due to free access to oak trees in the pasture. Despite conventional management with IV fluids and supportive therapy, the degree of azotemia progressively worsened, and the bull became oliguric and fluid overloaded. Two treatments with hemodialysis resulted in reduction of azotemia and ketonemia, and resolution of fluid overload and oliguria. The zebu was discharged from the hospital after 10 days of hospitalization. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case using hemodialysis for AKI in a bovid. Treatment with hemodialysis was effective in this case resulting in rapid resolution of azotemia, fluid overload, and oliguria. Hemodialysis may hasten the recovery and decrease morbidity and mortality in bovids with AKI. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2018.

  9. Cardiac veins: collateral venous drainage pathways in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Evrim; Algin, Oktay

    2016-07-12

    Venous anomalies are diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Subclavian or superior vena cava stenosis can be developed and venous return can be achieved via cardiac veins and coronary sinus in patients with central venous catheter for long-term hemodialysis. These types of abnormalities are not extremely rare especially in patients with a history of central venous catheter placement. Detection of these anomalies and subclavian vein stenosis before the surgical creation of hemodialysis fistulae or tunneled central venous catheter placement may prevent unnecessary interventions in those patients. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) technique can give further information when compared with fluoroscopy or digital subtraction angiography in the management of these patients. This case report describes interesting aspects of central vein complications in hemodialysis patients. As a conclusion, there are limited data about thoracic venous return, and further prospective studies with large patient number are required. MDCT with 3D reconstruction is particularly useful for the accurate evaluation of venous patency, variations, and collateral circulation. Also it is an excellent tool for choosing and planning treatment.

  10. Clinical performance targets and quality of life in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Mazairac, Albert H A; de Wit, G Ardine; Grooteman, Muriel P C; Penne, E Lars; van der Weerd, Neelke C; den Hoedt, Claire H; Lévesque, Renée; van den Dorpel, Marinus A; Nubé, Menso J; Ter Wee, Piet M; Blankestijn, Peter J; Bots, Michiel L

    2012-01-01

    Patients value health-related quality of life (HRQOL) over survival. It was our aim to study the relation between attainment of widely accepted performance targets and HRQOL in hemodialysis patients. This study included baseline data from 715 hemodialysis patients from 29 dialysis centers. Six clinical performance targets, as recommended by the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI), were evaluated: single-pool Kt/V (≥1.2), hemoglobin (11-13 g/dl), vascular access (fistula), phosphorus (2.3-4.5 mg/dl), parathyroid hormone (150-300 pg/ml), and blood pressure (predialysis <140/90 and postdialysis <130/ 80 mm Hg). After correction for case-mix and multiple comparisons, no association was found between the 6 KDOQI clinical performance targets and the 14 HRQOL domains, or between the number of performance targets reached and HRQOL. Attainment with widely accepted clinical performance targets was not related to the HRQOL of hemodialysis patients. Hence, in clinical guidelines, HRQOL should be adopted as an explicit treatment goal for these individuals. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. The role of adequate reference materials in density measurements in hemodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furtado, A.; Moutinho, J.; Moura, S.; Oliveira, F.; Filipe, E.

    2015-02-01

    In hemodialysis, oscillation-type density meters are used to measure the density of the acid component of the dialysate solutions used in the treatment of kidney patients. An incorrect density determination of this solution used in hemodialysis treatments can cause several and adverse events to patients. Therefore, despite the Fresenius Medical Care (FME) tight control of the density meters calibration results, this study shows the benefits of mimic the matrix usually measured to produce suitable reference materials for the density meter calibrations.

  12. Effect of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood on magnetic particle capture in occluded blood vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sayan; Banerjee, Moloy

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles drug carriers continue to attract considerable interest for drug targeting in the treatment of cancer and other pathological conditions. Magnetic carrier particles with surface-bound drug molecules are injected into the vascular system upstream from the desired target site, and are captured at the target site via a local applied magnetic field. Herein, a numerical investigation of steady magnetic drug targeting (MDT) using functionalized magnetic micro-spheres in partly occluded blood vessel having a 90° bent is presented considering the effects of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood. An Eulerian-Lagrangian technique is adopted to resolve the hemodynamic flow and the motion of the magnetic particles in the flow using ANSYS FLUENT. An implantable infinitely long cylindrical current carrying conductor is used to create the requisite magnetic field. Targeted transport of the magnetic particles in a partly occluded vessel differs distinctly from the same in a regular unblocked vessel. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of the insert configuration and its position from the central plane of the artery (zoffset), particle size (dp) and its magnetic property (χ) and the magnitude of current (I) on the "capture efficiency" (CE) is reported. Analysis shows that there exists an optimum regime of operating parameters for which deposition of the drug carrying magnetic particles in a target zone on the partly occluded vessel wall can be maximized. The results provide useful design bases for in vitro set up for the investigation of MDT in stenosed blood vessels.

  13. [Percutaneous closure of ductus arteriosus and muscular ventricular defect with amplatzer occluder in a patient with severe pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    García-Montes, José Antonio; Zabal Cerdeira, Carlos; Calderón-Colmenero, Juan; Espínola, Nilda; Fernández de la Reguera, Guillermo; Buendía Hernández, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    Surgical treatment of multiple muscular ventricular septal defects with associated lesions and severe pulmonary hypertension has a high morbility and mortality. Closure of these defects by the Amplatzer muscular VSD occluder is an alternative to surgery, avoiding the need of cardiopulmonary bypass. We present the case of a 38 year-old woman with signs of heart failure in NYHA functional class IV, with two muscular ventricular septal defects, patent ductus arteriosus and severe pulmonary hypertension, that were treated with three Amplatzer muscular VSD occluders, with significant reduction of pulmonary pressure and functional class improvement.

  14. Usefulness of percutaneous intervention with transarterial approach in the salvage of nonmaturing native fistulas status-post transvenous approach failure: transarterial approach in the salvage of nonmaturing native fistulas.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hyun Pyo; Kim, Seung Kwon

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of percutaneous intervention with transarterial approach in the salvage of nonmaturing native fistulas status post transvenous approach failure. Eight patients (M:F=2:6; mean age, 56.8 years) underwent percutaneous intervention with antegrade transarterial approach when the retrograde transvenous approach failed. Mean time from fistula creation to fistulography was 80.5 days. Five patients had brachiocephalic fistulas and three had radiocephalic fistulas. Brachial or radial arterial access was performed using real-time ultrasound guidance, and balloon angioplasty was performed for hemodynamically significant (>50%) stenosis. Technical and clinical success and complications were evaluated. Patency following percutaneous intervention was estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Technical success was achieved in 87.5% (seven of eight patients). Clinical success of normal hemodialysis (fistula maturation) occurred in 87.5% (seven of eight patients). One minor complication (regional hematoma) occurred in one patient. Mean primary patency at 6, 12, and 18 months was 75%, 56.2%, and 37.5%, respectively. Additional angioplasty (n=3) resulted in mean secondary patency at 12 and 18 months of 87.5% and 87.5% of the patients, respectively. In conclusion, percutaneous intervention with the transarterial approach can be a useful method for salvage of nonmaturing native fistulas when the transvenous approach fails.

  15. The localization of occluded matrix proteins in calcareous spicules of sea urchin larvae.

    PubMed

    Seto, Jong; Zhang, Yang; Hamilton, Patricia; Wilt, Fred

    2004-10-01

    The sea urchin embryo forms calcareous endoskeletal spicules composed of calcite and an occluded protein matrix. Though the latter is approximately 0.1% of of the mass, the composite has substantially altered material properties, e.g., conchoidal fracture planes and increased hardness. Experiments were conducted to examine the localization of matrix proteins occluded in the mineral by use of immunocytochemistry coupled with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The isolated, unfixed spicules were etched under relatively gentle conditions and exposed to affinity purified antibodies made against two different matrix proteins, as well as an antibody to the entire constellation of matrix proteins. Immunogold tagged secondary antibody was used to observe antibody localization in the back scatter mode of SEM. All proteins examined were very widely distributed throughout the calcite, supporting a model of the structure in which a multiprotein assemblage is woven with fine texture around microcrystalline domains of calcite. Gentle etching revealed a laminar arrangement of calcite solubility, consistent with a stepwise deposition of matrix and mineral to increase girth of the spicule.

  16. Skin autofluorescence predicts cardiovascular mortality in patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kenichi; Kanno, Makoto; Watanabe, Kimio; Hayashi, Yoshimitsu; Asahi, Koichi; Suzuki, Hodaka; Sato, Keiji; Sakaue, Michiaki; Terawaki, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Masaaki; Miyata, Toshio; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2014-10-01

    Tissue accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) is thought to contribute to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Skin autofluorescence, a non-invasive measure of AGE accumulation using autofluorescence of the skin under ultraviolet light, has been reported to be an independent predictor of mortality associated with CVD in Caucasian patients on chronic hemodialysis. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of skin autofluorescence on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in non-Caucasian (Japanese) patients on chronic hemodialysis. Baseline skin autofluorescence was measured with an autofluorescence reader in 128 non-Caucasian (Japanese) patients on chronic hemodialysis. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality was monitored prospectively during a period of 6 years. During the follow-up period, 42 of the 128 patients died; 19 of those patients died of CVD. Skin autofluorescence did not have a significant effect on all-cause mortality. However, age, carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT), serum albumin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), skin autofluorescence and pre-existing CVD were significantly correlated with cardiovascular mortality. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed skin autofluorescence (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 3.97; 95% confidence interval [CI]1.67-9.43), serum albumin (adjusted HR 0.05; 95% CI 0.01-0.32), and hsCRP (adjusted HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.18-2.05) to be independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. The present study suggests that skin autofluorescence is an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality in non-Caucasian (Japanese) patients on chronic hemodialysis. © 2014 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2014 International Society for Apheresis.

  17. Vascular access choice in incident hemodialysis patients: a decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Drew, David A; Lok, Charmaine E; Cohen, Joshua T; Wagner, Martin; Tangri, Navdeep; Weiner, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    Hemodialysis vascular access recommendations promote arteriovenous (AV) fistulas first; however, it may not be the best approach for all hemodialysis patients, because likelihood of successful fistula placement, procedure-related and subsequent costs, and patient survival modify the optimal access choice. We performed a decision analysis evaluating AV fistula, AV graft, and central venous catheter (CVC) strategies for patients initiating hemodialysis with a CVC, a scenario occurring in over 70% of United States dialysis patients. A decision tree model was constructed to reflect progression from hemodialysis initiation. Patients were classified into one of three vascular access choices: maintain CVC, attempt fistula, or attempt graft. We explicitly modeled probabilities of primary and secondary patency for each access type, with success modified by age, sex, and diabetes. Access-specific mortality was incorporated using preexisting cohort data, including terms for age, sex, and diabetes. Costs were ascertained from the 2010 USRDS report and Medicare for procedure costs. An AV fistula attempt strategy was found to be superior to AV grafts and CVCs in regard to mortality and cost for the majority of patient characteristic combinations, especially younger men without diabetes. Women with diabetes and elderly men with diabetes had similar outcomes, regardless of access type. Overall, the advantages of an AV fistula attempt strategy lessened considerably among older patients, particularly women with diabetes, reflecting the effect of lower AV fistula success rates and lower life expectancy. These results suggest that vascular access-related outcomes may be optimized by considering individual patient characteristics. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  18. Hospital treatment for fluid overload in the Medicare hemodialysis population.

    PubMed

    Arneson, Thomas J; Liu, Jiannong; Qiu, Yang; Gilbertson, David T; Foley, Robert N; Collins, Allan J

    2010-06-01

    Fluid overload in hemodialysis patients sometimes requires emergent dialysis, but the magnitude of this care has not been characterized. This study aimed to estimate the magnitude of fluid overload treatment episodes for the Medicare hemodialysis population in hospital settings, including emergency departments. Point-prevalent hemodialysis patients were identified from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Renal Management Information System and Standard Analytical Files. Fluid overload treatment episodes were defined by claims for care in inpatient, hospital observation, or emergency department settings with primary discharge diagnoses of fluid overload, heart failure, or pulmonary edema, and dialysis performed on the day of or after admission. Exclusion criteria included stays >5 days. Cost was defined as total Medicare allowable costs for identified episodes. Associations between patient characteristics and episode occurrence and cost were analyzed. For 25,291 patients (14.3%), 41,699 care episodes occurred over a mean follow-up time of 2 years: 86% inpatient, 9% emergency department, and 5% hospital observation. Heart failure was the primary diagnosis in 83% of episodes, fluid overload in 11%, and pulmonary edema in 6%. Characteristics associated with more frequent events included age <45 years, female sex, African-American race, causes of ESRD other than diabetes, dialysis duration of 1 to 3 years, fewer dialysis sessions per week at baseline, hospitalizations during baseline, and most comorbid conditions. Average cost was $6,372 per episode; total costs were approximately $266 million. Among U.S. hemodialysis patients, fluid overload treatment is common and expensive. Further study is necessary to identify prevention opportunities.

  19. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in hemodialysis patients in Iran.

    PubMed

    Foroutan, Masoud; Rostami, Ali; Majidiani, Hamidreza; Riahi, Seyed Mohammad; Khazaei, Sasan; Badri, Milad; Yousefi, Elham

    2018-04-23

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide distributed parasitic disease with wide range of complications in immunocompromised patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis study was performed to evaluate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) among patients undergoing hemodialysis patients in Iran. We searched the English and Persian databases for studies reporting T. gondii seroprevalence in Iranian hemodialysis patients up to 31 December 2017. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. A total of 10 studies containing 1865 participants (1048 patients and 817 controls) met the eligibility criteria. T. gondii antibodies were reported in 58% (95% CI, 46-70) vs. 40% (95% CI, 31-50) and 2% (95% CI, 0-6) vs. 0.0% (95% CI, 0-1) for the IgG and IgM among hemodialysis patients and healthy controls, respectively. Based on meta-analysis. hemodialysis patients were significantly more likely to be seropositive for IgG- (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.54-2.7; P < 0.001) and IgM- (OR = 2.53; 95% CI = 1.23-5.22; P < 0.001) antibodies against T. gondii infection compared to healthy individuals. The current study revealed a high prevalence of T. gondii infection in hemodialysis patients. Since hemodialysis patients are immunocompromised and T. gondii can cause serious clinical complications, we recommend that T. gondii infection screening and periodic repetition should be incorporated into the routine clinical care of these patients.

  20. Is It Worthwhile Treating Occluded Cold Stored Venous Allografts by Thrombolysis?

    PubMed

    Balaz, P; Wohlfahrt, P; Rokosny, S; Maly, S; Bjorck, M

    2016-09-01

    Thrombolysis has been reported to be suboptimal in occluded vein grafts and cryopreserved allografts, and there are no data on the efficacy of thrombolysis in occluded cold stored venous allografts. The aim was to evaluate early outcomes, secondary patency and limb salvage rates of thrombolysed cold stored venous allograft bypasses and to compare the outcomes with thrombolysis of autologous bypasses. This was a single center study of consecutive patients with acute and non-acute limb ischemia between September 1, 2000, and January 1, 2014, with occlusion of cold stored venous allografts, and between January 1, 2012, and January 1, 2014, with occlusion of autologous bypass who received intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy. Sixty-one patients with occlusion of an infrainguinal bypass using a cold stored venous allograft (n = 35) or an autologous bypass (n = 26) underwent percutaneous intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy. The median duration of thrombolysis was 20 h (IQR 18-24) with no difference between the groups (p = .14). The median follow up was 18.5 months (IQR 11.0-52.0). Secondary patency rates of thrombolysed bypass at 6 and 12 months were 44 ± 9% and 32 ± 9% in patients with a venous allograft bypass and 46 ± 10% and 22 ± 8% with an autologous bypass, with no difference between groups (p = .40). Limb salvage rates at 1, 6, and 12 months after thrombolysis in the venous allograft group were 83 ± 7%, 72 ± 8% and 63 ± 9%, and in the autologous group 91 ± 6%, 76 ± 9%, and 65 ± 13%, with no difference between groups (p = .69). Long-term results of thrombolysis of venous allograft bypasses are similar to those of autologous bypasses. Occluded cold stored venous allograft can be successfully re-opened in most cases with a favorable effect on limb salvage. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors Affecting Infants’ Manual Search for Occluded Objects and the Genesis of Object Permanence

    PubMed Central

    Moore, M. Keith; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments systematically examined factors that influence infants’ manual search for hidden objects (N = 96). Experiment 1 used a new procedure to assess infants’ search for partially versus totally occluded objects. Results showed that 8.75-month-old infants solved partial occlusions by removing the occluder and uncovering the object, but these same infants failed to use this skill on total occlusions. Experiment 2 used sound-producing objects to provide a perceptual clue to the objects’ hidden location. Sound clues significantly increased the success rate on total occlusions for 10-month-olds, but not for 8.75-month-olds. An identity development account is offered for why infants succeed on partial occlusions earlier than total occlusions and why sound helps only the older infants. We propose a mechanism for how infants use object identity as a basis for developing a notion of permanence. Implications are drawn for understanding the dissociation between looking-time and search assessments of object permanence. PMID:18036668

  2. Feasibility and safety of a new generation of gore septal occluder device in children.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Maristella; Tagliente, Maria R; Pirolo, Teodoro; Massari, Elena; Milella, Leonardo; Vairo, Ugo

    2016-12-01

    Transcatheter closure of an ostium secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) is now considered the standard care for most of children with the appropriate anatomy, and is a relatively well-tolerated procedure to reduce the clinical sequelae of ASD, with a low complication rate. The present case reports describe our clinical experience of the percutaneous closure of a secundum ASD in 10 children between December 2011 and November 2012, by means of a new generation of device, the GORE Septal Occluder device. The implantation was successful in all except two cases, the device being properly placed and deployed without malposition or embolization in the catheterization laboratory. No complications were related to the procedure. The successful implant was confirmed and no major adverse events were documented in the following 3-12 months. The new GORE Septal Occluder device appears to be a feasible, well-tolerated and successful tool for the closure of an ASD of 15 mm or less in childhood.

