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Sample records for occult papillary thyroid

  1. Solitary hemorrhagic cerebellar metastasis from occult papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lecumberri, Beatriz; Alvarez-Escolá, Cristina; Martín-Vaquero, Pilar; Nistal, Manuel; Martín, Virginia; Riesco-Eizaguirre, Garcilaso; Sosa, Grevelyn; Pallardo, Luis Felipe

    2010-05-01

    Cerebellar metastasis (CM) from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is exceptional with only 12 reported cases and usually carries a very poor prognosis. In the two previously reported patients in whom CM was detected before PTC, other distant or local metastases were already present by the time of PTC diagnosis. We report a patient found to have papillary thyroid microcarcinoma after surgical resection and histopathological study of a large solitary hemorrhagic CM, who showed no evidence of other metastatic sites and survived 7 years after initial diagnosis. A 65-year-old female patient with a history of surgical resection of a 7-cm cerebellar mass diagnosed with PTC metastasis, and adjuvant treatment with cranial external radiotherapy, was referred to us. The neck ultrasonography showed a solitary 4-mm right thyroid nodule. Histopathology after total thyroidectomy revealed a 2-mm papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, sclerosing variant, with capsule infiltration but no regional lymph node invasion. Although she received a total dose of 500 mCi of 131-I after surgery and the last two whole-body scans were normal, serum thyroglobulin levels progressively increased. The patient refused any further test or treatment other than basal blood sampling and suppressive therapy with levothyroxine and remained stable for 4 years until she started to complain about deviation of her walk. A computed tomography scan showed a regrowth of the metastasis. She suffered a sudden worsening of her neurological status because of a big intratumoral hemorrhage that required decompressive craniectomy and hematoma evacuation surviving 3 years more after this episode. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a solitary CM from an occult PTC, and also the first that developed an acute cerebellar hemorrhage years after cranial surgery, however, exhibiting the longest reported survival. This case highlights the importance of not only an appropriate initial treatment of the CM and primary

  2. Occult Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Metastasis to the Sacrum and the Skull: An Unusual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Jouhar, Fatima S.; Quadri, Asif; Afandi, Bachar; Al Rawi, Sadir

    2014-01-01

    This case represents occult follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) with large metastasis to the sacrum. The patient, a 42-year-old female, presented after hemithyroidectomy for benign follicular adenoma with lower back pain associated with fever and sweating. A lytic lesion of the left sacral bone was found on the CT with biopsy showing metastatic carcinoma with morphology and immunophenotype of thyroid gland primary tumor proven to be FVPTC. The patient had completion thyroidectomy with benign pathology. PMID:25544844

  3. Occult multifocal papillary thyroid microcarcinoma presenting as a supraclavicular mass containing anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Deutschmann, Michael; Khalil, Moosa; Bhayana, Shelly; Chandarana, Shamir

    2013-04-01

    There are reports in the literature of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in cervical lymph nodes with evidence of only papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland. There have been no cases of this clinical scenario with only papillary microcarcinoma in the thyroid gland. We describe the case of a 60-year-old man who initially presented with an enlarged right, level 5, supraclavicular lymph node. Initial fine-needle aspiration demonstrated evidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The final pathologic finding in the thyroid gland showed only multiple foci of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. The index neck mass showed evidence of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. This is the first instance in the literature in which anaplastic thyroid carcinoma has appeared in metastatic cervical lymph nodes with only a focus of papillary microcarcinoma in the thyroid gland. With this case, we hope to build awareness of this rare finding.

  4. Adult onset Still's disease diagnosed concomitantly with occult papillary thyroid cancer: paraneoplastic manifestation or coincidence?

    PubMed

    Ahn, Joong Kyong; Oh, Ji-Min; Lee, Jaejoon; Kim, Sun Wook; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Koh, Eun-Mi

    2010-02-01

    Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, characterized by spiking fever, evanescent salmon pink maculopapular rash, arthritis, and leukocytosis with neutrophilia. Malignant lymphoma is one of the most important differential diagnoses of AOSD. AOSD has been reported as one of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with breast cancer. We report a rare case of occult papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) diagnosed coincidently with AOSD. A 32-year-old woman was diagnosed with AOSD according to the diagnostic criteria of Yamaguchi as follows: leukocytosis with neutrophilia, high fever with 39 degrees C and above, arthralgia/arthritis, sore throat, liver dysfunctions, and lymphadenopathy. Excisional biopsy of cervical lymph node showed metastatic papillary carcinoma, and immunohistochemical staining for thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor-1 was strongly positive. There was no evidence of focal lesion in the thyroid glands. To our knowledge, this is the first report of adult onset Still's disease diagnosed concomitantly with occult PTC.

  5. Occult Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma, a Thickened Pituitary Stalk and Diabetes Insipidus.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Michael S; Gordon, Murray B

    2016-01-01

    Etiologies of a thickened stalk include inflammatory, neoplastic, and idiopathic origins, and the underlying diagnosis may remain occult. We report a patient with a thickened pituitary stalk (TPS) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) whose diagnosis remained obscure until a skin lesion appeared. The patient presented with PTC, status postthyroidectomy, and I(131) therapy. PTC molecular testing revealed BRAF mutant (V600E, GTC>GAG). She had a 5-year history of polyuria/polydipsia. Overnight dehydration study confirmed diabetes insipidus (DI). MRI revealed TPS with loss of the posterior pituitary bright spot. Evaluation showed hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and low IGF-1. Chest X-ray and ACE levels were normal. Radiographs to evaluate for extrapituitary sites of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) were unremarkable. Germinoma studies were negative: normal serum and CSF beta-hCG, alpha-fetoprotein, and CEA. Three years later, the patient developed vulvar labial lesions followed by inguinal region skin lesions, biopsy of which revealed LCH. Reanalysis of thyroid pathology was consistent with concurrent LCH, PTC, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis within the thyroid. This case illustrates that one must be vigilant for extrapituitary manifestations of systemic diseases to diagnose the etiology of TPS. An activating mutation of the protooncogene BRAF is a potential unifying etiology of both PTC and LCH.

  6. Does preoperative neutrophil lymphocyte ratio predict risk of recurrence and occult central nodal metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Lang, Brian Hung-Hin; Ng, Cathy Po-Ching; Au, Kin Bun; Wong, Kai Pun; Wong, Kandy K C; Wan, Koon Yat

    2014-10-01

    Preoperative neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) might be prognostic in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Given the controversy of prophylactic central neck dissection (pCND) in clinically nodal-negative (cN0) PTC, our study evaluated whether preoperative NLR predicted disease-free survival (DFS) and occult central nodal metastasis (CNM) in cN0 PTC. A total of 191 patients who underwent pCND were analyzed. Complete blood counts with differential counts were taken before operation. NLR was calculated by dividing preoperative neutrophil count with lymphocyte count. Patients were categorized into NLR tertiles: first (NLR < 1.93; n = 63), second (NLR = 1.93-2.79; n = 64), and third tertile (NLR > 2.79; n = 64). Four other patient types, namely, benign nodular goiter, clinically nodal-positive (cN1) PTC, poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), were used as references. Age at operation (p < 0.001) and tumor size (p = 0.037) significantly increased with higher NLR. First tertile had significantly more TNM stage I tumors (p = 0.01) and lowest MACIS score (p = 0.002). Tumor size [hazard ratio (HR) 1.422, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.119-1.809, p = 0.004] and multicentricity (HR = 2.545, 95% CI 1.073-6.024, p = 0.034) independently predicted DFS, whereas old age [odds ratio (OR) 1.026, 95% CI 1.006-1.046, p = 0.009), male (OR 2.882, 95% CI 1.348-6.172, p = 0.006), and large tumor (OR 1.567, 95% CI 1.209-2.032, p = 0.001) independently predicted occult CNM. NLR was not significantly associated with DFS or occult CNM. ATC had significantly higher NLR than cN1 PTC (7.28 vs. 2.74, p < 0.001). Although a higher NLR may imply a poorer tumor profile, it was not significantly associated with a worse DFS or higher risk of occult CNM in cN0 PTC. Perhaps, future research should focus on the prognostic value in other thyroid cancer types with a poorer prognosis.

  7. Not all occult papillary carcinomas are minimal

    SciTech Connect

    Allo, M.D.; Christianson, W.; Koivunen, D.

    1988-12-01

    Occult papillary carcinomas are characterized as small papillary tumors of less than 1.5 cm in maximum diameter, with or without bulky metastatic deposits in cervical nodes. The primary lesion is usually not palpable, and although the clinical behavior usually follows a benign course, tumors with unfavorable histologic features (invasiveness, multifocality) or extrathyroidal disease or a combination of both may not do so. In this report six cases are presented to illustrate this entity. No patient had a history of irradiation to the head or neck. All had primary lesions smaller than 1.5 cm. None had a palpable nodule or abnormal thyroid scan results, and the diagnosis of thyroid cancer was based on cervical lymph node or lung biopsy specimens, which revealed papillary thyroid cancer. All of the patients underwent total or near-total thyroidectomies and were found to have small, invasive papillary lesions with additional metastases to cervical nodes noted at the time of thyroidectomy. Adjunctive treatment consisted of a 5 mCi iodine-131 scan, ablative iodine-131 therapy, and suppression with L-thyroxine. Although distant metastasis to lung or other organs is uncommon and the mortality rate is low (as in larger papillary cancers), these invasive lesions--despite their small size--have a high propensity for recurrence and should be considered to behave more like encapsulated papillary tumors with extrathyroidal extension than like their small, unencapsulated intrathyroidal counterparts.

  8. Occult lymph node metastasis and risk of regional recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer after bilateral prophylactic central neck dissection: A multi-institutional study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Chan; Na, Se Young; Park, Gi Cheol; Han, Ju Hyun; Kim, Seung Woo; Eun, Young Gyu

    2017-02-01

    The impact of occult lymph node metastasis on regional recurrence after prophylactic central neck dissection for preoperative, nodal-negative papillary thyroid cancer is controversial. We investigated risk factors for regional lymph node recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral prophylactic central neck dissection. Analysis was according to clinicopathologic characteristics and occult lymph node metastasis patterns. This multicenter study enrolled 211 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral prophylactic central neck dissection for papillary thyroid cancer without evidence of central lymph node metastasis on preoperative imaging. Clinicopathologic features and central lymph node metastasis patterns were analyzed for predicting regional recurrence. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to identify independent factors for recurrence. Median follow-up time was 43 months (24-95 months). Ten patients (4.7%) showed regional lymph node recurrence. The estimated 5-year, regional recurrence-free survival was 95.2%. Tumor size ≥1 cm, central lymph node metastasis, lymph node ratio, and prelaryngeal lymph node metastasis were associated with regional recurrence in univariate analysis (P < .05). In multivariate analysis, a lymph node ratio ≥ 0.26 was a significant risk factor for regional lymph node recurrence (odds ratio = 11.63, P = .003). Lymph node ratio ≥ 0.26 was an independent predictor of worse recurrence-free survival on Cox regression analysis (hazard ratio = 11.49, P = .002). Although no significant association was observed between the presence of occult lymph node metastasis and regional recurrence, lymph node ratio ≥ 0.26 was an independent predictor of regional lymph node recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral prophylactic central neck dissection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  9. Predictive Value of Estimated Tumor Volume Measured by Ultrasonography for Occult Central Lymph Node Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Ki Nam; Kang, Kyung Yoon; Hong, Hyun Sook; Jeong, Han-Shin; Lee, Seung Won

    2015-11-01

    The clinical and prognostic value of tumor volume in various solid tumors has been investigated. However, there have been few studies on the clinical impact of tumor volume in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). This study was performed to investigate the predictive value of estimated tumor volume measured by ultrasonography for occult central neck metastasis (OCNM) of PTC. A total of 264 patients with clinically node-negative PTC on ultrasonography and computed tomography who underwent total thyroidectomy in conjunction with at least ipsilateral prophylactic central neck dissection were enrolled in this study. Tumor volume was derived with the formula used to calculate ellipsoids from two orthogonal scans during 2-D ultrasonography at initial aspiration biopsy. We retrospectively evaluated demographic characteristics, pre-operative ultrasonographic features (tumor size, volume and multifocality) and pathologic results. The OCNM rate was 35.6%; estimated tumor volume was used to predict OCNM (p = 0.035). At 0.385 mL, sensitivity and specificity were 51.1% and 66.5%, and the area under the curve for OCNM detection was 0.610. In multivariate analysis, tumor volume, but not size, was an independent predictive factor for OCNM (odds ratio = 1.83, p = 0.029). The other factors were extrathyroidal extension (odds ratio = 2.39, p = 0.004) and male gender (odds ratio = 3.90, p < 0.001). The estimated tumor volume of PTC measured by ultrasonography could be a pre-operative predictor of OCNM. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. [Value of jugulo-omohyoid lymph nodes in predicting lateral cervical occult metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    An, C M; Wang, Y; Wang, S X; Yin, Y L; Chen, M Q; Xu, Z G; Tang, P Z; Li, Z J

    2017-03-23

    Objective: To investigate the value of jugulo-omohyoid lymph nodes (JOHLN) in predicting occult lateral cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods: The clinicopathological data of 136 out of 2 100 PTC patients, who had a high risk of lateral neck lymph node metastasis and treated by us from January 2010 to December 2015, were retrospectively analyzed. Super selective neck dissection (SSND, level Ⅲ and Ⅳ)was performed and JOHLNs were sent for frozen section in all the 136 cases. The clinicopathological data was analyzed and the significance of JOHLN in predicting lateral cervical LNM was calculated using the SPSS software package. Results: Of the 136 patients, total thyroidectomy was performed in 76 cases (55.9%) and unilateral lobectomy plus isthmus was performed in the other 60 cases (44.1%). SSND was performed in 72 patients (52.9%), level Ⅱ-Ⅳ dissection in 15 (11.0%), and level Ⅱ-Ⅴ dissection in 49 (36.0%). According to the pathological results, 38 patients were pN0(27.9%), 18 (13.2%) were pN1a and 80 (58.8%) were pN1b. The lymph node metastasis(LNM) rates at level Ⅱ-Ⅵ were 19.9%, 43.4%, 42.6%, 2.9%, and 59.6%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of JOHLN in predicting lateral neck metastasis were 58.8%, 62.9%, and 76.7%, respectively. The rates for predicting level Ⅱ metastasis were 81.5%, 43.2%, and 59.4%, respectively. None of the patients died in the follow-up. Only 1 recurrence was found in level Ⅱ and regional control was achieved after level Ⅱ and Ⅴ dissection. Conclusions: JOHLN has a high accuracy for predicting lateral cervical lymph node metastasis and high sensitivity for level Ⅱ metastasis. For patients with high risk of lateral cervival metastasis, super-selective neck dissection including level Ⅲ and Ⅳ can confirm the stage and reduce the risk of reoperation. Dissection for level Ⅱ, Ⅲ, and Ⅳ is recommended.

  11. Papillary Carcinoma in Median Aberrant Thyroid (Ectopic) - Case Report

    PubMed Central

    K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed. PMID:25121039

  12. Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Papillary Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-02

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  13. BRAF in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lanzilotta, Salvatore Giovanni; Grammatica, Luciano; Paradiso, Angelo; Simone, Gianni

    2007-01-01

    Novel genetic findings about papillary thyroid carcinoma identify BRAF gene as a subject of great interest. Involvement of BRAF gene in pathogenesis of PTC, diagnostic value and the putative prognostic significance of its T1799A mutation are summarized in this article. Furthermore, a particular attention is focused to the role of pre-operative detection of BRAF mutation in the FNAB specimens of thyroid nodules and to the use of this gene as target for an effective cancer therapy. PMID:17641411

  14. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... some noncancerous childhood conditions Radiation exposure from nuclear plant disasters Radiation given through a vein (through an IV) during medical tests and treatments does not increase the risk of developing thyroid cancer.

  15. Coexistence of papillary carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Matesa-Anić, Dubravka; Matesa, Neven; Dabelić, Nina; Kusić, Zvonko

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of coexistence of papillary carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in cytologic material. Cytologic findings were collected from 10508 patients that underwent ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was found in 2156 (20.5%) and papillary carcinoma in 269 (2.6%) of 10508 patients with FNAC, whereas both Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma were present in 42 (0.4%) patients. Among patients with FNAC diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the prevalence of papillary carcinoma was 1.9%. Among patients with FNAC diagnosis of papillary carcinoma, the prevalence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis was 15.6%. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of papillary carcinoma and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in patients undergoing FNAC (p=0.0522). In conclusion, in a large series of patients, the incidence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma coexistence in cytologic material was 0.4%. There was no statistically significant relationship between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in cytologic material.

  16. Decitabine in Treating Patients With Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Cancer or Follicular Thyroid Cancer Unresponsive to Iodine I 131

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-20

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer

  17. Thyroid Langerhans cell histiocytosis and papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Algarni, Mohammed; Alhakami, Hadi; AlSubayea, Haia; Alfattani, Naif; Guler, Mohammet; Satti, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    A 27-year-old female, married with two children, presented to our clinic with a 1-year history of thyroid swelling and pressure symptoms on lying backward and bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy. The patient was a known case of panhypopituitarism for 5 years. Comprehensive patient evaluation including FNAC with papillary thyroid cancer result then she underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral neck dissection and final histologic examination confirmed papillary thyroid carcinoma in the background of lymphocytic thyroiditis, associated with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). The draining cervical lymph nodes were also involved by LCH and metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the association of LCH with papillary thyroid carcinoma in the thyroid has been reported, their co-existence with LCH in the draining lymph nodes is very uncommon. PMID:27867869

  18. Concurrent medullary and papillary carcinoma of thyroid.

    PubMed

    Ateşpare, Altay; Çalış, Aslı Batur; Çelik, Öner; Yener, Neşe; Vural, Çetin

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous occurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in the same thyroid gland is a rare condition. These tumors derive from different cells; PTC originates from follicular cells whereas MTC originates from parafollicular cells. Because of this, the treatment of these tumors also differs. This article describes two rare cases of the simultaneous occurrence of MTC and PTC in the thyroid gland.

  19. [Which lymphadenectomy in papillary thyroid gland carcinoma?].

    PubMed

    Schweizer, I; Seifert, B; Gemsenjäger, E

    2003-01-01

    The optimal treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is still debated, also with respect to nodal treatment. Retrospective analysis of a personal series of 159 patients with PTC, with respect to nodal disease, follow up 1-27 (mean 8) years. In 42 patients with clinical, macroscopic nodal disease (cN1) a therapeutic lymphadenectomy was performed, with pN1 status in 41 (98%) patients. 117 patients had no clinical or intraoperative suspicion of nodal involvement (cN0), with occult nodal disease in 5/29 (17%) patients undergoing prophylactic (elective) lymphadenectomy, and in 2/88 (2.3%) patients without primary lymphadenectomy (metachronous nodal disease) (p < 0.005). Nodal recurrences were observed (1-5 years after primary treatment for cure) in 5/42 (12%) pN1 and in 3/114 (2.6%) cN0, pN0 tumors (p = 0.009), with unfavourable outcome in 2 and 1 patients, respectively. The 20-year tumor specific survival was 100% in TNM I + II (low risk) patients (including pN1 and N0 tumors); the survival rate was deteriorated by stage pN1 vs. N0 in TNM high risk patients (50% vs. 86%; p = 0.03). The intraoperative macroscopic staging (cN) remains important:--clinical nodal disease warrants a systematic node dissection (microdissection), for preventing (curable or serious) nodal recurrences. Occult nodal disease does not evolve frequently in clinical nodal recurrence. A less radical (and only central) prophylactic lymphadenectomy, avoiding surgical morbidity, may be oncologically adequate. More sensitive detection of nodal positivity (frozen section of sampling tissue or sentinel nodes, immunohistochemistry) appears not rationale. In pN0, cN0 tumors use of prophylactic 131I may represent overtreatment, and follow up controls may be conducted less rigorously.

  20. Papillary thyroid cancer with bilateral adrenal metastases.

    PubMed

    Batawil, Nadia

    2013-12-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common type of thyroid malignancy and has an excellent prognosis. Distant organ metastasis is rare. Bilateral adrenal metastases with iodine uptake has not been described before. A 47-year-old woman presented for evaluation because of severe right upper arm pain and weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine showed a compression fracture at the third thoracic vertebra associated with a soft tissue mass. Computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy of the mass showed metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Ultrasonography of the neck showed an enlarged right thyroid lobe with cervical lymphadenopathy. A high-resolution CT scan of the chest showed multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules. Treatment included total thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection, external beam radiation to the thoracic spine, and (131)I therapy. Initial whole body (131)I scintigraphy showed faint uptake in the right upper abdomen, interpreted as a sign of physiologic bowel activity; however, repeat whole body (131)I scintigraphy showed increased uptake in both adrenal glands, consistent with metastatic disease. Serial abdominal CT scans showed progressively enlarging bilateral adrenal masses. Despite additional treatment with (131)I, the patient's disease progressed at all metastatic sites. This patient had bilateral adrenal metastases from advanced papillary thyroid cancer with distant metastasis to lung and bone at initial presentation and poor response to repeated (131)I therapy. Unilateral adrenal metastasis from thyroid cancer has been described previously in six cases; this is the first case report of bilateral adrenal metastases. Bilateral adrenal metastasis is rare in papillary thyroid cancer. Elevated abdominal uptake of (131)I in a high-risk patient may be a sign of abdominal metastatic disease.

  1. Ultrasonographic imaging of papillary thyroid carcinoma variants

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is routinely used to evaluate thyroid nodules. The US features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the most common thyroid malignancy, include hypoechogenicity, spiculated/microlobulated margins, microcalcifications, and a nonparallel orientation. However, many PTC variants have been identified, some of which differ from the classic type of PTC in terms of biological behavior and clinical outcomes. This review describes the US features and clinical implications of the variants of PTC. With the introduction of active surveillance replacing immediate biopsy or surgical treatment of indolent, small PTCs, an understanding of the US characteristics of PTC variants will facilitate the individualized management of patients with PTC. PMID:28222584

  2. Ultrasonographic imaging of papillary thyroid carcinoma variants.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung Hee

    2017-04-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is routinely used to evaluate thyroid nodules. The US features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the most common thyroid malignancy, include hypoechogenicity, spiculated/microlobulated margins, microcalcifications, and a nonparallel orientation. However, many PTC variants have been identified, some of which differ from the classic type of PTC in terms of biological behavior and clinical outcomes. This review describes the US features and clinical implications of the variants of PTC. With the introduction of active surveillance replacing immediate biopsy or surgical treatment of indolent, small PTCs, an understanding of the US characteristics of PTC variants will facilitate the individualized management of patients with PTC.

  3. Occult carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Arellano, L; Ibarra, A

    1984-09-01

    Ten occult carcinomas of the thyroid gland were found in 274 unselected autopsies at the Pathology Service, Hospital José Joaquín Aguirre, between December 1980 and March 1983. This is the lowest incidence among the most recent published series. The present results suggest that environmental factors play an important role in the etiology of this type of carcinoma.

  4. Cervical Cord Compression as Initial Presentation of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: a Case Report.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Veda Padma Priya; Goel, Ashish; Kumar, Kapil

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cord compression secondary to extension of a long standing papillary thyroid carcinoma as well as multiple cases of distal cord compression from occult follicular thyroid carcinoma have been reported. But cervical cord compression from Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma has not been reported so far. Forty eight year old lady presented with progressive quadriparesis of 2 months duration. MRI of the cervical spine showed destructive lesion with soft tissue component in vertebral bodies and posterior elements of C4-C6 vertebrae with cord compression along with a large thyroid mass extending to retrosternal region likely malignant. USG guided FNAC & Biopsy of thyroid lesion was inconclusive. She underwent Preoperative Selective angioembolisation for vertebral metastasis followed by total thyroidectomy with cervical cord decompression, bone grafting and plating. HPE reported follicular variant of Papillary Thyroid carcinoma. Four weeks postoperatively she underwent radioiodine ablation by 263 mci of I 131. She then received palliative EBRT to cervical and dorsal spine 30 Gy/10 fractions. She is alive and neurologically stable at 6 months follow up. Papillary thyroid carcinoma has an excellent prognosis. Hence a prompt management of primary disease and aggressive approach to metastatic lesion may prolong survival and allow favorable prognosis.

  5. Papillary carcinoma in ectopic thyroid detected by Tl-201 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Michigishi, T.; Mizukami, Y.; Mura, T.; Nomura, T.; Watanabe, K.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K. )

    1991-05-01

    A 37-year-old man with papillary carcinoma in an ectopic thyroid is presented. Excisional biopsy revealed the cervical mass to be a metastasis from thyroid cancer. X-ray, ultrasonography, and computed tomography, however, failed to identify the primary tumor in the thyroid. Incidental TI-201 uptake was noted in the midline of the anterior neck, and a palpable nodule was discovered in this area. Fine needle aspiration cytology demonstrated Class V papillary adenocarcinoma, and subsequent surgery confirmed a papillary carcinoma in the ectopic thyroid. This case suggests the usefulness of TI-201 scintigraphy for the detection of ectopic thyroid malignancy.

  6. TERT Promoter Mutations in Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinomas.

    PubMed

    de Biase, Dario; Gandolfi, Greta; Ragazzi, Moira; Eszlinger, Markus; Sancisi, Valentina; Gugnoni, Mila; Visani, Michela; Pession, Annalisa; Casadei, Gianpaolo; Durante, Cosimo; Costante, Giuseppe; Bruno, Rocco; Torlontano, Massimo; Paschke, Ralf; Filetti, Sebastiano; Piana, Simonetta; Frasoldati, Andrea; Tallini, Giovanni; Ciarrocchi, Alessia

    2015-09-01

    Small papillary thyroid carcinomas have contributed to the worldwide increased incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer observed over the past decades. However, the mortality rate has not changed over the same period of time, raising questions about the possibility that thyroid cancer patients, especially those with small tumors, are overdiagnosed and overtreated. Molecular prognostic marker able to discriminate aggressive thyroid cancers from those with an indolent course would be of great relevance to tailor the therapeutic approach and reduce overtreatment. Mutations in the TERT promoter were recently reported to correlate strongly with aggressiveness in advanced forms of thyroid cancer, holding promise for a possible clinical application. The occurrence and potential clinical relevance of TERT mutations in papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (mPTCs) is currently unknown. This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of two TERT promoter mutations (-124C>T and -146C>T) and their potential association with unfavorable clinical features in a large cohort of mPTCs. A total of 431 mPTCs cases were collected from six Italian institutions, and TERT promoter mutational status was assessed by a next-generation sequencing approach. TERT promoter mutations were found in 4.7% of the analyzed mPTCs, showing that even microcarcinomas carry mutations in this gene. Correlation analysis showed that TERT promoter mutations are not associated with aggressive features or clinical outcome in the cohort analyzed. TERT mutations are present but uncommon in mPTCs. Apparently, in mPTCs, the occurrence of TERT mutations is not correlated with unfavorable clinical features.

  7. Coexistence of papillary thyroid cancer and Hashimoto thyroiditis in children: report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Koibuchi, Harumi; Omoto, Kiyoka; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Toyotsuji, Tomonori; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Kawano, Mikihiko

    2014-07-01

    This report documents 3 pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma cases with associated Hashimoto thyroiditis. In all 3 cases, hypoechoic nodules accompanied by multiple echogenic spots were noted on sonography of the thyroid. Hashimoto thyroiditis was suspected on the basis of positive thyroid autoantibody test results and pathologic examinations of thyroidectomy specimens, which revealed chronic thyroiditis with lymphocytic infiltration as the background of papillary thyroid carcinoma development. The potential for papillary carcinoma development warrants close follow-up, and meticulous sonographic examinations must be performed in children with Hashimoto thyroiditis. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  8. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma might progress during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shindo, Hisakazu; Amino, Nobuyuki; Ito, Yasuhiro; Kihara, Minoru; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Miya, Akihiro; Hirokawa, Mitsuyoshi; Miyauchi, Akira

    2014-05-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer occasionally occurs in women of childbearing age. As papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) rarely grows or becomes clinically apparent, observation without surgery is an appropriate strategy for patients with low-risk PTMC. Human chorionic gonadotropin possesses weak thyroid-stimulating activity. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of pregnancy on PTMC. We studied 9 patients with PTMC who became pregnant between 2005 and 2011. Twenty-seven age-matched nonpregnant female PTMC patients from a database we used in our previous report served as controls. Tumor enlargement was defined as an increase in the diameter of the tumor of 3 mm or more. PTMC enlargement occurred in 44.4% (4/9 patients) of the pregnant subjects, whereas it occurred only in 11.1% (3/27 patients) of the controls (p=0.0497). Three of the pregnant patients who exhibited tumor enlargement underwent surgery after delivery. No relationship was detected between the changes in the serum thyroglobulin level, the serum thyrotropin level, and tumor size during pregnancy. Immunohistochemical examinations did not detect the estrogen receptor in the tumors of the three patients who underwent surgery. This study is an initial report indicating that the risk of PTMC enlargement might increase during pregnancy. PTMC should be carefully followed-up for possible disease aggravation during pregnancy. Even if a PTMC enlarges during pregnancy, the patient's prognosis will probably not worsen.

  9. Management of papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Haas, Stephen N

    2006-10-01

    Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid is usually an indolent tumor with a good survival prognosis especially when small and limited to the thyroid gland. The prevalence of this tumor in younger patients with long life expectancies, however, magnifies the problem of late recurrences. Current published guidelines recommend near total thyroidectomy for all differentiated thyroid cancers with the exception of small papillary carcinomas (< 1.0 cm) found coincidentally after surgery for benign disease, providing there are no other risk factors. Presentation of completion thyroidectomy as an option to the patient is recommended. Both the patient and physician should be aware that 15-20% of cases will have another focus in the contralateral lobe and that long-term recurrent disease may reach 20% or more in the absence of complete resection. Despite their small size, 5% or more of these tumors may be associated with invasion of the capsule or distant metastases (Stage III or IV). The task for patient and physician is to fairly balance these factors against the risks and cost of the additional procedures.

  10. Sarcoidosis mimicking metastatic papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Abdulwahid M.; Fatih, Salah M.; Kakamad, F.H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic, idiopathic disease. It has a highly variable clinical course. It has been reported to present in association with malignancy. Coexistence of sarcoidosis and thyroid cancer is rarely reported in the literature. Presentatioin of the case We present a case with neck swelling for 3 months, and symmetrical painless thyroid enlargement without fixation to deep tissues of the neck. Multiple nodules on the both thyroid lobes, hard irregular, grade two goiter with lymphadenopathy all over anterior neck compartments. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done under ultrasound guide from right thyroid nodule and showed papillary thyroid carcinoma. Excisional biopsy of the neck lymphnode showed picture typical for sarcoidosis. Discussion Most researchers believe that patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis are predisposed to develop malignancies, less than a dozen of cases are reported in the literature to be associated with PTC with a very wide range of presentations and clincal coarses. An interesting finding of our case is that in contrast to what is reported, both diseases were not known by the physician until the time of presentation. Conclusion Cervical lymphadenopathy in association with goiter could be metastasis, sarcoidosis or mixed, therefore should be seperately biopsied. PMID:26432997

  11. Expression of obestatin and ghrelin in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Karaoglu, Aziz; Aydin, Suleyman; Dagli, Adile F; Cummings, David E; Ozercan, Ibrahim H; Canatan, Halit; Ozkan, Yusuf

    2009-03-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin are two peptide hormones with opposing roles in the control of appetite: orexigenic and anorexigenic, respectively. Loss of appetite is a common, serious complication of many forms of malignancy. The goals of this study were to investigate: (i) whether there are differences in ghrelin and obestatin peptide expression in thyroid tissues from a series of papillary carcinoma cases and normal controls, and (ii) whether there are correlations between tissue ghrelin and obestatin levels in series of papillary carcinoma cases and normal controls. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that in sections of benign human thyroid tissue, anti-ghrelin antibody reacted with intense staining in colloid-filled follicles. In benign thyroid tissues, colloids displayed plentiful dispersion in comparison with papillary microcarcinomas, whereas colloids in malignant thyroid tissues were uncommon. We found markedly lower tissue ghrelin levels in thyroid tissue of patients with papillary carcinomas, compared with normal thyroid tissues (P = 0.001). Immunohistochemical analysis also showed that obestatin in papillary carcinoma stained positively to various degrees. Obestatin tissue levels in papillary carcinomas tended to be slightly higher than those in normal thyroid tissue, but this was not statistically significant (P = 0.29). We also report that thyroid tissue of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis produced ghrelin and obestatin at similar levels as in normal thyroid tissue, even though colloid in Hashimoto's disease is scarce. We conclude that depressed expression of ghrelin, but not obestatin, is specific to papillary carcinoma, and this difference might constitute a diagnostic tool to differentiate papillary carcinoma from normal thyroid tissue. We currently do not know how these peptides are regulated and what factors are involved in papillary carcinoma, which inhibit the expression of ghrelin but not obestatin. This issue warrants further studies.

  12. Pediatric papillary thyroid cancer: current management challenges

    PubMed Central

    Verburg, Frederik A; Van Santen, Hanneke M; Luster, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Although with a standardized incidence of 0.54 cases per 100,000 persons, differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is a rare disease in children and adolescents, it nonetheless concerns ~1.4% of all pediatric malignancies. Furthermore, its incidence is rising. Due to the rarity and long survival of pediatric DTC patients, in most areas of treatment little evidence exists. Treatment of pediatric DTC is therefore littered with controversies, many questions therefore remain open regarding the optimal management of pediatric papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and many challenges remain unsolved. In the present review, we aim to provide an overview of these challenging areas of patient and disease management in pediatric PTC patients. Data on diagnosis, surgery, radionuclide, and endocrine therapy are discussed, and the controversies therein are highlighted. PMID:28096684

  13. Determinants of papillary cancer of the thyroid

    SciTech Connect

    Wingren, G.; Hatschek, T.; Axelson, O. )

    1993-10-01

    Determinants of papillary thyroid cancer were evaluated in a questionnaire-based case-control study from southeastern Sweden. A total of 104 cases, diagnosed from 1977 to 1987, and 387 randomly selected controls were included in the analyses. Female subjects with papillary cancer reported a work history as dentists/dental assistants, telephone operators, teachers, and day nursery personnel, and an occupational contact with chemicals and video display terminals more often than did controls. The 11 male cases more often reported working as mechanics and metal workers and having occupational contact with solvents. Other factors associated with increased risk for female papillary cancer were having private well water at the birth address; leisure time exposure to combustion smoke; low intake of cruciferous vegetables and seafood; and a family history of goiter, heart disease, biliary disorder, or female genital cancer. Diagnostic radiographic examinations, especially to the head, neck, or upper back/chest area, or repeated dental examinations, were also found to be associated with this form of cancer. With regard to the possible influence from hormonal factors among women less than age 50 years at time of diagnosis, an increased risk was found for a pregnancy soon after puberty. Tendencies toward a decreasing risk with increasing age at first pregnancy as well as an increasing risk with increasing number of pregnancies were found as well. Multiparity seemed to potentiate the effect from prior radiographic examinations.

  14. Increased Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jee, Youn Hee; Sadowski, Samira M; Celi, Francesco S; Xi, Liqiang; Raffeld, Mark; Sacks, David B; Remaley, Alan T; Wellstein, Anton; Kebebew, Electron; Baron, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are common, and approximately 5% of these nodules are malignant. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a heparin-binding growth factor which is overexpressed in many cancers. The expression of PTN in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is unknown. 74 subjects (age 47 ± 12 y, 15 males) who had thyroidectomy with a histological diagnosis: 79 benign nodules and 23 PTCs (10 classic, 6 tall cell, 6 follicular variant and 1 undetermined). Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples were obtained ex vivo from surgically excised tissue and assayed for PTN and thyroglobulin (Tg). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on tissue sections. In FNA samples, PTN concentration normalized to Tg was significantly higher in PTC than in benign nodules (16 ± 6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, p < 0.001). In follicular variant of PTC (n = 6), the PTN/Tg ratio was also higher than in benign nodules (1.3 ± 0.6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, P < 0.001, respectively). IHC showed cytoplasmic localization of PTN in PTC cells. In ex vivo FNA samples, the PTN to thyroglobulin ratio was higher in PTCs, including follicular variant PTC, than in benign thyroid nodules. The findings raise the possibility that measurement of the PTN to Tg ratio may provide useful diagnostic and/or prognostic information in the evaluation of thyroid nodules.

  15. Increased Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Youn Hee; Sadowski, Samira M.; Celi, Francesco S.; Xi, Liqiang; Raffeld, Mark; Sacks, David B.; Remaley, Alan T.; Wellstein, Anton; Kebebew, Electron; Baron, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background Thyroid nodules are common, and approximately 5% of these nodules are malignant. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a heparin-binding growth factor which is overexpressed in many cancers. The expression of PTN in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is unknown. Method and Findings 74 subjects (age 47 ± 12 y, 15 males) who had thyroidectomy with a histological diagnosis: 79 benign nodules and 23 PTCs (10 classic, 6 tall cell, 6 follicular variant and 1 undetermined). Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples were obtained ex vivo from surgically excised tissue and assayed for PTN and thyroglobulin (Tg). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on tissue sections. In FNA samples, PTN concentration normalized to Tg was significantly higher in PTC than in benign nodules (16 ± 6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, p < 0.001). In follicular variant of PTC (n = 6), the PTN/Tg ratio was also higher than in benign nodules (1.3 ± 0.6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, P < 0.001, respectively). IHC showed cytoplasmic localization of PTN in PTC cells. Conclusion In ex vivo FNA samples, the PTN to thyroglobulin ratio was higher in PTCs, including follicular variant PTC, than in benign thyroid nodules. The findings raise the possibility that measurement of the PTN to Tg ratio may provide useful diagnostic and/or prognostic information in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. PMID:26914549

  16. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid cancer: are they immunologically linked?

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Margret; Schott, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the most common autoimmune disease in humans frequently leading to hypothyroidism. HT is characterized by a cellular immune response with lymphatic infiltration of the thyroid gland by T and B cells, as well as by a humoral immune response leading to specific antibody production. The synchronous appearance of HT and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) indicates an immunological link between the two entities. Three different pathomechanisms may be postulated, including preexisting autoimmunity leading to malignancy due to inflammation, immunity towards preexisiting tumor cells leading to specific autoimmunity, and immune tolerance leading to malignancy despite (auto)immunity. In this article we review data describing these potential mechanisms that might lead to the synchronous appearance of HT and PTC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Papillary thyroid carcinoma: does the association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis affect the clinicopathological characteristics of the disease?

    PubMed

    Girardi, Fábio Muradás; Barra, Marinez Bizarro; Zettler, Cláudio Galleano

    2015-01-01

    Papillary carcinoma is the most common malignant thyroid neoplasm. The effect of the concurrent presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma remains controversial. To evaluate the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and clinicopathological parameters in thyroid papillary carcinoma cases, based on an historical institutional cohort analysis. Cross-sectional study obtained from a historical cohort, including all cases submitted to thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma in a single institution during an 11-year period study. A total of 417 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were enrolled; 148 (35.4%) also had Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A female predominance among cases associated to Hashimoto's thyroiditis was observed. The thyroid tumor, in cases associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, had a smaller mean diameter, lower frequency of extra-thyroid extension, and earlier clinicopathological staging. A high proportion of papillary thyroid carcinoma cases are associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. There are associations among these cases with several histopathological factors already recognized for their prognostic value, which by themselves could impact outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Integrated genomic characterization of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    2014-10-23

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Here, we describe the genomic landscape of 496 PTCs. We observed a low frequency of somatic alterations (relative to other carcinomas) and extended the set of known PTC driver alterations to include EIF1AX, PPM1D, and CHEK2 and diverse gene fusions. These discoveries reduced the fraction of PTC cases with unknown oncogenic driver from 25% to 3.5%. Combined analyses of genomic variants, gene expression, and methylation demonstrated that different driver groups lead to different pathologies with distinct signaling and differentiation characteristics. Similarly, we identified distinct molecular subgroups of BRAF-mutant tumors, and multidimensional analyses highlighted a potential involvement of oncomiRs in less-differentiated subgroups. Our results propose a reclassification of thyroid cancers into molecular subtypes that better reflect their underlying signaling and differentiation properties, which has the potential to improve their pathological classification and better inform the management of the disease.

  19. Integrated Genomic Characterization of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Nishant; Akbani, Rehan; Aksoy, B. Arman; Ally, Adrian; Arachchi, Harindra; Asa, Sylvia L.; Auman, J. Todd; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Baylin, Stephen B.; Behera, Madhusmita; Bernard, Brady; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bishop, Justin A.; Black, Aaron D.; Bodenheimer, Tom; Boice, Lori; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Bowen, Jay; Bowlby, Reanne; Bristow, Christopher A.; Brookens, Robin; Brooks, Denise; Bryant, Robert; Buda, Elizabeth; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Carling, Tobias; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott L.; Carty, Sally E.; Chan, Timothy A.; Chen, Amy Y.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cheung, Dorothy; Chin, Lynda; Cho, Juok; Chu, Andy; Chuah, Eric; Cibulskis, Kristian; Ciriello, Giovanni; Clarke, Amanda; Clayman, Gary L.; Cope, Leslie; Copland, John; Covington, Kyle; Danilova, Ludmila; Davidsen, Tanja; Demchok, John A.; DiCara, Daniel; Dhalla, Noreen; Dhir, Rajiv; Dookran, Sheliann S.; Dresdner, Gideon; Eldridge, Jonathan; Eley, Greg; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Eng, Stephanie; Fagin, James A.; Fennell, Timothy; Ferris, Robert L.; Fisher, Sheila; Frazer, Scott; Frick, Jessica; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Ganly, Ian; Gao, Jianjiong; Garraway, Levi A.; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Getz, Gad; Gehlenborg, Nils; Ghossein, Ronald; Gibbs, Richard A.; Giordano, Thomas J.; Gomez-Hernandez, Karen; Grimsby, Jonna; Gross, Benjamin; Guin, Ranabir; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Harper, Hollie A.; Hayes, D. Neil; Heiman, David I.; Herman, James G.; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hofree, Matan; Holt, Robert A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Huang, Franklin W.; Huang, Mei; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Ideker, Trey; Iype, Lisa; Jacobsen, Anders; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Kebebew, Electron; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Kim, Jaegil; Kramer, Roger; Kreisberg, Richard; Kucherlapati, Raju; Kwiatkowski, David J.; Ladanyi, Marc; Lai, Phillip H.; Laird, Peter W.; Lander, Eric; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lee, Darlene; Lee, Eunjung; Lee, Semin; Lee, William; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Lichtenstein, Lee; Lin, Pei; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Jinze; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Yingchun; LiVolsi, Virginia A.; Lu, Yiling; Ma, Yussanne; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; McFadden, David G.; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Miller, Michael; Mills, Gordon; Moore, Richard A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Murray, Bradley A.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Noble, Michael S.; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Owonikoko, Taofeek K.; Ozenberger, Bradley A.; Pantazi, Angeliki; Parfenov, Michael; Park, Peter J.; Parker, Joel S.; Paull, Evan O.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Perou, Charles M.; Prins, Jan F.; Protopopov, Alexei; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Ramirez, Ricardo; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Ren, Xiaojia; Reynolds, Sheila M.; Rheinbay, Esther; Ringel, Matthew D.; Rivera, Michael; Roach, Jeffrey; Robertson, A. Gordon; Rosenberg, Mara W.; Rosenthall, Matthew; Sadeghi, Sara; Saksena, Gordon; Sander, Chris; Santoso, Netty; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Schumacher, Steven E.; Seethala, Raja R.; Seidman, Jonathan; Senbabaoglu, Yasin; Seth, Sahil; Sharpe, Samantha; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Shen, John P.; Shen, Ronglai; Sherman, Steven; Sheth, Margi; Shi, Yan; Shmulevich, Ilya; Sica, Gabriel L.; Simons, Janae V.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Smallridge, Robert C.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Soloway, Matthew G.; Song, Xingzhi; Sougnez, Carrie; Stewart, Chip; Stojanov, Petar; Stuart, Joshua M.; Tabak, Barbara; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Tang, Jiabin; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Taylor, Barry S.; Thiessen, Nina; Thorne, Leigh; Thorsson, Vésteinn; Tuttle, R. Michael; Umbricht, Christopher B.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Vandin, Fabio; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Verhaak, Roel G.W.; Vinco, Michelle; Voet, Doug; Walter, Vonn; Wang, Zhining; Waring, Scot; Weinberger, Paul M.; Weinstein, John N.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Wheeler, David; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wilson, Jocelyn; Williams, Michelle; Winer, Daniel A.; Wise, Lisa; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Xu, Andrew W.; Yang, Liming; Yang, Lixing; Zack, Travis I.; Zeiger, Martha A.; Zeng, Dong; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Zhao, Ni; Zhang, Hailei; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Zhang, Wei; Zmuda, Erik; Zou., Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Summary Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Here, we describe the genomic landscape of 496 PTCs. We observed a low frequency of somatic alterations (relative to other carcinomas) and extended the set of known PTC driver alterations to include EIF1AX, PPM1D and CHEK2 and diverse gene fusions. These discoveries reduced the fraction of PTC cases with unknown oncogenic driver from 25% to 3.5%. Combined analyses of genomic variants, gene expression, and methylation demonstrated that different driver groups lead to different pathologies with distinct signaling and differentiation characteristics. Similarly, we identified distinct molecular subgroups of BRAF-mutant tumors and multidimensional analyses highlighted a potential involvement of oncomiRs in less-differentiated subgroups. Our results propose a reclassification of thyroid cancers into molecular subtypes that better reflect their underlying signaling and differentiation properties, which has the potential to improve their pathological classification and better inform the management of the disease. PMID:25417114

  20. Papillary thyroid carcinoma and familial adenomatous polyposis of the colon.

    PubMed

    Donnellan, Kimberly A; Bigler, Steven A; Wein, Richard O

    2009-01-01

    Case report and limited review of the literature on the topic of papillary thyroid carcinoma and familial adenomatous polyposis and its genetic associations. A patient with multiple prior surgeries for colonic polyps, abdominal perineal resection for colorectal cancer, and wedge resection for metastatic adenocarcinoma (consistent with rectal primary) presented with a thyroid mass. Fine-needle aspiration demonstrated papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy. Pathologic examination revealed the cribriform-morular variant of papillary carcinoma that has been reported in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis. Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is an uncommon diagnosis known to be associated with familial adenomatous polyposis. Although the incidence is rare, this diagnosis should raise the clinician's suspicions to recommend both colorectal screening and genetic counseling for family members.

  1. Coexistence of resistance to thyroid hormone and papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Igata, Motoyuki; Tsuruzoe, Kaku; Kawashima, Junji; Kukidome, Daisuke; Kondo, Tatsuya; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Shimoda, Seiya; Furukawa, Noboru; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Miyamura, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a syndrome of reduced tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormones. RTH is majorly caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene. Recent studies indicated a close association of THRB mutations with human cancers, but the role of THRB mutation in carcinogenesis is still unclear. Here, we report a rare case of RTH with a papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A 26-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to a thyroid tumor and hormonal abnormality. She had elevated serum thyroid hormones and non-suppressed TSH levels. Genetic analysis of THRB identified a missense mutation, P452L, leading to a diagnosis of RTH. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the tumor and lymph nodes enabled the cytological diagnosis of PTC with lymph node metastases. Total thyroidectomy and neck lymph nodes dissection were performed. Following surgery, thyroxine replacement (≥500 μg) was necessary to avoid the symptoms of hypothyroidism and to maintain her TSH levels within the same range as before the operation. During the follow-up, basal thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were around 6 ng/ml and TSH-stimulated Tg levels were between 12 and 20 ng/ml. Up to present, the patient has had no recurrence of PTC. This indicates that these Tg values are consistent with a biochemical incomplete response or an indeterminate response. There is no consensus regarding the management of thyroid carcinoma in patients with RTH, but aggressive treatments such as total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine (RAI) and TSH suppression therapy are recommended. Learning points There are only a few cases reporting the coexistence of RTH and thyroid carcinoma. Moreover, our case would be the first case presenting one with lymph node metastases. Recent studies indicated a close association of THRB mutations with human cancers, but the role of THRB mutation in carcinogenesis is still unclear. When total thyroidectomy is performed in

  2. Metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma to the nose: report and review of cutaneous metastases of papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma typically appears in local lymph nodes. Skin metastases are rare. Purpose: A man with progressive metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma who developed a cutaneous metastasis on his nose is described. The clinical manifestations of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma to skin are reviewed. Methods: PubMed was used to search the following terms, separately and in combination: basal, cancer, carcinoma, cell, cutaneous, kinase, inhibitor, metastases, nose, papillary, rearranged during transfection, receptor, RET, thyroid, tyrosine, vandetanib. Results: Pathologic changes observed on the biopsy of the man’s nose lesion were similar to those of his original cancer. Genomic evaluation of the tumor revealed an aberration involving the rearranged during transfection (RET) receptor tyrosine kinase. The residual tumor was excised. Treatment with vandetanib, a RET inhibitor was initiated; his metastatic disease has been stable, without symptoms or recurrent cutaneous metastasis, for 2 years following the discovery of his metastatic nose tumor. Conclusions: Papillary thyroid carcinoma with skin metastases is rare. Nodules usually appear on the scalp or neck; the thyroidectomy scar is also a common site. Metastatic tumor, albeit infrequently, can present as a nose lesion. The prognosis for patients with cutaneous metastases from papillary thyroid carcinoma is poor. However, with the ability to test the tumor for genomic aberrations, molecular targeted therapies—such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors—may provide extended survival in these individuals. PMID:26693082

  3. Sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinomas according to tumor size: comparison with papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liguang; Chen, Bo; Zhao, Miaoqing; Zhang, Huawei; Liang, Bo

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinomas according to nodule size and compared with findings for papillary thyroid carcinomas. This study included 38 medullary thyroid carcinoma nodules and 91 papillary thyroid carcinoma nodules, which were confirmed by pathologic examination between May 2008 and September 2013. Nodules were divided into those that were greater than 10 mm (large nodules) and 10 mm or less (small nodules). The differences in sonographic features (composition, echogenicity, margin, calcifications, and shape) between groups were analyzed with a χ(2) test. Large medullary thyroid carcinomas more frequently showed an ovoid-to-round shape and a smooth margin; small medullary thyroid carcinomas more frequently showed a taller-than-wide shape and a spiculated margin; the differences were statistically significant between the groups (P < .05). Compared with papillary thyroid carcinomas, large medullary thyroid carcinomas tended to have an ovoid-to-round shape, a smooth margin, and macrocalcifications and were more frequently diagnosed as indeterminate nodules (P < .05); however, there were no significant differences in the internal composition, calcifications, echogenicity, margin, and shape between small medullary thyroid carcinomas and small papillary thyroid carcinomas (P > .05). Our data indicate that the sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinomas are associated with tumor size; furthermore, the sonographic features of medullary thyroid carcinomas are similar to those of small papillary thyroid carcinomas but greatly different from those of large papillary thyroid carcinomas. Large medullary thyroid carcinomas are more commonly diagnosed as indeterminate nodules by sonography than large papillary thyroid carcinomas, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy or serum calcitonin measurement may be helpful. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in a young child.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Paul C; Rifkin, Matthew D; Price, Anita

    2004-09-01

    The authors present a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 7-year-old boy. Carcinoma of the thyroid gland represents 1.5% of malignancies before the age of 15 years. Sixty-seven percent occur in girls 7 to 12 years of age. The authors present the imaging characteristics and a brief discussion of this rare case.

  5. Euthyroid Graves' orbitopathy and incidental papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Melcescu, Eugen; Horton, William B; Pitman, Karen T; Vijayakumar, Vani; Koch, Christian A

    2013-01-01

    Euthyroid Graves' orbitopathy (GO) combined with incidental papillary thyroid microcarcinoma has rarely been reported. A 61-year-old Caucasian woman initially presented with progressive fatigue, exophthalmos, and thyroid function tests within normal limits. She underwent thyroidectomy, was found to have two incidental papillary thyroid microcarcinomas, and received radioactive iodine ablation to eliminate thyroid antigen. In addition to following her eye disease, TSH-receptor antibodies, thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins, and serum thyroglobulin measurements were recorded, demonstrating no evidence of thyroid cancer at four-year follow-up. At first, she had mild GO, developing into moderate-to-severe GO, and at 4 years she had Hertel measurements of 20 mm in both eyes. This report underscores the difficulty of managing GO even when thyroid function is normal(ized) and thyroid antigen exposure has been minimized. In addition, it illustrates why antithyroidal antibodies should be considered in cases of concomitant papillary thyroid cancer, as thyroid cells can be stimulated not only by TSH but also by TSH-receptor stimulating antibodies.

  6. [Kartagener syndrome and papillary thyroid carcinoma: an unusual combination].

    PubMed

    Ren, Jingyuan; Wang, Xurui; He, Zhongyin

    2015-11-01

    A case of a papillary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with situs inversus with associated bronchiectasis and chronic sinusitis (Kartagener's syndrome) is reported. A 61-year-old male patient has the symptoms of nasal obstruction. nasal purulent discharge and headache for 2 years. Physical examination: right nasal purulent in right nasal cavity and multiple lychee-like opaque mass in right middle meatus. A nodule, one centimeter in diameter, locates in the upper pole of right thyroid. Evidence of full situs inversus viscerum can be confirmmed by chest radiographs and ultrasound doppler. Pathology: right nasal polyps, the right small papillary thyroid cancer. TEM Tip primary ciliary dyskinesia. Clinical diagnosis: Kartagener syndrome, papillary thyroid carcinoma (T1a N0 M0, I period), chronic sinusitis-nasal polyps.

  7. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in Graves' disease presenting as a cystic neck mass.

    PubMed

    Patil, Milind; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Sahoo, JayaPrakash; Vivekanandan, Muthupillai; Kate, Vikram; Pandit, Nandini; Badhe, Bhawana

    2015-01-01

    The presentation of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) as a solitary cystic neck mass is uncommon. Additionally, its association with Graves' disease is very rare. We report a case of occult PTMC, who presented with a cystic neck mass in the background of Graves' disease without any goiter. Imaging like ultrasound of neck, single photon emission computed tomography-CT (SPECT-CT), and technetium scan failed to detect any lesion in the thyroid, which was picked up only by the contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of neck. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy with right modified lymph node dissection. Our case highlights the presentation of metastatic PTMC as a differential diagnosis of a cystic neck mass even in a patient with Graves' disease without any thyroid enlargement.

  8. Drug-induced thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in a minocycline-pigmented black thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Tacon, Lyndal; Tan, Charles T K; Alvarado, Raul; Gill, Anthony J; Sywak, Mark; Fulcher, Greg

    2008-07-01

    We describe a 31-year-old woman who had ingested minocycline for 18 months prior to presenting with hyperthyroidism and a palpable thyroid nodule. There was no evidence of Graves' disease or autonomous nodule on thyroid scintigraphy, and a clinical diagnosis of thyroiditis was made. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the palpable lesion suggested papillary carcinoma, and the patient underwent a total thyroidectomy. Intraoperatively, the thyroid gland was found to have a striking black discoloration. Subsequent histological examination revealed the accumulation of pigment globules within the apical cytoplasm of the follicular cells, and associated findings of a drug-induced thyroiditis. The tumor nodule showed features of infarction and was felt to represent a necrotic papillary microcarcinoma. We postulate that in addition to causing black thyroid pigmentation, chronic minocycline use in our patient resulted in thyroiditis and subsequent hyperthyroidism. The papillary microcarcinoma was probably a coincidental finding.

  9. Papillary carcinoma thyroid with anastomosing channels: An unusual morphology

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Varsha; Kaur, Manveen; Bansal, Anju

    2017-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid malignancy, accounting for 70%–80% of all thyroid malignancies. It is biologically indolent and has an excellent prognosis. Variations in histopathologic patterns are known to influence prognosis and often result in a diagnostic dilemma. We report an unusual case of a 35-year-old female with papillary carcinoma of a thyroid isthmus showing anastomosing channels on histopathology, a distinctive pattern that has not been described in PTC. Similar to tumor cells, the lining cells of these channels were also positive for thyroid transcription factor 1, thyroglobulin, and cytokeratin-19 and negative for CD34 and CD31. The diagnosis of PTC should rely on nuclear morphology rather than architecture. Pathologists should be aware of different variants because some of these variants show aggressive behavior and poor outcome. The present report highlights the distinctive pattern of PTC, recognition of which is important to avoid any diagnostic pitfall. PMID:28367032

  10. Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features.

    PubMed

    Ghuzlan, Abir A; Ramos, Helton E; Schlumberger, Martin

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to present an overview regarding the renaming of encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer as 'noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features'. A recent retrospective study has shown the excellent clinical outcomes of noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer, for which the diagnosis is based on a thorough examination of all tumor tissue and its capsule to exclude any vascular or capsular invasion. Given the extremely low malignant potential of this entity, the term cancer was eliminated from its name, as this tumor requires less aggressive follow-up and treatment. The low-risk tumor was previously treated conservatively prior to its renaming. However, elimination of the term cancer from its name may decrease the psychological and social consequences of its diagnosis.

  11. Hashimoto's thyroiditis predicts outcome in intrathyroidal papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Marotta, Vincenzo; Sciammarella, Concetta; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Gambardella, Claudio; Bellevicine, Claudio; Grasso, Marica; Conzo, Giovanni; Docimo, Giovanni; Botti, Gerardo; Losito, Simona; Troncone, Giancarlo; De Palma, Maurizio; Giacomelli, Laura; Pezzullo, Luciano; Colao, Annamaria; Faggiano, Antongiulio

    2017-09-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) seems to have favourable prognostic impact on papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), but data were obtained analysing all disease stages. Given that HT-related microenvironment involves solely the thyroid, we aimed to assess the relationship between HT, as detected through pathological assessment, and outcome in intrathyroidal PTC. This was a multicentre, retrospective, observational study including 301 PTC with no evidence of extrathyroidal disease. Primary study endpoint was the rate of clinical remission. Auxiliary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS). HT was detected in 42.5% of the cohort and was associated to female gender, smaller tumour size, lower rate of aggressive PTC variants and less frequent post-surgery radio-iodine administration. HT showed relationship with significantly higher rate of clinical remission (P < 0.001, OR 4, 95% CI 1.78-8.94). PTCs with concomitant HT had significantly longer RFS, as compared with non-HT tumours (P = 0.004). After adjustment for other parameters affecting disease outcome at univariate analysis (age at diagnosis, histology, tumour size and multifocality), prognostic effect of HT remained significant (P = 0.006, OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.39-7.72). To verify whether HT could optimise the identification of PTCs with unfavourable outcome, we assessed the accuracy of 'non-HT status' as negative prognostic marker, demonstrating poor capability of identifying patients not maintaining clinical remission until final follow-up (probability of no clinical remission in PTCs without HT: 21.05%, 95% CI 15.20-27.93). In conclusion, our data show that HT represents an independent prognostic parameter in intrathyroidal PTC, but cannot improve prognostic specificity. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  12. [Clinico-pathological features of papillary thyroid cancer coexistent with Hashimoto's thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Molnár, Sarolta; Győry, Ferenc; Nagy, Endre; Méhes, Gábor; Molnár, Csaba

    2017-02-01

    Former studies suggest the frequent coexistence of Hashimoto's thyreoditis with papillary thyroid cancer, frequently featured by multifocal carcinogenesis but lower clinical stages compared to thyroid cancers lacking thyroiditis. We examined the clinico-pathological correlations between Hashimoto's thyroditis and papillary thyroid cancer in our region in the North-Eastern part of Hungary. We included a total of 230 patients with papillary thyroid cancer who underwent thyroid surgery at the Surgical Department of the University of Debrecen. Patients' sex, age, multifocality of thyroid cancer and clinical stage were evaluated. Cases included 40 patients (17.4%) with (4 male, 36 female) and 190 (82.6%) patients without HT (44 male, 146 female). Hashimoto's thyroiditis related thyroid cancer was almost exclusively associated with the papillary histological type. Multifocality of papillary cancer was significantly more frequent with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis (16/40; 40.0%) compared to cases uninvolved (45/190; 23.7%; p = 0.034). In contrast, lymph node metastasis was significantly less frequent among patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (4 pN1 [36.4%]; 7 pN0 [63.6%]) then without it (34 pN1 [82.9%]; 7 pN0 [17.1%]; p = 0.002). Higher frequency and multifocality of papillary thyroid cancer might be the consequence of preexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis to be considered as a preneoplastic stimulus supporting carcinogenesis, though the exact pathomechanism of this correlation is not clear yet. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(5), 178-182.

  13. [Papillary thyroid carcinoma synchronous with breast cancer: an incidental finding in an (18)F-FDG PET-CT study carried out in a search for occult breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Banzo, J; Ubieto, M A; González, C; Razola, P; Tardín, L; Andrés, A; Santapau, A; Parra, A; Rambalde, E F; Prats, E

    2012-01-01

    The most common cause of metastatic involvement of axillary lymph nodes in women is ipsilateral breast cancer. The definition of occult breast malignancy has changed over time. Nowadays, it is considered to exist when it coincides with an isolated metastatic axillary abnormal lymph node in the absence of a palpable tumor in the ipsilateral breast, non-diagnostic breast tumor mammography and no detection of other malignancies outside the breast which could potentially affect the axillary nodes. The value of (18)F-FDG PET/CT scan in these patients has not been established, but it could be useful in those patients with a non-diagnostic MRI. It is not uncommon in (18)F-FDG PET/CT studies to identify incidental hypermetabolic focal image in the thyroid. The high prevalence of cancer in these lesions makes it recommendable to perform a US study and/or FNAP biopsy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  14. Is papillary thyroid microcarcinoma an indolent tumor?

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xuemei; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Yajing; Hua, Wenjuan; Maimaiti, Yusufu; Gao, Zairong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The increasing detection of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) has created management dilemmas. To clarify the clinical significance of postsurgery stimulated thyroglobulin (ps-Tg) in PTMC who undergo thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine (RAI), we retrospectively reviewed the 358 PTMC patients who were treated with RAI and followed up in our hospital. Those with an excessive anti-Tg antibody, ultrasound-detected residual were excluded, thereby resulting in the inclusion of 280 cases. Their clinical and histopathological information and clinical outcomes were collected and summarized. Tumor stages were classified according to the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) staging system and the consensus of the European Thyroid Association (ETA) risk stratification system, respectively. Kaplan–Meier curves were constructed to compare the disease-free survival (DFS) rates of different risk-staging systems. By the end of follow-up, none of the patients died of the disease or relapsed. The 8-year DFS rate was 76.9%. Kaplan–Meier curves showed different DFS rates in TNM stages I versus IV, III versus IV, very low risk versus high risk, low risk versus high risk, respectively (P < 0.05), while they were not significantly different in stage I versus stage III, very low risk versus low risk (P > 0.05). Finally, 40 (14.3%) cases got a persistent disease. Five variables (male sex, nonconcurrent benign pathology, initial tumor size >5 mm, lymph node metastasis, and ps-Tg ≥ 10 μg/L) were associated with disease persistence by univariate regression analysis. Ps-Tg ≥ 10 μg/L was the only independent prognostic variable that predicted disease persistence by multivariate regression analysis (odds ratio: 36.057, P = 0.000). Therefore, PTMC with a small size of ≤1 cm does not always act as an indolent tumor. In conclusion, ps-Tg ≥ 10 μg/L is associated with increased odds of disease persistence. ETA risk stratification is more

  15. Simultaneous Papillary Carcinoma in Thyroglossal Duct Cyst and Thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Adele O.; Berenstein, Cynthia Koeppel; Fonseca, Bernardo; Martorina, Wagner José; de Souza, Andreise Laurian N. R.; Meyer de Moraes, Gustavo; Rajão, Kamilla Maria Araújo Brandão; Sousa, Bárbara Érika Caldeira Araújo

    2017-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct cyst (TDC) is a cystic expansion of a remnant of the thyroglossal duct tract. Carcinomas in the TDC are extremely rare and are usually an incidental finding after the Sistrunk procedure. In this report, an unusual case of a 36-year-old woman with concurrent papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in the TDC and on the thyroid gland is presented, followed by a discussion of the controversies surrounding the possible origins of a papillary carcinoma in the TDC, as well as the current management options. PMID:28270939

  16. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in thalassaemia: an emerging concern for physicians?

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, V; Campisi, S; Fiscina, B; Soliman, A

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence of malignancies in thalassaemic patients is an emerging concern for physicians. In the last five years, in a single Thalassaemia Unit following 195 thalassaemic patients, eleven cases of carcinoma were diagnosed: 4 cases of liver, 1 of lung, 1 of adrenal gland and 5 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (patient mean age 42.6 years).Therefore, we decided to perform a thyroid ultrasonography (US) in addition to the periodic (6-12 months) assessment of FT4 and TSH in all adult patients with thalassaemia followed at the Thalassaemia Unit of Siracusa and at the Outpatient Clinic of Quisisana Hospital of Ferrara. Thyroid nodules were found in 8.6% of 58 examined thalassaemia major or intermedia patients. To exclude thyroid malignancy, fine needle biopsy (FNAC) under US guidance was performed. A diagnosis of incidental papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) was made in 3 female patients with iron overload. According to the World Health Organization, PTMC is defined as papillary thyroid carcinoma measuring < or = 10 mm in the greatest dimension. Two patients were HCV positive. All underwent a total or subtotal thyroidectomy with histological confirmation of the FNAC cytology diagnosis. In conclusion, it seems that patients with thalassaemia have a substantial risk for malignancies. Further studies are needed in these patients to clarify the possible link between cellular iron content, hepatitis C virus infection and cancer development. A thyroid ultrasonography is recommended for all adult thalassaemic patients in addition to the annual FT4 and TSH assessment.

  17. Collision tumor of the thyroid gland: primary squamous cell and papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Warman, Meir; Lipschitz, Noga; Ikher, Sergey; Halperin, Doron

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Collision tumor of the thyroid gland is defined when independent and histologically distinct tumors coexist within the gland. The presence of both papillary and squamous cell carcinoma in the thyroid gland is unusual. Suggested etiologies include embryonic remanents of squamous epithelium, chronic inflammation, or thyroid malignancies promoting squamous metaplasia. Case Presentation. An elderly patient presented with a rapid enlargement of a long-standing right thyroid nodule. The tumor was locally invasive and unresectable. Pathology revealed the diagnosis of papillary and squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Possible primary sites for squamous cell carcinoma in upper aerodigestive tract were excluded. The patient outcome was fatal although palliative chemoradiotherapy. Discussion. Collision tumor of papillary and squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland is a rare entity that may imply bad prognosis, as to the presence of the squamous portion. The best treatment includes resection of the tumor; unfortunately it is not possible in most cases.

  18. Follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma with a twist

    PubMed Central

    Nwaeze, Obinna; Obidike, Stephen; Mullen, Dorinda; Aftab, Fuad

    2015-01-01

    Background We report an adnexal lesion, which turned out to be a metastasis to the scalp from a left sided follicular variant papillary thyroid cancer. The patient has had history of right multi-nodular goiter 10 years prior to presentation. Case presentation A 75-year old lady presented with a cutaneous lesion about 1 year post left total thyroidectomy for FVPTC. She underwent surgical excision of the lesion and histology revealed it to be metastases from a thyroid carcinoma. Discussion Cutaneous metastases from thyroid carcinomas are relatively uncommon in clinical practice. A worldwide literature review reveals that follicular carcinoma has a greater preponderance than papillary carcinoma for cutaneous metastasis and that the majority of skin metastases from either papillary or follicular thyroid cancer are localized to the head and neck, with the scalp as the commonest site. Conclusion Skin metastasis from papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma is an uncommon occurrence and these lesions should be differentiated from primary skin tumors. They are very important to recognize as early recognition can lead to accurate and prompt diagnosis leading to timely treatment. The scalp has been found to be the commonest site of cutaneous metastasis that may appear benign. PMID:25651538

  19. Primary papillary thyroid carcinoma previously treated incompletely with radiofrequency ablation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoon Yub; Ryu, Woo Sang; Woo, Sang Uk; Son, Gil Soo; Lee, Eun Sook; Lee, Jae Bok; Bae, Jeoung Won

    2010-01-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) recently has been applied to benign thyroid nodules, mainly for the cosmetic reasons, and limited cases of local recurrences or focal distant metastases of well-differentiated thyroid cancer, in the high-risk reoperative condition or for the palliative purpose. But no report has been made on the RFA for primary thyroid cancer to date. We report on a patient with primary papillary carcinoma of thyroid gland who had undergone RFA before the cytological diagnosis of malignancy, later referred and treated with robotic surgery successfully. We can learn the following lessons from our case; (1) the RFA for operable primary thyroid malignancy should be avoided, because of the possibility of remnant viable cancer and undetectable nodal metastasis, and (2) robotic or endoscopic thyroid surgery may be a feasible operative method for benign or malignant thyroid nodules previously treated with RFA.

  20. The Diffuse Sclerosing Variant of Papillary Thyroid Cancer Presenting as Innumerable Diffuse Microcalcifications in Underlying Adolescent Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Kwak, Jeong Ja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common diffuse thyroid disease and is characterized by diffuse lymphocytic infiltration. However, the ultrasonographic findings of papillary thyroid carcinomas that arise from Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the pediatric and adolescent population are not well known. We report a rare ultrasonographic finding in a 22-year-old woman diagnosed with the diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma that arose from underlying Hashimoto's thyroiditis: innumerable diffuse microcalcifications instead of a typical malignant-appearing nodule. PMID:27015194

  1. The History of the Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tallini, Giovanni; Tuttle, R Michael; Ghossein, Ronald A

    2017-01-01

    This review provides historical context to recent developments in the classification of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC). The evolution of the diagnostic criteria for papillary thyroid carcinoma is described, clarifying the role of molecular analysis and the impact on patient management. A PubMed search using the terms "follicular variant" and "papillary thyroid carcinoma" covering the years 1960 to 2016 was performed. Additional references were identified through review of the citations of the retrieved articles. The encapsulated/well-demarcated, noninvasive form of FVPTC that occurs annually in 45,000 patients worldwide was thought for 30 years to be a carcinoma. Many studies have shown almost no recurrence in these noninvasive tumors, even in patients treated by surgery alone without radioactive iodine therapy. The categorization of the tumor as outright cancer has led to aggressive forms of treatment, with their side effects, financial costs, and the psychological and social impacts of a cancer diagnosis. Recently, the encapsulated/well-demarcated, noninvasive FVPTC was renamed as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features. The new terminology lacks the carcinoma label, enabling clinicians to avoid aggressive therapy. By understanding the history of FVPTC, future classification of tumors will be greatly improved.

