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Sample records for occupational exposures contribute

  1. Human exposure to airborne aniline and formation of methemoglobin: a contribution to occupational exposure limits.

    PubMed

    Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Broding, Horst Christoph; Bünger, Jürgen; Jettkant, Birger; Koslitz, Stephan; Lehnert, Martin; Marek, Eike Maximilian; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Monsé, Christian; Weiss, Tobias; Brüning, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Aniline is an important starting material in the manufacture of polyurethane-based plastic materials. Aniline-derived methemoglobinemia (Met-Hb) is well described in exposed workers although information on the dose-response association is limited. We used an experimental design to study the association between aniline in air with the formation of Met-Hb in blood and the elimination of aniline in urine. A 6-h exposure of 2 ppm aniline in 19 non-smoking volunteers resulted in a time-dependent increase in Met-Hb in blood and aniline in urine. The maximum Met-Hb level in blood (mean 1.21 ± 0.29 %, range 0.80-2.07 %) and aniline excretion in urine (mean 168.0 ± 51.8 µg/L, range 79.5-418.3 µg/L) were observed at the end of exposure, with both parameters rapidly decreasing after the end of exposure. After 24 h, the mean level of Met-Hb (0.65 ± 0.18 %) returned to the basal level observed prior to the exposure (0.72 ± 0.19 %); whereas, slightly elevated levels of aniline were still present in urine (means 17.0 ± 17.1 vs. 5.7 ± 3.8 µg/L). No differences between males and females as well as between slow and fast acetylators were found. The results obtained after 6-h exposure were also comparable to those observed in four non-smoking volunteers after 8-h exposure. Maximum levels of Met-Hb and aniline in urine were 1.57 % and 305.6 µg/L, respectively. Overall, our results contribute to the risk assessment of aniline and as a result, the protection of workers from aniline-derived adverse health effects at the workplace.

  2. Commentary on the contributions and future role of occupational exposure science in a vision and strategy for the discipline of exposure science

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Martin; Weis, Christopher; Pleil, Joachim D.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Miller, Aubrey; Hoover, Mark D.; Jahn, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Exposure science is a holistic concept without prejudice to exposure source. Traditionally, measurements aimed at mitigating environmental exposures have not included exposures in the workplace, instead considering such exposures to be an internal affair between workers and their employers. Similarly, occupational (or industrial) hygiene has not typically accounted for environmental contributions to poor health at work. Many persons spend a significant amount of their lifetime in the workplace, where they maybe exposed to more numerous chemicals at higher levels than elsewhere in their environment. In addition, workplace chemical exposures and other exogenous stressors may increase epigenetic and germline modifications that are passed on to future generations. We provide a brief history of the development of exposure science from its roots in the assessment of workplace exposures, including an appendix where we detail current resources for education and training in exposure science offered through occupational hygiene organizations. We describe existing successful collaborations between occupational and environmental practitioners in the field of exposure science, which may serve as a model for future interactions. Finally, we provide an integrated vision for the field of exposure science, emphasizing interagency collaboration, the need for complete exposure information in epidemiological studies, and the importance of integrating occupational, environmental, and residential assessments. Our goal is to encourage communication and spur additional collaboration between the fields of occupational and environmental exposure assessment. Providing a more comprehensive approach to exposure science is critical to the study of the “exposome”, which conceptualizes the totality of exposures throughout a person’s life, not only chemical, but also from diet, stress, drugs, infection, and so on, and the individual response. PMID:25670022

  3. Commentary on the contributions and future role of occupational exposure science in a vision and strategy for the discipline of exposure science.

    PubMed

    Harper, Martin; Weis, Christopher; Pleil, Joachim D; Blount, Benjamin C; Miller, Aubrey; Hoover, Mark D; Jahn, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Exposure science is a holistic concept without prejudice to exposure source. Traditionally, measurements aimed at mitigating environmental exposures have not included exposures in the workplace, instead considering such exposures to be an internal affair between workers and their employers. Similarly, occupational (or industrial) hygiene has not typically accounted for environmental contributions to poor health at work. Many persons spend a significant amount of their lifetime in the workplace, where they maybe exposed to more numerous chemicals at higher levels than elsewhere in their environment. In addition, workplace chemical exposures and other exogenous stressors may increase epigenetic and germline modifications that are passed on to future generations. We provide a brief history of the development of exposure science from its roots in the assessment of workplace exposures, including an appendix where we detail current resources for education and training in exposure science offered through occupational hygiene organizations. We describe existing successful collaborations between occupational and environmental practitioners in the field of exposure science, which may serve as a model for future interactions. Finally, we provide an integrated vision for the field of exposure science, emphasizing interagency collaboration, the need for complete exposure information in epidemiological studies, and the importance of integrating occupational, environmental, and residential assessments. Our goal is to encourage communication and spur additional collaboration between the fields of occupational and environmental exposure assessment. Providing a more comprehensive approach to exposure science is critical to the study of the "exposome", which conceptualizes the totality of exposures throughout a person's life, not only chemical, but also from diet, stress, drugs, infection, and so on, and the individual response.

