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Sample records for occult renal disease

  1. Postmortem diagnosis of "occult" Klinefelter syndrome in a patient with chronic renal disease and liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Kentaro; Orikasa, Hideki; Eyden, Brian; Yamazaki, Kazuto

    2002-03-01

    This report describes a patient not suspected of having Klinefelter syndrome during life but diagnosed with it following postmortem examination using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for sex chromosomes and hormone serum analysis. A 49-year-old Japanese man had a history of nephrosis, heavy alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus, and liver cirrhosis and had been undergoing dialysis for 10 years. He died of ruptured esophageal varices. Autopsy revealed hypogonadism, suggesting Klinefelter syndrome. This was confirmed by FISH, which showed a mosaic 46XY, 47XXY karyotype, and by serum analysis, which revealed high luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone and low testosterone levels. Autopsy also revealed a nodular, bilateral, testicular Leydig cell hyperplasia. This report illustrates the value of postmortem laboratory investigations, particularly FISH for sex chromosomes and serum hormone analysis, for the demonstration of clinically uncertain or "occult" Klinefelter syndrome.

  2. Oligometastasis as a predictor for occult disease.

    PubMed

    Kendal, Wayne S

    2014-05-01

    Oligometastasis can be defined as a state of limited metastases that is potentially amenable to ablative local therapy; the success of such therapy depends on whether or not additional occult metastases exist. A model is presented here to predict occult metastases given detectable oligometastases. Predictions were based on Bayes' theorem, in conjunction with descriptions of the statistical distributions for the sizes and numbers of hematogenous metastases. The background probability for occult metastases in individuals with oligometastases increased markedly with relatively minor increases in metastatic potential. With each additional metastasis detected the chance of further occult metastases increased. These latter increases were incremental and proportionately smaller with the more metastatic tumors. Long disease free intervals had a major effect to decrease in the probability of further occult disease. Demonstration of oligometastases depends heavily upon the sensitivity of radiological imaging techniques, where the proportion of detectable metastases relates to the position of the distribution of metastasis growth times with respect to the detection threshold. Given the limitations of radiological methods, and the possibility that the oligometastases detected may be the only disease, an aggressive approach appears indicated.

  3. Renal disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, C L; Lucas, M J

    2001-09-01

    Women with renal disease who conceive and continue a pregnancy are at significant risk for adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Risk is inversely related to the degree of renal insufficiency. Pregnancy-induced changes in the urinary tract can temporarily increase renal function compromise, such as nephrosis, but most often results in no net increase in dysfunction. Common complications of pregnancy--such as hypertension and hypovolemia--can be associated with acute renal injury or aggravation of pre-existing disease.

  4. Atheroembolic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Francesco; Ravani, Pietro

    2010-05-08

    Atheroembolic renal disease develops when atheromatous aortic plaques rupture, releasing cholesterol crystals into the small renal arteries. Embolisation often affects other organs, such as the skin, gastrointestinal system, and brain. Although the disease can develop spontaneously, it usually develops after vascular surgery, catheterisation, or anticoagulation. The systemic nature of atheroembolism makes diagnosis difficult. The classic triad of a precipitating event, acute or subacute renal failure, and skin lesions, are strongly suggestive of the disorder. Eosinophilia further supports the diagnosis, usually confirmed by biopsy of an affected organ or by the fundoscopic finding of cholesterol crystals in the retinal circulation. Renal and patient prognosis are poor. Treatment is mostly preventive, based on avoidance of further precipitating factors, and symptomatic, aimed to the optimum treatment of hypertension and cardiac and renal failure. Statins, which stabilise atherosclerotic plaques, should be offered to all patients. Steroids might have a role in acute or subacute progressive forms with systemic inflammation.

  5. Cryoglobulinemia and renal disease.

    PubMed

    Alpers, Charles E; Smith, Kelly D

    2008-05-01

    Cryoglobulinemia occurs in a variety of clinical settings including lymphoproliferative disorders, infection and autoimmune disease. The worldwide pandemic of hepatitis C virus infection has resulted in a significant increase in its extrahepatic complications including cryoglobulinemia and renal disease. Here we review the types of cryoglobulins, mechanisms of cryoglobulin formation, links between hepatitis C virus and renal disease, and current approaches to therapy. The prevalence of cryoglobulinemia in hepatitis C virus-infected individuals is surprisingly large and may be found in more than 50% of some infected subpopulations. Most of these patients will not have overt renal disease, but there is a population of unknown size of patients with subclinical glomerular disease that has the potential to become clinically significant. In cases of hepatitis C virus-associated cryoglobulinemia, treatment remains focused on eradication of viremia, but interventions directed at B lymphocytes are increasingly utilized. The mechanisms of cryoglobulin formation and renal injury remain largely obscure, but recent evidence implicates the innate immune system in the initiation of disease. The most common renal injury associated with hepatitis C virus infection, in patients both with and without evidence of cryoglobulinemia, is membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. There has been increasing focus on defining the mechanisms that link these processes and the evolution of renal injury in all clinical settings of cryoglobulinemia.

  6. Detection of occult disease in tissue donors by routine autopsy.

    PubMed

    Otero, J; Fresno, M F; Escudero, D; Seco, M; González, M; Peces, R

    1998-01-01

    The transmission of infectious and neoplastic diseases is a potential risk of tissue allografting. In this study, we analyzed the occurrence of occult disease in tissue donors as detected by standard screening and autopsy. Whereas 18% of the potential donors initially evaluated were eliminated on the basis of their medical and social histories, laboratory screening and autopsy revealed that an additional 9% of tissue donors had undetected, transmissible disease that prohibited tissue donation. This report emphasizes once again the risk of occult disease being transplanted with grafts and the need for autopsy to reduce the likelihood of this occurring. If donor selection, appropriate screening tests, and autopsy are carefully carried out, the risk of transmitting diseases from tissue allografts can be kept to a minimum.

  7. Pneumonitis associated with occult heartworm disease in dogs.

    PubMed

    Calvert, C A; Losonsky, J M

    1985-05-15

    Nine of 69 dogs with occult heartworm disease (13%) had allergic pneumonitis characterized by consistent clinical and radiographic signs. Although the clinical signs were severe, the degree of radiographic pulmonary arterial abnormalities was mild. Corticosteroid therapy resulted in rapid resolution of clinical and radiographic signs; thiacetarsamide therapy was then given without complications. This syndrome may not be recognized as heartworm-associated and may be confused with other disorders, some being associated with a poor prognosis and requiring different therapy.

  8. Renal disease in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rafael Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Chronic renal disease represents a problem of public health in Colombia. Its prevalence has increased in last decade, with a prevalence of 44.7 patients per million (ppm) in 1993 to 294.6 ppm in 2004, considering that only 56.2% of the population has access to the health. This increase complies with the implementation of Law 100 of 1993, offering greater coverage of health services to the Colombian population. The cost of these pathologies is equivalent to the 2.49% of the budget for health of the nation. The three most common causes of renal failure are diabetes mellitus (DM; 30%), arterial hypertension (30%), and glomerulonephritis (7.85%). In incident patients, the DM accounts for 32.9%. The rate of global mortality is 15.8%, 17.4% in hemodialysis and 15.1% in peritoneal dialysis. In 2004, 467 renal transplants were made, 381 of deceased donor with an incidence of 10.3 ppm. The excessive cost of these pathologies can cause the nation's health care system to collapse if preventative steps are not taken. In December of 2004, the Colombian Association of Nephrology with the participation of the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Arterial Hypertension wrote the "Declaration of Bogotá," committing the state's scientific societies and promotional health companies to develop a model of attention for renal health that, in addition to implementing national registries, continues to manage renal disease.

  9. Amphibian renal disease.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Todd R

    2006-01-01

    Amphibians by nature have an intimate connection with the aquatic environment at some stage of development and fight an osmotic battle due to the influx of water. Many amphibians have acquired a more terrestrial existence at later stages of development and consequently have physiologic adaptations to conserve moisture. Renal adaptations have allowed amphibians successfully to bridge the gap between aqueous and terrestrial habitats. The kidneys, skin,and, in many amphibian species, the urinary bladder play key roles in fluid homeostasis. Renal impairment may be responsible for the clinical manifestation of disease, morbidity, and mortality.

  10. Hyperparathyroidism of Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Noah K; Ananthakrishnan, Shubha; Campbell, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Renal hyperparathyroidism (rHPT) is a common complication of chronic kidney disease characterized by elevated parathyroid hormone levels secondary to derangements in the homeostasis of calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D. Patients with rHPT experience increased rates of cardiovascular problems and bone disease. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines recommend that screening and management of rHPT be initiated for all patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 (estimated glomerular filtration rate, < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Since the 1990s, improving medical management with vitamin D analogs, phosphate binders, and calcimimetic drugs has expanded the treatment options for patients with rHPT, but some patients still require a parathyroidectomy to mitigate the sequelae of this challenging disease. PMID:27479950

  11. Renal disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Martha S; Poole, Judith H

    2002-03-01

    Anatomic and physiologic adaptations within the renal system during pregnancy are significant. Alterations are seen in renal blood flow and glomerular filtration, resulting in changes in normal renal laboratory values. When these normal renal adaptations are coupled with pregnancy-induced complications or preexisting renal dysfunction, the woman may demonstrate a reduction of renal function leading to an increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. This article will review normal pregnancy adaptations of the renal system and discuss common pregnancy-related renal complications.

  12. Chronic renal disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ramin, Susan M; Vidaeff, Alex C; Yeomans, Edward R; Gilstrap, Larry C

    2006-12-01

    The purpose of this review was to examine the impact of varying degrees of renal insufficiency on pregnancy outcome in women with chronic renal disease. Our search of the literature did not reveal any randomized clinical trials or meta-analyses. The available information is derived from opinion, reviews, retrospective series, and limited observational series. It appears that chronic renal disease in pregnancy is uncommon, occurring in 0.03-0.12% of all pregnancies from two U.S. population-based and registry studies. Maternal complications associated with chronic renal disease include preeclampsia, worsening renal function, preterm delivery, anemia, chronic hypertension, and cesarean delivery. The live birth rate in women with chronic renal disease ranges between 64% and 98% depending on the severity of renal insufficiency and presence of hypertension. Significant proteinuria may be an indicator of underlying renal insufficiency. Management of pregnant women with underlying renal disease should ideally entail a multidisciplinary approach at a tertiary center and include a maternal-fetal medicine specialist and a nephrologist. Such women should receive counseling regarding the pregnancy outcomes in association with maternal chronic renal disease and the effect of pregnancy on renal function, especially within the ensuing 5 years postpartum. These women will require frequent visits and monitoring of renal function during pregnancy. Women whose renal disease is further complicated by hypertension should be counseled regarding the increased risk of adverse outcome and need for blood pressure control. Some antihypertensives, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers, should be avoided during pregnancy, if possible, because of the potential for both teratogenic (hypocalvaria) and fetal effects (renal failure, oliguria, and demise).

  13. Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals Renal Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... have immunity to this disease Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  14. Bone disease after renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Malluche, Hartmut H.; Monier-Faugere, Marie-Claude; Herberth, Johann

    2015-01-01

    In light of greatly improved long-term patient and graft survival after renal transplantation, improving other clinical outcomes such as risk of fracture and cardiovascular disease is of paramount importance. After renal transplantation, a large percentage of patients lose bone. This loss of bone results from a combination of factors that include pre-existing renal osteodystrophy, immunosuppressive therapy, and the effects of chronically reduced renal function after transplantation. In addition to low bone volume, histological abnormalities include decreased bone turnover and defective mineralization. Low bone volume and low bone turnover were recently shown to be associated with cardiovascular calcifications, highlighting specific challenges for medical therapy and the need to prevent low bone turnover in the pretransplant patient. This Review discusses changes in bone histology and mineral metabolism that are associated with renal transplantation and the effects of these changes on clinical outcomes such as fractures and cardiovascular calcifications. Therapeutic modalities are evaluated based on our understanding of bone histology. PMID:19918255

  15. Management of renal disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Podymow, Tiina; August, Phyllis; Akbari, Ayub

    2010-06-01

    Although renal disease in pregnancy is uncommon, it poses considerable risk to maternal and fetal health. This article discusses renal physiology and assessment of renal function in pregnancy and the effect of pregnancy on renal disease in patients with diabetes, lupus, chronic glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and chronic pyelonephritis. Renal diseases occasionally present for the first time in pregnancy, and diagnoses of glomerulonephritis, acute tubular necrosis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy are described. Finally, therapy of end-stage renal disease in pregnancy, dialysis, and renal transplantation are reviewed.

  16. Extracellular vesicles in renal disease.

    PubMed

    Karpman, Diana; Ståhl, Anne-Lie; Arvidsson, Ida

    2017-09-01

    Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes and microvesicles, are host cell-derived packages of information that allow cell-cell communication and enable cells to rid themselves of unwanted substances. The release and uptake of extracellular vesicles has important physiological functions and may also contribute to the development and propagation of inflammatory, vascular, malignant, infectious and neurodegenerative diseases. This Review describes the different types of extracellular vesicles, how they are detected and the mechanisms by which they communicate with cells and transfer information. We also describe their physiological functions in cellular interactions, such as in thrombosis, immune modulation, cell proliferation, tissue regeneration and matrix modulation, with an emphasis on renal processes. We discuss how the detection of extracellular vesicles could be utilized as biomarkers of renal disease and how they might contribute to disease processes in the kidney, such as in acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, renal transplantation, thrombotic microangiopathies, vasculitides, IgA nephropathy, nephrotic syndrome, urinary tract infection, cystic kidney disease and tubulopathies. Finally, we consider how the release or uptake of extracellular vesicles can be blocked, as well as the associated benefits and risks, and how extracellular vesicles might be used to treat renal diseases by delivering therapeutics to specific cells.

  17. Uric Acid and renal disease.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J Stewart

    2006-01-01

    The interrelationship between uric acid and renal disease is reviewed in a historical context. Four phases can be distinguished--the descriptions of uric acid stones and gravel in the eighteenth century, of chronically scarred kidneys containing urate crystals in the nineteenth, the appearance of the syndrome of acute urate nephropathy following tumour lysis in the mid twentieth century, and finally the realization that soluble urate affects both systemic and glomerular blood vessels, and may play a role in both hypertension and chronic renal damage.

  18. Multimodality MRI Findings in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui Juan; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2015-01-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) suffer from a number of complex neurological complications including vascular damage and cognitive dysfunction. It is of great significance to detect the neurological complications and improve the prognosis of ESRD patients. Many new noninvasive MRI techniques have been steadily used for the diagnosis of occult central nervous system complications in ESRD patients. This gives an opportunity to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of these neurological disorders. This paper is a review that presents the MRI findings of occult brain damage in ESRD patients, outlines the applications of advanced MRI techniques, and introduces a brief perspective in this study field. PMID:26064943

  19. Occult HCV Infection: An Unexpected Finding in a Population Unselected for Hepatic Disease

    PubMed Central

    De Marco, Laura; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Fiano, Valentina; Ronco, Guglielmo; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Merletti, Franco; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Sacerdote, Carlotta

    2009-01-01

    Background Occult Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a new pathological entity characterized by presence of liver disease and absence or very low levels of detectable HCV-RNA in serum. Abnormal values of liver enzymes and presence of replicative HCV-RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells are also observed. Aim of the study was to evaluate occult HCV occurrence in a population unselected for hepatic disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We chose from previous epidemiological studies three series of subjects (n = 276, age range 40–65 years) unselected for hepatic disease. These subjects were tested for the presence of HCV antibodies and HCV-RNA in plasma and in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by using commercial systems. All subjects tested negative for HCV antibodies and plasma HCV-RNA and showed normal levels of liver enzymes; 9/276 patients (3.3%) were positive for HCV-RNA in PBMCs, identifying a subset of subjects with potential occult HCV infection. We could determine the HCV type for 8 of the 9 patients finding type 1a (3 patients), type 1b (2 patients), and type 2a (3 patients). Conclusions The results of this study show evidence that occult HCV infection may occur in a population unselected for hepatic disease. A potential risk of HCV infection spread by subjects harbouring occult HCV infection should be considered. Design of prospective studies focusing on the frequency of infection in the general population and on the clinical evolution of occult HCV infection will be needed to verify this unexpected finding. PMID:19956542

  20. Diuretic use in renal disease.

    PubMed

    Sica, Domenic A

    2011-12-20

    Diuretics are agents commonly used in diseases characterized by excess extracellular fluid, including chronic kidney disease, the nephrotic syndrome, cirrhosis and heart failure. Multiple diuretic classes, including thiazide-type diuretics, loop diuretics and K(+)-sparing diuretics, are used to treat patients with these diseases, either individually or as combination therapies. An understanding of what determines a patient's response to a diuretic is a prerequisite to the correct use of these drugs. The response of patients with these diseases to diuretics, which is related to the dose, is best described by a sigmoid curve whose contour can become distorted by any of the several sodium-retaining states that are directly or indirectly associated with renal disease. Diuretic actions are of considerable importance to patients who have renal disease, as their effective use assists in extracellular fluid volume control, reducing excretion of protein in urine and lessening the risk of developing hyperkalemia. Diuretic-related adverse events that involve the uric acid, Na(+) and K(+) axes are not uncommon; therefore the clinician must be vigilant in looking for biochemical disturbances. As a result of diuretic-related adverse events, clinicians must be resourceful in the dose amount and frequency of dosing.

  1. Impact of pregnancy on underlying renal disease.

    PubMed

    Baylis, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Normal pregnancy involves marked renal vasodilation and large increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Studies in rats reveal that the gestational renal vasodilation is achieved by parallel reductions in tone in afferent and efferent arterioles so GFR rises without a change in glomerular blood pressure. There is some evidence from animal studies that increased renal generation of nitric oxide (NO) may be involved. Although chronic renal vasodilation has been implicated in causing progression of renal disease in nonpregnant states by glomerular hypertension, there are no long-term deleterious effects of pregnancies on the kidney when maternal renal function is normal because glomerular blood pressure remains normal. When maternal renal function is compromised before conception, there are no long-term adverse effects on renal function in most types of renal disease, providing that the GFR is well maintained before conception. When serum creatinine exceeds approximately 1.4 mg/dL, pregnancy may accelerate the renal disease increases and when serum creatinine >2 mg/dL, the chances are greater than 1 in 3 that pregnancy will hasten the progression of the renal disease. The available animal studies suggest that glomerular hypertension does not occur despite diverse injuries. Thus, the mechanisms of the adverse interaction between pregnancy and underlying renal disease remain unknown.

  2. The impact of occult renal failure on the cardiovascular risk stratification in an elderly population: the PREV-ICTUS study.

    PubMed

    Redón, Josep; Gil, Vicente; Cea-Calvo, Luis; Lozano, José V; Martí-Canales, Juan C; Llisterri, José L; Aznar, Jose; González-Esteban, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    To analyze the impact of occult renal failure (ORF) in the individual risk stratification and on the blood pressures (BP) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) goals in an aged population, according to the ESH/ESC Hypertension Guidelines. A cross-sectional, population-based study on individuals aged 60 years or more carried out in Primary Care Centers of Spain. Kidney function was estimated from calculated creatinine clearance (eGFR), Cockroft and Gault formula. Ten-year cardiovascular risk was estimated through the ESH/ESC table including or not including the eGFR. Estimates of the modification in BP and LDL-cholesterol (cLDL) goals were calculated. In 6419 subjects, 4242 subjects (66%) had normal renal function, 1971 (31%) had ORF (normal creatinine and low eGFR) and 206 (3%) had insufficient renal function (high creatinine and all of them low eGFR). Inclusion of ORF as target organ damage resulted in an increase in the estimated risk in 10.8% of the total sample, increasing the percentage of high-risk subjects. In the latter case, new BP and cLDL goals (<130/80 mmHg and <100 mg/dl) should be needed in 475 (7.4%) and 413 (6.4%) additional subjects, respectively. Inclusion of the ORF resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of subjects with estimated high cardiovascular risk.

  3. Early origin of adult renal disease.

    PubMed

    Maringhini, Silvio; Corrado, Ciro; Maringhini, Guido; Cusumano, Rosa; Azzolina, Vitalba; Leone, Francesco

    2010-10-01

    Observational studies in humans and experimental studies in animals have clearly shown that renal failure may start early in life. 'Fetal programming' is regulated by adaptations occurring in uterus including maternal nutrition, placental blood supply, and epigenetic changes. Low birth weight predisposes to hypertension and renal insufficiency. Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract, adverse postnatal events, wrong nutritional habits may produce renal damage that will become clinically relevant in adulthood. Prevention should start early in children at risk of renal disease.

  4. Replicative senescence in kidney aging, renal disease, and renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Naesens, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    Cellular or replicative senescence is classically seen as the key element of aging. In renal disease and after kidney transplantation, there is increasing evidence that replicative senescence pathways (p53 and p16) play a central role in disease progression and graft outcome, independent of chronological age. In this review, we summarize the current concepts in the molecular mechanisms of cellular senescence, and correlate these theories with the available literature on aging of native kidneys, kidney diseases, and outcome of renal allografts. Recent data illustrate the complex biology of senescence in vivo, and disprove the concept that senescence is an intrinsic injury process with immanent deleterious consequences. Senescence acts as a homeostatic mechanism that can even limit renal fibrosis, at least in animal studies. In a human setting, it remains to be investigated whether cellular senescence plays an active or a bystander role in fibrogenesis and atrophy of renal tissue.

  5. Adult onset Still's disease diagnosed concomitantly with occult papillary thyroid cancer: paraneoplastic manifestation or coincidence?

    PubMed

    Ahn, Joong Kyong; Oh, Ji-Min; Lee, Jaejoon; Kim, Sun Wook; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Koh, Eun-Mi

    2010-02-01

    Adult onset Still's disease (AOSD) is an inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, characterized by spiking fever, evanescent salmon pink maculopapular rash, arthritis, and leukocytosis with neutrophilia. Malignant lymphoma is one of the most important differential diagnoses of AOSD. AOSD has been reported as one of paraneoplastic syndromes associated with breast cancer. We report a rare case of occult papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) diagnosed coincidently with AOSD. A 32-year-old woman was diagnosed with AOSD according to the diagnostic criteria of Yamaguchi as follows: leukocytosis with neutrophilia, high fever with 39 degrees C and above, arthralgia/arthritis, sore throat, liver dysfunctions, and lymphadenopathy. Excisional biopsy of cervical lymph node showed metastatic papillary carcinoma, and immunohistochemical staining for thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor-1 was strongly positive. There was no evidence of focal lesion in the thyroid glands. To our knowledge, this is the first report of adult onset Still's disease diagnosed concomitantly with occult PTC.

  6. Renal

    MedlinePlus

    ... term "renal" refers to the kidney. For example, renal failure means kidney failure. Related topics: Kidney disease Kidney disease - diet Kidney failure Kidney function tests Renal scan Kidney transplant

  7. [Atheroembolic renal disease: a diagnostic challenge].

    PubMed

    Scolari, Francesco; Turina, Silvia; Venturelli, Chiara; Dallera, Nadia; Valerio, Francesca; Mazzola, Giuseppe; Faberi, Elena; Sottini, Laura; Kenou, Rosyane

    2008-01-01

    Atheroembolic renal disease is a part of a multisystem disease and can be defined as renal failure secondary to the occlusion of renal arterioles and glomerular capillaries with cholesterol crystal emboli deriving from the aorta and other major arteries. The kidney is usually involved because of the proximity of the renal arteries to abdominal aorta (where the erosion of atheromatous plaque is most likely to occur), and the high renal blood flow. Cholesterol crystal embolism can also occur in other visceral organs, as well as in the upper and lower extremities. Embolization may occur spontaneously or after angiographic and surgical procedures, and anticoagulation. Atheroembolic renal disease is an important yet underdiagnosed component of the spectrum of kidney diseases associated with atherosclerosis and remains an unexplored field of nephrology research.

  8. Detection of occult disease in breast cancer using fluorodeoxyglucose camera-based positron emission tomography.

    PubMed

    Pecking, A P; Mechelany-Corone, C; Bertrand-Kermorgant, F; Alberini, J L; Floiras, J L; Goupil, A; Pichon, M F

    2001-10-01

    An isolated increase of blood tumor marker CA 15.3 in breast cancer is considered a sensitive indicator for occult metastatic disease but by itself is not sufficient for initiating therapeutic intervention. We investigated the potential of camera-based positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to detect clinically occult recurrences in 132 female patients (age, 35-69 years) treated for breast cancer, all presenting with an isolated increase in blood tumor marker CA 15.3 without any other evidence of metastatic disease. FDG results were correlated to pathology results or to a sequentially guided conventional imaging method. One hundred nineteen patients were eligible for correlations. Positive FDG scans were obtained for 106 patients, including 89 with a single lesion and 17 with 2 or more lesion. There were 92 true-positive and 14 false-positive cases, 10 of which became true positive within 1 year. Among the 13 negative cases, 7 were false negative and 6 were true negative. Camera-based PET using FDG has successfully identified clinically occult disease with an overall sensitivity of 93.6% and a positive predictive value of 96.2%. The smallest detected size was 6 mm for a lymph node metastasis (tumor to nontumor ratio, 4:2). FDG camera-based PET localized tumors in 85.7% of cases suspected for clinically occult metastatic disease on the basis of a significant increase in blood tumor marker. A positive FDG scan associated with an elevated CA 15.3 level is most consistent with metastatic relapse of breast cancer.

  9. Spectrum of renal disease in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jessie; Dwyer, Karen M; Hill, Prue; See, Emily; Ekinci, Elif I; Jerums, George; MacIsaac, Richard J

    2014-09-01

    The spectrum of renal disease in patients with diabetes encompasses both diabetic kidney disease (including albuminuric and non-albuminuric phenotypes) and non-diabetic kidney disease. Diabetic kidney disease can manifest as varying degrees of renal insufficiency and albuminuria, with heterogeneity in histology reported on renal biopsy. For patients with diabetes and proteinuria, the finding of non-diabetic kidney disease alone or superimposed on the changes of diabetic nephropathy is increasingly reported. It is important to identify non-diabetic kidney disease as some forms are treatable, sometimes leading to remission. Clinical indications for a heightened suspicion of non-diabetic kidney disease and hence consideration for renal biopsy in patients with diabetes and nephropathy include absence of diabetic retinopathy, short duration of diabetes, atypical chronology, presence of haematuria or other systemic disease, and the nephrotic syndrome.

  10. Sickle cell disease: renal manifestations and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Karl A.; Hebbel, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) substantially alters renal structure and function, and causes various renal syndromes and diseases. Such diverse renal outcomes reflect the uniquely complex vascular pathobiology of SCD and the propensity of red blood cells to sickle in the renal medulla because of its hypoxic, acidotic, and hyperosmolar conditions. Renal complications and involvement in sickle cell nephropathy (SCN) include altered haemodynamics, hypertrophy, assorted glomerulopathies, chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury, impaired urinary concentrating ability, distal nephron dysfunction, haematuria, and increased risks of urinary tract infections and renal medullary carcinoma. SCN largely reflects an underlying vasculopathy characterized by cortical hyperperfusion, medullary hypoperfusion, and an increased, stress-induced vasoconstrictive response. Renal involvement is usually more severe in homozygous disease (sickle cell anaemia, HbSS) than in compound heterozygous types of SCD (for example HbSC and HbSβ+-thalassaemia), and is typically mild, albeit prevalent, in the heterozygous state (sickle cell trait, HbAS). Renal involvement contributes substantially to the diminished life expectancy of patients with SCD, accounting for 16–18% of mortality. As improved clinical care promotes survival into adulthood, SCN imposes a growing burden on both individual health and health system costs. This Review addresses the renal manifestations of SCD and focuses on their underlying mechanisms. PMID:25668001

  11. Renal injury due to hepatic hydatid disease.

    PubMed

    Altay, Mustafa; Unverdi, Selman; Altay, Fatma Aybala; Ceri, Mevlüt; Akay, Hatice; Ozer, Hüseyin; Kiraç, Halil; Denizli, Nazim; Yilmaz, Bilal; Güvence, Necmettin; Duranay, Murat

    2010-08-01

    Many studies on renal hydatid disease have been reported in the literature, and the disease process appears to be well defined. However, renal injury without direct renal invasion remains poorly understood. The present study aims to define the frequency and the property of the renal involvement in hydatid disease. Eighty patients older than 18 years and diagnosed with liver echinococcosis were included in the study. The echinococcosis was diagnosed by the haemagglutination test and abdominal ultrasonography. Twenty-four-hour protein excretion was measured for patients who had elevated serum creatinine levels or whose urinalyses were positive for haematuria or proteinuria. Subsequently, renal biopsy was performed, and the specimens were examined by light microscopy and immunofluorescence staining. Haematuria was detected in 11 patients (13.75%), and proteinuria was detected in nine patients (11.25%). Percutaneous renal biopsy was applied to nine patients who gave signed consents to undergo the test. We detected four immunoglobulin A nephritis (together with tubulointerstitial nephritis in one patient), one membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, one immunoglobulin M nephritis together with mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis, one membranous glomerulonephritis, one amyloidosis and one tubulointerstitial nephritis. Renal hydatid cyst was detected only in four patients (5%). Hydatid disease, which affects the kidney, is not rare, and we suggest that urinalysis and, if indicated, renal biopsy should be performed for hepatic hydatid disease diagnosis.

  12. [Pregnancy in patients with underlying renal disease].

    PubMed

    Golshayan, D; Mathieu, C; Burnier, M

    2007-03-07

    Pregnancy has generally been regarded as very high risk in women with chronic renal insufficiency. In this review, we describe the physiologic changes in systemic and renal haemodynamics during pregnancy, as well as the nature and severity of possible maternal and foetal complications in the setting of underlying renal disease. The risks are proportional to the degree of functional renal impairment, the presence or not of proteinuria and/or arterial hypertension at the time of conception, and are related to the type of underlying nephropathy or systemic disease in the mother. Furthermore, if the renal disease has been diagnosed before pregnancy, a better planning of the moment of conception, as well as a tight follow-up, allow for a better maternal and obstetrical outcome.

  13. [Indinavir-associated tubulointerstitial renal disease].

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Raymonde F; Mehio, Amira; Iqbal, Sameena; Tsoukas, Christos M

    2007-12-01

    Indinavir, used for the treatment of HIV disease, forms distinctive crystals in the urine. The crystalluria has been associated principally with several urinary tract abnormalities which may require discontinuation of the drug. We present a case of progressive leucocyturia and renal impairment occurring during indinavir treatment which illustrates vividly the impact of the crystalluria on the tubulointerstitial renal compartment.

  14. Prediction of occult invasive disease in ductal carcinoma in situ using computer-extracted mammographic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Bibo; Grimm, Lars J.; Mazurowski, Maciej A.; Marks, Jeffrey R.; King, Lorraine M.; Maley, Carlo C.; Hwang, E. Shelley; Lo, Joseph Y.

    2017-03-01

    Predicting the risk of occult invasive disease in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is an important task to help address the overdiagnosis and overtreatment problems associated with breast cancer. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of using computer-extracted mammographic features to predict occult invasive disease in patients with biopsy proven DCIS. We proposed a computer-vision algorithm based approach to extract mammographic features from magnification views of full field digital mammography (FFDM) for patients with DCIS. After an expert breast radiologist provided a region of interest (ROI) mask for the DCIS lesion, the proposed approach is able to segment individual microcalcifications (MCs), detect the boundary of the MC cluster (MCC), and extract 113 mammographic features from MCs and MCC within the ROI. In this study, we extracted mammographic features from 99 patients with DCIS (74 pure DCIS; 25 DCIS plus invasive disease). The predictive power of the mammographic features was demonstrated through binary classifications between pure DCIS and DCIS with invasive disease using linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Before classification, the minimum redundancy Maximum Relevance (mRMR) feature selection method was first applied to choose subsets of useful features. The generalization performance was assessed using Leave-One-Out Cross-Validation and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Using the computer-extracted mammographic features, the proposed model was able to distinguish DCIS with invasive disease from pure DCIS, with an average classification performance of AUC = 0.61 +/- 0.05. Overall, the proposed computer-extracted mammographic features are promising for predicting occult invasive disease in DCIS.

  15. Renal disease in pregnancy ambulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Phelan, Sharon T

    2012-09-01

    Acute and chronic renal disease will complicate prenatal care. Normal physiological changes during pregnancy make the urinary tract system more vulnerable to infectious complications or worsening of preexisting disease. Much of the focus of prenatal care includes screening for these concerns both at the onset of prenatal care and through the pregnancy and postpartum course. With careful and attentive care, the pregnancy outcome for women with significant renal disease has improved and the occurrence of renal injury or obstetric complications due to infectious insults has decreased. This manuscript reviews the current ambulatory prenatal care as it relates to the urinary tract in pregnancy.

  16. Occult gastric bleeding demonstrated by bone scan and Tc-99m-DTPA renal scan

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.W.; Leiter, B.E.; Weitzman, F.; Shapiro, J.H.

    1981-10-01

    A patient is described who had coagulopathy and clinically intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding. The bleeding site was clearly shown on renal and bone imaging performed at a time when the patient was considered clinically to have stopped bleeding. A bleeding gastric ulcer was subsequently demonstrated by radionuclide and contrast angiography, and at surgery.

  17. High prevalence of occult left heart disease in scleroderma-pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fox, Benjamin D; Shimony, Avi; Langleben, David; Hirsch, Andrew; Rudski, Lawrence; Schlesinger, Robert; Eisenberg, Mark J; Joyal, Dominique; Hudson, Marie; Boutet, Kim; Serban, Alexandrina; Masetto, Ariel; Baron, Murray

    2013-10-01

    Our study aimed to determine the prevalence of occult left-heart disease in patients with scleroderma and pulmonary hypertension. In patients with pulmonary hypertension (mean pulmonary artery pressure (mean PAP)≥25 mmHg), differentiation between pre- and post-capillary pulmonary hypertension has been made according to pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) less than or more than 15 mmHg, respectively. We performed a retrospective chart review of 107 scleroderma patients. All patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension had routine right or left heart catheterisation with left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) measurement pre-/post-fluid challenge. We extracted demographic, haemodynamic and echocardiographic data. Patients were classified into one of four groups: haemodynamically normal (mean PAP<25 mmHg); pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH) (mean PAP≥25 mmHg, PAWP>15 mmHg); occult PVH (mean PAP≥25 mmHg, PAWP≤15 mmHg, LVEDP>15 mmHg before or after fluid challenge); and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) (mean PAP≥25 mmHg, PAWP≤15 mmHg and LVEDP≤15 mmHg before or after fluid challenge). 53 out of 107 patients had pulmonary hypertension. Based on the PAWP-based definition, 29 out of 53 had PAH and 24 out of 53 had PVH. After considering the resting and post-fluid-challenge LVEDP, 11 PAH patients were reclassified as occult PVH. The occult PVH group was haemodynamically, echocardiographically and demographically closer to the PVH group than the PAH group. PVH had high prevalence in our scleroderma-pulmonary hypertension population. Distinguishing PAH from PVH with only PAWP may result in some PVH patients being misclassified as having PAH.

  18. Occult hepatitis B among patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis from a capital city in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fontenele, Andrea Martins Melo; Gainer, Juliana Braga Furtado; da Silva E Silva, Daniel Viana; Cruz Santos, Max Diego; Salgado, João Victor; Salgado Filho, Natalino; Ferreira, Adalgisa Sousa Paiva

    2015-07-01

    Occult hepatitis B (OHB) is characterized by the presence of HBV-DNA in the absence of HBsAg in the serum of patients. Hemodialysis patients are at high risk for hepatitis B virus and there are few data on the prevalence of OHB in this population, mainly in Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of OHB in patients undergoing hemodialysis. A cross-sectional study was performed, including 301 patients on chronic hemodialysis at two dialysis centers in São Luís (Maranhão), northeast Brazil. Serological tests were performed for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, and anti-HCV using enzyme immunoassays (ELISA); HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA were studied by real-time PCR. The mean age was 49 ± 15 years, and 128 (42%) were female. Serological tests confirmed that all samples were HBsAg negative. Anti-HBc was positive in 114 (38%) patients, anti-HBc and anti-HBs were simultaneously positive in 104 (35%), and anti-HBc alone was positive in 10 (3%). Tests were negative for anti-HBc and anti-HBs in 55 patients (18%). Anti-HBs was the only positive marker in 132 (44%) patients. Anti-HCV was positive in 15 (5%) patients with HCV-RNA present in 14 of them (93%). HBV-DNA was positive in seven cases (2.3%). There was no association of HBV-DNA with age, gender, time on dialysis, previous kidney transplant, or HBV serological pattern, but there was a positive correlation with the presence of anti-HCV (P < 0.001). OHB in chronic renal failure patients on hemodialysis appears to be a relevant finding, suggesting that studying HBV-DNA in this population using sensitive molecular tests should be a recommended course of action, especially in candidates for renal transplant.

  19. Renal abnormalities in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Ataga, K I; Orringer, E P

    2000-04-01

    Sickle cell anemia and the related hemoglobinopathies are associated with a large spectrum of renal abnormalities. The patients have impaired urinary concentrating ability, defects in urinary acidification and potassium excretion, and supranormal proximal tubular function. The latter is manifest by increased secretion of creatinine and by reabsorption of phosphorus and beta(2)-microglobulin. Young patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have supranormal renal hemodynamics with elevations in both effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). These parameters decrease with age as well as following the administration of prostaglandin inhibitors. Proteinuria, a common finding in adults with sickle cell disease, may progress to the nephrotic syndrome. Proteinuria, hypertension, and increasing anemia predict end-stage renal disease (ESRD). While ESRD can be managed by dialysis and/or renal transplantation, there may be an increased rate of complications in renal transplant recipients with SCD. Hematuria is seen in individuals with all of the SCDs as well as with sickle cell trait. In most cases the etiology of the hematuria turns out to be benign. However, there does appear to be an increased association between SCD and renal medullary carcinoma. Therefore, those SCD patients who present with hematuria should initially undergo a thorough evaluation in order to exclude this aggressive neoplasm. Papillary necrosis may occur due to medullary ischemia and infarction. Erythropoietin levels are usually lower than expected for their degree of anemia and decrease further as renal function deteriorates. An abnormal balance of renal prostaglandins may be responsible for some of the changes in sickle cell nephropathy. Acute renal failure is a component of the acute multiorgan failure syndrome (MOFS). Finally, progression of sickle cell nephropathy to ESRD may be slowed by adequate control of hypertension and proteinuria. However, the prevention of the

  20. Overt and occult rheumatic diseases: the child with chronic fever.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Joost; Kuis, Wietse

    2002-07-01

    Identification of the genes involved in hereditary periodic fever syndromes has led to the recognition of a new pathophysiological category, the autoinflammatory disorders. The main non-hereditary autoinflammatory disease in childhood is systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA), others being the chronic infantile neurological cutaneous arthropathy (CINCA) syndrome and the periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenopathy (PFAPA) syndrome. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) has been traced to mutations in the MEFV gene. Mutations in the MVK gene, encoding the enzyme mevalonate kinase, cause the hyper-IgD periodic fever syndrome (HIDS). The tumour necrosis factor(TNF)-receptor-associated periodic syndromes (TRAPS) have been linked to mutations in theTNFRSF1A gene, encoding a TNF-alpha receptor, and the CIAS1 gene is mutated in familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome. We discuss how this knowledge has influenced diagnosis and treatment of these rare genetic disorders and how it might change our approach to the more common rheumatic diseases.

  1. Cystic Renal Disease in the Domestic Ferret

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Courtnye N; Rogers, Arlin B; Maurer, Kirk J; Lofgren, Jennifer LS; Fox, James G; Marini, Robert P

    2008-01-01

    Cystic renal diseases in domestic ferrets are a common anecdotal finding but have received scant systematic assessment. We performed a 17-y, case-control retrospective analysis of the medical records of 97 ferrets housed at our institution between 1987 and 2004, to determine the prevalence and morphotypes of cystic renal diseases in this species. Histologic sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson trichrome, or periodic acid–Schiff were evaluated by a comparative pathologist, and statistical analysis of hematologic and serum chemistry values was correlated with morphologic diagnosis. Of the 97 available records, 43 were eliminated due to lack of accompanying tissues. Of the 54 remaining cases, 37 (69% prevalence) had documented renal cysts, and 14 of the 54 ferrets (26%) had primary polycystic disease consisting of either polycystic kidney disease affecting renal tubules or, more commonly, glomerulocystic kidney disease. Secondary polycystic lesions were identified in 11 ferrets (20%), and 12 ferrets (22%) exhibited focal or isolated tubular cysts only as an incidental necropsy finding. Ferrets with secondary renal cysts associated with other developmental anomalies, mesangial glomerulopathy, or end-stage kidney disease had hyperphosphatemia and elevated BUN in comparison with those with primary cystic disease and elevated BUN compared with those without renal lesions. Although reflecting institutional bias, these results implicate primary and secondary cystic renal diseases as highly prevalent and underreported in the domestic ferret. In addition to the clinical implications for ferrets as research subjects and pets, these findings suggest a potential value for ferrets as a model of human cystic renal diseases. PMID:18524174

  2. 28 CFR 79.67 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.67... renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by...

  3. 28 CFR 79.67 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.67... renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by...

  4. 28 CFR 79.67 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.67... renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by...

  5. 28 CFR 79.67 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.67... renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by...

  6. 28 CFR 79.67 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.67... renal disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by...

  7. Renal disease and hypertension in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Palma-Reis, Ines; Vais, Alina; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine; Banerjee, Anita

    2013-02-01

    Because women are becoming pregnant at a later age, hypertension is more commonly encountered in pregnancy. In addition, with increasing numbers of young women living with renal transplants and kidney disease, it is important for physicians to be aware of the effects of pregnancy on these diseases. A multidisciplinary approach is essential to assess and care for pregnant women with kidney disease. Pre-pregnancy counselling should be offered to all women with chronic kidney disease. A review of medication to avoid teratogenicity and optimise the disease prior to conception is the ideal. Pregnancy may be the first medical review for a young woman, who may present with a previously undiagnosed renal problem.

  8. Drugs in pregnancy. Renal disease.

    PubMed

    Marsh, J E; Maclean, D; Pattison, J M

    2001-12-01

    The management of pregnant women with renal impairment presents a major challenge to obstetricians, nephrologists, and ultimately paediatricians. As renal failure progresses there is an increase in both maternal and fetal complications. Often these women have intercurrent medical conditions and, prior to conception, are receiving a broad range of prescribed medications. A successful obstetric outcome relies upon careful pre-pregnancy counselling and planning, obsessive monitoring during pregnancy, and close liaison between different specialist teams. Experience is mounting in the management of pregnant transplant recipients, but the introduction of newer immunosuppressive agents which have great promise in prolonging graft survival present new problems for those recipients of a kidney transplant who are planning to conceive. We review drug prescription for pregnant patients with renal impairment, end-stage renal failure, or a kidney transplant.

  9. Hypertensive pregnancy disorders and future renal disease.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Steven; Craici, Iasmina

    2014-10-01

    Hypertensive pregnancy disorders affect approximately 6 to 8 % of otherwise normal pregnancies. A growing body of evidence links these disorders with the future development of hypertension, coronary disease, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral arterial disease. Larger studies associating hypertensive pregnancy to future development of renal disease have been lacking until recently, with publication of several compelling studies in the last 5 years. In this review, we will focus on the recent evidence associating hypertensive pregnancy disorders with the future development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), as well as the development of microalbuminuria. We will also attempt to answer whether these renal risks are due to direct effects of hypertension during pregnancy, or whether they are due to shared environmental and genetic risk factors.

  10. Lupus nephritis and renal disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Germain, S; Nelson-Piercy, C

    2006-01-01

    Management of pregnant women with renal disease involves awareness of, and allowance for, physiological changes including decreased serum creatinine and increased proteinuria. For women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), pregnancy increases likelihood of flare. These can occur at any stage, and are more difficult to diagnose, as symptoms overlap those of normal pregnancy. Renal involvement is no more common in pregnancy. Worsening proteinuria may be lupus flare but differential includes pre-eclampsia. In women with chronic renal disease, pregnancy may accelerate decline in renal function and worsen hypertension and proteinuria, with increased risk of maternal (eg, pre-eclampsia) and fetal (eg, IUGR, IUD) complications, strongly correlating with degree of renal impairment peri-conception. Pregnancy success rate varies from 20% to 95% depending on base-line creatinine. Best outcome is obtained if disease was quiescent for >6 months pre-conception. Women on dialysis or with renal transplants can achieve successful pregnancy but have higher maternal and fetal complication rates. Acute on chronic renal failure can develop secondary to complications such as HELLP and AFLP. Management needs to be by a multidisciplinary team involving physicians and obstetricians, ideally beginning with pre-pregnancy counselling. Treatment of flares includes corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, azothioprine, NSAIDs and MME Blood pressure is controlled with methyldopa, nifedipine or hydralazine.

  11. Managing progressive renal disease before dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To enhance awareness of issues affecting patients with chronic renal failure and to provide guidance for primary care practitioners managing such patients. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Randomized trials establish the efficacy of blood pressure control and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in slowing the progression of chronic renal disease. Some randomized trials and many prospective studies address management of anemia, hyperparathyroidism, and multidisciplinary predialysis care. The benefits of lipid lowering are suggested by randomized trials among patients without renal disease. MAIN MESSAGE: Progression of renal failure, particularly in patients with proteinuria, can be slowed by lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are more beneficial than other antihypertensives in this situation. Partial correction of anemia with iron, erythropoietin, or androgens can improve quality of life and potentially prevent cardiac disease. Renal bone disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism can be prevented in part by early dietary phosphate restriction, use of calcium-containing phosphate binders, and activated vitamin D. Correction of acidosis could improve protein metabolism and bone and cardiovascular health. Treatment of hyperlipidemia might reduce cardiovascular disease. Early involvement of a nephrology-based multidisciplinary team has the potential to reduce morbidity and costs, enhance patients' knowledge of their condition, and prolong the period before dialysis is required. CONCLUSIONS: Care of patients with progressive renal failure is complex and requires attention to detail. Family doctors play a vital role in these efforts and should be involved in all aspects of care. PMID:10216796

  12. The renal disease of thoracic asphyxiant dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Gruskin, A B; Baluarte, H J; Cote, M L; Elfenbein, I B

    1974-01-01

    In those children with thoracic asphyxiant dystrophy, a genetically determined disorder, who survive infancy, the development of renal disease may be life-threatening. This report will present data obtained in six patients from three families which deals with the renal abnormalities in thoracic asphyxiant dystrophy. Both functional and anatomic abnormalities are described. Abnormalities in solute transport in the proximal tubule may be the earliest sign of renal dysfunction in this syndrome. Early glomerular changes may be more important than previously recognized. Finally, the various phenotypic expressions of this disorder are considered.

  13. Occult peripheral artery disease is common and limits the benefit achieved in cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Tam, Marty C; Longenecker, Chris T; Chow, Chen; Vest, Marianne; Sukeena, Richard; Madan Mohan, Sri K; Carman, Teresa; Parikh, Sahil A; Josephson, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has proven morbidity and mortality benefits in cardiovascular disease, which directly correlates with exercise performance achieved. Many patients in CR exercise at sub-optimal levels, without obvious limitations. Occult lower-extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) may be a determinant of diminished exercise capacity and reduced benefit obtained from traditional CR. In this prospective study of 150 consecutive patients enrolled in Phase II CR, we describe the prevalence of PAD, the utility of externally validated screening questionnaires, and the observed impact on CR outcomes. Abnormal ankle-brachial indices (ABI) (< 0.9 and >1.4) were observed in 19% of those studied. The Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire was insensitive for detecting PAD by low ABI in this population, and the Walking Impairment Questionnaire and a modified Gardner protocol demonstrated a lack of typical symptoms with low levels of activity. Importantly, at completion of traditional CR, exercise improvement measured in metabolic equivalents (METs) was worse in those with a low ABI compared to those with a normal ABI (+1.39 vs +2.41 METs, p = 0.002). In conclusion, PAD is common in patients in Phase II CR and often clinically occult. Screening based on standard questionnaires appears insensitive in this population, suggesting a need for a broad-based screening strategy with ABI measurements. In this study, undiagnosed PAD significantly attenuated improvements in exercise performance, which potentially has bearings on future clinical events.

  14. Blood pressure is associated with occult cardiovascular disease in prospectively studied Hodgkin lymphoma survivors after chest radiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming Hui; Blackington, Lauren H; Zhou, Jing; Chu, Tammy F; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Marcus, Karen J; Fisher, David C; Diller, Lisa R; Ng, Andrea K

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to prospectively screen a cohort of asymptomatic long-term survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) treated with chest irradiation for occult cardiovascular disease (CVD), and correlate screen-detected disease with prospectively measured cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs). A total of 182 HL survivors treated with chest irradiation (median follow-up time 14.8 years) were enrolled and underwent prospective CRF measurement and resting and stress echocardiography to assess coronary artery disease (CAD)/valve disease and left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). Forty-seven (26%) patients had occult CAD/valve disease and/or LVSD. LVSD was not correlated with CRFs. Controlling for treatment factors, hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 3.0) and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (OR = 2.7) increased the likelihood of occult CAD/valve disease. Risk of CAD/valve disease rose exponentially with increasing blood pressure (BP) values, even in the normal range. Our findings suggest that BP screening may be useful in determining those survivors at greatest risk for occult CVD.

  15. Renal complications of Fabry disease in children.

    PubMed

    Najafian, Behzad; Mauer, Michael; Hopkin, Robert J; Svarstad, Einar

    2013-05-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked α-galactosidase A deficiency, resulting in accumulation of glycosphingolipids, especially globotriaosylceramide, in cells in different organs in the body. Renal failure is a serious complication of this disease. Fabry nephropathy lesions are present and progress in childhood while the disease commonly remains silent by routine clinical measures. Early and timely diagnosis of Fabry nephropathy is crucial since late initiation of enzyme replacement therapy may not halt progressive renal dysfunction. This may be challenging due to difficulties in diagnosis of Fabry disease in children and absence of a sensitive non-invasive biomarker of early Fabry nephropathy. Accurate measurement of glomerular filtration rate and regular assessment for proteinuria and microalbuminuria are useful, though not sensitive enough to detect early lesions in the kidney. Recent studies support the value of renal biopsy in providing histological information relevant to kidney function and prognosis, and renal biopsy could potentially be used to guide treatment decisions in young Fabry patients. This review aims to provide an update of the current understanding, challenges, and needs to better approach renal complications of Fabry disease in children.

  16. Renal Complications of Fabry Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Najafian, Behzad; Mauer, Michael; Hopkin, Robert J; Svarstad, Einar

    2013-01-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked α-galactosidase A deficiency, resulting in accumulation of glycosphingolipids, especially globotriaosylceramide, in cells in different organs in the body. Renal failure is a serious complication of this disease. Fabry nephropathy lesions are present and progress in childhood while the disease commonly remains silent by routine clinical measures. Early and timely diagnosis of Fabry nephropathy is crucial since late initiation of enzyme replacement therapy may not halt progressive renal dysfunction. This may be challenging due to difficulties in diagnosis of Fabry disease in children and absence of a sensitive non-invasive biomarker of early Fabry nephropathy. Accurate measurement of glomerular filtration rate and regular assessment for proteinuria and microalbuminuria are useful, though not sensitive enough to detect early lesions in the kidney. Recent studies support the value of renal biopsy in providing histological information relevant to kidney function and prognosis and renal biopsy could potentially be used to guide treatment decisions in young Fabry patients. This review aims to provide an update of the current understanding, challenges and needs to better approach renal complications of Fabry disease in children. PMID:22898981

  17. Epigenetics of Renal Development and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hilliard, Sylvia A.; El-Dahr, Samir S.

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of epigenetics is indispensable to our understanding of gene regulation under normal and pathological states. This knowledge will help with designing better therapeutic approaches in regenerative tissue medicine. Epigenetics allows us to parse out the mechanisms by which transcriptional regulators gain access to specific gene loci thereby imprinting epigenetic information affecting chromatin function. This epigenetic memory forms the basis of cell lineage specification in multicellular organisms. Post-translational modifications to DNA and histones in the nucleosome core form characteristic epigenetic codes which are distinct for self-renewing and primed progenitor cell populations. Studies of chromatin modifiers and modifications in renal development and disease have been gaining momentum. Both congenital and adult renal diseases have a gene-environment component, which involves alterations to the epigenetic information imprinted during development. This epigenetic memory must be characterized to establish optimal treatment of both acute and chronic renal diseases. PMID:28018145

  18. Defining Kidney Biology to Understand Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Little, Melissa H.; Brown, Dennis; Humphreys, Benjamin D.; McMahon, Andrew P.; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Sands, Jeff M.; Weisz, Ora A.; Mullins, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The Kidney Research National Dialogue represents a novel effort by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases to solicit and prioritize research objectives from the renal research and clinical communities. The present commentary highlights selected scientific opportunities specific to the study of renal development, physiology, and cell biology. Describing such fundamental kidney biology serves as a necessary foundation for translational and clinical studies that will advance disease care and prevention. It is intended that these objectives foster and focus scientific efforts in these areas in the coming decade and beyond. PMID:24370769

  19. Usefulness of MRI in detecting occult breast cancer associated with Paget's disease of the nipple-areolar complex.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, J J; Lopez-Ruiz, J A; Martin, D; Imaz, I; Martin, M

    2004-12-01

    MRI allows for the detection of mammographically and clinically occult breast neoplasms. We analysed the ability of MRI to detect occult breast cancer in three patients with Paget's disease of the nipple-areolar complex, proven histologically. In all three cases we observed differences in the morphological and dynamic features of healthy and pathological nipples, and we also found enhancement foci in breast tissue, with suspicious kinetic and morphological characteristics, which in the case of two patients corresponded to ductal carcinoma in situ. The detection and location with MRI of underlying neoplastic foci may be of help in choosing the most reasonable and conservative treatment in these patients.

  20. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57... disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by medical documentation. (b)...

  1. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57... disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by medical documentation. (b)...

  2. 28 CFR 79.57 - Proof of chronic renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Proof of chronic renal disease. 79.57... disease. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed chronic renal disease following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed chronic renal disease must be supported by medical documentation. (b)...

  3. Addressing cardiovascular disease in patients with renal disease.

    PubMed

    Crook, Errol D; Washington, David O

    2002-01-01

    It is well-established that patients with renal disease are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) death. Despite better understanding of CVD in endstage renal disease (ESRD) patients and more rigid guidelines addressing the major risk factors for CVD in this population, CVD continues to be the number one cause of death in patients with ESRD. Moreover, higher rates of CVD are seen in patients with moderate, and even mild, renal dysfunction and in patients with albuminuria (micro and macroscopic). Few studies with CVD endpoints have included patients with renal disease. There is sufficient evidence to support appropriate blood pressure reduction as having a beneficial effect on CVD morbidity and mortality in patients with renal disease (especially for patients with diabetes). Data supporting the benefit of modification of other CVD risk factors is not as strong, but current recommendations do stress aggressive control of lipids, smoking cessation, and maintenance of adequate nutritional status. Inclusion of patients with renal disease in studies with CVD endpoints is necessary. Until then, it is generally recommended that CVD risk stratification and modification strategies be applied to this high-risk population.

  4. Renal involvement in autoimmune connective tissue diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders that share certain clinical presentations and a disturbed immunoregulation, leading to autoantibody production. Subclinical or overt renal manifestations are frequently observed and complicate the clinical course of CTDs. Alterations of kidney function in Sjögren syndrome, systemic scleroderma (SSc), auto-immune myopathies (dermatomyositis and polymyositis), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), antiphospholipid syndrome nephropathy (APSN) as well as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are frequently present and physicians should be aware of that. In SLE, renal prognosis significantly improved based on specific classification and treatment strategies adjusted to kidney biopsy findings. Patients with scleroderma renal crisis (SRC), which is usually characterized by severe hypertension, progressive decline of renal function and thrombotic microangiopathy, show a significant benefit of early angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use in particular and strict blood pressure control in general. Treatment of the underlying autoimmune disorder or discontinuation of specific therapeutic agents improves kidney function in most patients with Sjögren syndrome, auto-immune myopathies, APSN and RA. In this review we focus on impairment of renal function in relation to underlying disease or adverse drug effects and implications on treatment decisions. PMID:23557013

  5. Renal Function and Transplantation in Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Sandesh; Foley, David; Djamali, Arjang; Mandelbrot, Didier

    2015-09-01

    Kidney injury is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in liver transplant recipients. Since the introduction of the model for end-stage liver disease for the allocation of organs for liver transplantation in 2002, the heavy weighting of serum creatinine in the model for end-stage liver disease score has significantly increased the incidence of renal dysfunction seen among patients undergoing liver transplantation. As a result, the frequency of simultaneous liver-kidney (SLK) transplantation compared to liver transplantation alone (LTA) has also increased. The decision to perform SLK rather than LTA is an important one because the benefits to the liver transplant recipient receiving a kidney transplant must be balanced with the benefits of using that organ for a patient with end-stage renal disease. However, predicting whether or not a patient with liver failure has reversible kidney disease, and therefore does not also need a kidney transplant, is difficult. The severity and duration of pretransplant renal dysfunction, hepatitis c, diabetes, and other risk factors for kidney disease are associated with an increased risk of posttransplant end-stage renal disease. However, there are currently no clinical findings that accurately predict renal recovery post liver transplant. As a result, the rate of SLK versus LTA differs significantly between transplant centers. To increase consistency across centers, multiple guidelines have been proposed to guide the decision between SLK and LTA, but their poor predictive value has limited their uniform adoption. Nevertheless, adoption of uniform rules for the allocation of kidneys would reduce the variability between centers in rates of SLK transplant.

  6. Children and End-State Renal Disease (ERSD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... I'm outside the U.S. Children & End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) How to tell if your child ... Social Security card CMS Form 2728 ("End-Stage Renal Disease Medical Evidence Report Medicare Entitlement and/or ...

  7. KBO Occultation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijsdijk, C.

    2016-12-01

    A recommendation to astronomers to observe an occultation by the Kuiper Belt Object KBO 2014MU69. Its first predicted stellar occultation, in early June 2017, of a 15th magnitude star, will be visible from Southern Africa.

  8. Antioxidants in the prevention of renal disease.

    PubMed

    Wardle, E N

    1999-11-01

    In view of the role of oxidative processes in inflicting damage that leads to glomerulosclerosis and renal medullary interstitial fibrosis, more attention could be paid to the use of antioxidant food constituents and the usage of drugs with recognized antioxidant potential. In any case atherosclerosis is an important component of chronic renal diseases. There is a wide choice of foods and drugs that could confer benefit. Supplementation with vitamins E and C, use of soy protein diets and drinking green tea could be sufficient to confer remarkable improvements.

  9. Unilateral renal cell carcinoma with coexistent renal disease: a rare cause of end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Peces, R; Alvarez-Navascués, R

    2001-02-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a disorder encompassing a wide spectrum of pathological renal lesions. Coexistence of unilateral RCC and associated pathology in the contralateral kidney is an unusual and challenging therapeutic dilemma that can result in renal failure. So far, data on unilateral RCC with chronic renal failure necessitating renal replacement therapy have not been published. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from unilateral RCC, and to assess the associated pathology and possible pathogenic factors. In 1999, a survey of the 350 patients treated by chronic dialysis in Asturias, Spain, was carried out to identify and collect clinical information on patients with primary unilateral RCC whilst on their renal replacement programme. Seven patients were identified as having ESRD and unilateral RCC, giving an incidence of 2% of patients treated by dialysis. There was a wide spectrum of associated disease and clinical presentation. All patients underwent radical or partial nephrectomy and were free of recurrence 6--64 months after surgery. Six patients were alive and free of malignancy recurrence for 6--30 months after the onset of haemodialysis. ESRD is rare in association with unilateral RCC, but does contribute to significant morbidity. However, the data presented here are encouraging and suggest that cancer-free survival with renal replacement therapy can be achieved in such patients.

  10. 42 CFR 441.40 - End-stage renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false End-stage renal disease. 441.40 Section 441.40... General Provisions § 441.40 End-stage renal disease. FFP in expenditures for services described in subpart A of part 440 is available for facility treatment of end-stage renal disease only if the...

  11. 42 CFR 441.40 - End-stage renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false End-stage renal disease. 441.40 Section 441.40... General Provisions § 441.40 End-stage renal disease. FFP in expenditures for services described in subpart A of part 440 is available for facility treatment of end-stage renal disease only if the...

  12. 42 CFR 441.40 - End-stage renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false End-stage renal disease. 441.40 Section 441.40... General Provisions § 441.40 End-stage renal disease. FFP in expenditures for services described in subpart A of part 440 is available for facility treatment of end-stage renal disease only if the...

  13. 42 CFR 441.40 - End-stage renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false End-stage renal disease. 441.40 Section 441.40... General Provisions § 441.40 End-stage renal disease. FFP in expenditures for services described in subpart A of part 440 is available for facility treatment of end-stage renal disease only if the...

  14. 42 CFR 441.40 - End-stage renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false End-stage renal disease. 441.40 Section 441.40... General Provisions § 441.40 End-stage renal disease. FFP in expenditures for services described in subpart A of part 440 is available for facility treatment of end-stage renal disease only if the...

  15. Hereditary thrombocytopenia, deafness, and renal disease.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, J D; Filip, D J; Watts, J C

    1975-05-01

    The syndrome of hereditary thrombocytopenia, deafness, and renal disease was manifest in at least eight members in three generations of a family. They had a lifelong history of bleeding, usually as epistaxis, bilateral sensorineural deafness starting in late childhood or the teenage years, and persistent proteinuria with varying degrees of renal dysfunction. Two members died at a young age, one from central nervous system hemorrhage, the other from chronic renal failure. Splenectomy and steroid therapy have been of transient benefit. There was dominant inheritance of the syndrome. Hematologic studies showed thrombocytopenia, large platelets, and megakaryocytic hyperplasia of the bone marrow. In contrast to a previous report, our studies showed that affected members had normal in-vitro platelet function and normal ultrastructural platelet morphology. At autopsy, histologic changes in the kidney of one affected family member were indistinguishable from those reported in classic hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness (Alport's syndrome).

  16. Women, renal disease and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Andrew; Radovic, Milan; Garovic, Vesna D.

    2013-01-01

    A number of glomerular diseases may occur in women of childbearing age. Pregnancy in such patients should be planned when the disease has been in remission for a minimum of six months in order to minimize maternal and fetal complications. Immunosuppressive agents should be optimized prior to conception to include those that are safe for pregnancy. The complexity of medical management when caring for these patients calls for a multidisciplinary team approach, consisting of a nephrologist, rheumatologist, obstetrician and a pharmacist. This review will address the physiological changes of pregnancy that may affect glomerular disease presentation, activity, and diagnosis; specific glomerular diseases, both primary and secondary to systemic diseases, in the context of pregnancy; fetal and maternal complications, and long-term effects; diagnosis and differential diagnosis; and treatment strategies that are considered relatively safe with respect to fetal intrauterine exposure. PMID:23978545

  17. Renal function in cyanotic congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Burlet, A; Drukker, A; Guignard, J P

    1999-01-01

    We performed renal function tests in 18 young patients, 1.8-14.6 years of age, with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD). Glomerular filtration rate was normal (116 +/- 4.5 ml/min/1.73 m2), and renal plasma flow was decreased (410 +/- 25 ml/min/1.73 m2) with a rise in the filtration fraction (29 +/- 1.1%). The suggested pathophysiologic explanation of these findings is that the blood hyperviscosity seen in patients with CCHD causes an overall increase in renal vascular resistance with a rise in intraglomerular blood pressure. Despite a sluggish flow of blood in the glomerular capillary bed, the effective filtration pressure was adjusted to conserve the glomerular filtration rate. In addition to these renal hemodynamic parameters, we also studied renal acidification and tubular sodium and water handling during a forced water diuresis. Our data indicate that children with CCHD have a mild to moderate normal ion gap metabolic acidosis due to a low proximal tubular threshold for bicarbonate. Proximal tubular sodium and water reabsorption under these conditions were somewhat increased, though not significantly, probably due to intrarenal hydrostatic forces, in particular the rise in the oncotic pressure in the postglomerular capillaries in patients with high hematocrit values. The distal tubular functions such as sodium handling and acidification were not affected.

  18. [Renal diseases related to MYH9 disorders].