  2. Sonographic Detection of Extracapsular Extension in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kamaya, Aya; Tahvildari, Ali M; Patel, Bhavik N; Willmann, Juergen K; Jeffrey, R Brooke; Desser, Terry S

    2015-12-01

    To identify and evaluate sonographic features suggestive of extracapsular extension in papillary thyroid cancer. Three board-certified radiologists blinded to the final pathologic tumor stage reviewed sonograms of pathologically proven cases of papillary thyroid cancer for the presence of extracapsular extension. The radiologists evaluated the following features: capsular abutment, bulging of the normal thyroid contour, loss of the echogenic capsule, and vascularity extending beyond the capsule. A total of 129 cases of pathologically proven thyroid cancer were identified. Of these, 51 were excluded because of lack of preoperative sonography, and 16 were excluded because of pathologic findings showing anaplastic carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, or microcarcinoma (<10 mm). The final analysis group consisted of 62 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, 16 of whom had pathologically proven extracapsular extension. The presence of capsular abutment had 100% sensitivity for detection of extracapsular extension. Conversely, lack of capsular abutment had a 100% negative predictive value (NPV) for excluding extracapsular extension. Contour bulging had 88% sensitivity for detection of extracapsular extension and when absent had an 87% NPV. Loss of the echogenic capsule was the best predictor of the presence of extracapsular extension, with an odds ratio of 10.23 (P = .034). This sonographic finding had 75% sensitivity, 65% specificity, and an 88% NPV. Vascularity beyond the capsule had 89% specificity but sensitivity of only 25%. Sonographic features of capsular abutment, contour bulging, and loss of the echogenic thyroid capsule have excellent predictive value for excluding or detecting extracapsular extension and may help in biopsy selection, surgical planning, and treatment of patients with papillary thyroid cancer. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. Recurrence pattern after conservative surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kenya; Takenouchi, Shigeo; Mitani, Hiroki; Yoshida, Tuyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Risk-based treatment represents the optimal management strategy for papillary thyroid carcinoma; however, the optimal extent of thyroidectomy and neck dissection remains controversial. This study aims to clarify the pattern of recurrence after conservative surgery in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed 93 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma treated with conservative surgery. We analyzed recurrence rate, recurrence pattern, risk factors for recurrence, salvage treatment, and disease-free survival (DFS) in patients stratified according to risk. The recurrence rate was significantly lower in the low-risk group compared with the high-risk group (14% vs 34%; p<0.01). The recurrence pattern also differed between the two groups, with ipsilateral lateral neck recurrence being more common in the low-risk group (9%), while contralateral lateral neck recurrence was more common in the high-risk group (18%). Patients with contralateral thyroid lobe metastasis and/or direct contralateral thyroid lobe invasion showed a significantly higher rate of contralateral lateral neck metastasis than patients negative for both these features. The overall 5-year DFS was 81% in all patients. Advanced T and N classification, large primary tumor (≥4cm), extrathyroidal invasion, and high-risk group were significantly associated with poorer 5-year DFS in univariate analysis. Conservative surgery may represent a good treatment option for patients with low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma. Tumor recurrence patterns differ between risk groups, with contralateral thyroid lobe lesions and direct contralateral lobe invasion being risk factors for contralateral lateral neck recurrence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thyroid pathologies accompanying primary hyperparathyroidism: a high rate of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kutlutürk, Koray; Otan, Emrah; Yağcı, Mehmet Ali; Usta, Sertaç; Aydın, Cemalettin; Ünal, Bülent

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Thyroid pathologies and non-medullary thyroid cancer often accompany primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). The purpose of this study was to examine the association between thyroid diseases, especially micropapillary thyroid cancer, with PHPT. Material and Methods: Data regarding 46 patients who were operated on with a diagnosis of PHPT at Inonu University Faculty of Medicine, General Surgery Clinic between June 2009 and March 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Age, gender, levels of preoperative calcium, parathyroid hormone and phosphorus, and the histopathological results of the removed parathyroid and thyroid tissues were evaluated. All of the patients had a preoperative diagnosis of PHPT and there was no history of radiation to the head and neck region in any of the patients. Results: Out of the 46 patients who were operated on for PHPT, 39 were female and 7 were male. The mean age was 52.8 years (25–76). Simultaneous thyroidectomy was performed in 35 patients (76.1%) due to an accompanying thyroid disorder. Papillary microcarcinoma was detected in 5 of these 35 (10.9%) patients who underwent thyroidectomy, two of which (40%) were multifocal tumors. The benign thyroid pathologies detected in the remaining 30 (65.2%) cases included lymphocytic thyroiditis in 3, Hashimoto thyroiditis in 1, follicular adenoma in 3 (two of which was Hurtle cell), and nodular colloidal goiter in 23 patients. The preoperative serum phosphate level was significantly higher in the group with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (p=0.013). Conclusion: In regions where goiter is endemic, thyroid diseases and thyroid papillary microcarcinoma occur in association with PHPT at a higher rate compared to the normal population. Therefore, we believe that patients who are planned for surgery due to PHPT should be thoroughly investigated for the presence of any concomitant malignant thyroid pathologies in the preoperative period. It should also be kept in mind that patients with high

  5. Follicular variant of papillary carcinoma in submandibular ectopic thyroid with no orthotopic thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Guerrissi, Jorge O

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue with no orthotopic gland is extremely rare; malign transformation of ectopic thyroid is also an uncommon event, and rarer is the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. In this clinical report, a case with submandibular ectopic thyroid without orthotropic thyroid gland is presented. Treatment was a complete resection of tumor, and histologic findings reveal follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery, and a substitution treatment with thyroxine was maintained. Physicians should be aware of the possibility that a lingual, submandibular, or lateral neck swelling could be an ectopic thyroid gland. This entity poses specific diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties, and definitive diagnosis is histologic. Computed tomographic scan, radioactive scan, and ultrasonography are necessary in revealing the presence of normal thyroid gland. Recommended treatment is primarily surgical, sometimes associated with radioiodine I 131 therapy and a substitution treatment with thyroxine.

  6. Synchronous papillary thyroid carcinoma and breast ductal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jinjing; Lei, Jianyong; Jiang, Ke; Li, Zhihui; Gong, Rixiang; Zhu, Jingqiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The incidences of both thyroid cancer and breast cancer have been rising in recent years; however, it is very rare to find a single person with both of these cancers. Only a few cases of synchronous thyroid and breast cancer have been published, and even fewer cases have been reported in older patients (>60 years). Case summary: The current study presents a case of synchronous papillary thyroid carcinoma and breast ductal carcinoma in an elderly patient. The patient first underwent a mastectomy and axillary lymphadenectomy in our department, followed by a total thyroidectomy and lymphadenectomy of the left lateral region of the neck 1 month later. Postoperative pathological examination identified invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Over almost half a year of follow-up, the patient has exhibited no evidence of recurrence or metastasis, as demonstrated by careful ultrasound examinations. Herein, we not only report this case but also present a systematic review of the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of synchronous breast and thyroid cancer. Conclusion: Although synchronous primary tumors of the thyroid and breast are very rare, they remain a possibility; therefore, more attention should be paid to these cases. PMID:28207532

  7. Concurrent papillary thyroid cancer with pituitary ACTH-secreting tumor.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Chen, Jeng-Yeou; Chuang, Wen-Yu; Jung, Shih-Ming; Chang, Yu-Chen; Lin, Jen-Der

    2007-04-01

    Concomitant thyroid cancer with pituitary tumor is uncommon. This study reports a case of advanced papillary thyroid carcinoma with pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting tumor. A 58-year-old male patient had thyroid cancer in 1991 and presented with headache caused by pituitary tumor with apoplexy in 1993. Due to hypopituitarism, the patient underwent radioactive iodide ((131)I) for detection and treatment of metastatic thyroid cancer after the use of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) in 2000. During follow-up for thyroid cancer, (201)thallium scan proved to be an effective tool for detecting metastatic thyroid cancer in the patient without pituitary TSH reserve. Pituitary ACTH-secreting tumor was confirmed in 2001 based on the high serum ACTH level and positive immunohistochemical stain for ACTH. The patient had no Cushingoid features. Moreover, serum ACTH levels were 337 and 232 pg/mL with normal serum cortisol and urine-free cortisol. Although the patient underwent three operations and a total of 370 mCi (131)I therapy for recurrent thyroid cancer, the cancer continued to progress. Finally, the patient died of pneumonia with septic shock 12 years after the diagnosis of thyroid cancer.

  8. [Clinical and pathological differences between papillary thyroid carcinoma with Graves' disease and papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Xu, D D; Lun, Y; Liu, X; Jiang, H; Song, J B; Duan, Z Q; Xin, S J; Zhang, J

    2017-08-22

    Objective: To explore the clinical and pathological differences between papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with Graves' disease (GD) and PTC with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Methods: A total of 33 PTC patients with GD and 132 PTC patients with HT in the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University from January 2009 to December 2015 were enrolled. The clinical and histopathological data were analyzed. Results: The average serum concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) of PTCs with GD was significantly lower than PTCs with HT [0.01 (0, 0.10) mU/L vs 2.28(1.51, 3.14) mU/L, P<0.001]. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in nodule diameter [(15.7±7.0) mm vs (13.5±7.8)mm, P=0.14], percentage of lymph node metastasis (LNM) [33.3%(11/33) vs 39.4%(52/132), P=0.52], TNM stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ disease [12.1%(4/33) vs 11.4% (15/132), P=1.00], papillary thyroid micro-carcinoma (PTMC) [60.6% (20/33) vs 60.6%(80/132), P=1.00]and classic PTC in all its variant patterns [81.8%(27/33) vs 75.0%(99/132), P=0.36]. The age (P<0.01, OR=0.95, 95%CI: 0.92-0.98) and PTMC (P<0.01, OR=0.30, 95%CI: 0.13-0.67), rather than TSH (P=0.08) were independently correlated with LNM. Recurrence rate of PTC with GD was significantly lower than PTC with HT (log-rank test, P=0.03). In Cox proportional hazards regression model, variant pattern of PTC was independently correlated with recurrence rate (P<0.05). Conclusions: GD with PTC wasn't different from HT concomitant with PTC, except for thyroid function test. In addition, recurrence rate of PTC with GD was lower than that of PTC with HT after controlling TSH in the same level.

  9. Upper neck papillary thyroid cancer (UPTC): A new proposed term for the composite of thyroglossal duct cyst-associated papillary thyroid cancer, pyramidal lobe papillary thyroid cancer, and Delphian node papillary thyroid cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zizic, Marica; Faquin, William; Stephen, Antonia E; Kamani, Dipti; Nehme, Romy; Slough, Cristian M; Randolph, Gregory W

    2016-07-01

    Thyroglossal duct cyst (TGDC) is a common congenital anomaly, but TGDC carcinoma is rare. Thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma management is controversial, especially that of the orthotopic thyroid gland. We aim to provide an insight into the pathologic basis of this management controversy through the review of 28 TGDC cancer cases, thus far the largest such series to our knowledge. Retrospective. Twenty-eight cases recorded as TGDC cancer in the hospital database were reviewed; their initial clinical diagnosis from medical chart review (DX1) and final pathological review diagnosis (DX2) through pathology slides review by our pathologist (blinded to DX1) were compared. The thyroid gland management and pathology were evaluated. In the 28 TGDC carcinoma (hospital-recorded diagnosis) patients, DX1 and DX2 were respectively reported as 53% and 14% TGDC carcinoma, 11% and 29% as pyramidal lobe primary, and 4% and 25% as metastatic Delphian node. Thirty-two percent of cases were in the indeterminate category, in both DX1 and DX2, but included different patients. Thyroidectomy was performed in 54% of the cases, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was reported in 37% of these thyroid glands. Concurrent thyroid gland malignancy was reported in all Delphian node and pyramidal lobe PTC patients. The diagnosis of TGDC cancer comprises a heterogeneous group that includes true TGDC cancer, pyramidal lobe primary, Delphian node metastasis, and indeterminate cases. We propose a new terminology of upper neck papillary thyroid carcinoma (UPTC) to denote this heterogeneous group and recommend a rational algorithm for management. Correct pathologic subcategory and thyroid ultrasonography are essential for optimal management of thyroid gland in UPTC cases. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:1709-1714, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. [Genetic factors predisposing to the development of papillary thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Puzianowska-Kuźnicka, Monika; Pietrzak, Maciej

    2005-01-01

    According to classic theory of neogenesis, cancer arises from well-differentiated cell that in response to variety of factors de-differentiates, becomes able to proliferate without control and/or loses its ability to undergo apoptosis. According to another theory, cancers (at least cancers of some organs) originate from stem cells, which "by definition" are poorly differentiated and able to proliferate indefinitely. Therefore a lower number of abnormal events is necessary for these cells to escape proliferation-controlling mechanisms. With regard to papillary thyroid cancers it is still thought that it arises from well-differentiated thyreocyte. One of the characteristic features of cancer cell is chromosomal instability. Lowest number of such abnormalities is observed in well-differentiated thyroid cancers (including papillary cancer), intermediate - in poorly-differentiated cancers, while highest - in anaplastic cancers. Microarray analysis shows that despite of clinical heterogeneity, gene expression profiles of papillary cancers are very similar. Genetic anomalies predisposing to the development of papillary cancer most commonly regard proteins that possess kinase activity. Kinases phosphorylate other proteins, and play an extremely important role in signal transduction from outside the cell as well as inside the cell. Constitutive activation of some kinases may lead to the excessive and/or permanent activation of some transduction pathways specific for mitogens or growth factors. This results in excessive proliferation. The best known protein of such type which function is altered in papillary thyroid cancers is RET - a membrane-located growth factor-receptor with kinase activity. RET gene undergoes different rearrangements in this type of cancer. There are approximately 10 RET rearrangements known, with RET/PTC3 and RET/PTC1 being most common. In this anomaly kinase domain-encoding 3' end of RET gene is aberrantly bound to 5' end of another gene. Fusion

  11. Coexistent Papillary Carcinoma of Thyroid and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis – Diagnosis on Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Makhdoomi, Rumana; Mustafa, Farhat; Malik, Rais; Bhat, Salma; Alam, Khurshid; Bashir, Humaira; Samoon, Nuzhat; Rasool, Mohsin; Baba, Khalil Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is associated with an increased risk of developing papillary carcinoma of thyroid. We hereby report a case of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis with papillary carcinoma in a 45-year-old ear old female diagnosed on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) which was later confirmed on histopathological examination .Such an occurrence, when both lesions are picked up on FNAC in a patient with no palpable thyroid nodule is rare. The case is presented here for its rarity. PMID:24348592

  12. Is familial papillary thyroid microcarcinoma more aggressive than sporadic form?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cho Rok; Park, Seulkee; Kang, Sang-Wook; Lee, Jandee; Jeong, Jong Ju; Chung, Woong Youn; Park, Cheong Soo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose With the increasing incidence of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), familial papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (FPTMC) is now recognized more frequently. However, the biological behavior of FPTMC is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of FPTMC and its biological aggressiveness. Methods Between March 2006 and July 2010, 2,414 patients underwent primary surgical therapy for PTMC and 149 (6.2%) were further classified as FPTMC. To determine the biological aggressiveness of FPTMC, we compared the clinicopathological features and prognosis between FPTMC and sporadic PTMC (SPTMC). Results The male-to-female ratio was higher in FPTMC than in sporadic papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (SPTMC: 1:4.5 vs. 1:7.2, P = 0.041). The central lymph node (LN) metastasis rate was significantly higher in FPTMC than in SPTMC (36.2% vs. 24.2%, P = 0.002). The local recurrence rate was also higher in FPTMC than in SPTMC (4.5% vs. 0.6%, P < 0.001). We identified familial occurrence in 6.2% of cases of PTMC. FPTMC is associated with a high rate of central LN metastasis and local recurrence. Conclusion These findings suggest that close follow-up can be beneficial in FPTMC patients to detect local recurrence. PMID:28289666

  13. Synchronous papillary thyroid carcinoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma - a pitfall waiting to happen.

    PubMed

    Tang, P Y; Khor, L Y; Takano, A

    2017-08-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid carcinoma and is derived from thyroid follicular cells. In contrast, medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is rare and originates from the parafollicular C-cells. Synchronous occurrence of these two carcinomas is uncommon and occurs as either discrete lesions or as a mixed lesion. The current case report describes a 50-year-old woman with synchronous multiple discrete MTC and PTC with lymph nodes metastasis. Pathologists and treating physicians should be aware of the synchronous coexistence of these entities to avoid possible misdiagnosis.

  14. Three cases of dermatomyositis associated with papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Shah, Meera; Shah, Neel B; Moder, Kevin G; Dean, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Dermatomyositis (DM) is considered a paraneoplastic phenomenon and cancer may precede or follow the development of clinical features by several years. Despite the prevalence of thyroid cancer, reports of an association are rare. We report 3 cases of dermatomyositis and thyroid cancer, focusing on the clinical course of the rheumatologic condition following thyroidectomy. We also performed a comprehensive review of the current literature. We performed a chart review between 1960 and 2012 to identify patients with DM and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) seen in Mayo Clinic, Rochester, in Minnesota, a tertiary referral center. Only 3 patients were identified using the above criteria. There was a significant improvement in the course of the dermatological condition after definitive treatment for thyroid cancer (i.e. thyroidectomy) in one of our patients. The risk of a first malignancy is highest at the time the diagnosis of dermatomyositis is made and remains significantly higher in the first two years following diagnosis. A comprehensive literature review identified only two patients with PTC and dermatomyositis (both in Taiwan) across 4 international population cohorts. In addition, several cases have been reported from patients in the Far East, a geographical predilection that is unexplained. Our case series highlights the uncommon association between thyroid cancer and dermatomyositis while illustrating prevailing knowledge about the temporal relationship between dermatomyositis and thyroid cancer. Increased vigilance for and treatment of thyroid cancer in patients with dermatomyositis may assist in the successful management of this difficult rheumatologic condition.

  15. Clinical and Pathological Implications of Concurrent Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders and Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, L. L.; Ferreira, R. C.; Marcello, M. A.; Vassallo, J.; Ward, L. S.

    2011-01-01

    Cooccurrences of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and thyroid cancer (DTC) have been repeatedly reported. Both CLT and DTC, mainly papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), share some epidemiological and molecular features. In fact, thyroid lymphocytic inflammatory reaction has been observed in association with PTC at variable frequency, although the precise relationship between the two diseases is still debated. It also remains a matter of debate whether the association with a CLT or even an autoimmune disorder could influence the prognosis of PTC. A better understanding about clinical implications of autoimmunity in concurrent thyroid cancer could raise new insights of thyroid cancer immunotherapy. In addition, elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in autoimmune disease and concurrent cancer allowed us to identify new therapeutic strategies against thyroid cancer. The objective of this article was to review recent literature on the association of these disorders and its potential significance. PMID:21403889

  16. Genetic Alterations in Hungarian Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Tobiás, Bálint; Halászlaki, Csaba; Balla, Bernadett; Kósa, János P; Árvai, Kristóf; Horváth, Péter; Takács, István; Nagy, Zsolt; Horváth, Evelin; Horányi, János; Járay, Balázs; Székely, Eszter; Székely, Tamás; Győri, Gabriella; Putz, Zsuzsanna; Dank, Magdolna; Valkusz, Zsuzsanna; Vasas, Béla; Iványi, Béla; Lakatos, Péter

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancers is increasing worldwide. Some somatic oncogene mutations (BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, KRAS) as well as gene translocations (RET/PTC, PAX8/PPAR-gamma) have been associated with the development of thyroid cancer. In our study, we analyzed these genetic alterations in 394 thyroid tissue samples (197 papillary carcinomas and 197 healthy). The somatic mutations and translocations were detected by Light Cycler melting method and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction techniques, respectively. In tumorous samples, 86 BRAF (44.2%), 5 NRAS (3.1%), 2 HRAS (1.0%) and 1 KRAS (0.5%) mutations were found, as well as 9 RET/PTC1 (4.6%) and 1 RET/PTC3 (0.5%) translocations. No genetic alteration was seen in the non tumorous control thyroid tissues. No correlation was detected between the genetic variants and the pathological subtypes of papillary cancer as well as the severity of the disease. Our results are only partly concordant with the data found in the literature.

  17. [GST genes expression as prognostic factor in papillary thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Antonio Jose; Monte, Osmar; Morari, Eliane Cristina; Ward, Laura Sterian; Nakasako, Diana Shimoda; Nieto, Juliana; Nakai, Marianne Yumi

    2009-01-01

    Analyze the relationship between the AMES classification and molecular factors from Glutation-S-Transferase System, specifically the GSTT1 and GSTM1 in patients with well differentiated thyroid cancer. Samples of thyroid tissue of 66 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were obtained (53 women and 13 men). Patients were divided in two groups (high and low risk) according to the AMES classification. In each group, presence of the null genotype of both GST enzymes system was studied. These results were compared with the AMES classification. Samples were obtained in the operating room immediately after thyroidectomy, placed in cryotubes, immersed in liquid nitrogen and stored in a freezer at -80 masculineC. DNA of this enzymes was extracted by the fenol-cloroformium method. There were 17 high risk patients and 49 low risk patients. The null genotype of the high risk group was 5.8% and in the other group was 6.1%. There was no relationship between absence of genes GSTT1 and GSTM1 and prognosis of the papillary thyroid carcinoma when compared to the AMES classifications.

  18. Brain Metastases of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Horner's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyo; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Chough, Chung-Kee; Park, Hae-Kwan; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Rha, Hyoung-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid malignancy and has relatively favorable prognosis. Blood-borne metastases of PTC are very rare among the thyroid malignancies. Moreover a case of blood-borne central nervous system metastasized PTC with only unilateral Horner's syndrome, and without any abnormalities in laboratory or physical examinations has not been described before. A 53-year-old female patient had been managed in ophthalmologic clinic due to vague symptoms of right monocular blurred vision with eye dryness for 3 months, but showed no signs of improvement. So it was performed a magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography to evaluate the possibilities of cerebral lesion. And a left frontal mass was incidentally found, and the tumor turned out to be a PTC that had metastasized to brain, regional lymph node, cervical, thoracic spine, and lung. We describe a PTC with extraordinary initial symptoms that metastasized to an unusual site. We recommend that if a papillary thyroid tumor with unusual symptoms or at an advanced stage is found, further investigation should be performed for distant metastasis. PMID:25408940

  19. Brain Metastases of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Horner's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyo; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Joo, Won-Il; Chough, Chung-Kee; Park, Hae-Kwan; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Rha, Hyoung-Kyun

    2014-10-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid malignancy and has relatively favorable prognosis. Blood-borne metastases of PTC are very rare among the thyroid malignancies. Moreover a case of blood-borne central nervous system metastasized PTC with only unilateral Horner's syndrome, and without any abnormalities in laboratory or physical examinations has not been described before. A 53-year-old female patient had been managed in ophthalmologic clinic due to vague symptoms of right monocular blurred vision with eye dryness for 3 months, but showed no signs of improvement. So it was performed a magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography to evaluate the possibilities of cerebral lesion. And a left frontal mass was incidentally found, and the tumor turned out to be a PTC that had metastasized to brain, regional lymph node, cervical, thoracic spine, and lung. We describe a PTC with extraordinary initial symptoms that metastasized to an unusual site. We recommend that if a papillary thyroid tumor with unusual symptoms or at an advanced stage is found, further investigation should be performed for distant metastasis.

  20. [Management of the papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Page, Cyril; Biet, Aurélie; Zaatar, Rody; Charlet, Laurent; Strunski, Vladimir

    2008-10-01

    To study the management and treatment of papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid. Retrospective study of 57 patients operated on their thyroid gland between 1995 and 2004. All patients had a frozen section of the specimen. Procedure varied according to histology results and presence of adenopathy. Procedure planned initially was a total thyroidectomy in 75% of patients (the other 25% were planned as hemi-thyroidectomy). Frozen section was positive in 46% of patients. We proceeded with 16 selective neck dissections (levels 2-3-4) and 10 bilateral "level 6" . Microcarcinomas were unique in 77% of cases. Extra-capsular spreading was noted in 39% of cases. Adjuvant Iodine 131 was administered to 36 patients (63%). Follow-up included clinic visits, ultra-sound and Tg levels. With a follow-up of 3 to 12 years, no recurrence or metastasis has been identified. Treatment of papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid is controversial. If surgery is chosen as treatment, the extent both regarding the thyroid itself and the cervical nodes is debated. Because of the excellent prognosis, some authors have recommended, when risk factors are absent, to limit the treatment to the thyroidectomy. Others, because of the risk of local recurrence and distal metastasis, have recommended a very aggressive approach.

  1. Primary thyroid spindle cell tumors: spindle cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaomei; Xia, Chunyan; Liu, Huimin; Zhu, Weijian

    2015-01-01

    Primary thyroid spindle cell tumors or spindle cell component in the thyroid tumors are very rare. The spindle tumor cells were positive for thyroid papillary carcinoma markers. So these tumors were diagnosed as spindle cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). To further delineate clinico-pathological features of primary thyroid spindle cell tumors and discuss differential diagnosis, we reported a 67-year-old man with a mass in the right thyroid without clinical symptom. Microscopy revealed that an encapsulated tumor with lot criss spindle cells arranged in bundles. Nuclear grooves were easy to see and rare displayed pseudoinclusions. Immunohistochemical studied showed that the spindle cells were all strong positive for TTF-1, Pax-8, thyroglobulin. Rare follicular were seen in the periphery of the tumor near the thyroid tissue. The cells formed follicular but the spindle tumor cells were positive for pan-keratins. The pathological diagnosis was primary thyroid spindle cell tumors, suspected spindle cell variant of PTC. Primary thyroid spindle cell tumors were presence and without the unified name. The further reports and more discussion were need about these tumors.

  2. [Cervical lymph node metastasis in clinical N0 papillary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Yan, Dan-gui; Zhang, Bin; An, Chang-ming; Zhang, Zong-min; Li, Zheng-jiang; Xu, Zhen-gang; Tang, Ping-zhang

    2011-11-01

    To study the patterns of cervical lymph nodes metastasis and the surgical managements of cervical lymph nodes in clinical N0 (cN0) papillary thyroid carcinoma. Fifty-one consecutive patients with papillary carcinomas without clinical evidence of cervical lymph node involvement were included in the study between August 2007 and September 2010, in which 53 sides underwent neck lymph node dissection. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy intra-operative hand-held gamma probe detecting and blue dye technique were used to detect the sentinel lymph node (SLN). SLNs were sent to frozen-section and the results were compared with specimen of routine selective neck dissection. All the pathologic specimens were reviewed by pathologists, counting the numbers of pathologic positive nodes and mapping the localization of positive nodes in level II, III, IV, V and VI respectively. The following criteria were used to study the predictive value of lateral neck compartment lymph node metastasis: age, multifocality of the tumor, extracapsular spread (ECS), tumor size, and the number of central compartment metastasis nodes. Univariate analysis with the χ2 test was used to analyze the statistical correlation between lateral neck compartment lymph node metastasis and the other clinical factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the multivariate correlates of lateral neck compartment metastasis. The occult lymph node metastasis and lateral neck metastasis rates were 77.4% and 58.5% respectively, central compartment metastasis ≥3 nodes was the only independent predictive factor for the metastasis in lateral neck. Twelve sides were pN0 and other 41 sides were pN+ in all 53 side specimens. Of 41 sides with pN+, 17 sides (41.5%) involved single site and 24 sides (58.5%) involved multi-sites. The distribution of metastasis lymph nodes:level VI 62.3%, level III 52.8%, level IV 30.2%, level II 18.9%, and level V 0%. Cervical occult lymph node metastasis in cN0 papillary

  3. Hyponatremia after thyroid hormone withdrawal in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jo, Hyo Jin; Kim, Yong Hyun; Shin, Dong Hyun; Kim, Mi Jeoung; Lee, Sang Jin; Jeon, Dong Ok; Im, Sung Gyu; Jang, Sun Kyung; Choi, Jin Young

    2014-03-01

    Hyponatremia is an electrolyte abnormality commonly found in clinical practice. It is important to diagnose the underlying etiology of the hyponatremia and correct it appropriately because severe hyponatremia can cause serious complications and substantially increase the risk of mortality. Although hypothyroidism is known to be a cause of hyponatremia, it is rare that hyponatremia occurs in relation to hypothyroidism induced by thyroid hormone withdrawal in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. We report a case of a 76-year-old woman with papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting with severe hyponatremia related to hypothyroidism induced by thyroid hormone withdrawal for radio-active iodine whole-body scanning, who was treated by thyroid hormone replacement and hydration. Considering that the incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer is rapidly increasing, physicians should be aware that, although uncommon, hyponatremia can occur in patients undergoing radioiodine therapy or diagnostic testing.

  4. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in three siblings with familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Civitelli, S; Tanzini, G; Cetta, F; Petracci, M; Pacchiarotti, M C; Civitelli, B

    1996-01-01

    The authors report three siblings (two sisters and their aunt, aged 20, 22 and 36, respectively) with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and papillary thyroid carcinoma. After diagnosis of FAP, a single, non palpable nodule was revealed in each patient by routine screening ultrasonography of the gland. The diagnosis of papillary carcinoma was made by fine-needle-aspiration biopsy of the nodules and confirmed by histologic examination of surgical specimens. A review of the literature reveals about 40 reports of such an association, that is considered not fortuitous. Nevertheless, in this family the association seems to be a distinctive, clinical feature of the syndrome, affecting three out of five members intensively screened for extracolonic lesions.

  5. Detection of human parvovirus B19 in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J H; Zhang, W P; Liu, H X; Wang, D; Li, Y F; Wang, W Q; Wang, L; He, F R; Wang, Z; Yan, Q G; Chen, L W; Huang, G S

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate whether parvovirus B19, a common human pathogen, was also involved in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 112 paraffin-embedded thyroid specimens of benign nodules, papillary, medullary and follicular carcinomas, and normal controls were examined for B19 DNA and capsid protein by nested PCR, in situ hybridisation (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The expression of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was investigated by IHC. The results showed B19 DNA commonly exists in human thyroid tissues; however, there were significant differences between PTC group and normal controls, and between PTC and nonneoplastic adjacent tissues (P<0.001). The presence of viral DNA in PTC neoplastic epithelium was confirmed by laser-capture microdissection and sequencing of nested PCR products. B19 capsid protein in PTC group was significantly higher than that of all the control groups and nonneoplastic adjacent tissues (P⩽0.001). Compared with control groups, the activation of NF-κB in PTC group was significantly increased (P⩽0.02), except for medullary carcinomas, and the activation of NF-κB was correlated with the viral protein presence (P=0.002). Moreover, NF-κB was colocalised with B19 DNA in the neoplastic epithelium of PTC by double staining of IHC and ISH. These results indicate for the first time a possible role of B19 in pathogenesis of PTC. PMID:18212749

  6. Papillary thyroid carcinoma with an uncommon spread of hematogenous metastases to the choroid and the skin.

    PubMed

    Bucerius, Jan; Meyka, Susanne; Michael, Bangard; Biersack, Hans-Jürgen; Eter, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Papillary carcinoma is the most common malignancy of the thyroid gland with initial lymphogenic metastatic spread in many cases. Hematogenous spread may affect the lung, bone and brain. We present a case of hematogenous metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma both in the choroid and the skin, which are reported in the literature to be rare sites of metastases in primary differentiated thyroid carcinoma. This finding is even more remarkable, as the reported patient presented without any other disseminated hematogenous metastases at the time of diagnosis of both of these metastases. With this background, papillary carcinoma of the thyroid should be considered in the differential diagnosis of choroidal or skin metastasis of unknown origin.

  7. Expression of PAX8 Target Genes in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rosignolo, Francesca; Sponziello, Marialuisa; Durante, Cosimo; Puppin, Cinzia; Mio, Catia; Baldan, Federica; Di Loreto, Carla; Russo, Diego; Filetti, Sebastiano; Damante, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    PAX8 is a thyroid-specific transcription factor whose expression is dysregulated in thyroid cancer. A recent study using a conditional knock-out mouse model identified 58 putative PAX8 target genes. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of 11 of these genes in normal and tumoral thyroid tissues from patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). ATP1B1, GPC3, KCNIP3, and PRLR transcript levels in tumor tissues were significantly lower in PTCs than in NT, whereas LCN2, LGALS1 and SCD1 expression was upregulated in PTC compared with NT. Principal component analysis of the expression of the most markedly dysregulated PAX8 target genes was able to discriminate between PTC and NT. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess levels of proteins encoded by the two most dyregulated PAX8 target genes, LCN2 and GPC3. Interestingly, GPC3 was detectable in all of the NT samples but none of the PTC samples. Collectively, these findings point to significant PTC-associated dysregulation of several PAX8 target genes, supporting the notion that PAX8-regulated molecular cascades play important roles during thyroid tumorigenesis. PMID:27249794

  8. Papillary thyroid carcinoma shows elevated levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate.

    PubMed

    Rakheja, Dinesh; Boriack, Richard L; Mitui, Midori; Khokhar, Shama; Holt, Shelby A; Kapur, Payal

    2011-04-01

    Elevated levels of D: -2-hydroxyglutarate (D: -2-HG) occur in gliomas and myeloid leukemias associated with mutations of IDH1 and IDH2. L: -2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria, an inherited metabolic disorder, predisposes to brain tumors. Therefore, we asked whether sporadic cancers, without IDH1 or IDH2 hot-spot mutations, show elevated 2-hydroxyglutarate levels. We retrieved 15 pairs of frozen papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and adjacent non-neoplastic thyroid, and 14 pairs of hyperplastic nodule (HN) and adjacent non-hyperplastic thyroid. In all lesions, exon 4 sequencing confirmed the absence of known mutations of IDH1 and IDH2. We measured 2-hydroxyglutarate by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Compared to normal thyroid, PTCs had significantly higher D: -2-HG and L: -2-hydroxyglutarate (L: -2-HG) levels, and compared to HNs, PTCs had significantly higher D: -2-HG levels. D: -2-HG/L: -2-HG levels were not significantly different between HNs and normal thyroid. Further studies should clarify if elevated 2-hydroxyglutarate in PTC may be useful as cancer biomarker and evaluate the role of 2-hydroxyglutarate in cancer biology.

  9. Clinical characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sang Gab; Yi, Jin Wook; Seong, Chan-Yong; Kim, Jong-Kyu; Kim, Su-Jin; Chai, Young Jun; Choi, June Young

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) arising from the pyramidal lobe is rare; therefore, clinicopathologic evaluation is lacking. In addition, the rate of occult malignancy in the pyramidal lobe after thyroid surgery is unclear. This study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics of PTCs that involve the pyramidal lobe. Methods The study enrolled 1,107 patients who underwent thyroid surgery for PTC at Seoul National University Hospital from 2006 to 2015. Pyramidal lobe status in pathologic reports was clear in all cases. “Pyramidal lobe-dominant PTC” was defined as single pyramidal lobe cancer or multifocal cancer with larger pyramidal lobe tumor. “Incidental pyramidal lobe PTC” was defined as occult cancer identified after thyroidectomy or as multifocal cancer with smaller pyramidal lobe tumor. Results Ten patients were included in the pyramidal lobe-dominant PTC group. The mean age was 58 ± 12.5 years, and the mean tumor size was 0.7 ± 0.7 cm. Cervical lymph node metastasis was found in 5 patients (50%). Three patients had microscopic lymphatic invasion, and 7 had advanced American Joint Comitee on Cancer (AJCC) stage disease (5 with stage III and 2 with stage IV). Compared with conventional PTC (n = 1,058), pyramidal lobe-dominant PTC was significantly associated with lymphatic invasion (P = 0.031) and advanced AJCC stage (P = 0.022). The prevalence of incidental pyramidal lobe PTC was 3.56%. Conclusion Pyramidal lobe PTC is relatively small in size; however, the rate of extrathyroidal extension and lymph node metastasis is high. Preoperative evaluation of nodal status is important, and the extent of surgery should be determined in accordance with the preoperative diagnosis. PMID:28289665

  10. The Role of Fragile Sites in Sporadic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Laura W.; Lehman, Christine E.; Wang, Yuh-Hwa

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing, especially papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), making it currently the fastest-growing cancer among women. Reasons for this increase remain unclear, but several risk factors including radiation exposure and improved detection techniques have been suggested. Recently, the induction of chromosomal fragile site breakage was found to result in the formation of RET/PTC1 rearrangements, a common cause of PTC. Chromosomal fragile sites are regions of the genome with a high susceptibility to forming DNA breaks and are often associated with cancer. Exposure to a variety of external agents can induce fragile site breakage, which may account for some of the observed increase in PTC. This paper discusses the role of fragile site breakage in PTC development, external fragile site-inducing agents that may be potential risk factors for PTC, and how these factors are especially targeting women. PMID:22762011

  11. Co-expression and clinical utility of Snail and N-cadherin in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiangshan; Shi, Ranran; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is one of the most common subtypes of thyroid cancer and portends a good prognosis. N-cadherin (neural cadherin) is a member of the classical cadherin family and is often overexpressed in many types of cancers. Snail, a kind of zinc finger protein, is a transcriptional repressor which has been intensively studied in mammals. We investigate the immunohistochemical expression of Snail and N-cadherin in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues and cells and then discuss the clinical value of Snail and N-cadherin expression. Immunohistochemical technique was performed to detect Snail and N-cadherin in 60 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma and analyzed the relationship between the expression of Snail, N-cadherin, and clinicopathological indicators. Western blot was used to investigate the constitutive and inducible expression of Snail and N-cadherin. In our study, the expression rate of Snail and N-cadherin was 85.0 % (51/60) and 78.3 % (47/60), respectively, in papillary thyroid carcinoma. The expression rate of Snail and N-cadherin in thyroid papillary carcinoma with metastatic lymph nodes was 93.3 and 86.7 %, respectively, while in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue without lymph node metastasis, the expression rate was 60.0 and 53.3 %, respectively. The positive correlation of Snail and N-cadherin was observed (r = 0.721, p < 0.01). In addition, Western blot further identified the constitutive and inducible expression of Snail and N-cadherin in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues and cell lines. In conclusion, Snail and N-cadherin are constitutively and inducibly expressed in papillary thyroid carcinoma and may play important roles in the development and metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Snail and N-cadherin may be used as an effective indicator.

  12. Nomenclature Revision for Encapsulated Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Seethala, Raja R.; Tallini, Giovanni; Baloch, Zubair W.; Basolo, Fulvio; Thompson, Lester D. R.; Barletta, Justine A.; Wenig, Bruce M.; Ghuzlan, Abir Al; Kakudo, Kennichi; Giordano, Thomas J.; Alves, Venancio A.; Khanafshar, Elham; Asa, Sylvia L.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Gooding, William E.; Hodak, Steven P.; Lloyd, Ricardo V.; Maytal, Guy; Mete, Ozgur; Nikiforova, Marina N.; Nosé, Vania; Papotti, Mauro; Poller, David N.; Sadow, Peter M.; Tischler, Arthur S.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Wall, Kathryn B.; LiVolsi, Virginia A.; Randolph, Gregory W.; Ghossein, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Although growing evidence points to highly indolent behavior of encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC), most patients with EFVPTC are treated as having conventional thyroid cancer. OBJECTIVE To evaluate clinical outcomes, refine diagnostic criteria, and develop a nomenclature that appropriately reflects the biological and clinical characteristics of EFVPTC. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS International, multidisciplinary, retrospective study of patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed as EFVPTC, including 109 patients with noninvasive EFVPTC observed for 10 to 26 years and 101 patients with invasive EFVPTC observed for 1 to 18 years. Review of digitized histologic slides collected at 13 sites in 5 countries by 24 thyroid pathologists from 7 countries. A series of teleconferences and a face-to-face conference were used to establish consensus diagnostic criteria and develop new nomenclature. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Frequency of adverse outcomes, including death from disease, distant or locoregional metastases, and structural or biochemical recurrence, in patients with noninvasive and invasive EFVPTC diagnosed on the basis of a set of reproducible histopathologic criteria. RESULTS Consensus diagnostic criteria for EFVPTC were developed by 24 thyroid pathologists. All of the 109 patients with noninvasive EFVPTC (67 treated with only lobectomy, none received radioactive iodine ablation) were alive with no evidence of disease at final follow-up (median [range], 13 [10–26] years). An adverse event was seen in 12 of 101 (12%) of the cases of invasive EFVPTC, including 5 patients developing distant metastases, 2 of whom died of disease. Based on the outcome information for noninvasive EFVPTC, the name “noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features” (NIFTP) was adopted. A simplified diagnostic nuclear scoring scheme was developed and validated, yielding a sensitivity of 98.6% (95% CI, 96.3%

  13. Likelihood ratio-based differentiation of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with sonographically evident diffuse hashimoto thyroiditis: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Xia, Yu; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Dai, Qing; Li, Xiao-Yi

    2012-11-01

    To assess the efficacy of sonography for discriminating nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis from papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with sonographically evident diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis. This study included 20 patients with 24 surgically confirmed Hashimoto thyroiditis nodules and 40 patients with 40 papillary thyroid carcinoma nodules; all had sonographically evident diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis. A retrospective review of the sonograms was performed, and significant benign and malignant sonographic features were selected by univariate and multivariate analyses. The combined likelihood ratio was calculated as the product of each feature's likelihood ratio for papillary thyroid carcinoma. We compared the abilities of the original sonographic features and combined likelihood ratios in diagnosing nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma by their sensitivity, specificity, and Youden index. The diagnostic capabilities of the sonographic features varied greatly, with Youden indices ranging from 0.175 to 0.700. Compared with single features, combinations of features were unable to improve the Youden indices effectively because the sensitivity and specificity usually changed in opposite directions. For combined likelihood ratios, however, the sensitivity improved greatly without an obvious reduction in specificity, which resulted in the maximum Youden index (0.825). With a combined likelihood ratio greater than 7.00 as the diagnostic criterion for papillary thyroid carcinoma, sensitivity reached 82.5%, whereas specificity remained at 100.0%. With a combined likelihood ratio less than 1.00 for nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis, sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 92.5%, respectively. Several sonographic features of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma in a background of diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis were significantly different. The combined likelihood ratio may be superior to original sonographic features for

  14. Hypopharyngeal and Parapharyngeal Space Metastasis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Batıoğlu-Karaaltın, Ayşegül; Azizli, Elad; Ersözlü, İlker; Yiğit, Özgür; Cansız, Harun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Carcinoma of the thyroid gland is one of the most commonly encountered endocrine malignancies. Papillary carcinoma is the most common histological type, and its spread is usually lymphatic. About 30–80% patients with papillary carcinoma develop lymphatic metastases. Case Report: We present here the case of a 70-year-old female patient who had undergone total thyroidectomy 10 years previously, with a histological diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. A neck dissection was performed ten years after the primary operation due to a mass in the parapharyngeal space and hypopharynx. The mass was diagnosed histologically as papillary thyroid cancer metastasis after the operation. Conclusion: Lymphatic and vascular metastases of papillary thyroid carcinoma separately to the parapharyngeal space and hypopharynx have rarely been reported. In our case, both hypopharyngeal and parapharyngeal space involvement were presented, which is a very rare condition. PMID:25207192

  15. Thyroid hemiagenesis associated with medullary or papillary carcinoma: report of cases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianbiao; Gao, Li; Song, Chunyi

    2014-11-01

    Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare congenital anomaly in which 1 thyroid lobe fails to develop. Co-occurrence of hemiagenesis and thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. Here, we report 2 cases of thyroid hemiagenesis with carcinoma. The first patient was referred with a left thyroid mass and absent right lobe. The frozen section examination revealed medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC); therefore, a left thyroid lobectomy plus neck dissection was performed. Another patient was referred with a right thyroid mass and absent left lobe. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was suspicious for papillary carcinoma. The patient underwent right thyroid lobectomy plus neck dissection. The operative findings confirmed hemiagenesis of the right lobe and MTC in the left lobe for the first case, and hemiagenesis of the left lobe and papillary carcinoma in the right lobe for the second case. Our case represents the first reported case of association between thyroid hemiagenesis and MTC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. RAMAN spectroscopy imaging improves the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Julietta V.; Graziani, Valerio; Fosca, Marco; Taffon, Chiara; Rocchia, Massimiliano; Crucitti, Pierfilippo; Pozzilli, Paolo; Onetti Muda, Andrea; Caricato, Marco; Crescenzi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent investigations strongly suggest that Raman spectroscopy (RS) can be used as a clinical tool in cancer diagnosis to improve diagnostic accuracy. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of Raman imaging microscopy to discriminate between healthy and neoplastic thyroid tissue, by analyzing main variants of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC), the most common type of thyroid cancer. We performed Raman imaging of large tissue areas (from 100 × 100 μm2 up to 1 × 1 mm2), collecting 38 maps containing about 9000 Raman spectra. Multivariate statistical methods, including Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), were applied to translate Raman spectra differences between healthy and PTC tissues into diagnostically useful information for a reliable tissue classification. Our study is the first demonstration of specific biochemical features of the PTC profile, characterized by significant presence of carotenoids with respect to the healthy tissue. Moreover, this is the first evidence of Raman spectra differentiation between classical and follicular variant of PTC, discriminated by LDA with high efficiency. The combined histological and Raman microscopy analyses allow clear-cut integration of morphological and biochemical observations, with dramatic improvement of efficiency and reliability in the differential diagnosis of neoplastic thyroid nodules, paving the way to integrative findings for tumorigenesis and novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27725756

  17. Resistance of papillary thyroid cancer stem cells to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    GIUFFRIDA, RAFFAELLA; ADAMO, LUANA; IANNOLO, GIOACCHIN; VICARI, LUISA; GIUFFRIDA, DARIO; ERAMO, ADRIANA; GULISANO, MASSIMO; MEMEO, LORENZO; CONTICELLO, CONCETTA

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine neoplasm, with the highest mortality rate of all the endocrine cancers. Among the endocrine malignancies, ~80% are papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). In the initiation and progression of this tumor, genetic alterations in the mitogen-associated protein kinase pathway, including RAS point mutations, RET/PTC oncogene rearrangements and BRAF point mutations, play an important role, particularly in deciding targeted therapy. In the present study, a small population of thyroid tumor cells, known as tumor spheres, were isolated and characterized from PTC surgical samples. These spheres can be expanded indefinitely in vitro and give rise to differentiated adherent cells when cultivated in differentiative conditions. The present study showed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometric analysis that the undifferentiated PTC cells exhibited a characteristic antigen expression profile of adult progenitor/stem cells. The cells were more resistant to chemotherapeutics, including bortezomib, taxol, cisplatin, etoposide, doxorubicin and vincristine, than differentiated PTC cells and the majority possessed a quiescent status, as revealed by the various cell cycle characteristics and anti-apoptotic protein expression. Such advances in cancer thyroid stem cell biology may provide relevant information for future targeted therapies. PMID:27347201

  18. RAMAN spectroscopy imaging improves the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Julietta V.; Graziani, Valerio; Fosca, Marco; Taffon, Chiara; Rocchia, Massimiliano; Crucitti, Pierfilippo; Pozzilli, Paolo; Onetti Muda, Andrea; Caricato, Marco; Crescenzi, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Recent investigations strongly suggest that Raman spectroscopy (RS) can be used as a clinical tool in cancer diagnosis to improve diagnostic accuracy. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of Raman imaging microscopy to discriminate between healthy and neoplastic thyroid tissue, by analyzing main variants of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC), the most common type of thyroid cancer. We performed Raman imaging of large tissue areas (from 100 × 100 μm2 up to 1 × 1 mm2), collecting 38 maps containing about 9000 Raman spectra. Multivariate statistical methods, including Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), were applied to translate Raman spectra differences between healthy and PTC tissues into diagnostically useful information for a reliable tissue classification. Our study is the first demonstration of specific biochemical features of the PTC profile, characterized by significant presence of carotenoids with respect to the healthy tissue. Moreover, this is the first evidence of Raman spectra differentiation between classical and follicular variant of PTC, discriminated by LDA with high efficiency. The combined histological and Raman microscopy analyses allow clear-cut integration of morphological and biochemical observations, with dramatic improvement of efficiency and reliability in the differential diagnosis of neoplastic thyroid nodules, paving the way to integrative findings for tumorigenesis and novel therapeutic strategies.

  19. Cribiform variant of papillary thyroid cancer and familial adenomatous polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Perea del Pozo, E.; Ramirez Plaza, C.; Padillo Ruiz, J.; Martos Martínez, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant cancer predisposition syndrome characterised by the progressive development of multiple colorectal adenomatous polyps and an increased incidence of colorectal carcinoma. It is often accompanied by other benign or malignant extracolonic manifestations, including gastric and duodenal tumours, osteomas, desmoid tumours, retinal pigmentation, and thyroid and adrenocortical tumours Methods and results We report the case of a 42-year-old white female with FAP who was referred to our Endocrine Surgery Unit for surgery because of a palpable mass in the left side of the neck. An ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy showed a cribriform-morular variant (CMV) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The incidence, clinical presentation, histology and treatment options for this rare histological subtype are discussed. Conclusions The diagnosis of CMV of PTC is very strongly related to the FAP syndrome and must be suspected when a thyroid node appears in FAP patients. Likewise, any patient without known FAP who presents this histology in a surgically biopsied or resected thyroid node should undergo total colonoscopy for screening of colonic polyposis and genetic study of the APC gene sequence. PMID:26521198

  20. Incidental finding of papillary thyroid carcinoma with BRAFV600E mutation in a patient with coexistent primary hyperparathyroidism and Graves’ hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    He, Yayi; Liu, Shu; Guo, Hui; Shi, Bingyin

    2014-01-01

    The simultaneous occurrence of hyperthyroidism and hyperparathyroidism was previously reported to be rare, but it was recognised more and more clearly by effective evaluations. Recent studies also mentioned the coexistence of parathyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The potential mechanism is still unknown. We report a case of a 46-year-old man coexisted with primary hyperparathyroidism, Graves’ hyperthyroidism and occult PTC. The patient had a 6-month history of polyphagia and irritability. Blood examinations showed elevated serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. Serum phosphate was lower. Thyroid function evaluation indicted Graves’ hyperthyroidism. Ultrasound showed a solitary hyperchoic thyroid nodule in the right gland. Parathyroid radioisotope scanning found a mild enhancement of 99mTc absorption in the lower part of the right parathyroid gland. A surgical exploration was carried out and the parathyroid adenoma resection was performed. An occult micro-PTC with BRAFV600E mutation was also detected. PMID:24879726

  1. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in an adolescent girl: A case report

    PubMed Central

    DONG, LI-QUN; SUN, XIAO-MEI; XIANG, CHENG-FA; WU, JIN; YU, PING

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer in childhood is not as common in the adult population. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease associated with autoantibodies, and the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid remains controversial. The present study reported a 15-year-old adolescent girl with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. With the complexity of the clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, it can be expressed as not only hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, but also normal thyroid function. The long-term treatment, and for children with thyroid cancer, early diagnosis is particularly difficult. In the present case, the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is primarily based on clinical manifestations, anti-thyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid microsomal antibody. The only diagnostic imaging ultrasound was negative. The present study discussed the possible reason and the identification of this unique case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. PMID:27330783

  2. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in an adolescent girl: A case report.

    PubMed

    Dong, Li-Qun; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Xiang, Cheng-Fa; Wu, Jin; Yu, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer in childhood is not as common in the adult population. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease associated with autoantibodies, and the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid remains controversial. The present study reported a 15-year-old adolescent girl with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. With the complexity of the clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, it can be expressed as not only hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, but also normal thyroid function. The long-term treatment, and for children with thyroid cancer, early diagnosis is particularly difficult. In the present case, the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is primarily based on clinical manifestations, anti-thyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid microsomal antibody. The only diagnostic imaging ultrasound was negative. The present study discussed the possible reason and the identification of this unique case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer.

  3. Mutational activation of BRAF is not a major event in sporadic childhood papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Eli; Hosler, Gregory; Zahurak, Marianna; Cohen, Yoram; Sidransky, David; Westra, William H

    2005-07-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma may encompass a mixed group of neoplasms where divergence in clinical behavior may reflect distinct genetic alterations. For example, young patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma have a better prognosis than affected adults, and their carcinomas are much more likely to harbor chromosomal rearrangements involving the RET proto-oncogene. Mutational activation of the BRAF oncogene has recently been identified as the most common genetic alteration in papillary thyroid carcinoma, but little is known about its frequency as a function of patient age. We tested 20 papillary thyroid carcinomas from young patients ranging from 10 to 17 years of age for the thymine (T) --> adenine (A) missense mutation at nucleotide 1796 in the BRAF gene using a newly developed assay that employs a novel primer extension method (Mutector assay). The prevalence of BRAF mutation was compared with a larger group of papillary thyroid carcinomas from previously tested adult patients (>20 years). BRAF mutations were not common in papillary thyroid carcinomas from young patients compared to their counterparts in adults (20 vs 77%; OR=13.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=3.4-56.5; P<0.0001), but they become increasingly prevalent with advancing patient age (OR as a function of age at 10-year intervals=1.80 CI=1.33-2.44; P<0.001). Unlike papillary thyroid carcinomas that arise in adults, mutational activation of BRAF is not a major genetic alteration in papillary thyroid carcinomas that arise in young patients. The increasing frequency of BRAF mutations as a function of age could help account for the well documented but poorly understood observation that age is a relevant prognostic indicator for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  4. Columnar cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: A diagnostic dilemma in fine-needle aspiration cytology.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ritu; Paul, Paramita

    2016-10-01

    Columnar cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is an uncommon variant with an aggressive course as compared to classic papillary carcinoma. Cytologic diagnosis of these tumors is difficult due to absence of characteristic nuclear features of classic pattern of papillary carcinoma. We present a case of columnar cell variant in a young female misdiagnosed on aspiration cytology. A 21-year-old female presented with solitary nodule in the left aspect of thyroid. A diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma was rendered. The resected thyoroidectomy specimen revealed a columnar cell variant of PTC which was further supported by immunohistochemical staining. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:816-819. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The Diffuse Sclerosing Variant of Papillary Thyroid Cancer Presenting as Innumerable Diffuse Microcalcifications in Underlying Adolescent Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Kwak, Jeong Ja

    2016-03-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common diffuse thyroid disease and is characterized by diffuse lymphocytic infiltration. However, the ultrasonographic findings of papillary thyroid carcinomas that arise from Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the pediatric and adolescent population are not well known.We report a rare ultrasonographic finding in a 22-year-old woman diagnosed with the diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma that arose from underlying Hashimoto's thyroiditis: innumerable diffuse microcalcifications instead of a typical malignant-appearing nodule.

  6. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis is an Important Risk Factor of Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma in Younger Adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yujuan; Li, Chengqian; Zhao, Wenjuan; Wang, Yangang

    2017-08-31

    The association between autoimmune thyroid disease and thyroid cancer remains unclear. We performed a matched case-control study to assess the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). A total of 927 PTMC cases and 927 age- and gender- matched controls selected from the same population were recruited. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was used to assess the strength of the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and PTMC. Conditional logistic regression analysis was carried out, and stratified analyses by age, gender and types of thyroid antibodies were also performed. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly associated with increased risk of PTMC (OR=1.87, 95% CI 1.49-2.34, p<0.001). Stratified analysis by thyroid antibodies also found obvious associations of PTMC risk with TPOAb positivity (OR=1.58, p=0.001) and TGAb positivity (OR=2.35, p<0.001). Stratified analyses by age showed that the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and PTMC risk was more significant in younger adults aged between 18 and 30 years (OR=11.48, p<0.001). Further stratified analyses by thyroid antibodies also found that the associations of PTMC risk with TPOAb positivity or TGAb positivity were more significant in younger adults aged between 18 and 30, and the ORs were 8.27 (p<0.001) and 12.71 (p<0.001), respectively. This study suggests an obvious relationship between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and PTMC risk, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an important risk of PTMC in younger adults. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. TROP-2 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma: Potential Diagnostic Utility.

    PubMed

    Simms, Anthony; Jacob, Reuben P; Cohen, Cynthia; Siddiqui, Momin T

    2016-01-01

    TROP-2 is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein which is over-expressed in various malignancies, and is related to epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), also called TROP-1, gp40, and KSA. In this study, we evaluated TROP-2 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and compared it to other thyroid neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. Immunohistochemical (IHC) evaluation for TROP-2 was performed on 137 thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) cell blocks (CB) which included classic PTC (64), follicular variant PTC (FVPTC) (10), anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (AC) (2), medullary carcinoma (MC) (8), follicular neoplasms (FN) (8), Hurthle cell neoplasms (HCN) (9), follicular lesion of uncertain significance (FLUS) (12), and benign thyroid nodule (BTN) (24). IHC for TROP-2 expression was also performed on 331 BTN and malignant tumor tissue sections in tissue microarray (TMA). Membranous staining in >5% of tumor cells was considered positive. TROP-2 stained 61 of 64 PTC CB, 7 of 10 FVPTC CB, and 9 of 12 FLUS CB. All other cases were negative for TROP-2. TROP-2 showed a sensitivity of 95.31% and specificity of 89% for classic PTC in FNA CB. In TMA samples, TROP-2 stained 54 of 60 classic PTC cases and hence showed a high sensitivity and specificity. All BTN in CB and TMA were negative. We conclude that TROP-2 is a highly sensitive and specific IHC marker for identifying classic PTC. TROP-2 may play an important role in diagnosing classic PTC, especially in equivocal cases. This study also identifies a strong role for TROP-2 in separating PTC from BTN.

  8. Ultrasonic features of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma coexisting with a thyroid abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Yaqiong; Yin, Ping; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Tian'an

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the value of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) coexisting with a thyroid abnormality, and to improve the accuracy of PTMC diagnosis. The ultrasonic features of 38 PTMC nodules coexisting with a thyroid abnormality and 56 thyroid benign nodules, obtained by surgical resection and confirmed by pathological analysis, were retrospectively analyzed. All masses were ≤ 1.0 cm in diameter. Ultrasonic features that were analyzed included the shape, aspect ratio, boundary, margin, echo, uniformity, presence or absence of microcalcification and enlargement of the lymph nodes, as well as the blood flow of the nodules. Furthermore, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of PTMC were obtained. The following ultrasonic features of thyroid nodules were significantly (P<0.05) associated with PTMC coexisting with a thyroid abnormality: An irregular shape; an aspect ratio of ≥ 1; an unclear boundary; blurred margins; internal heterogeneous hypoechogenicity; and microcalcification. Therefore, thyroid nodules with these ultrasonic characteristics coexisting with a thyroid abnormality may be suspected as malignant PTMC. The present study demonstrated that ultrasound-guided biopsies are necessary to prevent misdiagnosis of PTMC. The sensitivities of enlarged neck lymph nodes and abundant blood flow are so low that they may be considered as references for the differentiation of PTMC from benign nodules. PMID:27698812

  9. Recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer after optimized surgery.

    PubMed

    Grant, Clive S

    2015-02-01

    Recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) after optimized surgery requires a full understanding of the disease, especially as it has changed in the last 15 years, what comprises optimized surgery, and the different types and implications of disease relapse that can be encountered. PTC has evolved to tumors that are much smaller than previously seen, largely due to various high quality imaging studies obtained for different reasons, but serendipitously identifying thyroid nodules that prove to be papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMC). With rare exception, these cancers are cured by conservative surgery without additional therapy, and seldom result in recurrent disease. PTC is highly curable in 85% of cases because of its rather innocent biologic behavior. Therefore, the shift in emphasis from disease survival to recurrence is appropriate. As a result of three technologic advances-high-resolution ultrasound (US), recombinant TSH, and highly sensitive thyroglobulin (Tg)-disease relapse can be discovered when it is subclinical. Endocrinologists who largely control administration of radioactive iodine have used it to ablate barely detectable or even biochemically apparent disease, hoping to reduce recurrence and perhaps improve survival. Surgeons, in response to this new intense postoperative surveillance that has uncovered very small volume disease, have responded by utilizing US preoperatively to image this disease, and incorporated varying degrees of lymphadenectomy into their initial treatment algorithm. Bilateral thyroid resection-either total or near-total thyroidectomy-remains the standard for PTC >1 cm, although recent data has re-emphasized the value of unilateral lobectomy in treating even some PTC measuring 1-4 cm. Therapeutic lymphadenectomy has universal approval, but when lymph nodes in the central neck are not worrisome to the surgeon's intraoperative assessment, although that judgment in incorrect up to 50%, whether they should be excised has

  10. Concurrent Medullary, Papillary, and Follicular Thyroid Carcinomas and Simultaneous Cushing's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mazeh, Haggi; Orlev, Amir; Mizrahi, Ido; Gross, David J; Freund, Herbert R

    2015-03-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid cancer (85%). Follicular thyroid carcinoma is the second most common type of thyroid cancer, accounting for up to 10% of all thyroid cancers. Medullary thyroid carcinoma accounts for only 5-8% of thyroid cancers. Concurrent medullary, follicular, and papillary carcinomas of the thyroid gland are extremely rare and reported scarcely. A 72-year-old male presented with nonspecific neck pain. The workup revealed a nodular thyroid gland with a follicular lesion on fine-needle aspiration. Total thyroidectomy was performed and pathological examination identified a 25-mm follicular carcinoma, two papillary microcarcinomas, and two medullary microcarcinomas. The genetic workup was negative and no other family members were diagnosed with any endocrinopathy. Two months after surgery, the patient was diagnosed with Cushing's syndrome that was treated with laparoscopic left adrenalectomy. On 3-year follow-up, the patient is asymptomatic with no evidence of recurrent disease. We present a rare case of a patient with follicular, papillary, and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and Cushing's syndrome. To date, no known genetic mutation or syndrome can account for this combination of neoplastic thyroid and adrenal pathologies, although future research may prove differently.

  11. Diffuse Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Report with a Revision of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Vinciguerra, Gian Luca Rampioni; Noccioli, Niccolò; Bartolazzi, Armando

    2016-01-01

    The diffuse follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (DFV-PTC) is a rare malignant thyroid condition. It represents an uncommon variant of papillary carcinoma characterized by a diffuse involvement of thyroid parenchyma, follicular architecture and nuclear features of PTC in absence of a surrounding capsule. Up to date few data have been collected about this entity and, at the best of our knowledge, only 24 cases have been reported in the literature. According to these reports DFV-PTC seems to occur preferentially in young women and shows more aggressive behavior than other papillary thyroid tumors. Herein we present an unusual case of DFV-PTC occurring in an 83 years old woman, involving the entire thyroid gland, without distinct or prevalent thyroid nodules. The tumor was clinically misdiagnosed as obstructive goiter. PMID:28191291

  12. Cell division cycle 45 promotes papillary thyroid cancer progression via regulating cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Shi, Run; Zhao, Sha; Li, Xiaona; Lu, Shan; Bu, Hemei; Ma, Xianghua

    2017-05-01

    Cell division cycle 45 was reported to be overexpressed in some cancer-derived cell lines and was predicted to be a candidate oncogene in cervical cancer. However, the clinical and biological significance of cell division cycle 45 in papillary thyroid cancer has never been investigated. We determined the expression level and clinical significance of cell division cycle 45 using The Cancer Genome Atlas, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. A great upregulation of cell division cycle 45 was observed in papillary thyroid cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, overexpression of cell division cycle 45 positively correlates with more advanced clinical characteristics. Silence of cell division cycle 45 suppressed proliferation of papillary thyroid cancer cells via G1-phase arrest and inducing apoptosis. The oncogenic activity of cell division cycle 45 was also confirmed in vivo. In conclusion, cell division cycle 45 may serve as a novel biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for papillary thyroid cancer.

  13. ApolipoproteinL1 is expressed in papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Chidiac, Mounia; Fayyad-Kazan, Mohammad; Daher, Jalil; Poelvoorde, Philippe; Bar, Isabelle; Maenhaut, Carine; Delrée, Paul; Badran, Bassam; Vanhamme, Luc

    2016-07-01

    The apolipoprotein L (apoL) family has not yet been ascribed any definite patho-physiological function although the conserved BH3 protein domain suggests a role in programmed cell death. As repression of the regular apoptotic program is considered a hallmark of tumor progression, we investigated apoL expression in cancer. We show that the levels of one member of the family, apolipoprotein L1 (apoL1) is higher in papillary thyroid carcinoma compared to normal tissue. A combination of qRTPCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization allowed us to ascribe this increase to endogenous overexpression in carcinoma cells. Whether apoL1 plays an instrumental role in refraining cell death is the subject of ongoing molecular biology experiments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma/noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features with Spindle Cell Metaplasia: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Haroon Al Rasheed, Mohamed Rizwan; Acosta, Andres; Tarjan, Gabor

    2017-04-01

    Spindle cell lesions of the thyroid are rare overall, and span a wide clinical spectrum that ranges from spindle cell metaplasia (SCM(1)) to anaplastic carcinoma. Their differentiation is only seldom straightforward, and usually requires the integration of the clinical, histological and immunohistochemical data. Only a handful of publications have described cases of SCM in the thyroid and we add to that literature by reporting a unique case of encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma/noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features with SCM. In addition, we review the literature on the relationship between SCM and different thyroid lesions, summarizing the morphological and immunohistochemical features that aid in its differentiation from more aggressive spindle cell proliferations.

  15. [Cryptogenic and iatrogenic papillary thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescences: comparative study].

    PubMed

    Fridman, M V; Demidchik, Iu E; Papok, V E; Savva, N N; Zborovskaia, A A; Spivak, L V; Schmid, K W

    2011-01-01

    The clinico-morphological investigations of 117 children and adolescences with papillary thyroid carcinoma, surgically treated in the Republic Centre for Thyroid Tumors, Minsk, Belarus in 1995-2009 and dutifully followed-up have been studied. Ninety -five observations of all cases were sporadic, but 22 patients had been treated earlier from other neoplasm (Hodgkin's diseases, malignant lymphoma, leukemia, sarcoma, medulloblastoma). Epidemiologic, clinical and pathological peculiarities of thyroid carcinoma in Belarus were analyzed. A number of features distinguished "cryptogenic" and "iatrogenic" papillary thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents were found out.

  16. Cross-talk between NO and HMGB1 in lymphocytic thyroiditis and papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Mardente, Stefania; Zicari, Alessandra; Consorti, Fabrizio; Mari, Emanuela; Di Vito, Maura; Leopizzi, Martina; Della Rocca, Carlo; Antonaci, Alfredo

    2010-12-01

    The controversy on whether or not inflammatory infiltrates in chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis predispose to cancer, has now merged into a debate over the role of the inflammatory infiltrates. The question is how and why some cells become transformed and what factors allow them to spread and in some cases become invasive. Here, we show that the amount of inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and high mobility group Box 1 protein (HMGB1) produced in thyroiditis microenvironment increases in tumors and could be involved in the cellular transformation process. NO and HMGB1 are known to attract macrophages that would promote angiogenesis, matrix remodelling and suppression of an efficient immune response. Inflammatory infiltrates could increase the risk of papillary cancer in patients with autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis. Cytokines and soluble inflammatory mediators involved in cancer-related inflammation are not only a target for innovative diagnostic and therapeutic strategies but they also represent a future challenge for oncologists.

  17. Molecular Pathways Associated with Aggressiveness of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Benvenga, Salvatore; Koch, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    The most common thyroid malignancy is papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Mortality rates from PTC mainly depend on its aggressiveness. Geno- and phenotyping of aggressive PTC has advanced our understanding of treatment failures and of potential future therapies. Unraveling molecular signaling pathways of PTC including its aggressive forms will hopefully pave the road to reduce mortality but also morbidity from this cancer. The mitogen-activated protein kinase and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway as well as the family of RAS oncogenes and BRAF as a member of the RAF protein family and the aberrant expression of microRNAs miR-221, miR-222, and miR-146b all play major roles in tumor initiation and progression of aggressive PTC. Small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting BRAF-mediated events, vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, RET/PTC rearrangements, and other molecular targets, show promising results to improve treatment of radioiodine resistant, recurrent, and aggressive PTC. PMID:24955023

  18. Metastatic uterine leiomyosarcoma coexisting with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Giannikaki, E; Mantadakis, E; Mamalaki, E; Delides, G; Samonis, G

    2006-01-01

    Metastatic leiomyosarcoma to the thyroid gland has rarely been described. We report a 54-year-old postmenopausal woman with uterine leiomyosarcoma, who presented with a single "cold" nodule in the right thyroid lobe 3 months after hysterectomy. The lesion was identified as a papillary thyroid carcinoma. In a separate area of the thyroid, a 1.2-mm area of a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm with morphologic and immunohistochemical features of leiomyosarcoma existed. Seven months after thyroidectomy the patient developed micronodular lung disease visible on successive chest computed tomography scans, consistent with metastatic disease from the primary uterine leiomyosarcoma that showed very good and prolonged response to chemotherapy. The thyroid papillary carcinoma was likely the recipient of an early and possibly the first metastasis of the patient's uterine leiomyosarcoma. This is the first report of metastatic leiomyosarcoma coexisting with a primary thyroid carcinoma and supports the possibility of a common pathway connecting thyroid gland neoplasms and sarcomas.

  19. Orbital metastasis as initial manifestation of a widespread papillary thyroid microcarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pagsisihan, Daveric Ablis; Aguilar, Anthony Harvey Isabelo; Maningat, Ma Patricia Deanna Delfin

    2015-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), particularly microcarcinomas, rarely metastasise to the orbit. We report a case of a 49-year-old woman with a right supraorbital mass and unremarkable physical examination of the thyroid gland region. Orbital CT scan showed an expansile lytic lesion in the orbital plate of the frontal bone with a soft tissue component. An incision biopsy revealed metastatic well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid ultrasound was normal except for a subcentimetre nodule in the right lobe. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy where histopathology showed a subcentimetre follicular variant PTC. She subsequently received radioactive iodine therapy. Post-therapy whole body scan revealed metastatic thyroid tissues in the right orbital and posterior parietal, and left shoulder and hip areas. Although infrequent, metastatic thyroid carcinoma should be considered in patients with orbital metastasis even when neck examination is normal. In rare cases, this may be the initial manifestation of a widely metastatic papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. PMID:25819821

  20. Microarray analysis of papillary thyroid cancers in Korean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Sook; Kim, Do Hyung; Kim, Ji Yeon; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Lee, In Kyu; Bong, Jin Gu; Jung, Eui Dal

    2010-12-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common malignancy of the thyroid gland. It involves several molecular mechanisms. The BRAF V600E mutation has been identified as the most common genetic abnormality in PTC. Moreover, it is known to be more prevalent in Korean PTC patients than in patients from other countries. We investigated distinct genetic profiles in Korean PTC through cDNA microarray analysis. Transcriptional profiles of five PTC samples and five paired normal thyroid tissue samples were generated using cDNA microarrays. The tumors were genotyped for BRAF mutations. The results of the cDNA microarray gene expression analysis were confirmed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis of 35 PTC patients. Four of the five patients whose PTC tissues were subjected to microarray analysis were found to carry the BRAF V600E mutation. Microarrays analysis of the five PTC tissue samples showed the expression of 96 genes to be increased and that of 16 genes decreased. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed increased expression of SLC34A2, TM7SF4, COMP, KLK7, and KCNJ2 and decreased expression of FOXA2, SLC4A4, LYVE-1, and TFCP2L1 in PTC compared with normal tissue. Of these genes, TFCP2L1, LYVE-1, and KLK7 were previously unidentified in PTC microarray analysis. Notably, Foxa2 activity in PTC was reduced, as shown by its cytoplasmic localization, in immunohistochemical analyses. These findings demonstrate both similarities and differences between our results and previous reports. In Korean cases of PTC, Foxa2 activity was reduced with its cytoplasmic accumulation. Further studies are needed to confirm the relationship between FOXA2 and BRAF mutations in Korean cases of PTC.

  1. Papillary thyroid carcinoma, parathyroid adenoma, and unexplained hypercalcitoninemia: an unusual presentation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A?

