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Sample records for occupation commercial fishing

  1. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  2. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  3. Occupational mortality in British commercial fishing, 1976–95

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To establish the causes and circumstances of all deaths occurring at work or related to work among fishermen in British commercial fishing between 1976 and 1995. Methods: A retrospective study, based on official mortality files, with a population of 440 355 fishermen-years at risk. Results: Of 616 deaths in British fishing, 454 (74%) were due to accidents at work, and 394 (87%) of these fishermen drowned. A total of 270 accidents were caused by casualties to vessels and 184 by personal accidents. There was no significant decline in the fatal accident rate, 103.1 per 100 000 fishermen-years, between 1976 and 1995. The fatal accident rate was 52.4 times higher (95% CI 42.9 to 63.8) than for all workers in Great Britain during the same period, and this relative risk increased through the 1980s up to 76.6 during 1991–95. Relative risks with the construction (12.3) and manufacturing (46.0) industries were higher than 5 and 20 respectively, during 1959–68. Trawlers foundering in adverse weather was the most frequent cause of mortality from casualties to vessels (115 deaths), and 82 of 145 personal accidents at sea arose during operations involving trawling nets. Conclusions: When compared with shore based industries, fishing remains at least as hazardous as before. Prevention should be aimed, most importantly, at the unnecessary operation of small vessels and trawling net manoeuvres in hazardous weather and sea conditions. Other measures should focus on preventing falls overboard, reducing fatigue, a more widespread use of personal flotation devices, and improvements in weather forecast evaluation. PMID:14691268

  4. Commercial Photography. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for commercial photography is an employer-verified competency list that evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives throughout Ohio. The competency list consists of 12 units: (1) business…

  5. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A NORTHWESTERN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS... June 15, 2011, provided that: (i) The fishing is conducted in accordance with a valid commercial... after June 15, 2011. (c) General requirements. Any commercial fishing within the Monument shall...

  6. 46 CFR 105.10-25 - Commercial fishing vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessel. 105.10-25 Section 105.10-25... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-25 Commercial fishing vessel. (a) The term commercial fishing vessel includes fishing vessels, cannery...

  7. 46 CFR 105.10-25 - Commercial fishing vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessel. 105.10-25 Section 105.10-25... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-25 Commercial fishing vessel. (a) The term commercial fishing vessel includes fishing vessels, cannery...

  8. 46 CFR 105.10-25 - Commercial fishing vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessel. 105.10-25 Section 105.10-25... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-25 Commercial fishing vessel. (a) The term commercial fishing vessel includes fishing vessels, cannery tenders...

  9. 46 CFR 105.10-25 - Commercial fishing vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessel. 105.10-25 Section 105.10-25... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-25 Commercial fishing vessel. (a) The term commercial fishing vessel includes fishing vessels, cannery tenders...

  10. 46 CFR 105.10-25 - Commercial fishing vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessel. 105.10-25 Section 105.10-25... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-25 Commercial fishing vessel. (a) The term commercial fishing vessel includes fishing vessels, cannery tenders...

  11. 25 CFR 241.3 - Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. 241.3... FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.3 Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definition. Commercial fishing... salmon fishing at any four of the following sites in the Annette Islands Reserve, Alaska: (1) Annette...

  12. 25 CFR 241.3 - Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. 241.3... FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.3 Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definition. Commercial fishing... salmon fishing at any four of the following sites in the Annette Islands Reserve, Alaska: (1) Annette...

  13. 25 CFR 241.3 - Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. 241.3... FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.3 Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definition. Commercial fishing... salmon fishing at any four of the following sites in the Annette Islands Reserve, Alaska: (1) Annette...

  14. 25 CFR 241.5 - Commercial fishing, Karluk Indian Reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commercial fishing, Karluk Indian Reservation. 241.5... FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.5 Commercial fishing, Karluk Indian Reservation. (a) Definition. The Karluk Indian... Karluk Indian Reservation shall be open to commercial fishing by bona fide native inhabitants of the...

  15. 25 CFR 241.5 - Commercial fishing, Karluk Indian Reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commercial fishing, Karluk Indian Reservation. 241.5... FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.5 Commercial fishing, Karluk Indian Reservation. (a) Definition. The Karluk Indian... Karluk Indian Reservation shall be open to commercial fishing by bona fide native inhabitants of the...

  16. 25 CFR 241.5 - Commercial fishing, Karluk Indian Reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial fishing, Karluk Indian Reservation. 241.5... FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.5 Commercial fishing, Karluk Indian Reservation. (a) Definition. The Karluk Indian... Karluk Indian Reservation shall be open to commercial fishing by bona fide native inhabitants of the...

  17. 25 CFR 241.5 - Commercial fishing, Karluk Indian Reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commercial fishing, Karluk Indian Reservation. 241.5... FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.5 Commercial fishing, Karluk Indian Reservation. (a) Definition. The Karluk Indian... Karluk Indian Reservation shall be open to commercial fishing by bona fide native inhabitants of the...

  18. 25 CFR 241.5 - Commercial fishing, Karluk Indian Reservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Commercial fishing, Karluk Indian Reservation. 241.5... FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.5 Commercial fishing, Karluk Indian Reservation. (a) Definition. The Karluk Indian... Karluk Indian Reservation shall be open to commercial fishing by bona fide native inhabitants of the...

  19. 46 CFR 25.26-5 - Commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial fishing industry vessels. 25.26-5 Section 25... Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) § 25.26-5 Commercial fishing industry vessels. (a) The owner of a fishing vessel, a fish processing vessel, or a fish tender vessel, 11 meters (36 feet) or more in length...

  20. 46 CFR 25.26-5 - Commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Commercial fishing industry vessels. 25.26-5 Section 25... Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) § 25.26-5 Commercial fishing industry vessels. (a) The owner of a fishing vessel, a fish processing vessel, or a fish tender vessel, 11 meters (36 feet) or more in length...

  1. 46 CFR 25.26-5 - Commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial fishing industry vessels. 25.26-5 Section 25... Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) § 25.26-5 Commercial fishing industry vessels. (a) The owner of a fishing vessel, a fish processing vessel, or a fish tender vessel, 11 meters (36 feet) or more in length...

  2. Piscicultura. Productor Comercial de Peces. Guia Tecnica. Documento de trabajo, Programa de Educacion Agricola (Fish Farming. Commercial Fish Producer. Technical Guide. Curriculum Document, Agriculture Education Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This curriculum guide begins with an introduction, course description, and description of the occupation of commercial fish farmer. A course outline covers five units: starting a business, establishing the fish farm, managing the enterprise, harvesting the fish, and administering the business. For each unit, the following are provided: terminal…

  3. Piscicultura. Productor Comercial de Peces. Guia Tecnica. Documento de trabajo, Programa de Educacion Agricola (Fish Farming. Commercial Fish Producer. Technical Guide. Curriculum Document, Agriculture Education Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This curriculum guide begins with an introduction, course description, and description of the occupation of commercial fish farmer. A course outline covers five units: starting a business, establishing the fish farm, managing the enterprise, harvesting the fish, and administering the business. For each unit, the following are provided: terminal…

  4. 25 CFR 241.3 - Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. 241.3 Section... ALASKA § 241.3 Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definition. Commercial fishing is the... four of the following sites in the Annette Islands Reserve, Alaska: (1) Annette Island at 55 degrees 15...

  5. An Analysis of the Institutional and Commercial Housekeeper Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tener, Sherrie; Ontko, Judy

    This occupational analysis data was assembled to help instructors develop a course of study for commercial cleaners at the entry level. Following a job description for an institutional or commercial cleaner, the remainder of the content in standard task-analysis format presents an analysis of ten commercial cleaner duties (tasks). Each of ten…

  6. Commercial Art. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  7. 25 CFR 241.3 - Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... salmon fishing at any four of the following sites in the Annette Islands Reserve, Alaska: (1) Annette... seconds west longitude. (c) Trap fishing season. Fishing for salmon with traps operated by the Metlakatla Indian Community is permitted only at such times as commercial salmon fishing with purse seines...

  8. PCBs and DDE in commercial fish feeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Nicholson, L.W.; McCauley, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Three commercial fish feeds were analyzed for PCBs and p,p' DDE and were reported in dry weight concentrations. In various sizes of Oregon Moist Pellets, concentrations of PCBs ranged from less than 0.10 to 0.30 I?g/g and those of p,p' DDE from less than 0.01 to 0.47 I?g/g. In Silver Cup, concentrations of PCBs were 0.06 to 0.07 I?g/g, and p,p' DDE, 0.01 to 0.06 I?g/g. Nauplii of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) contained 0.14 I?g/g PCB and 0.03 I?g/g p,p' DDE.

  9. 76 FR 8372 - Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Portsmouth, Virginia to discuss various issues relating to safety in the commercial fishing industry. This... Committee will meet at the Renaissance Portsmouth Hotel and Waterfront Conference Center, 425 Water Street... Department of Homeland Security on matters relating to the safety of commercial fishing industry...

  10. 76 FR 65205 - Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee (CFSAC) will meet in Seattle, Washington to discuss various issues relating to safety in the...

  11. 78 FR 44958 - Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee (CFSAC) will meet in Washington, DC to discuss various issues relating to safety in the...

  12. 46 CFR 25.26-5 - Commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing industry vessels. 25.26-5 Section 25.26-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) § 25.26-5 Commercial fishing industry vessels. (a) The owner of a...

  13. 46 CFR 25.26-5 - Commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial fishing industry vessels. 25.26-5 Section 25.26-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) § 25.26-5 Commercial fishing industry vessels. (a) The owner of a...

  14. Occupational health and safety among commercial sex workers.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael W; Crisp, Beth R; Månsson, Sven-Axel; Hawkes, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    The concept of occupational health and safety (OHS) for commercial sex workers has rarely been investigated, perhaps because of the often informal nature of the workplace, the associated stigma, and the frequently illegal nature of the activity. We reviewed the literature on health, occupational risks, and safety among commercial sex workers. Cultural and local variations and commonalities were identified. Dimensions of OHS that emerged included legal and policing risks, risks associated with particular business settings such as streets and brothels, violence from clients, mental health risks and protective factors, alcohol and drug use, repetitive strain injuries, sexually transmissible infections, risks associated with particular classes of clients, issues associated with male and transgender commercial sex workers, and issues of risk reduction that in many cases are associated with lack of agency or control, stigma, and legal barriers. We further discuss the impact and potential of OHS interventions for commercial sex workers. The OHS of commercial sex workers covers a range of domains, some potentially modifiable by OHS programs and workplace safety interventions targeted at this population. We argue that commercial sex work should be considered as an occupation overdue for interventions to reduce workplace risks and enhance worker safety.

  15. Commercial Truck/Equipment Technician. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) for commercial truck and equipment technician is an employer-verified competency list that evolved from a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) job analysis process involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives throughout Ohio. The task list of the National…

  16. Self-perceived vision in farming, forestry, and fishing occupations.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Miriam

    2017-01-02

    Using data from the 2005-2006 and 2007-2008 NHANES questionnaires, we evaluated self-perceived vision difficulty in individuals with a history of farming, forestry, and fishing (FFF) occupations. A self-perceived vision difficulty indicator was derived from responses to 3 separate measures. Those indicating farming, forestry, or fishing as longest job worked were classified as having an FFF history and compared to those reporting any other occupation. Logistic regression analyses utilizing NHANES sampling weights were conducted. After controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, and income-to-poverty ratio, those with an FFF history were 76% more likely to report vision difficulty than those having an alternate occupational history. Personal protective equipment and routine optometric examination may be particularly prudent for this occupational group.

  17. OCCUPATIONAL ALLERGY AND ASTHMA AMONG SALT WATER FISH PROCESSING WORKERS

    PubMed Central

    Jeebhay, Mohamed F; Robins, Thomas G; Miller, Mary E; Bateman, Eric; Smuts, Marius; Baatjies, Roslynn; Lopata, Andreas L

    2010-01-01

    Background Fish processing is a common economic activity in Southern Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and host determinants of allergic symptoms, allergic sensitization, bronchial hyper-responsiveness and asthma among workers processing saltwater fish. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 594 currently employed workers in two processing plants involved in pilchard canning and fishmeal processing. A modified European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) questionnaire was used. Skin prick tests (SPT) used extracts of common airborne allergens, fresh fish (pilchard, anchovy, maasbanker, mackerel, red eye) and fishmeal. Spirometry and methacholine challenge tests (tidal breathing method) used ATS guidelines. Results Work-related ocular-nasal symptoms (26%) were more common than asthma symptoms (16%). The prevalence of atopy was 36%, while 7% were sensitized to fish species and 26% had NSBH (PC20 ≤ 8 mg/ml or ≥12% increase in FEV1 post bronchodilator). The prevalence of probable occupational asthma was 1.8% and fish allergic rhino-conjunctivitis 2.6%. Women were more likely to report work-related asthma symptoms (OR=1.94) and have NSBH (OR=3.09), while men were more likely to be sensitized to fish (OR=2.06) and have airway obstruction (OR=4.17). Atopy (OR=3.16) and current smoking (OR=2.37), but not habitual seafood consumption were associated with sensitization to fish. Conclusions Based on comparison with previous published studies, the prevalence of occupational asthma to salt water fish is lower than due to shellfish. The gendered distribution of work and exposures in fish processing operations together with atopy and cigarette smoking are important determinants of occupational allergy and asthma. PMID:18726880

  18. Distribution and chemical form of mercury in commercial fish tissues.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Naoko; Tayama, Misato; Inouye, Minoru; Yasutake, Akira

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed total Hg concentrations in various tissue samples obtained from 7 commercially available fish species. MeHg contents were also estimated for muscle and liver samples by a selective analysis of inorganic Hg. Among the tissues, high Hg accumulations were shown in liver, muscle, heart and spleen throughout all fish species. Carnivorous fish, such as scorpion fish, sea bream and Japanese whiting, tended to show higher Hg accumulations in the muscle, with the highest Hg levels being shown by scorpion fish. Although the liver was expected to show the highest Hg accumulations among tissues throughout all fish species, the highest accumulation in the liver was observed only in scorpion fish. In contrast, the muscle level was significantly higher than the liver in Pacific saury and Japanese whiting. MeHg accumulated in fish is considered to show a sustained increase throughout the life of the fish, due to its long biological half-life. In fact, in the present study, muscle Hg levels in Japanese whiting, Japanese flying fish, and halfbeak showed good correlations with body weights. However, such correlations were not clear in scorpion fish, sea bream, Jack mackerel and Pacific saury. Selective analyses of inorganic Hg levels revealed that most of the Hg (> 95%) in fish muscle existed as MeHg, while the rates of MeHg contents in the liver varied from 56% in scorpion fish to 84% in Jack mackerel. As a result, fish muscle showed the highest MeHg accumulations in all fish species examined. These results suggest that reliable information on total Hg contents in fish muscle might be sufficient to avoid the risk of MeHg exposure caused by eating fish, even when one consumes other tissues such as fish liver.

  19. Unexpectedly high mercury level in pelleted commercial fish feed

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, M.H.; Cech, J.J. Jr.

    1998-10-01

    An unexpectedly high mercury (Hg) level was found in a pelleted commercial fish feed used to feed fish in laboratory and fish farm settings. Mean total Hg (T-Hg) concentration in the commercial fish pellets was 66 ppb. Mean total selenium (T-Se) concentration in the pellets was 1,120 ppb (ranging from 790 to 1,360 ppb). Total Hg and Se in the whole blood of Sacramento blackfish and in the fish feed were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). During a 10-week sampling period T-Hg in blood fluctuated between 35 and 56 ppb. A highly significant, positive correlation was found between T-Hg in the fish blood and in the fish feed through the sampling period. On the other hand, no correlation was found between T-Se in the fish feed and T-Hg or T-Se blood level. Researchers working with fish in Hg studies need to know that fish pellets may contain Hg and to consider the influence of these pellets in their results.

  20. Unexpectedly high mercury concentration in commercial fish feed

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, H.; Cech, J. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Unexpectedly high mercury was found in a commercial fish pellet which has been widely used to feed fish in laboratory and fish farm settings. Researchers working with fish in mercury studies need to know that fish pellets contain mercury and consider the pellets, influence in their results. Mean mercury concentration in the commercial fish pellet was 47.4 ug/g (ranging from 35 to 56 ug Hg/g). Total mercury (T-Hg) in the blood of Sacramento blackfish (orthodon microlepidotus), fed the commercial feed for 8 months, was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Mean blood T-Hg reached a steady state at 41 ug Hg/L (ranging from 34 to 51 ug Hg/L) during 5 months of feeding after capture from Clear Lake in California. The accumulation of mercury in blood followed a monoexponential pattern, in accordance with a one-compartment model. There were great variations in mercury levels in blood between individual fishes. The mercury concentrations in the blood did not tend to increase with the growth of the fish. In summary, feed sources of mercury need to be considered in mercury exposure experiments.

  1. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE); ENDANGERED SPECIES COMMITTEE REGULATIONS SUBCHAPTER A PAPAHÄNAUMOKUÄKEA MARINE NATIONAL... species may continue within the Monument subject to paragraph (c) of this section, until June 15, 2011... fishing for bottomfish and associated pelagic species is prohibited in the Monument after June 15,...

  2. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... so by the Secretaries; (7) The activity does not take place within any Ecological Reserve,...

  3. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... so by the Secretaries; (7) The activity does not take place within any Ecological Reserve,...

  4. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR AND NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... so by the Secretaries; (7) The activity does not take place within any Ecological Reserve,...

  5. Heavy metals in commercial fish in New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna . E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael

    2005-11-15

    Levels of contaminants in fish are of particular interest because of the potential risk to humans who consume them. While attention has focused on self-caught fish, most of the fish eaten by the American public comes from commercial sources. We sampled 11 types of fish and shellfish obtained from supermarkets and specialty fish markets in New Jersey and analyzed them for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium. We test the null hypothesis that metal levels do not vary among fish types, and we consider whether the levels of any metals could harm the fish themselves or their predators or pose a health risk for human consumers. There were significant interspecific differences for all metals, and no fish types had the highest levels of more than two metals. There were few significant correlations (Kendall tau) among metals for the three most numerous fish (yellowfin tuna, bluefish, and flounder), the correlations were generally low (below 0.40), and many correlations were negative. Only manganese and lead positively were correlated for tuna, bluefish, and flounder. The levels of most metals were below those known to cause adverse effects in the fish themselves. However, the levels of arsenic, lead, mercury, and selenium in some fish were in the range known to cause some sublethal effects in sensitive predatory birds and mammals and in some fish exceeded health-based standards. The greatest risk from different metals resided in different fish; the species of fish with the highest levels of a given metal sometimes exceeded the human health guidance or standards for that metal. Thus, the risk information given to the public (mainly about mercury) does not present a complete picture. The potential of harm from other metals suggests that people not only should eat smaller quantities of fish known to accumulate mercury but also should eat a diversity of fish to avoid consuming unhealthy quantities of other heavy metals. However, consumers should

  6. 50 CFR 18.24 - Taking incidental to commercial fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Taking incidental to commercial fishing... commercial fishing operations. Persons may take marine mammals incidental to commercial fishing operations... of marine mammals permitted in the course of commercial fishing operations be reduced to...

  7. 50 CFR 18.24 - Taking incidental to commercial fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Taking incidental to commercial fishing... commercial fishing operations. Persons may take marine mammals incidental to commercial fishing operations... of marine mammals permitted in the course of commercial fishing operations be reduced to...

  8. 50 CFR 18.24 - Taking incidental to commercial fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Taking incidental to commercial fishing... commercial fishing operations. Persons may take marine mammals incidental to commercial fishing operations... of marine mammals permitted in the course of commercial fishing operations be reduced to...

  9. 46 CFR 105.90-1 - Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Existing Commercial Fishing Vessels Dispensing Petroleum Products § 105.90-1 Existing commercial fishing vessels...

  10. 46 CFR 105.90-1 - Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Existing Commercial Fishing Vessels Dispensing Petroleum Products § 105.90-1 Existing commercial fishing vessels...

  11. 46 CFR 105.90-1 - Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Existing Commercial Fishing Vessels Dispensing Petroleum Products § 105.90-1 Existing commercial fishing vessels...

  12. 46 CFR 105.90-1 - Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Existing Commercial Fishing Vessels Dispensing Petroleum Products § 105.90-1 Existing commercial fishing vessels...

  13. 46 CFR 105.90-1 - Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Existing commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum... AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Existing Commercial Fishing Vessels Dispensing Petroleum Products § 105.90-1 Existing commercial fishing vessels...

  14. Effluent profile of commercially used low-phosphorus fish feeds.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Shozo H; Marchant, Daniel D; Kelsey, Kevin; Wiggins, Thomas; Ferraris, Ronaldo P

    2006-03-01

    Excess phosphorus (P) in aquaculture feeds contributes to the eutrophication of natural waters. While commercially available low-P (LP) fish feeds have been developed, there is uncertainty about their potential to reduce effluent P while maintaining fish growth relative to regular P (RP) feeds. We therefore simulated commercial aquaculture conditions and fed for 55 days rainbow trout (approximately 190 kg/raceway, n = 3 raceways/diet) RP (1.4% total P) and LP (1.0%) feeds then determined effluent P levels, fish growth, and feed costs. Excretions of fecal-P and soluble-P, but not particulate-P, in effluents were greater in RP than in LP ponds. Fish growth, bone-P and plasma-P were similar between diets, demonstrating that LP feeds can lower effluent P levels without compromising growth. Costs were 0.97 dollars/kg fish production for LP feeds, and 0.74 dollars/kg for RP. Because feed is the largest variable cost in commercial aquaculture, the use of LP feeds can significantly increase production costs.

  15. 76 FR 28799 - Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... commercial fishing industry vessels. DATES: Applicants should submit a cover letter and resume in time to..., whenever possible--(1) An independent expert or consultant in maritime safety; ] (2) a marine surveyor who... from the Federal Government, although travel reimbursement and per diem may be provided for...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1132 - What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? 13.1132 Section 13.1132 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1132 What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? Three types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1132 - What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? 13.1132 Section 13.1132 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1132 What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? Three types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1132 - What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? 13.1132 Section 13.1132 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1132 What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? Three types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay...

  19. 36 CFR 13.1132 - What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? 13.1132 Section 13.1132 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1132 What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? Three types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay...

  20. 36 CFR 13.1132 - What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? 13.1132 Section 13.1132 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1132 What types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay? Three types of commercial fishing are authorized in Glacier Bay...

  1. 36 CFR 13.1144 - How often will commercial fishing lifetime access permit be renewed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fishing lifetime access permit be renewed? 13.1144 Section 13.1144 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1144 How often will commercial fishing... for the lifetime of a permittee who continues to hold a valid State limited entry commercial fishing...

  2. 25 CFR 242.2 - Authority to engage in commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authority to engage in commercial fishing. 242.2 Section... FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.2 Authority to engage in commercial fishing. No person shall engage in commercial fishing in the waters of the Red Lakes on the Red Lake Indian Reservation in the...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1144 - How often will commercial fishing lifetime access permit be renewed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fishing lifetime access permit be renewed? 13.1144 Section 13.1144 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1144 How often will commercial fishing... for the lifetime of a permittee who continues to hold a valid State limited entry commercial fishing...

  4. 36 CFR 13.1144 - How often will commercial fishing lifetime access permit be renewed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fishing lifetime access permit be renewed? 13.1144 Section 13.1144 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1144 How often will commercial fishing... for the lifetime of a permittee who continues to hold a valid State limited entry commercial fishing...

  5. 25 CFR 242.2 - Authority to engage in commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Authority to engage in commercial fishing. 242.2 Section... FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.2 Authority to engage in commercial fishing. No person shall engage in commercial fishing in the waters of the Red Lakes on the Red Lake Indian Reservation in the...

  6. 25 CFR 242.2 - Authority to engage in commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Authority to engage in commercial fishing. 242.2 Section... FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.2 Authority to engage in commercial fishing. No person shall engage in commercial fishing in the waters of the Red Lakes on the Red Lake Indian Reservation in the...

  7. 25 CFR 242.2 - Authority to engage in commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Authority to engage in commercial fishing. 242.2 Section... FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.2 Authority to engage in commercial fishing. No person shall engage in commercial fishing in the waters of the Red Lakes on the Red Lake Indian Reservation in the...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1144 - How often will commercial fishing lifetime access permit be renewed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fishing lifetime access permit be renewed? 13.1144 Section 13.1144 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1144 How often will commercial fishing... for the lifetime of a permittee who continues to hold a valid State limited entry commercial fishing...

  9. 25 CFR 242.2 - Authority to engage in commercial fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority to engage in commercial fishing. 242.2 Section... FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.2 Authority to engage in commercial fishing. No person shall engage in commercial fishing in the waters of the Red Lakes on the Red Lake Indian Reservation in the...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1144 - How often will commercial fishing lifetime access permit be renewed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fishing lifetime access permit be renewed? 13.1144 Section 13.1144 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1144 How often will commercial fishing... for the lifetime of a permittee who continues to hold a valid State limited entry commercial fishing...

  11. Classification and coding of commercial fishing injuries by work processes: an experience in the Danish fresh market fishing industry.

    PubMed

    Jensen, O C; Stage, S; Noer, P

    2005-06-01

    Work-related injuries in commercial fishing are of concern internationally. To better identify the causes of injury, this study coded occupational injuries by working processes in commercial fishing for fresh market fish. A classification system of the work processes was developed by participation in fishing vessel trips where observations and video recordings of the work operations on board were collected. Subsequently the system was pilot tested using the Danish Maritime Authority injury reports. The developed classification system contains 17 main categories and up to 13 sub-categories of the work processes for each of the five different types of fishing. A total of 620 injury reports were reviewed and coded. Five percent (n = 33) of these were fatal injuries. The working processes were identified and coded according to the developed classification system for 553 (89%) injury reports: Danish seiner (n = 83), gill-netter (n = 122), beam trawler (n = 71), twin-trawler 2-T (n = 96), single/pair trawler 1-T (n = 181). Sixty-seven (11%) of the reports were unclassifiable due to lack of information. Preparing, shooting, and hauling of the gear and nets accounted for 50% of the injuries; they were most serious type of injuries such as fractures and sprains. Walking about the ship, in particular embarking and disembarking, climbing and descending ladders accounted for nearly one-fifth of the injuries. We found that the working processes related to working with the gear and nets vary greatly in the different fishing methods. Coding of the injuries to the specific working processes allows for targeted prevention efforts.

  12. A brief history of commercial fishing in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Applegate, Vernon C.; Van Meter, Harry D.

    1970-01-01

    Salient features of the development of the industry from about 1815 to 1968, changes in fishing gears and methods, changes in the kinds and abundance of fishes caught, and the attendant effects of disappearing species on the stability of the fishery are described. The history and present status of the walleye, yellow perch, and eight other fishes, still taken in commercial quantities, are presented in more detail and are considered in the context of their effect on the current moribund state of the U.S. fishery. Past and present contributions of Lake Erie's tributaries and northerly connecting waters to the fishery are outlined briefly. The "outlook" for the fishery under present conditions of selective overfishing for high-value species, excessive pollution, ineffective and uncoordinated regulation, and antiquated methods of handling, processing, and marketing fish are discussed, and possible solutions to these problems are suggested.

  13. Ingestion of microplastics by commercial fish off the Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Neves, Diogo; Sobral, Paula; Ferreira, Joana Lia; Pereira, Tânia

    2015-12-15

    The digestive tract contents of 263 individuals from 26 species of commercial fish were examined for microplastics. These were found in 17 species, corresponding to 19.8% of the fish of which 32.7% had ingested more than one microplastic. Of all the fish that ingested microplastics, 63.5% was benthic and 36.5% pelagic species. A total of 73 microplastics were recorded, 48 (65.8%) being fibres and 25 (34.2%) being fragments. Polymers were polypropylene, polyethylene, alkyd resin, rayon, polyester, nylon and acrylic. The mean of ingested microplastics was 0.27 ± 0.63 per fish, (n=263). Pelagic fish ingested more particles and benthic fish ingested more fibres, but no significant differences were found. Fish with the highest number of microplastics were from the mouth of the Tagus river. Scomber japonicus registered the highest mean of ingested microplastics, suggesting its potential as indicator species to monitor and investigate trends in ingested litter, in the MSFD marine regions.

  14. 33 CFR 1.07-100 - Summons in lieu of seizure of commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... commercial fishing industry vessels. 1.07-100 Section 1.07-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Proceedings § 1.07-100 Summons in lieu of seizure of commercial fishing industry vessels. (a) As used in this section, the following terms have the meanings specified: (1) Commercial fishing industry vessel means a...

  15. 33 CFR 1.07-100 - Summons in lieu of seizure of commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... commercial fishing industry vessels. 1.07-100 Section 1.07-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Proceedings § 1.07-100 Summons in lieu of seizure of commercial fishing industry vessels. (a) As used in this section, the following terms have the meanings specified: (1) Commercial fishing industry vessel means a...

  16. 33 CFR 1.07-100 - Summons in lieu of seizure of commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... commercial fishing industry vessels. 1.07-100 Section 1.07-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Proceedings § 1.07-100 Summons in lieu of seizure of commercial fishing industry vessels. (a) As used in this section, the following terms have the meanings specified: (1) Commercial fishing industry vessel means a...

  17. 33 CFR 1.07-100 - Summons in lieu of seizure of commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... commercial fishing industry vessels. 1.07-100 Section 1.07-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Proceedings § 1.07-100 Summons in lieu of seizure of commercial fishing industry vessels. (a) As used in this section, the following terms have the meanings specified: (1) Commercial fishing industry vessel means a...

  18. 33 CFR 1.07-100 - Summons in lieu of seizure of commercial fishing industry vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commercial fishing industry vessels. 1.07-100 Section 1.07-100 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Proceedings § 1.07-100 Summons in lieu of seizure of commercial fishing industry vessels. (a) As used in this section, the following terms have the meanings specified: (1) Commercial fishing industry vessel means a...

  19. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products... MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The provisions of this part, with the exception...

  20. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products... MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The provisions of this part, with the exception...

  1. Great Lakes commercial fishing catch 1929-2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2016-01-01

    Since 1971 the Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC), formerly known as the National Fishery Center-Great Lakes (National Biological Service), the Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)(FWS/GLFL), and the Ann Arbor Biological Laboratory (Bureau of Commercial Fisheries), have acted as repositories for the processing, reporting, and storage of U.S. Great Lakes commercial fishery statistics. The GLSC prepares annual summaries of these data for use by federal and state resource managers and other interested public and private organizations. The data collection system was organized in 1926 by Dr. John Van Oosten of the Bureau of Fisheries and was first put to use by the State of Michigan in 1927. Commercial fishermen licensed by that state were required to submit daily fishing reports indicating gear used and amount of catch. In succeeding years the system was improved and expanded until by 1950 all the Great Lakes states and the Province of Ontario, Canada, had similar systems.

  2. Great Lakes commercial fishing catches 1929-2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Since 1971 the Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC), formerly known as the National Fishery Center-Great Lakes (National Biological Service), the Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)(FWS/GLFL), and the Ann Arbor Biological Laboratory (Bureau of Commercial Fisheries), have acted as repositories for the processing, reporting, and storage of U.S. Great Lakes commercial fishery statistics. The GLSC prepares annual summaries of these data for use by federal and state resource managers and other interested public and private organizations. The data collection system was organized in 1926 by Dr. John Van Oosten of the Bureau of Fisheries and was first put to use by the State of Michigan in 1927. Commercial fishermen licensed by that state were required to submit daily fishing reports indicating gear used and amount of catch. In succeeding years the system was improved and expanded until by 1950 all the Great Lakes states and the Province of Ontario, Canada, had similar systems.

  3. Application of the airborne ocean color imager for commercial fishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was to develop a commercial remote sensing system for providing near-real-time data (within one day) in support of commercial fishing operations. The Airborne Ocean Color Imager (AOCI) had been built for NASA by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc., but it needed certain improvements, data processing software, and a delivery system to make it into a commercial system for fisheries. Two products were developed to support this effort: the AOCI with its associated processing system and an information service for both commercial and recreational fisheries to be created by Spectro Scan, Inc. The investigation achieved all technical objectives: improving the AOCI, creating software for atmospheric correction and bio-optical output products, georeferencing the output products, and creating a delivery system to get those products into the hands of commercial and recreational fishermen in near-real-time. The first set of business objectives involved Daedalus Enterprises and also were achieved: they have an improved AOCI and new data processing software with a set of example data products for fisheries applications to show their customers. Daedalus' marketing activities showed the need for simplification of the product for fisheries, but they successfully marketed the current version to an Italian consortium. The second set of business objectives tasked Spectro Scan to provide an information service and they could not be achieved because Spectro Scan was unable to obtain necessary venture capital to start up operations.

  4. A comparison of safety belt use between commercial and noncommercial light-vehicle occupants.

    PubMed

    Eby, David W; Fordyce, Tiffani A; Vivoda, Jonathon M

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an observational survey of safety belt use to determine the use rate of commercial versus noncommercial light-vehicle occupants. Observations were conducted on front-outboard vehicle occupants in eligible commercial and noncommercial vehicles in Michigan (i.e.. passenger cars, vans/minivans, sport-utility vehicles, and pickup trucks). Commercial vehicles that did not fit into one of the four vehicle type categories, such as tractor-trailers, buses, or heavy trucks, were not included in the survey. The study found that the restraint use rate for commercial light-vehicle occupants was 55.8% statewide. The statewide safety belt use rate for commercial light-vehicles was significantly lower than the rate of 71.2% for noncommercial light-vehicles. The safety belt use rate for commercial vehicles was also significantly different as a function of region, vehicle type, seating position, age group, and road type. The results provide important preliminary data about safety belt use in commercial versus noncommercial light-vehicles and indicate that further effort is needed to promote safety belt use in the commercial light-vehicle occupant population. The study also suggests that additional research is required in order to develop effective programs that address low safety belt use in the commercial light-vehicle occupant population.

  5. 75 FR 20372 - Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Advisory... in the fishing industry. This meeting will be open to the public. DATES: The Committee will meet on...

  6. Characterization of fish hold effluent discharged from commercial fishing vessels into harbor waters.

    PubMed

    Albert, Ryan J; McLaughlin, Christine; Falatko, Debra

    2014-10-15

    Fish hold effluent and the effluent produced from the cleaning of fish holds may contain organic material resulting from the degradation of seafood and cleaning products (e.g., soaps and detergents). This effluent is often discharged by vessels into near shore waters and, therefore, could have the potential to contribute to water pollution in bays and estuaries. We characterized effluent from commercial fishing vessels with holds containing refrigerated seawater, ice slurry, or chipped ice. Concentrations of trace heavy metals, wet chemistry parameters, and nutrients in effluent were compared to screening benchmarks to determine if there is a reasonable potential for effluent discharge to contribute to nonattainment of water quality standards. Most analytes (67%) exceeded their benchmark concentration and, therefore, may have the potential to pose risk to human health or the environment if discharges are in significant quantities or there are many vessels discharging in the same areas. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. 76 FR 67121 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... season for the Atlantic commercial shark fisheries. Quotas would be adjusted based on any over- and/or underharvests experienced during the 2010 and 2011 Atlantic commercial shark fishing seasons. In addition, NMFS...

  8. Job satisfaction of occupational physicians in commercial and other delivery settings: a comparative and explorative study.

    PubMed

    Plomp, Harmen Nico; van der Beek, Allard J

    2014-08-01

    Commercialization of occupational health services (OHS) and transition to a supplier market which started in 1995, has affected work and working conditions of occupational physicians (OPs) profoundly. OPs have lost influence on the organization of their work and managers took over control. This study explores the impact of commercialization on job satisfaction of occupational physicians. Data were collected through a questionnaire completed by 797 OPs, members of the Netherlands Association of Occupational Medicine (response: 45%). A range of work satisfiers and dissatisfiers measures was included that, according to the Social Action Approach, could explain the variation in job satisfaction. Stepwise multivariate regression analyses were performed to explore to what extent the differences in job satisfaction can be attributed to the characteristics of the setting, biographical variables, satisfiers and dissatisfiers. Occupational physicians in commercial settings had the lowest average score as regards job satisfaction (6.7) contrasting sharply with their colleagues in private practices (8.7) and in non-commercial settings (7.9). The variation in job satisfaction between delivery settings could largely be attributed to satisfiers and dissatisfiers. Biographical characteristics (age, gender) had no effect. The data suggested that not commercialization as such, but the ability of commercial OHS providers to integrate professional values was the crucial factor to bring about job satisfaction. The challenge for commercial OHS providers is to preserve the professional zeal in OPs by integrating professional values in their organization in order to improve the quality of the services and the attractiveness of the profession.

  9. Utility of a Work Process Classification System for characterizing non-fatal injuries in the Alaskan commercial fishing industry.

    PubMed

    Syron, Laura N; Lucas, Devin L; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Bethel, Jeffrey W; Kincl, Laurel D

    2016-01-01

    The US commercial fishing industry is hazardous, as measured by mortality data. However, research on non-fatal injuries is limited. Non-fatal injuries constitute the majority of occupational injuries and can result in workers' lowered productivity and wages, lost quality of life, and disability. In the United States, a Work Process Classification System (WPCS) has previously been applied in Alaskan freezer-trawl and freezer-longline fleets to identify causes of injuries and specific hazards, but not to other fishing fleets. This descriptive epidemiologic study aimed to explore the application and modification of the WPCS in multiple Alaskan fleets, characterize non-fatal occupational injuries in these fleets, and identify work processes that could be targeted for further investigation and future injury prevention efforts. Traumatic, non-fatal injuries on-board Alaskan commercial fishing vessels were identified through United States Coast Guard investigative reports. Characteristics of injuries, as well as worker characteristics, were analysed. Injuries were coded using the WPCS. We successfully utilized the WPCS to code non-fatal injury cases (n = 136). The most frequent main work processes associated with non-fatal injuries included: on-board trawlers, handling frozen fish and processing the catch; on-board vessels using pot/trap gear, handling the gear and shooting/setting the gear; on-board longliners, traffic on board and hauling the gear; and on-board processor vessels, processing the catch, other work with the catch, and handling frozen fish. The study confirmed that a WPCS can be applied to multiple Alaskan fleets to identify hazardous tasks. Hazards were unique for each vessel gear type. Future injury prevention efforts should target work processes associated with the most frequent and most severe injuries. Future studies should establish time estimates for work processes in order to determine risk estimates. Efforts to improve non-fatal injury reporting

  10. Utility of a Work Process Classification System for characterizing non-fatal injuries in the Alaskan commercial fishing industry.

    PubMed

    Syron, Laura N; Lucas, Devin L; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Bethel, Jeffrey W; Kincl, Laurel D

    2016-01-01

    Background The US commercial fishing industry is hazardous, as measured by mortality data. However, research on non-fatal injuries is limited. Non-fatal injuries constitute the majority of occupational injuries and can result in workers' lowered productivity and wages, lost quality of life, and disability. In the United States, a Work Process Classification System (WPCS) has previously been applied in Alaskan freezer-trawl and freezer-longline fleets to identify causes of injuries and specific hazards, but not to other fishing fleets. Objectives This descriptive epidemiologic study aimed to explore the application and modification of the WPCS in multiple Alaskan fleets, characterize non-fatal occupational injuries in these fleets, and identify work processes that could be targeted for further investigation and future injury prevention efforts. Design Traumatic, non-fatal injuries on-board Alaskan commercial fishing vessels were identified through United States Coast Guard investigative reports. Characteristics of injuries, as well as worker characteristics, were analysed. Injuries were coded using the WPCS. Results We successfully utilized the WPCS to code non-fatal injury cases (n = 136). The most frequent main work processes associated with non-fatal injuries included: on-board trawlers, handling frozen fish and processing the catch; on-board vessels using pot/trap gear, handling the gear and shooting/setting the gear; on-board longliners, traffic on board and hauling the gear; and on-board processor vessels, processing the catch, other work with the catch, and handling frozen fish. Conclusions The study confirmed that a WPCS can be applied to multiple Alaskan fleets to identify hazardous tasks. Hazards were unique for each vessel gear type. Future injury prevention efforts should target work processes associated with the most frequent and most severe injuries. Future studies should establish time estimates for work processes in order to determine risk estimates

  11. Utility of a Work Process Classification System for characterizing non-fatal injuries in the Alaskan commercial fishing industry

    PubMed Central

    Syron, Laura N.; Lucas, Devin L.; Bovbjerg, Viktor E.; Bethel, Jeffrey W.; Kincl, Laurel D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The US commercial fishing industry is hazardous, as measured by mortality data. However, research on non-fatal injuries is limited. Non-fatal injuries constitute the majority of occupational injuries and can result in workers’ lowered productivity and wages, lost quality of life, and disability. In the United States, a Work Process Classification System (WPCS) has previously been applied in Alaskan freezer-trawl and freezer-longline fleets to identify causes of injuries and specific hazards, but not to other fishing fleets. Objectives This descriptive epidemiologic study aimed to explore the application and modification of the WPCS in multiple Alaskan fleets, characterize non-fatal occupational injuries in these fleets, and identify work processes that could be targeted for further investigation and future injury prevention efforts. Design Traumatic, non-fatal injuries on-board Alaskan commercial fishing vessels were identified through United States Coast Guard investigative reports. Characteristics of injuries, as well as worker characteristics, were analysed. Injuries were coded using the WPCS. Results We successfully utilized the WPCS to code non-fatal injury cases (n = 136). The most frequent main work processes associated with non-fatal injuries included: on-board trawlers, handling frozen fish and processing the catch; on-board vessels using pot/trap gear, handling the gear and shooting/setting the gear; on-board longliners, traffic on board and hauling the gear; and on-board processor vessels, processing the catch, other work with the catch, and handling frozen fish. Conclusions The study confirmed that a WPCS can be applied to multiple Alaskan fleets to identify hazardous tasks. Hazards were unique for each vessel gear type. Future injury prevention efforts should target work processes associated with the most frequent and most severe injuries. Future studies should establish time estimates for work processes in order to determine risk

  12. Effects of Fishing and Fishing Closures on Beach Clams: Experimental Evaluation across Commercially Fished and Non-Fished Beaches before and during Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Management responses to reconcile declining fisheries typically include closed areas and times to fishing. This study evaluated this strategy for a beach clam fishery by testing the hypothesis that changes in the densities and size compositions of clams from before to during harvesting would differ between commercially fished and non-fished beaches. Sampling was spatially stratified across the swash and dry sand habitats on each of two commercially fished and two non-fished beaches, and temporally stratified across three six-week blocks: before, early and late harvesting. Small-scale spatio-temporal variability in the densities and sizes of clams was prevalent across both habitats and the components of variation were generally greatest at the lowest levels examined. Despite this, differences in the densities and sizes of clams among individual beaches were evident, but there were few significant differences across the commercially fished versus non-fished beaches from before to during harvesting. There was no evidence of reduced densities or truncated size compositions of clams on fished compared to non-fished beaches, contrasting reports of some other organisms in protected areas. This was probably due to a combination of factors, including the current levels of commercial harvests, the movements and other local-scale responses of clams to ecological processes acting independently across individual beaches. The results identify the difficulties in detecting fishing-related impacts against inherent levels of variability in clam populations. Nevertheless, continued experimental studies that test alternate management arrangements may help refine and determine the most suitable strategies for the sustainable harvesting of beach clams, ultimately enhancing the management of sandy beaches. PMID:26731102

  13. Effects of Fishing and Fishing Closures on Beach Clams: Experimental Evaluation across Commercially Fished and Non-Fished Beaches before and during Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Gray, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Management responses to reconcile declining fisheries typically include closed areas and times to fishing. This study evaluated this strategy for a beach clam fishery by testing the hypothesis that changes in the densities and size compositions of clams from before to during harvesting would differ between commercially fished and non-fished beaches. Sampling was spatially stratified across the swash and dry sand habitats on each of two commercially fished and two non-fished beaches, and temporally stratified across three six-week blocks: before, early and late harvesting. Small-scale spatio-temporal variability in the densities and sizes of clams was prevalent across both habitats and the components of variation were generally greatest at the lowest levels examined. Despite this, differences in the densities and sizes of clams among individual beaches were evident, but there were few significant differences across the commercially fished versus non-fished beaches from before to during harvesting. There was no evidence of reduced densities or truncated size compositions of clams on fished compared to non-fished beaches, contrasting reports of some other organisms in protected areas. This was probably due to a combination of factors, including the current levels of commercial harvests, the movements and other local-scale responses of clams to ecological processes acting independently across individual beaches. The results identify the difficulties in detecting fishing-related impacts against inherent levels of variability in clam populations. Nevertheless, continued experimental studies that test alternate management arrangements may help refine and determine the most suitable strategies for the sustainable harvesting of beach clams, ultimately enhancing the management of sandy beaches.

  14. Patterns of lake occupancy by fish indicate different adaptations to life in a harsh Arctic environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, Trevor B.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    Based on these patterns, we propose an overall model of primary controls on the distribution of fish on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Harsh conditions, including lake freezing, limit occupancy in winter through extinction events while lake occupancy in spring and summer is driven by directional migration (large-bodied species) and undirected dispersal (small-bodied species).

  15. 78 FR 36790 - Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... in maritime safety (one position); (c) a representative of education or training professionals.... applies; (3) education or training professionals related to fishing vessel, fish processing vessel, fish... race, color, religion, sex, national origin, political affiliation, sexual orientation, gender...