  4. Occupational arsine gas exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Pullen-James, Shayla; Woods, Scott E.

    2006-01-01

    Arsine gas exposure is a rare occupational event and can be completely prevented with the use of appropriate protective gear. Exposure often occurs when arsine gas is generated while arsenic-containing crude ores or metals are treated with acid. Cases of toxicity require an index of suspicion and a good history. In particular, it should be in the differential diagnosis in patients who present acutely with red/bronze skin and hemoglobinuria. Treatment is supportive and may include transfusions and dialysis in severe cases. Clinical severity is proportionate to the level of exposure, and severity is directly related to the onset of symptoms. Images Figure 2 PMID:17225850

  5. Genetic susceptibility to occupational exposures

    PubMed Central

    Christiani, D C; Mehta, A J; Yu, C-L

    2013-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence in the general population, genetic variants that determine susceptibility to environmental exposures may contribute greatly to the development of occupational diseases in the setting of specific exposures occurring in the workplace. Studies investigating genetic susceptibilities in the workplace may: (1) provide mechanistic insight into the aetiology of disease, in particular the determination of environmentally responsive genes; (2) identify susceptible subpopulations with respect to exposure; and (3) provide valuable input in setting occupational exposure limits by taking genetic susceptibility into account. Polymorphisms in the NAT2 and the HLA-DPB1Glu69 genes provide classic examples of how genetic susceptibility markers have a clear role in identifying disease risk in bladder cancer and chronic beryllium disease, respectively. For diseases with more complex and multifactorial aetiology such as occupational asthma and chronic airways disease, susceptibility studies for selected genetic polymorphisms provide additional insight into the biological mechanisms of disease. Even when polymorphisms for genetic susceptibility have a clear role in identifying disease risk, the value of wide scale genetic screening in occupational settings remains limited due to primarily ethical and social concerns. Thus, large scale genetic screening in the workplace is not currently recommended. PMID:18487431

  6. Occupational exposure in MRI

    PubMed Central

    Mcrobbie, D W

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews occupational exposure in clinical MRI; it specifically considers units of exposure, basic physical interactions, health effects, guideline limits, dosimetry, results of exposure surveys, calculation of induced fields and the status of the European Physical Agents Directive. Electromagnetic field exposure in MRI from the static field B0, imaging gradients and radiofrequency transmission fields induces electric fields and currents in tissue, which are responsible for various acute sensory effects. The underlying theory and its application to the formulation of incident and induced field limits are presented. The recent International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers limits for incident field exposure are interpreted in a manner applicable to MRI. Field measurements show that exposure from movement within the B0 fringe field can exceed ICNIRP reference levels within 0.5 m of the bore entrance. Rate of change of field dB/dt from the imaging gradients is unlikely to exceed the new limits, although incident field limits can be exceeded for radiofrequency (RF) exposure within 0.2–0.5 m of the bore entrance. Dosimetric surveys of routine clinical practice show that staff are exposed to peak values of 42±24% of B0, with time-averaged exposures of 5.2±2.8 mT for magnets in the range 0.6–4 T. Exposure to time-varying fields arising from movement within the B0 fringe resulted in peak dB/dt of approximately 2 T s−1. Modelling of induced electric fields from the imaging gradients shows that ICNIRP-induced field limits are unlikely to be exceeded in most situations; however, movement through the static field may still present a problem. The likely application of the limits is discussed with respect to the reformulation of the European Union (EU) directive and its possible implications for MRI. PMID:22457400