    PubMed

    Galeano, Dario; Zanoli, Luca; L'Imperio, Vincenzo; Fatuzzo, Pasquale; Granata, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Mutations in MYH9 gene encoding the nonmuscle myosin heavy chain IIA (NMMHC-IIA) are related to a number of rare autosomal-dominant disorders which has been known as May-Hegglin disease, Sebastian syndrome, Fechtner syndrome and Epstein syndrome. Their common clinical features are congenital macrothrombocytopaenia and polymorphonuclear inclusion bodies, in addition to a variable risk of developing proteinuria, chronic kidney disease progressing toward end stage, sensorineural deafness and presenile cataracts. The term MYH9 related disease (MYH9-RD) describes the variable expression of a single illness encompassing all previously mentioned hereditary disorders. Renal involvement in MYH9- RD has been observed in 30% of patients. Mutant MYH9 protein, expressed in podocytes, mesangial and tubular cells, plays a main role in foot process effacement and in development of nephropathy. Interestingly, the MYH9 gene is currently under investigation also for his possible contribution to many other non-hereditary glomerulopathies such as focal global glomerulosclerosis (hypertensive nephrosclerosis), idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, C1q nephropathy and HIV-associated nephropathy. In this review we are aimed to describe renal diseases related to MYH9 disorders, from the hereditary disease to the acquired disorders, in which MYH9-gene acts as a "renal failure susceptibility gene". Copyright by Società Italiana di Nefrologia SIN, Rome, Italy.

  19. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine, Endothelial Dysfunction and Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis; Andrade, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    l-Arginine (Arg) is oxidized to l-citrulline and nitric oxide (NO) by the action of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS). In contrast, protein-incorporated Arg residues can be methylated with subsequent proteolysis giving rise to methylarginine compounds, such as asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) that competes with Arg for binding to NOS. Most ADMA is degraded by dimethylarginine dimethyaminohydrolase (DDAH), distributed widely throughout the body and regulates ADMA levels and, therefore, NO synthesis. In recent years, several studies have suggested that increased ADMA levels are a marker of atherosclerotic change, and can be used to assess cardiovascular risk, consistent with ADMA being predominantly absorbed by endothelial cells. NO is an important messenger molecule involved in numerous biological processes, and its activity is essential to understand both pathogenic and therapeutic mechanisms in kidney disease and renal transplantation. NO production is reduced in renal patients because of their elevated ADMA levels with associated reduced DDAH activity. These factors contribute to endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and the progression of renal damage, but there are treatments that may effectively reduce ADMA levels in patients with kidney disease. Available data on ADMA levels in controls and renal patients, both in adults and children, also are summarized in this review. PMID:23109853

  20. Pregnancy in women with renal disease. Part II: specific underlying renal conditions.

    PubMed

    Vidaeff, Alex C; Yeomans, Edward R; Ramin, Susan M

    2008-08-01

    The obstetric outcome in women with kidney disease has improved in recent years due to continuous progress in obstetrics and neonatology, as well as better medical management of hypertension and renal disease. However, every pregnancy in these women remains a high-risk pregnancy. When considering the interaction between renal disease and pregnancy, maternal outcomes are related to the initial level of renal dysfunction more than to the specific underlying disease. With regards to fetal outcomes, though, a distinction may exist between renal dysfunction resulting from primary renal disease and that in which renal involvement is part of a systemic disease. In part II of this review, some specific causes of renal failure affecting pregnancy are considered.

  1. Oxidant Mechanisms in Renal Injury and Disease.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Brian B; Abdulmahdi, Wasan; Pawar, Rahul; Wolin, Michael S

    2016-07-20

    A common link between all forms of acute and chronic kidney injuries, regardless of species, is enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) during injury/disease progression. While low levels of ROS and RNS are required for prosurvival signaling, cell proliferation and growth, and vasoreactivity regulation, an imbalance of ROS and RNS generation and elimination leads to inflammation, cell death, tissue damage, and disease/injury progression. Many aspects of renal oxidative stress still require investigation, including clarification of the mechanisms which prompt ROS/RNS generation and subsequent renal damage. However, we currently have a basic understanding of the major features of oxidative stress pathology and its link to kidney injury/disease, which this review summarizes. The review summarizes the critical sources of oxidative stress in the kidney during injury/disease, including generation of ROS and RNS from mitochondria, NADPH oxidase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. The review next summarizes the renal antioxidant systems that protect against oxidative stress, including superoxide dismutase and catalase, the glutathione and thioredoxin systems, and others. Next, we describe how oxidative stress affects kidney function and promotes damage in every nephron segment, including the renal vessels, glomeruli, and tubules. Despite the limited success associated with the application of antioxidants for treatment of kidney injury/disease thus far, preventing the generation and accumulation of ROS and RNS provides an ideal target for potential therapeutic treatments. The review discusses the shortcomings of antioxidant treatments previously used and the potential promise of new ones. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 119-146.

  2. Oxidant Mechanisms in Renal Injury and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ratliff, Brian B.; Abdulmahdi, Wasan; Pawar, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Significance: A common link between all forms of acute and chronic kidney injuries, regardless of species, is enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) during injury/disease progression. While low levels of ROS and RNS are required for prosurvival signaling, cell proliferation and growth, and vasoreactivity regulation, an imbalance of ROS and RNS generation and elimination leads to inflammation, cell death, tissue damage, and disease/injury progression. Recent Advances: Many aspects of renal oxidative stress still require investigation, including clarification of the mechanisms which prompt ROS/RNS generation and subsequent renal damage. However, we currently have a basic understanding of the major features of oxidative stress pathology and its link to kidney injury/disease, which this review summarizes. Critical Issues: The review summarizes the critical sources of oxidative stress in the kidney during injury/disease, including generation of ROS and RNS from mitochondria, NADPH oxidase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. The review next summarizes the renal antioxidant systems that protect against oxidative stress, including superoxide dismutase and catalase, the glutathione and thioredoxin systems, and others. Next, we describe how oxidative stress affects kidney function and promotes damage in every nephron segment, including the renal vessels, glomeruli, and tubules. Future Directions: Despite the limited success associated with the application of antioxidants for treatment of kidney injury/disease thus far, preventing the generation and accumulation of ROS and RNS provides an ideal target for potential therapeutic treatments. The review discusses the shortcomings of antioxidant treatments previously used and the potential promise of new ones. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 25, 119–146. PMID:26906267

  3. Psychosocial impact of end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Killingworth, A

    Renal dysfunction has a profound physical, psychological, social and sexual impact. The impact of end-stage renal disease can be interpreted in terms of crisis theory and interventions planned. Factors predicting non-adherence to therapy can be isolated and managed in order to promote adherence. The challenge of renal disease can be met by a collaborative multidisciplinary approach.

  4. Nephrolithiasis-induced end stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Ounissi, M; Gargueh, T; Mahfoudhi, M; Boubaker, K; Hedri, H; Goucha, R; Abderrahim, E; Ben Hamida, F; Ben Abdallah, T; El Younsi, F; Ben Maiz, H; Kheder, A

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Nephrolithiasis still remains a too frequent and underappreciated cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods and patients: Of the entire cohort of 7128 consecutive patients who started maintenance dialysis in our nephrology department between January 1992 and December 2006, a total of 45 patients (26 women, 19 men) had renal stone disease as the cause of ESRD. The type of nephrolithiasis was determined in 45 cases and etiology in 42. The treatment and evolution of stone disease and patient’s survival were studied. Results: The overall proportion of nephrolithiasis related ESRD was 0.63%. The mean age was 48.4 years. Infection stones (struvite) accounted for 40%, calcium stones, 26.67% (primary hyperparathyroidism:15.56%; familial hypercalciuria: 4.44%, unknown etiology: 6.66%), primary hyperoxaluria type 1, 17.78% and uric acid lithiasis in 15.56% of cases. The mean delay of the evolution of the stone renal disease to chronic renal failure was 85.8 months. The feminine gender, obesity and elevated alkaline phosphatases >128 IU/L were significantly correlated with fast evolution of ESRD. The median evolution to ESRD was 12 months. The normal body mass index (BMI), medical treatment of stone and primary hyperoxaluria type 1 were correlated with fast evolution to ESRD. All patients were treated by hemodialysis during a mean evolution of 60 months. Sixteen patients died. The patient's survival rate at 1, 3 and 5 years was 97.6, 92.8 and 69% respectively. Hypocalcemia, cardiopathy and normal calcium-phosphate product were significantly correlated with lower survival rate. Conclusion: Severe forms of nephrolithiasis remain an underestimated cause of ESRD. These findings highlight the crucial importance of accurate stone analysis and metabolic evaluation to provide early diagnosis and efficient treatment for conditions leading to ESRD. PMID:21694924

  5. Renal Autoregulation in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Carlström, Mattias; Wilcox, Christopher S.; Arendshorst, William J.

    2015-01-01

    . Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide are modulators of myogenic and MD-TGF mechanisms. Attenuated renal autoregulation contributes to renal damage in many, but not all, models of renal, diabetic, and hypertensive diseases. This review provides a summary of our current knowledge regarding underlying mechanisms enabling renal autoregulation in health and disease and methods used for its study. PMID:25834230

  6. HIV-associated renal disease - an overview.

    PubMed

    Wearne, Nicola; Okpechi, Ikechi G

    The cause of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in South Africa (SA) was worsened by the denial by key political players that HIV causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). South Africa continues to have the highest rate of HIV world-wide, which has had a huge impact on the development of both chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury. Fortunately, there is now an effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) roll-out program. SA is also dealing with a collision of epidemics of HIV, tuberculosis, and non-communicable disease, particularly hypertension and diabetes. This has been evidenced by recent data seen in the reinstated SA renal registry. There is also an unacceptably high rate of tuberculosis in regions of SA, this has led to high rates of granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN) and case reports of TB-GIN immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) remains common in SA and responds well to ART. The definitive diagnosis requires a renal biopsy, which is often not possible in many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Unfortunately, there is still a high rate of HIVAN in SA due to late presentation and lack of effective screening for renal disease in HIV-positive patients. Transplantation for HIV-positive donors to positive recipients offers a unique and encouraging way forward for these patients.

  7. Chronic Kidney Disease As a Potential Indication for Renal Denervation

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Margreet F.; Blankestijn, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Renal denervation is being used as a blood pressure lowering therapy for patients with apparent treatment resistant hypertension. However, this population does not represent a distinct disease condition in which benefit is predictable. In fact, the wide range in effectiveness of renal denervation could be a consequence of this heterogeneous pathogenesis of hypertension. Since renal denervation aims at disrupting sympathetic nerves surrounding the renal arteries, it seems obvious to focus on patients with increased afferent and/or efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity. In this review will be argued, from both a pathophysiological and a clinical point of view, that chronic kidney disease is particularly suited to renal denervation. PMID:27375498

  8. Renal tubular acidosis in chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Golding, Peter L.

    1975-01-01

    Renal tubular acidosis of the gradient or classic type, thought to be due to a disorder of the distal tubule, has been found to occur in 32% of 117 patients with chronic liver disease. Whilst the cause of this disorder is probably multifactorial, immunological mechanisms are considered to play a major role. The presence of this disorder might well be a cause, rather than the result of, the various electrolyte abnormalities seen in patients with chronic liver disease. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 6 PMID:1234340

  9. Perioperative anticoagulation and renal disease: an update.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Suparna; Jaffer, Amir K; Slawski, Barbara A; Pfeifer, Kurt J; Smetana, Gerald W; Cohn, Steven L

    2014-12-01

    As our surgical population becomes older and increasingly medically complex, knowledge of the most recent perioperative literature can provide guidance for physicians across multiple specialties caring for the surgical patient. Common issues many clinicians encounter in the perioperative period relate to anticoagulation and renal disease. This article identifies gaps in knowledge for the fields of perioperative anticoagulation, acute kidney injury, and chronic kidney disease and highlights recently published studies on these topics that attempt to fill these gaps and help clinicians provide excellent care for their patients.

  10. Pregnancy in end stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Hladunewich, Michelle; Hercz, Adam Engel; Keunen, Johannes; Chan, Christopher; Pierratos, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The ovulatory menstrual cycle is known to be affected on multiple levels in women with advanced renal disease. Menstrual irregularities, sexual dysfunction, and infertility worsen in parallel with the renal disease. Pregnancy in women with ESRD on dialysis is therefore uncommon. Furthermore, when pregnancy does occur, it can prove hazardous to both mother and baby owing to a multitude of potential complications including accelerated hypertension and preeclampsia, poor fetal growth, anemia, and polyhydramnios. Data are emerging, however, to suggest that pregnancy while on intensified renal replacement regimens may result in better pregnancy outcomes, and emerging trends include the decreased rate of therapeutic abortions probably reflecting a change in counseling practices over time. Nevertheless, a pregnant woman on intensive dialysis requires meticulous follow-up by a dedicated team including nephrology, obstetrics, and a full multidisciplinary staff. In this article, we will address fertility issues in young women with ESRD, review pregnancy outcomes in women on both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, and provide suggestions for the management of the pregnant women on intensive hemodialysis.

  11. Angiogenic factors and renal disease in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Julie S; Young, Brett C; Rana, Sarosh

    2011-01-01

    Background. Preeclampsia is difficult to diagnose in patients with underlying renal disease and proteinuria. Prior studies show that there is an angiogenic factor imbalance with elevated levels of antiangiogenic proteins soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1) and soluble endoglin (sEng) and reduced levels of the proangiogenic protein, placental growth factor (PlGF) in women with preeclampsia. These angiogenic biomarkers may be useful in distinguishing preeclampsia from other conditions of pregnancy, which may present with overlapping clinical characteristics. Cases. Case 1: A multiparous woman at 18 weeks gestation with nephrotic syndrome presented with hypertensive emergency and worsening renal insufficiency. She underwent induction of labor for severe preeclampsia. Her sFlt1 and sEng levels were at the 97 percentile while her PlGF level was undetectable (less than the 1st percentile). Case 2: A nulliparous woman with lupus nephritis at 22 weeks gestation presented with fetal demise and heart failure. Three weeks previously, the patient had developed thrombocytopenia and hypertensive urgency. She underwent dilation and evacuation. Her angiogenic profile was consistent with severe preeclampsia. Conclusion. Angiogenic factors may provide evidence to support a diagnosis of preeclampsia in patients with preexisting renal disease and proteinuria, conditions in which the classical definition of hypertension and proteinuria cannot be used.

  12. Genetic link between renal birth defects and congenital heart disease

    PubMed Central

    San Agustin, Jovenal T.; Klena, Nikolai; Granath, Kristi; Panigrahy, Ashok; Stewart, Eileen; Devine, William; Strittmatter, Lara; Jonassen, Julie A.; Liu, Xiaoqin; Lo, Cecilia W.; Pazour, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    Structural birth defects in the kidney and urinary tract are observed in 0.5% of live births and are a major cause of end-stage renal disease, but their genetic aetiology is not well understood. Here we analyse 135 lines of mice identified in large-scale mouse mutagenesis screen and show that 29% of mutations causing congenital heart disease (CHD) also cause renal anomalies. The renal anomalies included duplex and multiplex kidneys, renal agenesis, hydronephrosis and cystic kidney disease. To assess the clinical relevance of these findings, we examined patients with CHD and observed a 30% co-occurrence of renal anomalies of a similar spectrum. Together, these findings demonstrate a common shared genetic aetiology for CHD and renal anomalies, indicating that CHD patients are at increased risk for complications from renal anomalies. This collection of mutant mouse models provides a resource for further studies to elucidate the developmental link between renal anomalies and CHD. PMID:27002738

  13. Genetic link between renal birth defects and congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    San Agustin, Jovenal T; Klena, Nikolai; Granath, Kristi; Panigrahy, Ashok; Stewart, Eileen; Devine, William; Strittmatter, Lara; Jonassen, Julie A; Liu, Xiaoqin; Lo, Cecilia W; Pazour, Gregory J

    2016-03-22

    Structural birth defects in the kidney and urinary tract are observed in 0.5% of live births and are a major cause of end-stage renal disease, but their genetic aetiology is not well understood. Here we analyse 135 lines of mice identified in large-scale mouse mutagenesis screen and show that 29% of mutations causing congenital heart disease (CHD) also cause renal anomalies. The renal anomalies included duplex and multiplex kidneys, renal agenesis, hydronephrosis and cystic kidney disease. To assess the clinical relevance of these findings, we examined patients with CHD and observed a 30% co-occurrence of renal anomalies of a similar spectrum. Together, these findings demonstrate a common shared genetic aetiology for CHD and renal anomalies, indicating that CHD patients are at increased risk for complications from renal anomalies. This collection of mutant mouse models provides a resource for further studies to elucidate the developmental link between renal anomalies and CHD.

  14. Pathogenesis of growth failure in renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, T M; Yi, Z W; Chan, J C

    1994-01-01

    This article reviews our current understanding of the mechanisms of growth failure in chronic renal disease. The neuro-endocrine control of growth hormone secretion and insulin-like growth factor gene expression subject to use of corticosteroids, uremia, and metabolic acidosis are presented. It has been shown in other non-growth hormone deficient conditions such as Turner's syndrome that the use of exogenous growth hormone increases linear growth but also accelerates closure of the growth plate with no significant difference in the final height of such children. An understanding of growth factors is especially important and timely because of the tendency these days to use growth hormone to overcome the growth impairment of children with chronic renal failure.

  15. Ammonium chloride poisoning in chronic renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Levene, Donald L.; Knight, Allan

    1974-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman with a long history of renal stone disease and urinary tract infection presented to the emergency room with exhaustion and air hunger. Laboratory data confirmed profound metabolic acidosis. Unduly large quantities of bicarbonate and potassium were required for correction of the deficits. She had been taking 6 g daily of ammonium chloride as a urine-acidifying agent for a period of six months in addition to agents directed against urinary tract infection. The combination of impaired renal function and effective hydrogen ion loading resulted in profound systemic acidosis. The metabolic derangements associated with the administration of ammonium chloride and its use as a therapeutic agent are discussed. PMID:4850503

  16. Disease management improves end-stage renal disease outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sands, Jeffrey J

    2006-01-01

    Renal disease management organizations have reported achieving significant decreases in mortality and hospitalization in conjunction with cost savings, improved patient satisfaction and quality of life. Disease management organizations strive to fill existing gaps in care delivery through the standardized use of risk assessment, predictive modeling, evidence-based guidelines, and process and outcomes measurement. Patient self-management education and the provision of individual nurse care managers are also key program components. As we more fully measure clinical outcomes and total healthcare costs, including payments from all insurance and government entities, pharmacy costs and out of pocket expenditures, the full implications of disease management can be better defined. The results of this analysis will have a profound influence on United States healthcare policy. At present current data suggest that the promise of disease management, improved care at reduced cost, can and is being realized in end-stage renal disease. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. [Renal artery stenosis : atheromatous disease and fibromuscular dysplasia].

    PubMed

    Halimi, Jean-Michel

    2009-04-01

    Renal artery stenosis may be due to atheromatous disease or renal fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD). Management of both diseases requires treatment of hypertension usually observed in such patients; however, clinical presentation, mechanism and treatment of these 2 diseases are usually different. Renal FMD is now considered as a systemic disease, the cause of which may be genetic (although the exact cause is still elusive). Renal arteries are the most frequent localizations of FMD, but extra renal arteries may also be involved (usually carotid arteries). Risk factors of hypertension-induced renal FMD include estrogen treatment and smoking. Renal FMD are mostly found in young women and in children who present with recent severe and/or refractory symptomatic hypertension. Diagnosis is usually easy (Doppler, CT-scan), and treatment of renal FMD is angioplasty in most cases. Atheromatous renal artery stenosis is usually found in patients with other atheromatous disease (peripheral artery disease, carotid, coronary artery disease...). Clinical presentation include severe or refractory hypertension, recurrent flash pulmonary edema in a patient with hypertension, progressive renal dysfunction spontaneously or after medical treatment with converting-enzyme inhibition or angiotensin II blockade, hypertension in a patient (usually smoker or ex-smoker) with diffuse atheromatous vascular disease. Management of atheromatous renal artery disease is medical treatment in all patients (aggressive treatment of cardiovascular risk factors, control of arterial pressure); revascularization is required in some patients only since it rarely cures hypertension: the goal of revascularization is mostly renal function protection, which may be observed in selected patients. Revascularization must be decided by physicians or teams involved in the care of such patients. Patients with atheromatous renal artery disease are at very high renal and cardiovascular risk : aggressive management of

  18. Pregnancy in women with renal disease. Yes or no?

    PubMed

    Edipidis, K

    2011-01-01

    Women with renal disease who conceive and continue pregnancy, are at significant risk for adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Although advances in antenatal and neonatal care continue to improve these outcomes, the risks remain proportionate to the degree of underlying renal dysfunction.The aim of this article, is to examine the impact of varying degrees of renal insufficiency on pregnancy outcome, in women with chronic renal disease and to provide if possible, useful conclusions whether and when, a woman with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), should decide to get pregnant.This article, reviews briefly the normal physiological changes of renal function during pregnancy, and make an attempt to clarify the nature and severity of the risks, in the settings of chronic renal insufficiency and end stage renal disease, including dialysis patients and transplant recipients.

  19. Renal Manifestations in Scleroderma: Evidence for Subclinical Renal Disease as a Marker of Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Victoria K.; Steen, Virginia D.

    2010-01-01

    Scleroderma is a disease characterized by immune activation, vasculopathy, fibroblast stimulation, and connective tissue fibrosis. End-organ damage occurs due to progressive tissue fibrosis and vasculopathy. Markers of incipient vasculopathy have not been well studied in scleroderma. However, reduced renal functional reserve and proteinuria are common indicators of progressive vasculopathy in diabetic and hypertensive vasculopathy. Recent studies suggest a strong association between renal involvement and outcomes in scleroderma, with a threefold increased risk of mortality from pulmonary hypertension if renal insufficiency is present. We review the types of renal involvement seen in scleroderma and the data to support the use of renal parameters including proteinuria, glomerular filtration rate, and renal vascular dynamics measured with Doppler ultrasound to identify subclinical renal insufficiency. Further studies are warranted to investigate the use of renal parameters as prognostic indicators in scleroderma. PMID:20827302

  20. [ADPKD: predictors of Renal Disease progression].

    PubMed

    Scolari, Francesco; Dallera, Nadia; Saletti, Arianna; Terlizzi, Vincenzo; Izzi, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Factors predicting rapid progression of kidney disease in ADPKD can be divided into genetic (non-modifiable) and clinical (modifiable) risk factors. Patients harbouring PKD1 mutations, in particular if truncating, have a more severe form of ADPKD. Clinical risk factors include decrease in glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow at a young age; high total kidney volume; hypertension and urological complications <35 years; albuminuria/proteinuria. The renal disease is also more severe in males and in subjects with family history of ESRD <55 years. In recent years, two models for predicting progression in ADPKD have been published: the Mayo model, based on height-adjusted TKV, age and eGFR, and the Brest model, based on PKD gene mutation type, gender, and early onset of hypertension and urological complications. With the emergence of new disease-modifying therapies, prediction tools are essential. However, the high variability in ADPKD makes the predicting models difficult to apply on an individual patient basis. Thus, the above-mentioned predicting models should be viewed as complimentary to clinical evaluation and follow-up. In the future, an individual risk score linking genetic, imaging and clinical data might prove the most accurate way of predicting long-term outcome.

  1. Renal diseases as targets of gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Brett; Giannoukakis, Nick; Trucco, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    A number of renal pathologies exist that have seen little or no improvement in treatment methods over the past 20 years. These pathologies include acute and chronic kidney diseases as well as posttransplant kidney survival and host rejection. A novel approach to treatment methodology may provide new insight to further progress our understanding of the disease and overall patient outcome. Recent advances in human genomics and gene delivery systems have opened the door to possible cures through the direct modulation of cellular genes. These techniques of gene therapy have not been extensively applied to renal pathologies, but clinical trials on other organ systems and kidney research in animal models hold promise. Techniques have employed viral and nonviral vectors to deliver gene modulating compounds directly into the cell. These vectors have the capability to replace defective alleles, express novel genes, or suppress the expression of pathogenic genes in a wide variety of kidney cell types. Focus has also been placed on ex vivo modification of kidney tissue to promote allograft survival and limit the resulting immune response to the transplanted organ. This could prove a valuable alternative to current immunosuppressive drugs and their deleterious effects on patients. While continued research and clinical trials are needed to identify a robust system of gene delivery, gene therapy techniques have great potential to treat kidney disease at the cellular level and improve patient quality of life.

  2. Quantitative MRI of kidneys in renal disease.

    PubMed

    Kline, Timothy L; Edwards, Marie E; Garg, Ishan; Irazabal, Maria V; Korfiatis, Panagiotis; Harris, Peter C; King, Bernard F; Torres, Vicente E; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K; Erickson, Bradley J

    2017-06-28

    To evaluate the reproducibility and utility of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences for the assessment of kidneys in young adults with normal renal function (eGFR ranged from 90 to 130 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and patients with early renal disease (autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease). This prospective case-control study was performed on ten normal young adults (18-30 years old) and ten age- and sex-matched patients with early renal parenchymal disease (autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease). All subjects underwent a comprehensive kidney MRI protocol, including qualitative imaging: T1w, T2w, FIESTA, and quantitative imaging: 2D cine phase contrast of the renal arteries, and parenchymal diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) imaging, and magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). The normal controls were imaged on two separate occasions ≥24 h apart (range 24-210 h) to assess reproducibility of the measurements. Quantitative MR imaging sequences were found to be reproducible. The mean ± SD absolute percent difference between quantitative parameters measured ≥24 h apart were: MTI-derived ratio = 4.5 ± 3.6%, DWI-derived apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) = 6.5 ± 3.4%, BOLD-derived R2* = 7.4 ± 5.9%, and MRE-derived tissue stiffness = 7.6 ± 3.3%. Compared with controls, the ADPKD patient's non-cystic renal parenchyma (NCRP) had statistically significant differences with regard to quantitative parenchymal measures: lower MTI percent ratios (16.3 ± 4.4 vs. 23.8 ± 1.2, p < 0.05), higher ADCs (2.46 ± 0.20 vs. 2.18 ± 0.10 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s, p < 0.05), lower R2*s (14.9 ± 1.7 vs. 18.1 ± 1.6 s(-1), p < 0.05), and lower tissue stiffness (3.2 ± 0.3 vs. 3.8 ± 0.5 kPa, p < 0.05). Excellent reproducibility of the quantitative measurements was obtained in all cases. Significantly different quantitative MR parenchymal

  3. The natural history of occult or angiodysplastic gastrointestinal bleeding in von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Makris, M; Federici, A B; Mannucci, P M; Bolton-Maggs, P H B; Yee, T T; Abshire, T; Berntorp, E

    2015-05-01

    Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding is one of the most challenging complications encountered in the management of patients with von Willebrand disease (VWD). The commonest cause is angiodysplasia, but often no cause is identified due to the difficulty in making the diagnosis. The optimal treatment to prevent recurrences remains unknown. We performed a retrospective study of VWD patients with occult or angiodysplastic bleeding within the setting of the von Willebrand Disease Prophylaxis Network (VWD PN) to describe diagnostic and treatment strategies. Centres participating in the VWD PN recruited subjects under their care with a history of congenital VWD and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding due to angiodysplasia, or cases in which the cause was not identified despite investigation. Patients with acquired von Willebrand syndrome or those for whom the GI bleeding was due to another cause were excluded. Forty-eight patients from 18 centres in 10 countries were recruited. Seven individuals had a family history of GI bleeding and all VWD types except 2N were represented. Angiodysplasia was confirmed in 38%, with video capsule endoscopy and GI tract endoscopies being the most common methods of making the diagnosis. Recurrent GI bleeding in VWD is associated with significant morbidity and required hospital admission on up to 30 occasions. Patients were treated with multiple pharmacological agents with prophylactic von Willebrand factor concentrate being the most efficient in preventing recurrence of the GI bleeding. The diagnosis and treatment of recurrent GI bleeding in congenital VWD remains challenging and is associated with significant morbidity. Prophylactic treatment with von Willebrand factor concentrate was the most effective method of preventing recurrent bleeding but its efficacy remains to be confirmed in a prospective study.

  4. Preeclampsia or initial diagnosis of chronic renal disease during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Iavazzo, C; Kalmantis, K; Bozemberg, T; Ntziora, F; Ioakeimidis, A; Paschalinopoulos, D

    2008-01-01

    An unusual case of early nephrotic syndrome without hypertension which slightly resolved after delivery is documented. Renal biopsy was performed postpartum and the diagnosis was focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with moderate chronic renal changes. It is questioned whether the case was due to preeclampsia or was the initial diagnosis of chronic renal disease which was made during pregnancy. The role of renal biopsy in such cases is briefly discussed (Tab. 2, Ref. 15). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  5. The large spectrum of renal disease in diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Bermejo, Sheila; Pascual, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The prevalence of diabetic nephropathy (DN) among diabetic patients seems to be overestimated. Recent studies with renal biopsies show that the incidence of non-diabetic nephropathy (NDN) among diabetic patients is higher than expected. Renal impairment of diabetic patients is frequently attributed to DN without meeting the KDOQI criteria or performing renal biopsy to exclude NDN. In this editorial, we update the spectrum of renal disease in diabetic patients and the impact on diagnosis, prognosis and therapy.

  6. Renal cystic disease associated with tuberous sclerosis complex: renal failure treated by cadaveric kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, J C; Bernstein, J; Rosenberg, B

    1975-01-01

    Chronic renal failure in patients with tuberous sclerosis may be secondary to diffuse cystic disease, a lesion less common than the better known hamartomatous angiomyolipomas. Uremia, in the case of a nineteen-year old female with end-stage renal disease, was associated with severely atrophic kidneys that contained numerous collapsed and scarred cysts. No hamartomas were present. The patient survived for more than three years following cadaveric renal transplantation.

  7. Nanomedicines for renal disease: current status and future applications

    PubMed Central

    Kamaly, Nazila; He, John C.; Ausiello, Dennis A.; Farokhzad, Omid C.

    2017-01-01

    Treatment and management of kidney disease currently presents an enormous global burden, and the application of nanotechnology principles to renal disease therapy, although still at an early stage, has profound transformative potential. The increasing translation of nanomedicines to the clinic, alongside research efforts in tissue regeneration and organ-on-a-chip investigations, are likely to provide novel solutions to treat kidney diseases. Our understanding of renal anatomy and of how the biological and physicochemical properties of nanomedicines (the combination of a nanocarrier and a drug) influence their interactions with renal tissues has improved dramatically. Tailoring of nanomedicines in terms of kidney retention and binding to key membranes and cell populations associated with renal diseases is now possible and greatly enhances their localization, tolerability, and efficacy. This Review outlines nanomedicine characteristics central to improved targeting of renal cells and highlights the prospects, challenges, and opportunities of nanotechnology-mediated therapies for renal diseases. PMID:27795549

  8. Chemerin in renal dysfunction and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Bonomini, Mario; Pandolfi, Assunta

    2016-02-01

    The potential involvement of chemerin in cardiovascular and renal dysfunction has recently been acknowledged. There are indeed many links between this protein and inflammation, atherosclerosis, and multiple obesity- and diabetes-related parameters such as body mass index, insulin resistance, and blood levels of insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose. In addition, in the last few years, several reports have investigated the circulating chemerin levels and their pathophysiologic significance in chronic kidney disease populations. However, there are still gaps in our understanding of this matter, in particular as to whether elevated chemerin might be the cause behind, or simply mirror, a reduced renal function. The limitations of the present knowledge on chemerin may partly relate to the lack of specific antibodies for assessing the different active isoforms of the protein. Measuring its bioactive serum concentration, and achieving a precise overall pattern of the tissue-specific formation of different isoforms, with the use of suitable technology, will ultimately help define the role of chemerin in disease pathophysiology, or as a diagnostic or therapeutic marker. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nosocomial Legionnaires' disease following renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wilczek, H; Kallings, I; Nyström, B; Hoffner, S

    1987-06-01

    A cluster of five cases of Legionnaires' disease in renal transplant patients is described. They were treated with erythromycin and rifampicin, and all five survived. Two of them had rejected their grafts prior to their Legionella pneumonia; two rejected their transplants after reduction of immunosuppressive therapy to combat the infection. L pneumophila was present in the water distribution system of the hospital. Eradication measures included flushing the water pipes to the transplantation ward with hot and hyperchlorinated water, raising the warm water temperature to 60 degrees C, and installing ultraviolet (UV) irradiation units on the warm and cold water pipes to the ward. These measures were successful in that no new cases of legionellosis occurred after wards. L pneumophila could subsequently not be demonstrated by culture in plastic shower hoses supplied with UV-irradiated water. L pneumophila could be demonstrated by direct fluorescent antibody technique, but nonspecific reactions cannot be excluded. A higher prevalence of elevated L pneumophila antibody titers was observed in patients nursed for more than four weeks in the hospital than in patients with a shorter hospital stay, in hospital staff members, or in the general population. It seems that, with appropriate control measures, transplantation activities need not be discontinued in the presence of a minor cluster of Legionnaires' disease in renal transplant patients.

  10. Adiponectin and end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Markaki, Anastasia; Psylinakis, Emmanuel; Spyridaki, Aspasia

    2016-07-01

    Adiponectin (ADPN) is an adipokine with significant anti-inflammatory, insulin-sensitizing and anti-atherogenic properties, which is generally associated with a beneficial cardiometabolic profile. Paradoxically, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is characterized by markedly increased plasma ADPN levels and increased cardiovascular risk. In spite of the cardioprotective properties attributed to adiponectin, cardiovascular complications remain the main cause of mortality in the ESRD population. Furthermore, these patients have enhanced chronic inflammation, increased insulin resistance and persistent protein-energy wasting. Studies of the impact of ADPN on clinical outcomes among ESRD patients have so far yielded contradictory results. This review article summarizes the current knowledge on ADPN functions and explores the role of ADPN in ESRD patients, with specific focus on inflammation, insulin resistance, cardiovascular disease and wasting.

  11. Cardiovascular disease in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, Emily P; Fellström, Bengt C; Holdaas, Hallvard; Jardine, Alan G

    2010-05-01

    Renal transplant recipients have a markedly increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population, although considerably lower than that of patients receiving maintenance haemodialysis. CVD in transplant recipients is poorly characterised and differs from the nonrenal population, with a much higher proportion of fatal to nonfatal cardiac events. In addition to traditional ischaemic heart disease risk factors such as age, gender, diabetes and smoking, there are additional factors to consider in this population such as the importance of hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and uraemic cardiomyopathy. There are factors specific to transplantation such immunosuppressive therapies and graft dysfunction which contribute to this altered risk profile. However, understanding and treatment is limited by the absence of large randomised intervention trials addressing risk factor modification, with the exception of the ALERT study. The approach to managing these patients should begin early and be multifactorial in nature.

  12. Clinical Scenarios in Chronic Kidney Disease: Cystic Renal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Meola, Mario; Samoni, Sara; Petrucci, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Cysts are frequently found in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and they have a different prognostic significance depending on the clinical context. Simple solitary parenchymal cysts and peripelvic cysts are very common and they have no clinical significance. At US, simple cyst appears as a round anechoic pouch with regular and thin profiles. On the other hand, hereditary polycystic disease is a frequent cause of CKD in children and adults. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) are the best known cystic hereditary diseases. ADPKD and ARPKD show a diffused cystic degeneration with cysts of different diameters derived from tubular epithelium. Medullary cystic disease may be associated with tubular defects, acidosis and lithiasis and can lead to CKD. Acquired cystic kidney disease, finally, is secondary to progressive structural end-stage kidney remodelling and may be associated with renal cell carcinoma. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. End stage renal disease serum contains a specific renal cell growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Klotz, L.H.; Kulkarni, C.; Mills, G. )

    1991-01-01

    End stage renal disease (ESRD) kidneys display abnormal growth characterized by a continuum of cystic disease, adenoma and carcinoma. This study evaluates the hypothesis that serum of patients with ESRD contains increased amounts of a growth factor which specifically induces proliferation of renal cells. ESRD sera compared to sera from normal controls induced a two to three-fold increase in the proliferative rate of renal cell carcinoma cell lines and normal kidney explants compared to cell lines from other sites. The increased proliferative activity of ESRD sera on renal cells was paralleled by an increase in cytosolic free calcium. The growth factor activity was encoded by a polypeptide of between 15 and 30 kd. The activity of ESRD sera on renal cells was not mimicked or inhibited by epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and platelet derived growth factor indicating that the renal cell specific growth factor activity in ESRD is different from these factors.

  14. Renal gallium accumulation in the absence of renal pathology in patients with severe hepatocellular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Alazraki, N.; Sterkel, B.; Taylor, A. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Visualization of Ga-67 citrate in the kidneys at 48 hours and 72 hours post injection is usually interpreted as evidence of renal pathology. In reviewing approximately 200 consecutive patients referred for gallium scans, 40 patients who also underwent liver/spleen Tc-99m sulfur colloid (SC) studies within one month of the gallium study were identified. Fourteen of these patients showed advanced hepatocellular dysfunction on the Tc-99m SC liver/spleen images. Of these 14 patients, nine had persistent renal accumulation of gallium at 48 or 72 hours. Five of these nine patients had no evidence of primary renal disease by clinical or postmortem examination and subsequent clinical information indicated that two additional patients probably had no significant renal pathology. Therefore, bilateral symmetrically increased renal uptake of gallium in patients with advanced hepatocellular disease should not necessarily be interpreted as evidence of renal pathology.

  15. Cellular senescence in renal ageing and disease.

    PubMed

    Sturmlechner, Ines; Durik, Matej; Sieben, Cynthia J; Baker, Darren J; van Deursen, Jan M

    2017-02-01

    The senescence programme is implicated in diverse biological processes, including embryogenesis, tissue regeneration and repair, tumorigenesis, and ageing. Although in vivo studies of senescence are in their infancy, evidence suggesting that senescent cells are a heterogeneous cell type is accumulating: senescence can be induced by different stressors, and senescent cells have varying degrees of genomic and epigenomic instability and different cell origins, contributing to their diversity. Two main classes of senescent cells have been identified: acute and chronic senescent cells. Acute senescent cells are generated during coordinated, beneficial biological processes characterized by a defined senescence trigger, transient senescent-cell signalling functions, and eventual senescent-cell clearance. In contrast, chronic senescent cells arise more slowly from cumulative, diverse stresses and are inefficiently eliminated, leading to their accumulation and deleterious effects through a secretory phenotype. Senescent cells have been identified in many tissues and organs, including the kidney. Here, we discuss the emerging roles of senescent cells in renal development, homeostasis, and pathology. We also address how senotherapy, or targeting of senescent cells, might be used to improve renal function with normal ageing, disease, or therapy-induced damage.

  16. Trace elements in renal disease and hemodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Yoshinori; Nakai, Keiko; Suwabe, Akira; Sera, Koichiro

    2002-04-01

    A number of considerations suggest that trace element disturbances might occur in patients with renal disease and in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Using particle induced X-ray emission, we demonstrated the relations between serum concentration, urinary excretion of the trace elements and creatinine clearance (Ccr) in randomized 50 patients. To estimate the effects of HD, we also observed the changes of these elements in serum and dialysis fluids during HD. Urinary silicon excretion decreased, and serum silicon concentration increased as Ccr decreased, with significant correlation ( r=0.702, p<0.001 and r=0.676, p<0.0001, respectively). We also observed the increase of serum silicon, and the decrease of silicon in dialysis fluids during HD. These results suggested that reduced renal function and also dialysis contributed to silicon accumulation. Although serum selenium decreased significantly according to Ccr decrease ( r=0.452, p<0.01), we could detect no change in urinary selenium excretion and no transfer during HD. Serum bromine and urinary excretion of bromine did not correlate to Ccr. However we observed a bromine transfer from the serum to the dialysis fluid that contributed to the serum bromine decrease in HD patients.

  17. Growth hormone in chronic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vishal; Lee, Marilyn

    2012-03-01

    Severe growth retardation (below the third percentile for height) is seen in up to one-third children with chronic kidney disease. It is thought to be multifactorial and despite optimal medical therapy most children are unable to reach their normal height. Under-nutrition, anemia, vitamin D deficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, renal osteodystrophy; abnormalities in the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor system and sex steroids, all have been implicated in the pathogenesis of growth failure. Therapy includes optimization of nutritional and metabolic abnormalities. Failure to achieve adequate height despite 3-6 months of optimal medical measures mandates the use of recombinant GH (rGH) therapy, which has shown to result in catch-up growth, anywhere from 2 cm to 10 cm with satisfactory liner, somatic and psychological development.

  18. Growth hormone in chronic renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vishal; Lee, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Severe growth retardation (below the third percentile for height) is seen in up to one-third children with chronic kidney disease. It is thought to be multifactorial and despite optimal medical therapy most children are unable to reach their normal height. Under-nutrition, anemia, vitamin D deficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, renal osteodystrophy; abnormalities in the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor system and sex steroids, all have been implicated in the pathogenesis of growth failure. Therapy includes optimization of nutritional and metabolic abnormalities. Failure to achieve adequate height despite 3–6 months of optimal medical measures mandates the use of recombinant GH (rGH) therapy, which has shown to result in catch-up growth, anywhere from 2 cm to 10 cm with satisfactory liner, somatic and psychological development. PMID:22470855

  19. [Childhood genetic renal diseases in southern Israel].

    PubMed

    Landau, Daniel; Shalev, Hanna

    2010-03-01

    Genetic kidney diseases (GKDs) are an important and well-known entity in pediatric nephrology. Advances in genetic and molecular approaches in the last 15 years have enabled elucidation of the underlying molecular defects in many of these disorders. Herein, the authors summarize the progress that has been made over this period in disclosing the molecular basis of several novel GKDs which were characterized in this area and include Bartter syndrome type IV, type II Bartter syndrome and transient neonatal hyperkalemia, cystinuria and mental retardation, familial hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia, infantile nephronophthisis and familial hemolytic uremic syndrome with factor H deficiency. Retrospective analysis of the authors' data reveals that GKDs are over-represented among the pediatric population in southern Israel. GKD are seen 4 times more often than end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and comprise 38% of all cases of ESRD in our area. This high rate of GKD is mainly due to the high frequency of consanguineous marriages that prevails in this area. Understanding of the genetic and molecular background of these diseases is a result of a fruitful collaboration between the pediatric nephrologists and scientists, and has a direct implication on the diagnosis and treatment of the affected families.

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Chen, Lihong; Zhang, Dongjuan; Huo, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Pu, Dan; Guan, Youfei

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors. Three isoforms of PPAR, i.e., PPAR-a, -d, and -?, have been identified and are differentially expressed in various tissues, including the kidney. The target genes of PPARs are involved in diverse biological processes, including adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, inflammatory response, reproduction, and cell growth and differentiation. PPARs have been reported to protect against renal injury through indirect systemic effects and/or direct renal effects in diabetic nephropathy, glomerulonephritis, renal cell carcinoma, acute renal failure and chronic renal disease. In this review, we summarize the role of the three identified PPAR isoforms, PPARa, -d, and -?, in renal physiology and discuss the renoprotective effects of PPAR ligands in various kidney diseases.

  1. [Tumor of upper urinary tract in renal polycystic disease].

    PubMed

    Rabii, Redouane; el Mejjad, Amine; Fekak, Hamid; Querfani, Baderdine; Joual, Abdenbi; el Mrini, Mohamed

    2003-09-01

    Upper urinary tract tumours are exceptional in the context of renal polycystic disease. The authors report the case of Mrs B. F., 56 years old, who presented with left loin pain associated with haematuria. Clinical examination was normal and ultrasound examination revealed bilateral renal polycystic disease with a mass in the left renal sinus. CT urography showed a tumour arising from the renal pelvis suggestive of an upper urinary tract tumour. The laboratory assessment revealed normal renal function and normal urine cytology. Treatment consisted of radical nephroureterectomy with resection of a bladder cuff. Histological examination revealed a urothelial tumour of the renal pelvis with negative surgical margins. In the light of this case, the authors discuss the diagnostic difficulties and specificities, the treatment and the outcome of this unusual clinical association.

  2. Determinants of renal shape in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Takashi; Ikehira, Hiroo; Imasawa, Toshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    The determinants of renal shape are not well established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the renal shape, as measured by ultrasound, and the clinical characteristics in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The study included 121 CKD patients who had undergone kidney biopsy. The renal shape was defined by: (1) the renal shape index: renal length/(renal width + renal thickness) and (2) the renal width/length. IgA nephritis patients (excluding patients with diabetes), comprised the largest subgroup (n = 49) and were analyzed separately. The correlation analyses and two-sample Student's t test results showed that age, eGFR, BMI, cortex volume fraction measured by MRI (cortex volume/renal volume), percentage of global sclerosis, weight, sex, hypertension and diabetes were significantly correlated with the renal shape in both kidneys. In a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, old age and high BMI were independently associated with plump kidney. As for the left renal shape index, low cortex volume fraction was also independently associated with plump kidney. In the IgA nephritis patient subgroup, the cortex volume fraction was the most significant factor contributing to the left renal shape index (r = 0.50, p < 0.01) and the width/length (r = -0.47, p < 0.01). Age and BMI were stronger determinants of renal shape than renal function in CKD patients. The left renal cortex volume fraction was also an independent determinant and a more important factor in IgA nephritis patients.

  3. Gentamicin Nephrotoxicity in Subclinical Renal Disease.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, Donita L.

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the pharmacokinetic disposition of gentamicin and to define the mechanisms which predispose to nephrotoxicity in subclinical renal disease. Subtotally nephrectomized beagle dogs were used as a model for human beings with compromised renal function secondary to a reduced number of functional nephrons. Using ultrastructural morphometry, light microscopy and clinical chemistry data, the model was defined and the nephrotoxic responses of intact dogs administered recommended doses of drug were compared to the response of subtotally nephrectomized dogs administered reduced doses based on each animal's clearance of drug. Lysosomal and mitochondrial morphometric changes suggested mechanisms for increased sensitivity. To determine if increased sensitivity in this model was dependent on altered serum concentrations, variable rate infusions based on individual pharmacokinetic disposition of drug were administered using computer-driven infusion pumps. Identical serum concentration-time profiles were achieved in normal dogs and subtotally nephrectomized dogs, however, toxicity was significantly greater in nephrectomized dogs. The difference in the nephrotoxic response was characterized by administering supratherapeutic doses of drug to dogs. Nephrectomized dogs given a recommended dose of gentamicin became oliguric during the second week of treatment and increasingly uremic after withdrawal of drug. In contrast, intact dogs administered 2 times the recommended dose of gentamicin become only slightly polyuric during week 4 of treatment. The need to individualize dosage regimens based on drug clearance and not serum creatinine nor creatinine clearance alone was substantiated by describing the pharmacokinetic disposition of gentamicin in spontaneously occurring disease states. Four individualized dosage regimens with differing predicted efficacy were then administered to nephrectomized dogs to determine their relative nephrotoxic

  4. Serum thymidine kinase 1 and C-reactive protein as biomarkers for screening clinically healthy dogs for occult disease.

    PubMed

    Selting, K A; Sharp, C R; Ringold, R; Knouse, J

    2015-12-01

    Thymidine kinase (TK1) is a biomarker that correlates well with diagnosis and prognosis in certain canine cancers. Canine C-reactive protein (cCRP) is a widely accepted marker of inflammation correlated with increased risk and severity of various diseases. We evaluated serum TK1 and cCRP concentrations in apparently healthy dogs (n = 360). All dogs were followed up for a minimum of 6 months by health questionnaire. All dogs with cancer were identified using a proprietary dual-biomarker algorithm [termed Neoplasia Index (NI)]. Specificity of positive NI is 0.91 and high positive is 0.98. All-cause mortality was 20% in dogs with elevated cCRP and 3% in dogs with low cCRP. The performance of serum TK1 and cCRP as tools for screening for occult cancer is improved when evaluated together. Serum TK1 and cCRP (unified in the NI) are useful in the screening of occult canine cancer. cCRP is useful in screening for other serious diseases.

  5. [Acute renal failure: a rare presentation of Addison's disease].

    PubMed

    Salhi, Houda

    2016-01-01

    Addison's disease is a rare condition. Its onset of symptoms most often is nonspecific contributing to a diagnostic and therapeutic delay. Acute renal failure can be the first manifestation of this disease. We report the case of a patient with Addison's disease who was initially treated for acute renal failure due to multiple myeloma and whose diagnosis was adjusted thereafter. Patient's condition dramatically improved after treatment with intravenous rehydration; injectable hydrocortisone.

  6. Kidney dendritic cells in acute and chronic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Hochheiser, Katharina; Tittel, André; Kurts, Christian

    2011-06-01

    Dendritic cells are not only the master regulators of adaptive immunity, but also participate profoundly in innate immune responses. Much has been learned about their basic immunological functions and their roles in various diseases. Comparatively little is still known about their role in renal disease, despite their obvious potential to affect immune responses in the kidney, and immune responses that are directed against renal components. Kidney dendritic cells form an abundant network in the renal tubulointerstitium and constantly survey the environment for signs of injury or infection, in order to alert the immune system to the need to initiate defensive action. Recent studies have identified a role for dendritic cells in several murine models of acute renal injury and chronic nephritis. Here we summarize the current knowledge on the role of kidney dendritic cells that has been obtained from the study of murine models of renal disease. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Potential Use of Autologous Renal Cells from Diseased Kidneys for the Treatment of Renal Failure.

    PubMed

    George, Sunil K; Abolbashari, Mehran; Jackson, John D; Aboushwareb, Tamer; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs when certain conditions cause the kidneys to gradually lose function. For patients with CKD, renal transplantation is the only treatment option that restores kidney function. In this study, we evaluated primary renal cells obtained from diseased kidneys to determine whether their normal phenotypic and functional characteristics are retained, and could be used for cell therapy. Primary renal cells isolated from both normal kidneys (NK) and diseased kidneys (CKD) showed similar phenotypic characteristics and growth kinetics. The expression levels of renal tubular cell markers, Aquaporin-1 and E-Cadherin, and podocyte-specific markers, WT-1 and Nephrin, were similar in both NK and CKD kidney derived cells. Using fluorescence- activated cell sorting (FACS), specific renal cell populations were identified and included proximal tubular cells (83.1% from NK and 80.3% from CKD kidneys); distal tubular cells (11.03% from NK and 10.9% from CKD kidneys); and podocytes (1.91% from NK and 1.78% from CKD kidneys). Ultra-structural analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed microvilli on the apical surface of cultured cells from NK and CKD samples. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed a similar organization of tight junctions, desmosomes, and other intracellular structures. The Na+ uptake characteristics of NK and CKD derived renal cells were also similar (24.4 mmol/L and 25 mmol/L, respectively) and no significant differences were observed in the protein uptake and transport characteristics of these two cell isolates. These results show that primary renal cells derived from diseased kidneys such as CKD have similar structural and functional characteristics to their counterparts from a normal healthy kidney (NK) when grown in vitro. This study suggests that cells derived from diseased kidney may be used as an autologous cell source for renal cell therapy, particularly in patients with CKD or end

  8. Potential Use of Autologous Renal Cells from Diseased Kidneys for the Treatment of Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    George, Sunil K.; Abolbashari, Mehran; Jackson, John D.; Aboushwareb, Tamer; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs when certain conditions cause the kidneys to gradually lose function. For patients with CKD, renal transplantation is the only treatment option that restores kidney function. In this study, we evaluated primary renal cells obtained from diseased kidneys to determine whether their normal phenotypic and functional characteristics are retained, and could be used for cell therapy. Primary renal cells isolated from both normal kidneys (NK) and diseased kidneys (CKD) showed similar phenotypic characteristics and growth kinetics. The expression levels of renal tubular cell markers, Aquaporin-1 and E-Cadherin, and podocyte-specific markers, WT-1 and Nephrin, were similar in both NK and CKD kidney derived cells. Using fluorescence- activated cell sorting (FACS), specific renal cell populations were identified and included proximal tubular cells (83.1% from NK and 80.3% from CKD kidneys); distal tubular cells (11.03% from NK and 10.9% from CKD kidneys); and podocytes (1.91% from NK and 1.78% from CKD kidneys). Ultra-structural analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed microvilli on the apical surface of cultured cells from NK and CKD samples. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed a similar organization of tight junctions, desmosomes, and other intracellular structures. The Na+ uptake characteristics of NK and CKD derived renal cells were also similar (24.4 mmol/L and 25 mmol/L, respectively) and no significant differences were observed in the protein uptake and transport characteristics of these two cell isolates. These results show that primary renal cells derived from diseased kidneys such as CKD have similar structural and functional characteristics to their counterparts from a normal healthy kidney (NK) when grown in vitro. This study suggests that cells derived from diseased kidney may be used as an autologous cell source for renal cell therapy, particularly in patients with CKD or end

  9. [Light chain deposition disease as a cause of renal failure].

    PubMed

    Wohl, P; Chadimová, M; Englis, M; Táborský, P; Rossmann, P; Matl, I

    1998-11-30

    The objective of the paper is to draw attention to a rare cause of rapidly progressing renal failure which developed in the course of four months as a result of light chain deposition disease. The authors submit two case-histories of the disease assessed by renal biopsy after previous clinical and laboratory suspicion of monoclonal gammapathy. In one patient in the sternal punctate plasmacytoma was diagnosed and in the second case it was not possible to detect any type of monoclonal gammapathy or another possible cause of disease. Renal failure was in both cases irreversible and both patients were enlisted in regular haemodialyzation treatment.

  10. High sensitivity of flow cytometry improves detection of occult leptomeningeal disease in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Buccisano, Francesco; Cefalo, Mariagiovanna; Maurillo, Luca; Di Caprio, Luigi; Di Piazza, Fabio; Sarlo, Chiara; De Angelis, Gottardo; Irno Consalvo, Maria; Fraboni, Daniela; De Santis, Giovanna; Ditto, Concetta; Postorino, Massimiliano; Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Amadori, Sergio; Venditti, Adriano

    2014-09-01

    Conventional cytology (CC) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fails to demonstrate malignant cells in up to 45 % of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or lymphoblastic lymphoma (ALL/LL) in whom occult leptomeningeal disease is present. Flow cytometry (FCM) is considered more sensitive than CC, but clinical implications of CC negativity/CC positivity are not yet established. CSF samples from 38 adult patients with newly diagnosed ALL/LL were examined. Five (13 %) and nine (24 %) specimens were CC positive-FC positive (FCM(pos)/CC(pos)) and CC negative-FC positive (CC(neg)/FCM(pos)), respectively. The remaining 24 (63 %) samples were double negative (CC(neg)/FCM(neg)) (p = 0.001). CC(neg)/FCM(pos) patients showed a significantly shorter overall survival (OS) compared to CC(neg)/FCM(neg) ones. In multivariate analysis, the status of single FCM positivity was demonstrated to affect independently duration of OS (p = 0.005). In conclusion, FCM significantly improves detection of leptomeningeal occult localization in ALL/LL and appears to anticipate an adverse outcome. Further prospective studies on larger series are needed to confirm this preliminary observation.

  11. Assessment of renal vascular resistance and blood pressure in dogs and cats with renal disease.

    PubMed

    Novellas, R; Ruiz de Gopegui, R; Espada, Y

    2010-05-15

    This study investigated the possible relationships between renal resistive index (RI) or pulsatility index (PI) and systolic blood pressure and biochemical and haematological parameters in dogs and cats with renal disease. The study included 50 dogs and 20 cats with renal disease. RI and PI were significantly higher in both dogs and cats with renal disease than in 27 healthy dogs and 10 healthy cats. In dogs, a significant negative correlation was found between RI and red blood cell count, and a positive correlation was found between PI and serum creatinine. In cats, a positive correlation was found between RI and serum urea, between PI and serum creatinine, and between PI and serum urea. No relationship could be found between either RI or PI and systolic blood pressure.

  12. [Spectrum of renal manifestations in sickle cell disease].

    PubMed

    Cazenave, Maud; Koehl, Bérengère; Nochy, Dominique; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis; Audard, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD), the most common hemoglobinopathy, is an increasing cause of chronic kidney disease. In the last decade, we have witnessed a better understanding in the characterization of clinical manifestations and pathogenesis of sickle cell nephropathy. The spectrum of renal diseases during SCD includes various renal manifestations such as impairment of urinary concentrating ability, defect in urine acidification, renal papillary necrosis and proteinuria related to glomerular injury leading to progressive end-stage renal disease. Endothelial dysfunction related to chronic hemolysis and the relative renal hypoxia caused by vaso-occlusive sickle red blood cells are probably two key factors for SCN development. Optimal therapeutic management (including the use of blockers of the renin-angiotensin system) of patients with proteinuria remains to be determined. Renal replacement therapy with dialysis is required in SCD patients with end-stage renal disease but these patients should probably undergo kidney transplantation that requires careful management. Copyright © 2013 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Utility of renal biopsy in the clinical management of renal disease.

    PubMed

    Dhaun, Neeraj; Bellamy, Christopher O; Cattran, Daniel C; Kluth, David C

    2014-05-01

    Characterizing chronic kidney disease (CKD) at all stages is an essential part of rational management and the renal biopsy plays a key role in defining the processes involved. There remain no global guidelines available to the renal community on indications for this important diagnostic, prognostic, and relatively safe test. Although most nephrologists recognize several clear indications for a renal biopsy, it is still underutilized. It not only helps the clinician to manage the patient with CKD, but it can also help clarify the epidemiology of CKD, and aid research into the pathobiology of disease with the aim of discovering new therapies. It may be useful for instance in elderly patients with CKD, those with diabetes and presumed 'hypertensive nephropathy', and in some patients with advanced CKD as part of the pretransplant work-up. In some populations (for example, immunoglobulin A nephropathy and ANCA vasculitis), renal biopsy allows disease classification that may predict CKD progression and response to therapy. For the individual, interval renal biopsy may be of use in providing ongoing therapeutic and prognostic information. Molecular advances will change the landscape of renal pathology and add a new dimension to the diagnostic precision of kidney biopsy. Organizing the multiplicity of information available in a renal biopsy to maximize benefits to the patient, as well as to the epidemiologist and researcher, is one of the challenges that face the nephrology community.

  14. Tonic Pupil, a Paraneoplastic Neuro-Ophtalmological Disease Associated with Occult Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Peyman, Alireza; Kabiri, Majid; Peyman, Mohammadreza

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present a case of tonic pupil associated with occult breast cancer as a paraneoplastic neuro-ophthalmology syndrome. A 45-year-old woman developed progressive photophobia and blurred vision due to unilateral Adie's tonic pupil. Magnetic resonance image of her brain and neurological examination (including deep tendon reflexes) were normal at first visit. Follow-up examinations performed by ophthalmologist every 6 month without any change in her condition. After 2 years, patient discovered a mass in her breast which identified to be malignant after diagnostic procedures. Despite surgical and medical treatment for cancer, no change in the ocular condition was happened.

  15. Percutaneous coronary intervention as a bridge to renal transplantation in a patient with end-stage renal disease--a case report.

    PubMed

    Safi, A M; Kwan, T; Rachko, M; Salciccioli, L; Clark, L T

    2000-05-01

    Renal transplantation is one of the preferred modes of replacement therapy in patients with end-stage renal disease. Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease and renal transplant recipients. The authors describe a patient with end-stage renal disease who developed unstable angina before renal transplantation. Emergent cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention served as a bridge to his successful renal transplantation without complications.

  16. Neurological Manifestations of Renal Diseases in Children in Qazvin/ Iran

    PubMed Central

    DALIRANI, Reza; MAHYAR, Abolfazl; AYAZI, Parviz; AHMADI, Ghazaleh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Renal diseases are one of the most common causes of referrals and admissions of children, hence it is important to know their neurological presentations. This study aimed to determine neurological presentations of renal diseases in children. Material & Methods A total of 634 children with renal diseases, admitted to Qazvin Pediatric Hospital, Qazvin, central Iran from 2011 to 2013 were studied. Neurological presentations of patients were established and the results were analyzed using statistical tests. Results Neurological presentations were found in 18 (2.8%) out of 634 patients, of whom 15 had febrile seizures, two thromboembolism, and one encephalopathy. Among patients with urinary tract infection (UTI), 2.6% had febrile seizures, 11.1% of those with glomerulonephritis had encephalopathy, and 3.7% of those with nephrotic syndrome had cerebral thromboembolism. Conclusion Results showed neurological presentations in 2.8% of children with renal diseases, and febrile seizure as the most common presentation. PMID:27375752

  17. Grazing Occultations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Doug; Hlynialuk, John

    1983-01-01

    A "grazing occultation" occurs when a star or other astronomical body is covered up by the extreme northern or southern limb of the moon in its easterly motion about the earth. Graze phenomena, organizing a graze expedition, and the scientific/educational value of observing grazes are among the topics discussed. (JN)

  18. In-111-leukocyte scanning in inflammatory renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, H.D.; Goodwin, D.A.; Lantieri, R.L.

    1981-06-01

    In-111-leukocyte scanning has recently been introduced as a clinically effective method for detecting inflammatory disease and abscesses. The authors present six cases that demonstrate the usefulness of this new technique in suspected inflammatory renal disease. Two patients had renal abscesses, two had acute pyelonephritis, one had acute focal bacterial nephritis (acute lobar nephronia), and one had a transitional cell carcinoma with associated acute and chronic inflammation.

  19. Macroscopic Hydatiduria: An Uncommon Pathognomonic Presentation of Renal Hydatid Disease

    PubMed Central

    HAMIDI MADANI, Ali; ENSHAEI, Ahmad; POURREZA, Farshid; ESMAEILI, Samaneh; HAMIDI MADANI, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Isolated renal hydatid disease is a rare endemic infestation caused by larval form of Echinococcus granulosus. Hydatiduria is an uncommon presentation of renal hydatid disease. In 2012 a 34-year-old female referred to Razi Hospital, Rasht, Iran with complaints of right flank pain and grape-like material in urine. Diagnosis was made by ultrasonography and CT scan. The patient was treated surgically with nephrectomy in combination with perioperative chemotherapy with albendazol. PMID:26587504

  20. Study on Assessment of Renal Function in Chronic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nupur; Paria, Baishakhi; Sarkar, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Renal dysfunction is common in chronic liver disease. The cause of this renal dysfunction is either multi-organ involvement in acute conditions or secondary to advanced liver disease. Objectives: The study was undertaken to assess the renal function in chronic liver diseases and find out the association of alteration of renal function with gradation of liver disease. (assessed by child-pugh criteria) and to find out the association of alteration of renal function among the cases of chronic liver disease of different aetiology. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, observational study was undertaken in Department of General Medicine, Calcutta National Medical College & Hospital, Kolkata during March 2012 to July 2013 with 50 admitted patients of chronic liver disease after considering the exclusion criteria. The patients were interviewed with a pre-designed and pre-tested schedule, examined clinically, followed by some laboratory investigations relevant to diagnose the aetiology of chronic liver disease, and to assess the severity of liver and renal dysfunction. Data was analysed by standard statistical method. Results: Eighty six percent of the patients were male and the mean age of study population was 43.58 y, 68% patients suffered from alcoholic liver disease, followed by 14% patients had chronic Hepatitis-B, 10% patients developed acute kidney injury, 20% had hepato renal syndrome and 14% had IgA deposition. The distribution of serum urea and creatinine across the categories of Child Pugh classification tested by Mann-Whitney test and the distribution was statistically significant. Conclusion: The present study has found significant association between severity of liver dysfunction and certain parameters of renal dysfunction. PMID:25954647

  1. Management of patients with hepatitis C infection and renal disease.

    PubMed

    Bunchorntavakul, Chalermrat; Maneerattanaporn, Monthira; Chavalitdhamrong, Disaya

    2015-02-27

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with more rapid liver disease progression and reduced renal graft and patients' survival following kidney transplantation. Evaluations and management of HCV in patients with renal disease are challenging. The pharmacokinetics of interferons (IFN), ribavirin (RBV) and some direct acting antiviral (DAA), such as sofosbuvir, are altered in patients with ESRD. With dose adjustment and careful monitoring, treatment of HCV in patients with ESRD can be associated with sustained virological response (SVR) rates nearly comparable to that of patients with normal renal function. DAA-based regimens, especially the IFN-free and RBV-free regimens, are theoretically preferred for patients with ESRD and KT in order to increase SVR rates and to reduce treatment side effects. However, based on the data for pharmacokinetics, dosing safety and efficacy of DAA for patients with severe renal impairment are lacking. This review will be focused on the evaluations, available pharmacologic data, and management of HCV in patients with severe renal impairment, patients who underwent KT, and those who suffered from HCV-related renal disease, according to the available treatment options, including DAA.

  2. Bilateral impacted femoral neck fracture in a renal disease patient.

    PubMed

    Devkota, Pramod; Ahmad, Shiraz

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous bilateral femoral neck facture in a renal disease patient is not common. We report a case of 47-year-old female patient with chronic renal failure and on regular hemodialysis for the past 5 years who sustained bilateral impacted femoral neck fracture without history of trauma and injury and refused any surgical intervention. The patient was mobilised on wheel chair one year after the fractures. The cause of the fracture and the literature review of the bilateral femoral neck fracture in renal disease are discussed.