    PubMed

    Rone, J K; Lane, A G; Grinkemeyer, M D

    1998-09-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is a rare syndrome of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) with pheochromocytoma and/or primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP), usually due to multigland hyperplasia. MEN 2 is associated with several RET protooncogene mutations. A 61-year-old woman with a family history of RET-positive MTC presented with a solitary thyroid nodule. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy was suspicious for neoplasm. Biochemical studies revealed basal hypercalcitoninemia (116 pg/mL [normal <26]) and PHP (serum calcium, 10.9 mg/dL; intact PTH, 113.2 pg/mL [10.0-65.0]). Pheochromocytoma screening was negative. A provisional diagnosis of MEN 2 was made, but at surgery, a single parathyroid adenoma was resected and frozen sections of several lymph nodes revealed papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A total thyroidectomy was performed. Final histological diagnosis was PTC and parathyroid adenoma with no evidence of MTC. Postoperatively, RET mutation testing was positive. The basal calcitonin (CT) fell to 25 pg/mL, but peaked at 935 (normal <105) after pentagastrin infusion, consistent with occult MTC. After radioiodine ablation, CT decreased further. Octreotide scanning was negative. Faced with PHP, a thyroid nodule, and a family history of MTC, clinicians tend to diagnose MEN 2. This patient had a single parathyroid adenoma and nonmedullary thyroid cancer, which the literature actually suggests to be an association more frequent than MEN 2. Yet, there remains compelling data in favor of occult MTC, leaving open the possibility of an MEN 2 variant with the rare association of PTC.

  2. Microarray profiling of circular RNAs in human papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Nianchun; Shi, Lixin; Zhang, Qiao; Hu, Ying; Wang, Nanpeng; Ye, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Background Non-coding circular RNAs (circRNAs) have displayed dysregulated expression in several human cancers. Here, we profiled the circRNA expression of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) tumors to improve our understanding of PTC pathogenesis. Methods Microarray profiling was performed on 18 thyroid samples, consisting of six PTC tumors, six matching contralateral normal samples, and six benign thyroid lesions. After low-intensity filtering, hierarchical clustering revealed the circRNA expression patterns. Statistical analysis followed by qRT-PCR validation identified the differential circRNAs. MicroRNA (miRNA) target prediction software identified putative miRNA response elements (MREs), which were used to construct a network map of circRNA-miRNA interactions for the differential circRNAs. Bioinformatics platforms predicted cancer-related circRNA-miRNA associations and putative downstream target genes, respectively. Results A total of 88 circRNAs and 10 circRNAs were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in PTC tumors relative to normal thyroid tissue, while 129 circRNAs and 226 circRNAs were significantly upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in PTC tumors relative to benign thyroid lesions. A total of 12 upregulated and four downregulated circRNAs were overlapping between the foregoing comparisons. One downregulated circRNA (hsa_circRNA_100395) showed interactive potential with two cancer-related miRNAs (miR-141-3p and miR-200a-3p). From this analysis, we identified several promising cancer-related genes that may be targets of the dysregulated hsa_circRNA_100395/miR-141-3p/miR-200a-3p axis in PTC tumors. Conclusions circRNA dysregulation may play a role in PTC pathogenesis, and several key circRNAs show promise as candidate biomarkers for PTC. The hsa_circRNA_100395/miR-141-3p/ miR-200a-3p axis may be involved in the pathogenesis of PTC. PMID:28288173

  3. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY DISEASE STATE COMMENTARY: MANAGING THYROID TUMORS DIAGNOSED AS NONINVASIVE FOLLICULAR THYROID NEOPLASM WITH PAPILLARY-LIKE NUCLEAR FEATURES.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Zubair W; Harrell, R Mack; Brett, Elise M; Randolph, Gregory; Garber, Jeffrey R

    2017-09-01

    This commentary summarizes the history and reclassification of noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclei (NIFTP). It reviews the salient histopathologic features that are based on immunohistochemical and molecular profiles and serve as inclusion and exclusion criteria. The authors also provide their own point of view regarding the practical issues and possible concerns that may be raised by both clinicians and patients based on the diagnosis of NIFTP. AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists EFVPTC = encapsulated FVPTC FNA = fine-needle aspiration FVPTC = follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma NIFTP = noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features PTC = papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  4. The estrogen receptors in the papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Vaiman, Michael; Olevson, Youlian; Habler, Liliana; Eviatar, Ephraim; Zehari, Sergei; Sandbank, Judith; Kessler, Alex

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the objective was to evaluate the presence of estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ERalpha and ERbeta) in cases of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland and to assess the practicality of this test. Immunohistochemical stains were performed for both ERalpha and ERbeta, for evaluation of immunoreactivity in 90 papillary carcinomas. Three variables were evaluated in each sample: the intensity of the staining both nuclear and cytoplasmatic, and the spread of the stain over the sample. None of the histological samples showed immunoreactivity for ERalpha. Positive immunoreactivity results for ERbeta were found in tissue samples in 66.6% (60 cases). The study shows that ERbeta has no significant specification for differentiation between papillary carcinoma and other malignant lesions of the thyroid, while ERalpha is undetectable in this lesion. The ER testing in cases of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland is nonspecific and might be not necessary.

  5. Expression of papillary thyroid carcinoma-associated molecular markers and their significance in follicular epithelial dysplasia with papillary thyroid carcinoma-like nuclear alterations in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Heng; Yan, Jin; Zhang, Chao; Qin, Shenghui; Qin, Lingzhi; Liu, Liwei; Wang, Xi; Li, Naping

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC)-associated tumor markers in follicular epithelial dysplasia showing PTC-like nuclear alterations (FED) in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and to explore the relationship between HT and PTC. In this study, 43 PTC, 18 HT with FED and 16 peritumoral benign thyroid tissues were immunohistochemically analyzed for CK19, galectin-3, HBME-1, CD56, claudin-1 and NGAL expression. Our research revealed that in HT, the expression of CK19, galectin-3, HBME-1, claudin-1 and NGAL was focal and limited to FED, while CD56 was strongly positive in FED and most Hürthle cells. The stain intensity of CK19, claudin-1 and NGAL in FED decreased compared with PTC, but were significantly higher than that in peritumoral benign thyroid tissues (all P < 0.0125). For galectin-3, HBME-1 and CD56, no statistically significant difference was detected between HT and peritumoral benign thyroid tissues (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, In HT, FED might be a precancerous condition closely associated with PTC development as they have overlaps in cytological and immunomarker profiles, indicating that in patients with HT, under prolonged stimuli from chronic inflammation, part of follicular epithelia may show regeneration, hyperplasia, Hürthle cell metaplasia and dysplasia, eventually malignant transformation. Hence, long term follow-up and regular inspection would be necessary for Hashimoto's thyroiditis with FED.

  6. Risk prediction and clinical model building for lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dao-Zhe; Qu, Ning; Shi, Rong-Liang; Lu, Zhong-Wu; Ji, Qing-Hai; Wu, Wei-Li

    2016-01-01

    The surgical management of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), especially regarding the necessity of central/lateral lymph node dissection, remains controversial. This study investigated the clinicopathologic factors predictive of lymph node metastasis (LNM) in patients diagnosed with PTMC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for PTMC patients identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database who were treated by surgery between 2002 and 2012, to determine the association of clinicopathologic factors with LNM. According to the results, a total of 31,017 patients met the inclusion criteria of the study. Final histology confirmed 2,135 (6.9%) cases of N1a disease and 1,684 cases (5.4%) of N1b disease. Our multivariate logistic regression analysis identified variables associated with both central LNM and lateral lymph node metastasis (LLNM), including a younger age (<45 years), male sex, non-Hispanic white and other race, classical papillary histology, larger tumor size, multifocality, and extrathyroidal extension; distant metastasis was also significantly associated with LLNM. The significant predictors identified from multivariable logistic regression were integrated into a statistical model that showed that extrathyroidal extension had maximum weight in the predictive role for LNM. LLNM was validated to be a significant risk factor for cancer-specific death in Cox regression analyses, whereas central LNM failed to predict a worse cancer-specific survival according to our data. Therefore, we suggested that central lymph node dissection could be performed in certain patients with risk factors. Given the prevalence of LLNM in PTMC, a thorough inspection of the lateral compartment is recommended in PTMC patients with risk factors for precise staging; from the viewpoint of a radical treatment for tumors, prophylactic lateral lymph node dissection that aims to remove the occult lateral lymph nodes may be an option for PTMC with

  7. MicroRNA Expression Profiles in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma, Benign Thyroid Nodules and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Yoruker, Ebru Esin; Terzioglu, Duygu; Teksoz, Serkan; Uslu, Fatma Ezel; Gezer, Ugur; Dalay, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of short endogenous non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level in many biological processes, including proliferation, differentiation, stress response and apoptosis. In this study we analyzed a set of seven miRNA molecules in sera of patients with papillary thyroid cancer, multinodular goiter and healthy controls to identify miRNA molecules that may have utility as markers for PTC. MiR-21 serum levels in the preoperative PTC and MG groups were significantly higher than the control group. Likewise, postoperative levels of miR-151-5p, miR-221 and miR-222 were significantly lower in patients with PTC. When serum miRNA levels were evaluated according to stage, postoperative levels of miR-151-5p and miR-222 were significantly lower in patients with advanced stages of the disease. The miRNA levels were also found associated with the size of the primary tumor. Our data imply that specific miRNA molecules which are differentially expressed in thyroid tumors may play role in the development of papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27162538

  8. Features of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in the presence and absence of lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Sung; Choi, Yoon Jung; Yun, Ji-Sup

    2010-09-01

    It is known that the prevalence of lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) is higher in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), that gender influences this association, and that certain features of PTC occur more frequently in patients who also have LT. These relationships have not been studied in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMC), however. Therefore, we performed a study to compare the clinical and pathological features of patients with PTMC who did and did not have LT. We collected the 323 consecutive patients following excision of PTMC diagnosed as papillary carcinoma on preoperative needle aspiration cytology. We analyzed the demographic, serologic, and pathologic data of those cases with categorization into four groups based on presence of LT and neck lymph node metastasis. In all PTMC, the presence of LT did not influence the frequency of lymph node metastasis (27 of 105 [25.7%] vs. 48 of 218 [22.0%]). Among the patients with metastatic PTMC, LT was noted significantly more often in female than male patients (95.2% vs. 79.8%). In metastatic PTMC, multifocality and bilaterality was more frequent in with LT than without LT (44.4% vs. 29.2%; 29.6% vs. 14.6%). Both the presence of serum thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb; p = 0.016) and serum microsomal antibody (p = 0.013) were highly correlated with the presence of LT. Twenty-seven of 105 patients (25.7%) with PTMC with LT had nodal metastasis. Co-existing LT was noted predominantly in women, influenced more often multifocality and bilaterality of tumors, and higher frequency of metastasis to lateral compartment lymph nodes.

  9. Predictive Factors of Superior Mediastinal Nodal Metastasis from Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma—A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Joo Hyun; Park, Ki Nam; Lee, Jae Yong; Lee, Seung Won

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the incidence rates and predictive factors of superior mediastinal lymph node (SMLN) metastasis in PTC (papillary thyroid carcinoma) patients. Methods A prospective observational study was performed between January 2009 and January 2011. PTC patients who had tumors with a maximal diameter greater than 1 cm and clinically negative SMLNs were included in this study. Finally, a total of 217 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with central compartment neck dissection (CND) and elective superior mediastinal lymph node dissection (SMLND), with or without modified radical neck dissection (MRND) and revisional CND, were included. Results Occult SMLN metastasis was present in 15.7% (34/217). Cytological classifications of tumor, BRAFV600E mutation, Tumor size, T-stage, perithyroidal extension, lymphovascular invasion, multifocality, and paratracheal pN(+) were not predictive of SMLN metastasis (P > .05), while revision surgery, pretracheal pN(+), and multiple lateral pN(+) were associated with SMLN metastasis. There were no major complications related to SMLND. Transient and permanent hypoparathyroidism was observed in 69 cases (31.8%) and 8 cases (3.6%), respectively. Conclusions Despite clinically negative SMLN in preoperative evaluation, SMLN metastasis can be predicted for patients with a PTC tumor size larger than 1 cm, pretracheal LN metastasis, multiple lateral metastasis, and revisional surgery. PMID:26848952

  10. Surgical complications and recurrence after central neck dissection in cN0 papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dongbin; Sohn, Jin Ho; Park, Ji Young

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate surgical complications and recurrence patterns after central neck dissection (CND) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A retrospective analysis was performed on 361 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with or without CND for PTC from 2000 to 2007. Clinicopathological results and recurrence were stratified according to treatment modality. Incidence of occult central metastasis of PTC was 64.3%. With respect to surgical morbidities, the total thyroidectomy (TT) with CND group exhibited a significantly higher incidence of transient vocal fold paralysis (10.0% vs 3.4%, p=0.029) and permanent hypocalcaemia (11.4% vs 4.5%, p=0.041), and significantly prolonged mean operating time (195.8min vs 153.0min, p<0.001) than the TT alone group. Analysis of the recurrence patterns revealed that level IV was most commonly involved in both groups. When the location of recurrence was categorised into central and lateral neck, the recurrence rate in the lateral neck was significantly higher than that in the central neck, regardless of initial CND. CND was associated with permanent hypocalcaemia and transient vocal fold paralysis. The lateral neck was mainly involved in recurrence regardless of initial CND, suggesting the clinical benefit of CND may be small. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship of hemoxygenase-1 and prolidase enzyme activity with oxidative stress in papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Terzioglu, D; Teksoz, S; Arikan, AE; Uslu, E; Yılmaz, E; Eren, B

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Recent studies associate thyroid cancer with oxidative stress. We aim to clarify the relation between papillary thyroid cancer, oxidative stress, hemoxygenase-1, prolidase enzymes and investigate the availability of these enzymes as markers for diagnosis, success of treatment, and follow-up. Methods: Thirty-one patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and 25 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Hemoxygenase-1, prolidase (oxidant stress indicator), malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, and superoxide dismutase (an indicator of antioxidant defense system) were measured pre-operatively and 30 days after thyroidectomy. Results: There was a significant decrease in serum levels of malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase (p <0.001 for both) after thyroidectomy in papillary thyroid carcinoma group. In addition, there was a significant difference in the postoperative serum levels of prolidase, malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, and superoxide dismutase between papillary thyroid carcinoma and control groups (p =0.024, p <0.001, p =0.002, and p =0.016, respectively) beside significant difference of malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, hemoxygenase-1, and superoxide dismutase pre-operative serum levels (p <0.001, p =0.003, p =0.006, and p =0.025, respectively). Conclusion: When the unquestionable role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of cancer is considered, in the future it is expected to associate parametric changes in the serum of patients caused by oxidative stress to papillary thyroid cancer. Hippokratia 2016, 20(1): 55-59 PMID:27895444

  12. Clinical pathological impacts of microRNAs in papillary thyroid carcinoma: A crucial review.

    PubMed

    Chruścik, Anna; Lam, Alfred King-yin

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) deregulation is an important event in the pathogenesis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The alternations of miRNAs could be measured at the cancer tissue or serum so that the clinical impacts of them in papillary thyroid carcinoma could be studied. Using the approach, miRNA deregulation was reported to be associated with pathological stages in papillary thyroid carcinoma as reflected by the differences in extent of extra-thyroidal invasion, size of the tumour as well as presence of lymph nodes metastases. The most common miRNAs involved in these processes are miRNA-146, miRNA-222 and miRNA-221. Also, miRNA-222 and miRNA-146b deregulation are commonly associated with cancer recurrence in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Additionally, miRNA-146, miRNA-222, and miRNA-221 are the top-regulated miRNAs involved in the pathogenesis confirmed by deep-sequencing and have their function studied in vitro. Targeting these subsets of miRNAs may be useful in management of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  13. No evidence of association between human cytomegalovirus infection and papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tung-Sun; Lee, Jie-Jen; Cheng, Shih-Ping

    2014-02-21

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been detected in the thyroid gland and thyroid tumors. CMV infection may activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, of which aberrant activation is frequently associated with BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid cancer. A total of 45 paired tumorous and adjacent non-neoplastic tissue samples, including 5 follicular adenoma and 40 papillary thyroid cancer, were obtained during thyroidectomy. BRAF mutational status was determined using direct sequencing. The presence of CMV DNA was determined using conventional PCR and quantitative real-time PCR. CMV protein in the tissue samples were evaluated with Western blot analysis. BRAF mutation was identified in the cancerous part of 31 (78%) papillary thyroid cancers. Papillary cancer with BRAF mutation was significantly associated with a larger tumor size (P = 0.045), extrathyroidal invasion (P = 0.012), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.008), and a higher TNM stage (P = 0.044). CMV DNA and protein were not detected in any studied samples. Our results suggest no association between CMV infection and papillary thyroid cancer.

  14. Association of tuberculous thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: a rare coincidence.

    PubMed

    Errami, Noureddine; Benjellounb, Amine; Hemmaouia, Bouchaib; Nadoura, Karim; Benariba, Fouad

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 25 year-old patient with no medical history, admitted to our unit for nodular goiter of the right lobe without clinical or laboratory signs of hyperthyroidism. We carried out a right lobo-isthmectomy revealing the association of tuberculosis and thyroid papillary carcinoma. A left lobectomy has, therefore, been performed in a second stage. The patient underwent a six-month antituberculosis treatment with a good clinical outcome. We discuss this rare association and its best diagnostic and therapeutic support, with a review of the literature.

  15. Papillary Carcinoma of Thyroid Gland in a Two-year-old Child.

    PubMed

    Uhliarová, B; Hajtman, A

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are less common among children than among adults. By contrast, thyroid nodules are more often malignant in childhood than in adulthood. In children, 26% of thyroid nodules are malignant, while in adults the corresponding value is 5-10%. Risk factors for developing thyroid nodules in children are female sex, post-pubertal age, previous or co-existing thyroid disease, previous irradiation of the neck, and a family history of thyroid disease. In children younger than 10 years, when no risk factors are present, the incidence rates are practically negligible. A two-year-old girl presented with a right thyroid mass. Laboratory evaluation revealed normal levels of triiodothyronine and thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thyroid ultrasonography revealed a 4.8 × 3.2 × 2.5 cm nonhomogenous nodule. The patient underwent right hemithyroidectomy. The pathology was consistent with papillary thyroid carcinoma; therefore, total thyroidectomy and selective neck dissection were performed. We report a very rare case of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a two-year-old child with no risk factors. The detection of a thyroid nodule in such a young child with no pre-disposing risk factors does not exclude the possibility of thyroid carcinoma and warrants careful evaluation and appropriate therapy.

  16. Hobnail variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: molecular profiling and comparison to classical papillary thyroid carcinoma, poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Lianghong; Deng, Wanglong; Lu, Junliang; Zhang, Jing; Ren, Xinyu; Duan, Huanli; Chuai, Shannon; Duan, Feidie; Gao, Wei; Lu, Tao; Wu, Huanwen; Liang, Zhiyong

    2017-01-01

    Background As a rare but aggressive papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) variant, the genetic changes of hobnail variant of PTC (HVPTC) are still unclear. Results The prevalence of HVPTC was 1.69% (18/1062) of all PTC diagnosed in our cohort. 73 samples from 55 patients (17 HVPTC, 26 CPTC, 7 PDTC and 5 ATC) were successfully analyzed using targeted NGS with an 18-gene panel. Thirty-seven mutation variant types were identified among 11 genes. BRAF V600E mutation was the most common mutation, which is present in almost all HVPTC samples (16/17, 94%), most CPTC samples (20/26, 77%), and none of the ATC and PDTC samples. TERT promoter mutation (C228T) was identified in 2 ATC and one HVPTC patient. RAS and TP53 mutation are almost exclusively present among ATC and PDTC samples although TP53 mutation was also observed in 3 HVPTC patients. Six different GNAS mutations were identified among 8 CPTC patients (31%) and none of the HVPTC patients. The only patient who died of disease progression harbored concomitant TERT C228T mutation, BRAF V600E mutation and TP53 mutation. Methods HVPTC cases were identified from a group of 1062 consecutive surgical specimens diagnosed as PTC between 2000 and 2010. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was applied to investigate the mutation spectrum of HVPTC, compared to classical PTC (CPTC), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). Conclusion As an aggressive variant of PTC, HVPTC has relatively specific molecular features, which is somewhat different from both CPTC and ATC/PDTC and may underlie its relatively aggressive behavior. PMID:28423545

  17. Hobnail variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: molecular profiling and comparison to classical papillary thyroid carcinoma, poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Teng, Lianghong; Deng, Wanglong; Lu, Junliang; Zhang, Jing; Ren, Xinyu; Duan, Huanli; Chuai, Shannon; Duan, Feidie; Gao, Wei; Lu, Tao; Wu, Huanwen; Liang, Zhiyong

    2017-03-28

    As a rare but aggressive papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) variant, the genetic changes of hobnail variant of PTC (HVPTC) are still unclear. The prevalence of HVPTC was 1.69% (18/1062) of all PTC diagnosed in our cohort. 73 samples from 55 patients (17 HVPTC, 26 CPTC, 7 PDTC and 5 ATC) were successfully analyzed using targeted NGS with an 18-gene panel. Thirty-seven mutation variant types were identified among 11 genes. BRAF V600E mutation was the most common mutation, which is present in almost all HVPTC samples (16/17, 94%), most CPTC samples (20/26, 77%), and none of the ATC and PDTC samples. TERT promoter mutation (C228T) was identified in 2 ATC and one HVPTC patient. RAS and TP53 mutation are almost exclusively present among ATC and PDTC samples although TP53 mutation was also observed in 3 HVPTC patients. Six different GNAS mutations were identified among 8 CPTC patients (31%) and none of the HVPTC patients. The only patient who died of disease progression harbored concomitant TERT C228T mutation, BRAF V600E mutation and TP53 mutation. HVPTC cases were identified from a group of 1062 consecutive surgical specimens diagnosed as PTC between 2000 and 2010. Targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) was applied to investigate the mutation spectrum of HVPTC, compared to classical PTC (CPTC), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). As an aggressive variant of PTC, HVPTC has relatively specific molecular features, which is somewhat different from both CPTC and ATC/PDTC and may underlie its relatively aggressive behavior.

  18. Diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland with papillary microcarcinoma: Report of a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Nandyala, Hariharanadha Sarma; Madapuram, Srinivasulu; Yadav, Megha; Katamala, Sudheer Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Presence of lobules of adipose tissue either focally or diffusely is very rare in the thyroid gland. Fat accumulation can be macroscopic or microscopic. Focal infiltrates of fat have been reported in conditions such as adenolipoma, intrathyroid lipoma, and encapsulated papillary carcinoma. Diffuse lipomatosis has been reported in conditions such as amyloid goitre, heterotopic fat nests, thyrolipoma and liposarcoma. The exact mechanism of fat accumulation is not known although there are many theories postulated. Investigations such as ultrasound, computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging can detect the presence of macroscopic fat in the thyroid gland. Accurate diagnosis of the type of fat accumulation is necessary because tumorous and nontumorous conditions fall into the differential diagnosis. Only nine cases of papillary carcinoma associated with lipomatosis of thyroid are reported so far. We report possibly the first case of diffuse lipomatosis of the thyroid gland with a focus of papillary microcarcinoma.

  19. Increased expression of PIN1 gene in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (Pin1), encoded by PIN1 gene with locus in chromosome 19p13, is an enzyme that catalytically induces conformational changes in proteins after phosphorylation on serine or threonine residues preceding proline (pSer/Thr-Pro motifs); in this way, it has an influence on protein interactions and intracellular localizations of proteins. The aim of the study were: 1) an assessment of PIN1 gene expression level in benign and malignant thyroid lesions; 2) the evaluation of possible correlations between gene expression and histopathological variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) or tumour size, classified according to TNM classification of primary tumours (in case of PTC only); 3) the estimation of possible relationships between expression of the gene in question and patients' sex or age. Methods Seventy (70) tissue samples were analyzed: 32 cases of PTC, 7 cases of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), 7 cases of follicular adenoma (FA), and 24 cases of nodular goitre (NG). In real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR), two-step RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) in an ABI PRISM 7500 Sequence Detection System was employed. The PIN1 gene expression level was assessed, calculating the mean relative quantification rate (RQ rate) increase for each sample. Results The level of PIN1 gene expression (compared to that in macroscopically unchanged thyroid tissue) was higher in PTC group than those in FA, MTC and/or NG groups, but the statistical significance was noted for difference between PTC and NG groups only. On the other hand, the differences of RQ rate value between different PTC variants were statistically insignificant. No correlations were found between RQ values and tumour size, as well as between RQ values and patients' sex or age in PTC group. Conclusions The PIN1 gene expression may have - in future - an important meaning in the diagnostics of PTC and in understanding its pathogenesis

  20. [BRAF-STATUS OF PAPILLARY THYROID CARCINOMAS AND STRATEGY OF SURGICAL TREATMENT].

    PubMed

    Tarashchenko, Yu N; Kovalenko, A E; Bolgov, M Yu; Guda, B B; Shelkovoy, E A; Nekrasov, K A; Mankovskaya, S; Kashuba, V I

    2015-06-01

    Analyzed the presence of BRAF V600E mutation in the focal thyroid gland in the preoperative diagnosis of papillary carcinoma (PC). Molecular genetic testing conducted on puncture aspirates from 26 patients before surgery. The diagnosis was verified according to the morphological investigations. Mutations in BRAF V600E detected only in patients with the thyroid PC. Thus, the definition of BRAF V600E mutation may be a marker in the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid PC. Analyzed the presence of BRAF V600E mutation in the focal thyroid gland in the preoperative diagnosis of papillary carcinoma (PC). Molecular genetic testing conducted on puncture aspirates from 26 patients before surgery. The diagnosis was verified according to the morphological investigations. Mutations in BRAF V600E detected only in patients with the thyroid PC. Thus, the definition of BRAF V600E mutation may be a marker in the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid PC.

  1. Anaplastic Transformation in Mandibular Metastases of Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ambelil, Manju; Sultana, Sadia; Roy, Suvra; Gonzalez, Maria M

    2016-09-01

    Anaplastic transformation of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas at distant metastatic sites is a rare condition. Most cases described in the literature have occurred in the thyroid or regional lymph nodes. We report a case of anaplastic transformation of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in mandibular metastases. A 76-year-old female presented with a painful and enlarging mandibular mass. She had been treated in the past for the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. A palliative hemi-mandibulectomy was performed. Histology revealed a metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant, with an unusual finding of solid pleomorphic epithelioid and spindle cell areas, consistent with anaplastic transformation.

  2. Focal Lymphocytic Thyroiditis Nodules Share the Features of Papillary Thyroid Cancer on Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sena; Shin, Dong Yeob; Kim, Eun Kyung; Yang, Woo Ick; Byun, Jung Woo; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Gyuri; Im, Soo Jung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose It is often difficult to discriminate focal lymphocytic thyroiditis (FLT) or adenomatous hyperplasia (AH) from thyroid cancer if they both have suspicious ultrasound (US) findings. We aimed to make a predictive model of FLT from papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in suspicious nodules with benign cytologic results. Materials and Methods We evaluated 214 patients who had undergone fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and had shown thyroid nodules with suspicious US features. PTC was confirmed by surgical pathology. FLT and AH were confirmed through more than two separate FNABs. Clinical and biochemical findings, as well as US features, were evaluated. Results Of 214 patients, 100 patients were diagnosed with PTC, 55 patients with FLT, and 59 patients with AH. The proportion of elevated thyrotropin (TSH) levels (p=0.014) and thyroglobulin antibody (Tg-Ab) or thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) positivity (p<0.001) in the FLT group was significantly higher than that in the PTC group. Regarding US features, absence of calcification (p=0.006) and "diffuse thyroid disease" (DTD) pattern on US (p<0.001) were frequently seen in the FLT group. On multivariate analysis, Tg-Ab positivity, presence of a DTD pattern on US, and absence of calcification in nodules were associated with FLT with the best specificity of 99% and positive predictive value of 96%. In contrast, a taller than wide shape of nodules was the only variable significant for differentiating AH from PTC. Conclusion Suspicious thyroid nodules with cytologic benign results could be followed up with US rather than repeat FNAB, if patients exhibit Tg-Ab positivity, no calcifications in nodules, and a DTD pattern on US. PMID:26256977

  3. Metastin receptor is overexpressed in papillary thyroid cancer and activates MAP kinase in thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ringel, Matthew D; Hardy, Elena; Bernet, Victor J; Burch, Henry B; Schuppert, Frank; Burman, Kenneth D; Saji, Motoyasu

    2002-05-01

    The development of distant metastasis is the most important predictor of death from thyroid cancer. KiSS-1 is a recently cloned human metastasis suppressor gene whose product, metastin, was recently identified as the endogenous agonist for a novel Gq/11 coupled receptor (metastin receptor). The expression and functional consequences of metastin and the metastin receptor have not been evaluated in thyroid cancer. We measured metastin and metastin receptor mRNA levels in 10 FCs and 13 papillary carcinomas (PCs), 2 benign non-functioning follicular adenomas (FAs), and 11 normal thyroid samples, and evaluated the signaling pathways activated by metastin in ARO thyroid cancer cells that express the metastin receptor endogenously. Paired normal and tumor samples were available for 4 PC and 3 PFC samples. Metastin mRNA was detected in 6/11 normal samples, and 0/2 FA, 2/10 FC, and 9/13 PC samples (p < 0.05 for PC vs. FC). Metastin receptor was not expressed in any normal thyroid or benign FA samples, and was expressed in only a minority (2/10) of FC samples. However, the receptor was expressed in the majority (10/13) of PCs (p = 0.002 for PC vs. normal tissue). Increased levels of metastin receptor were detected in all four PCs compared to adjacent normal tissue. Incubation levels of metastin receptor were detected in all four PCs compared to adjacent normal tissue. Incubation of metastin receptor expressing ARO thyroid cancer cells with metastin resulted in activation of ERK, but not Akt. Taken together, these data suggest a potential role for metastin and/or metastin receptors in modulating the biological behavior of thyroid cancers.

  4. Acute myeloid leukemia following radioactive iodine therapy for papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Ankit, Jain; S, Premalata C; S, Saini K; P, Bapsy P; V, Sajeevan K; Singh, Tejinder; Batra, Ullas; Govind, Babu; Dasappa, Lokanatha; Atilli, Suresh; R, Permeshwar

    2009-06-05

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy plays an important role in the management of thyroid malignancies. Leukemia is a very rare complication of radioactive therapy. There are very few case reports with doses below 100 mCi causing leukemia. We report a case of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid treated with 80 mCi RAI who later developed acute myeloid leukemia. Thus, all patients with thyroid carcinoma treated with RAI should undergo periodic hematological examinations irrespective of RAI dose.

  5. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Treated with Radiofrequency Ablation in a Patient with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianyi; Liu, Xiaosun; Zhang, Qing; Hong, Yanyun; Song, Bin; Teng, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Standard therapy has not been established for thyroid cancer when a thyroidectomy is contraindicated due to systemic disease. Herein, we reported a patient who had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and papillary thyroid carcinoma treated by radiofrequency ablation because of inability to tolerate a thyroidectomy. Radiofrequency ablation can be used to treat thyroid cancer when surgery is not feasible, although the long-term outcome needs further observation. PMID:27390548

  6. Discovery and identification of potential biomarkers of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuxia; Shi, Linan; Liu, Qiuliang; Dong, Rui; Zhang, Qian; Yang, Shaobo; Fan, Yingzhong; Yang, Heying; Wu, Peng; Yu, Jiekai; Zheng, Shu; Yang, Fuquan; Wang, Jiaxiang

    2009-09-28

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy and a common cancer among the malignancies of head and neck. Noninvasive and convenient biomarkers for diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) as early as possible remain an urgent need. The aim of this study was to discover and identify potential protein biomarkers for PTC specifically. Two hundred and twenty four (224) serum samples with 108 PTC and 116 controls were randomly divided into a training set and a blind testing set. Serum proteomic profiles were analyzed using SELDI-TOF-MS. Candidate biomarkers were purified by HPLC, identified by LC-MS/MS and validated using ProteinChip immunoassays. A total of 3 peaks (m/z with 9190, 6631 and 8697 Da) were screened out by support vector machine (SVM) to construct the classification model with high discriminatory power in the training set. The sensitivity and specificity of the model were 95.15% and 93.97% respectively in the blind testing set. The candidate biomarker with m/z of 9190 Da was found to be up-regulated in PTC patients, and was identified as haptoglobin alpha-1 chain. Another two candidate biomarkers (6631, 8697 Da) were found down-regulated in PTC and identified as apolipoprotein C-I and apolipoprotein C-III, respectively. In addition, the level of haptoglobin alpha-1 chain (9190 Da) progressively increased with the clinical stage I, II, III and IV, and the expression of apolipoprotein C-I and apolipoprotein C-III (6631, 8697 Da) gradually decreased in higher stages. We have identified a set of biomarkers that could discriminate PTC from non-cancer controls. An efficient strategy, including SELDI-TOF-MS analysis, HPLC purification, MALDI-TOF-MS trace and LC-MS/MS identification, has been proved successful.

  7. A Comprehensive Characterization of Mitochondrial Genome in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xingyun; Wang, Weibin; Ruan, Guodong; Liang, Min; Zheng, Jing; Chen, Ye; Wu, Huiling; Fahey, Thomas J.; Guan, Minxin; Teng, Lisong

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear genetic alterations have been widely investigated in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), however, the characteristics of the mitochondrial genome remain uncertain. We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome of 66 PTCs, 16 normal thyroid tissues and 376 blood samples of healthy individuals. There were 2508 variations (543 sites) detected in PTCs, among which 33 variations were novel. Nearly half of the PTCs (31/66) had heteroplasmic variations. Among the 31 PTCs, 28 specimens harbored a total of 52 somatic mutations distributed in 44 sites. Thirty-three variations including seven nonsense, 11 frameshift and 15 non-synonymous variations selected by bioinformatic software were regarded as pathogenic. These 33 pathogenic mutations were associated with older age (p = 0.0176) and advanced tumor stage (p = 0.0218). In addition, they tended to be novel (p = 0.0003), heteroplasmic (p = 0.0343) and somatic (p = 0.0018). The mtDNA copy number increased in more than two-third (46/66) of PTCs, and the average content in tumors was nearly four times higher than that in adjacent normal tissues (p < 0.0001). Three sub-haplogroups of N (A4, B4a and B4g) and eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) (A16164G, C16266T, G5460A, T6680C, G9123A, A14587G, T16362C, and G709A) were associated with the occurrence of PTC. Here we report a comprehensive characterization of the mitochondrial genome and demonstrate its significance in pathogenesis and progression of PTC. This can help to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying PTC and offer potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for future clinical practice. PMID:27735863

  8. A Comprehensive Characterization of Mitochondrial Genome in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Su, Xingyun; Wang, Weibin; Ruan, Guodong; Liang, Min; Zheng, Jing; Chen, Ye; Wu, Huiling; Fahey, Thomas J; Guan, Minxin; Teng, Lisong

    2016-10-10

    Nuclear genetic alterations have been widely investigated in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), however, the characteristics of the mitochondrial genome remain uncertain. We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome of 66 PTCs, 16 normal thyroid tissues and 376 blood samples of healthy individuals. There were 2508 variations (543 sites) detected in PTCs, among which 33 variations were novel. Nearly half of the PTCs (31/66) had heteroplasmic variations. Among the 31 PTCs, 28 specimens harbored a total of 52 somatic mutations distributed in 44 sites. Thirty-three variations including seven nonsense, 11 frameshift and 15 non-synonymous variations selected by bioinformatic software were regarded as pathogenic. These 33 pathogenic mutations were associated with older age (p = 0.0176) and advanced tumor stage (p = 0.0218). In addition, they tended to be novel (p = 0.0003), heteroplasmic (p = 0.0343) and somatic (p = 0.0018). The mtDNA copy number increased in more than two-third (46/66) of PTCs, and the average content in tumors was nearly four times higher than that in adjacent normal tissues (p < 0.0001). Three sub-haplogroups of N (A4, B4a and B4g) and eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) (A16164G, C16266T, G5460A, T6680C, G9123A, A14587G, T16362C, and G709A) were associated with the occurrence of PTC. Here we report a comprehensive characterization of the mitochondrial genome and demonstrate its significance in pathogenesis and progression of PTC. This can help to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying PTC and offer potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for future clinical practice.

  9. Papillary Microcarcinoma of the Thyroid among Atomic Bomb Survivors: Tumor Characteristics and Radiation Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Yuzo; Lagarde, Frederic; Tsuda, Nobuo; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Preston, Dale L.; Koyama, Kojiro; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Ron, Elaine; Kodama, Kazunori; Tokuoka, Shoji

    2009-01-01

    Background Radiation exposure is an established cause of clinical thyroid cancer, but little is known about radiation effects on papillary microcarcinoma (PMC) of the thyroid, a relatively common subclinical thyroid malignancy. Because the incidence of these small thyroid cancers has been increasing, it is important to better understand them and their relationship to radiation. Methods PMCs were identified in a subset of 7659 members of the Life Span Study of atomic-bomb survivors who had archived autopsy or surgical materials. We conducted a pathology review of these specimens and evaluated the histological features of the tumors and the association between PMCs and thyroid radiation dose. Results From 1958 to1995, 458 PMCs were detected among 313 study subjects. The majority of cancers exhibited pathologic features of papillary thyroid cancers. Overall, 81% of the PMCs were of the sclerosing variant and 91% were nonencapsulated, psammoma bodies occurred in 13% and calcification was observed in 23%. Over 95% had papillary or papillary-follicular architecture and most displayed nuclear overlap, clear nuclei, and nuclear grooves. Several of these features increased with increasing tumor size, but no association was found with radiation dose. A significant radiation-dose response was found for the prevalence of PMCs (estimated excess odds ratio/Gy=0.57; 95% CI: 0.01-1.55), with the excess risk observed primarily among females. Conclusion Low-to-moderate doses of ionizing radiation appears to increase the risk of thyroid PMCs, even when exposure occurs during adulthood. PMID:20120034

  10. Papillary thyroid cancer in a young woman affected by giant congenital melanocytic nevus, ultrasound diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Manganaro, L; Onesti, M G; Sergi, M E; Vinci, V; Maruccia, M; Soda, G; Marini, M

    2011-01-01

    Data literatures report numerous association between giant congenital nevus and development alteration; only two cases describe its coexistence with thyroid disorders. However, we report the association of papillary thyroid cancer and giant congenital nevus. Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common differentiated thyroid cancer and has high prevalence in young women. In this paper we report: the case of a 18 years-old woman, affected by giant congenital melanocytic nevus on her back, who came to our observation because of one month of fever and increased volume of latero-cervical lymph nodes. Negative serologic tests allowed us to exclude lymphoma and mononucleosis. Because of the high risk (6%) that giant congenital melanocytic nevi could transform into malignant melanoma, we performed an ultrasound examination (US) of the cervical lymph nodes. The examination extended to the thyroid gland enabled us to visualize the same parenchyma alteration in both thyroid gland and lymph nodes. At last, fine-needle percoutaneus aspiration on thyroid lesion confirmed the presence of papillary carcinoma. In our case, thank to the optimal visualization of the parenchyma structure, US was diriment allowing a diagnosis of primitive thyroid lesion with an involvement of all lymph nodes in the neck. This findings legitimate the role of US as an accurate, noninvasive, radiation free and low-cost imaging technique in detecting differential diagnosis in the cervical lymphadenopathy, as well in preoperative staging thyroid carcinoma.

  11. Serum calprotectin: a new potential biomarker for thyroid papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tabur, S; Korkmaz, H; Özkaya, M; Elboğa, U; Tarakçıoglu, M; Aksoy, N; Akarsu, E

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate serum calprotectin levels and oxidative stress status in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and the changes in their levels after total thyroidectomy. The study involved 30 patients with PTC and 30 healthy controls. Blood samples were obtained from the PTC patients before and 1 month after the operation. Preoperative and postoperative serum samples from PTC patients and healthy controls were analysed for calprotectin, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and lipid hydroperokside (LOOH). The preoperative calprotectin, TOS, OSI and LOOH levels of the patients with PTC were significantly higher compared to those of the control group (p < 0.001, for each). The levels of calprotectin decreased significantly in patients with PTC after the operation (p < 0.001), while TAS, TOS and OSI levels remained unchanged (p = 0.313, p = 0.085 and p = 0.163, respectively). Preoperative serum calprotectin levels were positively correlated with TOS, OSI and LOOH levels and negatively correlated with TAS levels in patients with PTC. In conclusion, serum calprotectin levels is increased in patients with PTC, and calprotectin is positively correlated with TOS and LOOH. Serum calprotectin levels is significantly decreased after total thyroidectomy.

  12. Evaluation of proinflammatory cytokine and neopterin levels in women with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Beksac, Kemal; Sonmez, Cigdem; Cetin, Bahadir; Kismali, Gorkem; Sel, Tevhide; Tuncer, Yildirim; Kosova, Funda

    2016-12-23

    Papillary thyroid cancer is a disease that has been associated with chronic inflammation. The purpose of this study is to measure the production of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 and neopterin, which is a novel biomarker for cellular immune response in papillary thyroid cancer. The serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and neopterin values of 31 papillary thyroid cancer patients undergoing bilateral total thyroidectomy were measured before and 20 days after surgery. The values were compared with those of 39 healthy controls. Serum IL-1β levels were similar across groups. IL-6 (p<0.001), IL-8 (p = 0.015) and neopterin levels (p = 0.002) were higher in presurgical samples and returned to normal following surgery. The proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, but not IL-1β, were produced in greater amounts in papillary thyroid cancer. Serum neopterin seems to be a valid biological marker supporting the presence of papillary thyroid cancer.

  13. Clinicopathological Features of Low-Grade Thyroid-like Nasopharyngeal Papillary Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Minhua; Wei, Jiangguo; Yao, Xiaofei; Wang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Primary low-grade thyroid-like papillary adenocarcinomas are extremely rare neoplasms that generally originate in the nasopharynx. Here, we describe a novel case of a 15-year-old Chinese girl who was diagnosed with low-grade thyroid-like papillary adenocarcinoma, including a brief review of the literature to reveal the clinicopathological features of low-grade thyroid-like nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the expression of pan-cytokeratin (CKpan), cytokeratin (CK) 7, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), thyroglobulin, CD15, S100, P40, CK20, CDX-2, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and Ki-67. Additionally, in situ hybridization investigation was utilized to identify the presence of small Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)–encoded RNA. Results Histopathological analysis revealed florid proliferation of papillary structures lined by columnar epithelial cells with fibrovascular cores. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were positive for CKpan, CK7, TTF-1, vimentin, and EMA, but negative for thyroglobulin, CD15, S100, P40, CK20, CDX-2, and GFAP. The Ki-67–labeling index reached 5% in the most concentrated spot. In situ hybridization for EBV was negative. Conclusion Due to the distinct rarity of low-grade thyroid-like papillary adenocarcinomaswith a favorable clinical outcome, a nationwide effort to raise public awareness of this neoplasm is required. PMID:27384157

  14. Multifocal fibrosing thyroiditis and its association with papillary thyroid carcinoma using BRAF pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Frank, Renee; Baloch, Zubair W; Gentile, Caren; Watt, Christopher D; LiVolsi, Virginia A

    2014-09-01

    Multifocal fibrosing thyroiditis (MFT) is characterized by numerous foci of fibrosis in a stellate configuration with fibroelastotic and fibroblastic centers entrapping epithelial structures. MFT has been proposed as a risk factor for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) development. We attempted to identify whether MFT showed such molecular changes and could possibly be related to PTC. We identified seven cases of PTC with MFT in our institutional pathology database and personal consult service of one of the authors (VAL) for the years 1999 to 2012. Areas of PTC, MFT, and normal tissue were selected for BRAF analysis. Macro-dissection, DNA extraction and PCR amplification, and pyrosequencing were performed to detect BRAF mutations in codon 600. All of the MFT lesions and normal thyroid tissue were negative for BRAF mutations. Of the seven PTCs analyzed, five (71 %) were negative for BRAF mutations, while two cases were positive. In our study, none of the MFT lesions harbored BRAF mutations, whereas 29 % (two of seven) PTCs in the same gland were positive. Hence, in this small study, we found no evidence that the MFT lesion is a direct precursor to PTC. It is likely an incidental bystander in the process and a reflection of the background thyroiditis.

  15. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Arising in Children and Adolescent Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: Ultrasonographic and Pathologic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sun Hye; Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Kwak, Jeong Ja

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We compared the ultrasonography and pathology features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in pediatric and adolescents with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) with those of non-HT patients. Materials and Methods. Eleven patients who were surgically confirmed to have pediatric or adolescent PTC from 2006 to 2014 were included in this study. We retrospectively analyzed the preoperative ultrasonography and pathology features of PTC arising in HT and non-HT patients. Results. On ultrasonography, thyroid gland was lobulated and enlarged, with many scattered microcalcifications in four of five HT patients. Four of six non-HT patients had suspicious masses with calcifications. The diffuse sclerosing variant of PTC (DSVPTC) was found in three of five HT patients, but none in non-HT patients. Macroscopic or microscopic extrathyroidal extension was evident in all of the HT patients and four of the non-HT patients. Neck lymph node metastases were in all HT patients and five of non-HT patients. Conclusions. Three of five PTCs in pediatric and adolescent HT patients were DSVPTC, whereas all PTCs of the non-HT patients were classic type. On ultrasonography, thyroid gland was diffusely enlarged with scattered microcalcifications in four of five HT patients. All five HT cases had aggressive disease, including extrathyroidal extension and cervical lymph node metastases. PMID:26977145

  16. Significance of IMP3, nucleophosmin, and Ki-67 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yorukoglu, Aygun; Yalcin, Nagihan; Avci, Arzu; Cakalagaoglu, Fulya; Yaylali, Guzin; Akin, Fulya; Haciyanli, Mehmet; Ozden, Akin

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the diagnostic value of expression of IMP3, nucleophosmin, and correlation of these markers with Ki-67 proliferation index in papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign neoplasms of thyroid gland. The aim was also to investigate whether there is a difference between papillary and micropapillary carcinomas with regard to clinicopathologic parameters beside IMP3, nucleophosmin, and Ki-67 proliferation index. It was concluded that IMP3 and nucleophosmin cannot be a routine diagnostic marker for discrimination of papillary carcinomas and benign lesions. IMP3 positive staining was quite scarce in IMP3 positive papillary carcinomas although specifity of IMP3 is 100%. A statistically significant correlation was not detected between nucleophosmin, IMP-3, and Ki-67 proliferation index. A statistically significant correlation was found between tumor size, lymphovascular embolism, and Ki-67 proliferation index. There was also significant correlation between tumor size and lymphovascular embolism. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Expression of PACAP and PAC1 Receptor in Normal Human Thyroid Gland and in Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bardosi, Sebastian; Bardosi, Attila; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Reglodi, Dora

    2016-10-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) belongs to the vasoactive intestinal peptide-secretin-glucagon peptide family, isolated first from ovine hypothalamus. The diverse physiological effects of PACAP are known mainly from animal experiments, including several actions in endocrine glands. Alteration of PACAP expression has been shown in several tumors, but changes in expression of PACAP and its specific PAC1 receptor in human thyroid gland pathologies have not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate expression of PACAP and its PAC1 receptor in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, the most common endocrine malignant tumor. PACAP and PAC1 receptor expressions were investigated from thyroid gland samples of patients with papillary carcinomas. The staining intensity of follicular epithelial cells and thyroid colloid of tumor tissue was compared to that of tumor-free tissue in the same thyroid glands in a semi-quantitative way. Our results reveal that both PACAP(-like) and PAC1 receptor(-like) immunoreactivities are altered in papillary carcinoma. Stronger PACAP immunoreactivity was observed in active follicles. Colloidal PACAP immunostaining was either lacking or very weak, and more tumorous cells displayed strong apical immunoreactivity. Regarding PAC1 receptor, cells of the normal thyroid tissue showed strong granular expression, which was lacking in the tumor cells. The cytoplasm of tumor cells displayed weak, minimal staining, while in a few tumor cells we observed strong PAC1 receptor expression. This pattern was similar to that observed in the PACAP expression, but fewer in number. In summary, we showed alteration of PACAP and PAC1 receptor expression in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, indicating that PACAP regulation is disturbed in tumorous tissue of the thyroid gland. The exact role of PACAP in thyroid tumor growth should be further explored.

  18. The Effects of Hashimoto Thyroiditis on Lymph Node Metastases in Unifocal and Multifocal Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Feng; Shen, Yi Bin; Li, Fu Qiang; Fang, Yun; Hu, Liang; Wu, Yi Jun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the risk factors for central and lateral neck lymph node metastases in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma (MPTC), particularly when associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). A retrospective analysis of 763 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral central neck dissection in the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University between October 2011 and October 2014 was conducted. All patients had formal histological diagnoses of HT. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors of neck lymph node metastases. Our study identified 277 PTC patients with HT and showed comparatively low rates of central lymph node metastases (CLNM) compared with the PTC patients without HT (37.2% versus 54.7%, P < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in lateral lymph node metastases (LLNM) (P = 0.656). Neck lymph node metastases were histologically proven in 127 (45.8%) patients with PTC with HT, including 103 CLNM and 24 LLNM. There were no significant differences in LLNM between the MPTC-associated HT and classic MPTC cases; however, a significantly reduced risk of CLNM was observed in the MPTC-associated HT compared with the MPTC cases (35.7% versus 72.4%, respectively, P < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, HT was identified as an independent alleviating factor for CLNM in all PTC patients (odds ratio, 0.369; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.261 to 0.521; P < 0.001) and in MPTC patients (odds ratio, 0.227; 95% CI, 0.126–0.406; P < 0.001). A cut-off of thyroid peroxidase antibody >140 IU/mL was established as the most sensitive and specific level for the prediction of MPTC based on receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. Thyroid peroxidase antibody, age, tumor size, and multifocality exhibited the ability to predict CLNM in PTC with HT patients with

  19. Fibronectin 1 promotes migration and invasion of papillary thyroid cancer and predicts papillary thyroid cancer lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shujun; Wang, Chuandong; Postma, Emily Louise; Yang, Yanhua; Ni, Xiaofeng; Zhan, Weiwei

    2017-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis (LNM) is common in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and is an indicator of recurrence. The detailed molecular mechanism of LNM in PTC has not been well described. This study aimed to investigate the role of fibronectin 1 in PTC LNM and its clinical relevance. The expression of fibronectin 1 was confirmed in PTC tissues and cell lines. A correlation analysis was conducted and a receiver-operating characteristic curve obtained. The effect of fibronectin 1 on the proliferation of PTC cell lines was performed using a colony-formation assay and Cell Counting Kit 8. Cell-cycle analysis was performed with a flow-cytometry assay. Migration and invasion ability were evaluated by transwell and wound-healing assays. Fibronectin 1 was overexpressed in metastasized PTC. Overexpressed fibronectin 1 was positively correlated with PTC LNM. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed that the diagnostic accuracy of fibronectin 1 was 81.1%, with sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 82%. Overexpression of fibronectin 1 promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion in PTC. Fibronectin 1 plays a critical role in PTC metastasis by modulating the proliferation, migration, and invasion ability of PTC cells, and it is a valuable diagnostic biomarker for predicting PTC LNM. PMID:28367057

  20. Gene signature of the post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Handkiewicz-Junak, Daria; Swierniak, Michal; Rusinek, Dagmara; Oczko-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Dom, Genevieve; Maenhaut, Carine; Unger, Kristian; Detours, Vincent; Bogdanova, Tetiana; Thomas, Geraldine; Likhtarov, Ilya; Jaksik, Roman; Kowalska, Malgorzata; Chmielik, Ewa; Jarzab, Michal; Swierniak, Andrzej; Jarzab, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Following the nuclear accidents in Chernobyl and later in Fukushima, the nuclear community has been faced with important issues concerning how to search for and diagnose biological consequences of low-dose internal radiation contamination. Although after the Chernobyl accident an increase in childhood papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) was observed, it is still not clear whether the molecular biology of PTCs associated with low-dose radiation exposure differs from that of sporadic PTC. We investigated tissue samples from 65 children/young adults with PTC using DNA microarray (Affymetrix, Human Genome U133 2.0 Plus) with the aim of identifying molecular differences between radiation-induced (exposed to Chernobyl radiation, ECR) and sporadic PTC. All participants were resident in the same region so that confounding factors related to genetics or environment were minimized. There were small but significant differences in the gene expression profiles between ECR and non-ECR PTC (global test, p < 0.01), with 300 differently expressed probe sets (p < 0.001) corresponding to 239 genes. Multifactorial analysis of variance showed that besides radiation exposure history, the BRAF mutation exhibited independent effects on the PTC expression profile; the histological subset and patient age at diagnosis had negligible effects. Ten genes (PPME1, HDAC11, SOCS7, CIC, THRA, ERBB2, PPP1R9A, HDGF, RAD51AP1, and CDK1) from the 19 investigated with quantitative RT-PCR were confirmed as being associated with radiation exposure in an independent, validation set of samples. Significant, but subtle, differences in gene expression in the post-Chernobyl PTC are associated with previous low-dose radiation exposure.

  1. Prognostic significance of Tiam1 expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Chuen; Lin, Jen-Der; Yang, Chia-Fen; Chang, Yu-Sun; Chao, Tzu-Chieh; Sun, Jui-Hung; Wu, I-Chin; Tseng, Ngan-Ming; Ueng, Shir-Hwa

    2011-12-01

    T lymphoma and metastasis gene 1 (Tiam1) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GNEF) that regulates the guanosine triphosphatase to facilitate the exchange of guanosine diphosphate for guanosine triphosphate. It specifically activates Rac1, a member of the Rho family of GTPases. Tiam1 is involved in cell proliferation, cytoskeletal organization, cellular adhesion, and transcriptional activation. It has been suggested that alterations in Tiam1 expression might contribute to the progression of various human cancers. The usefulness of Tiam1 expression as a prognostic marker in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has not been investigated yet. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of Tiam1 in PTC as well as its association with the clinicopathologic features and prognostic significance. Surgical tissue samples were taken from 106 PTC patients who had been followed up for at least 9.3 years. Strong expression of Tiam1 was detected in 54% of the cases. Tiam1 expression was associated significantly with various clinicopathologic parameters, such as gender (P=0.039), tumor multicentricity (P=0.0124), histologic subtype (P=0.0427), TNM stage (P=0.0151), and distant metastases at diagnosis (P=0.0001). Survival analysis showed that the Tiam1 low-expression group had a significantly shorter overall survival time than Tiam1 high-expression group (P=0.0007). Multivariate analysis showed that Tiam1 expression was a significant and independent prognostic indicator (P=0.0090) for PTC patients. Tiam1 expression may be a novel and independent prognostic marker of PTC patients. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  2. The impact of coexistent Hashimoto's thyroiditis on lymph node metastasis and prognosis in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ning; Zhang, Ling; Lin, Dao-Zhe; Ji, Qing-Hai; Zhu, Yong-Xue; Wang, Yu

    2016-06-01

    The impact of coexistent Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) on lymph node metastasis (LNM) and prognosis in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) remains controversial. We evaluated the association of coexistent HT with clinicopathologic parameters, LNM, and prognosis by retrospectively reviewing a series of consecutive patients treated for PTMC at Fudan University Cancer Center from January 2005 to December 2010. Of all 1,250 patients with complete data for analysis, 364 (29.1 %) had coexistent HT (HT group) and 886 patients (70.9 %) had no evidence of HT (control group). The HT group had higher proportion of female (87.9 vs 70.1 %) patients, higher mean level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (2.39 vs 2.00 mIU/L), and lower incidence of extrathyroidal extension (7.4 vs 11.7 %) than those in the control group. However, the incidence of LNM and recurrence was similar between the two groups, and HT was not associated with LNM and recurrence. A series of clinicopathologic factors identified for predicting LNM and recurrence in the control group did not show any prediction in the HT group. In summary, this study suggested that coexistent HT had insignificant protective effect on LNM and prognosis in PTMC, which was inconsistent with prior studies. Further studies aiming to determine novel predictors are recommended in PTMC patients with coexistent HT.

  3. Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and BRAF V600E in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seo Ki; Woo, Jung-Woo; Lee, Jun Ho; Park, Inhye; Choe, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Jee Soo

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) is less associated with extrathyroidal extension (ETE), advanced tumor stage and lymph node (LN) metastasis. Other studies have suggested that concurrent CLT could antagonize PTC progression, even in BRAF-positive patients. Since the clinical significance of the BRAF mutation has been particularly associated with conventional PTC, the purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of CLT according to BRAF mutation status in conventional PTC patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 3332 conventional PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral central neck dissection at the Thyroid Cancer Center of Samsung Medical Center between January 2008 and June 2015. In this study, the prevalence of BRAF mutation was significantly less frequent in conventional PTC patients with CLT (76.9% vs 86.6%). CLT was an independent predictor for low prevalence of ETE in both BRAF-negative (OR=0.662, P=0.023) and BRAF-positive (OR=0.817, P=0.027) conventional PTC patients. In addition, CLT was an independent predictor for low prevalence of CLNM in both BRAF-negative (OR=0.675, P=0.044) and BRAF-positive (OR=0.817, P=0.030) conventional PTC patients. In conclusion, BRAF mutation was significantly less frequent in conventional PTC patients with CLT. However, CLT was an independent predictor for less aggressiveness in conventional PTC patients regardless of BRAF mutation status.

  4. The clinicopathologic differences in papillary thyroid carcinoma with or without co-existing chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yeo-Hoon; Kim, Hak Joon; Lee, Jin Woo; Kim, Jin Man; Koo, Bon Seok

    2012-03-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the clinicopathologic differences in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with or without chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). We reviewed the medical records of 195 consecutive PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral central lymph node dissection from April 2008 to March 2010. The differences in clinicopathologic factors, such as age, gender, size of primary tumor, perithyroidal invasion, lymphovascular invasion, capsular invasion, and central lymph node (CLN) metastasis, were analyzed in PTC patients with or without CLT. Among 195 patients, 56 (28.7%) had co-existing CLT. Patients with CLT had the following characteristics as compared to patients without CLT: significantly younger, female predominance, smaller tumor size, and lower incidence of capsular invasion (p = 0.038, 0.006, 0.037, and 0.026, respectively). Also, patients with CLT (12.5%) had a significantly lower incidence of CLN metastases than patients without CLT (28.1%; p = 0.025) based on univariate analysis. Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that younger age (p = 0.042, odds ratio = 1.033) and female gender (p = 0.012, odds ratio = 6.865) are independent clinical factors in patients with CLT compared to patients without CLT. CLT was shown to be commonly associated with PTC. Compared to patients with PTC without CLT, patients with CLT were younger with a female predominance, which are the most important and well-known prognostic variables for thyroid cancer mortality.

  5. Coexistence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis with papillary thyroid carcinoma: clinical manifestation and prognostic outcome.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jun Soo; Kim, Hyun Ki; Lee, Cho-Rok; Park, Seulkee; Park, Jae Hyun; Kang, Sang-Wook; Jeong, Jong Ju; Nam, Kee-Hyun; Chung, Woong Youn; Park, Cheong Soo

    2012-08-01

    The study aimed to identify the clinical characteristics of coexisting chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and to evaluate the influence on prognosis. A total of 1,357 patients who underwent thyroid surgery for PTC were included. The clinicopathological characteristics were identified. Patients who underwent total thyroidectomy (n = 597) were studied to evaluate the influence of coexistent CLT on prognosis. Among the total 1,357 patients, 359 (26.5%) had coexistent CLT. In the CLT group, the prevalence of females was higher than in the control group without CLT (P < 0.001). Mean tumor size and mean age in the patients with CLT were smaller than without CLT (P = 0.040, P = 0.047, respectively). Extrathyroidal extension in the patients with CLT was significantly lower than without CLT (P = 0.016). Among the subset of 597 patients, disease-free survival rate in the patients with CLT was significantly higher than without CLT (P = 0.042). However, the multivariate analysis did not reveal a negative association between CLT coexistence and recurrence. Patients with CLT display a greater female preponderance, smaller size, younger and lower extrathyroidal extension. CLT is not a significant independent negative predictive factor for recurrence, although presence of CLT indicates a reduced risk of recurrence.

  6. Breast tumor resembling the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: report of 5 cases.

    PubMed

    Eusebi, V; Damiani, S; Ellis, I O; Azzopardi, J G; Rosai, J

    2003-08-01

    Five cases of a hitherto undescribed breast tumor having histologic features similar to those of the tall cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma are described. They were composed of columnar mitochondrion-rich to oxyphilic cells arranged in nests, papillae, and follicle-like structures. In addition, the neoplastic cells showed numerous nuclear grooves and, in two cases, nuclear pseudo-inclusions. None of the patients had previous concomitant or subsequent evidence of a thyroid tumor. Immunohistochemistry further excluded a metastasis from the thyroid in the four cases tested, as they were consistently thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor 1 negative.

  7. Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: characteristic histologic feature of adenomatous polyposis. A case report.

    PubMed

    Gronnier, Caroline; Donatini, Gianluca; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Do Cao, Christine; Carnaille, Bruno

    2012-06-01

    We report the case of a 24-year-old woman with familial adenomatous polyposis and diagnosed with cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Neck ultrasound and computed tomography identified multiple nodules in the thyroid gland and neck lymph nodes. The cytological analysis was compatible with the diagnosis of papillary cancer of the thyroid. Total thyroidectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. The histological analysis established the diagnosis of cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Despite preoperative findings suggesting an aggressive form of thyroid cancer with lymph node involvement, the final diagnosis was a variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma often associated with familial adenomatous polyposis and known to have a good prognosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. A case report of thyroid carcinoma confined to ovary and concurrently occult in the thyroid: is conservative treatment always advised?

    PubMed

    Brusca, Nunzia; Del Duca, Susanna Carlotta; Salvatori, Rita; D'Agostini, Antonio; Cannas, Pina; Santaguida, Maria Giulia; Virili, Camilla; Bianchi, Loredana; Gargano, Lucilla; Centanni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Struma ovarii is an ovarian teratoma, represented in more than 50% by thyroid tissue. Five percent of struma ovarii cases have been proven to be malignant and, as in the thyroid gland, papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common histotype arising in struma ovarii. Because of the unusual occurrence of this tumor, its management and follow-up after pelvic surgery is still controversial. Usually, total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine treatment is the choice treatment in metastatic malignant struma ovarii, while these procedures are still controversial in non-metastatic thyroid cancer arising in struma ovarii. We report a female with follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in struma ovarii. After pelvic surgery, thyroid morphofunctional examinations were performed and a single nodular lesion in the left lobe was discovered. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy and histological examination showed a papillary carcinoma. Radioiodine-ablation of residual thyroid tissue was performed and levothyroxine mildly-suppressive treatment was started. A more aggressive treatment should not be denied for malignant struma ovarii without any evidence, even when apparently confined into the ovary. However, in selected cases, aggressive treatment may be advisable to decrease the risk of recurrence and to allow an accurate follow-up.

  9. A Case Report of Thyroid Carcinoma Confined to Ovary and Concurrently Occult in the Thyroid: Is Conservative Treatment Always Advised?

    PubMed Central

    Brusca, Nunzia; Del Duca, Susanna Carlotta; Salvatori, Rita; D’Agostini, Antonio; Cannas, Pina; Santaguida, Maria Giulia; Virili, Camilla; Bianchi, Loredana; Gargano, Lucilla; Centanni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Struma ovarii is an ovarian teratoma, represented in more than 50% by thyroid tissue. Five percent of struma ovarii cases have been proven to be malignant and, as in the thyroid gland, papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common histotype arising in struma ovarii. Because of the unusual occurrence of this tumor, its management and follow-up after pelvic surgery is still controversial. Usually, total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine treatment is the choice treatment in metastatic malignant struma ovarii, while these procedures are still controversial in non-metastatic thyroid cancer arising in struma ovarii. Case Presentation: We report a female with follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in struma ovarii. After pelvic surgery, thyroid morphofunctional examinations were performed and a single nodular lesion in the left lobe was discovered. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy and histological examination showed a papillary carcinoma. Radioiodine-ablation of residual thyroid tissue was performed and levothyroxine mildly-suppressive treatment was started. Conclusions: A more aggressive treatment should not be denied for malignant struma ovarii without any evidence, even when apparently confined into the ovary. However, in selected cases, aggressive treatment may be advisable to decrease the risk of recurrence and to allow an accurate follow-up. PMID:25745492

  10. Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma Arising Within a Mature Ovarian Teratoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Pineyro, Maria M; Pereda, Jimena; Schou, Pamela; de los Santos, Karina; de la Peña, Soledad; Caserta, Benedicta; Pisabarro, Raul

    2017-01-01

    Mature cystic teratoma is the most common kind of ovarian germ cell tumor. Malignant transformation is uncommon, with thyroid cancer rarely found. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma has rarely been described as associated with ovarian teratomas. We report a case of a 34-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain and an ovarian mass. After surgery, the patient was diagnosed with a follicular variant papillary thyroid microcarcinoma that arose within a mature cystic ovarian teratoma. Based on the small size of the primary lesion and patient preferences, no further treatment was performed. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma arising within a mature ovarian teratoma without struma ovarii. There is no consensus on the surgical approach and postoperative management of this condition. Whether further therapy with total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation may be beneficial is unknown. In conclusion, papillary thyroid microcarcinoma can also arise within mature ovarian teratomas. Although a favorable prognosis is anticipated, there is limited information about its history or prognosis. PMID:28615984

  11. Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma Arising Within a Mature Ovarian Teratoma: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Pineyro, Maria M; Pereda, Jimena; Schou, Pamela; de Los Santos, Karina; de la Peña, Soledad; Caserta, Benedicta; Pisabarro, Raul

    2017-01-01

    Mature cystic teratoma is the most common kind of ovarian germ cell tumor. Malignant transformation is uncommon, with thyroid cancer rarely found. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma has rarely been described as associated with ovarian teratomas. We report a case of a 34-year-old woman who presented with abdominal pain and an ovarian mass. After surgery, the patient was diagnosed with a follicular variant papillary thyroid microcarcinoma that arose within a mature cystic ovarian teratoma. Based on the small size of the primary lesion and patient preferences, no further treatment was performed. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma arising within a mature ovarian teratoma without struma ovarii. There is no consensus on the surgical approach and postoperative management of this condition. Whether further therapy with total thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation may be beneficial is unknown. In conclusion, papillary thyroid microcarcinoma can also arise within mature ovarian teratomas. Although a favorable prognosis is anticipated, there is limited information about its history or prognosis.

  12. Frontal bone metastasis from an occult follicular thyroid carcinoma: Diagnosed by FNAC

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Rajnish; Pawar, Richa; Hasija, Sonia; Chandna, Abha; Sankla, Manoj; Malhotra, Chanchal

    2017-01-01

    Metastatic deposits in skull bones from follicular thyroid carcinoma is rare, and metastatic disease in skull being the presenting symptom without obvious thyroid lesion (occult primary) is even rarer. A 60-year-old female patient presented with a mass in the frontal region of the skull. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done which revealed an adenocarcinoma with repeated follicular pattern, reminiscent of follicular neoplasm of thyroid, which on immunocytochemistry revealed positivity for thyroglobulin. Patient was investigated further for primary thyroid malignancy, and imaging revealed a nodule in the left lobe of thyroid. Neuroimaging showed osteolytic lesion involving the cranium. PMID:28182063

  13. Management of Clinically and Mammographically Occult Benign Papillary Lesions Diagnosed at Ultrasound-Guided 14-Gauge Breast Core Needle Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sung Mo; Jung, Hae Kyoung; Ko, Kyung Hee; Kim, Youdong; Lee, Kyong Sik

    2016-11-01

    To determine how to manage clinically and mammographically occult benign papillary lesions diagnosed at ultrasound (US)-guided 14-gauge breast core needle biopsy (CNB) by evaluating their upgrade rates. From our pathologic database of US-guided 14-gauge breast CNB, 69 benign papillomas and 9 atypical papillomas with available subsequent excisional findings (surgery or vacuum-assisted removal with additional US follow-up for ≥2 years) or US follow-up alone (≥2 years) were included in this study. We analyzed their upgrade rates by using excisional or US follow-up findings, with no change at 2 years as the reference standard. Patient age, lesion size, lesion distance from the nipple, multiplicity, imaging-histologic concordance, and histologic findings were compared between groups with and without upgrades by statistical analysis. Surgical excision was performed in 53 (67.9%) of 78 benign papillary lesions and revealed 5 upgrades (11.4%) to atypical papillomas in 44 benign papillomas and 2 upgrades (22.2%) to ductal carcinomas in situ in 9 atypical papillomas. Among 12 benign papillomas (15.4%) with vacuum-assisted removal and US follow-up (≥2 years), 1 (8.3%) was upgraded to atypical papilloma. The remaining 13 benign papillomas (16.7%) were followed with US and were stable after a 2-year follow-up period. There were no significant differences in the variables between the groups. Uniform surgical excision is not a reasonable management strategy for clinically and mammographically occult benign papillary lesions diagnosed at US-guided 14-gauge breast CNB. Clinically and mammographically occult benign papillary lesions may be subsequently managed by vacuum-assisted removal or imaging follow-up if atypia is not found. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  14. Clinicopathologic Factors and Thyroid Nodule Sonographic Features for Predicting Central Lymph Node Metastasis in Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma: A Retrospective Study of 1204 Patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Han; Xu, Shang-Yan; Zhan, Wei-Wei

    2016-11-01

    Preoperative prediction of lymph node metastasis is of clinical importance for the surgical treatment of thyroid tumor. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinicopathologic factors and thyroid nodule sonographic features predictive of central lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Clinicopathologic factors and thyroid nodule sonographic features of 1204 patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma were retrospectively reviewed from January 2014 to June 2015. Central lymph node dissection was performed on each patient. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the clinicopathologic factors and thyroid nodule sonographic features associated with central lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the relevance of all potential predictive factors. Central lymph node metastasis was detected in 395 of the 1204 patients (32.81%). By univariate and multivariate analyses, younger age (≤43 years), male sex, larger tumor size (≥7 mm), multifocal papillary thyroid microcarcinoma and microcalcification were independently associated with central lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (P < .05). The ORs were 1.920 (95% CI, 1.476-2.499), 1.665 (95% CI, 1.234-2.247), 1.534 (95% CI, 1.177-2.000), 2.120 (95% CI, 1.563-2.877), and 4.109 (95% CI, 3.118-5.414), respectively. Central lymph node metastasis is highly prevalent in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Younger age (≤43 years), male sex, larger tumor size (≥7 mm), multifocal papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, and microcalcification were independent predictors of central lymph node metastasis. Surgeons and radiologists need to pay more attention to patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma who have these risk predictors. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. [One case of throat B-cell lymphoma with ipsilateral thyroid papillary carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhenying; Zhou, Bo; Deng, Zehai

    2013-11-01

    A female patient of 56 years old had hoarseness that seems worse after talking excessively,which occasionally associated with slightly sore throat and pharyngeal foreign body sensation. The symptoms are not associated with sore throat, fever, night sweats, not drinking cough, breathing and swallowing difficulties, but no cough, bloody sputum. Neck ultrasound can be showed: goiter and real echo uneven thickening, increased blood supply pan; the right thyroid lobe multiple cysts pan. Enhanced CT shows occupying lesions were found out in the right side of the supraglottic larynx gap and the right lobe of the thyroid, nature to be determined. Full thyroid function showed: thyroid microsomal antibodies 278.2 u/ml, the rest of the indicators in the normal range. Other routine preoperative examinations were normal. Immunohistochemistry: CD45(++) CD68(+) CD99(++) EMA(-) CK(-) Sclc(-) TTF-1(--) CgA(-) SY(-) NSE(--) S-100(-) ESA(-). Supported by immunohistochemistry, hyperplasia organizations was diffuse lymphoid tissue. Through expert consultation by superior hospital the pathology showed: Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid papillary carcinoma (lesions of the right thyroid); Lesion on the right side of the throat gene rearrangement results show: B lymphocyte clonal consider mucosa-associated extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma the gene rearrangement that the right side of the throat disease is: B lymphocyte clonal, be considerd mucosa-associated extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma. throat B-cell lymphoma; thyroid papillary carcinoma (right side); Hashimoto's thyroiditis (right side).