  7. Occupational exposure to manganese.

    PubMed Central

    Sarić, M; Markićević, A; Hrustić, O

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between the degree of exposure and biological effects of manganese was studied in a group of 369 workers employed in the production of ferroalloys. Two other groups of workers, from an electrode plant and from an aluminium rolling mill, served as controls. Mean manganese concentrations at work places where ferroalloys were produced varied from 0-301 to 20-442 mg/m3. The exposure level of the two control groups was from 2 to 30 microgram/m3 and from 0-05 to 0-07 microgram/m3, in the electrode plant and rolling mill respectively. Sixty-two (16-8%) manganese alloy workers showed some signs of neurological impairment. These signs were noticeably less in the two control groups (5-8% and 0%) than in the occupationally exposed group. Subjective symptoms, which are nonspecific but may be symptoms of subclinical manganism, were not markedly different in the three groups. However, in the manganese alloy workers some of the subjective symptoms occurred more frequently in heavier smokers than in light smokers or nonsmokers. Heavier smokers engaged in manganese alloy production showed some of the subjective symptoms more often than heavier smokers from the control groups. PMID:871441

  8. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  9. DOE 2012 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  10. Occupational Chemical Exposures Among Cosmetologists

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Victoria M.; Powers, Martha; Liu, Jianghong

    2014-01-01

    More research is needed to understand possible occupational reproductive risks for cosmetologists, specifically hairdressers and nail technicians, two occupations that often share workspace and exposure to hair dyes and nail polish. Cosmetologists are predominantly females of reproductive age; thus, they may be at higher risk for the effects of exposure to reproductive toxins. The purpose of this article is to inform nurses and public health professionals about occupational exposures for cosmetologists and discuss interventions to reduce the risks of reproductive disorders among susceptible worker populations. PMID:24328919

  11. DOE 2010 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  12. DOE 2008 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. The DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  13. DOE 2009 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The DOE 2009 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  14. 64 FR 34625 - Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-06-28

    ... Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice..., 1997, OSHA published its proposed standard to regulate occupational exposure to tuberculosis (TB) (62... preliminary risk assessment for occupational exposure to tuberculosis. DATES: Comments and data...

  15. Occupational Noise Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... is pervasive. It is also preventable. More Exposure & Controls Exposure to loud noise kills the nerve endings ... endorse, takes no responsibility for, and exercises no control over the linked organization or its views, or ...

  16. Relative Contributions of Agricultural Drift, Para-Occupational, and Residential Use Exposure Pathways to House Dust Pesticide Concentrations: Meta-Regression of Published Data

    PubMed Central

    Deziel, Nicole C.; Freeman, Laura E. Beane; Graubard, Barry I.; Jones, Rena R.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Thomas, Kent; Hines, Cynthia J.; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.; Chen, Honglei; Lubin, Jay H.; Andreotti, Gabriella; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased pesticide concentrations in house dust in agricultural areas have been attributed to several exposure pathways, including agricultural drift, para-occupational, and residential use. Objective: To guide future exposure assessment efforts, we quantified relative contributions of these pathways using meta-regression models of published data on dust pesticide concentrations. Methods: From studies in North American agricultural areas published from 1995 to 2015, we abstracted dust pesticide concentrations reported as summary statistics [e.g., geometric means (GM)]. We analyzed these data using mixed-effects meta-regression models that weighted each summary statistic by its inverse variance. Dependent variables were either the log-transformed GM (drift) or the log-transformed ratio of GMs from two groups (para-occupational, residential use). Results: For the drift pathway, predicted GMs decreased sharply and nonlinearly, with GMs 64% lower in homes 250 m versus 23 m from fields (interquartile range of published data) based on 52 statistics from seven studies. For the para-occupational pathway, GMs were 2.3 times higher [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 3.3; 15 statistics, five studies] in homes of farmers who applied pesticides more recently or frequently versus less recently or frequently. For the residential use pathway, GMs were 1.3 (95% CI: 1.1, 1.4) and 1.5 (95% CI: 1.2, 1.9) times higher in treated versus untreated homes, when the probability that a pesticide was used for the pest treatment was 1–19% and ≥ 20%, respectively (88 statistics, five studies). Conclusion: Our quantification of the relative contributions of pesticide exposure pathways in agricultural populations could improve exposure assessments in epidemiologic studies. The meta-regression models can be updated when additional data become available. Citation: Deziel NC, Beane Freeman LE, Graubard BI, Jones RR, Hoppin JA, Thomas K, Hines CJ, Blair A, Sandler DP, Chen H, Lubin

  17. DOE 2013 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    The Office of Analysis within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Health, Safety and Security (EHSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past five-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information has been analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site.