  3. Emphysematous renal tract disease due to Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, M; Dakshinamurty, K V

    2004-06-01

    Emphysematous renal tract disease (ERTD) is a rare necrotizing infection of renal parenchyma and/or urinary tract caused by gas producing organisms. A case of acute emphysematous renal tract disease (ERTD) (emphysematous pyelonephritis along with emphysematous cystitis) caused by Aspergillus fumigatus in a non-diabetic patient, who did not apparently have any risk factor for fungal infection, is presented. Patient had refused for any surgical intervention. He was treated successfully with liposomal amphotericin B and 5-flucytosin and achieved complete recovery. Various causes of ERTD and available therapeutic options are discussed.

  4. 74 FR 49921 - Medicare Programs; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2009-09-29

    ... Programs; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System; Town Hall Meeting on End-Stage Renal Disease... & Medicaid Services 42 CFR Parts 410, 413 and 414 RIN 0938-AP57 Medicare Programs; End-Stage Renal Disease...) for Medicare outpatient end-stage renal disease (ESRD) dialysis facilities beginning January 1,...

  5. High prevalence of occult hepatitis C virus infection in patients with primary and secondary glomerular nephropathies.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Inmaculada; Martinez-Ara, Jorge; Olea, Teresa; Bartolomé, Javier; Madero, Rosario; Hernández, Eduardo; Bernis, Carmen; Aguilar, Ana; Quiroga, Juan A; Carreño, Vicente; Selgas, Rafael

    2014-09-01

    The association of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and glomerulonephritis is well known. However, the relationship between immune-mediated glomerulonephritis and occult HCV, characterized by the presence of HCV-RNA in liver or in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the absence of serological markers, is unknown. We tested this in 113 anti-HCV-negative patients; 87 with immune-mediated glomerulonephritis and 26 controls with hereditary glomerular nephropathies. All patients were serum HCV-RNA negative by conventional real-time PCR. Significantly, occult HCV-RNA (detectable viral RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or in serum after ultracentrifugation) was found in 34 of 87 patients with immune-mediated glomerulonephritis versus 1 of 26 control patients. The serum creatinine levels were significantly higher in patients with immune-mediated glomerulonephritis with than in those without occult HCV (1.5 versus 1.1 mg/dl, respectively). A multivariate analysis adjusted for gender showed a significantly increased risk of occult HCV in patients with immune-mediated glomerulonephritis versus the controls (odds ratio of 13.29). Progression to end-stage renal disease tended to be faster in patients with immune-mediated glomerulonephritis and occult HCV than in the negative cases. Thus, occult HCV is strongly associated with immune-mediated glomerulonephritis and may have a role in the progression of the disease.

  6. Renal dysfunction and coronary disease: a high-risk combination.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Francois

    2009-01-01

    Chronic kidney dysfunction is recognized as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and complicates strategies and treatment. Therefore, it is important for cardiologists not only to detect and measure potential kidney dysfunction, but also to know the mechanisms by which the heart and kidney interact, and recognize that in cases of acute coronary syndrome, the presence of renal dysfunction increases the risk of death. The detection and classification of kidney dysfunction into 5 stages is based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The presence of hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, dyslipidemia, inflammation, activation of the renin-angiotensin system and specific calcifications are the main mechanisms by which renal dysfunction can induce or compound cardiovascular disease. The magnitude of renal dysfunction is related to the cardiovascular risk; a linear relation links the extent of GFR decrease and the risk of cardiovascular events. Renal dysfunction and acute coronary syndromes are a dangerous combination: more common comorbidities, more frequent contraindications for effective drugs and higher numbers of drug-related adverse events such as bleeding partially explain the higher mortality in patients with renal dysfunction. In addition, despite higher risk, patients with renal dysfunction often receive fewer guideline-recommended treatments even in the absence of contraindications. Renal dysfunction induces and promotes atherosclerosis by various pathophysiologic pathways and is associated with other cardiovascular risk factors and underuse of appropriate therapy. Therefore, the assessment of renal function is an important step in the risk evaluation of patients with coronary artery disease.

  7. Amygdalin inhibits renal fibrosis in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junqi; Wu, Weizheng; Sheng, Mingxiong; Yang, Shunliang; Tan, Jianming

    2013-05-01

    Renal interstitial fibrosis is a common outcome of chronic renal diseases. Amygdalin is one of a number of nitrilosides, the natural cyanide‑containing substances abundant in the seeds of plants of the prunasin family that are used to treat cancer and relieve pain. However, whether amygdalin inhibits the progression of renal fibrosis or not remains unknown. The present study aimed to assess the therapeutic potential of amygdalin by investigating its effect and potential mechanism on the activation of renal interstitial fibroblast cells and renal fibrosis in rat unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Treatment of the cultured renal interstitial fibroblasts with amygdalin inhibited their proliferation and the production of transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β1. In the rat model of obstructive nephropathy, following ureteral obstruction, the administration of amygdalin immediately eliminated the extracellular matrix accumulation and alleviated the renal injury on the 21st day. Collectively, amygdalin attenuated kidney fibroblast (KFB) activation and rat renal interstitial fibrosis. These results indicate that amygdalin is a potent antifibrotic agent that may have therapeutic potential for patients with fibrotic kidney diseases.

  8. [Genetics and nosological classification of renal cystic diseases].

    PubMed

    Izzi, Claudia; Sottini, Laura; Dallera, Nadia; Capistrano, Mariano; Foini, Paolo; Scolari, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Renal cystic diseases are the major group of inherited renal disorders in humans and a leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Dominant and recessive polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD and ARPKD, respectively) account for most of the clinical conditions. However, nephronophthisis (NPHP), medullary cystic kidney disease (MCKD), and dominant glomerulocystic kidney disease (GCKD) still have a relevant clinical impact, particularly in children. The discovery that the proteins that are defective in ADPKD and ARPKD localize to the primary cilium and the recognition of the role of this organelle in cystogenesis have led to the term ''ciliopathies''. In the last decade, the list of ciliopathies has continued to grow. Analysis of the protein products of the nine NPHP genes (NPHP 1-9) evinced a strong relation between ciliary function and pathogenesis of NPHP. The oral-facial-digital syndrome (OFD) type I, characterized by congenital malformations and cystic kidney disease, was found to result from mutations in the OFD1 gene, which encodes a protein located to the primary cilium. Parallel to these advances, mutations in UMOD, the gene encoding uromodulin, were identified in pedigrees with MCKD2, familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy, and autosomal dominant GCKD. In all these disorders, uromodulin was found to be accumulating in intracellular aggregates, suggesting a common pathogenesis. Taken together, these findings suggest the need for the separation of renal cystic diseases due to UMOD mutations (uromodulin-associated diseases) from renal cystic diseases related to mutation of genes encoding for proteins expressed in the primary cilium (ciliopathies).

  9. Pharmacokinetics of iothalamate in endstage renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.R.; Cutler, R.E.; Forland, S.C.

    1988-09-01

    Some nephrologists make alterations in routine peritoneal and hemodialysis schedules after diagnostic studies that use radiographic contrast agents. A study to determine the pharmacokinetics of one contrast agent, iothalamate, is reported. The plasma (total body) clearance of iothalamate was measured in seven patients who had endstage renal disease (ESRD) and who received maintenance hemodialysis. During an interdialytic period, plasma clearance of iothalamate varied from 0.7 to 5.2 mL/min (3.1 +/- 1.8 mL/min, mean +/- SD) with an elimination rate constant (beta) of 0.0164 +/- 0.01 hr-1, a terminal half-life of 61 +/- 42 hours, and an estimated distribution volume of 11 +/- 3.9 L. Hemodialysis clearance of iothalamate was 104 +/- 54 mL/min. With the assumption that iothalamate is mainly distributed in the extracellular fluid (ECF) compartment, the theoretical fluid shift from the intracellular fluid (ICF) compartment to the ECF compartment was 323 mL after administration of the largest dose (2.1 mL/kg or 1.6 mmol/kg of body weight) of 60% meglumine iothalamate solution. The average maximum serum osmolarity change was less than expected, suggesting some type of internal buffering of meglumine iothalamate. In the first few hours after radiocontrast administration in four patients, the average change in serum osmolarity was 5 mmol/L; the average change in serum sodium concentration during this same time was a decrease of 0.5 mmol/L. The minor increase in ECF volume induced by hyperosmolar contrast agents does not require immediate dialysis in most patients. When needed, however, for contrast-related adverse effects, hemodialysis is efficient in rapidly removing iothalamate.

  10. Managing acute and chronic renal stone disease.

    PubMed

    Moran, Conor P; Courtney, Aisling E

    2016-02-01

    Nephrolithiasis, or renal stone disease, is common and the incidence is increasing globally. In the UK the lifetime risk is estimated to be 8-10%. On a population level, the increase in stone incidence, erosion of gender disparity, and younger age of onset is likely to reflect increasing prevalence of obesity and a Western diet with a high intake of animal protein and salt. Stones can be detected by a variety of imaging techniques. The gold standard is a non-contrast CT of kidneys, ureters and bladder (CT KUB) which can identify > 99% of stones. CT KUB should be the primary mode of imaging for all patients with colic unless contraindicated. In such instances, or if a CT KUB is not available, an ultrasound KUB is an alternative. This has advantages in terms of radiation exposure and cost, but is limited in sensitivity, particularly for ureteric stones. Once diagnosed, a plain film KUB can be used for follow-up of radiopaque stones. For most patients diclofenac is a reasonable first choice of analgesia, e.g. 50-100 mg rectally, or 75 mg IM. Opioid medication can worsen nausea and be less effective, but should be used if there is a contraindication to NSAIDs. A combination of diclofenac, paracetamol, and/or codeine regularly can provide adequate pain control in many cases. Failure of this analgesic combination should prompt consideration of secondary care support. If a ureteric stone < 5 mm in diameter is identified, the expectation is that this will pass without intervention. Initially medical management is still useful for stones between 5 and 10mm in diameter, but urology input is more likely to be necessary as up to 50% of these may require intervention. Stones that are >10 mm in diameter should be discussed with the urology service as they are unlikely to pass spontaneously.

  11. Association of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with renal stone disease detected on computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Nam, In Chul

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the association between Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with renal stone disease detected on computed tomography (CT). A total 1812 patients who underwent abdomen-pelvis CT in July 2015 were included in this study. The inclusion criteria for NAFLD were as follows: (i) lower average Hounsfield unit (HU) of hepatic right lobe, left medial and lateral segment when compared with that of spleen, (ii) patients who having urolithiasis in kidneys, ureters and urinary bladder, and (iii) patients underwent abdomen-pelvis CT including noncontrast image. The statistical significance of the association between NAFLD and renal stone disease was assessed using Chi Square Test. The Odds ratios and 95% CI were calculated to assess the propensity of renal stones disease for NAFLD by using Logistic Regression analysis. The frequency of renal stone disease in patients with NAFLD was higher approximately 19% than those who having renal stone disease without NAFLD. In addition, the presence of NAFLD was linked with renal stone disease showing that detection rate of renal stone disease in patients with NAFLD was markedly high (odds ratio: 5, 95% CI, 3-8.2) (p < 0.05) in multivariate analysis. The presence of significant association between NAFLD with renal stone disease and NAFLD may be considered to be an independent variable as a risk factor for renal stone disease.

  12. Pregnancy outcomes among renal transplant recipients and patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis.

    PubMed

    Saliem, Sara; Patenaude, Valerie; Abenhaim, Haim A

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of our study is to compare pregnancy outcomes between women with a functioning renal transplant and women with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We carried out a population-based retrospective cohort study using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2006 to 2011. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the age-adjusted effect of functioning renal transplant vs. ESRD requiring dialysis on pregnancy outcomes. We identified 264 birth records to women with a functional renal transplant and 267 birth records to women with ESRD on dialysis among 5,245,452 births. As compared to women with ESRD on dialysis, renal transplant recipients were less likely to have placental abruption [odds ratio, OR 0.23 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.08-0.70)], to receive blood transfusions [OR 0.17 (95% CI 0.09-0.30)], and to have growth-restricted and small-for-gestational-age babies [OR 0.45 (95% CI 0.23-0.85)]. Renal transplant recipients were more likely to have an instrumental delivery [OR 15.38 (95% CI 1.92-123.3)]. Among renal transplant women, there was a trend towards delivery by cesarean section as compared to patients with ESRD [OR 1.31 (95% CI 0.93-1.85)]. However, these results were not statistically significant. Fetal deaths were less likely to occur in women with a renal transplant [OR 0.41 (95% CI 0.17-0.96)]. There were four maternal deaths among patients with ESRD on dialysis and no maternal deaths among renal transplant patients. Patients with a functional renal graft had an overall lower rate of morbidity and adverse pregnancy complications when compared to patients with ESRD on dialysis.

  13. Epidemic renal disease of unknown etiology in the Zuni Indians

    SciTech Connect

    Hoy, W.E.; Megill, D.M.; Hughson, M.D.

    1987-06-01

    An epidemic of renal disease is occurring among the Zuni Indians in western New Mexico. In 1985, 1.6% of Zunis had clinically recognized renal disease and 1% had renal insufficiency. The incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 1984 and 1985 was 14 times the rate for US whites, and three times the rates of other Indians in ESRD network 6. One third of the cases of renal disease and ESRD is due to type 2 diabetes, but the etiology of disease in most of the remainder is unknown. Affected subjects range from early childhood to old age. Early signs are hematuria, mild to moderate proteinuria, normal BP, and low total hemolytic complement, normal or low C3 and C4 levels, in about 40% of the cases. The clinical course varies from benign to rapidly progressive renal failure. Biopsies usually reflect an immune-complex mediated mesangiopathic glomerulonephritis, with IgA, IgG, IgM, and C3 variably present in the mesangium. In some cases, there is a very strong familial pattern suggesting autosomal dominant inheritance or a marked communal exposure effect. This may be a genetic disease educed by the consanguinity in the ethnically homogeneous Zuni population. Mesangiopathic renal disease is common in some Oriental populations, and this phenomenon may reflect the American Indians' Oriental ancestry. This disease may also be due to toxic exposures related to jewelry-making, potting, Zuni water, Zuni salt, or herbal or other products used for medicinal or religious purposes. This epidemic is causing much morbidity and generating huge costs for ESRD treatment. Further study is needed to better understand its etiology.

  14. Wnt and planar cell polarity signaling in cystic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Goggolidou, Paraskevi

    2014-01-01

    Cystic kidney diseases can cause end stage renal disease, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. They may arise early or later in life, are characterized by a spectrum of symptoms and can be caused by diverse genetic defects. The primary cilium, a microtubule-based organelle that can serve as a signaling antenna, has been demonstrated to have a significant role in ensuring correct kidney development and function. In the kidney, one of the signaling pathways that requires the cilium for normal development is Wnt signaling. In this review, the roles of primary cilia in relation to canonical and non-canonical Wnt/PCP signaling in cystic renal disease are described. The evidence of the associations between cilia, Wnt signaling and cystic renal disease is discussed and the significance of planar cell polarity-related mechanisms in cystic kidney disease is presented. Although defective Wnt signaling is not the only cause of renal disease, research is increasingly highlighting its importance, encouraging the development of Wnt-associated diagnostic and prognostic tools for cystic renal disease.

  15. Multiple facets of HIV-associated renal disease.

    PubMed

    da Silva, D R; Gluz, I C; Kurz, J; Thomé, G G; Zancan, R; Bringhenti, R N; Schaefer, P G; Dos Santos, M; Barros, E J G; Veronese, F V

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection has a broad spectrum of renal manifestations. This study examined the clinical and histological manifestations of HIV-associated renal disease, and predictors of renal outcomes. Sixty-one (64% male, mean age 45 years) HIV patients were retrospectively evaluated. Clinical presentation and renal histopathology were assessed, as well as CD4 T-cell count and viral load. The predictive value of histological lesion, baseline CD4 cell count and viral load for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death were determined using the Cox regression model. The outcomes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and ESRD or death were evaluated by baseline CD4 cell count. The percent distribution at initial clinical presentation was non-nephrotic proteinuria (54%), acute kidney injury (28%), nephrotic syndrome (23%), and chronic kidney disease (22%). Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (28%), mainly the collapsing form (HIVAN), acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) (26%), and immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis (ICGN) (25%) were the predominant renal histology. Baseline CD4 cell count ≥ 200 cells/mm3 was a protective factor against CKD (hazard ratio=0.997; 95%CI=0.994-0.999; P=0.012). At last follow-up, 64% of patients with baseline CD4 ≥ 200 cells/mm3 had eGFR >60 mL·min-1·(1.73 m2)-1 compared to the other 35% of patients who presented with CD4 <200 cells/mm3 (log rank=9.043, P=0.003). In conclusion, the main histological lesion of HIV-associated renal disease was HIVAN, followed by AIN and ICGN. These findings reinforce the need to biopsy HIV patients with kidney impairment and/or proteinuria. Baseline CD4 cell count ≥ 200 cells/mm3 was associated with better renal function after 2 years of follow-up.

  16. Multiple facets of HIV-associated renal disease

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, D.R.; Gluz, I.C.; Kurz, J.; Thomé, G.G.; Zancan, R.; Bringhenti, R.N.; Schaefer, P.G.; dos Santos, M.; Barros, E.J.G.; Veronese, F.V.

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection has a broad spectrum of renal manifestations. This study examined the clinical and histological manifestations of HIV-associated renal disease, and predictors of renal outcomes. Sixty-one (64% male, mean age 45 years) HIV patients were retrospectively evaluated. Clinical presentation and renal histopathology were assessed, as well as CD4 T-cell count and viral load. The predictive value of histological lesion, baseline CD4 cell count and viral load for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death were determined using the Cox regression model. The outcomes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and ESRD or death were evaluated by baseline CD4 cell count. The percent distribution at initial clinical presentation was non-nephrotic proteinuria (54%), acute kidney injury (28%), nephrotic syndrome (23%), and chronic kidney disease (22%). Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (28%), mainly the collapsing form (HIVAN), acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) (26%), and immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis (ICGN) (25%) were the predominant renal histology. Baseline CD4 cell count ≥200 cells/mm3 was a protective factor against CKD (hazard ratio=0.997; 95%CI=0.994-0.999; P=0.012). At last follow-up, 64% of patients with baseline CD4 ≥200 cells/mm3 had eGFR >60 mL·min-1·(1.73 m2)-1 compared to the other 35% of patients who presented with CD4 <200 cells/mm3 (log rank=9.043, P=0.003). In conclusion, the main histological lesion of HIV-associated renal disease was HIVAN, followed by AIN and ICGN. These findings reinforce the need to biopsy HIV patients with kidney impairment and/or proteinuria. Baseline CD4 cell count ≥200 cells/mm3 was associated with better renal function after 2 years of follow-up. PMID:27007656

  17. Renal involvement in cystic fibrosis: diseases spectrum and clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Yahiaoui, Yasmina; Jablonski, Mathieu; Hubert, Dominique; Mosnier-Pudar, Helen; Noël, Laure-Hélène; Stern, Marc; Grenet, Dominique; Grünfeld, Jean-Pierre; Chauveau, Dominique; Fakhouri, Fadi

    2009-05-01

    Clinically relevant kidney involvement is uncommonly described in adult patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). We sought to report on a series of patients with CF and kidney biopsy-documented renal involvement. A retrospective study was undertaken in two referral centers for adult patients with CF in Paris, France. Patients who had undergone a biopsy of native kidneys between 1992 and 2008 were identified, and their medical records were reviewed. We identified 13 adult patients with CF and renal disease. Proteinuria was present in all but two cases and was associated with progressive renal impairment in four patients (median serum creatinine 85 micromol/L; range 53 to 144 micromol/L). Renal biopsy disclosed a heterogeneous spectrum of nephropathies including AA amyloidosis (n = 3), diabetic glomerulopathy (n = 3), FSGS (n = 2), minimal-change disease (n = 1), postinfectious glomerulonephritis (n = 1), IgA nephropathy related to Henoch-Schönlein purpura (n = 1), membranous nephropathy (n = 1), and chronic interstitial nephropathy (n = 1). Chronic renal failure occurred in five patients, and one patient reached ESRD. Although rare, clinically significant renal disease may arise in young adult patients with CF. Given the wide spectrum of diseases that may be encountered, definite diagnosis by kidney biopsy is mandatory to optimize clinical treatment of these complex patients, particularly in the perspective of organ transplantation.

  18. Mortality from diabetic renal disease: a hidden epidemic.

    PubMed

    Rao, Chalapati; Adair, Timothy; Bain, Chris; Doi, Suhail A R

    2012-04-01

    Population-level mortality indicators can be useful outcome measures of diabetes care. Death registration systems serve as the main source of data for such measures. However, standard mortality indicators based on underlying causes do not adequately reflect the burden from diabetic renal disease. This article presents findings from analysis of multiple causes of death available from death registration data for Australia and USA. Both countries use an automated system that applies prescribed rules to select and code the underlying cause for each registered death. Deaths with diabetes as underlying cause were grouped according to their diabetic complications as defined by the International Classification of Diseases. Age-standardized mortality rates were calculated for the underlying cause rubric 'diabetes with renal complications'. These were contrasted with rates calculated using additional deaths where diabetes was the underlying cause and renal failure was listed as a consequence. These analyses identified that current automated programmes code three-fourths of all diabetes deaths to 'diabetes without complications', despite additional factors being listed. Estimated multiple cause death rates from diabetic renal disease are four to nine times higher than underlying cause rates for 'diabetes with renal complications' in both countries; and show a rising trend in contrast to the latter. These findings indicate that routine underlying cause statistics for USA and Australia grossly under estimate mortality from diabetic renal disease. Clear guidelines on the certification, coding and statistical presentation of diabetes mortality are needed for epidemiology and health policy.

  19. Occult hepatitis B virus infection is not associated with disease progression of chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cho, Junhyeon; Lee, Sang Soo; Choi, Yun Suk; Jeon, Yejoo; Chung, Jung Wha; Baeg, Joo Yeong; Si, Won Keun; Jang, Eun Sun; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hyang

    2016-11-14

    To clarify the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) and the association between OBI and liver disease progression, defined as development of liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), worsening of Child-Pugh class, or mortality in cases of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This prospective cohort study enrolled 174 patients with chronic HCV infection (chronic hepatitis, n = 83; cirrhosis, n = 47; HCC, n = 44), and evaluated disease progression during a mean follow-up of 38.7 mo. OBI was defined as HBV DNA positivity in 2 or more different viral genomic regions by nested polymerase chain reaction using 4 sets of primers in the S, C, P and X open reading frame of the HBV genome. The overall OBI prevalence in chronic HCV patients at enrollment was 18.4%, with 16.9%, 25.5% and 13.6% in the chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis and HCC groups, respectively (P = 0.845). During follow-up, 52 patients showed disease progression, which was independently associated with aspartate aminotransferase > 40 IU/L, Child-Pugh score and sustained virologic response (SVR), but not with OBI positivity. In 136 patients who were not in the SVR state during the study period, OBI positivity was associated with neither disease progression, nor HCC development. The prevalence of OBI in chronic HCV patients was 18.4%, and OBI was not associated with disease progression in South Koreans.

  20. Occult hepatitis B virus infection is not associated with disease progression of chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Junhyeon; Lee, Sang Soo; Choi, Yun Suk; Jeon, Yejoo; Chung, Jung Wha; Baeg, Joo Yeong; Si, Won Keun; Jang, Eun Sun; Kim, Jin-Wook; Jeong, Sook-Hyang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To clarify the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) and the association between OBI and liver disease progression, defined as development of liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), worsening of Child-Pugh class, or mortality in cases of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS This prospective cohort study enrolled 174 patients with chronic HCV infection (chronic hepatitis, n = 83; cirrhosis, n = 47; HCC, n = 44), and evaluated disease progression during a mean follow-up of 38.7 mo. OBI was defined as HBV DNA positivity in 2 or more different viral genomic regions by nested polymerase chain reaction using 4 sets of primers in the S, C, P and X open reading frame of the HBV genome. RESULTS The overall OBI prevalence in chronic HCV patients at enrollment was 18.4%, with 16.9%, 25.5% and 13.6% in the chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis and HCC groups, respectively (P = 0.845). During follow-up, 52 patients showed disease progression, which was independently associated with aspartate aminotransferase > 40 IU/L, Child-Pugh score and sustained virologic response (SVR), but not with OBI positivity. In 136 patients who were not in the SVR state during the study period, OBI positivity was associated with neither disease progression, nor HCC development. CONCLUSION The prevalence of OBI in chronic HCV patients was 18.4%, and OBI was not associated with disease progression in South Koreans. PMID:27895431

  1. [Survey on common pediatric drugs for renal diseases].

    PubMed

    Ye, Wen-qian; Liang, Yan; Cui, Yi-min; Ding, Jie

    2013-12-01

    Development and use of better medicine for children is a worldwide problem recently, especially in China. The current situation of drugs for children's renal diseases is far from well-understood now. This survey focused on drugs for pediatric renal diseases including immunosuppressants, corticosteroids, diuretics, anticoagulants, hypotensives and antilipemic agents.Information regarding the dosage, form, precaution, usage and administration in inserts was collected in this study. Drugs for pediatric renal diseases were selected according to the guidelines established by the Chinese Society of Pediatric Nephrology. The detailed information about the dosage, form of drugs was searched on the website of China-State Food and Drug (SFDA). The information of the precaution, usage and administration was obtained from the China Pharmaceutical Reference, the first edition. In this study, there were 5 categories of medicine including immunosuppressants, corticosteroids, diuretics, anticoagulants, hypotensives and antilipemic agents, and 89 kinds of medicine for renal diseases. Among these medicines, 65.2% were found not suitable for children in terms of drug dosage and form, 19.1% did not indicate the precaution, 51.7% did not indicate clearly the safety and effectiveness for children, and 56.2% lacked the detailed information about the usage and administration for children. There were only 4 kinds of these medicines which were studied via clinical trials in children population. There is a lack of drugs for children with renal diseases. Most of the time, the medicines used by doctors are not specially manufactured for children. The safety and efficacy of drugs that are currently used to treat pediatric renal diseases are not clear and definite.In addition, few clinical trials have been conducted for evaluation of drugs for pediatric renal diseases.In clinic, the situation of off-label drug treatment is very serious.

  2. [Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of renal diseases in HIV infected patients. Recommendations of the Spanish AIDS Study Group/National AIDS Plan].

    PubMed

    2010-10-01

    The incidence of opportunistic infections and tumours in HIV-infected patients has sharply declined in the HAART era. At the same time there has been a growing increase of other diseases not directly linked to immunodeficiency. Renal diseases are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients. In the general population, chronic renal failure has considerable multiorgan repercussions that have particular implications in patients with HIV infection. The detection of occult or subclinical chronic kidney disease is crucial since effective measures for delaying progression exist. Furthermore, the deterioration in glomerular filtration should prompt clinicians to adjust doses of some antiretroviral agents and other drugs used for treating associated comorbidities. Suppression of viral replication, strict control of blood pressure, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus, and avoidance of nephrotoxic drugs in certain patients are fundamental components of programs aimed to prevent renal damage and delaying progression of chronic kidney disease in patients with HIV. Renal transplantation and dialysis have also special implications in HIV-infected patients. In this article, we summarise the updated clinical practice guidelines for the evaluation, management and prevention of renal diseases in HIV-infected patients from a panel of experts in HIV and nephrologists on behalf of the Spanish AIDS Study Group (GESIDA) and the National AIDS Plan.

  3. Experimental models of renal disease and the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Rebecca C

    2010-11-26

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death among patients with end stage renal failure. Animal models have played a crucial role in teasing apart the complex pathological processes involved. This review discusses the principles of using animal models, the history of their use in the study of renal hypertension, the controversies arising from experimental models of non-hypertensive uraemic cardiomyopathy and the lessons learned from these models, and highlights important areas of future research in this field, including de novo cardiomyopathy secondary to renal transplantation.

  4. Predictors of renal and patient outcomes in atheroembolic renal disease: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Francesco; Ravani, Pietro; Pola, Alessandra; Guerini, Simona; Zubani, Roberto; Movilli, Ezio; Savoldi, Silvana; Malberti, Fabio; Maiorca, Rosario

    2003-06-01

    Atheroembolic renal disease (AERD) is part of a multisystemic disease accompanied by high cardiovascular comorbidity and mortality. Interrelationships between traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis, vascular comorbidities, precipitating factors, and markers of clinical severity of the disease in determining outcome remain poorly understood. Patients with AERD presenting to a single center between 1996 and 2002 were followed-up with prospective collection of clinical and biochemical data. The major outcomes included end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and death. Ninety-five patients were identified (81 male). AERD was iatrogenic in 87%. Mean age was 71.4 yr. Twenty-three patients (24%) developed ESRD; 36 patients (37.9%) died. Cox regression analysis showed that significant independent predictors of ESRD were long-standing hypertension (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.1; P < 0.001) and preexisting chronic renal impairment (HR = 2.12; P = 0.02); use of statins was independently associated with decreased risk of ESRD (HR = 0.02; P = 0.003). Age (HR = 1.09; P = 0.009), diabetes (HR = 2.55; P = 0.034), and ESRD (HR = 2.21; P = 0.029) were independent risk factors for patient mortality; male gender was independently associated with decreased risk of death (HR = 0.27; P = 0.007). Cardiovascular comorbidities, precipitating factors, and clinical severity of AERD had no prognostic impact on renal and patient survival. It is concluded that AERD has a strong clinical impact on patient and renal survival. The study clearly shows the importance of preexisting chronic renal impairment in determining both renal and patient outcome, this latter being mediated by the development of ESRD. The protective effect of statins on the development of ESRD should be evaluated in a prospective study.

  5. Deaths from occlusive arterial disease in renal allograft recipients.

    PubMed

    Ibels, L S; Stewart, J H; Mahony, J F; Sheil, A G

    1974-08-31

    In a series of 325 recipients of cadaveric renal transplants sudden occlusive arterial disease was found to be responsible for 12% of deaths. Acute myocardial infarction (9%) occurred 25 times more than expected in the normal population and cerebral thrombosis (3%) 300 times more. The greatest loss was in the initial three-month period after transplantation. Patients with renal failure due to essential hypertension were especially at risk, accounting for six of the 12 deaths.

  6. Fast renal decline to end-stage renal disease: an unrecognized feature of nephropathy in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Krolewski, Andrzej S; Skupien, Jan; Rossing, Peter; Warram, James H

    2017-03-30

    A new model of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes emerged from our studies of Joslin Clinic patients. The dominant feature is progressive renal decline, not albuminuria. This decline is a unidirectional process commencing while patients have normal renal function and, in the majority, progressing steadily (linearly) to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). While an individual's rate of renal decline is constant, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) slope varies widely among individuals from -72 to -3.0 ml/min/year. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes guidelines define rapid progression as rate of eGFR declines > 5 ml/min/year, a value exceeded by 80% of patients in Joslin's type 1 diabetes ESRD cohort. The extraordinary range of slopes within the rapid progression category prompted us to partition it into "very fast," "fast" and "moderate" decline. We showed, for the first time, that very fast and fast decline from normal eGFR to ESRD within 2 to 10 years constitutes 50% of the Joslin cohort. In this review we present data about frequency of fast decliners in both diabetes types, survey some mechanisms underlying fast renal decline, discuss methods of identifying patients at risk and comment on the need for effective therapeutic interventions. Whether the initiating mechanism of fast renal decline affects glomerulus, tubule, interstitium or vasculature is unknown. Since no animal model mimics progressive renal decline, studies in humans are needed. Prospective studies searching for markers predictive of the rate of renal decline yield findings that may make detection of fast decliners feasible. Identifying such patients will be the foundation for developing effective individualized methods to prevent or delay onset of ESRD in diabetes.

  7. Emotional trauma associated with renal disease and natural disasters.

    PubMed

    McClellan, M J

    2001-10-01

    Emotional trauma frequently follows any disaster such as fire, flood, earthquake, accidents, war, bombings, and life-threatening disease. One such disease is end stage renal disease (ESRD), an irreversible, progressive loss of renal function (Lancaster, 1995). Since this is a "do or die" situation, it requires artificial methods of hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or transplant, which require learned coping skills. Emotional trauma may occur pre or post-disaster and may include flashbacks when events trigger suppressed memories or unresolved emotions. Aftercare of disasters requires dedicated professionals to guide patients toward essential lifelines.

  8. Renal disease pathophysiology and treatment: contributions from the rat

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Bryan R.; Menzies, Robert I.; Denby, Laura

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The rat has classically been the species of choice for pharmacological studies and disease modeling, providing a source of high-quality physiological data on cardiovascular and renal pathophysiology over many decades. Recent developments in genome engineering now allow us to capitalize on the wealth of knowledge acquired over the last century. Here, we review rat models of hypertension, diabetic nephropathy, and acute and chronic kidney disease. These models have made important contributions to our understanding of renal diseases and have revealed key genes, such as Ace and P2rx7, involved in renal pathogenic processes. By targeting these genes of interest, researchers are gaining a better understanding of the etiology of renal pathologies, with the promised potential of slowing disease progression or even reversing the damage caused. Some, but not all, of these target genes have proved to be of clinical relevance. However, it is now possible to generate more sophisticated and appropriate disease models in the rat, which can recapitulate key aspects of human renal pathology. These advances will ultimately be used to identify new treatments and therapeutic targets of much greater clinical relevance. PMID:27935823

  9. The relationship between renal volume and renal function in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Shino; Muto, Satoru; China, Toshiyuki; Horie, Shigeo

    2011-08-01

    In patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), renal cysts grow exponentially. Since remaining renal parenchyma has a capacity to compensate for the loss of glomerular filtration, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may be sustained until the disease progresses. The purpose of this study was to determine if renal volumetric indices and clinical parameters are associated with renal function in Japanese patients with ADPKD. In 73 ADPKD patients (28 men, 45 women), the associations of mean systolic blood pressure, mean diastolic blood pressure, estimated GFR (eGFR), the amount of proteinuria and albuminuria, body mass index (BMI), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), ankle-brachial index, and total kidney volume (TKV) were retrospectively analyzed. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that eGFR was significantly and independently inversely correlated with patients' age and BMI. The median change in eGFR per year (ΔeGFR/y) was -2.8 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/year. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that ΔeGFR/y was significantly and independently inversely correlated with the change in TKV per year (ΔTKV/y). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that ΔTKV/y was significantly related to initial TKV and the change in albuminuria per year. This study demonstrated a significant relationship between the change in renal function and the change in renal volume in Japanese ADPKD patients without renal insufficiency. It is possible that the volume measurements can be used as useful markers for disease progression in Japanese ADPKD patients.

  10. [Growth retardation in children with chronic renal disease].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the management of children with chronic renal disease (CRD), growth retardation remains its most visible comorbid condition. Growth retardation has adverse impact on morbidity and mortality rates, quality of life and education, and in adult patients on job family life, and independent leaving accomodation. Pathophysiology of impaired growth in CRD is complex and still not fully understood. The following complications are: anorexia, malnutrition, inflammation, decreased residual renal function, dialysis frequency and adequacy, renal anemia, metabolic acidosis, fluid/electrolyte imbalance, renal osteodistrophy, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) resistance. Malnutrition is most frequent and most important factor contributing to the degree of growth retardation in infancy. The degree of renal dysfunction is the major determinant of variability in growth from third year of age until puberty onset, while in puberty hypergonadotropic hypogonadism has negative effect. The main factors that influence growth after renal transplantation are the age of the recipient and glucocorticoid drugs dosage with negative effect and allograft function with positive effect. In order to improve growth in children with CRD it is necessary to include: diet with optimal caloric intake, correction of fluid/ electrolyte imbalance, correction of acidosis, renal osteodistrophy and anemia. If growth velocity is insufficient to normalize growth, it is necessary to start recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy at 0.05 mg/kg per day (0.35 mg/kg per week or 28 IU/m2 per week) administered by subcutaneous injection.

  11. Renal primordia activate kidney regenerative events in a rat model of progressive renal disease.

    PubMed

    Imberti, Barbara; Corna, Daniela; Rizzo, Paola; Xinaris, Christodoulos; Abbate, Mauro; Longaretti, Lorena; Cassis, Paola; Benedetti, Valentina; Benigni, Ariela; Zoja, Carlamaria; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Morigi, Marina

    2015-01-01

    New intervention tools for severely damaged kidneys are in great demand to provide patients with a valid alternative to whole organ replacement. For repairing or replacing injured tissues, emerging approaches focus on using stem and progenitor cells. Embryonic kidneys represent an interesting option because, when transplanted to sites such as the renal capsule of healthy animals, they originate new renal structures. Here, we studied whether metanephroi possess developmental capacity when transplanted under the kidney capsule of MWF male rats, a model of spontaneous nephropathy. We found that six weeks post-transplantation, renal primordia developed glomeruli and tubuli able to filter blood and to produce urine in cyst-like structures. Newly developed metanephroi were able to initiate a regenerative-like process in host renal tissues adjacent to the graft in MWF male rats as indicated by an increase in cell proliferation and vascular density, accompanied by mRNA and protein upregulation of VEGF, FGF2, HGF, IGF-1 and Pax-2. The expression of SMP30 and NCAM was induced in tubular cells. Oxidative stress and apoptosis markedly decreased. Our study shows that embryonic kidneys generate functional nephrons when transplanted into animals with severe renal disease and at the same time activate events at least partly mimicking those observed in kidney tissues during renal regeneration.

  12. Renal Primordia Activate Kidney Regenerative Events in a Rat Model of Progressive Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Imberti, Barbara; Corna, Daniela; Rizzo, Paola; Xinaris, Christodoulos; Abbate, Mauro; Longaretti, Lorena; Cassis, Paola; Benedetti, Valentina; Benigni, Ariela; Zoja, Carlamaria; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Morigi, Marina

    2015-01-01

    New intervention tools for severely damaged kidneys are in great demand to provide patients with a valid alternative to whole organ replacement. For repairing or replacing injured tissues, emerging approaches focus on using stem and progenitor cells. Embryonic kidneys represent an interesting option because, when transplanted to sites such as the renal capsule of healthy animals, they originate new renal structures. Here, we studied whether metanephroi possess developmental capacity when transplanted under the kidney capsule of MWF male rats, a model of spontaneous nephropathy. We found that six weeks post-transplantation, renal primordia developed glomeruli and tubuli able to filter blood and to produce urine in cyst-like structures. Newly developed metanephroi were able to initiate a regenerative-like process in host renal tissues adjacent to the graft in MWF male rats as indicated by an increase in cell proliferation and vascular density, accompanied by mRNA and protein upregulation of VEGF, FGF2, HGF, IGF-1 and Pax-2. The expression of SMP30 and NCAM was induced in tubular cells. Oxidative stress and apoptosis markedly decreased. Our study shows that embryonic kidneys generate functional nephrons when transplanted into animals with severe renal disease and at the same time activate events at least partly mimicking those observed in kidney tissues during renal regeneration. PMID:25811887

  13. [Occult hepatitis C virus infection].

    PubMed

    Carreño García, Vicente; Nebreda, Javier Bartolomé; Aguilar, Inmaculada Castillo; Quiroga Estévez, Juan Antonio

    2011-03-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by the detection of HCV-RNA in liver in the absence of anti-HCV and serum HCV-RNA determined by conventional techniques. The development of a new enzyme immunoassay for the detection of antibodies against a conserved epitope in the HCV core protein, together with the detection of HCV-RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in serum after concentrating the viral particles by ultracentrifugation, allow diagnosis of more than 90% of patients with occult HCV without the need to perform a liver biopsy. Histological damage in occult HCV infection ranges from minimal changes to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, although in general this disease is less severe than classical chronic hepatitis C. A significant prevalence of occult HCV infection has been identified in risk groups such as hemodialysis patients and the family members of patients with occult hepatitis C. This occult HCV infection can also be found in subjects without clinical or biochemical evidence of liver disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of renal diseases detected in renal biopsies of adult patients: A single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Salman; Drohlia, Murtaza F; Nasir, Kiran; Salman, Beena; Ahmad, Aasim

    2017-01-01

    Renal biopsy is crucial while evaluating for the diagnosis of glomerular, vascular, tubulointerstitial, and genetic diseases. It gives vital information which helps in estimating the disease prognosis, progression, and management. This is the retrospective analysis of all adult patients aged above 18 years, who underwent percutaneous renal biopsy at The Kidney Center Post Graduate Training Institute, Karachi, over a duration of 18 years, i.e., January 1, 1996, to December 2013. Renal graft biopsies and those which were inadequate were excluded from analysis. Of the1962 biopsies performed, we included 1521 biopsies in our assessment. The mean age of the population was 38 ± 15.26 years (range 18-88 years). There were 920 (60.5%) males and 601 (39.5%) females. The most common clinical indication of kidney biopsy was nephrotic syndrome, i.e., 741 (45.7%), followed by chronic kidney disease, 253 (16.6%); acute renal failure, 184; (12.1%) and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (GN), 124 (8.2%). Primary GN was found in the majority of the patients, 984 (64.7%), followed by secondary GN in 249 (16.4%), tubulointerstitial disease in 224 (14.7%), and vascular disease in 64 (4.2%). In primary GN, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was the most common histopathological diagnosis in 297 (19.5%) patients, followed by MGN in 224 (14.7%), chronic GN in 98 (6.4%), crescentic GN in 93 (6.1%), minimal change disease in 87 (5.7%), membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in 58 (3.8%), and postinfection glomerulonephritis in 53 (3.5%) patients. This study shows that focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is the most common lesion in renal biopsy in the young age group followed by membranous nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy and chronic interstitial nephritis were dominant secondary pathological lesions in older age group, whereas lupus nephritis was the most common secondary disease in young age females.

  15. Health delivery system for renal disease care in bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ur Rashid, Harun

    2004-01-01

    Bangladesh is one of the densely populated countries, a nation of 128 million people, 75% of whom lives in rural areas and the annual per capita gross national product (GNP) is US$ 380.00. The health care budget is 1.2% of GNP and the priority areas are population control, provision of clean drinking water and eradication of communicable diseases. The country has a small number of nephrologists and renal care is available in large cities only. The causes of renal diseases include glomerulonephritis, diabetes, hypertension, nephrolithiasis, obstructive uropathy and interstitial nephropathy. The incidence of end-stage renal disease is not known, but would be much higher than in developed countries because of high incidence of infection and environmental pollution. The treatment of ESRD has low priority in Bangladesh because of the government health policy and high cost of treatment. As a result, less than 10% of ESRD patients are able to maintain dialysis in private hospitals and governmental dialysis centers that are already overcrowded. The vast majority of patients who are started on dialysis die or stop treatment within the first three months. Renal transplantation is not as expensive as dialysis and is less costly in the university hospital than in private hospitals. Cyclosporine is usually replaced by azathioprine after six months of transplantation. Although organ act law is effective since 1998, cadaveric transplant has not picked up due to lack of infrastructure, facility and orientation regarding cadaveric transplantation. Preventive measures of renal disease can not be overemphasized.

  16. Soluble biglycan as a biomarker of inflammatory renal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Louise Tzung-Harn; Nastase, Madalina-Viviana; Zeng-Brouwers, Jinyang; Iozzo, Renato V.; Schaefer, Liliana

    2014-01-01

    Chronic renal inflammation is often associated with a progressive accumulation of various extracellular matrix constituents, including several members of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan (SLRP) gene family. It is becoming increasingly evident that the matrix-unbound SLRPs strongly regulate the progression of inflammation and fibrosis. Soluble SLRPs are generated either via partial proteolytic processing of collagenous matrices or by de novo synthesis evoked by stress or injury. Liberated SLRPs can then bind to and activate Toll-like receptors, thus modulating downstream inflammatory signaling. Preclinical animal models and human studies have recently identified soluble biglycan as a key initiator and regulator of various inflammatory renal diseases. Biglycan, generated by activated macrophages, can enter the circulation and its elevated levels in plasma and renal parenchyma correlate with unfavorable renal function and outcome. In this review, we will focus on the critical role of soluble biglycan in inflammatory signaling in various renal disorders. Moreover, we will provide new data implicating proinflammatory effects of soluble decorin in unilateral ureteral obstruction. Finally, we will critically evaluate the potential application of soluble biglycan vis-à-vis other SLRPs (decorin, lumican and fibromodulin) as a promising target and novel biomarker of inflammatory renal diseases. PMID:25091702

  17. Non-Diabetic renal disease in Diabetes Mellitus: clinical features and renal biopsy findings

    PubMed Central

    Yenigun, E C; Dede, F; Ozturk, R; Turgut, D; Koc, E; Piskinpasa, S V; Ozkayar, N; Odabas, A R

    2015-01-01

    Aim Renal diseases in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients, include diabetic nephropathies (DN) and non-diabetic renal diseases (NDRD). The clinical differentiation among them is usually not so clear and effective. Aim of this study which examined renal biopsies in patients with type-2 DM was to identify the prevalence and the nature of NDRD. Materials and Methods We recorded the clinical and laboratory finding alongside with the histopathological examination of the renal biopsies obtained from 71 type-2 DM patients who underwent renal biopsy in our center. Based on the renal biopsy findings patients were classified into two groups (DN and NDRD) and data was compared between the two groups. Results There were 42 women and 29 men; aged 55 ± 12 years. In patients with DN (n: 34), diabetic retinopathy was more common [16 (47.1 %) vs. 6 (16.2 %) respectively, p =0.01], duration of DM was longer (108.8 ± 58.8 months vs 57.8 ± 55.9 months respectively, p <0.001) and the degree of proteinuria was more severe (6 ± 4.3 g/day vs. 4.5 ± 4.6 g/day respectively, p =0.04) compared to the patients with NDRD. Regression analysis revealed that diabetes duration >60 months, presence of diabetic retinopathy and proteinuria >3.5 g/day were independent predictors of DN with 79.4 % sensitivity and 86.5% specificity. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was the most frequent diagnosis in patients with NDRD. Conclusions The prevalence of NDRD is remarkably frequent in DM patients in whom nephrologists consider renal biopsy an appropriate measure. Short duration of DM, degree of proteinuria and absence of retinopathy were predictors of NDRD. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (2):148-152. PMID:27418764

  18. Biologics for the treatment of autoimmune renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, Stephen R; Gan, Poh-Yi; Kitching, A Richard

    2016-04-01

    Biological therapeutics (biologics) that target autoimmune responses and inflammatory injury pathways have a marked beneficial impact on the management of many chronic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and ankylosing spondylitis. Accumulating data suggest that a growing number of renal diseases result from autoimmune injury - including lupus nephritis, IgA nephropathy, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated glomerulonephritis, autoimmune (formerly idiopathic) membranous nephropathy, anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis, and C3 nephropathy - and one can speculate that biologics might also be applicable to these diseases. As many autoimmune renal diseases are relatively uncommon, with long natural histories and diverse outcomes, clinical trials that aim to validate potentially useful biologics are difficult to design and/or perform. Some excellent consortia are undertaking cohort studies and clinical trials, but more multicentre international collaborations are needed to advance the introduction of new biologics to patients with autoimmune renal disorders. This Review discusses the key molecules that direct injurious inflammation and the biologics that are available to modulate them. The opportunities and challenges for the introduction of relevant biologics into treatment protocols for autoimmune renal diseases are also discussed.

  19. Renal vascular disease in neurofibromatosis type 2: association or coincidence?

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Nuno J V; Gardner, Kate R; Huson, Susan M; Stewart, Helen; Elston, John S; Howard, Emma L; Tullus, Kjell O; Pike, Michael G

    2006-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) remains a challenging diagnosis in childhood where there may be no neurological involvement. A 12-month-old male in whom NF2 was suspected because of characteristic ophthalmological and cutaneous lesions is reported. Cranial MRI showed no tumours. A pathogenic mutation was identified on NF2 gene analysis. The child developed hypertension due to renal vascular disease. Although renal vascular disease is a recognized complication of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), it has not been reported in NF2.

  20. Sulodexide and glycosaminoglycans in the progression of renal disease.

    PubMed

    Masola, Valentina; Zaza, Gianluigi; Gambaro, Giovanni

    2014-02-01

    Experimental data in cell cultures and animal models suggest that sulodexide and glycosaminoglycans are potentially effective drugs to treat chronic kidney diseases and prevent progression to renal failure. However, no conclusive evidence support the use of them in human renal disease. In acute and chronic glomerulonephritis, only few studies have been performed. Sulodexide has been more intensely investigated in diabetic nephropathy (DN) where the body of data supports its effectiveness as an antialbuminuric agent in early stages. Unfortunately, there is no study in DN patients on the effect of sulodexide on clinical end points.

  1. Mitochondrial dysfunction in inherited renal disease and acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Emma, Francesco; Montini, Giovanni; Parikh, Samir M; Salviati, Leonardo

    2016-05-01

    Mitochondria are increasingly recognized as key players in genetic and acquired renal diseases. Most mitochondrial cytopathies that cause renal symptoms are characterized by tubular defects, but glomerular, tubulointerstitial and cystic diseases have also been described. For example, defects in coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) biosynthesis and the mitochondrial DNA 3243 A>G mutation are important causes of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in children and in adults, respectively. Although they sometimes present with isolated renal findings, mitochondrial diseases are frequently associated with symptoms related to central nervous system and neuromuscular involvement. They can result from mutations in nuclear genes that are inherited according to classic Mendelian rules or from mutations in mitochondrial DNA, which are transmitted according to more complex rules of mitochondrial genetics. Diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders involves clinical characterization of patients in combination with biochemical and genetic analyses. In particular, prompt diagnosis of CoQ10 biosynthesis defects is imperative because of their potentially reversible nature. In acute kidney injury (AKI), mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the physiopathology of tissue injury, whereas mitochondrial biogenesis has an important role in the recovery of renal function. Potential therapies that target mitochondrial dysfunction or promote mitochondrial regeneration are being developed to limit renal damage during AKI and promote repair of injured tissue.

  2. Mitochondrial dysfunction in inherited renal disease and acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Emma, Francesco; Montini, Giovanni; Parikh, Samir M.; Salviati, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondria are increasingly recognized as key players in genetic and acquired renal diseases. Most mitochondrial cytopathies that cause renal symptoms are characterized by tubular defects, but glomerular, tubulointerstitial and cystic diseases have also been described. For example, defects in coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) biosynthesis and the mitochondrial DNA 3243 A>G mutation are important causes of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis in children and in adults, respectively. Although they sometimes present with isolated renal findings, mitochondrial diseases are frequently associated with symptoms related to central nervous system and neuromuscular involvement. They can result from mutations in nuclear genes that are inherited according to classic Mendelian rules or from mutations in mitochondrial DNA, which are transmitted according to more complex rules of mitochondrial genetics. Diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders involves clinical characterization of patients in combination with biochemical and genetic analyses. In particular, prompt diagnosis of CoQ10 biosynthesis defects is imperative because of their potentially reversible nature. In acute kidney injury (AKI), mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to the physiopathology of tissue injury, whereas mitochondrial biogenesis has an important role in the recovery of renal function. Potential therapies that target mitochondrial dysfunction or promote mitochondrial regeneration are being developed to limit renal damage during AKI and promote repair of injured tissue. PMID:26804019

  3. Sirtuins and renal diseases: relationship with aging and diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kitada, Munehiro; Kume, Shinji; Takeda-Watanabe, Ai; Kanasaki, Keizo; Koya, Daisuke

    2012-01-01

    Sirtuins are members of the Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) family, a group of class III deacetylases. Mammals have seven different sirtuins, SIRT1–SIRT7. Among them, SIRT1, SIRT3 and SIRT6 are induced by calorie restriction conditions and are considered anti-aging molecules. SIRT1 has been the most extensively studied. SIRT1 deacetylates target proteins using the coenzyme NAD+ and is therefore linked to cellular energy metabolism and the redox state through multiple signalling and survival pathways. SIRT1 deficiency under various stress conditions, such as metabolic or oxidative stress or hypoxia, is implicated in the pathophysiologies of age-related diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders and renal diseases. In the kidneys, SIRT1 may inhibit renal cell apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis, and may regulate lipid metabolism, autophagy, blood pressure and sodium balance. Therefore the activation of SIRT1 in the kidney may be a new therapeutic target to increase resistance to many causal factors in the development of renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. In addition, SIRT3 and SIRT6 are implicated in age-related disorders or longevity. In the present review, we discuss the protective functions of sirtuins and the association of sirtuins with the pathophysiology of renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. PMID:23075334

  4. Sirtuins and renal diseases: relationship with aging and diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Munehiro; Kume, Shinji; Takeda-Watanabe, Ai; Kanasaki, Keizo; Koya, Daisuke

    2013-02-01

    Sirtuins are members of the Sir2 (silent information regulator 2) family, a group of class III deacetylases. Mammals have seven different sirtuins, SIRT1-SIRT7. Among them, SIRT1, SIRT3 and SIRT6 are induced by calorie restriction conditions and are considered anti-aging molecules. SIRT1 has been the most extensively studied. SIRT1 deacetylates target proteins using the coenzyme NAD+ and is therefore linked to cellular energy metabolism and the redox state through multiple signalling and survival pathways. SIRT1 deficiency under various stress conditions, such as metabolic or oxidative stress or hypoxia, is implicated in the pathophysiologies of age-related diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders and renal diseases. In the kidneys, SIRT1 may inhibit renal cell apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis, and may regulate lipid metabolism, autophagy, blood pressure and sodium balance. Therefore the activation of SIRT1 in the kidney may be a new therapeutic target to increase resistance to many causal factors in the development of renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy. In addition, SIRT3 and SIRT6 are implicated in age-related disorders or longevity. In the present review, we discuss the protective functions of sirtuins and the association of sirtuins with the pathophysiology of renal diseases, including diabetic nephropathy.

  5. Renal progenitors: Roles in kidney disease and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Brooke E; Wingert, Rebecca A

    2016-01-01

    Kidney disease is a devastating condition that affects millions of people worldwide, and its prevalence is predicted to significantly increase. The kidney is a complex organ encompassing many diverse cell types organized in a elaborate tissue architecture, making regeneration a challenging feat. In recent years, there has been a surge in the field of stem cell research to develop regenerative therapies for various organ systems. Here, we review some recent progressions in characterizing the role of renal progenitors in development, regeneration, and kidney disease in mammals. We also discuss how the zebrafish provides a unique experimental animal model that can provide a greater molecular and genetic understanding of renal progenitors, which may contribute to the development of potential regenerative therapies for human renal afflictions. PMID:27928463

  6. A Case of Primary Aldosteronism with End Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Na, Hyun Hee; Park, Kyung Jun; Kim, Sun Young

    2006-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to chronic renal failure with a 10-year history of hypertension. We found polycystic kidney disease, pulmonary tuberculosis and an aldosterone-producing adrenocortical mass. At this time, her serum potassium level and blood pressure were within the normal range. She refused hemodialysis and then was hospitalized because of uremic encephalopathy. On admission, her serum potassium level was normal without treatment and plasma aldosterone concentration highly elevated. She received hemodialysis, and thereafter hypokalemia developed. We then administered spironolactone, whereupon serum potassium level returned to the normal range. In this case, we thought that normokalemia was balanced hypokalemia of primary aldosteronism with hyperkalemia of chronic renal failure, and that hypokalemia developed after hemodialysis was due to an imbalanced primary aldosteronism with end stage renal disease. PMID:24459492

  7. Salt restriction inhibits renal growth and stabilizes injury in rats with established renal disease.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, L D; Benstein, J A; Tolbert, E; Feiner, H D

    1996-03-01

    Salt restriction inhibits renal growth and stabilizes injury in rats with established renal disease. Male Munich-Wistar rats that underwent right nephrectomy and segmental infarction of two thirds of the left kidney were fed standard chow for 4 wk and then randomly assigned to ingest standard or low-salt chow for an additional 4 wk. Four wk after ablation, rats had systemic hypertension, proteinuria, and glomerular sclerosis. The prevalence of sclerosis, protein excretion rate, and glomerular volume increased between the fourth and eighth week in rats that were fed standard chow, however, in rats that were fed low-salt chow, the increase in glomerular volume and development of further glomerular sclerosis was prevented whereas the protein excretion rate actually declined. Micropuncture studies performed 8 wk after ablation revealed that the glomerular hydraulic pressure was elevated in remnant kidneys and was not affected by salt restriction. This study demonstrates that dietary salt restriction can prevent further glomerular injury and reduce proteinuria even when instituted in rats with established renal disease. These findings are also consistent with the hypothesis that glomerular hypertrophy promotes injury in this model of hypertension and progressive renal disease.

  8. [Renal involvement in glycogen storage disease type 1: Practical issues].

    PubMed

    Ben Chehida, Amel; Bensmaïl, Takoua; Ben Rehouma, Faten; Ben Abdelaziz, Rim; Azzouz, Hatem; Boudabbous, Hela; Slim Abdelmoula, Mohamed; Abdelhak, Sonia; Kaabachi, Naziha; Ben Turkia, Hadhami; Tebib, Néji

    2015-07-01

    To investigate risk factors of renal complications in glycogen storage disease type I, in order to identify practical implications for renal preservation. A retrospective study of 38 patients with glycogen storage disease type I. The patients studied were 8.6 years old in average (1.5 to 22 years) and were followed during 7.4 ± 4.5 years. Hypercalciuria was detected in 23 patients and was related to acidosis (P=0.028), higher lactate levels (5.9 ± 3.5 versus 3.7 ± 1.7 mmol/L; P=0.013) and smaller height (-2.1 ± 1.5 SD versus -0.8 ± 1.5 SD; P=0.026). Urolithiasis was diagnosed in 7 cases. Glomerular disease (19/38) was more frequent in cases with severe hypertriglyceridemia (P=0.042) and occurred at an older age (P=0.007). Microalbuminuria occurred in 15/31 cases; ACE inhibitors were prescribed in only 8 cases. The frequency of renal complications did not differ according to the diet group (continuous enteral feeding or uncooked starch). Logistic regression concluded as risk factors: lactic acidosis for tubular disease and age>10 years for glomerular disease. Renal involvement is common in glycogen storage disease type I patients. Tubular abnormalities are precocious, related to lactic acidosis and may be detected by monitoring of urinary calcium. Glomerular hyperfiltration is the first stage of a progressive glomerular disease and is related to age. Practical implications for renal preservation are discussed based on our results and literature. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Influenza and End-Stage Renal Disease: A Fatal Combination.

    PubMed

    Singla, Montish; Grossman, Amy; Shikha, Deep; Baumstein, Donald; Chaudhari, Ashok; Carbajal, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Influenza epidemics are a major health care problem in the United States causing significant morbidity and mortality. Influenza can occur in all individuals, but immunocompromized hosts and those with chronic diseases such as end-stage renal disease are more susceptible to its fatal complications. Influenza though is largely preventable with the availability of highly efficacious vaccines. Despite the wide array of vaccine types available, the vaccination rates remain dismal, thereby leading to high incidence of the disease. In this report, we discuss a case of an unvaccinated patient with end-stage renal disease who contracted the influenza virus with fatal consequences. This report discusses multiple factors that allowed for a highly preventable disease to cause this negative outcome and provides suggestions to prevent such outcomes in the future.

  10. Organising care for people with diabetes and renal disease.

    PubMed

    Dean, John

    2012-02-01

    Diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are two of the commonest long-term conditions. One-fifth of patients with diabetes will have CKD, and diabetes is the commonest cause of advanced kidney disease. For most patients these comorbidities will be managed in primary care with the focus on cardiovascular prevention. Many patients with more advanced disease and complications require joint care from multidisciplinary specialist teams in diabetes and renal disease to ensure that care is consistent and coordinated. Models of joint speciality care, include joint registry management, parallel clinics, shared consulting and case discussion, but require more evaluation than has currently been performed. These underpin more informal interactions between the specialist teams. A local model of care for diabetes and renal disease that incorporates the roles of primary care, members of multidisciplinary teams and speciality care should be agreed, resourced appropriately and its effectiveness monitored.

  11. Preliminary report on digitalization of renal microangiograms used in analysing renal parenchymal diseases.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Kaneko, M

    1983-01-01

    Glomerulography is a useful method for the angiographic diagnosis of various renal parenchymal diseases. A new system for digitalization of the glomerulogram has been developed using a high resolution television camera and a CT computer. We describe the fundamental procedures involved in the clinical application of digital glomerulography by applying this method to a renal microangiogram of a cow. This new method aids a clearer understanding of the detailed microvasculatures by providing better magnification and storage and allowing for further processing of the original analogue images. With a computer printout of any part of the glomerulogram also possible, an estimation of the glomerular counts and their distribution can now be given for any unit of cross-sectional area of the renal cortex.

  12. Predicting the effects of dietary manipulation in chronic renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    El Nahas, A.M.; Brady, S.A.; Masters-Thomas, A.; Wilkinson, V.; Hilson, A.J.W.; Moorhead, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    It has been suggested that the progressive fall in renal function in some patients with CRF is due to hyperfusion of the remnant nephrons in response to the relatively high protein diet of modern life. The authors attempted to assess this and to see what was the shortest time in which any effect could be demonstrated. In the first phase, 39 patients with CRF had their renal function followed for 6 months on their normal diet and 6 months on a low-protein diet (LPD). The patients on LPD all showed an improvement in the rate of fall of renal function. This was marked in patients with mainly tubular disease, and poor in those with glomerular and vascular disease. In the second phase, 11 of these patients (and 1 other) were started on a high protein diet (HPD) for two weeks, and then switched back to a LPD for 2 weeks. There was no change in GFR during this period, but there were marked changes in ERPF, which correlated well with the changes in renal function in the first phase (r = 0.76, rho < 0.01); 4/4 patients with tubular disease showed a rise in ERPF on HPD and a fall on LPD, while only 4/8 with glomerular or vascular disease responded. In the third phase, they assessed the effect of a single high-protein meal in normal volunteers. This showed that there are major changes in hemodynamics following a meal, such that it is not possible to make any statement about renal function using the single-shot methods. The authors conclude that a 2-week period of HPD followed by LPD allows prediction of the possible beneficial response to diet in CRF; that this is best monitored by ERPF; and that a single meal may invalidate renal function measurement.

  13. Bone disease in patients with long-term renal transplantation and normal renal function.

    PubMed

    Carlini, R G; Rojas, E; Weisinger, J R; Lopez, M; Martinis, R; Arminio, A; Bellorin-Font, E

    2000-07-01

    Renal osteodystrophy may persist during the early years after renal transplantation. However, information on bone status after a successful long-term renal transplantation is limited. We examined biochemical parameters, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone histomorphometry in 25 asymptomatic men with normal renal function after 7.5 +/- 5.7 years of a renal transplantation. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) levels and urinary calcium level and cyclic andenosine monophosphate excretion were within normal range in all patients. Serum intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was elevated in 11 subjects (133.6 +/- 78 pg/mL) and normal in the other 14 subjects (47.9 +/- 13.6 pg/mL). Mean BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck was low in the entire group. However, it progressively increased as time after transplantation increased, approaching normal values after 10 years. Bone histomorphometric analysis showed bone resorption, osteoid volume, and osteoid surface greater than normal range in the majority of patients. Bone formation rate and mineralization surface were low, and mineralization time was delayed in most patients. These lesions were more severe in patients after 3 to 4 years of transplantation but improved with time and approached normal values after a period of 10 years. PTH values did not correlate with bone histological characteristics or BMD. These results show that the bone alterations observed after long-term renal transplantation consist of a mixed bone disease in which features of high bone turnover coexist with altered bone formation and delayed mineralization. These findings may result from the combined effect of preexisting bone disease and immunosuppressive therapy.

  14. The occult urothelial cancer.

    PubMed

    Ragonese, Mauro; Racioppi, Marco; D'Agostino, Daniele; Di Gianfrancesco, Luca; Lenci, Niccolò; Bientinesi, Riccardo; Palermo, Giuseppe; Sacco, Emilio; Pinto, Francesco; Bassi, Pier Francesco

    2016-05-24

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the tumor that most frequently affects the urinary tract. The most common location is in the bladder; the diagnosis, as the follow-up, is based on urine cytology, endoscopic, and radiological examinations. Urinary cytology is an important non invasive tool used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with TCC. A positive urine cytology result is highly predictive of the presence of TCC, even in the presence of normal cystoscopy, because malignant cells may appear in the urine long time before any cystoscopically visible lesion becomes apparent. The presence of a positive urinary cytology, in the absence of clinical or endoscopic evidence of a TCC, can identify an occult urothelial cancer, located in any site of the urinary tract (upper urinary tract, bladder, prostatic urethra). Most of the urothelial tumors of the renal pelvis and ureters are diagnosed by radiological examinations, but we can observe a high rate of false negatives. In order to improve the diagnostic role of urinary cytology and other conventional examinations, numerous molecular markers have been identified; however, the real clinical application remains unclear. Photodynamic diagnosis and narrow band imaging (NBI) cystoscopy increase the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic examinations in the presence of lesions not easily detectable. The aim of this review is to analyze the current diagnostic standards in the presence of occult urothelial cancer.