  16. Work related injuries in small scale commercial fishing

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, S; Kucera, K; Loomis, D; McDonald, M; Lipscomb, H

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the epidemiology of work related injury in a group of small scale, independent commercial fishers. Design: Cross sectional survey (baseline instrument of a prospective cohort study). Setting and subjects: Commercial fishers in eastern North Carolina. Results: A cohort of 219 commercial fishers was established and 215 subjects completed an injury questionnaire. The main types of fishing conducted by the cohort were finfishing (159/215) and crabbing (154/215). Of the 215 fishers, 83 reported that they had suffered an injury event in the previous 12 months, a retrospective recall incidence proportion of 38.6 per 100 workers (95% confidence interval 32.1 to 45.1). The 83 injury events resulted in 94 injuries; 47% were penetrating wounds and 24% were strains/sprains. Half of injuries were to the hand/wrist/digits and 13% were to the back. Of the penetrating wounds, 87% were to the hand/wrist/digits, 32% became infected, and 80% were caused by contact with finfish, shellfish, or other marine animal. Of the strains/sprains, 48% were to the back and 26% were to the shoulder. Seventy percent of strains/sprains were caused by moving heavy objects, mainly either while hauling in nets, pots, or lines or loading/unloading the boat. Conclusion: In this group of small scale, independent fishers, the most common reported injuries were penetrating wounds to the hand/wrist/digits from marine animals and strains/sprains to the back while moving heavy objects. PMID:15314048

  17. 75 FR 14609 - Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... persons representing the marine insurance industry. Each member serves for a term of three years. An... SECURITY Coast Guard Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast... on the Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Advisory Committee (CFIVSAC). The CFIVSAC...

  18. 50 CFR 18.24 - Taking incidental to commercial fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.24 Taking incidental to commercial fishing operations. Persons may take marine mammals incidental to commercial fishing operations... regulations issued by the Secretary of Commerce. However, any marine mammal taken as an incidental catch...

  19. A Global View of Large-Scale Commercial Fishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroodsma, D.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in big data processing and satellite technology, combined with the widespread adoption of Automatic Identification System (AIS) devices, now allow the monitoring of fishing activity at a global scale and in high resolution. We analyzed AIS data from more than 40,000 vessels from 2012-2015 to produce 0.1 degree global daily maps of apparent fishing effort. Vessels were matched to publically accessible fishing vessel registries and identified as fishing vessels through AIS Type 5 and Type 24 self-reported messages. Fishing vessels that broadcasted false locations in AIS data were excluded from the analysis. To model fishing pattern classification, a subset of fishing vessels were analyzed and specific movements were classified as "fishing" or "not fishing." A logistic regression model was fitted to these classifications using the following features: a vessel's average speed, the standard deviation of its speed, and the standard deviation of its course over a 12 hour time window. We then applied this model to the entire fishing vessel dataset and time normalized it to produce a global map of fishing hours. The resulting dataset allows for numerous new analyses. For instance, it can assist with monitoring apparent fishing activity in large pelagic marine protected areas and restricted gear use areas, or it can quantify how activity may be affected by seasonal or annual changes in biological productivity. This dataset is now published and freely available in Google's Earth Engine platform, available for researchers to answer a host of questions related to global fishing effort.

  20. Analysis of occupational injuries in the sea fishing industry according to the type of fishery and the fishing activity.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, Christine; Le Bouar, Gilbert; Lardjane, Salim

    2017-01-01

    Sea fishing is one of the most dangerous occupations. Numerous studies have already sought to evaluate the risk level of this occupation through the analysis of the frequency and seriousness of occupational injuries. The purpose of the present study is to analyse these accidents in terms of two main characteristics of the vessels involved: the fishery type (high seas, offshore, coastal, or inshore fishery) and the fishing activity (use of passive or active gears). Injury rates were calculated for the Brittany region and for the year 2012. A second analysis was carried out on 8,286 reported injuries that occurred in France from 2002 to 2012, while vessels were in the process of fishing. This first analysis shows that the incidence rate is very high (103 per 1,000 full-time equivalent fishermen) and that it depends more on the fishery type than on the fishing activity; the highest rates concern the offshore and the coastal fleets. Results of the second analysis show that the nature of accidents depends more on the fishing activity than on the type of fishery. These findings lead to a discussion of the causes of the highest incidence rate values and the causes of the observed variations. The discussion also involves the methodological difficulties related to the incidence rate calculations.

  1. 77 FR 16046 - Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... States Code, which includes uninspected fishing vessels, fish processing vessels, and fish tender vessels..., United States Code, Section 1603. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) does not discriminate in... orientation, gender identity, marital status, disability and genetic information, age, membership in an...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  4. 36 CFR 13.1134 - Who is eligible for a Glacier Bay commercial fishing lifetime access permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who is eligible for a Glacier... Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1134 Who is eligible for a Glacier Bay commercial fishing lifetime access permit? A Glacier Bay commercial fishing lifetime access...

  5. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  6. 36 CFR 13.1134 - Who is eligible for a Glacier Bay commercial fishing lifetime access permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who is eligible for a Glacier... Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1134 Who is eligible for a Glacier Bay commercial fishing lifetime access permit? A Glacier Bay commercial fishing lifetime access...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1134 - Who is eligible for a Glacier Bay commercial fishing lifetime access permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who is eligible for a Glacier... Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1134 Who is eligible for a Glacier Bay commercial fishing lifetime access permit? A Glacier Bay commercial fishing lifetime access...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1134 - Who is eligible for a Glacier Bay commercial fishing lifetime access permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who is eligible for a Glacier... Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1134 Who is eligible for a Glacier Bay commercial fishing lifetime access permit? A Glacier Bay commercial fishing lifetime access...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1134 - Who is eligible for a Glacier Bay commercial fishing lifetime access permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who is eligible for a Glacier... Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1134 Who is eligible for a Glacier Bay commercial fishing lifetime access permit? A Glacier Bay commercial fishing lifetime access...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and... Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? Yes—Commercial fishing is...

  12. Commercial fish species of inland waters: a model for sustainability assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Simić, Vladica M; Simić, Snežana B; Stojković Piperac, Milica; Petrović, Ana; Milošević, Djuradj

    2014-11-01

    The permanent increase in the exploitation of commercial fish species has led to the need for developing practical and effective tools for the sustainability assessment and management of the target fish populations. The aim of this study was to formulate an ESHIPPOfishing model which would provide a reliable assessment of commercial fish population sustainability and indicate the conservation priorities. The existing ESHIPPO model was modified by introducing a new Index of local sustainability of fish populations (ILSFP) which enables the selection of "keystone populations" and "keystone habitats/ecosystems" within the basin being investigated. We employed a self-organizing map (SOM) in order to visualize the spatial distribution of the keystone populations and keystone habitats/ecosystems for each fish species. Based on the ILSFP values, environmental specialization (ES) of a fish species and local environmental factors (HIPPO factors), the model estimates the degree of sustainability (DS) of commercial fish populations in the freshwater ecosystems of the western Balkan Peninsula. The results indicate a low degree of sustainability for the majority of commercial fish species of the Middle Danube Basin, especially Acipenser ruthenus and Hucho hucho. The ESHIPPOfishing model presents a cost effective conservation approach, formulated to be applicable to any kind of river basin. The application of the ESHIPPOfishing model provides a comprehensive insight into the viability of target fish populations, which would not only further improve the selection of conservation priorities, but also facilitate the management of aquatic ecosystems.

  13. [A study on occupational stress in commercial workers of a supermarket in Yinchuan].

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Zhu, Ling-qin; Liu, He-rong; Wang, Ling; Zhang, Zhen-xiang

    2004-05-01

    To study difference in occupational stress between men and women commercial workers in a supermarket in Yinchuan, Ningxia. Totally, 679 commercial workers in a supermarket were investigated with questionnaire of occupational stress indicator (OSI), matched on age, length of service, educational level, marital status and type of work. Score of occupational stress factors, relationships, home/work balance and organizational atmosphere in women commercial workers was 143.48, 30.86, 20.82 and 15.16, respectively, obviously higher than that in men, with 134.89, 28.61, 18.75 and 13.93, respectively. Score of psychological health and satisfaction in women was 39.86 and 14.82, respectively, lower than that in men, with 43.84 and 17.66, respectively, which indicate that occupational stress in women was more severe with a more stressful psychological reaction than in men. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the main predicting factor for job satisfaction was personal relationships in women, and organizational atmosphere, managerial role and workload in men. Those for psychological health was control strategy and organizational atmosphere in women, and organizational atmosphere and recognition in men, those for physical illness was workload in women and support strategy and physical exercises in men, and those for stress level was support strategy in women and coping strategy in men. Women commercial workers experienced much more stress, with more severe stress reaction in their work, than men did. The main factors affecting occupational stress reaction and level of stress in women and men were not quite similar.

  14. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... salmon or crab fisheries of Oregon, Washington, and Alaska, the construction of which is contracted for... apply to all commercial fishing vessels of not more than 500 gross tons used in the salmon or...

  15. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... salmon or crab fisheries of Oregon, Washington, and Alaska, the construction of which is contracted for... apply to all commercial fishing vessels of not more than 500 gross tons used in the salmon or...

  16. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... salmon or crab fisheries of Oregon, Washington, and Alaska, the construction of which is contracted for... apply to all commercial fishing vessels of not more than 500 gross tons used in the salmon or...

  17. Pyrosequencing as a tool for rapid fish species identification and commercial fraud detection.

    PubMed

    De Battisti, Cristian; Marciano, Sabrina; Magnabosco, Cristian; Busato, Sara; Arcangeli, Giuseppe; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2014-01-08

    The increased consumption of fish products, as well as the occurrence of exotic fish species in the Mediterranean Sea and in the fish market, has increased the risk of commercial fraud. Furthermore, the great amount of processed seafood products has greatly limited the application of classic identification systems. DNA-based identification allows a clear and unambiguous detection of polymorphisms between species, permitting differentiation and identification of both commercial fraud and introduction of species with potential toxic effects on humans. In this study, a novel DNA-based approach for differentiation of fish species based on pyrosequencing technology has been developed. Raw and processed fish products were tested, and up to 25 species of fish belonging to Clupeiformes and Pleuronectiformes groups were uniquely and rapidly identified. The proper identification based on short and unique genetic sequence signatures demonstrates that this approach is promising and cost-effective for large-scale surveys.

  18. 50 CFR 18.24 - Taking incidental to commercial fishing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Taking incidental to commercial fishing operations. 18.24 Section 18.24 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 18.24 Taking incidental...

  19. Life history change in commercially exploited fish stocks: an analysis of trends across studies

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Diana M T; Hendry, Andrew P

    2009-01-01

    Age and size at maturation have declined dramatically in many commercial fish stocks over the past few decades – changes that have been widely attributed to fishing pressure. We performed an analysis of such trends across multiple studies, to test for the consistency of life history changes under fishing, and for their association with the intensity of exploitation (fishing mortality rate). We analyzed 143 time series from 37 commercial fish stocks, the majority of which originated from the North Atlantic. Rates of phenotypic change were calculated for two traditional maturation indices (length and age at 50% maturity), as well as for probabilistic maturation reaction norms (PMRNs). We found that all three indices declined in heavily exploited populations, and at a rate that was strongly correlated with the intensity of fishing (for length at 50% maturity and PMRNs). These results support previous assertions that fishing pressure is playing a major role in the life history changes observed in commercial fish stocks. Rates of change were as strong for PMRNs as for age and size at 50% maturity, which is consistent with the hypothesis that fishing-induced phenotypic changes can sometimes have a genetic basis. PMID:25567879

  20. Toxic heavy metals in commercially important food fishes collected from Palk Bay, Southeastern India.

    PubMed

    Arulkumar, Abimannan; Paramasivam, Sadayan; Rajaram, Rajendran

    2017-06-15

    Toxic heavy metals are an important group of emerging chemical contaminants in seafood. Heavy metal concentrations in commercially important and most commonly eaten 10 fish species from Thondi fish landing, southeast coast of India, were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations of heavy metals significantly varied within and between the investigated fish species (P<0.05). The results of this study showed best significant correlations among the toxic heavy metals in the fish samples. It was revealed that Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn metals were present in the fish samples at various levels. The residual levels of toxic heavy metals were less than the permissible levels specified for human consumption by the European Union, Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization guidelines. Therefore, the fish species found in the Thondi fish landing and their fishery products can be considered safe for human consumption and can be exported worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mineral element contents in commercially valuable fish species in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Ana; Peña-Rivas, Luis; Ortega, Eduardo; López-Martínez, Concepción; Olea-Serrano, Fátima; Lorenzo, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure selected metal concentrations in Trachurus trachurus, Trachurus picturatus, and Trachurus mediterraneus, which are widely consumed in Spain. Principal component analysis suggested that the variable Cr was the main responsible variable for the identification of T. trachurus, the variables As and Sn for T. mediterraneus, and the rest of variables for T. picturatus. This well-defined discrimination between fish species provided by mineral element allows us to distinguish them on the basis of their metal content. Based on the samples collected, and recognizing the inferential limitation of the sample size of this study, the metal concentrations found are below the proposed limit values for human consumption. However, it should be taken into consideration that there are other dietary sources of these metals. In conclusion, metal contents in the fish species analyzed are acceptable for human consumption from a nutritional and toxicity point of view.

  2. Mineral Element Contents in Commercially Valuable Fish Species in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Rivas, Luis; Ortega, Eduardo; López-Martínez, Concepción; Olea-Serrano, Fátima; Lorenzo, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure selected metal concentrations in Trachurus trachurus, Trachurus picturatus, and Trachurus mediterraneus, which are widely consumed in Spain. Principal component analysis suggested that the variable Cr was the main responsible variable for the identification of T. trachurus, the variables As and Sn for T. mediterraneus, and the rest of variables for T. picturatus. This well-defined discrimination between fish species provided by mineral element allows us to distinguish them on the basis of their metal content. Based on the samples collected, and recognizing the inferential limitation of the sample size of this study, the metal concentrations found are below the proposed limit values for human consumption. However, it should be taken into consideration that there are other dietary sources of these metals. In conclusion, metal contents in the fish species analyzed are acceptable for human consumption from a nutritional and toxicity point of view. PMID:24895678

  3. Quantitative estimate of commercial fish enhancement by seagrass habitat in southern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blandon, Abigayil; zu Ermgassen, Philine S. E.

    2014-03-01

    Seagrass provides many ecosystem services that are of considerable value to humans, including the provision of nursery habitat for commercial fish stock. Yet few studies have sought to quantify these benefits. As seagrass habitat continues to suffer a high rate of loss globally and with the growing emphasis on compensatory restoration, valuation of the ecosystem services associated with seagrass habitat is increasingly important. We undertook a meta-analysis of juvenile fish abundance at seagrass and control sites to derive a quantitative estimate of the enhancement of juvenile fish by seagrass habitats in southern Australia. Thirteen fish of commercial importance were identified as being recruitment enhanced in seagrass habitat, twelve of which were associated with sufficient life history data to allow for estimation of total biomass enhancement. We applied von Bertalanffy growth models and species-specific mortality rates to the determined values of juvenile enhancement to estimate the contribution of seagrass to commercial fish biomass. The identified species were enhanced in seagrass by 0.98 kg m-2 y-1, equivalent to ˜$A230,000 ha-1 y-1. These values represent the stock enhancement where all fish species are present, as opposed to realized catches. Having accounted for the time lag between fish recruiting to a seagrass site and entering the fishery and for a 3% annual discount rate, we find that seagrass restoration efforts costing $A10,000 ha-1 have a potential payback time of less than five years, and that restoration costing $A629,000 ha-1 can be justified on the basis of enhanced commercial fish recruitment where these twelve fish species are present.

  4. The use of satellite observations of the ocean surface in commercial fishing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    Commercial fishermen are interested in the safety of their crews, boats, and gear, and in making the best catch for their time and money. Rising fuel costs, increased competition from foreign fisheries, improved knowledge about fish habits and the new 200 mile economic zone have all had an impact on the U.S. fishing industry. As a consequence, the modern fisherman, more than ever, requires reliable and timely information about the marine environment. This paper describes an experimental program to utilize satellite observations of the ocean surface, in conjunction with conventional observations and products, to prepare special fisheries aids charts for daily radio facsimile broadcasts to commercial fishermen. These special fisheries products aggregate a broad set of ocean observations, including ocean color structure, to depict oceanographic conditions of importance to commercial fishing tactics. Results to date have shown that improved safety at sea and decreased fuel costs can be achieved through the applied use of these special fisheries charts.

  5. The use of satellite observations of the ocean surface in commercial fishing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    Commercial fishermen are interested in the safety of their crews, boats, and gear, and in making the best catch for their time and money. Rising fuel costs, increased competition from foreign fisheries, improved knowledge about fish habits and the new 200 mile economic zone have all had an impact on the U.S. fishing industry. As a consequence, the modern fisherman, more than ever, requires reliable and timely information about the marine environment. This paper describes an experimental program to utilize satellite observations of the ocean surface, in conjunction with conventional observations and products, to prepare special fisheries aids charts for daily radio facsimile broadcasts to commercial fishermen. These special fisheries products aggregate a broad set of ocean observations, including ocean color structure, to depict oceanographic conditions of importance to commercial fishing tactics. Results to date have shown that improved safety at sea and decreased fuel costs can be achieved through the applied use of these special fisheries charts.

  6. Tuna fish diet influences cat behavior. [Elevated levels of selenium and mercury in commercial tuna fish cat food

    SciTech Connect

    Houpt, K.A.; Essick, L.A.; Shaw, E.B.; Alo, D.K.; Gilmartin, J.E.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    When observed in their home cages, cats fed commercial tuna fish cat food were less active, vocalized less, and spent more time on the floor and more time eating than cats fed commercial beef cat food. There were no differences in response to human handling between the two groups. There were no differences in learning ability on a two-choice point maze or in reversal learning in the same maze between beef- and tuna-fed cats. The behavior of the groups differed in a 15-min open field test only in the number of toys contacted. Cats fed the tuna had elevated tissue levels of mercury and selenium.

  7. Exploring Spatiotemporal Trends in Commercial Fishing Effort of an Abalone Fishing Zone: A GIS-Based Hotspot Model

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, M. Ali; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Gorfine, Harry; Monk, Jacquomo; Rattray, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Assessing patterns of fisheries activity at a scale related to resource exploitation has received particular attention in recent times. However, acquiring data about the distribution and spatiotemporal allocation of catch and fishing effort in small scale benthic fisheries remains challenging. Here, we used GIS-based spatio-statistical models to investigate the footprint of commercial diving events on blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) stocks along the south-west coast of Victoria, Australia from 2008 to 2011. Using abalone catch data matched with GPS location we found catch per unit of fishing effort (CPUE) was not uniformly spatially and temporally distributed across the study area. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal clusters of CPUE (with distance thresholds of 100’s of meters) among years, indicating the presence of CPUE hotspots focused on specific reefs. Cumulative hotspot maps indicated that certain reef complexes were consistently targeted across years but with varying intensity, however often a relatively small proportion of the full reef extent was targeted. Integrating CPUE with remotely-sensed light detection and ranging (LiDAR) derived bathymetry data using generalized additive mixed model corroborated that fishing pressure primarily coincided with shallow, rugose and complex components of reef structures. This study demonstrates that a geospatial approach is efficient in detecting patterns and trends in commercial fishing effort and its association with seafloor characteristics. PMID:25992800

  8. Exploring Spatiotemporal Trends in Commercial Fishing Effort of an Abalone Fishing Zone: A GIS-Based Hotspot Model.

    PubMed

    Jalali, M Ali; Ierodiaconou, Daniel; Gorfine, Harry; Monk, Jacquomo; Rattray, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Assessing patterns of fisheries activity at a scale related to resource exploitation has received particular attention in recent times. However, acquiring data about the distribution and spatiotemporal allocation of catch and fishing effort in small scale benthic fisheries remains challenging. Here, we used GIS-based spatio-statistical models to investigate the footprint of commercial diving events on blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra) stocks along the south-west coast of Victoria, Australia from 2008 to 2011. Using abalone catch data matched with GPS location we found catch per unit of fishing effort (CPUE) was not uniformly spatially and temporally distributed across the study area. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal clusters of CPUE (with distance thresholds of 100's of meters) among years, indicating the presence of CPUE hotspots focused on specific reefs. Cumulative hotspot maps indicated that certain reef complexes were consistently targeted across years but with varying intensity, however often a relatively small proportion of the full reef extent was targeted. Integrating CPUE with remotely-sensed light detection and ranging (LiDAR) derived bathymetry data using generalized additive mixed model corroborated that fishing pressure primarily coincided with shallow, rugose and complex components of reef structures. This study demonstrates that a geospatial approach is efficient in detecting patterns and trends in commercial fishing effort and its association with seafloor characteristics.

  9. Induction of vitellogenin production in male tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) by commercial fish diets.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lori K; Fox, Bradley K; Lim, Chhorn; Hiramatsu, Naoshi; Sullivan, Craig V; Hirano, Tetsuya; Grau, E Gordon

    2009-10-01

    Mozambique tilapia, (Oreochromis mossambicus), are a euryhaline teleost and an important biological model species. Captive male tilapia frequently have high levels of the estrogen-induced yolk precursor protein vitellogenin (Vg), a common indicator of exposure to estrogenic compounds. Sex steroids are found in commercial fish diets, but relatively few studies have examined the relationship between commercial diets and Vg production. In a fasting experiment to ascertain a dietary role in male Vg production, plasma Vg was reduced to negligible levels after 2 weeks of fasting, while no change in estrogen receptor (ER) expression was seen. When male tilapia were fed a squid-based diet that replaced the commercial trout diet, plasma Vg was reduced to undetectable levels over 40 days, concomitant with significant reductions in hepatic expression of Vgs A, B, and C, and ERbeta, compared with control fish fed commercial trout diet. Female tilapia fed the squid-based for 20 days had no change in these parameters. When male tilapia were fed a defined, soy-based diet, plasma Vg reduced to 20% of levels in fish given either commercial trout diet or a defined, fishmeal-based diet. Overall, results from these studies suggest that estrogens in a commercial trout diet induce vitellogenin production by increasing expression of Vg, but not ER genes in male tilapia.

  10. Total mercury levels in commercial fish species from Italian fishery and aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Di Lena, Gabriella; Casini, Irene; Caproni, Roberto; Fusari, Andrea; Orban, Elena

    2017-06-01

    Total mercury levels were measured in 42 commercial fish species caught off the Central Adriatic and Tyrrhenian coasts of Italy and in 6 aquaculture species. The study on wild fish covered species differing in living habitat and trophic level. The study on farmed fish covered marine and freshwater species from intensive and extensive aquaculture and their feed. Mercury levels were analysed by thermal decomposition-amalgamation-atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total mercury concentrations in the muscle of wild fish showed a high variability among species (0.025-2.20 mg kg(-1) wet weight). The lowest levels were detected in low trophic-level demersal and pelagic-neritic fish and in young individuals of high trophic-level species. Levels exceeding the European Commission limits were found in large-size specimens of high trophic-level pelagic and demersal species. Fish from intensive farming showed low levels of total mercury (0.008-0.251 mg kg(-1)). Fish from extensive rearing showed variable contamination levels, depending on the area of provenience. An estimation of the human intake of mercury associated to the consumption of the studied fish and its comparison with the tolerable weekly intake is provided.

  11. 76 FR 26705 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Commercial Fishing Vessel Cost and Earnings...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Commerce, to make informed decisions about the expected economic effects of proposed management...; Commercial Fishing Vessel Cost and Earnings Data Collection Survey in the Northeast Region AGENCY: National... legislative requirements of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the...

  12. 77 FR 45268 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Plan AGENCY: National Marine... Dolphin Take Reduction Plan (BDTRP) and its implementing regulations by permanently continuing nighttime... November 1 through April 30. Members of the Bottlenose Dolphin Take Reduction Team (Team) recommended...

  13. 75 FR 29984 - Taking of Threatened or Endangered Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... North Pacific (CNP) stock of endangered humpback whales by the Hawaii-based longline fisheries (deep-set... humpback whales incidental to commercial fishing will have a negligible impact on the CNP stock of humpback whales, that a recovery plan has been developed, that a monitoring program is established, that...

  14. Evaluation of commercial skin prick test solutions for selected occupational allergens.

    PubMed

    van Kampen, V; de Blay, F; Folletti, I; Kobierski, P; Moscato, G; Olivieri, M; Quirce, S; Sastre, J; Walusiak-Skorupa, J; Kotschy-Lang, N; Müsken, H; Mahler, V; Schliemann, S; Ochmann, U; Sültz, J; Worm, M; Sander, I; Zahradnik, E; Brüning, T; Merget, R; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    2013-01-01

    Skin prick testing (SPT) is an important step in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated occupational allergic diseases. The outcome of SPT is related to the quality of allergen extracts. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess different commercially available SPT solutions for selected occupational allergens. SPT was performed in 116 bakers, 47 farmers and 33 subjects exposed to natural rubber latex (NRL), all with work-related allergic symptoms. The SPT solutions from different manufacturers (n = 3-5) for wheat flour, rye flour, soy, cow hair/dander, storage mites (Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Acarus siro) and NRL were analysed with respect to their protein and antigen contents. SPT was carried out in 16 allergy centres in six European countries using standardized procedures. Specific IgE values were used as the gold standard to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of SPT solutions. The optimal cut-point for each SPT solution was determined by Youden Index. Protein and antigen contents and patterns of the SPT solutions varied remarkably depending on the manufacturer. While SPT solutions for wheat flour and soy reached overall low sensitivities, sensitivities of other tested SPT solutions depended on the manufacturer. As a rule, solutions with higher protein and antigen content showed higher sensitivities and test efficiencies. There is a wide variability of SPT solutions for occupational allergens, and the sensitivity of several solutions is low. Thus, improvement and standardization of SPT solutions for occupational allergens is essential. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Rapidly shifting maturation schedules following reduced commercial harvest in a freshwater fish

    PubMed Central

    Feiner, Zachary S; Chong, Stephen C; Knight, Carey T; Lauer, Thomas E; Thomas, Michael V; Tyson, Jeffrey T; Höök, Tomas O

    2015-01-01

    Size-selective harvest of fish stocks can lead to maturation at smaller sizes and younger ages, which may depress stock productivity and recovery. Such changes in maturation may be very slow to reverse, even following complete fisheries closures. We evaluated temporal trends in maturation of five Great Lakes stocks of yellow perch (Perca flavescens Mitchill) using indices that attempt to disentangle plastic and evolutionary changes in maturation: age at 50% maturity and probabilistic maturation reaction norms (PMRNs). Four populations were fished commercially throughout the time series, while the Lake Michigan fishery was closed following a stock collapse. We documented rapid increases in PMRNs of the Lake Michigan stock coincident with the commercial fishery closure. Saginaw Bay and Lake Huron PMRNs also increased following reduced harvest, while Lake Erie populations were continuously fished and showed little change. The rapid response of maturation may have been enhanced by the short generation time of yellow perch and potential gene flow between northern and southern Lake Michigan, in addition to potential reverse adaptation following the fishing moratorium. These results suggest that some fish stocks may retain the ability to recover from fisheries-induced life history shifts following fishing moratoria. PMID:26240608

  16. 36 CFR 13.1142 - Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application? 13.1142 Section 13.1142 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1142 Can I appeal denial of...

  17. 36 CFR 13.1142 - Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application? 13.1142 Section 13.1142 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1142 Can I appeal denial of...

  18. 36 CFR 13.1142 - Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application? 13.1142 Section 13.1142 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1142 Can I appeal denial of...

  19. 36 CFR 13.1142 - Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application? 13.1142 Section 13.1142 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1142 Can I appeal denial of...

  20. 36 CFR 13.1142 - Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application? 13.1142 Section 13.1142 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1142 Can I appeal denial of...

  1. Identification of unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs) of hydrocarbons in commercial fish oil supplements.

    PubMed

    Reid, Anna-Jean M; Budge, Suzanne M

    2015-01-01

    Heightened awareness of the health benefits of fish oil consumption has led to a great increase in the number of fish oil supplements available to the consumer. Therefore manufacturers are continually looking for ways to distinguish their products from those of competitors. Minimally refined or virgin fish oils provide a unique feature; however, petroleum hydrocarbon contamination from oil spills is a reality in the world's oceans. The question arises whether oil produced from fish species caught in these polluted areas is free of petroleum hydrocarbons, with particular interest in unresolved complex mixtures (UCMs). This study investigates the presence of UCMs in commercially available fish oil supplements advertised as being virgin, as well as refined. Weathered petroleum hydrocarbons in the form of a UCM were found at 523 µg g(-1) in a virgin Alaskan salmon oil supplement. Supplements that were refined were free of this contamination. Fish used in the production of fish oil supplements appear to have accumulated petrogenic hydrocarbons in their tissues which were not removed by minimal oil refining. Further study is required to determine if there are any health implications associated with long-term consumption of these contaminated supplements. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Effect of processing conditions on trace elements in fish roe from six commercial new zealand fish species.

    PubMed

    Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Morton, James D; Dawson, Chris O

    2008-06-25

    The concentrations of trace elements in fish roes and the effect of processing conditions (karasumi-like or karashi mentaiko) were investigated in six commercial fish species from New Zealand. The studied elements were As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn, and the roes were from the following species: chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), hoki ( Macruronus novaezelandiae), southern blue whiting ( Micromesistius australis), hake ( Merluccius australis), blue warehou ( Seriolella brama), and barracouta ( Thyrsites atun). The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb in the roes were lower than literature values for fish muscles. Only Zn in barracouta roe and Cu in salmon roe and their products were relatively higher than the generally accepted levels in fish muscles and could be of safety concern. Hence, the consumption of barracouta and salmon roes among certain parts of the population needs to be monitored and assessed. Dry salting (karasumi-like) processing increased ( P < 0.001) the concentrations of the studied trace elements while salting fermentation (karashi mentaiko) processing tended to decrease the levels of trace elements. Fermentation may be a useful process to decrease the level of toxic trace elements.

  3. Ecology and genetic structure of zoonotic Anisakis spp. from adriatic commercial fish species.

    PubMed

    Mladineo, Ivona; Poljak, Vedran

    2014-02-01

    Consumption of raw or thermally inadequately treated fishery products represents a public health risk, with the possibility of propagation of live Anisakis larvae, the causative agent of the zoonotic disease anisakidosis, or anisakiasis. We investigated the population dynamics of Anisakis spp. in commercially important fish-anchovies (Anisakis), sardines (Sardina pilchardus), European hake (Merluccius merluccius), whiting (Merlangius merlangus), chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), and Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus)-captured in the main Adriatic Sea fishing ground. We observed a significant difference in the numbers of parasite larvae (1 to 32) in individual hosts and between species, with most fish showing high or very high Anisakis population indices. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that commercial fish in the Adriatic Sea are parasitized by Anisakis pegreffii (95.95%) and Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (4.05%). The genetic structure of A. pegreffii in demersal, pelagic, and top predator hosts was unstructured, and the highest frequency of haplotype sharing (n = 10) was between demersal and pelagic fish.

  4. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Zytoon, Mohamed A.; Basahel, Abdulrahman M.

    2017-01-01

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels. PMID:28245578

  5. Occupational Safety and Health Conditions Aboard Small- and Medium-Size Fishing Vessels: Differences among Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Zytoon, Mohamed A; Basahel, Abdulrahman M

    2017-02-24

    Although marine fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations, research on the occupational safety and health (OSH) conditions aboard marine fishing vessels is scarce. For instance, little is known about the working conditions of vulnerable groups such as young and aging fishermen. The objective of the current paper is to study the OSH conditions of young and aging fishermen compared to middle-aged fishermen in the small- and medium-size (SM) marine fishing sector. A cross-sectional study was designed, and 686 fishermen working aboard SM fishing vessels were interviewed to collect information about their safety and health. The associations of physical and psychosocial work conditions with safety and health outcomes, e.g., injuries, illnesses and job satisfaction, are presented. The results of the current study can be utilized in the design of effective accident prevention and OSH training programs for the three age groups and in the regulation of working conditions aboard fishing vessels.

  6. Late winter larval fish assemblage in the southern East China Sea, with emphasis on spatial relations between mesopelagic and commercial pelagic fish larvae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassa, Chiyuki; Konishi, Yoshinobu

    2015-10-01

    We examined larval fish assemblages in the southern East China Sea during late winter where large spawning grounds of several commercial pelagic fishes are formed. Our samples include a total of 187 species or taxa of larval fish belonging to 118 genera, 96 families, and 18 orders. Mesopelagic fish larvae, mainly Stomiiformes, Aulopiformes, and Myctophiformes, accounted for 66.5% of the total catch, while commercial species such as Trachurus japonicus, Scomber spp., and Trichiurus japonicus for 16.6%. Based on the species composition, three assemblages were recognized: Kuroshio (KUR), Shelf-Break (BRE), and Shelf (SHE) assemblages. KUR assemblage was mainly characterized by various mesopelagic fishes such as Sigmops gracilis, Diaphus spp., and Myctophum asperum, BRE assemblage by both commercial pelagic and mesopelagic species, SHE assemblage by demersal species such as Lepidotrigla spp. and Gobiidae spp. Both abundance and diversity were highest in KUR assemblage, although food availability for the larvae would be poorest. The combination of variables of sea surface temperature-chlorophyll a concentrations best explained the larval distribution. Except for Benthosema pterotum, the center of distribution of mesopelagic fish larvae was clearly separated from that of the commercial species by the Kuroshio front. However, a northward intrusion of the Kuroshio transported mesopelagic fish larvae onto the shelf, forming the BRE assemblage. Competition for prey between mesopelagic and commercial pelagic fish larvae would potentially occur if the intrusion is strong.

  7. When local extinction and colonization of river fishes can be predicted by regional occupancy: the role of spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Bergerot, Benjamin; Hugueny, Bernard; Belliard, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    Predicting which species are likely to go extinct is perhaps one of the most fundamental yet challenging tasks for conservation biologists. This is particularly relevant for freshwater ecosystems which tend to have the highest proportion of species threatened with extinction. According to metapopulation theories, local extinction and colonization rates of freshwater subpopulations can depend on the degree of regional occupancy, notably due to rescue effects. However, relationships between extinction, colonization, regional occupancy and the spatial scales at which they operate are currently poorly known. And Findings: We used a large dataset of freshwater fish annual censuses in 325 stream reaches to analyse how annual extinction/colonization rates of subpopulations depend on the regional occupancy of species. For this purpose, we modelled the regional occupancy of 34 fish species over the whole French river network and we tested how extinction/colonization rates could be predicted by regional occupancy described at five nested spatial scales. Results show that extinction and colonization rates depend on regional occupancy, revealing existence a rescue effect. We also find that these effects are scale dependent and their absolute contribution to colonization and extinction tends to decrease from river section to larger basin scales. In terms of management, we show that regional occupancy quantification allows the evaluation of local species extinction/colonization dynamics and reduction of local extinction risks for freshwater fish species implies the preservation of suitable habitats at both local and drainage basin scales.

  8. Distribution of isopod parasites in commercially important marine fishes of the Miri coast, East Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Anand Kumar, A; Rameshkumar, G; Ravichandran, S; Nagarajan, R; Prabakaran, K; Ramesh, M

    2017-03-01

    Isopods occur very commonly as parasites in food fishes. Parasitic isopods are typically marine and usually inhabit the warmer seas. They are blood-feeding; several species settle in the buccal cavity of fish, others live in the gill chamber or on the body surface including the fins. Isopods can cause morbidity and mortality in captive fish populations. The infestation usually pressure atrophy often accompanies the presence of larger parasites. The present study was aimed at collecting information on the neglected group of isopod parasites of the marine fishes from the Miri coastal environment, East Malaysia. A very little information available regarding the distribution of isopod parasites of Malaysian coastal environment. In the present study, nine isopod parasites were  oberved from ten marine fish species. The maximum number of parasites were observed in the months of June and October, 2013. Maximum prevalence was observed in October (50 %) and the minimum was observed in June (7.14 %). The parasitic infestation may lead to an economic loss in commercial fish species.

  9. Occurrence and Intensity of Anisakid Nematode Larvae in Some Commercially Important Fish Species in Persian Gulf

    PubMed Central

    DADAR, Maryam; ALBORZI, Alireza; PEYGHAN, Rahim; ADEL, Milad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anisakid nematodes are common parasites of fish, mammals, fish-eating birds, and reptiles with a worldwide distribution, causing diseases in human, fish and important economic losses. Methods: A preliminary epidemiological study was carried out on Anisakid nematodes larvae in some commercially important fish species to evaluate the anisakid nematode larvae from greater lizardfish, (Saurida tumbil), Japanese thread fin bream (Nemipterus japonicus), crocodile longtom (Tylosurus crocodilus crocodiles) and longfin trevally (Carangoides armatus) from the Persian Gulf of Iran. Results: The collected larvae were identified mainly as the third larval stage (L3) of Hysterothylacium larval type A, B and C, Anisakis sp., Raphidascaris sp., Pseudoterranova sp. and Philometra sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae). The prevalence of Anisakid larvae infection of examined fishes was 97.2% in N. japonicus, 90.3% in S. tumbil, 20.5% in crocodile longtom and 5.5% in longfin trevally. Anisakis type III for the first time was different from Anisakis type I and Anisakis type II. Discussion: Zoonotic anisakids by high prevalence in edible fish could be a health hazard for people. So health practices should be considered in these areas. PMID:28096859

  10. Ecology and Genetic Structure of Zoonotic Anisakis spp. from Adriatic Commercial Fish Species

    PubMed Central

    Poljak, Vedran

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of raw or thermally inadequately treated fishery products represents a public health risk, with the possibility of propagation of live Anisakis larvae, the causative agent of the zoonotic disease anisakidosis, or anisakiasis. We investigated the population dynamics of Anisakis spp. in commercially important fish—anchovies (Anisakis), sardines (Sardina pilchardus), European hake (Merluccius merluccius), whiting (Merlangius merlangus), chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), and Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus)—captured in the main Adriatic Sea fishing ground. We observed a significant difference in the numbers of parasite larvae (1 to 32) in individual hosts and between species, with most fish showing high or very high Anisakis population indices. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that commercial fish in the Adriatic Sea are parasitized by Anisakis pegreffii (95.95%) and Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (4.05%). The genetic structure of A. pegreffii in demersal, pelagic, and top predator hosts was unstructured, and the highest frequency of haplotype sharing (n = 10) was between demersal and pelagic fish. PMID:24317085

  11. Mercury content in commercial pelagic fish and its risk assessment in the Western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kojadinovic, Jessica; Potier, Michel; Le Corre, Matthieu; Cosson, Richard P; Bustamante, Paco

    2006-08-01

    As top predators of pelagic food webs, large fish naturally bioaccumulate mercury (Hg). Determining Hg burdens in commercialized fish is essential considering the concern about effects of contaminants on human health and the legal thresholds that are therefore set for local consumption and/or exportation. Total Hg levels were measured in the muscular tissue of 183 fish of five commercially important species from the tropical zone of the Western Indian Ocean. All individuals were measured and sexed in order to study the impregnation of Hg with size and sex within each species. Values of Hg found in this part of the Indian Ocean were comparable to Hg in muscular tissue of the same species studied in other areas. The highest Hg levels were noted in Swordfish (Xiphias gladius) caught in waters surrounding Reunion Island (3.97+/-2.67 microg g(-1) dry weight). Following the Swordfish, in decreasing order of Hg content, were the Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus albacares) and the Skipjack (Katsuwonus pelamis), then the Common Dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) and the Wahoo (Acanthocybium solandri). In the North of the Mozambique Channel, Swordfish had higher Hg levels than Yellowfin Tunas, and Dolphinfish exhibited intermediate Hg levels. The size of a fish was a determining factor of its Hg burden, as was the species. Differences in size-normalized Hg levels were observed between the two study zones for Swordfish and Common Dolphinfish. Sex, in contrast, did not influence Hg levels suggesting that females and males have similar feeding habits. The muscular Hg levels presented here suggest that consumers of fish originating from the Western Indian Ocean should limit themselves to one Swordfish based meal per week, or one fish meal a day if they choose to eat tuna or Common Dolphinfish.

  12. Not just a fisherman's wife: Women's contribution to health and wellbeing in commercial fishing.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Sue; King, Tanya J; Willis, Karen

    2015-04-01

    To explore the role of women in fishing industry organisations and communities in promoting best-practice health behaviours among fishers in Australia. This paper reports aspects of research that examined how the fishing industry can best support physical health and mental well-being of fishers. The study employed a mixed-methods, multisite case study approach. Data were gathered from face-to-face and phone interactions. Two sites in Victoria and one in Western Australia. Thirty-one male fishers, including commercial licence owners, skippers, deckhands, three female family members, three fishing association representatives, one local government representative, two health care providers, and three regional health planning and funding bodies. Not applicable. Not applicable. Often unrecognised, women associated with the fishing industry are integral to the promotion of good health for fishers. They are key to identifying health issues (particularly mental health issues) and proposing community-based health and well-being strategies. They often do so by incorporating health information and activities into 'soft entry points' - informal, non-health service mechanisms by which fishers can access health information and health services. While not working at the industry coalface, women have a stake, and are key players, in the commercial fishing industry. Their knowledge of, and credibility within, fishing enterprises makes them valuable sources of information about health issues facing the industry and effective strategies to address them. This expertise should be applied in conjunction with industry associations and health providers to achieve better health outcomes for fishers and their families. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  13. Occupational Exposure to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes During Commercial Production Synthesis and Handling

    PubMed Central

    Kuijpers, Eelco; Bekker, Cindy; Fransman, Wouter; Brouwer, Derk; Tromp, Peter; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Godderis, Lode; Hoet, Peter; Lan, Qing; Silverman, Debra; Vermeulen, Roel; Pronk, Anjoeka

    2016-01-01

    The world-wide production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has increased substantially in the last decade, leading to occupational exposures. There is a paucity of exposure data of workers involved in the commercial production of CNTs. The goals of this study were to assess personal exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) during the synthesis and handling of MWCNTs in a commercial production facility and to link these exposure levels to specific activities. Personal full-shift filter-based samples were collected, during commercial production and handling of MWCNTs, R&D activities, and office work. The concentrations of MWCNT were evaluated on the basis of EC concentrations. Associations were studied between observed MWCNT exposure levels and location and activities. SEM analyses showed MWCNTs, present as agglomerates ranging between 200nm and 100 µm. Exposure levels of MWCNTs observed in the production area during the full scale synthesis of MWCNTs (N = 23) were comparable to levels observed during further handling of MWCNTs (N = 19): (GM (95% lower confidence limit–95% upper confidence limit)) 41 μg m−3 (20–88) versus 43 μg m−3 (22–86), respectively. In the R&D area (N = 11) and the office (N = 5), exposure levels of MWCNTs were significantly (P < 0.05) lower: 5 μg m−3 (2–11) and 7 μg m−3 (2–28), respectively. Bagging, maintenance of the reactor, and powder conditioning were associated with higher exposure levels in the production area, whereas increased exposure levels in the R&D area were related to handling of MWCNTs powder. PMID:26613611

  14. Occupational Exposure to Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes During Commercial Production Synthesis and Handling.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, Eelco; Bekker, Cindy; Fransman, Wouter; Brouwer, Derk; Tromp, Peter; Vlaanderen, Jelle; Godderis, Lode; Hoet, Peter; Lan, Qing; Silverman, Debra; Vermeulen, Roel; Pronk, Anjoeka

    2016-04-01

    The world-wide production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has increased substantially in the last decade, leading to occupational exposures. There is a paucity of exposure data of workers involved in the commercial production of CNTs. The goals of this study were to assess personal exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) during the synthesis and handling of MWCNTs in a commercial production facility and to link these exposure levels to specific activities. Personal full-shift filter-based samples were collected, during commercial production and handling of MWCNTs, R&D activities, and office work. The concentrations of MWCNT were evaluated on the basis of EC concentrations. Associations were studied between observed MWCNT exposure levels and location and activities. SEM analyses showed MWCNTs, present as agglomerates ranging between 200 nm and 100 µm. Exposure levels of MWCNTs observed in the production area during the full scale synthesis of MWCNTs (N = 23) were comparable to levels observed during further handling of MWCNTs (N = 19): (GM (95% lower confidence limit-95% upper confidence limit)) 41 μg m(-3) (20-88) versus 43 μg m(-3) (22-86), respectively. In the R&D area (N = 11) and the office (N = 5), exposure levels of MWCNTs were significantly (P < 0.05) lower: 5 μg m(-3) (2-11) and 7 μg m(-3) (2-28), respectively. Bagging, maintenance of the reactor, and powder conditioning were associated with higher exposure levels in the production area, whereas increased exposure levels in the R&D area were related to handling of MWCNTs powder.