  3. Factors affecting infants' manual search for occluded objects and the genesis of object permanence.

    PubMed

    Moore, M Keith; Meltzoff, Andrew N

    2008-04-01

    Two experiments systematically examined factors that influence infants' manual search for hidden objects (N=96). Experiment 1 used a new procedure to assess infants' search for partially versus totally occluded objects. Results showed that 8.75-month-old infants solved partial occlusions by removing the occluder and uncovering the object, but these same infants failed to use this skill on total occlusions. Experiment 2 used sound-producing objects to provide a perceptual clue to the objects' hidden location. Sound clues significantly increased the success rate on total occlusions for 10-month-olds, but not for 8.75-month-olds. An identity development account is offered for why infants succeed on partial occlusions earlier than total occlusions and why sound helps only the older infants. We propose a mechanism for how infants use object identity as a basis for developing a notion of permanence. Implications are drawn for understanding the dissociation between looking time and search assessments of object permanence.

  4. Reduced deep regional cerebral venous oxygen saturation in hemodialysis patients using quantitative susceptibility mapping.

    PubMed

    Chai, Chao; Liu, Saifeng; Fan, Linlin; Liu, Lei; Li, Jinping; Zuo, Chao; Qian, Tianyi; Haacke, E Mark; Shen, Wen; Xia, Shuang

    2018-02-01

    Cerebral venous oxygen saturation (SvO 2 ) is an important indicator of brain function. There was debate about lower cerebral oxygen metabolism in hemodialysis patients and there were no reports about the changes of deep regional cerebral SvO 2 in hemodialysis patients. In this study, we aim to explore the deep regional cerebral SvO 2 from straight sinus using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and the correlation with clinical risk factors and neuropsychiatric testing . 52 hemodialysis patients and 54 age-and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled. QSM reconstructed from original phase data of 3.0 T susceptibility-weighted imaging was used to measure the susceptibility of straight sinus. The susceptibility was used to calculate the deep regional cerebral SvO 2 and compare with healthy individuals. Correlation analysis was performed to investigate the correlation between deep regional cerebral SvO 2 , clinical risk factors and neuropsychiatric testing. The deep regional cerebral SvO 2 of hemodialysis patients (72.5 ± 3.7%) was significantly lower than healthy controls (76.0 ± 2.1%) (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the measured volume of interests of straight sinus between hemodialysis patients (250.92 ± 46.65) and healthy controls (249.68 ± 49.68) (P = 0.859). There were no significant correlations between the measured susceptibility and volume of interests in hemodialysis patients (P = 0.204) and healthy controls (P = 0.562), respectively. Hematocrit (r = 0.480, P < 0.001, FDR corrected), hemoglobin (r = 0.440, P < 0.001, FDR corrected), red blood cell (r = 0.446, P = 0.003, FDR corrected), dialysis duration (r = 0.505, P = 0.002, FDR corrected) and parathyroid hormone (r = -0.451, P = 0.007, FDR corrected) were risk factors for decreased deep regional cerebral SvO 2 in patients. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores of hemodialysis patients were

  5. The impact of Super Bowl parties on nutritional parameters among hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ohlrich, Heather; Leon, Janeen B; Zimmerer, Jennifer; Sehgal, Ashwini R

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of holiday and other special-event meals on patients with chronic medical conditions. It is possible that patients are less adherent with dietary restrictions during such meals. We sought to determine the impact of Super Bowl parties on nutritional parameters among hemodialysis patients. To determine the relationship between attending a Super Bowl party and subsequent change in serum phosphorus level, serum potassium level, interdialytic weight gain, and blood pressure. Retrospective cohort study. Outpatient dialysis unit. One hundred twenty-two chronic hemodialysis patients. Patients were asked whether they had attended a Super Bowl party. Serum phosphorus level, serum potassium level, interdialytic weight gain, and predialysis blood pressure at the hemodialysis treatment after the Super Bowl and at the hemodialysis treatment 1 month previously were obtained by chart abstraction. The 15 patients who had attended a party had increased serum phosphorus levels (+0.5 mg/dL) and interdialytic weight gain (+1.1% of dry weight) from baseline. These increases were statistically significant (P values .005 and .02, respectively) compared with patients who did not attend a party. Attendees also had increased systolic blood pressure (+6 mm Hg) from baseline, but this was of marginal statistical significance compared with nonattendees (P = .14). Attending a party was not significantly associated with changes in serum potassium and diastolic blood pressure. Attending a Super Bowl party is associated with adverse changes in several nutritional parameters. Although patients should not be discouraged from attending holiday and special-event meals, management of hemodialysis patients should include increased dietary counseling before holidays and special events and increased monitoring afterward.

  6. A comparison of center-based vs. home-based daily hemodialysis for patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Michael; Burkart, John; Hegeman, Rebecca; Solomon, Richard; Coplon, Norman; Moran, John

    2007-10-01

    Home hemodialysis has been a therapeutic option for almost 4 decades. The complexity of dialysis equipment has been a factor-limiting adoption of this modality. We performed a feasibility study to demonstrate the safety of center-based vs. home-based daily hemodialysis with the NxStage System One portable hemodialysis device. We also performed a retrospective analysis to determine if clinical effects previously associated with short-daily dialysis were also seen using this novel device. We conducted a prospective, 2-treatment, 2-period, open-label, crossover study of in-center hemodialysis vs. home hemodialysis in 32 patients treated at 6 U.S. centers. The 8-week In-Center Phase (6 days/week) was followed by a 2-week transition period and then followed by the 8-week Home Phase (6 days/week). We retrospectively collected data on hemodialysis treatment parameters immediately preceding the study in a subset of patients. Twenty-six out of 32 patients (81%) successfully completed the study. Successful delivery of at least 90% of prescribed fluid volume (primary endpoint) was achieved in 98.5% of treatments in-center and 97.3% at home. Total effluent volume as a percentage of prescribed volume was between 94% and 100% for all study weeks. The composite rate of intradialytic and interdialytic adverse events per 100 treatments was significantly higher for the In-Center Phase (5.30) compared with the Home Phase (2.10; p=0.007). Compared with the period immediately preceding the study, there were reductions in blood pressure, antihypertensive medications, and interdialytic weight gain. Daily home hemodialysis with a small, easy-to-use hemodialysis device is a viable dialysis option for end-stage renal disease patients capable of self/partner-administered dialysis.

  7. Hemodialysis tunneled central venous catheters: five-year outcome analysis.

    PubMed

    Mandolfo, Salvatore; Acconcia, Pasqualina; Bucci, Raffaella; Corradi, Bruno; Farina, Marco; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Stucchi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Tunneled central venous catheters (tCVCs) are considered inferior to arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) and grafts in all nephrology guidelines. However, they are being increasingly used as hemodialysis vascular access. The purpose of this study was to document the natural history of tCVCs and determine the rate and type of catheter replacement. This was a prospective study of 141 patients who underwent hemodialysis with tCVCs between January 2008 and December 2012. The patients used 154 tCVCs. Standard protocols about management of tCVCs, according to European Renal Best Practice, were well established. All catheters were inserted in the internal jugular vein. Criteria for catheter removal were persistent bloodstream infection, detection of an outbreak of catheter-related bloodstream (CRBS) infections, or catheter dysfunction. Event rates were calculated per 1,000 catheter days; tCVC cumulative survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Catheter replacement occurred in 15 patients (0.29 per 1,000 days); catheter dysfunction was the main cause of replacement (0.18 per 1,000 days), typically within 12 months of surgical insertion. A total of 53 CRBS events in 36 patients were identified (0.82 per 1,000 days); 17 organisms, most commonly Gram-positive pathogens, were isolated; 87% of CVC infections were treated by systemic antibiotics associated with lock therapy. tCVC cumulative survival was 91% at 1 year, 88% at 2 years and 85% at 4 years. Our data show a high survival rate of tCVCs in hemodialysis patients, with low incidence of catheter dysfunction and CRBS events. These data justify tCVC use for hemodialysis vascular access, also as first choice, especially in patients with exhausted peripheral access and limited life expectancy.

  8. Increased Intracranial Pressure during Hemodialysis in a Patient with Anoxic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Lund, Anton; Damholt, Mette B; Strange, Ditte G; Kelsen, Jesper; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Møller, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) is a serious neurological complication of hemodialysis, and patients with acute brain injury are at increased risk. We report a case of DDS leading to intracranial hypertension in a patient with anoxic brain injury and discuss the subsequent dialysis strategy. A 13-year-old girl was admitted after prolonged resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Computed tomography (CT) revealed an inferior vena cava aneurysm and multiple pulmonary emboli as the likely cause. An intracranial pressure (ICP) monitor was inserted, and, on day 3, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) was initiated due to acute kidney injury, during which the patient developed severe intracranial hypertension. CT of the brain showed diffuse cerebral edema. CRRT was discontinued, sedation was increased, and hypertonic saline was administered, upon which ICP normalized. Due to persistent hyperkalemia and overhydration, ultrafiltration and intermittent hemodialysis were performed separately on day 4 with a small dialyzer, low blood and dialysate flow, and high dialysate sodium content. During subsequent treatments, isolated ultrafiltration was well tolerated, whereas hemodialysis was associated with increased ICP necessitating frequent pauses or early cessation of dialysis. In patients at risk of DDS, hemodialysis should be performed with utmost care and continuous monitoring of ICP should be considered.

  9. Increased Intracranial Pressure during Hemodialysis in a Patient with Anoxic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Damholt, Mette B.; Strange, Ditte G.; Kelsen, Jesper; Møller-Sørensen, Hasse; Møller, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) is a serious neurological complication of hemodialysis, and patients with acute brain injury are at increased risk. We report a case of DDS leading to intracranial hypertension in a patient with anoxic brain injury and discuss the subsequent dialysis strategy. A 13-year-old girl was admitted after prolonged resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Computed tomography (CT) revealed an inferior vena cava aneurysm and multiple pulmonary emboli as the likely cause. An intracranial pressure (ICP) monitor was inserted, and, on day 3, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) was initiated due to acute kidney injury, during which the patient developed severe intracranial hypertension. CT of the brain showed diffuse cerebral edema. CRRT was discontinued, sedation was increased, and hypertonic saline was administered, upon which ICP normalized. Due to persistent hyperkalemia and overhydration, ultrafiltration and intermittent hemodialysis were performed separately on day 4 with a small dialyzer, low blood and dialysate flow, and high dialysate sodium content. During subsequent treatments, isolated ultrafiltration was well tolerated, whereas hemodialysis was associated with increased ICP necessitating frequent pauses or early cessation of dialysis. In patients at risk of DDS, hemodialysis should be performed with utmost care and continuous monitoring of ICP should be considered. PMID:28409034

  10. THE PREVALENCE AND NUTRITIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF FAST FOOD CONSUMPTION AMONG HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Butt, Saud; Leon, Janeen B.; David, Carol L.; Chang, Henry; Sidhu, Sanbir; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2007-01-01

    Background Fast food consumption has increased dramatically in the general population over the last 25 years. However, little is known about the prevalence and nutritional implications of fast food consumption among hemodialysis patients. Methods Using a cross-sectional study design, we obtained data on fast food consumption and nutrient intake (from four separate 24-hour dietary recalls) and nutritional parameters (from chart abstraction) for 194 randomly selected patients from 44 hemodialysis facilities in northeast Ohio. Results Eighty-one subjects (42%) reported consuming at least one fast food meal or snack in four days. Subjects who consumed more fast food had higher kilocalorie, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, and sodium intakes. For example, kilocalorie per kilogram intake per day increased from 18.9 to 26.1 with higher frequencies of fast food consumption (p=.003). Subjects who consumed more fast food also had higher serum phosphorus levels and interdialytic weight gains. Conclusion Fast food is commonly consumed by hemodialysis patients and is associated with a higher intake of kilocalories, carbohydrates, fats, and sodium and adverse changes in phosphorus and fluid balance. Further work is needed to understand the long-term benefits and risks of fast food consumption among hemodialysis patients. PMID:17586425

  11. Magneto-actuated immunoassay for the detection of Mycobacterium fortuitum in hemodialysis water.

    PubMed

    Brugnera, Michelle Fernanda; Bundalian, Reynaldo; Laube, Tamara; Julián, Esther; Luquin, Marina; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; Pividori, Maria Isabel

    2016-06-01

    This paper addresses a sensitive method for the detection of mycobacteria in hemodialysis water samples based on a magneto-actuated immunoassay with optical readout. In this approach, micro (2.8μm) sized magnetic particles were modified with an antibody against the lipoarabinomannan (LAM) located in the mycobacterial cell wall. The system relies on the immunocapturing of the mycobacteria with the tailored antiLAM magnetic particles to pre-concentrate the bacteria from the hemodialysis samples throughout an immunological reaction. The performance of the immunomagnetic separation on the magnetic carrier was evaluated using confocal microscopy to study the binding pattern, as well as a magneto-actuated immunoassay with optical readout for the rapid detection of the bacteria in spiked hemodialysis samples. In this approach, the antiLAM polyclonal antibody was labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate. The optical readout was achieved by the incubation with a secondary anti-fluorescein antibody labeled with peroxidase as optical reporter. The magneto-actuated immunoassay was able to detect mycobacteria contamination in hemodialysis water at a limit of detection of 13CFUmL(-1) in a total assay time of 3h without any previous culturing pre-enrichment step. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A new coated nitinol occluder for transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defects in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Chen, Feng; Huang, Xinmiao; Zhao, Xianxian; Wu, Hong; Bai, Yuan; Qin, Yongwen

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated feasibility and safety of implanting the polyester-coated nitinol ventricular septal defect occluder (pcVSDO) in the canine model. VSD models were successfully established by transseptal ventricular septal puncture via the right jugular vein in 15 out of 18 canines. Two types of VSDOs were implanted, either with pcVSDOs (n = 8) as the new type occluder group or with the commercial ventricular septal defect occluders (VSDOs, n = 7, Shanghai Sharp Memory Alloy Co. Ltd.) as the control group. Sheath size was 10 French (10 Fr) in two groups. Then the general state of the canines was observed after implantation. ECG and TTE were performed, respectively, at 7, 30, 90 days of follow-up. The canines were sacrificed at these time points for pathological and scanning electron microscopy examination. The devices were successfully implanted in all 15 canines and were retrievable and repositionable. There was no thrombus formation on the device or occurrence of complete heart block. The pcVSDO surface implanted at day 7 was already covered with neotissue by gross examination, and it completed endothelialization at day 30, while the commercial VSDO was covered with the neotissue in 30th day and the complete endothelialization in 90th day. The study shows that pcVSDO is feasible and safe to close canine VSD model and has good biocompatibility and shorter time of endothelialization.

  13. Reversed association between aldosterone and mortality in hemodialysis patients: Role of volume overload.

    PubMed

    Hung, Szu-Chun; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2016-07-01

    The role of aldosterone has expanded from its genomic effects that involve renal sodium transport to nongenomic effects such as cardiac and renal fibrosis. Elevated aldosterone levels are associated with increased mortality in the general population. However, the association is reversed in patients with end-stage renal disease on maintenance hemodialysis. We have shown that the inverse association between aldosterone and mortality in hemodialysis patients is due to the confounding effect of volume overload. Volume overload, which is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease, is associated with both lower aldosterone concentrations and higher mortality. Our findings support salt and water restriction and treatment of hyperaldosteronemia in hemodialysis patients who have achieved strict volume control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Physician-Patient Working Alliance in Hemodialysis Treatment.

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Jairo N; Rubinstein, Sofia; Reyes, Mariela; Iampornpipopchai, Pichet; Mujeeb, Shanza; Smith, Carroll R; Toporovsky, Arielle

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the role of psychological and social factors, including the physician-patient working alliance, have emerged as integral components of medical care for patients with a myriad of health conditions. The current study examines a model comprised of psychological-interpersonal factors and the extent to which it explains patient satisfaction with and adherence to hemodialysis treatment. One hundred and seven adults with end-stage renal disease who were receiving regular outpatient hemodialysis participated in the study. Path analyses show that the physician-patient working alliance indirectly predicts patient adherence through patient satisfaction and patients' outcome expectations. The working alliance directly predicts patients' quality of life. It is concluded that consistent with previous research, the physician-patient working alliance is a significant factor in predicting key patient behaviors in medical care.

  15. Model-based occluded object recognition using Petri nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chuan; Hura, Gurdeep S.

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of Petri nets to model the process of the object matching between an image and a model under different 2D geometric transformations. This transformation finds its applications in sensor-based robot control, flexible manufacturing system and industrial inspection, etc. A description approach for object structure is presented by its topological structure relation called Point-Line Relation Structure (PLRS). It has been shown how Petri nets can be used to model the matching process, and an optimal or near optimal matching can be obtained by tracking the reachability graph of the net. The experiment result shows that object can be successfully identified and located under 2D transformation such as translations, rotations, scale changes and distortions due to object occluded partially.