  15. NOVA1 inhibition by miR-146b-5p in the remnant tissue microenvironment defines occult residual disease after gastric cancer removal

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mira; Jung, Woon Yong; Lee, Hyunjoo; Kang, Youngran; Jang, You-Jin; Hong, Soon Won; Choi, Seung Ho; Yang, Woo Ick

    2016-01-01

    Occult residual disease in remnant tissues could be the cause of tumor relapse. To identify signal molecules and target cells that may be indicative of occult residual disease within a remnant microenvironment, proximal resection margin tissues of gastric cancers were used, as these correspond to the nearest remnant tissues after gastrectomy. Increased miR-146b-5p in the remnant microenvironment was determined to be a strong risk factor for tumor relapse and poor survival rate. NOVA1, a target gene of miR-146b-5p, was decreased in remnant tissues of patients with a poor prognosis. NOVA1 was enriched in stromal spindle cells such as fibroblasts within normal tissues. In non-neoplastic inflammation, such as gastritis, NOVA1 was highly enriched in T lymphocytes and stromal spindle cells, while expression of this protein was frequently decreased in those types of cells within gastric cancer tissues. Particularly, decreased NOVA1 in T cells within the gastric cancer tissues was correlated with decreased FOXP3-positive regulatory T cells and was associated with poor patient prognosis. In vitro analysis showed that the NOVA1 gene was inhibited by miR-146b-5p. In immune cells as well as stromal spindle cells, decreased NOVA1, possibly inhibited by miR-146b-5p, is a candidate biomarker predicting poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients and is also a biomarker of occult residual disease in remnant tissues after gastric cancer removal. PMID:26673617

  16. Characteristics and survival of patients with end stage renal disease and spina bifida in the United States renal data system.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Lijing; Bolen, Julie; Valdez, Rodolfo; Joseph, David; Baum, Michelle A; Thibadeau, Judy

    2015-02-01

    We describe the characteristics, treatments and survival of patients with spina bifida in whom end stage renal disease developed from 2004 through 2008 in the United States Renal Data System. We used ICD-9-CM code 741.* to identify individuals with spina bifida using hospital inpatient data from 1977 to 2010, and physician and facility claims from 2004 to 2008. We constructed a 5:1 comparison group of patients with end stage renal disease without spina bifida matched by age at first end stage renal disease service, gender and race/ethnicity. We assessed the risk of mortality and of renal transplantation while on dialysis using multivariate cause specific proportional hazards survival analysis. We also compared survival after the first renal transplant from the first end stage renal disease service to August 2011. We identified 439 patients with end stage renal disease and spina bifida in whom end stage renal disease developed at an average younger age than in patients without spina bifida (41 vs 62 years, p <0.001) and in whom urological issues were the most common primary cause of end stage renal disease. Compared to patients with end stage renal disease without spina bifida those who had spina bifida showed a similar mortality hazard on dialysis and after transplantation. However, patients with end stage renal disease without spina bifida were more likely to undergo renal transplantation than patients with spina bifida (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.13-2.03). Hospitalizations related to urinary tract infections were positively associated with the risk of death on dialysis in patients with end stage renal disease and spina bifida (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.33-1.53). Spina bifida was not associated with increased mortality in patients with end stage renal disease on dialysis or after renal transplantation. Proper urological and bladder management is imperative in patients with spina bifida, particularly in adults. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and

  17. Pregnancy in women with renal disease. Part I: general principles.

    PubMed

    Vidaeff, Alex C; Yeomans, Edward R; Ramin, Susan M

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this review is to improve the basis upon which advice on pregnancy is given to women with renal disease and to address issues of obstetric management by drawing upon the accumulated world experience. To ensure the proper rapport between the respect for patient's autonomy and the ethical principle of beneficence, the review attempts to impart up-to-date, evidence-based information on the predictable outcomes and hazards of pregnancy in women with chronic renal disease. The physiology of pregnancy from the perspective of the affected kidney will be discussed as well as the principal predictors of maternal and fetal outcomes and general recommendations of management. The available evidence supports the implication that the degree of renal function impairment is the major determinant for pregnancy outcome. In addition, the presence of hypertension further compounds the risks. On the contrary, the degree of proteinuria does not demonstrate a linear correlation with obstetric outcomes. Management and outcome of pregnancies occurring in women on dialysis and after renal transplant are also discussed. Although the outcome of pregnancies under chronic dialysis has markedly improved in the past decade, the chances of achieving a viable pregnancy are much higher after transplantation. But even in renal transplant recipients, the rate of maternal and fetal complications remains high, in addition to concerns regarding possible adverse effects of immunosuppressive drugs on the developing embryo and fetus.

  18. Sodium intake, RAAS-blockade and progressive renal disease.

    PubMed

    de Borst, Martin H; Navis, Gerjan

    2016-05-01

    Pharmacological blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) by angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers is the current standard treatment to prevent progressive renal function loss in patients with chronic kidney disease. Yet in many patients the renal protective effect of RAAS-blockade is incomplete. Short-term clinical studies have demonstrated that dietary sodium restriction potentiates the antiproteinuric effect of RAAS-blockade. More recently, it was shown that this effect is accompanied by a lower risk of end-stage renal disease and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The modulation of RAAS-blockade efficacy by sodium intake is likely multifactorial, and is mediated by effects of sodium on local tissue RAAS in kidney, vasculature and brain, and by effects on the immune system. Despite the evidence showing the beneficial effects of even a moderate sodium restriction (∼2.5g/d), it remains difficult to realize in clinical practice. In an analysis based on 24-h urinary sodium excretion data from more than 10,000 CKD patients and renal transplant recipients, we found that sodium intake in these patients is on average 3.8g/d, closely resembling the global general population (3.95g/d). Behavioral approaches including the use of online dietary coaching (ehealth) and feedback using data from 24-h urine collections may be useful to successfully lower dietary sodium intake, aiming to improve cardio-renal outcomes in patients with CKD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Distribution of hypertension and renal disease in Oregon.

    PubMed Central

    Morton, W E; Knudsen, J C; Porter, G A

    1975-01-01

    Expecting to find agreement between the geographic distribution of hypertension and renal disease, we developed regional mortality rates for 1950-72 and prevalence rates for a Selective Service cohort born in 1939-41 and examined during 1957-69. For this purpose the State's counties were grouped into eight geographically homogeneous regions. The general decline in hypertension mortality was most pronounced in Portland, Oregon's major urban center. However, the decline halted during 1968-72 in the southern Cascade region which has become an area of relatively higher risk within the State. During these 23 years nephritis mortality fell, kidney infection mortality was stable, and both syndromes showed peak mortality in other, different regions of the State. The geographic pattern of hypertension prevalence among the draftee cohort resembled the 1963-67 hypertension mortality pattern, but more recent morbidity data are needed to confirm the southern Cascade region's recent change to a high-risk area. Of 529 draftees with diagnosed hypertension, only 35 percent of the cases were previously known, only 7 percent has had any previous treatment, and only 7 percent were associated with known renal conditions. Among 521 registrants with a history of renal disorders, the prevalence of hypertension was increased for all categories of renal disease but was significantly high only for those with a history of glomerulonephritis. To date in Oregon we have found no evidence that renal disorders are major determinants of hypertension morbidity or mortality. PMID:803695

  20. Renal resistive index and mortality in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Clarisse; Thomas, George; Schold, Jesse D; Arrigain, Susana; Gornik, Heather L; Nally, Joseph V; Navaneethan, Sankar D

    2015-08-01

    Renal resistive index (RRI) measured by Doppler ultrasonography is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in hypertensive, diabetic, and elderly patients. We studied the factors associated with high RRI (≥0.70) and its associations with mortality in chronic kidney disease patients without renal artery stenosis. We included 1962 patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 15 to 59 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) who also had RRI measured (January 1, 2005, to October 2011) from an existing chronic kidney disease registry. Participants with renal artery stenosis (60%-99% or renal artery occlusion) were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to study factors associated with high RRI (≥0.70), and its association with mortality was studied using Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards model. Hypertension was prevalent in >90% of the patients. In the multivariable logistic regression, older age, female sex, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, higher systolic blood pressure, and the use of β blockers were associated with higher odds of having RRI≥0.70. During a median follow-up of 2.2 years, 428 patients died. After adjusting for covariates, RRI≥0.70 was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.65; P<0.05). This association was more pronounced among younger patients and those with stage 3 chronic kidney disease. Noncardiovascular/non-malignancy-related deaths were higher in those with RRI≥0.70. RRI≥0.70 is associated with higher mortality in hypertensive chronic kidney disease patients without clinically significant renal artery stenosis after accounting for other significant risk factors. Its evaluation may allow early identification of those who are at risk thereby potentially preventing or delaying adverse outcomes.

  1. Aging-associated renal disease in mice is fructokinase dependent.

    PubMed

    Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Milagres, Tamara; Hernando, Ana Andres; Jensen, Thomas; Miyazaki, Makoto; Doke, Tomohito; Hayasaki, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Marumaya, Shoichi; Long, David A; Garcia, Gabriela E; Kuwabara, Masanari; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G; Kang, Duk-Hee; Johnson, Richard J

    2016-10-01

    Aging-associated kidney disease is usually considered a degenerative process associated with aging. Recently, it has been shown that animals can produce fructose endogenously, and that this can be a mechanism for causing kidney damage in diabetic nephropathy and in association with recurrent dehydration. We therefore hypothesized that low-level metabolism of endogenous fructose might play a role in aging-associated kidney disease. Wild-type and fructokinase knockout mice were fed a normal diet for 2 yr that had minimal (<5%) fructose content. At the end of 2 yr, wild-type mice showed elevations in systolic blood pressure, mild albuminuria, and glomerular changes with mesangial matrix expansion, variable mesangiolysis, and segmental thrombi. The renal injury was amplified by provision of high-salt diet for 3 wk, as noted by the presence of glomerular hypertrophy, mesangial matrix expansion, and alpha smooth muscle actin expression, and with segmental thrombi. Fructokinase knockout mice were protected from renal injury both at baseline and after high salt intake (3 wk) compared with wild-type mice. This was associated with higher levels of active (phosphorylated serine 1177) endothelial nitric oxide synthase in their kidneys. These studies suggest that aging-associated renal disease might be due to activation of specific metabolic pathways that could theoretically be targeted therapeutically, and raise the hypothesis that aging-associated renal injury may represent a disease process as opposed to normal age-related degeneration.

  2. End State Renal Disease among Native Americans, 1983-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Jeffrey M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Determines the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among Native Americans and Whites in the United States from 1983-86. Findings indicate 1,075 Native American cases represented an annual incidence 2.8 times the rate for Whites. Fifty-six percent of Native American cases and 27 percent of White cases were attributed to diabetes. (JS)

  3. End State Renal Disease among Native Americans, 1983-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Jeffrey M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Determines the incidence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among Native Americans and Whites in the United States from 1983-86. Findings indicate 1,075 Native American cases represented an annual incidence 2.8 times the rate for Whites. Fifty-six percent of Native American cases and 27 percent of White cases were attributed to diabetes. (JS)

  4. MicroRNA biomarkers in clinical renal disease: from diabetic nephropathy renal transplantation and beyond.

    PubMed

    Nassirpour, Rounak; Raj, Dominic; Townsend, Raymond; Argyropoulos, Christos

    2016-12-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a common health problem affecting 1 in 12 Americans. It is associated with elevated risks of mortality, cardiovascular disease, and high costs for the treatment of renal failure with dialysis or transplantation. Advances in CKD care are impeded by the lack of biomarkers for early diagnosis, assessment of the extent of tissue injury, estimation of disease progression, and evaluation of response to therapy. Such biomarkers should improve the performance of existing measures of renal functional impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR) or kidney damage (proteinuria). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) a class of small, non-coding RNAs that act as post-transcriptional repressors are gaining momentum as biomarkers in a number of disease areas. In this review, we examine the potential utility of miRNAs as promising biomarkers for renal disease. We explore the performance of miRNAs as biomarkers in two clinically important forms of CKD, diabetes and the nephropathy developing in kidney transplant recipients. Finally, we highlight the pitfalls and opportunities of miRNAs and provide a broad perspective for the future clinical development of miRNAs as biomarkers in CKD beyond the current gold standards of eGFR and albuminuria.

  5. Chronic kidney disease in children with unilateral renal tumor.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Denis A; Ceccanti, Silvia; Frediani, Simone; Schiavetti, Amalia; Cozzi, Francesco

    2012-05-01

    In patients who have undergone nephrectomy lower stage chronic kidney disease may develop, which is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. We investigated whether the prevalence of lower stage chronic kidney disease is related to the amount of renal parenchyma excised in children with unilateral renal tumor. A total of 15 patients treated with nephrectomy and 10 treated with nephron sparing surgery were enrolled at a single academic center. The Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines were used to classify patients by chronic kidney disease stage based on estimated glomerular filtration rate values. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study equation and Schwartz equation were used in patients older and younger than 17 years, respectively. At a mean followup of more than 12 years 8 patients who had undergone nephrectomy and 1 treated with bilateral nephron sparing surgery presented with stage II chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate 60 to 89 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). Sequential measurements from diagnosis to 12 to 17 years postoperatively showed that stage II chronic kidney disease in patients who had undergone nephrectomy manifested as a negligible postoperative increase in mean ± SD estimated glomerular filtration rate (75.7 ± 25.5 vs 79.4 ± 3.9 ml/min/1.73 m(2), p = 0.6). Five of the 8 patients presented with stage II chronic kidney disease even before nephrectomy. The other 7 patients who had undergone nephrectomy and those treated with nephron sparing surgery presented with a significant postoperative increase in mean ± SD estimated glomerular filtration rate (81.1 ± 24 vs 102.3 ± 3 ml/min/1.73 m(2), p = 0.02, and 88.7 ± 2 vs 107.4 ± 14 ml/min/1.73 m(2), p = 0.005, respectively). A subset of children with unilateral renal tumor presents before and/or after nephrectomy, and not after nephron sparing surgery, with stage II chronic kidney disease, probably due to a reduced renal

  6. Interventional ultrasound in detection and treatment of renal inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Kuligowska, E; Newman, B; White, S J; Caldarone, A

    1983-05-01

    Fifty-one patients with acute inflammatory renal disease were examined with ultrasound. The spectrum of findings seen in acute pyelonephritis is described, with emphasis on the evolution of the disease from acute focal inflammation to perinephric extension. There were 26 cases of acute bacterial nephritis, 15 cases of abscess formation, and 10 cases of pyohydronephrosis. Pathologic correlation was obtained. The impact of percutaneous needle puncture on the diagnosis and treatment of all stages of renal disease is discussed. Prompt diagnosis can be made, and specific antibiotic therapy can be instituted on the basis of information obtained by ultrasound examination and percutaneous aspiration. If necessary, treatment may be aided by ultrasonically guided placement of drainage catheters. Serial examination will show resolution of the disease, and it avoids exposure of the patient to ionizing radiation and intravenous contrast agents.

  7. Early detection of renal damage and disease in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Grauer, Gregory F

    2005-05-01

    Renal damage and disease can be caused by acute or chronic insults to the kidney. Acute renal damage often results from ischemic or toxic insults and usually affects the tubular portion of the nephron. In contrast, chronic renal disease can be caused by diseases and/or disorders that affect any portion of the nephron, including its blood supply and supporting interstitium. Early detection of acute renal disease facilitates appropriate intervention that can arrest or at least attenuate tubular cell damage and the development of established acute renal failure. Similarly,early detection of chronic renal disease, before the onset of renal azotemia and chronic renal failure, should facilitate appropriate intervention that stabilizes renal function or at least slows its progressive decline.

  8. Molecular characterization of occult hepatitis B virus infection in patients with end-stage liver disease in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Julio Cesar; Cortes-Mancera, Fabian; Restrepo-Gutierrez, Juan Carlos; Hoyos, Sergio; Navas, Maria-Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) occult infection (OBI) is a risk factor to be taken into account in transfusion, hemodialysis and organ transplantation. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize at the molecular level OBI cases in patients with end-stage liver disease. Sixty-six liver samples were obtained from patients with diagnosis of end-stage liver disease submitted to liver transplantation in Medellin (North West, Colombia). Samples obtained from patients who were negative for the surface antigen of HBV (n = 50) were tested for viral DNA detection by nested PCR for ORFs S, C, and X and confirmed by Southern-Blot. OBI cases were analyzed by sequencing the viral genome to determine the genotype and mutations; additionally, viral genome integration events were examined by the Alu-PCR technique. In five cases out of 50 patients (10%) the criteria for OBI was confirmed. HBV genotype F (subgenotypes F1 and F3), genotype A and genotype D were characterized in liver samples. Three integration events in chromosomes 5q14.1, 16p13 and 20q12 affecting Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase T, Ras Protein Specific Guanine Nucleotide Releasing Factor 2, and the zinc finger 263 genes were identified in two OBI cases. Sequence analysis of the viral genome of the 5 OBI cases showed several punctual missense and nonsense mutations affecting ORFs S, P, Core and X. This is the first characterization of OBI in patients with end-stage liver disease in Colombia. The OBI cases were identified in patients with HCV infection or cryptogenic cirrhosis. The integration events (5q14.1, 16p13 and 20q12) described in this study have not been previously reported. Further studies are required to validate the role of mutations and integration events in OBI pathogenesis.

  9. Molecular characterization of occult hepatitis B virus infection in patients with end-stage liver disease in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Rendon, Julio Cesar; Cortes-Mancera, Fabian; Restrepo-Gutierrez, Juan Carlos; Hoyos, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) occult infection (OBI) is a risk factor to be taken into account in transfusion, hemodialysis and organ transplantation. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize at the molecular level OBI cases in patients with end-stage liver disease. Methods Sixty-six liver samples were obtained from patients with diagnosis of end-stage liver disease submitted to liver transplantation in Medellin (North West, Colombia). Samples obtained from patients who were negative for the surface antigen of HBV (n = 50) were tested for viral DNA detection by nested PCR for ORFs S, C, and X and confirmed by Southern-Blot. OBI cases were analyzed by sequencing the viral genome to determine the genotype and mutations; additionally, viral genome integration events were examined by the Alu-PCR technique. Results In five cases out of 50 patients (10%) the criteria for OBI was confirmed. HBV genotype F (subgenotypes F1 and F3), genotype A and genotype D were characterized in liver samples. Three integration events in chromosomes 5q14.1, 16p13 and 20q12 affecting Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase T, Ras Protein Specific Guanine Nucleotide Releasing Factor 2, and the zinc finger 263 genes were identified in two OBI cases. Sequence analysis of the viral genome of the 5 OBI cases showed several punctual missense and nonsense mutations affecting ORFs S, P, Core and X. Conclusions This is the first characterization of OBI in patients with end-stage liver disease in Colombia. The OBI cases were identified in patients with HCV infection or cryptogenic cirrhosis. The integration events (5q14.1, 16p13 and 20q12) described in this study have not been previously reported. Further studies are required to validate the role of mutations and integration events in OBI pathogenesis. PMID:28686707

  10. Bardet-Biedl Syndrome with End Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Parakh, Rajendrakumar; Nairy, Dhananjaya Matapadi

    2016-01-01

    Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is one of the rare autosomal recessive disorders that affect multiple organs of the body. The signs and symptoms of this condition vary among affected individuals, even among members of the same family. We present a case of BBS with features of hypogonadism and features such as marked central obesity, retinitis pigmentosa, polydactyly, renal abnormalities and mental retardation, along with a brief review of the literature. The patient had end stage renal disease and managed with dialysis. This case also exemplifies the need for multidisciplinary approach in the management of such cases. PMID:27853335

  11. Bell palsy in lyme disease-endemic regions of canada: a cautionary case of occult bilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy due to Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Ho, Karen; Melanson, Michel; Desai, Jamsheed A

    2012-09-01

    Lyme disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi is a multisystem disorder characterized by three clinical stages: dermatologic, neurologic, and rheumatologic. The number of known Lyme disease-endemic areas in Canada is increasing as the range of the vector Ixodes scapularis expands into the eastern and central provinces. Southern Ontario, Nova Scotia, southern Manitoba, New Brunswick, and southern Quebec are now considered Lyme disease-endemic regions in Canada. The use of field surveillance to map risk and endemic regions suggests that these geographic areas are growing, in part due to the effects of climate warming. Peripheral facial nerve palsy is the most common neurologic abnormality in the second stage of Lyme borreliosis, with up to 25% of Bell palsy (idiopathic peripheral facial nerve palsy) occurring due to Lyme disease. Here we present a case of occult bilateral facial nerve palsy due to Lyme disease initially diagnosed as Bell palsy. In Lyme disease-endemic regions of Canada, patients presenting with unilateral or bilateral peripheral facial nerve palsy should be evaluated for Lyme disease with serologic testing to avoid misdiagnosis. Serologic testing should not delay initiation of appropriate treatment for presumed Bell palsy.

  12. Diagnostic criteria for an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for occult heartworm disease: standardization of the test system in naturally exposed dogs.

    PubMed

    Gillis, J M; Smith, R D; Todd, K S

    1984-11-01

    The development of criteria for interpreting and reporting the results of an occult heartworm enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to practitioners is described. The antigen is a saline extract of adult female Dirofilaria immitis. The cutoff absorbance A400 nm values were estimated, using 106 dogs free of infection. Any A400 nm value less than 0.526 is considered negative and values greater than or equal to 0.784 are positive. Intermediate A400 nm values are interpreted as suspect. Absorbance values for serum samples from 13 client-owned amicrofilaremic dogs revealed a bimodal distribution consistent with presumptive diagnosis based on clinical signs, which indicates that the test may be used to support a diagnosis of occult heartworm disease. The present serotest, however, is unable to distinguish microfilaremic dogs from noninfected dogs. Serum from dogs infected with other common helminths failed to crossreact with the D immitis antigen, with the exception of Dipetalonema reconditum.

  13. 42 CFR 406.13 - Individual who has end-stage renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Individual who has end-stage renal disease. 406.13... Premiums § 406.13 Individual who has end-stage renal disease. (a) Statutory basis and applicability. This... renal disease, and specifies the beginning and end of the period of entitlement. It implements...

  14. 42 CFR 406.13 - Individual who has end-stage renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual who has end-stage renal disease. 406.13... Premiums § 406.13 Individual who has end-stage renal disease. (a) Statutory basis and applicability. This... renal disease, and specifies the beginning and end of the period of entitlement. It implements...

  15. 42 CFR 406.13 - Individual who has end-stage renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Individual who has end-stage renal disease. 406.13... Premiums § 406.13 Individual who has end-stage renal disease. (a) Statutory basis and applicability. This... renal disease, and specifies the beginning and end of the period of entitlement. It implements...

  16. 42 CFR 406.13 - Individual who has end-stage renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Individual who has end-stage renal disease. 406.13... Premiums § 406.13 Individual who has end-stage renal disease. (a) Statutory basis and applicability. This... renal disease, and specifies the beginning and end of the period of entitlement. It implements...

  17. 42 CFR 406.13 - Individual who has end-stage renal disease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Individual who has end-stage renal disease. 406.13... Premiums § 406.13 Individual who has end-stage renal disease. (a) Statutory basis and applicability. This... renal disease, and specifies the beginning and end of the period of entitlement. It implements...

  18. Imbalance in sex hormone levels exacerbates diabetic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qin; Wells, Corinne C; Garman, Joseph H; Asico, Laureano; Escano, Crisanto S; Maric, Christine

    2008-04-01

    Studies suggest that the presence of testosterone exacerbates, whereas the absence of testosterone attenuates, the development of nondiabetic renal disease. However, the effects of the absence of testosterone in diabetic renal disease have not been studied. The study was performed in male Sprague-Dawley nondiabetic, streptozotocin-induced diabetic, and streptozotocin-induced castrated rats (n=10 to 11 per group) for 14 weeks. Diabetes was associated with the following increases: 3.2-fold in urine albumin excretion, 6.3-fold in glomerulosclerosis, 6.0-fold in tubulointerstitial fibrosis, 1.6-fold in collagen type I, 1.2-fold in collagen type IV, 1.3-fold in transforming growth factor-beta protein expression, and 32.7-fold in CD68-positive cell abundance. Diabetes was also associated with a 1.3-fold decrease in matrix metalloproteinase protein expression and activity. Castration further exacerbated all of these parameters. Diabetes was also associated with a 4.7-fold decrease in plasma testosterone, 2.9-fold increase in estradiol, and 2.1-fold decrease in plasma progesterone levels. Castration further decreased plasma testosterone levels but had no additional effects on plasma estradiol and progesterone. These data suggest that diabetes is associated with abnormal sex hormone levels that correlate with the progression of diabetic renal disease. Most importantly, our results suggest an important role for sex hormones in the pathophysiology of diabetic renal complications.

  19. [Costs of interventions for patients with chronic renal disease].

    PubMed

    Arredondo, A; Rangel, R; de Icaza, E

    1998-06-01

    The results of a study which identified the cost of health interventions in the management of patients with chronic renal disease are presented. The costing method was based on a consensus technique and the instrumentation of case management through the identification of the materials used and functions of production for the demand of each service solicited. The interventions included: peritoneal dialysis, hemodialysis, and renal transplant. The cost per event in U.S. dollars was $3.71, $57.95, and $8,778.32, respectively. The annual cost of case management was: Peritoneal Dialysis $5,643.07, Hemodialysis $9,631.60 and renal transplant $3,021.67. The information generated from the costs of the events differed considerably from the information that was generated by the annual cost of case management. These differences are significant for the design and evaluation of patterns for allocating resources.

  20. Diabetes mellitus and renal involvement in chronic viral liver disease.

    PubMed

    Iovanescu, V F; Streba, C T; Ionescu, M; Constantinescu, A F; Vere, C C; Rogoveanu, I; Moța, E

    2015-01-01

    Chronic viral liver disease is often associated with other conditions. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is frequently reported in this context and may play a role in the progression of the liver disease to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Renal disease is also an important extrahepatic manifestation of hepatitis viral infection and its presence is associated with poor prognosis and management issues. Our study had multiple purposes: to determine the frequency of the association between chronic viral liver disease and diabetes mellitus, evaluate the potential of diabetes mellitus as a risk factor for HCC and assess an eventual renal involvement. We included in our study a number of 246 patients with chronic liver disease, from whom 136 were diagnosed with chronic viral hepatitis and 110 with viral liver cirrhosis. These patients were assessed by using a clinical examination and a series of tests, including serum transaminase levels, serum bilirubin, serum albumin, markers of cholestasis, fasting plasma glucose levels, serum creatinine, urea, albuminuria, Addis-Hamburger test, electrophoresis of urinary proteins, abdominal ultrasound and, in some cases, CT examination. We obtained the following results: diabetes mellitus is often associated with chronic liver disease of viral etiology, having been identified in 18.29% of the patients in our study. Age above 60 in patients with chronic hepatitis (p=0.013<0.05) and presence of hepatitis C virus were particularly correlated with the presence of diabetes mellitus. Renal disease was present in 13.4% of the patients with chronic liver disease and it was especially associated with liver cirrhosis and hepatitis C virus. The most common form of renal injury was glomerulonephritis. Acute kidney injury was diagnosed only in cirrhotic patients as hepatorenal syndrome, occurring in 7.27% of the subjects, while chronic kidney disease was identified only in two cases of chronic viral hepatitis. Four patients in our study were diagnosed with

  1. Nutrition and renal stone disease in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerwekh, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Russian space program showing that humans exposed to the microgravity environment of space have a greater risk for developing renal stones. Increased bone resorption and the attendant hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia contribute significantly to raising the urinary state of saturation with respect to the calcium salts, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. In addition, other environmental and dietary factors may adversely affect urine composition and increase stone formation risk during space flight. For example, reductions in urinary volume, pH, and citrate contribute to raising stone formation risk. In addition to raising the risk for calcium stone formation, this metabolic profile is conducive to the formation of uric acid stones. Although observations to date have suggested that there may actually be a reduced food intake during the early phase of flight, crew members on longer-duration flights may increase food intake and be at increased risk for stone formation. Taken together, these findings support the use of nutritional recommendations for crew members that would serve to reduce the stone-forming propensity of the urinary environment. Pharmacologic intervention should be directed at raising urinary volumes, diminishing bone losses, and preventing reductions in urinary pH and citrate. Success in reducing the risk for stone formation in astronauts would also be of potential major benefit to the estimated 20 million Americans with nephrolithiasis.

  2. Nutrition and renal stone disease in space.

    PubMed

    Zerwekh, Joseph E

    2002-10-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Russian space program showing that humans exposed to the microgravity environment of space have a greater risk for developing renal stones. Increased bone resorption and the attendant hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia contribute significantly to raising the urinary state of saturation with respect to the calcium salts, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. In addition, other environmental and dietary factors may adversely affect urine composition and increase stone formation risk during space flight. For example, reductions in urinary volume, pH, and citrate contribute to raising stone formation risk. In addition to raising the risk for calcium stone formation, this metabolic profile is conducive to the formation of uric acid stones. Although observations to date have suggested that there may actually be a reduced food intake during the early phase of flight, crew members on longer-duration flights may increase food intake and be at increased risk for stone formation. Taken together, these findings support the use of nutritional recommendations for crew members that would serve to reduce the stone-forming propensity of the urinary environment. Pharmacologic intervention should be directed at raising urinary volumes, diminishing bone losses, and preventing reductions in urinary pH and citrate. Success in reducing the risk for stone formation in astronauts would also be of potential major benefit to the estimated 20 million Americans with nephrolithiasis.

  3. Nutrition and renal stone disease in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerwekh, Joseph E.

    2002-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Russian space program showing that humans exposed to the microgravity environment of space have a greater risk for developing renal stones. Increased bone resorption and the attendant hypercalciuria and hyperphosphaturia contribute significantly to raising the urinary state of saturation with respect to the calcium salts, namely calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate. In addition, other environmental and dietary factors may adversely affect urine composition and increase stone formation risk during space flight. For example, reductions in urinary volume, pH, and citrate contribute to raising stone formation risk. In addition to raising the risk for calcium stone formation, this metabolic profile is conducive to the formation of uric acid stones. Although observations to date have suggested that there may actually be a reduced food intake during the early phase of flight, crew members on longer-duration flights may increase food intake and be at increased risk for stone formation. Taken together, these findings support the use of nutritional recommendations for crew members that would serve to reduce the stone-forming propensity of the urinary environment. Pharmacologic intervention should be directed at raising urinary volumes, diminishing bone losses, and preventing reductions in urinary pH and citrate. Success in reducing the risk for stone formation in astronauts would also be of potential major benefit to the estimated 20 million Americans with nephrolithiasis.

  4. Severe renal osteodystrophy in a pediatric patient with end-stage renal disease: Sagliker syndrome?

    PubMed

    Yavascan, Onder; Kose, Engin; Alparslan, Caner; Sirin Kose, Seda; Bal, Alkan; Kanik, Ali; Aksu, Nejat

    2013-07-01

    Renal osteodystrophy (ROD) is a multifactorial disorder of bone metabolism in chronic kidney disease (CKD). As CKD progresses, ensuing abnormalities in vitamin D metabolism and parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion result in distortions in trabecular microarchitecture, thinning of the cortical shell, and increased cortical porosity. The recently described Sagliker syndrome (SS) might be an exaggerated version of ROD and is a very striking and prominent feature of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). It includes a distorted facial appearance, short stature, extremely severe maxillary and mandibulary changes, soft tissue tumors in the mouth, teeth/dental abnormalities, fingertip changes, knee and scapula deformities, hearing abnormalities, and neurologic and psychological problems. We herein describe an affected 14-year-old girl with severe ROD resulting from ESRD, who had severe peripheral and central neurologic problems caused by bone deformities, mimicking the features of Sagliker syndrome. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Resolution of Graves' disease after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yvonne; Butani, Lavjay; Glaser, Nicole; Nguyen, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of an adolescent boy with Down's syndrome and ESRD on hemodialysis who developed mild Graves' disease that was not amenable to radioablation, surgery, or ATDs. After 14 months of observation without resolution of Graves' disease, he successfully received a DDRT with a steroid minimization protocol. Thymoglobulin and a three-day course of steroids were used for induction and he was started on tacrolimus, MMF, and pravastatin for maintenance transplant immunosuppression. One month after transplantation, all biochemical markers and antibody profiling for Graves' disease had resolved and remain normal one yr later. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent MRI to Assess Renal Oxygenation in Renal Diseases: Progresses and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Pruijm, Menno; Milani, Bastien; Burnier, Michel

    2017-01-01

    BOLD-MRI (blood oxygenation-level dependent magnetic resonance imaging) allows non-invasive measurement of renal tissue oxygenation in humans, without the need for contrast products. BOLD-MRI uses the fact that magnetic properties of hemoglobin depend of its oxygenated state:: the higher local deoxyhemoglobin, the higher the so called apparent relaxation rate R2* (sec−1), and the lower local tissue oxygen content. Several factors other than deoxyhemoglobin (such as hydration status, dietary sodium intake, and susceptibility effects) influence the BOLD signal, and need to be taken into account when interpreting results. The last 5 years have witnessed important improvements in the standardization of these factors, and the appearance of new, highly reproducible analysis techniques of BOLD-images, that are reviewed in this article. Using these new BOLD-MRI analysis techniques, it has recently been shown that persons suffering from chronic kidney diseases (CKD) have lower cortical oxygenation than normotensive controls, thus confirming the chronic hypoxia hypothesis. The acute alterations in R2* after the administration of furosemide are smaller in CKD, and represent an estimate of the oxygen-dependent tubular transport of sodium. BOLD-MRI-alone or in combination with other functional MRI methods- can be used to monitor the renal effects of drugs, and is increasingly used in the preclinical setting. The near future will tell whether or not BOLD-MRI represents a new tool to predict renal function decline an adverse renal outcome. PMID:28105019

  7. Lipoprotein X Causes Renal Disease in LCAT Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Seth G.; Vaisman, Boris; Pryor, Milton; Freeman, Lita A.; Brantner, Christine A.; Baranova, Irina; Francone, Nicolás O.; Demosky, Stephen J.; Vitali, Cecilia; Locatelli, Monica; Abbate, Mauro; Zoja, Carlamaria; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura; Remaley, Alan T.

    2016-01-01

    Human familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency (FLD) is characterized by low HDL, accumulation of an abnormal cholesterol-rich multilamellar particle called lipoprotein-X (LpX) in plasma, and renal disease. The aim of our study was to determine if LpX is nephrotoxic and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of FLD renal disease. We administered a synthetic LpX, nearly identical to endogenous LpX in its physical, chemical and biologic characteristics, to wild-type and Lcat-/- mice. Our in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated an apoA-I and LCAT-dependent pathway for LpX conversion to HDL-like particles, which likely mediates normal plasma clearance of LpX. Plasma clearance of exogenous LpX was markedly delayed in Lcat-/- mice, which have low HDL, but only minimal amounts of endogenous LpX and do not spontaneously develop renal disease. Chronically administered exogenous LpX deposited in all renal glomerular cellular and matrical compartments of Lcat-/- mice, and induced proteinuria and nephrotoxic gene changes, as well as all of the hallmarks of FLD renal disease as assessed by histological, TEM, and SEM analyses. Extensive in vivo EM studies revealed LpX uptake by macropinocytosis into mouse glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes, and mesangial cells and delivery to lysosomes where it was degraded. Endocytosed LpX appeared to be degraded by both human podocyte and mesangial cell lysosomal PLA2 and induced podocyte secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-6 in vitro and renal Cxl10 expression in Lcat-/- mice. In conclusion, LpX is a nephrotoxic particle that in the absence of Lcat induces all of the histological and functional hallmarks of FLD and hence may serve as a biomarker for monitoring recombinant LCAT therapy. In addition, our studies suggest that LpX-induced loss of endothelial barrier function and release of cytokines by renal glomerular cells likely plays a role in the initiation and progression of FLD nephrosis. PMID:26919698

  8. Lipoprotein X Causes Renal Disease in LCAT Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ossoli, Alice; Neufeld, Edward B; Thacker, Seth G; Vaisman, Boris; Pryor, Milton; Freeman, Lita A; Brantner, Christine A; Baranova, Irina; Francone, Nicolás O; Demosky, Stephen J; Vitali, Cecilia; Locatelli, Monica; Abbate, Mauro; Zoja, Carlamaria; Franceschini, Guido; Calabresi, Laura; Remaley, Alan T

    2016-01-01

    Human familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) deficiency (FLD) is characterized by low HDL, accumulation of an abnormal cholesterol-rich multilamellar particle called lipoprotein-X (LpX) in plasma, and renal disease. The aim of our study was to determine if LpX is nephrotoxic and to gain insight into the pathogenesis of FLD renal disease. We administered a synthetic LpX, nearly identical to endogenous LpX in its physical, chemical and biologic characteristics, to wild-type and Lcat-/- mice. Our in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated an apoA-I and LCAT-dependent pathway for LpX conversion to HDL-like particles, which likely mediates normal plasma clearance of LpX. Plasma clearance of exogenous LpX was markedly delayed in Lcat-/- mice, which have low HDL, but only minimal amounts of endogenous LpX and do not spontaneously develop renal disease. Chronically administered exogenous LpX deposited in all renal glomerular cellular and matrical compartments of Lcat-/- mice, and induced proteinuria and nephrotoxic gene changes, as well as all of the hallmarks of FLD renal disease as assessed by histological, TEM, and SEM analyses. Extensive in vivo EM studies revealed LpX uptake by macropinocytosis into mouse glomerular endothelial cells, podocytes, and mesangial cells and delivery to lysosomes where it was degraded. Endocytosed LpX appeared to be degraded by both human podocyte and mesangial cell lysosomal PLA2 and induced podocyte secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-6 in vitro and renal Cxl10 expression in Lcat-/- mice. In conclusion, LpX is a nephrotoxic particle that in the absence of Lcat induces all of the histological and functional hallmarks of FLD and hence may serve as a biomarker for monitoring recombinant LCAT therapy. In addition, our studies suggest that LpX-induced loss of endothelial barrier function and release of cytokines by renal glomerular cells likely plays a role in the initiation and progression of FLD nephrosis.

  9. End stage renal disease in minorities.

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, I. A.; Hosten, A. O.

    1991-01-01

    It is projected that the proportion of black Americans, American Indians, Asian Americans, and Hispanic Americans entering the ESRD program will continue to increase. Despite the increase in the average age of the ESRD population, the minorities entering the ESRD program are much younger. The major risk factors of ESRD--hypertension, diabetes, and glomerulonephritis--are affecting these minorities at a higher rate and in varying combinations. High prevalence and severity of hypertension followed by diabetes mellitus are the major risk factors in blacks, especially black women. Heroin and HIV nephropathies, tied to the epidemic of illicit drug abuse, have a major impact on young black men. The high prevalence of diabetes and the epidemic of glomerulonephritis in certain tribes are the major risk factors in American Indians. Hypertension and diabetes are the risk factors for the rapidly increasing Asian American population, especially for the elderly segment of this population. Diabetes predominates as the risk factor for the rapidly growing Hispanic American population, a group that needs to be identified separately within the ESRD program. Diabetes and hypertension are treatable, and adequate control can prevent progression of renal failure. However, with minority groups, it is difficult to fully implement the measures necessary to achieve this control. Outreach programs are necessary not only to provide medical treatment but to include instruction in socioeconomic and educational strategies. Programs that will seek out these patients and treat them should also educate them about their diet, about the detrimental effects of alcohol and smoking, and about the danger of substance abuse. Ultimately, these programs may be much cheaper than supporting a rapidly increasing ESRD program. PMID:1920501

  10. Inflammatory Cutaneous Diseases in Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Savoia, Paola; Cavaliere, Giovanni; Zavattaro, Elisa; Veronese, Federica; Fava, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplant recipients frequently suffer from skin infections and malignancies, possibly due to the effects of long-term immunosuppressive therapy. While the relationships between immunosuppression and these pathological conditions have been widely investigated, little is known about the relative incidence and characteristics of inflammatory skin diseases in this type of patient. In this study, we analyze the incidence of a number of inflammatory cutaneous diseases in a cohort of patients who underwent kidney transplantation. Although our study shows a relatively low incidence of these pathologies in transplanted patients—in agreement with the general action of immunosuppressant therapies in reducing inflammation—we scored a different efficacy of the various immunosuppressive regimens on inflammatory and autoimmune skin diseases. This information can be key for designing immunosuppressive regimens and devising accurate follow-up protocols. PMID:27548160

  11. Systemic and renal lipids in kidney disease development and progression

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Patricia; Ducasa, Gloria Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Altered lipid metabolism characterizes proteinuria and chronic kidney diseases. While it is thought that dyslipidemia is a consequence of kidney disease, a large body of clinical and experimental studies support that altered lipid metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of kidney disease. In fact, accumulation of renal lipids has been observed in several conditions of genetic and nongenetic origins, linking local fat to the pathogenesis of kidney disease. Statins, which target cholesterol synthesis, have not been proven beneficial to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease. Therefore, other therapeutic strategies to reduce cholesterol accumulation in peripheral organs, such as the kidney, warrant further investigation. Recent advances in the understanding of the biology of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) have revealed that functional HDL, rather than total HDL per se, may protect from both cardiovascular and kidney diseases, strongly supporting a role for altered cholesterol efflux in the pathogenesis of kidney disease. Although the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for lipid-induced renal damage have yet to be uncovered, several studies suggest novel mechanisms by which cholesterol, free fatty acids, and sphingolipids may affect glomerular and tubular cell function. This review will focus on the clinical and experimental evidence supporting a causative role of lipids in the pathogenesis of proteinuria and kidney disease, with a primary focus on podocytes. PMID:26697982

  12. Systemic and renal lipids in kidney disease development and progression.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Patricia; Ducasa, Gloria Michelle; Fornoni, Alessia

    2016-03-15

    Altered lipid metabolism characterizes proteinuria and chronic kidney diseases. While it is thought that dyslipidemia is a consequence of kidney disease, a large body of clinical and experimental studies support that altered lipid metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of kidney disease. In fact, accumulation of renal lipids has been observed in several conditions of genetic and nongenetic origins, linking local fat to the pathogenesis of kidney disease. Statins, which target cholesterol synthesis, have not been proven beneficial to slow the progression of chronic kidney disease. Therefore, other therapeutic strategies to reduce cholesterol accumulation in peripheral organs, such as the kidney, warrant further investigation. Recent advances in the understanding of the biology of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) have revealed that functional HDL, rather than total HDL per se, may protect from both cardiovascular and kidney diseases, strongly supporting a role for altered cholesterol efflux in the pathogenesis of kidney disease. Although the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for lipid-induced renal damage have yet to be uncovered, several studies suggest novel mechanisms by which cholesterol, free fatty acids, and sphingolipids may affect glomerular and tubular cell function. This review will focus on the clinical and experimental evidence supporting a causative role of lipids in the pathogenesis of proteinuria and kidney disease, with a primary focus on podocytes. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Che, Ruochen; Yuan, Yanggang; Huang, Songming; Zhang, Aihua

    2014-02-15

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has gained recognition as a contributing factor in many diseases. The kidney is a kind of organ with high energy demand, rich in mitochondria. As such, mitochondrial dysfunction in the kidney plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of kidney diseases. Despite the recognized importance mitochondria play in the pathogenesis of the diseases, there is limited understanding of various aspects of mitochondrial biology. This review examines the physiology and pathophysiology of mitochondria. It begins by discussing mitochondrial structure, mitochondrial DNA, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial dynamics, and mitophagy, before turning to inherited mitochondrial cytopathies in kidneys (inherited or sporadic mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA mutations in genes that affect mitochondrial function). Glomerular diseases, tubular defects, and other renal diseases are then discussed. Next, acquired mitochondrial dysfunction in kidney diseases is discussed, emphasizing the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease and acute kidney injury, as their prevalence is increasing. Finally, it summarizes the possible beneficial effects of mitochondrial-targeted therapeutic agents for treatment of mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated kidney injury-genetic therapies, antioxidants, thiazolidinediones, sirtuins, and resveratrol-as mitochondrial-based drugs may offer potential treatments for renal diseases.

  14. COMPLEMENT REGULATION IN RENAL DISEASE MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Abhijit; Sharma, Shweta; Quigg, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the complement system is tightly regulated by plasma and cell-associated complement regulatory proteins (CRPs), such as factor H (fH), decay-accelerating factor (DAF), and membrane cofactor protein (MCP). Animal models of disease have provided considerable insights into the important roles for CRPs in the kidney. Mice deficient in fH have excessive fluid phase C3 activation and inactivation leading to deposition of iC3b in glomerular capillary walls (GCW), comparable to dense deposit disease. In contrast, when fH lacks C-terminal surface targeting regions, local activation on the GCW leads to a disease reminiscent of thrombotic microangiopathy. The uniquely rodent protein, CR1-related y (Crry), has features analogous to human MCP. Defective Crry leads to unrestricted alternative pathway activation in the tubulointerstitium (TI) resulting in pathological features ranging from TMA, acute kidney injury and TI nephritis. In the presence of initiators of the classical or lectin pathways, commonly in the form of immune complexes in human glomerular diseases, complement regulation on self is stressed, with the potential for recruitment of the spontaneously active alternative pathway. The threshold for this activation is set by CRPs; pathology is more likely when complement regulation is defective. Within the endocapillary region of the GCW, fH is key, while DAF and Crry are protective on mesangial cells and podocytes. Arguably, acquired alterations in these CRPs is a more common event, extending from pathological states of cellular injury or production of inhibitory antibodies, to physiological fine tuning of the adaptive immune response. PMID:24161042

  15. Penile Calciphylaxis in End Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Di Lullo, Luca; Otranto, Giovanni; Floccari, Fulvio; Malaguti, Moreno; Santoboni, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Calciphylaxis, better described as “Calcific uremic arteriolopathy” (CUA), involves about 1–4% of hemodialysis patients all around the world with high mortality rates. We describe a rare clinical case of CUA in peritoneal dialysis patient associated with urological disease. Penile calciphylaxis represents rare clinical complication, and an early diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach are requested. Pathogenesis is still unclear, and therapeutic approaches need more long-term clinical trials to test their efficacy and safety. PMID:23841013

  16. Penile calciphylaxis in end stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Barbera, Vincenzo; Di Lullo, Luca; Gorini, Antonio; Otranto, Giovanni; Floccari, Fulvio; Malaguti, Moreno; Santoboni, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Calciphylaxis, better described as "Calcific uremic arteriolopathy" (CUA), involves about 1-4% of hemodialysis patients all around the world with high mortality rates. We describe a rare clinical case of CUA in peritoneal dialysis patient associated with urological disease. Penile calciphylaxis represents rare clinical complication, and an early diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach are requested. Pathogenesis is still unclear, and therapeutic approaches need more long-term clinical trials to test their efficacy and safety.

  17. Renal Anemia - Risk Factor for Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cană-Ruiu, Daniela; Moţa, E.; Istrate, Natalia; Văduva, Cristina; Trican, Eliza

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze the influence of anemia on renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease. Were monitored for 12 months 165 patients with chronic kidney disease, 96 patients had anemia and a control group of 69 patients had no anemia. A value of hemoglobin under 120 g/L in women and under 130 g/L in men on admission defined anemia. Anemia was associated with a more severe renal damage, a lower residual diuresis, especially in the presence of other risk factors such as diabetes, inflammation or secondary hyperparathyroidism, so early diagnosis and correction of anemia is important for prognosis and evolution of these patients. PMID:24778860

  18. Novel Methodology to Evaluate Renal Cysts in Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Kyongtae T; Sun, Hongliang; Lee, June Goo; Bae, Kyungsoo; Wang, Jinhong; Tao, Cheng; Chapman, Arlene B; Torres, Vicente E; Grantham, Jared J; Mrug, Michal; Bennett, William M; Flessner, Michael F; Landsittel, Doug P

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop and assess a semi-automated method for segmenting and counting individual renal cysts from mid-slice MR images in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) Materials and Methods A semi-automated method was developed to segment and count individual renal cysts from mid-slice MR images in 241 participants with ADPKD from the Consortium for Radiologic Imaging Studies of ADPKD (CRISP). For each subject, a mid-slice MR image was selected from each set of coronal T2-weighted MR images covering the entire kidney. The selected mid-slice image was processed with the semi-automated method to segment and count individual renal cysts. The number of cysts from the mid-slice image of each kidney was also measured by manual counting. The level of agreement between the semi-automated and manual cyst counts was compared using intra-class correlation (ICC) and a Bland-Altman plot. Results Individual renal cysts were successfully segmented using the semi-automated method in all 241 cases. The number of cysts in each kidney measured with the semi-automated and manual counting methods correlated well (ICC=0.96 for the right or left kidney), with a small average difference (-0.52, with higher semi-automated counts, for the right and 0.13, with higher manual counts, for the left) in the semi-automated method. There was, however, substantial variation in a small number of subjects: 6 of 241 (2.5%) participants had a difference in the total cyst count of more than 15. Conclusion We have developed a semi-automated method to segment individual renal cysts from mid-slice of MR images in ADPKD kidneys for a quantitative indicator of characterization and disease progression of ADPKD. PMID:24576800

  19. Indium-111 white blood cell scan for infectious complications of polycystic renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, B.R.; Cerqueira, M.D.; Eary, J.F.; Simmons, M.C.; Nabi, H.A.; Nelp, W.B.

    1985-11-01

    This case report describes the localization of a unilateral renal abscess with ( In)oxine-labeled autologous leukocyte scanning in a febrile patient with polycystic renal disease, after other noninvasive imaging procedures failed to identify a source of infection. In polycystic renal disease, leukocyte scans have advantages over standard diagnostic modalities and are very helpful in planning appropriate therapy.

  20. 2,8-Dihydroxyadenine Nephropathy Identified as Cause of End-Stage Renal Disease After Renal Transplant.

    PubMed

    George, Smiley Annie; Al-Rushaidan, Sulaiman; Francis, Issam; Soonowala, Darius; Nampoory, M R Narayanan

    2016-07-22

    Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of uric acid metabolism that leads to formation and excretion of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine into urine. The low solubility of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine results in precipitation and formation of urinary crystals and renal stones. Patients with this disorder usually have recurrent nephrolithiasis and can develop nephropathy secondary to crystal precipitation in the renal parenchyma. The disease is most often underdiagnosed and can recur in renal transplant, causing graft failure. Lack of specific clinical manifestations, chemical and radiologic features identical to those shown with uric acid stones, and lack of awareness among clinicians are among the causes for the underdiagnoses of this treatable disease. Allopurinol, a xanthine dehydrogenase inhibitor, is the mainstay of treatment, supported by high fluid intake and dietary modifications. The possibility of adenine phosphoribosyl transferase deficiency should be considered in all cases of urolithiasis in children, patients with recurrent urolithiasis, and patients with urolithiasis associated with renal failure of unknown cause, including patients with end-stage renal disease and renal transplant recipients. Here, we report a case of a 41-year-old female patient who had a late diagnosis of 2,8-dihydroxyadenine nephropathy-induced end-stage renal disease, made on the native nephrectomy that accompanied the renal transplant, and who had a timely intervention that prevented recurrence in the graft.

  1. Testing for Occult Heartworm Infection

    PubMed Central

    Stogdale, L.

    1984-01-01

    Heartworm infection in dogs is endemic in southern Ontario but occurs only sporadically throughout the remainder of Canada. The disease may either be associated with microfilariae in the patient's blood, a patent infection, or it may be occult. This paper describes a case of occult dirofilariasis in a dog, with emphasis on the diagnosis. A patent infection could be missed if the clinician tests an insufficient amount of blood. He should perform multiple concentration tests using either the modified Knott's technique or a filtration method. Occult infections occur in prepatent or unisexual infections, when the worms become sterile following therapy, or when the host produces antibodies that result in the destruction of the microfilariae. The recent release of a kit which detects the presence of antibodies to the adult heartworms now enables veterinarians to make an accurate diagnosis in the vast majority of dogs. PMID:17422386

  2. Graves' disease in a dialysis dependent chronic renal failure patient

    PubMed Central

    Nair, C. G.; Jacob, P.; Menon, R.; Babu, M. J. C.

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone level may be altered in chronic renal failure patients. Low levels of thyroxine protect the body from excess protein loss by minimizing catabolism. Hyperthyroidism is rarely encountered in end-stage dialysis dependent patients. Less than 10 well-documented cases of Graves' disease (GD) are reported in literature so far. We report a case of GD in a patient on dialysis. PMID:25484538

  3. Invasive versus non-invasive diagnosis of renal bone disease.

    PubMed

    Fournier, A; Oprisiu, R; Said, S; Sechet, A; Ghazali, A; Marié, A; el Esper, I; Brazier, M; Achard, J M; Morinière, P

    1997-07-01

    At present, bone histomorphometry remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of the various types of renal bone disease. In the search for a non-invasive method of diagnosis, biochemical serum markers of bone remodelling, in addition to serum intact parathyroid hormone and aluminium determinations, have been proposed as the most reliable tools and are at present widely used in clinical practice. Their respective diagnostic values, as separate items and in combined analysis, are thoroughly discussed in the present review.

  4. Differences between women and men with chronic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Coggins, C H; Breyer Lewis, J; Caggiula, A W; Castaldo, L S; Klahr, S; Wang, S R

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the participation of women and men in the protocols of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study, a multicenter prospective randomized clinical trial, and to assess gender differences in their renal outcomes. Of the 840 participants in the MDRD study, 332 (39.5%) were women who were assigned randomly to the dietary protein and blood pressure groups and followed for a median of 2.2 years. A subgroup analysis of the MDRD study database was carried out to compare women and men participants in recruitment, baseline characteristics, adherence to protocol requirements, safety and outcomes, and progression of renal disease and its response to dietary and blood pressure interventions. Adherence by women to the requirements of the protocol including diet, record keeping, office visits, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurements and urine collections was equivalent to that of men. Women had different renal diagnoses, less proteinuria and lower serum creatinine levels for given GFRs than men. When participants were grouped above and below age 52, the younger women had lower mean arterial pressure than did the men. Older women compared with younger had higher mean arterial pressure, body weight and body mass index, and total low density lipoprotein cholesterol. These differences were not seen between males of the same two age groups. During follow-up, the rate of GFR fall was slower in women, especially in the younger group. However, the association between gender and the rate of fall in GFR was attenuated and became non-significant after adjusting for differences in blood pressure, proteinuria and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. In analyses of the full cohort, there were no significant differences between women and men in the effects of the low protein or low blood pressure intervention in patients with either moderate (study A) or advanced (study B) renal disease. However, in subgroup analyses of patients

  5. End-stage renal disease in Indonesia: treatment development.

    PubMed

    Prodjosudjadi, Wiguno; Suhardjono, A

    2009-01-01

    The number of cases of chronic kidney disease is growing rapidly, especially in the developing world. At a certain level of renal function, progression of chronic kidney disease to endstage renal disease (ESRD) is inevitable. ESRD has become a major health problem because it is a devastating medical condition, and the cost of treatment is a huge economic burden. This article presents data collected from 13 nephrology centers in response to specifically designed questionnaires. These centers were divided into 7 groups on the basis of geographic location. Previous data had given the impression that the incidence and prevalence of ESRD had increased, and the results of this study support these previous data. Since a national registry of ESRD has just been developed for Indonesia and we can present only limited data in this study, the numbers in this article underestimate the true incidence and prevalence rates. Although hemodialysis facilities have been developed rapidly, further development is still required. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis as an alternative renal replacement therapy (RRT) is only now being introduced. Kidney transplantation programs expand very slowly. RRT still imposes a high cost of treatment for ESRD; therefore, these treatments are unaffordable for most patients. Recently, government health insurance has covered financially strained families requiring RRT. Since the cost of RRT for ESRD has significantly increased over time, the management approach should be shifted from treatment to prevention.

  6. Risk factors for lung diseases after renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pencheva, Ventsislava P.; Petrova, Daniela S.; Genov, Diyan K.; Georgiev, Ognian B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung diseases are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality after renal transplantation. The aim of the study is to define the risk factors for infectious and noninfectious pulmonary complications in kidney transplant patients. Materials and Methods: We prospectively studied 267 patients after renal transplantation. The kidney recipients were followed-up for the development of pulmonary complications for a period of 7 years. Different noninvasive and invasive diagnostic tests were used in cases suspected of lung disease. Results: The risk factors associated with the development of pulmonary complications were diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR] = 4.60; P = 0.001), arterial hypertension (OR = 1.95; P = 0.015), living related donor (OR = 2.69; P = 0.004), therapy for acute graft rejection (OR = 2.06; P = 0.038), immunosuppressive regimens that includes mycophenolate (OR = 2.40; P = 0.011), azathioprine (OR = 2.25; P = 0.023), and tacrolimus (OR = 1.83; P = 0.041). The only factor associated with the lower risk of complications was a positive serology test for Cytomegalovirus of the recipient before transplantation (OR = 0.1412; P = 0.001). Conclusion: The risk factors can be used to identify patients at increased risk for posttransplant lung diseases. Monitoring of higher-risk patients allow timely diagnosis and early adequate treatment and can reduce the morbidity and mortality after renal transplantation. PMID:26958045

  7. Hypertension in children with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria; Skrzypczyk, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    This review summarizes current data on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of hypertension (HTN) in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Worldwide prevalence of ESRD ranges from 5.0 to 84.4 per million age-related population. HTN is present in 27-79% of children with ESRD, depending on the modality of renal replacement therapy and the exact definition of hypertension. Ambulatory BP monitoring has been recommended for the detection of HTN and evaluation of treatment effectiveness. HTN in dialyzed patients is mostly related to hypervolemia, sodium overload, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and sympathetic nervous system, impaired nitric oxide synthesis, reduced vitamin D levels, and effects of microRNA. In children undergoing chronic dialysis therapy, important factors include optimization of renal replacement therapy and preservation of residual renal function, allowing reduction of volume- and sodium-overload, along with appropriate drug treatment, particularly with calcium channel blockers, RAAS inhibitors, and loop diuretics.

  8. The Occult Today: Why?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Gary E.

    1975-01-01

    Author offered some reflections on the "why" of the contemporary interest in the occult. He attempted to convince the reader that, if he or she has been surprised by the recent rise of occultism, sober reflection will dispell some fears and, perhaps, even convince him or her that occultism is not merely superstition. (Author/RK)

  9. [Occult involvement of bone marrow in Hodgkin's disease: detection with magnetic resonance].

    PubMed

    Sanz, L; Cervantes, F; Mercader, J M; Rozman, M; Rozman, C; Montserrat, E

    1996-06-22

    Although bone marrow biopsy is considered the best procedure to detect bone marrow involvement by Hodgkin's disease (HD), in recent years several studies have emphasized the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We present the case of a patient with HD apparently localized in a laterocervical lymph node, who also referred disestasiae at a region corresponding to D10 metamera. Bone marrow biopsy, vertebral TC and 67-Ga scintigraphy were all normal. However, a node of 1 cm in diameter was detected by MRI in the tenth dorsal vertebra. Because of the topographic coincidence between the patient's symptomatology and the MRI findings, the HD was considered to be in advanced stage and CMOPP/ABV chemotherapy was administered, this resulting in a rapid improvement of symptoms and disappearance of the MRI abnormalities. Since in the present case, the MRI determined a change in disease stage and treatment, the role of MRI as a complementary exploration of bone marrow biopsy to detect marrow involvement by HD is reviewed.

  10. The Economic Burden of Chronic Kidney Disease and End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Virginia; Vilme, Helene; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Boulware, L Ebony

    2016-07-01

    The growing prevalence and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) raises concerns about our capacity to manage its economic burden to patients, caregivers, and society. The societal direct and indirect costs of CKD and end-stage renal disease are substantial and increase throughout disease progression. There is significant variability in the evidence about direct and indirect costs attributable to CKD and end-stage renal disease, with the most complete evidence concentrated on direct health care costs of patients with advanced to end-stage CKD. There are substantial gaps in evidence that need to be filled to inform clinical practice and policy.

  11. [Management of patients with end-stage renal disease prior to initiation of renal replacement therapy in 2013 in France].

    PubMed

    Tuppin, Philippe; Cuerq, Anne; Torre, Sylvie; Couchoud, Cécile; Fagot-Campagna, Anne

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the management of patients with end-stage renal disease prior to initiation of renal replacement therapy. Among the 51 million national health insurance general scheme beneficiaries (77% of the population), persons 18 years and older, starting dialysis or undergoing preemptive renal transplantation in 2013, were included in this study. Data were derived from the French national health insurance system (SNIIRAM). In this population of 6674 patients (median age: 68 years), 88% initiated renal replacement therapy by haemodialysis, 8% by peritoneal dialysis, and 4% by renal transplantation. During the year preceding initiation of dialysis, 76% of patients had been hospitalised with at least one diagnostic code for renal disease in 83% of cases, 16% had not received any reimbursements for serum creatinine assay and 32% had not seen a nephrologist; 87% were taking at least one antihypertensive drug (60% were taking at least a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor) and 30% were taking a combination of 4 or more classes of antihypertensive drugs. For patients initiating haemodialysis in a haemodialysis centre, 39% had undergone a procedure related to arteriovenous fistula and 10% had been admitted to an intensive care unit. This study, based on the available reimbursement data, shows that, despite frequent use of the health care system by this population, there is still room for improvement of screening and management of patients with end-stage renal disease and preparation for renal replacement therapy.

  12. Clinical Scenarios in Chronic Kidney Disease: Parenchymal Chronic Renal Diseases - Part 1.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Ilaria; Samoni, Sara; Meola, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In diabetes, kidneys' morphological changes are non-specific at ultrasound (US) and they vary according to disease stage. In the earlier stages, kidneys are enlarged and diffusely hypoechoic due to hyperfiltration. Kidneys size decreases only in advanced stages whereas renal cortical echogenicity progressively increases due to glomerulosclerosis. Nephromegaly, as well as discrepancy between size and renal function, are typical features of diabetic nephropathy either in early or in advanced stages of the disease. Resistive indexes progressively increase together with serum creatinine levels and macro/microcirculation damage. Chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) is the third leading cause of chronic kidney disease and it represents the clinical evolution of a variety of primary or secondary glomerular diseases. Kidneys in CGN are gradually reduced in volume, but remain symmetric, easily recognizable in renal space until the disease's later stages. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Renal and testicular agenesis in a patient with Darier's disease.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, L Y; Wortsman, J; McConnachie, P

    1985-05-01

    Darier's disease is a familial disorder of the skin that has been associated with corneal, bone, pulmonary, and urogenital abnormalities. This report describes a novel urogenital anomaly, namely renal and testicular agenesis, in a patient with Darier's disease. Detailed study of the kindred demonstrated an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance for Darier's disease and also revealed the presence of autoimmune thyroiditis in several family members. Thyroid involvement ranged from isolated goiter to hypothyroidism. Tissue typing for HLA-A, B, C, and DR antigens did not reveal a specific haplotype common to all the carriers of the cutaneous or thyroid disorder. It is concluded that patients with Darier's disease should be carefully evaluated for the occurrence of systemic diseases, especially urogenital abnormalities and thyroid disorders.

  14. Survival Analysis of Patients with End Stage Renal Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, J. D.; Gayo, W. S.; Bautista, L. A.; Baccay, E. B.

    2015-06-01

    This paper provides a survival analysis of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) under Kaplan-Meier Estimates and Weibull Distribution. The data were obtained from the records of V. L. MakabaliMemorial Hospital with respect to time t (patient's age), covariates such as developed secondary disease (Pulmonary Congestion and Cardiovascular Disease), gender, and the event of interest: the death of ESRD patients. Survival and hazard rates were estimated using NCSS for Weibull Distribution and SPSS for Kaplan-Meier Estimates. These lead to the same conclusion that hazard rate increases and survival rate decreases of ESRD patient diagnosed with Pulmonary Congestion, Cardiovascular Disease and both diseases with respect to time. It also shows that female patients have a greater risk of death compared to males. The probability risk was given the equation R = 1 — e-H(t) where e-H(t) is the survival function, H(t) the cumulative hazard function which was created using Cox-Regression.