  15. The 2014 FDA assessment of commercial fish: practical considerations for improved dietary guidance.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Jennifer; Kaplan, Jason; Lapolla, John; Kleiner, Rima

    2016-07-13

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently released its report: A Quantitative Assessment of the Net Effects on Fetal Neurodevelopment from Eating Commercial Fish (As Measured by IQ and also by Early Age Verbal Development in Children). By evaluating the benefits and potential concerns of eating fish during pregnancy and breastfeeding, the analysis suggests that pregnant women consuming two seafood meals (8-12 oz) per week could provide their child with an additional 3.3 IQ points by age 9. Recent insights from behavioral economics research indicate that other factors, such as concerns about price and methylmercury (MeHg) exposure, appear to reduce fish consumption in many individuals.To assess the net effects of eating commercial fish during pregnancy, we compared the consumption of select fish species necessary to achieve IQ benefits with the amount necessary to have adverse developmental effects due to MeHg exposure. For the species or market types evaluated, the number of servings necessary to reach MeHg exposure to observe an adverse effect was at least twice that the amount estimated to achieve peak developmental benefit. We then reported average costs of fresh and canned or pouched fish, and calculated the cost per week for pregnant women to achieve maximum IQ benefits for their gestating child. Canned light tuna was the least expensive option at $1.83 per week to achieve maximum IQ benefit.Due to their relatively low cost, canned and pouched fish products eaten with enough regularity are likely to provide peak cognitive benefits. Because of its popularity, canned and pouched tuna could provide some of the largest cognitive benefits from fish consumption in the U.S. Future FDA consumer advice and related educational initiatives could benefit from a broader perspective that highlights the importance of affordable and accessible fish choices. These observations underscore the importance of clear public health messaging that address both health

  16. Colonization and extinction in dynamic habitats: an occupancy approach for a Great Plains stream fish assemblage.

    PubMed

    Falke, Jeffrey A; Bailey, Larissa L; Fausch, Kurt D; Bestgen, Kevin R

    2012-04-01

    Despite the importance of habitat in determining species distribution and persistence, habitat dynamics are rarely modeled in studies of metapopulations. We used an integrated habitat-occupancy model to simultaneously quantify habitat change, site fidelity, and local colonization and extinction rates for larvae of a suite of Great Plains stream fishes in the Arikaree River, eastern Colorado, USA, across three years. Sites were located along a gradient of flow intermittency and groundwater connectivity. Hydrology varied across years: the first and third being relatively wet and the second dry. Despite hydrologic variation, our results indicated that site suitability was random from one year to the next. Occupancy probabilities were also independent of previous habitat and occupancy state for most species, indicating little site fidelity. Climate and groundwater connectivity were important drivers of local extinction and colonization, but the importance of groundwater differed between periods. Across species, site extinction probabilities were highest during the transition from wet to dry conditions (range: 0.52-0.98), and the effect of groundwater was apparent with higher extinction probabilities for sites not fed by groundwater. Colonization probabilities during this period were relatively low for both previously dry sites (range: 0.02-0.38) and previously wet sites (range: 0.02-0.43). In contrast, no sites dried or remained dry during the transition from dry to wet conditions, yielding lower but still substantial extinction probabilities (range: 0.16-0.63) and higher colonization probabilities (range: 0.06-0.86), with little difference among sites with and without groundwater. This approach of jointly modeling both habitat change and species occupancy will likely be useful to incorporate effects of dynamic habitat on metapopulation processes and to better inform appropriate conservation actions.

  17. Further development of a commercial driving simulation for research in occupational medicine.

    PubMed

    Muttray, Axel; Breitinger, Anais; Goetze, Elisabeth; Schnupp, Thomas; Geissler, Britta; Kaufmann, Thomas; Golz, Martin; Letzel, Stephan

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to refine a commercial car driving simulation for occupational research. As the effects of ethanol on driving behavior are well established, we choose alcohol as a test compound to investigate the performance of subjects during simulation. We programmed a night driving scenario consisting of monotonous highway and a rural road on a Foerst F10-P driving simulator. Twenty healthy men, 19-30 years, participated in a pilot study. Subjects were screened for simulator sickness, followed by training on the simulator one hour in total. Experiments were performed in the morning on a separate day. Participants were randomized into either an alcoholized or a control group. All subjects drove two courses consisting of highway and rural road and were sober for the first course. During a 1 h break the ethanol group drank an alcoholic beverage to yield 0.06% blood alcohol concentration (BAC). Generalized linear mixed models were used to analyze the influence of alcohol on driving performance. Among others, independent variables were Simulator Sickness Questionnaire scores and subjective sleepiness. Subjects did not experience simulator sickness during the experiments. Mean BAC before the second test drive was 0.065% in the mildly intoxicated group. There was no clear-cut difference in the number of crashes between 2 groups. BAC of 0.1% would deteriorate mean braking reaction time by 237 ms (SE = 112, p < 0.05). Ethanol slightly impaired the tracking in the right-hand curves (p = 0.058). Braking reaction time improved by 86 ms (SE = 36, p < 0.05) for the second test drive, indicating a learning effect. In sum, a clear ethanol effect was observed in the driving simulation. This simulation seems suitable for occupational research and produces little simulator sickness. Controlling for possible learning effects is recommended in driving simulation studies.

  18. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in ten commercial fish species along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Veerasingam, S; Venkatachalapathy, R; Raja, P; Sudhakar, S; Rajeswari, V; Asanulla, R Mohamed; Mohan, R; Sutharsan, P

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the distribution of petroleum hydrocarbons in ten commercial fish species and water samples in three estuaries along Tamilnadu coast, Bay of Bengal, India. Fish and water samples collected from Tamilnadu coast, India, were extracted and analyzed for petroleum hydrocarbons by ultraviolet fluorescence (UVF) spectroscopy. The petroleum hydrocarbon concentration (PHC) in coastal waters and fish species varied between 2.28 and 14.02 μg/l and 0.52 and 2.05 μg/g, respectively. The highest PHC concentration was obtained in Uppanar estuarine waters (14.02 ± 0.83) and the lowest was observed in Vellar estuarine waters (2.28 ± 0.25). Among the ten fish species, Sardinella longiceps have high PHC concentration from all the locations. This study suggests that S. longiceps can be used as a good biological indicator for petroleum hydrocarbon pollution in water. The concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons in coastal waters along Tamilnadu coast is markedly higher than that in the background, but there is no evidence for its increase in fish of this region. From a public health point, petroleum hydrocarbon residue levels in all fish samples analyzed in this study are considerably lower than the hazardous levels. At present, as Tamilnadu coastal area is in a rapid development stage of new harbour, chemical industries, power plants, oil exploration and other large-scale industries, further assessment of petroleum hydrocarbons and the various hydrodynamic conditions acting in the region are to be studied in detail and continuous pollution monitoring studies should be conducted for improving the aquatic environment. The results will also be useful for pollution monitoring program along the coastal region and also to check the levels of petroleum hydrocarbons.

  19. Increasing Fish Oil Levels in Commercial Diets Influences Hematological and Immunological Responses of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growth performance, immune responses and disease resistance were studied in juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus fed a commercial diet (35.3% crude protein and 5.6% lipid) supplemented with menhaden fish oil at levels of 0, 3, 6 and 9% for 15 weeks. Dietary fish oil levels did not significa...

  20. Toxic metals in commercial marine fish in Oman with reference to national and international standards.

    PubMed

    Al-Busaidi, M; Yesudhason, P; Al-Mughairi, S; Al-Rahbi, W A K; Al-Harthy, K S; Al-Mazrooei, N A; Al-Habsi, S H

    2011-09-01

    Commercially important fresh (581) and frozen (292) marine fish samples of 10 species were collected from seafood factories and evaluated using AAS and ICP-OES. Metal levels significantly (p<0.05) varied within and between species. However, there were no significant correlations among metals. There were significant interspecific differences for all metals, and yellowfin tuna had the highest level of cadmium and mercury however, red seabream had maximum numbers above the standards. The metal accumulation significantly varied between bottom feeders of intermediately size locally caught fish. The mean cadmium level ranged from 0.0049 to 0.036 mg kg(-1) and 1.37% of the total samples exceeded the EU and FAO standards. Mean lead content varied between 0.029 and 0.196 mg kg(-1), few samples crossed the EU (2.63%) and FAO (1.6%) limits. Mean mercury level ranged from 0.015 to 0.101 mg kg(-1) and none of the samples exceeded the EU limit. Of the total samples analyzed red seabream (2.06%), yellowfin tuna (1.14%), emperor (0.34%), santer bream (0.22%), king fish (0.11%) and skipjack tuna (0.11%) samples crossed the EU limits. In general, fish from these regions are within the safety levels recommended by various organizations and do not pose a health risk in terms of human diet.

  1. Collapse and recovery of forage fish populations prior to commercial exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClatchie, S.; Hendy, I. L.; Thompson, A. R.; Watson, W.

    2017-02-01

    We use a new, well-calibrated 500 year paleorecord off southern California to determine collapse frequency, cross correlation, persistence, and return times of exploited forage fish populations. The paleorecord shows that "collapse" (defined as <10% of the mean peak biomass) is a normal state repeatedly experienced by northern anchovy, Pacific hake, and Pacific sardine which were collapsed 29-40% of the time, prior to commercial fishing exploitation. Mean (± SD) persistence of "fishable biomass" (defined as one third mean peak biomass from the paleorecord) was 19 ± 18, 15 ± 17, and 12 ± 7 years for anchovy, hake, and sardine. Mean return times to the same biomass was 8 years for anchovy but 22 years for sardine and hake. Further, we find that sardine and anchovy are positively correlated over 400 years, consistent with coherent declines of both species off California. Persistence and return times combined with positive sardine-anchovy correlation indicate that on average 1-2 decades of fishable biomass will be followed by 1-2 decades of low forage. Forage populations are resilient on the 500 year time scale, but their collapse and recovery cycle (based on the paleorecord) are suited to alternating periods of high fishing mortality and periods of little or no fishing.

  2. Occupational health policy and immigrant workers in the agriculture, forestry, and fishing sector.

    PubMed

    Liebman, Amy K; Wiggins, Melinda F; Fraser, Clermont; Levin, Jeffrey; Sidebottom, Jill; Arcury, Thomas A

    2013-08-01

    Immigrant workers make up an important portion of the hired workforce in the Agricultural, Forestry and Fishing (AgFF) sector, one of the most hazardous industry sectors in the US. Despite the inherent dangers associated with this sector, worker protection is limited. This article describes the current occupational health and safety policies and regulatory standards in the AgFF sector and underscores the regulatory exceptions and limitations in worker protections. Immigration policies and their effects on worker health and safety are also discussed. Emphasis is placed on policies and practices in the Southeastern US. Worker protection in the AgFF sector is limited. Regulatory protections are generally weaker than other industrial sectors and enforcement of existing regulations is woefully inadequate. The vulnerability of the AgFF workforce is magnified by worker immigration status. Agricultural workers in particular are affected by a long history of "exceptionalism" under the law as many regulatory protections specifically exclude this workforce. A vulnerable workforce and high-hazard industries require regulatory protections that, at a minimum, are provided to workers in other industries. A systematic policy approach to strengthen occupational safety and health in the AgFF sector must address both immigration policy and worker protection regulations. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Abnormalities and diseases observed in commercial fish catches from Biscayne Bay, Florida. [Mugil cephalus, Micropogon undulatus

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, R.H.; Kandrashoff, W.

    1988-10-01

    Many of the most productive fishing grounds in the United States are estuaries and bays which are located near population and industrial centers, and therefore subjected to pollution. Observations made on 17 fish species from commercial catches harvested in north Biscayne Bay, Florida, an urban area, showed high numbers of individuals suffering from abnormalities and diseases. Seven groups of disorders most frequently affected bottom feeders. Fin and integumental hemorrhages occurred in all individuals in 26 of 43 catches of Mugil cephalus (striped mullet), and in all individuals in 24 of 30 catches of Micropogon undulatus (Atlantic croaker). Disorders occurring consistently in a location exposed to pollutants, but uncommon in other areas of the species' range, point to environmental stress as a probable cause.

  4. Accumulation of /sup 137/Cs in commercial fish of the Belyarsk nuclear power station cooling supply

    SciTech Connect

    Trapeznikova, V.N.; Kulikov, N.V.; Trapeznikov, A.V.

    1984-07-01

    Results are presented of a comparative study of the accumulation of /sup 137/Cs in basic species of commercial fish of the Beloyarsk reservoir which is used as the cooling supply for the Beloyarsk nuclear power station. Possible reasons for interspecies differences in accumulation of the radionuclide are indicated, and the increased accumulation of /sup 137/Cs by free-living fish in the zone of heated water effluent from the station and the reduced accumulation of the emitter in carp, which are cultivated on artificial food in cages, are noted. Levels of the content of the radionuclide are compared in roach and farm carp from the cooling supplies of the Beloyarsk station and the Reftinsk power plant in the Urals.

  5. The impact of fish and the commercial marine harvest on the ocean iron cycle.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Allison R; Haffa, Arlene L M

    2014-01-01

    Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, bioavailable iron limits marine primary production in about one third of the ocean. This lack of iron availability has implications in climate change because the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by phytoplankton requires iron. Using literature values for global fish biomass estimates, and elemental composition data we estimate that fish biota store between 0.7-7 × 10(11) g of iron. Additionally, the global fish population recycles through excretion between 0.4-1.5 × 10(12) g of iron per year, which is of a similar magnitude as major recognized sources of iron (e.g. dust, sediments, ice sheet melting). In terms of biological impact this iron could be superior to dust inputs due to the distributed deposition and to the greater solubility of fecal pellets compared to inorganic minerals. To estimate a loss term due to anthropogenic activity the total commercial catch for 1950 to 2010 was obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Marine catch data were separated by taxa. High and low end values for elemental composition were obtained for each taxonomic category from the literature and used to calculate iron per mass of total harvest over time. The marine commercial catch is estimated to have removed 1-6 × 10(9) g of iron in 1950, the lowest values on record. There is an annual increase to 0.7-3 × 10(10) g in 1996, which declines to 0.6-2 × 10(10) g in 2010. While small compared to the total iron terms in the cycle, these could have compounding effects on distribution and concentration patterns globally over time. These storage, recycling, and export terms of biotic iron are not currently included in ocean iron mass balance calculations. These data suggest that fish and anthropogenic activity should be included in global oceanic iron cycles.

  6. The Impact of Fish and the Commercial Marine Harvest on the Ocean Iron Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Allison R.; Haffa, Arlene L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, bioavailable iron limits marine primary production in about one third of the ocean. This lack of iron availability has implications in climate change because the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere by phytoplankton requires iron. Using literature values for global fish biomass estimates, and elemental composition data we estimate that fish biota store between 0.7–7×1011 g of iron. Additionally, the global fish population recycles through excretion between 0.4–1.5×1012 g of iron per year, which is of a similar magnitude as major recognized sources of iron (e.g. dust, sediments, ice sheet melting). In terms of biological impact this iron could be superior to dust inputs due to the distributed deposition and to the greater solubility of fecal pellets compared to inorganic minerals. To estimate a loss term due to anthropogenic activity the total commercial catch for 1950 to 2010 was obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Marine catch data were separated by taxa. High and low end values for elemental composition were obtained for each taxonomic category from the literature and used to calculate iron per mass of total harvest over time. The marine commercial catch is estimated to have removed 1–6×109 g of iron in 1950, the lowest values on record. There is an annual increase to 0.7–3×1010 g in 1996, which declines to 0.6–2×1010 g in 2010. While small compared to the total iron terms in the cycle, these could have compounding effects on distribution and concentration patterns globally over time. These storage, recycling, and export terms of biotic iron are not currently included in ocean iron mass balance calculations. These data suggest that fish and anthropogenic activity should be included in global oceanic iron cycles. PMID:25251284

  7. Patterns of commercial fish landings in the Loreto region (Peruvian Amazon) between 1984 and 2006.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Aurea; Tello, Salvador; Vargas, Gladis; Duponchelle, Fabrice

    2009-03-01

    Patterns of commercial fish catches over the period from 1984 to 2006 were studied in the Loreto region and in Iquitos, which is the most important town of the region and the principal fish marketplace of the Peruvian Amazon. Despite important inter-annual variations, the overall fish landings have significantly increased in the region during this period. The same three species dominated the catches during the whole period (Prochilodus nigricans, Potamorhina altamazonica and Psectrogaster amazonica), making up about 62% of the catches. However, the number of species exploited by commercial fisheries increased considerably during the 22 years of this study (from about 21 species in 1984 to over 65 in 2006), although part of the difference may be accounted for by a better identification of individual species nowadays. At the same time, the large high-valued species, such as Arapaima gigas, Colossoma macropomum and Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, declined significantly and were replaced by smaller, short-lived and lower-valued species. Catches of the silver Arahuana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum) also declined significantly during the studied period, strengthening recent warnings about the species' conservation status (Moreau and Coomes, Oryx 40:152-160, 2006). The relative proportions of the trophic groups (detritivores, omnivores and piscivores) remained relatively constant over the study period, but there were significant changes in the relative abundances of the species groups. The proportion of the dominant group, the Characiformes, which averaged about 81% of the catches, increased between 1984 and 2006, whereas the proportion of the Siluriformes and Perciformes remained constant. On the other hand, the proportion of Osteoglossiformes, represented only by two well known species (Arapaima gigas and Osteoglossum bicirrhosum), declined sharply during the same period. Important differences were observed between the landings of Iquitos and the landing of the whole Loreto

  8. [Periods for growth and quality improvement of fish in context of animal welfare compliant management of commercial fish ponds--a literature review].

    PubMed

    Pietrock, Michael; Brämick, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, management of commercial fish ponds requires consideration of animal welfare legislation. In particular, it is forbidden to immediately catch fish that have recently been stocked into put-and-take fishponds. Rather, after stocking is completed, a short-term fishing ban period needs to be adhered to that allows the fishes the opportunity to grow and/or significantly improve in overall quality. The duration of the fishing ban varies considerably among German federal states. A literature review, therefore, was undertaken to identify the amount of time required by adult fish to reach changes in various parameters of quality (proximate composition, fillet colour, odour/taste, stress response), and growth.The literature search revealed that some of the selected parameters (odour/taste, stress response) can change within 24 hours, potentially resulting in improved fish flesh quality. With a time span of about four weeks, feeding-induced changes in proximate composition took the longest among the parameters tested to realize significant changes in fish flesh quality. Transportation-related reductions in body mass are overcome and succeeded by net growth within one to two weeks depending on food availability. Maintaining the fish under species-specific conditions and providing the optimal environment to meet their physiological demands, however, are critical prerequisites for growth and quality improvement. In conclusion there is science-based justification for fishing ban periods ranging from 24 hours to four weeks. Final determination of its duration, therefore, remains a careful balancing of values.

  9. Evaluation of Trace Metal Levels in Tissues of Two Commercial Fish Species in Kapar and Mersing Coastal Waters, Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Fathi Alhashmi; Shuhaimi-Othman, Mohammad; Mazlan, A. G.

    2012-01-01

    This study is focused on evaluating the trace metal levels in water and tissues of two commercial fish species Arius thalassinus and Pennahia anea that were collected from Kapar and Mersing coastal waters. The concentrations of Fe, Zn, Al, As, Cd and Pb in these coastal waters and muscle, liver and gills tissues of the fishes were quantified. The relationship among the metal concentrations and the height and weight of the two species were also examined. Generally, the iron has the highest concentrations in both water and the fish species. However, Cd in both coastal waters showed high levels exceeding the international standards. The metal level concentration in the sample fishes are in the descending order livers > gills > muscles. A positive association between the trace metal concentrations and weight and length of the sample fishes was investigated. Fortunately the level of these metal concentrations in fish has not exceeded the permitted level of Malaysian and international standards. PMID:22046193

  10. Occupancy models for monitoring marine fish: a bayesian hierarchical approach to model imperfect detection with a novel gear combination.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Lewis G; Bacheler, Nathan M; Gwinn, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    Occupancy models using incidence data collected repeatedly at sites across the range of a population are increasingly employed to infer patterns and processes influencing population distribution and dynamics. While such work is common in terrestrial systems, fewer examples exist in marine applications. This disparity likely exists because the replicate samples required by these models to account for imperfect detection are often impractical to obtain when surveying aquatic organisms, particularly fishes. We employ simultaneous sampling using fish traps and novel underwater camera observations to generate the requisite replicate samples for occupancy models of red snapper, a reef fish species. Since the replicate samples are collected simultaneously by multiple sampling devices, many typical problems encountered when obtaining replicate observations are avoided. Our results suggest that augmenting traditional fish trap sampling with camera observations not only doubled the probability of detecting red snapper in reef habitats off the Southeast coast of the United States, but supplied the necessary observations to infer factors influencing population distribution and abundance while accounting for imperfect detection. We found that detection probabilities tended to be higher for camera traps than traditional fish traps. Furthermore, camera trap detections were influenced by the current direction and turbidity of the water, indicating that collecting data on these variables is important for future monitoring. These models indicate that the distribution and abundance of this species is more heavily influenced by latitude and depth than by micro-scale reef characteristics lending credence to previous characterizations of red snapper as a reef habitat generalist. This study demonstrates the utility of simultaneous sampling devices, including camera traps, in aquatic environments to inform occupancy models and account for imperfect detection when describing factors

  11. Occupancy Models for Monitoring Marine Fish: A Bayesian Hierarchical Approach to Model Imperfect Detection with a Novel Gear Combination

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Lewis G.; Bacheler, Nathan M.; Gwinn, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Occupancy models using incidence data collected repeatedly at sites across the range of a population are increasingly employed to infer patterns and processes influencing population distribution and dynamics. While such work is common in terrestrial systems, fewer examples exist in marine applications. This disparity likely exists because the replicate samples required by these models to account for imperfect detection are often impractical to obtain when surveying aquatic organisms, particularly fishes. We employ simultaneous sampling using fish traps and novel underwater camera observations to generate the requisite replicate samples for occupancy models of red snapper, a reef fish species. Since the replicate samples are collected simultaneously by multiple sampling devices, many typical problems encountered when obtaining replicate observations are avoided. Our results suggest that augmenting traditional fish trap sampling with camera observations not only doubled the probability of detecting red snapper in reef habitats off the Southeast coast of the United States, but supplied the necessary observations to infer factors influencing population distribution and abundance while accounting for imperfect detection. We found that detection probabilities tended to be higher for camera traps than traditional fish traps. Furthermore, camera trap detections were influenced by the current direction and turbidity of the water, indicating that collecting data on these variables is important for future monitoring. These models indicate that the distribution and abundance of this species is more heavily influenced by latitude and depth than by micro-scale reef characteristics lending credence to previous characterizations of red snapper as a reef habitat generalist. This study demonstrates the utility of simultaneous sampling devices, including camera traps, in aquatic environments to inform occupancy models and account for imperfect detection when describing factors

  12. Comparative Analysis of Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Commercially Important Fish and Shellfish from Sri Lanka and Japan.

    PubMed

    Devadason, Chandravathany; Jayasinghe, Chamila; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Senarath, Samanthika; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka is surrounded by the Indian Ocean, allowing plenty of fishes to be caught. Moreover, these fishes represent one of the undocumented fish resources in the world and their detailed lipid profiles have not been previously examined. In this study, the lipid content and fatty acid composition of 50 commercially important fishes from the Indian Ocean (Sri Lanka) and the Pacific Ocean (Japan) were compared. The total lipid content and fatty acid composition, including eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA), differed significantly among species. Fish from the Pacific Ocean had higher proportions of fatty acids, including EPA and DHA. Herrings and mackerels from both oceanic areas demonstrated high levels of EPA and DHA, and n-3/n-6 ratio. Brackish and freshwater fishes from both groups showed low levels of PUFAs. Fish from the Indian Ocean were high in n-6 fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acid levels were high in omnivorous fish from the Pacific Ocean, and saturated fatty acid levels were high in fish from the Indian Ocean. The results of this study will be of value in determining the dietary usefulness of fish caught in Sri Lanka.

  13. Selenium/mercury molar ratios in freshwater, marine, and commercial fish from the USA: variation, risk, and health management.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Fish provide healthy protein as well as recreational and cultural benefits, but can also contain mercury (Hg), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and other contaminants that have adverse effects on humans and other organisms, particularly developing fetuses. Recently, some authors have suggested that a molar excess of selenium (Se) [e.g., selenium/mercury (Se/Hg) molar ratio >1] confers protection from Hg toxicity derived from fish consumption. Herein, we review our studies of Hg and Se in freshwater, marine, and commercial fish (mainly marine), examining the following: (1) whether and how Se/Hg molar ratios vary among species; (2) whether and how the molar ratios vary within species; (3) whether the molar ratios differ between freshwater and saltwater fish; (4) whether mean molar ratio values provide a reliable indication of potential risk to fish consumers; and (5) whether mean Se/Hg molar ratios are sufficiently constant (e.g., low variation) to allow for use in risk assessment, risk management, or risk communication. In saltwater fish, mean Se/Hg molar ratios varied from 0.3 in mako shark to 68.1 in whiting. For freshwater fish, the mean ratios varied from 0.68 in bowfin to 20.8 in black crappie. Commercial seafood (mainly saltwater) showed great variation in ratios; shrimp and scallops had very high ratios. There was somewhat less variability in the ratios for freshwater fish compared with the fish from saltwater, but there was no overall predictable difference in variation in Se/Hg molar ratios. For both saltwater and freshwater fish, some species with mean molar ratios above 1 had a significant proportion of individual fish with molar ratios below 1. Overall, this indicates great variation in measures of central tendencies and in measures of dispersion. We suggest that relying on the Se/Hg molar ratio as a method of predicting reduced risk from Hg toxicity is problematic because of the great variation among and within fish species, and the variation is not

  14. Disturbance of Essential Fish Habitat by Commercial Passive Fishing Gear in the Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia region of the Mid-Atlantic Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, C.

    2016-02-01

    Trap fishing is one of the oldest methods utilized to capture fish, and fish traps are currently one of the most dominant fishing gears utilized by commercial fishermen in the DelMarVa (Delaware, Maryland, Virginia) region. Impacts of traps on benthic habitat and emergent epifauna have become an increasing concern since the 1990's, but despite this, there is little published data regarding trap-habitat interactions. Any substrate necessary for fish spawning, breeding, feeding, or growth to maturity is deemed Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) and in order to increase capture success, traps are often deployed near or on EFH. We assessed the degree of trap impacts via video observations from commercial traps at four common fishing sites in the DelMarVa region, 27-36 km off the coast, at depths of 20-30 m. Two traps within a 20 trap rig were customized by attaching GoPro® cameras to give views in front of the trap, toward the trap front, and to the rear of the trap. Analysis of 123 trap deployments shows that traps often drag across the ocean floor and habitats during the retrieval process. Duration of the dragging phase is strongly correlated with trap position on the line (r2=0.6; p<0.001); traps farther down the line drag significantly longer than traps closer to the boat and first retrieved (1st vs last trap: p<0.01). Dragging significantly increases trap-habitat interactions. Traps with minimal drag have <1% chance of contacting EFH but dragging increases the proportion of traps interacting with EFH to 46%. Observed trap-habitat interactions include: damaging and breaking coral, and running over sea stars, anemones, and bryozoans. Essential fish habitats located off the DelMarVa coast are highly fragmented and sparse, and adverse impacts of passive fishing gear probably affect a large portion of the available habitat.

  15. Recovery Trends of Commercial Fish: The Case of an Underperforming Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Stefano; Coppa, Stefania; Camedda, Andrea; Mazzoldi, Carlotta; Wrachien, Francesco; Massaro, Giorgio; de Lucia, G. Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Temporal trends in the recovery of exploited species in marine protected areas (MPAs) are useful for a proper assessment of the efficacy of protection measures. The effects of protection on the fish assemblages of the sublittoral rocky reefs in the “Penisola del Sinis-Isola di Mal di Ventre” MPA (W. Sardinia, Italy) were evaluated using a multi-year series of data. Four surveys, conducted 7, 10, 13 and 15 years after the area was designated as an MPA and carried out in the period spanning June and July, were used to estimate the abundance and biomass of commercial species. The surveys were carried out in zones with decreasing levels of fishing restrictions within the MPA (zones A, B, C) and in unprotected zones (OUT1 and OUT2), and underwater video visual census techniques were used. Protected zones only occasionally showed higher levels of abundance or biomass, and the trajectories of those metrics were not consistent across the years. In addition, the zone with the highest level of protection (zone A) never presented levels of abundance and biomass higher than those in zones B and C. This study shows that even 15 years after designation, protection has had no appreciable effect in the MPA studied. It is argued that this is emblematic of several shortcomings in the planning, regulation and enforcement frameworks of the MPA. PMID:26741959

  16. Total petroleum hydrocarbon in the tissues of some commercially important fishes of the Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Zakir A; Desilva, Classy; Badesab, Shahin

    2012-11-01

    The present study reports the level of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in 27 commercially important fish, crustaceans and cephalopods from Orissa coast, Bay of Bengal to provide the baseline data for oil contamination in marine biota. The results showed significant differences in the TPH concentration in different species. Of all fish, Carangoides malabaricus showed the maximum TPH level (av. 13.70 μg g(-1)). In cephalopods, Loligo recorded the maximum TPH (av. 14.87 μg g(-1)) while Metapenaeus dobsoni recorded the maximum TPH (av. 13.18 μg g(-1)) among crustaceans. The concentration of TPH recorded in the present study were higher than the reported values from other studies in Bay of Bengal but were comparable with those of other Indian coast and Gulf water. The species recording maximum concentration and giving significant correlation coefficient may be of interest in oil pollution monitoring and can be used as indicator of hydrocarbon pollution in the region.

  17. Chapter 3. Effects of climate change and commercial fishing on Atlantic cod Gadus morhua.

    PubMed

    Mieszkowska, Nova; Genner, Martin J; Hawkins, Stephen J; Sims, David W

    2009-01-01

    During the course of the last century, populations of Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L. have undergone dramatic declines in abundance across their biogeographic range, leading to debate about the relative roles of climatic warming and overfishing in driving these changes. In this chapter, we describe the geographic distributions of this important predator of North Atlantic ecosystems and document extensive evidence for limitations of spatial movement and local adaptation from population genetic markers and electronic tagging. Taken together, this evidence demonstrates that knowledge of spatial population ecology is critical for evaluating the effects of climate change and commercial harvesting. To explore the possible effects of climate change on cod, we first describe thermal influences on individual physiology, growth, activity and maturation. We then evaluate evidence that temperature has influenced population-level processes including direct effects on recruitment through enhanced growth and activity, and indirect effects through changes to larval food resources. Although thermal regimes clearly define the biogeographic range of the species, and strongly influence many aspects of cod biology, the evidence that population declines across the North Atlantic are strongly linked to fishing activity is now overwhelming. Although there is considerable concern about low spawning stock biomasses, high levels of fishing activity continues in many areas. Even with reduced fishing effort, the potential for recovery from low abundance may be compromised by unfavourable climate and Allee effects. Current stock assessment and management approaches are reviewed, alongside newly advocated methods for monitoring stock status and recovery. However, it remains uncertain whether the rebuilding of cod to historic population sizes and demographic structures will be possible in a warmer North Atlantic.

  18. Molecular and epidemiological data on Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in commercial fish caught off northern Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Piras, M C; Tedde, T; Garippa, G; Virgilio, S; Sanna, D; Farjallah, S; Merella, P

    2014-06-16

    Anisakiasis is a fish-borne zoonosis caused by third stage larvae of the nematode Anisakis sp. present in fish or cephalopods. This is the first contribution to the molecular identification and epidemiology of Anisakis spp. in commercial fish from the Gulf of Asinara (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea). Between April 2006 to November 2011, 777 specimens of 10 fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Merluccius merluccius, Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis blennoides, Sardina pilchardus, Sardinella aurita, Scomber colias, Sphyraena viridensis, Trachurus mediterraneus, Trachurus trachurus) were examined for Anisakis sp. larvae. A total of 1286 larvae were found in 218 fish. The great majority of larvae were located in the body cavity, and only a small part (60, 4.7%) in the muscle. All the Type I larvae (1272) were identified as Anisakis pegreffii and all the Type II (14) as Anisakis physeteris, confirming that A. pegreffii is the dominant species and the most important agent of human anisakiasis in the western Mediterranean Sea.

  19. Biochemical stress responses in tissues of the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus exposed to a commercial formulation of endosulfan.

    PubMed

    Bacchetta, Carla; Cazenave, Jimena; Parma, María Julieta; Biancucci, Gabriela Fiorenza

    2011-10-01

    Median lethal concentration (LC(50)) and sublethal effects of the commercial endosulfan formulation Zebra Ciagro(®) on the fish Cichlasoma dimerus were studied. The 96-h LC(50) was estimated as 17.7 μg/L. In order to investigate sublethal effects, fish were exposed to 25% and 50% LC(1) (3.4 and 6.8 μg/L, respectively). Endosulfan (ED) significantly increased the hemoglobin concentration and white blood cell count after 96 h. Differential leukocytes count was also altered, due to an increase in the percentage of neutrophils in exposed fish. The hepatopancreatic tissue of fish under ED treatment showed a decrease in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and an increase in alkaline phosphatase. Lipid peroxidation levels in the 6.8-μg/L ED-containing group were higher than those in control fish for all organs tested (gills, hepatopancreas, and brain). © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  20. Occupant evaluation of commercial office lighting: Volume 2, Preliminary data analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Marans, R.W.; Brown, M.A.

    1987-11-01

    This report presents the preliminary results of a post-occupancy evaluation of office lighting environments. It explores the relationship between quantitative measures of lighting in occupied environments and qualitative measures related to occupant satisfaction. The report analyzes several types of data from more than 1000 occupied work stations: subjective data on attitudes and ratings of selected lighting and other characteristics, photometric and other direct environmental data, including illuminances, luminances, and contrast conditions, indirect environmental measures obtained from the architectural drawings and the work station photographs, and descriptive characteristics of the occupants. The work stations were sampled from thirteen office buildings located in various cities in the United States. Many tentative findings emerged from the analysis, including the following: (1) within the range of values examined here, there is a tendency for lighting satisfaction to decrease as lighting power density increases; (2) occupants who described their work station spaces as bright also tended to be satisfied with their work station lighting; (3) occupants who were most bothered by bright lights and glare were most likely to express dissatisfaction with the lighting at their work stations; (4) there is no relationship between work-related activities of employees and indicators of lighting quality. More research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn and before guidance regarding lighting standards and other policy issues can be derived. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  1. Utilizing United States Coast Guard data to calculate incidence rates and identify risk factors for occupational fishing injuries in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Day, Emily Ruth; Lefkowitz, Daniel K; Marshall, Elizabeth G; Hovinga, Mary

    2010-10-01

    Commercial fishing has high rates of work-related injury and death and needs preventive strategies. Work-related fatal and nonfatal injury rates for New Jersey (NJ) commercial fishermen who suffered unintentional traumatic injuries from 2001 to 2007 are calculated using data from the United States Coast Guard (USCG) Marine Safety and Pollution Database and estimated denominator data. Fatalities were compared to those ascertained by the NJ Fatality Assessment Control and Evaluation (FACE) surveillance system. For the study years, 225 nonfatal injuries and 31 fatal injuries were reported. Among nonfatal injuries, the causes by frequency were fall onto surface, crushed between objects, struck by moving object, line handling/caught in lines, collision with fixed objects, fall into water, and other noncontact injuries. The distribution of fatal injuries differed, with the most frequent cause as crushed between objects. Falls into water and several noncontact injuries accounted for most of the other fatalities. The large majority (96%) of nonfatal injuries were contact injuries, whereas only 68% of fatalities were classified as contact. The overall incidence rate of nonfatal injuries was 1188 per 100,000 full-time equivalents (FTEs) per year. The rate varied considerably by year, from a low of 286 per 100,000 FTEs in 2001 and 2007 to 3806 per 100,000 FTEs in 2003. The overall occupational fatality rate over the period 2001-2007 was 164 per 100,000 FTEs per year. These results can aid in targeting the commercial fishing industry for injury prevention strategies and interventions, especially for falls, crushing injuries, and drownings.

  2. Occupational allergy to aquarium fish food: red midge larva, freshwater shrimp, and earthworm. A clinical and immunological study.

    PubMed

    Meseguer Arce, J; Villajos, I M Sánchez-Guerrero; Iraola, V; Carnés, J; Fernández Caldas, E

    2013-01-01

    Chironomids seem to be the main cause of occupational allergy to aquarium fish food. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of occupational sensitization to 3 different arthropod species used as components of aquarium fish food. The study sample comprised 8 workers from a fish food packing department. The control group comprised 40 atopic patients (20 of whom were allergic to mites). We performed prick tests with extracts of red midge larva (Chironomus thummi), freshwater shrimp (Gammarus species), earthworm (Tubifex species), and other arthropod species and a battery of common inhalant allergens. We measured peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E and performed a methacholine challenge test, nasal challenge test, and immunoblotting. Cross-reactivity analyses were completed using immunoblotting and CAP inhibition. Prick test results were positive to red midge larvae in 7 patients (87.5%), Gammarus in 5 (62.5%), Tubifex in 3 (37.5%), and mites in 6 (75%). In the mite-allergic controls, 30% had positive prick test results to red midge larvae. PEFR decreased > or = 20% during the packing process in all patients, and in 1 patient it indicated a dual asthmatic response. Methacholine challenge test results were positive in all participants. Nasal challenge tests were performed in 4 patients, and the results were positive. Specific IgE to red midge larvae was detected in 62.5%, Gammarus in 50%, and Tubifex in 16%. Bands of approximately 14-15 kDa and 31 kDa were observed in Gammarus and red midge larvae extracts. Cross-reactivity assays demonstrated that Gammarus totally inhibited red midge larvae, while Tubifex did so partially. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus showed very low inhibitory capacity. Aquarium fish food arthropods are potent allergens with an elevated prevalence of sensitization and variable degree of crossreactivity. This is the first report of occupational allergy to Tubifex. More data are necessary to identify and

  3. 36 CFR 13.1136 - How can an individual apply for a commercial fishing lifetime access permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1136 How can an individual apply..., attesting to his or her history of participation as a limited entry permit holder or crewmember in Glacier... includes Glacier Bay, for each fishery for which a lifetime access permit is sought; (d) For...

  4. 36 CFR 13.1136 - How can an individual apply for a commercial fishing lifetime access permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1136 How can an individual apply..., attesting to his or her history of participation as a limited entry permit holder or crewmember in Glacier... includes Glacier Bay, for each fishery for which a lifetime access permit is sought; (d) For...

  5. 36 CFR 13.1136 - How can an individual apply for a commercial fishing lifetime access permit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1136 How can an individual apply..., attesting to his or her history of participation as a limited entry permit holder or crewmember in Glacier... includes Glacier Bay, for each fishery for which a lifetime access permit is sought; (d) For...

  6. 75 FR 81224 - Availability of Recreational Diving, Oil and Gas Operations and Commercial Fishing Seats for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... and Commercial Fishing Seats for the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council.... SUMMARY: The ONMS is seeking applications for the following vacant seats on the Flower Garden Banks... kits may be obtained from Jennifer Morgan, NOAA--Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, 4700...

  7. 50 CFR 216.24 - Taking and related acts incidental to commercial fishing operations by tuna purse seine vessels...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.24 Taking and related acts incidental to commercial fishing operations by tuna purse seine vessels in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. (a)(1) No marine mammal may be taken in...

  8. 36 CFR 13.1146 - What other closures and restrictions apply to commercial fishermen and commercial fishing vessels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., except commercial fishermen who have been authorized by the superintendent to troll for salmon may troll for king salmon during the period October 1 through April 30, in compliance with state commercial... for salmon may troll for king salmon south of 58° 50.0′ N latitude during the period October 1...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1146 - What other closures and restrictions apply to commercial fishermen and commercial fishing vessels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., except commercial fishermen who have been authorized by the superintendent to troll for salmon may troll for king salmon during the period October 1 through April 30, in compliance with state commercial... for salmon may troll for king salmon south of 58° 50.0′ N latitude during the period October 1...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1146 - What other closures and restrictions apply to commercial fishermen and commercial fishing vessels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., except commercial fishermen who have been authorized by the superintendent to troll for salmon may troll for king salmon during the period October 1 through April 30, in compliance with state commercial... for salmon may troll for king salmon south of 58° 50.0′ N latitude during the period October 1...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1146 - What other closures and restrictions apply to commercial fishermen and commercial fishing vessels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., except commercial fishermen who have been authorized by the superintendent to troll for salmon may troll for king salmon during the period October 1 through April 30, in compliance with state commercial... for salmon may troll for king salmon south of 58° 50.0′ N latitude during the period October 1...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1146 - What other closures and restrictions apply to commercial fishermen and commercial fishing vessels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., except commercial fishermen who have been authorized by the superintendent to troll for salmon may troll for king salmon during the period October 1 through April 30, in compliance with state commercial... for salmon may troll for king salmon south of 58° 50.0′ N latitude during the period October 1...

  13. Detection of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in a range of commercial fish oils by GC-ICPMS analysis.

    PubMed

    Sele, Veronika; Amlund, Heidi; Berntssen, Marc H G; Berntsen, Jannicke A; Skov, Kasper; Sloth, Jens J

    2013-06-01

    The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted the analysis of a small sample amount, and the method was applied on a range of different commercial fish oils, including oils of anchovy (Engraulis ringens), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), sand eel (Ammodytes marinus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and a commercial mixed fish oil (mix of oils of Atlantic herring, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and saithe (Pollachius virens)). Total arsenic concentrations in the fish oils and in the extracts of the fish oils were determined by microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICPMS. The arsenic concentrations in the fish oils ranged from 5.9 to 8.7 mg kg(-1). Three dominant arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in addition to one minor unidentified compound were detected in all the oils using GC-ICPMS. The molecular structures of the arsenic-containing hydrocarbons, dimethylarsinoyl hydrocarbons (C17H38AsO, C19H42AsO, C23H38AsO), were verified using GC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and the accurate masses of the compounds were verified using quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS). Additionally, total arsenic and the arsenic-containing hydrocarbons were studied in decontaminated and in non-decontaminated fish oils, where a reduced arsenic concentration was seen in the decontaminated fish oils. This provided an insight to how a decontamination procedure originally ascribed for the removal of persistent organic pollutants affects the level of arsenolipids present in fish oils.

  14. Canned bluefin tuna, an in vitro cardioprotective functional food potentially safer than commercial fish oil based pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Calabrese, Giorgio; Ritieni, Alberto; Campiglia, Pietro; Giannetti, Daniela; Novellino, Ettore

    2014-09-01

    Commercial canned fish species typical in the Italian market were evaluated for their lipid profile. Bluefin tuna samples showed the highest content in omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) among the canned fish samples analyzed. Tests on H9C2 cardiomyocytes revealed that bluefin tuna n-3 PUFA may responsible for a significant cell protection against both physiological and doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress. Analogous tests performed by incubating cardiac cells with n-3 PUFA ethyl esters, of which most of fish oil pharmaceutical formulations (FOPF) are based, showed cytotoxicity at high doses. Our results highlighted that n-3 PUFA contents in a 50 g canned bluefin tuna portion would be almost equivalent to and potentially safer than those of 1 FOPF capsule (1000 mg)/die usually suggested for hyperlipidaemic subjects. Thus, Italian commercial canned bluefin tuna could be indicated as a functional food with potential health benefits for the prevention and care of cardiovascular disorders.

  15. Harvest Pressure on Coastal Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) from Recreational Fishing Relative to Commercial Fishing Assessed from Tag-Recovery Data.

    PubMed

    Kleiven, Alf Ring; Fernandez-Chacon, Albert; Nordahl, Jan-Harald; Moland, Even; Espeland, Sigurd Heiberg; Knutsen, Halvor; Olsen, Esben Moland

    2016-01-01

    Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor activity. However, knowledge about the magnitude of recreational catches relative to commercial catches in coastal fisheries is generally sparse. Coastal Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a target species for recreational fishers in the North Atlantic. In Norway, recreational fishers are allowed to use a variety of traps and nets as well as long-line and rod and line when fishing for cod. From 2005 to 2013, 9729 cod (mean size: 40 cm, range: 15-93 cm) were tagged and released in coastal Skagerrak, southeast Norway. Both high-reward (NOK 500) and low-reward tags (NOK 50) were used in this study. Because some harvested fish (even those posting high-reward tags) may go unreported by fishers, reporting rates were estimated from mark-recovery models that incorporate detection parameters in their structure, in addition to survival and mortality estimates. During 2005 to 2013, a total of 1707 tagged cod were recovered and reported by fishers. We estimate the overall annual survival to be 33% (SE 1.5). Recreational rod and line fishing were responsible for 33.7% (SE 2.4) of total mortality, followed by commercial fisheries (15.1% SE 0.8) and recreational fixed gear (6.8% SE 0.4). Natural mortality was 44.4% (SE 2.5) of total mortality. Our findings suggest that recreational fishing-rod and line fishing in particular-is responsible for a substantial part of fishing mortality exerted on coastal cod in southern Norway.

  16. Detection of naphthenic acids in fish exposed to commercial naphthenic acids and oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Young, R F; Orr, E A; Goss, G G; Fedorak, P M

    2007-06-01

    Naphthenic acids are a complex mixture of carboxylic acids that occur naturally in petroleum. During the extraction of bitumen from the oil sands in northeastern Alberta, Canada, naphthenic acids are released into the aqueous phase and these acids become the most toxic components in the process-affected water. Although previous studies have exposed fish to naphthenic acids or oil sands process-affected waters, there has been no analytical method to specifically detect naphthenic acids in fish. Here, we describe a qualitative method to specifically detect these acids. In 96-h static renewal tests, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings were exposed to three different treatments: (1) fed pellets that contained commercial naphthenic acids (1.5mg g(-1) of food), (2) kept in tap water that contained commercial naphthenic acids (3mg l(-1)) and (3) kept in an oil sands process-affected water that contained 15mg naphthenic acids l(-1). Five-gram samples of fish were homogenized and extracted, then the mixture of free fatty acids and naphthenic acids was isolated from the extract using strong anion exchange chromatography. The mixture was derivatized and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Reconstructed ion chromatograms (m/z=267) selectively detected naphthenic acids. These acids were present in each fish that was exposed to naphthenic acids, but absent in fish that were not exposed to naphthenic acids. The minimum detectable concentration was about 1microg naphthenic acids g(-1) of fish.