  16. The ret/ptc1 oncogene is activated in familial adenomatous polyposis-associated thyroid papillary carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Cetta, F; Chiappetta, G; Melillo, R M; Petracci, M; Montalto, G; Santoro, M; Fusco, A

    1998-03-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by germ-line mutations of the apc gene, and it is associated with an increased risk of developing papillary thyroid carcinomas. We have previously reported that a significant fraction of sporadic human papillary thyroid carcinomas is characterized by gene rearrangements affecting the ret protooncogene. These rearrangements generate chimeric transforming oncogenes designated ret/ptc. By a combined immunohistochemical and RT-PCR approach, we analyzed, for ret/ptc oncogene activation, papillary thyroid carcinomas occurred in two FAP kindreds, both showing typical apc gene mutations. Kindred 1 had seven members affected by FAP, and among these, three patients showed papillary thyroid carcinomas. Kindred 2 had two patients, mother and daughter, affected by colonic polyposis; the 20-yr-old daughter showed also a papillary carcinoma. Here we report that ret/ptc1 oncogene was activated in two of the three papillary carcinomas of FAP kindred 1 and in the papillary carcinoma of FAP kindred 2. These findings document that loss of function of apc coexists with gain of function of ret in some papillary thyroid carcinomas, suggesting that ret/ptc1 oncogene activation could be a progression step in the development of FAP-associated thyroid tumors.

  17. Influence of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and papillary thyroid cancer on serum calcitonin levels.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley; Calsolari, Maria Regina

    2013-06-01

    Serum calcitonin (sCt) is measured in many patients with nodular thyroid disease, and the possibility of a false-positive result is a matter of concern, particularly in the case of mild hypercalcitoninemia. Among the conditions reported to cause sCt elevation, Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are relevant. In view of the high frequency of these conditions in patients with nodular disease and the controversy regarding the extent to which they contribute to hypercalcitoninemia, the objective of this study was to determine the influence of the presence of HT and PTC on sCt levels. Three groups of patients >12 years of age were studied. The first group (group A, n=492) consisted of patients with nodular disease evaluated before thyroidectomy and without medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) upon histology. The second group (group B, n=583) consisted of subjects without nodules on ultrasound. The third group (group C, n=62) consisted of patients with PTC and distant metastases after total thyroidectomy. The levels of sCt and frequency of elevated sCt were compared in patients with versus without HT (groups A and B) and those with PTC>1 cm versus without PTC (group A). No difference in sCt levels or in the frequency of elevated sCt was observed between patients with and without HT, irrespective of sex. Moreover, the presence of PTC>1 cm did not influence sCt levels or the frequency of hypercalcitoninemia. In fact, none of the 1075 patients in groups A and B had sCt>40 pg/mL, regardless of the presence of HT and PTC. Serum calcitonin was undetectable in any patient of group C. The finding of hypercalcitoninemia in patients with nodular disease should be interpreted as a suspicion of MTC, even in the presence of associated HT or cytology suggestive of PTC.

  18. Predictive factors and pattern of central lymph node metastasis in unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yong Bae; Yoo, Han Seok; Song, Chang Myeon; Park, Chul Won; Lee, Chang Beom; Tae, Kyung

    2016-02-01

    Prophylactic central neck dissection (CND) for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patterns and predictive factors of central lymph node metastasis in cases of PTC that were clinically determined to be node negative. We studied 485 patients who have unilateral PTC without clinical lymph node metastasis and underwent total thyroidectomy and prophylactic bilateral CND from 2003 to 2012, retrospectively. The frequency, subsite and predictive factors of central lymph node metastasis were analyzed. In total, 166 (32.4%) patients had occult central lymph node metastases. The most common subsite of central node metastases was the ipsilateral paratracheal lymph node (26.0%), followed by pretracheal (12.5%), prelaryngeal (5.0%), and contralateral paratracheal (3.9%) lymph nodes. The tumor size larger than 0.5cm (p=0.003), age under 45 (p<0.001) and extrathyroidal extension (p=0.028) were associated with ipsilateral central compartment metastasis in multivariate analysis. Contralateral central node metastasis was associated with tumor size >3cm, age under 45, and multifocality and ipsilateral central node metastasis in univariate analysis, but it was associated with only ipsilateral central node metastasis in multivariate analysis (p=0.001). Prophylactic CND might be considered for PTC patients with large tumor size or extrathyroidal extension based on rates of lymph node metastasis. Unilateral CND might be appropriate as prophylactic CND due to the low metastatic rate to the contralateral paratracheal node. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical impact of microscopic extrathyroidal extension in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma treated with hemithyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Ahn, D; Sohn, J H; Jeon, J H; Jeong, J Y

    2014-02-01

    Pathologically confirmed microscopic extrathyroidal extension (ETE) is often identified after hemithyroidectomy in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). Without the presence of microscopic ETE, these patients would be optimal candidates for hemithyroidectomy. The present study aimed at evaluating the clinical impact of microscopic ETE on the recurrence of PTMC treated with hemithyroidectomy. We compared the clinicopathological characteristics and 5-year outcomes for 262 PTMC patients without ETE and 86 with microscopic ETE who were treated with hemithyroidectomy between January 2004 and December 2010. The mean tumour size was larger (0.67 vs. 0.54 cm, p < 0.001) and the proportion of tumours measuring ≥0.5 cm was higher (84.9 vs. 66.8 %, p = 0.001) in patients with microscopic ETE as compared with patients without ETE. Occult multifocal disease was more frequent in patients with microscopic ETE than in those without ETE (14.0 vs. 6.5 %, p = 0.030). However, the recurrence rate was not different between the two groups during the mean 55.8-month follow-up period. In addition, univariate and multivariate analyses revealed no meaningful association between recurrence and microscopic ETE in patients with PTMC treated with hemithyroidectomy. Although microscopic ETE was associated with large tumour size and multifocal disease, its clinical impact on disease recurrence was not significant in PTMC patients treated with hemithyroidectomy. Therefore, microscopic ETE identified after hemithyroidectomy would not be an absolute indication for completion thyroidectomy in patients with PTMC.

  20. A Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma Revealed by a Single Bone Lesion with No Poor Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Godbert, Yann; Henriques-Figueiredo, Benedicte; Cazeau, Anne-Laure; Carrat, Xavier; Stegen, Marc; Soubeyran, Isabelle; Bonichon, Francoise

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Thyroid carcinomas incidence, in particular papillary variants, is increasing. These cancers are generally considered to have excellent prognosis, and papillary microcarcinomas are usually noninvasive. Many prognostic histopathology factors have been described to guide therapeutic decisions. Most patients are treated with total thyroidectomy without radioiodine treatment or partial surgery. Case Summary. A 65-year-old man with no significant medical history presented with pain in the left chest wall that had been present for several months. A computed tomography (CT) found a large tissue mass of 4 cm responsible for lysis of the middle arch of the 4th rib on the left. It was a single lesion, highly hypermetabolic on the 18-FDG PET/CT. The histology analysis of the biopsy and surgical specimen favored an adenocarcinoma with immunostaining positive for TTF1 and thyroglobulin (Tg). The total thyroidectomy carried out subsequently revealed a 4 mm papillary microcarcinoma with vesicular architecture of the right lobe, well delimited and distant from the capsule without vascular embolisms. After two radioiodine treatments, the patient is in complete clinical, biological, and radiological remission. Conclusion. This extremely rare case of a singular bone metastasis revealing a papillary thyroid microcarcinoma illustrates the necessity of further research to better characterize the forms of papillary thyroid microcarcinomas with potentially poor prognosis. PMID:23509641

  1. Combined Endonasal-Transcervical Approach to a Metastatic Parapharyngeal Space Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Benet, Arnau; El-Sayed, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Although papillary thyroid carcinoma metastases to the parapharyngeal space are rare, the high amount of fat tissue allows tumors to grow clinically undetectable until they invade most of the parapharyngeal space. We describe for the first time a combined endonasal and transcervical approach for a parapharyngeal metastasis from a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Materials and Methods: A 51-year-old male with a previous history of papillary thyroid carcinoma presented with left ear fullness and left-sided facial numbness. Imaging revealed a 4x3 cm pre-styloid parapharyngeal space mass invading the foramen ovale and extending below the palate. Needle biopsy confirmed metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Results: The lesion was resected with a combined endoscopic endonasal and transcervical approach. Postoperative MRI revealed gross total resection, and the patient recovered from his symptoms. Conclusion: This novel approach provides access to pre-styloid parapharyngeal tumors with superior extension to the skull base, avoiding more extensive traditional open approaches. PMID:26203403

  2. [Postradial sialozoadenitis in patients with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, V A; Kopchak, A V; Kovalenko, A E

    2015-01-01

    The authors present the results of investigation of 42 patients with salivary gland dysfunction after radioactive iodine-131 ablation therapy concerning papillary thyroid carcinoma. Clinical manifestations of postradial sialodenitis with secretory insufficiency of different degree were revealed. These side effects required an application of the special therapy.

  3. Current Management of Low Risk Differentiated Thyroid Cancer and Papillary Microcarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tarasova, V D; Tuttle, R M

    2017-01-10

    Each year, the proportion of thyroid cancer patients presenting with low risk disease is increasing. Moreover, the definition of low risk thyroid cancer is expanding and several histological subtypes beyond papillary microcarcinomas are now classified as low risk disease. This shift in the landscape of thyroid cancer presentation is forcing clinicians to critically re-evaluate whether or not traditional management paradigms that were effective in treating intermediate and high risk disease are applicable to these low risk patients. Here we review the definition of low risk disease, examine the various histological subtypes that are considered low risk in the 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer, and review our current approach to the management of these low risk tumours.

  4. Risk of lymph node metastases in multifocal papillary thyroid cancer associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Konturek, Aleksander; Barczyński, Marcin; Nowak, Wojciech; Wierzchowski, Wojciech

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors of lymph nodes metastases (LNM) in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with PTC and HT who had undergone total thyroidectomy (TT) with central neck dissection (CND) over an 11-year period (between 2002 and 2012). Pathological reports of all eligible patients were reviewed. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify risk factors of LNM. During the study period, PTC was diagnosed in 130 patients with HT who had undergone TT with CND (F/M ratio = 110:20; median age, 52.4 ± 12.7 years). Multifocal lesions were observed in 28 (21.5 %) patients. LNM were identified in 25 of 28 (89.3 %) patients with multifocal PTC and HT versus 69 of 102 (67.5 %) patients with a solitary focus of PTC and HT (p = 0.023). In multivariable analysis, multifocal disease was identified as an independent risk factor for LNM (odds ratio, 3.99; 95 % confidence interval, 1.12 to 14.15; p = 0.033). Multifocal PTC in patients with HT is associated with an increased risk of LNM. Nevertheless, the clinical importance of this finding needs to be validated in well-designed prospective studies.

  5. Role of prophylactic central neck dissection in cN0 papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Costa, S; Giugliano, G; Santoro, L; Ywata De Carvalho, A; Massaro, MA; Gibelli, B; De Fiori, E; Grosso, E; Ansarin, M; Calabrese, L

    2009-01-01

    Summary Prophylactic central neck dissection in papillary thyroid cancer is controversial. In this retrospective cohort study, the aim was to assess possible advantages of prophylactic central neck dissection with total thyroidectomy in cN0 papillary thyroid cancer. A total of 244 consecutive patients with papillary thyroid cancer, without clinical and ultrasound nodal metastases (cN0), were evaluated out of 1373 patients operated for a thyroid disease at the Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan, Italy from 1994 to 2006. Of these 244 patients, 126 (Group A) underwent thyroidectomy with central neck dissection, while 118 (Group B) underwent thyroidectomy alone. Demographic, clinical and pathological features were analysed. Overall recurrence rate was 6.3% (8/126) in Group A and 7.7% (9/118) in Group B, with a mean follow-up of 47 (Group A) and 64 (Group B) months. In Group A patients, 47% were pN1a and all patients with recurrence had nodal involvement (p = 0.002). Survival rate did not differ in the two groups. Nine patients were lost to follow-up. Group A patients were older and their tumours were larger in size; according to the pT distribution, a higher extra-capsular invasion rate was observed. The two groups were equivalent as far as concerns histological high risk variants and multifocality. Nodal metastases correlated with stage: pT1-2 vs. pT3-T4a, p = 0.0036. A lower risk of nodal metastases was related to thyroiditis (p = 0.0034). In conclusion, central neck metastases were predictive of recurrence without influencing prognosis. From data obtained, possible greatest efficacy of central neck dissection in pT3-4 papillary thyroid cancer without thyroiditis is suggested. PMID:20111614

  6. Multifocality of thyroid carcinomas: a "privilege" of papillary tumors or not?

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, M S; Liratzopoulos, N; Efremidou, E I; Karanikas, M; Minipoulos, G; Manolas, K J

    2010-01-01

    To study the frequency of multifocality in well-differentiated non-medullary thyroid carcinomas and correlate it with various epidemiological factors, as well as with patients' survival. A retrospective study was conducted on 80 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy from January 1985 to December 2004 in the First Department of Surgery of University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece, for well-differentiated non-medullary thyroid cancer (papillary and follicular). Patients' medical records and demographics, including age, gender, histological type (papillary, follicular), multiple foci of tumors, overall and specific survival were analyzed. Multifocality was established in 17/80 patients (21,25%). Multifocal tumors were found in 4/20 male patients (20%) and 13/60 female ones (21,67%), percentages which are almost identical. Increased rates of multifocal tumors were found in the age groups of 20-29, 30-39 and 70-79 years old, while low rates were documented in the age groups of 0-9, 10-19 and 60-69 years old. Follicular tumors had a 20% rate, similar to papillary tumors (22,2%), and an impressive multifocal rate of mixed papillary-follicular neoplasms (75%) was found. Finally, survival was not found to be influenced by the multifocality of the tumor, under the prerequisition that total thyroidectomy is applied. Multifocality should not be considered as a "privilege" of papillary thyroid tumors, but as a privilege of thyroid carcinomas in general. If total thyroidectomy is applied in all benign and malignant thyroid diseases, the presence of multiple foci does not affect the prognosis and the survival of the patients.

  7. Recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a focal neurologic deficit

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.N.; Wu, S.Y.; Kim, D.D.; Kollin, J.; Prasasvinichai, S.

    1986-10-01

    Papillary-follicular thyroid carcinoma usually remains localized to the thyroid bed and, in cases of metastasis, almost always involves the lung, bone, or liver. The two patients described here presented with papillary carcinoma and neurologic dysfunction. Total body iodine 131 scans disclosed cerebral uptake, and cerebral masses were confirmed by computed tomographic scan. Both patients presented diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas, and ultimately underwent craniotomy. One patient's cerebral metastasis recurred and was treated by a second craniotomy. The other patient received postoperative external cerebral radiotherapy and a novel intraoperative treatment: implantation of 22 iodine 125 seeds in the tumor bed, estimated to yield 16,000 rad (160 Gy) in one year. To date, cerebral metastases have not recurred in the latter patient, although tumor has reappeared in other sites. There is little reported in the medical literature concerning cerebral metastases of thyroid carcinoma, and the present report reviews this experience and discusses treatment alternatives.

  8. [Papillary thyroid carcinoma in a child with congenital dyshormonogenetic hypothyroidism. Case report].

    PubMed

    Orellana, María José; Fulle, Angelo; Carrillo, Diego; Escobar, Lucía; Ebensperger, Alicia; Martínez, Raúl; Rumié Carmi, Hana

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a rare childhood disease. The development of PTC in dyshormonogenetic congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is infrequent, with very few case reports in literature. To report a case of PTC in a boy with dyshormonogenetic CH without goitre and exposed to ionising radiation. To evaluate relationships between these factors and development of PTC. We present a boy with dyshormonogenetic CH since birth. Early hormonal substitution was initiated, with subsequent normal levels of thyrotropin and thyroid hormones. He has also congenital cardiomyopathy, exposed to interventional treatment with 10 heart catheterisations, and approximately 26 chest X-rays at paediatric doses. A thyroid nodule was found in thyroid echography at the age of 6 years old. Fine needle aspiration biopsy confirmed high probability of thyroid carcinoma (Bethesda 5). The pre-surgical thorax and cerebral scan showed no evidence of metastasis. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy. Pathological examination revealed a 0.5cm papillary thyroid micro-carcinoma in the right lobe, with no evidence of dissemination. Genetic mutations and radiation exposure may play an important role in the development of PTC. There may be common pathways between dyshormonogenetic CH and thyroid carcinoma that need further investigation. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Familial Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (FPTC): a Retrospective Analysis in a Sample of the Bulgarian Population for a 10-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Vidinov, Kalin; Nikolova, Dragomira

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, there are numerous reports indicating the presence of familial papillary carcinoma. Unfortunately, no genetic defect can be linked directly to the disease. In this study, we set the goal to make a retrospective analysis of the cases with papillary carcinoma in the Department of Endocrine Surgery for the past 10 years, to compare the characteristics of sporadic and familial forms of the disease and to find families with hereditary papillary carcinoma. The study included 810 patients treated for thyroid cancer in the Department of Endocrine Surgery, USBALE "Acad. Iv. Penchev" Hospital, between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2015. We used chi square test to determine statistical significant difference. The data analysis and interpretation was performed on SPSS 20.0. Both groups had similar demographic distribution. We found that 587 patients have sporadic papillary carcinoma, while 147 have a relative with thyroid pathology in the first degree of kinship. In 8 patients, there was a blood relative with thyroid cancer. When we compared the two groups, we found statistically significant difference only in tumor size. There was no significant difference in aggressiveness of the thyroid cancer (multifocality and lymph node metastasis). When analyzing the results, we identified 147 patients with a family history of thyroid disease (20%). In 8 patients (5.44%), we found at least one relative with papillary thyroid carcinoma. However, our study does not demonstrate any difference in the aggressiveness of familial and sporadic papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  10. Serum thyroglobulin levels after thyroxine withdrawal in patients with low risk papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sisson, J C; Thompson, N W; Giordano, T J; England, B G; Normolle, D P

    2000-02-01

    We hypothesized that elevated levels of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) are frequently found as the only index of residual neoplasm in patients with low-risk papillary thyroid carcinoma. The records of patients operated on for papillary thyroid carcinoma over a 2-year period were reviewed, and the patients were allocated to risk groups by a validated staging method that does not include Tg levels. Of the 35 patients who manifested a low-risk carcinoma, 9 (26%) exhibited elevated Tg concentrations (11-53 ng/mL) during thyroxine withdrawal after therapies, while clinical, scintigraphic, and radiographic studies at least 1 year later showed no evidence of tumor. Prior scintigraphic imaging of therapeutic doses of 131I in 8 of 9 patients demonstrated no distant metastases, further confirming the low-risk status of this group. The staging method predicts that only 0.9% of patients with low-risk papillary carcinoma will have a cause specific death in 20 years. Elevated Tg concentrations have not been shown to forecast independently the survival of patients with low-risk papillary carcinoma. Thus, although frequently encountered, elevated Tg concentrations are unlikely to predict shortened survival in patients with papillary carcinoma for whom low risk has been determined from other data.

  11. Importance of gender-specific calcitonin thresholds in screening for occult sporadic medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Machens, Andreas; Hoffmann, Florian; Sekulla, Carsten; Dralle, Henning

    2009-12-01

    Men and women differ in thyroidal C-cell mass and calcitonin secretion. This difference may have implications for the definition of calcitonin thresholds to distinguish sporadic C-cell hyperplasia from occult medullary thyroid cancer. This retrospective study examined the hypothesis that gender-specific calcitonin thresholds predict occult medullary thyroid cancer more accurately among patients with increased basal calcitonin levels than unisex thresholds. A total of 100 consecutive patients were evaluated with occult sporadic C-cell disease no larger than 10 mm who were referred for increased basal calcitonin levels and underwent pentagastrin stimulation preoperatively at this institution. Altogether, gender-specific calcitonin thresholds predicted medullary thyroid cancer better than unisex thresholds. At lower (thyroid cancer four to eight times more often than men. Most discriminatory between C-cell hyperplasia and medullary thyroid cancer was a basal calcitonin threshold of 15 pg/ml (corrected 20 pg/ml) for women and 80 pg/ml (corrected 100 pg/ml) for men, based on the greatest accuracy at the lowest possible calcitonin level. The respective gender-specific stimulated peak calcitonin thresholds were 80 pg/ml (corrected 100 pg/ml) and 500 pg/ml. Corresponding positive predictive values for medullary thyroid cancer at these calcitonin thresholds were 89 and 90% for women, as opposed to 100% for men. To increase the positive predictive value for women to 100%, the respective calcitonin thresholds would have to be raised to 40 pg/ml (corrected 50 pg/ml) and 250 pg/ml. These findings indicate that gender-specific calcitonin thresholds predict sporadic occult medullary thyroid cancer better than unisex thresholds.

  12. Dual malignancy in adolescence: A rare case report of metachronous papillary carcinoma of thyroid following dysgerminoma of ovary

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Suvadip; Desai, Sanjay M.; Mehta, Dharmendra Y.; Somanath, Shreyas

    2016-01-01

    Dual malignancy is rare in adolescents. Dual malignancy with the second malignancy of thyroid is rare. No association has been reported between dysgerminoma of ovary and carcinoma thyroid in medical literature. Despite a thorough PubMed search (key words — Papillary carcinoma of thyroid, metachronous, dysgerminoma ovary), we were unable to find a previous reported case of metachronous papillary carcinoma of thyroid (PTC) following dysgerminoma of the ovary. After surgery, the patient is being regularly followed up for recurrence/development of new primary. We report this unusual and rare case in a 17-year-old female patient. PMID:27904567

  13. Long-term follow-up of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas with bone metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Szu-Tah; Hsueh, Chuen; Li, Chia-Lin; Chao, Tzu-Chieh

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas with bone metastasis in various clinical presentations and to determine the prognostic factors after multimodality treatment. A retrospective analysis was performed of 3,120 patients with papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma. Of these patients, 131 (including 97 women, 71.8%) were diagnosed with bone metastasis and underwent follow-up at the Chang Gung Medical Center. Patients with bone metastasis were categorized into two groups. Group A was comprised of patients who were diagnosed with bone metastasis either before thyroidectomy or within 6 months of the initial thyroidectomy (90 patients, 68.7%). Group B was comprised of patients with bone metastasis who received a diagnosis 6 months post-thyroidectomy in the follow-up period (41 patients, 31.3%). After a mean follow-up period of 8.4 ± 7.0 years, there were 88 deaths (67.2%) attributed to thyroid cancer and 13 patients (9.9%) achieved disease-free status. A multivariate analysis showed that older age, early diagnosis, and brain metastasis were each associated with a poor prognosis. The difference in disease-specific mortality rates between groups A and B was significant (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, papillary and follicular thyroid cancers with bone metastasis have a high rate of mortality. Despite this high mortality, 9.9% patients still had an excellent response to treatment. PMID:28278295

  14. Cribriform variant papillary thyroid cancer: a characteristic of familial adenomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Fenton, P A; Clarke, S E; Owen, W; Hibbert, J; Hodgson, S V

    2001-02-01

    Inherited cancer syndromes may predispose to more than one type of cancer, and these characteristically develop at an earlier age than their sporadic counterparts. The occurrence in a single individual of multiple, early onset primary cancers may indicate an inherited cancer susceptibility. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), an autosomal, dominantly inherited susceptibility to colorectal adenomas and cancer also predisposes to childhood medulloblastomas and to a specific rare histologic type (cribriform variant) of papillary thyroid cancer. We describe a patient who developed a childhood medulloblastoma of the cerebellum, and subsequently a cribriform papillary thyroid cancer. These cancers predated the diagnosis of FAP in this patient, who was later found to have several relatives with FAP. The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutation delineated in this family was in the region associated with those causing an increased risk of thyroid cancer. We submit that the diagnosis of the cribriform variant of papillary thyroid cancer in a young individual, especially after a previous cancer diagnosis, should alert the physician to the possibility of a diagnosis of FAP.

  15. A case of papillary carcinoma in a thyroglossal cyst without a carcinoma in the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Yavuz; Albayrak, Fatih; Kaya, Zülküf; Kabalar, Esref; Aylu, Belkiz

    2011-01-01

    The thyroglossal duct cyst is the most common developmental anomaly of the thyroid gland. We present a patient with a papillary thyroid carcinoma diagnosed after surgical resection of a thyroglossal cyst. The 39-year-old patient reported to our hospital due to a swelling of this throat. The results of the ultrasonography were reported as showing multiple nodules in both thyroid lobes, and an ~3-cm diameter image in the submental area, in keeping with lymphadenomegalia. In the fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) evaluation from the nodules in the thyroid, it was observed that the thyrocites with uniform nuclei made up single-layer groups. FNAC from the thyroglossal cyst, a few histiocytes were observed on a ground with a large number of erythrocytes. The patient was subjected to a total thyroidectomy, pyramidal lobe excision, and total excision of the 3-cm diameter soft mass, starting at the tip of the pyramidal lobe. The case was diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma in thyroglossal duct cyst with histopathological and immunohistochemical findings. If the thyroglossal channel cyst had been diagnosed preoperatively, total thyroidectomy and a Sistrunk operation would have been performed. For this reason, repeated FNAC, particularly, if performed under ultrasound guidance, may improve the diagnostic value of FNAC. Thus, in such patients, throat ultrasonography must be carried out in expert hands, thin-needle aspiration biopsy, computerized tomography, and thyroid scintigraphy must be done if necessary, and the necessary treatment protocols carried out after a definite diagnosis. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Combined effect of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and BRAF(V600E) mutation status on aggressiveness in papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-jin; Myong, Jun Pyo; Jee, Hyeon-Gun; Chai, Young Jun; Choi, June Young; Min, Hye Sook; Lee, Kyu Eun; Youn, Yeo-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and BRAF(V600E) mutation status in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and to determine their combined association with tumor aggressiveness in PTC. A total of 1780 patients with PTC who underwent surgery were enrolled in this study. Simple and multiple analyses were performed to determine the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and the BRAF(V600E) mutation in PTC. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was present in 11.5% of patients (204/1780) with PTC. Multiple logistic regressions showed that BRAF(V600E) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.493; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.360-0.678) and the female sex (OR = 7.146; 95% CI = 3.408-18.347) were independent factors associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in PTC. BRAF(V600E) mutation and the Hashimoto's thyroiditis-negative PTC group were associated with aggressive disease (OR = 3.069; 95% CI = 1.654-5.916). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was associated less frequently with BRAF(V600E) , and frequently with the female sex in patients with PTC. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and BRAF(V600E) status may help to predict clinical outcome of PTC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Intermediate microRNA expression profile in Graves' disease falls between that of normal thyroid tissue and papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Matthias; Grabellus, Florian; Worm, Karl; Arnold, Georg; Walz, Martin; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Sheu-Grabellus, Sien-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have previously reported a higher prevalence of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) in patients with Graves' disease (GD). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that are upregulated in PTC compared with benign thyroid tissue. The objective of the study was to examine the miRNA expression of selected miRNAs that are known to be upregulated in PTC in patients with GD. Paraffin embedded thyroid tissue from 159 patients with GD was screened for expression of the miRNAs 146b, 181b, 21, 221 and 222 by RT-PCR. The expression profiles of four normal thyroids, 50 PTCs without concomitant GD and 11 patients with untreated GD served as the controls. The expression pattern of these miRNAs in patients with GD is intermediate between that of benign thyroid tissue (p<0.001) and PTC (in three out of five miRNAs, p<0.001). This corresponds to a 15-fold change for GD versus PTC, and a 31-fold change for GD versus normal thyroid tissue. The miRNA expression in 11 papillary microcarcinomas found in our study (a prevalence of 0.07) was not different from that in PTC samples from patients without GD for four of five miRNA types. Furthermore, we found a significant difference in the expression of miRNA 221/222 between treated and untreated GD tissue. In conclusion, we found an intermediate expression of specific miRNAs in thyroid tissue from patients with GD that fell between the expression levels found in normal thyroid glands and PTC, which suggests a possible influence of certain miRNAs on developing PTC in patients with GD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Significance of postoperative serum thyroglobulin levels in patients with papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jen-Der; Huang, Miau-Ju; Hsu, Brend Ray-Sea; Chao, Tzu-Chieh; Hsueh, Chuen; Liu, Feng-Hsuan; Liou, Miaw-Jene; Weng, Hsiao-Fen

    2002-05-01

    Although there are many factors that affect postoperative serum levels of thyroglobulin (Tg), such levels have been previously used to detect recurrence of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas. This study was conducted to elucidate the significance of postoperative levels of Tg in patients with clinical presentations of papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular thyroid carcinomas, or both. To collect data pertaining to patients with thyroid cancer who were treated in Chang Gung Medical Center in Linkou, Taiwan, records relating to a total of 847 patients with pathologically verified papillary or follicular thyroid cancer, all of whom received total thyroidectomy and thyroid remnant ablation with radioactive iodide ((131)I), were studied. To evaluate the clinical significance of postoperative levels of Tg, the patients were categorized into three groups based on postoperative Tg level. Group A was classified as those demonstrating a 1-month postoperative Tg levels less than 1 ng/ml. Group B patients were classified as those displaying a 1-month postoperative Tg levels greater than or equal to 1 ng/ml, but less than 10 ng/ml. Group C patients were classified as those exhibiting a 1-month postoperative Tg levels great than or equal to 10 ng/ml. Of the patients in group A, none presented with distant metastases at the time of diagnosis or during the follow-up period. In group B, 15 patients (3.5%) died of thyroid cancer. In this group, tumor size was an important factor in cancer-related mortality, diagnostic clinical class, and follow-up status. Of the 491 patients in group C, 49 (10.0%) patients died of thyroid cancer. Among the patients in group C, age, histopathologic type, stage of diagnosis, and follow-up Tg values were important factors. Among groups A, B, and C, there were 161 (95.8%), 253 (76.4%), and 129 (37.1%) patients, respectively, with disease-free status at the end of 1998. Postoperative serum Tg levels can be used as a prognostic indicator in

  19. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma co-exists with Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Is strain elastography still useful?

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Wang, Yan; Wu, Qiong; Hu, Bing

    2016-05-01

    To study the performance of strain elastography in differentiating papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) combined with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), conventional ultrasound scan (US) and strain elastography (SE) were performed on 558 nodules smaller than 10 mm by one examiner before surgeries. Serum concentrations of thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) (normal range: 0-60 U/ml) were measured. Continuous variables were analyzed by independent t test. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was applied to calculate the cut-off values of strain ratio (SR) and elastography score (ES). The comparison of AUCs is performed by Z test. 482 nodules were diagnosed as PTMC and there were 181 nodules co-existed with HT. SR measurements were lower in PTMC co-existed with HT when comparing to those without HT. (7.292±6.581 vs 11.319±13.155, p<0.000). Taking the data from all of the 558 nodules, the best cut-off of diagnosing PTMC was SR>2.58. When taking the data from 181 PTMC with HT, the best cut-off was SR>2.10. The diagnostic value of SR>2.1 were higher than ES>3, conventional US and combining US and SE (z=3.595, 4.876, 4.420, p<0.001), but cut-off of SR>2.1 did not show significant enhancement of diagnostic value compared to SR>2.58 (z=0.439, p=0.8903>0.001) in PTMC with HT. There is a negative relation between SR and titer of TPO-Ab (r=-0.650, p<0.0001). PTMC with high TPO-Ab (>1000) titer presented lower SR (5.972±4.118 vs 8.379±9.172, p=0.009). Although SR measurements were lower in nodules co-existed with HT when comparing those without HT, using a regular ES and cut-off of SR measurement would not influence the diagnosing performance. SE is still very useful for diagnosing PTMC with HT. PTMC with high TPO-Ab titer might require a lower cut-off of SR.

  20. Mouse Models of Follicular and Papillary Thyroid Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Marika A.; Arciuch, Valeria G. Antico; Di Cristofano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    A significant number of well-differentiated thyroid cancers progress or recur, becoming resistant to current therapeutic options. Mouse models recapitulating the genetic and histological features of advanced thyroid cancer have been an invaluable tool to dissect the mechanisms involved in the progression from indolent, well differentiated tumors to aggressive, poorly differentiated carcinomas, and to identify novel therapeutic targets. In this review, we focus on the lessons learned from models of epithelial cell-derived thyroid cancer showing progression from hyperplastic lesions to locally invasive and metastatic carcinomas. PMID:22654848

  1. Papillary and follicular thyroid cancer: impact of treatment in 1578 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, W.J.; Panzarella, T.; Carruthers, J.S.; Gospodarowicz, M.K.; Sutcliffe, S.B.

    1988-06-01

    We report the experience from 13 Canadian radiotherapy centers concerning the treatment and outcome for 1074 papillary and 504 follicular thyroid cancer patients followed for 4-24 years. Surgical resection was carried out in almost all patients; there was no correlation between the type of operation and recurrence or survival. Treatment with external irradiation (201 patients) radioiodine (214 patients), or both (107 patients) was used more often in poor prognosis patients than in those with good prognostic factors, and was effective in reducing local recurrences and improving survival, especially in patients with microscopic residual disease postoperatively. Treatment complications were common but rarely fatal. Thyroid cancer was the cause of death in over half of the papillary cancer deaths and in two-thirds of the follicular cancer deaths.

  2. Utility of Surgeon-Performed Ultrasound Assessment of the Lateral Neck for Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cortney Y.; Snyder, Samuel K.; Lairmore, Terry C.; Dupont, Sean C.; Jupiter, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound is the recommended staging modality for papillary thyroid cancer. Surgeons proficient in US assessment of the neck and experienced in the management of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) appear uniquely qualified to assess the lateral cervical lymph nodes for metastatic disease. Of 310 patients treated for PTC between 2000 and 2008, 109 underwent surgeon-performed ultrasound (SUS) of the lateral neck preoperatively. Fine needle aspiration was performed on suspicious lateral lymph nodes. SUS findings were compared with FNA cytology and results of postoperative imaging studies. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of SUS were 88% and 97%, respectively. Four patients were found to have missed metastatic disease within 6 months. No patient underwent a nontherapeutic neck dissection. SUS combined with US-guided FNA of suspicious lymph nodes can accurately stage PTC to reliably direct surgical management. PMID:22291704

  3. [Case of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland with concurrent tuberculous lymphadenitis].

    PubMed

    Ishinaga, Hajime; Hamaguchi, Noriko; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Miyamura, Tomotaka; Nakamura, Satoshi; Otsu, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2013-12-01

    We report a case of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland and cervical lymph node metastases with concurrent tuberculous lymphadenitis that was diagnosed preoperatively. A 35-year-old woman presented with multiple lymph node swellings and an anterior neck mass. No findings suggesting the coexistence of pulmonary tuberculosis were present. The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy with bilateral neck dissection together with medication. Measures to prevent tuberculosis were undertaken during the perioperative period. The histopathological diagnosis was papillary carcinoma with both metastatic and tuberculous lymphadenitis of the lymph nodes in the neck. The possible coexistence of tuberculous lymphadenitis must be ruled out when lymph node swellings are observed in patients with head and neck cancer, including thyroid carcinoma.

  4. An unusual manifestation: Papillary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with ataxia-telengiectasia.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Ezgi; Edeer-Karaca, Neslihan; Özen, Samim; Ertan, Yeşim; Gökşen, Damla; Aksu, Güzide; Darcan, Şükran; Kütükçüler, Necil

    2016-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare autosomal recessive, multisystem, neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by oculocutaneous telangiectasias, variable immunodeficiency and progressive neurological impairment. Definitive diagnosis is made by revealing a disease causing mutation on ATM gene. Missense mutations and polymorphisms of ATM gene can play a role in the development of thyroid papillary carcinoma. A 13-year-old Turkish girl was diagnosed with ataxia telengiectasia at the age of 8 years. When she was 12 years old, multi-nodular goiter was detected by physical examination and ultrasonography. She underwent thyroidectomy and histopathologic investigation revealed a papillary carcinoma with follicular variant. The patient received post-operative radioiodine therapy as well as L-thyroxine treatment because she had residual lesions. Up until now, she is the first Turkish child wit A-T and thyroid carcinoma described in the literature.

  5. Recalcitrant hypocalcemia in a lactating woman after total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lassig, Amy Anne D; Donatelli, Paul E; Teknos, Theodoros N

    2011-06-01

    The risk of hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy is well-described in the literature. Recalcitrant hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy in a lactating woman is uncommon and may require multiple strategies to correct. We present a case report of a lactating woman with papillary thyroid carcinoma requiring total thyroidectomy and neck dissections. Postoperatively the patient suffered from recalcitrant hypocalcemia which necessitated multiple medical maneuvers to rectify. The medical treatment required to correct the calcium levels is described herein. With the incidence of thyroid cancer on the rise and the increased identification of thyroid lesions during pregnancy, the number of lactating women undergoing thyroidectomy will likely increase. Surgeons performing thyroid surgery in this patient population should be aware of the risk of severe hypocalcemia and the tools necessary to correct it. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Papillary thyroid carcinoma-like tumor of the kidney: a case report.

    PubMed

    Khoja, Hatim A; Almutawa, Abdulmonem; Binmahfooz, Ali; Aslam, Muhammad; Ghazi, Abdullah A; Almaiman, Sara

    2012-08-01

    Thyroid carcinoma-like tumor of the kidney is an extremely rare variant of renal cell carcinoma. Most previously reported cases were incidental finding; and none of them showed papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) nuclear features. This study reports the first case of PTC (follicular variant)-like tumor of the kidney in which a female patient presented with hematuria, weight loss, and flank pain. Imaging studies revealed a left renal mass with enlarged hilar lymph nodes. Histologically, the renal tumor had a striking resemblance to follicular variant of PTC. However, no radiological abnormalities were found in the thyroid, mediastinum, or pelvis. Tumor cells were negative for thyroid markers (thyroglobulin and TTF1). According to the authors, this is the first case of PTC (follicular variant)-like tumor of the kidney.

  7. BRAF mutations in papillary thyroid carcinoma and emerging targeted therapies (review).

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Giulia Costanza; Candido, Saverio; Carbone, Maurizio; Raiti, Fabio; Colaianni, Valeria; Garozzo, Sebastiano; Cinà, Diana; McCubrey, James A; Libra, Massimo

    2012-10-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common histotype among the thyroid cancer types. Although PTC is a curable malignancy, many patients relapse after treatment. Thus, there is a need to identify novel factors involved in the pathogenesis of PTC that may be used as targets for new therapies. The MAPK pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of PTC. Therefore, in this review, we summarize the role of the BRAF V600E mutation in the development and progression of thyroid cancer. The cinical implication of this molecular abnormality is also discussed. It is evident that the detection of the BRAF V600E mutation is crucial in order to identify novel avenues for thyroid cancer treatment.

  8. Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma--an update of its clinicopathological features and molecular biology.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Suja; Gopalan, Vinod; Smith, Robert A; Lam, Alfred K-Y

    2015-04-01

    Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (DSVPTC) is an uncommon variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The aim of this review is to critically analyse the features of this entity. A search of the literature revealed 25 clinicopathological studies with in-depth analysis of features of DSVPTC. Overall, the prevalence of DSVPTC varies from 0.7-6.6% of all papillary thyroid carcinoma. Higher prevalence of DSVPTC was noted in paediatric patients and in patients affected by irradiation. DSVPTC tends to occur more frequently in women and in patients in the third decade of life. Macroscopically, DSVPTC can involve the thyroid gland extensively without forming a dominant mass. Microscopic examination of DSVPTC revealed extensive fibrosis, squamous metaplasia and numerous psammoma bodies. The latter pathological feature can aid in the pre-operative diagnosis of the entity by fine needle aspiration and ultrasound. Compared to conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma, DSVPTC had a higher incidence of lymph node metastases at presentation. Distant metastases were noted in approximately 5% of the cases. Patients with DSVPTC were recommended to be managed by aggressive treatment protocols. It is likely that as a result of this, the prognosis of the patients with DSVPTC was noted to be similar to conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma. Overall, cancer recurrence and cancer related mortality have been reported in 14% and 3%, respectively, of patients with DSVPTC. In immunohistochemical studies, DSVPTC showed different expression patterns of epithelial membrane antigen, galectin 3, cell adhesion molecules, p53 and p63 when compared to conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma. On genetic analysis, the occurrence of BRAF and RAS mutations are uncommon events in DSVPTC and activation of RET/PTC rearrangements are common. To conclude, DSVPTC has different clinical, pathological and molecular profiles when compared to conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  9. Unbalanced 5;16 translocation in a boy with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, M.; Maynard, S.; Sheldon, S.; Innis, J.

    1994-02-01

    This is the first reported case of an unbalanced chromosome rearrangement resulting in trisomy 5q35.5{r_arrow}qter and monosomy 16p 13.3{r_arrow}pter, in a boy with mental and growth retardation, minor anomalies, and a history of bilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma. This was the result of a familial balanced translocation. The clinical and cytogenetic manifestations of the case are presented and the possible role of the chromosomal rearrangement in the etiology of the thyroid carcinoma is discussed. 25 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Severe hyponatremia: a comorbidity with I131 therapy in a patient with papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaewput, Chalermrat; Pusuwan, Pawana

    2014-08-01

    Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients, especially in elderly patients, in which morbidity varies widely in severity. A 64-year-old Thai woman with papillary thyroid cancer who developed hypothyroid state after thyroid hormone withdrawal for preparation of 1-131 treatment, had severe hyponatremia within the day of 1-131 administration. It is possible that the combination of old age, hypothyroidism, severe nausea and vomiting, and inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) may all have precipitated the severe hyponatremia in the presented case.

  11. Therapeutic options in papillary thyroid carcinoma: current guidelines and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Scott, Emma; Learoyd, Diana; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J

    2016-11-01

    The treatment of papillary thyroid cancer is now based on individual patient risk and response to therapies. Molecular techniques are increasingly being used to risk stratify and to guide therapeutic decisions. There have been advances in the treatment of local disease through surgery or radioiodine. Directed techniques can target metastatic disease including bisphosphonates, radiofrequency ablation or radiotherapy. Systemic therapies such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors show great promise although such treatment must be individualized. Future therapies will target treating radioiodine refractory disease.

  12. Nativity and papillary thyroid cancer incidence rates among Hispanic women in California

    PubMed Central

    Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Chang, Ellen T.; Clarke, Christina A.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Rull, Rudolph P.; Quach, Thu; Gomez, Scarlett Lin

    2011-01-01

    Background Overall, the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer in Hispanic women residing in the United States (US) is similar to that of non-Hispanic white women. However, little is known as to whether rates in Hispanic women vary by nativity, which may influence exposure to important risk factors. Methods Nativity-specific incidence rates among Hispanic women were calculated for papillary thyroid cancer using data from the California Cancer Registry (CCR) for the period 1988–2004. For the 35% of cases for whom birthplace information was not available from the CCR, nativity was statistically imputed based on age at Social Security number issuance. Population estimates were extracted based on US Census data. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were also estimated. Results In young (age <55 years) Hispanic women, the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer among US-born (10.65 per 100,000) was significantly greater than that for foreign-born (6.67 per 100,000; IRR=1.60, 95% CI: 1.44–1.77). The opposite pattern was observed in older women. The age-specific patterns showed marked differences by nativity: among foreign-born, rates increased slowly until age 70 years, whereas, among US-born, incidence rates peaked during the reproductive years. Incidence rates increased over the study period in all subgroups. Conclusion Incidence rates of papillary thyroid cancer vary by nativity and age among Hispanic women residing in California. These patterns can provide insight for future etiologic investigations of modifiable risk factors for this increasingly common and understudied cancer. PMID:21692062

  13. An Unusual Association between Sweet's Syndrome and Metastatic Papillary Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jariwala, Sunit; Benson, Ariel; Patel, Payal; Friedman, Adam; Broadway, Kameelah

    2013-02-01

    Sweet's syndrome (SS), or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, is marked by fever, leukocytosis, and painful erythematous papules/plaques resulting from neutrophil migration and accumulation in the dermis. This condition has been associated with underlying hematologic as well as solid malignancies. We describe a unique case of SS in a patient with metastatic papillary follicular thyroid carcinoma and group A streptococcal pharyngitis. The distribution of the patient's SS rash was similar to the rash of neutrophilic dermatosis (pustular vasculitis) of the dorsal hands.

  14. Partial Thyroidectomy for Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma: Is Completion Total Thyroidectomy Indicated?

    PubMed

    Donatini, G; Castagnet, M; Desurmont, T; Rudolph, N; Othman, D; Kraimps, J L

    2016-03-01

    Total thyroidectomy is a well-established surgical approach for the management of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). However, the best surgical approach for papillary microcarcinoma is nowadays still debated. Both total thyroidectomy and simple lobectomy are used. We report the experience of a single University center in the treatment of thyroid microcarcinoma. A retrospective analysis on all patients who underwent thyroid surgery at our institution over a 24-year period (1991-2015) was performed. Patients were grouped according to whether they received total thyroidectomy (Group 1) or lobectomy (Group 2). Follow-up was made by routine clinical and ultrasound examination. Specific outcomes such as recurrence and need for reoperation as well as complications (transient vocal cord paralysis and hypocalcemia) were analyzed. During the study period 880 patients underwent surgery for PTC. Group 1 and 2 consisted, respectively, of 756 and 124 patients. A micro PTC (<10 mm) was present in 251 and 69 specimen of Group 1 and 2. No evidence of disease recurrence in the follow-up was reported in patients with microPTC in Group 1 and in 57 patients of Group 2. In the remaining 12 patients completion thyroidectomy was carried out due to ultrasound findings of contralateral nodules (10), lymphadenopathy (1), and capsular invasion (1). Five of these patients had a contralateral papillary carcinoma on final histopathologic examination. Thus recurrence rate for patients of Group 2 was 7.3%. Morbidity rates were, respectively, for Group 1 and 2: transient nerve palsy 81 and 5 (11 vs. 7.3%, p = ns), transient hypoparathyroidism (Calcium <2.00 mmol/L) 137 (18.6%) and 0 (p < 0.0001). Three of the 12 patients of Group 2 undergoing further surgery had a transient hypoparathyroidism. Thyroid lobectomy is an effective surgical strategy to manage papillary microcarcinomas with low complications. Routine completion thyroidectomy is not mandatory. Appropriate selection excluding high

  15. [Elevated stimulated thyroglobulin levels in the identification of persistent papillary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Jervis, Paola; González, Baldomero; Vargas, Guadalupe; Mercado, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    Persistence of papillary thyroid carcinoma is usually associated with elevated stimulated thyroglobulin levels. To evaluate the association between moderately elevated stimulated thyroglobulin levels and the persistence of papillary thyroid carcinoma one year after thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation. Out of a cohort of 97 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, we selected those with available stimulated thyroglobulin level measurements (in the absence of thyroglobulin antibodies) after one year of initial treatment with surgery and radioiodine. The subjects were stratified according to whether the stimulated thyroglobulin level was between 1-10 ng/ml or above 10 ng/ml. Twenty-seven patients were included in the study, 11 with a stimulated thyroglobulin level between 1-10 ng/ml, and 16 with values greater than 10 ng/ml. Median age and gender proportion was similar between both groups. As expected, median stimulated thyroglobulin levels were significantly greater in the second group (5.1 vs. 42 ng/ml; p < 0.001). A stratified analysis aiming at associating stimulated thyroglobulin levels with disease persistence yielded an overall risk of 0.58 (95% CI: 0.1-3.09; p = 0.52) for those subjects with levels between 1-10 ng/ml, while for those with levels > 10 ng/ml the overall risk was 1.71 (95% CI: 0.32-9.1; p = 0.52). The positive predictive value for a stimulated thyroglobulin level between 1-10 ng/ml was 64%. A moderately elevated stimulated thyroglobulin level is an uncertain predictor of papillary thyroid carcinoma persistence.

  16. A Case of Primary Mammary Analog Secretory Carcinoma (MASC) of the Thyroid Masquerading as Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Potentially More than a One Off.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, S; Shaheen, M; Olson, G; Barry, M; Wu, J; Bocklage, T

    2016-09-01

    We present the second reported mammary analog secretory carcinoma (MASC) apparently arising in the thyroid and propose a potential close relationship to ETV6-NTRK3 fusion papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient, a 36 year old woman, presented with a neck mass of 1 year's duration. Imaging studies showed a tumor involving most of the thyroid with enlarged regional lymph nodes. FNA biopsy yielded a diagnosis of "papillary thyroid carcinoma". Resection revealed a 4.5 cm infiltrative tumor. Final diagnosis was "papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) consistent with diffuse sclerosing variant" with positive lymph nodes (2+/4) and margins. Histologic features included mixed microcystic, solid, follicular and papillary architecture, prominent nucleoli, abundant nuclear grooves and rare nuclear pseudo-inclusions. Despite radioactive iodine, radiotherapy and multiagent chemotherapy, the patient progressed over 6 years with local recurrence and additional lymph node involvement finally developing widespread distant metastases. Prompted by the breast carcinoma-like histopathology of a metastasis, immunohistochemical staining was performed and revealed strong expression of GATA3 and mammaglobin with no reactivity for thyroglobulin or TTF-1. The original tumor was then tested and showed the same immunoprofile. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of an ETV6-NTRK3 fusion consistent with a diagnosis of MASC. Our patient's clinical, imaging and morphologic features remarkably mimicked papillary thyroid carcinoma. At the molecular level, the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion in this patient involved exons reported in the rare "papillary thyroid carcinoma" with this translocation. Given the immunophenotype of this case, it is possible that at least some ETV6-NTRK3 fusion positive PTC are actually MASC masquerading as papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  17. Lymph Node Metastases in Papillary and Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Are Independent of Intratumoral Lymphatic Vessel Density.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Filipe; Pereira, Sofia S; Mesquita, Marta; Morais, Tiago; Costa, Madalena M; Quelhas, Pedro; Lopes, Carlos; Monteiro, Mariana P; Leite, Valeriano

    2017-04-01

    Blood and lymph vessel invasion are well-recognized markers of tumor aggressiveness, as these are the routes that lead to metastases. Thyroid tumors, depending on the histological variant, tend to have distinctive biological behaviors and use different vascular routes to metastasize, yet the mechanisms underlying the metastatic process are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess how the lymph vessel density (LVD) in different histological types of thyroid tumors, and in their surrounding tissue, correlate with the presence of lymph node metastases (LNM) and tumor pathological features. Lymph vessels of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), of the classical (CVPTC, n = 50) and follicular variants (FVPTC, n = 18), and medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC, n = 34) were immunohistochemically stained against antigen D2-40. The stained area was quantified using a computerized morphometric analysis tool and correlated with the tumor pathological characteristics. LVD within all analyzed thyroid tumor subtypes was significantly lower than in the surrounding thyroid tissues (p < 0.001). Despite intratumoral LVD being significantly higher in CVPTC than in FVPTC, and peritumoral LVD being significantly higher in MTC than in PTC (p < 0.05), no correlations were found between LVD (either intratumoral or peritumoral) and the presence of lymph node metastasis. As no LVD differences were found amongst thyroid tumors with or without LNM, dissemination is more likely to depend on the tumor ability to invade the abundant lymph vessel network of the surrounding thyroid tissue than on the ability of the tumor to promote de novo lymphangiogenesis.

  18. Heterogeneous echogenicity of the thyroid parenchyma does not influence the detection of multi-focality in papillary thyroid carcinoma on preoperative ultrasound staging.

    PubMed

    Herh, Sun Jin; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Sung, Ji Min; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2014-05-01

    Heterogeneous echogenicity and micro-nodulations of diffuse thyroid disease on ultrasonography (US) might influence the diagnostic performance of pre-operative US staging, especially the detection of multi-focality. This study was designed to determine whether heterogeneous echogenicity of the thyroid parenchyma influences the diagnostic performance of US in the detection of multi-focality in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Between December 2010 and April 2011, 811 patients underwent pre-operative staging US for papillary thyroid carcinoma and surgery. Twelve radiologists performed the pre-operative US for T and N staging. Underlying parenchymal echogenicity and unilateral and bilateral multi-focality of the thyroid nodules were also evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of the underlying echogenicity of the thyroid gland. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of US with respect to underlying echogenicity, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were calculated and compared between the two groups. Among the 811 patients included, US revealed underlying heterogeneous echogenicity of the thyroid parenchyma in 204 (25.2%) and underlying homogeneous echogenicity of the thyroid parenchyma in 607 (74.8%). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the diagnostic performance of pre-operative staging US in predicting unilateral multi-focality and bilaterality. Underlying heterogeneous echogenicity in a thyroid gland with Hashimoto's thyroiditis does not significantly influence the detection of multi-focality in papillary thyroid cancer on pre-operative US staging.

  19. Risk factors for cervical lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vorasubin, Nopawan; Nguyen, Chau; Wang, Marilene

    2016-02-01

    A number of studies of predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma have been published. We conducted a systematic meta-analysis of some of these studies, and we present our findings herein. We searched the PubMed database and found 13 eligible studies and case series of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma that were published in the English-language literature from January 2001 through December 2012, and we analyzed their findings. The most commonly investigated tumor characteristics associated with lymph node metastasis were size, multifocality, capsular invasion, and lymphovascular invasion. With regard to the risk of developing lymph node metastasis, patients with larger tumors had a 1.93 greater chance (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36 to 2.73, p < 0.001), those with multifocal tumors had a 3.03 greater chance (95% CI: 2.05 to 4.47; p < 0.001), those with capsular invasion had a 4.13 greater chance (95% CI: 2.40 to 7.10; p < 0.001), and those with lymphovascular invasion had a 2.76 greater chance (95% CI: 1.50 to 5.07; p = 0.005). We conclude that patients with larger and/or multifocal papillary thyroid microcarcinomas and tumors associated with capsular or lymphovascular invasion have a significantly greater risk of developing lymph node metastasis.

  20. Apigenin induces autophagic cell death in human papillary thyroid carcinoma BCPAP cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Cheng, Xian; Gao, Yanyan; Zheng, Jie; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Guan, Haixia; Yu, Huixin; Sun, Zhen

    2015-11-01

    Apigenin, abundantly present in fruits and vegetables, is recognized as a flavonoid with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer properties. In this study, we first investigated the anti-neoplastic effects of apigenin on papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cell line BCPAP cells. Our results show that apigenin inhibited the viability of BCPAP cells in a dose-dependent manner. A large body of evidence demonstrates that autophagy contributes to cell death in certain contexts. In the present study, autophagy was induced by apigenin treatment in BCPAP cells, as evidenced by Beclin-1 accumulation, conversion of LC3 protein, p62 degradation as well as the significantly increased formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) compared to the control group. 3-MA, an autophagy inhibitor, rescued the cells from apigenin-induced cell death. Notably, apigenin enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and subsequent induction of significant DNA damage as monitored by the TUNEL assay. In addition, apigenin treatment caused a significant accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase via down-regulation of Cdc25C expression. Our findings reveal that apigenin inhibits papillary thyroid cancer cell viability by the stimulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, induction of DNA damage, leading to G2/M cell cycle arrest followed by autophagic cell death. Thus, our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying apigenin-mediated autophagic cell death and suggest apigenin as a potential chemotherapeutic agent which is able to fight against papillary thyroid cancer.

  1. Expression of ki67 in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuan; Jiang, Hong-Gang; Lu, Ning; Lu, Bo-Hao; Chen, Zhi-Heng

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the expression of Ki67 protein in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma(PTMC), and to analyze its clinical significance. Ki67 protein expression was evaluated in the tissues of 108 human PTMC and 50 other benign papillary hyperplasia of thyroid specimens using immunohistochemistry. The expression intensity of Ki67 in PTMC and benign papillary hyperplasia of thyroid specimens were 1.45±1.83% and 0.46±0.46%.The positive expression rates were 46.3% and 14%. There were significant differences between these two groups (p<0.01). There was no significant variation of the expression intensity and positive expression rates of Ki67 in PTMC with gender, age, position of the tumor and the level of TSH pre-operation (p>0.05), but these parameters varied with tumor size, invasion by membrane and cervical lymph node metastasis (p<0.05 or p<0.01). The expression of Ki67 in PTMC was related to tumor size, invasion by membrane and cervical lymph node metastasis, and could be the important indicator for judging clinical progress and estimating prognosis.

  2. Minimally-invasive endoscopically-assisted neck dissection for lateral cervical metastases of thyroid papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zongmin; Xu, Zhengang; Li, Zhengjiang; An, Changming; Liu, Jie; Zhu, Yiming; Ni, Song; Tang, Pingzhang; Sayan, Anna; Ilankovan, Velupillai

    2014-11-01

    Traditional open operations for lateral neck dissection in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma leave an unsightly scar. We report complete lateral neck dissection and thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma using an endoscopically-assisted approach through a small incision, and evaluate its feasibility and safety. Between March 2010 and January 2013, 6 patients with no definite metastases to the lymph nodes at levels II-IV, and 20 with definite metastases to the lymph nodes at levels II-V were selected. Thyroidectomy, dissection of the central compartment (level VI), and ipsilateral level II-IV and II-V neck dissections were done through a small incision in the neck. The steps of endoscopic lateral neck dissection were similar to those of conventional operations. The mean operating time for the whole procedure was 3.57 hours (range 2.5 - 5.0). It was successful in all patients and there were no serious complications or serious blood loss. A total of 21 patients had lymph node metastases in the central and lateral zones. The mean yield of lymph nodes was 38.6 (range 16-61). There was no evidence of residual or recurrent disease at follow-up, and the cosmetic result was excellent. Minimally invasive, video-assisted comprehensive neck dissection for metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma is feasible and safe, and has excellent cosmetic results. Further studies with a larger number of patients and long-term follow-up are needed to verify its oncological validity.

  3. MiR-9 and miR-21 as prognostic biomarkers for recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Sondermann, Adriana; Andreghetto, Flavia Maziero; Moulatlet, Ana Carolina Bernardini; da Silva Victor, Elivane; de Castro, Marilia Germanos; Nunes, Fábio Daumas; Brandão, Lenine Garcia; Severino, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Despite low mortality rates, nodal recurrence in papillary thyroid carcinoma occurs in up to 20 % of patients. Emerging evidences indicate that dysregulated microRNAs are implicated in the process of metastasis. In the present study, we investigated whether miR-9, miR-10b, miR-21 and miR-146b levels are predictive of papillary thyroid carcinoma recurrence. Using macro-dissection followed by quantitative real-time PCR, we measured miR-9, miR-10b, miR-21 and miR-146b expression levels in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of 66 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma categorized into two groups: the recurrent group (n = 19) and the non-recurrent group (n = 47). All patients underwent total thyroidectomy and were followed for at least 120 months after surgery to be considered recurrence-free. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed using the Cox proportional hazard model in order to identify associations between multiple clinical variables and microRNA expression levels and papillary thyroid carcinoma recurrence. MiR-9 and miR-21 expression levels were found to be significant prognostic factors for recurrence in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (HR = 1.48; 95 % CI 1.24-1.77, p < 0.001; and HR = 1.52; 95 % CI 1.18-1.94, p = 0.001; respectively). Multivariate analysis involving the expression level of miR-9 and miR-21 and various clinical parameters identified the expression of these microRNAs as independent prognostic factors for papillary thyroid cancer patients. In conclusion, our results support the potential clinical value of miR-9 and miR-21 as prognostic biomarkers for recurrence in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  4. Difference of the Nuclear Green Light Intensity between Papillary Carcinoma Cells Showing Clear Nuclei and Non-neoplastic Follicular Epithelia in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyekyung; Baek, Tae Hwa; Park, Meeja; Lee, Seung Yun; Son, Hyun Jin; Kang, Dong Wook; Kim, Joo Heon; Kim, Soo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background There is subjective disagreement regarding nuclear clearing in papillary thyroid carcinoma. In this study, using digital instruments, we were able to quantify many ambiguous pathologic features and use numeric data to express our findings. Methods We examined 30 papillary thyroid carcinomas. For each case, we selected representative cancer cells showing clear nuclei and surrounding non-neoplastic follicular epithelial cells and evaluated objective values of green light intensity (GLI) for quantitative analysis of nuclear clearing in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Results From 16,274 GLI values from 600 cancer cell nuclei and 13,752 GLI values from 596 non-neoplastic follicular epithelial nuclei, we found a high correlation of 94.9% between GLI and clear nuclei. GLI between the cancer group showing clear nuclei and non-neoplastic follicular epithelia was statistically significant. The overall average level of GLI in the cancer group was over two times higher than the non-neoplastic group despite a wide range of GLI. On a polygonal line graph, there was a fluctuating unique difference between both the cancer and non-neoplastic groups in each patient, which was comparable to the microscopic findings. Conclusions Nuclear GLI could be a useful factor for discriminating between carcinoma cells showing clear nuclei and non-neoplastic follicular epithelia in papillary thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27550048

  5. Difference of the Nuclear Green Light Intensity between Papillary Carcinoma Cells Showing Clear Nuclei and Non-neoplastic Follicular Epithelia in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyekyung; Baek, Tae Hwa; Park, Meeja; Lee, Seung Yun; Son, Hyun Jin; Kang, Dong Wook; Kim, Joo Heon; Kim, Soo Young

    2016-09-01

    There is subjective disagreement regarding nuclear clearing in papillary thyroid carcinoma. In this study, using digital instruments, we were able to quantify many ambiguous pathologic features and use numeric data to express our findings. We examined 30 papillary thyroid carcinomas. For each case, we selected representative cancer cells showing clear nuclei and surrounding non-neoplastic follicular epithelial cells and evaluated objective values of green light intensity (GLI) for quantitative analysis of nuclear clearing in papillary thyroid carcinoma. From 16,274 GLI values from 600 cancer cell nuclei and 13,752 GLI values from 596 non-neoplastic follicular epithelial nuclei, we found a high correlation of 94.9% between GLI and clear nuclei. GLI between the cancer group showing clear nuclei and non-neoplastic follicular epithelia was statistically significant. The overall average level of GLI in the cancer group was over two times higher than the non-neoplastic group despite a wide range of GLI. On a polygonal line graph, there was a fluctuating unique difference between both the cancer and non-neoplastic groups in each patient, which was comparable to the microscopic findings. Nuclear GLI could be a useful factor for discriminating between carcinoma cells showing clear nuclei and non-neoplastic follicular epithelia in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  6. Prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma in elderly patients after thyroid resection

    PubMed Central

    Chereau, Nathalie; Trésallet, Christophe; Noullet, Severine; Godiris-Petit, Gaelle; Tissier, Frederique; Leenhardt, Laurence; Menegaux, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The size of the elderly population and the incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in this group appear to be rapidly increasing, although published information based on more detailed older age groupings are lacking. This study aimed to determine the clinical features and outcomes of elderly patients in PTC. All consecutive patients who received surgery for PTC in our Department from 1978 to 2014 were included. We compared 3 patient groups: young (<65 years), older (65–75 years), and very old patients (>75 years). Total thyroidectomy was performed with lymph node (LN) dissection in most cases, and radioiodine therapy was administered as needed. A total of 3835 patients (3257 young patients, 450 older patients, and 128 very old patients) were identified. Very old patients were more likely to have advanced (III/IV) tumor, nodes, metastases (TNM) stage, greater tumor size, number of tumors, and extracapsular invasion compared with young and older patients. For the 2289 patients with LN dissection (60%), metastatic LNs were more frequent in the very old group (44%) than in the other groups (34% young and 33% older patients) (P = 0.01). Very old patients had more frequent distant metastases (5%) than the older (2%) and young groups (1%) (P < 0.001). The overall postoperative morbidity was not significantly different between the 3 age groups. Recurrence was documented in 202 (6.2%) young, 29 (6.4%) older, and 15 (11.7%) very old PTC patients (P = 0.04). The 5-year disease-free survival was 81.3% for very old, 92.9% for older, and 94.7% for young group (P < 0.001). Very old patients should be considered high-risk PTC patients and their therapeutic strategy may benefit from aggressive treatment. PMID:27893690

  7. Fine-needle aspiration of primary Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid gland, a potential mimic of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pusztaszeri, Marc P; Sauder, Kenan J; Cibas, Edmund S; Faquin, William C

    2013-01-01

    The clinical presentation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) as a primary solitary nodule in the thyroid gland is rare. As a result, there are few reports of its cytologic features in thyroid aspirates where it can pose a diagnostic pitfall. CASE AND CONCLUSION: To foster familiarity with its cytomorphology, we report the fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) findings of 3 specimens from 2 patients with LCH presenting as a solitary thyroid nodule. All aspirates contained numerous dispersed cells with prominent nuclear grooves, and the background showed a mixed pattern of chronic inflammation including scattered eosinophils. The aspirate from patient 1 raised a differential diagnosis that included chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and a thyroglossal duct cyst, while the aspirate from patient 2 was interpreted as 'suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma'. The diagnosis of LCH was confirmed in both patients after lobectomy and immunohistochemical studies that revealed positive reactivity for CD1a and S-100. LCH of the thyroid gland is rare and can pose significant diagnostic challenges, but increased familiarity with its characteristic cytomorphology can help in avoiding diagnostic pitfalls. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The Effect of Levothyroxine Discontinuation Timing on Postoperative Hypothyroidism after Hemithyroidectomy for Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ha, Tae Kwun; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Ha Kyoung; Baek, Jin Wook; Lee, Yoo Jin; Park, Young Mi; Kim, Do Hun; Jung, Soo Jin; Ahn, Ki Jung

    2016-01-01

    Objective. No previous studies regarding the appropriate timing of thyroid hormone discontinuation after hemithyroidectomy have been published. This study aimed to identify the appropriate timing for levothyroxine discontinuation after hemithyroidectomy among patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). Methods. This study retrospectively evaluated 304 patients who underwent ≥1 attempt to discontinue levothyroxine after hemithyroidectomy for treating PTMC between January 2008 and December 2013. Fifty-three patients were excluded because of preoperative hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, a history of thyroid hormone or antithyroid therapy, no available serological data, or a postoperative follow-up of <24 months. We evaluated the associations of successful levothyroxine discontinuation with patient age, sex, preoperative serological data, underlying thyroid gland histopathology, anteroposterior diameter of the residual thyroid gland, number of discontinuation attempts, and initial discontinuation timing. Results. Among the 251 included patients, 125 patients (49.8%) achieved successful levothyroxine discontinuation during the follow-up period after hemithyroidectomy. There was a significant difference in the outcomes for patients who underwent an initial discontinuation attempt at ≤3 months and ≥4 months after hemithyroidectomy (p < 0.001). There were significant differences in the discontinuation outcomes according to underlying thyroid histopathology (p = 0.001), preoperative thyroid-stimulating hormone levels (p < 0.001), and number of discontinuation attempts (p < 0.001). Conclusions. Among patients with PTMC, the initial levothyroxine discontinuation attempt is recommended at ≥4 months after hemithyroidectomy.

  9. Classification of locoregional lymph nodes in medullary and papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Musholt, T J

    2014-02-01

    Among the various thyroid malignancies, medullary and papillary thyroid carcinomas are characterized by predominant locoregional lymph node metastases that may cause morbidity and affect patient survival. Although lymph node metastases are frequently detected, the optimal strategy aiming at the removal of all tumor tissues while minimizing the associated surgical morbidity remains a matter of debate. A uniform consented terminology and classification is a precondition in order to compare results of the surgical treatment of thyroid carcinomas. While the broad distinction between central and lateral lymph node groups is generally accepted, the exact boundaries of these neck regions vary significantly in the literature. Four different classification systems are currently used. The classification system of the American Head and Neck Society and the corresponding classification system of the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) are based on observations of squamous cell carcinomas and appointed to needs of head and neck surgeons. The classification of the Japanese Society for Thyroid Diseases and the compartment classification acknowledge the distinctive pattern of metastasis in thyroid carcinomas. Comparison of four existing classification systems reveals underlying different treatment concepts. The compartment system meets the necessities of thyroid carcinomas and is used worldwide in studies describing the results of lymph node dissection. Therefore, the German Association of Endocrine Surgery has recommended using the latter system in their recently updated guidelines on thyroid carcinoma.

  10. The changing landscape of papillary thyroid cancer: Epidemiology, management, and the implications for patients.

    PubMed

    Lubitz, Carrie C; Sosa, Julie A

    2016-12-15

    The incidence of thyroid cancer has tripled over the past 3 decades, with the vast majority of the increase noted to be among small, indolent papillary thyroid carcinomas. Substantial overdiagnosis and potential overtreatment have led to a shift in clinical practice toward less aggressive approaches and a focus on improved risk stratification. This shift in practice may be associated with recent evidence suggesting that the increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer is slowing. Because patients are often young when they are diagnosed with thyroid cancer and because there is excellent long-term, disease-specific survival, there is an ever-growing population of survivors of thyroid cancer in the United States who accumulate substantial associated health care costs as they undergo surveillance and/or remedial treatment. Survivors of thyroid cancer can experience significant detriments to their quality of life and endure financial hardship. Future research should focus on the appropriateness of treatment as well as the financial and quality-of-life effects of thyroid cancer survivorship. Cancer 2016;122:3754-3759. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  11. Aurora kinase A induces papillary thyroid cancer lymph node metastasis by promoting cofilin-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Maimaiti, Yusufu; Jie, Tan; Jing, Zhou; Changwen, Wang; Pan, Yu; Chen, Chen; Tao, Huang

    2016-04-22

    Aurora-A (Aur-A), a member of the serine/threonine Aurora kinase family, plays an important role in ensuring genetic stability during cell division. Previous studies indicated that Aur-A possesses oncogenic activity and may be a valuable therapeutic target in cancer therapy. However, the role of Aur-A in the most common thyroid cancer, papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), remains largely unknown. In patients with PTC, cancer cell migration and invasion account for most of the metastasis, recurrence, and cancer-related deaths. Cofilin-1 (CFL-1) is the most important effector of actin polymerization and depolymerization, determining the direction of cell migration. Here, we assessed the correlation between Aur-A and CFL-1 in PTC with lymph node metastasis. Tissue microarray data showed that simultaneous overexpression of Aur-A and CFL-1 correlated with lymph node metastasis in thyroid cancer tissue. Inhibition of Aur-A suppressed thyroid cancer cell migration in vitro and decreased lymph node metastasis in nude mice. Importantly, Aur-A increased the non-phosphorylated, active form of CFL-1 in TPC-1 cells, thus promoting cancer cell migration and thyroid cancer lymph node metastasis. Our findings indicate that the combination of Aur-A and CFL-1 may be useful as a molecular prediction model for lymph node metastasis in thyroid cancer and raise the possibility of targeting Aur-A and CFL-1 for more effective treatment of thyroid cancer.

  12. The value of the repeated examination of BRAF V600E mutation status in diagnostics of papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Beiša, Augustas; Beiša, Virgilijus; Stoškus, Mindaugas; Ostanevičiūtė, Elvyra; Griškevičius, Laimonas; Strupas, Kęstutis

    2016-01-01

    Nodular thyroid disease is one of the most frequently diagnosed pathologies of the adult population in iodine-deficient regions. Approximately 30% of thyroid aspirates are classified as nondiagnostic/unsatisfactory or indeterminate. However, patients with indeterminate cytology still undergo surgery. The object of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of re-examining the BRAF V600E mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma patients. All patients underwent ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration of a thyroid nodule. They were assigned to one of the four groups (indeterminate or positive for malignant cells) of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. Genetic investigation of the BRAF V600E mutation was performed for all of the fine-needle aspiration cytology specimens. All of the patients underwent surgery. Subsequently, histological investigation of the removed tissues was performed. Additional analysis of the BRAF V600E mutation from the histology specimen was then performed for the initially BRAF-negative cases. Two hundred and fourteen patients were involved in the study. One hundred and six (49.53%) patients were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. Of these 106 patients, 95 (89.62%) patients were diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer. The BRAF V600E mutation was positive in 62 (65.26%) and negative in 33 (34.74%) histologically confirmed papillary thyroid cancer cases. After the genetic investigation, a total of 74 (77.89%) papillary thyroid cancer cases were positive for the BRAF V600E mutation and 21 (22.11%) were negative. Repeated examination of the BRAF V600E mutation status in the fine-needle aspiration may potentially increase the sensitivity of papillary thyroid cancer diagnostics.