  15. Multiple Renal and Splenic Lesions in Cat Scratch Disease.

    PubMed

    Wakiguchi, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Matsunaga, Manaka; Kodama, Yuichi; Miyazono, Akinori; Seki, Shunji; Ikeda, Naohiro; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2016-09-21

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an infectious disease caused by Bartonella henselae. Atypical clinical presentations of CSD include prolonged fever and multiple hepatosplenic lesions. Furthermore, multiple renal lesions are extremely rare in CSD. An 11-year-old Japanese girl presented at our hospital with a prolonged fever of unknown cause after being scratched and bitten by a kitten. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple small, round hypodense lesions in both kidneys and the spleen. Based on her history and the CT results, her diagnosis was CSD. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological tests, which indicated antibodies against B. henselae. After treatment with azithromycin, her fever immediately improved. Careful history taking and imaging are essential for the diagnosis of atypical CSD. In CT images, not only hepatosplenic lesions but also renal lesions are important features indicative of a diagnosis of atypical CSD. Subsequently, a diagnosis of CSD can be confirmed by specific serological tests. This is the first reported Japanese case of multiple renal and splenic lesions in a patient with CSD. Although difficult to diagnose, an early diagnosis atypical CSD and appropriate treatment are important to prevent complications and the need for invasive examinations.

  16. Undetected gynaecological disorders in women with renal disease.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, R; Regan, L

    1997-04-01

    Women with chronic renal disease (CRD) who are on dialysis or have a functioning renal transplant are typically stoical in their attitude towards other health problems. We undertook a prospective study of 100 women with CRD to assess the prevalence of gynaecological disorders in this group of patients. Assessment included the measurement of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin and oestradiol concentrations, cervical cytology and a pelvic ultrasound scan. We found that gynaecological problems are highly prevalent and frequently unrecognized. Of these women, 58% had a menstrual disorder, with uncontrolled menorrhagia being a significant problem when it aggravated the chronic anaemia of renal disease, and 35% were menopausal, including seven women under the age of 40 years. Menopausal symptoms were undertreated. We identified a 14-fold increase in premature ovarian failure secondary to CRD and the use of cyclophosphamide therapy. In all, 22% of the women were subfertile and 10% had an abnormal smear, with cervical dyskariosis being significantly increased because of long-term immunosuppression. Contraceptive advice had often been absent or inappropriate. We conclude that formal gynaecological review should be routinely available for women with CRD.

  17. Radiographic Evidence of Occult Intracranial Hypertension in Patients with Ménière's Disease.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Kareem O; Stevens, Shawn M; Mihal, David; Costello, Mark S; Cornelius, Rebecca S; Samy, Ravi N; Pensak, Myles L

    2017-03-01

    Objectives (1) Describe the prevalence of radiographic signs of intracranial hypertension (ICH) in Ménière's disease (MD) and (2) compare the prevalence of radiographic signs of ICH in MD patients managed medically to those managed surgically. Study Design Case-control study. Setting Academic neurotologic practice. Subjects and Methods Adult MD patients (aged ≥17 years) treated from 2011 to 2015 were reviewed. Inclusion required magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head and follow-up >6 months. Patients with intracranial tumors, mass effect, trauma, previous intracranial surgery, and glaucoma were excluded. MD patients were separated by administered treatment into medical and surgical subgroups. Cochlear implant (CI) recipients served as radiographic controls. Eighty-four MD patients (46 surgical, 38 medical) and 37 CI controls were assessed. MRI measurements assessed for empty/partial sella (ES/PS), dilated/tortuous optic nerve sheath (ONS), and posterior globe flattening (PGF). Results Mean age was 53.8 ± 1.3 years and median body mass index (BMI) was 28.2 kg/m(2). Of the patients, 64% were female and 92% were white. MRI findings in the MD cohort were as follows: ES/PS, 46.4%; ONS change, 42.8%; and PGF, 8.3%. The prevalence of ONS change was higher in MD patients than in controls (42.8% vs 13.5%, P = .003). The surgical MD group had higher prevalence of ONS change (52%) compared with the medical group (31.5%, P = .05) and controls (13.5%, P = .0004). The surgical group had a higher prevalence of ≥2 simultaneous MRI findings compared with medical MD patients (39% vs 10%, P = .01) and controls (14%, P = .01). Conclusion MD patients demonstrate a high prevalence of radiographic signs of ICH. MD patients who required surgery had a greater prevalence of radiographic signs of ICH compared with non-MD patients and medically managed MD patients.

  18. Pulmonary cystic disease associated with integumentary and renal manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Cayetano, Katherine S.; Albertson, Timothy E.; Chan, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    A 69-year-old man with multiple skin lesions on his face, neck and upper torso, which first appeared in the 3rd decade of his life, was admitted to our hospital. He had cystic changes in his lungs noted on chest computed tomography (CT) scanning, as well as a left kidney mass. This patient exhibited a rare complex of renal, cutaneous and pulmonary manifestations, eponymously named Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, with characteristic skin features (fibrofolliculomas, trichodiscomas and acrochordons). This syndrome is due to an autosomal dominant germ-line mutation of the folliculin (FLCN) gene located at chromosome 17p11.2. Diagnosis and differentiation from other disease complexes including the skin, kidneys and lungs are important in prognostication and management of potentially life-threatening complications such as renal cell carcinoma and pneumothoraces. PMID:24285950

  19. Pulmonary cystic disease associated with integumentary and renal manifestations.

    PubMed

    Cayetano, Katherine S; Albertson, Timothy E; Chan, Andrew L

    2013-11-01

    A 69-year-old man with multiple skin lesions on his face, neck and upper torso, which first appeared in the 3rd decade of his life, was admitted to our hospital. He had cystic changes in his lungs noted on chest computed tomography (CT) scanning, as well as a left kidney mass. This patient exhibited a rare complex of renal, cutaneous and pulmonary manifestations, eponymously named Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, with characteristic skin features (fibrofolliculomas, trichodiscomas and acrochordons). This syndrome is due to an autosomal dominant germ-line mutation of the folliculin (FLCN) gene located at chromosome 17p11.2. Diagnosis and differentiation from other disease complexes including the skin, kidneys and lungs are important in prognostication and management of potentially life-threatening complications such as renal cell carcinoma and pneumothoraces.

  20. Hyaline vascular castleman disease involving renal parenchyma and a lymph node: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ji Hyun; Min, Soo Kee; Shin, Mi Kyung; Lee, Yong Seong; Lee, Young-Goo; Ko, Young Hyeh

    2012-02-01

    Castleman disease is a rare lymphoproliferative lesion that is predominantly found in the mediastinum. Retroperitoneal and pararenal localizations are very rare. We describe a 36-year-old man with a hyaline vascular type of Castleman disease involving renal parenchyma and a paraaortic lymph node. Most reported renal Castleman disease was plasma cell type with systemic symptoms. Herein, we report the first Korean case of the hyaline vascular type of Castleman disease involving the renal parenchyma and the paraaortic lymph node simultaneously.

  1. Assessment of renal pathology and dysfunction in children with Fabry disease.

    PubMed

    Ramaswami, Uma; Najafian, Behzad; Schieppati, Arrigo; Mauer, Michael; Bichet, Daniel G

    2010-02-01

    Overt renal disease often first presents in male individuals with Fabry disease in early to middle adulthood, but proteinuria and reduced GFR may occur in adolescents and in young children. More recently, kidney biopsy data have shown early renal histologic changes in pediatric patients, and kidney dysfunction, primarily proteinuria, seems to be more common in girls. Renal investigations and their timing in children remain poorly defined. A consensus on renal investigations is necessary to understand the natural progression of the disease and to evaluate the efficacy of treatments such as enzyme replacement therapies. This article addresses three main categories: Use of GFRs, measuring albuminuria, and renal biopsies in children.

  2. Homocysteine as a predictive biomarker in early diagnosis of renal failure susceptibility and prognostic diagnosis for end stages renal disease.

    PubMed

    Amin, Hatem K; El-Sayed, Mohamed-I Kotb; Leheta, Ola F

    2016-09-01

    Glomerular filtration rate and/or creatinine are not accurate methods for renal failure prediction. This study tested homocysteine (Hcy) as a predictive and prognostic marker for end stage renal disease (ESRD). In total, 176 subjects were recruited and divided into: healthy normal group (108 subjects); mild-to-moderate impaired renal function group (21 patients); severe impaired renal function group (7 patients); and chronic renal failure group (40 patients) who were on regular hemodialysis. Blood samples were collected, and serum was separated for analysis of total Hcy, creatinine, high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), serum albumin, and calcium. Data showed that Hcy level was significantly increased from normal-to-mild impairment then significantly decreases from mild impairment until the patient reaches severe impairment while showing significant elevation in the last stage of chronic renal disease. Creatinine level was increased in all stages of kidney impairment in comparison with control. CRP level was showing significant elevation in the last stage. A significant decrease in both albumin and calcium was occurred in all stages of renal impairment. We conclude Hcy in combination with CRP, creatinine, albumin, and calcium can be used as a prognostic marker for ESRD and an early diagnostic marker for the risk of renal failure.

  3. Clinical Scenarios in Chronic Kidney Disease: Parenchymal Chronic Renal Diseases - Part 2.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Ilaria; Samoni, Sara; Meola, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Secondary nephropathies can be associated with disreactive immunological disorders or with a non-inflammatory glomerular damage. In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), scleroderma and rheumatoid arthritis as in other connective tissue diseases, kidney volume and cortex echogenicity are the parameters that best correlate with clinical severity of the disease, even if the morphological aspect is generally non-specific. Doppler studies in SLE document the correlation between resistance indexes (RIs) values and renal function. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV) causes different types of renal damage. At ultrasound (US), kidneys have almost a normal volume, while during superinfection they enlarge (coronal diameter >13 cm) and become globular, loosing their normal aspect. Cortex appears highly hyperechoic, uniform or patchy. Microcalcifications of renal cortex and medulla are a US sign that can suggest HIV. In amyloidosis, kidneys appear normal or increased in volume in the early stages of disease. Renal cortex is diffusely hyperechoic and pyramids can show normal size and morphology, but more often they appear poorly defined and hyperechoic. RIs are very high since the early stages of the disease. Nephromegaly with normal kidney shape is the first sign of lymphoma or multiple myeloma. In systemic vasculitis, renal cortex is diffusely hyperechoic, while pyramids appear hypoechoic and globular due to interstitial edema. When vasculitis determines advanced chronic kidney disease stages, kidneys show no specific signs. Microcirculation damage is highlighted by increased RIs values >0.70 in the chronic phase. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Family Stress with Chronic Childhood Illness: Cystic Fibrosis, Neuromuscular Disease, and Renal Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holroyd, Jean; Guthrie, Donald

    1986-01-01

    Parents of children with neuromuscular disease, cystic fibrosis, and renal disease were compared with parents of control subjects matched by age to the clinical cases. The three clinical groups exhibited different patterns of stressful response, consistent with the nature of their illnesses and the requirements for care imposed on the families.…

  5. Family Stress with Chronic Childhood Illness: Cystic Fibrosis, Neuromuscular Disease, and Renal Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holroyd, Jean; Guthrie, Donald

    1986-01-01

    Parents of children with neuromuscular disease, cystic fibrosis, and renal disease were compared with parents of control subjects matched by age to the clinical cases. The three clinical groups exhibited different patterns of stressful response, consistent with the nature of their illnesses and the requirements for care imposed on the families.…

  6. [Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and bone. From renal osteodystrophy to CKD-MBD: new disease entity].

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Yusuke

    2009-04-01

    New disease entity "CKD-MBD" was created by the KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcome) at the controversy conference in 2005. This entity accurately reflects a diversity in mineral and bone disorder associated with CKD. According to this new definition, renal osteodystrophy should be used to express only bone lesion associated with CKD.

  7. CUBN as a Novel Locus for End-Stage Renal Disease: Insights from Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Reznichenko, Anna; Snieder, Harold; van den Born, Jacob; de Borst, Martin H.; Damman, Jeffrey; van Dijk, Marcory C. R. F.; van Goor, Harry; Hepkema, Bouke G.; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Niesing, Jan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Seelen, Marc; Navis, Gerjan

    2012-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a complex disorder. As genome-wide association studies identified cubilin gene CUBN as a locus for albuminuria, and urinary protein loss is a risk factor for progressive CKD, we tested the hypothesis that common genetic variants in CUBN are associated with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and proteinuria. First, a total of 1142 patients with ESRD, admitted for renal transplantation, and 1186 donors were genotyped for SNPs rs7918972 and rs1801239 (case-control study). The rs7918972 minor allele frequency (MAF) was higher in ESRD patients comparing to kidney donors, implicating an increased risk for ESRD (OR 1.39, p = 0.0004) in native kidneys. Second, after transplantation recipients were followed for 5.8 [3.8–9.2] years (longitudinal study) documenting ESRD in transplanted kidneys – graft failure (GF). During post-transplant follow-up 92 (9.6%) cases of death-censored GF occurred. Donor rs7918972 MAF, representing genotype of the transplanted kidney, was 16.3% in GF vs 10.7% in cases with functioning graft. Consistently, a multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that donor rs7918972 is a predictor of GF, although statistical significance was not reached (HR 1.53, p = 0.055). There was no association of recipient rs7918972 with GF. Rs1801239 was not associated with ESRD or GF. In line with an association with the outcome, donor rs7918972 was associated with elevated proteinuria levels cross-sectionally at 1 year after transplantation. Thus, we identified CUBN rs7918972 as a novel risk variant for renal function loss in two independent settings: ESRD in native kidneys and GF in transplanted kidneys. PMID:22574174

  8. Renal cell carcinoma co-existent with other renal disease: clinico-pathological features in pre-dialysis patients and those receiving dialysis or renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Peces, Ramón; Martínez-Ara, Jorge; Miguel, José Luis; Arrieta, Javier; Costero, Olga; Górriz, José Luis; Picazo, Mari-Luz; Fresno, Manuel

    2004-11-01

    Patients on chronic dialysis are prone to developing acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD), which may lead to the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The risk factors for the development of RCC so far have not been determined in pre-dialysis patients with co-existent renal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinico-pathological features of RCC in pre-dialysis patients with associated renal diseases or in those undergoing chronic dialysis and renal transplantation. We studied 32 kidneys from 31 patients with RCC and associated renal diseases. Of those, 18 kidneys were from 17 patients not on renal replacement therapy (RRT) when diagnosed with RCC; 14 patients received dialysis or dialysis followed by renal transplantation. Several clinico-pathological features were analysed and compared between the two groups. Overall, there was a preponderance of males (75%); nephrosclerosis was the predominant co-existent disease (31%). The median intervals from renal disease to RCC in the dialysis and transplanted groups were significantly longer than in the pre-dialysis group (15.8+/-1.1 vs 2.4+/-0.7 years, P<0.0001). In contrast to pre-dialysis RCC, the dialysis and transplant RCC groups had greater frequency of ACKD (100 vs 28%, P<0.0001), papillary type RCC (43 vs 11%, P<0.05) and multifocal tumours (43 vs 5%, P<0.05). At the end of the study, 71% of dialysis and transplanted patients and 72% of pre-dialysis patients were alive. ACKD develops in dialysis patients, as it does in those with renal disease prior to RRT. The duration of renal disease, rather than the dialysis procedure itself, appears to be the main determinant of ACKD and RCC. The RCC occurring in patients with ACKD and prolonged RRT is more frequently of the papillary type and multifocal than the RCC occurring in patients with no or few acquired cysts and a short history of renal disease. Long-term outcomes did not differ between the two groups.

  9. Epidemiology of paediatric renal stone disease in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Coward, R; Peters, C; Duffy, P; Corry, D; Kellett, M; Choong, S; van't, H

    2003-01-01

    Background: The previous epidemiological study of paediatric nephrolithiasis in Britain was conducted more than 30 years ago. Aims: To examine the presenting features, predisposing factors, and treatment strategies used in paediatric stones presenting to a British centre over the past five years. Methods: A total of 121 children presented with a urinary tract renal stone, to one adult and one paediatric centre, over a five year period (1997–2001). All children were reviewed in a dedicated stone clinic and had a full infective and metabolic stone investigative work up. Treatment was assessed by retrospective hospital note review. Results: A metabolic abnormality was found in 44% of children, 30% were classified as infective, and 26% idiopathic. Bilateral stones on presentation occurred in 26% of the metabolic group compared to 12% in the infective/idiopathic group (odds ratio 2.7, 95% CI 1.03 to 7.02). Coexisting urinary tract infection was common (49%) in the metabolic group. Surgically, minimally invasive techniques (lithotripsy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and endoscopy) were used in 68% of patients. Conclusions: There has been a shift in the epidemiology of paediatric renal stone disease in the UK over the past 30 years. Underlying metabolic causes are now the most common but can be masked by coexisting urinary tract infection. Treatment has progressed, especially surgically, with sophisticated minimally invasive techniques now employed. All children with renal stones should have a metabolic screen. PMID:14612355

  10. Renal Alterations in Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV)-Infected Cats: A Natural Model of Lentivirus-Induced Renal Disease Changes

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Alessandro; Tozon, Natasa; Guidi, Grazia; Pistello, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with several renal syndromes including acute and chronic renal failures, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. HIV and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) share numerous biological and pathological features, including renal alterations. We investigated and compared the morphological changes of renal tissue of 51 experimentally and 21 naturally infected cats. Compared to the latter, the experimentally infected cats exhibited some mesangial widening and glomerulonephritis, milder proteinuria, and lower tubular and interstitial alterations. The numbers of giant protein tubular casts and tubular microcysts were also lower. In contrast, diffuse interstitial infiltrates and glomerular and interstitial amyloidosis were detected only in naturally infected cats. Similar alterations are found in HIV infected patients, thus supporting the idea of a causative role of FIV infection in renal disease, and underlining the relevance of the FIV and its natural host as an animal model for investigating lentivirus-associated nephropathy. PMID:23170163

  11. Diagnosing and treating renal disease in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Wong, Florence

    2016-09-01

    Renal dysfunction in cirrhosis is mostly related to the development of acute kidney injury (AKI), precipitated by either an acute disturbance of hemodynamics, or acute structural damage to the kidneys. The incidence of chronic renal failure is rising, due to increasing prevalence of conditions such as diabetes, viral hepatitis, which can be associated with renal damage. AKI is defined as a rise in serum creatinine of 0.3 mg/dL in <48 hours or by 50% from baseline within the past 3 months without setting a threshold for the final serum creatinine. Stages 1, 2, and 3 of AKI are defined as 150%, 200% and 300% of baseline serum creatinine respectively, which allows for assessment of AKI progression. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min for >3 months. Treatment of AKI consists of removal of precipitating factors and replenishment of the intravascular volume using colloids such as albumin. Frequently, AKI can be reversed using these measures alone. Non-responders to removal of precipitating factors and volume challenge can receive vasoconstrictors such as terlipressin or norepinephrine together with albumin. Midodrine is inferior in efficacy as a vasoconstrictor when compared to terlipressin. Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for type 1 hepatorenal syndrome with liver failure. Delay in receiving a liver transplant can result in non-recovery of renal function post transplant. Treatment of CKD in cirrhosis is unsatisfactory, mostly aimed at optimizing management of comorbid conditions, or treating the underlying refractory ascites in patients with type 2 hepatorenal syndrome.

  12. [The bilateral renal lymphoma: an incurable disease? Case report].

    PubMed

    Napoli, Marcello; Montinaro, A M; D'Ambrosio, E; Di Renzo, N; Ambrosino, C; Lefons, M; Pati, C; Sozzo, E

    2014-01-01

    The bilateral primary renal lymphoma (PRL) is a rare disease with a high mortality rate (75% within the first year). We report the case of a fifty-three years old women observed in January 2011 for renal colic. Ultrasonography showed hypoechoic lobular formations in the kidney. Blood tests showed: creatinine 1.8 mg/dl, urea 75 mg/dl , Creatinine Clerance 35 ml/m, hemoglobinemia 11 g/dl, with blood cells 8.500/mcL, Albumin 2.8 g/dl, Beta -2 micro - 27.3/mL. Proteinuria was 0.3 g/24 hours. The CT scan showed kidneys with larger dimensions and multiple hypodense areas infiltrating the renal parenchyma with contrast-enhanced low in which kidneys had lesions similar to "leopard skin". The CT scan showed no enlarged lymph nodes. Renal biopsy showed: renal parenchyma largely occupied by infiltration of lymphoid elements, small and medium-sized, densely packed with compression of the tubular structures . Immunofluorescence for immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA, IgM, C3, C4, C1q, fibrinogen, kappa and lambda were negative. The bone marrow biopsy excluded lymphomatous infiltration. The histological diagnosis was "non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma"; the clinical diagnosis was LRBP. The patient was treated by 6 cycles of R-CHOP-21 protocol (rituximab - endoxan, adriblastina , vincristine, prendnisone), the latter of which practiced in August 2011. The pt is currently in follow-up hematology and nephrology . The first TAC control , in October 2011, showed a complete regression of the lesions infiltrating . This finding was confirmed by two other CT scan performed in February and October 2012. The last blood tests of February 2013 showed : creatinine 1.1 mg / dl , Urea 40 mg/dl, proteinuria absent. Currently, the pt is asymptomatic and is being treated by low dose of ACE inhibitor. The bilateral PRL is considered a severe disease with one-year mortality of 75% . The successful outcome of the case described can be attributed to haematological therapy and to the early diagnosis.

  13. Pulp Stone, Haemodialysis, End-stage Renal Disease, Carotid Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh; Sinha, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of pulp calcification and carotid artery calcification on the dental panoramic radiographs in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients who were on haemodialysis. Methods: A total of 112 End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients on who were haemodialysis participated in this study. The periapical and the panoramic radiographs for all the patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of the dental pulps and for pulp stones in the pulp chambers and the pulp canals. The panoramic radiographs were also evaluated to determine the carotid calcification. Results: Carotid calcifications were detected in none of the patients. 84 (74.99%) patients had dental pulp narrowing, and 38 (33.92%) patients had pulp stones. There was no statistical correlation between pulp narrowing and Carotid Artery Calcification (CAC) in the haemodialysis patient group. There was also no statistical correlation between pulp stones and CAC in the haemodialysis patients. Conclusion: However, the incidental finding of CAC on a panoramic radiograph can provide life-saving information for the vascular disease patients, but in the present study, no significant relationship was found between the presence of the pulpal calcification and CAC in the ESRD patients who were on haemodialysis. Therefore, the presence of pulp calcification does not seem to serve as a diagnostic marker for carotid atherosclerosis. PMID:23905147

  14. Pregnancy tests with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Fahy, Brenda G; Gouzd, Valerie A; Atallah, Joseph N

    2008-12-01

    Tests to ascertain pregnancy status are often obtained during preoperative evaluation, especially when there is a history of uncertain pregnancy or suggestion of current pregnancy. A serum pregnancy test, a beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG) level, was preoperatively obtained from a woman of childbearing age with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with an unreliable history of irregular menstruation coupled with unprotected sexual activity. The beta-HCG was elevated in the range indicating pregnancy. Further work-up showed that this hormonal elevation was secondary to ESRD without pregnancy.

  15. Phosphorus management in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Finn, William F

    2005-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease is an important public health problem, with an increasing number of patients worldwide. One important outcome of renal failure is disordered mineral metabolism, most notably involving calcium and phosphorus balance. Of importance is that increased serum phosphorus levels are associated with increased mortality rates. Despite dietary restrictions, patients receiving dialysis invariably experience hyperphosphatemia and require treatment with phosphate binders. Existing phosphate binders are effective in reducing serum phosphorus levels, but are associated with a number of important disadvantages. Lanthanum carbonate, a new noncalcium, nonaluminum phosphate binder, represents a promising treatment for hyperphosphatemia.

  16. Nutritional management of chronic renal disease in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Denise A

    2006-11-01

    Chronic renal disease is a leading cause of death in dogs and cats. Recent clinical studies show that nutrition plays a key role in improving quality of life and life expectancy of these patients. Typical nutritional interventions include modifying the protein, phosphorus, and lipid concentrations. Nutritional therapy, however, does not simply mean changing the diet; consideration must also be given to ensuring adequate caloric intake and to the method of feeding. Monitoring the effects of the dietary therapy is also crucial to ensure that the patients are responding appropriately to the selected nutritional modifications. Nutritional management must be coordinated with medical management for long term successful treatment.

  17. The End-Stage Renal Disease Program: Basis for the Army Organ Transplant Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-19

    NO.NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) THE END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE PROGRAM: BASIS FOR THE ARMY ORGAN TRANSPLANT PROGRAM 12. PERSONAL...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE BEST AVAILABLE COPY 8 9 BEST AvAILABLE COPY THE END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE PROGRAM: BASIS FOR THE ARMY ORGAN...Conditions Which Prompted the Study . .... . . . . . 4 Literature Review--End-Stage Renal Disease Program . 4 Technological Aspects .............. . 4

  18. Renovascular heart failure: heart failure in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kawarada, Osami; Yasuda, Satoshi; Noguchi, Teruo; Anzai, Toshihisa; Ogawa, Hisao

    2016-07-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery disease presents with a broad spectrum of clinical features, including heart failure as well as hypertension, and renal failure. Although recent randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate renal artery stenting can reduce blood pressure or the number of cardiovascular or renal events more so than medical therapy, increasing attention has been paid to flash pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure associated with atherosclerotic renal artery disease. This clinical entity "renovascular heart failure" is diagnosed retrospectively. Given the increasing global burden of heart failure, this review highlights the background and catheter-based therapeutic aspects for renovascular heart failure.

  19. Biophysical properties of normal and diseased renal glomeruli

    PubMed Central

    Wyss, Hans M.; Henderson, Joel M.; Byfield, Fitzroy J.; Bruggeman, Leslie A.; Ding, Yaxian; Huang, Chunfa; Suh, Jung Hee; Franke, Thomas; Mele, Elisa; Pollak, Martin R.; Miner, Jeffrey H.; Janmey, Paul A.; Weitz, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical properties of tissues and cells including renal glomeruli are important determinants of their differentiated state, function, and responses to injury but are not well characterized or understood. Understanding glomerular mechanics is important for understanding renal diseases attributable to abnormal expression or assembly of structural proteins and abnormal hemodynamics. We use atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a new technique, capillary micromechanics, to measure the elastic properties of rat glomeruli. The Young's modulus of glomeruli was 2,500 Pa, and it was reduced to 1,100 Pa by cytochalasin and latunculin, and to 1,400 Pa by blebbistatin. Cytochalasin or latrunculin reduced the F/G actin ratios of glomeruli but did not disrupt their architecture. To assess glomerular biomechanics in disease, we measured the Young's moduli of glomeruli from two mouse models of primary glomerular disease, Col4a3−/− mice (Alport model) and Tg26HIV/nl mice (HIV-associated nephropathy model), at stages where glomerular injury was minimal by histopathology. Col4a3−/− mice express abnormal glomerular basement membrane proteins, and Tg26HIV/nl mouse podocytes have multiple abnormalities in morphology, adhesion, and cytoskeletal structure. In both models, the Young's modulus of the glomeruli was reduced by 30%. We find that glomeruli have specific and quantifiable biomechanical properties that are dependent on the state of the actin cytoskeleton and nonmuscle myosins. These properties may be altered early in disease and represent an important early component of disease. This increased deformability of glomeruli could directly contribute to disease by permitting increased distension with hemodynamic force or represent a mechanically inhospitable environment for glomerular cells. PMID:21123730

  20. Bariatric Surgery as a Bridge to Renal Transplantation in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Bahri, Shadi; Fakhry, Tannous K; Gonzalvo, John Paul; Murr, Michel M

    2017-05-13

    Obesity is a relative contraindication to organ transplantation. Preliminary reports suggest that bariatric surgery may be used as a bridge to transplantation in patients who are not eligible for transplantation because of morbid obesity. The Bariatric Center at Tampa General Hospital, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida. We reviewed the outcomes of 16 consecutive patients on hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who underwent bariatric surgery from 1998 to 2016. Demographics, comorbidities, weight loss, as well as transplant status were reported. Data is mean ± SD. Six men and ten women aged 43-66 years (median = 54 years) underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB, n = 12), laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB, n = 3), or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG, n = 1). Preoperative BMI was 48 ± 8 kg/m(2). Follow-up to date was 1-10 years (median = 2.8 years); postoperative BMI was 31 ± 7 kg/m(2); %EBWL was 62 ± 24. Four patients underwent renal transplantation (25%) between 2.5-5 years after bariatric surgery. Five patients are currently listed for transplantation. Five patients were not listed for transplantation due to persistent comorbidities; two of these patients died as a consequence of their comorbidities (12.5%) more than 1 year after bariatric surgery. Two patients were lost to follow-up (12.5%). Bariatric surgery is effective in patients with ESRD and improves access to renal transplantation. Bariatric surgery offers a safe approach to weight loss and improvement in comorbidities in the majority of patients. Referrals of transplant candidates with obesity for bariatric surgery should be considered early in the course of ESRD.

  1. Automated Peritoneal Dialysis is Suitable for Polycystic Kidney Disease Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Ren, Hong; Xie, Jingyuan; Huang, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Chen, Nan

    2015-01-01

    A female patient with polycystic kidney disease (PKD) was treated with automated peritoneal dialysis when she reached end-stage renal disease. The patient has been doing very well on automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) for almost 6 years without peritonitis or abdominal hernias. Intra-abdominal pressures are lower in the supine position than in an erect or sitting position. Larger volumes of dialysate are better tolerated while the patient is supine, as during nocturnal APD. Therefore, APD is an option of the renal replacement therapy for patients with PKD.

  2. UAB HRFD Core Center: Core A: The Hepato/Renal Fibrocystic Diseases Translational Resource

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-23

    Hepato/Renal Fibrocystic Disease; Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease; Joubert Syndrome; Bardet Biedl Syndrome; Meckel-Gruber Syndrome; Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis; Caroli Syndrome; Oro-Facial-Digital Syndrome Type I; Nephronophthisis; Glomerulocystic Kidney Disease

  3. Transforming growth factor-β and the progression of renal disease.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Ivonne; Wolf, Gunter

    2014-02-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a profibrotic cytokine found in chronic renal diseases, which initiates and modulates a variety of pathophysiological processes. It is synthesized by many renal cell types and exerts its biological functions through a variety of signalling pathways, including the Smad and MAPK pathways. In renal diseases, TGF-β is upregulated and induces renal cells to produce extracellular matrix proteins leading to glomerulosclerosis as well as tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Different types of renal cells undergo different pathophysiological changes induced by TGF-β, leading to apoptosis, hypertrophy and abnormalities of podocyte foot processes, which ultimately result in renal dysfunction. In this review, we describe the effects of TGF-β on different renal cell types and the means by which TGF-β participates in the pathomechanisms of glomerular and tubulointerstitial diseases.

  4. Oral Manifestations of Chronic Kidney Disease and Renal Secondary Hyperparathyroidism: A Comparative Review.

    PubMed

    Davis, Eric M

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated that significant associations exist between oral disease and diseases involving non-oral tissues. Occasionally, the roles may be reversed and the oral cavity can be severely affected by systemic disease originating in another part of the body. Renal secondary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrinopathy that occurs as a consequence of chronic azotemic kidney disease. Renal osteodystrophy, the most dramatic clinical consequence of renal secondary hyperparathyroidism is uncommon, but can result in demineralization of maxillofacial bones, loosening of teeth, and pathological jaw fractures. The purpose of this report is to update the current understanding of the pathophysiology of this endocrine disease and to compare the oral manifestations of renal secondary hyperparathyroidism in humans and companion animals. A 50-year review of the veterinary literature was undertaken to examine the clinical presentation of renal osteodystrophy in dogs, and to determine what clinical consequences of renal secondary hyperparathyroidism have been reported in domestic cats.

  5. A review of renal disease in children with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Ankur Kumar; Tiewsoh, Karalanglin; Pilania, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-09-08

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. HIV-infected individuals are now surviving for a relatively longer period and this is because of easy accessibility to antiretroviral therapy these days. As a result, chronic disease-related complications are now being recognized more often. Kidney disease in HIV-infected children can vary from glomerular to tubular-interstitial involvement. We searched the database to identify various kidney diseases seen in HIV-infected children. We describe the epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathology, clinical and laboratory manifestations, management and outcome of commonly seen kidney disease in HIV-infected children. We also provide a brief overview of toxicity of antiretroviral drugs seen in HIV-infected children. Kidney involvement in HIV-infected children may arise because of HIV infection per se, opportunistic infections, immune mediated injury and drug toxicity. HIV-associated nephropathy is perhaps the most common and most severe form of kidney disease. Proteinuria may be a cost-effective screening test in the long-term management of HIV-infected children, however, there are no definite recommendations for the same. Other important renal diseases are HIV immune complex kidney disease, thrombotic microangiopathy, interstitial nephritis and vasculitis.

  6. Pattern of renal diseases among elderly Egyptians patients with acute or chronic renal diseases in Ain Shams University and Nasser Institute Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Adel M; Mady, Gamal E; Ahmad, Ahmad A; el-Shar-Kawy, Magdy E; Aly, Ahmad R; Khalil, Hazem H M

    2005-12-01

    This study among elderly renal Egyptian patients (n=220) with only 20 of them were subjected to renal biopsy. Results showed: diabetic nephropathy in 28.2%, hypertensive nephrosclerosis 25.5%, UTI, cystitis and pyelonephritis in 6.8%, renal stones in 5.9%, obstructive uropathy in 7.6%, simple cysts in 4.5%, CRF of unknown origin in 13.1%, and others in 26.4%. DM and HTN were S related to kidney function tests and increase in elderly. Other cardiovascular risk factors and smoking are reported by previous workers to be HS related to renal diseases. Age was significantly related to GFR, BUN and Cr. but sex difference was not significantly related to renal diseases. Multiple myeloma, lupus nephritis, vasculitis and hepatitis B were all recorded in few numbers of elderly Egyptians. HCV was more common and more likely to cause renal diseases. Abdomino-pelvic ultrasound was confirmatory to clinical renal diseases diagnosis. Among patients (n=20) biopsies showed focal necrotizing GN in 20%, membranous nephropathy in 50% and renal amyloidosis in 30%. CTIN was associated in some cases due to NSAID intake. Analgesic nephropathy was a common problem that might lead to ARF in some cases especially in the elderly. Ultrasound results among the biopsy group were confirmatory to clinical diagnosis.

  7. Renal sympathetic nerves - what have they got to do with cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed

    Barrett, Carolyn J

    2015-04-01

    What is the topic of this review? This review examines the role played by renal sympathetic nerves in the regulation of cardiovascular function, focusing on changes that occur during the development of hypertension and heart failure. What advances does it highlight? While elevated levels of renal sympathetic activity are a feature of many cardiovascular diseases, the relationship is not straightforward, especially in the case of hypertension. This review highlights that before consideration of targeting the renal nerves in the clinical management of cardiovascular diseases it is essential that their role in the development of the disease is established. In recent years, with the development of new clinical techniques to target the renal nerves specifically, we have seen a renewed interest in the role of the renal sympathetic nerves in the development of cardiovascular diseases. In understanding the potential of renal nerve ablation for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, first the role played by these nerves in cardiovascular regulation must be determined. Elevated renal sympathetic activity not only has the potential to increase fluid retention but may also act in a feedforward manner to increase sympathetic activation further, increasing the workload of the heart and the potential for arrhythmias. Direct recordings of renal sympathetic nerve activity in animal models of hypertension and renal noradrenaline spillover levels in individual patients with hypertension have illustrated that hypertension is not always accompanied by an increase in renal sympathetic activity. Elevated renal sympathetic nerve activity is a feature of severe heart failure, but whether removal of the renal nerves then compromises the ability to maintain cardiac function when faced with a stressor such as sepsis remains unclear. Understanding when increased renal sympathetic drive is contributing to the progression of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and heart failure would

  8. Renal diseases in adults with cystic fibrosis: a 40 year single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Wilcock, M J; Ruddick, A; Gyi, K M; Hodson, M E

    2015-10-01

    There is a sizable literature describing renal disease in patients with cystic fibrosis. Previous studies have focused on single disease processes alone, most commonly renal stone disease or acute kidney injury. In this study we report for the first time on the prevalence of all forms of renal disease in a cystic fibrosis population. A retrospective review of adult patients with cystic fibrosis attending the Adult Cystic Fibrosis Department at the Royal Brompton Hospital was carried out by searching the department's database to identify patients with renal problems and subsequently retrieving clinical information from medical notes. The prevalence of all renal diseases in our population was 5.1 %. The most commonly identified problem was renal stones. At 2.0 % the prevalence of renal stones in adult patients with cystic fibrosis was comparable to the general population. A range of other renal diseases were identified, the next most common being drug-induced acute kidney injury. A range of cystic fibrosis independent and attributable diseases has been identified but no cystic fibrosis specific disease. In contrast to other cystic fibrosis centres no increased prevalence of renal stones was found.

  9. Extracellular Vesicles in Renal Diseases: More than Novel Biomarkers?

    PubMed Central

    Le, Thu H.

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles from the urine and circulation have gained significant interest as potential diagnostic biomarkers in renal diseases. Urinary extracellular vesicles contain proteins from all sections of the nephron, whereas most studied circulating extracellular vesicles are derived from platelets, immune cells, and the endothelium. In addition to their diagnostic role as markers of kidney and vascular damage, extracellular vesicles may have functional significance in renal health and disease by facilitating communication between cells and protecting against kidney injury and bacterial infection in the urinary tract. However, the current understanding of extracellular vesicles has derived mostly from studies with very small numbers of patients or in vitro data. Moreover, accurate assessment of these vesicles remains a challenge, in part because of a lack of consensus in the methodologies to measure extracellular vesicles and the inability of most techniques to capture the entire size range of these vesicles. However, newer techniques and standardized protocols to improve the detection of extracellular vesicles are in development. A clearer understanding of the composition and biology of extracellular vesicles will provide insights into their pathophysiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic roles. PMID:26251351

  10. In vivo bone aluminum measurements in patients with renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, K.J.; Kelleher, S.P.

    1986-01-01

    Contamination of the dialysis solution with trace amounts of aluminum and long-term use of aluminum-based phosphate binders have led to increased body burden of aluminum in patients with end-stage renal disease. A significant clinical problem associated with aluminum-overload is the early diagnosis of aluminum-induced dialysis dementia and osteomalacic osteodystrophy. There are few, if any, blood or urine indices that provide an early monitor of this bone disease, especially in the asymptomatic patient. Although a bone biopsy is usually the basis for the final clinical diagnosis, this procedure is not recommended for routine monitoring of patients. The present technique demonstrates the direct in vivo measurement of bone aluminum levels in patients with renal failure. The interference normally present from activation of bone phosphorus is eliminated by using a thermal/epithermal neutron beam. For the clinical management of the patients, the Al/Ca ratio for the hand may be more useful than an absolute measurement of the total body or skeletal aluminum burden. The relationship between the increased serum Al levels following disferrioxamine infusion and the direct in vivo measurement of bone aluminum using the Al/Ca ratio are currently under investigation. The neutron activation procedure presented in this pilot study is a promising new technique with an immediate clinical application. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Neocytolysis Contributes to the Anemia of Renal Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Lawrence; Alfrey, Clarence P.; Driscoll, Theda; Whitley, Carl E.; Hachey, David; Suki, Wadi

    1997-01-01

    Neocytolysis is a recently described physiologic process effecting selective hemolysis of young red blood cells in circumstances of plethora. Erythropoietin depression appears to initiate the process, providing rationale to investigate its contributions to the anemia of renal disease. When erythropoietin therapy was withheld, four of five stable hemodialysis patients demonstrated Cr-51 red cell survival patterns indicative of neocytolysis; red cell survival was short in the first 9 days, then normalized. Two of these patients received oral (13)C-glycine and (15)N-glycine and showed pathologic enrichment of stool porphyrins by the most recently ingested isotope when EPO therapy was held. This confirms selective hemolysis of newly-released red cells. (One patient had chronic hemolysis by isotope studies of blood and stool.) Thus, neocytolysis can contribute to the anemia of renal disease and explains some unresolved issues about such anemia. One implication is the prediction that intravenous bolus erythropoietin therapy is metabolically and economically inefficient compared to lower doses given more frequently subcutaneously.

  12. Neocytolysis contributes to the anemia of renal disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, L.; Alfrey, C. P.; Driscoll, T.; Whitley, C. E.; Hachey, D. L.; Suki, W.

    1999-01-01

    Neocytolysis is a recently described physiological process affecting the selective hemolysis of young red blood cells in circumstances of plethora. Erythropoietin (EPO) depression appears to initiate the process, providing the rationale to investigate its contributions to the anemia of renal disease. When EPO therapy was withheld, four of five stable hemodialysis patients showed chromium 51 (51Cr)-red cell survival patterns indicative of neocytolysis; red cell survival was short in the first 9 days, then normalized. Two of these four patients received oral 13C-glycine and 15N-glycine, and there was a suggestion of pathological isotope enrichment of stool porphyrins when EPO therapy was held, again supporting selective hemolysis of newly released red cells that take up the isotope (one patient had chronic hemolysis indicated by isotope studies of blood and stool). Thus, neocytolysis can contribute to the anemia of renal disease and explain some unresolved issues about such anemia. One implication is the prediction that intravenous bolus EPO therapy is metabolically and economically inefficient compared with lower doses administered more frequently subcutaneously.

  13. Extracellular Vesicles in Renal Diseases: More than Novel Biomarkers?

    PubMed

    Erdbrügger, Uta; Le, Thu H

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles from the urine and circulation have gained significant interest as potential diagnostic biomarkers in renal diseases. Urinary extracellular vesicles contain proteins from all sections of the nephron, whereas most studied circulating extracellular vesicles are derived from platelets, immune cells, and the endothelium. In addition to their diagnostic role as markers of kidney and vascular damage, extracellular vesicles may have functional significance in renal health and disease by facilitating communication between cells and protecting against kidney injury and bacterial infection in the urinary tract. However, the current understanding of extracellular vesicles has derived mostly from studies with very small numbers of patients or in vitro data. Moreover, accurate assessment of these vesicles remains a challenge, in part because of a lack of consensus in the methodologies to measure extracellular vesicles and the inability of most techniques to capture the entire size range of these vesicles. However, newer techniques and standardized protocols to improve the detection of extracellular vesicles are in development. A clearer understanding of the composition and biology of extracellular vesicles will provide insights into their pathophysiologic, diagnostic, and therapeutic roles. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  14. Predictive factors for stone disease in patients with renal colic.

    PubMed

    Türk, Hakan; Ün, Sıtkı

    2017-06-30

    Many patients present to urology and emergency departments for acute renal colic complaints. There are many different imaging studies that can be used in patients with a pre-diagnosis of acute renal colic. In this study, we would like to assess the efficacy of using clinical and laboratory results in patients with flank pain complaint as a predictive factor of urinary system stone disease. All patients were assessed using spinal non-contrast complete abdominal computerized tomography and urine analysis. Presence of stones and their number and size were recorded. 516 patients who were included in the study were divided into 2 groups according to urinary stone presence. Group 1 (n = 388) consisted of patients with stones meanwhile patients in Group 2 (n = 128) were stone-free. According to these results, male sex, presence of microscopic hematuria, stone history in the family, nausea and emesis in addition to pain and accompanying urinary symptoms were detected as predictive factors in diagnosing urinary stone disease by multivariate analysis. From our study results, we can conclude that uroflowmetry is a very useful tool in monitoring lower urinary system complaints.

  15. Neocytolysis contributes to the anemia of renal disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, L.; Alfrey, C. P.; Driscoll, T.; Whitley, C. E.; Hachey, D. L.; Suki, W.

    1999-01-01

    Neocytolysis is a recently described physiological process affecting the selective hemolysis of young red blood cells in circumstances of plethora. Erythropoietin (EPO) depression appears to initiate the process, providing the rationale to investigate its contributions to the anemia of renal disease. When EPO therapy was withheld, four of five stable hemodialysis patients showed chromium 51 (51Cr)-red cell survival patterns indicative of neocytolysis; red cell survival was short in the first 9 days, then normalized. Two of these four patients received oral 13C-glycine and 15N-glycine, and there was a suggestion of pathological isotope enrichment of stool porphyrins when EPO therapy was held, again supporting selective hemolysis of newly released red cells that take up the isotope (one patient had chronic hemolysis indicated by isotope studies of blood and stool). Thus, neocytolysis can contribute to the anemia of renal disease and explain some unresolved issues about such anemia. One implication is the prediction that intravenous bolus EPO therapy is metabolically and economically inefficient compared with lower doses administered more frequently subcutaneously.

  16. Deep shadow occulter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, Webster (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for occulting light. The occulter shape suppresses diffraction at any given size or angle and is practical to build because it can be made binary to avoid scatter. Binary structures may be fully opaque or fully transmitting at specific points. The diffraction suppression is spectrally broad so that it may be used with incoherent white light. An occulter may also include substantially opaque inner portion and an at least partially transparent outer portion. Such occulters may be used on the ground to create a deep shadow in a short distance, or may be used in space to suppress starlight and reveal exoplanets.

  17. Therapeutic Apheresis in Immunologic Renal and Neurological Diseases.

    PubMed

    Bambauer, Rolf; Latza, Reinhard; Burgard, Daniel; Schiel, Ralf

    2017-02-01

    Since the mid 1970s, when membrane modules became available, plasma separation techniques have gained in importance especially in the past few years. The advantages of this method are a complete separation of the corpuscular components from the plasma and due to increased blood flow rate and higher efficacy. Systemic autoimmune diseases based on an immune pathogenesis produce autoantibodies and circulating immune complexes, which cause inflammation in the tissues of various organs. In most cases, these diseases have a poor prognosis without treatment. Therapeutic apheresis (TA) in combination with immunosuppressive therapies has led to a steady increase in survival rates over the last 40 years. The updated information on immunology and molecular biology of different immunologic diseases are discussed in relation to the rationale for apheresis therapy and its place in combination with other modern treatments. The different diseases can be treated by various apheresis methods such as therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) with substitution solution, or with online plasma or blood purification using adsorption columns, which contain biological or non-biological agents. Here, the authors provide an overview of the most important pathogenic aspects indicating that TA can be a supportive therapy in systemic autoimmune diseases such as renal and neurological disorders. For the immunological diseases that can be treated with TA, the guidelines of the German Working Group of Clinical Nephrology and of the Apheresis Committee of the American Society for Apheresis are cited.

  18. Therapeutic camping for children with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Warady, B A

    1994-06-01

    Therapeutic camping experiences for children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have proliferated in the United States and abroad. This report is based on the results of a survey designed to accumulate data on the development and implementation of 20 such camps. Children attending camp ranged in age from 1 year to 19 years. Single disease-specific camps were most common, while camps for children with a variety of chronic illnesses, including ESRD, and mainstream camps were also conducted. Facilities were available for hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, but not automated peritoneal dialysis, in the majority of surveyed camps. Dialysis nurses, pediatric nephrologists, dietitians and social workers were the medical personnel that most frequently participated in the camps. On average, 32 dialysis/transplant patient campers (range 6-100) attended camp for a 1-week session. Therapeutic camping experiences for children with ESRD are extremely successful and attempts to increase the availability of similar camps should be encouraged.

  19. Calciphylaxis in pediatric end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Imam, Abubakr A; Mattoo, Tej K; Kapur, Gaurav; Bloom, David A; Valentini, Rudolph P

    2005-12-01

    Calciphylaxis is a rare, but life-threatening complication of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) that has been reported mostly in adult patients. The exact etiology is unknown, but the disease is commonly associated with a high calcium-phosphorus product and elevated levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). We herein review the published reports on calciphylaxis in ESRD patients less than 18 years old and report the case of a patient with severe calciphylaxis who presented with lower extremity pain, muscle tenderness and difficulty in walking. The serum PTH was low, and the calcium-phosphorus product was normal. The diagnosis of calciphylaxis was confirmed by a muscle biopsy. Treatment with low calcium peritoneal dialysate and substitution of calcium-based phosphorus binders with sevelamer (Renagel) was unsuccessful. The patient's clinical condition progressed to extensive soft tissue calcification and ulcerating skin lesions. Nine months after the onset of symptoms, the patient died of cardiopulmonary arrest.

  20. Cardiovascular calcification in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Salusky, Isidro B; Goodman, William G

    2002-02-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among dialysis patients are substantially higher than in the general population. The reasons for this high incidence are multiple. They include traditional factors such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, sodium overload, and elevated homocysteine levels as well as disturbances of mineral metabolism, specifically abnormalities in phosphorus and calcium homeostasis. This review will describe the specific cardiovascular complications related to calcifications in ESRD, the implications of the abnormalities of mineral metabolism in its pathogenesis and the current imaging techniques available for the detection of cardiovascular calcifications. Excess of calcium load contributes to the development of cardiac calcifications; therefore, alternative strategies to diminish exogenous calcium load should be considered in patients with ESRD.

  1. Renal replacement therapy in Latin American end-stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Diez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Marinovich, Sergio; Fernandez, Sdenka; Lugon, Jocemir; Poblete-Badal, Hugo; Elgueta-Miranda, Susana; Gomez, Rafael; Cerdas-Calderon, Manuel; Almaguer-Lopez, Miguel; Freire, Nelly; Leiva-Merino, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Gaspar; Luna-Guerra, Jorge; Bochicchio, Tomasso; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Cano, Nuria; Iron, Norman; Cuero, Cesar; Cuevas, Dario; Tapia, Carlos; Cangiano, Jose; Rodriguez, Sandra; Gonzalez, Haydee; Duro-Garcia, Valter

    2014-01-01

    The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplant Registry (RLADTR) was founded in 1991; it collects data from 20 countries which are members of Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nefrología e Hipertension. This paper presents the results corresponding to the year 2010. This study is an annual survey requesting data on incident and prevalent patients undergoing renal replacement treatment (RRT) in all modalities: hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and living with a functioning graft (LFG), etc. Prevalence and incidence were compared with previous years. The type of renal replacement therapy was analyzed, with special emphasis on PD and transplant (Tx). These variables were correlated with the gross national income (GNI) and the life expectancy at birth. Twenty countries participed in the surveys, covering 99% of the Latin American. The prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) under RRT in Latin America (LA) increased from 119 patients per million population (pmp) in 1991 to 660 pmp in 2010 (HD 413 pmp, PD 135 pmp and LFG 111 pmp). HD proportionally increased more than PD, and Tx HD continues to be the treatment of choice in the region (75%). The kidney Tx rate increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 6.9 pmp in 1991 and to 19.1 in 2010. The total number of Tx's in 2010 was 10 397, with 58% deceased donors. The total RRT prevalence correlated positively with GNI (r2 0.86; P < 0.05) and life expectancy at birth (r2 0.58; P < 0.05). The HD prevalence and the kidney Tx rate correlated significantly with the same indexes, whereas the PD rate showed no correlation with these variables. A tendency to rate stabilization/little growth was reported in the most regional countries. As in previous reports, the global incidence rate correlated significantly only with GNI (r2 0.63; P < 0.05). Diabetes remained the leading cause of ESRD. The most frequent causes of death were cardiovascular (45%) and infections (22%). Neoplasms accounted for 10% of the causes of death. The

  2. Renal replacement therapy in Latin American end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Diez, Guillermo; Gonzalez-Bedat, Maria; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Marinovich, Sergio; Fernandez, Sdenka; Lugon, Jocemir; Poblete-Badal, Hugo; Elgueta-Miranda, Susana; Gomez, Rafael; Cerdas-Calderon, Manuel; Almaguer-Lopez, Miguel; Freire, Nelly; Leiva-Merino, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Gaspar; Luna-Guerra, Jorge; Bochicchio, Tomasso; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Cano, Nuria; Iron, Norman; Cuero, Cesar; Cuevas, Dario; Tapia, Carlos; Cangiano, Jose; Rodriguez, Sandra; Gonzalez, Haydee; Duro-Garcia, Valter

    2014-08-01

    The Latin American Dialysis and Renal Transplant Registry (RLADTR) was founded in 1991; it collects data from 20 countries which are members of Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nefrología e Hipertension. This paper presents the results corresponding to the year 2010. This study is an annual survey requesting data on incident and prevalent patients undergoing renal replacement treatment (RRT) in all modalities: hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) and living with a functioning graft (LFG), etc. Prevalence and incidence were compared with previous years. The type of renal replacement therapy was analyzed, with special emphasis on PD and transplant (Tx). These variables were correlated with the gross national income (GNI) and the life expectancy at birth. Twenty countries participed in the surveys, covering 99% of the Latin American. The prevalence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) under RRT in Latin America (LA) increased from 119 patients per million population (pmp) in 1991 to 660 pmp in 2010 (HD 413 pmp, PD 135 pmp and LFG 111 pmp). HD proportionally increased more than PD, and Tx HD continues to be the treatment of choice in the region (75%). The kidney Tx rate increased from 3.7 pmp in 1987 to 6.9 pmp in 1991 and to 19.1 in 2010. The total number of Tx's in 2010 was 10 397, with 58% deceased donors. The total RRT prevalence correlated positively with GNI (r(2) 0.86; P < 0.05) and life expectancy at birth (r(2) 0.58; P < 0.05). The HD prevalence and the kidney Tx rate correlated significantly with the same indexes, whereas the PD rate showed no correlation with these variables. A tendency to rate stabilization/little growth was reported in the most regional countries. As in previous reports, the global incidence rate correlated significantly only with GNI (r(2) 0.63; P < 0.05). Diabetes remained the leading cause of ESRD. The most frequent causes of death were cardiovascular (45%) and infections (22%). Neoplasms accounted for 10% of the causes of death. The

  3. Renal vascular disease: pathology of large blood vessel disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ratliff, N.B.

    1985-04-01

    Lesions of the extrarenal arteries which are associated with hypertension are described. Included are descriptions of the development, stages, and complications of atherosclerotic plaques; intimal fibroplasia and the medial fibromuscular dysplasias; Takayasu's aortitis; radiation injury; and a newly described arterial disease, medial agenesis. Also described is the development of atherosclerosis in saphenous vein bypass grafts and the effects of transluminal angioplasty. 28 references.

  4. Twenty-eight-year review of childhood renal diseases from renal biopsy data: A single centre in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mengjie; Xiao, Zizheng; Rong, Liping; Xu, Yuanyuan; Chen, Lizhi; Mo, Ying; Sun, Liangzhong; Sun, Wei; Jiang, Xiaoyun

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics of biopsy-proven childhood renal diseases and to compare the trends and changes during two different time intervals between 1984 and 2011 at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University in China. We retrospectively analyzed kidney biopsy data from children with renal diseases and compared the data during two time intervals, namely 1984-1997 and 1998-2011. A total of 1313 children were enrolled in the present study. There were 921 children with primary glomerular disease (PGD) and 312 children with secondary glomerular disease (SGD), accounting for 70.1% and 23.8% of participants, respectively. The major clinical manifestation of PGD was nephrotic syndrome (NS), which accounted for 31.2% of cases, while the main aetiology of SGD was lupus nephritis (40.7%). The main biopsy patterns of PGD were IgA nephritis (27.6%), minimal change disease (24.0%), and mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (16.9%). PGD was the major class of disease in both time intervals, but the ratio of PGD decreased over time, while the ratio of SGD and other glomerular diseases increased. PGD was also the major class of disease in each age group; however, the incidence of PGD decreased with increasing age. The incidence patterns of paediatric renal diseases changed over the 28-year period of this study. Our results show that different renal diseases characterize different age intervals. Furthermore, there are several associations between clinical presentation and biopsy features in childhood renal disease. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  5. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma, with a radiographically occult primary tumor, presenting in the operative site of a thoracic meningioma: long-term follow-up: Case report.

    PubMed

    Heary, Robert F; Agarwal, Nitin; Barrese, James C; Barry, Maureen T; Baisre, Ada

    2014-10-01

    Lesions metastatic to the site of a meningioma resection from a different primary tumor are rare. Metastasis of a tumor without a known primary tumor is also rare. Metastasis of a renal cell carcinoma, without an identifiable primary tumor, to the bed of a meningioma resection has not been previously reported. The authors describe the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with decreased sensory and motor function in the lower extremities. He underwent T3-5 laminectomies and gross-total removal of an intradural, extramedullary meningioma. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient regained full neurological function. After a 3-year period, he developed progressive upper thoracic pain and lower-extremity paresthesias. Imaging studies showed an epidural mass at the T2-4 levels and what appeared to be blastic involvement of the T2-4 vertebrae. A metastatic workup was negative. Emergency revision laminectomies yielded a fibrous, nonvascular mass. Neuropathology was consistent with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. After 6 months, the patient's symptoms of pain and paresthesias recurred. Repeat excision, with decompression of the spinal cord, revealed tumor cells morphologically and immunophenotypically similar to those obtained from the prior surgery. Cytogenetic analysis confirmed the presence of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. A novel case of an epidural metastatic renal cell carcinoma, of unknown primary origin, in the same operative bed of a previously resected intradural, extramedullary meningioma of the thoracic spine is reported.

  6. Occult Congenital Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in Two Adults Presenting with Collecting System Rupture After Blunt Renal Trauma: A Case Report Series

    PubMed Central

    Hoffner, Haley E.; Dagrosa, Lawrence M.; Pais, Vernon M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report two adult cases of congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction detected incidentally in the setting of blunt abdominal trauma. CT images are provided to describe the presentation, while review of the literature and management of renal trauma are discussed. PMID:27579396

  7. United States Renal Data System public health surveillance of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Collins, Allan J; Foley, Robert N; Gilbertson, David T; Chen, Shu-Cheng

    2015-06-01

    The United States Renal Data System (USRDS) began in 1989 through US Congressional authorization under National Institutes of Health competitive contracting. Its history includes five contract periods, two of 5 years, two of 7.5 years, and the fifth, awarded in February 2014, of 5 years. Over these 25 years, USRDS reporting transitioned from basic incidence and prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), modalities, and overall survival, as well as focused special studies on dialysis, in the first two contract periods to a comprehensive assessment of aspects of care that affect morbidity and mortality in the second two periods. Beginning in 1999, the Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation investigative team transformed the USRDS into a total care reporting system including disease severity, hospitalizations, pediatric populations, prescription drug use, and chronic kidney disease and the transition to ESRD. Areas of focus included issues related to death rates in the first 4 months of treatment, sudden cardiac death, ischemic and valvular heart disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and infectious complications (particularly related to dialysis catheters) in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients; the burden of congestive heart failure and infectious complications in pediatric dialysis and transplant populations; and morbidity and access to care. The team documented a plateau and decline in incidence rates, a 28% decline in death rates since 2001, and changes under the 2011 Prospective Payment System with expanded bundled payments for each dialysis treatment. The team reported on Bayesian methods to calculate mortality ratios, which reduce the challenges of traditional methods, and introduced objectives under the Health People 2010 and 2020 national health care goals for kidney disease.

  8. United States Renal Data System public health surveillance of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Allan J; Foley, Robert N; Gilbertson, David T; Chen, Shu-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The United States Renal Data System (USRDS) began in 1989 through US Congressional authorization under National Institutes of Health competitive contracting. Its history includes five contract periods, two of 5 years, two of 7.5 years, and the fifth, awarded in February 2014, of 5 years. Over these 25 years, USRDS reporting transitioned from basic incidence and prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), modalities, and overall survival, as well as focused special studies on dialysis, in the first two contract periods to a comprehensive assessment of aspects of care that affect morbidity and mortality in the second two periods. Beginning in 1999, the Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation investigative team transformed the USRDS into a total care reporting system including disease severity, hospitalizations, pediatric populations, prescription drug use, and chronic kidney disease and the transition to ESRD. Areas of focus included issues related to death rates in the first 4 months of treatment, sudden cardiac death, ischemic and valvular heart disease, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and infectious complications (particularly related to dialysis catheters) in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients; the burden of congestive heart failure and infectious complications in pediatric dialysis and transplant populations; and morbidity and access to care. The team documented a plateau and decline in incidence rates, a 28% decline in death rates since 2001, and changes under the 2011 Prospective Payment System with expanded bundled payments for each dialysis treatment. The team reported on Bayesian methods to calculate mortality ratios, which reduce the challenges of traditional methods, and introduced objectives under the Health People 2010 and 2020 national health care goals for kidney disease. PMID:26097778

  9. Obesity end stage renal disease and survival in an elderly cohort with cardiovascular disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity is highly prevalent in African-Americans and is associated with increased risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD) and death. It is not known if the effect of obesity is similar among Blacks and whites. The aim of this study is to examine racial differences in the association of obesity with E...

  10. End-stage renal disease associated with prophylactic lithium treatment.

    PubMed

    Aiff, Harald; Attman, Per-Ola; Aurell, Mattias; Bendz, Hans; Schön, Staffan; Svedlund, Jan

    2014-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of lithium associated end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and to compare the relative risk of ESRD in lithium users versus non-lithium users. Second, the role of lithium in the pathogenesis of ESRD was evaluated. We used the Swedish Renal Registry to search for lithium-treated patients with ESRD among 2644 patients with chronic renal replacement therapy (RRT)-either dialysis or transplantation, within two defined geographical areas in Sweden with 2.8 million inhabitants. The prevalence date was December 31, 2010. We found 30 ESRD patients with a history of lithium treatment. ESRD with RRT was significantly more prevalent among lithium users than among non-lithium users (p<0.001). The prevalence of ESRD with RRT in the lithium user population was 15.0‰ (95% CI 9.7-20.3), and close to two percent of the RRT population were lithium users. The relative risk of ESRD with RRT in the lithium user population compared with the general population was 7.8 (95% CI 5.4-11.1). Out of those 30 patients, lithium use was classified, based on chart reviews, as being the sole (n=14) or main (n=10) cause of ESRD in 24 cases. Their mean age at the start of RRT was 66 years (46-82), their mean time on lithium 27 years (12-39), and 22 of them had been on lithium for 15 years or more. We conclude that lithium-associated ESRD is an uncommon but not rare complication of lithium treatment.

  11. Cardiac complications of end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Burke, S W; Solomon, A J

    2000-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients receiving dialysis. This is attributed in part to the shared risk factors of cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease. The risk factors for coronary artery disease include the classic cardiac risk factors of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and smoking. Also in this population, hyperparathyroidism, hypoalbuminemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, elevated levels of apolipoprotein (a), and the type of dialysis membrane may play a role. Management begins with risk factor modification and medical therapy including aspirin, beta blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and lipid-lowering agents. Revascularization is often important, and coronary artery bypass grafting appears to be preferable to percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. This is especially true for those with multivessel disease, impaired left ventricular function, severe symptoms, or ischemia. Congestive heart failure is another common problem in dialysis patients. The management includes correction of underlying abnormalities, optimal dialysis, and medical therapy. Data obtained from the general population indicate obvious benefits from ACE inhibitors and beta blockers, and these agents would be considered the therapies of choice. Erythropoetin is also an essential component of therapy, but the ideal hemoglobin concentration has yet to be determined. Peritoneal dialysis may be helpful in severe cases of heart failure. Pericarditis is seen in less than 10% of dialysis patients and is best diagnosed by clinical examination and echocardiography. Intensive dialysis is often the best initial therapy. Pericardiocentesis is reserved for the setting of pericardial tamponade, but a pericardial window is more definitive.

  12. Renal relevant radiology: radiologic imaging in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic; Mittal, Ankush; Mittal, Pardeep; Chapman, Arlene

    2014-02-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease is a systemic disorder and the most common hereditary renal disease, which is characterized by cyst growth, progressive renal enlargement, and development of renal failure. The cystic nature of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and its renal and extrarenal complications (kidney stones, cyst hemorrhage, intracerebral aneurysm, liver cysts, cardiac valve abnormalities, etc.) give radiologic imaging studies a central role in the management of these patients. This article reviews the indications, comparative use, and limitation of various imaging modalities (ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, computerized tomography scan, Positron emission tomography scan, and renal scintigraphy) for the diagnosis and management of complications in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Finally, this work provides evidence for the value of total kidney volume to predict disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

  13. Renal Relevant Radiology: Radiologic Imaging in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic; Mittal, Ankush; Mittal, Pardeep

    2014-01-01

    Summary Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease is a systemic disorder and the most common hereditary renal disease, which is characterized by cyst growth, progressive renal enlargement, and development of renal failure. The cystic nature of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and its renal and extrarenal complications (kidney stones, cyst hemorrhage, intracerebral aneurysm, liver cysts, cardiac valve abnormalities, etc.) give radiologic imaging studies a central role in the management of these patients. This article reviews the indications, comparative use, and limitation of various imaging modalities (ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, computerized tomography scan, Positron emission tomography scan, and renal scintigraphy) for the diagnosis and management of complications in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Finally, this work provides evidence for the value of total kidney volume to predict disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. PMID:24370765

  14. The natural history of renal disease in Australian Aborigines. Part 2. Albuminuria predicts natural death and renal failure.