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract Voice Therapy Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapsner-Smith, Mara R.; Hunter, Eric J.; Kirkham, Kimberly; Cox, Karin; Titze, Ingo R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although there is a long history of use of semi-occluded vocal tract gestures in voice therapy, including phonation through thin tubes or straws, the efficacy of phonation through tubes has not been established. This study compares results from a therapy program on the basis of phonation through a flow-resistant tube (FRT) with Vocal…

  17. Hemodialysis and nutritional status in children: malnutrition and cachexia.

    PubMed

    Fischbach, Michel; Dheu, Céline; Seuge, Laure; Orfanos, Nadia

    2009-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common state in chronic hemodialyzed children. More than malnutrition, which infers that dietary supplementation would be curative, cachexia, which implies loss of protein stores, are combined factors of impaired linear growth and reduced muscle mass in uremic patients. Adequate diet to prevent malnutrition is of major importance. But to avoid cachexia in children on chronic hemodialysis, the management of acidosis, inflammation, abnormal metabolic rate, and endocrine disturbances should not, be forgotten. Daily hemodialysis regimen using convective flow therapy and ultrapure dialysate, i.e., on line hemodiafiltration together with growth hormone therapy, appears as a hopeful strategy for the chronic dialyzed child to achieve catch-up growth, a parameter of optimal nutrition.

  18. Timing of dialysis initiation, duration and frequency of hemodialysis sessions, and membrane flux: a systematic review for a KDOQI clinical practice guideline.

    PubMed

    Slinin, Yelena; Greer, Nancy; Ishani, Areef; MacDonald, Roderick; Olson, Carin; Rutks, Indulis; Wilt, Timothy J

    2015-11-01

    In 2006, NKF-KDOQI (National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative) published clinical practice guidelines for hemodialysis adequacy. Recent studies evaluating hemodialysis adequacy as determined by initiation timing, frequency, duration, and membrane type and prompted an update to the guideline. Systematic review and evidence synthesis. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease receiving hemodialysis. We screened publications from 2000 to March 2014, systematic reviews, and references and consulted the NKF-KDOQI Hemodialysis Adequacy Work Group members. We included randomized or controlled clinical trials in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis if they reported outcomes of interest. Early versus late dialysis therapy initiation; more frequent (>3 times a week) or longer duration (>4.5 hours) compared to conventional hemodialysis; low- versus high-flux dialyzer membranes. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalizations, quality of life, depression or cognitive function scores, blood pressure, number of antihypertensive medications, left ventricular mass, interdialytic weight gain, and harms or complications related to vascular access or the process of dialysis. We included 32 articles reporting on 19 trials. Moderate-quality evidence indicated that earlier dialysis therapy initiation (at estimated creatinine clearance [eClcr] of 10-14mL/min) did not reduce mortality compared to later initiation (eClcr of 5-7mL/min). More than thrice-weekly hemodialysis and extended-length hemodialysis during a short follow-up did not improve clinical outcomes compared to conventional hemodialysis and resulted in a greater number of vascular access procedures (very low-quality evidence). Hemodialysis using high-flux membranes did not reduce all-cause mortality, but reduced cardiovascular mortality compared to hemodialysis using low-flux membranes (moderate-quality evidence). Few studies were adequately powered

  19. [Incidence and risk factors for infections from hemodialysis catheters].

    PubMed

    Jean, G

    2001-01-01

    We report here a revue of hemodialysis catheter-related infections data published since 1985. The reported prevalence of bacteremia is 1 to 20% of catheters, and incidence is 0.72 to 9/1000 catheter-days. Local infection is reported in 6 to 63% of catheters and in 1 to 5/1000 catheter-days. Tunneled catheters and implantables chambers reported less infection rate. The most severe complication is endocarditis (4% rate). Death occurs in 8 to 20% of cases. Reported microbial data show that Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is responsible for most infections ahead of non-aureus Staphylococcus. SA skin colonisation is a risk factor for catheter colonisation and the first step of infection. On the other hand, the host immunity impairment in hemodialysis patients seems a significant risk factor. Iron overload, specially after blood transfusions, older age, diabetes mellitus, low serum albumin level, previous history of bacteremia and immunosuppressive treatment have been frequently involved. Other catheter-related factors are time of use, absence of tunnel and use for parenteral nutrition. Nurses plans, dressing type and frequency, nurses work experience are also important. In spite of recent progress in risk factor understanding, hemodialysis-related infection remains frequent. Multicentre studies are necessary to better evaluated care protocols and new catheter material.

  20. Factors associated with personal protection equipment use and hand hygiene among hemodialysis staff.

    PubMed

    Shimokura, Gayle; Weber, David J; Miller, William C; Wurtzel, Heather; Alter, Miriam J

    2006-04-01

    Because exposure to blood by health care workers is frequent during hemodialysis, gloves are required for all contact with patients and their equipment, followed by hand hygiene. In this study, we investigated factors associated with performing these practices as recommended. Staff members from a sample of 45 US hemodialysis facilities were surveyed using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Factors independently associated with reporting increased compliance with recommended hand hygiene and glove use practices during patient care were identified with multivariate modeling. Of 605 eligible staff members, 420 (69%) responded: registered nurses, 41%; dialysis technicians, 51%; and licensed practical nurses, 8%. Only 35% reported that dialysis patients were at risk for bloodborne virus infections, and only 36% reported always following recommended hand hygiene and glove use practices. Independent factors associated with more frequent compliance were being a technician (versus a registered nurse) and reporting always doing what was needed to protect themselves from infection. Compliance with recommended hand hygiene and glove use practices by hemodialysis staff was low. The rationale for infection control practices specific to the hemodialysis setting was poorly understood by all staff. Infection control training should be tailored to this setting and should address misconceptions.

  1. Challenges of hemodialysis in Vietnam: experience from the first standardized district dialysis unit in Ho Chi Minh City.

    PubMed

    Duong, Cuong Minh; Olszyna, Dariusz Piotr; Nguyen, Phong Duy; McLaws, Mary-Louise

    2015-08-01

    Hemodialysis is an increasingly common treatment in Vietnam as the diagnosis of end stage renal disease continues to rise. To provide appropriate hemodialysis treatment for end-stage renal disease patients, we conducted a 1-year cross-sectional study to measure the prevalence of bloodborne infection and factors associated with non-compliant behaviors in hemodialysis patients. One hundred forty-two patients were tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen and hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen. They provided demographic, medical and dialysis information. Non-compliant behaviors were obtained from their medical records. Overall, 99 % of patients reused their dialyzers and 46 % had arteriovenous fistula on admission. Both HBV and HCV equally accounted for 8 % of patients and concurrent infection accounted for 1 %. Non-compliance rates of dietary and medication were 39 and 27 % respectively. 42 % of patients missed hemodialysis session, 8 % were verbally or physically abusive and 9 % were non-cooperative. Of the 54 % catheterized patients, 7 % improperly cared for their dialysis access. Dietary non-adherence was associated with male patients (p = 0.03) and medication non-adherence was associated with younger age (p = 0.05). Duration between diagnosis of chronic kidney disease and initiation of hemodialysis was associated with improper care of dialysis access (p = 0.04). Time on hemodialysis was associated with missed hemodialysis session (p = 0.007) and verbal or physical abuse (p = 0.01). Health services need to provide safe practice for dialyzer reuse given the endemicity of hepatitis. We believe a national survey similar to ours about seroprevalence and infection control challenges would prepare Vietnam for providing safer satellite treatment units. Safe hemodialysis services should also comprise patient preparedness, education and counseling.

  2. Impact of Indoxyl Sulfate on Coronary Plaques in Patients on Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Asami, Masahiko; Tanabe, Kengo; Ito, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Eri; Aoki, Jiro; Tanimoto, Shuzou; Horiuchi, Yu; Yoshida, Masayuki

    2018-05-30

    Serum indoxyl sulfate (IS; a uremic toxin) levels, which are significantly higher in patients with chronic kidney disease, including those undergoing hemodialysis, than in the robust, are associated with both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD-related mortality. Furthermore, coronary artery calcium (CAC) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events in patients undergoing hemodialysis. This study aimed to interpret the association between serum IS levels and coronary plaque burden (CPB) or CAC.A total of 30 consecutive patients on hemodialysis, who underwent 320-row coronary multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography for suspected coronary artery disease, were enrolled in this prospective study. Coronary artery percent atheroma volume (a CPB marker) and percent calcium volume (a CAC marker) assessed using MDCT were evaluated. Furthermore, various oxidative and inflammatory markers typified by serum IS levels at a dialysis-free day were measured. Using these data, we investigated correlation between the inflammatory marker IS and CPB or CAC.Multivariable analysis indicated that serum IS levels were positively correlated with CAC [partial regression coefficient, 2.89; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.35-5.43; P = 0.03] but not with CPB, even after adjustment for cofounders. Composite cardiovascular events, namely, as all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, disabling stroke, and hospital admission for other cardiovascular events, were reported to be 50% in all patients (95% CI, 32.1-67.9).In patients undergoing hemodialysis, serum IS levels were significantly associated with CAC but not with CPB.

  3. [A Project to Reduce the Occlusion Rate in Hemodialysis Arteriovenous Access].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jia-Ling; Jang, Jeng-Fong; Lee, Kun-Feng; Shie, Yu-Ting; Jin, Mei-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Vascular occlusions in patients frequently necessitate that duty nurses work overtime to manage related vascular problems. For patients, vascular occlusions require invasive treatments that are painful, take time to heal, and increase anxiety. Furthermore, vascular occlusions seriously influence the effectiveness of hemodialysis. This project worked to reduce the rates of occlusion from 18.6% to < 15% for hemodialysis arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) and from 5.2% to < 2.6% for arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). This project was conducted between September 1st, 2012 and July 31th, 2013. Our approach used a retrospective study, literature review, meeting discussions, and data compilation. The four main problems identified as associated with occlusion were: (1) low blood pressure during hemodialysis; (2) successive fistula puncture sites were located too close to one another; (3) abnormal blood flow; and (4) poor moisture control. Our solutions included: 1) adjusting and creating forms; 2) adjusting related nursing procedures; and 3) organizing a related lecture for our department. The occlusion rates of AVG and AVF decreased from 18.6% to 7.4% and 5.2% to 0.9%, respectively. We significantly reduced AVG and AVF occlusion rates by using simple methods such as using a tourniquet ruler, designing big-print, illustrated patient instruction sheets on preventing low blood pressure, creating a simplified fistula puncture site series chart, creating a moisture control card, and scheduling follow-up visits for patients with abnormal blood flow at the OPD. This project provides a reference for other hemodialysis departments.

  4. 2.5-month-old infants' reasoning about when objects should and should not be occluded.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, A; Baillargeon, R

    1999-09-01

    The present research examined 2.5-month-old infants' reasoning about occlusion events. Three experiments investigated infants' ability to predict whether an object should remain continuously hidden or become temporarily visible when passing behind an occluder with an opening in its midsection. In Experiment 1, the infants were habituated to a short toy mouse that moved back and forth behind a screen. Next, the infants saw two test events that were identical to the habituation event except that a portion of the screen's midsection was removed to create a large window. In one event (high-window event), the window extended from the screen's upper edge; the mouse was shorter than the bottom of the window and thus did not become visible when passing behind the screen. In the other event (low-window event), the window extended from the screen's lower edge; although the mouse was shorter than the top of the window and hence should have become fully visible when passing behind the screen, it never appeared in the window. The infants tended to look equally at the high- and low-window events, suggesting that they were not surprised when the mouse failed to appear in the low window. However, positive results were obtained in Experiment 2 when the low-window event was modified: a portion of the screen above the window was removed so that the left and right sections of the screen were no longer connected (two-screens event). The infants looked reliably longer at the two-screens than at the high-window event. Together, the results of Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that, at 2.5 months of age, infants possess only very limited expectations about when objects should and should not be occluded. Specifically, infants expect objects (1) to become visible when passing between occluders and (2) to remain hidden when passing behind occluders, irrespective of whether these have openings extending from their upper or lower edges. Experiment 3 provided support for this interpretation. The

  5. Frailty and falls among adult patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing hemodialysis are at high risk of falls, with subsequent complications including fractures, loss of independence, hospitalization, and institutionalization. Factors associated with falls are poorly understood in this population. We hypothesized that insights derived from studies of the elderly might apply to adults of all ages undergoing hemodialysis; we focused on frailty, a phenotype of physiological decline strongly associated with falls in the elderly. Methods In this prospective, longitudinal study of 95 patients undergoing hemodialysis (1/2009-3/2010), the association of frailty with future falls was explored using adjusted Poisson regression. Frailty was classified using the criteria established by Fried et al., as a combination of five components: shrinking, weakness, exhaustion, low activity, and slowed walking speed. Results Over a median 6.7-month period of longitudinal follow-up, 28.3% of study participants (25.9% of those under 65, 29.3% of those 65 and older) experienced a fall. After adjusting for age, sex, race, comorbidity, disability, number of medications, marital status, and education, frailty independently predicted a 3.09-fold (95% CI: 1.38-6.90, P=0.006) higher number of falls. This relationship between frailty and falls did not differ for younger and older adults (P=0.57). Conclusions Frailty, a validated construct in the elderly, was a strong and independent predictor of falls in adults undergoing hemodialysis, regardless of age. Our results may aid in identifying frail hemodialysis patients who could be targeted for multidimensional fall prevention strategies. PMID:24131569

  6. Significant positive relationship between serum magnesium and muscle quality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Hisanori; Ishimura, Eiji; Okuno, Senji; Norimine, Kyoko; Yamakawa, Kenjiro; Yamakawa, Tomoyuki; Shoji, Shigeichi; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Inaba, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Serum magnesium (Mg) levels have been associated with muscle performance in the general population. We hypothesized that serum Mg would be associated with muscle quality in hemodialysis patients. A total of 310 patients were examined (age: 58 ± 12 years, hemodialysis duration: 6.4 ± 6.0 years, 60.6% men, and 36.1% diabetics). Arm lean mass was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) on the dominant side. Arm muscle quality was defined as the ratio of the handgrip strength to the arm lean mass of the same side (kg/kg). Serum Mg was 1.15 ± 0.16 mmol/L (2.8 ± 0.4 mg/dL), being higher than the reference range of normal subjects. There was a significant negative correlation between muscle quality and age (r = -0.326, p<0.0001) and duration of hemodialysis (r = -0.253, p<0.0001). The muscle quality of the diabetics was significantly lower than that of the non-diabetics (p<0.001). There was a significant, positive correlation between muscle quality and serum Mg (r = 0.118, p<0.05), but not serum calcium or phosphate. In multiple regression analysis, age, gender, hemodialysis duration, diabetes, and serum Mg (β = 0.129, p<0.05) were significantly and independently associated with muscle quality (R(2) = 0.298, p<0.0001). These results demonstrated that a lower serum Mg concentration was significantly associated with poor muscle quality in hemodialysis patients. Further studies are needed to explore the mechanism by which lower serum Mg affects muscle quality.

  7. [Hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Canaud, Bernard; Leray-Moragués, Hélène; Chenine-Koualef, Leila; Patrier, Laure

    2012-01-01

    Hemodialysis is the most advanced form of artificial renal support. It ensures the survival of almost 2 million patients wordwide. Considerable progress has been made in recent years thanks to a better understanding of uremia, optimization of treatment modalities and more personalized treatment schedules. Increase of uremic toxins removal, improvement of hemodynamic tolerance of the sessions, reduction of proinflammatory reactions due to the bioincompatibility system are major advances that may explain the reduction of morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. New technologies (nanotechnology, biotechnology, microelectronics) are now expected to introduce further progresses by miniaturizing devices and providing them with an "artificial intelligence" capable of interacting with the patient. The main obstacle remains ageing of uremic patients, increasing prevalence of comorbidities and shortage of social resources that are not conducive to innovation. By promoting a more physiological, longer and more effective hemodialysis performed at home with help of teledialysis monitoring that would probably be an interesting option to evaluate on a medico-economical point of view.

  8. Air contamination during hemodialysis should be minimized.

    PubMed

    Stegmayr, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    During preparation of the hemodialysis (HD) extracorporeal circuit (ECC) a priming solution is used to remove air from the tubes and dialyzer. Ultra sound techniques have verified micro embolic signals (MES) in the ECC that may derive from clots or gas embolies. In vitro studies could clarify that embolies of air develop within the ECC and also pass the safety systems such as air traps and enter the venous line that goes into the patient. Clinical studies have confirmed the presence of MES within the ECC that pass into the return-venous-line during conventional HD without inducing an alarm. In addition, studies confirmed that such MES were present within the AV fistula and subclavian vein, but also detected within the carotid artery. Autopsy studies revealed the presence of gas embolies surrounded by clots within the lung but also brain and myocardial tissue. This review will focus on how the MES develop and measures of how the exposure can be limited. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  9. Detection of microcirculatory impairment by transcutaneous oxymetry monitoring during hemodialysis: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of intermittent hemodialysis on microcirculatory perfusion. The aim of this study is to assess the effects of hemodialysis on microvascular perfusion using transcutaneous oxymetry (TCPO2). Methods In this observational study, hourly TCPO2 measurements were performed during hemodialysis sessions. Ankle brachial index (ABI) was carried out to classify patients according their vascular condition. Results 50 patients (mean age 70 ± 8 years old) were enrolled. Mean TCPO2 decreased significantly on average 23.9% between start and finish of hemodialysis. Severe ischemia (TCPO2 < 30 mmHg) and critical ischemia (TCPO2 < 10 mmHg) occurred during dialysis in 47.1% and 15.5% respectively. Critical ischemia occurred only in limbs with ABI < 0.9 (8.3%) or > 1.3 (28%). Patients with critical ischemia experienced a significantly larger decline in mean blood pressure (32.4 ± 26.1 mmHg vs 12.7 ± 10.7 mmHg; P = 0.007) and a more pronounced ultrafiltration (45.55 ± 16.9 ml/kg vs 35.17 ± 18.2 ml/kg; P = 0.04) compared to patients without ischemia. Clinical outcomes (death or vascular procedures) were five times more frequent in patients who had developed critical ischemia (55.7% vs 10.1% P = 0.01). The elevated age of patients, the low basal value of TCPO2, and the occurrence of critical ischemia were more frequently associated with clinical outcome (P = 0.03, P = 0.048, P = 0.01 respectively). Conclusions This study demonstrates that hemodialysis induces microcirculatory injury, dependent on blood pressure reduction, peripheral vascular state and ultrafiltration. The occurrence of critical ischemia is associated to pejorative patient outcome and therefore, TCPO2 seems to be useful to avoid potential distal tissue damage during hemodialysis. PMID:24400914

  10. Efficacy and safety of tacrolimus treatment for rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Misuzu; Natsumeda, Masamitsu; Takasugi, Koji; Ueno, Akiko; Ezawa, Kayo; Ezawa, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by progressive joint destruction that requires aggressive treatment using appropriate disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). RA patients with renal failure, however, are intolerant to most DMARDs due to the potential toxicity. In Japan, tacrolimus was approved for the treatment of RA in 2005. Based on its pharmacokinetics, tacrolimus may be administered to the patients undergoing hemodialysis. We report two cases of RA patients on hemodialysis treated effectively and safely with tacrolimus.