  13. Gray-scale and color Doppler ultrasonographic manifestations of papillary thyroid carcinoma: analysis of 51 cases.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei-Hsin; Chiou, Hong-Jen; Chou, Yi-Hong; Hsu, Hui-Chen; Tiu, Chui-Mei; Cheng, Chang-Yen; Lee, Chen-Hsen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the specific ultrasonic characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma and to determine the relative frequency of various patterns of papillary carcinoma on gray-scale ultrasonography (US) and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU). We retrospectively reviewed US features in 51 patients with confirmed papillary thyroid carcinoma. The features were analyzed based on tumor size, echogenicity, echotexture, boundary, margin, shape, and calcification pattern on gray-scale US imaging, and on patterns of vascularity on CDU. We obtained the relative frequency of features and classified these features into three categories: common (> or =50% of lesions), less common (>10% but <50%), and uncommon (< or =10%). Individual differences and combinations of features were also analyzed. In total, 67 nodules were enrolled in our study. The sizes of 76% of nodular lesions were <20.0 mm. Common US features of papillary carcinoma included: a homogeneous hypoechoic solid picture; a poorly defined boundary; an irregular margin; the absence of halo; the absence of calcifications or microcalcifications; and mixed perinodular and intranodular blood flow patterns. Less common features included: a heterogeneous hypoechoic or very hypoechoic picture; microcalcifications; a well-defined boundary; a regular margin; a halo with uneven thickness or an incomplete halo; and a taller-than-wide shape. Uncommon features included: an isoechoic picture; solid with cystic components; coarse calcifications; mixed coarse calcifications and microcalcifications; "inferno"-type blood flow; and absence of blood flow. On average, each nodule had 4.9 US features considered common, 1.8 US features considered less common, and 0.4 US feature considered uncommon. Features such as predominantly cystic composition, hyperechoic texture, and hypoechoic halo with even thickness were never found in our study. The top two common manifestations of papillary carcinoma were solid

  14. Quercetin-Induced Cell Death in Human Papillary Thyroid Cancer (B-CPAP) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu Altundağ, Ergül; Kasacı, Tolga; Yılmaz, Ayşe Mine; Karademir, Betül; Koçtürk, Semra; Taga, Yavuz; Yalçın, A. Süha

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated the antiproliferative effect of quercetin on human papillary thyroid cancer cells and determined the apoptotic mechanisms underlying its actions. We have used different concentrations of quercetin to induce apoptosis and measured cell viability. Apoptosis and cell cycle analysis was determined by flow cytometry using Annexin V and propidium iodide. Finally, we have measured changes in caspase-3 and cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein expression levels as hallmarks of apoptosis and Hsp90 protein expression level as a marker of proteasome activity in treated and control cells. Quercetin treatment of human papillary thyroid cancer cells resulted in decreased cell proliferation and increased rate of apoptosis by caspase activation. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that quercetin induces cancer cell apoptosis by downregulating the levels of Hsp90. In conclusion, we have shown that quercetin induces downregulation of Hsp90 expression that may be involved in the decrease of chymotrypsin-like proteasome activity which, in order, induces inhibition of growth and causes cell death in thyroid cancer cells. Thus, quercetin appears to be a promising candidate drug for Hsp90 downregulation and apoptosis of thyroid cancer cells. PMID:27057371

  15. Non-invasive diagnosis of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma: a NMR-based metabolomics approach

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jinghui; Hu, Sanyuan; Miccoli, Paolo; Zeng, Qingdong; Liu, Shaozhuang; Ran, Lin; Hu, Chunxiao

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) is a subtype of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Because its diameter is less than 10 mm, diagnosing it accurately is difficult with traditional methods such as image examinations and FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration). Investigating the metabolic changes induced by PTMC may enhance the understanding of its pathogenesis and provide important information for a new diagnosis method and treatment plan. In this study, high resolution magic angle spin (HRMAS) spectroscopy and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy were used to screen metabolic changes in thyroid tissues and plasma from PTMC patients respectively. The results revealed reduced levels of fatty acids and elevated levels of several amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, lactate, serine, cystine, lysine, glutamine/glutamate, taurine, leucine, alanine, isoleucine and valine) in thyroid tissues, as well as reduced levels of amino acids such as valine, tyrosine, proline, lysine, leucine and elevated levels of glucose, mannose, pyruvate and 3-hydroxybutyrate in plasma, are involved in the metabolic alterations in PTMC. In addition, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve model for PTMC prediction was able to classify cases with good sensitivity and specificity using 9 significant changed metabolites in plasma. This work illustrates that the NMR-based metabolomics approach is capable of providing more sensitive diagnostic results and more systematic therapeutic information for PTMC. PMID:27835583

  16. Osteopontin-a splice variant is overexpressed in papillary thyroid carcinoma and modulates invasive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Luciana Bueno; Tavares, Catarina; Pestana, Ana; Pereira, Catarina Leite; Eloy, Catarina; Pinto, Marta Teixeira; Castro, Patricia; Batista, Rui; Rios, Elisabete; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Pereira Gimba, Etel Rodrigues; Soares, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a matricellular protein overexpressed in cancer cells and modulates tumorigenesis and metastasis, including in thyroid cancer (TC). The contribution of each OPN splice variant (OPN-SV), named OPNa, OPNb and OPNc, in TC is currently unknown. This study evaluates the expression of total OPN (tOPN) and OPN-SV in TC tissues and cell lines, their correlation with clinicopathological, molecular features and their functional roles. We showed that tOPN and OPNa are overexpressed in classic papillary thyroid carcinoma (cPTC) in relation to adjacent thyroid, adenoma and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (fvPTC) tissues. In cPTC, OPNa overexpression is associated with larger tumor size, vascular invasion, extrathyroid extension and BRAFV600E mutation. We found that TC cell lines overexpressing OPNa exhibited increased proliferation, migration, motility and in vivo invasion. Conditioned medium secreted from cells overexpressing OPNa induce MMP2 and MMP9 metalloproteinases activity. In summary, we described the expression pattern of OPN-SV in cPTC samples and the key role of OPNa expression on activating TC tumor progression features. Our findings highlight OPNa variant as TC biomarker, besides being a putative target for cPTC therapeutic approaches. PMID:27409830

  17. A case of coexistence of TSH/GH-secreting pituitary tumor and papillary thyroid carcinoma: Challenges in pathogenesis and management.

    PubMed

    Kiatpanabhikul, Phatharaporn; Shuangshoti, Shanop; Chantra, Kraisri; Navicharern, Patpong; Kingpetch, Kanaungnit; Houngngam, Natnicha; Snabboon, Thiti

    2017-03-06

    Co-existence of thyrotropin/growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma with differentiated thyroid carcinoma is exceedingly rare, with less than 15 cases having been reported. Its clinical presentation and treatment strategy are challenging. We report a case of pituitary macroadenoma, with clinical syndromes of acromegaly and hyperthyroidism, and a thyroid nodule, with cytologically confirmed to be a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Clinical implications, focusing on the strategy for proper management, and possible pathogenesis were discussed.

  18. Papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid gland and immunohistochemical analysis of expression of p53 protein in papillary microcarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Corapcioglu, Demet; Sak, Serpil D; Delibasi, Tuncay; Tonyukuk, Vedia; Kamel, Nuri; Uysal, Ali R; Kocak, Savas; Aydintug, Semih; Erdogan, Gurbuz

    2006-07-05

    Thyroid papillary microcarcinoma (TPM) is defined according to WHO criteria as a thyroid tumor smaller than 1-1.5 cm. TPMs are encountered in 0.5-35.6% of autopsies or surgical specimens where carcinoma had been unsuspected. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate patients who had TPMs in terms of clinical findings, histopathological features and immunohistochemical evidence of expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53. A total of 44 patients with TPMs less than 1.0 cm in diameter were included in the study. The patients were evaluated clinically and the tumors were evaluated in terms of their histopathological and immunohistochemical features, including expression of p53. The female/male ratio was 2.8/1, and the median age at time of diagnosis was 49 years (range 20-71 years). The maximum diameter of the smallest focus was 0.1 mm, and that of the largest was 10 mm microscopically. The mean diameter of all tumors was 5.7 mm. There was no correlation between tumor size and age or gender. Of the TPMs, 72% were found in the right lobe, 24% in the left lobe and 4% in the isthmus. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy provided the diagnosis of TPM in only 43.2% of the patients. All patients were treated with surgery, with 20 undergoing conservative surgery, i.e. lobectomy or isthmusectomy, and 24 undergoing total thyroidectomy. Frozen section provided the diagnosis of TPM in only 56.8% of the patients. We found lymphocytic thyroiditis in 13.6% of patients, follicular variants in 11.9%, capsular invasion in 26.8%, lymph node involvement in 11.9%, soft tissue metastases in the neck in 12.1% and multifocality in 31.7%, and none of these were related to age or gender (p > 0.05). No distant metastases were observed during approximately 10 years of follow up. We found p53 positivity in 34.5% of TPM tumors. However, p53 expression was not statistically related to age or gender. Our findings imply that TPMs may not be entirely innocent since they are associated with signs of

  19. Papillary microcarcinomas of the thyroid gland and immunohistochemical analysis of expression of p53 protein in papillary microcarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Corapcioglu, Demet; Sak, Serpil D; Delibasi, Tuncay; Tonyukuk, Vedia; Kamel, Nuri; Uysal, Ali R; Kocak, Savas; Aydintug, Semih; Erdogan, Gurbuz

    2006-01-01

    Background Thyroid papillary microcarcinoma (TPM) is defined according to WHO criteria as a thyroid tumor smaller than 1–1.5 cm. TPMs are encountered in 0.5–35.6 % of autopsies or surgical specimens where carcinoma had been unsuspected. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate patients who had TPMs in terms of clinical findings, histopathological features and immunohistochemical evidence of expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53. Methods A total of 44 patients with TPMs less than 1.0 cm in diameter were included in the study. The patients were evaluated clinically and the tumors were evaluated in terms of their histopathological and immunohistochemical features, including expression of p53. Results The female/male ratio was 2.8/1, and the median age at time of diagnosis was 49 years (range 20–71 years). The maximum diameter of the smallest focus was 0.1 mm, and that of the largest was 10 mm microscopically. The mean diameter of all tumors was 5.7 mm. There was no correlation between tumor size and age or gender. Of the TPMs, 72 % were found in the right lobe, 24 % in the left lobe and 4 % in the isthmus. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy provided the diagnosis of TPM in only 43.2 % of the patients. All patients were treated with surgery, with 20 undergoing conservative surgery, i.e. lobectomy or isthmusectomy, and 24 undergoing total thyroidectomy. Frozen section provided the diagnosis of TPM in only 56.8 % of the patients. We found lymphocytic thyroiditis in 13.6% of patients, follicular variants in 11.9%, capsular invasion in 26.8%, lymph node involvement in 11.9%, soft tissue metastases in the neck in 12.1% and multifocality in 31.7 %, and none of these were related to age or gender (p > 0.05). No distant metastases were observed during approximately 10 years of follow up. We found p53 positivity in 34.5 % of TPM tumors. However, p53 expression was not statistically related to age or gender. Conclusion Our findings imply that TPMs may not be

  20. Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Expression in Papillary Thyroid Cancer Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Modulates Cancer Cell Growth and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Parascandolo, Alessia; Rappa, Francesca; Cappello, Francesco; Kim, Jaehyup; Cantu, David A.; Chen, Herbert; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Hematti, Peiman; Castellone, Maria Domenica; Salvatore, Marco; Laukkanen, Mikko O.

    2017-01-01

    Tumor stroma-secreted growth factors, cytokines, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) influence tumor development from early stages to the metastasis phase. Previous studies have demonstrated downregulation of ROS-producing extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) in thyroid cancer cell lines although according to recent data, the expression of SOD3 at physiological levels stimulates normal and cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, to analyze the expression of SOD3 in tumor stroma, we characterized stromal cells from the thyroid. We report mutually exclusive desmoplasia and inflammation in papillary and follicular thyroid cancers and the presence of multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) in non-carcinogenic thyroids and papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The phenotypic and differentiation characteristics of Thyroid MSCs and PTC MSCs were comparable with bone marrow MSCs. A molecular level analysis showed increased FIBROBLAST ACTIVATING PROTEIN, COLLAGEN 1 TYPE A1, TENASCIN, and SOD3 expression in PTC MSCs compared to Thyroid MSCs, suggesting the presence of MSCs with a fibrotic fingerprint in papillary thyroid cancer tumors and the autocrine-paracrine conversion of SOD3 expression, which was enhanced by cancer cells. Stromal SOD3 had a stimulatory effect on cancer cell growth and an inhibitory effect on cancer cell migration, thus indicating that SOD3 might be a novel player in thyroid tumor stroma. PMID:28216675

  1. Tumor location-dependent skip lateral cervical lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon Se; Shin, Sung-Chan; Lim, Yun-Sung; Lee, Jin-Choon; Wang, Soo-Geun; Son, Seok-Man; Kim, In-Ju; Lee, Byung-Joo

    2014-06-01

    Lateral cervical lymph node metastasis without central lymph node (CLN) metastasis is not infrequent in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). This study was designed to investigate the frequency and pattern of skip metastasis in PTC. We reviewed 131 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with CLN dissection and selective lymph node dissection. Tumor location was classified in 3 areas (upper, middle, and lower third) based on preoperative ultrasonographic findings. All skip metastases occurred in patients whose tumors had been on the upper part of the thyroid (p < .001). Among 9 patients with skip metastasis, level III lymph nodes (66.7%) were the lymph nodes that were most frequently involved in skip metastasis. Primary tumors in the upper portion of the thyroid are closely linked to skip metastasis. Careful preoperative evaluation of lateral cervical lymph nodes is suggested when a tumor is in the upper portion. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Computer assisted detection and analysis of tall cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma in histological images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Edward; Baloch, Zubair; Kim, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    The number of new cases of thyroid cancer are dramatically increasing as incidences of this cancer have more than doubled since the early 1970s. Tall cell variant (TCV-PTC) papillary thyroid carcinoma is one type of thyroid cancer that is more aggressive and usually associated with higher local recurrence and distant metastasis. This variant can be identified through visual characteristics of cells in histological images. Thus, we created a fully automatic algorithm that is able to segment cells using a multi-stage approach. Our method learns the statistical characteristics of nuclei and cells during the segmentation process and utilizes this information for a more accurate result. Furthermore, we are able to analyze the detected regions and extract characteristic cell data that can be used to assist in clinical diagnosis.

  3. Overexpression of NOTCH-regulated Ankyrin Repeat Protein is associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingdi; Qin, Yiyu; Zuo, Bin; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Shenglai; Gong, Yurong; Quan, Zhiwei; Chu, Bingfeng

    2017-01-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is one of the endocrine cancers with high clinical and genetic heterogeneity. NOTCH signaling and its downstream NOTCH-Regulated Ankyrin Repeat Protein (NRARP) have been implicated in oncogenesis of many cancers, but the roles in PTCs are less studied. In this study, we show that NRARP is frequently over-expressed in thyroid carcinoma. The over-activation of NRARP is highly and positively correlated with NOTCH genes. Moreover, we find that the expression of NRARP is highly associated with several epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and contributes to poor survival outcomes. Therefore, these results indicate that NRARP is an important clinical biomarker in thyroid carcinoma and it promotes EMT induction as well as the progression of PTCs via NOTCH signaling activation. PMID:28207739

  4. Occult Candida thyroid abscess diagnosed by gallium-67 scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Bach, M.C.; Blattner, S. )

    1990-06-01

    A clinically silent fungal thyroid abscess was identified by Ga-67 citrate scanning and successfully drained surgically in a young leukemic patient. Whole-body radionuclide scanning remains a valuable method to help diagnose persistent fever in the immunocompromised host.

  5. Application of a cervical low incision in the functional neck dissection of thyroid papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiajie; Chen, Chao; Zheng, Chuanming; Wang, Kejing; Shang, Jinbiao; Fang, Xianhua; Ge, Minghua; Tan, Zhuo

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to discuss the advantage of the application of a cervical low incision for functional neck dissection in patients with thyroid papillary carcinoma. The study was a retrospective analysis of 87 thyroid papillary carcinoma patients; cervical low incision in the functional neck dissection was applied for 47 cases and the classic 'L' incision was applied for 40 cases. The different integrity, surgical time, blood loss and the aesthetic property of the incision were compared between the cervical low incision and the classic 'L' incision for lateral neck dissection of thyroid cancer. The postoperative pathological diagnosis was that the average total amount and the region II lymph nodes of the unilateral neck dissection were 33 and 10 for the cervical low incision group, and 32 and 11 for the classic 'L' incision group, respectively (P>0.05). The average unilateral neck dissection times were 87 and 58 min for the cervical low incision group and the classic 'L' incision group, respectively (P<0.05). The blood loss of the cervical low incision group was 67 ml, while the loss for the classic 'L' incision group was 61 ml (P>0.05). The postoperative incision of the cervical low incision group was smaller and more concealing. Additionally, the cosmetic deformities were milder for an inconspicuous cervical scar, and the sensation was improved for the patients in comparison with the classic 'L' incision group. These results suggest that the application of cervical low incision for functional neck dissection in thyroid papillary carcinoma patients aids in reducing postoperative complications, without increasing recurrence rates. Therefore, the classic 'L' incision can be replaced by the cervical low incision.

  6. MicroRNA deep-sequencing reveals master regulators of follicular and papillary thyroid tumors.

    PubMed

    Mancikova, Veronika; Castelblanco, Esmeralda; Pineiro-Yanez, Elena; Perales-Paton, Javier; de Cubas, Aguirre A; Inglada-Perez, Lucia; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Capel, Ismael; Bella, Maria; Lerma, Enrique; Riesco-Eizaguirre, Garcilaso; Santisteban, Pilar; Maravall, Francisco; Mauricio, Didac; Al-Shahrour, Fatima; Robledo, Mercedes

    2015-06-01

    MicroRNA deregulation could be a crucial event in thyroid carcinogenesis. However, current knowledge is based on studies that have used inherently biased methods. Thus, we aimed to define in an unbiased way a list of deregulated microRNAs in well-differentiated thyroid cancer in order to identify diagnostic and prognostic markers. We performed a microRNA deep-sequencing study using the largest well-differentiated thyroid tumor collection reported to date, comprising 127 molecularly characterized tumors with follicular or papillary patterns of growth and available clinical follow-up data, and 17 normal tissue samples. Furthermore, we integrated microRNA and gene expression data for the same tumors to propose targets for the novel molecules identified. Two main microRNA expression profiles were identified: one common for follicular-pattern tumors, and a second for papillary tumors. Follicular tumors showed a notable overexpression of several members of miR-515 family, and downregulation of the novel microRNA miR-1247. Among papillary tumors, top upregulated microRNAs were miR-146b and the miR-221~222 cluster, while miR-1179 was downregulated. BRAF-positive samples displayed extreme downregulation of miR-7 and -204. The identification of the predicted targets for the novel molecules gave insights into the proliferative potential of the transformed follicular cell. Finally, by integrating clinical follow-up information with microRNA expression, we propose a prediction model for disease relapse based on expression of two miRNAs (miR-192 and let-7a) and several other clinicopathological features. This comprehensive study complements the existing knowledge about deregulated microRNAs in the development of well-differentiated thyroid cancer and identifies novel markers associated with recurrence-free survival.

  7. Application of a cervical low incision in the functional neck dissection of thyroid papillary carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    XU, JIAJIE; CHEN, CHAO; ZHENG, CHUANMING; WANG, KEJING; SHANG, JINBIAO; FANG, XIANHUA; GE, MINGHUA; TAN, ZHUO

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to discuss the advantage of the application of a cervical low incision for functional neck dissection in patients with thyroid papillary carcinoma. The study was a retrospective analysis of 87 thyroid papillary carcinoma patients; cervical low incision in the functional neck dissection was applied for 47 cases and the classic ‘L’ incision was applied for 40 cases. The different integrity, surgical time, blood loss and the aesthetic property of the incision were compared between the cervical low incision and the classic ‘L’ incision for lateral neck dissection of thyroid cancer. The postoperative pathological diagnosis was that the average total amount and the region II lymph nodes of the unilateral neck dissection were 33 and 10 for the cervical low incision group, and 32 and 11 for the classic ‘L’ incision group, respectively (P>0.05). The average unilateral neck dissection times were 87 and 58 min for the cervical low incision group and the classic ‘L’ incision group, respectively (P<0.05). The blood loss of the cervical low incision group was 67 ml, while the loss for the classic ‘L’ incision group was 61 ml (P>0.05). The postoperative incision of the cervical low incision group was smaller and more concealing. Additionally, the cosmetic deformities were milder for an inconspicuous cervical scar, and the sensation was improved for the patients in comparison with the classic ‘L’ incision group. These results suggest that the application of cervical low incision for functional neck dissection in thyroid papillary carcinoma patients aids in reducing postoperative complications, without increasing recurrence rates. Therefore, the classic ‘L’ incision can be replaced by the cervical low incision. PMID:27073645

  8. Early detection of biochemically occult autonomous thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Brusca, N; Virili, C; Cellini, M; Capriello, S; Gargano, L; Salvatori, R; Centanni, M; Santaguida, M G

    2016-12-01

    Autonomously functioning thyroid areas may be associated with subclinical or overt hyperthyroidism, but may exist even in the presence of normal TSH. This study was aimed at comparing the rate of autonomously functioning areas and their cardiac sequelae in patients with nodular goitre studied with the usual and a novel approach. In total 490 adult outpatients with thyroid nodular goitre, living in a mild iodine-deficient area, were selected in our referral centre for thyroid diseases from 2009 to 2014 on the basis of a suspicion of thyroid functional autonomy. They were divided in three groups according to a non-conventional approach (excessive response to thyroxine treatment: group 1) or conventional approach (low/normal TSH with clinical suspicion or low TSH: groups 2 and 3). All patients of the study with the suspicion of thyroid functional autonomy underwent thyroid scan with radioactive iodine (I(131)) uptake (RAIU). The percentage of confirmed thyroid functional autonomy was 319/490, being significantly higher in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2 (81.5 vs 64.7 vs 52.6%; chi-square P < 0.0001). However, the diagnosis with non-conventional approach was made at a significant earlier age (P < 0.0001). Cardiac arrhythmias as well as atrial fibrillation were similarly detected by conventional and non-conventional approaches (chi-square test: P = 0.2537; P = 0.8425). The hyper-responsiveness to thyroxine treatment should induce the suspicion of thyroid functional autonomy at an early stage, allowing to detect autonomous functioning areas in apparently euthyroid patients. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  9. Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features: An Evidence-Based Nomenclature Change.

    PubMed

    Jug, Rachel; Jiang, Xiaoyin

    2017-01-01

    A consensus panel recently used clinical evidence and pathologic parameters to rename noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma to noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) to better reflect the indolent course of this tumor. NIFTP has stringent histopathologic diagnostic criteria established by the panel, including papillary-like nuclear features, and submission of the entire tumor capsule to exclude invasion. From a molecular standpoint, NIFTP is often characterized by RAS-type mutations, similar to other follicular-patterned lesions. While there has been prior evidence in the literature for the low malignant potential of these tumors, projects moving forward will help to independently reinforce the reliability of these criteria and nomenclature. With planned inclusion of NIFTP into the latest World Health Organization endocrine tumor classification scheme, this nomenclature shift provides a model for pathology efforts to refine diagnostic classifications to better guide treatment. In this review we discuss this nomenclature change and review the current literature.

  10. Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features: An Evidence-Based Nomenclature Change

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A consensus panel recently used clinical evidence and pathologic parameters to rename noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma to noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) to better reflect the indolent course of this tumor. NIFTP has stringent histopathologic diagnostic criteria established by the panel, including papillary-like nuclear features, and submission of the entire tumor capsule to exclude invasion. From a molecular standpoint, NIFTP is often characterized by RAS-type mutations, similar to other follicular-patterned lesions. While there has been prior evidence in the literature for the low malignant potential of these tumors, projects moving forward will help to independently reinforce the reliability of these criteria and nomenclature. With planned inclusion of NIFTP into the latest World Health Organization endocrine tumor classification scheme, this nomenclature shift provides a model for pathology efforts to refine diagnostic classifications to better guide treatment. In this review we discuss this nomenclature change and review the current literature. PMID:28280647

  11. Papillary carcinoma of thyroid with exuberant nodular fasciitis-like stroma. Report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Chan, J K; Carcangiu, M L; Rosai, J

    1991-03-01

    Three examples of an unusual morphologic variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) are reported. The presence of a prominent stromal component resulted in low-power microscopic appearances resembling fibroadenoma, phyllodes tumor, or fibrocystic disease of the breast in two cases. The carcinomatous component grew in the form of anastomosing narrow tubules, clustered glands, solid sheets with or without squamous differentiation, and/or papillae, and exhibited the typical nuclear features of PTC. The abundant stroma had a nodular fasciitis-like quality and was composed of short fascicles of spindle cells separated by varying amounts of mucoid matrix, collagen, and extravasated red blood cells; this was interpreted as an exuberant mesenchymal reaction to the carcinoma. The importance of recognizing this variant of PTC is that, when one encounters a fibroproliferative lesion of the thyroid, a diligent search should be made for papillary carcinoma. This variant also must be distinguished from the vastly more aggressive papillary carcinomas with anaplastic transformation and the so-called carcinosarcomas.

  12. Management of papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Orsenigo, E; Beretta, E; Fiacco, E; Scaltrini, F; Veronesi, P; Invernizzi, L; Gini, P; Fiorina, P; Di Carlo, V

    2004-12-01

    To investigate the frequency, treatment and clinical behaviour of differentiated microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland (PTMC). Out of 376 patients submitted to surgical treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer from June 1980 to October 2003, 77 had been identified has having a PTMC (63 females, 14 males; mean age 43+/-13 years). Sixty-seven patients (87%) met the AMES risk definition for low (group I) and 10 (13%) for high-risk (group II) definition. The surgical procedures were lobo-isthmusectomy (n=14) or subtotal thyroidectomy (n=20) and total thyroidectomy (n=43) with node dissection in 15 cases. Follow-up ranging from 9 to 274 months (mean 124+/-84). Overall patient survival rates were 100 and 94% at 20 years in groups I and II, respectively (p=ns). There were no significant differences in surgical complications and in survival in patients submitted to total thyroidectomy when compared to partial thyroid resection. The presence of cervical node metastasis did not affect patient survival (p=0.8). The overall mean survival time was 266 months. Despite the overall excellent prognosis, PTMC was associated with a 1% disease-related mortality, a 2.5% local recurrence rate, 1% lymph-node recurrence rate, and 1% distant metastasis rate. We recommend total thyroidectomy accompanied by modified neck dissection if enlarged nodes are diagnosed.

  13. RET/PTC rearrangements preferentially occurred in papillary thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors exposed to high radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Hamatani, Kiyohiro; Eguchi, Hidetaka; Ito, Reiko; Mukai, Mayumi; Takahashi, Keiko; Taga, Masataka; Imai, Kazue; Cologne, John; Soda, Midori; Arihiro, Koji; Fujihara, Megumu; Abe, Kuniko; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Nakashima, Masahiro; Sekine, Ichiro; Yasui, Wataru; Hayashi, Yuzo; Nakachi, Kei

    2008-09-01

    A major early event in papillary thyroid carcinogenesis is constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway caused by alterations of a single gene, typically rearrangements of the RET and NTRK1 genes or point mutations in the BRAF and RAS genes. In childhood papillary thyroid cancer, regardless of history of radiation exposure, RET/PTC rearrangements are a major event. Conversely, in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer among the general population, the most common molecular event is BRAF(V600E) point mutation, not RET/PTC rearrangements. To clarify which gene alteration, chromosome aberration, or point mutation preferentially occurs in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer, we have performed molecular analyses on RET/PTC rearrangements and BRAF(V600E) mutation in 71 papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors (including 21 cases not exposed to atomic bomb radiation), in relation to radiation dose as well as time elapsed since atomic bomb radiation exposure. RET/PTC rearrangements showed significantly increased frequency with increased radiation dose (P(trend) = 0.002). In contrast, BRAF(V600E) mutation was less frequent in cases exposed to higher radiation dose (P(trend) < 0.001). Papillary thyroid cancer subjects harboring RET/PTC rearrangements developed this cancer earlier than did cases with BRAF(V600E) mutation (P = 0.03). These findings were confirmed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. These results suggest that RET/PTC rearrangements play an important role in radiation-associated thyroid carcinogenesis.

  14. Comprehensive MicroRNA expression profiling identifies novel markers in follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Matthias; Perren, Aurel; Moch, Holger; Komminoth, Paul; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Nikiforova, Marina N

    2013-11-01

    Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) shares features of papillary (PTC) and follicular (FTC) thyroid carcinomas on a clinical, morphological, and genetic level. MicroRNA (miRNA) deregulation was extensively studied in PTCs and FTCs. However, very limited information is available for FVPTC. The aim of this study was to assess miRNA expression in FVPTC with the most comprehensive miRNA array panel and to correlate it with the clinicopathological data. Forty-four papillary thyroid carcinomas (17 FVPTC, 27 classic PTC) and eight normal thyroid tissue samples were analyzed for expression of 748 miRNAs using Human Microarray Assays on the ABI 7900 platform (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA). In addition, an independent set of 61 tumor and normal samples was studied for expression of novel miRNA markers detected in this study. Overall, the miRNA expression profile demonstrated similar trends between FVPTC and classic PTC. Fourteen miRNAs were deregulated in FVPTC with a fold change of more than five (up/down), including miRNAs known to be upregulated in PTC (miR-146b-3p, -146-5p, -221, -222 and miR-222-5p) and novel miRNAs (miR-375, -551b, 181-2-3p, 99b-3p). However, the levels of miRNA expression were different between these tumor types and some miRNAs were uniquely dysregulated in FVPTC allowing separation of these tumors on the unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis. Upregulation of novel miR-375 was confirmed in a large independent set of follicular cell derived neoplasms and benign nodules and demonstrated specific upregulation for PTC. Two miRNAs (miR-181a-2-3p, miR-99b-3p) were associated with an adverse outcome in FVPTC patients by a Kaplan-Meier (p < 0.05) and multivariate Cox regression analysis (p < 0.05). Despite high similarity in miRNA expression between FVPTC and classic PTC, several miRNAs were uniquely expressed in each tumor type, supporting their histopathologic differences. Highly upregulated miRNA identified in this study

  15. Mixed medullary-papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: report of two cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gurkan, Eren; Gurbuz, Yesim; Tarkun, Ilhan; Canturk, Zeynep; Cetinarslan, Berrin

    2014-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) are two distinct types of thyroid carcinoma with considerable difference in terms of cellular origin, histopathological appearance, clinical course and prevalence. The histogenetic origin and possible molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of mixed medullary-papillary carcinoma of the thyroid are still unclear. The most widely accepted hypotheses considering co-occurrence of MTC and PTC are stem cell theory, collision effect theory and hostage theory. Herein we describe two rare cases of mixed medullary-papillary thyroid carcinoma with co-occurrence of MTC and PTC which developed with concomitant MEN 2A and different sites of lymph node metastasis in the first patient, while with atypical clinical presentation in the second patient. In conclusion, co-expression of thyroglobulin, synaptophysin and chromogranin by the papillary component of mixed tumor seems to support stem cell theory in our first case, whereas positive staining for calcitonin but not for thyroglobulin in the medullary component of the tumor along with separation of these two tumors from each other by a normal thyroid tissue seem to indicates the likelihood of collision effect theory in our second case.

  16. [Morphological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma with a focal tall-cell component].

    PubMed

    Abrosimov, A Iu; Kozhushnaia, S M

    2012-01-01

    The morphological features of papillary thyroid macro- and microcarcinomas of classical structure with the focal presence or absence of a tall-cell component were comparatively studied. Histological specimens of 55 neoplasms were examined in 53 patients. A trend was seen for the higher rate of regional metastasis in a group of tall-cell tumors. Additional studies of groups of patients matched for sex, age, and extrathyroid tumor extension are required to make a final conclusion on the metastatic potential and prognostic features of tumors with a tall-cell component. To solve this task, it is expedient to separate neoplasms with a focal tall-cell component from the bulk of classical papillary carcinomas.

  17. Influence of tumor extent on central lymph node metastasis in solitary papillary thyroid microcarcinomas: a retrospective study of 1092 patients.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xingjie; Liu, Chunping; Guo, Yawen; Li, Xiaoyu; Shen, Na; Zhao, Xiangwang; Yu, Pan; Wang, Shan; Liu, Zeming

    2017-07-17

    The morbidity of papillary thyroid microcarcinomas is increasing worldwide. Surgery is the main treatment for papillary thyroid microcarcinomas, and the choice of surgical method partly depends on the T stage of the tumor. However, according to the American Joint Commission on Cancer staging system (7th edition), the T stage of papillary thyroid microcarcinomas with different tumor extent is unclear. We aimed to study the effect of tumor extent and other factors on central lymph node metastasis to explore the relationship between tumor extent and T stage and to identify the risk factors predicting central lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid microcarcinomas. We included 1092 patients diagnosed with solitary papillary thyroid microcarcinomas between July 2011 and April 2016. The tumor extent and other central lymph node metastasis risk factors were retrospectively analyzed. Univariate analysis revealed that capsule invasion and extracapsular extension (P = 0.013, <0.001; respectively) were significantly correlated with central lymph node metastasis. On multivariate analysis, extracapsular extension was independent central lymph node metastasis predictors (odds ratio 3.092, 95% CI 1.744-5.484), while capsule invasion was not (odds ratio 1.212, 95% CI 0.890-1.651). In addition, multivariate analysis revealed that male sex, tumor size >5 mm, and age <45 years were independent central lymph node metastasis predictors (odds ratio 2.072, 2.356, 2.302; 95% CI 1.483-2.894, 1.792-3.099, 1.748-3.031; respectively). This study supported that capsule invasion and tumor limited to the thyroid in papillary thyroid microcarcinomas were suitable for the lower T1, that is, capsule invasion in papillary thyroid microcarcinomas might not belong to the minimal extrathyroid extension included in T3 of TNM staging. In addition, patients with risk factors of extrathyroid extension, male sex, age <45 years, or tumor size >5 mm in papillary thyroid microcarcinomas should

  18. Emerging integrated nanoclay-facilitated drug delivery system for papillary thyroid cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Long, Mei; Huang, Peng; Yang, Huaming; Chang, Shi; Hu, Yuehua; Tang, Aidong; Mao, Linfeng

    2016-09-01

    Nanoclay can be incorporated into emerging dual functional drug delivery systems (DDSs) to promote efficiency in drug delivery and reduce the toxicity of doxorubicin (DOX) used for thyroid cancer treatment. This paper reports the expansion of the basal spacing of kaolinite nanoclay was expanded from 0.72 nm to 0.85 nm, which could provide sufficiently spacious site for hosting doxorubicin molecules and controlling the diffusion rate. A targeted design for papillary thyroid cancer cells was achieved by introducing KI, which is consumed by the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS). As indicated by MTT assays, confocal laser scanning microscopy and bio-TEM observations, methoxy-intercalated kaolinite (KaolinMeOH) exhibited negligible cytotoxicity against papillary thyroid cancer cells. By contrast, DOX-KaolinMeOH showed dose-dependent therapeutic effects in vitro, and KI@DOX-KaolinMeOH was found to act as a powerful targeted therapeutic drug. Furthermore, active and passive targeting strategies played a role in the accumulation of the drug molecules, as verified by an in vivo bio-distribution analysis.

  19. Genetic Heterogeneity of HER2 Amplification and Telomere Shortening in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Caria, Paola; Cantara, Silvia; Frau, Daniela Virginia; Pacini, Furio; Vanni, Roberta; Dettori, Tinuccia

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research is dedicated to understanding if sporadic and familial papillary thyroid carcinoma are distinct biological entities. We have previously demonstrated that familial papillary thyroid cancer (fPTC) cells exhibit short relative telomere length (RTL) in both blood and tissues and that these features may be associated with chromosome instability. Here, we investigated the frequency of HER2 (Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2) amplification, and other recently reported genetic alterations in sporadic PTC (sPTC) and fPTC, and assessed correlations with RTL and BRAF mutational status. We analyzed HER2 gene amplification and the integrity of ALK, ETV6, RET, and BRAF genes by fluorescence in situ hybridization in isolated nuclei and paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed sections of 13 fPTC and 18 sPTC patients. We analyzed BRAFV600E mutation and RTL by qRT-PCR. Significant HER2 amplification (p = 0.0076), which was restricted to scattered groups of cells, was found in fPTC samples. HER2 amplification in fPTCs was invariably associated with BRAFV600E mutation. RTL was shorter in fPTCs than sPTCs (p < 0.001). No rearrangements of other tested genes were observed. These findings suggest that the association of HER2 amplification with BRAFV600E mutation and telomere shortening may represent a marker of tumor aggressiveness, and, in refractory thyroid cancer, may warrant exploration as a site for targeted therapy. PMID:27775641

  20. Correlation between Ultrasound Elastography and Histologic Characteristics of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Li; Qiong, Wu; Yan, Wang; Youben, Fan; Bing, Hu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between elastography and histologic characteristics including fibrosis and calcification. We also wanted to investigate whether other clinicopathologic indexes influence the strain ratio (SR) of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). We retrospectively reviewed 126 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) from 103 patients who underwent ultrasonography and elastography before surgery. The histologic characteristics and clinicopathologic indexes were compared with the SR of ultrasound elastography (UE). The results showed that there was a significantly positive correlation between fibrosis degree and SR measurements (r = 0.754, p = 0.000); the SR was significantly different between the groups with and without calcification (11.34 ± 10.08 vs. 6.81 ± 7.33, p = 0.000). The standard coefficients of collagen and stromal calcification were 0.684 and 0.194, respectively. There was no significant correlation between SR and indices such as size, position, co-existence with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT), multifocality or cervical lymph node (CLN) metastasis. In conclusion, we found that the SR of UE is positively correlated with the fibrosis of PTC. Stromal calcification will elevate the SR dramatically, but psammoma bodies will not when they exist in the absence of stromal calcification. PMID:28327620

  1. Curcumin inhibits hypoxia-induced migration in K1 papillary thyroid cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cheng; Zhang, Li; Cheng, Xian; Lin, Xiu-Feng; Lu, Rong-Rong; Bao, Jian-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, traditionally used as food and medicinal purposes, has recently been reported to have protective efficacy against hypoxia. Hypoxia is one of the important reactive factors in tumor metastasis, which is a key problem in clinical thyroid cancer therapy. In present study, we investigate the anti-metastatic effect of curcumin on the K1 papillary thyroid cancer cells as well as its potential mechanisms. The results show that curcumin effectively inhibits hypoxia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) upregulation and significantly decreases the mRNA and protein expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in K1 cells. Curcumin also decreases the DNA binding ability of HIF-1α to hypoxia response element (HRE). Furthermore, curcumin enhances E-cadherin expression, inhibits metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) enzyme activity, and weakens K1 cells migration under hypoxic conditions. In summary, these results indicate that curcumin possesses a potent anti-metastatic effect and might be an effective tumoristatic agent for the treatment of aggressive papillary thyroid cancers. PMID:25349216

  2. Emerging integrated nanoclay-facilitated drug delivery system for papillary thyroid cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Long, Mei; Huang, Peng; Yang, Huaming; Chang, Shi; Hu, Yuehua; Tang, Aidong; Mao, Linfeng

    2016-01-01

    Nanoclay can be incorporated into emerging dual functional drug delivery systems (DDSs) to promote efficiency in drug delivery and reduce the toxicity of doxorubicin (DOX) used for thyroid cancer treatment. This paper reports the expansion of the basal spacing of kaolinite nanoclay was expanded from 0.72 nm to 0.85 nm, which could provide sufficiently spacious site for hosting doxorubicin molecules and controlling the diffusion rate. A targeted design for papillary thyroid cancer cells was achieved by introducing KI, which is consumed by the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS). As indicated by MTT assays, confocal laser scanning microscopy and bio-TEM observations, methoxy-intercalated kaolinite (KaolinMeOH) exhibited negligible cytotoxicity against papillary thyroid cancer cells. By contrast, DOX-KaolinMeOH showed dose-dependent therapeutic effects in vitro, and KI@DOX-KaolinMeOH was found to act as a powerful targeted therapeutic drug. Furthermore, active and passive targeting strategies played a role in the accumulation of the drug molecules, as verified by an in vivo bio-distribution analysis. PMID:27616592

  3. Clinicopathological Significance of Minimal Extrathyroid Extension in Solitary Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Woo, Chang Gok; Sung, Chang Ohk; Choi, Yun Mi; Kim, Won Gu; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae; Hong, Suck Joon; Song, Dong Eun

    2015-12-01

    The definitive diagnosis of minimal extrathyroid extension (ETE) is subjective because a well-defined true capsule is absent in the thyroid gland. We subclassified the extent of minimal ETE and investigated the clinicopathological significance of the presence of minimal ETE in patients with solitary papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) and solitary papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs). A series of 546 patients with solitary PTCs, including 144 patients with solitary PTMCs, were retrospectively analyzed. Whether the presence of minimal ETE had an effect on recurrence-free survival (RFS) along with other clinicopathological parameters was investigated. The only independent prognostic factor found to be associated with recurrence was the presence of LN metastasis in solitary PTC (p = 0.002) but not in solitary PTMC groups (p = 0.073). The presence of minimal ETE had no effect on RFS in both solitary PTC (p = 0.053) and solitary PTMC (p = 0.816). The presence of minimal ETE has no significant influence on RFS in solitary PTC and PTMC. There is a risk of overrepresenting the T3 category in solitary PTC and PTMC patients with minimal ETE.

  4. ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE FOR PAPILLARY THYROID MICROCARCINOMA: NEW CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM.

    PubMed

    Haser, Grace C; Tuttle, R Michael; Su, Henry K; Alon, Eran E; Bergman, Donald; Bernet, Victor; Brett, Elise; Cobin, Rhoda; Dewey, Eliza H; Doherty, Gerard; Dos Reis, Laura L; Harris, Jeffrey; Klopper, Joshua; Lee, Stephanie L; Levine, Robert A; Lepore, Stephen J; Likhterov, Ilya; Lupo, Mark A; Machac, Josef; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Mehra, Saral; Milas, Mira; Orloff, Lisa A; Randolph, Gregory; Revenson, Tracey A; Roberts, Katherine J; Ross, Douglas S; Rowe, Meghan E; Smallridge, Robert C; Terris, David; Tufano, Ralph P; Urken, Mark L

    2016-05-01

    The dramatic increase in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is primarily a result of early diagnosis of small cancers. Active surveillance is a promising management strategy for papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs). However, as this management strategy gains traction in the U.S., it is imperative that patients and clinicians be properly educated, patients be followed for life, and appropriate tools be identified to implement the strategy. We review previous active surveillance studies and the parameters used to identify patients who are good candidates for active surveillance. We also review some of the challenges to implementing active surveillance protocols in the U.S. and discuss how these might be addressed. Trials of active surveillance support nonsurgical management as a viable and safe management strategy. However, numerous challenges exist, including the need for adherence to protocols, education of patients and physicians, and awareness of the impact of this strategy on patient psychology and quality of life. The Thyroid Cancer Care Collaborative (TCCC) is a portable record keeping system that can manage a mobile patient population undergoing active surveillance. With proper patient selection, organization, and patient support, active surveillance has the potential to be a long-term management strategy for select patients with PTMC. In order to address the challenges and opportunities for this approach to be successfully implemented in the U.S., it will be necessary to consider psychological and quality of life, cultural differences, and the patient's clinical status.

  5. Ultrasonography and cytology as predictors of noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP): Importance of the differential diagnosis with the invasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley

    2017-03-02

    The noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC) has an excellent prognosis even if treated only by lobectomy.(1-3) Recently, it was proposed that this tumor should no longer be considered "cancer" and be given the denomination "noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features" (NIFTP).(2) There is great interest in knowing the preoperative characteristics of NIFTP since, in view of a high probability of this diagnosis (higher than that of malignancy), less extensive surgery would be more indicated. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Radioactive Iodine Therapy Decreases Recurrence in Thyroid Papillary Microcarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Creach, Kimberly M.; Siegel, Barry A.; Nussenbaum, Brian; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The most appropriate therapy for papillary microcarcinoma (PMC) is controversial. Methods. We reviewed the therapy and outcome of 407 patients with PMC. Results. Three hundred-eighty patients underwent total thyroidectomy, and 349 patients received I-131 therapy. The median followup was 5.3 years. Forty patients developed recurrent disease. On univariate analysis, development of disease recurrence was correlated with histological tumor size > 0.8 cm (P = 0.0104), age < 45 years (P = 0.043), and no I-131 therapy (P < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, histological tumor size > 0.8 cm, positive lymph nodes, and no I-131 therapy were significant. The 5-year RFS for patients treated with I-131 was 95.0% versus 78.6% (P < 0.0001) for patients not treated with I-131. Patients with lymph node metastasis who did not receive I-131 had a 5-year RFS of 42.9% versus 93.2% (P < 0.0001) for patients who received I-131. Conclusions. Recommend I-131 remnant ablation for patients with PMC, particularly patients with lymph node metastasis. PMID:22462017

  7. Association of urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis with papillary and medullary thyroid carcinomas. A new sporadic neoplastic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Albores-Saavedra, Jorge; Dorantes-Heredia, Rita; Chablé-Montero, Fredy; Córdova-Ramón, Juan Carlos; Henson, Donald E

    2014-10-01

    We describe 2 adult women (72 and 54 years), 1 with a low-grade noninvasive papillary urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis, who 14 years later developed a papillary carcinoma in 1 thyroid lobe and a medullary carcinoma in the contralateral lobe. Both neoplasms were similar in size and appeared symmetrical. Despite its small size, the medullary carcinoma metastasized in multiple cervical lymph nodes. The second patient had a high-grade invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis that infiltrated the renal parenchyma and metastasized in one of the lungs. Five months later, a papillary carcinoma was discovered in the thyroid gland. The 2 papillary thyroid carcinomas were of the follicular variant. Adjacent to 1 papillary carcinoma, there was a dominant nodule of a colloid and adenomatous goiter. The medullary carcinoma contained stromal amyloid and was immunoreactive for calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen. There was no C-cell hyperplasia (medullary carcinoma in situ). The 2 patients are alive, 1 is living with pulmonary metastasis from the high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Twelve cases of this neoplastic association were registered in the Survey, Epidemiology, and End Results Program from 1980 to 2009. We believe that the combination of these unusual neoplasms in the same patient may represent a new sporadic neoplastic syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lymph Node Metastases in Papillary and Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma Are Independent of Intratumoral Lymphatic Vessel Density

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Filipe; Pereira, Sofia S.; Mesquita, Marta; Morais, Tiago; Costa, Madalena M.; Quelhas, Pedro; Lopes, Carlos; Monteiro, Mariana P.; Leite, Valeriano

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood and lymph vessel invasion are well-recognized markers of tumor aggressiveness, as these are the routes that lead to metastases. Thyroid tumors, depending on the histological variant, tend to have distinctive biological behaviors and use different vascular routes to metastasize, yet the mechanisms underlying the metastatic process are still poorly understood. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess how the lymph vessel density (LVD) in different histological types of thyroid tumors, and in their surrounding tissue, correlate with the presence of lymph node metastases (LNM) and tumor pathological features. Methods Lymph vessels of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), of the classical (CVPTC, n = 50) and follicular variants (FVPTC, n = 18), and medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC, n = 34) were immunohistochemically stained against antigen D2-40. The stained area was quantified using a computerized morphometric analysis tool and correlated with the tumor pathological characteristics. Results LVD within all analyzed thyroid tumor subtypes was significantly lower than in the surrounding thyroid tissues (p < 0.001). Despite intratumoral LVD being significantly higher in CVPTC than in FVPTC, and peritumoral LVD being significantly higher in MTC than in PTC (p < 0.05), no correlations were found between LVD (either intratumoral or peritumoral) and the presence of lymph node metastasis. Conclusions As no LVD differences were found amongst thyroid tumors with or without LNM, dissemination is more likely to depend on the tumor ability to invade the abundant lymph vessel network of the surrounding thyroid tissue than on the ability of the tumor to promote de novo lymphangiogenesis. PMID:28589086

  9. Total thyroidectomy versus lobectomy in conventional papillary thyroid microcarcinoma: Analysis of 8,676 patients at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seo Ki; Park, Inhye; Woo, Jung-Woo; Lee, Jun Ho; Choe, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jung-Han; Kim, Jee Soo

    2017-02-01

    Because there is a controversy regarding the management of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, the purpose of this study was to compare lobectomy with total thyroidectomy as a primary operative treatment for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Loco-regional recurrence in the contralateral remnant lobe can be managed safely by completion thyroidectomy via the previous scar. However, reoperation for operation bed (thyroidectomy site) or regional lymph node (central or lateral) recurrence generally is associated with morbidity. Therefore, we analyzed overall loco-regional recurrence and loco-regional recurrence outside of the contralateral remnant lobe separately. We retrospectively reviewed 8,676 conventional patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma who underwent thyroidectomy. Lobectomy was performed in 3,289 (37.9%) patients, and total thyroidectomy was performed in 5,387 (62.1%) patients. Total thyroidectomy significantly decreased the risk of overall loco-regional recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio 0.398, P < .001). However, total thyroidectomy did not significantly decrease the risk of loco-regional recurrence outside of the contralateral remnant lobe (adjusted hazard ratio 0.880, P = .640). Particularly in conventional papillary thyroid microcarcinoma patients with multifocality, total thyroidectomy significantly decreased the risk of overall loco-regional recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio 0.284, P = .002) and loco-regional recurrence outside of the contralateral remnant lobe (adjusted hazard ratio 0.342, P = .020). Although lobectomy is associated with contralateral remnant lobe recurrence, lobectomy did not increase the risk of loco-regional recurrence outside of the contralateral remnant lobe in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma, except in those with multifocality. Because recurrence in the contralateral remnant lobe can be managed safely by completion thyroidectomy, lobectomy may be a safe operative option for select patients with

  10. Papillary thyroid cancer incidence rates vary significantly by birthplace in Asian American women

    PubMed Central

    Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; McClure, Laura A.; Chang, Ellen T.; Clarke, Christina A.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Rull, Rudolph P.; Quach, Thu; Gomez, Scarlett Lin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate how birthplace influences the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer among Asian American women. Methods Birthplace- and ethnic-specific age-adjusted and age-specific incidence rates were calculated using data from the California Cancer Registry for the period 1988–2004. Birthplace was statistically imputed for 30% of cases using a validated imputation method based on age at Social Security number issuance. Population estimates were obtained from the US Census. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for foreign-born vs. US-born women. Results Age-adjusted incidence rates of papillary thyroid cancer among Filipina (13.7 per 100,000) and Vietnamese (12.7) women were more than double those of Japanese women (6.2). US-born Chinese (IRR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.40–0.59) and Filipina women (IRR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.58–0.96) had significantly higher rates than those who were foreign-born; the opposite was observed for Japanese women (IRR=1.55, 95% CI: 1.17–2.08). The age-specific patterns among all foreign-born Asian women and US-born Japanese women showed a slow steady increase in incidence until age 70. However, among US-born Asian women (except Japanese), substantially elevated incidence rates during the reproductive and menopausal years were evident. Conclusions Ethnic- and birthplace-variation in papillary thyroid cancer incidence can provide insight into the etiology of this increasingly common and understudied cancer. PMID:21207130

  11. Identification of new biomarkers for human papillary thyroid carcinoma employing NanoString analysis.

    PubMed

    Chitikova, Zhanna; Pusztaszeri, Marc; Makhlouf, Anne-Marie; Berczy, Margaret; Delucinge-Vivier, Celine; Triponez, Frederic; Meyer, Patrick; Philippe, Jacques; Dibner, Charna

    2015-05-10

    We previously reported an upregulation of the clock transcript BMAL1, correlating with TIMP1 expression in fresh-frozen samples from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Since frozen postoperative biopsy samples are difficult to obtain, we aimed to validate the application of high-precision NanoString analysis for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) thyroid nodule samples and to screen for potential biomarkers associated with PTC. No significant differences were detected between fresh-frozen and FFPE samples. NanoString analysis of 51 transcripts in 17 PTC and 17 benign nodule samples obtained from different donors and in 24 pairs of benign and PTC nodules, obtained from the same donor (multinodular goiters), confirmed significant alterations in the levels of BMAL1, c-MET, c-KIT, TIMP1, and other transcripts. Moreover, we identified for the first time alterations in CHEK1 and BCL2 levels in PTC. A predictive score was established for each sample, based on the combined expression levels of BMAL1, CHEK1, c-MET, c-KIT and TIMP1. In combination with BRAF mutation analysis, this predictive score closely correlated with the clinicopathological characteristics of the analyzed thyroid nodules. Our study identified new thyroid transcripts with altered levels in PTC using the NanoString approach. A predictive score correlation coefficient might contribute to improve the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules.

  12. [Scalp metastasis as the first manifestation of mixed follicular-papillary thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Junquera Bañares, S; Oria Mundín, E; Tuñón Alvarez, T; Vázquez Martínez, C; Botella Carretero, J I

    2014-01-01

    Distant metastases are a rare occurrence in differentiated thyroid cancer, and when detected in skin, often arise in the context of disseminated disease after many years of progression since diagnosis. This study presents the case of a 77-year-old female without known thyroid disease, who presented with metastases in the parieto-occipital scalp region, in which thyroid tissue was identified. Thyroid ultrasound identified a nodule reported as a follicular tumour and preoperative investigation of tumour spread was negative. Total thyroidectomy plus central lymph node dissection were performed and histopathology reported mixed papillary-follicular carcinoma without lymph node metastasis. Lung micrometastases were detected in the post-I131 whole-body scan (104.7 mCi dose), and two months after a second dose of 131I (125 mCi), thyroglobulin was undetectable. Thyroid cancer should be included in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous metastases, since with early diagnosis and treatment, prognosis is generally more favourable than in other solid tumours.

  13. Familiar Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in a Large Brazilian Family Is Not Associated with Succinate Dehydrogenase Defects

    PubMed Central

    Accordi, Elen Dias; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Azevedo, Bruna; de Alexandre, Rodrigo Bertollo; Frasson, Carla; Gantzel, Siliane Marie; Papadakis, Georgios Z.; Angelousi, Anna; Stratakis, Constantine A.; Sotomaior, Vanessa Santos; Faucz, Fabio R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine gland malignancy. Advances in understanding the genetic basis for thyroid cancer revealed the potential involvement of several genes in the formation of thyroid tumors. Mutations in the gene coding for succinate dehydrogenase subtype B (SDHB) have been implicated in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a heterotetrameric protein composed of four subunits, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD, and participates in both the electron transport chain and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between variants in the SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD genes and familiar PTC in a large Brazilian family. Method Four patients with PTC, 1 patient with PTC and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), 1 patient with GIST, and their relatives - several of them with different thyroid problems - from a large Brazilian family were screened for genetic variations of SDHx genes with the use of polymerase chain reaction-single-stranded conformational polymorphism and direct sequencing. Results Only one rare variation in SDHA was found in some of the family members, but not segregating with the disease. No other genetic variants of these genes were detected in the family members that presented with PTC and/or GIST. Conclusion Familiar PTC and a GIST were not associated with SDHx mutations; additional genetic defects, yet unknown, may be responsible for the development of tumor. PMID:27493882

  14. Cytological and molecular diagnosis of solid variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Troncone, Giancarlo; Russo, Maria; Malapelle, Umberto; Accardo, Marina; Ferraro, Angelo; Cozzolino, Immacolata; Palombini, Lucio

    2008-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) composed by predominant solid areas is diagnosed as a distinct variant on histological samples. Here we present a case of PTC recognized preoperatively by fine needle cytology as a solid variant. This diagnosis was made by combining cytology with the detection of the BRAFVK600-1E mutation, the molecular hallmark of the solid variant of PTC. Histological and molecular evaluation of the surgical specimen confirmed this pre-operative diagnosis. Thus combining cytology to BRAF molecular analysis is useful to refine the cytological diagnosis of this variant also on FNC specimens. PMID:18353179

  15. An Unusual Association between Sweet's Syndrome and Metastatic Papillary Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Ariel; Patel, Payal; Friedman, Adam; Broadway, Kameelah

    2013-01-01

    Sweet's syndrome (SS), or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, is marked by fever, leukocytosis, and painful erythematous papules/plaques resulting from neutrophil migration and accumulation in the dermis. This condition has been associated with underlying hematologic as well as solid malignancies. We describe a unique case of SS in a patient with metastatic papillary follicular thyroid carcinoma and group A streptococcal pharyngitis. The distribution of the patient's SS rash was similar to the rash of neutrophilic dermatosis (pustular vasculitis) of the dorsal hands. PMID:23467309

  16. Clinical importance of bilateral disease in patients with papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sarah E; Kasaian, Katayoon; Jones, Steven; Melck, Adrienne; Wiseman, Sam M

    2016-06-01

    A cancer-related factor that is not included in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) prognostic scoring systems is bilaterality. While it may seem that bilaterality should be considered during the management of PTC, its clinical importance has been debated. This controversy exists because the extent of surgery for PTC has not been found to affect survival in low-risk individuals, despite their potential for PTC bilaterality. We sought to determine if PTC bilaterality is a cancer prognosticator based upon its association with known clinical and pathological PTC prognosticators, and MACIS scores. In this article we discuss our findings and their potential clinical implications.

  17. Oncologic Safety of Robot Thyroid Surgery for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Comparative Study of Robot versus Open Thyroid Surgery Using Inverse Probability of Treatment Weighting

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Tae-Yon; Yoon, Jong Ho; Han, Minkyu; Lee, Yi Ho; Lee, Yu-mi; Song, Dong Eun; Chung, Ki-Wook; Kim, Won Bae; Shong, Young Kee; Hong, Suck Joon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oncologic safety of robot thyroid surgery compared to open thyroid surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We enrolled 722 patients with PTC who underwent a total thyroidectomy with central compartment node dissection (CCND) from January 2009 to December 2010. These patients were classified into open thyroid surgery (n = 610) or robot thyroid surgery (n = 112) groups. We verified the impact of robot thyroid surgery on clinical recurrence and ablation/control-stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) levels predictive of non-recurrence using weighted logistic regression models with inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW). Age, sex, thyroid weight, extent of CCND, and TNM were significantly different between the two groups (p < 0.05); however, there was no significant difference in recurrence between the open and robot groups (1.5% vs. 2.7%; p = 0.608). The proportion of patients with ablation sTg < 10.0 ng/mL and control sTg < 1.0 ng/mL was comparable between the two groups (p > 0.05). Logistic regression with IPTW using the propensity scores estimated by adjusting all of the parameters demonstrated that robot thyroid surgery did not influence the clinical recurrence (OR; 0.784, 95% CI; 0.150–3.403, p = 0.750), ablation sTg (OR; 0.950, 95% CI; 0.361–2.399, p = 0.914), and control sTg levels (OR; 0.498, 95% CI; 0.190–1.189, p = 0.130). Robot thyroid surgery is comparable to open thyroid surgery with regard to oncologic safety in PTC patients. PMID:27285846

  18. Increased Expression of Phosphatidylcholine (16:0/18:1) and (16:0/18:2) in Thyroid Papillary Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Seiji; Tateya, Ichiro; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Masaki, Noritaka; Takizawa, Yoshinori; Ohno, Satoshi; Kojima, Tsuyoshi; Kitani, Yoshiharu; Kitamura, Morimasa; Hirano, Shigeru; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Ito, Juichi

    2012-01-01

    A good prognosis can be expected for most, but not all, cases of thyroid papillary cancer. Numerous molecular studies have demonstrated beneficial treatment and prognostic factors in various molecular markers. Whereas most previous reports have focused on genomics and proteomics, few have focused on lipidomics. With the advent of mass spectrometry (MS), it has become possible to identify many types of molecules, and this analytical tool has become critical in the field of omics. Recently, imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) was developed. After a simple pretreatment process, IMS can be used to examine tissue sections on glass slides with location information. Here, we conducted an IMS analysis of seven cases of thyroid papillary cancer by comparison of cancerous with normal tissues, focusing on the distribution of phospholipids. We identified that phosphatidylcholine (16:0/18:1) and (16:0/18:2) and sphingomyelin (d18:0/16:1) are significantly higher in thyroid papillary cancer than in normal thyroid tissue as determined by tandem mass (MS/MS) analysis. These distributional differences may be associated with the biological behavior of thyroid papillary cancer. PMID:23139822

  19. Clinical significance of prophylactic central compartment neck dissection in the treatment of clinically node-negative papillary thyroid cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, Claudio; Tartaglia, Ernesto; Nunziata, Anna; Izzo, Graziella; Siciliano, Giuseppe; Cavallo, Fabio; Mauriello, Claudio; Napolitano, Salvatore; Thomas, Guglielmo; Testa, Domenico; Rossetti, Gianluca; Sanguinetti, Alessandro; Avenia, Nicola; Conzo, Giovanni

    2016-09-19

    Lymph nodal involvement is very common in differentiated thyroid cancer, and in addition, cervical lymph node micrometastases are observed in up to 80 % of papillary thyroid cancers. During the last decades, the role of routine central lymph node dissection (RCLD) in the treatment of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has been an object of research, and it is now still controversial. Nevertheless, many scientific societies and referral authors have definitely stated that even if in expert hands, RCLD is not associated to higher morbidity; it should be indicated only in selected cases. In order to better analyze the current role of prophylactic neck dissection in the surgical treatment of papillary thyroid cancers, an analysis of the most recent literature data was performed. Prophylactic or therapeutic lymph node dissection, selective, lateral or central lymph node dissection, modified radical neck dissection, and papillary thyroid cancer were used by the authors as keywords performing a PubMed database research. Literature reviews, PTCs large clinical series and the most recent guidelines of different referral endocrine societies, inhering neck dissection for papillary thyroid cancers, were also specifically evaluated. A higher PTC incidence was nowadays reported in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) clinical series. In addition, ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration citology allowed a more precocious diagnosis in the early phases of disease. The role of prophylactic neck dissection in papillary thyroid cancer management remains controversial especially regarding indications, approach, and surgical extension. Even if morbidity rates seem to be similar to those reported after total thyroidectomy alone, RCLD impact on local recurrence and long-term survival is still a matter of research. Nevertheless, only a selective use in high-risk cases is supported by more and more scientific data. In the last years, higher papillary thyroid cancer incidence and more

  20. Solid variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in a 14-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Abdul Rahman, Wan Faiziah Wan; Md Hashim, Mohd Nizam; Win, Thin Thin; Bakrin, Ikmal Hisyam

    2013-06-06

    Solid variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a rare, poorly characterised variant and predominantly reported in children with a history of radiation exposure. This variant has a high propensity for extra-thyroidal extension and cervical lymph node metastases. A 14-year-old Malay girl who had no history of radiation exposure, presented with multiple cervical lymphadenopathy and it was clinically suspicious for tuberculosis or lymphoma. An incisional biopsy revealed a metastatic PTC. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral lateral neck dissection and histopathology report was solid variant of PTC. Whole-body I(131) scan was performed which revealed an intense tracer uptake in the neck. She was planned for radioactive iodine ablation and now on regular follow-up for monitoring of possible tumour metastasis.

  1. Sunitinib Malate in Treating Patients With Iodine-Refractory Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-28

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  2. Hyperactive ERK and persistent mTOR signaling characterize vemurafenib resistance in papillary thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hanly, Elyse K; Tuli, Neha Y; Bednarczyk, Robert B; Suriano, Robert; Geliebter, Jan; Moscatello, Augustine L; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Tiwari, Raj K

    2016-02-23

    Clinical studies evaluating targeted BRAFV600E inhibitors in advanced thyroid cancer patients are currently underway. Vemurafenib (BRAFV600E inhibitor) monotherapy has shown promising results thus far, although development of resistance is a clinical challenge. The objective of this study was to characterize development of resistance to BRAFV600E inhibition and to identify targets for effective combination therapy. We created a line of BCPAP papillary thyroid cancer cells resistant to vemurafenib by treating with increasing concentrations of the drug. The resistant BCPAP line was characterized and compared to its sensitive counterpart with respect to signaling molecules thought to be directly related to resistance. Expression and phosphorylation of several critical proteins were analyzed by Western blotting and dimerization was evaluated by immunoprecipitation. Resistance to vemurafenib in BCPAP appeared to be mediated by constitutive overexpression of phospho-ERK and by resistance to inhibition of both phospho-mTOR and phospho-S6 ribosomal protein after vemurafenib treatment. Expression of potential alternative signaling molecule, CRAF, was not increased in the resistant line, although formation of CRAF dimers appeared increased. Expression of membrane receptors HER2 and HER3 was greatly amplified in the resistant cancer cells. Papillary thyroid cancer cells were capable of overcoming targeted BRAFV600E inhibition by rewiring of cell signal pathways in response to prolonged vemurafenib therapy. Our study suggests that in vitro culture of cancer cells may be useful in assessing molecular resistance pathways. Potential therapies in advanced thyroid cancer patients may combine vemurafenib with inhibitors of CRAF, HER2/HER3, ERK, and/or mTOR to delay or abort development of resistance.

  3. Hyperactive ERK and persistent mTOR signaling characterize vemurafenib resistance in papillary thyroid cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hanly, Elyse K.; Tuli, Neha Y.; Bednarczyk, Robert B.; Suriano, Robert; Geliebter, Jan; Moscatello, Augustine L.; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Tiwari, Raj K.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies evaluating targeted BRAFV600E inhibitors in advanced thyroid cancer patients are currently underway. Vemurafenib (BRAFV600E inhibitor) monotherapy has shown promising results thus far, although development of resistance is a clinical challenge. The objective of this study was to characterize development of resistance to BRAFV600E inhibition and to identify targets for effective combination therapy. We created a line of BCPAP papillary thyroid cancer cells resistant to vemurafenib by treating with increasing concentrations of the drug. The resistant BCPAP line was characterized and compared to its sensitive counterpart with respect to signaling molecules thought to be directly related to resistance. Expression and phosphorylation of several critical proteins were analyzed by Western blotting and dimerization was evaluated by immunoprecipitation. Resistance to vemurafenib in BCPAP appeared to be mediated by constitutive overexpression of phospho-ERK and by resistance to inhibition of both phospho-mTOR and phospho-S6 ribosomal protein after vemurafenib treatment. Expression of potential alternative signaling molecule, CRAF, was not increased in the resistant line, although formation of CRAF dimers appeared increased. Expression of membrane receptors HER2 and HER3 was greatly amplified in the resistant cancer cells. Papillary thyroid cancer cells were capable of overcoming targeted BRAFV600E inhibition by rewiring of cell signal pathways in response to prolonged vemurafenib therapy. Our study suggests that in vitro culture of cancer cells may be useful in assessing molecular resistance pathways. Potential therapies in advanced thyroid cancer patients may combine vemurafenib with inhibitors of CRAF, HER2/HER3, ERK, and/or mTOR to delay or abort development of resistance. PMID:26735176

  4. Engineering Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Therapeutic Bionanofluids to Selectively Target Papillary Thyroid Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Paliouras, Miltiadis; Mitmaker, Elliot J.; Trifiro, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has risen steadily over the past few decades as well as the recurrence rates. It has been proposed that targeted ablative physical therapy could be a therapeutic modality in thyroid cancer. Targeted bio-affinity functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (BioNanofluid) act locally, to efficiently convert external light energy to heat thereby specifically killing cancer cells. This may represent a promising new cancer therapeutic modality, advancing beyond conventional laser ablation and other nanoparticle approaches. Methods Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor (TSHR) was selected as a target for PTC cells, due to its wide expression. Either TSHR antibodies or Thyrogen or purified TSH (Thyrotropin) were chemically conjugated to our functionalized Bionanofluid. A diode laser system (532 nm) was used to illuminate a PTC cell line for set exposure times. Cell death was assessed using Trypan Blue staining. Results TSHR-targeted BioNanofluids were capable of selectively ablating BCPAP, a TSHR-positive PTC cell line, while not TSHR-null NSC-34 cells. We determined that a 2:1 BCPAP cell:α-TSHR-BioNanofluid conjugate ratio and a 30 second laser exposure killed approximately 60% of the BCPAP cells, while 65% and >70% of cells were ablated using Thyrotropin- and Thyrogen-BioNanofluid conjugates, respectively. Furthermore, minimal non-targeted killing was observed using selective controls. Conclusion A BioNanofluid platform offering a potential therapeutic path for papillary thyroid cancer has been investigated, with our in vitro results suggesting the development of a potent and rapid method of selective cancer cell killing. Therefore, BioNanofluid treatment emphasizes the need for new technology to treat patients with local recurrence and metastatic disease who are currently undergoing either re-operative neck explorations, repeated administration of radioactive iodine and as a last resort external beam

  5. Follicular epithelial dysplasia of the thyroid: morphological and immunohistochemical characterization of a putative preneoplastic lesion to papillary thyroid carcinoma in chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Chui, Michael Herman; Cassol, Clarissa A; Asa, Sylvia L; Mete, Ozgur

    2013-05-01

    In chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT), the follicular epithelial cells display cytological atypia resembling papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and epidemiological studies have suggested an increased risk of PTC in patients with this condition. While reactive atypia is observed diffusely in CLT-affected thyroid parenchyma, it is not unusual to find microscopic foci morphologically distinct from the surrounding parenchyma, exhibiting more pronounced cytological and architectural atypia. These small atypical lesions, which we term "follicular epithelial dysplasia" (FED), are particularly prominent in cases of severe CLT, yet lack invasive growth, papillary architecture, or intranuclear pseudoinclusions. To gain further insight into their biological significance, we constructed a tissue microarray of 70 cases of CLT, comprised of morphologically normal thyroid, thyroid with reactive atypia, FED, follicular nodular disease (nodular hyperplasia or follicular adenoma), and PTC. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for a marker panel including PTC (HBME-1, cytokeratin 19, galectin-3, and cyclin-D1) as well as TTF-1, thyroglobulin, and p63. Slides were digitally scanned and immunohistochemical staining evaluated using automated image analysis software. FED lesions were positive for TTF-1 and thyroglobulin (50/50, 100 %), though some (13/50, 26 %) also expressed p63. Similar to PTC, strong diffuse staining was observed for HBME-1 (43/50, 86 %), cytokeratin 19 (48/50, 96 %), galectin-3 (20/50, 40 %) and cyclin-D1 (38/50, 76 %). In contrast, normal thyroid, reactive atypia, and follicular nodular disease were negative, or at most, exhibited focal weak staining for HBME-1, cytokeratin 19, and galectin-3. The results of this study demonstrate the presence of atypical microscopic lesions in CLT with an immunohistochemical profile similar to PTC, supporting the concept of a premalignant lesion preceding PTC, arising in the context of severe chronic inflammation.