  17. Effect of commercial grade endosulfan on growth and reproduction of the fighting fish Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, A; Pandian, T J

    2014-09-01

    To study the effects of endosulfan on survival, growth and reproduction of the obligate air-breathing male heterogametic fighting fish Betta splendens, posthatchlings of the fighting fish were discretely immersed for 3 h/day during the labile period on the 2nd, 5th, and 8th day posthatching (dph) at selected concentrations of commercial grade endosulfan ranging from 175 to 1400 ng/L. The immersions at 1,400 ng/L led to 21% mortality, among the 79% of surviving fry, 80% developed into females. The endosulfan reduced the air-breathing frequency of 5- and 8-day old hatchlings, and the reduction in the frequency persisted even after a depuration period of 172 days. In the ovary of the treated females, reduced number of vitellogenic oocytes with increased vacuolar cavities was observed. In the testis of the treated males, the reduced number of spermatogonia with increased vacuolar cavities was observed. The treated male induced the female to spawn a fewer eggs, which were subsequently incubated in his smaller bubble nest. The control females attained puberty on the 138th dph and spawned 120 eggs once in every 15 days, the females, which were previously treated at 1400 ng/L, postponed puberty to the 179th dph and spawned 70 eggs once in every 32 days. During the 240-day experiment, endosulfan is found to reduce significantly the cumulative progeny production from 760 to 144, reducing significantly to 19% of the control. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  18. Nursery use patterns of commercially important marine fish species in estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, R. P.; Reis-Santos, P.; Maia, A.; Fonseca, V.; França, S.; Wouters, N.; Costa, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.

    2010-03-01

    Analysing the estuarine use patterns of juveniles of marine migrant fish species is vital for identifying important sites for juveniles as well as the basic environmental features that characterize these sites for different species. This is a key aspect towards understanding nursery function. Various estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast (Minho, Douro, Ria de Aveiro, Mondego, Tejo, Sado, Mira, Ria Formosa and Guadiana) were sampled during Spring and Summer 2005 and 2006. Juveniles of commercially important marine fish species Solea solea, Solea senegalensis, Platichthys flesus, Diplodus vulgaris and Dicentrarchus labrax, predominantly 0-group individuals, were amongst the most abundant species and had distinct patterns of estuarine use as well as conspicuous associations with several environmental features. Juvenile occurrence and density varied amongst estuaries and sites within them, and differed with species. Sites with consistently high juvenile densities were identified as important juvenile sites (i.e. putative nursery grounds). Through generalized linear models (GLM), intra-estuarine variation in occurrence and density of each of the individual species was largely explained by environmental variables (temperature; salinity; depth; percentage of mud in the sediment; presence of seagrass; importance of intertidal areas; relative distance to estuary mouth; macrozoobenthos densities; and latitude). Decisive environmental factors defining important sites for juveniles varied depending on the system as a result of different environmental gradients, though there were common dominant features for each species regardless of the estuary considered. Analysed environmental variables in the GLM also accounted for inter-estuarine variation in species' occurrence and density. In several estuaries, the identified important juvenile sites were used by many of these species simultaneously and may be of increased value to both management and conservation. Overall, the

  19. Towards Integration of Environmental and Health Impact Assessments for Wild Capture Fishing and Farmed Fish with Particular Reference to Public Health and Occupational Health Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, Andrew; Little, David; Young, James A.; Boyd, Kathleen; Azim, Ekram; Murray, Francis

    2008-01-01

    The paper offers a review and commentary, with particular reference to the production of fish from wild capture fisheries and aquaculture, on neglected aspects of health impact assessments which are viewed by a range of international and national health bodies and development agencies as valuable and necessary project tools. Assessments sometimes include environmental health impact assessments but rarely include specific occupational health and safety impact assessments especially integrated into a wider public health assessment. This is in contrast to the extensive application of environmental impact assessments to fishing and the comparatively large body of research now generated on the public health effects of eating fish. The value of expanding and applying the broader assessments would be considerable because in 2004 the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization reports there were 41,408,000 people in the total ‘fishing’ sector including 11,289,000 in aquaculture. The paper explores some of the complex interactions that occur with regard to fishing activities and proposes the wider adoption of health impact assessment tools in these neglected sectors through an integrated public health impact assessment tool. PMID:19190356

  20. Effect of an acute and chronic toxicity of four commercial detergents on the freshwater fish Gambusia affinis Baird & Gerard.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Pratibha; Sharma, Subhasini; Sharma, Shweta; Suryavathi, V; Grover, Ruby; Soni, Pratima; Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, K P

    2005-04-01

    The toxic effects of four commercial detergents (two washing powders and two cakes) are reported in this paper on behavior, mortality and RBC counts of a freshwater fish Gambusia affinis. During acute toxicity studies (96h), surface movements of fish increased markedly for 24h, only at higher concentrations (>10 ppm) of all the four detergents. Thereafter, they were lethargic and bottom dwellers similar to those exposed for a period of 30 days in the longterm ecotoxicological studies made on detergent powders at a sublethal concentration (10 ppm). The detergents exposed to fish were found slippery due to mucous secretion. Hemorrhage regions were also found on their gills. The dissolved oxygen content also decreased (10-18%) in the detergent treatments of higher concentration (> 10 ppm). During acute toxicity studies, cakes (LC50 = 6.69 - 19.98ppm) were found more toxic than powders (LC50 = 18.34-20.72ppm). In comparison to the control fish, RBC counts decreased (12-64%) in the detergent exposed fish, being more pronounced among those exposed to cakes. The chronic exposure (30 days) of the fish also resulted in reduction in the RBC counts (41-58%). It is thus evident that all the four detergents are toxic to the fish Gambusia affinis.

  1. Ban on commercial fishing in the estuarine waters of New South Wales, Australia: Community consultation and social impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Momtaz, Salim Gladstone, William

    2008-02-15

    In its effort to resolve the conflict between commercial and recreational fishers the New South Wales (NSW) government (NSW Fisheries) banned commercial fishing in the estuarine waters. The NSW Fisheries conducted a number of studies and held meetings with the affected communities including commercial fishers prior to the implementation of the ban. To investigate how community consultation played a role in the decision-making process especially as perceived by the commercial fishers and to determine actual social impacts of the ban on commercial fishers, in-depth interviews were conducted with the commercial fishers. This research reveals that despite the NSW Fisheries' consultations with commercial fishers prior to the closure, the latter were confused about various vital aspects of the decision. It further reveals that, the commercial fishers faced a number of significant changes as a result of this decision. We argue that a better decision-making process and outcome would have been possible through a meaningful consultation with the commercial fishers and a social impact assessment.

  2. Commercial Fishing Port Development in North Florida. [Escambia, Bay, Gulf, Franklin, Wakulla, Nassau, and Duval Counties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathis, K. (Principal Investigator); Cato, J. C.; Degner, P. D.; Landrum, P. D.; Prochaska, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Seven major counties were examined: Escambia, Bay, Gulf, Franklin, Wakulla, Nassau, and Duval. Population and economic activity were reviewed, along with commercial fishing and port facilities. Recommendations for five northwest Florida counties were based on interpretation of aerial photographs, satellite imagery, an aerial survey site visit, and published data. Major needs in Pensacola included docking, ice supply, and net and engine repair services. Costs for additional docks, an ice plant, and gear storage were estimated at $3,658,600. Port users in Panama City identified additional docking and gear storage as primary needs, along with gear repair and a marine railway. Estimated costs for dock and gear storage were $2,860,000. Added docking, gear storage, and ice supply, as well as gear electronics and diesel repair were needed in Port St. Joe. Costs were calculated at $1,231,500. Franklin County has three ports (Apalachicola - $1,107,000 for docks and gear storage, Eastpoint - $420,000 for additional docks, and Carrabella - $2,824,100 for docks, gear storage, and ice plant).

  3. Natural Chemical Composition of Commercial Fish Species: Characterisation of Pangasius, Wild and Farmed Turbot and Barramundi.

    PubMed

    Manthey-Karl, Monika; Lehmann, Ines; Ostermeyer, Ute; Schröder, Ute

    2016-08-30

    To comply with the relevant legal requirements and correct labelling, it is necessary for business operators and inspection authorities to know the natural characteristics of the raw material. This study gives a comprehensive overview of muscle flesh composition of farmed and wild Atlantic turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and of farmed pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus). The proximate composition, di- and triphosphates and citric acid values are presented in order to evaluate possible indicators for a hidden treatment during processing to fillets. All moisture contents were ≤80%. Even for pangasius, protein values for deep skinned fillets of ≥18% were determined. Only small quantities of naturally occurring citric acid (up to 0.03 g·kg(-1)) were detectable. The lipid content was the most varying main component within the different species, ranging between 1.2% to 2.0% and 0.3% to 3.0% for farmed turbot and barramundi, respectively. Pangasius flesh had a mean lipid content of 7.8%. Trimming and separation of the red layer reduced the lipid content of the commercially sold white-flesh fillets to 2.7% to 3.5%. Fatty acids profiles, free amino acids, and minerals were analysed to show the nutritional quality of the aquaculture fish species and compared to wild turbot and barramundi. Despite some natural variation, these components can be considered as comparable.

  4. Natural Chemical Composition of Commercial Fish Species: Characterisation of Pangasius, Wild and Farmed Turbot and Barramundi

    PubMed Central

    Manthey-Karl, Monika; Lehmann, Ines; Ostermeyer, Ute; Schröder, Ute

    2016-01-01

    To comply with the relevant legal requirements and correct labelling, it is necessary for business operators and inspection authorities to know the natural characteristics of the raw material. This study gives a comprehensive overview of muscle flesh composition of farmed and wild Atlantic turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and barramundi (Lates calcarifer) and of farmed pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus). The proximate composition, di- and triphosphates and citric acid values are presented in order to evaluate possible indicators for a hidden treatment during processing to fillets. All moisture contents were ≤80%. Even for pangasius, protein values for deep skinned fillets of ≥18% were determined. Only small quantities of naturally occurring citric acid (up to 0.03 g·kg−1) were detectable. The lipid content was the most varying main component within the different species, ranging between 1.2% to 2.0% and 0.3% to 3.0% for farmed turbot and barramundi, respectively. Pangasius flesh had a mean lipid content of 7.8%. Trimming and separation of the red layer reduced the lipid content of the commercially sold white-flesh fillets to 2.7% to 3.5%. Fatty acids profiles, free amino acids, and minerals were analysed to show the nutritional quality of the aquaculture fish species and compared to wild turbot and barramundi. Despite some natural variation, these components can be considered as comparable. PMID:28231154

  5. Harvest Pressure on Coastal Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) from Recreational Fishing Relative to Commercial Fishing Assessed from Tag-Recovery Data

    PubMed Central

    Kleiven, Alf Ring; Fernandez-Chacon, Albert; Nordahl, Jan-Harald; Moland, Even; Espeland, Sigurd Heiberg; Knutsen, Halvor; Olsen, Esben Moland

    2016-01-01

    Marine recreational fishing is a popular outdoor activity. However, knowledge about the magnitude of recreational catches relative to commercial catches in coastal fisheries is generally sparse. Coastal Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) is a target species for recreational fishers in the North Atlantic. In Norway, recreational fishers are allowed to use a variety of traps and nets as well as long-line and rod and line when fishing for cod. From 2005 to 2013, 9729 cod (mean size: 40 cm, range: 15–93 cm) were tagged and released in coastal Skagerrak, southeast Norway. Both high-reward (NOK 500) and low-reward tags (NOK 50) were used in this study. Because some harvested fish (even those posting high-reward tags) may go unreported by fishers, reporting rates were estimated from mark-recovery models that incorporate detection parameters in their structure, in addition to survival and mortality estimates. During 2005 to 2013, a total of 1707 tagged cod were recovered and reported by fishers. We estimate the overall annual survival to be 33% (SE 1.5). Recreational rod and line fishing were responsible for 33.7% (SE 2.4) of total mortality, followed by commercial fisheries (15.1% SE 0.8) and recreational fixed gear (6.8% SE 0.4). Natural mortality was 44.4% (SE 2.5) of total mortality. Our findings suggest that recreational fishing—rod and line fishing in particular—is responsible for a substantial part of fishing mortality exerted on coastal cod in southern Norway. PMID:26959371

  6. 78 FR 70500 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2014 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Seasons

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... opportunity to fish for sharks in October through December because they participate in other fisheries at the... region the opportunity to fish starting in June while still providing fishing opportunities for fishermen... information on a number of relevant biological (e.g., water temperature, water quality due to rain run-off...

  7. OUTLINE FOR OCCUPATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS COURSE IN COMMERCIAL SEWING AND ALTERATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Home Economics Service.

    THE EXPERIMENTAL OUTLINE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN PLANNING A 2-SEMESTER COURSE TO PREPARE 11TH AND 12TH GRADE STUDENTS FOR ENTRY LEVEL COMMERCIAL CLOTHING JOBS SUCH AS ALTERERS, SEWING MACHINE OPERATORS, AND DRAPERY AND SLIPCOVER SEAMSTRESSES. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY VOCATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS TEACHERS AND STATE SUPERVISORS. STUDENTS LEARN TO PERFORM…

  8. OUTLINE FOR OCCUPATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS COURSE IN COMMERCIAL AND INSTITUTIONAL FOOD PREPARATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Home Economics Service.

    THE EXPERIMENTAL OUTLINE IS FOR TEACHER USE IN PLANNING A TWO-SEMESTER COURSE TO PREPARE 11TH AND 12TH GRADE STUDENTS FOR ENTRY LEVEL COMMERCIAL FOOD PREPARATION JOBS SUCH AS FOOD SERVICE WORKERS, COOK HELPERS, CATERER HELPERS, SALAD MAKERS, BAKER HELPERS, SHORT ORDER COOKS, AND TRAY LINE WORKERS. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY VOCATIONAL HOME ECONOMICS…

  9. [Hygienic evaluation of the safety of commercial type of fishes from the Amur River].

    PubMed

    Chukhlebova, L M

    2010-01-01

    The paper gives the results of an integrated assessment of the hygienic parameters of the fish newly caught from the Amur River. Microbiological assay of its muscle tissue for various pollutants (nitrosamines, petroleum products, heavy metals) was used as a basic study. The consequences of the saprophytic and opportunistic bacteria being introduced into the fish with its multicomponent pollution by the toxicants, as well as reduced fish resistance to the causative agents of various diseases are discussed. The investigations show that the fish caught during freezing-over in the main stream of the Amur River falls short its safety requirements. Long-term frozen storage of the fish lowers its nutritional value.

  10. Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2008

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 2008 annual reports submitted by five of the seven categories1 of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in this report in terms of collective dose and the distribution of dose among the monitored individuals. Because there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed and no low-level waste disposal facilities in operation, only five categories will be considered in this report.

  11. Characterization of changes in commercial building structure, equipment, and occupants: End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, R.G.; Taylor, Z.T.; Miller, N.E.; Pratt, R.G.

    1990-12-01

    Changes in commercial building structure, equipment, and occupants result in changes in building energy use. The frequency and magnitude of those changes have substantial implications for conservation programs and resource planning. For example, changes may shorten the useful lifetime of a conservation measure as well as impact the savings from that measure. This report summarizes the frequency of changes in a commercial building sample that was end-use metered under the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP). The sample includes offices, dry good retails, groceries, restaurants, warehouses, schools, and hotels. Two years of metered data, site visit records, and audit data were examined for evidence of building changes. The observed changes were then classified into 12 categories, which included business type, equipment, remodel, vacancy, and operating schedule. The analysis characterized changes in terms of frequency of types of change; relationship to building vintage and floor area; and variation by building type. The analysis also examined the energy impacts of various changes. The analysis determined that the rate of change in commercial buildings is high--50% of the buildings experienced one type of change during the 2 years for which monitoring data were examined. Equipment changes were found to be most frequent in offices and retail stores. Larger, older office buildings tend to experience a wider variety of changes more frequently than the smaller, newer buildings. Key findings and observations are presented in Section 2. Section 3 provides the underlying motivation and objectives. In Section 4, the methodology used is documented, including the commercial building sample and the data sources used. Included are the definitions of change events and the overall approach taken. Results are analyzed in Section 5, with additional technical details in Appendixes. 2 refs., 46 figs., 22 tabs. (JF)

  12. Evaluation of commercially prepared transport systems for nonlethal detection of Aeromonas salmonicida in salmonid fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cipriano, R.C.; Bullock, G.L.

    2001-01-01

    In vitro studies indicated that commercially prepared transport systems containing Amies, Stuart's, and Cary-Blair media worked equally well in sustaining the viability of the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida, which causes furunculosis. The bacterium remained viable without significant increase or decrease in cell numbers for as long as 48 h of incubation at 18-20??C in Stuart's transport medium; consequently, obtaining mucus samples in such tubes were comparable to on-site detection of A. salmonicida by dilution plate counts on Coomassie Brilliant Blue agar. In three different assays of 100 samples of mucus from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar infected subclinically with A. salmonicida, dilution counts conducted on-site proved more reliable for detecting the pathogen than obtaining the samples in the transport system. In the on-site assays, dilution counts detected the pathogen in 34, 41, and 22 samples, whereas this was accomplished in only 15, 15, and 3 of the respective samples when the transport system was used. In an additional experiment, Arctic char Salvelinus alpinus sustaining a frank epizootic of furunculosis were sampled similarly. Here, too, dilution counts were more predictive of the prevalence of A. salmonicida and detected the pathogen in 46 mucus samples; in comparison, only 6 samples collected by using the transport system were positive. We also observed that the transport system supported the growth of the normal mucus bacterial flora. Particularly predominant among these were motile aeromonads and Pseudomonas fluorescens. In studies of mixed culture growth, two representatives of both of the latter genera of bacteria outgrew A. salmonicida - in some cases, to the total exclusion of the pathogen itself.

  13. Identification of Sex and Female's Reproductive Stage in Commercial Fish Species through the Quantification of Ribosomal Transcripts in Gonads.

    PubMed

    Rojo-Bartolomé, Iratxe; Diaz de Cerio, Oihane; Diez, Guzman; Cancio, Ibon

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of maturity and sex of fish stocks in European waters is a requirement of the EU Data Collection Framework as part of the policy to improve fisheries management. On the other hand, research on fish biology is increasingly focused in molecular approaches, researchers needing correct identification of fish sex and reproductive stage without necessarily having in house the histological know-how necessary for the task. Taking advantage of the differential gene transcription occurring during fish sex differentiation and gametogenesis, the utility of 5S ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) and General transcription factor IIIA (gtf3a) in the molecular identification of sex and gametogenic stage was tested in different economically-relevant fish species from the Bay of Biscay. Gonads of 9 fish species (, Atlantic, Atlantic-chub and horse mackerel, blue whiting, bogue, European anchovy, hake and pilchard and megrim), collected from local commercial fishing vessels were histologically sexed and 5S and 18S rRNA concentrations were quantified by capillary electrophoresis to calculate a 5S/18S rRNA index. Degenerate primers permitted cloning and sequencing of gtf3a fragments in 7 of the studied species. 5S rRNA and gtf3a transcript levels, together with 5S/18S rRNA index, distinguished clearly ovaries from testis in all of the studied species. The values were always higher in females than in males. 5S/18S rRNA index values in females were always highest when fish were captured in early phases of ovary development whilst, in later vitellogenic stages, the values decreased significantly. In megrim and European anchovy, where gonads in different oogenesis stages were obtained, the 5S/18S rRNA index identified clearly gametogenic stage. This approach, to the sexing and the quantitative non-subjective identification of the maturity stage of female fish, could have multiple applications in the study of fish stock dynamics, fish reproduction and fecundity and fish biology in

  14. The occupation of trawl fishing and the medical aid available to the Grimsby deep sea fisherman1

    PubMed Central

    Moore, S. R. W.

    1969-01-01

    Moore, S. R. W. (1969).Brit. J. industr. Med.,26, 1-24. The occupation of trawl fishing and the medical aid available to the Grimsby deep sea fisherman. The mortality of fishermen is twice that of coalminers. Because of the method of fishing the mortality of the trawlerman is probably higher. Outside the industry little is known about the occupation of trawl fishing. Its size, the number of men employed, and the number and distribution of trawlers are therefore described, with particular reference to the port of Grimsby. As near, middle, and deep water trawlers sail from Grimsby, its industry gives a good representation of conditions in the industry as a whole. The port and the fishing grounds are described. The composition of the trawler crew, their conditions of work, accommodation, and remuneration are explained. A description is given of the trawl apparatus, fishing operations, and the hazards involved, and extracts from the writer's diary of a fishing voyage are appended. The United Kingdom has ratified the Accommodation of Crews (Fishermen) Convention 1966 of the International Labour Organisation, and an informal survey of a modern trawler fleet showed that it fell short of the requirements of this Convention. Accommodation is confined and the crew live and work in close proximity and in conditions of physical discomfort. Trawlermen work for long hours under conditions which would not be tolerated by the shore worker. The method of payment is such that trawlermen may take unnecessary risks. Earnings depend on team work so that illness and injury are often not reported with consequent deterioration of the condition. Physical fatigue and lack of sleep contribute to an increased accident rate. It is therefore recommended that more men per trawler should be employed to allow shorter working hours. As the skipper and mate are paid wholly on a share basis, the remainder of the crew receiving, in addition, a basic wage, it `pays' the trawlermen to take risks. A

  15. Entrainment, retention, and transport of freely swimming fish in junction gaps between commercial barges operating on the Illinois Waterway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Jeremiah J.; Jackson, P. Ryan; Engel, Frank; LeRoy, Jessica Z.; Neeley, Rebecca N.; Finney, Samuel T.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Large Electric Dispersal Barriers were constructed in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal (CSSC) to prevent the transfer of invasive fish species between the Mississippi River Basin and the Great Lakes Basin while simultaneously allowing the passage of commercial barge traffic. We investigated the potential for entrainment, retention, and transport of freely swimming fish within large gaps (> 50 m3) created at junction points between barges. Modified mark and capture trials were employed to assess fish entrainment, retention, and transport by barge tows. A multi-beam sonar system enabled estimation of fish abundance within barge junction gaps. Barges were also instrumented with acoustic Doppler velocity meters to map the velocity distribution in the water surrounding the barge and in the gap formed at the junction of two barges. Results indicate that the water inside the gap can move upstream with a barge tow at speeds near the barge tow travel speed. Water within 1 m to the side of the barge junction gaps was observed to move upstream with the barge tow. Observed transverse and vertical water velocities suggest pathways by which fish may potentially be entrained into barge junction gaps. Results of mark and capture trials provide direct evidence that small fish can become entrained by barges, retained within junction gaps, and transported over distances of at least 15.5 km. Fish entrained within the barge junction gap were retained in that space as the barge tow transited through locks and the Electric Dispersal Barriers, which would be expected to impede fish movement upstream.

  16. Alaska OCS socioeconomic studies program: St. George basin and North Aleutian Shelf commercial fishing industry analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tobolski, J.; Guluka, L.; Trefethen, D.; Im, K.

    1981-10-01

    This report consists of an update of the data base and analysis of the potential impacts to commercial fishing of proposed Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas lease sales in the St. George Basin and North Aleutian Shelf, situated in the Bering Sea off Alaska. Impacts on the Bristol Bay fishery are also discussed. Competition for labor between the fishing and oil industries is examined, as well as an analysis of risk of collision among vessels in the OCS areas. A description of the fisheries resources of the area is followed by an analysis of loss of access to fishing grounds, and loss of or damage to gear. Impacts on the recreational fishery are also discussed.

  17. Accidental Bait: Do Deceased Fish Increase Freshwater Turtle Bycatch in Commercial Fyke Nets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larocque, Sarah M.; Watson, Paige; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J.

    2012-07-01

    Bycatch of turtles in passive inland fyke net fisheries has been poorly studied, yet bycatch is an important conservation issue given the decline in many freshwater turtle populations. Delayed maturity and low natural adult mortality make turtles particularly susceptible to population declines when faced with additional anthropogenic adult mortality such as bycatch. When turtles are captured in fyke nets, the prolonged submergence can lead to stress and subsequent drowning. Fish die within infrequently checked passive fishing nets and dead fish are a potential food source for many freshwater turtles. Dead fish could thus act as attractants and increase turtle captures in fishing nets. We investigated the attraction of turtles to decomposing fish within fyke nets in eastern Ontario. We set fyke nets with either 1 kg of one-day or five-day decomposed fish, or no decomposed fish in the cod-end of the net. Decomposing fish did not alter the capture rate of turtles or fish, nor did it alter the species composition of the catch. Thus, reducing fish mortality in nets using shorter soak times is unlikely to alter turtle bycatch rates since turtles were not attracted by the dead fish. Interestingly, turtle bycatch rates increased as water temperatures did. Water temperature also influences turtle mortality by affecting the duration turtles can remain submerged. We thus suggest that submerged nets to either not be set or have reduced soak times in warm water conditions (e.g., >20 °C) as turtles tend to be captured more frequently and cannot withstand prolonged submergence.

  18. Accidental bait: do deceased fish increase freshwater turtle bycatch in commercial fyke nets?

    PubMed

    Larocque, Sarah M; Watson, Paige; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Cooke, Steven J

    2012-07-01

    Bycatch of turtles in passive inland fyke net fisheries has been poorly studied, yet bycatch is an important conservation issue given the decline in many freshwater turtle populations. Delayed maturity and low natural adult mortality make turtles particularly susceptible to population declines when faced with additional anthropogenic adult mortality such as bycatch. When turtles are captured in fyke nets, the prolonged submergence can lead to stress and subsequent drowning. Fish die within infrequently checked passive fishing nets and dead fish are a potential food source for many freshwater turtles. Dead fish could thus act as attractants and increase turtle captures in fishing nets. We investigated the attraction of turtles to decomposing fish within fyke nets in eastern Ontario. We set fyke nets with either 1 kg of one-day or five-day decomposed fish, or no decomposed fish in the cod-end of the net. Decomposing fish did not alter the capture rate of turtles or fish, nor did it alter the species composition of the catch. Thus, reducing fish mortality in nets using shorter soak times is unlikely to alter turtle bycatch rates since turtles were not attracted by the dead fish. Interestingly, turtle bycatch rates increased as water temperatures did. Water temperature also influences turtle mortality by affecting the duration turtles can remain submerged. We thus suggest that submerged nets to either not be set or have reduced soak times in warm water conditions (e.g., >20 °C) as turtles tend to be captured more frequently and cannot withstand prolonged submergence.

  19. Concentration and exposure assessment of mercury in commercial fish and other seafood marketed in Oman.

    PubMed

    Al-Mughairi, Sabra; Yesudhason, Poulose; Al-Busaidi, Moza; Al-Waili, Aaliah; Al-Rahbi, Waleed A K; Al-Mazrooei, Nashwa; Al-Habsi, Saoud H

    2013-07-01

    The results of this study present analytical data of the mercury levels in several fish and shellfish species to create awareness among individuals of the risks associated with consuming fish contaminated with mercury. Mercury concentrations varied from a mean of 0.02 mg/kg in Indian mackerel to 0.19 mg/kg in shark in both fresh and frozen fish, from 0.02 mg/kg in sardines to 0.18 mg/kg in skipjack tuna in canned fish, and from 0.02 mg/kg in Indian mackerel to 0.79 mg/kg in shark in dried fish. Shellfish contained a slightly higher amount of mercury than fresh or frozen fish with a mean of 0.09 mg/kg. Trophic position, followed by habitat, was the most important factors for variability in mercury concentrations in fish and shellfish. The maximum safe weekly intake (MSWI) values of mercury were significantly higher for herbivores than for carnivores. The MSWI value for total mercury in the case of consuming most (72%) fish species was more than 5 kg; however, the MSWI value was never more than 5 kg in most (66%) shellfish species. Risks were identified upon consumption of 120 g of dried shark when exceeding the provisional tolerable weekly intake threshold (1.6 μg/kg) for methylmercury. Therefore, fish-eating populations should reduce the quantity of dried shark to efficiently diminish the exposure to mercury.

  20. An occupancy-based quantification of the highly imperiled status of desert fishes of the southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Budy, Phaedra; Conner, Mary M; Salant, Nira L; Macfarlane, William W

    2015-08-01

    Desert fishes are some of the most imperiled vertebrates worldwide due to their low economic worth and because they compete with humans for water. An ecological complex of fishes, 2 suckers (Catostomus latipinnis, Catostomus discobolus) and a chub (Gila robusta) (collectively managed as the so-called three species) are endemic to the U.S. Colorado River Basin, are affected by multiple stressors, and have allegedly declined dramatically. We built a series of occupancy models to determine relationships between trends in occupancy, local extinction, and local colonization rates, identify potential limiting factors, and evaluate the suitability of managing the 3 species collectively. For a historical period (1889-2011), top performing models (AICc) included a positive time trend in local extinction probability and a negative trend in local colonization probability. As flood frequency decreased post-development local extinction probability increased. By the end of the time series, 47% (95% CI 34-61) and 15% (95% CI 6-33) of sites remained occupied by the suckers and the chub, respectively, and models with the 2 species of sucker as one group and the chub as the other performed best. For a contemporary period (2001-2011), top performing (based on AICc ) models included peak annual discharge. As peak discharge increased, local extinction probability decreased and local colonization probability increased. For the contemporary period, results of models that split all 3 species into separate groups were similar to results of models that combined the 2 suckers but not the chub. Collectively, these results confirmed that declines in these fishes were strongly associated with water development and that relative to their historic distribution all 3 species have declined dramatically. Further, the chub was distinct in that it declined the most dramatically and therefore may need to be managed separately. Our modeling approach may be useful in other situations in which targeted

  1. Occupational vitiligo due to unsuspected presence of phenolic antioxidant byproducts in commercial bulk rubber

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, M.A.; Mathias, C.G.; Priddy, M.; Molina, D.; Grote, A.A.; Halperin, W.E.

    1988-06-01

    We investigated the occurrence of cutaneous depigmentation (vitiligo) among employees of a company that manufactured hydraulic pumps. The interiors of these pumps were injection-molded with rubber. We identified a small but significant cluster of vitiligo cases among a group of employees who frequently handled the rubber used in this injection molding process. Although none of the additives specified in the rubber formulations was a phenolic or catecholic derivative, known to be potential causes of chemically induced vitiligo, gas chromatographic analysis identified a para-substituted phenol (2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, DTBP) in solid samples of the most frequently used rubber. Surface wipe analysis confirmed that workers could be exposed to DTBP from simple handling of the rubber. We subsequently established that the solid bulk rubber used as the base in these stock rubber formulations contained both DTBP and smaller quantities of p-tert-butylphenol. Both had formed as unsuspected byproducts during chemical synthesis of two antioxidants added to the solid bulk rubber by a major rubber supplier. We conclude that the unsuspected presence of potential chemical depigmenting agents in solid bulk rubber, from which industrial rubber products are formulated, may contribute to the occurrence of occupational vitiligo, and that a simple review of ingredients in rubber formulations is inadequate to detect their presence.

  2. Population parameters and dynamic pool models of commercial fishes in the Beibu Gulf, northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xuehui; Qiu, Yongsong; Du, Feiyan; Lin, Zhaojin; Sun, Dianrong; Huang, Shuolin

    2012-01-01

    Length-frequency data of eight commercial fish species in the Beibu Gulf (Golf of Tonkin), northern South China Sea, were collected during 2006-2007. Length-weight relationships and growth and mortality parameters were analyzed using FiSAT II software. Five species had isometric growth, two species had negative allometric growth, and one species had positive allometric growth. Overall, the exploitation rates of the eight species were lower in 2006-2007 than in 1997-1999: for four species ( Saurida tumbil, Saurida undosquamis, Argyrosomus macrocephalus, and Nemipterus virgatus) it was lower in 2006-2007 than in 1997-1999, for two species ( Parargyrops edita and Trichiurus haumela) it remained the same, and for the other two species ( Trachurus japonicus and Decapterus maruadsi) it was higher in 2006-2007 than in 1997-1999. The exploitation rates might have declined because of the decline in fishing intensity caused by high crude oil prices. The optimum exploitation rate, estimated using Beverton-Holt dynamic pool models, indicated that although fishes in the Beibu Gulf could sustain high exploitation rates, the under-size fishes at first capture resulted in low yields. To increase the yield per recruitment, it is more effective to increase the size at first capture than to control fishing effort.

  3. Persistent disturbance by commercial navigation afters the relative abundance of channel-dwelling fishes in a large river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutreuter, S.; Vallazza, J.M.; Knights, B.C.

    2006-01-01

    We provide the first evidence for chronic effects of disturbance by commercial vessels on the spatial distribution and abundance of fishes in the channels of a large river. Most of the world's large rivers are intensively managed to satisfy increasing demands for commercial shipping, but little research has been conducted to identify and alleviate any adverse consequences of commercial navigation. We used a combination of a gradient sampling design incorporating quasicontrol areas with Akaike's information criterion (AIC)-weighted model averaging to estimate effects of disturbances by commercial vessels on fishes in the upper Mississippi River. Species density, which mainly measured species evenness, decreased with increasing disturbance frequency. The most abundant species - gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) and freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) - and the less abundant shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus) and flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris) were seemingly unaffected by traffic disturbance. In contrast, the relative abundance of the toothed herrings (Hiodon spp.), redhorses (Moxostoma spp.), buffaloes (Ictiobus spp.), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), sauger (Sander canadensis), and white bass (Morone chrysops) decreased with increasing traffic in the navigation channel. We hypothesized that the combination of alteration of hydraulic features within navigation channels and rehabilitation of secondary channels might benefit channel-dependent species. ?? 2006 NRC.

  4. Human exposure to mercury in a compact fluorescent lamp manufacturing area: By food (rice and fish) consumption and occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chan; Zhang, Jin; Cao, Yucheng; You, Qiongzhi; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Wong, Ming-Hung; Wu, Sheng-Chun

    2015-03-01

    To investigate human Hg exposure by food consumption and occupation exposure in a compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) manufacturing area, human hair and rice samples were collected from Gaohong town, Zhejiang Province, China. The mean values of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in local cultivated rice samples were significantly higher than in commercial rice samples which indicated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in Hg accumulation in local rice samples. For all of the study participants, significantly higher THg concentrations in human hair were observed in CFL workers compared with other residents. In comparison, MeHg concentrations in human hair of residents whose diet consisted of local cultivated rice were significantly higher than those who consumed commercial rice. These results demonstrated that CFL manufacturing activities resulted in THg accumulation in the hair of CFL workers. However, MeHg in hair were mainly affected by the sources of rice of the residents.

  5. Bioenergetic phenotypes and metabolic stress responses in cells derived from ecologically and commercially important fish species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As organisms intimately associated with their environment, fish are sensitive to numerous environmental insults which can negatively affect their cellular physiology. For our purposes, fish subject to intensive farming practices can experience a host of acute and chronic stressors such as changes in...

  6. Profiling bioenergetics and metabolic stress in cells derived from commercially important fish species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As organisms intimately associated with their environment, fish are sensitive to numerous environmental insults which can negatively affect their cellular physiology. For our purposes, fish subject to intensive farming practices can experience a host of acute and chronic stressors such as changes in...

  7. 77 FR 75896 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2013 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... limits (50 CFR 635.24(a)(8)) to provide flexibility in managing the furtherance of equitable fishing... porbeagle shark landings would result in a lot of dead discards, since porbeagle sharks are caught... sharks that are caught incidentally during other fishing must be discarded, either alive or dead....

  8. Histamine levels in commercially important fresh and processed fish of Oman with reference to international standards.

    PubMed

    Yesudhason, Poulose; Al-Zidjali, Mehdia; Al-Zidjali, Alia; Al-Busaidi, Moza; Al-Waili, Aaliah; Al-Mazrooei, Nashwa; Al-Habsi, Saoud

    2013-10-15

    Histamine was investigated in fresh (378), frozen (441), canned (290) and dried (24) fish samples of scombroid and non-scombroid species of Oman using a high performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Of the 1133 fish samples tested, histamine was detected in 551 samples with a detection rate of about 41.8% among fresh fish, 61.0% of frozen fish, 78.9% of canned fish and 91.6% of dried fish samples and the mean histamine levels were 2.6, 5.8, 3.1 and 104mgkg(-1), respectively. A total of 3.7% and 0.79% of the total samples exceeded the FDA and EU regulatory limits for histamine. Imported dried anchovies contained high histamine levels. The study confirms that post catching and commercialisation practices of seafood are adequate, warranting good quality fish and may not cause histamine risk to consumer in terms of human diet. While necessary monitoring may be done for imported dried fish products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Method- and species-specific detection probabilities of fish occupancy in Arctic lakes: Implications for design and management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, Trevor B.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies examining species occurrence often fail to account for false absences in field sampling. We investigate detection probabilities of five gear types for six fish species in a sample of lakes on the North Slope, Alaska. We used an occupancy modeling approach to provide estimates of detection probabilities for each method. Variation in gear- and species-specific detection probability was considerable. For example, detection probabilities for the fyke net ranged from 0.82 (SE = 0.05) for least cisco (Coregonus sardinella) to 0.04 (SE = 0.01) for slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus). Detection probabilities were also affected by site-specific variables such as depth of the lake, year, day of sampling, and lake connection to a stream. With the exception of the dip net and shore minnow traps, each gear type provided the highest detection probability of at least one species. Results suggest that a multimethod approach may be most effective when attempting to sample the entire fish community of Arctic lakes. Detection probability estimates will be useful for designing optimal fish sampling and monitoring protocols in Arctic lakes.

  10. Relative toxicity of technical material and commercial formulation of malathion and endosulfan to a freshwater fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch).

    PubMed

    Haider, S; Inbaraj, R M

    1986-06-01

    Relative toxicity of technical and commercial formulations of malathion and endosulfan were evaluated by determining LC50 values and their 95% confidence interval end points for 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr exposure to Channa punctatus using the "trimmed Spearman-Karber method." The commercial formulations of malathion and endosulfan were 1.176 and 1.88 times more toxic than their technical materials, respectively. Ninety-six-hour LC50 values (0% trimming) of technical and commercial formulations of malathion and endosulfan (95% confidence interval in parentheses) were 4.51 (4.11-4.96) and 3.89 (3.46-4.38) mg/liter, and 5.78 (4.49-7.44) and 3.07 (2.43-3.84) micrograms/liter, respectively. Fishes showed characteristic changes in behavior when exposed to various concentrations of these insecticides.

  11. Proximate and fatty acid composition of some commercially important fish species from the Sinop region of the Black Sea.

    PubMed

    Kocatepe, Demet; Turan, Hülya

    2012-06-01

    The proximate and fatty acid compositions of the commercially important fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Alosa alosa, Belone belone, Scorpaena porcus, Pomatomus saltatrix, Mullus barbatus) from the Sinop region of the Black Sea were examined. The fat contents ranged from 1.26% (for scorpion fish) to 18.12% (for shad). The protein contents were min 14.54% (for red mullet) and maximum 20.26% (for belone). The fatty acid compositions of the fish ranged from 27.83 to 35.91% for saturated fatty acids, 19.50-33.80% for monounsaturated fatty acids and 15.25-40.02% for polyunsaturated fatty acids. Among the saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid (16:0) (17.75-22.20%) was the dominant fatty acid for all the fish species. As a second saturated fatty acid, myristic acid (14:0) was observed in four of the fish species and its content ranged from 4.72 to 7.31%. Whereas, for the other two fish species, the second saturated fatty acid was stearic acid (18:0) ranging between 4.54 and 10.64%. Among the monounsaturated fatty acids, those occurring in the highest proportions were oleic acid (18:1n-9c) (11.67-22.45%) and palmitoleic acid (16:1) (4.50-9.40%). Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) (5.41-28.52%), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) (4.68-11.06) and linoleic acid (18:2n-6) (1.38-3.49%) were dominant polyunsaturated fatty acids, respectively. All the species, in particular the belone, the anchovy and the shad had high levels of the n-3 series.

  12. Development and Evaluation of Solar Tunnel Dryer for Commercial Fish Drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohod, A. G.; Khandetod, Y. P.; Shrirame, H. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The local practice of drying fish in open sun drying poses problems such as high moisture content, uncontrolled drying and contamination. These problems can be avoided by proper use of improved methods such as the solar tunnel dryer, which results in faster drying of fish. The semi cylindrical walk-in type natural convection solar tunnel dryer, having drying area of 37.5 m2 was developed and evaluated for the drying of fish products in comparison with the conventional method of open sun drying. The experiments were conducted without fish and with fish to evaluate the performance of solar tunnel dryer. The average rise in temperature inside the solar tunnel dryer was found to be 11.24 °C and 18.29 °C over the ambient temperature during no load test in winter and summer respectively. The average 28 % saving in time was observed for selected fish drying using solar tunnel dryer over open sun drying method with average drying efficiency of 19 %. The economics was calculated for drying of prawns ( Parapaeneopsis stylifera) by solar tunnel dryer and open sun drying system on the basis of business as a whole. The economics of the solar tunnel dryer is presented in term of Net present worth, Benefit-Cost Ratio, Payback period, Profitability index and Internal rate of return. The pay back period for solar tunnel dryer was found to be 2.84 years.

  13. Nutritional evaluation of commercially important fish species of Lakshadweep archipelago, India.

    PubMed

    Dhaneesh, Kottila Veettil; Noushad, Kunnamgalam Mohammed; Kumar, Thipramalai Thankappan Ajith

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of nutrition profile of edible fishes is essential and thus a bio-monitoring study was carried out to find out the nutritional composition of commonly available fishes in Agatti Island water of Lakshadweep Sea. Protein, carbohydrate, lipid, ash, vitamin, amino acid and fatty acid composition in the muscle of ten edible fish species were studied. Proximate analysis revealed that the protein, carbohydrate, lipid and ash contents were high in Thunnus albacares (13.69%), Parupeneus bifasciatus (6.12%), Hyporhamphus dussumieri (6.97%) and T. albacares (1.65%), respectively. Major amino acids were lysine, leucine and methionine, registering 2.84-4.56%, 2.67-4.18% and 2.64-3.91%, respectively. Fatty acid compositions ranged from 31.63% to 38.97% saturated (SFA), 21.99-26.30% monounsaturated (MUFAs), 30.32-35.11% polyunsaturated acids (PUFAs) and 2.86-7.79% branched fatty acids of the total fatty acids. The ω-3 and ω-6 PUFAs were ranged 13.05-21.14% and 6.88-9.82% of the total fatty acids, respectively. Hence, the fishes of Lakshadweep Sea are highly recommended for consumption, since these fishes are highly enriched with nutrition. The results can be used as a baseline data for comparing the various nutritional profiles of fishes in future.

  14. Heavy metals in fish tissues/stomach contents in four marine wild commercially valuable fish species from the western continental shelf of South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Lin, Qin; Huang, Hong-Hui; Wang, Liang-Gen; Ning, Jia-Jia; Du, Fei-Yan

    2017-01-30

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu and Zn) were determined in four commercially valuable fish species (Thunnus obesus, Decapterus lajang, Cubiceps squamiceps and Priacanthus macracanthus), collected in the western continental shelf of the South China Sea. Concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, and Zn in fish muscles were 0.006-0.050, 0.13-0.68, 0.18-0.85, 0.11-0.25, 0.12-0.77, and 2.41-4.73μg/g, wet weight, respectively. Concentrations of heavy metals in all species were below their acceptable daily upper limit, suggesting human consumption of these wild fish species may be safe, with health risk assessment based on the target hazard quotients (THQ) and total THQ, indicating no significant adverse health effects with consumption. The average concentrations of Zn were higher in gills than in stomach contents, backbones or muscle, while conversely, the other heavy metals had higher concentrations in stomach contents than in other tissues.

  15. Interlaboratory bias in the determination of mercury concentrations in commercially available fish utilizing thermal decomposition/amalgamation atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Butala, Steven J M; Scanlan, Larry P; Chaudhuri, Sanwat N; Perry, Deborah D; Taylor, Robert J

    2007-10-01

    Four commercially available fish fillets were freeze-dried, homogenized, and analyzed for mercury by the Texas A&M Trace Element Research Laboratory and the Utah Public Health Laboratory (UPHL) utilizing thermal decomposition/amalgamation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Two-way analysis of variance detected bias in the data between the two laboratories. Some of the bias could be attributed to different calibration curve quantitation and near detection limit quantitation, albeit causal explanations could be confounded with other effects. Knowledge of analytical bias will aid interpretation of interlaboratory data. The swordfish mercury content, as determined by both laboratories, was about 1 ppm, while mercury content found in the Atlantic salmon was about 0.021 ppm. For the Alaskan halibut, the Texas A&M measured a mercury concentration of 0.155 ppm, while the UPHL measured a mercury concentration of 0.181 ppm for the same fish. The Texas A&M determined that the Canadian-raised salmon contained about 0.019 ppm of mercury, while the UPHL determined a mercury content of about 0.025 ppm for the same fish. The mercury found within the fish fillets did not exceed nationwide mercury mean values determined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  16. Tracing Cr, Pb, Fe and Mn occurrence in the Bahía Blanca estuary through commercial fish species.