  11. Successful leukocytapheresis therapy in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis on maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Maeshima, Keisuke; Torigoe, Masataka; Iwakura, Mikako; Yamanaka, Kunitoshi; Ishii, Koji

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 44-year-old female undergoing maintenance hemodialysis in whom early-phase rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was successfully treated by leukocytapheresis (LCAP). The effects of prednisone, tacrolimus, and etanercept were limited, but LCAP was highly effective and its efficacy continued even after cessation of LCAP. Moreover, remission was maintained for 2 years after discontinuation of medication. LCAP may be an important treatment option for RA patients with end-stage renal failure who are on hemodialysis.

  12. Association of Beta-2 Microglobulin with Inflammation and Dislipidemia in High-Flux Membrane Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Topçiu-Shufta, Valdete; Miftari, Ramë; Haxhibeqiri, Valdete; Haxhibeqiri, Shpend

    2016-10-01

    Higher than expected cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients, has been attributed to dyslipidemia as well as inflammation. Beta2-Microglobulin (β2M) is an independent predictor of outcome for hemodialysis patients and a representative substance of middle molecules. In 40 patients in high-flux membrane hemodialysis, we found negative correlation of β2M with high density lipoprotein (r=-0.73, p<0.001) and albumin (r= -0.53, p<0.001) and positive correlation with triglycerides (r=0.69, p<0.001), parathyroid hormone (r=0.58, p < 0.05) and phosphorus (r= 0.53, p<0.001). There was no correlation of β2M with C- reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). During the follow-up period of three years, 6 out of 40 patients have died from cardiovascular events. In high-flux membrane hemodialysis patients, we observed a significant relationship of β2M with dyslipidemia and mineral bone disorders, but there was no correlation with inflammation.

  13. Construction and validation of forms: systematization of the care of people under hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Arreguy-Sena, Cristina; Marques, Tais de Oliveira; Souza, Luciene Carnevale de; Alvarenga-Martins, Nathália; Krempser, Paula; Braga, Luciene Muniz; Parreira, Pedro Miguel Dos Santos Dinis

    2018-01-01

    create and validate forms to subsidize the systematization of nursing care with people on hemodialysis. institutional case study to support the systematization of assistance from the construction of forms for data collection, diagnoses, interventions and nursing results, using cross-mapping, Risner's reasoning, Neuman's theory, taxonomies of diagnoses, interventions and nursing results with application in clinical practice and validation by focal group with specialist nurses. 18 people on hemodialysis and 7 nurses participated. Consensus content of form matter with specialist nurses in the area (Crombach 0.86). The papers captured 43 diagnoses, 26 interventions and 78 nursing results depicting human responses in their singularities. the validated forms fill a gap by enabling the capture of human responses from people on hemodialysis and by subsidizing the planning of nursing care on a scientific basis.

  14. Aldosterone and mortality in hemodialysis patients: role of volume overload.

    PubMed

    Hung, Szu-Chun; Lin, Yao-Ping; Huang, Hsin-Lei; Pu, Hsiao-Fung; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2013-01-01

    Elevated aldosterone is associated with increased mortality in the general population. In patients on dialysis, however, the association is reversed. This paradox may be explained by volume overload, which is associated with lower aldosterone and higher mortality. We evaluated the relationship between aldosterone and outcomes in a prospective cohort of 328 hemodialysis patients stratified by the presence or absence of volume overload (defined as extracellular water/total body water >48%, as measured with bioimpedance). Baseline plasma aldosterone was measured before dialysis and categorized as low (<140 pg/mL), middle (140 to 280 pg/mL) and high (>280 pg/mL). Overall, 36% (n = 119) of the hemodialysis patients had evidence of volume overload. Baseline aldosterone was significantly lower in the presence of volume overload than in its absence. During a median follow-up of 54 months, 83 deaths and 70 cardiovascular events occurred. Cox multivariate analysis showed that by using the low aldosterone as the reference, high aldosterone was inversely associated with decreased hazard ratios for mortality (0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.76) and first cardiovascular event (0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.78) in the presence of volume overload. In contrast, high aldosterone was associated with an increased risk for mortality (1.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-3.75) and first cardiovascular event (2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-4.15) in the absence of volume overload. The inverse association of aldosterone with adverse outcomes in hemodialysis patients is due to the confounding effect of volume overload. These findings support treatment of hyperaldosteronemia in hemodialysis patients who have achieved strict volume control.

  15. Resilience, religiosity and treatment adherence in hemodialysis patients: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Freire de Medeiros, Camila Maroni Marques; Arantes, Eder Pinheiro; Tajra, Rafael Dib de Paulo; Santiago, Hendrio Reginaldo; Carvalho, André Ferrer; Libório, Alexandre Braga

    2017-06-01

    Resilience and religiosity have received attention as an important process in the experience and management of chronic comorbidities; however, there is no study evaluating resilience in hemodialysis patients and its association with other psychological dimensions or with treatment adherence. This observational prospective study assessed resilience (25 item Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale), religiosity under three dimensions (organizational, non-organizational and intrinsic) using DUREL scale, depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9) and health-related quality of life (Short Form-36 questionnaire). The main outcomes were medication adherence using the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 (MMAR-8) and the missing/shortened dialysis sessions in the following six months. Of 208 patients approached, 202 (97.1%) agreed to participate. One hundred twenty-three patients (60.9%) were males and mean age was 52.8 ± 14.8 years-old. The median time on hemodialysis was 36 months (IQR, 12, 84). 82 (40.6%) patients obtained a MMAS-8 score <6 and were considered as having 'poor adherence'. Overall, the mean score of medication adherence was low (5.7 ± 2.1). About adherence to hemodialysis sessions, patients missed a total of 234 (1.6%) hemodialysis sessions. Forty-eight patients (23.7%) missed an average of at least three sessions in six months. Regarding adherence to medication, there was no association in the uni- or multivariate analysis between religiosity dimensions and MMAS-8 score. After adjustment, resilience was positively associated with MMAS-8 score (standardized β coefficient .239, p = .016). Organized and intrinsic religiosity were associated with adherence to dialysis sessions (standardized β coefficient .258, p = .004 and .231, p = .026, respectively). Interestingly, opposite to medication adherence, more resilient patients were associated with less adherence to hemodialysis sessions (standardized β coefficient -.296, p = .001

  16. Impact of residual kidney function on hemodialysis adequacy and patient survival.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengjing; Obi, Yoshitsugu; Streja, Elani; Rhee, Connie M; Chen, Jing; Hao, Chuanming; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2018-04-23

    Both dialysis dose and residual kidney function (RKF) contribute to solute clearance and are associated with outcomes in hemodialysis patients. We hypothesized that the association between dialysis dose and mortality is attenuated with greater RKF. Among 32 251 incident hemodialysis patients in a large US dialysis organization (2007-11), we examined the interaction between single-pool Kt/V (spKt/V) and renal urea clearance (rCLurea) levels in survival analyses using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model. The median rCLurea and mean baseline spKt/V were 3.06 [interquartile range (IQR) 1.74-4.85] mL/min/1.73 m2 and 1.32 ± 0.28, respectively. A total of 7444 (23%) patients died during the median follow-up of 1.2 years (IQR 0.5-2.2 years) with an incidence of 15.4 deaths per 100 patient-years. The Cox model with adjustment for case-mix and laboratory variables showed that rCLurea modified the association between spKt/V and mortality (Pinteraction = 0.03); lower spKt/V was associated with higher mortality among patients with low rCLurea (i.e. <3  mL/min/1.73 m2) but not among those with higher rCLurea. The adjusted mortality hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals of the low (<1.2) versus high (≥1.2) spKt/V were 1.40 (1.12-1.74), 1.21 (1.10-1.33), 1.06 (0.98-1.14), and 1.00 (0.93-1.08) for patients with rCLurea of 0.0, 1.0, 3.0 and 6.0 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Incident hemodialysis patients with substantial RKF do not exhibit the expected better survival at higher hemodialysis doses. RKF levels should be taken into account when deciding on the dose of dialysis treatment among incident hemodialysis patients.

  17. Reduction of carbamylated albumin by extended hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Perl, Jeffrey; Kalim, Sahir; Wald, Ron; Goldstein, Marc B; Yan, Andrew T; Noori, Nazanin; Kiaii, Mercedeh; Wenger, Julia; Chan, Christopher; Thadhani, Ravi I; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Berg, Anders H

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Among conventional hemodialysis (CHD) patients, carbamylated serum albumin (C-Alb) correlates with urea and amino acid deficiencies and is associated with mortality. We postulated that reduction of C-Alb by intensive HD may correlate with improvements in protein metabolism and cardiac function. Methods One-year observational study of in-center nocturnal extended hemodialysis (EHD) patients and CHD control subjects. Thirty-three patients receiving 4-hour CHD who converted to 8-hour EHD were enrolled, along with 20 controls on CHD. Serum C-Alb, biochemistries, and cardiac MRI parameters were measured before and after 12 months of EHD. Findings EHD was associated with reduction of C-Alb (average EHD change -3.20 mmol/mol [95% CI -4.23, -2.17] compared to +0.21 [95% CI -1.11, 1.54] change in CHD controls, P < 0.001). EHD was also associated with increases in average essential amino acids (in standardized units) compared to CHD (+0.38 [0.08, 0.68 95%CI]) vs. -0.12 [-0.50, 0.27, 95% CI], P = 0.047). Subjects who reduced C-Alb more than 25% were found to have reduced left ventricular mass, increased urea reduction ratio, and increased serum albumin compared to nonresponders, and % change in C-Alb significantly correlated with % change in left ventricular mass. Discussion EHD was associated with reduction of C-Alb as compared to CHD, and reduction of C-Alb by EHD correlates with reduction of urea. Additional studies are needed to test whether reduction of C-Alb by EHD also correlates with improved clinical outcomes. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  18. Home hemodialysis: beliefs, attitudes, and practice patterns.

    PubMed

    Jayanti, Anuradha; Morris, Julie; Stenvinkel, Peter; Mitra, Sandip

    2014-10-01

    There is increasing interest of the worldwide kidney community in home hemodialysis (HHD). This is due to emerging evidence of its superiority over conventional hemodialysis (HD), largely attributed to improved outcomes on intensive schedule HD, best deployed in patient's own homes. Despite published work in this area, universal uptake remains limited and reasons are poorly understood. All those who provide HD care were invited to participate in a survey on HHD, initiated to understand the beliefs, attitudes, and practice patterns of providers offering this therapy. The survey was developed and posted on the Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation-Educational (NDT-E) website. Two hundred and seventy-two responses were deemed suitable for complete analysis. It is apparent from the survey that there is great variability in the prevalence of HHD. Physicians have a great deal of interest in this modality, with majority viewing home as being the ideal location for the offer of intensive HD schedules (55%). A significant number (21%) feel intensive HD may be offered even outside the home setting. Those who offer this therapy do not see a financial disadvantage in it. Many units identify lack of appropriately trained personnel (35%) and funding for home adaptation (50.4%) as key barriers to widespread adoption of this therapy. Despite the interest and belief in this therapy among practitioners, HHD therapy is still not within reach of a majority of patients. Modifiable organizational, physician, and patient factors exist, which could potentially redefine the landscape of HHD provision. Well-designed systematic research of national and local barriers is needed to design interventions to help centers facilitate change. © 2014 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  19. Amplatzer angled duct occluder for closure of patent ductus arteriosus larger than the aorta in an infant.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmi, I B; Chitra, N; Rajasri, R; Prabhudeva, A N

    2005-01-01

    Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) by Amplatzer duct occluder is the treatment of choice. However, closure of very large ducts in infants with low weight is a challenge for the interventionalist because a large device may obstruct the aorta or left pulmonary artery. Difficulty is also encountered in advancing the device around the curve of the right ventricular outflow tract toward the pulmonary artery; this curve is tight, more or less at a right angle in infants, leading to kinking of the sheath, which increases fluoroscopic time. This is the first reported case of a very large PDA (8.7 mm), larger than the aorta (8.2 mm), successfully closed by an Amplatzer angled duct occluder in an infant weighing 5 kg.

  20. Combination with Anthropometric Measurements and MQSGA to Assess Nutritional Status in Chinese Hemodialysis Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Peng, Hongquan; Yuan, Zhimin; Zhang, Kun; Xiao, Long; Huang, Jialian; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the nutritional status, combination with anthropometric measurements and modified quantitative subjective global assessment (MQSGA) was used in multi-center hemodialysis population in South China. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive-analytic study was performed in 4 teaching hospitals in South China, dated from January 2010 to December 2011. Nutritional status was assessed with MQSGA and related anthropometric indexes. Serum albumin and transthyretin were also determined for nutritional assessment. Results: Eighty-two randomly selected hemodialysis patients participated in the nutritional assessment, of which 75 hemodialysis patients completed all assessments. The average age was 62.70 ± 14.21 years. The mean duration of hemodialysis was 3.29 ± 1.08 years. Of the included patients, 32% patients were well nourished, 60% were mild to moderately malnourished, and 8% were severely malnourished. Along with the malnutrition severity, the serum transthyretin significantly decreased. However, no obvious changes were found in serum albumin. The mean value (Mean ± SD; 25.78 ± 4.09 cm) of mid arm circumference (MAC) was negatively correlated with MQSGA (r = -0.365; P = 0.002). Body mass index (BMI) (Mean ± SD; 21.6 ± 3.1 kg/m2) was also significantly negatively correlated with MQSGA (r = -0.392; P = 0.001). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve were 0.664 and 0.726, respectively. Conclusions: Malnutrition is very common in South China hemodialysis population. Both BMI and MAC were effective markers for assessing nutritional status. PMID:23801883

  1. Effect of cryotherapy on arteriovenous fistula puncture-related pain in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    P B, Sabitha; Khakha, D C; Mahajan, S; Gupta, S; Agarwal, M; Yadav, S L

    2008-10-01

    Pain during areteriovenous fistula (AVF) cannulation remains a common problem in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of cryotherapy on pain due to arteriovenous fistula puncture in hemodialysis patients. A convenience sample of 60 patients (30 each in experimental and control groups) who were undergoing hemodialysis by using AVF, was assessed in a randomized control trial. Hemodialysis patients who met the inclusion criteria, were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups using a randomization table. Objective and subjective pain scoring was done on two consecutive days of HD treatment (with cryotherapy for the experimental and without cryotherapy for the control group). The tools used were a questionnaire examining demographic and clinical characteristics, an observation checklist for assessing objective pain behavior, and a numerical rating scale for subjective pain assessment. Descriptive statistics were used as deemed appropriate. Chi square, two-sample and paired t-tests, the Mann Whitney test, Wilcoxon's signed rank test, the Kruskal Wallis test, and Spearman's and Pearson's correlations were used for inferential statistics. We found that the objective and subjective pain scores were found to be significantly (P = 0.001) reduced within the experimental group with the application of cryotherapy. This study highlights the need for adopting alternative therapies such as cryotherapy for effective pain management in hospital settings.