    PubMed

    Hoy, W E; Wang, Z; VanBuynder, P; Baker, P R; McDonald, S M; Mathews, J D

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship of albuminuria and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with natural death and renal failure in an Australian Aboriginal community with high rates of renal disease. Study subjects were 825 adults (18+ years, mean 33.6 years) or 88% of adults in a remote community who participated in a health screening program offered between 1990 and 1997. The urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR; g/mol) was used as the renal disease marker. Participants were followed for 1.0 to 9.8 years (mean 5.8 years) until renal failure, death, the start of systematic antihypertensive/renal-protective treatment or June 30, 2000. Sixty-five people reached a terminal end point of renal failure or natural death. Sixteen people developed terminal renal failure, all of whom had an ACR of 34+ at baseline exam. There were 49 other natural deaths, which were also strongly correlated with increasing ACR and decreasing GFR over a wide range. This was observed in people without diabetes and in people with normal and elevated blood pressures. It applied to deaths associated with cardiovascular disease and to deaths without an assigned primary or underlying cardiovascular or renal cause. With adjustment for age, the association with death was more robust with ACR than GFR. When compared with people with an ACR <3.4, the hazard ratio (HR; 95% CI) for nonrenal natural death of persons with an ACR 3.4 to 33 was 3.0 (1.1 to 8.4), with an ACR 34 to 99, it was 5.4 (1.8 to 15.9), and with an ACR 100+, it was 6.5 (2.0 to 21). Regression equations predicted that each tenfold increase in the ACR was associated with a 3.7-fold increase in all-cause natural death: a> 400-fold increase in renal deaths, a 4-fold increase in cardiovascular deaths, and a 2.2-fold increase in nonrenal noncardiovascular deaths. Eighty-four percent of all-cause natural death was associated with pathologic albuminuria. All renal failure develops out of a background of persistent

  15. Role of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system in the progression of renal disease.

    PubMed

    Urushihara, Maki; Kagami, Shoji

    2016-07-05

    The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has many well-documented pathophysiologic functions in both blood pressure regulation and renal disease development. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the major bioactive product of the RAS. It induces inflammation, renal cell growth, mitogenesis, apoptosis, migration, and differentiation. In addition, Ang II regulates the gene expression of bioactive substances and activates multiple intracellular signaling pathways that are involved in renal damage. Activation of the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor pathway results in the production of proinflammatory mediators, intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species, cell proliferation, and extracellular matrix synthesis, which in turn facilities renal injury. Involvement of angiotensinogen (AGT) in intrarenal RAS activation and development of renal disease has previously been reported. Moreover, studies have demonstrated that the urinary excretion rates of AGT provide a specific index of the intrarenal RAS status. Enhanced intrarenal AGT levels have been observed in experimental models of renal disease, supporting the concept that AGT plays an important role in the development and progression of renal disease. In this review, we focus on the role of intrarenal RAS activation in the pathophysiology of renal disease. Additionally, we explored the potential of urinary AGT as a novel biomarker of intrarenal RAS status in renal disease.

  16. Reversible dialysis-dependent renal failure due to undiagnosed renovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Jha, R; Gude, D; Narayan, G; Mandal, S N; Gupta, P C

    2012-07-01

    Renovascular disease (RVD) can present with resistant hypertension, acute or rapidly progressive renal failure and occasionally nephrotic proteinuria. Revascularization plays an important role in controlling blood pressure and preserving renal function. It is widely believed that delay in revascularization would result in irreversible loss of renal function. However, we report a favorable outcome despite delayed revascularization in two patients of RVD- one presenting with recurrent flash pulmonary edema and other with progressive renal failure. The former's serum creatinine returned to normal despite 3 months of anuria and the latter became dialysis-independent despite 2 months of progressive decline in renal function. Both remain dialysis-free 3 years after surgery.

  17. Peripheral artery disease: a cause of refractory hypertension after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dourado, Raquel; Gonçalves, Pedro de Araújo; Almeida, Manuel; Weigert, André; Bruges, Margarida; Gaspar, Augusta; Negrão, Acácio Pita; Machado, Domingos; Clemente, Belarmino; Teles, Rui; Machado, Francisco Pereira; Silva, Aniceto

    2008-03-01

    The authors report the case of a 44-year-old man, with a history of hypertension, smoking, peripheral artery disease and chronic renal failure. After renal transplantation, the patient developed persistent high blood pressure, despite optimal medical therapy. When angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy was begun, he developed acute anuric renal failure, which was reversed after interruption of the ACE inhibitor. After the initial clinical evaluation, the patient was referred for renal angiography, which revealed critical stenosis of the proximal left common iliac artery, just above the renal graft artery anastomosis. The patient underwent successful angioplasty and stenting of the lesion, with complete normalization of blood pressure.

  18. Renal autotransplantation for vascular disease: late outcome according to etiology.

    PubMed

    Chiche, Laurent; Kieffer, Edouard; Sabatier, Jean; Colau, Alexandre; Koskas, Fabien; Bahnini, Amine

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the early and late outcomes of renal autotransplantation (RAT) according to the etiology of the underlying renal artery disease. Between January 1985 and April 2001, we performed 68 RAT procedures in 57 patients. The surgical indications were fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) for 34 RAT procedures in 30 patients (11 men, 19 women; mean age, 41.3 +/- 14.6 years), Takayasu's disease (TD) for 26 RAT procedures in 19 patients (five men, 14 women; mean age, 33.0 +/- 12.3 years), and atherosclerosis for eight RAT procedures in eight patients (seven men, one woman; mean age, 66.5 +/- 7.9 years). The incidence rate of hypertension was 87% in patients with FMD and 100% in patients with TD and atherosclerosis. The incidence rate of renal dysfunction was 75% in patients with atherosclerosis, 27% in patients with FMD, and 16% in patients with TD. Autotransplantation was isolated in 31 cases and was associated with another vascular procedure in 37 cases, including 22 thoracoabdominal aorta repairs and 11 abdominal aorta or iliac artery repairs. The technique used to achieve renal revascularization was direct reimplantation in 17 cases and indirect reimplantation in 51 cases. The conduit used for indirect reimplantation was an arterial autograft in 42 cases, a vein autograft in seven cases, and a prosthetic graft in two cases. Simultaneous revascularization of the contralateral kidney was performed in 21 patients and included nine RAT procedures. Contralateral nephrectomy was performed in five patients. In the FMD group, early segmental infarction was observed in four cases. Secondary nephrectomy was necessary in one case (at 88 months). Actuarial survival rates were 96.2% +/- 0.03% at 5 years and 84.1% +/- 0.11% at 10 years. Secondary patency rates were 100% at 5 years and 92% +/- 0.07% at 10 years. Hypertension normalized or improved in 96% of patients. Renal function improved in 50% of patients. In the TD group, one patient died of

  19. Reversal of end-stage renal disease after aortic dissection using renal artery stent: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Andrew S; Ludkowski, Michael; Parikh, Chirag R

    2004-01-01

    Background Medical management is the conventional treatment for Stanford Type B aortic dissections as surgery is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The advent of endovascular interventional techniques has revived interest in treating end-organ complications of Type B aortic dissection. We describe a patient who benefited from endovascular repair of renal artery stenosis caused by a dissection flap, which resulted in reversal of his end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Case presentation A 69 y/o male with a Type B aortic dissection diagnosed two months earlier was found to have a serum creatinine of 15.2 mg/dL (1343.7 μmol/L) on routine visit to his primary care physician. An MRA demonstrated a rightward spiraling aortic dissection flap involving the origins of the celiac artery, superior mesenteric artery, and both renal arteries. The right renal artery arose from the false lumen with lack of blood flow to the right kidney. The left renal artery arose from the true lumen, but an intimal dissection flap appeared to be causing an intermittent stenosis of the left renal artery with compromised blood flow to the left kidney. Endovascular reconstruction with of the left renal artery with stent placement was performed. Hemodialysis was successfully discontinued six weeks after stent placement. Conclusion Percutaneous intervention provides a promising alternative for patients with Type B aortic dissections when medical treatment will not improve the likelihood of meaningful recovery and surgery entails too great a risk. Nephrologists should therefore be aggressive in the workup of ischemic renal failure associated with aortic dissection as percutaneous intervention may reverse the effects of renal failure in this population. PMID:15125782

  20. Improvement of adynamic bone disease after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, K A; Jorgetti, V; Pereira, R C; Reis, L M dos; Pereira, L M; Corrêa, P H S; Borelli, A; Ianhez, L E; Moysés, R M A; David-Neto, E

    2006-01-01

    Low bone remodeling and relatively low serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels characterize adynamic bone disease (ABD). The impact of renal transplantation (RT) on the course of ABD is unknown. We studied prospectively 13 patients with biopsy-proven ABD after RT. Bone histomorphometry and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed in the 1st and 12th months after RT. Serum PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and osteocalcin were measured regularly throughout the study. Serum PTH levels were slightly elevated at transplantation, normalized at the end of the third month and remained stable thereafter. Bone biopsies performed in the first month after RT revealed low bone turnover in all patients, with positive bone aluminum staining in 5. In the 12th month, second biopsies were performed on 12 patients. Bone histomorphometric dynamic parameters improved in 9 and were completely normalized in 6, whereas no bone mineralization was detected in 3 of these 12 patients. At 12 months post-RT, no bone aluminum was detected in any patient. We also found a decrease in lumbar BMD and an increase in femoral BMD. Patients suffering from ABD, even those with a reduction in PTH levels, may present partial or complete recovery of bone turnover after successful renal transplantation. However, it is not possible to positively identify the mechanisms responsible for the improvement. Identifying these mechanisms should lead to a better understanding of the physiopathology of ABD and to the development of more effective treatments.

  1. Thrombotic Microangiopathy in Inverted Formin 2-Mediated Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Challis, Rachel C; Ring, Troels; Xu, Yaobo; Wong, Edwin K S; Flossmann, Oliver; Roberts, Ian S D; Ahmed, Saeed; Wetherall, Michael; Salkus, Giedrius; Brocklebank, Vicky; Fester, Julian; Strain, Lisa; Wilson, Valerie; Wood, Katrina M; Marchbank, Kevin J; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Goodship, Timothy H J; Kavanagh, David

    2017-04-01

    The demonstration of impaired C regulation in the thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) resulted in the successful introduction of the C inhibitor eculizumab into clinical practice. C abnormalities account for approximately 50% of aHUS cases; however, mutations in the non-C gene diacylglycerol kinase-ε have been described recently in individuals not responsive to eculizumab. We report here a family in which the proposita presented with aHUS but did not respond to eculizumab. Her mother had previously presented with a post-renal transplant TMA. Both the proposita and her mother also had Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a mutation in the inverted formin 2 gene (INF2) in the mutational hotspot for FSGS. Subsequent analysis of the Newcastle aHUS cohort identified another family with a functionally-significant mutation in INF2 In this family, renal transplantation was associated with post-transplant TMA. All individuals with INF2 mutations presenting with a TMA also had aHUS risk haplotypes, potentially accounting for the genetic pleiotropy. Identifying individuals with TMAs who may not respond to eculizumab will avoid prolonged exposure of such individuals to the infectious complications of terminal pathway C blockade.

  2. Chromogranin A Polymorphisms Are Associated With Hypertensive Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Rany M.; Cadman, Peter E.; Chen, Yuqing; Rao, Fangwen; Wen, Gen; Hamilton, Bruce A.; Rana, Brinda K.; Smith, Douglas W.; Stridsberg, Mats; Ward, Harry J.; Mahata, Manjula; Mahata, Sushi K.; Bowden, Donald W.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Freedman, Barry I.; Schork, Nicholas J.; O'Connor, Daniel T.

    2008-01-01

    Chromogranin A is released together with epinephrine and norepinephrine from catecholaminergic cells. Specific endopeptidases cleave chromogranin A into biologically active peptide fragments, including catestatin, which inhibits catecholamine release. Previous studies have suggested that a deficit in this sympathetic “braking” system might be an early event in the pathogenesis of human hypertension. Whether chromogranin A (CHGA) polymorphisms predict end-organ complications of hypertension, such as end-stage renal disease, is unknown. Among blacks, we studied common genetic variants spanning the CHGA locus in 2 independent case-control studies of hypertensive ESRD. Two haplotypes were significantly more frequent among subjects with hypertensive ESRD: 1) in the promoter (5′) region, G-462A→T-415C→C-89A, haplotype ATC (adjusted odds ratio = 2.65; P = 0.037), and 2) at the 3′-end, C11825T (3′-UTR, C+87T)→G12602C, haplotype TC (adjusted odds ratio = 2.73, P = 0.0196). Circulating levels of catestatin were lower among those with hypertensive ESRD than controls, an unexpected finding given that peptide levels are usually elevated in ESRD because of reduced renal elimination. We found that the 3′-UTR + 87T variant decreased reporter gene expression, providing a possible mechanistic explanation for diminished catestatin. In summary, common variants in chromogranin A associate with the risk of hypertensive ESRD in blacks. PMID:18235090

  3. Acute kidney injury: Renal disease in the ICU.

    PubMed

    Seller-Pérez, G; Más-Font, S; Pérez-Calvo, C; Villa-Díaz, P; Celaya-López, M; Herrera-Gutiérrez, M E

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) in the ICU frequently requires costly supportive therapies, has high morbidity, and its long-term prognosis is not as good as it has been presumed so far. Consequently, AKI generates a significant burden for the healthcare system. The problem is that AKI lacks an effective treatment and the best approach relies on early secondary prevention. Therefore, to facilitate early diagnosis, a broader definition of AKI should be established, and a marker with more sensitivity and early-detection capacity than serum creatinine - the most common marker of AKI - should be identified. Fortunately, new classification systems (RIFLE, AKIN or KDIGO) have been developed to solve these problems, and the discovery of new biomarkers for kidney injury will hopefully change the way we approach renal patients. As a first step, the concept of renal failure has changed from being a "static" disease to being a "dynamic process" that requires continuous evaluation of kidney function adapted to the reality of the ICU patient.

  4. [Treatment of bone disease in chronic kidney disease and in renal transplant recipients under K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines].

    PubMed

    Tokumoto, Tadahiko; Tanabe, Kazunari; Toma, Hiroshi; Akiba, Takashi

    2004-05-01

    The National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) provides evidence based clinical practice guidelines developed for all phases of kidney disease and related complications, from diagnosis to monitoring and management. Bone disease sets in during the early stages of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Bone disease is observed in almost patients with chronic renal failure and after renal transplantation. Hyperparathyroid (high turnover) bone disease in patients with chronic renal failure is found most frequently followed by mixed osteodystrophy, low-turn over bone disease, and osteomalasia. Ninety to one hundred percent of kidney transplant patients have histological evidence of osteodystrophy and osteopenia (reduction of bone mass) following renal transplantation. Furthermore, osteoporosis is also appeared in many renal transplant recipients. After renal transplantation, renal osteodystrophy generally improves but bone mineral density (BMD) often worsens. When renal bone disease is assessed using a combination of biochemical markers, histology and bone densitometry, early intervention and carefully effective therapies might be reduced the morbidity associated with these common problems.

  5. 77 FR 34047 - Medicare Program; Proposal Evaluation Criteria and Standards for End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... and Standards for End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Network Organizations AGENCY: Centers for Medicare... procedures we will use to evaluate an End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Network Organization's capabilities to perform, and actual performance of, the duties and functions under the ESRD Network Statement of Work (SOW...

  6. Care of the Patient with Renal Disease: Peritoneal Dialysis and Transplants, Nursing 321A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulburd, Kimberly

    A description is provided of a course, "Care of the Patient with Renal Disease," offered at the community college level to prepare licensed registered nurses to care for patients with renal disease, including instruction in performing the treatments of peritoneal dialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The first…

  7. Care of the Patient with Renal Disease: Peritoneal Dialysis and Transplants, Nursing 321A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulburd, Kimberly

    A description is provided of a course, "Care of the Patient with Renal Disease," offered at the community college level to prepare licensed registered nurses to care for patients with renal disease, including instruction in performing the treatments of peritoneal dialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The first…

  8. 77 FR 40951 - Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Quality Incentive Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... replaced the basic case-mix adjusted composite payment system and the methodologies for the reimbursement... 42 CFR Parts 413 and 417 Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System... Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Quality Incentive Program, and Bad Debt...

  9. Developments in renal pharmacogenomics and applications in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Padullés, Ariadna; Rama, Inés; Llaudó, Inés; Lloberas, Núria

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has shown an increasing prevalence in the last century. CKD encompasses a poor prognosis related to a remarkable number of comorbidities, and many patients suffer from this disease progression. Once the factors linked with CKD evolution are distinguished, it will be possible to provide and enhance a more intensive treatment to high-risk patients. In this review, we focus on the emerging markers that might be predictive or related to CKD progression physiopathology as well as those related to a different pattern of response to treatment, such as inhibitors of the renin–angiotensin system (including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers; the vitamin D receptor agonist; salt sensitivity hypertension; and progressive kidney-disease markers with identified genetic polymorphisms). Candidate-gene association studies and genome-wide association studies have analyzed the genetic basis for common renal diseases, including CKD and related factors such as diabetes and hypertension. This review will, in brief, consider genotype-based pharmacotherapy, risk prediction, drug target recognition, and personalized treatments, and will mainly focus on findings in CKD patients. An improved understanding will smooth the progress of switching from classical clinical medicine to gene-based medicine. PMID:25206311

  10. Renal parenchymal histopathology predicts life-threatening chronic kidney disease as a result of radical nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Sejima, Takehiro; Honda, Masashi; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    The preoperative prediction of post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency plays an important role in the decision-making process regarding renal surgery options. Furthermore, the prediction of both postoperative renal insufficiency and postoperative cardiovascular disease occurrence, which is suggested to be an adverse consequence caused by renal insufficiency, contributes to the preoperative policy decision as well as the precise informed consent for a renal cell carcinoma patient. Preoperative nomograms for the prediction of post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency, calculated using patient backgrounds, are advocated. The use of these nomograms together with other types of nomograms predicting oncological outcome is beneficial. Post-radical nephrectomy attending physicians can predict renal insufficiency based on the normal renal parenchymal pathology in addition to preoperative patient characteristics. It is suggested that a high level of global glomerulosclerosis in nephrectomized normal renal parenchyma is closely associated with severe renal insufficiency. Some studies showed that post-radical nephrectomy severe renal insufficiency might have an association with increased mortality as a result of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, such pathophysiology should be recognized as life-threatening, surgically-related chronic kidney disease. On the contrary, the investigation of the prediction of mild post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency, which is not related to adverse consequences in the postoperative long-term period, is also promising because the prediction of mild renal insufficiency might be the basis for the substitution of radical nephrectomy for nephron-sparing surgery in technically difficult or compromised cases. The deterioration of quality of life caused by post-radical nephrectomy renal insufficiency should be investigated in conjunction with life-threatening matters.

  11. A large regional hospital's experience with treatment of end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Handa, S. P.; Wolf, H. K.

    1983-01-01

    During the first 10 years of the treatment program for end-stage renal disease at the Saint John (New Brunswick) Regional Hospital 164 adults were treated by hemodialysis (with or without renal transplantation, performed outside of the province) or peritoneal dialysis. The primary causes of renal disease were not significantly different in men and women except for glomerulonephritis, which was twice as common in men as in women. Life-table analysis showed that the younger transplant recipients had the highest survival rate, but that the prognosis was almost as good among the much older patients who received continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Probably because they tended to be younger and their renal disease was caused by less threatening conditions, men survived longer than women. The survival rates were significantly related to the primary cause of the renal disease; patients with diabetes or systemic disease had the worst prognosis. Overall, these results compare well with those obtained in major university centres. PMID:6349764

  12. Acute unilateral ischemic renal injury induces progressive renal inflammation, lipid accumulation, histone modification, and "end-stage" kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Zager, Richard A; Johnson, Ali C M; Becker, Kirsten

    2011-12-01

    There is an emerging concept in clinical nephrology that acute kidney injury (AKI) can initiate chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, potential mechanisms by which this may occur remain elusive. Hence, this study tested the hypotheses that 1) AKI triggers progressive activation of selected proinflammatory genes, 2) there is a relative failure of compensatory anti-inflammatory gene expression, 3) proinflammatory lipid accumulation occurs, 4) these changes correspond with "gene-activating" histone acetylation, and 5) in concert, progressive renal disease results. CD-1 mice were subjected to 30 min of unilateral renal ischemia. Assessments were made 1 day, 1 wk, or 3 wk later. Results were contrasted to those observed in uninjured contralateral kidneys or in kidneys from normal mice. Progressive renal injury occurred throughout the 3-wk postischemic period, as denoted by stepwise increases in neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin gene induction and ongoing histologic damage. By 3 wk postischemia, progressive renal disease was observed (massive tubular dropout; 2/3rds reduction in renal weight). These changes corresponded with progressive increases in proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine gene expression (MCP-1, TNF-α, TGF-β1), a relative failure of anti-inflammatory enzyme/cytokine (heme oxygenase-1; IL-10) upregulation, and progressive renal lipid (cholesterol/triglyceride) loading. Stepwise increases in collagen III mRNA and collagen deposition (Sirius red staining) indicated a progressive profibrotic response. Postischemic dexamethasone treatment significantly preserved renal mass, indicating functional significance of the observed proinflammatory state. Progressive gene-activating H3 acetylation was observed by ELISA, rising from 5% at baseline to 75% at 3 wk. This was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay of target genes. In sum, these results provide experimental support for the clinical concept that AKI can trigger CKD, this is partially

  13. Renal Expression of FGF23 in Progressive Renal Disease of Diabetes and the Effect of Ace Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Benigni, Ariela; Corna, Daniela; Tomasoni, Susanna; Rottoli, Daniela; Gaspari, Flavio; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Zoja, Carlamaria

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic hormone mainly produced by bone that acts in the kidney through FGF receptors and Klotho. Here we investigated whether the kidney was an additional source of FGF23 during renal disease using a model of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Renal expression of FGF23 and Klotho was assessed in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and control lean rats at 2, 4, 6, 8 months of age. To evaluate whether the renoprotective effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in this model was associated with changes in FGF23 and Klotho, ZDF rats received ramipril from 4, when proteinuric, to 8 months of age. FGF23 mRNA was not detectable in the kidney of lean rats, nor of ZDF rats at 2 months of age. FGF23 became measurable in the kidney of diabetic rats at 4 months and significantly increased thereafter. FGF23 protein localized in proximal and distal tubules. Renal Klotho mRNA and protein decreased during time in ZDF rats. As renal disease progressed, serum phosphate levels increased in parallel with decline of fractional phosphorus excretion. Ramipril limited proteinuria and renal injury, attenuated renal FGF23 upregulation and ameliorated Klotho expression. Ramipril normalized serum phosphate levels and tended to increase fractional phosphorus excretion. These data indicate that during progressive renal disease the kidney is a site of FGF23 production which is limited by ACE inhibition. Interfering pharmacologically with the delicate balance of FGF23 and phosphorus in diabetes may have implications in clinics. PMID:23967103

  14. Racial influence in renal stone disease: a Saskatchewan story.

    PubMed

    Pylypchuk, G; Unger, D; Wiser, L; O'Reilly, K; Weckworth, P

    1995-07-01

    Data was obtained from two separate governement sources in an effort to review the prevalence of kidney stone disease in the province of Saskatchewan for the years 1983-1988 inclusive. The data revealed a statistally significant difference in prevalence rate among different ethnic groups within the population. Aboriginal people were found to have a prevalence rate approximately one-third that of the nonaboriginal (non-native) population. A renal stone episode prevalence of 0.858 per 1000 population compared to 0.222 per 1000 population in aboriginal people (p.<.001). The reasons for this difference could not be retrospectively associated with geographical variation. A discussion of other possible causes in association is offered, but it is felt that, in the end, more research into this area is required.

  15. Coping strategies utilized by adolescents with end stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Snethen, Julia A; Broome, Marion E; Kelber, Sheryl; Warady, Bradley A

    2004-01-01

    Children and adolescents with end stage renal disease (ESRD) require life-long treatment. The purpose of this descriptive investigation was to identify coping strategies that adolescents with ESRD use to manage their chronic illness. Participants for this investigation were 35 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, with ESRD. The A-COPE survey instrument was used in a clinical and camp setting to measure the coping strategies used by adolescents with ESRD. Analyses revealed that adolescents with ESRD utilized a variety of coping strategies to manage the stresses of living with their chronic condition. Personal characteristics of gender, transplant status, age, and religious views were significantly related to the coping strategies the adolescents reported using.

  16. Renal disease in scleroderma: an update on evaluation, risk stratification, pathogenesis and management

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Victoria K.; Steen, Virginia D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Renal disease remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in scleroderma. The spectrum of renal complications in systemic sclerosis includes scleroderma renal crisis (SRC), normotensive renal crisis, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-associated glomerulonephritis, penacillamine-associated renal disease, and reduced renal functional reserves manifested by proteinuria, microalbuminuria, or isolated reduction in glomerular filtration rate. The purpose of this review is to provide a concise and up-to-date review of the evaluation, risk stratification, pathogenesis, and management of scleroderma-associated renal disease. Recent findings Although SRC survival has significantly improved, mortality of this complication remains high outside of specialized centers. Recent data demonstrate strong associations between anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies and SRC. Subclinical renal impairment affects approximately 50% of scleroderma patients and may be associated with other vascular manifestations. Subclinical renal involvement rarely progresses to end-stage renal failure; however, recent studies suggest it may predict mortality in patients with other vasculopathic manifestations. Summary Testing for anti-RNA polymerase III antibodies should be incorporated into clinical care to identify patients at high risk for SRC. Recommendations from European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR), EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research, and the Scleroderma Clinical Trials Consortium confirm angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors as first-line therapy for SRC, and give recommendations for second-line agents. PMID:22955019

  17. Sevelamer therapy for pediatric end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Storms, Lara E; Chicella, Michael F; Dice, James E

    2006-03-01

    Sevelamer, a non-calcium-containing, non-aluminum-containing phosphate binder, is frequently prescribed for treatment in adults with hyperphosphatemia secondary to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). However, published information regarding sevelamer use in children younger than 11 years is lacking. We report the use of sevelamer as a phosphate binder in a 19-month-old girl with ESRD who was receiving calcium carbonate 1250 mg 3 times/day for hyperphosphatemia. The patient's initial serum phosphorus concentration was 8.6 mg/dl, and the calcium-phosphorus product was 75 mg(2)/dl(2). This was well above the level that places patients at risk for complications such as joint, vessel, and soft-tissue calcification. An aluminum-containing phosphate binder was not an option given the patient's renal disease and the concern for neurotoxicity. Sevelamer was considered, but a MEDLINE search revealed no pediatric dosing information. An initial dosage of 100 mg/kg/day divided every 8 hours was administered, as extrapolated from adult data, and then titrated to 130 mg/kg/day divided every 8 hours based on the patient's response. The child's dietary phosphorus intake remained constant throughout her hospital stay. During sevelamer therapy, her serum phosphorus concentration dropped as low as 5.2 mg/dl; at discharge it was 6.5 mg/dl, with a corresponding calcium-phosphorus product in the upper 50s. No adverse effects associated with sevelamer were observed. In the dosages we used, sevelamer resulted in an acceptable calcium-phosphorus product and returned the patient's serum phosphorus concentration to near normal. Sevelamer appears to be a viable option as a phosphate binder in children with ESRD.

  18. Polycystic kidney disease and cancer after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wetmore, James B; Calvet, James P; Yu, Alan S L; Lynch, Charles F; Wang, Connie J; Kasiske, Bertram L; Engels, Eric A

    2014-10-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), the most common form of polycystic kidney disease (PKD), is a disorder with characteristics of neoplasia. However, it is not known whether renal transplant recipients with PKD have an increased risk of cancer. Data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, which contains information on all solid organ transplant recipients in the United States, were linked to 15 population-based cancer registries in the United States. For PKD recipients, we compared overall cancer risk with that in the general population. We also compared cancer incidence in PKD versus non-PKD renal transplant recipients using Poisson regression, and we determined incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, dialysis duration, and time since transplantation. The study included 10,166 kidney recipients with PKD and 107,339 without PKD. Cancer incidence in PKD recipients was 1233.6 per 100,000 person-years, 48% higher than expected in the general population (standardized incidence ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.37 to 1.60), whereas cancer incidence in non-PKD recipients was 1119.1 per 100,000 person-years. The unadjusted incidence was higher in PKD than in non-PKD recipients (IRR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20). However, PKD recipients were older (median age at transplantation, 51 years versus 45 years for non-PKD recipients), and after multivariable adjustment, cancer incidence was lower in PKD recipients than in others (IRR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.91). The reason for the lower cancer risk in PKD recipients is not known but may relate to biologic characteristics of ADPKD or to cancer risk behaviors associated with ADPKD.

  19. Fibrin breakdown products and fibrinolysis in renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, E. N.; Taylor, G.

    1968-01-01

    In chronic renal failure and after acute renal failure, fibrinogen levels are raised and there is diminished fibrinolysis as the result of renal damage. A similar situation is found in nephrosis, possibly due to fibrinolytic inhibitors. Increased levels of cryofibrinogen were found in one quarter of cases of acute nephritis, nephrosis, and acute and chronic renal failure. In addition, after acute renal failure low platelet counts, prolonged thrombin times, and high levels of fibrin degradation products, yet with diminished fibrinolysis, indicate that intravascular coagulation has occurred. A positive result for fibrin degradation products was found in 17 of 20 cases of acute renal failure but in none of 10 cases of chronic uraemia. Intravascular coagulation is a process in which fibrin is deposited in the glomerular filters and may account for anuria, and, in the renal vasculature, where it may cause ischaemic tubular necrosis. Images PMID:5697045

  20. Leptospirosis Renal Disease: Emerging Culprit of Chronic Kidney Disease Unknown Etiology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Wei

    2017-09-20

    Leptospirosis is the most prevalent zoonosis affecting more than 1 million populations worldwide. Interestingly, leptospirosis endemic regions coincide with chronic kidney disease (CKD) hotspots largely due to flooding and agricultural overlaps. Acute leptospirosis induces multiple organ dysfunction including acute kidney injury and may predispose to CKD and end-stage renal disease, if not treated timely. Asymptomatic infection may carry the bacteria in the kidney and CKD progresses insidiously. Histologic finding of leptospirosis renal disease includes tubulointerstitial nephritis, interstitial fibrosis, and tubular atrophy. Proximal tubule dysfunction and hypokalemia are observed in adult male workers with leptospirosis, a characteristic similarity to CKD unknown etiology (CKDu). CKDu is a form of CKD that is not attributable to traditional risk factors clustering in agricultural communities affecting young male farmers. Kidney pathology shows a chronic tubulointerstitial disease. CKDu is being reported as an endemic nephropathy across the globe. Recent surveys suggest that asymptomatic leptospira renal colonization is an overlooked risk for renal fibrosis and CKDu. Population with anti-leptospira seropositivity is associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate in endemic regions and carrier may progress to CKD. Leptospirosis has been considered as a risk factor for CKDu in Sri Lanka and in Mesoamerican area. Sugarcane workers in Nicaragua showed increased anti-leptospira seropositivity and higher urinary biomarkers for kidney injury. Emerging evidence with signs of infection were reported in these endemic population, indicating that leptospira exposure could play a role in CKDu as a cause of primary kidney disease or a susceptible factor when secondary injury such as heat stress or dehydration aggravates kidney disease. Therefore, leptospirosis as an emerging culprit of CKDu deserves further in-depth investigation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Valuing Lives: The Policy Debate on Patient Care Financing for Victims of End-Stage Renal Disease,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    In Public Law 92-603, the Social Security Amendments of 1972, Medicare health insurance coverage for end-stage renal disease was effectively extended... disease . A substantial number of potential end-stage renal disease patients, approximately 60 percent of the total, however, could not qualify for...Act and included those who were medically determined to have chronic renal disease and to require hemodialysis or renal transplantation. What is the

  2. [HNF1B-related disease: paradigm of a developmental gene and unexpected recognition of a new renal disease].

    PubMed

    Chauveau, Dominique; Faguer, Stanislas; Bandin, Flavio; Guigonis, Vincent; Chassaing, Nicolas; Decramer, Stéphane

    2013-11-01

    HNF1B encodes for a transcription factor involved in the early development of the kidney, pancreas, liver and genital tract. Mutations in HNF1B are dominantly inherited and consist of whole-gene deletion, or small mutation. De novo mutation occurs in half of tested kindreds. HNF1B-related disease combines renal and non-renal manifestations. Renal involvement is heterogeneous and may escape early recognition. During fetal life and childhood, it mostly consists of hyperechogenic kidneys or bilateral renal cystic hypodysplasia. The adult phenotype encompasses tubulointerstitial profile at presentation and slowly progressive renal decline (-2 ml/min/year). Renal involvement includes renal cysts (mostly few cortical cysts), a solitary kidney, pelvi-caliceal abnormalities, hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia related to tubular leak, and more rarely, Fanconi syndrome and chromophobe renal carcinoma. The latter warrants ultrasound screening. Extrarenal phenotype consists of diabetes mellitus (MODY-5), exocrine pancreas failure and pancreas atrophy; fluctuation liver tests abnormalities; diverse genital tract abnormalities in females or infertility in males; and mild mental retardation in rare individuals. Phenotype heterogeneity within families is striking. Individuals progressing to end-stage renal disease are eligible for kidney transplantation (or combined pancreas and kidney transplantation for diabetic individuals). While HNF1B disease was still unknown one decade ago, it has emerged as the second most prevalent dominantly inherited kidney disease. Data available pave the way for early recognition and improved specific management, including genetic counselling.

  3. Transforming Growth Factor Beta, Bioenergetics and Mitochondria in Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gabriella, Casalena; Ilse, Daehn; Erwin, Bottinger

    2012-01-01

    The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β ) family is comprised of over 30 family members that are structurally related secreted dimeric cytokines, including TGF-β, activins, and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)/growth and differentiation factors (GDFs). TGF-β are pluripotent regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and adhesion of many different cell types. TGF-β pathways are highly evolutionarily conserved and control embryogenesis, tissue repair, and tissue homeostasis in invertebrates and vertebrates. Aberrations in TGF-β activity and signaling underlie a broad spectrum of developmental disorders and major pathologies in humans, including cancer, fibrosis and autoimmune diseases. Recent observations indicate an emerging role for TGF-β in regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative stress responses characteristic of chronic degenerative diseases and ageing. Conversely, energy and metabolic sensory pathways cross-regulate mediators of TGF-β signaling. Here we review TGF-β and regulation of bioenergetic and mitochondrial functions, including energy and oxidant metabolism and apoptotic cell death, as well as their emerging relevance in renal biology and disease. PMID:22835461

  4. Quality of life in end stage renal disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Veena D

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To understand factors associated with quality of life (QOL), examine types of QOL instruments, and determine need for further improvements in QOL assessment. METHODS: The method used databases (Pubmed, Google scholar) and a bibliographic search using key words QOL, end stage renal disease, Hemodialysis, Peritoneal dialysis, instruments to measure QOL, patients and qualitative/quantitative analysis published during 1990 to June 2014. Each article was assessed for sample size, demographics of participants, study design and type of QOL instruments used. We used WHO definition of QOL. RESULTS: For this review, 109 articles were screened, out of which 65 articles were selected. Out of 65 articles, there were 19 reports/reviews and 12 questionnaire manuals. Of the 34 studies, 82% were quantitative while only 18% were qualitative. QOL instruments measured several phenomenon such as physical/psychological health, effects and burdens of kidney disease, social support etc. those are associated with QOL. Few studies looked at spiritual beliefs, cultural beliefs, personal concerns, as per the WHO definition. Telemedicine and Palliative care have now been successfully used however QOL instruments seldom addressed those in the articles reviewed. Also noticed was that longitudinal studies were rarely conducted. Existing QOL instruments only partially measure QOL. This may limit validity of predictive power of QOL. CONCLUSION: Culture and disease specific QOL instruments that assess patients’ objective and subjective experiences covering most aspects of QOL are urgently needed. PMID:25374827

  5. Latent learning in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD).

    PubMed

    Jones, Daniel J W; Butler, Laurie T; Harris, John P; Vaux, Emma C

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive functions such as attention and memory are known to be impaired in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), but the sites of the neural changes underlying these impairments are uncertain. Patients and controls took part in a latent learning task, which had previously shown a dissociation between patients with Parkinson's disease and those with medial temporal damage. ESRD patients (n=24) and age and education-matched controls (n=24) were randomly assigned to either an exposed or unexposed condition. In Phase 1 of the task, participants learned that a cue (word) on the back of a schematic head predicted that the subsequently seen face would be smiling. For the exposed (but not unexposed) condition, an additional (irrelevant) colour cue was shown during presentation. In Phase 2, a different association, between colour and facial expression, was learned. Instructions were the same for each phase: participants had to predict whether the subsequently viewed face was going to be happy or sad. No difference in error rate between the groups was found in Phase 1, suggesting that patients and controls learned at a similar rate. However, in Phase 2, a significant interaction was found between group and condition, with exposed controls performing significantly worse than unexposed (therefore demonstrating learned irrelevance). In contrast, exposed patients made a similar number of errors to unexposed in Phase 2. The pattern of results in ESRD was different from that previously found in Parkinson's disease, suggesting a different neural origin.

  6. The role of renal water channels in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Ross P

    2012-01-01

    Seven members of the aquaporin (AQP) family are expressed in different regions of the kidney. AQP1-4 are localized in plasma membranes of renal epithelial cells and are intimately involved in water reabsorption by the kidney. AQP7 is also localized in the plasma membrane and may facilitate glycerol transport. AQP6 and AQP11 are localized within the cell, with AQP6 involved in anion transport and AQP11 water transport. Mutations in AQP2 can result in diabetes insipidus, whereas mutations in other AQPs have not yet been shown to be disease-associated. Genetic polymorphisms may contribute to the susceptibility to defects in urine concentrating mechanisms associated with some diseases. Most of the AQPs are subject to transcriptional regulation and post-translational modifications by a range of biological modifiers. As a result a number of chronic kidney and systemic diseases produce changes in the abundance of AQPs. The more recent developments in this field are reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Protein catabolism in advanced renal disease: role of cytokines.

    PubMed

    Fleet, M; Osman, F; Komaragiri, R; Fritz, A; D

    2008-08-01

    Protein energy wasting is a maladaptive metabolic state often associated with inflammation, which is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A literature search was performed using MEDLINE and the reference lists of relevant review articles. The following key words were used in the MEDLINE search: "cytokines", "inflammation", "protein metabolism", "acute-phase protein", "cachexia", "chronic kidney disease", "end-stage renal disease" and "hemodialysis". The search was limited to English-language articles. While experimental models have shown that uremic animals are more prone for proteolysis, the results from the human studies are controversial. Intradialytic loss of amino acids and activation of proinflammatory cytokines lead to protein catabolism during hemodialysis (HD). At the whole-body level, intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN) increases protein synthesis and decreases proteolysis. Amino acid infusion during HD increases muscle protein synthesis, but does not decrease protein catabolism. Activation of interleukin-6 during HD induces protein catabolism, impairs amino acid utilization for protein synthesis and increases acute-phase protein synthesis. The changes in albumin, fibrinogen and muscle protein kinetics during HD could be due to competing and complementary effects of availability of amino acids and activation of proinflammatory cytokines.

  8. Changes in Renal Function and Blood Pressure in Patients with Stone Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worcester, Elaine M.

    2007-04-01

    Stone disease is a rare cause of renal failure, but a history of kidney stones is associated with an increased risk for chronic kidney disease, particularly in overweight patients. Loss of renal function seems especially notable for patients with stones associated with cystinuria, hyperoxaluria, and renal tubular acidosis, in whom the renal pathology shows deposits of mineral obstructing inner medullary collecting ducts, often diffusely. However, even idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers have a mild but significant decrease in renal function, compared to age, sex and weight-matched normals, and appear to lose renal function with age at a slightly faster rate than non-stone formers. There is also an increased incidence of hypertension among stone formers, although women are more likely to be affected than men.

  9. The role of dietary phosphorus restriction in the conservative management of chronic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Barsotti, Giuliano; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2005-01-01

    Evidence exists that phosphate retention plays a major role in causing secondary hyperparathyroidism, cardiovascular morbidity, and loss of residual renal function in chronic renal disease patients, and that a subtle elevation in serum phosphate occurs at early stages in the course of renal insufficiency. The implementation of a low-phosphorus, low-protein dietary regimen plays a special role in the conservative management of chronic renal disease patients, for the prevention and correction of secondary hyperparathyroidism and for the renal and cardiovascular protection. However, the success and safety of dietary phosphate restriction largely depends on good compliance with dietary recommendations, which must represent a major goal to be regularly pursued in the clinical practice. To this aim, it is crucial that dietitians expert in renal nutrition give education and personalized dietary advice, with the aim of enhancing the patient's adherence to nutritional prescriptions.

  10. Hyaline Vascular Castleman Disease Involving Renal Parenchyma and a Lymph Node: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ji Hyun; Shin, Mi Kyung; Lee, Yong Seong; Lee, Young-Goo; Ko, Young Hyeh

    2012-01-01

    Castleman disease is a rare lymphoproliferative lesion that is predominantly found in the mediastinum. Retroperitoneal and pararenal localizations are very rare. We describe a 36-year-old man with a hyaline vascular type of Castleman disease involving renal parenchyma and a paraaortic lymph node. Most reported renal Castleman disease was plasma cell type with systemic symptoms. Herein, we report the first Korean case of the hyaline vascular type of Castleman disease involving the renal parenchyma and the paraaortic lymph node simultaneously. PMID:23109983

  11. Measurement of stellar occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberle, Andreas

    2008-09-01

    Whenever an asteroid occults a star, we have the opportunity to study that asteroid in great detail. As frequently shown in the past, amateur astronomers1 have the necessary equipment to measure such events successfully2. Combined with the dense net of amateur observatories and online coordination tools3 for movable stations, they can create fine grids to detect even small bodies. The analysis of these events gives us the possibility to receive high precision astrometry data, to determine the asteroids size and shape (and therefore its albedo), and even to collect information on the star itself.4 While usually a set of several light curves is required to do so, a single recording5 of (10734) Wieck's occultation of HIP 22157 on 2008 Feb 08 was sufficient to retrieve the necessary data6. 1 Observation campaigns are organized by the International Occultation Timing Association (IOTA), http://www.iota-es.de/ 2 for results see e.g. euraster.net by E. Frappa, http://www.euraster.net/ 3 Occult Watcher by H. Pavlov, http://www.hristopavlov.net/OccultWatcher/OccultWatcher.html 4 see K. Miyashita's analysis of the observation of the occultation of TYC 1886-01206-1 by Kalliope and Linus, http://www005.upp.so-net.ne.jp/k miyash/occ02/kalliope/doublestar en.html 5 recording obtained by H. Michels, MPC Station Code 240 6 using Limovie by K. Miyashita

  12. Oral mucosa symptoms, signs and lesions, in end stage renal disease and non-end stage renal disease diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa García, Estela; Mondragón Padilla, Arnoldo; Aranda Romo, Saray; Bustamante Ramírez, Martha Alicia

    2006-11-01

    To assess oral signs, symptoms and oral lesions (OL) type and prevalence, in diabetic patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD DM), and compare them with analogous findings in a non-ESRD DM group; analyze the possible association between oral manifestations, as well as with relevant laboratory findings. Research design. Two adult groups were studied: Group A: ESRD DM on dialysis, and group B: non-ESRD DM (serum creatinine <2.0 mg/dl). Known DM evolution time, dialysis treatment type and duration, and laboratory results were recorded. An oral exam was performed, searching for signs, symptoms and ESRD-associated OL. Associations were analyzed using Chi square, Fisher s exact test, and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. Ages, time on dialysis, and laboratory results were compared with Student s t test. 229 individuals were examined, group A 99, and group B 130 pts. Signs and symptoms prevalence was higher in group A: 77.8% vs. 57.6%, (P<0.001), uremic breath (48.5%), unpleasant taste (45.5%) and xerostomia (44.4%) being the most frequent ones. OL were also more prevalent in group A; 65.6% vs. 36.9% (P<0.001). The most frequent OL were dry, fissured lips (28.3%), saburral tongue (18.2%) and candidiasis (17.2%). No difference was found in candidiasis prevalence between groups. Candidiasis was found associated to xerostomia (P<0.05) and smooth tongue (P<0.05) only in group A. ESRD DM patients had a significantly higher prevalence of signs, symptoms and OLs, as compared to non-ESRD DM pts. The high prevalence of uremic fetor, xerostomia, saburral tongue and candidiasis in group A, could be tried as warning signs on the possibility of non diagnosed advanced renal disease in other diabetic patients.

  13. Renal Failure in Sickle Cell Disease: Prevalence, Predictors of Disease, Mortality and Effect on Length of Hospital Stay.

    PubMed

    Yeruva, Sri L H; Paul, Yonette; Oneal, Patricia; Nouraie, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Renal dysfunction in sickle cell disease is not only a chronic comorbidity but also a mortality risk factor. Though renal dysfunction starts early in life in sickle cell patients, the predictors that can identify sickle cell disease patients at risk of developing renal dysfunction is not known. We used the Truven Health MarketScan(®) Medicaid Databases from 2007 to 2012. Incidence of new acute renal failure (ARF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) was calculated in this cohort. There were 9481 patients with a diagnosis of sickle cell disease accounting for 64,201 hospital admissions, during the study period. Both ARF and CKD were associated with higher risk of inpatient mortality, longer duration of the hospital stay and expensive hospitalizations. The yearly incidence of new ARF in sickle cell disease patients was 1.4% and annual CKD incidence was 1.3%. The annual rate of new ARF and CKD in the control group was 0.4 and 0.6%, respectively. The most important predictors of new CKD were proteinuria, ARF and hypertension. Chronic kidney disease, hypertension and sickle cell crisis were the most important predictors of new ARF. The annual rate of incidences of ARF and CKD were 2- to 3-fold higher in sickle cell disease compared to the non sickle cell disease group. Besides the common risk factors for renal disease in the general population, it is imperative to monitor the sickle cell disease patients with more severe disease to prevent them from developing renal dysfunction.

  14. Progressive renal disease despite immunosuppressive therapy in a patient with Wegener s granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Klein, I; Vervoort, G; Steenbergen, E; Wetzels, J

    2008-03-01

    We present a patient with Morbus Wegener and crescentic glomerulonephritis. Treatment with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone resulted in the disappearance of signs and symptoms of systemic inflammation. However, renal function deteriorated. Renal biopsy showed evidence of continuing capillary necrosis. Renal function improved with added plasmapheresis treatment. This case report illustrates that in patients with vasculitis necrotizing glomerulonephritis may remain active despite immunosuppressive therapy, even in the absence of extrarenal disease activity.

  15. Successful pregnancy outcome among women with end-stage renal disease requiring haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Arora, Nalini; Mahajan, Kirti; Jana, Narayan; Maiti, Tapan Kumar; Mandal, Debasmita; Pandey, Rajendra

    2009-04-01

    Pregnancy is rare in women with end-stage renal disease, and perinatal outcome remains suboptimal because of prematurity and foetal growth restriction. Successful obstetrical outcome in two women presented with chronic renal failure requiring serial haemodialysis and multiple blood transfusions during pregnancy is reported. Both women had vaginal delivery of low birth weight neonates--2100 g and 1540 g at 33 and 37 weeks' gestations respectively. With specialised neonatal care, both neonates survived, and the mothers were counselled for renal replacement therapy.

  16. Consensus document on the management of renal disease in HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Górriz, José L; Gutiérrez, Félix; Trullas, Joan C; Arazo, Piedad; Arribas, José R; Barril, Guillermina; Cervero, Miguel; Cofan, Frederic; Domingo, Pere; Estrada, Vicente; Fulladosa, Xavier; Galindo, María J; Gracia, Silvia; Iribarren, José A; Knobel, Hernando; López-Aldeguer, José; Lozano, Fernando; Martínez-Castelao, Alberto; Martínez, Esteban; Mazuecos, María A; Miralles, Celia; Montañés, Rosario; Negredo, Eugenia; Palacios, Rosario; Pérez-Elías, María J; Portilla, Joaquín; Praga, Manuel; Quereda, Carlos; Rivero, Antonio; Santamaría, Juan M; Sanz, José; Sanz, Jesús; Miró, José M

    2014-01-01

    To update the 2010 recommendations on the evaluation and management of renal disease in HIV-infected patients. This document was approved by a panel of experts from the AIDS Working Group (GESIDA) of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC), the Spanish Society of Nephrology (S.E.N.), and the Spanish Society of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Pathology (SEQC). The quality of evidence and the level of recommendation were evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The basic renal work-up should include measurements of serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate by CKD-EPI, Urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, and urinary sediment. Tubular function tests should include determination of serum phosphate levels and urine dipstick for glucosuria. In the absence of abnormal values, renal screening should be performed annually. In patients treated with tenofovir or with risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD), more frequent renal screening is recommended. In order to prevent disease progression, potentially nephrotoxic antiretroviral drugs are not recommended in patients with CKD or risk factors for CKD. The document advises on the optimal time for referral of a patient to the nephrologist and provides indications for renal biopsy. The indications for and evaluation and management of dialysis and renal transplantation are also addressed. Renal function should be monitored in all HIV-infected patients. The information provided in this document should enable clinicians to optimize the evaluation and management of HIV-infected patients with renal disease.

  17. Effect of end-stage renal disease on oral health in patients undergoing renal dialysis: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Nalam Radhika; Gautam, Nalam Sai; Rao, Thota Hanumantha; Koganti, Ravichandra; Agarwal, Rohit; Alamanda, Madhavi

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of chronic renal failure on oral health in renal dialysis patients. To assess and improvise awareness of staff regarding oral health care of the patients in hemodialysis unit. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and oral health examination study were conducted on 206 end-stage chronic renal failure patients (stage V) who were undergoing renal dialysis in Guntur city. The study included the questionnaire form and modified WHO proforma to record their oral health status. Oral examination was done in American Dental Association (ADA) type III method by using mouth mirror and community periodontal index (CPI) probe. Questionnaire survey was conducted among the nursing staff in the hemodialysis unit. Mean age of the study subjects was 46.79 ± 12.78 years; 81.1% were males and 18.9% were females. Candidiasis (8.3%) was the most frequently seen oral mucosal condition in these subjects. Majority of the subjects (44.2%) showed periodontal diseases (CPI score 3: Pocket depth of 4-5 mm). Caries prevalence of 56.3% was seen in this study group. Higher incidence of hepatitis C was significantly associated with higher duration of dialysis. There was very little awareness among the nursing staff regarding dental care. There is greater deterioration of periodontal health among dialysis patients with chronic renal disease. Awareness regarding dental care is very less among patients undergoing renal dialysis. These patients should be monitored carefully to maintain their oral health. Awareness must be increased among dialysis patients and nursing staff about the need for primary prevention of dental diseases.

  18. Ramadan fasting and patients with renal diseases: A mini review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Emami-Naini, Afsoon; Roomizadeh, Peyman; Baradaran, Azar; Abedini, Amin; Abtahi, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    Fasting during the month of Ramadan is one of the five pillars of Islam. During this month, adult Muslims are obligated to refrain from eating and drinking from dawn to dusk. Although based on Islamic principles patients are exempted from fasting, each year, many Muslim patients express their willingness to observe the fast in Ramadan month to respect the cultural customs. There are concerns about the impact of fluid restriction and dehydration during Ramadan fasting for patients with renal diseases. In this study, we reviewed the PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCO, SCIRUS, Embase, and DOAJ data sources to identify the published studies on the impact of Ramadan fasting on patients with renal diseases. Our review on published reports on renal transplant recipients revealed no injurious effect of Ramadan fasting for the renal graft function. Nearly all studies on this topic suggest that Ramadan fasting is safe when the function of the renal graft is acceptable and stable. Regarding the impact of Ramadan fasting on patients with chronic kidney disease, there is concern about the role of renal hypoperfusion in developing tubular cell injury. Finally, there is controversy between studies about the risk of dehydration in Ramadan in developing renal stones. There are uncertainties about the change in the incidence of renal colic in Ramadan month compared with the other periods of the year. Despite such discrepancies, nearly all studies are in agreement on consuming adequate amounts of water from dusk to dawn to reduce the risk of renal stone formation.

  19. Ramadan fasting and patients with renal diseases: A mini review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Emami-Naini, Afsoon; Roomizadeh, Peyman; Baradaran, Azar; Abedini, Amin; Abtahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Fasting during the month of Ramadan is one of the five pillars of Islam. During this month, adult Muslims are obligated to refrain from eating and drinking from dawn to dusk. Although based on Islamic principles patients are exempted from fasting, each year, many Muslim patients express their willingness to observe the fast in Ramadan month to respect the cultural customs. There are concerns about the impact of fluid restriction and dehydration during Ramadan fasting for patients with renal diseases. In this study, we reviewed the PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCO, SCIRUS, Embase, and DOAJ data sources to identify the published studies on the impact of Ramadan fasting on patients with renal diseases. Our review on published reports on renal transplant recipients revealed no injurious effect of Ramadan fasting for the renal graft function. Nearly all studies on this topic suggest that Ramadan fasting is safe when the function of the renal graft is acceptable and stable. Regarding the impact of Ramadan fasting on patients with chronic kidney disease, there is concern about the role of renal hypoperfusion in developing tubular cell injury. Finally, there is controversy between studies about the risk of dehydration in Ramadan in developing renal stones. There are uncertainties about the change in the incidence of renal colic in Ramadan month compared with the other periods of the year. Despite such discrepancies, nearly all studies are in agreement on consuming adequate amounts of water from dusk to dawn to reduce the risk of renal stone formation. PMID:24379850

  20. Prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection in hemodialysis patients in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Hamid; Ferdowsi, Faezeh; Yaran, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Background: The absence of a detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with or without hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) or hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) in the presence of hepatitis B virus-DNA (HBV-DNA) is defined as occult HBV infection. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of occult HBV infection in patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was done on 400 patients without acute or chronic HBV infection with end-stage renal disease undergoing regular HD. Blood samples were collected prior to the HD session, and serological markers of viral hepatitis B included HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc were measured using standard third generation commercially available enzyme immunoassays kit, then samples of positive anti-HBc and negative anti-HBs were tested for HBV DNA using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques. Data were analyzed by SPSS using t-test and Chi-square test. Results: The mean age of patients was 51.6 ± 11.2 years. Anti-HBc positive was observed in 32 (8%) of 400 studied patients with negative HBsAg. Of 32 patients with anti-HBc positive, 15 were males and 17 were females with mean age of 49.7 ± 12.6 years. Among 32 patients with anti-HBc positive, 10 patients were negative for anti-HBs. All of 10 patients were negative for HBV DNA. The prevalence of occult HBV infection was 0%. Conclusions: The prevalence of occult HBV infection in HBsAg negative patients undergoing HD was 0% and look to be among the lowest worldwide. So, occult HBV infection is not a significant health problem in HD patients in this region. PMID:27713872

  1. End-stage renal disease in Brazil: epidemiology, prevention, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marília Bahiense; Romão, João Egídio; Zatz, Roberto

    2005-08-01

    Brazil is one of the largest and most populous nations in the world, ranking among the 5 largest economies in the Americas and among the 15 largest economies in the world. However, Brazil is still plagued by social problems such as the persistence of poverty and immense deficiencies in its health system. Currently, there are approximately 390 patients on chronic renal replacement therapy (RRT) per million population, about one third the US prevalence, which suggests that end-stage renal disease is either underdiagnosed or undertreated. The epidemiology of renal disease in the small remaining native Brazilian population is largely unknown. However, it is likely that the prevalence of renal disease is low among at least 2 tribes: the Yanomamis in northern Brazil and the Xingu Indians in central Brazil. Sodium intake is very low, physical activity is intense, and the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease is negligible among these people, which stresses the potential pathogenic importance of so-called civilized habits. There is currently no conclusive evidence that African descendants or any other Brazilian ethnic minorities are especially vulnerable to renal disease. Access to RRT in Brazil is universal. However, because both the end-stage renal disease population and operational RRT costs are steadily increasing, the system may face severe limitations in the near future. Much effort is needed to limit the prevalence of renal disease, to detain or retard the progression of chronic nephropathies, and to ensure that high-quality RRT will remain available to all those who need it.

  2. Trace elements in sera from patients with renal disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Yoshinori; Nakai, Keiko; Sera, Kouichiro; Sato, Michirou

    1999-04-01

    In hemodialysis (HD) patients, an accumulation of trace elements such as aluminum, copper, silicon and vanadium has been reported. Aluminum-caused encephalopathy and aluminum-related bone diseases are important trace element-related complications. Using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) we determined concentrations of aluminum, silicon, copper, zinc, selenium and bromine in sera of 29 patients with HD, 14 nondialysis patients with renal disease (RD) and 27 normal controls. The concentration of serum silicon of the patients with HD was 107.4 ± 61.3 μmol/l, which is markedly higher than that of normal controls (48.3 ± 25.8 μmol/l, p < 0.0001). The serum concentrations of zinc and bromine in patients with HD were 11.9 ± 1.7 and 21.3 ± 3.0 μmol/l, respectively. Both were markedly lower than those of normal controls (15.6 ± 2.6, 69.2 ± 8.3 μmol/l, p < 0.0001). The concentrations of aluminium and bromine in the serum of patients with RD were 171.9 ± 64.3 and 81.9 ± 11.6 μmol/l, which were markedly higher than those of normal controls ( p < 0.0001, p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in the concentration of copper and selenium among three groups.

  3. Stereopsis in end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

    PubMed

    Jones, Daniel J W; Harris, John P; Butler, Laurie T; Vaux, Emma C

    2017-03-15

    We investigated an effect of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on the visual system by measuring the ability of 21 patients to perceive depth in the random dot stereograms and circles of the Randot Test. To control for other factors which might influence performance on the tests of stereopsis, patients were compared with healthy controls matched for age, years of education, IQ, and general cognitive ability. Vernier acuity (thought to reflect mainly central processing) and Landolt acuity (more sensitive to retinal and optical abnormalities) were also measured, but the study did not include a formal ophthalmological examination. All controls could perceive depth in random dot stereograms, whereas 9/21 patients could not. Patients who could perceive depth had worse stereoacuity than did their matched controls. The patient group as a whole had worse Vernier and Landolt acuities than the controls. The stereoblind patient subgroup had similar Vernier acuity to the stereoscopic subgroup, but worse Landolt acuity, and was more likely to have peripheral vascular disease. We conclude that ESRD had affected structures both within the eye, and within the visual brain. However, the similarity of Vernier acuity and difference of Landolt acuity in the stereoblind and stereoscopic patient subgroups suggest that the differences in stereoscopic ability arise from abnormalities in the eyes rather than in the brain.

  4. Sevelamer carbonate experience in Indian end stage renal disease patients.

    PubMed

    Abraham, G; Kher, V; Saxena, S; Jayakumar, M; Chafekar, D; Pargaonkar, P; Shetty, M; Reddy, Y N V; Reddy, Y N V

    2012-05-01

    This open label, multicentric, comparative clinical trial was done to compare the efficacy and tolerability of two sevelamer formulations, sevelamer carbonate, and sevelamer hydrochloride, in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in Indian end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. A total of 97 ESRD patients on hemodialysis, were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either sevelamer carbonate or sevelamer hydrochloride. All patients were evaluated every week for 6 weeks for efficacy and safety variables. Total 88 patients completed the study. After 6 weeks of therapy, there were similar reductions (P<0.0001) in mean serum phosphorus and the CaxP product both the groups. The responder rates for test and reference groups were 75%, 68.18% respectively (P=0.3474). The adverse events reported were nausea, abdominal pain/discomfort, heartburn, constipation, diarrhea, increased prothrombin time, and severe arthritis. No serious adverse events were reported. There was no significant difference between the groups for adverse events and the laboratory parameters. From the results of this multicentric, comparative, randomized clinical study on sevelamer carbonate we can recommend that sevelamer carbonate may be used as a phosphate binder in Indian chronic kidney disease patients.

  5. Influenza vaccination in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are considered at higher risk of influenza-related complications and are listed worldwide among the subjects for whom yearly influenza vaccination is strongly recommended. However, influenza vaccination coverage of patients with ESRD is significantly lower than desired. This paper explores why compliance with official recommendations for influenza vaccination is poor in patients with ESRD and analyzes the true risk of infection as well as the immunogenicity, the effectiveness and the safety of influenza vaccination in these patients. Epidemiological and clinical data support the importance of influenza in conditioning clinical deterioration of patients with ESRD, particularly in relation to their level of immunosuppression. However, the variable levels of immunodeficiency detected in patients with ESRD may reduce the immune response to influenza vaccination, which appears to be lower than that usually found in healthy subjects. However, few studies are available, and they are difficult to compare for several reasons. Additionally, limited data have been collected on influenza vaccine effectiveness, although the available studies support positive results of vaccination on outcomes of severe disease. Despite such limitations, it is important to highlight that all the available studies have confirmed the good safety and tolerability of inactivated influenza vaccines. These findings, together with the risks associated with influenza in these patients, support annual influenza vaccination in patients with ESRD as well as vaccination of their close contacts and should be presented in educational programs organized for nephrologists and patient associations.

  6. Hospital admissions for neurological and renal diseases among dentists and dental assistants occupationally exposed to mercury.

    PubMed

    Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Hanehøj, Kirsten; Kjuus, Helge; Juel, Knud

    2011-12-01

    For many years an amalgam containing metallic mercury, which has been associated with neurological and renal diseases, has been used in dentistry. In this nationwide study we compared hospital admissions due to neurological and renal diseases among dentists and dental assistants to admissions in controls. This register-based cohort study included all Danish workers employed in dental clinics, general practitioners' clinics or lawyers' offices between 1964 and 2006. We compared dentists with general practitioners and lawyers, and dental assistants with medical secretaries, nurses and legal secretaries. We also compared dentists and dental assistants employed during periods with high occupational mercury exposure with dentists and dental assistants employed during periods with less mercury exposure. We followed all subjects in a nationwide register of hospital admissions. We analysed risk of neurological diseases, Parkinson's disease and renal diseases using a Cox regression model. The cohort consisted of 122,481 workers including 5371 dentists and 33,858 dental assistants. For neurological diseases, no association was observed for dental assistants, while for dentists an increasing risk for periods with less mercury exposure was observed. Among dental assistants, a negative association between employment length and risk of neurological disease was observed. Admissions for renal disease among dental assistants were increased during periods with less mercury exposure compared with controls. For dentists a non-significant increased risk was observed between employment length and renal disease risk. Our nationwide study does not indicate that occupational exposure to mercury increases the risk of hospital admissions for neurological, Parkinson's or renal diseases.

  7. Perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma in patients with dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kaori; Ito, Fumio; Nakazawa, Hayakazu

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to analyze the perioperative outcomes of laparoscopic radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma in patients with dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease and (ii) to reveal perioperative management problems that are unique to these patients. Between June 2004 and June 2011, laparoscopic radical nephrectomy was performed in 39 patients who had renal cell carcinoma and dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease. The operative outcomes of these patients were compared with the operative outcomes of 104 non-end-stage renal disease patients with sporadic renal cell carcinoma who underwent laparoscopic radical nephrectomy during the same period. Laparoscopic surgery was completed in thirty-eight end-stage renal disease patients. One patient was converted to open surgery because of an intraoperative injury to the inferior vena cava. This patient was excluded from the analysis. The mean operative time was 240 min; blood loss, 157 mL; and postoperative hospital stay, 9.6 days. Postoperative complications were observed in six patients, as follows: retroperitoneal hematoma and abscess in one patient, thrombosis of the arteriovenous fistula in three patients, pneumonia in one patient, and gastrointestinal bleeding in one patient. Eleven patients required blood transfusions. There was no significant difference between the end-stage renal disease patients and the non-end-stage renal disease patients in the mean operative time or the amount of blood loss. In conclusion, laparoscopic radical nephrectomy is feasible for dialysis-dependent end-stage renal disease patients, as well as for non-end-stage renal disease patients; however, end-stage renal disease patients may have a higher probability of experiencing non-life-threatening complications.