    PubMed

    La Colla, Noelia S; Botté, Sandra E; Oliva, Ana L; Marcovecchio, Jorge E

    2017-05-01

    Over the last decades the anthropogenic contamination impact has substantially increased in the Bahía Blanca estuarine area, and scarce information exists regarding metals in the biotic compartment of this estuary. Thus, fish tissues were used to evaluate metal accumulation within this aquatic environment. The study focused on the determination of Cr, Pb, Fe and Mn in the gills, liver and muscle tissues of six commercial fish species (Brevoortia aurea, Odontesthes argentinensis, Micropogonias furnieri, Cynoscion guatucupa, Mustelus schmitti and Paralichthys orbignyanus). From the results it can be summarized that C. guatucupa tends to accumulate higher metal levels in the liver tissues, mostly Cr and Fe, than the other studied species. O. argentinensis and P. orbignyanus, both permanent inhabitants of the BBE, achieved the highest metal values in the gill tissues, mostly in comparison to M. schmitti. The gill tissues were found to be the main organ of Mn and Ni accumulation for most species, whereas in general, minimum concentrations were found for all the analyzed metals in the muscle tissues. Nevertheless, and according to the guidelines, all fish species showed at least one sample with concentrations of Mn and/or Cr above the permissible levels for human consumption. Finally, it was highlighted the usefulness of selecting these fish species as bioindicators of metal pollution, since they are either permanent inhabitants of the estuary or, according to the sizes under analyses, spend much of their time in this coastal waters.

  17. Characterization of the gut microbiota of three commercially valuable warmwater fish species.

    PubMed

    Larsen, A M; Mohammed, H H; Arias, C R

    2014-06-01

    Due to the strong influence of the gut microbiota on fish health, dominant bacterial species in the gut are strong candidates for probiotics. This study aimed to characterize the gut microbiota of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and bluegill Lepomis macrochirus to provide a baseline for future probiotic studies. The gut microbiota of five pooled individuals from each fish species was identified using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Microbiota differed significantly between fish species in terms of bacterial species evenness. However, all gut communities analysed were dominated by the phylum Fusobacteria, specifically the species Cetobacterium somerae. Relatively high abundances of the human pathogens Plesiomonas shigelloides and Fusobacterium mortiferum, as well as members of the genus Aeromonas, suggest these species are normal inhabitants of the gut. The overwhelming dominance of the genus Cetobacterium in all species warrants further investigation into its role in the fish gut microbiota. This study provides the first characterization of the gut microbiota of three economically significant fishes and establishes a baseline for future probiotic trials. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Overview of immigrant worker occupational health and safety for the agriculture, forestry, and fishing (AgFF) sector in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Sidebottom, Jill; Wiggins, Melinda F

    2013-08-01

    Manual labor in the Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing (AgFF) Sector is provided primarily by immigrant workers. Limited information is available that documents the demographic characteristics of these manual workers, the occupational illnesses, injuries and fatalities they experience; or the risk factors to which they are exposed. A working conference of experts on occupational health in the AgFF Sector was held to address information limitations. This paper provides an overview of the conference. Other reports address organization of work, health outcomes, healthcare access, and safety policy. This report addresses how best to define the population and the AgFF Sector, occupational exposures for the sector, data limitations, characteristics of immigrant workers, reasons for concern for immigrant workers in the AgFF Sector, regulations, a conceptual model for occupational health, and directions for research and intervention. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. 77 FR 21946 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; Bottlenose Dolphin Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... 19 (24%) were attributed to medium mesh gillnets in the North Carolina portion of the Winter-Mixed... occupies ] coastal waters year-round from the Georgia/Florida border to 29.4 N. 5. Western North Atlantic... mesh gillnet fishing restrictions in North Carolina coastal state waters, which would otherwise...

  20. 76 FR 42082 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Commercial Fishing Operations; False Killer Whale Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... , or the Take Reduction Team Web site: www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/interactions/trt/falsekillerwhale.htm , or... deep-set longline fishery; modification of an existing longline prohibited area around the Main Hawaiian Islands; a new longline prohibited area that would be closed to deep-set longline fishing only...

  1. Large scale, synchronous variability of marine fish populations driven by commercial exploitation

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Kenneth T.; Petrie, Brian; Leggett, William C.; Boyce, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous variations in the abundance of geographically distinct marine fish populations are known to occur across spatial scales on the order of 1,000 km and greater. The prevailing assumption is that this large-scale coherent variability is a response to coupled atmosphere–ocean dynamics, commonly represented by climate indexes, such as the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation. On the other hand, it has been suggested that exploitation might contribute to this coherent variability. This possibility has been generally ignored or dismissed on the grounds that exploitation is unlikely to operate synchronously at such large spatial scales. Our analysis of adult fishing mortality and spawning stock biomass of 22 North Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks revealed that both the temporal and spatial scales in fishing mortality and spawning stock biomass were equivalent to those of the climate drivers. From these results, we conclude that greater consideration must be given to the potential of exploitation as a driving force behind broad, coherent variability of heavily exploited fish species. PMID:27382163

  2. Identification of Highly Prized Commercial Fish Using a PCR-Based Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Paloma; Garcia-Vasquez, Eva

    2006-01-01

    We report a practical class designed for undergraduate students of Marine Sciences as a part of the Genetics course. The class can also be included in undergraduate studies of food technology. The exercise was designed to emphasize the application of molecular biology techniques to fish species authentication and traceability. After a simple and…

  3. Identification of Highly Prized Commercial Fish Using a PCR-Based Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Paloma; Garcia-Vasquez, Eva

    2006-01-01

    We report a practical class designed for undergraduate students of Marine Sciences as a part of the Genetics course. The class can also be included in undergraduate studies of food technology. The exercise was designed to emphasize the application of molecular biology techniques to fish species authentication and traceability. After a simple and…

  4. 77 FR 3393 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; 2012 Atlantic Shark Commercial Fishing Season

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... science to maintain or rebuild overfished shark stocks. The final rule does not reanalyze the overall... for the public to decipher, as the wording is not clear and/or the math seems not to be accurate. NMFS... science do not indicate that fishing of either species must stop completely. A petition to list...

  5. Optimizing fish meal-free commercial diets for Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A feeding trial was conducted in a closed recirculating aquaculture system with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus juveniles (mean weight, 6.81 g) to examine the response to a practical diet containing protein primarily from menhaden fish meal (FM) and soybean meal (SBM) (control, Diet 1) or to diet...

  6. 76 FR 51317 - Waiver of Citizenship Requirements for Crewmembers on Commercial Fishing Vessels

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... tender vessel that is engaged in the fisheries in the navigable waters of the United States or the...=-17679&programId=12861 . This policy letter explains the steps involved in the request for a waiver process. The Coast Guard intended the letter to be the means of informing the fishing industry of...

  7. Asymmetric connectivity of spawning aggregations of a commercially important marine fish using a multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Alexis; Marinone, Silvio Guido; Erisman, Brad; Moreno-Baez, Marcia; Girón-Nava, Alfredo; Pfister, Tad; Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Torre, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Understanding patterns of larval dispersal is key in determining whether no-take marine reserves are self-sustaining, what will be protected inside reserves and where the benefits of reserves will be observed. We followed a multidisciplinary approach that merged detailed descriptions of fishing zones and spawning time at 17 sites distributed in the Midriff Island region of the Gulf of California with a biophysical oceanographic model that simulated larval transport at Pelagic Larval Duration (PLD) 14, 21 and 28 days for the most common and targeted predatory reef fish, (leopard grouper Mycteroperca rosacea). We tested the hypothesis that source–sink larval metapopulation dynamics describing the direction and frequency of larval dispersal according to an oceanographic model can help to explain empirical genetic data. We described modeled metapopulation dynamics using graph theory and employed empirical sequence data from a subset of 11 sites at two mitochondrial genes to verify the model predictions based on patterns of genetic diversity within sites and genetic structure between sites. We employed a population graph describing a network of genetic relationships among sites and contrasted it against modeled networks. While our results failed to explain genetic diversity within sites, they confirmed that ocean models summarized via graph and adjacency distances over modeled networks can explain seemingly chaotic patterns of genetic structure between sites. Empirical and modeled networks showed significant similarities in the clustering coefficients of each site and adjacency matrices between sites. Most of the connectivity patterns observed towards downstream sites (Sonora coast) were strictly asymmetric, while those between upstream sites (Baja and the Midriffs) were symmetric. The best-supported gene flow model and analyses of modularity of the modeled networks confirmed a pulse of larvae from the Baja Peninsula, across the Midriff Island region and towards the

  8. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1996: Twenty-ninth annual report. Volume 18

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.L.; Hagemeyer, D.

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 1996 annual reports submitted by six of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Since there are no geologic repositories for high level waste currently licensed, only six categories will be considered in this report. Annual reports for 1996 were received from a total of 300 NRC licensees, of which 109 were operators of nuclear power reactors in commercial operation. Compilations of the reports submitted by the 300 licensees indicated that 138,310 individuals were monitored, 75,139 of whom received a measurable dose. The collective dose incurred by these individuals was 21,755 person-cSv (person-rem){sup 2} which represents a 13% decrease from the 1995 value. The number of workers receiving a measurable dose also decreased, resulting in the average measurable dose of 0.29 cSv (rem) for 1996. The average measurable dose is defined to be the total collective dose (TEDE) divided by the number of workers receiving a measurable dose. These figures have been adjusted to account for transient reactor workers. Analyses of transient worker data indicate that 22,348 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient workers by multiple licensees. In 1996, the average measurable dose calculated from reported was 0.24 cSv (rem). The corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose of 0.29 cSv (rem).

  9. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1994. Twenty-seventh annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.L.; Hagemeyer, D.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). Annual reports for 1994 were received from a total of 303 NRC licensees, of which 109 were operators of nuclear power reactors in commercial operation. Compilations of the reports submitted by the 303 licensees indicated that 152,028 individuals were monitored, 79,780 of whom received a measurable dose. The collective dose incurred by these individuals was 24,740 person-cSv (person-rem){sup 2} which represents a 15% decrease from the 1993 value. The number of workers receiving a measurable dose also decreased, resulting in the average measurable dose of 0.31 cSv (rem) for 1994. The average measurable dose is defined to be the total collective dose (TEDE) divided by the number of workers receiving a measurable dose. These figures have been adjusted to account for transient reactor workers. In 1994, the annual collective dose per reactor for light water reactor licensees (LWRs) was 198 person-cSv (person-rem). This represents a 18% decrease from the 1993 value of 242 person-cSv (person-rem). The annual collective dose per reactor for boiling water reactors (BWRs) was 327 person-cSv (person-rem) and, for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), it was 131 person-cSv (person-rem). Analyses of transient worker data indicate that 18,178 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient workers by multiple licensees. In 1994, the average measurable dose calculated from reported data was 0.28 cSv (rem). The corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose of 0.31 cSv (rem).

  10. Valorization of By-Products from Commercial Fish Species: Extraction and Chemical Properties of Skin Gelatins.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sérgio C; Vázquez, José A; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I; Carvalho, Ana P; Gomes, Ana M

    2017-09-14

    Fish skins constitute an important fraction of the enormous amount of wastes produced by the fish processing industry, part of which may be valorized through the extraction of gelatins. This research exploited the extraction and characterization of gelatins from the skin of three seawater fish species, namely yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), blue shark (Prionace glauca), and greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides). Characterization included chemical composition, rheology, structure, texture, and molecular weight, whereas extraction studies intended to reduce costly steps during extraction process (reagents concentration, water consumption, and time of processing), while maintaining extraction efficiency. Chemical and physical characterization of the obtained gelatins revealed that the species from which the gelatin was extracted, as well as the heat treatment used, were key parameters in order to obtain a final product with specific properties. Therefore, the extraction conditions selected during gelatin production will drive its utilization into markets with well-defined specifications, where the necessity of unique products is being claimed. Such achievements are of utmost importance to the food industry, by paving the way to the introduction in the market of gelatins with distinct rheological and textural properties, which enables them to enlarge their range of applications.

  11. Helminth communities of four commercially important fish species from Chetumal Bay, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Macedo, M L; Vidal-Martínez, V M; González-Solís, D; Caballero, P I

    2007-03-01

    The relative importance of ecology and evolution as factors determining species richness and composition of the helminth communities of fish is a matter of current debate. Theoretical studies use host-parasite lists, but these do not include studies on a temporal or spatial scale. Local environmental conditions and host biological characteristics are shown to influence helminth species richness and composition in four fish species (Eugerres plumieri, Hexanematichthys assimilis, Oligoplites saurus, and Scomberomorus maculatus) in Chetumal Bay, Mexico. With the exception of H. assimilis, the helminth communities had not been previously studied and possible associations between environmental and host biological characteristics as factors determining helminth species richness and composition using redundancy analysis (RDA) are described. Thirty-four helminth species are identified, with the highest number of species (19 total (mean = 6.3 +/- 2.1)) and the lowest (9 (4.0 +/- 1.0)) occurring in H. assimilis and S. maculatus, respectively. The larval nematodes Contracaecum sp. and Pseudoterranova sp. were not only the helminth species shared by all four host species but also were the most prevalent and abundant. Statistical associations between helminth community parameters and local ecological variables such as host habitat use, feeding habits, mobility, and time of residence in coastal lagoons are identified. Phylogeny is important because it clearly separates all four host species by their specialist parasites, although specific habitat and feeding habits also significantly influence the differentiation between the four fish species.

  12. Evaluation of commercial marine fish feeds for production of juvenile cobia in recirculating aquaculture systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of feeding three commercially available diets manufactured by three U.S. feed companies on production characteristics and body composition of juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) was evaluated in a 57 d growth trial. Juvenile cobia (26.7 +...

  13. Increasing ocean temperatures reduce activity patterns of a large commercially important coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J L; Messmer, V; Coker, D J; Hoey, A S; Pratchett, M S

    2014-04-01

    Large-bodied fish are critical for sustaining coral reef fisheries, but little is known about the vulnerability of these fish to global warming. This study examined the effects of elevated temperatures on the movement and activity patterns of the common coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae), which is an important fishery species in tropical Australia and throughout the Indo West-Pacific. Adult fish were collected from two locations on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (23°S and 14°S) and maintained at one of four temperatures (24, 27, 30, 33 °C). Following >4 weeks acclimation, the spontaneous swimming speeds and activity patterns of individuals were recorded over a period of 12 days. At 24-27 °C, spontaneous swimming speeds of common coral trout were 0.43-0.45 body lengths per second (bls(-1)), but dropped sharply to 0.29 bls(-1) at 30 °C and 0.25 bls(-1) at 33 °C. Concurrently, individuals spent 9.3-10.6% of their time resting motionless on the bottom at 24-27 °C, but this behaviour increased to 14.0% at 30 °C and 20.0% of the time at 33 °C (mean ± SE). The impact of temperature was greatest for smaller individuals (<45 cm TL), showing significant changes to swimming speeds across every temperature tested, while medium (45-55 cm TL) and large individuals (>55 cm TL) were first affected by 30 °C and 33 °C, respectively. Importantly, there was some indication that populations can adapt to elevated temperature if presented with adequate time, as the high-latitude population decreased significantly in swimming speeds at both 30 °C and 33 °C, while the low-latitude population only showed significant reductions at 33 °C. Given that movement and activity patterns of large mobile species are directly related to prey encounter rates, ability to capture prey and avoid predators, any reductions in activity patterns are likely to reduce overall foraging and energy intake, limit the energy available for growth and reproduction, and affect the fitness and

  14. Comparative study of mercury speciation in commercial fishes of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, R C; Berzas Nevado, J J; Guzmán Bernardo, F J; Jiménez Moreno, M; Arrifano, G P F; Herculano, A M; do Nascimento, J L M; Crespo-López, M E

    2014-06-01

    Mercury is responsible for serious episodes of environmental pollution throughout the world, especially in the Amazon. This toxicity has led regulatory agencies to focus on fish as the target organism for protecting the health of humans and other sensitive organisms. Unfortunately, in the Amazon area, different sampling strategies and the wide variety of sampling areas and fish species make it extremely difficult to determine relationships across geographic regions or over time to ascertain historical trends. Thus, the aim of this work was to achieve three main objectives: a comparative study of mercury contamination in fish of Itaituba (Tapajós, located downstream of the largest gold-mining region in Amazon) and Belém (an area non-exposed to mercury pollution of anthropogenic origin), perform an analysis of inorganic mercury (IHg) versus monomethylmercury (MeHg) contents, and, finally, compare mercury contamination in Tapajós over time. Five piscivorous species were obtained in Itaituba and Belém. Also, four non-piscivorous species were collected in Itaituba. For the first time, mercury speciation showed that (1) current MeHg levels in piscivorous species in Tapajós are higher than those of the non-exposed area, (2) piscivorous species from Itaituba (dourada, filhote, and sarda) contained mercury levels above the World Health Organization safety limit (~17%) and/or above the US Environmental Protection Agency tissue residue criterion (40%), (3) increased MeHg is usually accompanied by increased IHg, and (4) the mean total mercury concentrations for piscivorous species in Itaituba were within the same range and, associated uncertainties as those previously reported, although a remarkable decreasing trend over time was observed for mean total Hg concentrations in non-piscivorous species from Itaituba. The present study supports the importance of continuous monitoring of both populations in the Amazon Rivers. Our results will better assist the development of

  15. Tentative identification of volatile flavor compounds in commercial Budu, a Malaysian fish sauce, using GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hajaratul Najwa; Man, Yaakob Che; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Manap, Yazid Abdul

    2012-05-03

    Budu is a famous Malaysian fish sauce, usually used as seasoning and condiment in cooking. Budu is produced by mixing fish and salt at certain ratio followed by fermentation for six months in closed tanks. In this study, four commercial brands of Budu were analyzed for their chemical properties (pH, salt content and volatile compounds). The pH of Budu samples ranged from 4.50-4.92, while the salt (NaCl) content ranged between 11.80% and 22.50% (w/v). For tentative identification of volatile flavor compounds in Budu, two GC columns have been used, DB-WAX and HP-5MS. A total of 44 volatile compounds have been detected and 16 were common for both columns. 3-Methyl-1-butanol, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, dimethyl disulfide, 3-(methylthio)-propanal, 3-methylbutanoic acid and benzaldehye have been identified as the aroma-active compounds in Budu due to their lower threshold values.

  16. Broad shifts in the resource use of a commercially harvested fish following the invasion of dreissenid mussels.

    PubMed

    Fera, Shannon A; Rennie, Michael D; Dunlop, Erin S

    2017-04-02

    Dreissenid mussels -NDASH-including the zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (Dreissena rostiformus bugensis) mussel-NDASH- are invasive species known for their capacity to act as ecosystem engineers. They have caused significant changes in the many freshwater systems they have invaded by increasing water clarity, reducing primary productivity, and altering zooplankton and benthic invertebrate assemblages. What is less clear is how their ecosystem engineering effects manifest up the food web to impact higher trophic levels, including fish. Here, we use a biological tracer (stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen) to analyze long-term and broad-scale trends in the resource use of benthivorous Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in the Laurentian Great Lakes, where dreissenid mussels have become established in each lake except Lake Superior. We measured stable isotope ratios from archived material (fish scale samples) collected over several decades by multiple agencies and from 14 locations around the Great Lakes. In the majority of locations, the δ(13) C of Lake Whitefish increased following the establishment of dreissenid mussels. Trends in δ(15) N were less clear, but significant breakpoints in the time series occurred within 5 years of dreissenid establishment in several locations, followed by declines in δ(15) N. In contrast, isotopic signatures in Lake Superior locations did not show these trends. Our results provide evidence that Lake Whitefish shifted towards greater reliance on nearshore benthic production, supporting the theory that fundamental energy pathways are changed when dreissenid mussels become established. Importantly, these effects were noted across multiple, large and complex ecosystems spanning a broad geographic area. Our study underscores the potential for aquatic invasive species to alter key ecosystem services as demonstrated here through their impacts on energy pathways supporting a commercially harvested fish species. This article

  17. Environmental relevant concentrations of a chlorpyrifos commercial formulation affect two neotropical fish species, Cheirodon interruptus and Cnesterodon decemmaculatus.

    PubMed

    Bonifacio, Alejo Fabian; Ballesteros, María Laura; Bonansea, Rocío Inés; Filippi, Iohanna; Amé, María Valeria; Hued, Andrea Cecilia

    2017-12-01

    The increase of cultivated areas together with the intensive use of pesticides have greatly contributed to impair the quality of aquatic systems along different areas of South America. The main goal of the present study was to assess the effects of a commercial formulation of chlorpyrifos at environmentally relevant concentrations on two native fish species, Cheirodon interruptus and Cnesterodon decemmaculatus. Adult individuals were exposed during 48 h to the following concentrations: 0.084 nl/l (Ci-Cf 1) and 0.84 nl/l (Ci-CF 2) in C. interruptus (Ci) of Clorfox (CF), and 0.84 nl/l (Cd-CF 1) and 8.4 nl/l (Cd-CF 2) in C. decemmaculatus (Cd). Fish behavior was evaluated through locomotor activity and space usage variables. The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in brain and muscle, catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in brain, liver, muscle and gills, and aspartate amino-transferase (AST), alanine amino-transferase (ALT), AST/ALT ratio and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in liver, were measured. Both locomotor activity and space usage varied between the two species studied and between CF treatments. The enzyme activities showed significant variations in CAT for C. interruptus and in CAT, GST, AChE, AST, and AST/ALT for C. decemmaculatus under the exposure conditions. Given that both species responded to CF and the concentrations we tested are environmentally relevant, the presence of this pesticide in freshwater systems could impose a risk for populations of both native fish studied at field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reducing commercial fishing deck hazards with engineering solutions for winch design.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Jennifer M; Lucas, Devin L; McKibbin, Robert W; Woodward, Chelsea C; Bevan, John E

    2008-01-01

    The majority (67%) of hospitalized injuries among Alaska commercial fishermen are associated with deck machinery. This paper describes the "Prevention Through Design" process to mitigate one serious machinery entanglement hazard posed by a capstan deck winch. After observing that the capstan winch provides no entanglement protection and the hydraulic controls are usually out of reach of the entangled person, NIOSH personnel met with fishermen and winch manufacturers to discuss various design solutions to mitigate these hazards. An emergency-stop ("e-stop") system was developed that incorporated a momentary contact button that when pushed, switches a safety-relay that de-energizes the solenoid of an electro-hydraulic valve stopping the rotating winch. The vessel owners that had the e-stop installed enthusiastically recommend it to other fishermen. NIOSH entered into a Proprietary Technology Licensing Agreement with a company to develop the system for commercial use. This is an example of a practical engineering control that effectively protects workers from a hazardous piece of equipment by preventing injuries due to entanglement. This solution could reduce these types of debilitating injuries and fatalities in this industry.

  19. Progress on Enabling an Interactive Conversation Between Commercial Building Occupants and Their Building To Improve Comfort and Energy Efficiency: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Schott, M.; Scheib, J.; Long, N.; Fleming, K.; Benne, K.; Brackney, L.

    2012-06-01

    Many studies have reported energy savings after installing a dashboard, but dashboards provide neither individual feedback to the occupant nor the ability to report individual comfort. The Building Agent (BA) provides an interface to engage the occupant in a conversation with the building control system and the building engineer. Preliminary outcomes of the BA-enabled feedback loop are presented, and the effectiveness of the three display modes will be compared to other dashboard studies to baseline energy savings in future research.

  20. Histamine-related hygienic qualities and bacteria found in popular commercial scombroid fish fillets in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yung-Hsiang; Kung, Hsien-Feng; Lee, Tsong-Ming; Lin, Guo-Tai; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

    2004-02-01

    To determine the histamine-related hygienic qualities and bacteria of scombroid fish fillets sold in traditional retail markets, 61 samples were collected from northern and southern Taiwan. It was found that the content of volatile base nitrogen in most samples was below 25 mg/100 g, which is the regulatory level in Taiwan. The ratio of unacceptable samples/total samples for aerobic plate count and Escherichia coli was 100% and 15% in northern samples and 100% and 20% in southern samples, respectively, compared with the requirements of hygienic standards. The average content of various biogenic amines in all samples were lower than 3 mg/100 g, except for histamine average content (4.6 mg/100 g) in southern samples. Among southern samples, four samples contained 12.8 to 28.8 mg/100 g histamine, which is more than 5 mg/100 g that is the allowable limit suggested by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Furthermore, 14 bacterial strains were isolated from sailfish fillets on a selective medium for histamine-forming bacteria. These presumptive histamine-forming strains, such as Proteus, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Rahnella, and Acinetobacter, have been identified and found to produce 20 to 2,000 ppm histamine after incubating at 37 degrees C for 24 h.

  1. Organization of work in the agricultural, forestry, and fishing sector in the US southeast: implications for immigrant workers' occupational safety and health.

    PubMed

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Lipscomb, Hester J; Casanova, Vanessa; Neis, Barbara; Fraser, Clermont; Monaghan, Paul; Vallejos, Quirina M

    2013-08-01

    There is widespread agreement that work organization is an important element of occupational safety and health, but the health effects of many aspects of work organization are likely to vary considerably across different sectors of work and geographies. We examined existing employment policies and work organization-related research relevant specifically to immigrant workers in the Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing (AgFF) Sector of the US workforce focusing, when possible, on the southeastern US. A number of specific aspects of work organization within AgFF subsectors have been described, but most of this literature exists outside the purview of occupational health. There are few studies that directly examine how attributes of work organization relevant to the AgFF Sector affect workers', much less immigrant workers', occupational health exposures and outcomes. In contrast to the broader literature, research linking occupational health outcomes to work organization in the AgFF Sector is limited and weak. A systematic program of research and intervention is needed to develop strategies that eliminate or substantially mitigate the deleterious health effects of occupational exposures whose origins likely lie in the organization of AgFF work. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Dramatic increase in the relative abundance of large male dungeness crabs Cancer magister following closure of commercial fishing in Glacier Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taggart, S.J.; Shirley, Thomas C.; O'Clair, Charles E.; Mondragon, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The size structure of the population of the Dungeness crab Cancer magister was studied at six sites in or near Glacier Bay, Alaska, before and after the closure of commercial fishing. Seven years of preclosure and 4 years of postclosure data are presented. After the closure of Glacier Bay to commercial fishing, the number and size of legal-sized male Dungeness crabs increased dramatically at the experimental sites. Female and sublegal-sized male crabs, the portions of the population not directly targeted by commercial fishing, did not increase in size or abundance following the closure. There was not a large shift in the size-abundance distribution of male crabs at the control site that is still open to commercial fishing. Marine protected areas are being widely promoted as effective tools for managing fisheries while simultaneously meeting marine conservation goals and maintaining marine biodiversity. Our data demonstrate that the size of male Dungeness crabs can markedly increase in a marine reserve, which supports the concept that marine reserves could help maintain genetic diversity in Dungeness crabs and other crab species subjected to size-limit fisheries and possibly increase the fertility of females. ?? 2004 by the American Fisheries Society.

  3. Impact of disease on the survival of three commercially fished species.

    PubMed

    Hoenig, John M; Groner, Maya L; Smith, Matthew W; Vogelbein, Wolfgang K; Taylor, David M; Landers, Donald F; Swenarton, John T; Gauthier, David T; Sadler, Philip; Matsche, Mark A; Haines, Ashley N; Small, Hamish J; Pradel, Roger; Choquet, Rémi; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2017-10-01

    Recent increases in emergent infectious diseases have raised concerns about the sustainability of some marine species. The complexity and expense of studying diseases in marine systems often dictate that conservation and management decisions are made without quantitative data on population-level impacts of disease. Mark-recapture is a powerful, underutilized, tool for calculating impacts of disease on population size and structure, even in the absence of etiological information. We applied logistic regression models to mark-recapture data to obtain estimates of disease-associated mortality rates in three commercially important marine species: snow crab (Chionoecetes opilio) in Newfoundland, Canada, that experience sporadic epizootics of bitter crab disease; striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Chesapeake Bay, USA, that experience chronic dermal and visceral mycobacteriosis; and American lobster (Homarus americanus) in the Southern New England stock, that experience chronic epizootic shell disease. All three diseases decreased survival of diseased hosts. Survival of diseased adult male crabs was 1% (0.003-0.022, 95% CI) that of uninfected crabs indicating nearly complete mortality of infected crabs in this life stage. Survival of moderately and severely diseased striped bass (which comprised 15% and 11% of the population, respectively) was 84% (70-100%, 95% CI), and 54% (42-68%, 95% CI) that of healthy striped bass. The disease-adjusted yearly natural mortality rate for striped bass was 0.29, nearly double the previously accepted value, which did not include disease. Survival of moderately and severely diseased lobsters was 30% (15-60%, 95% CI) that of healthy lobsters and survival of mildly diseased lobsters was 45% (27-75%, 95% CI) that of healthy lobsters. High disease mortality in ovigerous females may explain the poor recruitment and rapid declines observed in this population. Stock assessments should account for disease-related mortality when resource

  4. Elemental content of commercial 'ready to-feed' poultry and fish based infant foods in the UK.

    PubMed

    Zand, Nazanin; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Wray, David S; Pullen, Frank S; Snowden, Martin J

    2012-12-15

    The study reported herein was conducted in order to establish the concentration of 20 essential and non-essential elements in a representative range of commercial infant foods in the UK targeted for infants aged between 6-12 months. The primary objective of this study was to examine the nutritive values and safety of such complementary infant foods on the UK market in relation to dietary and safety guidelines. Quantitative analyses were conducted on eight different products representing four popular brands (poultry and fish based) of ready to-feed infant foods currently on sale in the UK. Six essential elements, namely: calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, sodium and zinc were determined by ICP-OES. The concentrations of six essential trace elements (selenium, molybdenum, cobalt, copper, chromium, manganese) and eight non-essential, potentially toxic, elements (arsenic, barium, nickel, cadmium, antimony, lead, mercury, aluminium) were determined by ICP-MS due to the higher sensitivity required. The total daily intakes of essential and trace elements from the consumption of such products were then estimated, based on the results of this study, and were referenced to the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) values and safety guidelines for 6-9 months old children. Based on these comparisons the concentration of essential, except for potassium, and trace elements were found to be inadequate in meeting the RNI. In terms of the risk of exposure to toxicity, the concentration of toxic elements in ready to feed products analysed in this study, were not considered to be of concern. These results suggest that commercial complementary infant foods on the UK market may not contain minimum levels of minerals required for labelling declaration of micronutrient content (Commission Directive 2006/125/EC). This provides opportunities and scope for product optimisation to improve their nutritive value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Introduction to Fish and Shellfish. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.13a. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with fish and shellfish for restaurant use. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these areas: buying and storing fish and…

  6. Introduction to Fish and Shellfish. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.13a. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with fish and shellfish for restaurant use. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these areas: buying and storing fish and…

  7. Development of an in-house fast real-time PCR method for detection of fish allergen in foods and comparison with a commercial kit.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Beatriz; Vieites, Juan M; Espiñeira, Montserrat

    2014-05-15

    Food allergy is recognised as an important human health problem. Fish represent one of the most important causes of food hypersensitivity reaction. Small amounts of the allergen can cause severe reactions in sensitive individuals, so correct labelling is essential to ensure the protection of consumers. The objective of the present work was to develop a reliable, sensitive and specific real-time PCR method for the detection of fish and traces of fish in all kind of products included those that have undergone aggressive treatments such as high temperature or pressure. This methodology was validated simulating products likely to contain this allergen and spiking them with fish cooking water. In addition, a comparison between the performance of in-house methodology and a commercial kit, both of them based on real-time PCR, was carried out. This work is relevant because it is the first, rapid real-time PCR method developed to date for the detection of fish in processed food products. The results obtained confirm the present assay is a useful tool in detecting fish and, therefore, minimising exposure and reducing incidences of allergic reaction to fish in contaminated products.

  8. Selenium and mercury molar ratios in commercial fish from New Jersey and Illinois: Variation within species and relevance to risk communication

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is an emerging consensus that people consuming large amounts of fish with selenium:mercury ratios below 1 may be at higher risk from mercury toxicity. As the relative amount of selenium increases compared to mercury, risk may be lowered, but it is unclear how much excess selenium is required. It would be useful if the selenium:mercury ratio was relatively consistent within a species, but this has not been the case in our studies of wild-caught fish. Since most people in developed countries and urban areas obtain their fish and other seafood commercially, we examined selenium:mercury molar ratios in commercial fish purchased in stores and fish markets in central New Jersey and Chicago. There was substantial interspecific and intraspecific variation in molar ratios. Across species the selenium:mercury molar ratio decreased with increasing mean mercury levels, but selenium variation also contributed to the ratio. Few samples had selenium:mercury molar ratios below 1, but there was a wide range in ratios, complicating the interpretation for use in risk management and communication. Before ratios can be used in risk management, more information is needed on mercury:selenium interactions and mutual bioavailability, and on the relationship between molar ratios and health outcomes. Further, people who are selenium deficient may be more at risk from mercury toxicity than others. PMID:23541437

  9. Eustrongylides ignotus as a cause of mortality in commercially produced fish; Sunshine bass (Morone chrysops female X Morone saxatilis male) and other fishes in the southeastern USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Conspicuous long, red, coiled nematodes Eustongylides ignotus locate in the body cavity or embed in the muscle of fish. These nematodes have a complex life cycle that involve aquatic birds as definitive hosts, oligochaetes as the first intermediate host, and usually fish as the second intermediate ...

  10. Applicability of stable C and N isotope analysis in inferring the geographical origin and authentication of commercial fish (Mackerel, Yellow Croaker and Pollock).

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejoong; Suresh Kumar, K; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2015-04-01

    Globalisation of seafood and aquaculture products and their convenient marketing worldwide, increases the possibility for the distribution of mislabelled products; thereby, underlining the need to identify their origin. Stable isotope analysis is a promising approach to identify the authenticity and traceability of seafood and aquaculture products. In this investigation, we measured carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) of three commercial fish, viz. Mackerel, Yellow Croaker and Pollock, originating from various countries. Apart from the species-dependent variation in the isotopic values, marked differences in the δ(13)C and δ(15)N ratios were also observed with respect to the country of origin. This suggests that C and N isotopic signatures could be reliable tools to identify and trace the origin of commercial fish.

  11. Identification of Sex and Female’s Reproductive Stage in Commercial Fish Species through the Quantification of Ribosomal Transcripts in Gonads

    PubMed Central

    Rojo-Bartolomé, Iratxe; Diaz de Cerio, Oihane; Diez, Guzman; Cancio, Ibon

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of maturity and sex of fish stocks in European waters is a requirement of the EU Data Collection Framework as part of the policy to improve fisheries management. On the other hand, research on fish biology is increasingly focused in molecular approaches, researchers needing correct identification of fish sex and reproductive stage without necessarily having in house the histological know-how necessary for the task. Taking advantage of the differential gene transcription occurring during fish sex differentiation and gametogenesis, the utility of 5S ribosomal RNA (5S rRNA) and General transcription factor IIIA (gtf3a) in the molecular identification of sex and gametogenic stage was tested in different economically-relevant fish species from the Bay of Biscay. Gonads of 9 fish species (, Atlantic, Atlantic-chub and horse mackerel, blue whiting, bogue, European anchovy, hake and pilchard and megrim), collected from local commercial fishing vessels were histologically sexed and 5S and 18S rRNA concentrations were quantified by capillary electrophoresis to calculate a 5S/18S rRNA index. Degenerate primers permitted cloning and sequencing of gtf3a fragments in 7 of the studied species. 5S rRNA and gtf3a transcript levels, together with 5S/18S rRNA index, distinguished clearly ovaries from testis in all of the studied species. The values were always higher in females than in males. 5S/18S rRNA index values in females were always highest when fish were captured in early phases of ovary development whilst, in later vitellogenic stages, the values decreased significantly. In megrim and European anchovy, where gonads in different oogenesis stages were obtained, the 5S/18S rRNA index identified clearly gametogenic stage. This approach, to the sexing and the quantitative non-subjective identification of the maturity stage of female fish, could have multiple applications in the study of fish stock dynamics, fish reproduction and fecundity and fish biology in

  12. Fatty Acid Composition and Levels of Selected Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Four Commercial Important Freshwater Fish Species from Lake Victoria, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Agnes; Mfilinge, Prosper; Limbu, Samwel M.; Mwita, Chacha J.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) particularly ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play important role in human health. This study aimed to investigate the composition and levels of selected ω3 PUFAs in four commercial fish species, Nile perch (Lates niloticus), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Tilapia zillii, and dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea) from Mwanza Gulf in Lake Victoria. The results indicated that 36 types of FAs with different saturation levels were detected. These FAs were dominated by docosahexaenoic (DHA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and eicosatetraenoic acids. O. niloticus had the highest composition of FAs (34) compared to L. niloticus (27), T. zillii (26), and R. argentea (21). The levels of EPA differed significantly among the four commercial fish species (F = 6.19,  P = 0.001). The highest EPA levels were found in R. argentea followed by L. niloticus and O. niloticus and the lowest in T. zillii. The DPA levels showed no significant difference among the four fish species studied (F = 0.652,  P = 0.583). The study concluded that all four commercial species collected from Mwanza Gulf are good for human health, but R. argentea is the best for consumption because it contains higher levels of ω3 FAs, mainly EPA. PMID:25610654

  13. Ranking the contributions of commercial fish and shellfish varieties to mercury exposure in the United States: implications for risk communication.

    PubMed

    Groth, Edward

    2010-04-01

    Fish and shellfish have important nutritional benefits, and US per capita seafood consumption has increased substantially since 2002. Recent research has reinforced concerns about adverse effects of methylmercury exposure, suggesting that methylmercury doses associated with typical US rates of fish consumption may pose measurable risks, with no threshold. These converging trends create a need to improve risk communication about fish consumption and mercury. The analysis performed here identifies the relative importance of different fish and shellfish as sources of mercury in the US seafood supply and proposes improved consumer advice, so that the public can benefit from fish consumption while minimizing mercury exposure. I have quantified contributions to total mercury in the US seafood supply by 51 different varieties of fish and shellfish, then ranked and sorted the 51 varieties in terms of relative impact. Except for swordfish, most fish with the highest mercury levels are relatively minor contributors to total inputs. Tuna (canned light, canned albacore and fresh/frozen varieties) accounts for 37.4 percent of total mercury inputs, while two-thirds of the seafood supply and nine of the 11 most heavily consumed fish and shellfish are low or very low in mercury. Substantial improvement in risk communication about mercury in fish and seafood is needed; in particular, several population subsets need better guidance to base their seafood choices more explicitly on mercury content. I have sorted the 51 seafood varieties into six categories based on mercury levels, as a framework for improving risk communication in this regard.

  14. 77 FR 64237 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-BB72 Fisheries of the Caribbean... to current commercial fishing practices and to improve safety-at-sea in the Gulf reef fish fishery... improving safety-at-sea and allowing compliance with current Occupational Safety and Health...

  15. Abundance of commercially important reef fish indicates different levels of over-exploitation across shelves of the U.S. Virgin Islands

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Marilyn; Nemeth, Richard; Martens, Justin; Blondeau, Jeremiah; Smith, Tyler

    2017-01-01

    The United States Virgin Islands are comprised of two separate insular platforms separated by the deep water Anegada Passage. Although managed by the same regulations, as one fishery, several physical and spatial differences exist between the two northern shelf islands, St. Thomas and St. John, and isolated St. Croix. Based on two long-term fisheries independent datasets, collected by the U.S. Virgin Islands Territorial Coral Reef Monitoring Program and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment, there were significant differences between the northern USVI and St. Croix in both the occurrence and size of several species of large and commercially important reef fishes. These fishes are primarily apex piscivores and generally the first species over-exploited in small-scale fisheries. The disparities between the fish communities on the two island shelves cannot be explained solely by differences in habitat (coral cover, rugosity) or fisheries management, such as relative amount of marine protected area in local waters. They are instead probably caused by a combination of several other interrelated factors including water depth, fishing methodology, fishable area, and the presence or absence of viable fish spawning areas. This study considers those aspects, and illustrates the need for management of island artisanal fisheries that is tailored to the physical and spatial constraints imposed by insular platforms. PMID:28704387

  16. Eustrongylides ignotus infecting commercial bass (Morone chrysops female X Morone saxatilis male) and other fishes in the southeastern USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Eustongylides ignotus are conspicuous as long, red, coiled nematodes located in the body cavity or embedded in the muscle of fish. They have a complex life cycle that involves aquatic birds as definitive hosts, oligochaetes as the first intermediate host, and usually fish as the second intermediate...

  17. Increasing Fish Oil Levels in Commercial Diets Influence Hematology and Immune Responses of Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cultured freshwater fish including channel catfish are commonly fed grain-soybean meal based feeds high in linoleic series (n-6) fatty acids. Published studies have shown that supplementation of catfish diets with marine fish oil rich in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (n-3 HUFA) significantly in...

  18. Spatial monitoring of heavy metals in the inland waters of Serbia: a multispecies approach based on commercial fish.

    PubMed

    Milošković, Aleksandra; Dojčinović, Biljana; Kovačević, Simona; Radojković, Nataša; Radenković, Milena; Milošević, Djuradj; Simić, Vladica

    2016-05-01

    The study monitored the contamination of fish muscle tissue by elements Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn at 17 sampling sites, in order to assess the pollution status of the main rivers in Serbia. Of the six commercially important fish species included in the study (pikeperch Sander lucioperca, catfish Silurus glanis, bream Abramis brama, barbel Barbus barbus, chub Squalius cephalus, nase Chondrostoma nasus), the bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that benthivore bream and barbel and predatory catfish have the highest tendency toward the accumulation of elements. This study achieved its primary objective and produced a contamination map of Serbia as a basis for further research. The estimated metal pollution index (MPI) showed the Tisa River to be unaffected by direct pollution (with an MPI value of 0.31) and the West Morava and Pek rivers to be affected (with MPI values of 1.92 and 0.73 for the WM1 and WM2 sampling sites and 0.65 for the Pek sampling site). Over the past two decades, Serbia has not expanded its industrial activity, which has resulted in the barely noticeable anthropogenic input of heavy metals in the rivers close to industry, and the main rivers are mostly unaffected and slightly affected. We assumed that pollution by heavy metals in the 1990s was trapped in the sediment, thus showing an increased concentration of elements in the species that live and feed on the bottom. Hg concentrations exceeded the maximum permitted concentrations (MPCs) only in catfish samples (0.62 mg kg(-1)) from the Danube (D3 sampling site) and barbel (0.78 mg kg(-1)) from the West Morava (WM1 sampling site), while Cd concentrations exceeded the MPC in catfish samples (0.09 mg kg(-1)) from the Danube (D1 sampling site) and chub samples (0.1 mg kg(-1)) from the South Morava (SM2 sampling site). The average concentrations of Pb exceeded the MPC in chub and barbel samples (0.32 and 0.82 mg kg(-1), respectively) from the West Morava (WM1

  19. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1995: Twenty-eighth annual report. Volume 17

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, M.L.; Hagemeyer, D.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 1995 annual reports submitted by six of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Since there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed, only six categories will be considered in this report. In 1995, the annual collective dose per reactor for light water reactor licensees (LWRs) was 199 person-cSv (person-rem). This is the same value that was reported for 1994. The annual collective dose per reactor for boiling water reactors (BWRs) was 256 person-cSv (person-rem) and, for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), it was 170 person-cSv (person-rem). Analyses of transient worker data indicate that 17,153 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient workers by multiple licensees. In 1995, the average measurable dose calculated from reported data was 0.26 cSv (rem). The corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose of 0.32 cSv (rem).

  20. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1992; Twenty-fifth annual report, Volume 14

    SciTech Connect

    Raddatz, C.T.; Hagemeyer, D.

    1993-12-01

    This report summarizes the occupational radiation exposure information that has been reported to the NRC`s Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) by nuclear power facilities and certain other categories of NRC licensees during the years 1969 through 1992. The bulk of the data presented in the report was obtained from annual radiation exposure reports submitted in accordance with the requirements of 10CFR20.407 and the technical specifications of nuclear power plants. Data on workers terminating their employment at certain NRC licensed facilities were obtained from reports submitted pursuant to 10CFR20.408. The 1992 annual reports submitted by about 364 licensees indicated that approximately 204,365 individuals were monitored, 183,927 of whom were monitored by nuclear power facilities. They incurred an average individual dose of 0.16 rem (cSv) and an average measurable dose of about 0.30 (cSv). Termination radiation exposure reports were analyzed to reveal that about 74,566 individuals completed their employment with one or more of the 364 covered licensees during 1992. Some 71,846 of these individuals terminated from power reactor facilities, and about 9,724 of them were considered to be transient workers who received an average dose of 0.50 rem (cSv).

  1. Comparison of Fish Assemblages Associated with Seagrass and Adjacent Unvegetated Habitats of Port Phillip Bay and Corner Inlet, Victoria, Australia, with Emphasis on Commercial Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, G. P.; May, H. M. A.; Wheatley, M. J.; Holloway, M. G.