  2. Voice Training and Therapy with a Semi-Occluded Vocal Tract: Rationale and Scientific Underpinnings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titze, Ingo R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Voice therapy with a semi-occluded vocal tract has a long history. The use of lip trills, tongue trills, bilabial fricatives, humming, and phonation into tubes or straws has been hailed by clinicians, singing teachers, and voice coaches as efficacious for training and rehabilitation. Little has been done, however, to provide the…

  3. A New Coated Nitinol Occluder for Transcatheter Closure of Ventricular Septal Defects in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yong; Chen, Feng; Huang, Xinmiao; Zhao, Xianxian; Wu, Hong; Bai, Yuan; Qin, Yongwen

    2013-01-01

    Aims. This study evaluated feasibility and safety of implanting the polyester-coated nitinol ventricular septal defect occluder (pcVSDO) in the canine model. Methods and Results. VSD models were successfully established by transseptal ventricular septal puncture via the right jugular vein in 15 out of 18 canines. Two types of VSDOs were implanted, either with pcVSDOs (n = 8) as the new type occluder group or with the commercial ventricular septal defect occluders (VSDOs, n = 7, Shanghai Sharp Memory Alloy Co. Ltd.) as the control group. Sheath size was 10 French (10 Fr) in two groups. Then the general state of the canines was observed after implantation. ECG and TTE were performed, respectively, at 7, 30, 90 days of follow-up. The canines were sacrificed at these time points for pathological and scanning electron microscopy examination. The devices were successfully implanted in all 15 canines and were retrievable and repositionable. There was no thrombus formation on the device or occurrence of complete heart block. The pcVSDO surface implanted at day 7 was already covered with neotissue by gross examination, and it completed endothelialization at day 30, while the commercial VSDO was covered with the neotissue in 30th day and the complete endothelialization in 90th day. Conclusion. The study shows that pcVSDO is feasible and safe to close canine VSD model and has good biocompatibility and shorter time of endothelialization. PMID:24066289

  4. Intra-dialytic hypertension is associated with high mortality in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Kyu Tae; Gil, Hyo Wook; Hong, Sae Yong

    2017-01-01

    Background Intra-dialytic hypertension (IDH) is emerging as an important issue in hemodialysis patients. Its risk factors and clinical outcomes are unclear. Methods A total of 73 prevalent hemodialysis patients were enrolled. They included 14 (19.2%) patients with baseline IDH and 59 patients without IDH. Their clinical parameters, laboratory parameters, and mortality were investigated over 78 months. Results The risks factor of IDH included low serum potassium levels, low ultrafiltration, and low arm muscle area. Lower median survival was evident in the IDH group compared to the non-IDH group, but was not significantly different. After adjusting for relevant confounders for age, the IDH group displayed 2.846 times higher mortality rate than the non-IDH Group (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.846; 95% confidence interval: 1.081–7.490; P = 0.034). Conclusion IDH is associated with high mortality in hemodialysis patients. Clinicians should be aware of the risk factors. Future research studies are needed to explore the mechanisms involved in the association between IDH and mortality. PMID:28742805

  5. The hemodialysis membranes: a historical perspective, current state and future prospect.

    PubMed

    Cheung, A K; Leypoldt, J K

    1997-05-01

    Transport and biocompatibility characteristics are two important considerations when choosing hemodialysis membranes. Dialyzer performance depends on clearances of small solutes, middle molecules, and oncotically active proteins. Although complement and neutrophil activation have become the gold standards for biocompatibility testing of dialysis membranes, alterations of other cellular and noncellular blood elements as a result of blood-membrane interactions are also important. Because of concerns about middle molecule transport and biocompatibility, the original cellophane membrane has been gradually replaced by modified cellulosic membranes and synthetic membranes for clinical use. Recent studies suggest that the choice of dialysis membrane influences the clinical outcome of patients in several areas, including intradialytic acute anaphylactoid reactions, beta 2-microglobulin associated amyloidosis, recovery from acute renal failure, and mortality of chronic hemodialysis patients. However, the relative contributions of middle molecule transport, biocompatibility, and other factors in determining these differences in outcome are unclear. Future development of hemodialysis membranes should focus on improving biocompatibility and enhancing clearances of small solutes and middle molecules, while minimizing the loss of larger plasma proteins.

  6. Calcium alpha-ketoglutarate administration to malnourished hemodialysis patients improves plasma arginine concentrations.

    PubMed

    Riedel, E; Hampl, H; Steudle, V; Nündel, M

    1996-01-01

    Calcium alpha-ketoglutarate administration to 24 malnourished hemodialysis patients for 1 year leads to a significant increase in plasma concentrations of L-arginine from 53.6 +/- 18.3 (compared to a healthy control group: 87.5 +/- 27.3) to 71.1 +/- 15.9 mumol/l (p < 0.05). Furthermore, concentrations in plasma of proline and histidine, precursors of glutamate biosynthesis, are increased; inorganic phosphate and urea are significantly decreased in hemodialysis patients after 1 year of calcium alpha-ketoglutarate administration.

  7. Permanent vascular access survival in children on long-term chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Briones, Liliana; Diaz Moreno, Alexia; Sierre, Sergio; Lopez, Laura; Lipsich, José; Adragna, Marta

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study is to report a single-center experience regarding the management and outcome of permanent vascular accesses (VA) in children on chronic hemodialysis (HD). We analyzed the survival of permanent VA in 79 pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease patients on chronic HD between January 2000 and December 2008. One hundred and thirty-seven VA [89 native fistulas (AVFs) and 48 grafts (AVGs)] were created in 79 children. The creation of AVFs was significantly more frequent in children weighing >25 kg and AVGs in children weighing <25 kg (p = 0.003). The 1-year primary patency rate was 50% for AVF and 30% for AVG. The secondary patency rates at 1, 2, and 3 years for AVFs were 73, 50, and 20% and for AVGs were 64, 36, and 20%, respectively. The total number of surgical and endovascular interventions was significantly higher in AVGs (p

  8. Lower Serum Irisin Levels Are Associated with Increased Vascular Calcification in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    He, Lian; He, Wan-Yu; A, La-Ta; Yang, Wen-Ling; Zhang, Ai-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Vascular calcification, which involves an active cellular transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells into bone forming cells, is prevalent and predicts mortality in dialysis patients. Its mechanisms are complex and unclear. We presume that irisin, a newly identified myokine also may play roles in vascular calcification in hemodialysis patients. This study aims to evaluate serum irisin levels and establish their relation to vascular calcification and other parameters in hemodialysis patients. A total of 150 patients on maintenance hemodialysis treatment and 38 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Serum irisin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Vascular calcification was evaluated by abdominal aortic calcification scores. Serum irisin concentrations were significantly lower in hemodialysis patients than in controls [52.8 (22.0, 100.0) vs. 460.8 (434.8, 483.4) ng/ml, P<0.01]. In addition, irisin was negatively correlated with the parathyroid hormone level (P=0.01). The HD patients with vascular calcification showed significantly lower serum irisin concentrations [39.0 (21.7, 86.2) vs.79.0 (39.5, 130.2) ng/mL, P<0.01]. Compared with the group without vascular calcification multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that serum irisin, HD vintage and age were significant independent determinant factors for vascular calcification in HD patients. Our results are the first to provide a clinical evidence of the association between serum irisin and vascular calcification in HD patients. Lower irisin levels, long-term hemodialysis and old ages are independent risk factors in HD patients. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. The Cricoid Force Necessary to Occlude the Esophageal Entrance: Is There a Gender Difference?

    PubMed

    Zeidan, Ahed M; Salem, M Ramez; Bamadhaj, Munir; Mazoit, Jean-Xavier; Sadek, Hussein; Houjairy, Hassan; Abdulkhaleq, Kamal; Bamadhaj, Nabil

    2017-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis whether gender differences exist in the applied cricoid force necessary to prevent regurgitation. Real-time visual and dynamic means were used to assess the effectiveness of different applied cricoid forces in occluding the esophageal entrance in men (group 1) and in women (group 2). In anesthetized and paralyzed patients, the glottis and esophageal entrance were visualized with a Glidescope video laryngoscope. Trained operators performed cricoid pressure (CP) and gastric tube insertion trials. Successful gastric tube insertion in the presence of CP was considered ineffective CP, whereas unsuccessful insertion was considered effective CP. The applied cricoid forces were measured with a novel instrument, the cricometer. The first patient in each group received 20 N. The applied cricoid force in successive patients was determined by the response of the previous patient within the same group, using the up-and-down sequential allocation technique. In the 30 men and 30 women who qualified for the study, the median cricoid force (cricoid force = 50) that occluded the esophageal entrance was 30.8 N (95% confidence interval = 28.15-33.5) in men, and 18.7 N in women (95% confidence interval = 17.1-20.3; P < .0001). Patency of the esophageal entrance was observed when CP was not applied and when inadequate forces that allowed successful esophageal cannulation were used. The current study provides evidence that the median force necessary to occlude the esophageal entrance to prevent regurgitation is less in women compared with men. Applying the appropriate cricoid force in women should also decrease airway-related problems that tend to occur with the use of excessive forces. The findings of the current study may only be applicable to patients with normal body habitus.

  10. Native plant diversity increases herbivory to non-natives

    PubMed Central

    Pearse, Ian S.; Hipp, Andrew L.

    2014-01-01

    There is often an inverse relationship between the diversity of a plant community and the invasibility of that community by non-native plants. Native herbivores that colonize novel plants may contribute to diversity–invasibility relationships by limiting the relative success of non-native plants. Here, we show that, in large collections of non-native oak trees at sites across the USA, non-native oaks introduced to regions with greater oak species richness accumulated greater leaf damage than in regions with low oak richness. Underlying this trend was the ability of herbivores to exploit non-native plants that were close relatives to their native host. In diverse oak communities, non-native trees were on average more closely related to native trees and received greater leaf damage than those in depauperate oak communities. Because insect herbivores colonize non-native plants that are similar to their native hosts, in communities with greater native plant diversity, non-natives experience greater herbivory. PMID:25232143

  11. Hemodialysis in a patient with severe hemophilia A and factor VIII inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Natarajan; Usha, Thiruvengadam; Thopalan, Balasubramaniyan; Dhanapriya, Jeyachandran; Dineshkumar, Thanigachalam; Thirumalvalavan, Kaliaperumal; Sakthirajan, Ramanathan

    2016-10-01

    Hemophilia A is a hereditary X-linked recessive disease caused by mutations in the gene encoding factor VIII (FVIII), occurring in 1 out of 10,000 persons. Life expectancy and quality of life have dramatically improved recently in patients with hemophilia. Chronic kidney disease and need for renal replacement therapy in these patients are rare. The development of inhibitors to FVIII is the most serious complication of hemophilia and makes treatment of bleeds very challenging. We describe here a 28-year-old male patient with severe hemophilia A with presence of factor VIII inhibitor, who had end stage renal disease. Central venous access device was inserted along with infusion of factor eight inhibitor bypass activity before and after the procedure. He is currently on thrice weekly hemodialysis and doing well for 6 months without bleeding episodes. To our knowledge, hemophilia A with factor VIII inhibitor managed with hemodialysis has not been reported so far. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  12. Dietary Quality and Adherence to Dietary Recommendations in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Luis, Desiree; Zlatkis, Karyn; Comenge, Beatriz; García, Zoraida; Navarro, Juan F; Lorenzo, Victor; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    2016-05-01

    The multiple dietary restrictions recommended to hemodialysis patients may be difficult to achieve and, at the same time, may result in nutritional deficiencies rendering a poor dietary quality. We here assess the dietary quality and adherence to renal-specific guideline recommendations among hemodialysis patients from a single center in Canary Islands, Spain. Cross-sectional study, including 91 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Clinical data and 3-day dietary records were collected. We compared patient's reported nutrients intake with guideline recommendations. We also evaluated their alignment with current American Heart Association dietary guidelines for cardiovascular prevention. Seventy-seven percent and 50% of patients consumed less than the recommended daily energy and protein, respectively. Although half of the patients met the recommendations for dietary fat intake, this was accounted by an excess of saturated fat in 92% of them. Only 22% consumed sufficient fiber. A very small proportion of patients (less than 50%) met the requirements for vitamins and other micronutrients. Insufficient dietary intake was observed in most patients for all vitamins except for cobalamin. Similarly, inadequate dietary intake was observed for many minerals, by both excess (phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and potassium) and defect (magnesium). Most patients met the recommendations for iron and zinc in their diets. A large proportion of hemodialysis patients at our center did not meet current renal-specific dietary recommendations. The quality of the diet was considered poor and proatherogenic according to American Heart Association guidelines. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Opioid Analgesics and Adverse Outcomes among Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Julie H; McCulloch, Charles E; Steinman, Michael A; Grimes, Barbara A; Johansen, Kirsten L

    2018-05-07

    Patients on hemodialysis frequently experience pain and may be particularly vulnerable to opioid-related complications. However, data evaluating the risks of opioid use in patients on hemodialysis are limited. Using the US Renal Data System, we conducted a cohort study evaluating the association between opioid use (modeled as a time-varying exposure and expressed in standardized oral morphine equivalents) and time to first emergency room visit or hospitalization for altered mental status, fall, and fracture among 140,899 Medicare-covered adults receiving hemodialysis in 2011. We evaluated risk according to average daily total opioid dose (>60 mg, ≤60 mg, and per 60-mg dose increment) and specific agents (per 60-mg dose increment). The median age was 61 years old, 52% were men, and 50% were white. Sixty-four percent received opioids, and 17% had an episode of altered mental status (15,658 events), fall (7646 events), or fracture (4151 events) in 2011. Opioid use was associated with risk for all outcomes in a dose-dependent manner: altered mental status (lower dose: hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 1.34; higher dose: hazard ratio, 1.67; 95% confidence interval, 1.56 to 1.78; hazard ratio, 1.29 per 60 mg; 95% confidence interval, 1.26 to 1.33), fall (lower dose: hazard ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 1.36; higher dose: hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 1.61; hazard ratio, 1.04 per 60 mg; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.05), and fracture (lower dose: hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.33 to 1.56; higher dose: hazard ratio, 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.44 to 1.89; hazard ratio, 1.04 per 60 mg; 95% confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.05). All agents were associated with a significantly higher hazard of altered mental status, and several agents were associated with a significantly higher hazard of fall and fracture. Opioids were associated with adverse outcomes in patients on hemodialysis, and this risk

  14. Steady state phosphorus mass balance model during hemodialysis based on a pseudo one-compartment kinetic model.

    PubMed

    Leypoldt, John K; Agar, Baris U; Akonur, Alp; Gellens, Mary E; Culleton, Bruce F

    2012-11-01

    Mathematical models of phosphorus kinetics and mass balance during hemodialysis are in early development. We describe a theoretical phosphorus steady state mass balance model during hemodialysis based on a novel pseudo one-compartment kinetic model. The steady state mass balance model accounted for net intestinal absorption of phosphorus and phosphorus removal by both dialysis and residual kidney function. Analytical mathematical solutions were derived to describe time-dependent intradialytic and interdialytic serum phosphorus concentrations assuming hemodialysis treatments were performed symmetrically throughout a week. Results from the steady state phosphorus mass balance model are described for thrice weekly hemodialysis treatment prescriptions only. The analysis predicts 1) a minimal impact of dialyzer phosphorus clearance on predialysis serum phosphorus concentration using modern, conventional hemodialysis technology, 2) variability in the postdialysis-to-predialysis phosphorus concentration ratio due to differences in patient-specific phosphorus mobilization, and 3) the importance of treatment time in determining the predialysis serum phosphorus concentration. We conclude that a steady state phosphorus mass balance model can be developed based on a pseudo one-compartment kinetic model and that predictions from this model are consistent with previous clinical observations. The predictions from this mass balance model are theoretical and hypothesis-generating only; additional prospective clinical studies will be required for model confirmation.

  15. Bone microarchitecture is more severely affected in patients on hemodialysis than in those receiving peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, Solenne; Vilayphiou, Nicolas; Boutroy, Stéphanie; Bacchetta, Justine; Sornay-Rendu, Elisabeth; Szulc, Pawel; Arkouche, Walid; Guebre-Egziabher, Fitsum; Fouque, Denis; Chapurlat, Roland

    2012-09-01

    We used high-resolution quantitative computed tomography to study the microarchitecture of bone in patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis. We compared bone characteristics in 56 maintenance hemodialysis (21 women, 14 post-menopausal) and 23 peritoneal dialysis patients (9 women, 6 post-menopausal) to 79 healthy men and women from two cohorts matched for age, body mass index, gender, and menopausal status. All underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of the spine and hip to measure areal bone mineral density, and high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography of the radius and tibia to measure volumetric bone mineral density and microarchitecture. When compared to their matched healthy controls, patients receiving hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis had a significantly lower areal bone mineral density in the hip. Hemodialysis patients had significantly lower total, cortical, and trabecular volumetric bone mineral density at both sites. Hemodialysis patients had significantly lower trabecular volumetric bone mineral density and microarchitecture at the tibia than the peritoneal dialysis patients. Overall, peritoneal dialysis patients were less affected, their cortical thickness at the distal tibia being the only significant difference versus controls. Thus, we found more severe trabecular damage at the weight-bearing tibia in hemodialysis compared to peritoneal dialysis patients, but this latter finding needs confirmation in larger cohorts.

  16. Anthropometric Indicators Predict Metabolic Syndrome Diagnosis in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Barbara Perez; Ponce, Daniela; Caramori, Jacqueline Costa Teixeira

    2016-06-01

    Obesity has been considered the key in metabolic syndrome (MetS) development, and fat accumulation may be responsible for the occurrence of metabolic abnormalities in hemodialysis patients. The use of gold-standard methods to evaluate obesity is limited, and anthropometric measures may be the simplest methods. However, no study has investigated the association between anthropometric indexes and MetS in these patients. Therefore, the aim was to determine which anthropometric indexes had the best association and prediction for MetS in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Cross-sectional study that included patients older than 18 years, undergoing hemodialysis for at least 3 months. Patients with liver disease and cancer or those receiving corticosteroids or antiretroviral therapy were excluded. Diagnostic criteria from Harmonizing Metabolic Syndrome were used for the diagnosis of MetS. Anthropometric indexes evaluated were body mass index (BMI); percent standard of triceps skinfold thickness and of middle arm muscle circumference; waist circumference (WC); sagittal abdominal diameter; neck circumference; waist-to-hip, waist-to-thigh, and waist-to-height ratios; sagittal index; conicity index; and body fat percentage. Ninety-eight patients were included, 54.1% male, and mean age was 57.8 ± 12.9 years. The prevalence of MetS was 74.5%. Individuals with MetS had increased accumulation of abdominal fat and general obesity. Waist-to-height ratio was the variable independently associated with MetS diagnosis (odds ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.34; P < .01) and that better predicts MetS, followed by WC and BMI (area under the curve of 0.840, 0.836, and 0.798, respectively, P < .01). Waist-to-height ratio was the best anthropometric predictor of MetS in maintenance hemodialysis patients. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  17. Hemodialysis patient beliefs by stage of fluid adherence.