  6. Influence of presence/absence of thyroid gland on the cutoff value for thyroglobulin in lymph-node aspiration to detect metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huan; Wang, Yong; Wang, Min-Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Hai-Rui; Zhang, Bing; Guo, Hui-Qin

    2017-04-28

    Thyroglobulin measurement with fine-needle aspiration (Tg-FNA) is a sensitive method for detecting metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, the diagnostic threshold is not well established and the influence of the thyroid gland on the cutoff value is also controversial. In this study, patients were classified into two groups according to the presence or absence of thyroid tissue, to determine an appropriate cutoff value for clinical practice. Patients with a history of thyroid nodules or surgery for PTC and with enlarged cervical lymph nodes on an FNA examination were enrolled for Tg-FNA detection. One hundred ninety-six lymph nodes (189 patients) were included: 100 from preoperative patients, 49 from patients treated with partial thyroid ablation, and 47 from patients with total thyroid ablation. In 149 lymph nodes from patient with thyroids, the cutoff value for Tg-FNA was 55.99 ng/mL (sensitivity, 95.1%; specificity, 100%), whereas in 47 lymph nodes from patients without a thyroid, it was 9.71 ng/mL (sensitivity, 96.7%; specificity, 100%). Thus, the cutoff value for Tg-FNA was higher in patients with thyroids than in patients without thyroids. The cutoff value for Tg-FNA is influenced by residual thyroid tissue, and a higher cutoff value is recommended for patients with thyroids than for patients without thyroids.

  7. BRAFV600E mutation contributes papillary thyroid carcinoma and Hashimoto thyroiditis with resistance to thyroid hormone: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Wanjia; Liu, Xiaohong; He, Qingqing; Zhang, Zongjing; Jiang, Zhaoshun

    2017-01-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare autosomal hereditary disorder characterized by increased serum thyroid hormone (TH) levels with unsuppressed or increased thyrotropin concentration. It remains unknown whether the coexistence of RTH with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is incidental or whether it possesses a genetic or pathophysiological association. In the present study, a case of RTH with PTC and HT in an 11-year-old Chinese patient was examined and the clinical presentation of RTH with PTC was discussed. In addition, the possible associations between RTH, PTC and HT were determined. HT was confirmed in the patient using an autoimmune assay and thyroid ultrasound. RTH was diagnosed on the basis of clinical manifestations, laboratory information and gene analysis, and PTC was diagnosed according to histological results. Results of BRAFV600E mutation analysis were positive. A literature review of 14 cases of RTH with PTC was included for comparison. The present case report indicates an association of RTH with PTC and HT coexistence in the patient. Close follow-up, histological evaluation and BRAFV600E mutation detection should be performed in each RTH case with HT, since a persistent increase in TSH may be a risk factor for the development of thyroid neoplasm. PMID:28928829

  8. Impact of Reclassification on Thyroid Nodules with Architectural Atypia: From Non-Invasive Encapsulated Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas to Non-Invasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Min Ji; Song, Dong Eun; Jung, Chan Kwon; Kim, Won Gu; Kwon, Hyemi; Lee, Yu-Mi; Sung, Tae-Yon; Yoon, Jong Ho; Chung, Ki-Wook; Hong, Suck Joon; Baek, Jung Hwan; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2016-01-01

    Background The follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC), especially the encapsulated non-invasive subtype, is a controversial entity. Recent study suggested using ‘non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP)’ for these indolent carcinomas. We evaluated the impact of reclassification from non-invasive encapsulated FVPTCs (EFVPTCs) to NIFTPs in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules with architectural atypia. Methods We reviewed 1301 thyroid nodules with architectural atypia in core needle biopsy (CNB) specimens obtained from March 2012 to February 2013. Nodules were classified into atypia of undetermined significance with architectural atypia (AUS-A, 984, 76%) or follicular neoplasm/suspicious for a follicular neoplasm (FN/SFN, 317, 24%). Among them, diagnostic surgery was performed in 384 nodules (30%). Results In total, 160 nodules (42%) presented final malignant diagnoses including 39 non-invasive encapsulated FVPTCs (10%). The malignancy rate was estimated to be 7–35% in AUS-A nodules and 28–49% in FN/SFN nodules. After reclassification, the malignancy rate was much decreased and estimated to be 5–24% in AUS-A nodules, and 23–39% in FN/SFN nodules. Thyroid nodules with final malignant diagnoses were significantly more likely to have a FN/SFN CNB diagnosis, malignant US features and concomitant nuclear atypia in CNB specimens. However, these factors could not differentiate NIFTPs from other malignancies. Conclusions After reclassification of non-invasive EFVPTCs to NIFTPs, the malignancy rate of thyroid nodules with architectural atypia in CNB specimens was decreased. However, there were no preoperative factors differentiating other malignancies from NIFTPs. The presence of malignant US features or concomitant nuclear atypia might help clinicians deciding diagnostic surgery but, these features also might indicate NIFTPs. PMID:27936121

  9. Lymph node status of lateral neck compartment in patients with N1b papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Min; Wang, Soo-Geun; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, In-Ju; Son, Seok-Man; Lee, Byung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Loco-regional recurrence-free survival was significantly decreased in the papillary thyroid cancer patients with > 6 metastatic lymph nodes and a lymph node ratio > 0.22. Also, the risk of lung metastasis was significantly increased in cases with bilateral neck node metastases. Objective This study focused on the metastatic lymph node status of the lateral neck compartment to understand its prognostic significance for loco-regional recurrence and distant metastasis. Methods Between January 2004 and December 2009, 1040 patients were diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer and underwent treatment. Results In a multivariate analysis, sex, the number of metastatic lymph nodes, and the lymph node ratio was significantly associated with loco-regional recurrence. The sensitivity/specificity of > 6 metastatic lymph nodes for predicting recurrence was 64.0%/69.7%. The 5-year loco-regional recurrence-free survival of patients with 0-6 metastatic lymph nodes and > 6 metastatic lymph nodes were 93.4% and 79.2%, respectively. The 5-year loco-regional recurrence-free survival of patients with a lymph node ratio ≤ 0.22 and a lymph node ratio > 0.22 were 97.1% and 78.8%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, only bilateral neck node metastases were significantly associated with lung metastasis.

  10. Expression of syndecan-1 in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with extracapsular invasion.

    PubMed

    Bologna-Molina, Ronell; González-González, Rogelio; Mosqueda-Taylor, Adalberto; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Damián-Matsumura, Pablo; Dominguez-Malagón, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Syndecan-1 (SDC-1) is a member of the family of transmembrane heparan sulfate proteoglycans, which are involved in cell-cell adhesion and the interaction of cells with the extracellular matrix. Evidence suggests that loss of SDC-1 expression in several benign and malignant epithelial neoplasms is an unfavorable prognostic indicator, but its expression profile in thyroid gland neoplasms remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate SDC-1 expression in papillary carcinomas of the thyroid (PCT) that were both larger and smaller (papillary microcarcinoma) than 10mm, with or without extracapsular extension (PCT-E and PCT-NE). The expression of SDC-1 was studied in 62 cases of PCT-E and PCT-NE using a tissue microarrays technique (TMA). SDC-1 positivity was predominantly observed in the cytoplasm of neoplastic epithelial cells and in the stroma of PCT. SDC-1 is expressed in both neoplastic epithelial cells and the stroma. It is more frequently expressed in PCT-E than PCT-NE (p=0.002) and the stromal expression of SDC-1 is more intense in PCT-E that are >10 mm (p=0.026). The epithelial and stromal expression of SDC-1 observed in this series of PCT suggests that the expression of this protein may be related to extracapsular invasion. 2010 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Review of survival rates 20-years after conservative surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, Abrão; Curioni, Otávio Alberto; Amar, Ali; Dedivitis, Rogério Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    A less extensive thyroidectomy could be used for patients in the low risk group. To perform a critical follow-up after lobectomy with isthmusectomy for the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with a single nodule limited to the periphery of the lobe. Thirty-one patients with thyroid papillary carcinoma operated on till 1993 were selected. They had undergone lobectomy with isthmusectomy. This is a retrospective cohort study in which the oncological outcome (contralateral and regional recurrence) and the reoperation complications (recurrent nerve paralysis/paresis and hypoparathyroidism) were evaluated. Descriptive analysis was employed. In the last decade (2003-2013), 6 (20%) contralateral recurrences were observed in the remaining lobe and in 1 of these cases (3%), contralateral lymph node metastases were noted. A completion thyroidectomy plus lymphadenectomy was performed, without modification of global survival. Because of the rate of 20% of contralateral recurrence after a 20-year follow-up, we suggest modification of the surgical paradigm for total thyroidectomy as an initial therapy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  12. Brain metastases with exceptional features from papillary thyroid carcinoma: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan-Hong; Song, Hong-Jun; Qiu, Zhong-Ling; Luo, Quan-Yong

    2011-01-01

    We present three papillary thyroid carcinoma PTC patients with brain metastases who are unusual in many aspects. The first case is a unique 3mm papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) patient with metastases to the cerebrum and lung. The solitary cerebral lesion was identified by iodine-131 whole- body scan ((131)I-WBS) and (131)I single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPET/CT). Almost complete response achieved after radiosurgery. The second case is a unique PTC patient with coexistent (131)I-negative cerebrum, adrenal gland and ilium metastases, which were identified by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Partial response achieved after radiosurgery. The third case is a patient with an incident solitary cystic cerebellar mass as a primary presentation of follicular variant of PTC and absent other distant metastases. In conclusion, widespread metastases from small PTMC may occur. Concomitant brain and adrenal metastases may occur in a same PTC patient. Brain metastasis may present as a cystic lesion.

  13. Down-regulation of miR-181b promotes apoptosis by targeting CYLD in thyroid papillary cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Dengfeng; Jian, Wei; Wei, Chuankui; Song, Hongming; Gu, Yifan; Luo, Yi; Fang, Lin

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a small class of non-coding RNAs that are widely deregulated in various cancers. They act as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in human cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential role of miR-181b in human thyroid papillary cancer. The expression levels of different miRNAs were measured by micro array analysis in 10 thyroid papillary cancer specimens and adjacent normal thyroid cancer tissues. MTT assays, colony formation assays, apoptosis assays were used to explore the potential function of miR-181b inhibitor in TPC1 human thyroid papillary cancer cells. Luciferase reporter assays were performed to validate the regulation of a putative target of miR-181b, in corroboration with qPCR and western blot assays. We found that the expression of miR-181b was higher in thyroid papillary cancer specimens compared with adjacent normal tissues (P < 0.05). Downregulation of miR-181b inhibited cellular growth and promoted cellular apoptosis. Luciferase assays indicated that miR-181b can bind with its putative target site in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of CYLD, suggesting that CYLD is a direct target of miR-181b. Western blot analysis indicated that downregulation of miR-181b results in the upregulation of CYLD at protein levels. Taken together, downregulation of miR-181b expression causes cellular growth inhibition, promoting cellular apoptosis by targeting CYLD. These findings suggest that downregulation of the expression of miR-181b may be a therapeutic target for the treatment of human thyroid papillary cancer.

  14. Aggressive Disease Course of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Focal Undifferentiated Component: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Saima; Bashir, Humayun; Hassan, Aamna; Mushtaq, Sajid; Jamshed, Arif; Murtaza, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    We report an aggressive papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with focal undifferentiated component in a 32-year-old female. She had limited disease confined within the thyroid gland at diagnosis. Within 12 months of thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation, thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were elevated. Second radioiodine ablative dose was given, however, stimulated Tg levels showed an upward trend with negative iodine scan within 12 months. An 18F fludeoxyglucose-avid solitary pulmonary nodule that was detected on positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan was resected followed by empiric radioiodine therapy. Within the next 10 months she developed multifocal bone metastases. The multifocal disease was rendered inoperable and treated with external beam radiation. The patient is on follow-up, and the Tg level continues to rise with local disease progression. In a small percentage of patients, PTC behaves as a very aggressive disease despite treatment. Focally undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma is an expression of the extreme end of the spectrum of differentiated thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27751976

  15. Aggressive Disease Course of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Focal Undifferentiated Component: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Riaz, Saima; Bashir, Humayun; Hassan, Aamna; Mushtaq, Sajid; Jamshed, Arif; Murtaza, Ahmad

    2016-10-05

    We report an aggressive papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with focal undifferentiated component in a 32-year-old female. She had limited disease confined within the thyroid gland at diagnosis. Within 12 months of thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablation, thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were elevated. Second radioiodine ablative dose was given, however, stimulated Tg levels showed an upward trend with negative iodine scan within 12 months. An 18F fludeoxyglucose-avid solitary pulmonary nodule that was detected on positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan was resected followed by empiric radioiodine therapy. Within the next 10 months she developed multifocal bone metastases. The multifocal disease was rendered inoperable and treated with external beam radiation. The patient is on follow-up, and the Tg level continues to rise with local disease progression. In a small percentage of patients, PTC behaves as a very aggressive disease despite treatment. Focally undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma is an expression of the extreme end of the spectrum of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

  16. rs965513 polymorphism as a common risk marker is associated with papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun; Chen, Meijun; Qiao, Hong; Zhang, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. With the rapid development of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), many genome variants associated with susceptibility to PTC have been identified, including the single nucleotide polymorphism rs965513 (9q22.33) near FOXE1. To evaluate the association between rs965513 and PTC in different ethnicities and countries, we conducted a meta-analysis using relatively large-scale samples from 23 studies (N = 163,136; 20,736 cases and 142,400 controls) by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Significant heterogeneity caused by different populations among the selected studies was observed. The A allele of rs965513 polymorphism was shown to be highly associated with risk of thyroid cancer, with odds ratios of 1.58 (95% CI 1.32–1.90) in all populations, 1.65 (95% CI 1.31–2.07)) in Caucasian populations and 1.49 in Asian populations. Compared to the dominant and recessive models, we observed the highest odds ratio (OR = 2.80, 95% CI 2.12–3.69) in the homozygous model. These results revealed that the rs965513 polymorphism is a risk factor for thyroid cancer PMID:27191655

  17. Tuberculosis cervical lymphadenopathy mimics lateral neck metastasis from papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok-Mo; Jun, Hak Hoon; Chang, Ho-Jin; Chun, Ki Won; Kim, Bup-Woo; Lee, Yong Sang; Chang, Hang-Seok; Park, Cheong Soo

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) lymphadenitis is a frequent cause of lymphadenopathy in areas in which TB is endemic. Cervical lymphadenopathy in TB can mimic lateral neck metastasis (LNM) from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). This study evaluated the clinicopathological features of patients with PTC and TB lateral neck lymphadenopathy. Of the 9098 thyroid cancer patients who underwent thyroid cancer surgery at the Thyroid Cancer Center of Gangnam Severance Hospital between January 2009 and April 2013, 28 had PTC and showed TB lymphadenopathy of the lateral neck node. The clinicopathological features of these 28 patients were evaluated. Preoperatively, all 28 patients were diagnosed with PTC and showed cervical lymphadenopathy. All had radiological characteristics suspicious of metastasis in lateral neck nodes. Based upon the results from intraoperative frozen sections, lymph node dissection (LND) was not performed on 19 patients. Seven of eight patients who underwent LND had metastasis combined with tuberculous lymphadenopathy, with the remaining patient negative for LNM. Intraoperative sampling and frozen sectioning of lymph nodes suspicious of metastasis can help avoid unnecessary LND for tuberculous lymphadenopathy. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  18. p53 constrains progression to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma in a Braf-mutant mouse model of papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, David G.; Vernon, Amanda; Santiago, Philip M.; Martinez-McFaline, Raul; Bhutkar, Arjun; Crowley, Denise M.; McMahon, Martin; Sadow, Peter M.; Jacks, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has among the worst prognoses of any solid malignancy. The low incidence of the disease has in part precluded systematic clinical trials and tissue collection, and there has been little progress in developing effective therapies. v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) and tumor protein p53 (TP53) mutations cooccur in a high proportion of ATCs, particularly those associated with a precursor papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). To develop an adult-onset model of BRAF-mutant ATC, we generated a thyroid-specific CreER transgenic mouse. We used a Cre-regulated BrafV600E mouse and a conditional Trp53 allelic series to demonstrate that p53 constrains progression from PTC to ATC. Gene expression and immunohistochemical analyses of murine tumors identified the cardinal features of human ATC including loss of differentiation, local invasion, distant metastasis, and rapid lethality. We used small-animal ultrasound imaging to monitor autochthonous tumors and showed that treatment with the selective BRAF inhibitor PLX4720 improved survival but did not lead to tumor regression or suppress signaling through the MAPK pathway. The combination of PLX4720 and the mapk/Erk kinase (MEK) inhibitor PD0325901 more completely suppressed MAPK pathway activation in mouse and human ATC cell lines and improved the structural response and survival of ATC-bearing animals. This model expands the limited repertoire of autochthonous models of clinically aggressive thyroid cancer, and these data suggest that small-molecule MAPK pathway inhibitors hold clinical promise in the treatment of advanced thyroid carcinoma. PMID:24711431

  19. Interactive role of miR-126 on VEGF-A and progression of papillary and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Salajegheh, Ali; Vosgha, Haleh; Rahman, Md Atiqur; Amin, Moein; Smith, Robert Anthony; Lam, Alfred King-Yin

    2016-05-01

    MicroRNA-126 (miR-126) expression has been shown to be associated with angiogenesis. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the functional roles of miR-126 in dysregulation of VEGF expression and cancer progression in thyroid carcinomas. The expression of VEGF-A and miR-126 were measured in 101 thyroid carcinomas tissues (including 51 conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma, 37 follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, and 13 undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas), 13 matched lymph nodes with metastatic thyroid carcinoma, 21 benign thyroid tissues, and 5 thyroid carcinoma cell lines (both papillary and undifferentiated carcinomas). Then, exogenous miR-126 was transfected, and the expressions of VEGF-A were determined (Western blot technique). Proliferation assay, cell cycle analysis, and apoptosis assays were used to evaluate the role of miR-126 in these events. Significant underexpression of miR-126 levels in thyroid cancer tissues and cell lines was detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Introducing exogenous miR-126 into the cancer cell lines resulted in a significant reduction of VEGF-A protein expression. Marked inhibition in proliferation, cell cycle arrest in G0-G1, and promotion of total apoptosis were also noted. The modulatory role of miR-126 on expression of VEGF-A and its tumor suppressive roles were demonstrated for the first time in thyroid cancer. The current experiments provided specific information on the functional consequences of VEGF manipulation via microRNA on cancer.

  20. The Molecular Landscape of Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm With Papillary-like Nuclear Features (NIFTP): A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Basolo, Fulvio; Macerola, Elisabetta; Ugolini, Clara; Poller, David N; Baloch, Zubair

    2017-09-01

    The encapsulated and noninvasive follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma has been recently reclassified as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). These tumors demonstrate indolent behavior. This change in nomenclature will have great clinical impact by avoiding overtreatment of patients with NIFTP lesions who in the past were diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma and typically received completion thyroidectomy followed by radioactive iodine ablation. The pathologic diagnosis of NIFTP requires surgical removal of the thyroid lesion or the lobe harboring it, and thorough sampling of the complete interface between the tumor capsule and the thyroid parenchyma, to exclude foci of invasion. From a cytologic point of view, the unequivocal differential diagnosis between NIFTP and infiltrative follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in fine-needle aspiration is close to impossible based on cellular and architectural features. Therefore, use of adjunct molecular testing on fine-needle aspiration specimens may be essential for the preoperative diagnosis of low-risk tumors such as NIFTP for appropriate patient management. This review discusses and summarizes the existing known literature on molecular characteristics of NIFTP tumors, so far reported, including cases retrospectively classified or prospectively diagnosed as NIFTP. Brief reference is also made to new and promising approaches applicable to the diagnosis of this tumor.

  1. The role of IgG4 (+) plasma cells in the association of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Taşli, Funda; Ozkök, Güliz; Argon, Asuman; Ersöz, Didem; Yağci, Ayşe; Uslu, Adam; Erkan, Nazif; Salman, Tarik; Vardar, Enver

    2014-12-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is considered to be a risk factor for the formation of papillary carcinoma. The association of IgG4-related sclerosing disease with tumor is reported to be as sporadic cases in many organs. In this study, it was intended to re-classify the HT diagnosed cases on the basis of the existence of IgG4 (+) plasma cells; to investigate the clinicopathologic and histopathologic features of the both groups; and in addition, to evaluate the papillary carcinoma prevalence in IgG4 (+) and IgG4 (-) HT cases as well as the prognostic parameters between these groups. Totally 59 cases between the years 2008-2013, 29 of which contain Hashimoto thyroiditis diagnosis in total thyroidectomy materials, and 30 of which contain the diagnosis of HT+papillary carcinoma, were included in the study. The materials were immunohistochemically applied IgG and IgG4; and the cases were classified in two groups as IgG4-positive HT and IgG4-negative HT containing cases, on the basis of IgG4/IgG rate. All histopathologic and clinicopathologic parameters between these two groups, as well as their association with papillary carcinoma were investigated. Thirty eight (64.4%) of total 59 cases were NonIgG4 thyroiditis, and 21 (35.5%) were IgG4 thyroiditis. Tumors were detected in 14 (36.8%) of the NonIgG4 thyroiditis cases, and in 16 (76.1%) of the IgG4 thyroiditis cases. The association of IgG4 thyroiditis with tumor is statistically significant (p < 0.004). Multifocality was found to be at a higher rate in IgG4 thyroiditis cases. Perithyroidal extension was detected in six of the cases with tumor, and five of the six cases were IgG4 thyroiditis cases. The association of IgG4 (+) HT cases with increased papillary carcinoma prevalence is suggestive of that IgG4 (+) plasma cells can play a role in carcinogenesis in papillary carcinomas developed in HTs, without a chronic sclerosing ground. In addition, although the number of cases is limited, the high-association of IgG4

  2. [Minimally invasive endoscopic thyroidectomy via an anterior chest approach for early papillary thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-ming; Sun, Wei; Hong, Yun; Cai, Qian; Liang, Fa-ya; Han, Ping

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and safety of endoscopic thyroidectomy via anterior chest approach for early papillary thyroid cancer (T1N0M0). From July 2004 to December 2010, 91 patients with early papillary thyroid cancer underwent minimally invasive endoscopic thyroidectomy via anterior chest approach. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of patients, operation types, operative time, postoperative hospital stay time, and postoperative complications were analyzed retrospectively. All 91 operations were successfully performed endoscopically. There was no case conversed to open surgery. The mean tumor size was (0.96 ± 0.71) cm. The operation types included unilateral lobectomy (41 cases), unilateral subtotal lobectomy (3 cases), ipsilateral lobectomy and contralateral subtotal lobectomy (42 cases), and bilateral total thyroidectomy (5 cases). Central compartment node dissection was carried out in 39 cases with the tumor diameter less than 1.0 cm and in 29 cases with the tumor diameter of 1.0 - 2.0 cm. The mean operating time was (99 ± 17) min, the mean bleeding volume was (18 ± 12) ml, and the mean post-operative hospital stay time was (3 ± 1) days. Temporary recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), paresis occurred in 2 cases and recovered within 1 to 2 months after the surgery. One patient showed permanent RLN paralysis. Two patients showed temporary hypoparathyroidism. No patient showed post-operative seroma and tracheal injury. There was no case with injury to the superior laryngeal nerve. No further complications, such as irritating cough, tetany, and emphysema developed after the operation. With the anterior chest wall approach, all patients had no surgical scar on the neck and thus they were satisfied with the cosmetic outcomes. All patients were disease free by follow-up of 7 to 85 (58.4 ± 17.2) months. Minimally invasive endoscopic thyroid surgery through anterior chest approach is a feasible and safe method for the treatment of early papillary thyroid

  3. [Follicular cell (papillary and follicular) thyroid carcinoma, genetic inheritance, and molecular diagnostic markers].

    PubMed

    Kazubskaia, T P; Kozlova, V M; Kondrat'eva, T T; Pavlovskaia, A I; Marakhonov, A V; Baranova, A V; Ivanova, N I; Stepanova, A A; Poliakov, A V; Belev, N F; Brzhezovskiĭ, V Zh

    2014-01-01

    To determine the genetic forms of follicular cell thyroid carcinoma (FCTC) (papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma (PTC and FTC)), to identify criteria to individually predict the development of the same disease for relatives, and to assess the role of molecular markers in the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of this disease. One hundred and ninety adult patients aged 20 to 84 years with histologically verified PTC and FTC and 20 children (12 patients with PTC and 8 with benign thyroid tumors) aged 2 to 16 years were examined. To assess the role of the BRAF gene as a molecular marker for thyroid carcinoma, DNA was isolated from the thyroid tumor tissue of 29 patients, which had been obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) and scraping and swabbing the cytological specimen previously showing an area containing tumor cells. A BRAF c.1799T>A (p.V600E) mutation in the FNAB specimens was tested by allele-specific ligation, followed by PCR amplification. The examinees' families were found to have a segregation of benign thyroid tumor and nontumor diseases (13.6%). Neoplasias of different sites were observed in 15% of the patients' relatives. Multiple primary tumors were detected in 6.1% of the patients and in 25% of the examined children (3/12). PTC was ascertained to accumulate as two clinical forms in the families. One form belongs to familial PTC (FPTC) in which two or three generations of relatives in the family are afflicted by only PTC and have a more severe phenotype of the disease. The other includes an association of FPTC with papillary kidney cancer. Furthermore, FPTC and PTC may be a component of multitumor syndromes, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Cowden syndrome, and familial adenomatous polyposis. The familial hereditary forms of FCTC were generally revealed in 4.2% of the patients. BRAF v600E mutations were found in only 3 patients with Stages II and III PTC and were not in all the 12 children with PTC. The found clinical

  4. Papillary thyroid carcinoma involving cervical neck lymph nodes: correlations with lymphangiogenesis and ultrasound features.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoonjung; Park, Kyung Joo; Ryu, Seungho; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Yun, Jisup; Kang, Doo Kyoung; Chun, Mison

    2012-01-01

    Stratification of risk factors for cervical lymph node metastasis (LNM) in thyroid papillary carcinoma is important for providing standards for post-operative adjuvant radio-iodine therapy and for patient prognosis. We investigated pathological factors based on the lymphatic vessel system and radiological features associated with tumor with cervical neck LNM. Among patients who had undergone thyroidectomy confirmed to be papillary thyroid carcinoma, we selected 126 age-sex matched paired patients without cervical LNM (group 1) and with LNM (group 2) to evaluate risk factors. Pathological factors evaluated were size, multiplicity, and extra thyroid extension state, based on the pathological reports using stored data. The lymphatic vessel density (LVD) of each tumor was evaluated by staining for VEGFR-3 and D2-40 and correlated with cervical LNM state. Malignant ultrasound features were evaluated to compare the differences between these two groups. Larger tumor size, multiplicity, extrathyroid extension were more common in group 2 (p<0.05). The median percentage of VEGFR-3 for group 1 was 20 (range 0-30) and D2-40 was 13 (range 7-23) while for group 2, VEGFR-3 was 80 (70-90) and D2-40 was 78 (54-114). LVD measured by intratumoral D2-40 staining was 20.6% and 79.4% for group 1 and group 2, respectively. Intra-tumoral lymphatics measured by D2-40 stain had a strong correlation with cervical LNM (Odds 1.230, CI 1.01.-1.499 p value 0.040). Ultrasound (US) features had no significant differences between the two groups although calcifications tended to be higher in group 2 (84% vs. 76% p=0.264). Lymphatic vessel density and nodule echogenicity were not associated with LNM. Intratumoral lymphangiogenesis was most strongly associated with LNM and thus, could be a useful predictive marker for cervical LNM.

  5. Correlation between calcification and bone sialoprotein and osteopontin in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang; Guo, Jing-Jing; Ma, Zhen-Yu; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Zhong-Wen; Wang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between calcification and papillary thyroid carcinoma has received increasing attention. We investigated the ability of bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN) protein levels to diagnose papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and explored the correlation between BSP and OPN protein levels and calcification in PTC. Archival PTC specimens from patients with PTC with calcification and lateral cervical lymph node metastasis (LNM) were included in this retrospective immunohistochemical study. The protein levels of BSP and OPN were analysed immunohistochemically using routinely prepared tissue sections. PTC specimens from 66 patients with PTC were reviewed retrospectively (25 patients with histological calcification seen in paraffin sections, 41 patients without calcification; 35 patients with lateral cervical LNM, 31 patients without LNM). The percentage of samples that had cells that demonstrated positive protein staining differed significantly between PTC specimens, benign thyroid nodules, and adjacent normal follicular epithelium (BSP: 87.88%, 55.00%, and 42.50%, respectively; OPN: 83.33%, 70.00% and 50.00%, respectively). There was a significant difference in the immunohistochemical score (IHS) for BSP and OPN protein staining between PTC specimens with and without calcification (P < 0.05). The level of BSP protein staining was found to be significantly correlated with the level of OPN protein staining in PTC specimens. We conclude that the strong correlation between BSP and OPN and PTC suggests a role for BSP and OPN in calcification and tumor progression of PTC. BSP and OPN might be useful tumour markers for the diagnosis of PTC with limited value, because both of them had low specificity. PMID:25973097

  6. Multi-Level 3D Printing Implant For Reconstructing Cervical Spine With Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiucan; Wang, Yiguo; Zhao, Yongfei; Liu, Jianheng; Xiao, Songhua; Mao, Keya

    2017-05-11

    A unique case report. A three-dimensional (3D) printing technology is proposed for reconstructing multi-level cervical spine (C2-C4) after resection of metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma in a middle-age female patient. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm with a relatively favorable prognosis. A metastatic lesion in multi-level cervical spine (C2-C4) destroys neurological functions and causes local instability. Radical excision of the metastasis and reconstruction of the cervical vertebrae sequence conforms with therapeutic principles, while the special-shaped multi-level upper-cervical spine requires personalized implants. 3D printing is an additive manufacturing technology that produces personalized products by accurately layering material under digital model control via a computer. Reporting of this recent technology for reconstructing multi-level cervical spine (C2-C4) is rare in the literature. Anterior-posterior surgery was performed in one stage. Radical resection of the metastatic lesion (C2-C4) and thyroid gland, along with insertion of a personalized implant manufactured by 3D printing technology, were performed to rebuild the cervical spine sequences. The porous implant was printed in Ti6AL4 V with perfect physicochemical properties and biological performance, such as biocompatibility and osteogenic activity. Finally, lateral mass screw fixation was performed via a posterior approach. Patient neurological function gradually improved after the surgery. The patient received 11/17 on the Japanese Orthopedic Association scale and ambulated with a personalized skull-neck-thorax orthosis on postoperative day 11. She received radioiodine I therapy. The plane X-rays and computed tomography revealed no implant displacement or subsidence at the 12-month follow-up mark. The presented case substantiates the use of 3D printing technology, which enables the personalization of products to solve unconventional problems in spinal surgery. 5.

  7. Molecular correlates and rate of lymph node metastasis of non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features and invasive follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma: the impact of rigid criteria to distinguish non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features.

    PubMed

    Cho, Uiju; Mete, Ozgur; Kim, Min-Hee; Bae, Ja Seong; Jung, Chan Kwon

    2017-03-10

    Thyroid tumors formerly classified as non-invasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma were recently renamed 'non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features'. The current study investigated the frequency of lymph node metastasis and mutational profile of encapsulated follicular variant in the setting of a clinical practice where central neck dissection was the standard of practice. We defined the impact of rigid diagnostic criteria by regrouping such tumors based on the complete absence of papillae or presence of ≤1% papillae. Of a total of 6,269 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 152 tumors fulfilled the criteria for encapsulated follicular variant. The results were stratified according to two different diagnostic cutoff criteria with respect to the extent of papillae. When the cutoff of 1% papillae was used, the rates of lymph node metastasis and BRAF(V600E) mutation were 3% and 10% in non-invasive tumors and 9% and 4% in invasive tumors, respectively. Despite the lack of invasive growth, one patient with BRAF(V600E) mutant-tumor displaying predominant follicular growth and subtle papillae developed a bone metastasis. When absence of papillary structure was applied as rigid diagnostic criteria, no BRAF(V600E) mutation was found in all tumors. However, central lymph node micrometastasis still occurred in 3% of non-invasive tumors. Non-V600E BRAF and RAS mutations were detected in 4% and 47% of non-invasive tumors, respectively. Our findings suggest that non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features should not be regarded as a benign thyroid neoplasm as it can present with lymph node micrometastasis and should not be diagnosed in the presence of even a single papillary structure. Our findings underscore the original American Thyroid Association recommendation that defined non-invasive encapsulated follicular variants as low risk thyroid cancers. Clinical surveillance similar to

  8. [Analysis of the patterns of cervical lymph node recurrence in patients with cN0 papillary thyroid carcinoma after central neck lymph node dissection].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Xu, Zhengang; Wang, Xiaolei; Wu, Yuehuang; Liu, Shaoyan

    2015-10-01

    To retrospectively analyze the long-term results of prophylactic central lymph node dissection in cN0 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and investigate the treatment method of the cervical lymph nodes for cN0 PTC. One hundred and thirty-six patients with cN0 PTC were treated by surgery at the Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from 2000 to 2006. Their clinicopathological characteristics, surgical procedures and survival outcomes were collected and analyzed. The occult lymph node metastasis rate in central compartment was 61.0%. The average number of positive lymph nodes was 2.47 (1-13), in which 54 patients had 1-2 and 29 patients had ≥ 3 positive lymph nodes. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age less than 45 (P=0.001, OR 3.571, 95% CI 1.681-7.587)and extracapsular spread (ECS) (P=0.015, OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.241-7.202)were independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis in the central compartment. The ten-year cumulative overall survival rate was 98.3% and cumulative lateral neck metastasis rate was 25.2%. Multivariate analysis with Cox regression model showed that ECS (P=0.001, OR 5.211, 95% CI1.884-14.411) and positive lymph nodes in the central compartment ≥ 3 (P=0.009, OR 4.005, 95% CI 1.419-11.307) were independent risk factors for lymph node recurrence in the lateral neck region. The distribution of recurrent lymph nodes: level IV (82.4%), level III (64.7%), level II (29.4%) and level V (11.8%). Routine central lymph node dissection, at least unilateral, should be conducted for cN0 papillary thyroid carcinoma. Attention should be paid to the treatment of lateral neck region in patients with cN0 papillary thyroid carcinoma. Selective neck dissection is suggested for cN0 PTC with ECS or positive central lymph nodes ≥ 3, or both. The range of dissection should include level III and IV at least.

  9. Cystic thyroid mass following I-131 treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma: An unusual complication

    SciTech Connect

    Morrish, D.W.; Jackson, F.I.; Lalani, Z.H.; Catz, Z.; Sloboda, R. )

    1989-12-01

    Several unusual complications of I-131 therapy for thyroid carcinoma are known. Two patients who developed a further unusual event that consisted of a palpable mass and cystic degeneration are described.

  10. Differential miRNA expression profiles in variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma and encapsulated follicular thyroid tumours

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, S-Y; Grabellus, F; Schwertheim, S; Worm, K; Broecker-Preuss, M; Schmid, K W

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recent studies showed a significant upregulation of distinct microRNAs (miRNAs) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The objective of this study was to explore whether this upregulation could also be assigned to distinct histomorphological variants of PTC, especially the follicular variant and other encapsulated follicular thyroid tumours. Methods: We used total RNA of 113 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of 50 PTCs ((10 conventional type (PTC-CT), 10 tall cell variants (PTC-TCVs), 30 follicular variants (PTC-FVs)), 10 follicular adenomas (FAs), 10 multinodular goitres (MNGs), 21 follicular thyroid carcinomas and 22 well-differentiated tumours of unknown malignant potential (WDT-UMP) to analyse the miRNA expression pattern of five selected miRNAs (146b, 181b, 21, 221 and 222) using RT–PCR TaqMan miRNA assay to explore the diagnostic utility of this method. Results: The mean values of the expression pattern of all miRNAS in PTCs show a statistically significant difference from those in MNG and FA with fold changes up to 90 for miRNA 146b, P<0.001. No differences in expression pattern could be showed between MNG and FA. The PTC-FVs differ significantly from FA in all five miRNAS, from MNG in three and from WDT-UMP in one miRNA with fold changes between 1.7 and 21.2, but failed to be of diagnostic value regarding individual cases with substantial overlaps. Conclusion: We conclude that analysis of a set of five selected miRNAS distinguish common variants of PTC from FA/MNG but failed to be a useful diagnostic method in individual and doubtful cases, especially in the differential diagnosis of encapsulated follicular thyroid tumours. PMID:20029416

  11. [Citophotometric expression of the factor of cellular proliferation ki-67 in the goiter colloid and in the papillary carcinoma of the thyroid].

    PubMed

    Souza, Gleim Dias de; Czeczko, Nicolau Gregori; Moreira, Hamilton; Ribas Filho, Jurandir Marcondes; Mafafaia, Osvaldo; Czeczko, Leticia Elizabeth Augustin; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee; Aguiar, Luiz Roberto Farion de

    2009-04-01

    To compare the cytophotometric quantitative expression of Ki-67 cellular proliferation factor in the colloid goiter with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. The protein Ki-67 was studied with immunohistochemistry in 20 cases of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid and 12 cases of colloid goiter. The immunomarked cell nuclei were quantified through the software SAMBA 4000 and analyzed by software IMMUNO, considering variables index marker and optical density. The coefficient of the Spearman rank correlation and the non-parametric test of Mann-Whitney were estimated. There is significant difference between the goiter colloid and the papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in Ki-67 measurements, being bigger in papillary carcinomas. No difference was found in optical density. The correlation coefficient between the index marker and the optic density was 0,78. In colloid goiter, there was positive and significant association between the index marker and the optic density. For the papillary carcinoma of the thyroid the correlation between index marker and optic density was 0,18 (p = 0,572). There was no association between the index marker and the optic density in the carcinoma papillary of the thyroid. The cytophotometric expression of the Ki-67 showed higher cellular proliferation in the papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in comparison with in the colloid goiter.

  12. Associations between body mass index and lymph node metastases of patients with papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Changhua; Wang, Liang; Chen, Wanjun; Zou, Shujuan; Yang, Aiju

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Epidemiological studies suggest that obesity is a risk of thyroid cancer, especially papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). However, the associations of obesity and clinic–pathological features, especially the association of body mass index (BMI) and lymph node metastasis of thyroid cancer are unclear. Seven hundred ninety-six primary patients with PTC were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. The relationships between BMI and clinic-pathological features of PTC were evaluated by logistic regression models based on the 5-point increase in BMI and BMI quartiles (underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity). The 5-point increase in BMI was strongly associated with extra-thyroidal invasion [odds ratio (OR) 2.201, P < 0.001], primary tumor size larger than 1 cm (OR 1.267, P = 0.027), advanced tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging (OR 1.479, P = 0.004), and multifocality (OR 1.31, P = 0.01) in multivariable-adjusted models. The relationships between BMI and lymph node metastasis of PTC were evaluated by Mann–Whitney U test. The mean number of positive central lymph nodes and lateral nodes were increased with the increase of BMI when BMI ≥18.5 kg/m2. It was not shown in underweight group. The present study found that increased BMI was associated with the lymph node metastases (LNMs) of patients with PTC, and other invasive features, including large tumor size, extra-thyroidal invasion, advanced TNM staging, and multifocality. Further studies with long-term follow-up are needed to confirm this finding. PMID:28248875

  13. Development and Characterization of Six New Human Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Ying C.; Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Ryu, Junsun; Chen, Yunyun; Williams, Michelle D.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Gagea, Mihai; Schweppe, Rebecca E.; Haugen, Bryan R.; Lai, Stephen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Cell lines are a widely used tool in cancer research. However, despite the relatively high incidence of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), there are only four PTC cell lines available for international research audience. Objective: The objective of this study was to establish and characterize new PTC cell lines that represent primary tumor biology. Surgical specimens were obtained to generate PTC cell lines. Short tandem repeat profiling was used to confirm the uniqueness of the cell lines against databases of known cell lines and mutations were assessed using Sequenom. The expression of thyroid-specific genes was examined using real-time PCR. Tumorigenicity was determined using an orthotopic thyroid xenograft tumor mouse model. Results: Six PTC cell lines (five conventional PTCs and one follicular variant of PTC) were generated and found to be unique when compared by short tandem repeat profiling against databases of all existing cell lines. The five conventional PTC cell lines carry the BRAF V600E mutation and the follicular variant of PTC cell line had an NRAS mutation. Five of the six cell lines had a mutation in the promoter of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene. None of the cell lines have RET/PTC rearrangements. Three cell lines were tumorigenic in the orthotopic thyroid xenograft tumor mouse model. Conclusions: These five characterized conventional PTC cell lines and the unique follicular variant of PTC cell line should be valuable reagents for thyroid cancer research. The three tumorigenic cell lines can be used for in vivo testing of targeted therapeutic and novel agents. PMID:25427145

  14. Family of microRNA-146 Regulates RARβ in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Czajka, Agnieszka Anna; Wójcicka, Anna; Kubiak, Anna; Kotlarek, Marta; Bakuła-Zalewska, Elwira; Koperski, Łukasz; Wiechno, Wiesław; Jażdżewski, Krystian

    2016-01-01

    Retinoic acid is a promising tool in adjuvant cancer therapies, including refractory thyroid cancer, and its biological role is mediated by the retinoic acid receptor beta (RARβ). However, expression of RARβ is lowered in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), contributing to promotion of tumor growth and inefficiency of retinoic acid and radioactive iodine treatment. The causes of aberrant RARB expression are largely unknown. We hypothesized that the culpable mechanisms include the action of microRNAs from the miR-146 family, previously identified as significantly upregulated in PTC tumors. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the expression of RARB as well as miR-146a-5p and miR-146b-5p in 48 PTC tumor/normal tissue pairs by Taqman assay to reveal that the expression of RARB was 3.28-fold decreased, and miR-146b-5p was 28.9-fold increased in PTC tumors. Direct interaction between miRs and RARB was determined in the luciferase assay and further confirmed in cell lines, where overexpression of miR-146a-5p and miR-146b-5p caused a 31% and 33% decrease in endogenous RARB mRNA levels. Inhibition of miR-146a and miR-146b resulted in 62.5% and 45.4% increase of RARB, respectively, and a concomitant decrease in proliferation rates of thyroid cancer cell lines, analyzed in xCELLigence system.We showed that two microRNAs of the miR-146 family directly regulate RARB. Inhibition of miRs resulted in restoration of RARB expression and decreased rates of proliferation of thyroid cancer cells. By restoring RARB levels, microRNA inhibitors may become part of an adjuvant therapy in thyroid cancer patients.

  15. Is central neck dissection a safe procedure in the treatment of papillary thyroid cancer? Our experience.

    PubMed

    Palestini, N; Borasi, A; Cestino, L; Freddi, M; Odasso, C; Robecchi, A

    2008-09-01

    The role of central neck dissection in the treatment of papillary thyroid carcinoma is debated. This retrospective investigation was undertaken to assess whether it augments total thyroidectomy morbidity. A total of 305 consecutive patients who had undergone total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma were divided into three groups: group A (n = 64) showed evidence of node metastases and received therapeutic bilateral central node dissection; group B (n = 93) showed negative nodes and received prophylactic ipsilateral central node dissection; group C (n = 148) showed negative nodes and received total thyroidectomy alone. The rates of transient and permanent complications within the three groups were compared. Histopathological examination detected node metastases in 46 (72%) group A patients and in 20 (21%) group B patients. Parathyroid autotransplantation was carried out in 41 (64%) patients in group A, 55 (59%) in group B, and 43 (29%) in group C (P < 0.001). One or more parathyroid glands were found in 20% of the specimens from group A, 11% of those from group B, and 9% of those from group C. None of the patients in either group A or group B reported permanent laryngeal recurrent nerve paralysis, but two (1.3%) in group C did. Transient laryngeal recurrent nerve paralysis occurred most often in group A patients (7.8% versus 5.4% versus 1.3%, respectively) and was bilateral in two patients (one in group A and one in group B). None of the patients in either group A or group B developed permanent hypoparathyroidism, but four (2.7%) in group C did. Transient hypoparathyroidism was highest in group A patients (31% versus 27% versus 13%, respectively; P = 0.003). Postoperative bleeding requiring reoperation occurred in one group B patient and in two group C patients. Central neck dissection did not increase permanent morbidity and revealed a significant rate of nonclinically evident node metastases. In experienced hands, central neck dissection should be

  16. TERT Promoter Mutation in an Aggressive Cribriform Morular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eun Ji; Lee, Sohee; Bae, Ja Seong; Kim, Yourha; Jeon, Sora; Jung, Chan Kwon

    2017-03-01

    The cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (CMV-PTC) is a rare thyroid neoplasm characterized by unique morphologic findings and association with familial adenomatous polyposis. The biologic behavior of this variant has been reported to behave similarly to classic PTC. We report a rare sporadic case of CMV-PTC occurring in a 45-year-old female with multiple lymph nodes and bone metastases, which were detected after total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine remnant ablation. Molecular analyses of primary thyroid and metastatic tumor tissues revealed a telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutation, but absence of BRAF, KRAS, NRAS, HRAS, and PIK3CA mutations. Over a 4-year follow-up period, structurally identifiable bone metastases were persistent, but serial post-operative serum thyroglobulin levels remained undetectable in the absence of thyroglobulin antibody. The literature was reviewed. This is the first case of aggressive CMV-PTC showing TERT promoter mutation. TERT promoter mutations may help in predicting aggressive clinical behavior in CMV-PTC. Postoperative serum thyroglobulin measurement may have no impact on clinical decision-making in this type of tumor.

  17. Low Prevalence of Somatic TERT Promoter Mutations in Classic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Won Gu; Sim, Soyoung; Lim, Seonhee; Kwon, Hyemi; Kim, Tae Yong; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2016-03-01

    Transcriptional activating mutations of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) are associated with more aggressive thyroid cancer. We evaluated the significance of TERT promoter mutations in Korean patients with classic papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Genomic DNA was isolated from four thyroid cancer cell lines and 35 fresh-frozen PTC tissues. TERT promoter mutations (C228T and C250T) and the BRAF V600E mutation were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing. The CC228229TT mutation in the TERT promoter was detected in BCPAP cells and the C250T mutation was found in 8505C cells. No TERT promoter mutation was observed in Cal-62 or ML-1 cells. The C228T mutation was found in only 1 of 35 (2.8%) PTCs and no C250T mutations were detected in any of the study subjects. The BRAF V600E mutation was found in 20 of 35 (57.1%) PTCs. One patient with the C228T TERT mutation also harbored the BRAF V600E mutation and developed a recurrence. The prevalence of somatic TERT promoter mutations was low in Korean patients with classic PTC. Therefore, the prognostic role of TERT promoter mutations might be limited in this patient cohort.

  18. Accuracy of Fine Needle Cytology in Histological Prediction of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Variants: a Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Cipolletta Campanile, Anna; Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Botti, Gerardo; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Siciliano, Roberta; Colao, Annamaria; Pezzullo, Luciano; Fulciniti, Franco

    2017-06-21

    Fine needle cytology (FNC) is a crucial procedure in the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid tumors. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), in its classic variant (cPTC), is the most common malignant neoplasm of the thyroid. Several histological variants of PTC have been described, each one with its own characteristics and prognosis. The ability of FNC to identify the variants represents a challenge even for a skilled pathologist. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic cytological accuracy of FNC in PTC and to look for specific features that could predict the different variants. This was a single center prospective study on 128 patients who received a diagnosis of PTC on FNC. The smears were blindly reviewed by two cytopathologists to create a frequency score (0, 1, 2, 3) of the features for each variant. The cytological parameters were divided into three groups: architectural, nucleo-cytoplasmic, and background features. Univariate analysis was performed by chi-square test with Yates correction and Fisher exact test as appropriate. Multiple regression analysis was performed among the variables correlated at the linear correlation. The correlation study between cytology and histology showed an accuracy of FNC in classic, follicular, and oncocytic PTC variants of 63.5, 87.5, and 87% respectively. Familiarity with cytological features may allow an early diagnosis of a given PTC variant on FNC samples. This is fundamental in a preoperative evaluation for the best surgical approach and subsequent treatment.

  19. miR-199a-3p displays tumor suppressor functions in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Minna, Emanuela; Romeo, Paola; De Cecco, Loris; Dugo, Matteo; Cassinelli, Giuliana; Pilotti, Silvana; Degl'Innocenti, Debora; Lanzi, Cinzia; Casalini, Patrizia; Pierotti, Marco A; Greco, Angela; Borrello, Maria Grazia

    2014-05-15

    Thyroid cancer incidence is rapidly increasing. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC), the most frequent hystotype, usually displays good prognosis, but no effective therapeutic options are available for the fraction of progressive PTC patients. BRAF and RET/PTC are the most frequent driving genetic lesions identified in PTC. We developed two complementary in vitro models based on RET/PTC1 oncogene, starting from the hypothesis that miRNAs modulated by a driving PTC-oncogene are likely to have a role in thyroid neoplastic processes. Through this strategy, we identified a panel of deregulated miRNAs. Among these we focused on miR-199a-3p and showed its under-expression in PTC specimens and cell lines. We demonstrated that miR-199a-3p restoration in PTC cells reduces MET and mTOR protein levels, impairs migration and proliferation and, more interesting, induces lethality through an unusual form of cell death similar to methuosis, caused by macropinocytosis dysregulation. Silencing MET or mTOR, both involved in survival pathways, does not recapitulate miR-199a-3p-induced cell lethality, thus suggesting that the cooperative regulation of multiple gene targets is necessary. Integrated analysis of miR-199a-3p targets unveils interesting networks including HGF and macropinocytosis pathways. Overall our results indicate miR-199a-3p as a tumor suppressor miRNA in PTC.

  20. Mild persistent hypercalcitoninemia after total thyroidectomy in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Kazuki; Imai, Tsuneo; Shibata, Arihiro; Hibi, Yatsuka; Kikumori, Toyone; Funahashi, Hiroomi; Nakao, Akimasa

    2003-08-01

    Total thyroidectomy was performed in 455 patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma between 1978 and 1999. Serum calcitonin (CT) was determined preoperatively in all patients using polyclonal antibodies. Among the subjects, 25 patients showed elevated serum calcitonin levels preoperatively. Pathological diagnoses of 18 patients were confirmed as medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) postoperatively. Eight patients were diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in the final pathological diagnosis without evidence of minimal foci of MTC or C cell hyperplasia, and they showed elevated CT levels preoperatively. Hypercalcitoninemia in 8 patients with PTC continued through out the 24 follow-up months with normal CEA levels. Extrathyroidal CT-producing diseases were all neglected, and precise pathological examination showed negative evidence of minute MTC or C cell hyperplasia in these 8 patients. Serum CT levels were simultaneously determined by a different CT assay kit using the same blood samples in 7 of 8 patients. Serum CT levels were all within normal values in another CT kit applying a different polyclonal antibody, although elevated CT values continued in the routine CT kit. The recognition of polymeric or fragmented CT by polyclonal antibody was thought to be the causative factor for the hypercalcitoninemia after total thyroidectomy in the patients with PTC. Knowledge of the false positive CT determination makes it important to employ different CT assay kits, especially the new generation of two-site immunoassays using two monoclonal antibodies against distinct epitopes of human CT, although the new generation kits are not clinically available in Japan.

  1. Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma displaying poorly differentiated features.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Tadao; Celestino, Ricardo; Machado, José Carlos; Cameselle-Teijeiro, José Manuel; Vinagre, João; Eloy, Catarina; Benserai, Fátima; Lameche, Samia; Soares, Paula; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel

    2013-08-01

    Cribriform-morular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (CMVPTC) usually occurs in the setting of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) although it can rarely arise sporadically. Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) is a follicular cell-derived neoplasm with more aggressive behavior than well-differentiated carcinomas such as CMVPTC. We report the case of a 35-year-old woman without FAP history who presented a left neck mass and complained of back pain. Imagiological examinations revealed a nodule in the left lobe of thyroid and multiple nodular lesions in the bone and lungs suggestive of metastases. The patient was submitted to total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine. The tumor was composed of CMVPTC and PDTC components that shared the same somatic APC gene mutation (p.Cys520Tyr_fsX534). Besides this mutation, no CTNNB1, BRAF, N-RAS, and H-RAS gene mutations were detected in any of the 2 components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a sporadic CMVPTC with transformation into PDTC. Although the majority of CMVPTCs carry an indolent clinical outcome, the coexistence of poorly differentiated areas may justify the aggressiveness of the CMVPTC reported here.

  2. Cytological detection of papillary thyroid carcinomas by nuclear membrane decoration with emerin staining.

    PubMed

    Asioli, Sofia; Maletta, Francesca; Pacchioni, Donatella; Lupo, Rosanna; Bussolati, Gianni

    2010-07-01

    Decoration of the nuclear membrane by emerin staining enhances detection of nuclear irregularities typical of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Our study aims to verify whether staining with emerin is a helpful diagnostic marker in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology. We first designed a prospective study on smears, Thin Prep, and cell block specimens to prove the feasibility of the procedure; subsequently, we designed a retrospective study of 78 FNA cell blocks from cases that, after surgery, turned out to be either benign (34 cases) or malignant lesions (44, of which 31 PTC). From each sample, we obtained two slides, one stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and the other with emerin. In cases classified as Thy3, HBME-1 and galectin 3 (Gal3) stains had also been performed. Two blinded observers made the judgment concerning Thy categories (as proposed by the British Thyroid Association), first on H&E, then on emerin, HBME-1, and Gal3 stained slides. On cytological preparation, emerin staining represents an effective tool for the detection of nuclear irregularities, allowing for the identification of cases of PTC. In Thy3 cases, emerin staining's sensitivity and specificity (64% and 96%) proved higher than HBME-1's (60% and 88%) and Gal3's (61% and 68%). In conclusion, the immunohistochemical definition of the nuclear membrane, as determined by emerin stain, is a useful tool in the cytological diagnosis of thyroid lesions and can help to solve inconclusive cases by highlighting nuclear irregularities typical of PTC.

  3. Breast Tumor Resembling Tall Cell Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Solid Papillary Neoplasm With Characteristic Immunohistochemical Profile and Few Recurrent Mutations.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Rohit; Florea, Anca V; Pelmus, Manuela; Jones, Miroslawa W; Bonaventura, Marguerite; Wald, Abigail; Nikiforova, Marina

    2017-04-01

    Breast tumor resembling tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (BTRPTC) is a rare breast lesion that is unrelated to thyroid carcinoma. Morphologically, it shows a solid papillary lesion with bland cytology, eosinophilic/amphophilic secretions, nuclear grooves, reversal of nuclear polarity (recently described), and nuclear inclusions. Clinical course is often uneventful with few exceptions reported in the literature. Herein, we report three additional cases. Immunohistochemical staining and next-generation sequencing was performed on all three cases. The lesional cells on all cases were positive for cytokeratin 5 and S100, with weak expression/lack of estrogen receptor. No staining was observed for myoepithelial markers (p63 and myosin heavy chain) around the lesion. IDH2 mutations were identified in two cases at nucleotide 172 (cases 1 and 3). ATM gene mutation was identified in cases 2 and 3 and PIK3CA mutation in case 3. All patients are currently without disease. BTRPTC is a slow-growing neoplastic lesion that needs to be distinguished from other papillary lesions for optimizing therapy.

  4. Expression of the sonic hedgehog pathway molecules in synchronous follicular adenoma and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid gland in predicting malignancy.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kirbylee K; Gattuso, Paolo; Xu, Xiulong; Prinz, Richard A

    2010-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that the Sonic Hedgehog pathway plays an important role in tumorigenesis and cancer proliferation. The Sonic Hedgehog pathway is required for normal thyroid gland development, but when activated as a result of gene mutation or overexpression, it may stimulate thyroid tumor cell proliferation. This study determines whether 3 molecules, Patched, Smoothened, and Sonic Hedgehog, involved in the Sonic Hedgehog pathway are overexpressed equally in synchronous follicular thyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Eighteen patients with synchronous follicular thyroid adenoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma underwent thyroidectomy. Immunohistochemistry was performed on the paraffin-embedded tissue to detect expression of Patched, Smoothened, and Sonic Hedgehog in both tumor types. The expression in these neoplasms was graded by 2 observers. Five patients had insufficient tumor tissue and were removed from the analysis. Patched expression was detected in 5 of 13 (38%) follicular adenomas and 5 of 12 (42%) papillary carcinomas. Smoothened was expressed in 4 of 13 (31%) follicular adenomas and 3 of 13 (23%) papillary carcinomas. Sonic Hedgehog was expressed in 4 of 13 (31%) follicular adenomas and 11 of 13 (85%) papillary carcinomas. Expression of the 3 molecules involved in the Sonic Hedgehog pathway was similar in follicular thyroid adenoma, but Sonic Hedgehog expression was a more sensitive indicator of malignancy in papillary thyroid carcinoma. The Sonic Hedgehog molecule may become a diagnostic marker when the cytologic or histologic features are not characteristic of a papillary carcinoma. Greater understanding of the Sonic Hedgehog pathway may provide molecular methods for preventing or treating papillary thyroid carcinoma. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. RET/PTC Rearrangements Are Associated with Elevated Postoperative TSH Levels and Multifocal Lesions in Papillary Thyroid Cancer without Concomitant Thyroid Benign Disease

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xuan; He, Caiyun; Ma, Jiangjun; Tang, Tao; Zhang, Xiao; Ye, Zulu; Long, Yakang; Shao, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    RET/PTC rearrangements, resulting in aberrant activity of the RET protein tyrosine kinase receptor, occur exclusively in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). In this study, we examined the association between RET/PTC rearrangements and thyroid hormone homeostasis, and explored whether concomitant diseases such as nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis influenced this association. A total of 114 patients diagnosed with PTC were enrolled in this study. Thyroid hormone levels, clinicopathological parameters and lifestyle were obtained through medical records and surgical pathology reports. RET/PTC rearrangements were detected using TaqMan RT-PCR and validated by direct sequencing. No RET/PTC rearrangements were detected in benign thyroid tissues. RET/PTC rearrangements were detected in 23.68% (27/114) of PTC tissues. No association between thyroid function, clinicopathological parameters and lifestyle was observed either in total thyroid cancer patients or the subgroup of patients with concomitant disease. In the subgroup of PTC patients without concomitant disease, RET/PTC rearrangement was associated with multifocal cancer (P = 0.018). RET/PTC rearrangement was also correlated with higher TSH levels at one month post-surgery (P = 0.037). Based on likelihood-ratio regression analysis, the RET/PTC-positive PTC cases showed an increased risk of multifocal cancers in the thyroid gland (OR = 5.57, 95% CI, 1.39–22.33). Our findings suggest that concomitant diseases such as nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in PTC may be a confounding factor when examining the effects of RET/PTC rearrangements. Excluding the potential effect of this confounding factor showed that RET/PTC may confer an increased risk for the development of multifocal cancers in the thyroid gland. Aberrantly increased post-operative levels of TSH were also associated with RET/PTC rearrangement. Together, our data provides useful information for the treatment of papillary thyroid cancer. PMID

  6. RET/PTC Rearrangements Are Associated with Elevated Postoperative TSH Levels and Multifocal Lesions in Papillary Thyroid Cancer without Concomitant Thyroid Benign Disease.

    PubMed

    Su, Xuan; He, Caiyun; Ma, Jiangjun; Tang, Tao; Zhang, Xiao; Ye, Zulu; Long, Yakang; Shao, Qiong; Shao, Jianyong; Yang, Ankui

    2016-01-01

    RET/PTC rearrangements, resulting in aberrant activity of the RET protein tyrosine kinase receptor, occur exclusively in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). In this study, we examined the association between RET/PTC rearrangements and thyroid hormone homeostasis, and explored whether concomitant diseases such as nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis influenced this association. A total of 114 patients diagnosed with PTC were enrolled in this study. Thyroid hormone levels, clinicopathological parameters and lifestyle were obtained through medical records and surgical pathology reports. RET/PTC rearrangements were detected using TaqMan RT-PCR and validated by direct sequencing. No RET/PTC rearrangements were detected in benign thyroid tissues. RET/PTC rearrangements were detected in 23.68% (27/114) of PTC tissues. No association between thyroid function, clinicopathological parameters and lifestyle was observed either in total thyroid cancer patients or the subgroup of patients with concomitant disease. In the subgroup of PTC patients without concomitant disease, RET/PTC rearrangement was associated with multifocal cancer (P = 0.018). RET/PTC rearrangement was also correlated with higher TSH levels at one month post-surgery (P = 0.037). Based on likelihood-ratio regression analysis, the RET/PTC-positive PTC cases showed an increased risk of multifocal cancers in the thyroid gland (OR = 5.57, 95% CI, 1.39-22.33). Our findings suggest that concomitant diseases such as nodular goiter and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in PTC may be a confounding factor when examining the effects of RET/PTC rearrangements. Excluding the potential effect of this confounding factor showed that RET/PTC may confer an increased risk for the development of multifocal cancers in the thyroid gland. Aberrantly increased post-operative levels of TSH were also associated with RET/PTC rearrangement. Together, our data provides useful information for the treatment of papillary thyroid cancer.

  7. Activation of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase gene promoter by hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta in human papillary thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jimin; Capezzone, Marco; Xu, Xiao; Hershman, Jerome M

    2005-02-01

    We previously demonstrated that the human nicotinamide N-methytransferase (NNMT) gene was highly expressed in many papillary thyroid cancers and cell lines. The expression in other papillary and follicular cancers or cell lines and normal thyroid cells was low or undetectable. To gain an understanding of the molecular mechanism of this cell-specific expression, the NNMT promoter was cloned and studied by luciferase reporter gene assay. The promoter construct was expressed highly in papillary cancer cell lines, including those with higher (e.g. BHP 2-7) and lower (e.g. BHP 14-9) NNMT gene expression, and expressed weakly in follicular thyroid cancer cell lines. Further study with 5'-deletion promoter construct suggested that the NNMT promoter was regulated differently in BHP 2-7 and BHP 14-9 cells. In BHP 2-7 cells, promoter activity was dependent on an upstream sequence. In BHP 14-9 cells, sequence in the basal promoter region contributed notably to the overall promoter activity. RT-PCR or Western blot analysis indicated that hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta (HNF-1beta) was expressed in only papillary cancer cell lines with high NNMT gene expression. HNF-1beta was not expressed or expressed very weakly in other papillary, follicular, and Hurthle cancer cell lines and primary cultures of normal thyroid cells and benign thyroid conditions. A HNF-1 binding site was identified in the NNMT basal promoter region. Mutations in this site decreased NNMT promoter activity in the HNF-1beta-positive BHP 2-7 cells, but not in the HNF-1beta-negative BHP 14-9 cells. HNF-1beta bound to the HNF-1 site specifically as a homodimer as determined by gel retardation assays with HNF-1beta-specific antibody. Cotransfection of a HNF-1beta expression plasmid increased NNMT promoter activity significantly in both HNF-1beta-positive and -negative thyroid cancer cell lines and Hep G2 liver cancer cells. Furthermore, transient expression of HNF-1beta in BHP 14-9 cells increased endogenous NNMT

  8. miR-101 inhibits cell proliferation by targeting Rac1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LIN, XIAOJIE; GUAN, HONGYU; LI, HAI; LIU, LIEHUA; LIU, JUAN; WEI, GUOHONG; HUANG, ZHIMIN; LIAO, ZHIHONG; LI, YANBING

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that some microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) progression. However, it remains necessary to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved. In the present study, we investigated the role of microRNA-101 (miR-101) in PTC via targeting of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1). The results showed that miR-101 was significantly downregulated in PTC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Restoration of miR-101 expression significantly inhibited cell proliferation in the K1 PTC cell line. Moreover, algorithm-based and experimental strategies verified Rac1 as a direct target of miR-101 in the K1 cell line. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-101 inhibited PTC growth via the downregulation of Rac1 expression, providing a better understanding of miRNA-modulated signaling networks for future cancer therapeutics. PMID:24649082

  9. Evolution of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma into Tall Cell Variant and TENIS Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Avik; Kane, S V; Pawer, Yogita; Basu, Sandip

    2016-12-01

    We herein report an unusual case of a 55-y-old woman with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, who presented with multiple recurrences, with its subsequent evolution to tall cell variant and thyroglobulin-elevated negative iodine scintigraphy (TENIS) syndrome. During the course of the disease the lesions became non-iodine-concentrating with an increased proportion of tall cells and evidence of local and distant metastasis. Molecular analysis of the tissue specimen demonstrated BRAF(V600E) and I582 M mutations along with upregulation of tumor markers in metastatic tissue. The presence of BRAF(V600E) mutation and other markers warrants further investigation in future studies to define their precise implications for determining the aggressiveness and development into tall cell variant and TENIS. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  10. Relationship between iodine levels and papillary thyroid carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Hyop; Hwang, Yunji; Song, Ra-Yeong; Yi, Jin Wook; Yu, Hyeong Won; Kim, Su-Jin; Chai, Young Jun; Choi, June Young; Lee, Kyu Eun; Park, Sue K

    2017-08-01

    Iodine excess has been suggested as an exogenous risk factor of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the relationship between iodine exposure measured in various forms and PTC prevalence. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for case-control studies on iodine and PTC published up to December 2015. Exposure to iodine was compared between PTC and control groups. From the 16 selected studies, the odds ratio (OR) for the overall effect size between high iodine exposure and PTC risk was 1.418 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.054-1.909). Based on 7 studies conducted in high iodinated regions, a positive association between iodine exposure and PTC was observed (OR 2.200; 95% CI 1.389-3.483). This study demonstrated a higher exposure to iodine in patients with PTC compared with controls, especially for patients from high iodinated regions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. DUSP6/MKP3 is overexpressed in papillary and poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma and contributes to neoplastic properties of thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Degl'Innocenti, Debora; Romeo, Paola; Tarantino, Eva; Sensi, Marialuisa; Cassinelli, Giuliana; Catalano, Veronica; Lanzi, Cinzia; Perrone, Federica; Pilotti, Silvana; Seregni, Ettore; Pierotti, Marco A; Greco, Angela; Borrello, Maria Grazia

    2013-02-01

    Thyroid carcinomas derived from follicular cells comprise papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma, poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) and undifferentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC). PTC, the most frequent thyroid carcinoma histotype, is associated with gene rearrangements that generate RET/PTC and TRK oncogenes and with BRAF-V600E and RAS gene mutations. These last two genetic lesions are also present in a fraction of PDTCs. The ERK1/2 pathway, downstream of the known oncogenes activated in PTC, has a central role in thyroid carcinogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that the BRAF-V600E, RET/PTC, and TRK oncogenes upregulate the ERK1/2 pathway's attenuator cytoplasmic dual-phase phosphatase DUSP6/MKP3 in thyroid cells. We also show DUSP6 overexpression at the mRNA and protein levels in all the analysed PTC cell lines. Furthermore, DUSP6 mRNA was significantly higher in PTC and PDTC in comparison with normal thyroid tissues both in expression profile datasets and in patients' surgical samples analysed by real-time RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical and western blot analyses showed that DUSP6 was also overexpressed at the protein level in most PTC and PDTC surgical samples tested, but not in ATC, and revealed a positive correlation trend with ERK1/2 pathway activation. Finally, DUSP6 silencing reduced the neoplastic properties of four PTC cell lines, thus suggesting that DUSP6 may have a pro-tumorigenic role in thyroid carcinogenesis.

  12. ANALYSIS OF POSTOPERATIVE ULTRASONOGRAPHY SURVEILLANCE AFTER HEMITHYROIDECTOMY IN PATIENTS WITH PAPILLARY THYROID MICROCARCINOMA: A MULTICENTER STUDY.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hye Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Chang Yoon; Huh, Jung Yin; Sung, Jin Yong; Choi, Yoon Jung

    2017-07-01

    The optimal follow-up interval for postoperative ultrasonography (US) surveillance after hemithyroidectomy in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of tumor recurrence/persistence and to investigate the appropriateness of postoperative US surveillance in PTMC patients who underwent hemithyroidectomy. Our institutional review board approved this retrospective study. From 2000 to 2011, 800 patients underwent hemithyroidectomy as treatment for PTMC, as well as at least one session of postoperative follow-up US, at four different institutions. The images and data of postoperative US surveillance were retrospectively investigated by experienced radiologists at each institution. Based on the follow-up US and histopathologic results, locoregional tumor recurrence/persistence was determined. Of the 800 patients, 82.2% had T1a, 17.8% had T3, and none had T1b, T2, T4a, or T4b disease; 6.9% had unknown N stage, 80.1% had N0, 13% had N1a, and none had N1b, based on histopathology. There were also no cases of distant metastasis after hemithyroidectomy. Among the patients, 784 (98%) showed no tumor recurrence/persistence, and 16 (2%) showed locoregional tumor recurrence/persistence during the follow-up period. The patients differed in the number of sessions and the intervals of postoperative follow-up US. In the 16 patients with tumor recurrence/persistence, the mean interval of postoperative follow-up US since the first US detection of tumor recurrence/persistence was 42.9 ± 25.9 months. All recurrence/persistence cases were subcentimeter. Postoperative US surveillance at 1-or 2-year intervals may be unnecessary because of the very low recurrence rate in PTMC. EMR = electronic medical record; PTMC = papillary thyroid microcarcinoma; TNM = tumor, node, metastasis; US = ultrasonography; US-FNA = ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration.

  13. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Analysis of the Central Compartment's Lymph Nodes Metastases.

    PubMed

    Sojak, Ján; Sičák, Marian; Kališ, Adrian; Slašťan, Michal

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is typical by regional lymph nodes metastases. Therefore we decided to analyse associated risk factors. In this retrospective study we focused on the incidence of metastatic involvement of the central compartment's lymph nodes correlated with age, size of the primary tumour, infiltration of thyroid gland capsule, positive lymphangioinvasion in order to assess risk factors. We analysed group of 156 patients with papillary carcinoma, who have undergone total thyroidectomy and bilateral elective central compartment neck dissection. We evaluated the occurrence of metastases, size, infiltration and lymphangioinvasion based on definitive histology of the whole group and separately for subgroups of patients under and over 45 years. We found metastatic involvement in 88 (56.4%) patients. When comparing the subgroups of patients under (73 patients) and over 45 years (83 patients), we found metastases in 56 vs. 32 (76.7% vs. 38.6%) patients. In the subgroup of younger patients we found significant higher incidence of metastases compared with the group of over 45 years, P < 0.001 (P = 0.000027). We found significant higher incidence of metastases in patients with positive capsule infiltration in the whole group, P < 0.001 (P = 0.00049); in the subgroup of under 45 years, P < 0.001 (P = 0.00091) and in patients with positive lymphangioinvasion in the whole group, P < 0.01 (P = 0.00177); in the subgroup of over 45 years, P < 0.001 (P = 0.0002). In patients with metastases we found tumour size ≥1cm more frequently in all groups. We recorded higher incidence of regional metastases in patients under 45 years, positive capsule infiltration, lymphangioinvasion. Age under 45 years itself does not correlate with less aggressive disease, to the contrary some of other analysed risk factors correlate with more aggressive disease.

  14. Thyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a family history of thyroid cancer and chronic goiter (enlarged thyroid). There are several types of thyroid ... Read More Anaplastic thyroid cancer Breathing difficulty Cancer Goiter - simple Metastasis Radiation therapy Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma ...