    1997-05-01

    Species richness, abundance and biomass of fishes from seagrass and unvegetated habitats were analysed for sites in the Swan Bay region of Port Phillip Bay, and Corner Inlet, Victoria, Australia. Fish assemblages from intertidal Zostera muellerisites showed greater similarity with a number of shallower unvegetated sites than to subtidal Heterozostera tasmanica. Similarly, subtidal, unvegetated sites in Swan Bay were more similar to subtidal Heterozosterasites than to other, generally shallower, unvegetated sites. Species richness was significantly higher in seagrass beds and showed an increase over the warmer months of the year. Differences in abundance and biomass of fishes between vegetated and unvegetated habitats depended on the location of sampling. In general, abundance and biomass of fish in the deeper subtidal seagrass were significantly higher than in unvegetated habitats of the same depth. In contrast, abundance and biomass were not significantly different between seagrass and unvegetated habitats of the intertidal and shallow subtidal zones when significant abundances of the long-finned goby, Favonigobius lateralis, occurred on unvegetated habitats. As a consequence, species richness would be expected to decrease with any seagrass loss; however, decreases in abundance and biomass of fishes would be greatest with loss of deeper subtidal Heterozosterahabitats. Although juveniles of a number of commercially important species were associated with subtidal Heterozosterahabitats, juveniles of other species of commercial significance were found on shallow, unvegetated habitats. Newly settled juveniles of the King George whiting, Sillaginodes punctata, were associated with unvegetated patches amongst subtidal seagrass in Swan Bay, in contrast with a direct association with seagrass reported from other areas.

  2. Spatially-Resolved Influence of Temperature and Salinity on Stock and Recruitment Variability of Commercially Important Fishes in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Akimova, Anna; Núñez-Riboni, Ismael; Kempf, Alexander; Taylor, Marc H

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of the processes affecting recruitment of commercially important fish species is one of the major challenges in fisheries science. Towards this aim, we investigated the relation between North Sea hydrography (temperature and salinity) and fish stock variables (recruitment, spawning stock biomass and pre-recruitment survival index) for 9 commercially important fishes using spatially-resolved cross-correlation analysis. We used high-resolution (0.2° × 0.2°) hydrographic data fields matching the maximal temporal extent of the fish population assessments (1948-2013). Our approach allowed for the identification of regions in the North Sea where environmental variables seem to be more influential on the fish stocks, as well as the regions of a lesser or nil influence. Our results confirmed previously demonstrated negative correlations between temperature and recruitment of cod and plaice and identified regions of the strongest correlations (German Bight for plaice and north-western North Sea for cod). We also revealed a positive correlation between herring spawning stock biomass and temperature in the Orkney-Shetland area, as well as a negative correlation between sole pre-recruitment survival index and temperature in the German Bight. A strong positive correlation between sprat stock variables and salinity in the central North Sea was also found. To our knowledge the results concerning correlations between North Sea hydrography and stocks' dynamics of herring, sole and sprat are novel. The new information about spatial distribution of the correlation provides an additional help to identify mechanisms underlying these correlations. As an illustration of the utility of these results for fishery management, an example is provided that incorporates the identified environmental covariates in stock-recruitment models.

  3. Spatially-Resolved Influence of Temperature and Salinity on Stock and Recruitment Variability of Commercially Important Fishes in the North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Akimova, Anna; Núñez-Riboni, Ismael; Kempf, Alexander; Taylor, Marc H.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of the processes affecting recruitment of commercially important fish species is one of the major challenges in fisheries science. Towards this aim, we investigated the relation between North Sea hydrography (temperature and salinity) and fish stock variables (recruitment, spawning stock biomass and pre-recruitment survival index) for 9 commercially important fishes using spatially-resolved cross-correlation analysis. We used high-resolution (0.2° × 0.2°) hydrographic data fields matching the maximal temporal extent of the fish population assessments (1948–2013). Our approach allowed for the identification of regions in the North Sea where environmental variables seem to be more influential on the fish stocks, as well as the regions of a lesser or nil influence. Our results confirmed previously demonstrated negative correlations between temperature and recruitment of cod and plaice and identified regions of the strongest correlations (German Bight for plaice and north-western North Sea for cod). We also revealed a positive correlation between herring spawning stock biomass and temperature in the Orkney-Shetland area, as well as a negative correlation between sole pre-recruitment survival index and temperature in the German Bight. A strong positive correlation between sprat stock variables and salinity in the central North Sea was also found. To our knowledge the results concerning correlations between North Sea hydrography and stocks’ dynamics of herring, sole and sprat are novel. The new information about spatial distribution of the correlation provides an additional help to identify mechanisms underlying these correlations. As an illustration of the utility of these results for fishery management, an example is provided that incorporates the identified environmental covariates in stock-recruitment models. PMID:27584155

  4. Expanding perceptions of subsistence fish consumption: evidence of high commercial fish consumption and dietary mercury exposure in an urban coastal community.

    PubMed

    Holloman, Erica L; Newman, Michael C

    2012-02-01

    Through collaborative partnerships established between current researchers and The Moton Community House (a local community center), African American women (ages 16-49yrs) from the Southeast Community of Newport News, Virginia, USA were surveyed to assess the reproducibility and consistency of fish consumption patterns (ingestion rates, exposure frequencies, weight, and fish consumption rates) derived from a community-specific fish consumption survey. Women were also surveyed to assess the reliability of the survey responses, and to estimate daily mercury intake. Fish consumption patterns were reproducible and the survey responses were reliable. Comparison between years revealed that fish consumption patterns remained consistent over time. In addition, the high fish consumption rate estimated in 2008 (147.8g/day; 95% CI: 117.6-185.8g/day) was confirmed with a rate (134.9g/day; 95% CI: 88-207g/day) not materially different and still considerably higher than mean fish consumption rates reported for U.S. women. Daily mercury intake rates were estimated using consumption data from 2008 and three consumption scenarios (canned white, canned light, and no tuna) due to confirmed differences in mercury concentration between canned white and light tuna. Arithmetic mean daily mercury intake rates were 0.284μg/kg bw/day (95% CI: 0.229-0.340μg/kg bw/day) using canned white tuna, 0.212μg/kg bw/day (95% CI: 0.165-0.259μg/kg bw/day) using light tuna, and 0.197μg/kg bw/day (95% CI: 0.151-0.243μg/kg bw/day) using no tuna. Approximately 58%-73% of the daily mercury intake rates for African American women in the Southeast Community exceeded US EPA's oral reference dose (RfD) of 0.10μg/kg bw/day for mercury. In addition, 2% of the rates exceeded a level (1.00μg/kg bw/day) documented to produce adverse health effects. Past and current investigations confirmed that even though women in this community were not subsistence fishers, they are subsistence fish consumers.

  5. Commercial fishing gear modifications to reduce interactions between Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and the southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) fishery in North Carolina (USA).

    PubMed

    Levesque, Juan C; Hager, Christian; Diaddorio, Eric; Dickey, R Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bycatch of protected species in commercial fishing operations is a primary concern to fishery managers because it threatens the conservation, protection, and recovery of fragile species, such as the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus). One potential solution to reduce the risk associated with commercial fishing operations is to design commercial fishing gear that is more selective in terms of interactions between Atlantic sturgeon and commercial fisheries. Given this conservation and management need, the overarching goal was to reduce Atlantic sturgeon fishery interactions and maintain southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) catch in North Carolina. The specific objectives of this study were to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a modified gillnet. Overall, the results proved that lowering the profile and amount of webbing had a beneficial impact at reducing Atlantic sturgeon incidental encounters and bycatch. The modified gillnet reduced bycatch and Atlantic sturgeon encounters by 39.6% and 60.9%, respectively. Our design entangled 51.6% fewer southern flounder, which corresponded to a 48.9% reduction in total weight; the modified gear entangled slightly larger southern flounder than the control gear. Our findings showed the number of Atlantic sturgeon encounters was positively associated with mean water depth, with more Atlantic sturgeon encountered in deeper (5.1-6.3 m) than shallower waters; 75% were encountered at depths between 4.6 and 6.1 m. Most southern flounder (n = 518, 39.7%) were taken at a water depth between 3.76 and 5.0 m. This observation suggests that southern flounder prefer slightly shallower waters than Atlantic sturgeon.

  6. Commercial fishing gear modifications to reduce interactions between Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and the southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) fishery in North Carolina (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Christian; Diaddorio, Eric; Dickey, R. Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bycatch of protected species in commercial fishing operations is a primary concern to fishery managers because it threatens the conservation, protection, and recovery of fragile species, such as the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus). One potential solution to reduce the risk associated with commercial fishing operations is to design commercial fishing gear that is more selective in terms of interactions between Atlantic sturgeon and commercial fisheries. Given this conservation and management need, the overarching goal was to reduce Atlantic sturgeon fishery interactions and maintain southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) catch in North Carolina. The specific objectives of this study were to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a modified gillnet. Overall, the results proved that lowering the profile and amount of webbing had a beneficial impact at reducing Atlantic sturgeon incidental encounters and bycatch. The modified gillnet reduced bycatch and Atlantic sturgeon encounters by 39.6% and 60.9%, respectively. Our design entangled 51.6% fewer southern flounder, which corresponded to a 48.9% reduction in total weight; the modified gear entangled slightly larger southern flounder than the control gear. Our findings showed the number of Atlantic sturgeon encounters was positively associated with mean water depth, with more Atlantic sturgeon encountered in deeper (5.1–6.3 m) than shallower waters; 75% were encountered at depths between 4.6 and 6.1 m. Most southern flounder (n = 518, 39.7%) were taken at a water depth between 3.76 and 5.0 m. This observation suggests that southern flounder prefer slightly shallower waters than Atlantic sturgeon. PMID:27547524

  7. Measurement of organochlorines in commercial over-the-counter fish oil preparations: implications for dietary and therapeutic recommendations for omega-3 fatty acids and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Stacy Foran; Lewandrowski, Elizabeth Lee; Flood, James G; Lewandrowski, Kent B

    2005-01-01

    The consumption of fish high in omega-3 fatty acids is advocated by the American Heart Association to decrease the risk of coronary artery disease. However, fish contain environmental toxins such as mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides, which may negate the beneficial cardiovascular effects of fish meals. Toxin levels vary depending on both the fish source and the specific toxin, and neither farm-raised nor wild fish are toxin free. Fish oil supplements also prevent the progression of coronary artery disease and reduce cardiovascular mortality. However, only sparse data exist on the level of toxins in fish oil. In a previous study we showed that the amount of mercury in 5 over-the-counter brands of fish oil was negligible. To determine the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorines in 5 over-the-counter preparations of fish oil. The contents of 5 commercial fish oil brands were sent for organochlorine analysis. The levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorines were all below the detectable limit. Fish oil supplements are more healthful than the consumption of fish high in organochlorines. Fish oils provide the benefits of omega-3 fatty acids without the risk of toxicity. In addition, fish oil supplements have been helpful in a variety of diseases, including bipolar disorder and depression.

  8. Spatial and temporal dynamics of commercial reef-fish fisheries on the West Florida Shelf: Understanding drivers of fleet behavior and the implications for future management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockrell, M.; Murawski, S. A.; Sanchirico, J. N.; O'Farrell, S.; Strelcheck, A.

    2016-02-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of fishing activity have historically been described over relatively coarse scales or with limited datasets. However, new and innovative approaches for fisheries management will require an understanding of both species population dynamics and fleet behavior at finer spatial and temporal resolution. In this study we describe the spatial and temporal patterns of commercial reef-fish fisheries on the West Florida Shelf (WFS) from 2006-14, using a combination of on-board observer, catch logbook, and vessel satellite tracking data. The satellite tracking data is both high resolution (ie, records from each vessel at least once every hour for the duration of a trip), and required of all federally-permitted reef fish vessels in the Gulf of Mexico, making this a uniquely rich and powerful dataset. Along with spatial and temporal fishery dynamics, we quantified concomitant patterns in fishery economics and catch metrics, such as total landings and catch composition. Fishery patterns were correlated to a number of variables across the vessel, trip, and whole fleet scales, including vessel size, distance from home port, number of days at sea, and days available to fish. Notably, changes in management structure during the years examined (eg, establishment of a seasonal closed area in 2009 and implementation of an individual fishing quota system for Grouper-Tilefish in 2010), as well as emergency spatial closures during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, enabled us to examine the impacts of specific management frameworks on the WFS reef-fish fishery. This research highlights the need to better understand the biological, economic, and social impacts within fisheries when managing for conservation and fisheries sustainability. We discuss our results in the context of a changing policy and management landscape for marine and coastal resources in the Gulf of Mexico.

  9. The influence of industrial-scale canning on cadmium and lead levels in sardines and anchovies from commercial fishing centres of the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Galitsopoulou, Augoustina; Georgantelis, Dimitrios; Kontominas, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The current study encompassed a survey on the levels of toxic trace elements in two highly consumed fish species in commercial fishing centres of western, central and eastern Mediterranean Sea. A Zeeman GTA-AAS graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry system was used throughout the study. Toxicological evaluation of the samples revealed a low Cd content in the raw samples, ranging between 0.003 and 0.027 mg kg⁻¹. Pb presented significantly higher values, from 0.037 to 0.297 mg kg⁻¹, occasionally reaching the limit of 0.3 mg kg⁻¹. Heavy metal levels were particularly higher in bones, thus raising queries about the safe consumption of fish intended to be eaten as a whole, a very common practice for small fish and canned products. The influence of industrial-scale canning showed that canning enhanced heavy metal levels by 35%-80%. The effect of canning depended on metal type and reduction of moisture loss after the steam-roasting step of the canning procedure.

  10. A case of persisting massive infection of Scomberomorus commerson, a commercially exploited scombrid fish, with Cybicola armatus (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Pseudocycnidae).

    PubMed

    Helna, Ameri Kottarathil; Sudha, Kappalli; Aneesh, Panakkool Thamban; Piasecki, Wojciech; Anilkumar, Gopinathan

    2016-12-01

    During an extensive survey of fish parasites along the Malabar coast of India we observed exceptionally high or even massive infection of the narrow-barred Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus commerson (Scombridae), with parasitic copepods Cybicola armatus. Such infection has not hitherto been reported. The copepods occurred on the gills of its host and the infection persisted for many years (the survey lasted from January 2010 to July 2014). The overall prevalence was very high (95%); out of a total of 981 fish studied, 933 were infected, and the maximum intensity reached 42. The highest rate of infection (prevalence 99.2%) was observed in medium sized fish (36.0-79.9 cm). We found this parasite only on S. commerson even though we examined 81 fish species, including five of the family Scombridae. Interestingly, the parasite exhibits strict site specificity and microhabitat preference. A significant proportion of them was seen attached to pseudobranchs rather than to main gill arches. Significantly, the body size of the parasite was positively correlated with that of the host fish. Our SEM micrographs contributed new facts to this copepod's morphology by illustrating for the first time the ventral part of its cephalothorax, illustrating the nature of attachment, and by finding a new structure - a premaxillary pad. We demonstrated the haematophagous nature of C. armatus by finding and documenting the host's blood cells in the parasite's intestine.

  11. Studies on endangered and rare non-commercial fish species recorded in the Pomeranian Bay (southern Baltic Sea) in 2010-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Więcaszek, Beata; Sobecka, Ewa; Keszka, Sławomir; Stepanowska, Katarzyna; Dudko, Stanisław; Biernaczyk, Marcin; Wrzecionkowski, Konrad

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents the results of studies on endangered and rare non-commercial fish species ( Spinachia spinachia, Nerophis ophidion, Syngnathus typhle, Agonus cataphractus, Pholis gunnellus, Enchelyopus cimbrius, Cyclopterus lumpus) and one lamprey species ( Lampetra fluviatilis), recorded as bycatch during monitoring surveys in 2010-2013 in the Pomeranian Bay. Two species were observed for the first time in the Pomeranian Bay: A. cataphractus and E. cimbrius. Descriptions of parasite fauna are provided for C. lumpus and E. cimbrius, which were infected with four pathogenic species from Neomonada, Digenea, Nematoda, and Acanthocephala. Almost all parasite species were new in the hosts examined.

  12. Cadmium and Lead Content in Chosen Commercial Fishery Products Consumed in Poland and Risk Estimations on Fish Consumption.

    PubMed

    Winiarska-Mieczan, Anna; Florek, Mariusz; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Kwiatkowska, Katarzyna; Krusiński, Robert

    2017-07-27

    The presented studies aimed to verify whether fish and fishery products available on the Polish market were safe for consumers in terms of Cd and Pb content. Safety was evaluated according to the content of Cd and Pb in fishery products and based on the share of such products in supplying Cd and Pb in the weekly diet of an adult. Fish samples, of which 139 were smoked fish (26 samples of mackerel, 21 of salmon, 35 of sprat, 38 of eel and 19 of trout) and 117 samples of prepared fish-based dishes (20 of salads, 41 of spreads and 56 of marinated herring) were analysed. The content of Cd and Pb was determined using the GF AAS method. The content of Cd per 1 kg of the analysed product can be represented as follows: salads > smoked eel > smoked salmon and mackerel > smoked trout and spreads > marinated herring > smoked sprat. The content of Pb per 1 kg of the analysed product can be represented as follows: smoked salmon and salads > smoked mackerel and spreads > smoked eel > smoked sprat and smoked trout. Most Cd was found in salads (on average 10.7 μg kg(-1); range 6.53-14.7 μg), whereas most Pb was recorded in salads (on average 56.8 μg per kg; range 32.6-78.9 μg) and marinated fish (on average 58.8 μg per kg; range 19.8-79.6 μg). Fish and fishery products available in Poland are safe for consumers.

  13. Alterations in nitrogen metabolism in freshwater fishes, Channa punctatus and Clarias batrachus, exposed to a commercial-grade λ-cyhalothrin, REEVA-5

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Sharma, Bechan; Pandey, Ravi S

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, two freshwater fishes Channa punctatus and Clarias batrachus were exposed to sub-acute concentrations of a commercial-grade λ-cyhalothrin, REEVA-5, for 96 h to observe the changes in amino acid catabolism under pyrethroid-induced stress and to investigate the comparative mechanisms of ammonia detoxification in both fishes. The experiments included the estimation of levels of free amino acid, urea, ammonia and the specific activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), alanine aminotransferase (AlAT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamine synthetase (GS) and arginase in different vital organs of fishes. λ-cyhalothrin caused significant decline in the levels of amino acids along with simultaneous significant increase in the activity of AAT, AlAT and GDH, which indicated amino acid catabolism as one of the important mechanisms to meet out immediate energy demand of fishes. The level of ammonia was observed to be enhanced considerably at lower concentrations of λ-cyhalothrin while higher concentrations caused remarkable decline. The λ-cyhalothrin treatment resulted in significant increase in the activities of GDH and GS with concomitant increase in the activity of arginase and level of urea, indicating activation of two different mechanisms of ammonia detoxification. The mechanism of ammonia detoxification through its conversion into glutamate and glutamine was more prominent in C. punctatus, while C. batrachus demonstrated ureogenesis as the major route. In fishwise comparison, C. batrachus was observed to be more sensitive with respect to the above-mentioned parameters. Another important finding was that unlike the liver, the kidney appeared as one of the primary sites of ureogenesis in fishes. PMID:22264284

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in three commercially available fish species from the Bonny and Cross River estuaries in the Niger Delta, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Effiong, Imabong A; Bassey, Francisca I; Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A; Ekpa, Okon D; Williams, Sunday A; Oguntunde, Fehintola C; Osabor, Vincent N; Martincigh, Bice S

    2016-09-01

    The concentrations and compositional patterns of the USEPA 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were investigated in three commercially available fish species, Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, Cynoglossus senegalensis and Polydactylus quadratifilis, from the Bonny and Cross River systems in the eastern Niger Delta of Nigeria. The objective of the study was to provide useful information on the levels and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the associated risks with their consumption. The 16 PAHs in the fish samples were extracted by ultrasonication with hexane/dichloromethane, and the concentrations of PAHs in the extracts were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The measured concentrations of the Ʃ16 PAHs in Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, Polydactylus quadratifilis and Cynoglossus senegalensis ranged from 106 to 491, from 43.1 to 1734 and from 96.4 to 937 μg kg(-1) in the Bonny River system and from 20.0 to 975, from 24.7 to 506 and from 24.9 to 387 μg kg(-1) in the Cross River system, respectively. The compositional patterns of the PAHs showed that the three- and four-ringed PAHs were the major contributors to the PAH burden in these fish species. The diagnostic ratios indicate that the PAHs in these fish samples originated mainly from combustion processes. The health risk assessment, as determined from the benzo[a]pyrene potency equivalent factor, margin of exposure and incremental lifetime cancer risk, indicates that PAHs in the majority of these fish species can induce potential carcinogenic effects.

  15. Buying, Preparing, and Cooking Fish. Learning Activity Pack and Instructor's Guide 5.13b. Commercial Foods and Culinary Arts Competency-Based Series. Section 5: Basic Food Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Univ., Tallahassee. Center for Studies in Vocational Education.

    This document consists of a learning activity packet (LAP) for the student and an instructor's guide for the teacher. The LAP is intended to acquaint occupational home economics students with the market forms of fish, how to clean and portion them, and how to cook them. Illustrated information sheets and learning activities are provided in these…

  16. Performance of a commercially available plant allergen series in the assessment of suspected occupational contact dermatitis to plants in north Indian patients.

    PubMed

    De, Dipankar; Khullar, Geeti; Handa, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Parthenium hysterophorus is the leading cause of phytogenic allergic contact dermatitis in India. The Indian Standard Series currently supplied by Systopic Laboratories Ltd and manufactured by Chemotechnique Diagnostics ® contains parthenolide as the only allergen representing plant allergens. The study was conducted to assess the performance of the Chemotechnique plant series (PL-1000), consisting of 14 allergens, in patients with clinically suspected occupational contact dermatitis to plant allergens. Ninety patients were patch tested with the Chemotechnique plant series from 2011 to 2013. Demographic details, clinical diagnosis and patch test results were recorded in the contact dermatitis clinic proforma. Of 90 patients, 24 (26.7%) showed positive reactions to one or more allergens in the plant series. Positive patch tests were elicited most commonly by sesquiterpene lactone mix in 19 (78.6%) patients, followed by parthenolide in 14 (57.1%), Achillea millefolium in 10 (42.9%) and others in decreasing order. The plant allergen series prepared by Chemotechnique Diagnostics is possibly not optimal for diagnosing suspected allergic contact dermatitis to plants in north Indians. Sesquiterpene lactone mix should replace parthenolide as the plant allergen in the Indian Standard Series until relevant native plant extracts are commercially available for patch testing.

  17. Seasonal changes in composition, fatty acid, cholesterol and mineral content of six highly commercial fish species of Greece.

    PubMed

    Zotos, A; Vouzanidou, M

    2012-04-01

    Changes in lipid, protein, ash and moisture, quantitative distribution of fatty acids, cholesterol and mineral content (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni and Zn) of six common fish species from Greece were studied. The proximate composition of all samples was significantly influenced by the fishing period, even the cultured ones. The sum of C20:5ω-3 and C22:6ω-3 ranged from 1.18 to 2.76 for sardine, from 0.37 to 1.99 for bogue, from 1.1 to 1.52 for mackerel, from 1.23 to 1.46 for sea bass, from 1.00 to 1.24 for trout and from 0.26 to 0.45 g/100 g edible portion for hake samples. Besides the ratio of ω-3/ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 6.80 to 19.00 for the wild fish samples and from 1.01 to 3.67 for the cultured ones. Cholesterol of sardine, bogue, mackerel, trout and sea bass ranged from 37 up to 76 mg/100 g edible flesh, while it was varied from 72 to 124 mg/100 g in the flesh of hake. The concentration of minerals was detected at acceptable levels. All fish samples seemed to be quite good sources of Mg, Zn and Fe. Co was not detected in the samples studied.

  18. Occupational rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Sublett, J Wesley; Bernstein, David I

    2011-11-01

    Work-related rhinitis, which includes work-exacerbated rhinitis and occupational rhinoconjunctivitis (OR), is two to three times more common than occupational asthma. High molecular weight proteins and low molecular weight chemicals have been implicated as causes of OR. The diagnosis of work-related rhinitis is established based on occupational history and documentation of immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated sensitization to the causative agent if possible. Management of work-related rhinitis is similar to that of other causes of rhinitis and includes elimination or reduction of exposure to causative agents combined with pharmacotherapy. If allergens are commercially available, allergen immunotherapy can be considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A new compilation of stomach content data for commercially-important pelagic fish species in the Northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnegar, J. K.; Goñi, N.; Trenkel, V. M.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Melle, W.; Keating, J.; Óskarsson, G.

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing demand for information on predator-prey interactions in the ocean as a result of legislative commitments aimed at achieving sustainable exploitation. However, comprehensive datasets are lacking for many fish species and this has hampered development of multispecies fisheries models and the formulation of effective food-web indicators. This work describes a new compilation of stomach content data for five pelagic fish species (herring, blue whiting, mackerel, albacore and bluefin tuna) sampled across the northeast Atlantic and submitted to the PANGAEA open-access data portal (www.pangaea.de). We provide detailed descriptions of sample origin and of the corresponding database structures. We describe the main results in terms of diet composition and predator-prey relationships. The feeding preferences of small pelagic fish (herring, blue whiting, mackerel) were sampled over a very broad geographic area within the North Atlantic basin, from Greenland in the west, to the Lofoten Islands in the east and from the Bay of Biscay northwards to the Arctic. This analysis revealed significant differences in the prey items selected in different parts of the region at different times of year. Tunas (albacore and bluefin) were sampled in the Bay of Biscay and Celtic Sea. Dominant prey items for these species varied by location, year and season. This data compilation exercise represents one of the largest and most wide-ranging ever attempted for pelagic fish in the north Atlantic. The earliest data included in the database were collected in 1864, whereas the most recent were collected in 2012.Datasets are available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.820041 and doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.826992.

  20. A new compilation of stomach content data for commercially important pelagic fish species in the northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinnegar, J. K.; Goñi, N.; Trenkel, V. M.; Arrizabalaga, H.; Melle, W.; Keating, J.; Óskarsson, G.

    2015-02-01

    There is increasing demand for information on predator-prey interactions in the ocean as a result of legislative commitments aimed at achieving sustainable exploitation. However, comprehensive data sets are lacking for many fish species and this has hampered development of multispecies fisheries models and the formulation of effective food-web indicators. This work describes a new compilation of stomach content data for five pelagic fish species (herring, blue whiting, mackerel, albacore and bluefin tuna) sampled across the northeast Atlantic and submitted to the PANGAEA open-access data portal (www.pangaea.de). We provide detailed descriptions of sample origin and of the corresponding database structures. We describe the main results in terms of diet composition and predator-prey relationships. The feeding preferences of small pelagic fish (herring, blue whiting, mackerel) were sampled over a very broad geographic area within the North Atlantic basin, from Greenland in the west, to the Lofoten Islands in the east and from the Bay of Biscay northwards to the Arctic. This analysis revealed significant differences in the prey items selected in different parts of the region at different times of year. Tunas (albacore and bluefin) were sampled in the Bay of Biscay and Celtic Sea. Dominant prey items for these species varied by location, year and season. This data compilation exercise represents one of the largest and most wide-ranging ever attempted for pelagic fish in the North Atlantic. The earliest data included in the database were collected in 1864, whereas the most recent were collected in 2012. Data sets are available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.820041 and doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.826992.

  1. Navigational and vessel inspection circular No. 5-86. Voluntary standards for US uninspected commercial fishing vessels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1986-08-18

    The vessel standards program, which this NVIC addresses, originally consisted of a series of five NVICs; Stability (5-85), Radio and Shipboard Navigation Equipment (6-85), Fire Safety Measures (7-85), Lifesaving Equipment and Protection of the Crew (8-85), and Hull, Machinery, and Electrical Installations (9-85). Many of these NVICs contained specific operational and educational material for fishermen which could be used before the `Vessel Safety Manual` was published; therefore, some material previously contained in any one of the NVICs has been moved to the manual, although some overlap still exists. Since input from the fishing industry and other interested parties was essential, the authors published NVICs 5-85 thru 9-85 as proposed standards and distributed them to over 230 individuals, groups and organizations throuoghout the U.S. who have an interest in fishing vessel safety. These groups included safety consultants, marine surveyors, naval architects, insurance underwriters, fishing vessel owners` associations, boat builders, fisheries unions, personnel associated with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Sea Grant program, and the National Marine Fisheries Service. Several sent detailed comments; all expressed a favorable reaction to the standards. This report is a consolidation of NVICs 5-85 thru 9-85 taking into account the comments and recommendations received. For continuity, certain regulatory requirements (although not voluntary) have been included where appropriate.

  2. Mercury contamination in commercial fresh and salt water fish of the Zabol Chahnimeh reservoirs and the Gulf of Oman (Iran).

    PubMed

    Behrooz, Reza Dahmardeh; Sahebi, Sajedeh; Majnoni, Farshid; Ahmadpour, Mohsen; Hoseini, Seyed Hamid

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate bioaccumulation of mercury in Iranian coastal waters fish, tiger tooth croaker (Otolithes ruber) and yellowspotted trevally (Carangoides fulvoguttatus) from the Gulf of Oman and grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from Zabol Chahnimeh reservoirs were sampled in May 2012. In these ecosystems, total mercury concentrations were measured in muscle and gill of these four fish species. Both regions did not reveal a significant difference. In H. molitrix and O. ruber, mercury concentrations in gill increased with increasing length (H. molitrix, r = 0.94, p < 0.005; O. ruber, r = 0.94, p > 0.005) and weight (H. molitrix, r = 0.94, p < 0.005; O. ruber, r = 0.82, p > 0.04). Generally, mercury levels in the analysed fish samples were higher than WHO, FDA and US-EPA legal limits.

  3. In vivo induction of antioxidant response and oxidative stress associated with genotoxicity and histopathological alteration in two commercial fish species due to heavy metals exposure in northern India (Kali) river.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Mahino; Usmani, Nazura; Firdaus, Fakiha; Zafeer, Mohammad Faraz; Ahmad, Shafeeque; Akhtar, Kafil; Dawar Husain, S M; Ahmad, Mir Hilal; Anis, Ehraz; Mobarak Hossain, M

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals can significantly bioaccumulate in fish tissues. The step wise mechanism of heavy metal toxicities on fish health is still limited. The present study assessed the tissue-specific antioxidant response and oxidative stress biomarkers of commercially important fish species namely, Channa striatus and Heteropneustes fossilis inhabiting Kali River of northern India where heavy-metal load is beyond the World Health Organisation - maximum permissible limits. Heavy metals chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were elevated in both fish species compared to recommended values of the Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), 1999 for edible fishes. Reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CATA) activities in all tissues (brachial, neural, renal and hepatic) were altered. Cellular lipid and protein compromisation in both fishes induced by heavy metals was determined by lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonylation (PC) assays. Micronucleus (MN) test of erythrocytes and comet assay of liver cells confirmed genotoxicity. Histopathology of the liver, kidney and brain of affected fishes was distorted significantly with its reference fishes thereby affecting the quality and quantity of these fish stocks. This raises a serious concern as these fishes are consumed by the local population which would ultimately affect human health.

  4. Tools for improving safety management in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet occupational accidents analysis period of 1998-2006.

    PubMed

    Aasjord, Halvard L

    2006-01-01

    Reporting of human accidents in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet has always been very difficult because there has been no tradition in making reports on all types of working accidents among fishermen, if the accident does not seem to be very serious or there is no economical incentive to report. Therefore reports are only written when the accidents are serious or if the fisherman is reported sick. Reports about an accident are sent to the insurance company, but another report should also be sent to the Norwegian Maritime Directorate (NMD). Comparing of data from one former insurance company and NMD shows that the real numbers of injuries or serious accidents among Norwegian fishermen could be up to two times more than the numbers reported to NMD. Special analyses of 1690 accidents from the so called PUS-database (NMD) for the period 1998-2002, show that the calculated risk was 23.6 accidents per 1000 man-years. This is quite a high risk level, and most of the accidents in the fishing fleet were rather serious. The calculated risks are highest for fishermen on board the deep sea fleet of trawlers (28.6 accidents per 1000 man-years) and also on the deep sea fleet of purse seiners (28.9 accidents per 1000 man-years). Fatal accidents over a longer period of 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006 are also roughly analysed. These data from SINTEF's own database show that the numbers of fatal accidents have been decreasing over this long period, except for the two periods 1980-84 and 1990-94 where we had some casualties with total losses of larger vessels with the loss of most of the crew, but also many others typical work accidents on smaller vessels. The total numbers of registered Norwegian fishermen and also the numbers of man-years have been drastically reduced over the 51.5 years from 1955 to 2006. The risks of fatal accidents have been very steady over time at a high level, although there has been a marked risk reduction since 1990-94. For the last 8.5-year period of January 1998

  5. Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2010, Prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, May 2012

    SciTech Connect

    D. E. Lewis D. A. Hagemeyer Y. U. McCormick

    2012-07-07

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 2010 annual reports submitted by five of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Because there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed and no NRC-licensed low-level waste disposal facilities currently in operation, only five categories will be considered in this report. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in this report in terms of collective dose and the distribution of dose among the monitored individuals. Annual reports for 2010 were received from a total of 190 NRC licensees. The summation of reports submitted by the 190 licensees indicated that 192,424 individuals were monitored, 81,961 of whom received a measurable dose. When adjusted for transient workers who worked at more than one licensee during the year, there were actually 142,471 monitored individuals and 62,782 who received a measurable dose. The collective dose incurred by these individuals was 10,617 person-rem, which represents a 12% decrease from the 2009 value. This decrease was primarily due to the decrease in collective dose at commercial nuclear power reactors, as well as a decrease in the collective dose for most of the other categories of NRC licensees. The number of individuals receiving a measurable dose also decreased, resulting in an average measurable dose of 0.13 rem for 2010. The average measurable dose is defined as the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) divided by the number of individuals receiving a measurable dose. In calendar year 2010, the average annual collective dose per reactor for light water reactor

  6. Occupational Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  7. Characterization, development and multiplexing of microsatellite markers in three commercially exploited reef fish and their application for stock identification

    PubMed Central

    Dudgeon, Christine; Maher, Safia; Crook, David A.; Saunders, Thor M.; Barton, Diane P.; Taylor, Jonathan A.; Welch, David J.; Newman, Stephen J.; Travers, Michael J.; Saunders, Richard J.; Ovenden, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-four microsatellite loci were isolated from three reef fish species; golden snapper Lutjanus johnii, blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus and grass emperor Lethrinus laticaudis using a next generation sequencing approach. Both IonTorrent single reads and Illumina MiSeq paired-end reads were used, with the latter demonstrating a higher quality of reads than the IonTorrent. From the 1–1.5 million raw reads per species, we successfully obtained 10–13 polymorphic loci for each species, which satisfied stringent design criteria. We developed multiplex panels for the amplification of the golden snapper and the blackspotted croaker loci, as well as post-amplification pooling panels for the grass emperor loci. The microsatellites characterized in this work were tested across three locations of northern Australia. The microsatellites we developed can detect population differentiation across northern Australia and may be used for genetic structure studies and stock identification. PMID:27635362

  8. A contemporary, sex-limited change in body size of an estuarine turtle in response to commercial fishing.

    PubMed

    Wolak, Matthew E; Gilchrist, George W; Ruzicka, Victoria A; Nally, Daniel M; Chambers, Randolph M

    2010-10-01

    Juvenile growth rate and adult body size are important components of life-history strategies because of their direct impact on fitness. The diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) is a sexually dimorphic, long-lived turtle inhabiting brackish waters throughout the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. In parts of its range, terrapins face anthropogenically imposed mortality: juveniles of both sexes inadvertently enter commercial crab traps and drown. For adult females, the carapace eventually grows large enough that they cannot enter traps, whereas males almost never reach that critical size. We compared age structure, carapace dimensions, growth curves, and indices of sexual dimorphism for a Chesapeake Bay population of terrapins (where mortality of turtles is high due to crab traps) with contemporary terrapins from Long Island Sound and museum specimens from Chesapeake Bay (neither group subject to commercial crab traps). We also calculated the allochronic and synchronic rates of evolutionary change (haldanes) for males and females to measure the rate of trait change in a population or between populations, respectively. We found a dramatic shift to a younger male age structure, a decrease in the length of time to terminal female carapace size, a 15% increase in female carapace width, and an increase in sexual dimorphism in Chesapeake Bay. In a new twist, our results implicate a fishery in the selective increase in size of a reptilian bycatch species. These sex-specific changes in life history and demography have implications for population viability that need to be considered when addressing conservation of this threatened turtle.

  9. Atypical feeding behavior of Long-tailed Ducks in the wake of a commercial fishing boat while clamming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Matthew; Osenton, Peter C.; White, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    A foraging group of Clangula hyemalis (Long-tailed Duck) was observed on 10 February 2010 diving behind a commercial boat that was clamming near Monomoy Island, Nantucket Sound, MA. We used a shotgun to collect 9 of the ducks, and our analyses of gizzard and gullet (esophagus and proventriculus) revealed 37 food items in the gizzard and 16 in the gullet. Mollusca were the dominant food in the gizzard (49%), whereas Crustacea were dominant in the gullet (57%). Crustacea were the second most important food in the gizzard (38%), whereas Mollusca were the second most important food in the gullet (31%). Relatively high volumes of the Amphipoda Caprella sp. (skeleton shrimp) and the Decopoda Crangon septemspinosa (Sand Shrimp) were recorded in the gullet and gizzard. Ensis directus (Atlantic Jackknife Clam) formed the greatest volume of Mollusca in the gizzard (15%) and in the gullet (15%). Long-tailed Ducks had fed on this Bivalvia and several other species of Mollusca that had no shell or broken shell when consumed. Many of the food organisms were apparently dislodged and some damaged by the clamming operation creating an opportunistic feeding strategy for the Long-tailed Ducks.

  10. Morphological and molecular genetic characterization of two Kudoa spp., K. musculoliquefaciens, and K. pleurogrammi n. sp. (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida), causing myoliquefaction of commercial marine fish.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Akihiro; Li, Ying-Chun; Mafie, Eliakunda; Sato, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    or 28S rDNA nucleotide sequences. Thus, molecular genetic characterization of kudoid species with the potential to induce post-mortem myoliquefaction will facilitate the reliable and specific identification of myxosporeans found in either jellied or normal muscles of important commercial fish.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in commercial fish and lobsters from the coastal waters of Madagascar following an oil spill in August 2009.

    PubMed

    Rumney, Heather S; Laruelle, Franck; Potter, Kerry; Mellor, Philip K; Law, Robin J

    2011-12-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in species of commercial fish and lobsters following an oil-spill just off the protected Madagascan coastline. Samples were collected along the coastline within and outside the affected area. Summed PAH concentrations ranged from 1.9 μg kg(-1) to 63 μg kg(-1) wet weight, but with no higher molecular weight PAHs (>202 Da) being detected. All concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene, benz[a]anthracene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene were <0.1 μg kg(-1) wet weight, well within the EU and UK set limits for the protection of human health. Additionally, samples were calculated as the benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalency quotient (TEQ) and found to be well below the level of concern in relation to health of human consumers. Evaluation of the biota PAH data indicated the origin of PAH was predominantly petrogenic with >80% arising from oil sources. Profile studies indicate a low-level multisource petrogenic contamination probably representing a pre-spill background for the area.

  12. A Preliminary Estimate of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Water and Some Commercially Important Fish Species in the Amba Estuary, West Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Nageswar Rao, M; Ram, Anirudh; Rokade, M A; Raja, P; Rakesh, P S; Chemburkar, Parul; Gajbhiye, S N

    2016-07-01

    Amba Estuary, which receives effluent from several industries including a petrochemical complex, opens to the southern limits of the Mumbai Harbor. The study was conducted to find out the level of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPHs) in water and their bioconcentration in ten commercially important fishes from Amba Estuary during different months. In water high concentration of TPHs (39.7 μg/L) was obtained during December (middle of estuary) and minimum value (7.2 μg/L) was observed in September (lower estuarine). The maximum concentration of TPHs was found to be in Trichiurus savala (3.2 µg/g) during December and minimum in Boleophthalmus sp (0.4 µg/g) during May. Irrespective of the monthly variations, TPHs accumulation in all the species was considerably lower than hazardous levels. Although there was no statistical significance between TPHs and total length/weight, the T. savala recording maximum concentration during all months and it can be used as indicator of hydrocarbon pollution in this region.

  13. Effects of the commercial formulation containing fipronil on the non-target organism Cyprinus carpio: implications for rice-fish cultivation.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Bárbara; Loro, Vania Lucia; Cattaneo, Roberta; Moraes, Bibiana; Lópes, Thais; de Avila, Luis Antonio; Zanella, Renato; Reimche, Geovane Boschmann; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate possible toxic effects of commercial formulation containing fipronil on Cyprinus carpio tissues under rice field conditions. Antioxidant profile (SOD, catalase, glutathione S-transferase), oxidative stress parameters (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, protein carbonyl), and growth were investigated in carp exposed to fipronil under rice field conditions for 7, 30, and 90 days. Waterborne insecticide concentrations were measured and the detectable concentration of fipronil was observed up to 45 day after application. Common carp survival and growth was not affected by fipronil. Liver superoxide dismutase activity was enhanced while liver catalase activity was inhibited at 7, 30, and 90 days. Alterations were not observed in the glutathione S-transferase activity in any experimental periods. Protein carbonyl increased only after 30 and 90 days of exposure. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels were enhanced in all analyzed tissues (liver, muscle, and brain) and periods of exposure. This study demonstrates that fipronil insecticides cause alterations in the biochemical parameters in different tissues of carp without affecting the growth or the survival of the fish.

  14. "Watts per person" paradigm to design net zero energy buildings: Examining technology interventions and integrating occupant feedback to reduce plug loads in a commercial building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi Kim, Mika

    As building envelopes have improved due to more restrictive energy codes, internal loads have increased largely due to the proliferation of computers, electronics, appliances, imaging and audio visual equipment that continues to grow in commercial buildings. As the dependency on the internet for information and data transfer increases, the electricity demand will pose a challenge to design and operate Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs). Plug Loads (PLs) as a proportion of the building load has become the largest non-regulated building energy load and represents the third highest electricity end-use in California's commercial office buildings, accounting for 23% of the total building electricity consumption (Ecova 2011,2). In the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO2008), prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that presents long-term projections of energy supply and demand through 2030 states that office equipment and personal computers are the "fastest growing electrical end uses" in the commercial sector. This thesis entitled "Watts Per Person" Paradigm to Design Net Zero Energy Buildings, measures the implementation of advanced controls and behavioral interventions to study the reduction of PL energy use in the commercial sector. By integrating real world data extracted from an energy efficient commercial building of its energy use, the results produce a new methodology on estimating PL energy use by calculating based on "Watts Per Person" and analyzes computational simulation methods to design NZEBs.

  15. Post-release behavior and movement patterns of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) after capture using alternative commercial fish gear, lower Columbia River, Washington and Oregon, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Kock, Tobias J.; Evans, Scott D.; Hansen, Gabriel S.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011 and 2012, WDFW conducted post-release mortality studies of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) that were captured using beach or purse seines. These studies were comprised of two groups of fish tagged with passive integrated transponder tags (PIT tags): (1) treatment fish that were captured by one of the gear types 9–25 river kilometers (rkm) downstream of Bonneville Dam (rkm 234); and (2) control fish that were captured at the Adult Fish Facility near the Washington shore fish ladder at Bonneville Dam, and then transported and released 8 rkm downstream of the Bonneville Dam. Fish were confirmed to have survived if they moved upstream and were detected on PIT-tag antennas at or upstream of Bonneville Dam, were recovered at hatcheries or at the dam, or were captured by commercial or sport fishers. Post-release survival estimates were higher for steelhead (89–98 percent) than for Chinook salmon and coho salmon (50–90 percent; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, unpub. data, 2014). However, some Chinook salmon and coho salmon return to hatcheries, or spawn in the mainstem Columbia River and in tributaries downstream of Bonneville Dam. The proportion of Chinook salmon and coho salmon in the treatment group that were destined for areas downstream of Bonneville Dam likely was higher than in the control group because the control fish were collected as they were attempting to pass the dam. If this assertion was true, mortality would have been overestimated in these studies, so WDFW developed a study plan to determine the post-release movements and intended location of Chinook salmon and coho salmon collected with beach and purse seines in the lower Columbia River.

  16. Occupational Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Library ▸ Asthma Library ▸ Occupational asthma TTR Share | Occupational Asthma This article has been reviewed by Thanai Pongdee, MD, FAAAAI Occupational asthma has become the most common work-related lung ...

  17. Alaska's model program for surveillance and prevention of occupational injury deaths.

    PubMed Central

    Conway, G A; Lincoln, J M; Husberg, B J; Manwaring, J C; Klatt, M L; Thomas, T K

    1999-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) established its Alaska Field Station in Anchorage in 1991 after identifying Alaska as the highest-risk state for traumatic worker fatalities. Since then, the Field Station, working in collaboration with other agencies, organizations, and individuals, has established a program for occupational injury surveillance in Alaska and formed interagency working groups to address the risk factors leading to occupational death and injury in the state. Collaborative efforts have contributed to reducing crash rates and mortality in Alaska's rapidly expanding helicopter logging industry and have played an important supportive role in the substantial progress made in reducing the mortality rate in Alaska's commercial fishing industry (historically Alaska's and America's most dangerous industry). Alaska experienced a 46% overall decline in work-related acute traumatic injury deaths from 1991 to 1998, a 64% decline in commercial fishing deaths, and a very sharp decline in helicopter logging-related deaths. Extending this regional approach to other parts of the country and applying these strategies to the entire spectrum of occupational injury and disease hazards could have a broad effect on reducing occupational injuries. PMID:10670623

  18. Occupational asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Asthma - occupational exposure; Irritant-induced reactive airways disease Images Spirometry Respiratory system References Lemiere C, Vandenplas O. Occupational allergy and asthma. In: Adkinson NF Jr., Bochner ...