    PubMed

    Welch, J L

    2001-04-01

    Fluid limitations are difficult for hemodialysis patients to follow, and factors related to fluid adherence are not well known. The primary purpose of this study, which was guided by the health belief model and the transtheoretical model for behavior change, was to determine whether differences exist in perceived benefits, barriers, susceptibility, seriousness, or self-efficacy among individuals in different stages of fluid adherence. In a cross-sectional descriptive design, 148 persons (mean age=53.9 years; 52% male) were interviewed using a structured format. Hemodialysis patients in the action/maintenance stage perceived significantly more benefits to fluid adherence than persons in the precontemplation stage. Persons who were in the action/maintenance stage perceived they were significantly more susceptible to pulmonary edema than persons in the contemplation stage. Stage-appropriate interventions may be needed to target specific beliefs about fluid adherence. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  18. Supporting hemodialysis patients: A phenomenological study

    PubMed Central

    Shahgholian, Nahid; Yousefi, Hojatollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chronic renal disease and hemodialysis cause numerous psychological, social, cultural, and spiritual challenges for both patients and their families. Overcoming these challenges is possible only through providing holistic support for the patients. Today, despite the support provided by family and professional caregivers for the patients, patients still express dissatisfaction with the support provided and believe it to be inadequate. In fact, patients and family caregivers and healthcare practitioners seem to have different understandings of the notion of support. Thus, the researcher decided to examine the concept of support from the viewpoint of hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive phenomenological research was conducted on 17 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who were undergoing hemodialysis. Purposive sampling was performed and continued until data saturation. Data were collected through 30–60 min unstructured interviews and analyzed using Colaizzi's method. Results: From the analysis of data, 4 themes (psychological support, accompaniment, social support, and spiritual support) and 11 sub-themes were obtained. Psychological support consisted of two sub-themes of psychological support by healthcare practitioners and emotional support by family and relatives. Accompaniment included three sub-themes of assistance in transportation, providing and using medicine, and daily activities. Social support was identified with four sub-themes of promotion of the society's understanding of the patients’ condition, improvement of communication with others, the need for employment, and independence. Spiritual support was identified with two sub-themes of the need for faith and trust in God or Imams and the need to resolve spiritual contradictions. Conclusion: The results showed that from the viewpoint of the participants, the concept of support consisted of psychological support, social support, accompanying the patient

  19. Interferon treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C complicated with chronic renal failure receiving hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Akira; Kakizaki, Satoru; Hosonuma, Ken-ichi; Yamazaki, Yuichi; Horiguchi, Norio; Sato, Ken; Kitahara, Tokuyuki; Mori, Masatomo

    2013-04-01

    The Japan Society for Dialysis Therapy established "Guidelines for the Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Dialysis Patients." We evaluated the status of HCV infection and the treatment of hemodialysis patients in Gunma prefecture. Questionnaires concerning the infection rate, recognition of the guidelines, and treatment status were sent to all 64 hospitals/clinics that had hemodialysis systems in Gunma prefecture. The hepatitis C virus-infected hemodialysis patients who received pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) were analyzed at Gunma University Hospital. The positive rate for hepatitis C virus antibody was 256/2582 hemodialysis patients (9.9%). The positive rate varied between institutions (range 0-40.0%; median 9.0%). All institutes recognized the establishment of the guidelines. Conventional or peg-IFN treatment was being given at 37.5% of the institutions. The other 62.5% institutions answered that they intended to provide the treatment in the future if collaboration with a hepatologist could be arranged. The most common answers regarding the indication for IFN treatment were as follows: few complications, under 60 years of age, more than 10 years of survival expected on hemodialysis. Eighteen patients received peg-IFN treatment. The sustained virological response rate of all patients was 33.3%, 0% in 1b/high viral titer, 50% in genotype 2, and 100% in genotype 2/low viral titer. The sustained virological response rate was worse in the patients with 1b/high viral load and diabetic nephropathy (P < 0.05). Recognition of the publication of the guidelines was high. However, the number of patients treated with peg-IFN was still low. Further enlightenment and cooperation between hemodialysis teams and hepatologists are therefore needed. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Association of Beta-2 Microglobulin with Inflammation and Dislipidemia in High-Flux Membrane Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Topçiu–Shufta, Valdete; Miftari, Ramë; Haxhibeqiri, Valdete; Haxhibeqiri, Shpend

    2016-01-01

    Background: Higher than expected cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients, has been attributed to dyslipidemia as well as inflammation. Beta2-Microglobulin (β2M) is an independent predictor of outcome for hemodialysis patients and a representative substance of middle molecules. Results: In 40 patients in high-flux membrane hemodialysis, we found negative correlation of β2M with high density lipoprotein (r=-0.73, p<0.001) and albumin (r= -0.53, p<0.001) and positive correlation with triglycerides (r=0.69, p<0.001), parathyroid hormone (r=0.58, p < 0.05) and phosphorus (r= 0.53, p<0.001). There was no correlation of β2M with C- reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). During the follow-up period of three years, 6 out of 40 patients have died from cardiovascular events. Conclusion: In high-flux membrane hemodialysis patients, we observed a significant relationship of β2M with dyslipidemia and mineral bone disorders, but there was no correlation with inflammation. PMID:27994294

  1. Sexual dysfunction in women with ESRD requiring hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Strippoli, Giovanni F M; Vecchio, Mariacristina; Palmer, Suetonia; De Berardis, Giorgia; Craig, Jonathan; Lucisano, Giuseppe; Johnson, David; Pellegrini, Fabio; Nicolucci, Antonio; Sciancalepore, Michela; Saglimbene, Valeria; Gargano, Letizia; Bonifati, Carmen; Ruospo, Marinella; Navaneethan, Sankar D; Montinaro, Vincenzo; Stroumza, Paul; Zsom, Marianna; Torok, Mariatta; Celia, Eduardo; Gelfman, Ruben; Bednarek-Skublewska, Anna; Dulawa, Jan; Graziano, Giusi; Gentile, Giorgio; Ferrari, Juan Nin; Santoro, Antonio; Zucchelli, Annalisa; Triolo, Giorgio; Maffei, Stefano; Hegbrant, Jörgen; Wollheim, Charlotta; De Cosmo, Salvatore; Manfreda, Valeria M

    2012-06-01

    The few existing studies of sexual dysfunction in women on hemodialysis are limited by small sample size. This large, cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence and correlates of female sexual dysfunction in advanced kidney disease. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, METHODS: A total of 1472 women with ESRD undergoing hemodialysis were recruited to a multinational, cross-sectional study conducted within a collaborative dialysis network in Europe and South America. Sexual dysfunction was identified by the Female Sexual Function Index. Correlates of self-reported sexual dysfunction were identified by regression analyses. Of the 1472 women, 659 completed questionnaires (45%). More than half (362 of 659 [55%]) lived with a partner, and 232 of 659 (35%) reported being sexually active. Of these 659 respondents, 555 (84%) reported sexual dysfunction. Women with a partner (282 of 362 [78%]) were less likely to report sexual dysfunction than those without a partner (273 of 297 [92%]) (P<0.001). Sexual dysfunction was independently associated with age, depressive symptoms, less education, menopause, diabetes, and diuretic therapy. Nearly all women who were not wait-listed for a kidney transplant and were living without a partner (249 of 260 [96%]) reported sexual dysfunction. More than half (128 of 232 [55%]) of sexually active women reported sexual dysfunction, associated with age, depressive symptoms, menopause, low serum albumin, and diuretic therapy. This descriptive study suggests most women on hemodialysis experience sexual problems. Additional research on the relevance of sexual dysfunction to symptom burden and quality of life in these women is needed.

  2. [Anti-rheumatic therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yuji

    2011-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients have been increasing recently. Some rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients need hemodialysis (HD), though the proportion is not high. At present, such patients are almost treated with corticosteroids and/or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs alone, even if they have a high disease activity that would require disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy, partly because the safety of DMARDs in RA patients with end-stage renal disease has not been confirmed. Their joint destruction would be inevitable and lead to impaired activities of daily living. As there are no guidelines for the use of DMARDs in HD patients, here I reviewed the previous reports about the treatment of DMARDs including biologics for patients with RA undergoing HD.

  3. Invasive non-native plants have a greater effect on neighbouring natives than other non-natives.

    PubMed

    Kuebbing, Sara E; Nuñez, Martin A

    2016-09-12

    Human activity is creating a global footprint by changing the climate, altering habitats and reshuffling the distribution of species. The movement of species around the globe has led to the naturalization and accumulation of multiple non-native species within ecosystems, which is frequently associated with habitat disturbance and changing environmental conditions. However, interactions among species will also influence community composition, but little is known about the full range of direct and indirect interactions among native and non-native species. Here, we show through a meta-analysis of 1,215 pairwise plant interactions between 274 vascular plant species in 21 major habitat types that interactions between non-native plants are asymmetrical with interactions between non-native and native plants. Non-native plants were always bad neighbours, but the negative effect of non-natives on natives was around two times greater than the effect of non-natives on other non-natives. In contrast, the performance of non-native plants was five times higher in the presence of a neighbouring native plant species than in the presence of a neighbouring non-native plant species. Together, these results demonstrate that invaded plant communities may accumulate additional non-native species even if direct interactions between non-natives species are negative. Put another way, invasions may be more likely to lead to more invasions, requiring more active management of ecosystems by promoting native species restoration to undermine invasive positive feedback and to assist native species recovery in invaded ecosystems.

  4. Bioimpedance-Guided Fluid Management in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Guillén, Marta; Wabel, Peter; Fontseré, Néstor; Carrera, Montserrat; Campistol, José Maria; Maduell, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Achieving and maintaining optimal fluid status remains a major challenge in hemodialysis therapy. The aim of this interventional study was to assess the feasibility and clinical consequences of active fluid management guided by bioimpedance spectroscopy in chronic hemodialysis patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Fluid status was optimized prospectively in 55 chronic hemodialysis patients over 3 months (November 2011 to February 2012). Predialysis fluid overload was measured weekly using the Fresenius Body Composition Monitor. Time-averaged fluid overload was calculated as the average between pre- and postdialysis fluid overload. The study aimed to bring the time-averaged fluid overload of all patients into a target range of 0.5±0.75 L within the first month and maintain optimal fluid status until study end. Postweight was adjusted weekly according to a predefined protocol. Results Time-averaged fluid overload in the complete study cohort was 0.9±1.6 L at baseline and 0.6±1.1 L at study end. Time-averaged fluid overload decreased by −1.20±1.32 L (P<0.01) in the fluid-overloaded group (n=17), remained unchanged in the normovolemic group (n=26, P=0.59), and increased by 0.59±0.76 L (P=0.02) in the dehydrated group (n=12). Every 1 L change in fluid overload was accompanied by a 9.9 mmHg/L change in predialysis systolic BP (r=0.55, P<0.001). At study end, 76% of all patients were either on time-averaged fluid overload target or at least closer to target than at study start. The number of intradialytic symptoms did not change significantly in any of the subgroups. Conclusions Active fluid management guided by bioimpedance spectroscopy was associated with an improvement in overall fluid status and BP. PMID:23949235

  5. Intracellular Phosphate Dynamics in Muscle Measured by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy during Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Thomas; Kocevar, Gabriel; Belloi, Amélie; Normand, Gabrielle; Ibarrola, Danielle; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique; Juillard, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Of the 600–700 mg inorganic phosphate (Pi) removed during a 4-hour hemodialysis session, a maximum of 10% may be extracted from the extracellular space. The origin of the other 90% of removed phosphate is unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that the main source of phosphate removed during hemodialysis is the intracellular compartment. Six binephrectomized pigs each underwent one 3-hour hemodialysis session, during which the extracorporeal circulation blood flow was maintained between 100 and 150 ml/min. To determine in vivo phosphate metabolism, we performed phosphorous (31P) magnetic resonance spectroscopy using a 1.5-Tesla system and a surface coil placed over the gluteal muscle region. 31P magnetic resonance spectra (repetition time =10 s; echo time =0.35 ms) were acquired every 160 seconds before, during, and after dialysis. During the dialysis sessions, plasma phosphate concentrations decreased rapidly (−30.4 %; P=0.003) and then, plateaued before increasing approximately 30 minutes before the end of the sessions; 16 mmol phosphate was removed in each session. When extracellular phosphate levels plateaued, intracellular Pi content increased significantly (11%; P<0.001). Moreover, βATP decreased significantly (P<0.001); however, calcium levels remained balanced. Results of this study show that intracellular Pi is the source of Pi removed during dialysis. The intracellular Pi increase may reflect cellular stress induced by hemodialysis and/or strong intracellular phosphate regulation. PMID:26561642

  6. Association of Increased Serum Ferritin With Impaired Muscle Strength/Quality in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Chie; Inaba, Masaaki; Ishimura, Eiji; Yamakawa, Tomoyuki; Shoji, Shigeichi; Okuno, Senji

    2016-07-01

    We reported previously that muscle quality and muscle strength provide clinically relevant predictors for better survival in hemodialysis patients. Iron overload might impair muscle function by its accumulation in muscle in such patients. Serum ferritin, a marker for body iron store, was examined for its association with handgrip strength (HGS) and muscle quality which was defined as the ratio of HGS to arm lean mass measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In 300 Japanese hemodialysis patients, age, hemodialysis duration, body mass index, and serum albumin were 58.0 ±12.0 (mean ± standard deviation) years, 4.2 (1.8-10.4) (median [25th-75th percentile]) years, 20.4 ± 2.8 kg/m(2), 4.0 ± 0.3 g/dL, respectively. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were 8.9 ± 1.2 g/dL, and 28.8 ± 3.9%, respectively, whereas transferrin saturation and serum ferritin were 29.8 ± 11.0% and 100 (54-172) ng/mL, respectively. Serum ferritin significantly correlated in a positive manner with the total dose of iron orally administered during the previous 6 months (r = 0.185, P = .0013). HGS and muscle quality were 23.1 ± 10.4 kg and 11.6 ± 3.8 kg/kg, respectively. In multivariate analysis to elucidate the factors associated with HGS and muscle quality in 300 hemodialysis patients, which included transferrin saturation and log serum ferritin, in addition to age, gender, hemodialysis duration, the presence/absence of diabetes, body mass index as independent variables, log serum ferritin emerged as a significant and independent factor which associated in a negative fashion with HGS (β = -0.091, P = .0395) and tendency toward negative association with muscle quality (β = -0.100, P = .0754). In summary, the present study demonstrated the significant association of serum ferritin with HGS and muscle quality in hemodialysis patients and thus suggested that we should be careful of iron overload to avoid its possible harmful effect on muscle in such patients. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney

  7. Dialysis fluid endotoxin level and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis: a nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Takeshi; Nakai, Shigeru; Masakane, Ikuto; Watanabe, Yuzo; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Akizawa, Tadao

    2015-06-01

    The quality of dialysis fluid water might play an important role in hemodialysis patient outcomes. Although targeted endotoxin levels of dialysis fluid vary among countries, evidence of the contribution of these levels to mortality in hemodialysis patients is lacking. Retrospective cohort study using data from the Japan Renal Data Registry, a nationwide annual survey. 130,781 patients receiving thrice-weekly in-center hemodialysis for more than 6 months were enrolled at 2,746 facilities in Japan at the end of 2006. None of the patients changed facility or treatment modality during 2007. Highest endotoxin level in dialysis fluid reported by each facility during 2006. Patients were categorized by facility endotoxin level into the following groups: <0.001, 0.001 to <0.01, 0.01 to <0.05, 0.05 to <0.1, and ≥0.1EU/mL. Age, sex, dialysis vintage, diabetes mellitus as a primary cause of end-stage renal disease, Kt/V, normalized protein catabolic rate, dialysis session duration, serum albumin, and hemoglobin were measured as potential confounders. All-cause mortality, censored by transplantation; withdrawal from dialysis treatment; or end of follow-up. Of 130,781 hemodialysis patients, 91.2% had facility endotoxin levels below the limit set for dialysis fluid in Japan (<0.05EU/mL). During a 1-year follow-up, 8,978 (6.9%) patients died of all causes. The rate of all-cause mortality at 1 year was highest in the ≥0.1-EU/mL category (88.0 deaths/1,000 person-years). Patients in the ≥0.1-EU/mL group exhibited an increased risk of all-cause mortality of 28% (95% CI, 10%-48%) compared to the <0.001-EU/mL group. Endotoxin level in dialysis fluid is reported as categorical data. No information about variation in endotoxin levels in dialysis fluid over time. Higher facility endotoxin levels in dialysis fluid may be related to increased risk for all-cause mortality among hemodialysis patients. Correcting this modifiable facility water management practice might improve

  8. Sublethal microcystin exposure and biochemical outcomes among hemodialysis patients

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyanobacteria are commonly-occurring contaminants of surface waters worldwide. Microcystins, potent hepatotoxins, are among the best characterized cyanotoxins. During November, 2001, a group of 44 hemodialysis patients were exposed to microcystins via contaminated dialysate. Seru...