  15. Comprehensive Analysis of the Transcriptional and Mutational Landscape of Follicular and Papillary Thyroid Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Hyeon-Gun; Kim, Byoung-Ae; Cho, Hyesun; Song, Young Shin; Cho, Sun Wook; Shin, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Il; Lee, Kyu Eun; Seo, Jeong-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and benign follicular adenoma (FA) are indistinguishable by preoperative diagnosis due to their similar histological features. Here we report the first RNA sequencing study of these tumors, with data for 30 minimally invasive FTCs (miFTCs) and 25 FAs. We also compared 77 classical papillary thyroid carcinomas (cPTCs) and 48 follicular variant of PTCs (FVPTCs) to observe the differences in their molecular properties. Mutations in H/K/NRAS, DICER1, EIF1AX, IDH1, PTEN, SOS1, and SPOP were identified in miFTC or FA. We identified a low frequency of fusion genes in miFTC (only one, PAX8–PPARG), but a high frequency of that in PTC (17.60%). The frequencies of BRAFV600E and H/K/NRAS mutations were substantially different in miFTC and cPTC, and those of FVPTC were intermediate between miFTC and cPTC. Gene expression analysis demonstrated three molecular subtypes regardless of their histological features, including Non–BRAF–Non–RAS (NBNR), as well as BRAF–like and RAS–like. The novel molecular subtype, NBNR, was associated with DICER1, EIF1AX, IDH1, PTEN, SOS1, SPOP, and PAX8–PPARG. The transcriptome of miFTC or encapsulated FVPTC was indistinguishable from that of FA, providing a molecular explanation for the similarly indolent behavior of these tumors. We identified upregulation of genes that are related to mitochondrial biogenesis including ESRRA and PPARGC1A in oncocytic follicular thyroid neoplasm. Arm-level copy number variations were correlated to histological and molecular characteristics. These results expanded the current molecular understanding of thyroid cancer and may lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the disease. PMID:27494611

  16. Expression of prostaglandin E2 and EP receptors in human papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liao; Wei, Xiaohong; Liu, Xueting; Zhou, Danli; Hu, Fang; Zeng, Yingjuan; Sun, Ying; Luo, Shunkui; Zhang, Yu; Yi, Xian Ping

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the present study is to determine the role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and downstream EP receptors in the development of human papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A total of 90 thyroid specimens excised from patients undergoing total or subtotal thyroidectomy in the Department of General Surgery, the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, China, from August 2013 to September 2014, were analyzed. The quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemical analyses were employed to examine the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression, respectively. The expressions and significances of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), PGE2, and EP receptors in PTC and nodular goiter were investigated. The COX-2 mRNA and protein expression level significantly increased in the PTC tissues than in the paired noncarcinoma tissues adjacent to the PTC or nodular goiter tissues. The mPGES-1 protein expression was also significantly upregulated in the PTC tissues. All the four subtypes of EP receptors (EP1-4) could express in the thyroid tissues, while only the EP4 mRNA and protein levels significantly increased in the PTC tissues. The local production of PGE2 had a higher-level expression in the PTC tissues than in the noncarcinoma thyroid tissues adjacent to the PTC lesion and the benign nodular goiter tissues. The induction of PGE2 biosynthesis as well as the overexpression of EP4 in PTC suggested that this pathway might play an important role in the carcinogenesis and progression of PTC. These observations raise the possibility that pharmacological inhibition of mPGES-1 and/or EP4 may hold therapeutic promise in this common cancer.

  17. Long-term outcomes of ethanol injection therapy for locally recurrent papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Young; Kim, Seok-Mo; Chang, Hojin; Kim, Bup-Woo; Lim, Chi Young; Lee, Yong Sang; Chang, Hang-Seok; Park, Cheong Soo

    2017-06-29

    The standard treatment regimen for locally recurrent lesions is total thyroidectomy, or complete removal of the recurrent thyroid lesion within the thyroid bed. However, reoperation increases the risk of complications and patients have to undergo general anesthesia. Percutaneous ethanol injection therapy represents a far less invasive procedure without general anesthesia and with lower risk of complications. Thirty-four patients who received PEIT at Yonsei University Medical Center between October 2002 and August 2009 for recurrent cervical nodal metastases of differentiated papillary thyroid cancer were included in this retrospective study. During a minimum follow-up of 60 months, treatment outcomes were determined by measuring the lesion size prior to the first injection and 3 months after the last injection. A total of 46 recurrent lesions were detected in 34 patients. Five patients underwent surgery and PEIT was administered to the remaining 19 and 22 lesions in the central compartment and lateral neck lymph nodes, respectively. Size increases were observed in seven (17.1%) lesions, whereas no changes in size and decreases were detected in 10 (24.4%) and 24 (58.5%) lesions. Patients with increased lymph nodes were significantly older (65.3 ± 14.4 vs. 48.2 ± 16.3 years; p = 0.02) and had smaller sizes (9.3 ± 1.0 vs. 12.3 ± 6.4 mm; p = 0.012). Although reoperation remains the first-line treatment for recurrent thyroid cancer, PEIT may be considered as a treatment option in selected patients with lesions larger than 1 cm who are ineligible for surgery or have refused reoperation.

  18. The role of external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nancy; Tuttle, Michael

    2006-12-01

    The role of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in treating thyroid cancer has brought forth controversy. Due to various histologic presentations and different natural histories, there is no uniform approach/recommendation among centers and/or authorities regarding the role of EBRT for thyroid cancer. This is particularly true for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) where the clinical course can range from a disease that is cured with simple surgery to an aggressive form of poorly differentiated thyroid cancer with high rates of recurrence/death from disease. In addition, because the majority of the patients with PTC undergo postoperative radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment, the question remains as to what is the exact role of EBRT for PTC in the setting of RAI treatment? In this issue of Endocrine-Related Cancer, Chow and colleagues identified indications for EBRT and RAI therapy for PTC based on a retrospective review of 1300 patients. The authors concluded that postoperative RAI treatment is indicated in patients with pT2-pT4, pN0-pN1b while postoperative EBRT is recommended for patients with gross residual, positive margin, pT4, pN1b, and lymph nodes>2 cm disease. Other centers have also published their experience on the value of EBRT for PTC but with different indications. The reasons for the variations from different centers are complex. However, when all published results are taken together, the findings confirm the added value of EBRT to the present management of PTC in a select group of patients, particularly those with high risk features. In this commentary, these issues will be discussed and recommendations regarding the role of EBRT will be given.

  19. FAP Associated Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Peculiar Subtype of Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cetta, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Carcinoma (FNMTC) makes up to 5–10% of all thyroid cancers, also including those FNMTC occurring as a minor component of familial cancer syndromes, such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). We give evidence that this extracolonic manifestation of FAP is determined by the same germline mutation of the APC gene responsible for colonic polyps and cancer but also shows some unusual features (F : M ratio = 80 : 1, absence of LOH for APC in the thyroid tumoral tissue, and indolent biological behaviour, despite frequent multicentricity and lymph nodal involvement), suggesting that the APC gene confers only a generic susceptibility to thyroid cancer, but perhaps other factors, namely, modifier genes, sex-related factors, or environmental factors, are also required for its phenotypic expression. This great variability is against the possibility of classifying all FNMTC as a single entity, not only with a unique or prevalent causative genetic factor, but also with a unique or common biological behavior and a commonly dismal prognosis. A new paradigm is also suggested that could be useful (1) for a proper classification of FAP associated PTC within the larger group of FNMTC and (2) for making inferences to sporadic carcinogenesis, based on the lesson from FAP. PMID:26697262

  20. Collapsing benign cystic nodules of the thyroid gland: sonographic differentiation from papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ko, M-S; Jeong, K S; Shong, Y K; Gong, G Y; Baek, J H; Lee, J H

    2012-01-01

    The US features of benign and malignant nodules overlap, and benign thyroid lesions can mimic thyroid malignancy on US. Benign cystic nodules after spontaneous collapse or needle aspiration, can mimic malignant thyroid nodules. Our aim was to evaluate the US features of CBCNs of the thyroid that distinguish such nodules from malignant thyroid nodules. US and clinical findings in 13 patients, each with a single CBCN, were evaluated to determine if they showed >50% cystic content on initial US or CT and >30% decrease in maximum diameter on follow-up US. We compared these findings with those of 26 patients, each with a single surgically confirmed PTMC. US scans were analyzed for internal content, shape, margin, echogenicity, presence of echogenic dots suggesting micro- and macrocalcification, inner isoechoic rim, and low-echoic halo. Six of the 13 (46%) CBCNs were classified as malignant on US due to their marked hypoechogenicity, microcalcification, or spiculated margins. US features that differed between CBCNs and PTMCs were shape (ovoid-to-round versus taller-than-wide, P = .016); margins (ill-defined versus spiculated, P < .000); low-echoic halo (P < .000); inner isoechoic rim (P < .000) with high negative predictive values (100%, 91%, 91%, and 89%, respectively); and clinically acceptable diagnostic accuracy (59%, 80%, 82%, and 85%, respectively). US features helpful for differential diagnosis of CBCNs from PTMCs include shape, margin, and the presence of an inner isoechoic rim and a low-echoic halo. Familiarity with US features suggesting CBCNs may be helpful in reducing unnecessary repeated FNABs.

  1. The Warthin-Like Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Comparison with Classic Type in the Patients with Coexisting Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Min-Kyung; Bae, Ja Seong; Lee, Sohee; Kim, Min-Hee; Lim, Dong-Jun; Lee, Youn Soo; Jung, Chan Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Warthin-like variant of papillary thyroid (WLPTC) is a rare subtype of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) resembling Warthin tumors of the salivary glands. Due to its rarity, the clinicopathologic and molecular features of WLPTC remain unclear. Methods. Of the 2,139 patients who underwent surgical treatment for PTC from 2012 to 2013, 40 patients with WLPTC were identified and compared to 200 consecutive patients with classic PTC. BRAF mutation was tested with pyrosequencing. Results. There were no significant differences in age, predilection for women, multifocality, extrathyroidal extension, or lymph node metastasis between WLPTC and classic PTC. However, WLPTCs were more commonly associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than classic PTCs (93% versus 36%, resp., P < 0.001) and showed significantly lower rate of BRAF mutation when compared to classic PTCs (65% versus 84%, resp., P = 0.007). In classic PTC, the frequency of BRAF mutations was negatively correlated with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis. When we compared WLPTC and classic PTC in the patients with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, there were no significant differences in clinicopathologic characteristics or the BRAF mutational rate between the two groups. Conclusions. Patients with WLPTC have similar demographic, clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics to those with classic PTC coexisting with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  2. The Warthin-Like Variant of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Comparison with Classic Type in the Patients with Coexisting Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Min-kyung; Bae, Ja Seong; Lim, Dong-Jun; Lee, Youn Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Warthin-like variant of papillary thyroid (WLPTC) is a rare subtype of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) resembling Warthin tumors of the salivary glands. Due to its rarity, the clinicopathologic and molecular features of WLPTC remain unclear. Methods. Of the 2,139 patients who underwent surgical treatment for PTC from 2012 to 2013, 40 patients with WLPTC were identified and compared to 200 consecutive patients with classic PTC. BRAF mutation was tested with pyrosequencing. Results. There were no significant differences in age, predilection for women, multifocality, extrathyroidal extension, or lymph node metastasis between WLPTC and classic PTC. However, WLPTCs were more commonly associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than classic PTCs (93% versus 36%, resp., P < 0.001) and showed significantly lower rate of BRAF mutation when compared to classic PTCs (65% versus 84%, resp., P = 0.007). In classic PTC, the frequency of BRAF mutations was negatively correlated with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis. When we compared WLPTC and classic PTC in the patients with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, there were no significant differences in clinicopathologic characteristics or the BRAF mutational rate between the two groups. Conclusions. Patients with WLPTC have similar demographic, clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics to those with classic PTC coexisting with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:25983754

  3. RET/PTC Translocations and Clinico-Pathological Features in Human Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Romei, Cristina; Elisei, Rossella

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most frequent endocrine cancer accounting for 5–10% of thyroid nodules. Papillary histotype (PTC) is the most prevalent form accounting for 80% of all thyroid carcinoma. Although much is known about its epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical, and biological behavior, the only documented risk factor for PTC is the ionizing radiation exposure. Rearrangements of the Rearranged during Transfection (RET) proto-oncogene are found in PTC and have been shown to play a pathogenic role. The first RET rearrangement, named RET/PTC, was discovered in 1987. This rearrangement constitutively activates the transcription of the RET tyrosine-kinase domain in follicular cell, thus triggering the signaling along the MAPK pathway and an uncontrolled proliferation. Up to now, 13 different types of RET/PTC rearrangements have been reported but the two most common are RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3. Ionizing radiations are responsible for the generation of RET/PTC rearrangements, as supported by in vitro studies and by the evidence that RET/PTC, and particularly RET/PTC3, are highly prevalent in radiation induced PTC. However, many thyroid tumors without any history of radiation exposure harbor similar RET rearrangements. The overall prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangements varies from 20 to 70% of PTCs and they are more frequent in childhood than in adulthood thyroid cancer. Controversial data have been reported on the relationship between RET/PTC rearrangements and the PTC prognosis. RET/PTC3 is usually associated with a more aggressive phenotype and in particular with a greater tumor size, the solid variant, and a more advanced stage at diagnosis which are all poor prognostic factors. In contrast, RET/PTC1 rearrangement does not correlate with any clinical–pathological characteristics of PTC. Moreover, the RET protein and mRNA expression level did not show any correlation with the outcome of patients with PTC and no correlation between RET/PTC rearrangements and the

  4. Ghrelin and obestatin in thyroid gland - immunohistochemical expression in nodular goiter, papillary and medullary cancer.

    PubMed

    Gurgul, Edyta; Kasprzak, Aldona; Blaszczyk, Agata; Biczysko, Maciej; Surdyk-Zasada, Joanna; Seraszek-Jaros, Agnieszka; Ruchala, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies analyzing ghrelin and obestatin expression in thyroid gland tissue are not unanimous and are mostly related to ghrelin. The role of ghrelin and obestatin in the thyroid gland appears very interesting due to their probable involvement in cell proliferation. Furthermore, since the thyroid gland is associated with the maintenance of energy balance, the relationship between ghrelin, obestatin and thyroid function is worthy of consideration. The aim of the study was to assess ghrelin and obestatin immunocytochemical expression in nodular goiter (NG), papillary cancer (PTC) and medullary cancer (MTC). Analyzed samples included 9 cases of NG, 8 cases of PTC and 11 cases of MTC. The analysis of ghrelin and obestatin expression was performed by use of the immunohistochemical (IHC) EnVision system and evaluated with filter HSV software (quantitative morphometric analysis). Quantitative ghrelin expression in MTC cells was higher than in NG (p = 0.013) and correlated negatively with the size of the tumor (r= -0.829, p < 0.05). We did not observe any differences in ghrelin expression neither between MTC and PTC nor between NG and PTC. Obestatin immunoexpression pattern in all analyzed specimens was irregular and poorly accented. The strongest immunoreactivity for obestatin was demonstrated in NG. In MTC obestatin expression was significantly weaker than in NG and PTC (p < 0.05 in both cases). In NG the intensity of obestatin immunostaining was significantly higher than that of ghrelin (p = 0.03). Conversely, ghrelin expression in MTC was definitely more evident than obestatin immunoreactivity (p < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between ghrelin and obestatin expression in PTC. No correlations were detected between reciprocal tissue expressions of ghrelin and obestatin in the analyzed specimens of NG, PTC or MTC. The differences between ghrelin expression in NG and MTC suggest that ghrelin may be involved in thyroid cell proliferation

  5. American Thyroid Association Guidelines on the Management of Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Task Force Review and Recommendation on the Proposed Renaming of Encapsulated Follicular Variant Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Without Invasion to Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm with Papillary-Like Nuclear Features.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Bryan R; Sawka, Anna M; Alexander, Erik K; Bible, Keith C; Caturegli, Patrizio; Doherty, Gerard M; Mandel, Susan J; Morris, John C; Nassar, Aziza; Pacini, Furio; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn; Sherman, Steven I; Somerset, Hilary; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L; Wartofsky, Leonard; Williams, Michelle D

    2017-04-01

    American Thyroid Association (ATA) leadership asked the ATA Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Guidelines Task Force to review, comment on, and make recommendations related to the suggested new classification of encapsulated follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma (eFVPTC) without capsular or vascular invasion to noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). The task force consists of members from the 2015 guidelines task force with the recusal of three members who were authors on the paper under review. Four pathologists and one endocrinologist were added for this specific review. The manuscript proposing the new classification and related literature were assessed. It is recommended that the histopathologic nomenclature for eFVPTC without invasion be reclassified as a NIFTP, given the excellent prognosis of this neoplastic variant. This is a weak recommendation based on moderate-quality evidence. It is also noted that prospective studies are needed to validate the observed patient outcomes (and test performance in predicting thyroid cancer outcomes), as well as implications on patients' psychosocial health and economics.

  6. CXCL12 methylation-mediated epigenetic regulation of gene expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sijia; Wang, Yihan; Chen, Meijun; Sun, Lulu; Han, Jun; Elena, V. Kazakova; Qiao, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer, and its incidence rate is rapidly growing. It is necessary to understand the pathogenesis of PTC to develop effective diagnosis methods. Promoter methylation has been recognized to contribute to the alterations in gene expression observed in tumorigenesis. Our RNA-seq data identified 1191 differentially expressed mRNAs and 147 differentially expressed lncRNAs in PTC. Next, promoter methylation of these genes was detected by reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) technology and comprehensively analyzed to identify differential methylation. In total, 14 genes (13 mRNAs and 1 lncRNA), in which methylation was intimately involved in regulating gene expression, were proposed as novel diagnostic biomarkers. To gain insights into the relationships among these 14 genes, a core co-function network was constructed based on co-expression, co-function and co-methylation data. Notably, CXCL12 was identified as an essential gene in the network that was closely connected with the other genes. These data suggested that CXCL12 down-regulation in PTC may be caused by promoter hypermethylation. Our study was the first to perform an RRBS analysis for PTC and suggested that CXCL12 may contribute to PTC development by methylation-mediated epigenetic regulation of gene expression. PMID:28272462

  7. MicroRNA-mediated networks underlie immune response regulation in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chen-Tsung; Oyang, Yen-Jen; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2014-09-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a common endocrine malignancy with low death rate but increased incidence and recurrence in recent years. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs with diverse regulatory capacities in eukaryotes and have been frequently implied in human cancer. Despite current progress, however, a panoramic overview concerning miRNA regulatory networks in PTC is still lacking. Here, we analyzed the expression datasets of PTC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Data Portal and demonstrate for the first time that immune responses are significantly enriched and under specific regulation in the direct miRNA-target network among distinctive PTC variants to different extents. Additionally, considering the unconventional properties of miRNAs, we explore the protein-coding competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) and the modulatory networks in PTC and unexpectedly disclose concerted regulation of immune responses from these networks. Interestingly, miRNAs from these conventional and unconventional networks share general similarities and differences but tend to be disparate as regulatory activities increase, coordinately tuning the immune responses that in part account for PTC tumor biology. Together, our systematic results uncover the intensive regulation of immune responses underlain by miRNA-mediated networks in PTC, opening up new avenues in the management of thyroid cancer.

  8. CXCL12 methylation-mediated epigenetic regulation of gene expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sijia; Wang, Yihan; Chen, Meijun; Sun, Lulu; Han, Jun; Elena, V Kazakova; Qiao, Hong

    2017-03-08

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid cancer, and its incidence rate is rapidly growing. It is necessary to understand the pathogenesis of PTC to develop effective diagnosis methods. Promoter methylation has been recognized to contribute to the alterations in gene expression observed in tumorigenesis. Our RNA-seq data identified 1191 differentially expressed mRNAs and 147 differentially expressed lncRNAs in PTC. Next, promoter methylation of these genes was detected by reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) technology and comprehensively analyzed to identify differential methylation. In total, 14 genes (13 mRNAs and 1 lncRNA), in which methylation was intimately involved in regulating gene expression, were proposed as novel diagnostic biomarkers. To gain insights into the relationships among these 14 genes, a core co-function network was constructed based on co-expression, co-function and co-methylation data. Notably, CXCL12 was identified as an essential gene in the network that was closely connected with the other genes. These data suggested that CXCL12 down-regulation in PTC may be caused by promoter hypermethylation. Our study was the first to perform an RRBS analysis for PTC and suggested that CXCL12 may contribute to PTC development by methylation-mediated epigenetic regulation of gene expression.

  9. Risk factors influencing the recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kai; Wang, Zhuoying

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the risk factors influencing the recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma. This meta-analysis used MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE and CNKI including all cohort studies reporting the risk factors influencing the recurrence after the initial operation on PTC up to February 23, 2014. Software RevMan 5.2 was used for meta-analysis. Thirteen studies with a total of 7048 patients were included in our meta-analysis. Of all variables, gender, extrathyroid extension, LNM, tumor size, distance metastasis, thyroid surgery types and 131-I given or not were significantly correlated with recurrence, While overall recurrence was similar between the group of ≤ 45 years and > 45 years, multifolicality and solitary. However, when stratified the participants by study location (ie, Asian including China, Korea, Japan, Western country including America, France, Italy, Australia), a statistically significant summary odds ratio for age were found in Western country but none in Asian. The risk factors influencing recurrence includes male, extrathyroid extension, LNM, tumor size more than 2 cm, distance metastasis and subtotal thyroidectomy. However, selection of operation mode should be based on not only the recurrence but the comprehensive consideration of the clinical features.

  10. Association Analysis of MET Gene Polymorphism with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Lifeng; Yu, Yaqin; Liu, Xiaoli; Ai, Lizhe; Zhang, Xin; Rao, Wenwang; Shi, Jieping; Sun, Hui; Yu, Qiong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association of MET SNPs with gender disparity in thyroid tumors, as well as the metastasis and prognosis of patients, 858 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 556 patients with nodular goiter, and 896 population-based normal controls were recruited. The genotyping of MET SNPs was carried out using the Sequenom MassARRAY system. The distribution of MET SNPs (rs1621 and rs6566) was different among groups. Gender stratification analysis revealed a significant association between the rs1621 genotype and PTC in female patients (P = 0.037), but not in male patients (P > 0.05). For female patients, the rs1621 AG genotype was significantly higher in patients with PTC than in normal controls (P = 0.01) and revealed an increasing risk of PTC (OR: 1.465, 95% CI: 1.118–1.92). However, association analysis of the rs1621 genotype with metastasis and prognosis revealed no significant correlation in both male and female patients. The findings of our study showed that polymorphism of SNP locus rs1621 in MET gene may be associated with gender disparity in PTC. Higher AG genotypes in rs1621 were correlated with PTC in female patients, but not in male patients. PMID:26649038

  11. TERT Promoter Mutations and Tumor Persistence/Recurrence in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Myung, Jae Kyung; Kwak, Byung Kuk; Lim, Jung Ah; Lee, Myung-Chul; Kim, Min Joo

    2016-07-01

    A telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutation was identified in thyroid cancer. This TERT promoter mutation is thought to be a prognostic molecular marker, because its association with tumor aggressiveness, persistence/recurrence, and disease-specific mortality in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has been reported. In this study, we attempted to determine whether the impact of the TERT promoter mutation on PTC persistence/recurrence is independent of clinicopathological parameters. Using propensity score matching, 39 patients with PTC persistence or recurrence were matched with 35 patients without persistence or recurrence, with a similar age, sex, tumor size, multifocality, bilaterality, extrathyroidal extension, and lymph node metastasis. The TERT promoter and the BRAF V600E mutations were identified from PTC samples. The TERT promoter mutation was detected in 18% of PTC patients (13/74). No significant difference in the frequency of the TERT promoter mutation was observed between the persistence/recurrence group and the non-recurrence group. These results suggest that the prognostic implications of the TERT promoter mutation are dependent on clinicopathological parameters.

  12. Identification of novel long non-coding RNA biomarkers for prognosis prediction of papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiuying; Li, Haihong; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chunming; Yan, Wentao; Wang, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most frequent type of malignant thyroid tumor. Several lncRNA signatures have been established for prognosis prediction in some cancers. However, the prognostic value of lncRNAs has not been investigated in PTC yet. In this study, we performed genome-wide analysis of lncRNA expression profiles in a large cohort of PTC patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas and identified 111 differentially expressed lncRNAs between tumor and non-tumor samples and between recurrent and recurrence-free samples. From the 111 differentially expressed lncRNAs, four independent lncRNA biomarkers associated with prognosis were identified and were integrated into a four-lncRNA signature which classified the patients of training dataset into the high-risk group and low-risk group with significantly different overall survival (p=0.016, log-rank test). The prognostic value of the four-lncRNA signature was validated in the independent testing dataset. Multivariate analysis indicated that the four-lncRNA signature was an independent prognostic predictor. Moreover, identified four lncRNA biomarkers demonstrates good performance in predicting disease recurrence with AUC of 0.833 using leave one out cross-validation. Our study not only highlighted the potential role for lncRNAs to improve clinical prognosis prediction in patients with PTC and but also provided alternative biomarkers and therapeutic targets for PTC patients. PMID:28545026

  13. BRAF-activated LncRNA functions as a tumor suppressor in papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Kai; Ma, Ben; Cao, Yi-Ming; Xiang, Jun; Lu, Zhong-Wu; Zhu, Yong-Xue; Li, Duan-Shu; Ji, Qing-Hai

    2017-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) participate in cancer cell tumorigenesis, cell cycle control, migration, proliferation, apoptosis, metastasis and drug resistance. The BRAF-activated non-coding RNA (BANCR) functions as both an oncogene and a tumor suppressor. Here, we investigated BANCR's role in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) by assessing BANCR levels in PTC and matched normal thyroid epithelial tissues from 92 patients using qRT-PCR. We also used lentiviral vectors to establish PTC cell lines to investigate the effects of BANCR overexpression on cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. Our results indicate BANCR levels are lower in PTC tumor tissues than control tissues. Decreased BANCR levels correlate with tumor size, the presence of multifocal lesions and advanced PTC stage. BANCR overexpression reduced PTC cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis, which inhibited metastasis. It also inactivated ERK1/2 and p38, and this effect was enhanced by treatment with the MEK inhibitor U0126. Finally, BANCR overexpression dramatically inhibited tumor growth from PTC cells in xenograft mouse models. These results suggest BANCR inhibits tumorigenesis in PTC and that BANCR levels may be used as a novel prognostic marker. PMID:27462868

  14. MicroRNA-146b: A Novel Biomarker and Therapeutic Target for Human Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chen-Kai; Liu, Rue-Tsuan; Kang, Hong-Yo

    2017-01-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common tumor subtype of thyroid cancer. However, not all PTCs are responsive to current surgical and radioiodine treatment. The well-established clinical prognostic factors include tumor size, lymph node/distal metastasis, and extrathyroidal invasion. The RET/PTC-RAS-BRAF linear molecular signaling cascade is known to mediate PTC pathogenesis. However, whether presence of BRAF mutation, the most common genetic alteration in PTC, can affect PTC behavior and prognosis is controversial. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been labeled as promising molecular prognostic markers in several tumor types. Our recent studies demonstrated that microRNA-146b (miR-146b) deregulation is associated with PTC aggressiveness and prognosis. Here we summarize the current knowledge related to the functional roles, regulated target genes, and clinical applications of miR-146b in PTC and discuss how these studies provide insights into the key role of miR-146b as an oncogenic regulator promoting cellular transformation as well as a prognosis marker for tumor recurrence in PTC. In conjunction with the current perspectives on miRNAs in a wide variety of human cancers, this review will hopefully translate these updated findings on miR-146b into more comprehensive diagnostic or prognostic information regarding treatment in PTC patients before surgical intervention and follow up strategies. PMID:28294980

  15. Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: accuracy of FNA diagnosis and implications for patient management.

    PubMed

    Ustun, Berrin; Chhieng, David; Prasad, Manju L; Holt, Elizabeth; Hammers, Lynwood; Carling, Tobias; Udelsman, Robert; Adeniran, Adebowale J

    2014-09-01

    Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) creates a continuous diagnostic dilemma among pathologists because of the paucity of nuclear changes of papillary carcinoma and overlapping features with benign and other neoplastic follicular lesions. Current guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules recommend surgery for confirmed PTC, suspicious for PTC, and follicular neoplasm cases, while further immediate diagnostic studies or treatment are not routinely required if the nodule is benign on cytology. This study is designed to determine the accuracy of cytology in the diagnosis of FVPTC, based on the Bethesda classification system, and determine the implications for patient management based on the current recommendation. Based on a retrospective review of cytologic diagnoses between January 2008 and December 2011, thyroid fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology specimens with subsequent surgical intervention and a final diagnosis of FVPTC were selected. The cytologic diagnoses were compared with the final diagnoses, and the percentage of cases contributing to the final diagnosis of FVPTC was calculated for each diagnostic category. Triage efficiency and diagnostic accuracy were calculated. One hundred and fifty-two cases with histologic confirmation of FVPTC were identified (representing 128 patients-101 female, 27 male). All patients had undergone either lobectomy with completion thyroidectomy or total thyroidectomy. The cytologic diagnosis of "positive for malignancy" accounted for only 27 % of the final histologic diagnosis of FVPTC, while suspicious for carcinoma, follicular neoplasm, follicular lesion of undetermined significance, and benign accounted for 11, 23, 23, and 16 % of the final diagnosis of FVPTC, respectively. Only 18 % of the 55 cases tested were positive for BRAF mutation. The subtle nuclear features of FVPTC pose challenges for an accurate diagnosis. Therefore, a better approach is to triage these cases for surgical intervention

  16. Prognostic significance of extranodal extension of regional lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Hsun; Shen, Wen T; Gosnell, Jessica; Duh, Quan-Yang

    2015-09-01

    The presence and location of regional lymph node metastasis affect the prognosis of patients with thyroid cancer. Lymph node classification of the current TNM system may be inadequate because it insufficiently characterizes the nature and severity of lymph node metastasis that may influence prognosis. We retrospectively studied 240 patients with papillary thyroid cancer and node metastases who had undergone total thyroidectomy, lymph node dissection, and postoperative (131) I treatment at the University Cancer Center between 1994 and 2004. We reviewed the status of regional lymph node metastasis, including the location, number, largest size, and extranodal tumor extension and analyzed their effect on the prognosis of the patients. There were 172 women and 68 men, with a median age of 38 years and median tumor size of 1.9 cm. Thirty-five percent had only central compartment (N1a) nodal metastasis and 65% had involvement of both central and lateral compartments (N1b). There were a median of 4 nodes containing metastasis with a median largest diameter of 1.2 cm. Sixty patients (25%) had extranodal extension of cancer. Multivariate analysis showed that patient age (p = .0017; hazard ratio [HR], 2.156), >3 lymph node metastasis (p = .0316; HR, 1.806), and extranodal extension (p < .0001; HR, 4.027) were independent predictors of disease recurrence. Patient age (p = .0034; HR, 22.068), vascular invasion (p = .01; HR, 8.2), and extranodal extension (p = .022; HR, 12.597) were independent predictors of disease-specific survival (DSS). The DSS and recurrence-free survival curve between patients with and without extranodal extension differ significantly (p < .0001). For those older than 45 years, the 10-year recurrence was 11 of 43 patients for those without extranodal extension and 24 of 27 patients for those with extranodal extension (p < .001). Among patients with stage 4a/4b, those with extranodal extension had a significantly worse DSS

  17. The Roles of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Marker PRRX1 and miR-146b-5p in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Hardin, Heather; Guo, Zhenying; Shan, Weihua; Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Asioli, Sofia; Yu, Xiao-Min; Harrison, April D.; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most common endocrine malignancy, and papillary thyroid carcinoma represents the most common thyroid cancer. Papillary thyroid carcinomas that invade locally or metastasize are associated with a poor prognosis. We found that, during epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), papillary thyroid carcinoma cells acquired increased cancer stem cell-like features and the transcription factor paired-related homeobox protein 1 (PRRX1; alias PRX-1), a newly identified EMT inducer, was markedly up-regulated. miR-146b-5p was also transiently up-regulated during EMT, and in siRNA experiments miR-146b-5p had an inhibitory role on cell proliferation and invasion during TGF-β1–induced EMT. We conclude that papillary thyroid carcinoma tumor cells exhibit increased cancer stem cell-like features during TGF-β1–induced EMT, that miR-146b-5p has a role in cell proliferation and invasion, and that PRRX1 plays an important role in papillary thyroid carcinoma EMT and disease progression. PMID:24946010

  18. The Oncogenic Activity of RET Point Mutants for Follicular Thyroid Cells May Account for the Occurrence of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Patients Affected by Familial Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Melillo, Rosa Marina; Cirafici, Anna Maria; De Falco, Valentina; Bellantoni, Marie; Chiappetta, Gennaro; Fusco, Alfredo; Carlomagno, Francesca; Picascia, Antonella; Tramontano, Donatella; Tallini, Giovanni; Santoro, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    Activating germ-line point mutations in the RET receptor are responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2-associated medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), whereas somatic RET rearrangements are prevalent in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). Some rare kindreds, carrying point mutations in RET, are affected by both cancer types, suggesting that, under specific circumstances, point mutations in RET can drive the generation of PTC. Here we describe a family whose siblings, affected by both PTC and MTC, carried a germ-line point mutation in the RET extracellular domain, converting cysteine 634 into serine. We tested on thyroid follicular cells the transforming activity of RET(C634S), RET(K603Q), another mutant identified in a kindred with both PTC and MTC, RET(C634R) a commonly isolated allele in MEN2A, RET(M918T) responsible for MEN2B and also identified in kindreds with both PTC and MTC, and RET/PTC1 the rearranged oncogene that characterizes bona fide PTC in patients without MTC. We show that the various RET point mutants, but not wild-type RET, scored constitutive kinase activity and exerted mitogenic effects for thyroid PC Cl 3 cells, albeit at significantly lower levels compared to RET/PTC1. The low mitogenic activity of RET point mutants paralleled their reduced kinase activity compared to RET/PTC. Furthermore, RET point mutants maintained a protein domain, the intracellular juxtamembrane domain, that exerted negative effects on the mitogenic activity. In conclusion, RET point mutants can behave as dominant oncogenes for thyroid follicular cells. Their transforming activity, however, is rather modest, providing a possible explanation for the rare association of MTC with PTC. PMID:15277225

  19. Multiple HABP2 variants in familial papillary thyroid carcinoma: Contribution of a group of "thyroid-checked" controls.

    PubMed

    Kern, Benjamin; Coppin, Lucie; Romanet, Pauline; Crépin, Michel; Szuster, Isabelle; Renaud, Florence; Leteurtre, Emmanuelle; Frénois, Frédéric; Wemeau, Jean-Louis; Carnaille, Bruno; Cardot-Bauters, Catherine; Cao, Christine Do; Pigny, Pascal

    2017-03-01

    A heterozygous germline variant in the HABP2 gene c.1601G > A (p.Gly534Glu), which negatively impacts its tumor suppressive activity in vitro, has been described in 4-14% of kindreds of European-American ancestry with familial papillary thyroid carcinoma (fPTC). But it is also found in ≈4% of Europeans and European/Americans from public databases that, however, did not provide information on the thyroid function of the controls. To get unbiased results, we decided to compare HABP2 genotypes of patients with fPTC with those of "thyroid-checked" controls. A control group consisting of 136 European patients who were thyroidectomised for medullary thyroid carcinoma and devoid of any histologically detectable PTC or follicular-deriving carcinoma was built. In parallel we recruited 20 patients with fPTC from eleven independent European kindreds. The entire coding region of HABP2 was analyzed by Sanger sequencing the germline DNAs of patients. Nucleotide variants were searched for by Snap Shot analysis in the controls. Two variants, c.1601G > A (p.Gly534Glu) and c.364C > T (p.Arg122Trp), were found in 2 and 3 patients at the heterozygous level respectively (minor allele frequency (MAF): 5.0% and 7.5%, respectively). In controls, the MAF was either similar for the c.1601G > A HABP2 variant (2.94%, ns) or significantly lower for the c.364C > T variant (0.73%, p = 0.016). The Arg122 residue lies in the EGF-3 domain of HABP2 which is important for its activation but, however, superposition of the predicted 3D structures of the wild type and mutated proteins suggests that this variant is tolerated at the protein level. In conclusion, our data do not support the pathogenicity of the HABP2 c.1601G > A variant but highlight the existence of a new one that should be more extensively searched for in fPTC patients and its pathogenicity more carefully evaluated.

  20. MicroRNA-146a targets PRKCE to modulate papillary thyroid tumor development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Li, Dan; Li, Maoquan; Ye, Meng; Ding, Lanbao; Cai, Haidong; Fu, Da; Lv, Zhongwei

    2014-01-15

    MicroRNAs are single-stranded noncoding RNAs composed of approximately 22 nucleotides that suppress gene expression by selectively binding via base-pairing to the complementary 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of messenger RNA transcripts. Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) is an important modulating member of the transducing Ras/Raf-1 signal pathway; a computational search revealed miR-146a putatively binds to the 3'-UTR of the PRKCE gene, and thus decreasing PKCε expression. Moreover, PKCε inhibits mitochondrial apoptosis and is associated with the Bcl family. However, it has been previously reported that miR-146a expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is slightly elevated. Thus, we hypothesized that because miR-146a expression depends on nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) activation and NF-κB expression is elevated in PTC, miR-146a is potentially upregulated in PTC via negative feedback of NF-κB, and thus suppressing PKCε expression. In our study, we investigated whether overexpression of miR-146a, a tumor-suppressing-miR, in PTC cells decreases cell survival and induces apoptosis. Luciferase reporter assay analysis confirmed the direct binding of miR-146a and PRKCE 3'-UTR. Specific overexpression of exogenous miR-146a significantly decreased PKCε levels in PTC cell line NPA-187 and increased apoptosis. Additionally, using stably expressing miR-146a thyroid carcinoma cells to establish subcutaneous tumors, the tumor growth exhibited significant inhibition. Our study confirmed the tumor-suppressing role of miR-146a in thyroid carcinoma cells and contributes to the knowledge regarding modulation of Ras/Raf-1 signal transduction and apoptosis via PKCε targeted by miR-146a in PTC; moreover, our findings confirmed that miR-146a is involved in the feedback system of the classical NF-κB signal pathway in PTC.

  1. The expression and function of long noncoding RNA lncRNA-ATB in papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Fu, X-M; Guo, W; Li, N; Liu, H-Z; Liu, J; Qiu, S-Q; Zhang, Q; Wang, L-C; Li, F; Li, C-L

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the expression and clinical significances of long noncoding RNA-ATB (lncRNA-ATB) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), and to explore the roles of lncRNA-ATB in PTC cell proliferation and migration. The expression of lncRNA-ATB in 64 PTC tissues and paired adjacent noncancerous thyroid tissues was measured. The association between lncRNA-ATB expression and clinicopathological characteristics was analyzed by Pearson X2. The diagnostic value of lncRNA-ATB was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses. The effects of lncRNA-ATB on PTC cell proliferation were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assays and Ethynyl deoxyuridine incorporation assays. The effects of lncRNA-ATB on PTC cell migration were evaluated by transwell assays. LncRNA-ATB is upregulated in PTC tissues compared with noncancerous tissues. LncRNA-ATB is also increased in PTC cell lines compared with normal thyroid follicular epithelial cell line. High-expression of lncRNA-ATB is associated with large tumor size and lymph node metastasis. ROC analyses revealed that lncRNA-ATB could sensitively discriminate PTCs from noncancerous tissues, as well as discriminating PTCs with lymph node metastasis from those without lymph node metastasis. Functional experiments showed that depletion of lncRNA-ATB significantly inhibits PTC cell proliferation and migration. LncRNA-ATB is upregulated and functions as an oncogene in PTC. Furthermore, lncRNA-ATB may serve as a diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target for PTC.

  2. Human recombinant anti-thyroperoxidase autoantibodies: in vitro cytotoxic activity on papillary thyroid cancer expressing TPO

    PubMed Central

    Rebuffat, S A; Morin, M; Nguyen, B; Castex, F; Robert, B; Péraldi-Roux, S

    2010-01-01

    Background: Thyroid cancers are difficult to treat due to their limited responsiveness to chemo- and radiotherapy. There is thus a great interest in and a need for alternative therapeutic approaches. Results: We studied the cytotoxic activity of anti-thyroperoxidase autoantibodies (anti-TPO aAbs, expressed in baculovirus/insect cell (B4) and CHO cells (B4′) or purified from patients' sera) against a papillary thyroid cancer (NPA) cell line. Anti-TPO aAbs from patients' sera led to a partial destruction of NPA cell line by complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and exhibited an anti-proliferative activity. Comparison of the cytotoxic activity of anti-TPO aAbs shows that B4′ induced an anti-proliferative effect and a better ADCC than B4, but a lower one than anti-TPO aAbs from patients' sera. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity was increased when human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used as effector cells, suggesting that FcγRs, CD64, CD32 and CD16 are involved. Indeed, anti-TPO aAbs from patients' sera, but not B4 and B4′, exhibited CDC activity. Conclusions: These data indicate that anti-TPO aAbs display moderate ADCC and anti-proliferative activities on NPA cells; IgG glycosylation appears to be important for cytotoxic activity and ADCC efficiency depends on FcγR-bearing cells. Finally, recombinant human anti-TPO aAbs cannot yet be considered as an optimal tool for the development of a novel therapeutic approach for thyroid cancer. PMID:20145622

  3. Prognostic value of the BRAF V600E mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    HE, GUOPING; ZHAO, BAOJIAN; ZHANG, XU; GONG, RIXIANG

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of the BRAF V600E mutation in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and to determine the correlation between this mutation and indicators of poor prognosis and outcome in patients with PTC. The BRAF V600E mutation status was analyzed in 187 tumor samples using the multiplex allele-specific PCR method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the association of the BRAF V600E mutation with clinical features and patient outcome. The sensitivity of the multiplex allele-specific PCR combined with denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography reached ~1%. The BRAF V600E mutation was observed in 63.6% (119/187) of tumor tissues, predominantly in PTC specimens, and no BRAF mutation was identified in other benign-type thyroid diseases. The univariate analysis indicated that the BRAF V600E mutation was associated with age, tumor stage and prognosis (P<0.05). In addition, the frequency of the BRAF V600E mutation was significantly different in the central (75.3%) and lateral neck (49.3%) lymph nodes of patients with lymph node metastasis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the BRAF V600E mutation (HR, 2.471; 95% CI, 1.149–5.312) and lymph node metastasis (HR, 3.003; 95% CI, 1.027–8.771) are independent factors that predict tumor prognosis. Thus, the BRAF V600E mutation is an independent risk factor that may be used to predict thyroid cancer persistence/recurrence. PMID:24396464

  4. TERT promoter mutations are associated with distant metastases in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, Greta; Ragazzi, Moira; Frasoldati, Andrea; Piana, Simonetta; Ciarrocchi, Alessia; Sancisi, Valentina

    2015-04-01

    Transcriptional activating mutations in the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene were reported at high frequency in aggressive poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers. By contrast, the relevance of these mutations in the metastatic behavior of well-differentiated thyroid cancer is still to be defined. The aim of this work was to investigate the frequency of TERT promoter mutations in a remarkable cohort of well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma that developed distant metastases (DM-PTCs) and to establish whether these mutations may be predictive of metastatic behavior. We analyzed the frequency of TERT promoter mutations in a group of 43 highly aggressive DM-PTCs. As controls, we analyzed these mutations in a group of 78 PTCs without distant metastases (control-PTCs). The possible correlation between TERT promoter mutations and BRAF V600E mutation was also investigated. TERT promoter mutational status was evaluated by direct sequencing of the hotspot harboring the C228T and the C250T mutations. In the overall cohort of 121 PTCs analyzed, 17% of cases (21/121) carried a mutation in the TERT promoter. Noticeably, 33% of DM-PTCs were mutated in the TERT promoter while only 9% of the control-PTCs showed a mutation in this locus. We also observed a positive association between BRAF V600E and TERT C228T mutations in the cohort of DM-PTCs. These results indicate that TERT promoter mutations are associated with the development of distant metastases in PTCs and may help in predicting aggressive behavior in this type of tumor. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  5. Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: major genetic alterations and prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Joung, Ji Y; Kim, Tae H; Jeong, Dae J; Park, Sun-Mi; Cho, Yoon Y; Jang, Hye W; Jung, Yoon Y; Oh, Young L; Yim, Hyun S; Kim, Yoo-Li; Chung, Jae H; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kim, Sun W

    2016-07-01

    Diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (DSV-PTC) is an uncommon variant of PTC, and its prognostic significance remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the major genetic alterations of DSV-PTC and their prognostic implications. We included 37 patients with DSV-PTC who underwent thyroid surgery and had formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. We tested for a panel of genetic alterations, including BRAF(V) (600E) , NRAS codon 61, HRAS codon 12/13/61 and KRAS codon 12/13 point mutations as well as RET/PTC1, RET/PTC3 and PAX8/PPARγ rearrangements using reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All genetic alterations found on PCR were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Associations between the identified genetic alterations and clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated. Among 37 cases of DSV-PTC, 17 were positive for RET/PTC1 (46%), six for RET/PTC3 (16%) and nine for BRAF(V) (600E) (24%). All mutations/rearrangements were mutually exclusive. The remaining five cases had none of the above genetic alterations. DSV-PTC with RET/PTC3 rearrangement was associated with advanced-stage disease, including T4 and distant metastasis (P < 0.05). Patients with RET/PTC3 showed a higher frequency of persistent disease (P < 0.01). In contrast, DSV-PTC with RET/PTC1 was associated with a higher prevalence of disease remission (P < 0.05) and coexistent Hashimoto's thyroiditis (P < 0.01). Taken together, RET/PTC rearrangement was the major genetic alteration seen in patients with DSV-PTC, and the RET/PTC3 rearrangement was associated with advanced stage at diagnosis and poor clinical outcome. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Bilaterality weighs more than unilateral multifocality in predicting prognosis in papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ning; Zhang, Ling; Wu, Wei-Li; Ji, Qing-Hai; Lu, Zhong-Wu; Zhu, Yong-Xue; Lin, Dao-Zhe

    2016-07-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) often presents as multifocal tumor;, however, whether multifocality is associated with poor prognosis remains controversial. The aims of this retrospective study were to identify the characteristics of PTC with multifocal tumors and evaluate the association between the location and prognosis. We reviewed the medical records of 496 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for PTC. Patients were classified as three groups: N1 (solitary tumor), N2 (2 or more foci within unilateral lobe of thyroid), and N3 (bilateral tumors, at least one tumor focus for each lobe of thyroid). We analyzed the differences of clinicopathologic features and clinical outcomes among the three groups. Cox regression model was used to assess the relation between the different locations of multifocal tumors and prognosis. Although the differences of clinicopathologic features such as the size of tumor, extrathyroidal extension, and cervical lymph node metastasis were not significant among the three groups, the bilateral-multifocality was proved to be an independent risk factor for neck recurrence (hazard ratio (HR) = 4.052, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.070-7.933), distant metastasis (HR = 3.860, 95 % CI 1.507-9.884), and cancer death (HR = 7.252, 95 % 2.189-24.025). In addition, extrathyroidal extension (HR = 2.291, 95 % CI 1.185-4.427) and older age >45 years (HR = 6.721, 95 % CI 2.300-19.637) were also significant predictors for neck recurrence and cancer death, respectively. Therefore, bilateral-multifocality as an indicator for more extensive tumor location could be used to assess the risk of recurrence and mortality in PTC. Given the poor prognosis associated with bilateral-multifocality and other risk factors, aggressive therapy and intensive follow-up were recommended for PTC patients with them.

  7. Characterization of the novel tumor-suppressor gene CCDC67 in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yin, De Tao; Xu, Jianhui; Lei, Mengyuan; Li, Hongqiang; Wang, Yongfei; Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Yubing; Xing, Mingzhao

    2016-02-02

    Some studies showed an association of coiled-coil domain-containing (CCDC) genes with cancers. Our previous limited data specifically suggested a possible pathogenic role of CCDC67 in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), but this has not been firmly established. The present study was to further investigate and establish this role of CCDC67 in PTC. The expression of CCDC67, both at mRNA and protein levels, was sharply down-regulated in PTC compared with normal thyroid tissues. Lower CCDC67 expression was significantly associated with aggressive tumor behaviors, such as advanced tumor stages and lymph node metastasis, as well as BRAF mutation. Introduced expression of CCDC67 in TPC-1 cells robustly inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation and migration, induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest, and increased cell apoptosis. Primary PTC tumors and matched normal thyroid tissues were obtained from 200 unselected patients at the initial surgery for detection of CCDC67 mRNA and protein by RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses, respectively. Genomic DNA sequencing was performed to detect BRAF mutation in PTC tumors. Clinicopathological data were retrospectively reviewed for correlation analyses. PTC cell line TPC-1 with stable transfection of CCDC67 was used to investigate the functions of CCDC67. This large study demonstrates down-regulation of CCDC67 in PTC, an inverse relationship between CCDC67 expression and PTC aggressiveness and BRAF mutation, and a robust inhibitory effect of CCDC67 on PTC cellular activities. These results are consistent with CCDC67 being a novel and impaired tumor suppressor gene in PTC, providing important prognostic and therapeutic implications for this cancer.

  8. Synchronous occurrence of papillary carcinoma in the thyroid gland and thyroglossal duct in an adolescent with congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Şıklar, Zeynep; Berberoğlu, Merih; Yağmurlu, Aydın; Hacıhamdioğlu, Bülent; Savaş Erdeve, Senay; Fitöz, Suat; Kır, Metin; Öçal, Gönül

    2012-03-01

    Thyroid carcinoma (TC) combined with congenital hypothyroidism is rare. The synchronous occurrence of these two conditions is even rarer. We describe a patient with congenital hypothyroidism in whom hyperthyroglobulinemia and nodules developed despite adequate replacement therapy. Papillary TC was detected at age 19 years. Postoperative diagnostic scintigraphy showed increased uptake in the thyroglossal duct region. Repetitive imaging of the thyroid gland can be useful in the early detection of TC in patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Moreover, this rare situation can be complicated by a synchronous thyroglossal duct carcinoma. Thyroglossal duct carcinoma can be detected if diagnostic scintigraphy is performed after total thyroidectomy.

  9. Tumorigenesis of Papillary Thyroid Cancer Is Not BRAF-Dependent in Patients with Acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Lee, Ji Shin; Park, Min Ho; Cho, Jin Seong; Yoon, Jee Hee; Kim, Soo Jeong; Kang, Ho-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have reported a high frequency of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in patients with acromegaly. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of thyroid cancer in patients with acromegaly and to investigate the frequency of the BRAFV600E mutation in PTC patients with and without acromegaly. Materials and Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 60 patients with acromegaly. Thyroid ultrasonography (US) and US-guided fine needle aspiration were performed on nodules with sonographic features of malignancy. We selected 16 patients with non-acromegalic PTC as a control group. The BRAFV600E mutation was analyzed in paraffin-embedded surgical specimens of PTC by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and tumor specimens from patients with PTC were stained immunohistochemically with an antibody against insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor β (IGF-1Rβ). Results Thyroid cancer was found in 15 (25.0%) patients. No differences in age, sex, initial growth hormone (GH) and IGF-1 percentage of the upper limit of normal values or treatment modalities were observed between patients with and without PTC. Acromegaly was active in 12 of 15 patients at the time of PTC diagnosis; uncontrolled acromegaly had a significantly higher frequency in the PTC group (60%) than in the non-PTC group (28.9%) (p = 0.030). The BRAFV600E mutation was present in only 9.1% (1/11) of PTC patients with acromegaly, although 62.5% (10/16) of control patients with PTC had the mutation (p = 0.007). IGF-1Rβ immunostaining showed moderate-to-strong staining in all malignant PTC cells in patients with and without acromegaly. Significantly less staining for IGF-1Rβ was observed in normal adjacent thyroid tissues of PTC patients with acromegaly compared with those without (p = 0.014). Conclusion The prevalence of PTC in acromegalic patients was high (25%). An uncontrolled hyperactive GH-IGF-1 axis may play a dominant role in the development of PTC

  10. Aflibercept in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  11. Combined papillary and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid gland: a possible collision tumor diagnosed on fine-needle cytology. Report of a case with immunocytochemical and molecular correlations.

    PubMed

    Fulciniti, Franco; Vuttariello, Emilia; Calise, Celeste; Monaco, Mario; Pezzullo, Luciano; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Di Gennaro, Francesca; Malzone, Maria Gabriella; Campanile, Anna Cipolletta; Losito, Nunzia Simona; Botti, Gerardo; Chiappetta, Gennaro

    2015-05-01

    Fine-needle cytology (FNC) is frequently used to diagnose thyroid nodules discovered by palpation or imaging studies. Molecular tests on FNC material may increase its diagnostic accuracy. We report a case of a classic papillary thyroid carcinoma combined with a mucoepidermoid carcinoma correctly identified on FNC. The papillary component had a classic immunophenotype (CK19+, TTF1+), while the mucoepidermoid one was only focally CK19+. Point mutations (BRAF and RAS) and rearrangements (RET/PTC) of the papillary component have been also investigated on FNC samples, with resulting concurrent rearrangements of RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3, but no point mutations. The histogenesis of combined papillary and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the thyroid still remains partly unsettled, and further genomic studies are needed to shed some more light on this peculiar neoplasm.

  12. Both gender and concurrent chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis may influence the nuclear texture of papillary thyroid carcinomas cells.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Lucas Leite; Ferreira, Rita de Cássia; de Matos, Patricia Sabino; da Assumpção, Ligia Vera Montalli; Ward, Laura Sterian

    2014-01-01

    A disparity in gender incidence has been reported in both papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) diseases frequently associated and whose incidence has been increasing in parallel. We aimed to analyze differences in morphometric variables between male and female PTC patients and their relationship with the presence of concurrent CLT. The nuclear texture features of 100 hematoxylin-eosin stained nuclei from 100 consecutive classic PTC patients enrolled in our service were compared with their clinical and pathological features, including the presence of CLT. All patients were submitted to a standard management protocol and followed-up for 13-248 months (Mo = 117 months). Chromatin in women tended to present a denser and more homogeneous structure, in a less mottled pattern, with higher values of energy (p = 0.008) and diagonal moment (p = 0.032) than men. Concurrent CLT was more prevalent in women (41.42%) than in men (13.33%, p = 0.04) and was associated with higher cluster prominence values (p = 0.027), a parameter that indicates a predominance of high nuclear contrasted heterochromatin. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher cluster prominence was independently correlated with chromatin in patients who presented CLT but did not demonstrate any association between concurrent CLT and gender. We were unable to demonstrate any association between gender and any characteristic of tumor aggressiveness or patients outcome. Our results suggest that chromatin texture of hematoxylin-eosin stained nuclei in paraffin sections of PTC cells is related to both gender and concurrent CLT.

  13. Comparison of two- and three-dimensional sonography for the prediction of the extrathyroidal extension of papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yi, Yang Seon; Kim, Sang Soo; Kim, Won Jin; Bae, Min Jung; Kang, Ji Hyun; Choi, Bo Gwang; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Bo Hyun; Lee, Byung Joo; Wang, Soo Geun; Kim, In Joo; Kim, Yong Ki

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic validity of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography (US) when predicting the extrathyroidal extension of papillary thyroid cancer. All 2D data were interpreted in real time and 3D data were stored, rendered using tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI), and then reviewed retrospectively. Extrathyroidal extension was present in 17 papillary thyroid cancers(24.3%) on pathology reports. The presence of contact was significantly associated with extrathyroidal extension on both 2D and 3D US (p = 0.007 and p = 0.003), and the sensitivity and specificity were not significantly different between 2D and 3D US (p = 1.000 and p = 0.754). The coexistence of protrusion and contact was not significantly associated with extrathyroidal extension on either 2D or 3D sonogram. Three-dimensional images rendered with TUI algorithms alone do not seem to be markedly superior to real-time 2D US in predicting the extrathyroidal extension of papillary thyroid cancer.

  14. Comparison of two- and three-dimensional sonography for the prediction of the extrathyroidal extension of papillary thyroid carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Yang Seon; Kim, Sang Soo; Kim, Won Jin; Bae, Min Jung; Kang, Ji Hyun; Choi, Bo Gwang; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Bo Hyun; Lee, Byung Joo; Wang, Soo Geun; Kim, In Joo; Kim, Yong Ki

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic validity of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography (US) when predicting the extrathyroidal extension of papillary thyroid cancer. Methods: All 2D data were interpreted in real time and 3D data were stored, rendered using tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI), and then reviewed retrospectively. Results: Extrathyroidal extension was present in 17 papillary thyroid cancers(24.3%) on pathology reports. The presence of contact was significantly associated with extrathyroidal extension on both 2D and 3D US (p = 0.007 and p = 0.003), and the sensitivity and specificity were not significantly different between 2D and 3D US (p = 1.000 and p = 0.754). The coexistence of protrusion and contact was not significantly associated with extrathyroidal extension on either 2D or 3D sonogram. Conclusions: Three-dimensional images rendered with TUI algorithms alone do not seem to be markedly superior to real-time 2D US in predicting the extrathyroidal extension of papillary thyroid cancer. PMID:26701230

  15. Correlation Between Surgical Extent and Prognosis in Node-Negative, Early-Stage Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Originating in the Isthmus.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung Taek; Jeon, Ye Won; Suh, Young Jin

    2016-02-01

    The association between surgical extent and prognosis in papillary thyroid carcinoma originating in the isthmus is unclear. We included 233 patients with early-stage, node-negative papillary thyroid cancer originating in the isthmus; 126 were treated by lobectomy plus isthmusectomy with ipsilateral central neck dissection and 97 were treated by total thyroidectomy with bilateral central neck dissection. Subgroup analysis was performed according to tumor size (≤ 1 vs. >1 cm) to evaluate whether tumor size had a significant impact on determining the optimal extent of surgery in our cohort. Total thyroidectomy patients had longer recurrence-free survival (RFS) than those treated by lobectomy plus isthmusectomy. Subgroup analysis showed that this was true only for tumors >1 cm. In multivariate analysis, total thyroidectomy was an independent risk factor for RFS only for tumors >1 cm. Lobectomy plus isthmusectomy may be optimal for early-stage, node-negative papillary thyroid carcinoma originating in the isthmus for tumors ≤ 1 cm; total thyroidectomy might be better for tumors >1 cm.

  16. Nuclear morphometric findings in undetermined cytology: A possible clue for prediction of BRAF mutation in papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Mungan, Sevdegul; Ersoz, Safak; Saygin, Ismail; Sagnak, Zeynep; Cobanoglu, Umit

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the possible relationship between the nuclear morphometric characteristics (nuclear perimeter, roundness, nuclear area, and nuclear shape) and BRAF mutation status in papillary thyroid carcinoma cases with a prior diagnosis of undetermined cytology. Total thyroidectomy specimens obtained from 48 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with a prior diagnosis of undetermined cytology were included. Morphometric analysis under light microscopy included measurements of the perimeter, shape factor, nuclear area, and roundness of thyrocyte nuclei from the cytological smear preparations. Mutational analysis, including immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction, was performed in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks. BRAF V600E mutation was detected in 7 of 48 cases (14.5%). The nuclear perimeter and nuclear area in mutated cases were significantly higher than the wild type (p = 0.005). Shape factor (p = 0.681) and roundness (p = 0.752) values did not significantly differ between the wild-type and mutant groups. No significant relationship was evident between BRAF expression and BRAF point mutation. In cases with positivity for BRAF mutation, the nuclear perimeter and nuclear area were significantly increased. These findings suggest that morphometric variables are predictive markers for papillary thyroid carcinoma cases with positivity for BRAF mutation. However, further trials on larger series are warranted to understand the significance and predictive value of nuclear morphometric analysis in these circumstances.

  17. BRAF mutation is not predictive of long-term outcome in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Henke, Lauren E; Pfeifer, John D; Ma, Changquing; Perkins, Stephanie M; DeWees, Todd; El-Mofty, Samir; Moley, Jeffrey F; Nussenbaum, Brian; Haughey, Bruce H; Baranski, Thomas J; Schwarz, Julie K; Grigsby, Perry W

    2015-06-01

    The BRAF mutation occurs commonly in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Previous investigations of its utility to predict recurrence-free survival (RFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) have reported conflicting results and its role remains unclear. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence of the BRAF mutation and analyze its relationship to clinicopathologic risk factors and long-term outcomes in the largest, single-institution American cohort to date. BRAF mutational status was determined in 508 PTC patients using RFLP analysis. The relationships between BRAF mutation status, patient and tumor characteristics, RFS, and DSS were analyzed. The BRAF mutation was present in 67% of patients. On multivariate analysis, presence of the mutation predicted only for capsular invasion (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.6), cervical lymph node involvement (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1-2.7), and classic papillary histology (HR, 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-2.9). There was no significant relationship between the BRAF mutation and RFS or DSS, an observation that was consistent across univariate, multivariate, and Kaplan-Meier analyses. This is the most extensive study to date in the United States to demonstrate that BRAF mutation is of no predictive value for recurrence or survival in PTC. We found correlations of BRAF status and several clinicopathologic characteristics of high-risk disease, but limited evidence that the mutation correlates with more extensive or aggressive disease. This analysis suggests that BRAF is minimally prognostic in PTC. However, prevalence of the BRAF mutation is 70% in the general population, providing the opportunity for targeted therapy.

  18. BRAF mutation is not predictive of long-term outcome in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Henke, Lauren E; Pfeifer, John D; Ma, Changquing; Perkins, Stephanie M; DeWees, Todd; El-Mofty, Samir; Moley, Jeffrey F; Nussenbaum, Brian; Haughey, Bruce H; Baranski, Thomas J; Schwarz, Julie K; Grigsby, Perry W

    2015-01-01

    The BRAF mutation occurs commonly in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Previous investigations of its utility to predict recurrence-free survival (RFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) have reported conflicting results and its role remains unclear. The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the incidence of the BRAF mutation and analyze its relationship to clinicopathologic risk factors and long-term outcomes in the largest, single-institution American cohort to date. BRAF mutational status was determined in 508 PTC patients using RFLP analysis. The relationships between BRAF mutation status, patient and tumor characteristics, RFS, and DSS were analyzed. The BRAF mutation was present in 67% of patients. On multivariate analysis, presence of the mutation predicted only for capsular invasion (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1–2.6), cervical lymph node involvement (HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1–2.7), and classic papillary histology (HR, 1.8; 95% CI 1.1–2.9). There was no significant relationship between the BRAF mutation and RFS or DSS, an observation that was consistent across univariate, multivariate, and Kaplan–Meier analyses. This is the most extensive study to date in the United States to demonstrate that BRAF mutation is of no predictive value for recurrence or survival in PTC. We found correlations of BRAF status and several clinicopathologic characteristics of high-risk disease, but limited evidence that the mutation correlates with more extensive or aggressive disease. This analysis suggests that BRAF is minimally prognostic in PTC. However, prevalence of the BRAF mutation is 70% in the general population, providing the opportunity for targeted therapy. PMID:25712893

  19. Thyroid gland removal

    MedlinePlus

    Total thyroidectomy; Partial thyroidectomy; Thyroidectomy; Subtotal thyroidectomy; Thyroid cancer - thyroidectomy; Papillary cancer - thyroidectomy; Goiter - thyroidectomy; Thyroid nodules - thyroidectomy

  20. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma: role of TSH and of treatment with L-thyroxine.

    PubMed

    Fiore, E; Rago, T; Latrofa, F; Provenzale, M A; Piaggi, P; Delitala, A; Scutari, M; Basolo, F; Di Coscio, G; Grasso, L; Pinchera, A; Vitti, P

    2011-08-01

    The possible association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is a still debated issue. We analyzed the frequency of PTC, TSH levels and thyroid autoantibodies (TAb) in 13 738 patients (9824 untreated and 3914 under l-thyroxine, l-T(4)). Patients with nodular-HT (n=1593) had high titer of TAb and/or hypothyroidism. Patients with nodular goiter (NG) were subdivided in TAb-NG (n=8812) with undetectable TAb and TAb+NG (n=3395) with positive TAb. Among untreated patients, those with nodular-HT showed higher frequency of PTC (9.4%) compared with both TAb-NG (6.4%; P=0.002) and TAb+NG (6.5%; P=0.009) and presented also higher serum TSH (median 1.30 vs 0.71 μU/ml, P<0.001 and 0.70 μU/ml, P<0.001 respectively). Independently of clinical diagnosis, patients with high titer of TAb showed a higher frequency of PTC (9.3%) compared to patients with low titer (6.8%, P<0.001) or negative TAb (6.3%, P<0.001) and presented also higher serum TSH (median 1.16 vs 0.75 μU/ml, P<0.001 and 0.72 μU/ml, P<0.001 respectively). PTC frequency was strongly related with serum TSH (odds ratio (OR)=1.111), slightly related with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (OR=1.001), and unrelated with anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies. In the l-T(4)-treated group, when only patients with serum TSH levels below the median value (0.90 μU/ml) were considered, no significant difference in PTC frequency was found between nodular-HT, TAb-NG and TAb+NG. In conclusion, the frequency of PTC is significantly higher in nodular-HT than in NG and is associated with increased levels of serum TSH. Treatment with l-T(4) reduces TSH levels and decreases the occurrence of clinically detectable PTC.

  1. NTRK fusion oncogenes in pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma in northeast United States.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Manju L; Vyas, Monika; Horne, Matthew J; Virk, Renu K; Morotti, Raffaella; Liu, Zongzhi; Tallini, Giovanni; Nikiforova, Marina N; Christison-Lagay, Emily R; Udelsman, Robert; Dinauer, Catherine A; Nikiforov, Yuri E

    2016-04-01

    An increase in thyroid cancers, predominantly papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), has been recently reported in children. The histopathology of 28 consecutive PTCs from the northeast United States was reviewed. None of the patients (ages 6-18 years; 20 females, 8 males) had significant exposure to radiation. Nucleic acid from tumors was tested for genetic abnormalities (n = 27). Negative results were reevaluated by targeted next-generation sequencing. Seven of 27 PTCs (26%) had neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor (NTRK) fusion oncogenes (NTRK type 3/ets variant 6 [NTRK3/ETV6], n =5; NTRK3/unknown, n = 1; and NTRK type 1/translocated promoter region, nuclear basket protein [NTRK1/TPR], n = 1), including 5 tumors that measured >2 cm and 3 that diffusely involved the entire thyroid or lobe. All 7 tumors had lymphatic invasion, and 5 had vascular invasion. Six of 27 PTCs (22%) had ret proto-oncogene (RET) fusions (RET/PTC1, n = 5; RET/PTC3, n = 1); 2 tumors measured >2 cm and diffusely involved the thyroid, and 5 had lymphatic invasion, with vascular invasion in 2. Thirteen PTCs had the B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) valine-to-glutamic acid mutation at position 600 (BRAF(V) (600E)) (13 of 27 tumors; 48%), 11 measured <2 cm, and 6 had lymphatic invasion (46%), with vascular invasion in 3. Fusion oncogene tumors, compared with BRAF(V) (600E) PTCs, were associated with large size (mean, 2.2 cm vs 1.5 cm, respectively; P = .05), solid and diffuse variants (11 of 13 vs 0 of 13 tumors, respectively; P < .001), and lymphovascular invasion (12 of 13 vs 6 of 13 tumors, respectively; P = .02); BRAF(V) (600E) PTCs were predominantly the classic variant (12 of 13 vs 1 of 13 tumors). Two tumors metastasized to the lung, and both had fusion oncogenes (NTRK1/TPR, n = 1; RET/PTC1, n = 1). Fusion oncogene PTC presents with more extensive disease and aggressive pathology than BRAF(V) (600E) PTC in the pediatric population. The high prevalence of the NTRK1/NTRK3

  2. Significance of TNF-α and the Adhesion Molecules: L-Selectin and VCAM-1 in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kobawala, Toral P.; Trivedi, Trupti I.; Gajjar, Kinjal K.; Patel, Darshita H.; Patel, Girish H.; Ghosh, Nandita R.

    2016-01-01

    Circulating levels of TNF-α and the adhesion molecules L-Selectin and VCAM-1 as well as their expression in the primary tumors of patients with benign thyroid diseases and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) have been determined in this study. The serum levels of TNF-α, L-Selectin, and VCAM-1 were significantly higher in patients with both benign thyroid diseases and PTC as compared to the healthy individuals. However, the levels of only TNF-α and L-Selectin, and not VCAM-1, were significantly higher in patients with PTC in comparison to those observed in patients with benign thyroid diseases. Further the expression of TNF-α and L-Selectin was also significantly higher in the primary tumors of PTC patients, relative to the benign thyroid diseases. The expression of L-Selectin and VCAM-1 significantly correlated with aggressive tumor behavior. In PTC patients, the circulating TNF-α levels significantly positively correlated with the levels of L-Selectin, while TNF-α immunoreactivity was significantly associated with VCAM-1 expression. Serum TNF-α was found to be a significant prognosticator for OS in PTC patients. Overall the results signify that the interaction between TNF-α and the adhesion molecules may have a role in thyroid carcinogenesis and understanding this complexity may offer potential therapeutic targets for better management of thyroid cancer. PMID:26881177

  3. Sonographic findings predictive of central lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma: influence of associated chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on the diagnostic performance of sonography.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeon Hwa; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Son, Eun Ju; Youk, Ji Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Park, Cheong Soo

    2013-12-01

    To analyze sonographic findings suggesting central lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and to evaluate the influence of associated chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on the diagnostic performance of sonography for predicting central lymph node metastasis. A total of 124 patients (101 female and 23 male; mean age, 47.5 years; range, 21-74 years) underwent sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration in central lymph nodes from January 2008 to July 2011. Sonographic features of size, shape, margin, thickening of the cortex, cortical echogenicity, presence of a hilum, cystic changes, calcification, and vascularity of enlarged lymph nodes were analyzed before fine-needle aspiration and classified into 2 categories (probably benign and suspicious). Sonographic findings were correlated with the pathologic diagnosis and associated chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic performance of sonography for predicting central lymph node metastasis according to the associated thyroiditis. Fifty-one lymph nodes (39.5%) were malignant, and 73 (60.5%) were benign. On univariate analysis, size, shape, margin, cortical thickening, cortical echogenicity, cystic changes, calcification, and vascularity were significantly different between the benign and metastatic nodes (P < .05). On multivariate analysis, eccentric cortical thickening (odds ratio, 26.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.26-216.66) and hyper echogenicity of the cortex (odds ratio, 18.46; 95% CI, 2.44-139.64) were significantly associated with malignant nodes (P < .05). The area under the curve values for sonography for predicting metastasis were 0.756 (95% CI, 0.618-0.894) in chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis-positive patients and 0.971 (95% CI, 0.938-1.000) in negative patients. Eccentric cortical thickening and cortical hyperechogenicity were the sonographic findings predictive of central lymph node metastasis from papillary

  4. Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP): Implications for the risk of malignancy (ROM) in the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haijun; Baloch, Zubair W; Nayar, Ritu; Bizzarro, Tommaso; Fadda, Guido; Adhikari-Guragain, Deepti; Hatem, Joseph; Larocca, Luigi M; Samolczyk, Julia; Slade, Jamie; Rossi, Esther Diana

    2017-09-20

    The introduction of noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) affects the risk of malignancy (ROM) mostly in the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) categories. In this multi-institutional, retrospective study, the authors investigated variations in the impact of an NIFTP diagnosis on the associated ROM for each TBSRTC category with an emphasis on the influence of pathologist and institutional diagnostic thresholds on the ROM. Baseline data on cytology and histology diagnostic categories were collected over a 3-year period at 3 academic center hospitals (institutions A, B, and C). Histology slides for all cases diagnosed as follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) were re-reviewed at each institution, and those that qualifying as NIFTP were separated from other PTCs. The collective case cohort from the 3 institutions included 15,973 thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) specimens and 5090 thyroid surgical resection specimens. Significant differences in baseline cytology and histology data were noted among the 3 institutions. The number of cases classified as NIFTP compared with FVPTC was highly variable (institution A, 14%; institution B, 39%; and institution C, 12%). For 3250 resected thyroid nodules with a previous FNAC diagnosis, the average decrease in ROM after the exclusion of NIFTP for all TBSRTC categories was as follows: institution A, 9.8%; institution B, 3.9%; and institution C, 1.3%. The institutional frequency of NIFTP histopathology diagnosis and cytology baseline data will impact the ROM associated with specific FNAC diagnoses, especially among the indeterminate TBSRTC categories. The range of ROM for each TBSRTC diagnostic category is reflective of the inherent diagnostic thresholds and interobserver and interinstitutional variability in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions. Cancer Cytopathol 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer

  5. A pregnant woman with metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma and paraplegia: Multiple considerations involved in the management.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sandip; Kand, Purushottam

    2011-01-01

    A 35 years old primigravida hailing from a humble, rural background with no previous history related to thyroid carcinoma, presented with acute paraparesis at the last trimester of pregnancy and was diagnosed to harbor metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine with guided biopsy, which demonstrated near complete collapse of D5 and D10 vertebral bodies with altered signal on the D4 to D6 and D9 to D11 vertebral bodies, in addition to a gravid uterus and a large goiter. There was also evidence of bilateral nodular lesions in the lung parenchyma and a fairly large hepatic lesion in segment 8 of the liver . Histopathology revealed metastatic follicular variant of thyroid papillary carcinoma. This case with challenging presentation had multiple issues to be resolved during its management: a) acute paraparesis and the requirement of radioiodine ((131)I) treatment soon after total thyroidectomy, b) her first valuable pregnancy that required to be managed successfully, c) the poor general condition, d) the abstinence from iodine containing medications, in relation to the Cesarean section planned, e) the timing of total thyroidectomy, f) postnatal care of the newborn and g) radioprotective measures. All were important considerations in the management of this patient. Iodine restricted diet and medications were recommended and were communicated to the obstetricians involved in the patient. The patient underwent Cesarean section and total thyroidectomy at the same sitting. The newborn baby was healthy and was started on artificial feeding. Recombinant TSH primed protocol was not considered immediately in view of a major surgery being undertaken and the poor general condition, so that the patient would not require frequent support during the isolation period. In the first 3 weeks of the postoperative period, she was put on T3 substitution and after a 2 weeks gap was given (131)I and whole body diagnostic scan was

  6. A distinct variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma indicating familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP): a case report and brief review.