  19. Design Occupations. Reprinted from the Occupational Outlook Handbook, 1978-79 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Focusing on design occupations, this document is one in a series of forty-one reprints from the Occupational Outlook Handbook providing current information and employment projections for individual occupations and industries through 1985. The specific occupations covered in this document include architects, commercial artists, display workers…

  20. Sleep in High Stress Occupations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn-Evans, Erin

    2014-01-01

    High stress occupations are associated with sleep restriction, circadian misalignment and demanding workload. This presentation will provide an overview of sleep duration, circadian misalignment and fatigue countermeasures and performance outcomes during spaceflight and commercial aviation.

  1. Assessment of genotoxic induction and deterioration of fish quality in commercial species due to heavy-metal exposure in an urban reservoir.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Mahino; Usmani, Nazura; Mobarak Hossain, M; Siddiqui, Mohammad Faisal; Zafeer, Mohammad Faraz; Firdaus, Fakiha; Ahmad, Shafeeque

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of heavy-metal contamination on two fish species (Channa striatus and Heteropneustes fossilis) inhabiting a small freshwater body of northern India. After being captured, each specimen was weighed, measured, and analyzed for heavy metals (chromium [Cr], nickel [Ni], and lead [Pb]). Accumulation of heavy metals was found to be significantly greater (p < 0.05) in different tissues (gill, liver, kidney, and muscle) of fishes captured from the reservoir than from the reference site. Levels of heavy-metal contamination in Shah jamal water was Cr (1.51 mg/l) > Ni (1.22 mg/l) > Pb (0.38 mg/l), which is significantly greater than World Health Organization standards. Bioaccumulation factor was calculated, and it was observed that Pb was most detrimental heavy metal. Condition factor was also influenced. Micronucleus test of fish erythrocytes and comet assay of liver cells confirmed genotoxicity induced by heavy-metal contamination in fishes. Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, and Pb) were increased in both fish species as determined using recommended values of Federal Environmental Protection Agency for edible fishes. This raises a serious concern because these fishes are consumed by the local populations and hence would ultimately affect human health.

  2. The effect of rights-based fisheries management on risk taking and fishing safety

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Lisa; Gratz, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    Commercial fishing is a dangerous occupation despite decades of regulatory initiatives aimed at making it safer. We posit that rights-based fisheries management (the individual allocation of fishing quota to vessels or fishing entities, also called catch shares) can improve safety by solving many of the problems associated with the competitive race to fish experienced in fisheries around the world. The competitive nature of such fisheries results in risky behavior such as fishing in poor weather, overloading vessels with fishing gear, and neglecting maintenance. Although not necessarily intended to address safety issues, catch shares eliminate many of the economic incentives to fish as rapidly as possible. We develop a dataset and methods to empirically evaluate the effects of the adoption of catch shares management on a particularly risky type of behavior: the propensity to fish in stormy weather. After catch shares was implemented in an economically important US West Coast fishery, a fisherman’s probability of taking a fishing trip in high wind conditions decreased by 82% compared with only 31% in the former race to fish fishery. Overall, catch shares caused the average annual rate of fishing on high wind days to decrease by 79%. These results are evidence that institutional changes can significantly reduce individual, voluntary risk exposure and result in safer fisheries. PMID:26884188

  3. The effect of rights-based fisheries management on risk taking and fishing safety.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Lisa; Gratz, Trevor

    2016-03-08

    Commercial fishing is a dangerous occupation despite decades of regulatory initiatives aimed at making it safer. We posit that rights-based fisheries management (the individual allocation of fishing quota to vessels or fishing entities, also called catch shares) can improve safety by solving many of the problems associated with the competitive race to fish experienced in fisheries around the world. The competitive nature of such fisheries results in risky behavior such as fishing in poor weather, overloading vessels with fishing gear, and neglecting maintenance. Although not necessarily intended to address safety issues, catch shares eliminate many of the economic incentives to fish as rapidly as possible. We develop a dataset and methods to empirically evaluate the effects of the adoption of catch shares management on a particularly risky type of behavior: the propensity to fish in stormy weather. After catch shares was implemented in an economically important US West Coast fishery, a fisherman's probability of taking a fishing trip in high wind conditions decreased by 82% compared with only 31% in the former race to fish fishery. Overall, catch shares caused the average annual rate of fishing on high wind days to decrease by 79%. These results are evidence that institutional changes can significantly reduce individual, voluntary risk exposure and result in safer fisheries.

  4. 10 CFR 434.513 - Occupancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Occupancy. 434.513 Section 434.513 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.513 Occupancy. 5131Occupancy schedules are...

  5. 10 CFR 434.513 - Occupancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Occupancy. 434.513 Section 434.513 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.513 Occupancy. 5131Occupancy schedules are...

  6. 10 CFR 434.513 - Occupancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Occupancy. 434.513 Section 434.513 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.513 Occupancy. 5131 Occupancy schedules are...

  7. 10 CFR 434.513 - Occupancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Occupancy. 434.513 Section 434.513 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.513 Occupancy. 5131Occupancy schedules are...

  8. 10 CFR 434.513 - Occupancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Occupancy. 434.513 Section 434.513 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.513 Occupancy. 5131Occupancy schedules are...

  9. Human exposure to mercury in artisanal small-scale gold mining areas of Kedougou region, Senegal, as a function of occupational activity and fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Niane, Birane; Guédron, Stéphane; Moritz, Robert; Cosio, Claudia; Ngom, Papa Malick; Deverajan, Naresh; Pfeifer, Hans Rudolf; Poté, John

    2015-05-01

    We investigated mercury (Hg) exposure of food web and humans in the region of Kedougou, Senegal, where Hg is used for gold amalgamation in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM). For this purpose, total mercury (THg) concentration was determined in eight fish species and two shellfish species from Gambia River and in human hair from 111 volunteers of different age and sex, living in urban locations (Kedougou and Samekouta) or in ASGM areas (Tinkoto and Bantako). THg concentrations in fish samples range from 0.03 to 0.51 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) and 0.5 to 1.05 mg kg(-1) ww for shellfish. THg concentrations in fish are below the WHO guideline of 0.5 mg kg(-1) ww, whereas 100 % of shellfish are above this safety guideline. In the entire set of fish and shellfish samples, we documented a decrease of THg concentrations with increasing selenium to mercury (Se:Hg) ratio suggesting a protection of Se against Hg. However, local population consuming fish from the Gambia River in the two ASGM areas have higher THg concentrations (median = 1.45 and 1.5 mg kg(-1) at Bantako and Tinkoto) in hair than those from others localities (median = 0.42 and 0.32 mg kg(-1) at Kedougou town and Samekouta) who have diverse diets. At ASGM sites, about 30 % of the local population present Hg concentrations in hair exceeding 1 mg kg(-1), defined as the reference concentration of Hg in hair. We also evidence a higher exposure of women to Hg in the Tinkoto ASGM site due to the traditional distribution of daily tasks where women are more involved in the burning of amalgams. The discrepancy between the calculated moderate exposure through fish consumption and the high Hg concentrations measured in hair suggest that fish consumption is not the only source of Hg exposure and that further studies should focus on direct exposure to elemental Hg of population living at ASGM sites.

  10. Levels and trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Spanish commercial fish and shellfish products, 1995-2003.

    PubMed

    Gómara, B; Bordajandi, L R; Fernández, M A; Herrero, L; Abad, E; Abalos, M; Rivera, J; González, M J

    2005-10-19

    The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), dibenzofuran (PCDF), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contents of 123 Spanish commercial salmon, tuna fish, sardine, oyster, mussel, and clam samples from 1995 to 2003 were investigated. A significant decrease of dioxin and non-ortho PCB concentrations in the studied species was found over the years. The decrease was greater in the case of dioxins than in that of non-ortho PCBs, especially during the early years of the study. PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in the years 2001-2003 were comparable to those reported in the literature for similar species collected after 1999. Mean PCB concentrations ranged from 3.46 ng/g of fresh weight (fw) in clams to 100 ng/g of fw in tuna fish. PCDD/F mean current levels ranged from 0.62 pg/g of fw in clams to 2.89 pg/g of fw in oysters. Toxic equivalent quantities (WHO-TEQ) ranged from 0.05 pg of WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs)/g of fw in clams to 0.5 pg of WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs)/g of fw in salmon (in the upper bound determination levels). When coplanar PCBs were included, the WHO-TEQ(PCDD/Fs+cop) (PCBs) values increased by a range of 1.7 times in oysters to 14.1 times in tuna fish. The decrease in dioxin concentrations suggests that efforts to control dioxin emissions and to reduce human exposure through foodstuffs are succeeding. The high contribution of PCBs to total WHO-TEQs in the fish and shellfish species investigated suggests that it is important to determine PCBs in foodstuffs, and especially in fish products, and they should be included in further research and future legislation.

  11. Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores and other commercial buildings in California. Issues related to the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Mendell, Mark J.; Apte, Mike G.

    2010-10-31

    This report considers the question of whether the California Energy Commission should incorporate the ASHRAE 62.1 ventilation standard into the Title 24 ventilation rate (VR) standards, thus allowing buildings to follow the Indoor Air Quality Procedure. This, in contrast to the current prescriptive standard, allows the option of using ventilation rate as one of several strategies, which might include source reduction and air cleaning, to meet specified targets of indoor air concentrations and occupant acceptability. The research findings reviewed in this report suggest that a revised approach to a ventilation standard for commercial buildings is necessary, because the current prescriptive ASHRAE 62.1 Ventilation Rate Procedure (VRP) apparently does not provide occupants with either sufficiently acceptable or sufficiently healthprotective air quality. One possible solution would be a dramatic increase in the minimum ventilation rates (VRs) prescribed by a VRP. This solution, however, is not feasible for at least three reasons: the current need to reduce energy use rather than increase it further, the problem of polluted outdoor air in many cities, and the apparent limited ability of increasing VRs to reduce all indoor airborne contaminants of concern (per Hodgson (2003)). Any feasible solution is thus likely to include methods of pollutant reduction other than increased outdoor air ventilation; e.g., source reduction or air cleaning. The alternative 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure (IAQP) offers multiple possible benefits in this direction over the VRP, but seems too limited by insufficient specifications and inadequate available data to provide adequate protection for occupants. Ventilation system designers rarely choose to use it, finding it too arbitrary and requiring use of much non-engineering judgment and information that is not readily available. This report suggests strategies to revise the current ASHRAE IAQP to reduce its current limitations. These

  12. Occupational Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    When choosing a career, jobseekers often want to know which occupations offer the best prospects. Generally, occupations that have rapid job growth, many new jobs, or many job openings--and good wages--promise better opportunities. This paper shows how employment in particular occupations is projected to change from 2010 to 2020. It presents…

  13. Experimental development of a new protocol for extraction and characterization of microplastics in fish tissues: First observations in commercial species from Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Avio, Carlo Giacomo; Gorbi, Stefania; Regoli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    The presence of microplastics in the marine environment has raised scientific interest during the last decade. Several organisms can ingest microplastics with potentially adverse effects on the digestive tract, respiratory system and locomotory appendages. However, a clear evidence of tissue accumulation and transfer of such microparticles in wild organisms is still lacking, partially hampered by technical difficulties in isolation and characterization protocols from biological samples. In this work, we compared the efficacy of some existing approaches and we optimized a new protocol allowing an extraction yield of microplastics from fish tissues ranging between 78% and 98%, depending on the polymer size. FT-IR analyses confirmed that the extraction procedure did not affect the particles characteristics. The method was further validated on the fish mullet, Mugil cephalus, exposed under laboratory conditions to polystyrene and polyethylene; the particles were isolated and quantified in stomach and liver, and their presence in the hepatic tissue was confirmed also by histological analyses. A preliminary characterization revealed the presence and distribution of microplastics in various fish species collected along the Adriatic Sea. FT-IR analyses indicated polyethylene as the predominant polymer (65%) in the stomach of fish. The overall results confirmed the newly developed method as a reliable approach to detect and quantify microplastics in the marine biota. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Influence of 175-m-impoundment in Three Gorges Reservoir area on the food web energy sources of main commercial fishes in backwater area of xiaojiang River].

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Yue, Xing-Jian; Wang, Yong-Ming; Jin, Li; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2013-06-01

    The impoundment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) was first reached 175 m in 2010. To approach the influence of this impoundment on the food web energy sources of fishes in the tributaries of TRGA, an analysis was made on the food web energy sources of seven economically important fishes (Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, Silurus asotus, Culter mongolicus mongolicus, Mystus macropterus, Pelteobagrus vachelli, and Pelteobagrus nitidus) in the backwater area of Xiaojiang River by using stable isotope method in combining with IsoSource Model. The results showed that before this impoundment (July 2010), microalgae were the main energy sources for the seven species. After this impoundment (December 2010), the contribution ratio of the microalgae decreased somewhat, while the relative contribution of terrestrial C4 plants had an obvious increase. Especially for crucian carp (C. auratus) and catfish (S. asotus), the contribution rate of the C4 plants reached 38-54% and 32-50%, respectively. After the impoundment, at least 30% of the energy resources of these two fishes were come from terrestrial C4 plants, suggesting that the impoundment in TGRA increased the contribution rate of exogenous terrestrial C4 plants as the energy sources of fishes.

  15. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any time...

  16. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any time...

  17. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any time...

  18. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any time...

  19. 25 CFR 242.4 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fishing. 242.4 Section 242.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.4 Fishing. (a) Enrolled members of the Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians may take fish at any time...

  20. 25 CFR 241.4 - Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of Fish and Game for Commercial Fishing in Fishing District No. 1. Sport fishing within the Annette... regulation for Southeastern Alaska by the Alaska Board of Fish and Game. Both subsistence and sport...

  1. Levels of (210)Po in some commercial fish species consumed in the Aegean Sea coast of Turkey and the related dose assessment to the coastal population.

    PubMed

    Aközcan, S

    2013-04-01

    Concentrations of (210)Po were determined in the edible muscle tissue of five species of marine fish: Sardine (Sardine plichardus) and Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), Red mullet (Mullus barbatus), Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and Gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata) collected from five stations in the Aegean Sea Region of Turkey during the fishery season 2010. The (210)Po concentrations in the fish samples were found to vary from not detected levels to 389 ± 45 Bq kg(-1) dry wt. These variations in (210)Po content in different species are probably due to differences in metabolism and feeding patterns. The highest levels for (210)Po were observed in Anchovy (E. encrasicolus) species.

  2. Fish allergy: in review.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  3. Occupational Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country’s ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives – notably work by Biko and Fanon – and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term ‘consciousness’ in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation. PMID:26549984

  4. Occupational Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L

    2015-10-02

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country's ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives - notably work by Biko and Fanon - and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term 'consciousness' in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation.

  5. Occupational seafood allergy: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jeebhay, M; Robins, T; Lehrer, S; Lopata, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Recent years have seen increased levels of production and consumption of seafood, leading to more frequent reporting of allergic reactions in occupational and domestic settings. This review focuses on occupational allergy in the fishing and seafood processing industry.
REVIEW—Workers involved in either manual or automated processing of crabs, prawns, mussels, fish, and fishmeal production are commonly exposed to various constituents of seafood. Aerosolisation of seafood and cooking fluid during processing are potential occupational situations that could result in sensitisation through inhalation. There is great variability of aerosol exposure within and among various jobs with reported allergen concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 5.061(µg/m3). Occupational dermal exposure occurs as a result of unprotected handling of seafood and its byproducts. Occupational allergies have been reported in workers exposed to arthropods (crustaceans), molluscs, pisces (bony fish) and other agents derived from seafood. The prevalence of occupational asthma ranges from 7% to 36%, and for occupational protein contact dermatitis, from 3% to 11%. These health outcomes are mainly due to high molecular weight proteins in seafood causing an IgE mediated response. Cross reactivity between various species within a major seafood grouping also occurs. Limited evidence from dose-response relations indicate that development of symptoms is related to duration or intensity of exposure. The evidence for atopy as a risk factor for occupational sensitisation and asthma is supportive, whereas evidence for cigarette smoking is limited. Disruption of the intact skin barrier seems to be an important added risk factor for occupational protein contact dermatitis.
CONCLUSION—The range of allergic disease associated with occupational exposure to crab is well characterised, whereas for other seafood agents the evidence is somewhat limited. There is a need for further epidemiological

  6. Work-related mortality in the US fishing industry during 2000-2014: New findings based on improved workforce exposure estimates.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Devin L; Case, Samantha L

    2017-08-23

    Commercial fishing is a global industry that has been frequently classified as high-risk. The use of detailed surveillance data is critical in identifying hazards. The purpose of this study was to provide updated statistics for the entire US fishing industry during 2010-2014, generate fleet-specific fatality rates using a revised calculation of full-time equivalent estimates, and examine changes in the patterns of fatalities and in risk over a 15-year period (2000-2014). During 2010-2014, 188 commercial fishing fatalities occurred in the United States. Vessel disasters and falls overboard remain leading contributors to commercial fishing deaths. The Atlantic scallop fleet stands out for achieving substantial declines in the risk of fatalities over the 15-year study period. However, fatality rates ranged from 21 to 147 deaths per 100 000 FTEs, many times higher than the rate for all US workers. Although the number of fatalities among commercial fishermen in the United States has generally declined since 2000, commercial fishing continues to have one of the highest occupational fatality rates in the United States. The sustainable seafood movement could assist in improving the health and safety of fishing industry workers if worker well-being was integrated into the definition of sustainable seafood. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Understanding non-industrialized workers' approaches to safety: how do commercial fishermen "stay safe"?

    PubMed

    McDonald, Mary Anne; Kucera, Kristen L

    2007-01-01

    Commercial fishing is carried out worldwide, often in non-industrialized forms, and is associated with high rates of fatal and non-fatal occupational injury. Fishermen who work independently in non-industrialized settings do not have access to union or industry sponsored safety services and must make their own decisions about safety practices. Learning the meaning of safety for them and the safety measures they employ is important before developing interventions. Two fieldworkers conducted in-depth ethnographic interviews with 31 commercial fishermen in North Carolina. Interviews and fieldnotes were analyzed using QSR N5. Fishermen primarily related staying safe to work practices and attitudes. They identified specific safety measures, appropriate gear and boat maintenance, weather decisions, and working cooperatively when ocean fishing. The ethnographic research process can produce information about a group's norms of preventive behavior and safety concerns. Knowledge of workers' concepts and practices will inform researchers' inquiries.

  8. Occupational Therapists

    MedlinePlus

    ... nurses , and other types of therapists. They may work with patients who have chronic conditions, such as diabetes, or help rehabilitate a patient recovering from hip replacement surgery. Occupational therapists also oversee the work of occupational therapy assistants and aides . <- Summary Work ...

  9. Career Education: The Marine Science Occupations Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farning, Maxwell

    This paper discusses career opportunities in eight broad groups of marine science occupations: (1) harbor construction and maintenance, (2) ship construction, (3) merchant marine activities, (4) towboating, (5) longshoring, (6) fishing and fish farming, (7) petroleum and natural gas exploration and extraction, and (8) research activities. The…

  10. Evaluation of genetic diversity and population structure in a commercially important freshwater fish Prochilodus costatus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae) using complex hypervariable repeats.

    PubMed

    Barroca, T M; Santos, G B; Duarte, N V R; Kalapothakis, E

    2012-12-17

    We used complex hypervariable repeats to evaluate the genetic diversity and structure of Prochilodus costatus (Characiformes), an ecologically and economically important species endemic to the São Francisco River basin. Hydroelectric dams along the river have led to population fragmentation, which can limit gene flow. Restocking from hatcheries has been used to repopulate declining populations. To determine how fragmentation and hatchery supplementation affect P. costatus population structure, we studied populations from three sites up and downstream of the Gafanhoto Dam (Pará River, State of Minas Gerais). High levels of genetic diversity were found within populations (0.926 to 0.873); the three populations showed significant differentiation (F(ST) = 0.16), suggesting that populations from the three sites were affected by fragmentation of the river and by hatchery contributions. These results will be useful for developing a management and conservation plan for fish species in this area.

  11. Occupational fatalities in Alaska: two decades of progress, 1990-1999 and 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Jennifer M; O'Connor, Mary B; Retzer, Kyla D; Hill, Ryan D; Teske, Theodore D; Woodward, Chelsea C; Lucas, Devin L; Somervell, Philip D; Burton, Jason T; Mode, Nicolle A; Husberg, Brad J; Conway, George A

    2013-02-01

    Alaska had the highest work-related fatality rate of any state during 1980-1989. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health established the Alaska Field Station (AFS) to address this problem. AFS established surveillance systems to provide scientific assessments of occupational hazards. Interventions were developed in collaboration with partners and evaluated. During 2000-2009, Alaska experienced a 42.5% decline in work-related fatalities over the previous decade of 1990-1999. In 2009, the workplace fatality rate for Alaska was 5.6/100,000 workers. Commercial pilot deaths were reduced by 50% and Bering Sea crab fishing death rates were reduced by 60%. Building on this success, AFS established national programs to improve safety in the commercial fishing and oil and gas extraction industries. A focused, epidemiological approach to reducing fatalities in high-risk occupations is effective. Ongoing commitment to this type of approach will assist in continued success in Alaska and elsewhere. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Occupational health scenario of Indian informal sector

    PubMed Central

    NAG, Anjali; VYAS, Heer; NAG, Pranab

    2016-01-01

    Workers in the Indian informal sector are engaged with different occupations. These occupations involve varied work related hazards. These occupational hazards are a consequent risk to health. The study aimed to determine occupational health scenario in the Indian Informal sector. One thousand eleven hundred twenty two workers from five different occupations namely weaving (handloom and power loom), construction, transportation, tobacco processing and fish processing were assessed by interviewer administered health questionnaire. Workers suffered from musculo-skeletal complaints, respiratory health hazards, eye problems and skin related complaints. There was a high prevalence of self-reported occupational health problems in the selected sectors. The study finds that workers have occupational exposures to multiple hazards. The absence of protective guards aggrevate their health condition. The study attempts to draws an immediate attention on the existing health scenario of the Indian Informal sector. PMID:26903262

  13. Occupational Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Grammer, Leslie C

    2016-05-01

    Occupational rhinitis (OR) involves nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, and/or sneezing resulting from workplace exposures. OR can have a significant negative effect on quality of life and productivity. OR can be divided into allergic or nonallergic subgroups based on the underlying pathogenesis. Certain occupational exposures place employees at greater risk for developing disease. Primary treatment is avoidance of implicated exposures. Antihistamines, saline rinses, and nasal steroids may be useful. OR can coexist with occupational asthma, and rhinitis symptoms have been reported to precede those of the lower respiratory tract. OR is has both medical and socioeconomic implications.

  14. Enhancing utilization of Alaska fish processing byproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fish processing byproducts are the parts that remain after valued products such as fillets and roe are removed. Fish harvested from Alaska waters provide over half of the total wild fish harvested and processed for human consumption in the USA. Major byproducts from commercial fish processing plants...

  15. Occupational Health

    MedlinePlus

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  16. Commercial lumber

    Treesearch

    Kent A. McDonald; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types, and in various commercial establishments, both wholesale and retail. Most commercial lumber is graded by standardized rules that make purchasing more or less uniform throughout the country...

  17. [Occupational asthma].

    PubMed

    Rico-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Cambray-Gutiérrez, Julio César; Vega-Robledo, Gloria Bertha

    2015-01-01

    The occupational asthma is the most common form of lung disease caused by factors that are attributed to a specific working environment in industrialized countries. It causes variable limitation of airflow and/or hyper-responsiveness of the airway due to contact with specific agents present in an atmosphere of work and not to stimuli found out of this place. It is recognized more and more frequently, and many agents are capable of causing occupational asthma by different pathophysiological mechanisms. More than 400 agents causing occupational asthma are known and every year new triggers are detected. Numerous factors contribute to the pathogenesis of occupational asthma induced chemically, including immunological, non-immunological mechanisms of epithelial damage, airway remodeling, oxidative stress, neurogenic inflammation as well as genetic factors. The most important risk factors for occupational asthma include: atopy, smoking and genetic factors. The diagnosis is based on the clinical history, skin tests, immunological tests and functional studies. The fundamental treatment is removing the worker from exposure as soon as possible. The advance in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of occupational asthma will importantly influence in the prevention and the management of this disease.

  18. Reassessing regime shifts in the North Pacific: incremental climate change and commercial fishing are necessary for explaining decadal-scale biological variability.

    PubMed

    Litzow, Michael A; Mueter, Franz J; Hobday, Alistair J

    2014-01-01

    In areas of the North Pacific that are largely free of overfishing, climate regime shifts - abrupt changes in modes of low-frequency climate variability - are seen as the dominant drivers of decadal-scale ecological variability. We assessed the ability of leading modes of climate variability [Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), Arctic Oscillation (AO), Pacific-North American Pattern (PNA), North Pacific Index (NPI), El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)] to explain decadal-scale (1965-2008) patterns of climatic and biological variability across two North Pacific ecosystems (Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea). Our response variables were the first principle component (PC1) of four regional climate parameters [sea surface temperature (SST), sea level pressure (SLP), freshwater input, ice cover], and PCs 1-2 of 36 biological time series [production or abundance for populations of salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), groundfish, herring (Clupea pallasii), shrimp, and jellyfish]. We found that the climate modes alone could not explain ecological variability in the study region. Both linear models (for climate PC1) and generalized additive models (for biology PC1-2) invoking only the climate modes produced residuals with significant temporal trends, indicating that the models failed to capture coherent patterns of ecological variability. However, when the residual climate trend and a time series of commercial fishery catches were used as additional candidate variables, resulting models of biology PC1-2 satisfied assumptions of independent residuals and out-performed models constructed from the climate modes alone in terms of predictive power. As measured by effect size and Akaike weights, the residual climate trend was the most important variable for explaining biology PC1 variability, and commercial catch the most important variable for biology PC2. Patterns of climate sensitivity and exploitation history for taxa strongly associated with biology

  19. Painter and Decorator. Occupational Analyses Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Mike; MacCallum, Marilyn; Maddocks, Christopher

    This analysis covers tasks performed by a painter and decorator, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as painter and painter and decorator--commercial and residential. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure, and validation method; scope of the occupation; trends; and safety. To…

  20. One Fish Two Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michele

    1998-01-01

    This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)

  1. One Fish Two Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michele

    1998-01-01

    This activity explains fisheries resource management to seven-year olds. First-grade students learn concepts such as offspring viability, life expectancy, and distribution of species, which help to determine when, where, and how people fish and the importance of fishing responsibly. Lists materials, procedures, and extensions. (SJR)

  2. Commercial Fisheries Surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Richards, R. Anne; Murphy, Brian R.; Willis, David W.

    1996-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe methods for sampling commercial fisheries and identify factors affecting the design of sampling plans. When sampled properly, commercial fisheries can provide important information on the response of aquatic organisms to exploitation; such information can be used by management agencies to develop regulations for ensuring long-term production of the resource and long-term economic benefit. Fishery statistics are typically used to estimate abundance, mortality, recruitment, growth, and other vital characterisitcs of populations. Fishery statistics can also be used to study changes in fish community composition resulting from differential exploitation of species.

  3. Occupational neurology.

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, R. G.

    1987-01-01

    The nervous system is vulnerable to the effects of certain chemicals and physical conditions found in the work environment. The activities of an occupational neurologist focus on the evaluation of patients with neurological disorders caused by occupational or environmental conditions. When one is making a differential diagnosis in patients with neurological disorders, the possibility of toxic exposure or encounters with physical factors in the workplace must not be overlooked. Central to an accurate clinical diagnosis is the patient's history. A diagnosis of an occupational or environmental neurological problem requires a careful assessment of the clinical abnormalities and confirmation of these disabilities by objective tests such as nerve conduction velocity, evoked potentials, electroencephalogram, neuropsychological batteries, or nerve biopsy. On the basis of information about hazards in the workplace, safety standards and environmental and biological monitoring can be implemented in the workplace to reduce the risks of undue injury. Clinical manifestations of headache, memory disturbance, and peripheral neuropathy are commonly encountered presentations of the effects of occupational hazards. Physicians in everyday clinical practice must be aware of the signs and symptoms associated with exposure to possible neurotoxins and work methods. Occupational and environmental circumstances must be explored when evaluating patients with neurologic disorders. PMID:3577214

  4. Commercial Refrigeration Technology. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    The program guide for commercial refrigeration technology courses in Florida identifies primary considerations for the organization, operation, and evaluation of a vocational education program. Following an occupational description for the job title for refrigeration mechanic, and its Dictionary of Occupational Titles code, are six sections…

  5. Occupational dermatoses: An Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Riti; Sharma, Vinod Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Occupational dermatoses contribute to a significant portion of work-related diseases, especially in Asia, where a major portion of the workforce is in the unorganized sector. This review article is focussed on the frequency and pattern of occupational skin diseases reported across Asian countries and type of allergens implicated in different occupations. The literature was searched systematically using key words 'occupational dermatoses,' 'occupational skin disease' and name of each Asian country. Ninty five full-text articles were considered relevant and evaluated. Some of the dermatoses seen in industrial workers in Asian countries are similar to those in Western countries, including dermatoses due to chromate in construction and electroplating workers, epoxy resin, and chromate in painters, wood dust in workers in the furniture industry, azo dyes in textile workers and formaldehyde and chromates in those working in the leather and dyeing industries, dermatoses in domestic workers, chefs and health-care workers. Dermatoses in workers engaged in agriculture, beedi (tiny cigars) manufacture, agarbatti (incense sticks) production, fish processing, carpet weaving, sanitation and those working in coffee plantations and coal mines appear to be unique to Asian countries. Recognition of clinical patterns and geographic variations in occupational skin diseases will provide an impetus to further strengthen future research in these areas, as well as improving their management.

  6. 50 CFR 622.495 - Commercial trip limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Resources of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.495 Commercial trip limit. Link to an amendment... commercial fishing license issued by Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands. If no person on board the vessel has a valid commercial fishing license issued by Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, the bag limit...

  7. 50 CFR 665.212 - Non-commercial bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-commercial bag limits. 665.212 Section... Non-commercial bag limits. No more than a total of five fish (all species combined) identified as... any individual participating in a non-commercial vessel-based fishing trip in the MHI...

  8. 50 CFR 665.212 - Non-commercial bag limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-commercial bag limits. 665.212... Fisheries § 665.212 Non-commercial bag limits. No more than a total of five fish (all species combined... landed by any individual participating in a non-commercial vessel-based fishing trip in the...

  9. 25 CFR 242.5 - Disposition of unmarketable fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of unmarketable fish. 242.5 Section 242.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.5 Disposition of unmarketable fish. All unmarketable live fish...

  10. 25 CFR 242.5 - Disposition of unmarketable fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disposition of unmarketable fish. 242.5 Section 242.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.5 Disposition of unmarketable fish. All unmarketable live fish...

  11. 25 CFR 242.5 - Disposition of unmarketable fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Disposition of unmarketable fish. 242.5 Section 242.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.5 Disposition of unmarketable fish. All unmarketable live fish taken...

  12. 25 CFR 242.10 - Fishing equipment limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fishing equipment limitations. 242.10 Section 242.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.10 Fishing equipment limitations. (a) Any variety of fish may be taken by...

  13. 25 CFR 242.10 - Fishing equipment limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fishing equipment limitations. 242.10 Section 242.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.10 Fishing equipment limitations. (a) Any variety of fish may be taken by...

  14. 25 CFR 242.10 - Fishing equipment limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fishing equipment limitations. 242.10 Section 242.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.10 Fishing equipment limitations. (a) Any variety of fish may be taken by...

  15. 25 CFR 242.10 - Fishing equipment limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Fishing equipment limitations. 242.10 Section 242.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.10 Fishing equipment limitations. (a) Any variety of fish may be taken by...

  16. 25 CFR 242.10 - Fishing equipment limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fishing equipment limitations. 242.10 Section 242.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION § 242.10 Fishing equipment limitations. (a) Any variety of fish may be taken by...

  17. Occupational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, William R.

    Although fiscal support for occupational programs in California Community Colleges is provided primarily by state and local district taxes, about ten percent of the total support is provided through federal sources. Federal regulations under the Vocational Education Act (VEA) require the recipients of federal funds to provide consultative,…

  18. Occupational cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, T.L.; Goldsmith, D.F.

    1986-09-01

    When cancer is possibly related to occupation, the family physician's task is to put the matter in perspective by educating the patient and carefully documenting the appearance of the tumor and the patient's work history. Occasionally, physicians are the first to recognize new associations between chemicals and cancer and can help to bring hazards under control.

  19. The development and efficacy of safety training for commercial fishermen.

    PubMed

    Dzugan, Jerry

    2010-10-01

    Commercial fishing is still the most dangerous occupation in the United States. Efforts to have more stringent safety regulations in this industry beginning in the 1960s, culminated in the Commercial Fishing Vessel Safety Act of 1988. The purpose of this paper is to provide a short history of the development of safety training in the United States and the current training infrastructure. This paper will also review studies available regarding the effectiveness of safety training in reducing fatalities among fishermen. The lack of familiarity and practice with marine survival equipment such as life rafts, immersion suits, and emergency-locating beacons has been noted in National Transportation Safety Board and US Coast Guard casualty reports as a contributing factor in fatalities. These reports have demonstrated the importance of not just having survival equipment onboard, but training in how to use it effectively in an emergency. There is evidence that safety training has made a measurable impact in surviving an emergency at sea and that recent training (within 5 years) is most effective in saving lives. More recently, studies have been completed to understand how skills may diminish over time since initial training.

  20. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... can react to touching fish or breathing in vapors from cooking fish. A fish allergy can cause ... hives red spots swelling a drop in blood pressure , causing lightheadedness or loss of consciousness Your child ...

  1. City Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Robert E.

    1979-01-01

    A program of supplying opportunities for fishing at locations within and near urban areas was developed. This effort included stocking, management of bodies of water for fishing, and presentation of fishing clinics for urban fishermen. (RE)

  2. Fish Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  3. Vaccines for fish in aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Sommerset, Ingunn; Krossøy, Bjørn; Biering, Eirik; Frost, Petter

    2005-02-01

    Vaccination plays an important role in large-scale commercial fish farming and has been a key reason for the success of salmon cultivation. In addition to salmon and trout, commercial vaccines are available for channel catfish, European seabass and seabream, Japanese amberjack and yellowtail, tilapia and Atlantic cod. In general, empirically developed vaccines based on inactivated bacterial pathogens have proven to be very efficacious in fish. Fewer commercially available viral vaccines and no parasite vaccines exist. Substantial efficacy data are available for new fish vaccines and advanced technology has been implemented. However, before such vaccines can be successfully commercialized, several hurdles have to be overcome regarding the production of cheap but effective antigens and adjuvants, while bearing in mind environmental and associated regulatory concerns (e.g., those that limit the use of live vaccines). Pharmaceutical companies have performed a considerable amount of research on fish vaccines, however, limited information is available in scientific publications. In addition, salmonids dominate both the literature and commercial focus, despite their relatively small contribution to the total volume of farmed fish in the world. This review provides an overview of the fish vaccines that are currently commercially available and some viewpoints on how the field is likely to evolve in the near future.

  4. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Grzybowski, S.

    1976-01-01

    Occupational asthma is probably much more common than is generally realized. Though many causes have been described, undoubtedly many more are yet to be recognized. One of the diagnostic difficulties lies in the fact that in most forms of this disease a late asthmatic reaction occurs in the evening rather than at work. The pathogenetic mechanisms differ in various forms of occupational asthma. In some, an immunologic mechanism is likely; in others, a "pharmacologic" action of the offending agent is implicated. Asthma due to inhalation of dusts of western red cedar, isocyanates, detergent enzymes and textiles is considered in detail. Periodic examination of workers at risk is of value for early diagnosis and prevention of irrversible airway obstruction. PMID:766943

  5. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    PubMed

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Occupational Orientation: Health Occupations. Experimental Curriculum Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    These experimental curriculum materials for one of five clusters developed for the occupational program in Illinois include a series of learning activity packages (LAPs) designed to acquaint the student with the wide range of occupational choices available in the health occupations field. The 28 LAPs, each with a different occupation focus, are…

  7. Commercial jet transport crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widmayer, E.; Brende, O. B.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a study to identify areas of research and approaches that may result in improved occupant survivability and crashworthiness of transport aircraft are given. The study defines areas of structural crashworthiness for transport aircraft which might form the basis for a research program. A 10-year research and development program to improve the structural impact resistance of general aviation and commercial jet transport aircraft is planned. As part of this program parallel studies were conducted to review the accident experience of commercial transport aircraft, assess the accident performance of structural components and the status of impact resistance technology, and recommend areas of research and development for that 10-year plan. The results of that study are also given.

  8. Commercial Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Phil McAlister delivers a presentation by the Commercial Crew (CC) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to...

  9. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  10. PCB intake from sport fishing along the Northern Illinois shore of Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Pellettieri, M.B.; Hallenbeck, W.H.; Brenniman, G.R.; Cailas, M.; Clark, M.

    1996-12-31

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are chlorinated hydrocarbons with an empirical formula of C{sub 12}H{sub 10-x}Cl{sub x}. The biphenyl can have from one to 10 chlorine substitutions resulting in 209 theoretical congeners. Commercial formulations of PCBs are complex mixtures of congeners; 125 congeners have been identified in commercial formulations. PCBs have entered the aquatic environment by industrial discharge, airborne deposition, and release from sediments. The most likely route of non-occupational human exposure to PCBs is from consumption of contaminated fish. PCBs are considered to be the most important contaminants in fish from the Great Lakes. Hence, in 1993 the Great Lakes Fish and Advisory Task Force developed a fish consumption advisory for the Great Lakes which incorporated a Health Protection Value (HPV) of 3.5 {mu}g of PCBs/day. This study combines the creel species, weight, and length distribution data with PCB monitoring data to quantitate the theoretical intake of PCBs by sport fishermen in the Chicago area. 6 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Ecosystem consequences of fish parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2008-01-01

    In most aquatic ecosystems, fishes are hosts to parasites and, sometimes, these parasites can affect fish biology. Some of the most dramatic cases occur when fishes are intermediate hosts for larval parasites. For example, fishes in southern California estuaries are host to many parasites. The most common of these parasites, Euhaplorchis californiensis, infects the brain of the killifish Fundulus parvipinnis and alters its behaviour, making the fish 10–30 times more susceptible to predation by the birds that serve as its definitive host. Parasites like E. californiensis are embedded in food webs because they require trophic transmission. In the Carpinteria Salt Marsh estuarine food web, parasites dominate the links and comprise substantial amount of biomass. Adding parasites to food webs alters important network statistics such as connectance and nestedness. Furthermore, some free-living stages of parasites are food items for free-living species. For instance, fishes feed on trematode cercariae. Being embedded in food webs makes parasites sensitive to changes in the environment. In particular, fishing and environmental disturbance, by reducing fish populations, may reduce parasite populations. Indirect evidence suggests a decrease in parasites in commercially fished species over the past three decades. In addition, environmental degradation can affect fish parasites. For these reasons, parasites in fishes may serve as indicators of environmental impacts.

  12. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yeung, M

    1995-01-01

    Many toxic compounds found in air emissions may induce bronchoconstriction. In the workplace, workers are exposed to these compounds, often in much higher concentrations. Some of these compounds act as sensitizers. Of these, some compounds induce asthma by producing specific IgE antibodies to the compound or its protein conjugate, while others induce asthma through yet unidentified immunologic mechanisms. Some compounds, when inhaled in high concentrations, act as irritants and produce bronchoconstriction probably by inducing acute airway inflammation. The latter condition is called Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS) or irritant-induced asthma. Occupational asthma is an excellent model to study the pathogenesis and the natural history of adult onset asthma because the responsible agent can be identified, complete avoidance is possible, and exposure can be measured or estimated. PMID:8549481

  13. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Newman Taylor, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    Occupational asthma is important both as a potentially curable and preventable cause of asthma and as a model of adult onset asthma. It is induced by sensitization to a specific agent inhaled at work; for many of its causes, including inhaled proteins and the low molecular weight chemicals acid anhydrides and reactive dyes, it is probably IgE dependent. The risk of developing specific IgE and associated asthma is markedly increased in cigarette smokers, probably as a consequence of non-specific damage to the respiratory mucosa. Asthma caused by several agents, which include some of its most frequent causes, isocyanates, colophony and plicatic acid (Western Red Cedar) persists in some 50% of cases for years, and possibly indefinitely, after avoidance of exposure. The development of chronic symptomatic asthma seems particularly to occur in those with longer duration of symptomatic exposure. PMID:3074282

  14. Commercial Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) at Stennis Space Center, Applied Analysis, Inc. developed a new tool for analyzing remotely sensed data. The Applied Analysis Spectral Analytical Process (AASAP) detects or classifies objects smaller than a pixel and removes the background. This significantly enhances the discrimination among surface features in imagery. ERDAS, Inc. offers the system as a modular addition to its ERDAS IMAGINE software package for remote sensing applications. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant. Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP), Ocean and Coastal Environmental Sensing (OCENS) developed SeaStation for marine users. SeaStation is a low-cost, portable, shipboard satellite groundstation integrated with vessel catch and product monitoring software. Linked to the Global Positioning System, SeaStation provides real time relationships between vessel position and data such as sea surface temperature, weather conditions and ice edge location. This allows the user to increase fishing productivity and improve vessel safety. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant.

  15. Image processing occupancy sensor

    DOEpatents

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2016-09-27

    A system and method of detecting occupants in a building automation system environment using image based occupancy detection and position determinations. In one example, the system includes an image processing occupancy sensor that detects the number and position of occupants within a space that has controllable building elements such as lighting and ventilation diffusers. Based on the position and location of the occupants, the system can finely control the elements to optimize conditions for the occupants, optimize energy usage, among other advantages.

  16. Olfactory toxicity in fishes.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Keith B; Baldwin, David H; Hara, Toshiaki J; Ross, Peter S; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2010-01-21

    Olfaction conveys critical environmental information to fishes, enabling activities such as mating, locating food, discriminating kin, avoiding predators and homing. All of these behaviors can be impaired or lost as a result of exposure to toxic contaminants in surface waters. Historically, teleost olfaction studies have focused on behavioral responses to anthropogenic contaminants (e.g., avoidance). More recently, there has been a shift towards understanding the underlying mechanisms and functional significance of contaminant-mediated changes in fish olfaction. This includes a consideration of how contaminants affect the olfactory nervous system and, by extension, the downstream physiological and behavioral processes that together comprise a normal response to naturally occurring stimuli (e.g., reproductive priming or releasing pheromones). Numerous studies spanning several species have shown that ecologically relevant exposures to common pollutants such as metals and pesticides can interfere with fish olfaction and disrupt life history processes that determine individual survival and reproductive success. This represents one of the pathways by which toxic chemicals in aquatic habitats may increasingly contribute to the decline and at-risk status of many commercially and ecologically important fish stocks. Despite our emerging understanding of the threats that pollution poses for chemical communication in aquatic communities, many research challenges remain. These include: (1) the determination of specific mechanisms of toxicity in the fish olfactory sensory epithelium; (2) an understanding of the impacts of complex chemical mixtures; (3) the capacity to assess olfactory toxicity in fish in situ; (4) the impacts of toxins on olfactory-mediated behaviors that are still poorly understood for many fish species; and (5) the connections between sublethal effects on individual fish and the long-term viability of wild populations. This review summarizes and integrates

  17. 25 CFR 242.5 - Disposition of unmarketable fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disposition of unmarketable fish. 242.5 Section 242.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED... under authority of these regulations must be returned to the water, and all unmarketable dead fish...

  18. 25 CFR 242.5 - Disposition of unmarketable fish.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disposition of unmarketable fish. 242.5 Section 242.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE COMMERCIAL FISHING ON RED... under authority of these regulations must be returned to the water, and all unmarketable dead fish...

  19. 50 CFR 648.126 - Scup minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scup minimum fish sizes. 648.126 Section... Scup Fishery § 648.126 Scup minimum fish sizes. (a) Moratorium (commercially) permitted vessels. The... whole fish or any part of a fish found in possession, e.g., fillets. These minimum sizes may be adjusted...

  20. 50 CFR 648.126 - Scup minimum fish sizes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scup minimum fish sizes. 648.126 Section... Scup Fishery § 648.126 Scup minimum fish sizes. (a) Moratorium (commercially) permitted vessels. The... whole fish or any part of a fish found in possession, e.g., fillets. These minimum sizes may be adjusted...

  1. Antarctic Fishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

  2. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ... Basics Facts and Statistics NIAID Resources Allergens Peanut Tree Nuts Milk Egg Wheat Soy Fish Shellfish Sesame ...

  3. Antarctic Fishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

  4. 27 CFR 70.65 - Use of commercial banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of commercial banks... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Receipt of Payment § 70.65 Use of commercial banks. For provisions relating to the use of commercial banks and electronic fund transfer of taxpayment to the Treasury...

  5. 27 CFR 70.65 - Use of commercial banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of commercial banks... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Receipt of Payment § 70.65 Use of commercial banks. For provisions relating to the use of commercial banks and electronic fund transfer of taxpayment to the Treasury...