  9. Blood pressure and risk of all-cause mortality in advanced chronic kidney disease and hemodialysis: the CRIC study

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Nisha; McCulloch, Charles E.; Rahman, Mahboob; Kusek, John W.; Anderson, Amanda H.; Xie, Dawei; Townsend, Raymond R.; Lora, Claudia M.; Wright, Jackson; Go, Alan S.; Ojo, Akinlolu; Alper, Arnold; Lustigova, Eva; Cuevas, Magda; Kallem, Radhakrishna; Hsu, Chi-yuan

    2014-01-01

    Studies of hemodialysis patients have shown a U-shaped association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mortality. These studies have largely relied on dialysis-unit SBP measures and have not evaluated whether this U-shape also exists in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), prior to starting hemodialysis. We determined the association between SBP and mortality at advanced CKD and again after initiation of hemodialysis. This was a prospective study of Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) participants with advanced CKD followed through initiation of hemodialysis. We studied the association between SBP and mortality when participants: 1) had an estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 ml/min/1.73m2 (N=1,705); 2) initiated hemodialysis and had dialysis-unit SBP measures (N=403) and; 3) initiated hemodialysis and had out-of-dialysis-unit SBP measured at a CRIC study visit (N=326). Cox models adjusted for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors and dialysis parameters. A quadratic term for SBP was included to test for a U-shaped association. At advanced CKD, there was no association between SBP and mortality (HR 1.02 [95% CI: 0.98–1.07] per every 10 mm Hg increase). Among participants who started hemodialysis, a U-shaped association between dialysis-unit SBP and mortality was observed. In contrast, there was a linear association between out-of-dialysis-unit SBP and mortality (HR 1.26 [95% CI: 1.14–1.40] per every 10 mm Hg increase). In conclusion, more efforts should be made to obtain out-of-dialysis-unit SBP which may merit more consideration as a target for clinical management and in interventional trials. PMID:25287404

  10. Effect of protein leaking BK-F PMMA-based hemodialysis on plasma pentosidine levels.

    PubMed

    Tessitore, Nicola; Lapolla, Annunziata; Aricò, Nadia Concetta; Poli, Albino; Gammaro, Linda; Bassi, Antonella; Bedogna, Valeria; Corgnati, Angela; Reitano, Rachele; Fedele, Domenico; Lupo, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are now considered to contribute to the middle molecule toxicity of uremia and, because they are not cleared by conventional low-flux hemodialysis, alternative strategies are needed to improve their removal. In a prospective cross-over trial involving 18 adult chronic hemodialysis subjects, we evaluated the intradialytic removal and the long-term effect on predialysis levels of Protein-bound (PBPe) and Free (FPe) pentosidine by high-pore, protein-leaking BK-F Polymethylmethacrylate-based hemodialysis (BK-F-HD), by comparing it to hemodialysis using low-flux dialyzers (LF-HD). A single BK-F-HD session removed more PBPe, but not FPe, than LF-HD. Long-term BK-F-HD was associated with a significant decrease in pre-dialysis PBPe, FPe, and albumin (17.7 +/- 20.8, 25.3 +/- 17.3 and 8.0 +/- 3.3%, p<0.01) and no change in body mass index and protein catabolic rate, compared to LF-HD. Multiple stepwise regression analysis identified C-reactive Protein (CRP) (standardized beta coefficient=-0.629), pre-dialysis levels in LF-HD (beta=0.452) and dialysis vintage (beta=0.428) as significant determinants of BK-F-induced changes in predialysis PBPe, and predialysis FPe and PBPe levels in LF-HD as significant determinants of BK-F-induced changes in predialysis FPe (beta=0.720 and 0.286, respectively). Our study shows that long-term standard diffusive hemodialysis with BK-F membrane reduces predialysis PBPe and FPe levels by comparison with LF-HD, largely due to a greater intradialytic clearance of PBPe. Serum albumin is also reduced without any associated changes in nutritional status markers. The study also suggests that the effect of BK-F-HD in lowering PBPe levels is modulated by the body burden of pentosidine and is blunted or even lost in the presence of elevated CRP levels.

  11. Interaction between geriatric nutritional risk index and decoy receptor 3 predicts mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Tsun; Hu, Fen-Hsiang; Lien, Tse-Jen; Chen, Ping-Jen; Huang, Tung-Po; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2014-01-01

    Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is common and associated with poor outcome in hemodialysis patients. In hemodialysis patients, geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) and decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) have been shown as the nutritional and inflammatory markers, respectively. The present study aimed to assess the predictive ability of GNRI and DcR3 for PEW status and long-term outcomes in chronic hemodialysis patients. A prospective cohort of 318 hemodialysis patients was conducted with a median follow-up of 54 months. Malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) was used as the reference standard for the presence of PEW. Endpoints were cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Baseline GNRI had a strong negative correlation with DcR3 and MIS score. For patients with age < or ≥60, high DcR3 and low GNRI were independent predictors for the presence of PEW at baseline. At the end of the study, 81 patients died (27 cardiovascular deaths). The adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of low GNRI and high DcR3 were 1.93 (1.1-4.8) and 2.53 (1.2-5.5) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.85 (1.1-3.2) and 2.37 (1.5-3.7) for all-cause mortality, respectively. While integrated into a model of conventional risk factors, GNRI together with DcR3 further significantly improved the predictability for overall mortality (c statistic, 0.823). Low GNRI and high DcR3 were the alternatives for identifying hemodialysis patients at risk of PEW and overall mortality. Further studies are needed to verify whether timely recognition of hemodialysis patients with a high malnutrition-inflammation risk could reduce their mortality by appropriate interventional strategies.

  12. Inflammation but not dietary macronutrients insufficiency associated with the malnutrition-inflammation score in hemodialysis population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Peng, Hongquan; Xiao, Long; Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Zhimin; Chen, Jianping; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition is associated with increased risk of mortality in hemodialysis patients. And insufficient dietary intake is the common cause for malnutrition. So, in order to survey the dietary intake of hemodialysis patients and study the relationship between the dietary feature and nutritional status, a cross-sectional study was performed. 75 hemodialysis patients from South China participated in the dietary intake survey and nutrition assessment. A three-day diet diary record was used to estimate the major dietary macronutrients. Nutritional status was assessed by malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) in addition to several related anthropometric measurements. Serum albumin, transferrin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to quantify the assessing value of independent parameters for nutritional status. The results showed that 48% patients were malnourished according to the MIS. The malnourished patients had a lower body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), albumin and a higher level of CRP, compared with normal nourished patients (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences of macronutrients (calories, protein, fat, carbohydrates, etc) were found between the two nutrition groups (P > 0.05). The multivariate regression analysis showed that the major macronutrients had no significant association with MIS (P > 0.05). In conclusion, malnutrition is very common in South China hemodialysis population and these data indicated that inflammation but not dietary macronutrients insufficiency might be the candidate cause for malnutrition in hemodialysis population.

  13. Inflammation but Not Dietary Macronutrients Insufficiency Associated with the Malnutrition-Inflammation Score in Hemodialysis Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kun; Yuan, Zhimin; Chen, Jianping; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Jingfeng; Huang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition is associated with increased risk of mortality in hemodialysis patients. And insufficient dietary intake is the common cause for malnutrition. So, in order to survey the dietary intake of hemodialysis patients and study the relationship between the dietary feature and nutritional status, a cross-sectional study was performed. 75 hemodialysis patients from South China participated in the dietary intake survey and nutrition assessment. A three-day diet diary record was used to estimate the major dietary macronutrients. Nutritional status was assessed by malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS) in addition to several related anthropometric measurements. Serum albumin, transferrin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to quantify the assessing value of independent parameters for nutritional status. The results showed that 48% patients were malnourished according to the MIS. The malnourished patients had a lower body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), albumin and a higher level of CRP, compared with normal nourished patients (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences of macronutrients (calories, protein, fat, carbohydrates, etc) were found between the two nutrition groups (P > 0.05). The multivariate regression analysis showed that the major macronutrients had no significant association with MIS (P > 0.05). In conclusion, malnutrition is very common in South China hemodialysis population and these data indicated that inflammation but not dietary macronutrients insufficiency might be the candidate cause for malnutrition in hemodialysis population. PMID:24349471

  14. Second-Degree Interatrial Block in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Enriquez, Andres; D'Amato, Anna; de Luna, Antoni Bayes; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Interatrial conduction delays manifest as a prolonged P-wave duration on surface ECG and the term interatrial block (IAB) has been coined. They are usually fixed, but cases of intermittent IAB have been described, suggesting functional conduction block at the Bachmann bundle region. We report 2 cases of patients on chronic hemodialysis therapy presenting with intermittent IAB. PMID:25755895

  15. Factors associated with self-management by people undergoing hemodialysis: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Jiang, Ya-Fang; Lin, Chiu-Chu

    2014-02-01

    Improving the level of self-management by people undergoing hemodialysis is an effective way to reduce the incidence of mortality and complications and improve quality of life. A better understanding of what influences an individual's level of self-management can help nurses find appropriate ways to improve self-management. To examine self-management levels, and discuss the factors influencing self-management, in a sample of patients undergoing hemodialysis in Beijing. A descriptive study design was chosen. A convenience sample of 216 patients undergoing hemodialysis was recruited from dialysis centers in three tertiary hospitals in Beijing from September 2010 to January 2011. Questionnaires were used to examine the variables: level of self-management; knowledge of hemodialysis; self-efficacy; anxiety and depression; and social support. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, including frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviations, while Spearman correlation, non-parametric Z and χ(2) and multiple linear regression were used for comparative purposes. The number of returned questionnaires was 198 (91.67% response rate). The overall score of self-management was 56.01 (SD=10.75). The average item scores for each of the four self-management subscales were 3.02 for partnership, 2.98 for problem-solving skills, 2.74 for self-care and 2.47 for emotional management. Multiple linear regression analyses for overall self-management and the four subscales indicated that knowledge, self-efficacy, the availability of social support and depression were the main influencing factors which explained 34.1% of the variance of self-management. The level of self-management by those undergoing hemodialysis in this study was less than ideal, varying from 'rare' to 'sometimes' for use of self-management behaviors. For the different subscales of self-management, partnership was the most used and emotional management the least used strategy. Patients' knowledge, self

  16. The effect of acupressure on the level of fatigue in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Eğlence, Rabiye; Karataş, Nimet; Taşci, Sultan

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue is one problem that is seen in high numbers in hemodialysis patients. Fatigue decreases quality of life by negatively affecting an individual's daily performance, activities, professional life, relations with family and friends, and treatment process. This study was carried out to determine the effect of acupressure on the level of fatigue in hemodialysis patients. The study was conducted as experimental research with an acupressure (intervention) group and a control group. The research, for which an ethics committee's approval and institutional permission was obtained, was conducted in two central provinces of Turkey, Nevşehir and Aksaray, at two hemodialysis centers with similar characteristics. The research was completed with a total of 118 participants (52 in the intervention group and 66 in the control group) who met the inclusion criteria. A total of 12 acupressure sessions, 3 ×/wk for 1 mo, were performed for all participants in the intervention group, as required by the acupressure application protocol, applying acupressure at the Stomach 36 (ST-36), Gallbladder 34 (GB-34), Spleen 6 (SP-6), and Kidney 1 (K-1) acupuncture points with a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) acupuncture pen (XFT-320 acupuncture pen, Shenzhen Xunfegtong Electronics Co, Ltd, Shenzhen, China). A visual analog scale (VAS) for fatigue and the Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS) were used to evaluate the fatigue level of the participants before and after the acupressure application. After the acupressure applications for 1 mo, the subscale and total fatigue scores for the VAS (P < .001) and PFS were lower (P < .05) for participants in the intervention group compared to the controls, except for the cognitive subscale on the PFS (P < .05). The study found that acupressure, applied using an acupuncture pen, was effective in decreasing fatigue in hemodialysis patients. Based on this result, the current research team suggests that hemodialysis patients and nurses should be

  17. Extracorporeal CO2 removal by hemodialysis: in vitro model and feasibility.

    PubMed

    May, Alexandra G; Sen, Ayan; Cove, Matthew E; Kellum, John A; Federspiel, William J

    2017-12-01

    Critically ill patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease often develop hypercapnia and require mechanical ventilation. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal can manage hypercarbia by removing carbon dioxide directly from the bloodstream. Respiratory hemodialysis uses traditional hemodialysis to remove CO 2 from the blood, mainly as bicarbonate. In this study, Stewart's approach to acid-base chemistry was used to create a dialysate that would maintain blood pH while removing CO 2 as well as determine the blood and dialysate flow rates necessary to remove clinically relevant CO 2 volumes. Bench studies were performed using a scaled down respiratory hemodialyzer in bovine or porcine blood. The scaling factor for the bench top experiments was 22.5. In vitro dialysate flow rates ranged from 2.2 to 24 mL/min (49.5-540 mL/min scaled up) and blood flow rates were set at 11 and 18.7 mL/min (248-421 mL/min scaled up). Blood inlet CO 2 concentrations were set at 50 and 100 mmHg. Results are reported as scaled up values. The CO 2 removal rate was highest at intermittent hemodialysis blood and dialysate flow rates. At an inlet pCO 2 of 50 mmHg, the CO 2 removal rate increased from 62.6 ± 4.8 to 77.7 ± 3 mL/min when the blood flow rate increased from 248 to 421 mL/min. At an inlet pCO 2 of 100 mmHg, the device was able to remove up to 117.8 ± 3.8 mL/min of CO 2 . None of the test conditions caused the blood pH to decrease, and increases were ≤0.08. When the bench top data is scaled up, the system removes a therapeutic amount of CO 2 standard intermittent hemodialysis flow rates. The zero bicarbonate dialysate did not cause acidosis in the post-dialyzer blood. These results demonstrate that, with further development, respiratory hemodialysis can be a minimally invasive extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal treatment option.

  18. Cognitive Decline and Its Risk Factors in Prevalent Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Drew, David A; Weiner, Daniel E; Tighiouart, Hocine; Duncan, Sarah; Gupta, Aditi; Scott, Tammy; Sarnak, Mark J

    2017-06-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in patients treated with hemodialysis. The trajectory of cognitive function and risk factors for cognitive decline remain uncertain in this population. Longitudinal cohort. 314 prevalent hemodialysis patients. Age, sex, race, education level, hemodialysis vintage, cause of end-stage renal disease, and baseline history of cardiovascular disease. Cognitive function as determined by a comprehensive neurocognitive battery, administered at baseline and yearly when possible. Individual cognitive test results were reduced into 2 domain scores using principal components analysis, representing memory and executive function, which were used as our coprimary outcomes and by definition have a mean of zero and SD of 1. Mean age was 63 years; 54% were men, 22% were black, and 90% had at least a high school education. During a median follow-up of 2.1 (IQR, 0.9-4.2) years, 196 had at least 1 follow-up test, 156 died, and 43 received a kidney transplant. Linear mixed models and joint models, which accounted for competing risks from death, dropout, or kidney transplantation, showed nearly identical results. The joint model demonstrated a decline in executive function (-0.09 [95% CI, -0.13 to -0.05] SD per year), whereas memory improved slightly (0.05 [95% CI, 0.02 to 0.08] SD per year). A significant yearly decline was also seen in the Mini-Mental State Examination score (median change, -0.41; 95% CI, -0.57 to -0.25). Older age was the only significant risk factor for steeper executive function decline (-0.04 [95% CI, -0.06 to -0.02] SD steeper annual decline for each 10 years of age). Prevalent hemodialysis patients only, limited follow-up testing due to high mortality rate, and exclusion of participants with severe cognitive deficits or dementia. Prevalent hemodialysis patients demonstrate significant cognitive decline, particularly within tests of executive function. Older age was the only statistically significant risk factor for steeper

  19. Hemodialysis Adequacy Monitoring Information System: Minimum Data Set and Capabilities Required.

    PubMed

    Jebraeily, Mohamad; Ghazisaeidi, Marjan; Safdari, Reza; Makhdoomi, Khadijeh; Rahimi, Bahlol

    2015-08-01

    In dialysis centers both nephrologists and nurses are faced with the challenge of ensuring reliable and efficient care accordance with the clinical guideline. Hemodialysis adequacy monitoring information system therefore enable the automation of tasks, which ultimately allows doctors and nursing staff more time to dedicate to the individual treatment of patients. Development of the information systems in healthcare has made the use of the Minimum data set inevitable. The purpose of this study was determined MDS and capabilities required in hemodialysis adequacy monitoring information system. This is a cross-sectional survey conducted with participation of 320 nephrology specialists in 2015. Data were collected using an electronic questionnaire which was estimated as both reliable and valid. The data were analyzed by SPSS software descriptive statistics and analytical statistics. Overall 42 data elements were determined as final set in 4 major categories (patient demographics, medical history, treatment plan and hemodialysis adequacy). The most capabilities required of hemodialysis information system were related to calculate of dialysis adequacy Index (4.80), advice optimal dose of dialysis for each patient (4.63), Easy access to information system without restrictions of time and place (4.61), providing alerts when dialysis adequacy index below the standard (4.55) and Interchange to other information systems in hospitals (4.46) respectively. In design and implementation of information systems focus on MDS and identification IS capabilities based on the users' needs, due to the wide participation users and also the success of the information system. Therefore it is necessary that MDS evaluated carefully with regard to the intended uses of the data. Also information systems based on capabilities the ability to meet the needs of their users.

  20. Vascular access in patients receiving hemodialysis in Libya.

    PubMed

    Alashek, Wiam A; McIntyre, Christopher W; Taal, Maarten W

    2012-01-01

    A native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) represents the optimal form of Vascular Access (VA) for patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). In Libya there are several barriers to AVF creation including lack of adequate preparation for dialysis and surgical services. We aimed to conduct the first comprehensive study of VA utilisation in HD patients in Libya. A prospective observational study included all adult patients receiving HD treatment in 25 HD facilities in Libya from May 2009 to Nov 2011. Researchers gathered data regarding VA through interviews with staff and patients as well as medical records. Patients with definitive VA were re-interviewed after 1 year. At baseline the majority of patients (91.9%; n=1573) were using permanent VA in the form of AVF or arteriovenous graft. Patients with permanent VA were more likely to be male and less likely to be diabetic than those with CVCs. Most patients had commenced HD using a temporary CVC (91.8%). VA-related complications were: thrombosis (46.7%), aneurysm (22.6%), infection (11.5%) and haemorrhage (10.2%). Incident VA thrombosis was reported by 14.7% in 1 year. Independent risk factors for incident thrombosis were female gender and diabetes. Hospitalisation for VA related complications was reported by 31.4%. Few patients in Libya initiate HD with definitive VA, but most achieve it thereafter. Improved dialysis preparation and increased provision of surgical services are required to increase the proportion of patients initiating HD with definitive VA and should be a priority in rebuilding health services in Libya after the recent conflict.