    PubMed

    Liyanapathirana, Nishantha; Seneviratne, Sanjeewa Anuruddha; Samarasekera, Dharmabandhu Nandadeva

    2015-12-17

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited intestinal polyposis syndrome with an incidence of about 1/8300 births and accounts for about 1% of all colorectal cancers. It has a spectrum of extra-intestinal manifestations including thyroid carcinoma which occur in 1-2% of affected. The cribriform morular variant (CMV) is a rare but distinct histological subtype of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) associated with FAP. Most of the reported cases describe the above entity in the background of well-established FAP. We report a case where both entities presenting simultaneously in a previously undiagnosed patient with FAP without a family history of polyposis. A 24 year old Asian female presented to the surgical clinic with a goitre of eight months duration and recent onset of altered bowel habits with features of anaemia. She was previously healthy and there was no family history of adenomatous polyposis, colorectal carcinoma or thyroid neoplasms. Colonoscopy revealed large bowel polyposis and fine needle aspiration of thyroid revealed a smear suspicious for malignancy. She underwent total thyroidectomy which revealed CMV PTC. Histology was characterized by a prominent cribriform pattern of growth with interspersed cell clusters arranged as morules along with papillary structures which are the key features of this subtype. Diagnosis of CMV warrants ruling out of underlying FAP, irrespective of family history or gastrointestinal symptoms.

  7. Thyroid Nodules and Thyroid Cancer: Surgical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Orlo H.

    1980-01-01

    Patients with thyroid nodules must be treated selectively because these nodules develop far more frequently than does thyroid cancer. A thorough clinical history, family history and history of radiation, as well as an accurate physical examination, are very important in determining whether surgical treatment is indicated. Thyroid function tests, a radioactive isotope scan, a thyroid echogram and fine-needle biopsy are also useful. Although there is considerable debate concerning the amount of thyroid tissue that should be removed at operation, the minimal procedure for a “cold,” solid thyroid nodule is a total thyroid lobectomy and isthmectomy. This is the treatment of choice for patients with occult papillary thyroid carcinoma. Partial lobectomy is to be discouraged. Near total or total thyroidectomy should be considered for all other patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Many factors influence the prognosis of patients with thyroid cancer including age, sex, type of thyroid cancer, invasion, symptoms, lymph node metastasis, metastasis to distant sites, extent of the surgical procedure, and use of radioactive iodine and thyroid hormone. With adequate treatment, the prognosis for differentiated thyroid carcinoma is excellent. PMID:7222643

  8. Dose-dependent expression of CLIP2 in post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Selmansberger, Martin; Kaiser, Jan Christian; Hess, Julia; Güthlin, Denise; Likhtarev, I; Shpak, Victor; Tronko, Mykola; Brenner, Alina; Abend, Michael; Blettner, Maria; Unger, Kristian; Jacob, Peter; Zitzelsberger, Horst

    2015-07-01

    A previous study on papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) in young patients who were exposed to (131)iodine from the Chernobyl fallout revealed an exclusive gain of chromosomal band 7q11.23 in exposed cases compared to an age-matched control cohort. CLIP2, a gene located within band 7q11.23 was shown to be differentially expressed between exposed and non-exposed cases at messenger RNA and protein level. Therefore, a standardized procedure for CLIP2 typing of PTCs has been developed in a follow-up study. Here we used CLIP2 typing data on 117 post-Chernobyl PTCs from two cohorts of exposed patients with individual dose estimates and 24 non-exposed controls to investigate a possible quantitative dose-response relationship of the CLIP2 marker. The 'Genrisk-T' cohort consisted of 45 PTCs and the 'UkrAm' cohort of 72 PTCs. Both cohorts differed in mean dose (0.59 Gy Genrisk-T, 1.2 Gy UkrAm) and mean age at exposure (AaE) (2 years Genrisk-T, 8 years UkrAm), whilst the median latency (16 years Genrisk-T, 18 years UkrAm) was comparable. We analyzed the association between the binary CLIP2 typing and continuous thyroid dose with logistic regression. A clear positive dose-response relationship was found for young PTC cases [age at operation (AaO) < 20 years, AaE < 5 years]. In the elder age group a higher proportion of sporadic tumors is assumed due to a negligible dose response, suggesting different molecular mechanisms in sporadic and radiation-induced cases. This is further supported by the association of elder patients (AaO > 20 years) with positivity for BRAF V600E mutation.

  9. Antitumor actions of cytokines on new human papillary thyroid carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ohta, K; Pang, X P; Berg, L; Hershman, J M

    1996-07-01

    To investigate the in vitro effects of cytokines on the growth of human papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cells, we established six new PTC cell lines, designated BHP 5, 14, 15, 17, 18, and 19, from different patients. We studied the antiproliferative actions of cytokines by using BHP cells, NP cells (PTC cell line), and ARO cells (anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line). These cells were treated with various concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN gamma), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF beta 1), alone and in combination. Cell proliferation was assessed by [3H]thymidine incorporation and cell number measurement. In BHP cell lines, IFN gamma, IL-1 beta, and TGF beta 1 inhibited [3H]thymidine incorporation and decreased cell number, but TNF alpha stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation. In NP cells, treatment with each cytokine decreased [3H]thymidine incorporation and cell number. In contrast, the proliferation of ARO cells was either stimulated by or resistant to TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, and TGF beta 1. The effects of these cytokines on [3H]thymidine incorporation were additive in these cell lines. The results suggest that IL-1 beta and TGF beta 1 play a pivotal role in growth inhibition of PTC cells, and the escape from negative control of IL-1 beta and TGF beta 1 may be a step toward anaplastic changes. The additive effects of these cytokines suggest that they act through different pathways.

  10. Risk factor analysis for central nodal metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mao, Ling-Na; Wang, Ping; Li, Zhi-Yu; Wang, Yong; Song, Zheng-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Lymph node involvement is associated with recurrence in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The central neck compartment (level VI) lymph nodes are at the greatest risk of metastases from PTC, but the role of central neck dissection (CND) remains controversial, particularly in PTC without clinical cervical lymph node metastasis (cN0). The present study aimed to identify risk factors of central cervical nodal metastasis and the safety of CND in patients with cN0 PTC. The current study retrospectively investigated 389 patients who had been followed up for 12.0-25.5 months after surgery, and were divided into positive or negative lymph node involvement groups according to the pathological results subsequent to this surgery. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to study the risk factor of central node involvement. The mean tumor size was 0.71±0.35 cm (range, 0.1-2.0 cm). There was no significant difference in the rate of central lymph node involvement based on age (<45 or ≥45 years) or tumor focality (unifocal or multifocal). However, there were significant differences based on gender, extra-thyroid invasion and tumor size (P<0.05). The incidence of transient hypoparathyroidism and transient vocal cord paralysis following CND was 12.34 and 4.11%, respectively. No patient experienced permanent hypoparathyroidism or vocal cord paralysis. One patient (1/389; 0.23%) experienced disease recurrence during the follow-up. A larger tumor size and the male gender were significantly associated with the central nodal metastasis rate for cN0 PTC with a tumor size of <2.0 cm. CND for cN0 PTC patients was safe and the tumor-associated recurrence rate following CND plus total thyroidectomy was low. The present study suggests that CND should be conducted for male cN0 PTC patients with a larger tumor size (≥0.5 cm).

  11. Variants in microRNA genes in familial papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tomsic, Jerneja; Fultz, Rebecca; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Genutis, Luke K; Wang, Yanqiang; Li, Wei; Volinia, Stefano; Jazdzewski, Krystian; He, Huiling; Wakely, Paul E; Senter, Leigha; de Chapelle la, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC) displays one of the highest familiality scores of all cancers as measured by case-control studies, yet only a handful of genes have been implicated until now. Variants in microRNAs have been associated with the risk of several cancers including PTC but the magnitude of this involvement is unclear. This study was designed to test to what extent genomic variants in microRNAs contribute to PTC risk. We used SOLiD technology to sequence 321 genomic regions encoding 427 miRNAs in one affected individual from each of 80 PTC families. After excluding variants with frequency ≥ 1% in 1000 Genomes Phase 1 (n = 1092) we detected 1978 variants. After further functional filtering steps 25 variants in pre-miRs remained. Co-segregation was observed for six out of 16 tested miRNA variants with PTC in the families, namely let-7e, miR-181b, miR-135a, miR-15b, miR-320, and miR-484. Expression of miR-135a and miR-181b was tested in normal thyroid and tumor tissue from patients that carry the variants and a decrease in expression was observed. In vitro assays were applied to measure the effect of the variants on microRNAs’ maturation. Four out of six variants were tested. Only the let-7e and miR-181b variants showed an effect on processing leading to lower levels of mature miRNA. These two variants were not detected in 1170 sporadic PTC cases nor in 1404 controls. Taken together, our data show that high penetrance germline sequence variants of miRNAs potentially predispose to a fraction of all PTC but are not common. PMID:28031538

  12. TERT promoter mutations are a major indicator of recurrence and death due to papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Martyn; Ren, Yan; O'Neill, Christine; Gill, Anthony; Aniss, Adam; Sywak, Mark; Sidhu, Stan; Delbridge, Leigh; Learoyd, Diana; de Vathaire, Florent; Robinson, Bruce G; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J

    2016-08-01

    TERT promoter mutations have been associated with adverse prognosis in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs). We investigated the association between TERT promoter mutations and survival from PTC. Retrospective observational cohort study. Eighty consecutive patients with PTC who underwent surgery between 1990 and 2003. TERT promoter was genotyped in DNA from 80 archival PTCs by Sanger sequencing. Median follow-up was 106 months (range 1-270). Outcomes analysis was stratified according to disease and overall survival status. For each parameter, relative risk (RR) adjusted for age at first surgery and gender was estimated. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression models. PTCs from 11 patients (14%) contained either C228T or C250T TERT promoter mutation. TERT mutations were significantly associated with adverse prognostic features such as older age (P = 0·002), male gender (P = 0·01) and Stage IV disease (P = 0·03). Four patients died from PTC during follow-up: 3 patients with TERT mutations (27%) and one without (1·5%). Disease-related mortality rate with or without TERT mutations was 33·7 vs 1·6 per 1000 patient-years respectively, that is 10 (95% CI = 1·0-104·1, P = 0·05) fold higher, after adjustment for age at first surgery and gender. The combination of TERT promoter mutation and BRAF(V) (600E) significantly increased disease-related death risk (P = 0·002). TERT mutations increased expression of a reporter gene in thyroid cells containing BRAF(V) (600E) . TERT promoter mutations are a major indicator of death due to PTCs. Conversely, absence of TERT mutations portends better survival. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical Endocrinology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. BRAF V600E mutation in prognostication of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Oczko-Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Barczyński, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) offers excellent prognosis, however relapse risk or persistent disease is related to ~30%. Currently, attention is paid to the possibility of patient group selection of different risk of unfavorable outcome to match a particular therapeutic approach. Therefore, interest in new prognostic and predictive markers known preoperatively is observed. BRAF V600E mutation is such a marker. Many studies analyzing the prevalence of the mutation and its relationship with other clinico-pathological risk factors were reported but with controversial conclusions. The prognostic significance of BRAF mutation was confirmed by some single centre studies, a few meta-analyses and a large multicenter retrospective international study. They confirmed a correlation between the mutation and the risk of recurrence. The strongest argument against using BRAF mutation as an independent prognostic and predictive factor in PTC is its high prevalence (30–80%). At present it seems that BRAF mutation is one of the factors influencing the prognosis and it should be analyzed in correlation with other prognostic factors. The most recent ATA recommendations do not indicate a routine application of BRAF status for initial risk stratification in differentiated thyroid cancer due to a lack of evident confirmation of a direct influence of mutation on the increase in relapse risk. However, ATA demonstrates the continuous risk scale for the relapse risk assessment, considering BRAF and/or TERT status. At present, researchers are working on determining the role of BRAF mutation in patients from a low-risk group and its correlations with others molecular events. Currently, BRAF mutation cannot be used as a single, independent predictive factor. However, its usefulness in the context of other molecular and clinico-pathological risk factors cannot be excluded. They may be used to make modern prognostic scales of relapse risk and be applied to individualized diagnostic and

  14. Retrospective Analysis of 255 Papillary Thyroid Carcinomas ≤2 cm: Clinicohistological Features and Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Pedro; Leite, Valeriano; Bugalho, Maria João

    2014-01-01

    Background Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid cancer. The widespread use of neck ultrasound (US) and US-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology is triggering an overdiagnosis of PTC. Objective To evaluate clinical behavior and outcomes of patients with PTCs ≤2 cm, seeking for possible prognostic factors. Methods Clinical records of cases with histological diagnosis of PTC ≤2 cm followed at the Endocrine Department of Instituto Português de Oncologia, Lisbon between 2002 and 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. Results We identified 255 PTCs, 111 were microcarcinomas. Most patients underwent near-total thyroidectomy, with lymph node dissections in 55 cases (21.6%). Radioiodine therapy was administered in 184 patients. At the last evaluation, 38 (14.9%) had evidence of disease. Two deaths were attributed to PTC. Median (±SD) follow-up was 74 (±23) months. Multivariate analysis identified vascular invasion, lymph node and systemic metastases significantly associated with recurrence/persistence of disease. In addition, lymph node involvement was significantly associated with extrathyroidal extension and angioinvasion. Median (±SD) disease-free survival (DFS) was estimated as 106 (±3) months and the 5-year DFS rate was 87.5%. Univariate Cox analysis identified some relevant parameters for DFS, but multivariate regression only identified lymph node and systemic metastases as significant independent factors. The median DFS estimated for lymph node and systemic metastases was 75 and 0 months, respectively. Conclusions In the setting of small PTCs, vascular invasion, extrathyroidal extension and lymph node and/or systemic metastases may confer worse prognosis, perhaps justifying more aggressive therapeutic and follow-up approaches in such cases. PMID:25759803

  15. Variants in microRNA genes in familial papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tomsic, Jerneja; Fultz, Rebecca; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Genutis, Luke K; Wang, Yanqiang; Li, Wei; Volinia, Stefano; Jazdzewski, Krystian; He, Huiling; Wakely, Paul E; Senter, Leigha; de la Chapelle, Albert

    2017-01-24

    Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC) displays one of the highest familiality scores of all cancers as measured by case-control studies, yet only a handful of genes have been implicated until now. Variants in microRNAs have been associated with the risk of several cancers including PTC but the magnitude of this involvement is unclear. This study was designed to test to what extent genomic variants in microRNAs contribute to PTC risk. We used SOLiD technology to sequence 321 genomic regions encoding 427 miRNAs in one affected individual from each of 80 PTC families. After excluding variants with frequency ≥ 1% in 1000 Genomes Phase 1 (n = 1092) we detected 1978 variants. After further functional filtering steps 25 variants in pre-miRs remained. Co-segregation was observed for six out of 16 tested miRNA variants with PTC in the families, namely let-7e, miR-181b, miR-135a, miR-15b, miR-320, and miR-484. Expression of miR-135a and miR-181b was tested in normal thyroid and tumor tissue from patients that carry the variants and a decrease in expression was observed. In vitro assays were applied to measure the effect of the variants on microRNAs' maturation. Four out of six variants were tested. Only the let-7e and miR-181b variants showed an effect on processing leading to lower levels of mature miRNA. These two variants were not detected in 1170 sporadic PTC cases nor in 1404 controls. Taken together, our data show that high penetrance germline sequence variants of miRNAs potentially predispose to a fraction of all PTC but are not common.

  16. Association between TNM staging system and histopathological features in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Baek, Hye Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Ryu, Ji Hwa

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to assess the validity of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) by evaluating the relationships between clinicopathologic factors and TNM stage using histopathological specimens and electronic medical records. We enrolled 733 consecutive patients who had undergone thyroid surgery for PTC between 2010 and 2013. Clinical data were obtained from electronic medical records. TNM stages, multifocality, and bilaterality were analyzed after review of histopathological specimens by applying the AJCC TNM staging system. Multiple statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the correlation between the AJCC TNM staging system and the clinicopathologic factors. Of the 733 patients, there were T stage including T1a (46.9 %, 344/733), T1b (12.6 %, 92/733), T2 (2.0 %, 15/733), T3 (38.1 %, 279/733), T4a (0.4 %, 3/733), and T4b (0 %, 0/733), N stage including N0 (58.9 %, 432/733), N1a (24.3 %, 178/733), and N1b (16.8 %, 123/733), and multiplicity including multifocality (31.1 %, 228/733) and bilaterality (23.7 %, 174/733). There was a significant association between the PTC primary tumor size and T stage, N stage, multifocality, and bilaterality (p < 0.0001). Multifocality, bilaterality, and the presence of nodal metastasis were most frequently seen in patients with T3 stage (p < 0.0001). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, T and N stages were independent predictors of multiple PTCs. The PTC primary tumor size had a significant association with the T and N stages of the AJCC TNM staging system, and these factors were independent predictors of multifocality and bilaterality.

  17. Does microscopically involved margin increase disease recurrence after curative surgery in papillary thyroid carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Lang, Brian Hung-Hin; Shek, Tony W H; Wan, Koon Yat

    2016-05-01

    The prognostic significance of microscopically involved margin in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) following curative surgery remains unclear. We aimed to evaluate the impact of an involved margin and its location (anterior vs. posterior) on disease recurrence. Of the 638 eligible patients, 538 (85.9%) did not have an involved margin (group I) while 100 (14.1%) did (group II). The latter group was further classified according to its location relative to the surface of the thyroid gland (anterior or posterior). A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify independent factors for recurrence risk. After a mean of 130.1 ± 93.5 months, 22 patients had disease recurrence. The 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) was significantly worse in group II (95.0% vs. 97.0%, P = 0.011). After adjusting other significant factors, involved margin was not an independent risk factor for disease recurrence (P = 0.358). Compared to a negative margin, an anterior involved margin did not pose increased recurrence risk (HR = 1.21, 95%CI = 0.93-500.00, P = 0.368), whereas a posterior involved margin had almost 23 times higher recurrence risk (HR = 22.95; 95%CI = 4.33-121.70, P < 0.001). Overall, a microscopically involved margin was not an independent factor for DFS. However, although an anterior involved margin itself did not increase disease recurrence, a posterior involved margin did. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:635-639. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Dose-dependent expression of CLIP2 in post-Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Selmansberger, Martin; Kaiser, Jan Christian; Hess, Julia; Güthlin, Denise; Likhtarev, I.; Shpak, Victor; Tronko, Mykola; Brenner, Alina; Abend, Michael; Blettner, Maria; Unger, Kristian; Jacob, Peter; Zitzelsberger, Horst

    2015-01-01

    A previous study on papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) in young patients who were exposed to 131iodine from the Chernobyl fallout revealed an exclusive gain of chromosomal band 7q11.23 in exposed cases compared to an age-matched control cohort. CLIP2, a gene located within band 7q11.23 was shown to be differentially expressed between exposed and non-exposed cases at messenger RNA and protein level. Therefore, a standardized procedure for CLIP2 typing of PTCs has been developed in a follow-up study. Here we used CLIP2 typing data on 117 post-Chernobyl PTCs from two cohorts of exposed patients with individual dose estimates and 24 non-exposed controls to investigate a possible quantitative dose-response relationship of the CLIP2 marker. The ‘Genrisk-T’ cohort consisted of 45 PTCs and the ‘UkrAm’ cohort of 72 PTCs. Both cohorts differed in mean dose (0.59 Gy Genrisk-T, 1.2 Gy UkrAm) and mean age at exposure (AaE) (2 years Genrisk-T, 8 years UkrAm), whilst the median latency (16 years Genrisk-T, 18 years UkrAm) was comparable. We analyzed the association between the binary CLIP2 typing and continuous thyroid dose with logistic regression. A clear positive dose-response relationship was found for young PTC cases [age at operation (AaO) < 20 years, AaE < 5 years]. In the elder age group a higher proportion of sporadic tumors is assumed due to a negligible dose response, suggesting different molecular mechanisms in sporadic and radiation-induced cases. This is further supported by the association of elder patients (AaO > 20 years) with positivity for BRAF V600E mutation. PMID:25957251

  19. Relationship between lymphovascular invasion and clinicopathological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sezer, Atakan; Celik, Mehmet; Bulbul, Buket Yilmaz; Can, Nuray; Tastekin, Ebru; Ayturk, Semra; Ustun, Funda; Guldiken, Sibel; Sut, Necdet

    2017-01-01

    Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is an important prognostic factor in various solid tumors, however, data on the association between LVI and thyroid carcinomas are limited. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between LVI and clinicopathological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Six hundred seventy-eight patients diagnosed with PTC between 2012 and 2015 were included into the study. Patients were classified based on the presence or absence of LVI. Gender, age, ultrasonography (US), tumor size and multifocality, BRAFV600E mutation, perineural and capsular invasion, extrathyroid extension (ETE), nodal metastasis, and recurrences were evaluated, and risk analysis was performed for each parameter. The number of patients with LVI [LVI (+)] was 63, while the number of patients without LVI [LVI (-)] was 615. The female/male ratio was 564/114. LVI was present in 18.4% of male patients and in 7.4 % of female patients. In the age group between 17-25 years LVI was detected in 6/13 patients, and this result was statistically significant compared to other age groups (p = 0.004). Suspicious lymph nodes upon US, perineural or capsular invasion, ETE, tumor size, and nodal metastasis were significantly more frequent in LVI (+) group (p < 0.001). The frequency of BRAFV600E mutation was also significantly higher in LVI (+) group (p < 0.001). Overall, the presence of LVI was associated with gender, tumor size, age, lymph node metastasis, pathological lymph nodes, perineural and capsular invasion, ETE, and BRAFV600E mutation. These results suggest that in PTC patients undergoing thyroidectomy, the presence of LVI should be considered as an indicator of aggressive clinicopathological features and those patients should be followed up carefully for recurrences and metastasis. PMID:28284178

  20. Thyroid Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... panel of genetic mutations linked to follicular or papillary thyroid cancer… Read More June 10, 2012 6 Cirugia De ... 2011 0 Gene Mutation Increases Risk of Recurrent Papillary Thyroid Cancer in Some Patients By admin | 2011 News Releases , ...

  1. Expression of the estrogen receptor α, progesterone receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, DAN; QI, WENJING; ZHANG, PENGXIN; GUAN, HONGWEI; WANG, LIFEN

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the protein expression, in addition to the clinical value of the expression, of estrogen receptor α (ERα), progesterone receptor (PR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The expression of ERα, PR and EGFR was examined immunohistochemically on paraffin-embedded thyroid tissues obtained from 64 patients with PTC and 14 patients with nodular thyroid goiter (NTG). The expression level of ERα, PR and EGFR was found to be significantly elevated in the PTC tissues compared with the NTG tissues. In addition, the expression of ERα was found to be correlated with the size of PTC tumors. However, there was no significant difference between the expression levels of ERα, PR and EGFR in males and females with PTC. Thus, immunohistochemical evaluation of ERα, PR and EGFR expression in patients with PTC may aid in the prediction of the prognosis of patients with PTC. PMID:26171022

  2. Number of tumor foci as predictor of lateral lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jeong; Park, Hyeong Kyu; Byun, Dong Won; Suh, Kyoil; Yoo, Myung Hi; Min, Yong-Ki; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinicopathologic characteristics of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) by the number of tumor foci. A retrospective analysis of 2095 patients with PTC was performed. The study population was divided into 4 groups based on the number of tumor foci: N1 (1 tumor focus), N2 (2 foci), N3 (3 foci), and N4 (4 or more foci). An increasing number of tumor foci was significantly associated with older age at diagnosis (p = .006), cervical lymph node metastasis (p < .001), and advanced TNM stage of disease (p = .001) at initial surgery. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the N2, N3, and N4 groups compared to the N1 group for lateral lymph node metastasis were OR 1.53 (95% CI, 1.05-2.22), OR 2.57 (95% CI, 1.50-4.42), and OR 2.88 (95% CI, 1.42-5.84), respectively. An increase in the number of tumor foci was strongly associated with older age at diagnosis, cervical lymph node metastasis, and advanced TNM stage of PTC. The number of tumor foci independently predicted lateral lymph node metastasis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Pattern of nodal involvement in papillary thyroid cancer: a challenge of quantitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fama, Fausto; Cicciù, Marco; Giudice, Giuseppe Lo; Sindoni, Alessandro; Palella, Jessica; Piquard, Arnaud; Saint-Marc, Olivier; Benvenga, Salvatore; Bramanti, Ennio; Cervino, Gabriele; Florio, Maria Gioffre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Backgrounds of this study were to examine and analyse the relationship among the number of lymph nodes with metastases harvested in central and lateral compartments, the characteristics of tumours and patients, and the recurrences rate. Methods: A retrospective review of 118 patients treated for a papillary thyroid cancer and underwent to neck dissection, including in all cases both central and lateral compartment, was realised. A quantitative analysis, on this homogeneous cohort of patients, was performed to hypothesize the minimum number of cervical lymph nodes to be necessarily excised in order to obtain an adequate management of these patients. Results: The mean follow-up time was 75.9 months. Five-year overall survival was 96.6%. The correlation among the metastatic lymph node number of the ipsilateral central compartment, isolated or pooled with those of the ipsilateral lateral compartment, age of patient and tumour size revealed a statistical significance (P=0.01); both parameters, tumour size and age, may be considered as dependent predictor variables. Conclusion: We suppose, notwithstanding the limited number of patients, that the number of lymph nodes harvested to achieve an optimal cervical dissection may be superior to 8 and 11 in central and lateral compartments, and 6 and 10 in contralateral ones, respectively. Moreover we recommend the bilateral dissection of central nodes compartment in presence of tumour localised in the isthmus. PMID:26617901

  4. MiR-101 targets USP22 to inhibit the tumorigenesis of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huadong; Tang, Haili; Huang, Qike; Qiu, Bo; Liu, Xiaomin; Fan, Dong; Gong, Li; Guo, Hang; Chen, Chong; Lei, Shixiong; Yang, Lu; Lu, Jianguo; Bao, Guoqiang

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that microRNA-101 (miR-101) is involved in the progression of various human cancers, including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, the biological functions of miR-101 and underlying molecular mechanisms in PTC remain largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-101 underexpression in PTC tissue was associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis of PTC patients. MiR-101 reduced PTC cell proliferation, apoptosis resistance, and invasion. Ubiquitin-specific protease 22 (USP22) was confirmed as a direct target of miR-101. USP22 restoration attenuated the inhibitory effects of miR-101 on PTC malignant traits in vitro. In vivo, miR-101 overexpression or USP22 depletion reduced the tumorigenesis of PTC. Overall, our findings provide new insight into the mechanism of PTC inhibition by miR-101, suggesting the potential of miR-101 as a therapeutic target in PTC patients. PMID:27904772

  5. Genomic copy number analysis of Chernobyl papillary thyroid carcinoma in the Ukrainian–American Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Selmansberger, Martin; Braselmann, Herbert; Hess, Julia; Bogdanova, Tetiana; Abend, Michael; Tronko, Mykola; Brenner, Alina; Zitzelsberger, Horst; Unger, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    One of the major consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident was a dramatic increase in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) incidence, predominantly in patients exposed to the radioiodine fallout at young age. The present study is the first on genomic copy number alterations (CNAs) of PTCs of the Ukrainian–American cohort (UkrAm) generated by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of CNA profiles revealed a significant enrichment of a subgroup of patients with female gender, long latency (>17 years) and negative lymph node status. Further, we identified single CNAs that were significantly associated with latency, gender, radiation dose and BRAF V600E mutation status. Multivariate analysis revealed no interactions but additive effects of parameters gender, latency and dose on CNAs. The previously identified radiation-associated gain of the chromosomal bands 7q11.22-11.23 was present in 29% of cases. Moreover, comparison of our radiation-associated PTC data set with the TCGA data set on sporadic PTCs revealed altered copy numbers of the tumor driver genes NF2 and CHEK2. Further, we integrated the CNA data with transcriptomic data that were available on a subset of the herein analyzed cohort and did not find statistically significant associations between the two molecular layers. However, applying hierarchical clustering on a ‘BRAF-like/RAS-like’ transcriptome signature split the cases into four groups, one of which containing all BRAF-positive cases validating the signature in an independent data set. PMID:26320103

  6. Outcomes for patients with papillary thyroid cancer who do not undergo prophylactic central neck dissection

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, I. J.; Wang, L. Y.; Ganly, I.; Patel, S. G.; Morris, L. G.; Migliacci, J. C.; Tuttle, R. M.; Shah, J. P.; Shaha, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of prophylactic central neck dissection (CND) in the management of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is controversial. This report describes outcomes of an observational approach in patients without clinical evidence of nodal disease in PTC. Methods All patients who had surgery between 1986 and 2010 without CND for PTC were identified. All patients had careful clinical assessment of the central neck during preoperative and perioperative evaluation, with any suspicious nodal tissue excised for analysis. The cohort included patients in whom lymph nodes had been removed, but no patient had undergone a formal neck dissection. Recurrence-free survival (RFS), central neck RFS and disease-specific survival (DSS) were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Results Of 1798 patients, 397 (22·1 per cent) were men, 1088 (60·5 per cent) were aged 45 years or more, and 539 (30·0 per cent) had pT3 or pT4 disease. Some 742 patients (41·3 per cent) received adjuvant treatment with radioactive iodine. At a median follow-up of 46 months the 5-year DSS rate was 100 per cent. Five-year RFS and central neck RFS rates were 96·6 and 99·1 per cent respectively. Conclusion Observation of the central neck is safe and should be recommended for all patients with PTC considered before and during surgery to be free of central neck metastasis. PMID:26511531

  7. The Benefits and Risks of Prophylactic Central Neck Dissection for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doh Young; Oh, Kyoung Ho; Cho, Jae-Gu; Kwon, Soon-Young; Woo, Jeong-Soo; Baek, Seung-Kuk; Jung, Kwang-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study evaluated the benefits of performing prophylactic central neck dissection (CND) with total thyroidectomy (TT) in management of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients who were clinically node-negative at presentation. Methods. A total of 257 patients with stage T1 or T2 PTC and without preoperative evidence of lymph node involvement (N0) were enrolled in this prospective study. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups: (1) a total thyroidectomy (TT) group (n = 104) or (2) a TT plus CND group (n = 153). The two groups were compared for their perioperative data, complication rates, disease recurrence rates, and clinical outcomes. Results. The two groups of patients were similar in age, sex ratio, follow-up duration, and tumor size (P = 0.227, 0.359, 0.214, and 0.878, resp.). The two groups showed similar rates of disease recurrence (3.9% in the TT group versus 3.3% in the TT plus CND group); however, complications occurred more frequently in the TT plus CND group; especially transient hypocalcemia (P = 0.043). Conclusions. Patients treated with TT plus CND had a higher rate of complications with similar recurrence rate. We believe that CND may not be routinely recommended when treating patients with PTC.

  8. The role of adjuvant external beam radiation therapy for papillary thyroid carcinoma invading the trachea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Suk; Choi, Jae Hyuck; Kim, Kwang Sik; Lim, Gil Chae; Kim, Jeong Hong; Kang, Ju Wan; Song, Hee-Sung; Lee, Sang Ah; Hyun, Chang Lim; Choi, Yunseon; Kim, Gwi Eon

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of adjuvant external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) on local failure-free survival rate (LFFS) for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) invading the trachea. Fifty-six patients with locally advanced PTC invading the trachea were treated with surgical resection. After surgery, 21 patients received adjuvant EBRT and radioactive iodine therapy (EBRT group) and 35 patients were treated with radioactive iodine therapy (control group). The age range was 26-87 years (median, 56 years). The median follow-up period was 43 months (range, 4 to 145 months). EBRT doses ranged from 50.4 to 66 Gy (median, 60 Gy). Esophagus invasion and gross residual disease was more frequent in the EBRT group. In the control group, local recurrence developed in 9 (9/35, 26%) and new distant metastasis in 2 (2/35, 6%) patients, occurring 4 to 68 months (median, 37 months) and 53 to 68 months (median, 60 months) after surgery, respectively. Two patients had simultaneous local recurrence and new distant metastasis. There was one local failure in the EBRT group at 18 months after surgery (1/21, 5%). The 5-year LFFS was 95% in the EBRT group and 63% in the control group (p = 0.103). In the EBRT group, one late grade 2 xerostomia was developed. Although, EBRT group had a higher incidence of esophagus invasion and gross residual disease, EBRT group showed a better 5-year LFFS. Adjuvant EBRT may have contributed to the better LFFS in these patients.

  9. Cooccurrence of Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Salmonella Induced Neck Abscess in a Cervical Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Myung; Jung, Eun Jung; Song, Eun Jin; Kim, Dong Chul; Jeong, Chi-Young; Ju, Young-Tae; Lee, Young-Joon; Hong, Soon-Chan; Choi, Sang-Kyung; Ha, Woo-Song

    2017-01-01

    Cervical lymph node metastasis is common in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Salmonella species are rarely reported as causative agents in focal infections of the head and neck. The cooccurrence of lymph node metastasis from PTC and a bacterial infection is rare. This report describes a 76-year-old woman with a cervical lymph node metastasis from PTC and Salmonella infection of the same lymph node. The patient presented with painful swelling in her left lateral neck region for 15 days, and neck ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a cystic mass along left levels II–IV. The cystic mass was suspected of being a metastatic lymph node; modified radical neck dissection was performed. Histopathological examination confirmed the presence of PTC in the resected node and laboratory examination of the combined abscess cavity confirmed the presence of Salmonella Typhi. Following antibiotic sensitivity testing of the cultured Salmonella Typhi, she was treated with proper antibiotics. Cystic lesions in lymph nodes with metastatic cancer may indicate the presence of cooccurring bacterial infection. Thus, culturing of specimen can be option to make accurate diagnosis and to provide proper postoperative management. PMID:28261270

  10. Identification of Differentially Expressed Kinase and Screening Potential Anticancer Drugs in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huairong; Gao, Bo; Shi, Bingyin

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We aim to identify protein kinases involved in the pathophysiology of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in order to provide potential therapeutic targets for kinase inhibitors and unfold possible molecular mechanisms. Materials and Methods. The gene expression profile of GSE27155 was analyzed to identify differentially expressed genes and mapped onto human protein kinases database. Correlation of kinases with PTC was addressed by systematic literature search, GO and KEGG pathway analysis. Results. The functional enrichment analysis indicated that "mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway" expression was extremely enriched, followed by "neurotrophin signaling pathway," "focal adhesion," and "GnRH signaling pathway." MAPK, SRC, PDGFRa, ErbB, and EGFR were significantly regulated to correct these pathways. Kinases investigated by the literature on carcinoma were considered to be potential novel molecular therapeutic target in PTC and application of corresponding kinase inhibitors could be possible therapeutic tool. Conclusion. SRC, MAPK, and EGFR were the most important differentially expressed kinases in PTC. Combined inhibitors may have high efficacy in PTC treatment by targeting these kinases.

  11. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level Does Not Affect the Aggressiveness and Prognosis of Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hwa Young; Chung, Yun Jae; Park, Kwang-Yeol; Cho, Bo Youn

    2016-03-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been known to be associated with the aggressiveness and prognosis of several cancers. This study evaluated the effect of preoperative serum vitamin D levels on the aggressiveness and prognosis of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). In total, 820 patients with PTC were enrolled. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured in blood samples before surgery. Clinical, pathologic, and recurrence data were accessed to examine the prognostic effects of vitamin D. Patients were categorized into four quartiles by preoperative serum vitamin D levels. Of the enrolled patients, 795 (97%) had insufficient vitamin D levels (<30 ng/mL). Vitamin D levels showed positive correlations with age and body mass index (BMI), and negative correlations with serum thyrotropin levels and antithyroid peroxidase antibody titers. The association between vitamin D quartile and the risks of extrathyroidal invasion, lymph node metastasis, advanced cancer stages (III or IV), and risk of recurrence were not significant after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, preoperative ionized calcium, and parathyroid hormone. Additionally, serum vitamin D was not associated with recurrent or persistent PTC. Serum vitamin D levels are not associated with either disease aggressiveness or poor outcomes among patients with PTC and vitamin D insufficiency.

  12. Preoperative predictors of lateral neck lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zheng; Lei, Jianyong; Liu, Yang; Fan, Yuxia; Wang, Xiaoming; Lu, Xiubo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Lateral lymph node metastasis (LNM) is not uncommon in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). Our present study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with lateral LNM in PTMC. We retrospectively collected data pertaining to 366 patients with PTMC who underwent surgery at our center from 2010 to 2015. These patients were divided into the following 2 groups: a lateral LNM-positive group and a lateral LNM-negative group. Clinical and ultrasound data were compared between the 2 groups to determine the risk factors associated with lateral LNM. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that capsule invasion (OR = 3.995, 95% CI, 2.148–7.430) and upper portion location (OR = 4.541, 95% CI, 2.444–8.438) were significant risk factors for lateral LNM of PTMC and that capsule invasion (AUC = 0.666) and upper portion location (AUC = 0.678) could be used to predict lateral LNM of PTMC. Moreover, the patients in lateral LNM positive group exhibited significantly higher rates of tumor recurrence or metastasis than the patients in lateral LNM negative group (P = 0.027). Patients with PTMC located in the upper portion or exhibiting capsule invasion should receive meticulous preoperative evaluations for lateral LNM, prophylactic lateral LND may be considered. PMID:28272218

  13. Individualized optimal surgical extent of the lateral neck in papillary thyroid cancer with lateral cervical metastasis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Yong; Koo, Bon Seok

    2014-06-01

    Despite an excellent prognosis, cervical lymph node (LN) metastases are common in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The presence of metastasis is associated with an increased risk of locoregional recurrence, which significantly impairs quality of life and may decrease survival. Therefore, it has been an important determinant of the extent of lateral LN dissection in the initial treatment of PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis. However, the optimal extent of therapeutic lateral neck dissection (ND) remains controversial. Optimizing the surgical extent of LN dissection is fundamental for balancing the surgical morbidity and oncological benefits of ND in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. We reviewed the currently available literature regarding the optimal extent of lateral LN dissection in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Even in cases with suspicion of metastatic LN at the single lateral level or isolated metastatic lateral LN, the application of ND including all sublevels from IIa and IIb to Va and Vb may be overtreatment, due to the surgical morbidity. When there is no suspicion of LN metastasis at levels II and V, or when multilevel aggressive neck metastasis is not found, sublevel IIb and Va dissection may not be necessary in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Thus consideration of the individualized optimal surgical extent of lateral ND is important when treating PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis.

  14. Identification of Differentially Expressed Kinase and Screening Potential Anticancer Drugs in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huairong

    2016-01-01

    Aim. We aim to identify protein kinases involved in the pathophysiology of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in order to provide potential therapeutic targets for kinase inhibitors and unfold possible molecular mechanisms. Materials and Methods. The gene expression profile of GSE27155 was analyzed to identify differentially expressed genes and mapped onto human protein kinases database. Correlation of kinases with PTC was addressed by systematic literature search, GO and KEGG pathway analysis. Results. The functional enrichment analysis indicated that “mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway” expression was extremely enriched, followed by “neurotrophin signaling pathway,” “focal adhesion,” and “GnRH signaling pathway.” MAPK, SRC, PDGFRa, ErbB, and EGFR were significantly regulated to correct these pathways. Kinases investigated by the literature on carcinoma were considered to be potential novel molecular therapeutic target in PTC and application of corresponding kinase inhibitors could be possible therapeutic tool. Conclusion. SRC, MAPK, and EGFR were the most important differentially expressed kinases in PTC. Combined inhibitors may have high efficacy in PTC treatment by targeting these kinases. PMID:27703281

  15. BRAF V600E and TERT Promoter Mutations in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Chinese Patients.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; Zhang, Jing; Lu, Junliang; Gao, Jie; Ren, Xinyu; Teng, Lianghong; Duan, Huanli; Lin, Yansong; Li, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Bo; Liang, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    The BRAF V600E and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations have been reported in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The aim of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to add further information regarding the prevalence of the BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations in Chinese PTC and their clinicopathological associations. We detected the BRAF V600E mutation and TERT promoter mutations in 455 Chinese PTC patients and analyzed the association of these mutations with several clinicopathological features. The BRAF V600E mutation was detected in 343 (75.4%) of 455 cases and was significantly associated with older age (p<0.001) and conventional subtype (p = 0.003). TERT promoter mutations were detected in 19 (4.4%) of 434 PTCs and were associated with older age (p<0.001), larger tumor size (p = 0.024), and advanced TNM stage(p<0.001). Of the 19 patients that were positive for TERT promoter mutations, 18 (94.7%) also harbored the BRAF V600E mutation. We determined the prevalence and clinicopathological associations of BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations in Chinese PTC patients. TERT promoter mutations but not the BRAF V600E mutation were associated with more advanced TNM stage upon diagnosis.

  16. SRGAP1 Is a Candidate Gene for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    He, Huiling; Bronisz, Agnieszka; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Nagy, Rebecca; Li, Wei; Huang, Yungui; Akagi, Keiko; Saji, Motoyasu; Kula, Dorota; Wojcicka, Anna; Sebastian, Nikhil; Wen, Bernard; Puch, Zbigniew; Kalemba, Michal; Stachlewska, Elzbieta; Czetwertynska, Malgorzata; Dlugosinska, Joanna; Dymecka, Kinga; Ploski, Rafal; Krawczyk, Marek; Morrison, Patrick J.; Ringel, Matthew D.; Kloos, Richard T.; Jazdzewski, Krystian; Symer, David E.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Ostrowski, Michael; Jarząb, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) shows high heritability, yet efforts to find predisposing genes have been largely negative. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify susceptibility genes for PTC. Methods: A genome-wide linkage analysis was performed in 38 families. Targeted association study and screening were performed in 2 large cohorts of PTC patients and controls. Candidate DNA variants were tested in functional studies. Results: Linkage analysis and association studies identified the Slit-Robo Rho GTPase activating protein 1 gene (SRGAP1) in the linkage peak as a candidate gene. Two missense variants, Q149H and A275T, localized in the Fes/CIP4 homology domain segregated with the disease in 1 family each. One missense variant, R617C, located in the RhoGAP domain occurred in 1 family. Biochemical assays demonstrated that the ability to inactivate CDC42, a key function of SRGAP1, was severely impaired by the Q149H and R617C variants. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that SRGAP1 is a candidate gene in PTC susceptibility. SRGAP1 is likely a low-penetrant gene, possibly of a modifier type. PMID:23539728

  17. Papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasizing to anaplastic meningioma: an unusual case of tumor-to-tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Das, Sumit; Chaudhary, Navjot; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Megyesi, Joseph S

    2017-07-01

    Tumor-to-tumor metastasis is a relatively uncommon entity, whereby the so-called 'recipient' tumor is involved by another biologically unrelated 'donor' tumor. Intracranially, meningioma (WHO grade 1) is the most common recipient tumor, while breast and lung cancers are the most common donor tumors. We present an unusual case of intracranial tumor-to-tumor metastasis involving papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) believed to have metastasized to an anaplastic meningioma (WHO grade 3). The patient is a 64-year-old female with a history of PTC, whose neuroimaging, performed as part of her staging workup, revealed a right parietal scalp lesion. The lesion was resected to reveal metastatic PTC with spindle cell component believed to represent sarcomatoid differentiation. Follow-up neuroimaging 2 months later revealed regrowth of the lesion under the previous craniotomy site. PET scan showed increased uptake in this area consistent with metastasis. Resection of this lesion revealed primarily features of an anaplastic meningioma. The combination of pathologic findings from both resections in conjunction with findings from the PET scan led to the suggestion that the PTC had metastasized into the anaplastic meningioma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first example in the literature of a donor tumor metastasizing to a high-grade recipient tumor.

  18. Sparing Surgery for the Successful Treatment of Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma Invading the Trachea: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kulbakin, Denis; Chekalkin, Timofey; Muhamedov, Marat; Choynzonov, Evgeniy; Kang, Ji-hoon; Kang, Seung-baik; Gunther, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Published reports on salvage treatment for trachea reconstruction after total thyroidectomy or partial tracheotomy are available, some of them using structures of the trachea itself, auricular cartilage, a musculocutaneous flap, or other methods. In our report, we emphasize the importance of a search for a new material and approach for sparing surgery. The purpose of this article is to describe a case of a successful sparing surgery in a patient with advanced thyroid papillary carcinoma invading the trachea. After total thyroidectomy in 2012, partial resection of the trachea was performed in 2014. The lesion defect was 5.5 × 2.3 cm in size, located between 4 (2nd–6th) tracheal cartilaginous rings and involving about a semicircumference. It was reconstructed with the aid of the knitted TiNi-based mesh endograft, which has been prefabricated in the sternocleidomastoid muscle and further covered with the skin draped over the wound. The tracheostoma was fully closed 6 weeks after the surgery. There were neither side effects nor complications. This kind of tracheal surgery for extensive lesions demonstrates good functional and cosmetic outcomes. PMID:27990114

  19. BRAF V600E and TERT Promoter Mutations in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Chinese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Ren, Xinyu; Teng, Lianghong; Duan, Huanli; Lin, Yansong; Li, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Bo; Liang, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Background The BRAF V600E and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations have been reported in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The aim of this retrospective cross-sectional study was to add further information regarding the prevalence of the BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations in Chinese PTC and their clinicopathological associations. Methods We detected the BRAF V600E mutation and TERT promoter mutations in 455 Chinese PTC patients and analyzed the association of these mutations with several clinicopathological features. Results The BRAF V600E mutation was detected in 343 (75.4%) of 455 cases and was significantly associated with older age (p<0.001) and conventional subtype (p = 0.003). TERT promoter mutations were detected in 19 (4.4%) of 434 PTCs and were associated with older age (p<0.001), larger tumor size (p = 0.024), and advanced TNM stage(p<0.001). Of the 19 patients that were positive for TERT promoter mutations, 18 (94.7%) also harbored the BRAF V600E mutation. Conclusion We determined the prevalence and clinicopathological associations of BRAF V600E and TERT promoter mutations in Chinese PTC patients. TERT promoter mutations but not the BRAF V600E mutation were associated with more advanced TNM stage upon diagnosis. PMID:27064992

  20. Significance of micrometastases in the calculation of the lymph node ratio for papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Young Woo; Kim, Hwan Soo; Jung, Seung Pil; Kim, Hoon Yub; Lee, Jae Bok; Bae, Jeoung Won

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The lymph node ratio (LNR) is an important prognostic factor in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), but micrometastases in cervical lymph nodes (LNs) are not of great clinical importance. In this study, we analyzed the accuracy of prediction of the prognosis depending on whether micrometastases were included in the number of metastatic LNs when calculating LNR. Methods The study included 353 PTC patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with neck LN dissection, and calculated LNR by 2 methods according to whether micrometastases were included in the number of metastatic LNs: Method 1 did not and method 2 did include. To compare the predictive values of LNR by the 2 methods, correlation coefficients and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were analyzed. Results Positive correlations were found between LNR and preablation stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) levels in both methods, but the correlation between method 1 LNR and preablation sTg level was significantly stronger than that for method 2 (Fisher z = 1.7, P = 0.045). The areas under these 2 independent ROC curves were analyzed; the prognostic efficacy of method 1 LNR was more accurate than that of method 2 LNR, and the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.0001). Conclusion Regional recurrence of PTC can be predicted more accurately by not including micrometastases in the number of metastatic LNs when calculating LNR. PMID:28289664

  1. Preoperative prediction of central lymph node metastasis in thyroid papillary microcarcinoma using clinicopathologic and sonographic features.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Eun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Han, Kyung Hwa; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic factors and ultrasound (US) features predictive of central lymph node metastasis (LNM) in patients diagnosed with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). From March 2008 to August 2008, the clinicopathologic features and preoperative US features of 483 patients who were diagnosed with conventional PTMC were included. Medical records, US features, and pathology reports of all patients were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to identify clinicopathological prognostic factors associated with central LNM. Odds ratios (OR) with relative 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) were calculated to determine the relevance of all potential predictors of central LNM. Among the 483 patients with PTMC, 139 (28.8 %) patients had central LNM. The OR of significant independent factors were 2.055 (95 % CI, 1.137-3.716), 2.075 (95 % CI, 1.27-3.39), 1.71 (95 % CI, 1.073-2.724), and 15.897 (95 % CI, 4.173-60.569), respectively, for bilaterality, larger tumor size (>5 mm), extracapsular invasion, and lateral LNM. No significant association was seen among the US features of PTMC with central LNM. Central lymph node metastasis in patients with PTMC was significantly associated with various clinicopathological factors, including larger tumor size (>5 mm), bilaterality, extracapsular invasion, and lateral LNM. When these features are detected on preoperative US, selective central compartment dissection may be helpful in patients diagnosed with PTMC.

  2. The tall-cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a multivariate analysis of clinical risk factors.

    PubMed

    Machens, Andreas; Holzhausen, Hans-Jürgen; Lautenschläger, Christine; Dralle, Henning

    2004-08-01

    The biological behaviour of the tall-cell variant (TCV) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) remains to be clarified in a multivariate analysis that controls for all relevant clinicopathological parameters. A retrospective analysis was carried out of 332 consecutive PTC patients operated on at a university hospital between November 1994 and February 2003. A total of 16 TCV tumours (4.8%) was identified among the 332 PTC patients. Nodal and (predominantly pulmonary) distant metastases were identified at surgery in, respectively, 50% and 31% of TCV tumours. On univariate analysis, only the association between the TCV and distant metastasis retained statistical significance after adjustment for multiple testing. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the presence of distant metastasis increased more than fourfold [odds ratio (OR) 4.2] the chance of having the TCV of PTC, with controls for extrathyroidal extension, nodal metastasis, operation status, patient gender, categorized patient age, and categorized primary tumour diameter. The increased risk of distant metastasis associated with the TCV morphology of PTC warrants an extensive post-operative search for distant metastasis to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of tumour deposits in distant organs.

  3. Extremely Well-Differentiated Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Resembling Adenomatous Hyperplasia Can Metastasize to the Skull: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pyo, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jisup; Choi, Sung-eun; Shin, Eunah; Yang, Seok-Woo; Park, Cheong Soo; Kim, Seok-Mo

    2017-01-01

    We describe herein histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular findings and clinical manifestations of a rare case of an extremely well differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma (EWD-PTC). Similarly, it is also difficult to diagnose follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC), whose diagnosis is still met with controversy. A recently reported entity of well-differentiated tumor of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP) is added to the diagnostic spectrum harboring EWD-PTC and FVPTC. We report this case, because EWD-PTC is different from FVPTC in its papillary architecture, and also from WDT-UMP in its recurrence and metastatic pattern. These morphologically deceptive entities harbored diagnostic difficulties in the past because the diagnosis depended solely on histology. However, they are now diagnosed with more certainty by virtue of immunohistochemical and molecular studies. We experienced a case of EWD-PTC, which had been diagnosed as adenomatous hyperplasia 20 years ago and manifested recurrence with lymph node (LN) metastasis 7 years later. After another 7 years of follow-up, a new thyroid lesion had developed, diagnosed as FVPTC, with LN metastasis of EWD-PTC. One year later, the patient developed metastatic FVPTC in the skull. Immunohistochemically, the EWD-PTC was focally positive for CK19, negative for galectin-3, and focally negative for CD56. Molecular studies revealed BRAF-positivity and K-RAS negativity. The FVPTC in the left thyroid showed both BRAF and K-RAS negativity. In conclusion, EWD-PTC and FVPTC share similar histologic features, but they are different tumors with different molecular biologic and clinical manifestations. A large cohort of EWD-PTC should be included in further study. PMID:27873522

  4. The Next Generation of Orthotopic Thyroid Cancer Models: Immunocompetent Orthotopic Mouse Models of BRAFV600E-Positive Papillary and Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vanden Borre, Pierre; McFadden, David G.; Gunda, Viswanath; Sadow, Peter M.; Varmeh, Shohreh; Bernasconi, Maria; Jacks, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Background: While the development of new treatments for aggressive thyroid cancer has advanced in the last 10 years, progress has trailed headways made with other malignancies. A lack of reliable authenticated human cell lines and reproducible animal models is one major roadblock to preclinical testing of novel therapeutics. Existing xenograft and orthotopic mouse models of aggressive thyroid cancer rely on the implantation of highly passaged human thyroid carcinoma lines in immunodeficient mice. Genetically engineered models of papillary and undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid carcinoma (PTC and ATC) are immunocompetent; however, slow and stochastic tumor development hinders high-throughput testing. Novel models of PTC and ATC in which tumors arise rapidly and synchronously in immunocompetent mice would facilitate the investigation of novel therapeutics and approaches. Methods: We characterized and utilized mouse cell lines derived from PTC and ATC tumors arising in genetically engineered mice with thyroid-specific expression of endogenous BrafV600E/WT and deletion of either Trp53 (p53) or Pten. These murine thyroid cancer cells were transduced with luciferase- and GFP-expressing lentivirus and implanted into the thyroid glands of immunocompetent syngeneic B6129SF1/J mice in which the growth characteristics were assessed. Results: Large locally aggressive thyroid tumors form within one week of implantation. Tumors recapitulate their histologic subtype, including well-differentiated PTC and ATC, and exhibit CD3+, CD8+, B220+, and CD163+ immune cell infiltration. Tumor progression can be followed in vivo using luciferase and ex vivo using GFP. Metastatic spread is not detected at early time points. Conclusions: We describe the development of the next generation of murine orthotopic thyroid cancer models. The implantation of genetically defined murine BRAF-mutated PTC and ATC cell lines into syngeneic mice results in rapid and synchronous tumor formation. This

  5. Trametinib in Increasing Tumoral Iodine Incorporation in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    BRAF Gene Mutation; Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Follicular Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  6. Expression profile of malignant and non-malignant diseases of the thyroid gland reveals altered expression of a common set of genes in goiter and papillary carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Stolf, Beatriz S; Abreu, Cintia M; Mahler-Araújo, Maria B; Dellamano, Márcia; Martins, Waleska K; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; Curado, Maria P; Díaz, Juan P; Fabri, Artur; Brentani, Helena; Carvalho, Alex F; Soares, Fernando A; Kowalski, Luiz P; Hirata, Roberto; Reis, Luiz F L

    2005-09-08

    Using cDNA microarrays with 3800 cDNA fragments, we determined the expression profile of normal thyroid tissue, goiter, adenoma and papillary carcinoma (10 samples from each class). After background correction and statistical analysis, we identified a set of 160 genes as being differentially expressed in all pair-wise comparisons. Here we demonstrate that, at least on the basis of these differentially expressed genes, a positive correlation between goiter and papillary carcinomas could be observed. We identified a common set of genes whose expression is diminished in both goiter and papillary carcinomas as compared to normal thyroid tissue. Moreover, no genes with inverse correlation in samples from goiter and papillary carcinomas could be detected. Using Real-Time PCR and/or tissue microarrays, we confirmed the altered expression of some of the identified genes. Of notice, we demonstrate that the reduced mRNA levels of p27(kip1) observed in papillary carcinomas as compared to either goiter or normal thyroid tissues (P<0.001) is accompanied by an altered protein distribution within the cell. In papillary carcinomas, P27(KIP1) is preferentially cytoplasmic as opposed to goiter or normal thyroid tissue, where P27(KIP1) is preferentially located in the nucleus. The exploitation of the data presented here could contribute to the understanding of the molecular events related to thyroid diseases and gives support to the notion that common molecular events might be related to the frequent observation of areas of papillary carcinomas in the gland of patients with goiter.

  7. The impact of the non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear feature terminology in the routine diagnosis of thyroid tumours.

    PubMed

    Jaconi, M; Manzoni, M; Pincelli, A I; Giardini, V; Scardilli, M; Smith, A; Fellegara, G; Pagni, F

    2017-09-03

    Due to the recent proposal of the non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear feature (NIFTP) category, the authors analyse the state of the art in the challenging diagnosis of follicular thyroid neoplasms in routine practice. A consecutive series of 200 histological diagnoses, with complete cytological correlation, was analysed following the introduction of the NIFTP definition. The study was conducted in a general hospital with a high prevalence of thyroid benign nodules that accounted for approximately 60% of surgically-treated nodules. The significant incidence of the new NIFTP category was 7%. Concurrently, a gradual decrease of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (fvPTC) was observed (3.5%). When evaluating the FNA biopsies within the NIFTP group, despite the systematic evaluation of nuclear crowding, enlargement, irregularities and clearing, the final cytological class was often indeterminate for malignancy (Thy3/III-IV, 71%). At histology, the application of the semiquantitative NIFTP score for the evaluation of the PTC-like nuclear features was able to discriminate benign lesions (score 0/1) from fvPTC (score 2/3). A certain degree of overlapping still persisted between NIFTP and fvPTC (score 2) or between NIFTP and benign lesions (score 1). In the routine evaluation of FNA biopsies, the presence of subtle and questionable PTC-like nuclear features still remains a controversial aspect of the diagnostic workflow. Given that the NIFTP category was introduced to stratify the low-risk group of thyroid tumours more precisely, pathologists should force themselves to apply the nuclear score rigorously and to classify cases assigned a score of 1 as benign proliferations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Iodine I 131 and Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer Previously Treated With Iodine I 131 That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-04

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer

  9. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with no preoperative evidence of lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    González, Óscar; Zafon, Carles; Caubet, Enric; García-Burillo, Amparo; Serres, Xavier; Fort, José Manuel; Mesa, Jordi; Castell, Joan; Roca, Isabel; Ramón Y Cajal, Santiago; Iglesias, Carmela

    2017-10-01

    Lymphadenectomy is recommended during surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma when there is evidence of cervical lymph node metastasis (therapeutic) or in high-risk patients (prophylactic) such as those with T3 and T4 tumors of the TNM classification. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy may improve preoperative diagnosis of nodal metastases. To analyze the results of selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in a group of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and no evidence of nodal involvement before surgery. A retrospective, single-center study in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and no clinical evidence of lymph node involvement who underwent surgery between 2011 and 2013. The sentinel node was identified by scintigraphy. When the sentinel node was positive, the affected compartment was removed, and when sentinel node was negative, central lymph node dissection was performed. Forty-three patients, 34 females, with a mean age of 52.3 (±17) years, were enrolled. Forty-six (27%) of the 170 SNs resected from 24 (55.8%) patients were positive for metastasis. In addition, 94 (15.6%) out of the 612 lymph nodes removed in the lymphadenectomies were positive for metastases. Twelve of the 30 (40%) low risk patients (cT1N0 and cT2N0) changed their stage to pN1, whereas 12 of 13 (92%) high risk patients (cT3N0 and cT4N0) changed to pN1 stage. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy changes the stage of more than 50% of patients from cN0 to pN1. This confirms the need for lymph node resection in T3 and T4 tumors, but reveals the presence of lymph node metastases in 40% of T1-T2 tumors. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Follicular morphological characteristics may be associated with invasion in follicular thyroid neoplasms with papillary-like nuclear features.

    PubMed

    Can, Nuray; Celik, Mehmet; Sezer, Yavuz Atakan; Ozyilmaz, Filiz; Ayturk, Semra; Tastekin, Ebru; Sut, Necdet; Gurkan, Hakan; Ustun, Funda; Bulbul, Buket Yilmaz; Guldiken, Sibel; Puyan, Fulya Oz

    2017-08-20

    The newly proposed nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC), the noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP), could improve the consistency and accuracy of diagnosing this entity. Diagnosis of NIFTP requires evaluation of the complete tumor border or capsule. The presence of tumor invasion in follicular thyroid neoplasms with papillary-like nuclear features has been recently discussed by many authors. In this study, we examined the predictive value and association of follicular morphological characteristics with the tumor invasion. In addition, we analyzed the association between tumor encapsulation and molecular profile in EFVPTC/NIFTP cases. A total of 106 cases of FVPTC were included in the study. The tumors were grouped based on the presence of tumor capsule and characteristics of tumor border, as 1) completely encapsulated tumors without invasion, 2) encapsulated tumors with invasion, 3) infiltrative tumors without a capsule. Clinicopathological features, histomorphological features [nuclear criteria, minor diagnostic features, follicles oriented perpendicular to tumor border/capsule (FOPBC)] and molecular alterations in BRAF, NRAS, and KRAS genes were evaluated. FOPBC were significantly more frequently seen in encapsulated tumors with invasion (p = 0.008). The nuclear features were not associated with the presence of encapsulation and characteristics of tumor border. BRAF mutation was more frequent in infiltrative tumors, while NRAS mutation was more frequent in encapsulated tumors, but the results were not statistically significant (p = 0.917). In conclusion, FOPBC histomorphological feature may be associated with tumor invasion in EFVPTC/NIFTP. Additionally, BRAF/KRAS/NRAS mutation analysis may prevent inadequate treatment in these patients.

  11. The role of BRAFV600E mutation and ultrasonography for the surgical management of a thyroid nodule suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma on cytology.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Choi, Jong Rak; Hong, Soon Won; Kim, Min Jung; Son, Eun Ju

    2009-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of BRAFV600E mutation status in cytology specimens and ultrasonography (US) when planning surgery for thyroid nodules with cytologic results suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). From July 2008 to November 2008, 91 consecutive patients with cytologic results of suspicious for PTC underwent thyroidectomy. Before surgery, all patients received US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (US-FNAB) solely for the purpose of BRAFV600E mutation analysis of thyroid nodules suspicious for PTC on cytology. BRAFV600E mutations were tested by direct sequencing. We investigated the role of BRAFV600E mutation and US in planning the thyroid surgery. Of 91 nodules suspicious for PTC, 42 (46.2%) were positive for the BRAFV600E mutation and confirmed to be PTC by histopathology. The positive predictive values of BRAFV600E mutation was 100%. Of the 49 nodules without the BRAFV600E mutation, 42 (85.7%) proved to be PTC. Thirty-nine of 42 (92.9%) PTCs were suspicious for malignant features on US. Two of seven (28.6%) benign lesions showed probably benign features. The sensitivity, positive predictive value, and accuracy of US in thyroid nodules without BRAFV600E mutations was 92.9% (39/42), 88.6% (39/44), and 83.7% (41/49), respectively. The BRAFV600E mutation is a useful molecular marker for preoperative diagnosis of PTC and an indicator for therapeutic thyroid surgery in the nodule with cytologic results suspicious for PTC. In thyroid nodules without the BRAFV600E mutation, suspicious malignant features on US may help in planning the extent of thyroid surgery.

  12. Identification of epistatic interactions through genome-wide association studies in sporadic medullary and juvenile papillary thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Luzón-Toro, Berta; Bleda, Marta; Navarro, Elena; García-Alonso, Luz; Ruiz-Ferrer, Macarena; Medina, Ignacio; Martín-Sánchez, Marta; Gonzalez, Cristina Y; Fernández, Raquel M; Torroglosa, Ana; Antiñolo, Guillermo; Dopazo, Joaquin; Borrego, Salud

    2015-12-21

    The molecular mechanisms leading to sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (sMTC) and juvenile papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), two rare tumours of the thyroid gland, remain poorly understood. Genetic studies on thyroid carcinomas have been conducted, although just a few loci have been systematically associated. Given the difficulties to obtain single-loci associations, this work expands its scope to the study of epistatic interactions that could help to understand the genetic architecture of complex diseases and explain new heritable components of genetic risk. We carried out the first screening for epistasis by Multifactor-Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) in genome-wide association study (GWAS) on sMTC and juvenile PTC, to identify the potential simultaneous involvement of pairs of variants in the disease. We have identified two significant epistatic gene interactions in sMTC (CHFR-AC016582.2 and C8orf37-RNU1-55P) and three in juvenile PTC (RP11-648k4.2-DIO1, RP11-648k4.2-DMGDH and RP11-648k4.2-LOXL1). Interestingly, each interacting gene pair included a non-coding RNA, providing thus support to the relevance that these elements are increasingly gaining to explain carcinoma development and progression. Overall, this study contributes to the understanding of the genetic basis of thyroid carcinoma susceptibility in two different case scenarios such as sMTC and juvenile PTC.

  13. Concurrent hyperthyroidism and papillary thyroid cancer: a fortuitous and ambiguous case report from a resource-poor setting.

    PubMed

    Kadia, Benjamin Momo; Dimala, Christian Akem; Bechem, Ndemazie Nkafu; Aroke, Desmond

    2016-07-26

    Concurrent thyroid cancer (TC) and hyperthyroidism (HT) is rare though increasingly being reported. HT due to TC is much rarer and more challenging especially in Africa where TC and HT have significant case fatality rates. We present a 37-year-old Cameroonian female who had been on irregular regimens of propranolol and digoxin as treatment for worsening palpitations for 12 months. She came to our district hospital for her propranolol medication refill. We fortuitously identified features of HT and found a left uninodular goiter with no cervical lymphadenopathy. She was referred for thyroid assessment which suggested primary HT and an enlarged heterogeneous left lobe with a well-defined homogenous solid mass. We restarted her on propranolol and referred her for a course of methimazole. At the referral hospital, she also underwent a left thyroid lobectomy. The resected lobe was sent for histopathology which revealed a neoplastic nodule with features suggestive of a papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) causing HT. The patient's clinical progress postoperatively was good and there was regression of hyperthyroid symptoms. The historical, clinical, and laboratory findings were suggestive of HT due to PTC. A high index of suspicion, prompt referral and counter-referral lead to a positive outcome of such a rare case in a resource poor setting. We advocate for systematic and careful evaluation of all thyroid nodules.

  14. Papillary thyroid carcinoma located in the isthmus or upper third is associated with Delphian lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Chai, Young Jun; Kim, Su-Jin; Choi, June Young; Koo, Do Hoon; Lee, Kyu Eun; Youn, Yeo-Kyu

    2014-06-01

    Delphian lymph node (DLN) metastasis is a recognized indicator of further lymph node involvement in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of and risk factors for DLN metastasis. The medical records of 1,436 patients who underwent primary thyroidectomy for classical PTC with a tumor size of 2 cm or less were reviewed. Of these, 370 patients from whom the DLN was harvested were enrolled. Metastasis in DLN was present in 46 patients and absent in 324 patients. Clinicopathological features were compared according to DLN metastasis. In univariate analysis, DLN metastasis was associated with suspected lymph node metastasis on preoperative ultrasonography, tumor location in the isthmus or upper third of the thyroid, larger tumor size, extrathyroid extension, lymphovascular invasion, and further lymph node metastasis. Multivariable analysis revealed that DLN metastasis was associated with tumor location in the isthmus or upper third of the thyroid (odds ratio [OR] = 2.420; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.193-4.910) and further lymph node metastasis (OR = 4.746; 95 % CI 2.065-10.908). DLN metastasis in PTC is associated with tumor location in the isthmus or upper third of the thyroid and unfavorable clinicopathological characteristics. Careful consideration and patient management are warranted when preoperative ultrasonography indicates that the tumor is located in the isthmus or upper third of the thyroid.

  15. Papillary Thyroid Cancer and Lung Adenocarcinoma Presenting as Two Primary Malignancies in a Patient with Symptomatic Goiter

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Deepu; Delumpa, Leah; Bray, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    In rare instances, patients may be diagnosed with two different primary malignancies. Though such synchronous malignancies have been documented in sporadic case reports, the overwhelming majority of malignancies involving multiple organs can be attributed to a primary source. Papillary thyroid carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma are rarely diagnosed within the same year. Our case report presents a patient who was diagnosed with these two malignancies during her same hospital visit. Biopsies results proved that the two malignancies were in fact separate entities and not a consequence of metastasis from a primary source. PMID:26290667

  16. The Role of miRNA in Papillary Thyroid Cancer in the Context of miRNA Let-7 Family

    PubMed Central

    Perdas, Ewelina; Stawski, Robert; Nowak, Dariusz; Zubrzycka, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. RET/PTC rearrangement is the most common genetic modification identified in this category of cancer, increasing proliferation and dedifferentiation by the activation of the RET/PTC-RAS-BRAF-MAPK-ERK signaling pathway. Recently, let-7 miRNA was found to reduce RAS levels, acting as a tumor suppressor gene. Circulating miRNA profiles of the let-7 family may be used as novel noninvasive diagnostic, prognostic, treatment and surveillance markers for PTC. PMID:27314338

  17. [Anatomo-clinical prognostic factors of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Multivariate analysis: report of a series of 52 cases].

    PubMed

    Patey, M; Menzies, D; Theobald, S; Delisle, M J; Flament, J B; Pluot, M

    1998-02-01

    A retrospective study about 52 cases of papillary thyroid carcinomas was carried out with emphasis on histopathological features. The mean follow up period was 10 years. The survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log rank test. The multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox's regression model. In univariate analysis, age, Tp (histopathological extension of the tumor), histological differentiation, VAN score (Vascular invasion nuclear Atypia tumor Necrosis) of Akslen and the LeuM1 expression were significant prognostic factors. In multivariate analysis, the Tp and histological differentiation were associated with high risks of poor outcome.

  18. Multifocal Papillary Thyroid Cancer Increases the Risk of Central Lymph Node Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Al Afif, Ayham; Williams, Blair A; Rigby, Mathew H; Bullock, Martin J; Taylor, S Mark; Trites, Jonathan; Hart, Robert D

    2015-09-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common thyroid malignancy, with a strong predilection for lymph node metastasis, most commonly to the central neck compartment (level VI). Few studies have evaluated lymph node metastasis in multifocal PTC, and the role of level VI dissection in the management of PTC remains controversial. This retrospective analysis evaluated the rate of level VI lymph node positivity in multifocal PTC, as compared with unifocal disease, in order to inform surgical decision making better. Patients with PTC who underwent total or hemi-thyroidectomy plus level VI lymph node dissection at the authors' institution between January 2008 and June 2014 were included (N=227). The number and laterality of PTC foci, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), extrathyroidal extension (ETE), and positive/total numb