  6. Fish Dishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  7. Fish Dishes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  8. Commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Togai, Masaki

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on commercial applications of fuzzy logic in Japan are presented. Topics covered include: suitable application area of fuzzy theory; characteristics of fuzzy control; fuzzy closed-loop controller; Mitsubishi heavy air conditioner; predictive fuzzy control; the Sendai subway system; automatic transmission; fuzzy logic-based command system for antilock braking system; fuzzy feed-forward controller; and fuzzy auto-tuning system.

  9. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    PubMed

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future.

  10. Occupational injury fatalities--1994.

    PubMed

    Toscano, G; Jack, T

    1996-01-01

    Factory workers caught in machinery and construction workers falling or struck by huge beams are images that typically come to mind when considering serious hazards in the workplace. But these types of events account for only a small portion of job-related fatalities each year. Transportation-related fatalities, along with assaults and violent acts during work, made up almost two-thirds of the 6,588 fatal work injuries recorded in 1994. The majority of job-related fatal work events occurred on the streets and highways and in public buildings and in areas such as grocery stores and parking lots. Today the most deadly jobs are found in outdoor occupations such as fishing and timber cutting. In fact, in all 10 jobs studied that have high fatality rates, most workers are affected by severe weather conditions while driving on highways, performing farm chores and working at construction sites. Highway crashes are the primary cause of trucker fatalities; falls are the leading cause of death for roofers, construction laborers and structural metal workers, while tractor rollovers account for a third of farm worker fatalities. Another deadly contributing factor for some workers is homicide, which accounted for 16 percent of job-related fatalities in 1994. Workers most at risk are those who work alone, work late at night and handle varying sums of money. Taxicab drivers are the most susceptible and have a work injury fatality rate nine times higher than the national rate of 5 deaths per 100,000 workers. Others at high risk of homicide include gas station cashiers, grocery store employees and workers in retail eating and drinking establishments. Although the risk of a fatal injury at work varies greatly by occupation and industry, no one is immune. For prevention, workers and employers need to know what jobs are risky, what equipment is dangerous and what activities are hazardous. They also should understand that a fatal incident can happen to anyone.

  11. Guide for Occupational Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Employment and Training Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    Intended for use with or without counseling help, this occupational exploration guide is organized around 12 interest areas, 66 work groups, and 348 subgroups of occupational titles. The interest areas (an expansion of John Holland's six occupational categories) represent the broad interest requirements of occupations as well as the vocational…

  12. Occupant Protection Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Genie; Somers, Jeff; Granderson, Brad; Gernhardt, Mike; Currie, Nancy; Lawrence, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    Topics include occupant protection overview with a focus on crew protection during dynamic phases of flight; occupant protection collaboration; modeling occupant protection; occupant protection considerations; project approach encompassing analysis tools, injury criteria, and testing program development; injury criteria update methodology, unique effects of pressure suits and other factors; and a summary.

  13. Health Occupations Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Lynn H.

    A survey was conducted to determine the need for health occupations personnel in the Moraine Valley Community College district, specifically to: (1) describe present employment for selected health occupations; (2) project health occupation employment to 1974; (3) identify the supply of applicants for the selected occupations; and (4) identify…

  14. Occupational Therapy Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of occupational therapy assistant, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 16 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of occupational therapy assistant. The…

  15. Occupations of Indonesian Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmier, Leslie

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of 1978 occupational patterns of college graduates in Indonesia considers occupation type, government employment, pay level, degree, discipline, relevance of education to employment, and concentration of academic majors in certain occupations. No occupation was the preserve of any one subject. (MSE)

  16. AN OCCUPATIONAL REPRODUCTIVE RESEARCH AGENDA FOR THE THIRD MILLENNIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a significant public health concern about the potential effects of occupational exposure to toxic substances on reproductive outcomes. Several toxicants with reported reproductive and developmental effects are still in regular commercial or therapeutic use and thus prese...

  17. Hellish conditions at single-room occupancy hotels.

    PubMed

    Foley, D

    1998-08-01

    Poor conditions exist in many of the commercial single-room occupancy (SRO) hotels for people who are HIV-positive. Living conditions are unsanitary, brutal, and dangerous, and occupants often experience harassment from the hotel owners and staff. Many of the occupants are drug abusers or are mentally incapacitated, and therefore may not have the ability to secure better housing. The situation in the California Suites, an SRO in Manhattan, is described.

  18. The Seasat commercial demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccandless, S. W.; Miller, B. P.; Montgomery, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The background and development of the Seasat commercial demonstration program are reviewed and the Seasat spacecraft and its sensors (altimeter, wind field scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar, and scanning multichannel microwave radiometer) are described. The satellite data distribution system allows for selected sets of data, reformatted or tailored to specific needs and geographical regions, to be available to commercial users. Products include sea level and upper atmospheric pressure, sea surface temperature, marine winds, significant wave heights, primary wave direction and period, and spectral wave data. The results of a set of retrospective case studies performed for the commercial demonstration program are described. These are in areas of application such as marine weather and ocean condition forecasting, offshore resource exploration and development, commercial fishing, and marine transportation.

  19. Fish Rhabdoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, G.; Winton, J.

    2008-01-01

    Many important viral pathogens of fish are members of the family Rhabdoviridae. The viruses in this large group cause significant losses in populations of wild fish as well as among fish reared in aquaculture. Fish rhabdoviruses often have a wide host and geographic range, and infect aquatic animals in both freshwater and seawater. The fish rhabdoviruses comprise a diverse collection of isolates that can be placed in one of two quite different groups: isolates that are members of the established genusNovirhabdovirus, and those that are most similar to members of the genus Vesiculovirus. Because the diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses are important to aquaculture, diagnostic methods for their detection and identification are well established. In addition to regulations designed to reduce the spread of fish viruses, a significant body of research has addressed methods for the control or prevention of diseases caused by fish rhabdoviruses, including vaccination. The number of reported fish rhabdoviruses continues to grow as a result of the expansion of aquaculture, the increase in global trade, the development of improved diagnostic methods, and heightened surveillance activities. Fish rhabdoviruses serve as useful components of model systems to study vertebrate virus disease, epidemiology, and immunology.

  20. Directory of Postsecondary Schools with Occupational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Evelyn R.

    This directory of schools which provide occupational training lists public and private schools which offer programs in preparation for a specific career. The types of listings include schools classified as vocational/technical, business/commercial, cosmetology/barber, flight, arts/design, hospital, and allied health; technical institutes,…

  1. Truck and Transport Mechanic. Occupational Analyses Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRory, Aline; Ally, Mohamed

    This analysis covers tasks performed by a truck and transport mechanic, an occupational title some provinces and territories of Canada have also identified as commercial transport vehicle mechanic; transport truck mechanic; truck and coach technician; and truck and transport service technician. A guide to analysis discusses development, structure,…

  2. Directory of Postsecondary Schools with Occupational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Evelyn R.

    This directory of schools which provide occupational training lists public and private schools which offer programs in preparation for a specific career. The types of listings include schools classified as vocational/technical, business/commercial, cosmetology/barber, flight, arts/design, hospital, and allied health; technical institutes,…

  3. Printable Version of Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document presents guidelines for the remediation/cleanup of mold and moisture problems in schools and commercial buildings; these guidelines include measures designed to protect the health of building occupants and remediators.

  4. 50 CFR 648.124 - Scup commercial season and commercial fishery area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scup commercial season and commercial fishery area restrictions. 648.124 Section 648.124 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... through March 15, all trawl vessels in the Southern Gear Restricted Area that fish for or possess non...

  5. Occupation and suicide: Colorado, 2004-2006.

    PubMed

    Stallones, Lorann; Doenges, Timothy; Dik, Bryan J; Valley, Morgan A

    2013-11-01

    Occupation has been identified as a risk factor for suicide. Changes in work environments over time suggest occupations at high risk of suicide may also change. Therefore, periodic examination of suicide by occupation is warranted. The purpose of this article is to describe suicide rates by occupation, sex, and means used in Colorado for the period 2004-2006. To provide information useful in designing suicide prevention programs, the methods used in suicide across occupational groups also are examined. Data from the Colorado Violent Death Reporting System (COVDRS) were obtained for suicides that occurred between 2004 and 2006. Denominators to calculate rates by age, sex, and race used are from the 2000 US Census of the Population data. Men had higher suicide rates than women in all occupation categories except computers and mathematics. Among men, those in farming, fishing, and forestry (475.6 per 100,000) had the highest age-adjusted suicide rates. Among women, workers with the highest suicide rates were in construction and extraction (134.3 per 100,000). The examination of lethal means showed that workers in farming, fishing, and forestry had higher rates of suicide by firearms (50.18 per 100,000) compared with other workers. Healthcare practitioners and technicians had the highest rate of suicide by poisoning (14.25 per 100,000). Workers involved in construction and extraction (26.43 per 100,000) had higher rates of suicide by hanging, suffocation, or strangling. Significant differences in means of suicide were seen by occupation, which could guide future suicide prevention interventions that may decrease work-related suicide risks. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-12-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  7. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  8. 46 CFR 54.01-17 - Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). 54.01-17... PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-17 Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). Pressure vessels for human occupancy (PVHO's) must meet the requirements of subpart B (Commercial Diving...

  9. 46 CFR 54.01-17 - Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). 54.01-17... PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-17 Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). Pressure vessels for human occupancy (PVHO's) must meet the requirements of subpart B (Commercial Diving...

  10. 46 CFR 54.01-17 - Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). 54.01-17... PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-17 Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). Pressure vessels for human occupancy (PVHO's) must meet the requirements of subpart B (Commercial Diving Operations...

  11. 46 CFR 54.01-17 - Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). 54.01-17... PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-17 Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). Pressure vessels for human occupancy (PVHO's) must meet the requirements of subpart B (Commercial Diving Operations...

  12. 46 CFR 54.01-17 - Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). 54.01-17... PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-17 Pressure vessel for human occupancy (PVHO). Pressure vessels for human occupancy (PVHO's) must meet the requirements of subpart B (Commercial Diving Operations...

  13. Occupational skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Diepgen, Thomas L

    2012-05-01

    Occupational skin diseases are the most commonly reported notifiable occupational diseases. In Germany, 23 596 out of a total of 71 263 reported occupational diseases in 2010 were classified as occupational skin diseases (BK No. 5101: "severe or recurrent skin diseases which have forced the person to discontinue all occupational activities that caused or could cause the development, worsening, or recurrence of the disease"). Contact dermatitis (allergic, irritant) of the hands is the most common skin disease and atopic skin diathesis is often an important co-factor. The number of work-related skin diseases is many times higher than the number of notified occupational dermatoses. This CME article explains the legal framework of occupational diseases, the tasks and obligations of the legal statutory work insurance. Typical allergens and irritants of high risk professions are also presented as are the important steps from diagnosis to compensation. Early prevention of occupational skin diseases is very important to avoid severe chronic hand eczema. Therefore the "dermatologist's report" is crucial. Other occupational dermatoses (outside of BK 5101) are briefly mentioned. In recent years the number of notifications of occupational skin cancer due to occupational UV-irradiation has increased. According to recent epidemiological findings, there is a significant and consistent positive association between occupational UV-irradiation and squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, an important criterion for a new occupational disease is fulfilled. © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  14. Texture Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  15. Texture Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Julie

    2007-01-01

    In an effort to provide an opportunity for her first graders to explore texture through an engaging subject, the author developed a three-part lesson that features fish in a mixed-media artwork: (1) Exploring Textured Paint; (2) Creating the Fish; and (3) Role Playing. In this lesson, students effectively explore texture through painting, drawing,…

  16. Scripted Reading Programs: Fishing for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan-Owens, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    "Give a man a fish and he will eat for a day. Teach a man to fish and he will eat for the rest of his life." This popular Chinese proverb is an apt metaphor for the dilemma faced by principals and curriculum coordinators when deciding whether to purchase a scripted commercial reading program. Although a scripted reading program may solve…

  17. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Occupational Therapy Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in jobs in occupational therapy. Agency partners involved in this project include: the Illinois State board of Education, Illinois Community College…

  18. Occupational Clusters. Occupational Investigation Guide. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This occupational investigation guide contains learning activities for instruction in fifteen occupational clusters: (1) agribusiness and natural resources, (2) business and office, (3) communications and media, (4) construction, (5) consumer and homemaking, (6) environment, (7) fine arts and humanities, (8) health, (9) hospitality and recreation,…

  19. How the Elderly Perceive Television Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreiber, Elliot S.; Boyd, Douglas A.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the perceptions of elderly viewers about the usefulness of television commercials in making consumer decisions. Variables considered include frequency of viewing, as well as education, race, age, sex, occupation, and income of viewers. Differences in education levels and income seem to be more important than age group. (JMF)

  20. Commercial Foods. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide identifies considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of secondary and postsecondary vocational education programs. It contains both a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for commercial foods. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program…

  1. Basic Commercial Art. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This document includes a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for secondary and postsecondary basic commercial art programs. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program content (curriculum framework and student performance standards); program implementation (student admission…

  2. Commercial Art. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This document contains a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for secondary and postsecondary commercial art. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program content (curriculum framework and student performance standards); program implementation (student admission criteria,…

  3. Commercial Vehicle Driving. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide identifies considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of secondary and postsecondary vocational education programs. It contains both a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for commercial vehicle driving. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program…

  4. Commercial Foods. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This guide identifies considerations in the organization, operation, and evaluation of secondary and postsecondary vocational education programs. It contains both a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for commercial foods. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program…

  5. Basic Commercial Art. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This document includes a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for secondary and postsecondary basic commercial art programs. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program content (curriculum framework and student performance standards); program implementation (student admission…

  6. Commercial Art. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This document contains a vocational program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for secondary and postsecondary commercial art. The guide contains the following sections: occupational description; program content (curriculum framework and student performance standards); program implementation (student admission criteria,…

  7. 50 CFR 29.21-7 - What payment do we require for use and occupancy of national wildlife refuge lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... occupancy of national wildlife refuge lands? 29.21-7 Section 29.21-7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM... occupancy of national wildlife refuge lands? (a) Payment for use and occupancy of lands under the...

  8. 50 CFR 29.21-7 - What payment do we require for use and occupancy of national wildlife refuge lands?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... occupancy of national wildlife refuge lands? 29.21-7 Section 29.21-7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM... occupancy of national wildlife refuge lands? (a) Payment for use and occupancy of lands under the...

  9. Electricity Occupations Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Center, Champaign, IL.

    The first of four main sections of the electrical occupations curriculum guide is an introduction which describes the design and use of the guide and which provides five pages of suggested curriculum resources. Section two contains job descriptions for 18 electrical occupations. For each occupation the guide explains industry's expectations of the…

  10. Occupational Status and Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Dominique I.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Examined relationship between occupational status and suicide in California males since 1925. Findings show an inverse relationship between occupational status and suicide for all age groups. Over time, male suicide rates have increased, particularly for employed males over 65, employed males aged 14 to 24, and males in low-status occupations.…

  11. Manual on Occupational Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Graham D.

    This manual on occupational analysis, developed in Australia, is organized in three sections. The first section provides a framework for occupational analysis (OA) and a discussion of possible outputs from an OA from each of three phases: (1) determining the nature and scope of the occupational area; (2) developing a competencies list; and (3)…

  12. Health Occupations Cluster Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Intended to assist the vocational teacher in designing and implementing a cluster program in health occupations, this guide suggests ideas for teaching the specific knowledge and skills that qualify students for entry-level employment in the health occupations field. The knowledge and skills are applicable to 12 occupations: dental assistant;…

  13. Agricultural Occupations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Floyd J.; Henderson, Billie

    This agricultural occupations handbook was developed from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) and the U.S. Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare, and Labor publication, Vocational Education and Occupations. It includes the U.S. Office of Education coding for the instructional area of agriculture and the cluster coding for the…

  14. Occupation and thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Ward, Mary H; Della Valle, Curt T; Friesen, Melissa C

    2014-05-01

    Numerous occupational and environmental exposures have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormones, but much less is known about their relationships with thyroid cancer. Here we review the epidemiology studies of occupations and occupational exposures and thyroid cancer incidence to provide insight into preventable risk factors for thyroid cancer. The published literature was searched using the Web of Knowledge database for all articles through August 2013 that had in their text 'occupation' 'job' 'employment' or 'work' and 'thyroid cancer'. After excluding 10 mortality studies and 4 studies with less than 5 exposed incident cases, we summarised the findings of 30 articles that examined thyroid cancer incidence in relation to occupations or occupational exposure. The studies were grouped by exposure/occupation category, study design and exposure assessment approach. Where available, gender-stratified results are reported. The most studied (19 of 30 studies) and the most consistent associations were observed for radiation-exposed workers and healthcare occupations. Suggestive, but inconsistent, associations were observed in studies of pesticide-exposed workers and agricultural occupations. Findings for other exposures and occupation groups were largely null. The majority of studies had few exposed cases and assessed exposure based on occupation or industry category, self-report, or generic (population-based) job exposure matrices. The suggestive, but inconsistent findings for many of the occupational exposures reviewed here indicate that more studies with larger numbers of cases and better exposure assessment are necessary, particularly for exposures known to disrupt thyroid homeostasis.

  15. Agricultural Occupations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Floyd J.; Henderson, Billie

    This agricultural occupations handbook was developed from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) and the U.S. Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare, and Labor publication, Vocational Education and Occupations. It includes the U.S. Office of Education coding for the instructional area of agriculture and the cluster coding for the…

  16. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  17. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  18. Commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  19. Fishing Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    ROFFS stands for Roffer's Ocean Fishing Forecasting Service, Inc. Roffer combines satellite and computer technology with oceanographic information from several sources to produce frequently updated charts sometimes as often as 30 times a day showing clues to the location of marlin, sailfish, tuna, swordfish and a variety of other types. Also provides customized forecasts for racing boats and the shipping industry along with seasonal forecasts that allow the marine industry to formulate fishing strategies based on foreknowledge of the arrival and departure times of different fish. Roffs service exemplifies the potential for benefits to marine industries from satellite observations. Most notable results are reduced search time and substantial fuel savings.

  20. Ergonomic risk factors for low back pain in North Carolina crab pot and gill net commercial fishermen

    PubMed Central

    Kucera, Kristen L; Loomis, Dana; Lipscomb, Hester J; Marshall, Stephen W; Mirka, Gary; Daniels, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of this research was to determine the association between LBP that limited or interrupted fishing work and ergonomic low back stress measured by 1) self-reported task, and 2) two ergonomic assessment methods of low back stress. Methods Eligible participants were from a cohort of North Carolina commercial fishermen followed for LBP in regular clinic visits from 1999 to 2001 (n=177). Work history, including crab pot and gill net fishing task frequency, was evaluated in a telephone questionnaire (n=105). Ergonomic exposures were measured in previous study of 25 fishermen using two methods. The occurrence rate of LBP that limited or interrupted fishing work since last visit (severe LBP) was evaluated in a generalized Poisson regression model. Results Predictors of severe LBP included fishing with crew members and a previous history of severe LBP. Among crab pot and gill net fishermen (n=89), running pullers or net reels, sorting catch, and unloading catch were associated with an increased rate of LBP. Percent of time in forces >20 lbs while in non-neutral trunk posture, spine compression >3400 Newtons, and National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health lifting indices >3.0 were associated with LBP. Conclusions Tasks characterized by higher (unloading boat and sorting catch) and lower (running puller or net reel) ergonomic low back stress were associated with the occurrence of severe LBP. History of LBP, addition of crew members, and self-selection out of tasks were likely important contributors to the patterns of low back stress and outcomes we observed. Based on the results of this study, a participatory ergonomic intervention study is currently being conducted to develop tools and equipment to decrease low back stress in commercial crab pot fishing. PMID:19148898

  1. NASA Occupant Protection Standards Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, Jeffrey T.; Gernhardt, Michael A.; Lawrence, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Current National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) occupant protection standards and requirements are based on extrapolations of biodynamic models, which were based on human tests performed under pre-Space Shuttle human flight programs where the occupants were in different suit and seat configurations than is expected for the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and Commercial Crew programs. As a result, there is limited statistical validity to the occupant protection standards. Furthermore, the current standards and requirements have not been validated in relevant spaceflight suit, seat configurations or loading conditions. The objectives of this study were to develop new standards and requirements for occupant protection and rigorously validate these new standards with sub-injurious human testing. To accomplish these objectives we began by determining which critical injuries NASA would like to protect for. We then defined the anthropomorphic test device (ATD) and the associated injury metrics of interest. Finally, we conducted a literature review of available data for the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint New Technology (THOR-NT) ATD to determine injury assessment reference values (IARV) to serve as a baseline for further development. To better understand NASA s environment, we propose conducting sub-injurious human testing in spaceflight seat and suit configurations with spaceflight dynamic loads, with a sufficiently high number of subjects to validate no injury during nominal landing loads. In addition to validate nominal loads, the THOR-NT ATD will be tested in the same conditions as the human volunteers, allowing correlation between human and ATD responses covering the Orion nominal landing environment and commercial vehicle expected nominal environments. All testing will be conducted without the suit and with the suit to ascertain the contribution of the suit to human and ATD responses. In addition to the testing campaign proposed, additional

  2. Occupational rhinitis: an update.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Whitney W; Grammer, Leslie C

    2015-01-01

    Occupational rhinitis is characterized by nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, and/or sneezing that occur secondary to exposures in the workplace. This disease can be classified into allergic or nonallergic subgroups based upon the underlying disease pathogenesis as well as the type of causative agent. While the true prevalence of occupational rhinitis is unknown, there are certain professions and occupational exposures that place workers at a higher risk for developing the disease. Additionally, occupational rhinitis can be associated with occupational asthma and upper airway symptoms may precede those of the lower respiratory tract. Taken together, occupational rhinitis is an important disease for study given its medical as well as socioeconomic implications. This review will focus on the classification of occupational rhinitis as well the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment strategies.

  3. Designer Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

  4. Designer Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which students are asked to design a fish that would survive in a natural system. A project to computerize the activity is discussed. The development of this artificial intelligence software is detailed. (CW)

  5. Fish Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... not eat any fish because they worry about mercury in seafood. Mercury is a metal that, at high levels, can ... many types of seafood have little or no mercury at all. So your risk of mercury exposure ...

  6. Fish Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... been diagnosed with a fish allergy, keep injectable epinephrine on hand in case of a severe reaction. ... mouth or throat or difficulty breathing, give the epinephrine auto-injector right away. Every second counts in ...

  7. Fighting fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchi, E.; Guerrini, V.; Rinaldi, S.; Schaeffer, G.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce new combinatorial structures, called fighting fish, that generalize directed convex polyominoes by allowing them to branch out of the plane into independent substructures. On the one hand the combinatorial structure of fighting fish appears to be particularly rich: we show that their generating function with respect to the perimeter and number of tails is algebraic, and we conjecture a mysterious multivariate equidistribution property with the left ternary trees introduced by Del Lungo et al On the other hand, fighting fish provide a simple and natural model of random branching surfaces which displays original features: in particular, we show that the average area of a uniform random fighting fish with perimeter 2n is of order n 5/4: to the best of our knowledge this behaviour is non-standard and suggests that we have identified a new universality class of random structures. Dedicated to Tony Guttmann on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  8. Fishing effects on energy use by North Sea fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Simon; van Hal, Ralf; Hiddink, Jan G.; Maxwell, Tracy A. D.

    Fishing affects patterns of energy use in fish populations, as demonstrated by changes in population energy consumption and the size and age when energy demands are greatest. We compare theoretical predictions and observed patterns of energy use (expressed as the primary production required to support fish production) by North Sea fish, based on simple and widely applicable theory that links life history parameters, fishing mortality ( F), trophic transfer efficiency and relationships between size and trophic level (as determined using nitrogen stable isotope analysis). For the demersal species that dominate total biomass, relationships between size and trophic level were quite consistent among years. There were large decreases in relative energy requirements of all exploited demersal populations except plaice Pleuronectes platessa during the last 3 to 4 decades. Relative energy requirements of plaice were more stable because smaller plaice, which now dominate the exploited population, feed at higher trophic levels than larger plaice. The sizes and ages when population energy demands were greatest fell with increasing fishing mortality and differences between the predicted ( F = 0) and observed ages at maximum energy demand were greater in larger species. Currently, the energy demands of most species peak early in life (1-3 years) and largely reflect patterns of recruitment, leading to a homogenisation of the trophodynamics of the fish community. The fate of energy that is no longer used by commercially exploited species is not clear, partly because of the infrequent and untargeted monitoring of species that are more resilient to fishing. However, we conducted a preliminary assessment of the energy demands of solenette Buglossidium luteum, a very abundant small flatfish in the central North Sea that has increased in abundance in recent years. The solenette's high abundance and resilience to fishing, suggests that it now requires 35% of primary production in part of

  9. Commercial Art. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ted; Sappe', Hoyt

    This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of commercial art, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train commercial artists. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase I; description…

  10. Listing Occupational Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Straif, Kurt; Latreille, Benoit; Lakhani, Ramzan; Campbell, Sally; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Boffetta, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The occupational environment has been a most fruitful one for investigating the etiology of human cancer. Many recognized human carcinogens are occupational carcinogens. There is a large volume of epidemiologic and experimental data concerning cancer risks in different work environments. It is important to synthesize this information for both scientific and public health purposes. Various organizations and individuals have published lists of occupational carcinogens. However, such lists have been limited by unclear criteria for which recognized carcinogens should be considered occupational carcinogens, and by inconsistent and incomplete information on the occupations and industries in which the carcinogenic substances may be found and on their target sites of cancer. Based largely on the evaluations published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and augmented with additional information, the present article represents an attempt to summarize, in tabular form, current knowledge on occupational carcinogens, the occupations and industries in which they are found, and their target organs. We have considered 28 agents as definite occupational carcinogens, 27 agents as probable occupational carcinogens, and 113 agents as possible occupational carcinogens. These tables should be useful for regulatory or preventive purposes and for scientific purposes in research priority setting and in understanding carcinogenesis. PMID:15531427

  11. Parrotfish size as a useful indicator of fishing effects in a small Caribbean island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallès, Henri; Gill, David; Oxenford, Hazel A.

    2015-09-01

    There is an urgent need to develop simple indicators of fishing effects for the implementation of ecosystem-based fisheries management in the Caribbean. In this study, we compare the ability of three simple metrics (average individual fish weight, fish density, and fish biomass) derived from the parrotfish assemblage and from an assemblage of highly valued commercial fish species to track changes in fishing pressure at spatial scales relevant to small Caribbean islands. Between June and August 2011, we conducted five consecutive visual fish surveys at six reefs ≤10 km apart along the west coast of Barbados, representing a spatial gradient in fishing pressure. We used these data to identify the fish metrics most strongly correlated with fishing pressure and describe their functional relationship with fishing pressure. Overall, average individual parrotfish weight and biomass and density of commercial fish species were the metrics most strongly correlated with fishing pressure, although for the latter two, such correlations depended on the range of fish body sizes analyzed. Fishing pressure accounted for most of the variability in all correlated fish metrics (adj R 2 ≥ 0.75). However, functional relationships with fishing pressure differed qualitatively between metrics. In particular, average individual parrotfish weight was the metric most sensitive to incremental changes in fishing pressure. Overall, our study highlights that assemblage-level average individual parrotfish weight deserves a place in the toolbox of Caribbean reef managers as a simple indicator of both fishing effects on parrotfish assemblages and overall fishing pressure on the reef fish community.

  12. 75 FR 5951 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ..., and South Atlantic; Reef Fish Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... fishing gear under his commercial reef fish permit and individual fishing quota allocation for one year... intended to provide detailed information and disposition of reef fish caught by Mr. Haugen's...

  13. Occupational injuries to Oregon workers 24 years and younger: An analysis of workers' compensation claims, 2000-2007.

    PubMed

    Walters, Jaime K; Christensen, Kari A; Green, Mandy K; Karam, Lauren E; Kincl, Laurel D

    2010-10-01

    Occupational injuries to adolescents and young adults are a known public health problem. We sought to describe and estimate rates of occupational injuries to workers younger than 25 years of age in Oregon during an 8-year period. Oregon workers' compensation disabling claims data (n = 23,325) and one commercial insurance carrier's non-disabling claims data (n = 16,153) were analyzed. Total employment from the Local Employment Dynamics of the U.S. Census Bureau and the Oregon Labor Market Information System was used as a denominator for rates. Injuries were more frequent among 22-24 year olds and among males, though females accounted for a higher proportion of claims in the youngest age group. The most common injury type was a sprain or strain, but lacerations and burns were more frequently reported in the 14-18 year olds. When non-disabling claims were included, the rate of injury for 14-18 year olds doubled. The overall rate of injury was 122.7/10,000 workers, but was higher in the construction, manufacturing, and transportation sectors, and in the agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting sector for older teens and young adults. Young workers continue to be at risk for occupational injuries. Our results show that specific interventions may be needed for older teen and young adult workers to reduce their rate of injury. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Inference for occupancy and occupancy dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Bailey, Larissa L.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the estimation of occupancy as a state variable to assess the status of, and track changes in, species distributions when sampling with camera traps. Much of the recent interest in occupancy estimation and modeling originated from the models developed by MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2003), although similar methods were developed independently (Azuma et al. 1990; Bayley and Petersen 2001; Nichols and Karanth, 2002; Tyre et al. 2003), all of which deal with species occurrence information and imperfect detection. Less than a decade after these publications, the modeling and estimation of species occurrence and occupancy dynamics have increased significantly. Special features of scientific journals have explored innovative uses of detection–nondetection data with occupancy models (Vojta 2005), and an entire volume has synthesized the use and application of occupancy estimation methods (MacKenzie et al. 2006). Reviews of the topical concepts, philosophical considerations, and various sampling designs that can be used for occupancy estimation are now readily available for a range of audiences (MacKenzie and Royle 2005; MacKenzie et al. 2006; Bailey et al. 2007; Royle and Dorazio 2008; Conroy and Carroll 2009; Kendall and White 2009; Hines et al. 2010; Link and Barker 2010). As a result, it would be pointless here to recast all that these publications have so eloquently articulated, but that said, a review of any scientific topic requires sufficient context and relevant background information, especially when relatively new methodologies and techniques such as occupancy estimation and camera traps are involved. This is especially critical in a digital age where new information is published at warp speed, making it increasingly difficult to stay abreast of theoretical advances and research developments.

  15. Estimation of an Occupational Choice Model when Occupations Are Misclassified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an empirical occupational choice model that corrects for misclassification in occupational choices and measurement error in occupation-specific work experience. The model is used to estimate the extent of measurement error in occupation data and quantify the bias that results from ignoring measurement error in occupation codes…

  16. Estimation of an Occupational Choice Model when Occupations Are Misclassified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an empirical occupational choice model that corrects for misclassification in occupational choices and measurement error in occupation-specific work experience. The model is used to estimate the extent of measurement error in occupation data and quantify the bias that results from ignoring measurement error in occupation codes…

  17. 76 FR 67480 - Standard on Commercial Diving Operations; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Standard on Commercial Diving Operations; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of Information Collection (Paperwork) Requirements AGENCY... requirements specified in the Commercial Diving Operations Standard (29 CFR part 1910, subpart T)....

  18. INFECTION AS OCCUPATIONAL RISK,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The percentage of the job-connected infectious diseases of the total number of occupational diseases has been subject to only minor fluctuations...since 1949. Of the occupational infections of medical personnel, tuberculosis and infectious hepatitis are the most important; among diseases that can be...importance in the recognition of an infectious disease as an occupational disease. The article discusses the sources of infection, the manner of

  19. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  20. Image Processing Occupancy Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    2016-07-14

    The Image Processing Occupancy Sensor, or IPOS, is a novel sensor technology developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The sensor is based on low-cost embedded microprocessors widely used by the smartphone industry and leverages mature open-source computer vision software libraries. Compared to traditional passive infrared and ultrasonic-based motion sensors currently used for occupancy detection, IPOS has shown the potential for improved accuracy and a richer set of feedback signals for occupant-optimized lighting, daylighting, temperature setback, ventilation control, and other occupancy and location-based uses. Unlike traditional passive infrared (PIR) or ultrasonic occupancy sensors, which infer occupancy based only on motion, IPOS uses digital image-based analysis to detect and classify various aspects of occupancy, including the presence of occupants regardless of motion, their number, location, and activity levels of occupants, as well as the illuminance properties of the monitored space. The IPOS software leverages the recent availability of low-cost embedded computing platforms, computer vision software libraries, and camera elements.

  1. American Occupational Therapy Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... AOTA Education Summit AOTA/NBCOT National Student Conclave School Based Specialty Conference Member Appreciation Celebration Older Driver Safety Awareness Week Occupational Therapy Month Mental Health Specialty ...

  2. About Occupational Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... to improve your documentation. Children & Youth Health & Wellness Mental Health Productive Aging Rehabilitation & Disability Work & Industry Manage Your Practice Evidence-Based Practice & Research Ethics Occupational Therapy Assistants ...

  3. [Progress in transgenic fish techniques and application].

    PubMed

    Ye, Xing; Tian, Yuan-Yuan; Gao, Feng-Ying

    2011-05-01

    Transgenic technique provides a new way for fish breeding. Stable lines of growth hormone gene transfer carps, salmon and tilapia, as well as fluorescence protein gene transfer zebra fish and white cloud mountain minnow have been produced. The fast growth characteristic of GH gene transgenic fish will be of great importance to promote aquaculture production and economic efficiency. This paper summarized the progress in transgenic fish research and ecological assessments. Microinjection is still the most common used method, but often resulted in multi-site and multi-copies integration. Co-injection of transposon or meganuclease will greatly improve the efficiency of gene transfer and integration. "All fish" gene or "auto gene" should be considered to produce transgenic fish in order to eliminate misgiving on food safety and to benefit expression of the transferred gene. Environmental risk is the biggest obstacle for transgenic fish to be commercially applied. Data indicates that transgenic fish have inferior fitness compared with the traditional domestic fish. However, be-cause of the genotype-by-environment effects, it is difficult to extrapolate simple phenotypes to the complex ecological interactions that occur in nature based on the ecological consequences of the transgenic fish determined in the laboratory. It is critical to establish highly naturalized environments for acquiring reliable data that can be used to evaluate the environ-mental risk. Efficacious physical and biological containment strategies remain to be crucial approaches to ensure the safe application of transgenic fish technology.

  4. Teacher's Guide to Occupational Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This guide is specifically designed to accompany materials developed for occupational orientation (particularly in Illinois) in the following five cluster areas: Applied biological and agricultural occupations; personal and public service occupations; health occupations; business, marketing, and management occupations; and industrial oriented…

  5. Welding. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of welder. The introduction explains…

  6. Teacher's Guide to Occupational Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This guide is specifically designed to accompany materials developed for occupational orientation (particularly in Illinois) in the following five cluster areas: Applied biological and agricultural occupations; personal and public service occupations; health occupations; business, marketing, and management occupations; and industrial oriented…

  7. Pesticide concentrations in Great Lakes fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.

    1970-01-01

    During the past 4 years the Ann Arbor Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory of the Bureau of Commercial Fisheries has been monitoring insecticide levels in fish from the Great Lakes. The two insecticides found in all Great Lakes fish have been DDT (DDT, DDD, DDE) and dieldrin. Fish from Lake Michigan contain from 2 to 7 times as much of these insecticides as those from the other Great Lakes. Insecticide levels calculated on a whole-fish basis show a marked difference from species to species. Within a species there is also an increase in DDT and dieldrin levels with an increase in size. If these insecticide levels are, however, calculated as ppm of insecticide in the extractable fish oil, the differences in concentration between species and the differences between size groups becomes considerably less. Laboratory experiments indicate that fish can build up concentrations of DDT and dieldrin at the parts-per-million level from parts-per-trillion concentrations in the water.

  8. Swimming Performance of Toy Robotic Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelina, Nina; Mendelson, Leah; Techet, Alexandra

    2015-11-01

    HEXBUG AquaBotsTM are a commercially available small robot fish that come in a variety of ``species''. These models have varying caudal fin shapes and randomly-varied modes of swimming including forward locomotion, diving, and turning. In this study, we assess the repeatability and performance of the HEXBUG swimming behaviors and discuss the use of these toys to develop experimental techniques and analysis methods to study live fish swimming. In order to determine whether these simple, affordable model fish can be a valid representation for live fish movement, two models, an angelfish and a shark, were studied using 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and 3D Synthetic Aperture PIV. In a series of experiments, the robotic fish were either allowed to swim freely or towed in one direction at a constant speed. The resultant measurements of the caudal fin wake are compared to data from previous studies of a real fish and simplified flapping propulsors.

  9. Ecology of North Sea fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daan, N.; Bromley, P. J.; Hislop, J. R. G.; Nielsen, N. A.

    Fishes of the North Sea include over 200 species exhibiting widely differing ecological characteristics. There is a wealth of literature and, in this paper, we have restricted ourselves to providing generalized data on the more abundant species, with a view of highlighting those aspects which link the total fish community to the biotic and abiotic environment. There is necessarily a bias towards commercial species, because most of the pertinent information is related specifically to fish which are heavily fished. However, since there are few abundant species which are not exploited, the ecological links of the total fish community to other components of the system are well represented by the selection. Moreover, exploitation of the fish community may have indirectly affected the ecological relationships in the entire system. It follows that an understandinf of the impact of fisheries on the fish community is likely to play a key role in helping us to understand how the North Sea ecosystem functions. The paper highlights various ecological aspects of the fish fauna including population dynamics, spawning in time and space, distribution, variations in year class strength, feeding, density-dependent growth and changes in species composition. Despite long time series of quantitative biological information for individual species and the obvious impact of fisheries on longevity and productivity of the fish community, the general conclusion is that it remains very difficult to separate effects of fisheries and of the environment on reproductive success, in which the variation is the most important destabilizing factor in the regulation of exploited fish populations. Another conclusion is that the spatial heterogeneity of the fish community in the North Sea is a factor of considerable concern in trying to link fish production to other components. It would seem likely that, to improve our understanding of the ecological linkages in the entire system, the spatial differences

  10. Occupational fatalities in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Abdallat, Emad M; Oqailan, Ahmad Mohammad A; Al Ali, Rayyan; Hudaib, Arwa A; Salameh, Ghada A M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational fatalities are a worldwide problem. Certain occupations pose a greater risk than others. Recent statistics on global occupational injuries and diseases that might lead to temporary or permanent disability and even worse might lead to death, are staggering. The purpose of this study was to estimate the death rates from occupational injuries in Jordan over a period of four years; to estimate occupational fatality rate that results from accidental injuries and identify the most risky concurrent occupations with the type of injuries, the age and nationality of the victims. A total of 88 work related fatalities were admitted to three hospitals in Amman through 2008-2012 and were examined by a forensic (occupational) physician at the time. They were categorized according to, age, nationality, occupation, type of injury and were all tested for toxic substances. The occupation with the most fatalities was construction (44%); falling from a height was the commonest type of accident (44%) and head injuries were the leading injury type (21.6%); 9.1% of the deaths were positive for alcohol. Moreover, 22.7% of deaths were between ages of 25-29. Consequently, the mean occupational fatality rate was 2 per 100.000 workers during 2008-2012. Constructions and other types of occupations are more extensive problems than what is usually anticipated, especially when safety precautions are not effective or implemented. They may cause injuries and death, which will have a socioeconomic burden on families, society, governments and industries. Not to mention the grief that is associated with the death of a worker at his work site to all concerned parties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Occupation and Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Ward, Mary H.; Valle, Curt T. Della; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Numerous occupational and environmental exposures have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormones, but much less is known about their relationships with thyroid cancer. Here we review the epidemiology studies of occupations and occupational exposures and thyroid cancer incidence to provide insight into preventable risk factors for thyroid cancer. Methods The published literature was searched using the Web of Knowledge database for all articles through August 2013 that had in their text “occupation” “job” ”employment” or “work” and “thyroid cancer”. After excluding 10 mortality studies and 4 studies with less than 5 exposed incident cases, we summarized the findings of 30 articles that examined thyroid cancer incidence in relation to occupations or occupational exposure. The studies were grouped by exposure/occupation category, study design, and exposure assessment approach. Where available, gender stratified results are reported. Results The most studied (19 of 30 studies) and the most consistent associations were observed for radiation-exposed workers and health care occupations. Suggestive, but inconsistent, associations were observed in studies of pesticide-exposed workers and agricultural occupations. Findings for other exposures and occupation groups were largely null. The majority of studies had few exposed cases and assessed exposure based on occupation or industry category, self-report, or generic (population-based) job exposure matrices. Conclusion The suggestive, but inconsistent findings for many of the occupational exposures reviewed here indicate that more studies with larger numbers of cases and better exposure assessment are necessary, particularly for exposures known to disrupt thyroid homeostasis. PMID:24604144

  12. Karuk Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; Goodwin, Norman

    A booklet on traditional fishing practices of the Karuk Indians of northwestern California is presented in the formal, literary English speech of Norman Goodwin, a Karuk medicine man involved in preserving ancient tribal traditions. Empirical information and personal narratives are combined in descriptions of different kinds of nets, social rules…

  13. Gone Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)

  14. Karuk Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; Goodwin, Norman

    A booklet on traditional fishing practices of the Karuk Indians of northwestern California is presented in the formal, literary English speech of Norman Goodwin, a Karuk medicine man involved in preserving ancient tribal traditions. Empirical information and personal narratives are combined in descriptions of different kinds of nets, social rules…

  15. Gone Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson-Demme, Hillary; Kisiel, Jim

    2003-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity in which students create a model of an ocean ecosystem to gain an understanding of how humans can alter biodiversity through their actions. Uses differing levels of fishing technology to explore the concepts of sustainability and overfishing. (Author/SOE)

  16. Factors influencing safety among a group of commercial fishermen along the Texas Gulf Coast.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jeffrey L; Gilmore, Karen; Shepherd, Sara; Wickman, Amanda; Carruth, Ann; Nalbone, J Torey; Gallardo, Gilbert; Nonnenmann, Matthew W

    2010-10-01

    The commercial fishing trades are among the most dangerous jobs in the world. Little published information exists regarding some populations of commercial fishermen such as along the United States Gulf Coast. Studying these unique and often vulnerable groups is important to characterize potential influences on or barriers to safety in anticipation of designing interventions that can change safety behaviors. Working closely with the United States Coast Guard (USCG), a cross-sectional convenience sample of Gulf Coast shrimp fishermen in and near the Port of Galveston, Texas, was surveyed. The survey included demographic factors and broadly covered areas such as type of work and fishing activities, general or global perceptions and beliefs related to safety and accidents, self-report of ability to use safety equipment or apply procedures aboard vessel, and training considerations. Surveys were obtained following informed consent (n = 133). Of the participants, 96.7% were male with 60.9% ≥40 years old. A majority were of Asian descent (57.1% of all fishermen, 82.1% of shrimp fishermen). Over half claimed to speak little or no English and nearly 60% considered the job to be very safe to neutral. A third to half of respondents expressed doubt about their knowledge of using essential safety equipment in the event of emergency. A large portion of the participants preferred hands-on safety training (40.6%). Important findings about this group of commercial fishermen will help with future development of effective prevention practices through the delivery of culturally appropriate safety awareness training. One element that must be addressed in training programs is to increase the awareness among fishermen about the severe occupational risks inherent in this type of work. Community trust and collaborative partnerships are essential to the success of such initiatives.

  17. OCCUPATION EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRIEST, JEANNE; MORSCH, WILLIAM C.

    THE OCCUPATIONAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS (OERA) SYSTEM IS A RESEARCH EFFORT DESIGNED TO DEVELOP A FEASIBLE METHOD OF PROJECTING VOCATIONAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS THAT WILL SATISFY LABOR MARKET NEEDS. THE OUTPUTS OF THE OERA WILL BE ANNUAL PROJECTIONS OF EMPLOYMENT DEMANDS IN OCCUPATIONS CLASSIFIED BY VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS. THESE…

  18. Counselling for Occupational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwamuo, P. A.; Ugonna, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain the general attitude which senior secondary school students display towards counselling for occupational development while determining gender difference in students' attitude towards occupational information. It is also aimed at discovering whether these students seek vocational guidance in their choice of…

  19. Occupational asthma: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, L J; Balmes, J R

    2000-01-01

    Occupational asthma is the most common form of occupational lung disease in the developed world at the present time. In this review, the epidemiology, pathogenesis/mechanisms, clinical presentations, management, and prevention of occupational asthma are discussed. The population attributable risk of asthma due to occupational exposures is considerable. Current understanding of the mechanisms by which many agents cause occupational asthma is limited, especially for low-molecular-weight sensitizers and irritants. The diagnosis of occupational asthma is generally established on the basis of a suggestive history of a temporal association between exposure and the onset of symptoms and objective evidence that these symptoms are related to airflow limitation. Early diagnosis, elimination of exposure to the responsible agent, and early use of inhaled steroids may play important roles in the prevention of long-term persistence of asthma. Persistent occupational asthma is often associated with substantial disability and consequent impacts on income and quality of life. Prevention of new cases is the best approach to reducing the burden of asthma attributable to occupational exposures. Future research needs are identified. PMID:10931788

  20. Occupations, U. S. A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geneva Area City Schools, OH.

    The booklet divides job titles, selected from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, into 15 career clusters: agribusiness and natural resources, business and office education, communication and media, construction, consumer and home economics, fine arts and humanities, health occupations, hospitality and recreation, manufacturing, marine science,…