  1. Non-native Ants Are Smaller than Related Native Ants.

    PubMed

    McGlynn, Terrence P

    1999-12-01

    I compare the sizes of non-native and native ants to evaluate how worker size may be related to the ability of a species to invade new habitats. I compare the size of 78 non-native ant species belonging to 26 genera with the size of native congeneric species; native ants are larger than non-native ants in 22 of 26 genera. Ants were sorted by genera into fighting and nonfighting groups, based on observations of interspecific interactions with other ant species. In all of the genera with monomorphic worker castes that fight during competition, the non-native species were smaller than the native species. The genera that engage in combat had a higher frequency of significantly smaller size in non-native ants. I selected Wasmannia auropunctata for further studies, to compare native and non-native populations. Specimens of W. auropunctata from non-native populations were smaller than conspecific counterparts from its native habitat. I consider hypotheses to explain why non-native ants are smaller in size than native ants, including the role of colony size in interspecific fights, changes in life history, the release from intraspecific fighting, and climate. The discovery that fighting non-natives are smaller than their closest native relatives may provide insight into the mechanisms for success of non-native species, as well as the role of worker size and colony size during interspecific competition.

  2. Previous PICC Placement May Be Associated With Catheter-Related Infections in Hemodialysis Patients

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Butler, Philip J., E-mail: philip.butler@yale.edu; Sood, Shreya; Mojibian, Hamid

    2011-02-15

    Background: Catheter-related infections (CRIs) are a significant source of morbidity and mortality in hemodialysis patients. The identification of novel, modifiable risk factors for CRIs may lead to improved outcomes in this population. Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) have been hypothesized to compromise vascular access due to vascular damage and venous thrombosis, whereas venous thrombosis has been linked to the development of CRIs. Here we examine the association between PICC placement and CRIs. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all chronic hemodialysis catheter placements and exchanges performed at a large university hospital from September 2003 to September 2008. History ofmore » PICC line use was determined by examining hospital radiologic records from December 1993 to September 2008. Catheter-related complications were assessed and correlated with PICC line history. Results: One hundred eighty-five patients with 713 chronic tunneled hemodialysis catheter placements were identified. Thirty-eight of those patients (20.5%) had a history of PICC placement; these patients were more likely to have CRIs (odds ratio = 2.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.71-3.53, p < .001) compared with patients without a history of PICC placement. There was no difference between the two groups in age or number of catheters placed. Conclusion: Previous PICC placement may be associated with catheter-related infections in hemodialysis patients.« less

  3. Left Lateral Sectionectomy of the Native Liver and Combined Living-Related Liver–Kidney Transplantation for Primary Hyperoxaluria Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guo-Yong; Wei, Si-Dong; Zou, Zhong-Wu; Tang, Gao-Feng; Sun, Jian-Jun; Zhou, Shao-Tang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Primary hyperoxaluria type I (PH1), the most severe form of primary hyperoxalurias, is a liver disease of the metabolic defect in glyoxylate detoxification that can be corrected by liver transplantation. A 21-year-old man presented to our center after 4 months of regular hemodialysis for kidney failure caused by nephrolithiasis. A diagnosis of PH1 was confirmed by mutations of the AGXT gene. Left lateral sectionectomy of the native liver was performed; and auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation (APOLT) and kidney transplantation were carried out synchronously using a living donor. After transplantation, the patient's plasma oxalate and creatinine levels substantially decreased and the patient recovered well with good dual grafts function. APOLT and kidney transplantation can compensate the liver deficient in liver enzyme production and aid the renal elimination of oxalate, thus serving as an effective treatment option for patients with PH1. In conclusion, left lateral sectionectomy of the native liver and combined living-related liver–kidney transplantation can be a surgical option for PH1. PMID:26252291

  4. Prolonged hypophosphatemia following parathyroidectomy in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Altun, Eda; Paydas, Saime; Kaya, Bulent; Balal, Mustafa

    2015-09-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common problem in patients with end-stage renal disease. In cases with severe and resistant SHPT, surgical parathyroidectomy (PTX) is recommended. Hungry bone syndrome (HBS) following surgical PTX is most often associated with hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia. The mechanisms for the HBS are not clear, and a method for its prevention has not been established. We present three hemodialysis patients with persistant hypophosphatemia after PTX. In our parathyroidectomized patients, hypocalcemia could be corrected with calcium and vitamin D treatment, but hypophosphatemia continued for eight months in one patient and in two other patients until the last visit (10 and 2 months, respectively). Predisposing factors such as old age, diabetes mellitus and parathyroid adenoma were not found in our patients. All three patients were younger (<35 years old) and anuric. Hemodialysis durations were seven, three and two years. In summary, HBS presented with hypocalcemia, and especially hypophosphatemia cannot be developed uncommonly and may persist for a long time following PTX in HD patients.

  5. Retrieval of large Occlutech Figula Flex septal defect occluders using a commercially available bioptome: proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Stanimir; Tanase, Daniel; Genz, Thomas; Ewert, Peter; Naumann, Susanne; Pozza, Robert Dalla; Eicken, Andreas

    2018-07-01

    This study aimed to develop a method for retrieval of the new meshed nitinol atrial septal defect occluders - Ceraflex and Occlutech. The newly developed atrial septal defect occluders have potential benefits considering implantation, but concerns regarding their removal in case of embolisation have been raised. Over 21 years, 1449 patients underwent interventional atrial septal defect occlusion in our institution. We reviewed the cases of embolisation of the device, developed a strategy for device removal, and tested it on the benchside and in animal tests. In 11 patients (0.8%), the intended atrial septal defect occlusion was complicated by an embolisation of the device. In contrast to the Amplatzer septal occluders, retrieval of Occlutech devices larger than 16 mm with snare techniques was impossible. In benchside tests, this was confirmed and a new method for removal of large meshed devices was developed. This involved the commercially available Maslanka® biopsy forceps. The feasibility of this technique in vivo was tested in a pig model. During animal tests, using the Maslanka biopsy forceps it was possible to interventionally retrieve embolised Ceraflex and Occlutech devices of different sizes - 10, 16, 30, and 40 mm - into a 12-F sheath. It was impossible to retrieve Occlutech and Ceraflex devices larger than 16 mm into a large sheath in vivo and during benchside tests. However, this was feasible on the bench and in vivo using the Maslanka biopsy forceps even with the largest available devices.

  6. Percutaneous Catheterization of the Internal Jugular Vein for Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Yeum, Chung Ho; Kim, Soo Wan; Nah, Myong Yun; Ma, Seong Kwon; Ko, Jung Hee; Kim, Nam Ho; Choi, Ki Chul

    2001-01-01

    Objectives The present study was aimed at evaluating the clinical experiences in the internal jugular venous catheterization for hemodialysis. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the data on internal jugular venous catheterization at Chonnam National University Hospital from May 2000 to Februrary 2001. Results There were 132 uremic patients with a total of 150 attempts of internal jugular cannulation. Overall success rate was 90.9% with average puncture trials of 2.3±2.1. 124 (82.7%) of the catheterization attempts were made on the right side and 26 (17.3%) were made on the left. The catheters were left in place from 2 to 87 days with an average of 19.5±15.3 days per catheter. The dialysis sessions per catheter were from 2 to 58 with an average of 11.3±6.8. The mean blood flow during hemodialysis immediately after catheterization was 213.4±42.2 ml/min. Thirty two (21.3%) patients had early complications. These included carotid artery puncture (11.3%), local bleeding (4.7%), local pain (3.3%), neck hematoma (0.7%) and malposition of the catheter (1.3%). Seventeen (11.3%) patients had late complications. These included fever or infection (11.3%), inadequate blood flow rate (3.3%) and inadvertent withdrawal (2.0%). There was no catheter-related mortality. Conclusions Our experiences revealed that the internal jugular vein catheterization is relatively safe and efficient for temporary vascular access for hemodialysis. PMID:11855153

  7. Rhythmic neural activity indicates the contribution of attention and memory to the processing of occluded movements in 10-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Bache, Cathleen; Kopp, Franziska; Springer, Anne; Stadler, Waltraud; Lindenberger, Ulman; Werkle-Bergner, Markus

    2015-11-01

    Infants possess the remarkable capacity to perceive occluded movements as ongoing and coherent. Little is known about the neural mechanisms that enable internal representation of conspecifics' and inanimate objects' movements during visual occlusion. In this study, 10-month-old infants watched briefly occluded human and object movements. Prior to occlusion, continuous and distorted versions of the movement were shown. EEG recordings were used to assess neural activity assumed to relate to processes of attention (occipital alpha), memory (frontal theta), and sensorimotor simulation (central alpha) before, during, and after occlusion. Oscillatory activity was analyzed using an individualized data approach taking idiosyncrasies into account. Results for occipital alpha were consistent with infants' preference for attending to social stimuli. Furthermore, frontal theta activity was more pronounced when tracking distorted as opposed to continuous movement, and when maintaining object as opposed to human movement. Central alpha did not discriminate between experimental conditions. In sum, we conclude that observing occluded movements recruits processes of attention and memory which are modulated by stimulus and movement properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Outcome of aortic valve replacement for active infective endocarditis in patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Dohmen, Pascal M; Binner, Christian; Mende, Meinhart; Bakhtiary, Farhad; Etz, Christian; Pfannmüller, Bettina; Davierwala, Piroze; Borger, Michael A; Misfeld, Martin; Mohr, Friedrich W

    2015-02-01

    The high risk of morbidity and mortality for patients on hemodialysis who are undergoing cardiac surgery is increased for those with active infective endocarditis (AIE). This retrospective observational single-center study evaluated the impact of chronic hemodialysis on the outcome of aortic valve replacement in patients with aortic AIE. Data were retrospectively collected for consecutive patients undergoing aortic valve surgery for AIE diagnosed according to modified Duke criteria between October 1994 and January 2011. Characteristics and outcomes of patients receiving preoperative chronic hemodialysis were analyzed. Aortic valve AIE was present in 992 patients. Forty-five (4.5%) of the aortic valve AIE patients were receiving long-term hemodialysis preoperatively, 19 of whom (42.2%) had diabetes mellitus. Mean logistic EuroSCORE was 64.2% ± 32.2%. Twenty-four preoperative septic emboli were found in 15 patients. Results of microbiologic cultures were positive in 36 patients, with the major causative organisms identified as Staphylococcus aureus (n = 17) and Enterococcus faecalis (n = 10). Isolated aortic valve replacement was performed in 19 patients (42.2%), and 26 patients (57.8%) underwent concomitant procedures. The mean follow-up was 5.3 ± 5.2 years (range, 0.1 to 17.1 years). Postoperative complications occurred in 30 patients (66.7%). Nineteen patients (42.2%) died within 30 days of surgery, which in 8 patients was attributable to a cardiac cause. In patients receiving chronic hemodialysis who undergo aortic valve replacement for acute AIE, postoperative mortality is high, especially in patients undergoing aortic root replacement or culture-negative AIE. Copyright © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. HFE gene mutation is a risk factor for tissue iron accumulation in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Turkmen, Ercan; Yildirim, Tolga; Yilmaz, Rahmi; Hazirolan, Tuncay; Eldem, Gonca; Yilmaz, Engin; Aybal Kutlugun, Aysun; Altindal, Mahmut; Altun, Bulent

    2017-07-01

    HFE gene mutations are responsible from iron overload in general population. Studies in hemodialysis patients investigated the effect of presence of HFE gene mutations on serum ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) with conflicting results. However effect of HFE mutations on iron overload in hemodialysis patients was not previously extensively studied. 36 hemodialysis patients (age 51.3 ± 15.6, (18/18) male/female) and 44 healthy control subjects included in this cross sectional study. Hemoglobin, ferritin, TSAT in the preceding 2 years were recorded. Iron and erythropoietin (EPO) administered during this period were calculated. Iron accumulation in heart and liver was detected by MRI. Relationship between HFE gene mutation, hemoglobin, iron parameters and EPO doses, and tissue iron accumulation were determined. Iron overload was detected in nine (25%) patients. Hemoglobin, iron parameters, weekly EPO doses, and monthly iron doses of patients with and without iron overload were similar. There was no difference between control group and hemodialysis patients with respect to the prevalence of HFE gene mutations. Iron overload was detected in five of eight patients who had HFE gene mutations, but iron overload was present in 4 of 28 patients who had no mutations (P = 0.01). Hemoglobin, iron parameters, erythropoietin, and iron doses were similar in patients with and without gene mutations. HFE gene mutations remained the main determinant of iron overload after multivariate logistic regression analysis (P = 0.02; OR, 11.6). Serum iron parameters were not adequate to detect iron overload and HFE gene mutation was found to be an important risk factor for iron accumulation. © 2017 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  10. In Vitro Ability of a Novel Nanohydroxyapatite Oral Rinse to Occlude Dentine Tubules

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Robert G.; Chen, Xiaohui; Gillam, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the study was to investigate the ability of a novel nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) desensitizing oral rinse to occlude dentine tubules compared to selected commercially available desensitizing oral rinses. Methods. 25 caries-free extracted molars were sectioned into 1 mm thick dentine discs. The dentine discs (n = 25) were etched with 6% citric acid for 2 minutes and rinsed with distilled water, prior to a 30-second application of test and control oral rinses. Evaluation was by (1) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of the dentine surface and (2) fluid flow measurements through a dentine disc. Results. Most of the oral rinses failed to adequately cover the dentine surface apart from the nHa oral rinse. However the hydroxyapatite, 1.4% potassium oxalate, and arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinses, appeared to be relatively more effective than the nHA test and negative control rinses (potassium nitrate) in relation to a reduction in fluid flow measurements. Conclusions. Although the novel nHA oral rinse demonstrated the ability to occlude the dentine tubules and reduce the fluid flow measurements, some of the other oral rinses appeared to demonstrate a statistically significant reduction in fluid flow through the dentine disc, in particular the arginine/PVM/MA copolymer oral rinse. PMID:26161093

  11. The effects of aromatherapy on pruritus in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ro, You-Ja; Ha, Hyae-Chung; Kim, Chun-Gill; Yeom, Hye-A

    2002-08-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of aromatherapy on pruritus in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis. The participants were 29 adult patients living in Seoul, Korea. Thirteen patients were assigned to the experimental group and received the aromatherapy massage on the arm 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Pruritus score, skin pH, stratum corneum hydration, and pruritus-related biochemical markers were measured before and after the treatment. The results showed that pruritus score was significantly decreased after aromatherapy. Skin pH showed no significant changes in either group while stratum corneum hydration increased significantly in the experimental group after aromatherapy. The results support the use aromatherapy as a useful and effective method of managing pruritus in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

  12. Self-Efficacy and Blood Pressure Self-Care Behaviors in Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Kauric-Klein, Zorica; Peters, Rosalind M; Yarandi, Hossein N

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the effects of an educative, self-regulation intervention on blood pressure self-efficacy, self-care outcomes, and blood pressure control in adults receiving hemodialysis. Simple randomization was done at the hemodialysis unit level. One hundred eighteen participants were randomized to usual care ( n = 59) or intervention group ( n = 59). The intervention group received blood pressure education sessions and 12 weeks of individual counseling on self-regulation of blood pressure, fluid, and salt intake. There was no significant increase in self-efficacy scores within ( F = .55, p = .46) or between groups at 12 weeks ( F = 2.76, p = .10). Although the intervention was not successful, results from the total sample ( N = 118) revealed that self-efficacy was significantly related to a number of self-care outcomes including decreased salt intake, lower interdialytic weight gain, increased adherence to blood pressure medications, and fewer missed hemodialysis appointments. Increased blood pressure self-efficacy was also associated with lower diastolic blood pressure.

  13. Burnout Syndrome Among Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis Nurses.

    PubMed

    Karakoc, Ayten; Yilmaz, Murvet; Alcalar, Nilufer; Esen, Bennur; Kayabasi, Hasan; Sit, Dede

    2016-11-01

    Burnout, a syndrome with 3 dimensions of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduction of personal accomplishment, is very common among hemodialysis nurses, while data are scarce regarding the prevalence of burnout syndrome (BS) among peritoneal dialysis (PD) nurses. This study aimed to assess and compare demographic and professional characteristics and burnout levels in hemodialysis and PD nurses, and to investigate factors that increase the level of burnout in dialysis nurses. A total of 171 nurses from 44 dialysis centers in Turkey were included in a cross-sectional survey study. Data were collected using a questionnaire defining the social and demographic characteristics and working conditions of the nurses as well as the Maslach Burnout Inventory for assessment of burnout level. There was no significant difference in the level of burnout between the hemodialysis and PD nurses groups. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization scores were higher among the shift workers, nurses who had problems in interactions with the other team members, and those who wanted to leave the unit, as well as the nurses who would not attend training programs. In addition, male sex, younger age, limited working experience, more than 50 hours of working per week, and working in dialysis not by choice were associated with higher depersonalization scores. Personal accomplishment score was lower among the younger nurses who had problems in their interactions with the doctors, who would not regularly attend training programs, and who felt being medically inadequate. Improving working conditions and relations among colleagues, and also providing further dialysis education are necessary for minimizing burnout syndrome. Burnout reduction programs should mainly focus on younger professionals.

  14. Variables associated with time of recovery after hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Bossola, Maurizio; Di Stasio, Enrico; Antocicco, Manuela; Silvestri, Patrizia; Tazza, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship among time of recovery after hemodialysis (TIRD) and the demographic, social, clinical and laboratory characteristics of hemodialysis patients of a Mediterranean country. One hundred hemodialysis patients were invited to answer the following question: "How long does it take you to recover from a dialysis session?" Demographic, clinical (Charlson Comorbidity Index [CCI], Mini-Mental State