  8. Management of pain in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and anatomy of renal innervation.

    PubMed

    Tellman, Matthew W; Bahler, Clinton D; Shumate, Ashley M; Bacallao, Robert L; Sundaram, Chandru P

    2015-05-01

    Chronic pain is a prominent feature of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease that is difficult to treat and manage, often resulting in a decrease in quality of life. Understanding the underlying anatomy of renal innervation and the various etiologies of pain that occur in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease can help guide proper treatments to manage pain. Reviewing previously studied treatments for pain in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease can help characterize treatment in a stepwise fashion. We performed a literature search of the etiology and management of pain in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and the anatomy of renal innervation using PubMed® and Embase® from January 1985 to April 2014 with limitations to human studies and English language. Pain occurs in the majority of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease due to renal, hepatic and mechanical origins. Patients may experience different types of pain which can make it difficult to clinically confirm its etiology. An anatomical and histological evaluation of the complex renal innervation helps in understanding the mechanisms that can lead to renal pain. Understanding the complex nature of renal innervation is essential for surgeons to perform renal denervation. The management of pain in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease should be approached in a stepwise fashion. Acute causes of renal pain must first be ruled out due to the high incidence in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. For chronic pain, nonopioid analgesics and conservative interventions can be used first, before opioid analgesics are considered. If pain continues there are surgical interventions such as renal cyst decortication, renal denervation and nephrectomy that can target pain produced by renal or hepatic cysts. Chronic pain in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is often refractory to conservative, medical and other noninvasive treatments

  9. Associations between proteinuria, systemic hypertension and glomerular filtration rate in dogs with renal and non-renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Wehner, A; Hartmann, K; Hirschberger, J

    2008-02-02

    Proteinuria and systemic hypertension are well recognised risk factors in chronic renal failure (CRF). They are consequences of renal disease but also lead to a further loss of functional kidney tissue. The objectives of this study were to investigate the associations between proteinuria, systemic hypertension and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in dogs with naturally occurring renal and non-renal diseases, and to determine whether proteinuria and hypertension were associated with shorter survival times in dogs with CRF. Measurements of exogenous creatinine plasma clearance (ECPC), urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPC), and Doppler sonographic measurements of systolic blood pressure (SBP) were made in 60 dogs with various diseases. There was a weak but significant inverse correlation between UPC and ECPC, a significant inverse correlation between SBP and ECPC and a weak but significant positive correlation between UPC and SBP. Some of the dogs with CRF were proteinuric and almost all were hypertensive. Neoplasia was commonly associated with proteinuria in the dogs with a normal ECPC. CRF was the most common cause leading to hypertension. In the dogs with CRF, hypertension and marked proteinuria were associated with significantly shorter survival times.

  10. 42 CFR 488.60 - Special procedures for approving end stage renal disease facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special procedures for approving end stage renal disease facilities. 488.60 Section 488.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Special Requirements § 488.60 Special procedures for approving end stage renal...

  11. 42 CFR 488.60 - Special procedures for approving end stage renal disease facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special procedures for approving end stage renal disease facilities. 488.60 Section 488.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Special Requirements § 488.60 Special procedures for approving end stage renal...

  12. 42 CFR 488.60 - Special procedures for approving end stage renal disease facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special procedures for approving end stage renal disease facilities. 488.60 Section 488.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Special Requirements § 488.60 Special procedures for approving end stage renal...

  13. 42 CFR 488.60 - Special procedures for approving end stage renal disease facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special procedures for approving end stage renal disease facilities. 488.60 Section 488.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Special Requirements § 488.60 Special procedures for approving end stage renal...

  14. 42 CFR 488.60 - Special procedures for approving end stage renal disease facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special procedures for approving end stage renal disease facilities. 488.60 Section 488.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Special Requirements § 488.60 Special procedures for approving end stage renal...

  15. Renal Artery Embolization Controls Intractable Pain in a Patient with Polycystic Kidney Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Seong Tai; Park, Seog Hee; Lee, Jae Mun; Kim, Choon-Yul; Chang, Yoon Sik

    1999-09-15

    A 65-year-old man with adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD) and chronic renal failure suffered from intractable abdominal pain and distension for 2 weeks. Meperidine infusion did not alleviate his pain. However, pain and abdominal distension were successfully controlled by embolization of both renal arteries.

  16. Occulter Starshade Technology Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisman, P. D.; Thomson, M.; Kissil, A.; Walkemeyer, P.; Polanco, O.

    2010-10-01

    Imaging Earth-like exoplanets with a free flying occulter requires developing a large, lightweight, flower-shaped, deployable structure with precisely controlled edge position and profile. In-plane tolerance requirements are considerably tighter than heritage antenna systems, but the more difficult to control out-of-plane tolerances are actually much looser. This paper presents a novel occulter mechanical design that delivers the required performance with a highly reliable deployment scheme. A very compact stowed volume is an added benefit that enables launching the occulter together with a 1 to 2m class telescope, using a single, currently available launch vehicle. Demonstrating the petal deployment function and compliance with key tolerance specifications is the focus of current technology efforts. A series of prototype models of increasing fidelity are planned, starting with a proof of concept model that is currently in fabrication. The occulter design and current development status is presented herein.

  17. Distal, intermediate, and proximal mediators of racial disparities in renal disease mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Assari, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kidney failure and associated mortality is one of the major components of racial disparities in the United States. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the role of distal (socioeconomic status, SES), intermediate (chronic medical diseases), and proximal (health behaviors) factors that may explain Black-White disparities in mortality due to renal diseases. Patients and Methods: This is a nationally representative prospective cohort with 25 years of follow up. Data came from the Americans’ Changing Lives (ACL) study, 1986 to 2011. The study included 3361 Black (n = 1156) or White (n = 2205) adults who were followed for up to 25 years. Race was the main predictor and death due to renal disease was the outcome. SES, chronic medical disease (diabetes, hypertension, obesity), and health behaviors (smoking, drinking, and exercise) at baseline were potential mediators. We used Cox proportional hazards models for data analysis. Results: In age and gender adjusted models, Blacks had higher risk of death due to renal disease over the follow up period. Separate models suggested that SES, health behaviors and chronic medical disease fully explained the effect of race on renal disease mortality. Conclusions: Black-White disparities in rate of death due to renal diseases in the United States are not genuine but secondary to racial differences in income, health behaviors, hypertension, and diabetes. As distal, intermediate, and proximal factors contribute to racial disparities in renal disease mortality, elimination of such disparities requires a wide range of policies and programs that target income, medical conditions, and health behaviors. PMID:27047811

  18. Psychiatric adjustment in end-stage renal disease: a follow up study of former paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Morton, M J; Reynolds, J M; Garralda, M E; Postlethwaite, R J; Goh, D

    1994-05-01

    Life-time psychiatric adjustment was studied in forty-five young adult survivors of a paediatric dialysis and transplantation programme and in a comparison group matched for age and sex. Renal patients reported more psychological problems in childhood and had lower self-esteem in adulthood, but adult lifetime psychiatric morbidity was comparable in both groups. There were differences in the pattern of psychiatric disorder with a trend for more depressive states in the renal group. Lower self-esteem was linked to early onset renal disease and to educational and social dysfunction. Results indicate relatively favourable adult adjustment of juvenile renal patients.

  19. Renal artery stenosis and hypertension after abdominal irradiation for Hodgkin disease. Successful treatment with nephrectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Salvi, S.; Green, D.M.; Brecher, M.L.; Magoos, I.; Gamboa, L.N.; Fisher, J.E.; Baliah, T.; Afshani, E.

    1983-06-01

    Hypertension secondary to stenosis of the left renal artery developed in a thirteen-year-old male six years after completion of inverted Y irradiation (3,600 rad) for abdominal Hodgkin disease. Surgical treatment with nephrectomy resulted in control of the hypertension without the use of antihypertensive agents. We review the literature for this unusual complication of abdominal irradiation, and recommend that a 99mTc-DMSA renal scan, selective renal vein sampling for renin determinations, and renal arteriography be performed on any patient in whom hypertension develops following abdominal irradiation in childhood.

  20. [Occult hepatitis B virus infection in chronic hepatitis C].

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae Young; Park, Eui Ju

    2013-09-01

    Occult HBV infection is defined as the presence of HBV DNA in the liver (with or without detectable or undetectable HBV DNA in the serum) of individuals testing negative for HBsAg. Studies on occult HBV infection in hepatitis C patients have reported highly variable prevalence, because the prevalence of occult HBV infection varies depending on the hepatitis B risk factors and methodological approaches. The most reliable diagnostic approach for detecting occult HBV detection is through examination of liver DNA extracts. HCV has been suspected to strongly suppress HBV replication up to the point where it may be directly responsible for occult HBV infection development. However, more data are needed to arrive at a definitive conclusion regarding the role of HCV in inducing occult HBV infection. Occult HBV infection in chronic hepatitis C patients is a complex biological entity with possible relevant clinical implications. Influence of occult HBV infection on the clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis C may be considered negative. However, recent studies have shown that occult HBV infection could be associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma and contribute to the worsening of the course of chronic liver disease over time in chronic hepatitis C patients. Nevertheless, the possible role of occult HBV infection in chronic hepatitis C is still unresolved and no firm conclusion has been made up until now. It still remains unclear how occult HBV infection affects the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Therefore, in order to resolve current controversies and understand the pathogenic role and clinical impacts of occult HBV infection in chronic hepatitis C patients, well-designed clinical studies are needed.

  1. Recovery of renal function after glucocorticoid therapy for IgG4-related kidney disease with renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Takako; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Mizushima, Ichiro; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Wada, Yoko; Ubara, Yoshifumi; Nakashima, Hitoshi; Ito, Tomoyuki; Yamazaki, Hajime; Narita, Ichiei; Saito, Takao

    2016-02-01

    Although renal dysfunction in IgG4-related kidney disease (IgG4-RKD) shows rapid resolution with glucocorticoid therapy, little is known about the appropriate initial glucocorticoid dose for induction therapy or long-term renal outcome. We retrospectively examined the differences in recovery of renal function according to the dose of glucocorticoid used for induction therapy and the long-term renal outcome in 43 patients with definite IgG4-RKD (mostly IgG4-tubulointerstitial nephritis), in whom the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) before glucocorticoid therapy was <60 ml/min. Most patients were treated with glucocorticoid alone and had been maintained on glucocorticoid. The initial dose of prednisolone employed was ≤0.6 mg/kg/day (mean 0.47) in 27 patients (group L), and >0.6 mg/kg/day (mean 0.81) in 16 patients (group H). In both groups, the pretreatment eGFR was significantly improved at 1 month after the start of glucocorticoid therapy and the degree of improvement showed no significant inter-group difference. Relapse of IgG4-RKD occurred in 16.7% of the group L patients and 13.3% of the group H patients (p = 0.78). Among 29 patients who were followed up for over 36 months (mean 74 months) and had been maintained on glucocorticoid, none showed progression to end-stage renal disease and there was no significant difference between eGFR at 1 month after treatment and eGFR at the last review. In glucocorticoid monotherapy for IgG4-RKD, a moderate dose is sufficient for induction, and recovery of renal function can be maintained for a long period on low-dose maintenance, although relapse can occur even in patients receiving maintenance therapy.

  2. Acute appendicitis in patients with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Chao, Pei-Wen; Ou, Shuo-Ming; Chen, Yung-Tai; Lee, Yi-Jung; Wang, Feng-Ming; Liu, Chia-Jen; Yang, Wu-Chang; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Li, Szu-Yuan

    2012-10-01

    Acute appendicitis in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) poses a diagnostic challenge. Delayed surgery can contribute to higher morbidity and mortality rates. However, few studies have evaluated this disease among ESRD patients. Our study focused on the lack of data on the incidence and risk factors of acute appendicitis among ESRD patients and compared the outcomes in patients who underwent different dialysis modalities. This national survey was conducted between 1997 and 2005 and included ESRD patients identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance database. The incidence rate of acute appendicitis in ESRD patients was compared with that in randomly selected age-, sex-, and Charlson comorbidity score-matched non-dialysis controls. A Cox regression hazard model was used to identify risk factors. Among 59,781 incident ESRD patients, matched one-to-one with controls, there were 328 events of acute appendicitis. The incidence rate of 16.9 per 10,000 person-years in the ESRD cohort was higher than that in the control cohort (p = 0.003). The independent risk factors were atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio [HR], 2.08), severe liver disease (HR, 1.74), diabetes mellitus (HR, 1.58), and hemodialysis (HR, 1.74). Compared with the control cohort, subsequent perforation and mortality rates of acute appendicitis were also higher in the ESRD cohorts. There was no effect of dialysis modality on the patient outcomes. ESRD patients had a higher risk for acute appendicitis and poorer outcomes than non-dialysis populations. A careful examination of ESRD patients presenting with atypical abdominal pain to avoid misdiagnosis is extremely important to prevent delayed surgery.

  3. Simple Renal Cysts as Markers of Thoracic Aortic Disease.

    PubMed

    Ziganshin, Bulat A; Theodoropoulos, Panagiotis; Salloum, Mohammad N; Zaza, Khaled J; Tranquilli, Maryann; Mojibian, Hamid R; Dahl, Neera K; Fang, Hai; Rizzo, John A; Elefteriades, John A

    2016-01-08

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm is usually a clinically silent disease; timely detection is largely dependent upon identification of clinical markers of thoracic aortic disease (TAD); (bicuspid aortic valve, intracranial aortic aneurysm, bovine aortic arch, or positive family history). Recently, an association of simple renal cysts (SRC) with abdominal aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection was established. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of SRC in patients with TAD in order to assess whether the presence of SRC can be used as a predictor of TAD. We evaluated the prevalence of SRC in 842 patients with TAD (64.0% males) treated at our institution from 2004 to 2013 and compared to a control group of patients (n=543; 56.2% males). Patients were divided into 4 groups: ascending aortic aneurysm (456; 54.2%); descending aortic aneurysm (86; 10.2%); type A aortic dissection (118; 14.0%); and type B aortic dissection (182; 21.6%). SRC were identified by abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of these patients. Prevalence of SRC is 37.5%, 57.0%, 44.1%, and 47.3% for patients with ascending aneurysm, descending aneurysm, type A dissection, and type B dissection, respectively. Prevalence of SRC in the control group was 15.3%. Prevalence of SRC was not significantly different between male and female aortic disease patients, despite reported general male predominance (2:1), which was also observed in our control group (1.7:1). This study establishes an increased prevalence of SRC in patients with TAD. SRC can potentially be used as a marker for timely detection of patients at risk of TAD. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  4. Misdiagnosis of Addison's disease in a patient with end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Kocyigit, Ismail; Unal, Aydin; Tanriverdi, Fatih; Hayri Sipahioglu, Murat; Tokgoz, Bulent; Oymak, Oktay; Utas, Cengiz

    2011-01-01

    Addison's disease is a rare disorder in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In patients, the diagnosis of Addison's disease is difficult in clinical practice because most of the clinical findings of this disease are similar to those of the renal failure. We present a 51-year-old male patient, who underwent hemodialysis therapy for 8 years, diagnosed with Addison's disease after having myalgia, skin hyperpigmentation, weight loss, sweating, and nausea for the past few weeks. The physical examination was completely normal except for muscle weakness, hyperpigmentation on labial mucosa and skin in a patient. The laboratory tests revealed anemia and hypoglycemia. Serum cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, and ACTH stimulation test results were consistent with Addison's disease. Adrenal computerized tomography revealed bilateral atrophic glands. Additionally, it was found that elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone levels and antithyroid peroxidase antibody titer were positive. Our purpose is to emphasize that physicians should be alert to the potential for additional different conditions particularly in terms of adrenal failure in patients with ESRD.

  5. Role of Positron Emission Tomography in the Treatment of Occult Disease in Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Modeling Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark H.; Smith, Wade P.; Parvathaneni, Upendra; Laramore, George E.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: To determine under what conditions positron emission tomography (PET) imaging will be useful in decisions regarding the use of radiotherapy for the treatment of clinically occult lymph node metastases in head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: A decision model of PET imaging and its downstream effects on radiotherapy outcomes was constructed using an influence diagram. This model included the sensitivity and specificity of PET, as well as the type and stage of the primary tumor. These parameters were varied to determine the optimal strategy for imaging and therapy for different clinical situations. Maximum expected utility was the metric by which different actions were ranked. Results: For primary tumors with a low probability of lymph node metastases, the sensitivity of PET should be maximized, and 50 Gy should be delivered if PET is positive and 0 Gy if negative. As the probability for lymph node metastases increases, PET imaging becomes unnecessary in some situations, and the optimal dose to the lymph nodes increases. The model needed to include the causes of certain health states to predict current clinical practice. Conclusion: The model demonstrated the ability to reproduce expected outcomes for a range of tumors and provided recommendations for different clinical situations. The differences between the optimal policies and current clinical practice are likely due to a disparity between stated clinical decision processes and actual decision making by clinicians.

  6. CT of acquired cystic kidney disease and renal tumors in long-term dialysis patients

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, E.; Grantham, J.J.; Slusher, S.L.; Greathouse, J.L.; Krohn, B.P.

    1984-01-01

    The kidneys of long term dialysis patients frequently demonstrate multiple small acquired cysts and renal cell tumors on pathologic examination. The original kidneys of 30 long-term dialysis patients and six renal transplant patients were evaluated by computed tomography to determine the incidence of these abnormalities. Among dialysis patients, 43.3% had diffuse bilateral cysts, while 16.7% had occasional cysts (fewer than five per kidney), and 40% showed no renal cysts. Seven solid renal tumors were detected in four dialysis patients with renal cysts. Acquired cystic kidney disease tends to result in renal enlargement, is more common in patients who have been maintained on dialysis for prolonged periods, and may lead to spontaneous renal hemorrhage. The six transplant patients showed no evidence of renal cysts, and all had markedly shrunken kidneys. Acquired cystic disease and renal cell tumors in the original kidneys of dialysis patients may be due to biologically active substances that are not cleared effectively by dialysis but that are removed by normally functioning transplant kidneys.

  7. Clinical Scenarios in Chronic Kidney Disease: Kidneys' Structural Changes in End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Meola, Mario; Samoni, Sara; Petrucci, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Acquired cystic kidney disease (ACKD) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are the most important manifestations of end-stage kidneys' structural changes. ACKD is caused by kidney damage or scarring and it is characterized by the presence of small, multiple cortical and medullary cysts filled with a fluid similar to preurine. ACKD prevalence varies according to predialysis and dialysis age and its pathogenesis is unknown, although it is stated that progressive destruction of renal tissue induces hypertrophy/compensatory hyperplasia of residual nephrons and may trigger the degenerative process. ACKD is almost asymptomatic, but it can lead to several complications (bleeding, rupture, infections, RCC). Ultrasound (US) is the first level imaging technique in ACKD, because of its sensitivity and reliability. The most serious complication of ACKD is RCC, which is stimulated by the same growth factors and proto-oncogenes that lead to the genesis of cysts. Two different histological types of RCC have been identified: (1) RCC associated with ACKD and (2) papillary renal clear cell carcinoma. Tumors in end-stage kidneys are mainly small, multifocal and bilateral, with a papillary structure and a low degree of malignancy. At US, RCC appears as a small inhomogeneous nodule (<3 cm), clearly outlined from the renal profile and hypoechoic if compared with sclerotic parenchyma. In some cases, tumor appears as a homogeneous and hyperechoic multifocal mass. The most specific US sign of a small tumor in end-stage kidney is the important arterial vascularization, in contrast with renal parenchymal vascular sclerosis. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Ghrelin and obestatin levels in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Aygen, B; Dogukan, A; Dursun, F E; Aydin, S; Kilic, N; Sahpaz, F; Celiker, H

    2009-01-01

    Malnutrition is fairly common in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients, persistent lack of appetite being a major symptom. Ghrelin and obestatin are two hormones that are involved in appetite and energy homeostasis. The present study examined ghrelin and obestatin levels in 24 ESRD patients undergoing haemodialysis and 24 age-matched healthy controls. Serum and saliva ghrelin and obestatin levels in the ESRD patients were significantly higher compared with controls, while saliva ghrelin and obestatin levels in all study participants were significantly higher than serum levels. Saliva ghrelin correlated with serum ghrelin and saliva obestatin correlated with serum obestatin in all study participants, although there was no correlation between ghrelin and obestatin levels. In conclusion, the results suggest that the kidneys may have a role in the metabolism and/or clearance of obestatin, as they do for ghrelin. Further studies are needed to determine if elevated levels of these hormones in ESRD patients contribute to the malnutrition that is common in these patients.

  9. Satellite hemodialysis services for patients with end stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Organ, Kathy; MacDonald, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    More than 40,000 Canadians are living with end stage renal disease and approximately 22,400 of those are currently being treated with hemodialysis (The Kidney Foundation of Canada, 2013). Long distance travel to access hemodialysis services can be a serious burden for patients, and travelling more than 60 minutes can mean a 20% greater risk for death, as compared with those who travel 15 minutes or less (Moist et al., 2008). Satellite hemodialysis units are seen as one solution to this problem. This study assessed the impact of services provided by one satellite hemodialysis unit on patients' satisfaction, access to care and quality of life using a qualitative interview research design. Seven patients were interviewed and three themes emerged including the burden of long distance travel before satellite services (safety, time and cost), satisfaction with satellite services (pleasant environment and continuity of care), and improved quality of life. This study showed that a satellite hemodialysis unit improved access to services and enhanced the quality of life of those patients who participated in the study.

  10. Fertility preservation in patients receiving cyclophosphamide therapy for renal disease.

    PubMed

    Gajjar, Radha; Miller, Steven D; Meyers, Kevin E; Ginsberg, Jill P

    2015-07-01

    Cyclophosphamide continues to have an important role in the treatment of renal disease, including nephrotic syndrome and lupus nephritis, despite known complications of gonadotoxicity and potential infertility in both male and female patients. It is important that the physician recommending this therapy mitigates the effect of the drug on fertility by adhering to recommendations on dosing limits and offering fertility-preserving strategies. In addition to well-established methods, such as sperm banking and embryo cryopreservation, advances in reproductive technology have yielded strategies such as oocyte cryopreservation, resulting in more fertility-preserving options for the pediatric patient. Despite these advances, there continues to be a significant barrier to referral and access to sperm banks and fertility specialists. These issues are further complicated by ethical issues associated with the treatment of pediatric patients. In this review we explore the development of recommended dosing limits and include a discussion of the available fertility-preserving methods, strategies for increasing access to fertility specialists, and the ethical considerations facing the pediatric healthcare provider.

  11. Fertility and contraception in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R J; Holley, J L

    1998-01-01

    The hormonal aberrations that occur with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are presented in this review in relation to fertility and conception among women on dialysis. The imbalance in gonadotropin production in dialysis-dependent men and women is characterized by elevations in luteinizing hormone (LH). In women dialysis patients, the normal estradiol-stimulated LH surge does not occur, resulting in anovulation. In men dialysis patients spermatogenesis is impaired, and low testosterone levels cause elevated LH. Infertility in those with ESRD is a culmination of many factors, including impotence and loss of libido, anovulation, and an altered hormonal milieu. Despite these inhibitors of conception, women on dialysis can conceive; pregnancy has been reported in 1% to 7% of women on dialysis in survey studies. The influence of dialysis mode (hemodialysis v peritoneal dialysis), recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO), and dialysis adequacy on the likelihood of conception among patients of either sex on dialysis is unknown. Reduced sexual activity and interest has consistently been reported in the ESRD population. The reasons for this are complex and likely involve the effects of comorbid illnesses, overall health status, body image factors, and hormonal alterations. Nephrologists rarely discuss conception and contraception with their women dialysis patients. Greater attention to these issues is needed.

  12. Lower Extremity Revascularization in End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Jones, Douglas W; Dansey, Kirsten; Hamdan, Allen D

    2016-11-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who present with critical limb ischemia (CLI) have become an increasingly common and complex treatment problem for vascular surgeons. Dialysis patients have high short-term mortality rates regardless of whether revascularization is pursued. ESRD patients with CLI can be managed with: local wound care, endovascular or surgical revascularization, or amputation. Some patients may heal small foot wounds with local wound care alone, even if distal perfusion is marginal, as long as any infectious process has been controlled. Surgical revascularization has a mortality rate of 5-10% but has a high chance of limb salvage. However, overall 5-year survival may be as low as 28%. Endovascular therapy also carries a high perioperative mortality risk in this population with similar limb salvage rates. Amputation is indicated in patients with advanced stage CLI, as described by the Society for Vascular Surgery's Wound, Ischemia and foot Infection (WIfI) system. Statistical models predict that endovascular or surgical revascularization strategies are less costly and more functionally beneficial to patients than primary amputation alone. Decisions on how to manage ESRD patients with CLI are complex but revascularization can often result in limb salvage, despite limited overall survival. Dialysis patients with good life expectancy and good quality conduit may benefit most from surgical bypass.

  13. Relationship between renal function and renal volume in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Torres-Sánchez, M J; Ávila-Barranco, E; Esteban de la Rosa, R J; Fernández-Castillo, R; Esteban, M A; Carrero, J J; García-Valverde, M; Bravo-Soto, J A

    2016-03-01

    To determine in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease the relationship between total renal volume (the sum of both kidneys, TRV) as measured by magnetic resonance and renal function; and its behaviour according to sex and the presence of arterial hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and hyperglycemia. Cross-sectional study including patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease who underwent periodic reviews at Nephrology external consultations at Hospital de las Nieves de Granada, and who underwent an magnetic resonance to estimate renal volume between January 2008 and March 2011. We evaluated 67 patients (59.7% women, average age of 48±14.4 years) and found a significant positive association between TRV and serum creatinine or urea, which was reversed compared with estimated glomerular filtration by MDRD-4 and Cockcroft-Gault. Women showed an average serum creatinine level and a significantly lower TRV level compared with males. Subgroups affected by arterial hypertension and hyperuricemia presented average values for serum creatinine and urea, higher for TRV and lower for estimated glomerular filtration. The hypercholesterolaemia subgroup showed higher average values for urea and lower for estimated glomerular filtration, without detecting significant differences compared with TRV. The volume of polycystic kidneys measured by magnetic resonance is associated with renal function, and can be useful as a complementary study to monitor disease progression. The presence of arterial hypertension, hyperuricemia or hypercholesterolaemia is associated with a poorer renal function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment of osteoporosis in chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul D

    2005-03-01

    As glomerular filtration rate (GFR) declines from age-related bone loss or disease that specifically induces a decline in GFR, there are a number of metabolic bone conditions that may accompany the decline in GFR. These metabolic bone conditions span a spectrum from mild-to-severe secondary hyperparathyroidism in early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) to the development of additional heterogeneous forms of bone diseases each with its distinctly quantitative bone histomorphometric characteristics. Osteoporosis can also develop in patients with CKD and ESRD for many reasons beyond age-related bone loss and postmenopausal bone loss. The diagnosis of osteoporosis in patients with severe CKD or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is not as easy to do as it is in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO)--neither fragility fractures nor The World Health Organization bone mineral density criteria can be used to diagnose osteoporosis in this population since all forms of renal bone disease may fracture or have low "T scores". The diagnosis of osteoporosis in patients with CKD/ESRD must be done by first the exclusion of the other forms of renal osteodystrophy, by biochemical profiling or by double tetracycline-labeled bone biopsy; and the finding of low trabecular bone volume. In such patients, preliminary data would suggest that oral bisphosphonates seem to be safe and effective down to GFR levels of 15 mL/min. In patients with stage 5 CKD who are fracturing because of osteoporosis or who are on chronic glucocorticoids, reducing the oral bisphosphonate dosage to half of its usual prescribed dosing for PMO seems reasonable from known bisphosphonate pharmacokinetics, though we do need better scientific data to fully understand bisphosphonate usage in this population.

  15. Thrombelastographic pattern recognition in renal disease and trauma.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Michael P; Moore, Ernest E; Burneikis, Dominykas; Moore, Hunter B; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Anderson, Kelsey C; Ramos, Christopher R; Banerjee, Anirban

    2015-03-01

    Thrombelastography (TEG) is a viscoelastic hemostatic assay. We have observed that end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) produce distinctive TEG tracings. We hypothesized that rigorously definable TEG patterns could discriminate between healthy controls and patients with ESRD and TIC. TEG was performed on blood from ESRD patients (n = 54) and blood from trauma patients requiring a massive blood transfusion (n = 16). Plots of independent TEG parameters were analyzed for patterns coupled to disease state, compared with controls. Decision trees for taxonomic classification were then built using the "R-Project" statistical software. Minimally overlapping clusters of TEG results were observed for the three patient groups when coordinate pairs of maximum amplitude (MA) and TEG-activated clotting time (ACT) were plotted on orthogonal axes. Based on these groupings, a taxonomical classification tree was constructed using MA and TEG ACT. Branch points were set at an ACT of 103 s, and these branches subdivided for MA at 60.8 mm for the high ACT branch and 72.6 mm for the low ACT branch, providing a correct classification rate of 93.4%. ESRD and TIC demonstrate distinct TEG patterns. The coagulopathy of ESRD is typified by a prolonged enzymatic phase of clot formation, with normal-to-elevated final clot strength. Conversely, TIC is typified by prolonged clot formation and weakened clot strength. Our taxonomic categorization constitutes a rigorous system for the algorithmic interpretation of TEG based on cluster analysis. This will form the basis for clinical decision support software for viscoelastic hemostatic assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rates and causes of end-stage renal disease in Navajo Indians, 1971-1985.

    PubMed

    Megill, D M; Hoy, W E; Woodruff, S D

    1988-08-01

    The rates of end-stage renal disease are much increased in American Indians, but no longitudinal study of its rates and causes has been undertaken in any tribe. This 15-year study of rates and causes of treated end-stage renal disease in the Navajo, the largest Indian tribe, supplies an important model on which to base projections and plan interventions. Treated end-stage renal disease in Navajos has increased to an age-adjusted incidence 4 times that in whites in the United States. Diabetic nephropathy accounted for 50% of all new cases in 1985, with an incidence 9.6 times that in US whites, and was due entirely to type II disease. Glomerulonephritis caused end-stage renal disease in Navajos at a rate at least 1.8 times that in US whites and afflicted a much younger population. The predominant form was mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis associated with an immune complex deposition. Renal disease of unknown etiology, which probably includes much silent glomerulonephritis, accounted for 20% of all new cases. The aggregate Navajo population with end-stage renal disease was 9 years younger than its US counterpart. These observations reflect the genesis of the epidemic of diabetic nephropathy afflicting many tribes. Urgent measures are needed to contain this. In addition, the etiology and control of mesangiopathic, immune-complex glomerulonephritis of unusual severity, a previously unrecognized problem, need to be addressed.

  17. Public health aspects of renal diseases in the Republic of Macedonia 1983-2007.

    PubMed

    Kosevska, E; Kasapinov, B; Pollozhani, A; Stambolieva, V; Karamandi-Lazarovska, V; Sikole, A; Polenakovic, M

    2009-12-01

    To present the situation and burden of renal diseases and dialysis in the Republic of Macedonia in the period 1983-2007. A descriptive-statistical method has been applied with retrospective analysis of data for the period 1983-2007. Data from standard reports from ambulatory, dispensary and hospital services in the Republic of Macedonia, mortality statistics for the Republic of Macedonia, data from the World Health Organization and other professional literature and materials have been used. Morbidity data from ambulatory and dispensary services in the period 1997-2007 show that renal diseases have increased by 64.7%, with rates rising from 319.5/10,000 population in 1997 to 514.5/10,000 in 2007. There has also been a rise in hospital health care for renal diseases, which is mainly due to the increase of chronic renal failure patients. Renal failure in-patient morbidity has increased from 3.5/10,000 in 1983 to 8.2/10,000 in 2006. Mortality from urinary system diseases in the period 1983-2007 also increased from 8.2/100,000 in 1983 to 14.0/100,000 in 2007. The vast majority of all mortality cases are due to renal failure. At the same time, chronic renal failure represents a significant economic burden to the society. The treatment of urinary system diseases, and especially of chronic renal failure, requires costly diagnostic procedures and treatment and long-term rehabilitation and these cause negative economic effects, long-term absenteeism, disability and premature death. It is necessary to stress the measures for health protection and promotion, as well as all levels of prevention of renal diseases.

  18. How simple are 'simple renal cysts'?

    PubMed

    Simms, Roslyn J; Ong, Albert C M

    2014-09-01

    The increasing use of medical imaging as an investigative tool is leading to the incidental and frequent finding of renal cysts in the general population. The presence of a solitary or multiple renal cysts has been generally considered benign in the absence of a family history of renal cystic disease or evidence of chronic kidney disease. Nonetheless, a number of recent studies have questioned this consensus by reported associations with the development of hypertension or malignant change. For these reasons, some clinicians consider the presence of renal cysts to be a contraindication to kidney donation. The situation is complicated by the different usage of the term 'simple' by some radiologists (to indicate non-complex lesions) or nephrologists (to indicate age-related non-hereditary lesions). We propose that the term 'simple' be replaced with the morphological description, Stage I renal cyst (Bosniak Classification). The presence of a Stage I renal cyst should not preclude kidney donation. However, occult renal disease should be excluded and appropriate donor assessment performed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERAEDTA. All rights reserved.

  19. Occultation by (136199) Eris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jehin, E.; Manfroid, J.; Gillon, M.; Hutsemekers, D.; Magain, P.

    2010-11-01

    E. Jehin, J. Manfroid, M. Gillon, D. Hutsemekers, and P. Magain report that they observed an occultation of a star of magnitude I about 15.2 by the dwarf planet Eris (then at V about 18.7) on Nov. 6 using the new telescope TRAPPIST at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla). A series of 3-s exposures of a field of size 3' x 3' (1".3/pixel) were secured in fast-readout mode (with a deadtime of 1.5 s), starting at 01h50m UT for one hour. Seven frames centered at 02h19m34s UT allowed them to derive the start of the occultation as 02h19m16s.75 +/- 0s.75 and the end as 02h19m47s.6 +/- 0s.2, for a total occultation time of 30.4 +/- 1.0 seconds. The predictions (see above) made by the Rio de Janeiro group (Assafin et al., Nov. 5) and by J. L. Ortiz estimated the time of the occultation around 02h18m UT for Chile, in good agreement with the observations. During the occultation, a point source is detected with a magnitude corresponding to that of Eris. A small flux increase was also seen at the middle of the occultation, which might result from refraction in Eris' atmosphere (Elliot and Olkin 1996, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 24, 89). Eris is by far the most-remote solar-system object observed to date via stellar occultation, with a geocentric distance of about 96 AU. TRAPPIST is a project driven by the University of Liege, in close collaboration with the Observatory of Geneva, supported by the Belgian Fund for Scientific Research and the Swiss National Science Foundation.

  20. Successful pregnancy in an end-stage renal disease patient on peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Inal, Salih; Reis, Kadriye Altok; Armağan, Berkan; Oneç, Küşrad; Biri, Aydan

    2012-01-01

    Among women with chronic kidney disease, successful pregnancy with a surviving infant is rather rare. Although these pregnancies carry higher risk, with the possibility of adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, they can be managed with close monitoring and intense renal replacement therapy. Given the hemodynamic advantages of peritoneal dialysis over hemodialysis in pregnancy, peritoneal dialysis therapy is thought to be a favorable renal replacement option in pregnant patients with chronic kidney disease.

  1. Comparative study on the clinical and virological characteristics among patients with single occult hepatitis B virus (HBV), single occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) and occult HBV and HCV dual infection.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-Iñigo, Elena; López-Alcorocho, Juan Manuel; Bartolomé, Javier; Pardo, Margarita; Carreño, Vicente

    2007-03-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) and occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection are two recently described different forms of HBV and HCV infections. This work compares the clinical, virologic, and histologic characteristics of patients with occult dual infection to those of patients with single occult HBV or HCV infection. Seventy-six patients with abnormal liver function tests of unknown etiology (serum HBsAg, anti-HCV, HBV-DNA, and HCV-RNA negative) were included in the study. Viral genomes were tested in liver by real-time PCR and confirmed by in situ hybridization. Of the 76 patients, 17 had occult HBV infection (intrahepatic HBV-DNA positive, HCV-RNA negative), 35 had occult HCV infection (intrahepatic HCV-RNA positive, HBV-DNA negative) and 24 occult dual infection (intrahepatic HCV-RNA and HBV-DNA). No differences among the three groups were found regarding clinical and epidemiologic data. The median load of intrahepatic genomic and antigenomic HCV-RNA strands was similar between single occult HCV infection and occult HBV and HCV dual infection. The percentage of HCV-infected hepatocytes did not differ between these groups. In occult single HBV infection, intrahepatic levels of HBV-DNA and percentage of HBV-infected hepatocytes were similar to the group of patients with occult dual infection. Finally, no differences were found in histological liver damage among the three groups. In conclusion, liver disease in patients with occult dual infection was not more severe than in patients with single occult HBV or occult HCV infection. Moreover, in occult dual infection there is no a reciprocal inhibition of the viral genomes.

  2. Rapidly Progressive Renal Dysfunction in Two Elderly Patients with Renal Enlargement and Medullary Cystic Kidney Disease-like Acute Tubulointerstitial Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Shinya; Koda, Ryo; Yoshino, Atsunori; Takeda, Tetsuro; Ueda, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Medullary cystic kidney disease (MCKD) is a hereditary disease associated with bilateral medullary polycysts and interstitial fibrosis. MCKD is typically associated with slowly progressive renal dysfunction. We herein report two rare elderly cases with enlarged kidneys and rapidly progressive renal dysfunction without myeloperoxidase anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA), PR3-ANCA, or anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies. Renal biopsies revealed extensive tubular dilatation and atrophy with interstitial fibrosis consistent with MCKD. Both patients began hemodialysis therapy a few months later. Our cases suggest a MCKD subgroup among elderly patients with an undefined genetic background, rapidly progressive renal dysfunction, and enlarged kidneys. PMID:27746439

  3. Pregnancy in end-stage renal disease patients on dialysis: how to achieve a successful delivery

    PubMed Central

    Manisco, Gianfranco; Potì’, Marcello; Maggiulli, Giuseppe; Di Tullio, Massimo; Losappio, Vincenzo; Vernaglione, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy in women with chronic kidney disease has always been considered as a challenging event both for the mother and the fetus. Over the years, several improvements have been achieved in the outcome of pregnant chronic renal patients with increasing rates of successful deliveries. To date, evidence suggests that the stage of renal failure is the main predictive factor of worsening residual kidney function and complications in pregnant women. Moreover, the possibility of success of the pregnancy depends on adequate depurative and pharmacological strategies in patients with end-stage renal disease. In this paper, we propose a review of the current literature about this topic presenting our experience as well. PMID:26034591

  4. Pregnancy in end-stage renal disease patients on dialysis: how to achieve a successful delivery.

    PubMed

    Manisco, Gianfranco; Potì', Marcello; Maggiulli, Giuseppe; Di Tullio, Massimo; Losappio, Vincenzo; Vernaglione, Luigi

    2015-06-01

    Pregnancy in women with chronic kidney disease has always been considered as a challenging event both for the mother and the fetus. Over the years, several improvements have been achieved in the outcome of pregnant chronic renal patients with increasing rates of successful deliveries. To date, evidence suggests that the stage of renal failure is the main predictive factor of worsening residual kidney function and complications in pregnant women. Moreover, the possibility of success of the pregnancy depends on adequate depurative and pharmacological strategies in patients with end-stage renal disease. In this paper, we propose a review of the current literature about this topic presenting our experience as well.

  5. Octreotide reduces hepatic, renal and breast cystic volume in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Peces, Ramón; Cuesta-López, Emilio; Peces, Carlos; Pérez-Dueñas, Virginia; Vega-Cabrera, Cristina; Selgas, Rafael

    2011-06-01

    A 43-year-old woman with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) received octreotide for 12 months, and this was associated with a 6.3% reduction in liver volume, an 8% reduction in total kidney volume and stabilization of renal function. There was also a reduction of cyst size in fibrocystic disease of breast. These data suggest that the cyst fluid accumulation in different organs from patients with ADPKD is a dynamic process which can be reversed by octreotide. This is the first report of a case of simultaneous reduction in hepatic, renal and breast cystic volume with preservation of renal function in a patient with ADPKD receiving octreotide.

  6. [Survey of acupuncture and moxibustion for clinical treatment of renal diseases].

    PubMed

    Wan, Rong-Jun; Li, Yue-Hong

    2009-04-01

    In order to understand survey of medication combined with acupuncture and moxibustion for clinical treatment of renal diseases, clinical application and the mechanisms of acupuncture and moxibustion for treatment of renal diseases were summarized by electric retrieval of literature from 1982 to 2007. It is indicated that acupuncture and moxibustion can increase human immunity, reduce urinary protein, improve renal function, antagonize the side-effects of glucocorticoid hormones, etc. and medication combined with acup-moxibustion has the advantages of convenience, lower cost, safety, no adverse effects, etc.

  7. Effect of inhibition of converting enzyme on renal hemodynamics and sodium management in polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Torres, V E; Wilson, D M; Burnett, J C; Johnson, C M; Offord, K P

    1991-10-01

    We compared the tubular transport of sodium and the erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport activity in hypertensive patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and in normotensive control subjects. In addition, we assessed the effects of inhibition of converting enzyme on renal hemodynamics and sodium excretion in hypertensive patients with ADPKD to provide information on mechanisms responsible for the increased renal vascular resistance and filtration fraction and the adjustment of the pressure-natriuresis relationship during saline expansion, observed in patients with ADPKD, hypertension, and preserved renal function. In comparison with normotensive control subjects, the hypertensive patients with ADPKD had lower renal plasma flows, higher renal vascular resistances and filtration fractions, and similar proximal and distal fractional reabsorptions of sodium. The administration of enalapril resulted in significant increases in the renal plasma flow and significant reductions in mean arterial pressure, renal vascular resistance, and filtration fraction, but the glomerular filtration rate remained unchanged. Despite the significant reduction in mean arterial pressure during inhibition of converting enzyme, the distal fractional reabsorption of sodium decreased while the total fractional excretion of sodium remained unchanged or increased slightly. No significant differences were detected between the normotensive control subjects and the hypertensive patients with ADPKD in erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport activity, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone concentration, or atrial natriuretic factor. These results suggest that the renal renin-angiotensin system plays a central role in the alterations in renal hemodynamics and sodium management associated with the development of hypertension in ADPKD.

  8. Atherosclerotic ischemic renal disease. Diagnosis and prevalence in an hypertensive and/or uremic elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Coen, Giorgio; Calabria, Santo; Lai, Silvia; Moscaritolo, Eleonora; Nofroni, Italo; Ronga, Giuseppe; Rossi, Michele; Ventroni, Guido; Sardella, Daniela; Ferrannini, Michele; Zaccaria, Alvaro; Cianci, Rosario

    2003-01-01

    Background Atherosclerotic ischemic renal disease is a frequent cause of end-stage renal failure leading to dialysis among the elderly; Its prevalence is inferred from autopsy or retrospective arteriographic studies. This study has been conducted on 269 subjects over 50 with hypertension and/or CRF, unrelated to other known causes of renal disease. Methods All 269 patients were studied either by color-flow duplex sonography (n = 238) or by renal scintigraphy (n = 224), and 199 of the 269 patients were evaluated using both of these techniques. 40 patients, found to have renal artery stenosis (RAS), were subjected to 3D-contrast enhancement Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) and/or Selective Angiography (SA). An additional 23 cases, negative both to scintigraphy and to ultrasound study, underwent renal angiography (MRA and/or SA). Results Color-duplex sonography, carried out in 238 patients, revealed 49 cases of RAS. MR or SA was carried out in 35 of these 49 patients, and confirmed the diagnosis in 33. Color-duplex sonography showed a PPV value of 94.3% and NPV of 87.0% while renal scintigraphy, carried out in 224 patients, had a PPV of 72.2% and a NPV of 29.4%. Patients with RAS showed a higher degree of renal insufficiency compared to non stenotic patients while there were no differences in proteinuria. RAS, based on color-duplex sonography studies, was present in 11% of patients in the age group 50–59, 18% in the 60–69 and 23% at age 70 and above. Conclusions A relatively large percentage of the elderly population with renal insufficiency and/or hypertension is affected by RAS and is at risk of developing end-stage renal failure. Color-duplex ultrasonography is a valid routine method of investigation of population at risk for renal artery stenosis. PMID:12622875

  9. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue are not affected by renal disease.

    PubMed

    Roemeling-van Rhijn, Marieke; Reinders, Marlies E J; de Klein, Annelies; Douben, Hannie; Korevaar, Sander S; Mensah, Fane K F; Dor, Frank J M F; IJzermans, Jan N M; Betjes, Michiel G H; Baan, Carla C; Weimar, Willem; Hoogduijn, Martin J

    2012-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are a potential therapeutic agent in renal disease and kidney transplantation. Autologous cell use in kidney transplantation is preferred to avoid anti-HLA reactivity; however, the influence of renal disease on mesenchymal stem cells is unknown. To investigate the feasibility of autologous cell therapy in patients with renal disease, we isolated these cells from subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy controls and patients with renal disease and compared them phenotypically and functionally. The mesenchymal stem cells from both groups showed similar morphology and differentiation capacity, and were both over 90% positive for CD73, CD105, and CD166, and negative for CD31 and CD45. They demonstrated comparable population doubling times, rates of apoptosis, and were both capable of inhibiting allo-antigen- and anti-CD3/CD28-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation. In response to immune activation they both increased the expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors. These mesenchymal stem cells were genetically stable after extensive expansion and, importantly, were not affected by uremic serum. Thus, mesenchymal stem cells of patients with renal disease have similar characteristics and functionality as those from healthy controls. Hence, our results indicate the feasibility of their use in autologous cell therapy in patients with renal disease.

  10. Acceptance and effects of a therapeutic renal food in pet cats with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Dale A; Jewell, Dennis E; Leventhal, P S; Brejda, J; Ahle, N W; Schiefelbein, H M; Forrester, S D

    2015-01-01

    Renal foods are used to manage chronic kidney disease (CKD) in dogs and cats, but their effectiveness may be limited by the ability to transition animals to them. In a prospective study, pet cats with previously undiagnosed kidney disease (20 International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) 1, 61 IRIS 2, 14 IRIS 3/4, 33 at risk for CKD) were transitioned to a renal food. Markers of renal function were measured and owners answered questionnaires about their pet over one year. All but eight cats (120/128; 94 per cent) successfully transitioned to the renal food. Most of the time, cats moderately or extremely liked the food (89 per cent), ate at least half (73 per cent) and were moderately or extremely enthusiastic while eating (68 per cent). Cats rarely disliked the food (2 per cent) or refused to eat it (1 per cent). Markers of renal function were unchanged in IRIS 1 and 2 cats and changed little in IRIS 3/4 cats. In all groups, owner-assessed quality of life improved initially and then remained stable. Mean bodyweight did not change in cats with CKD. Most cats with CKD successfully transitioned to the renal food. The results also support previous studies that the renal food can help stabilise cats with CKD.

  11. Applications of urinary proteomics in renal disease research using animal models.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yang; Cai, Guangyan; Chen, Xiangmei

    2015-01-01

    Animal models of renal disease are essential tools in research on kidney disease and have provided valuable insights into pathogenesis. Use of animal models minimises inter-individual differences, allows specific pathological changes to be examined, and facilitates collection of tissue samples. Thus, mechanistic research and identification of biomarkers are possible. Various animal models manifesting specific pathological lesions can be used to investigate acute or chronic kidney disease (CKD). Urine, a terminal metabolic product, is produced via glomerular filtration, reabsorption, and excretion in the tubular and collecting ducts, reflecting the functions of glomeruli or tubular tissue stimulated in various ways or subject to disease. Almost 70 % of urinary proteins originate from the kidney (the other 30 % come from plasma), and urinary sampling is important to noninvasively detect renal disease. Proteomics is powerful when used to screen urine components. Increasingly, urine proteomics is used to explore the pathogenesis of kidney disease in animals and to identify novel biomarkers of renal disease. In this section, we will introduce the field of urinary proteomics as applied in different models of animal renal disease and the valuable role played by proteomics in noninvasive diagnosis and rational treatment of human renal disease.

  12. Extra-renal manifestations of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD): considerations for routine screening and management.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Randy L; Dahl, Neera K

    2014-02-01

    Autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a systemic disease, marked by progressive increase of bilateral renal cysts, resulting in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and often leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Apart from renal cysts, patients often have extra-renal disease, involving the liver, heart and vasculature. Other less common but equally important extra-renal manifestations of ADPKD include diverticular disease, hernias, male infertility and pain. Extra-renal disease burden is often asymptomatic, but may result in increased morbidity and mortality. If the disease burden is significant, screening may prove beneficial. We review the rationale for current screening recommendations and propose some guidelines for screening and management of ADPKD patients.

  13. Toll-Like Receptor Family Polymorphisms Are Associated with Primary Renal Diseases but Not with Renal Outcomes Following Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dessing, Mark C; Kers, Jesper; Damman, Jeffrey; Leuvenink, Henri G D; van Goor, Harry; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Hepkema, Bouke G; Snieder, Harold; van den Born, Jacob; de Borst, Martin H; Bakker, Stephan J L; Navis, Gerjan J; Ploeg, Rutger J; Florquin, Sandrine; Seelen, Marc; Leemans, Jaklien C

    2015-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in innate- and adaptive immunity. The TLR pathways were shown to play key functional roles in experimental acute and chronic kidney injury, including the allo-immune response after experimental renal transplantation. Data about the precise impact of TLRs and their negative regulators on human renal transplant outcomes however are limited and contradictory. We studied twelve non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of which eleven in TLR1-8 and one in SIGIRR in a final cohort comprising 1116 matching donors and recipients. TLR3 p.Leu412Phe and SIGIRR p.Gln312Arg significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and were excluded. The frequency distribution of the minor alleles of the remaining 10 TLR variants were compared between patients with end-stage renal disease (recipients) and controls (kidney donors) in a case-control study. Secondly, the associations between the minor allele frequency of the TLR variants and delayed graft function, biopsy-proven acute rejection and death-censored graft failure after transplantation were investigated with Cox regression. Carrier frequencies of the minor alleles of TLR1 p.His305Leu (OR = 4.79, 95% CI = 2.35-9.75, P = 0.0002), TLR1 p.Asn248Ser (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.07-1.47, P = 0.04) and TLR8 p.Met1Val (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.14-1.64, P = 0.008) were significantly higher in patients with ESRD, with little specificity for the underlying renal disease entity (adjusted for age, gender and donor-recipient relatedness). The minor allele frequency of none of the TLR variants significantly associated with the surrogate and definite outcomes, even when multivariable models were created that could account for TLR gene redundancy. In conclusion, genetic variants in TLR genes were associated with the prevalence of ESRD but not renal transplant outcomes. Therefore, our data suggests that specific TLR signaling routes might play a role in the final common pathway of primary

  14. New perspectives in occult hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Carreño, Vicente; Bartolomé, Javier; Castillo, Inmaculada; Quiroga, Juan Antonio

    2012-06-21

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, defined as the presence of HCV RNA in liver and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the absence of detectable viral RNA in serum by standard assays, can be found in anti-HCV positive patients with normal serum levels of liver enzymes and in anti-HCV negative patients with persistently elevated liver enzymes of unknown etiology. Occult HCV infection is distributed worldwide and all HCV genotypes seem to be involved in this infection. Occult hepatitis C has been found not only in anti-HCV positive subjects with normal values of liver enzymes or in chronic hepatitis of unknown origin but also in several groups at risk for HCV infection such as hemodialysis patients or family members of patients with occult HCV. This occult infection has been reported also in healthy populations without evidence of liver disease. Occult HCV infection seems to be less aggressive than chronic hepatitis C although patients affected by occult HCV may develop liver cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, anti-HCV negative patients with occult HCV may benefit from antiviral therapy with pegylated-interferon plus ribavirin. The persistence of very low levels of HCV RNA in serum and in PBMCs, along with the maintenance of specific T-cell responses against HCV-antigens observed during a long-term follow-up of patients with occult hepatitis C, indicate that occult HCV is a persistent infection that is not spontaneously eradicated. This is an updated report on diagnosis, epidemiology and clinical implications of occult HCV with special emphasis on anti-HCV negative cases.

  15. Mini-review: emerging roles of microRNAs in the pathophysiology of renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Kirti; Kato, Mitsuo; Natarajan, Rama

    2016-01-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are endogenously produced short noncoding regulatory RNAs that can repress gene expression by posttranscriptional mechanisms. They can therefore influence both normal and pathological conditions in diverse biological systems. Several miRNAs have been detected in kidneys, where they have been found to be crucial for renal development and normal physiological functions as well as significant contributors to the pathogenesis of renal disorders such as diabetic nephropathy, acute kidney injury, lupus nephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and others, due to their effects on key genes involved in these disease processes. miRNAs have also emerged as novel biomarkers in these renal disorders. Due to increasing evidence of their actions in various kidney segments, in this mini-review we discuss the functional significance of altered miRNA expression during the development of renal pathologies and highlight emerging miRNA-based therapeutics and diagnostic strategies for early detection and treatment of kidney diseases.

  16. Mini-review: emerging roles of microRNAs in the pathophysiology of renal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Kirti; Kato, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are endogenously produced short noncoding regulatory RNAs that can repress gene expression by posttranscriptional mechanisms. They can therefore influence both normal and pathological conditions in diverse biological systems. Several miRNAs have been detected in kidneys, where they have been found to be crucial for renal development and normal physiological functions as well as significant contributors to the pathogenesis of renal disorders such as diabetic nephropathy, acute kidney injury, lupus nephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and others, due to their effects on key genes involved in these disease processes. miRNAs have also emerged as novel biomarkers in these renal disorders. Due to increasing evidence of their actions in various kidney segments, in this mini-review we discuss the functional significance of altered miRNA expression during the development of renal pathologies and highlight emerging miRNA-based therapeutics and diagnostic strategies for early detection and treatment of kidney diseases. PMID:26538441

  17. Early renal failure as a cardiovascular disease: Focus on lipoprotein(a) and prothrombotic state.

    PubMed

    Catena, Cristiana; Colussi, GianLuca; Nait, Francesca; Pezzutto, Francesca; Martinis, Flavia; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2015-07-06

    Patients with renal failure are at increased risk of cardiovascular events even at the earliest stages of disease. In addition to many classic cardiovascular risk factors, many conditions that are commonly identified as emerging risk factors might contribute to occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Changes in circulating levels of many of these emerging risk factors have been demonstrated in patients with early stages of renal failure caused by different types of renal disease and have been associated with detection of cardiovascular complications. However, for most of these factors evidence of benefits of correction on cardiovascular outcome is missing. In this article, we comment on the role of lipoprotein(a) and prothrombotic factors as potential contributors to cardiovascular events in patients with early renal failure.

  18. Survival in end stage renal disease: calcium carbonate vs. sevelamer.

    PubMed

    Borzecki, A M; Lee, A; Wang, S W; Brenner, L; Kazis, L E

    2007-12-01

    There is concern regarding long-term excess calcium intake in end-stage renal disease populations. Because calcium carbonate is an over-the-counter (OTC) medication, few studies have been able to track its use. The Veterans Health Administration (VA) tracks national pharmacy data for both OTC and prescription drugs. We thus compared survival in incident dialysis patients on sevelamer and calcium carbonate phosphate binders. This was a retrospective cohort study of veterans initiating haemodialysis using existing VA databases. Patients were divided into calcium only (n = 769) and sevelamer only (n = 608) groups, then followed for up to 2 years until FY03 end. Survival was modelled using Cox regression adjusting for age, gender, race, marital status, service-connected disability, region, diabetes, hypertension and Charlson index. Stability of findings was examined using propensity score analysis. Sevelamer only vs. calcium only subjects were younger (respective mean ages 59.6 and 63.0, P < 0.001) with fewer comorbidities (Charlson index 3.8 and 4.5, P < 0.001). By study end, 24% of sevelamer and 30% of calcium subjects had died. Comparing sevelamer to calcium, the unadjusted hazard ratio for death was 0.62 (95% CI 0.50-0.76); the adjusted hazard ratio was 0.67 (CI 0.54-0.84). Propensity score analysis revealed similar results, with a hazard ratio of 0.65 (CI 0.54-0.80). In a national incident dialysis cohort, sevelamer treatment was associated with improved survival compared with calcium carbonate. Further research should investigate whether the worse survival with calcium is a long-term consequence of increased calcium accumulation.

  19. Renal amyloidosis in a patient with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (Bruton's disease) and bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo-Garijo, M A; Sánchez-Vega, S; Pérez-Calderón, R; Pérez-Rangel, I; Corrales-Vargas, S; Fernández de Mera, J J; Robles, R

    2014-01-01

    We present a patient with Bruton's disease and bronchiectasis who developed renal AA amyloidosis. A 38 year-old man was diagnosed with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (Bruton's disease) when he was 3 years old, and he has been treated with parenteral immunoglobulin since then. Eighteen years later, he was diagnosed with central pulmonary bronchiectasis by computerized tomography (CT). In 2008, he gradually developed anemia, edema of lower limbs, and loss of weight. Laboratory studies revealed deterioration of renal function, normocytic normochromic anemia and nephrotic range proteinuria. Hepatitis B and C and HIV serology were negative. Ultrasound and CT of abdomen were normal. A renal biopsy revealed deposits with positive PAS and Congo red staining in glomeruli, interstitium, and vessel's walls. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining of the A amyloid. Direct immunofluorescence was positive with thioflavin and showed focal and glomerular mesangial IgG deposits, suggesting renal AA amyloidosis. For 2 years the patient conducted pharmacological treatment and follow-up for the Nephrology department with poor prognosis and progression of renal function impairment. In January 2011 he began dialysis treatment with improvement, and he is currently on the waiting list for renal transplantation. We present a patient with Bruton's disease and bronchiectasis who developed renal AA amyloidosis a finding rarely reported.

  20. Hypertension as cause and consequence of renal disease in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Harlos, J; Heidland, A

    1994-01-01

    The pioneering work of Richard Bright, who introduced the concept of the renal origin of cardiovascular disease, initiated the continuous unfolding of knowledge on renal disease and its close interrelationship with arterial hypertension in the 19th century. Hypertension as a clinically and pathologically defined entity, however, was not established. The partial elucidation of the problem that the diseased kidney was sometimes the cause and sometimes the consequence of elevated blood pressure is not only fascinating but also remarkable, given the crude techniques available to physicians at that time. Subsequent workers came to regard 'Bright's disease' as consisting of several conditions differing in clinical manifestation and pathology. In particular, Johnson and Gull and Sutton drew attention to the small blood vessels in renal disease. Only the invention of a clinically applicable method of measuring blood pressure indirectly allowed Mahomed and Allbutt to show that hypertension may occur in the absence of renal disease. They paved the way for a clear separation of hypertensive renal disease from other forms of 'Bright's disease', culminating in the classification introduced by Fahr and Volhard.

  1. Chronic kidney disease and risk of renal cell carcinoma: differences by race

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Corley, Douglas A.; Zhao, Wei K.; Colt, Joanne S.; Shuch, Brian; Chow, Wong-Ho; Purdue, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of renal cell carcinoma in the United States differs by race/ethnicity. To better understand these disparities, we conducted a nested case-control study investigating renal cell carcinoma risk factors across racial/ethnic groups within the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care network. Methods Our study included 3,136 renal cell carcinoma cases (2,152 white, 293 black, 425 Hispanic, 255 Asian) diagnosed between 1998 and 2008 and 31,031 individually matched controls (21,478 white, 2,836 black, 4,147 Hispanic, 2,484 Asian). Risk of renal cell carcinoma was assessed in relation to smoking status, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic regression, and population attributable risk (PAR) to estimate by race the proportion of cases attributable to hypertension and chronic kidney disease. Results The association between chronic kidney disease and renal cell carcinoma differed markedly by race (Pinteraction<0.001), with associations observed among blacks (OR=10.4 [95% CI=6.0–17.9]), Asians (5.1 [2.2–11.7]), and Hispanics (2.3 [1.1–4.6]) but not whites (1.1 [0.6–1.9]). Hypertension, high BMI, and smoking were associated with renal cell carcinoma, but findings generally did not differ by race. Relative to other racial/ethnic groups, blacks had the highest proportion of renal cell carcinoma incidence attributable to hypertension and chronic kidney disease (combined, PAR=37%; hypertension only, PAR=27%; chronic kidney disease, PAR=10%). Conclusions Our findings suggest that hypertension and chronic kidney disease likely have contributed to the observed excess in renal cell carcinoma incidence among blacks compared with whites. PMID:25393631

  2. How to differentiate renal senescence from chronic kidney disease in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Musso, Carlos G; Jauregui, Jose R

    2016-09-01

    Renal aging is frequently confused with chronic nephropathy in clinical practice, since there are some similarities between them, particularly regarding reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR). However, there are many differences between these two entities which can help any practitioner to distinguish between them, such as: GFR deterioration rate, hematocrit, renal handling of urea, creatinine and some electrolytes, tubular acidification, urinalysis, and renal imaging. Differentiation between renal aging and chronic renal disease is crucial in order to avoid unnecessary medicalization of what is a physiological change associated with the healthy aging process, and the potential harmful consequences of such overdiagnosis. A recently described equation (HUGE), as well as an adequate nephrological evaluation and follow up can help physicians to distinguish both entities.

  3. Are octogenarians with end stage renal disease candidates for renal transplantation?

    PubMed

    Lønning, Kjersti; Midtvedt, Karsten; Leivestad, Torbjørn; Reisæter, Anna V; Line, Pål-Dag; Hartmann, Anders; Heldal, Kristian

    2016-07-28

    Elderly patients are the fastest growing group in need of renal transplantation. This study puts focus on renal transplant recipients in their eightieth year or older at time of engraftment. Is there evidence to support an absolute upper age limit for renal transplantation? Recipients in their eightieth year or older, transplanted between 1983 and 2015, were included. Data were retrieved from the Norwegian Renal Registry in the end of October 2015. Graft and patient survival were compared to recipients aged 70-79 years at transplantation. 47 patients older than 79 years were transplanted in the defined period. Median age 80.1 years, 81 % were male. Median time on dialysis prior to transplantation was 18.5 months. All patients received an allograft from a deceased donor (median donor age 61.8 years). In the death censored graft survival model, there was no statistical difference between the groups. We found improved patient and graft survival after introduction of mycophenolate mofetil and induction with basiliximab. Patients transplanted before 2000 had increased risk of death compared to those transplanted after 2000; HR 3.2 (95% CI 1.2-8.7). Median uncensored graft survival for patients transplanted after the year 2000 was 5.0 year (95% CI 2.4-7.6). Median patient survival was 5.0 years (3.1-6.9) and five year patient survival was 55 %. Age by itself should not be an absolute contraindication against renal transplantation. An estimated five years survival rate of 55 % post-engraftment for an 80 years old patient is in our opinion more than acceptable.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

  4. RP1L1 variants are associated with a spectrum of inherited retinal diseases including retinitis pigmentosa and occult macular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Alice E; Sergouniotis, Panagiotis I; Mackay, Donna S; Wright, Genevieve A; Waseem, Naushin H; Michaelides, Michel; Holder, Graham E; Robson, Anthony G; Moore, Anthony T; Plagnol, Vincent; Webster, Andrew R

    2013-03-01

    In one consanguineous family with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a condition characterized by progressive visual loss due to retinal degeneration, homozygosity mapping, and candidate gene sequencing suggested a novel locus. Exome sequencing identified a homozygous frameshifting mutation, c.601delG, p.Lys203Argfs*28, in RP1L1 encoding RP 1-like1, a photoreceptor-specific protein. A screen of a further 285 unrelated individuals with autosomal recessive RP identified an additional proband, homozygous for a missense variant, c.1637G>C, p.Ser546Thr, in RP1L1. A distinct retinal disorder, occult macular dystrophy (OCMD) solely affects the central retinal cone photoreceptors and has previously been reported to be associated with variants in the same gene. The association between mutations in RP1L1 and the disorder OCMD was explored by screening a cohort of 28 unrelated individuals with the condition; 10 were found to harbor rare (minor allele frequency ≤0.5% in the 1,000 genomes dataset) heterozygous RP1L1 missense variants. Analysis of family members revealed many unaffected relatives harboring the same variant. Linkage analysis excluded the possibility of a recessive mode of inheritance, and sequencing of RP1, a photoreceptor protein that interacts with RP1L1, excluded a digenic mechanism involving this gene. These findings imply an important and diverse role for RP1L1 in human retinal physiology and disease.

  5. Role of NADPH Oxidase in Metabolic Disease-Related Renal Injury: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Su, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been linked to an increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The underlying pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury remains obscure. Accumulating evidence has shown that NADPH oxidase is a major source of intrarenal oxidative stress and is upregulated by metabolic factors leading to overproduction of ROS in podocytes, endothelial cells, and mesangial cells in glomeruli, which is closely associated with the initiation and progression of glomerular diseases. This review focuses on the role of NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of metabolic disease-related renal injury. Understanding of the mechanism may help find potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:27597884

  6. Acute renal graft-versus-host disease in a murine model of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Peter M; Bouazzaoui, Abdellatif; Schmid, Karin; Birner, Christoph; Schach, Christian; Maier, Lars S; Holler, Ernst; Endemann, Dierk H

    2017-03-23

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a very common complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and associated with poor prognosis. Generally kidneys are assumed to be no direct target of Graft-versus-Host Disease (GvHD), and renal impairment is often attributed to several other factors occurring in the early phase after BMT. Our study aimed to prove the existence of renal GvHD in a fully MHC-mismatched model of BALB/c mice conditioned and transplanted according to two different intensity protocols. Syngeneically transplanted and untreated animals served as controls. 4 weeks after transplantation, allogeneic animals developed acute GvHD that was more pronounced in the high-intensity protocol (HIP) group than in the low-intensity protocol (LIP) group. Urea and creatinine as classic serum markers of renal function could not verify renal impairment 4 weeks after BMT. Creatinine levels were even reduced as a result of catabolic metabolism and loss of muscle mass due to acute GvHD. Proteinuria, albuminuria, and urinary N-acetyl-beta-Dglucosaminidase (NAG) levels were measured as additional renal markers before and after transplantation. Albuminuria and NAG were only significantly increased after allogeneic transplantation, correlating with disease severity between HIP and LIP animals. Histological investigations of the kidneys showed renal infiltration of T-cells and macrophages with endarteriitis, interstitial nephritis, tubulitis, and glomerulitis. T-cells consisted of CD4+, CD8+, and FoxP3+ cells. Renal expression analysis of allogeneic animals showed increases in indoleamine-2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), different cytokines (TNFα, IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL2, IL-6, and IL-10), and adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1), resembling findings from other tissues in acute GvHD. In summary, our study supports the entity of renal GvHD with histological features suggestive of cell-mediated renal injury. Albuminuria and urinary NAG levels may serve as early markers of renal

  7. Suitability of Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease for Renal Transcatheter Arterial Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Ubara, Yoshifumi; Mise, Koki; Ueno, Toshiharu; Sumida, Keiichi; Yamanouchi, Masayuki; Hayami, Noriko; Hoshino, Junichi; Kawada, Masahiro; Imafuku, Aya; Hiramatsu, Rikako; Hasegawa, Eiko; Sawa, Naoki; Takaichi, Kenmei

    2016-01-01

    In patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), massive renal enlargement is a serious problem. Renal transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) can reduce renal volume (RV), but effectiveness varies widely, and the reasons remain unclear. We investigated factors affecting renal volume reduction rate (RVRR) after renal TAE in all 449 patients with ADPKD who received renal TAE at Toranomon Hospital from January of 2006 to July of 2013, including 228 men and 221 women (mean age =57.0±9.1 years old). One year after renal TAE, the RVRR ranged from 3.9% to 84.8%, and the least squares mean RVRR calculated using a linear mixed model was 45.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 44.2% to 46.8%). Multivariate analysis using the linear mixed model revealed that RVRR was affected by the presence of large cysts with wall thickening (regression coefficient [RC], −6.10; 95% CI, −9.04 to −3.16; P<0.001), age (RC, −0.82; 95% CI, −1.03 to −0.60; P<0.001), dialysis duration (RC, −0.10; 95% CI, −0.18 to −0.03; P<0.01), systolic BP (RC, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.59; P<0.001), and the number of microcoils used for renal TAE (RC, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.86; P<0.001). Significantly more microcoils were needed to achieve renal TAE in patients with younger age and shorter dialysis duration. In conclusion, cyst wall thickening had an important effect on cyst volume reduction. Renal TAE was more effective in patients who were younger, had shorter dialysis duration, or had hypertension, parameters that might associate with cyst wall stiffness and renal artery blood flow. PMID:26620095

  8. Occultations, past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David S.

    Techniques and limitations of photoelectric observations of occultations are discussed. Methods are described for allowing for fringe effects which arise from real world deviations from a uniform limb, and for using the limb measurements to derive ephemerides for the moon. Procedures employed to identify and separate out the components of multiple star systems are reviewed, and techniques are presented for improving the acuity of photoelectric angular size measurements that are complementary to interferometric measurements. Finally, sample data are provided to illustrate anomalies observed in photoelectric occultation observations of Antares and Aldebaran.

  9. Occult fractures of extremities.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Joong Mo; El-Khoury, Georges Y

    2007-05-01

    Recent advances in cross-sectional imaging, particularly in CT and MR imaging, have given these modalities a prominent role in the diagnosis of fractures of the extremities. This article describes the clinical application and imaging features of cross-sectional imaging (CT and MR imaging) in the evaluation of patients who have occult fractures of the extremities. Although CT or MR imaging is not typically required for evaluation of acute fractures, these modalities could be helpful in the evaluation of the occult osseous injuries in which radiographic findings are equivocal or inconclusive.

  10. [Assessment of renal function in elderly after eighty years: Cockroft and Gault or Modification of diet in renal disease equation?].

    PubMed

    Andro, M; Estivin, S; Comps, E; Gentric, A

    2011-11-01

    Assessment of renal function is essential in the management of hospitalised patients, particularly in geriatric practice. Impairment of renal function is common in the elderly, aged of 80 years and over, and should be taken into account before prescribing drugs eliminated through the kidneys or performing investigations requiring iodine injection. Renal failure is also a predictor of mortality. In clinical practice, creatinine-based equations are recommended to assess kidney function. The most widely used equations are the Cockroft and Gault (CG) and the simplified Modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) formulas. The former estimates the clearance of creatinine in millilitres per minute, the latter estimates the glomerular filtration rate in millilitres per minute per 1.73 m(2). In 2002, the French high authority for health recommended the use of the CG formula, but no recommendation was given for the elderly. In the literature, no study has compared CG and MDRD formulas with a reference method in this very old population. In the octogenarians, two studies have compared these formulas with the creatinine clearance calculated on the basis of a 24-hour urine collection and four studies have compared the formulas head to head. All these studies showed that the results obtained with the MDRD formula are higher from 10 to 30 mL/min/1.73 m(2) than the results obtained with the CG formula. Studies simulating drug prescription showed that the use of the MDRD formula would lead to a risk of drug over dosage in 20 to 36% of the elderly. Also, two studies have suggested that only creatinine clearance measured by the CG formula is a predictor of mortality in the very old population. In conclusion, in the octogenarian, none of these two formulas is ideal. However, based on the results of studies targeted to this elderly population, the best solution seems to be the use of the CG formula expecting new methods of evaluation of renal function.

  11. Protective effects of genetic inhibition of Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 in experimental renal disease.

    PubMed

    Kerroch, Monique; Alfieri, Carlo; Dorison, Aude; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Dussaule, Jean-Claude

    2016-02-16

    Chronic kidney disease is a progressive incurable pathology affecting millions of people. Intensive investigations aim to identify targets for therapy. We have previously demonstrated that abnormal expression of the Discoidin Domain Receptor 1 (DDR1) is a key factor of renal disease by promoting inflammation and fibrosis. The present study investigates whether blocking the expression of DDR1 after the initiation of renal disease can delay or arrest the progression of this pathology. Severe renal disease was induced by either injecting nephrotoxic serum (NTS) or performing unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice, and the expression of DDR1 was inhibited by administering antisense oligodeoxynucleotides either at 4 or 8 days after NTS (corresponding to early or more established phases of disease, respectively), or at day 2 after ligation. DDR1 antisense administration at day 4 stopped the increase of proteinuria and protected animals against the progression of glomeruloneprhitis, as evidenced by functional, structural and cellular indexes. Antisense administration at day 8 delayed progression -but to a smaller degree- of renal disease. Similar beneficial effects on renal structure and inflammation were observed with the antisense administration of DDR1 after ureteral ligation. Thus, targeting DDR1 can be a promising strategy in the treatment of chronic kidney disease.

  12. Cross-Reactive Myelin Antibody Induces Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Lisa K.; Masaki, Takahisa; Wheelwright, Steven R.; Tsunoda, Ikuo; Fujinami, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Previously, we reported renal immunoglobulin (Ig) deposition in mice with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG92-106) induced progressive-EAE and naïve mice injected with MOG92-106 hybridoma cells producing antibody that cross-reacts with various autoantigens including double-stranded DNA. To assess whether MOG92-106 antibodies actually induce kidney changes, the extent of renal Ig deposition and changes in glomerular histology and filtration were investigated. Mice with progressive-EAE exhibited Ig deposition, glomerular hypercellularity and proteinuria indicating kidney dysfunction. MOG92-106 hybridoma cell injected mice also had Ig in the kidneys and proteinuria. Therefore, sensitization with MOG92-106 and transfer of MOG92-106 antibodies can induce both central nervous system and renal pathology. The renal involvement reported in MS is believed to occur as a side effect of nephrotoxic drugs or neurogenic bladder. Our results demonstrate that an autoimmune response against myelin could induce pathologic changes in the kidney and may help explain renal changes reported in patients with progressive MS. PMID:18608179

  13. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in individuals with minimal or occult immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Gheuens, Sarah; Pierone, Gerald; Peeters, Patrick; Koralnik, Igor J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a deadly demyelinating disease of the brain, caused by reactivation of the polyomavirus JC (JCV). PML has classically been described in individuals with profound cellular immunosuppression such as patients with AIDS, hematological malignancies, organ transplant recipients or those treated with immunosuppressive or immunomodulatory medications for autoimmune diseases. Methods and case reports We describe five HIV seronegative patients with minimal or occult immunosuppression who developed PML including two patients with alcoholic cirrhosis, one with untreated dermatomyositis, and two with idiopathic CD4+ T cell lymphocytopenia. We performed a review of the literature to find similar cases. Results We found an additional 33 cases in the literature. Of a total of 38 cases, seven (18.4%) had hepatic cirrhosis, five (13.2%) had renal failure, including one with concomitant hepatic cirrhosis, two (5.2%) were pregnant women, two (5.2%) had concomitant dementia, one (2.6%) had dermatomyositis and 22 (57.9%) had no specific underlying diagnosis. Among these 22, five (22.7%) had low CD4+ T cell counts (0.080–0.294×109/L) and were diagnosed with idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia, and one had borderline CD4+ T cell count of 0.308×109/L. The outcome was fatal in 27/38 (71.1%) cases within 1.5–120 months (median 8 months) from onset of symptoms, and 3/4 cases who harbored JCV-specific T cells in their peripheral blood had inactive disease with stable neurological deficits after 6–26 months of follow up. Discussion These results indicate that PML can occur in patients with minimal or occult immunosuppression and invite us to revisit the generally accepted notion that profound cellular immunosuppression is a prerequisite for the development of PML. PMID:19828476

  14. A Renal Variant of Fabry Disease Diagnosed by the Presence of Urinary Mulberry Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shimohata, Homare; Ogawa, Yujiro; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Kouichi; Kobayashi, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Fabry disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency of α-galactosidase A. This disease is classified into two types, namely a classical and variant type. We herein present the case of a 36-year-old man who showed a renal variant of Fabry disease and was diagnosed at an early stage by the presence of mulberry cells. He had no history of general symptoms except for proteinuria. The presence of mulberry cells caused us to suspect Fabry disease and he was thereafter diagnosed to have a renal variant of Fabry disease based on the findings of a renal biopsy, a mutation analysis and a low level of α-galactosidase A activity. PMID:27904112

  15. Outcomes of kidney transplantation in Alport syndrome compared with other forms of renal disease.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Yvelynne P; Patil, Anish; Wallis, Luke; Murray, Susan; Kant, Saumitra; Kaballo, Mohammed A; Casserly, Liam; Doyle, Brendan; Dorman, Anthony; O'Kelly, Patrick; Conlon, Peter J

    2017-11-01

    Alport syndrome is an inherited renal disease characterized by hematuria, renal failure, hearing loss and a lamellated glomerular basement membrane. Patients with Alport syndrome who undergo renal transplantation have been shown to have patient and graft survival rates similar to or better than those of patients with other renal diseases. In this national case series, based in Beaumont Hospital Dublin, we studied the cohort of patients who underwent renal transplantation over the past 33 years, recorded prospectively in the Irish Renal Transplant Registry, and categorized them according to the presence or absence of Alport syndrome. The main outcomes assessed were patient and renal allograft survival. Fifty-one patients diagnosed with Alport syndrome in Beaumont Hospital received 62 transplants between 1982 and 2014. The comparison group of non-Alport patients comprised 3430 patients for 3865 transplants. Twenty-year Alport patient survival rate was 70.2%, compared to 44.8% for patients with other renal diseases (p = .01). Factors associated with patient survival included younger age at transplantation as well as differences in recipient sex, donor age, cold ischemia time, and episodes of acute rejection. Twenty-year graft survival was 46.8% for patients with Alport syndrome compared to 30.2% for those with non-Alport disease (p = .11). Adjusting for baseline differences between the groups, patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) due to Alport syndrome have similar patient and graft survival to those with other causes of ESKD. This indicates that early diagnosis and management can lead to favorable outcomes for this patient cohort.

  16. Derangements in phosphate metabolism in chronic kidney diseases/endstage renal disease: therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed

    Molony, Donald A; Stephens, Brett W

    2011-03-01

    The changes in phosphate (PO(4)) metabolism across the spectrum of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and specific strategies to address these abnormalities by reducing PO(4) loads are discussed in this review. This review also addresses briefly the evidence for specific PO(4) serum targets in CKD and endstage renal disease (ESRD) and the potential for other biomarkers such as fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) to define disease and monitor the effectiveness of therapy. As renal function declines, single nephron excretion of PO(4) must increase to maintain PO(4) balance. Abnormalities in PO(4) metabolism occur early in CKD. Compensatory changes in renal PO(4) handling are sufficient to maintain a normal serum PO(4) level in early stages of CKD, but in more advanced CKD, these processes no longer suffice and overt hyperphosphatemia develops. The resulting increased PO(4) burden contributes directly to development of secondary hyperparathyroidism. The FGF-23 increases early in CKD, likely in response to abnormal PO(4) metabolism, and mediates processes that help restore serum PO(4) levels to normal in CKD stage 3 and in early stage 4. The increased PO(4) burden and subsequent overt hyperphosphatemia are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Dietary PO(4) restriction, modification of dialysis prescriptions, and administration of oral PO(4) binders can restore PO(4) balance. As CKD progresses, population-based studies demonstrate that diet alone is typically not able to prevent or treat hyperphosphatemia. Dialysis modalities that are currently used often fail to remove sufficient PO(4) to prevent hyperphosphatemia in patients with an inadequately controlled dietary PO(4) load. This is particularly likely among patients without significant residual renal function. Thus, in the majority of ESRD patients, PO(4) binders remain the mainstay of therapy for hyperphosphatemia. All currently available PO(4) binders can restore serum PO(4) to the required level when

  17. Use of /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid for assessment of renal function in dogs with suspected renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, D.R.; Twardock, A.R.; Badertscher, R.R. II; Daniel, G.B.; Dugan, S.J.

    1988-04-15

    The effectiveness of technetium /sup 99m/-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc DTPA) to assess renal function in 13 dogs with suspected renal disease was evaluated. Glomerular filtration rates (actual GFR) were determined on the basis of endogenous creatinine clearance. Predicted GFR were determined by using /sup 99m/Tc DTPA within 72 hours after the determination of creatinine clearance. The percentage of an IV administered dose of /sup 99m/Tc DTPA in the kidneys (percentage dose) was determined. Two equations were used to calculate predicted GFR, which were derived from previously reported linear regression analysis of inulin (In) and creatinine (Cr) GFR vs percentage dose /sup 99m/Tc DTPA in dog kidneys. The correlations of actual GFR vs predicted GFR (In) and actual GFR vs predicted GFR (Cr) were both r = 0.92. The dogs' mean actual GFR was 1.73 +/- 1.35 ml/min/kg. Their mean predicted GFR (In) and predicted GFR (Cr) were 1.92 +/- 1.42 ml/min/kg and 1.85 +/- 1.27 ml/min/kg, respectively. Therefore, /sup 99m/Tc DTPA can be used with high accuracy as an agent to predict GFR in dogs with suspected renal disease. The procedure for determining GFR by use of nuclear medicine was rapid and noninvasive and appeared to induce little stress in the animals evaluated.

  18. Factors determining renal impairment in unilateral ureteral colic secondary to calcular disease: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Al-Ani, Ammar; Al-Jalham, Khaled; Ibrahim, Tarek; Majzoub, Ahmad; Al-Rayashi, Maged; Hayati, Ahmed; Mubarak, Walid; Al-Rayahi, Jehan; Khairy, Ahmed T

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate all possible risk factors that can cause impairment of overall renal function in patients with unilateral ureteral calculus and a normal contralateral kidney. This is a prospective study of 90 patients who presented to our institute complaining of renal colic secondary to unilateral ureteral calculus. All patients were evaluated with a thorough history, physical examination, and laboratory and radiological investigations including renal function testing, urine analysis, non-contrast computed topography, and radionucleotide scan. Patients were divided into two groups according to their calculated creatinine clearance using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. Group I (favorable group) had a creatinine clearance >60 ml/min, while group II (unfavorable group) had a creatinine clearance <60 ml/min. The patients' mean age ± SD was 38.8 ± 11.4 years. Group I included 54 patients (60 %), while group II included 36 patients (40 %). On univariate analysis, factors that were associated with overall renal function impairment were patients' age, urea-to-creatinine ratio (UCR), use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, stone location, and presence of obstruction. However, using binary logistic regression analysis, only patients' age, UCR, and presence of obstruction sustained statistical significance in association with renal function impairment. The study of factors that help explain the presence of renal impairment in patients with unilateral ureteral calculus is important in the clinical setting. Patients' age, urea-to-creatinine ratio, and degree of obstruction seem to be significantly associated with overall renal function impairment.

  19. C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) deficiency ameliorates renal fibrosis in unilateral ureteral obstructive kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shing-Hwa; Wu, Cheng-Tien; Huang, Kuo-How; Wang, Ching-Chia; Guan, Siao-Syun; Chen, Li-Ping; Chiang, Chih-Kang

    2016-04-19

    Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is an important pathogenic feature in chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease, regardless of the initiating insults. A recent study has shown that CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) is involved in acute ischemia/reperfusion-related acute kidney injury through oxidative stress induction. However, the influence of CHOP on chronic kidney disease-correlated renal fibrosis remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of CHOP in unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced experimental chronic tubulointerstital fibrosis. The CHOP knockout and wild type mice with or without UUO were used. The results showed that the increased expressions of renal fibrosis markers collagen I, fibronectin, α-smooth muscle actin, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in the kidneys of UUO-treated wild type mice were dramatically attenuated in the kidneys of UUO-treated CHOP knockout mice. CHOP deficiency could also ameliorate lipid peroxidation and endogenous antioxidant enzymes depletion, tubular apoptosis, and inflammatory cells infiltration in the UUO kidneys. These results suggest that CHOP deficiency not only attenuates apoptotic death and oxidative stress in experimental renal fibrosis, but also reduces local inflammation, leading to diminish UUO-induced renal fibrosis. Our findings support that CHOP may be an important signaling molecule in the progression of chronic kidney disease.

  20. Reducing VEGF-B Signaling Ameliorates Renal Lipotoxicity and Protects against Diabetic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Falkevall, Annelie; Mehlem, Annika; Palombo, Isolde; Heller Sahlgren, Benjamin; Ebarasi, Lwaki; He, Liqun; Ytterberg, A Jimmy; Olauson, Hannes; Axelsson, Jonas; Sundelin, Birgitta; Patrakka, Jaakko; Scotney, Pierre; Nash, Andrew; Eriksson, Ulf

    2017-03-07

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common cause of severe renal disease, and few treatment options are available today that prevent the progressive loss of renal function. DKD is characterized by altered glomerular filtration and proteinuria. A common observation in DKD is the presence of renal steatosis, but the mechanism(s) underlying this observation and to what extent they contribute to disease progression are unknown. Vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B) controls muscle lipid accumulation through regulation of endothelial fatty acid transport. Here, we demonstrate in experimental mouse models of DKD that renal VEGF-B expression correlates with the severity of disease. Inhibiting VEGF-B signaling in DKD mouse models reduces renal lipotoxicity, re-sensitizes podocytes to insulin signaling, inhibits the development of DKD-associated pathologies, and prevents renal dysfunction. Further, we show that elevated VEGF-B levels are found in patients with DKD, suggesting that VEGF-B antagonism represents a novel approach to treat DKD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Protein restriction and malnutrition in renal disease: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Maroni, B J

    1997-01-01

    The protein and energy requirements of chronic renal failure (CRF) patients are similar to normal subjects and evidence indicates that both nephrotic and nonnephrotic CRF patients can activate normal homeostatic responses allowing them to achieve a neutral nitrogen balance when dietary protein intake is restricted. The benefits of low-protein (and phosphorus) diets (LPDs) include the amelioration of uremia symptoms and some of its metabolic complications and possibly a slowing of the rate of progression of renal failure. When LPDs are prescribed, patients should be monitored to assess dietary compliance and to ensure nutritional adequacy. Recent evidence that the protein intake of patients with progressive CRF decreases when they consume unrestricted diets should not be interpreted as an argument against the use of LPDs. Rather, it is a persuasive argument to restrict dietary protein intake in order to minimize complications of renal failure while maintaining nutritional status.

  2. A Comparative Study of Sonographic Grading of Renal Parenchymal Changes and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) using Modified Diet in Renal Disease Formula

    PubMed Central

    Shivalli, Siddharudha; Pai, B.H. Santhosh; Acharya, Koteshwara Devadasa; Gopalakrishnan, Ravichandra; Srikanth, Vivek; Reddy, Vishwanath; Haris, Arafat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The sonographic findings are of help in evaluating the nephrological diseases. Glomerular filtration rate is another parameter for assessing the reserved renal function and an indicator of prognosis. In clinical practice GFR estimation (eGFR) is done by using a mathematical formula. In our study, we compared the sonographic grading of renal parenchymal changes with eGFR calculated using Modified Diet in Renal Diseases formula based on serum creatinine, age, gender and ethnicity. Aim To evaluate the relevance of sonographic grading of renal parenchymal changes in assessing the severity of the renal disease and comparing it to the eGFR calculated using MDRD formula based on the age, gender and serum creatinine value of the patient. Materials and Methods The adult patients with suspected kidney disease referred for sonography of abdomen were our study participants. As per our study design following strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, patients were selected as study participants and for each of the patient’s renal parenchymal status, serum creatinine, age, gender and ethnicity were documented. Results A total of 70 patients were our study participants, out of which 67.1% were males and 32.9% were females. Our study showed a linear correlation between sonographic grading of renal parenchymal changes with eGFR. Conclusion We conclude that by evaluating the kidneys with sonography and calculating eGFR using MDRD formula the renal status will be more accurately interpreted. PMID:27042555

  3. A Case of Pulmonary-Renal Syndrome Leading to the Diagnosis of Legionnaires' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sabani, Erasmia; Kouloukourgiotou, Theodora; Stylianou, Konstantinos; Pantzaki, Afroditi; Efstratiadis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 51-year-old Caucasian man referred at our department due to acute renal failure (ARF) complicating respiratory failure during hospitalization in a regional hospital. The patient was previously started on steroids due to the suspicion of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) in the context of Goodpasture syndrome. However, clinical and laboratory findings did not support this diagnosis; instead a careful evaluation limited differential diagnosis of the renal insult to acute tubular necrosis or acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) following respiratory infection. With lung function fully improved but renal function not recovering, a renal biopsy revealed AIN, a finding leading to further diagnostic testing and finally to the diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease as a cause of this patient's pulmonary-renal syndrome. The management consisted of progressive tapering of oral steroids associated with full recovery of the patient's renal function. This is a rare case of Legionnaires' disease causing immune-mediated AIN and highlights the possibility of Legionella infection as a cause of pulmonary-renal syndrome. PMID:27999694

  4. Hypertensive Cardiovascular and Renal Disease and Target Organ Damage: Lessons from Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Susic, Dinko; Frohlich, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    This brief review discusses some aspects of hypertensive damage to the kidneys and cardiovascular system. A comparison of renal and cardiac manifestations of hypertensive disease between results of clinical and experimental studies was made, with a major focus on the possible role of salt and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in inducing target organ damage. Thus, some degree of renal impairment is often present in patients with essential hypertension, varying from microalbuminuria to end-stage renal disease, whereas in rats with spontaneous hypertension only slight renal damage is seen in old rats with little evidence of renal failure. Since renal damage in hypertensive rats is induced when they are exposed to increased salt intake, we suggested that salt may also account for kidney injury in hypertensive patients. Similarly, cardiac damage is aggravated in hypertensive human beings and rats when given salt excess. We further presented evidence that the RAS may mediate adverse cardiac and renal effects of excessive salt intake. Finally, we also discussed some aspects of the cardiovascular physiology in the giraffe, the only mammal that in comparison with the human being has extremely high pressure at the level of the heart and kidneys but no target organ damage. PMID:22258536

  5. Hypertensive Cardiovascular and Renal Disease and Target Organ Damage: Lessons from Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Susic, Dinko; Frohlich, Edward D

    2011-01-01

    This brief review discusses some aspects of hypertensive damage to the kidneys and cardiovascular system. A comparison of renal and cardiac manifestations of hypertensive disease between results of clinical and experimental studies was made, with a major focus on the possible role of salt and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in inducing target organ damage. Thus, some degree of renal impairment is often present in patients with essential hypertension, varying from microalbuminuria to end-stage renal disease, whereas in rats with spontaneous hypertension only slight renal damage is seen in old rats with little evidence of renal failure. Since renal damage in hypertensive rats is induced when they are exposed to increased salt intake, we suggested that salt may also account for kidney injury in hypertensive patients. Similarly, cardiac damage is aggravated in hypertensive human beings and rats when given salt excess. We further presented evidence that the RAS may mediate adverse cardiac and renal effects of excessive salt intake. Finally, we also discussed some aspects of the cardiovascular physiology in the giraffe, the only mammal that in comparison with the human being has extremely high pressure at the level of the heart and kidneys but no target organ damage.

  6. A Case of Pulmonary-Renal Syndrome Leading to the Diagnosis of Legionnaires' Disease.

    PubMed

    Sabani, Erasmia; Sarafidis, Pantelis A; Lazaridis, Antonios; Kouloukourgiotou, Theodora; Stylianou, Konstantinos; Pantzaki, Afroditi; Papagianni, Aikaterini; Efstratiadis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 51-year-old Caucasian man referred at our department due to acute renal failure (ARF) complicating respiratory failure during hospitalization in a regional hospital. The patient was previously started on steroids due to the suspicion of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) in the context of Goodpasture syndrome. However, clinical and laboratory findings did not support this diagnosis; instead a careful evaluation limited differential diagnosis of the renal insult to acute tubular necrosis or acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) following respiratory infection. With lung function fully improved but renal function not recovering, a renal biopsy revealed AIN, a finding leading to further diagnostic testing and finally to the diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease as a cause of this patient's pulmonary-renal syndrome. The management consisted of progressive tapering of oral steroids associated with full recovery of the patient's renal function. This is a rare case of Legionnaires' disease causing immune-mediated AIN and highlights the possibility of Legionella infection as a cause of pulmonary-renal syndrome.

  7. Occult hepatitis B virus infection among chronic hemodialysis patients in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Helaly, Ghada F; El Ghazzawi, Ebtisam F; Shawky, Sherine M; Farag, Farag M

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of end-stage renal disease has increased dramatically in developing countries. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global health problem that represents a significant co-morbidity event that has led to outbreaks of hepatitis B. There are inadequate data concerning occult HBV infection among Egyptian chronic hemodialysis patients. This study aimed to detect occult HBV infection among chronic hemodialysis patients in Alexandria, Egypt. A cross-sectional study was performed on 100 patients with end-stage renal disease that received maintenance hemodialysis and had tested negative for HBV surface antigen. Blood samples were collected before the initiation of hemodialysis. Sera were tested for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B core (HBc) antibodies using ELISA, and HBV DNA was detected by SYBR Green real-time PCR using specific primers for the s and c genes and by nested PCR using pol gene-specific primers. The serum activity of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST) were also measured. Anti-HCV and anti-HBc antibodies were detected in 34% and 48% of patients, respectively, and 70.6% of anti-HCV positive patients were also positive for anti-HBc antibodies. This association was statistically significant (p=0.001). HBV DNA was detected in 32% of the hemodialysis patients. A significant association was determined between the presence of HBV DNA and anti-HCV positivity (p=0.021). Aminotransferases were elevated in 21% of the studied patients, more often in patients with positive anti-HCV profiles than in patients negative for anti-HCV (p<0.05). In conclusion, the serological markers of HBV infection should be verified with molecular tests to investigate possible occult infections, especially among anti-HBc-positive hemodialysis patients, to improve our understanding of their clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological characteristics.

  8. Encephalopathy in infants and children with chronic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Foley, C M; Polinsky, M S; Gruskin, A B; Baluarte, H J; Grover, W D

    1981-10-01

    The examination of five pediatric patients with encephalopathy secondary to chronic renal failure has indicated a stereotyped sequence of neurologic signs and symptoms including ataxia, loss of motor abilities, myoclonus, seizures, dementia, and bulbar dysfunction. Both the patients with CNS dysfunction and a control group selected for a similar degree of renal failure had increased levels of serum phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone. Serial EEGs in the affected group revealed progressive slowing and an increase in paroxysmal features. No specific neuropathologic findings were noted in one patient.

  9. Diseases causing end-stage renal failure in New South Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, J H; McCarthy, S W; Storey, B G; Roberts, B A; Gallery, E; Mahony, J F

    1975-01-01

    The nature of the original renal disease was determined in 403 consecutive cases of end-stage renal failure, in 317 of which the clinical diagnosis was corroborated by histological examination of the kidney. Five diseases accounted for 20 or more cases--glomerulonephritis (31% of the total), analgesic nephropathy (29%), primary vesicoureteral reflux (8%), essential hypertension (6%), and polycystic kidneys (5%). In only four cases did renal failure result from chronic pyelonephritis without a demonstrable primary cause. Greater use of micturating cystography and cystoscopy and routine urine testing for salicylate are advocated for earlier diagnosis of the major causes of "pyelonephritis". The incidence of end-stage renal failure in people aged 15-55 in New South Wales was estimated to be at least 34 new cases per million of total population each year. PMID:1090338

  10. Renal transitional-cell carcinoma in two cats with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Hanzlicek, Andrew S; Ganta, Chanran; Myers, Carl B; Grauer, Gregory F

    2012-04-01

    Two 12-year-old cats were diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) based on physical examination, clinicopathologic data and, in one case, abdominal ultrasound findings. Approximately 1 year after the initial diagnosis of CKD both cats developed renal transitional cell carcinoma (TCC)--bilateral in one cat. Based on post-mortem examination, one cat had no evidence of metastasis and the other had metastasis to the large intestine, heart and lungs. This is the first report of de novo bilateral renal TCC in a cat, as well as the first report of renal TCC developing in cats with previous history of confirmed CKD.

  11. Crossed Renal Ectopia and Aorto-Occlusive Disease: A Management Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Eugene; Campbell, Ian; Choong, Andrew MTL; Dunglison, Nigel; Aziz, Maged

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of a patient with aortoiliac occlusive disease on the background of type A crossed renal ectopia, for whom open surgical intervention was required. Aortic exposure in patients with concomitant crossed renal ectopia can present technical challenges to the vascular surgeon. The knowledge of variations in the ectopic renal blood supply is of paramount importance when performing surgery to treat this condition and affects the choice of surgical exposure. We present and discuss the operative details of our patient and outline an approach to this subset of patients. PMID:26509134

  12. Acute renal dysfunction in a patient presenting with rhabdomyolysis due to Hypothyroidism attributed to Hashimoto's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidou, C; Gouridou, E; Ilonidis, G; Boudouris, G

    2010-01-01

    We describe a patient with rhabdomyolysis and acute renal dysfunction due to hypothyroidism, attributed to Hashimoto's disease. Though rhabdomyolysis could be life-threatening, it is a rare complication of hypothyroidism, especially when other precipitating factors, such as exercise, alcohol, medications or renal failure, are absent. Nevertheless, hypothyroidism can be an authentic cause of rhabdomyolysis and should always be considered when elevated creatine kinase (CK) and other muscle enzymes concentrations cannot be attributed to any major factor. PMID:21311639

  13. [Autosomal-recessive renal cystic disease and congenital hepatic fibrosis: clinico-anatomic case].

    PubMed

    Rostol'tsev, K V; Burenkov, R A; Kuz'micheva, I A

    2012-01-01

    Clinico-anatomic observation of autosomal-recessive renal cystic disease and congenital hepatic fibrosis at two fetuses from the same family was done. Mutation of His3124Tyr in 58 exon of PKHD1 gene in heterozygous state was found out. The same pathomorphological changes in the epithelium of cystic renal tubules and bile ducts of the liver were noted. We suggest that the autopsy research of fetuses with congenital abnormalities, detected after prenatal ultrasonic screening, has high diagnostic importance.

  14. Optimal management of bone mineral disorders in chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Lundquist, Andrew L; Nigwekar, Sagar U

    2016-03-01

    The review summarizes recent studies on chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders, with a focus on new developments in disease management. The term chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder has come to describe an increasingly complex network of alterations in minerals and skeletal disorders that contribute to the significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality seen in patients with chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease. Clinical studies continue to suggest associations with clinical outcomes, yet current clinical trials have failed to support causality. Variability in practice exists as current guidelines for management of mineral bone disorders are often based on weak evidence. Recent studies implicate novel pathways for therapeutic intervention in clinical trials. Mineral bone disorders in chronic kidney disease arise from alterations in a number of molecules in an increasingly complex physiological network interconnecting bone and the cardiovascular system. Despite extensive associations with improved outcomes in a number of molecules, clinical trials have yet to prove causality and there is an absence of new therapies available to improve patient outcomes. Additional clinical trials that can incorporate the complexity of mineral bone disorders, and with the ability to intervene on more than one pathway, are needed to advance patient care.

  15. All about Occultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2001-01-01

    Describes occultation events involving the moon, when the moon blocks the view of planets or stars. Describes other events such as a partial solar eclipse, a penumbral lunar eclipse, meteor showers, and moon phases. Provides a list of internet resources related to these events. (DLH)

  16. All about Occultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2001-01-01

    Describes occultation events involving the moon, when the moon blocks the view of planets or stars. Describes other events such as a partial solar eclipse, a penumbral lunar eclipse, meteor showers, and moon phases. Provides a list of internet resources related to these events. (DLH)

  17. Integrin β4 in EMT: an implication of renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Yan; Huang, Xiaoyan; Liang, Wei; Xiong, Zibo; Xiong, Zuying

    2015-01-01

    Renal fibrosis is a main cause of chronic renal failure. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers play a role in renal fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) has been shown to initiate and complete the whole EMT process. It is now well accepted that loss of E-cadherin, EMT marker α-SMA, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression are key events in the EMT process. We found that by stimulating human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells with TGF-β1, the expression of E-cadherin was down regulated and the expression of α-SMA and CTGF were up regulated in a dose dependent manner. In our present study we also found that integrin β4 and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) play roles in EMT process, with TGF-β1 stimulation increasing integrin β4 expression in HK2 cells. Integrin β4 and PPARγ were detected in tubulointerstitial tissues, immunohistochemistry analysis showed enhanced expression of integrin β4 in early stage, with over-expression at later stage. In contrast, the expression of PPARγ showed little increased in early stage, but was dramatically decreased at later stage. This is consistent with TGF-β1 inducing EMT. Our immune-precipitation studies show that integrin β4 disassociation with PPARγ is present in E-cadherin signaling. It suggests that PPARγ has a role in EMT inhibition.

  18. Nutritional assessment of the critically ill patients with cardiac disease under renal replacement therapy: diagnostic difficulty.

    PubMed

    Jardim, Maria das Neves; Costa, Helenice Moreira da; Kopel, Liliane; Lage, Silvia Gelás

    2009-06-01

    Evaluate the nutritional status of patients with cardiac disease and concomitant renal dysfunction requiring renal replacement therapy. Patients with cardiac disease and renal failure receiving renal replacement therapy, admitted to an intensive care unit, were submitted to nutritional evaluation, by use of anthropometric measurements and laboratory data. We studied 43 patients, mean age 64±15 years, 26 were men. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.36±0.16. Analysis of anthropometric measurements, based on body mass index disclosed that, 18 patients were normal, 6 were underweight and 19 were overweight or obese. Based on measurement of triceps skinfold thickness, 16 patients were considered normal and 27 had some degree of depletion. Measurements of midarm circumference and midarm muscular circumference showed 41 patients with some degree of depletion. Laboratory data revealed 28 patients with depletion based on albumin levels and 27 with depletion based on lymphocyte count. Malnutrition is common in critically ill patients with cardiac disease and renal failure receiving renal replacement therapy. Nutritional assessment based on body mass index did not prove to be a good index for diagnosis of nutritional disorders. The nutritional evaluation must be complemented in order to identify malnutrition and introduce early nutritional support.

  19. Impact of feline AIM on the susceptibility of cats to renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Sugisawa, Ryoichi; Hiramoto, Emiri; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Iwai, Satomi; Takai, Ryosuke; Yamazaki, Tomoko; Mori, Nobuko; Okada, Yuki; Takeda, Naoki; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Arai, Toshiro; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Renal failure is one of the most important social problems for its incurability and high costs for patients’ health care. Through clarification of the underlying mechanism for the high susceptibility of cats to renal disease, we here demonstrates that the effective dissociation of serum AIM protein from IgM is necessary for the recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI). In cats, the AIM-IgM binding affinity is 1000-fold higher than that in mice, which is caused by the unique positively-charged amino-acid cluster present in feline AIM. Hence, feline AIM does not dissociate from IgM during AKI, abolishing its translocation into urine. This results in inefficient clearance of lumen-obstructing necrotic cell debris at proximal tubules, thereby impairing AKI recovery. Accordingly, mice whose AIM is replaced by feline AIM exhibit higher mortality by AKI than in wild-type mice. Recombinant AIM administration into the mice improves their renal function and survival. As insufficient recovery from AKI predisposes patients to chronic, end-stage renal disease, feline AIM may be involved crucially in the high mortality of cats due to renal disease. Our findings could be the basis of the development of novel AKI therapies targeting AIM-IgM dissociation, and may support renal function in cats and prolong their lives. PMID:27731392

  20. Impact of feline AIM on the susceptibility of cats to renal disease.

    PubMed

    Sugisawa, Ryoichi; Hiramoto, Emiri; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Iwai, Satomi; Takai, Ryosuke; Yamazaki, Tomoko; Mori, Nobuko; Okada, Yuki; Takeda, Naoki; Yamamura, Ken-Ichi; Arai, Toshiro; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2016-10-12

    Renal failure is one of the most important social problems for its incurability and high costs for patients' health care. Through clarification of the underlying mechanism for the high susceptibility of cats to renal disease, we here demonstrates that the effective dissociation of serum AIM protein from IgM is necessary for the recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI). In cats, the AIM-IgM binding affinity is 1000-fold higher than that in mice, which is caused by the unique positively-charged amino-acid cluster present in feline AIM. Hence, feline AIM does not dissociate from IgM during AKI, abolishing its translocation into urine. This results in inefficient clearance of lumen-obstructing necrotic cell debris at proximal tubules, thereby impairing AKI recovery. Accordingly, mice whose AIM is replaced by feline AIM exhibit higher mortality by AKI than in wild-type mice. Recombinant AIM administration into the mice improves their renal function and survival. As insufficient recovery from AKI predisposes patients to chronic, end-stage renal disease, feline AIM may be involved crucially in the high mortality of cats due to renal disease. Our findings could be the basis of the development of novel AKI therapies targeting AIM-IgM dissociation, and may support renal function in cats and prolong their lives.

  1. Renal hypertension and cardiovascular disorder in children with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Peco-Antić, Amira; Paripović, Dusan

    2014-01-01

    Renal hypertension is one of the earliest and the most prevalent complications of pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD). Among renal patients, hypertension is frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated. For casual blood pressure measurement, the best method is auscultatory, while for ambulatory blood pressure measurement, oscillometric method is the most commonly used. Both casual and ambulatory blood pressure measurement provide more powerful means of diagnosing hypertension. Masked hypertension is a condition in which casual blood pressure is normal but ambulatory blood pressure is elevated. The risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is higher with masked hypertension as compared to the controls. Children and adolescents with CKD are at high risk of cardiovascular disease that has been established as the leading cause of death in patients with end stage renal disease. Left ventricular hypertrophy remains the most thoroughly documented form of end-organ damage caused by hypertension in children and adolescents with CKD. Based on clear evidence on the correlation between blood pressure and cardiovascular morbidity, mortality, and renal function, renal hypertension must be aggressively treated. Target blood pressure for patients with renal hypertension should be at low normal values: < 75 percentile for patients without proteinuria and <50 percentile for patients with proteinuria. Renin-angiotensin system antagonists are considered the first choice pharmacological option in hypertensive CKD 2-4 patients while the management of volume overload is the most important in dialysis patients. Successful transplantation can eliminate or significantly improve uremia-related cardiovascular risk factors and increase predicted life expectancy.

  2. End-stage renal disease and primary hypogonadism associated with a 46,XX karyotype.

    PubMed

    Bailey, W A; Zwingman, T A; Reznik, V M; Griswold, W R; Mendoza, S A; Jones, K L; Freidenberg, G R

    1992-10-01

    To determine the cause of absent sexual development in a 17-year-old girl with end-stage renal disease. Case study. Seventeen-year-old girl with end-stage renal failure. None. The patient had phenotypically normal external female genitalia, müllerian duct hypoplasia, and no ovaries. Her serum gonadotropin levels were in the castrate range at baseline and after gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulation. Her karyotype, in lymphocytes and cultured fibroblasts, was 46,XX. Analysis of genomic DNA, following polymerase chain reaction-amplication with oligonucleotide primers corresponding to the Y-encoded zinc finger protein ZFY and the testis-determining SRY gene, showed Y chromosome material in a male control but none in the patient. The results suggest a diagnosis of Frasier syndrome, a disorder characterized by true gonadal dysgenesis and end-stage renal disease occurring in normal phenotypic girls. Although previously reported only in individuals with a 46,XX karyotype, our studies indicate that Frasier syndrome may also occur in 46,XX girls. Delayed puberty is not uncommon in renal failure. This case illustrates the importance of measuring gonadotropin levels in teenage girls with delayed puberty and renal failure, particularly if the origin of the renal disease is obscure.

  3. [Acute renal failure secondary to hepatic veno-occlusive disease in a bone marrow transplant patient].

    PubMed

    Borrego, F J; Viedma, G; Pérez del Barrio, P; Gil, J M; de Santis-Scoccia, C; Ramírez Huerta, J M; Alcalá, A; Pérez Bañasco, V

    2003-01-01

    Acute renal failure following bone marrow transplantation is a frequent complication with an incidence ranging 15-30% and with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Numerous potential etiologies can be implicated as chemotherapy regimen, use of nephrotoxic antibiotics, sepsis-induced damage, cyclosporine toxicity and other especific pathologies as graft-v-host disease or veno-occlusive disease of the liver. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who underwent autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation and developed and acute renal failure secondary to a fatal veno-occlusive disease of the liver. Incidence, potential predisposing factors, outcome and possibilities of treatment are reviewed.

  4. Renal volume and cardiovascular risk assessment in normotensive autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Sans, Laia; Pascual, Julio; Radosevic, Aleksandar; Quintian, Claudia; Ble, Mireia; Molina, Lluís; Mojal, Sergi; Ballarin, José A.; Torra, Roser; Fernández-Llama, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease, closely related to an early appearance of hypertension, is the most common mortality cause among autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients (ADPKD). The development of hypertension is related to an increase in renal volume. Whether the increasing in the renal volume before the onset of hypertension leads to a major cardiovascular risk in ADPKD patients remains unknown. Observational and cross-sectional study of 62 normotensive ADPKD patients with normal renal function and a group of 28 healthy controls. Renal volume, blood pressure, and renal (urinary albumin excretion), blood vessels (carotid intima media thickness and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity), and cardiac (left ventricular mass index and diastolic dysfunction parameters) asymptomatic organ damage were determined and were considered as continuous variables. Correlations between renal volume and the other parameters were studied in the ADPKD population, and results were compared with the control group. Blood pressure values and asymptomatic organ damage were used to assess the cardiovascular risk according to renal volume tertiles. Even though in the normotensive range, ADPKD patients show higher blood pressure and major asymptomatic organ damage than healthy controls. Asymptomatic organ damage is not only related to blood pressure level but also to renal volume. Multivariate regression analysis shows that microalbuminuria is only associated with height adjusted renal volume (htTKV). An htTKV above 480 mL/m represents a 10 times higher prevalence of microalbuminuria (4.8% vs 50%, P < 0.001). Normotensive ADPKD patients from the 2nd tertile renal volume group (htTKV > 336 mL/m) show higher urinary albumin excretion, but the 3rd tertile htTKV (htTKV > 469 mL/m) group shows the worst cardiovascular risk profile. Normotensive ADPKD patients show in the early stages of the disease with slight increase in renal volume, higher cardiovascular risk

  5. Renal volume and cardiovascular risk assessment in normotensive autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Sans, Laia; Pascual, Julio; Radosevic, Aleksandar; Quintian, Claudia; Ble, Mireia; Molina, Lluís; Mojal, Sergi; Ballarin, José A; Torra, Roser; Fernández-Llama, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease, closely related to an early appearance of hypertension, is the most common mortality cause among autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease patients (ADPKD). The development of hypertension is related to an increase in renal volume. Whether the increasing in the renal volume before the onset of hypertension leads to a major cardiovascular risk in ADPKD patients remains unknown.Observational and cross-sectional study of 62 normotensive ADPKD patients with normal renal function and a group of 28 healthy controls. Renal volume, blood pressure, and renal (urinary albumin excretion), blood vessels (carotid intima media thickness and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity), and cardiac (left ventricular mass index and diastolic dysfunction parameters) asymptomatic organ damage were determined and were considered as continuous variables. Correlations between renal volume and the other parameters were studied in the ADPKD population, and results were compared with the control group. Blood pressure values and asymptomatic organ damage were used to assess the cardiovascular risk according to renal volume tertiles.Even though in the normotensive range, ADPKD patients show higher blood pressure and major asymptomatic organ damage than healthy controls. Asymptomatic organ damage is not only related to blood pressure level but also to renal volume. Multivariate regression analysis shows that microalbuminuria is only associated with height adjusted renal volume (htTKV). An htTKV above 480 mL/m represents a 10 times higher prevalence of microalbuminuria (4.8% vs 50%, P < 0.001). Normotensive ADPKD patients from the 2nd tertile renal volume group (htTKV > 336 mL/m) show higher urinary albumin excretion, but the 3rd tertile htTKV (htTKV > 469 mL/m) group shows the worst cardiovascular risk profile.Normotensive ADPKD patients show in the early stages of the disease with slight increase in renal volume, higher cardiovascular risk than healthy

  6. The Clinical Significance of Serum and Urinary Neopterin Levels in Several Renal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lhee, Hyun Young; Joo, Kwan Joong; Jung, Soo Suk; Lee, Kyu Beck

    2006-01-01

    Neopterin is a pyrazino-pyrimidine compound, and is known to be a marker associated with cell-mediated immunity in various diseases. We hypothesized that the levels of serum and urine neopterin would be elevated in renal disease, and would correlate with certain clinical parameters. We evaluated serum and urinary neopterin levels in patients with several renal diseases, including nephrotic syndrome (NS, n=19), chronic renal failure (CRF, n=8), end stage renal disease (ESRD, n=64) and controls (n=22). Serum neopterin was elevated in patients with CRF and ESRD, as compared to controls. Urinary neopterin levels were also found to be elevated in patients with CRF and ESRD, as compared to controls. Serum neopterin levels showed significant positive correlation with age, serum BUN and creatinine levels, and inverse correlation with WBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum albumin and total iron binding capacity. Urine neopterin levels exhibited positive correlation with age and serum creatinine levels, and inverse correlation with WBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, BUN and serum albumin. In conclusion, increased serum and urinary neopterin levels were found in some patients with renal disease and were correlated with certain clinical parameters. PMID:16891812

  7. 42 CFR 413.210 - Conditions for payment under the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... disease (ESRD) prospective payment system. 413.210 Section 413.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement...

  8. 42 CFR 413.210 - Conditions for payment under the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... disease (ESRD) prospective payment system. 413.210 Section 413.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement...

  9. 42 CFR 413.210 - Conditions for payment under the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... disease (ESRD) prospective payment system. 413.210 Section 413.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement...

  10. 42 CFR 413.210 - Conditions for payment under the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... disease (ESRD) prospective payment system. 413.210 Section 413.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement...

  11. 42 CFR 413.210 - Conditions for payment under the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... disease (ESRD) prospective payment system. 413.210 Section 413.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... REIMBURSEMENT; PAYMENT FOR END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Payment for End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement...

  12. Natural progression of renal function in the elderly: analysis of poor prognosis factors associated with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Heras, Manuel; García-Cosmes, Pedro; Fernández-Reyes, María J; Sánchez, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years a debate has emerged on the range of normal renal function and the rate at which renal disease progresses in the elderly. In this review we analysed, on the basis of the results of the study Ancianos con enfermedad renal crónica del Hospital General de Segovia (Elderly people with chronic kidney disease of the Hospital General de Segovia), the poor prognosis factors associated with this disease: proteinuria, episodes of acute renal failure and heart failure, and the role of uric acid. Elderly people with chronic kidney disease who present these poor prognosis factors may benefit from follow-up by Nephrology.

  13. Incidence and causes of end-stage renal disease among Aboriginal children and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Susan M.; Foster, Bethany J.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Crowshoe, Lynden; Alexander, R. Todd; Soo, Andrea; Tonelli, Marcello A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although Aboriginal adults have a higher risk of end-stage renal disease than non-Aboriginal adults, the incidence and causes of end-stage renal disease among Aboriginal children and young adults are not well described. Methods: We calculated age- and sex-specific incidences of end-stage renal disease among Aboriginal people less than 22 years of age using data from a national organ failure registry. Incidence rate ratios were used to compare rates between Aboriginal and white Canadians. To contrast causes of end-stage renal disease by ethnicity and age, we calculated the odds of congenital diseases, glomerulonephritis and diabetes for Aboriginal people and compared them with those for white people in the following age strata: 0 to less than 22 years, 22 to less than 40 years, 40 to less than 60 years and older than 60 years. Results: Incidence rate ratios of end-stage renal disease for Aboriginal children and young adults (age < 22 yr, v. white people) were 1.82 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40–2.38) for boys and 3.24 (95% CI 2.60–4.05) for girls. Compared with white people, congenital diseases were less common among Aboriginal people aged less than 22 years (odds ratio [OR] 0.56, 95% CI 0.36–0.86), and glomerulonephritis was more common (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.55–3.07). An excess of glomerulonephritis, but not diabetes, was seen among Aboriginal people aged 22 to less than 40 years. The converse was true (higher risk of diabetes, lower risk of glomerulonephritis) among Aboriginal people aged 40 years and older. Interpretation: The incidence of end-stage renal disease is higher among Aboriginal children and young adults than among white children and young adults. This higher incidence may be driven by an increased risk of glomerulonephritis in this population. PMID:22927509

  14. Adverse Host Factors Exacerbate Occult HIV-Associated Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dileep; Salhan, Divya; Magoon, Sandeep; Torri, Deepti D.; Sayeneni, Swapna; Sagar, Ankita; Bandhlish, Anshu; Malhotra, Ashwani; Chander, Praveen N.; Singhal, Pravin C.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we hypothesized that HIV-1–induced occult HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) would become apparent in the presence of adverse host factors. To test our hypothesis, Vpr mice (which display doxycycline-dependent Vpr expression in podocytes) with two, three, and four copies of the angiotensinogen (Agt) gene (Vpr-Agt-2, Vpr-Agt-3, and Vpr-Agt-4) were administered doxycycline for 3 weeks (to develop clinically occult HIVAN) followed by doxycycline-free water during the next 3 weeks. Subsequently, renal biomarkers were measured, and kidneys were harvested for renal histology. Vpr-Agt-2 developed neither proteinuria nor elevated blood pressure, and displayed minimal glomerular and tubular lesions only, without any microcyst formation. Vpr-Agt-3 showed mild glomerular and tubular lesions and microcyst formation, whereas Vpr-Agt-4 showed moderate proteinuria, hypertension, glomerular sclerosis, tubular dilation, microcysts, and expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition markers. Vpr-Agt-4 not only displayed enhanced renal tissue expression of Agt, renin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme, but also had higher renal tissue concentrations of angiotensin II. Moreover, renal cells in Vpr-Agt-4 showed enhanced expression of transforming growth factor-β, connective tissue growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor. These findings indicate that adverse host factors, such as the activation of the renin-angiotensin system, promote the progression of occult HIVAN to apparent HIVAN. PMID:21871425

  15. Hypertension, End-Stage Renal Disease and Rehabilitation: A Look at Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Ivor Lensworth; Ackah, Samuel

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the important relationship between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and hypertension for African Americans; and considers issues associated with ESRD and the subsequent need for kidney transplants, including organ availability. Individual and societal implications of these diseases are discussed. (SLD)

  16. 78 FR 8535 - Medicare Program: Comprehensive End-Stage Renal Disease Care Model Announcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Disease Care Model Announcement AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION... the testing of the Comprehensive End- Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Care Model, a new initiative from the... Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), was created to develop and test innovative health...

  17. Marriage and End-Stage Renal Disease: Implications for African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shortridge, Emily F.; James, Cara V.

    2010-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately represented among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). ESRD is managed with a strict routine that might include regular dialysis as well as dietary, fluid intake, and other lifestyle changes. In a disease such as this, with such disruptive treatment modalities, marriage, specifically, and its ties…

  18. Mechanisms involved in developmental programming of hypertension and renal diseases. Gender differences.

    PubMed

    Tomat, Analia Lorena; Salazar, Francisco Javier

    2014-05-01

    A substantial body of epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests that a poor fetal and neonatal environment may "program" susceptibility in the offspring to later development of cardiovascular, renal and metabolic diseases. This review focuses on current knowledge from the available literature regarding the mechanisms linking an adverse developmental environment with an increased risk for cardiovascular, renal and metabolic diseases in adult life. Moreover, this review highlights important sex-dependent differences in the adaptation to developmental insults. Developmental programming of several diseases is secondary to changes in different mechanisms inducing important alterations in the normal development of several organs that lead to significant changes in birth weight. The different diseases occurring as a consequence of an adverse environment during development are secondary to morphological and functional cardiovascular and renal changes, to epigenetic changes and to an activation of several hormonal and regulatory systems, such as angiotensin II, sympathetic activity, nitric oxide, COX2-derived metabolites, oxidative stress and inflammation. The important sex-dependent differences in the developmental programming of diseases seem to be partly secondary to the effects of sex hormones. Recent studies have shown that the progression of these diseases is accelerated during aging in both sexes. The cardiovascular, renal and metabolic diseases during adult life that occur as a consequence of several insults during fetal and postnatal periods are secondary to multiple structural and functional changes. Future studies are needed in order to prevent the origin and reduce the incidence and consequences of developmental programmed diseases.

  19. Hypertension, End-Stage Renal Disease and Rehabilitation: A Look at Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston, Ivor Lensworth; Ackah, Samuel

    1992-01-01

    Reviews the important relationship between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and hypertension for African Americans; and considers issues associated with ESRD and the subsequent need for kidney transplants, including organ availability. Individual and societal implications of these diseases are discussed. (SLD)

  20. Marriage and End-Stage Renal Disease: Implications for African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shortridge, Emily F.; James, Cara V.

    2010-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately represented among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). ESRD is managed with a strict routine that might include regular dialysis as well as dietary, fluid intake, and other lifestyle changes. In a disease such as this, with such disruptive treatment modalities, marriage, specifically, and its ties…

  1. Iniquities in the access to renal transplant for patients with end-stage chronic renal disease in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Elaine Leandro; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; César, Cibele Comini; Gomes, Isabel Cristina; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel; Acúrcio, Francisco de Assis; Cherchiglia, Mariangela Leal

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this present study is to analyze individual and contextual factors associated with access to renal transplant in Brazil. An observational, prospective and non-concurrent study was carried out, based on data from the National Database on renal replacement therapies in Brazil. Patients undergoing dialysis between 01/Jan/2000 and 31/Dec/2000 were included and monitored up to the point of transplant, death or until the end of the study period. Variables that were analyzed included: individual variables (age, sex, region of residence, primary renal disease, hospitalizations); and context variables concerning both the dialysis unit (level of complexity, juridical nature, hemodialysis machines and location) and the city (geographic region, location and HDI). Proportional hazard models were adjusted with hierarchical entry to identify factors associated with the risk of transplant. The results point to differentials in access according to socio-demographic, clinical, geographic and social factors, indicating that the organ allocation system has not eliminated avoidable disparities for those who compete for an organ in the nationwide waiting list.

  2. Effect of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treatment on Renal Function in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Loffler, Kelly A; Heeley, Emma; Freed, Ruth; Anderson, Craig S; Brockway, Ben; Corbett, Alastair; Chang, Catharina L; Douglas, James A; Ferrier, Katherine; Graham, Neil; Hamilton, Garun S; Hlavac, Michael; McArdle, Nigel; McLachlan, John; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Naughton, Matthew T; Thien, Francis; Young, Alan; Grunstein, Ronald R; Palmer, Lyle J; Woodman, Richard J; Hanly, Patrick J; McEvoy, R Doug

    2017-07-25

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with impaired renal function, but uncertainty exists over whether OSA treatment can influence renal outcomes. To determine the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on renal function in subjects with co-existing OSA and cardiovascular disease. This was a substudy of the international Sleep Apnea and cardioVascular Endpoints (SAVE) trial that randomized 2717 patients with moderate-severe OSA and established coronary or cerebrovascular disease to receive CPAP plus usual care, or usual care alone. Renal function and adverse renal events were compared between CPAP treated (n = 102) and usual care (n = 98) groups. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated at randomization and the end of follow-up; urinary albumin:creatinine ratio was measured at study exit. In 200 substudy participants (mean age 64 years; median 4% oxygen desaturation index, 20 events per hour, mean estimated glomerular filtration rate at baseline 82 mL/min/1.73m2), the median (IQR) change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (mL/min/1.73m2/year) was 1.64 ( 3.45 to 0.740) in the CPAP group and 2.30 ( 4.53 to 0.71) in the usual care group (P = 0.21) after a median period of 4.4 years. There were no between-group differences in end-of-study urinary albumin:creatinine ratio, or the occurrence of serious renal or urinary adverse events during the trial. Level of CPAP adherence did not influence the findings. CPAP treatment of OSA in patients with cardiovascular disease does not alter renal function, nor the occurrence of renal adverse events. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID NCT00738179.

  3. Long-term course and mechanisms of progression of renal disease in hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Horatio A

    2005-08-01

    In the classic form of hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with toxins of gram-negative enterobacteria, mortality in the acute stage has been lower than 5% since 1978 (data from the Nephrology Committee, Argentine Society of Pediatrics). Children usually die because of severe involvement of the central nervous system, intestine, or myocardium and its complications, or because of intercurrent infection. Treatment in this phase is supportive, and efforts should be put into prevention of infection by Shiga-like toxin-producing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Of the 95% who survive, approximately one third is at risk for having chronic sequelae. Motor, sensory, or intellectual deficits, intestinal strictures, myocardial infarctions, or diabetes are infrequent. The more-frequent chronic renal lesion is characterized by the hyperfunction of nephrons remaining after the acute necrotizing lesion, which leads to progressive scarring, and not by persistence or recurrence of the microangiopathic process. Three courses of progression to end-stage renal failure have been described. Children with most severe forms do not recover from acute renal failure and enter directly into a dialysis and transplantation program. A second group recovers renal function partially, with persistent proteinuria and frequently hypertension; progression to end-stage renal failure occurs in 2 to 5 years. The third group may recover normal serum creatinine and creatinine clearance, with persistent proteinuria. They are at risk of progressing to chronic renal failure and end-stage renal disease after more than 5 years, and sometimes as late as 20 years, after the acute disease. Treatment should aim at preventing the mechanisms associated with progressive renal scarring. Transplantation is indicated in this form of hemolytic uremic syndrome, because there is little, if any, risk of recurrence, and the prognosis is similar to that of transplantation for other diseases.

  4. End-stage renal disease due to delayed diagnosis of renal tuberculosis: a fatal case report.

    PubMed

    Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco; Silva Júnior, Geraldo Bezerra da; Damasceno, Renata Trindade; Santos, Gustavo Martins Dos; Corsino, Germana Alves; Silva, Sônia Leite da; Gutiérrez-Adrianzén, Oswaldo Augusto

    2007-02-01

    Renal TB is difficult to diagnose, because many patients present themselves with lower urinary symptoms which are typical of bacterial cystitis. We report a case of a young woman with renal TB and ESRD. She was admitted with complaints of adynamia, anorexia, fever, weight loss, dysuria and generalized edema for 10 months. At physical examination she was febrile (39 degrees C), and her abdomen had increased volume and was painful at palpation. Laboratorial tests showed serum urea = 220 mg/dL, creatinine = 6.6 mg/dL, hemoglobin = 7.9 g/dL, hematocrit = 24.3%, leukocytes = 33,600/mm(3) and platelets = 664,000/mm(3). Urinalysis showed an acid urine (pH = 5.0), leukocyturia (2+/4+) and mild proteinuria (1+/4+). She was also oliguric (urinary volume < 400 mL/day). Abdominal echography showed thick and contracted bladder walls and heterogeneous liquid collection in the left pelvic region. Two laparotomies were performed, in which abscess in pelvic region was found. Anti-peritoneal tuberculosis treatment with rifampin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide was started. During the follow-up, the urine culture was found to be positive for M. tuberculosis. Six months later the patient had complaints of abdominal pain and dysuria. New laboratorial tests showed serum urea = 187 mg/dL, creatinine = 8.0 mg/dL, potassium = 6.5 mEq/L. Hemodialysis was then started. The CT scan showed signs of chronic nephropathy, dilated calyces and thinning of renal cortex in both kidneys and severe dilation of ureter. The patient developed neurologic symptoms, suggesting tuberculous meningoencephalitis, and died despite of support measures adopted. The patient had ESRD due to secondary uropathy to prolonged tuberculosis of urinary tract that was caused by delayed clinical and laboratorial diagnosis, and probably also due to inadequate antituberculous drugs administration.

  5. Failure of renal dopamine response to salt loading in chronic renal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Casson, I F; Lee, M R; Brownjohn, A M; Parsons, F M; Davison, A M; Will, E J; Clayden, A D

    1983-01-01

    Eight patients with chronic glomerulonephritis and five age-matched normal volunteers were given additional sodium chloride by mouth under conditions of metabolic balance. Whereas in the normal volunteers plasma renin activity was suppressed and urinary excretion of free dopamine increased, in the patients dopamine was not mobilised and plasma renin activity was not completely suppressed. Abnormal retention of sodium and water in glomerulonephritis may be due partly to a failure to mobilise dopamine in the kidney. Specific renal dopamine agonists may be natriuretic and hypotensive in chronic glomerulonephritis. PMID:6402127

  6. End-Stage Renal Disease in an Infant With Hajdu-Cheney Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Battelino, Nina; Writzl, Karin; Bratanič, Nevenka; Irving, Melita D; Novljan, Gregor

    2016-06-01

    Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HJCYS) is a rare, autosomal dominant, skeletal disorder caused by mutations in the NOTCH2 signaling pathway for which genetic testing has recently become available. Renal abnormalities are associated in at least 10% of cases. We present an 8-year-old Caucasian boy, born with multiple dysmorphic features consistent with HJCYS. Imaging of the urinary tract revealed bilateral cystic dysplastic kidneys with associated vesicoureteral reflux. Renal function has been impaired since birth and deteriorated progressively to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) by the age of two and a half years, when peritoneal dialysis was initiated and only recently renal transplantation was performed. Additional congenital abnormalities and multisystem involvement in HJCYS further complicated management, and he developed refractory anemia. Molecular diagnosis was confirmed by identification of a truncating mutation in exon 34 of NOTCH2. Although, renal abnormalities are considered an integral part of the HJCYS, published reports on ESRD are scarce. In those few published cases, where ESRD was recognized, renal failure developed either in late adolescence or adulthood. This is the first report of early ESRD occurring in a child. Patients with HJCYS may need chronic renal replacement therapy even in early childhood. The management of these children can be challenging given the multisystemic manifestations of HJCYS.

  7. Risk factors for renal scarring in children with primary vesicoureteral reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Mir, Sevgi; Ertan, Pelin; Ozkayin, Nese

    2013-01-01

    To determine the incidence of renal scarring among patients with primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and the possible risk factor(s), we studied 90 children (60 girls and 30 boys) with VUR followed in the Pediatric Nephrology Unit at the Ege University Hospital from 1998 to 2003. All the patients were assessed for VUR grade by voiding cystoureterography and for presence of renal scarring by (99 m) technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scintigraphy. All infants with VUR were given low-dose prophylactic antibiotics and followed-up until resolution of the reflux. Grade of reflux and number of urinary tract infection (UTI) episodes (≥3) were found to be statistically significant risk factors for renal scarring (P <0.05). However, gender, familial history and laterality of the disease were not found to be statistically significant risk factors (P >0.05). Similarly, there was no statistically significant difference of frequency of renal