  18. Occupational exposure and lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spyratos, Dionysios; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kallianos, Anastasios; Rapti, Aggeliki; Li, Chen; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for male and the second most usual cancer for women after breast cancer. Currently there are available several non-specific cytotoxic agents and several targeted agents for lung cancer therapy. However; early stage diagnosis is still unavailable and several efforts are being made towards this direction. Novel biomarkers are being investigated along with new biopsy techniques. The occupational and environmental exposure to carcinogenic agents is an everyday phenomenon. Therefore until efficient early diagnosis is available, avoidance of exposure to carcinogenic agents is necessary. In the current mini-review occupational and environmental carcinogenic agents will be presented. PMID:24102018

  19. Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

  20. Occupational exposure modelling with ease.

    PubMed

    Devillers, J; Domine, D; Bintein, S; Karcher, W

    1997-01-01

    This article presents a validation exercise performed from eight practical case studies on EASE (version 2.0), a knowledge-based system allowing to estimate the workplace exposure to chemicals. Our results show that EASE represents a valuable simulation tool in occupational hygiene. However, it requires to be refined and extended to more realistic and precise situations to be easily used in practice.

  1. 62 FR 54160 - Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-10-17

    ... Tuberculosis; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 62, No. 201 / Friday, October 17, 1997 / Proposed... 1218-AB46 Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration... Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, 29 U.S.C. 655, to control occupational exposure to tuberculosis...

  2. 68 FR 75767 - Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2003-12-31

    ... Tuberculosis; Proposed Rule; Termination of Rulemaking Respiratory Protection for M. Tuberculosis; Final Rule... Exposure to Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION... Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis (TB). Because of a broad range of Federal and community initiatives,...

  3. Occupational exposures and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Glinda S; Miller, Frederick W; Germolec, Dori R

    2002-02-01

    Autoimmune diseases are pathologic conditions defined by abnormal autoimmune responses and characterized by immune system reactivity in the form of autoantibodies and T cell responses to self-structures. Here we review the limited but growing epidemiologic and experimental literature pertaining to the association between autoimmune diseases and occupational exposure to silica, solvents, pesticides, and ultraviolet radiation. The strongest associations (i.e., relative risks of 3.0 and higher) have been documented in investigations of silica dust and rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, scleroderma and glomerulonephritis. Weaker associations are seen, however, for solvent exposures (in scleroderma, undifferentiated connective tissue disease, and multiple sclerosis) and for farming or pesticide exposures (in rheumatoid arthritis). Experimental studies suggest two different effects of these exposures: an enhanced proinflammatory (TH1) response (e.g., TNF-alpha and IL-1 cytokine production with T cell activation), and increased apoptosis of lymphocytes leading to exposure to or modification of endogenous proteins and subsequent autoantibody formation. The former is a general mechanism that may be relevant across a spectrum of autoimmune diseases, whereas the latter may be a mechanism more specific to particular diseases (e.g., ultraviolet radiation, Ro autoantibodies, and lupus). Occupational exposures are important risk factors for some autoimmune diseases, but improved exposure assessment methods and better coordination between experimental/animal models and epidemiologic studies are needed to define these risks more precisely.

  4. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1999 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  5. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in their management of radiological safety programs and to assist them in the prioritization of resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside the DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of collective data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  6. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2004 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2004-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors, as well as members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  7. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1998 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1998-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health with support from Environment Safety and Health Technical Information Services publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  8. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2003 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. DOE is defined to include the National Nuclear Security Administration sites. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  9. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2000 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safety and Health publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE in making this report most useful to them. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  10. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2002 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2002-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment (EH-3) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE and DOE contractor managers and workers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE to make the report most useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and members of the public. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  11. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1997 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1997-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety and Health publishes the DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for DOE/DOE contractor managers in managing radiological safety programs and to assist them in prioritizing resources. We appreciate the efforts and contributions from the various stakeholders within and outside DOE and hope we have succeeded in making the report more useful. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. The exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. For the purposes of examining trends, data for the past 5 years are included in the analysis.

  12. [Nanosilver--Occupational exposure limits].

    PubMed

    Świdwińska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    Historically, nanosilver has been known as colloidal silver composed of particles with a size below 100 nm. Silver nanoparticles are used in many technologies, creating a wide range of products. Due to antibacterial properties nanosilver is used, among others, in medical devices (wound dressings), textiles (sport clothes, socks), plastics and building materials (paints). Colloidal silver is considered by many as an ideal agent in the fight against pathogenic microorganisms, unlike antibiotics, without side effects. However, in light of toxicological research, nanosilver is not inert to the body. The inhalation of silver nanoparticles have an adverse effect mainly on the liver and lung of rats. The oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species is responsible for the toxicity of nanoparticles, contributing to cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. The activity of the readily oxidized nanosilver surface underlies the molecular mechanism of toxicity. This leads to the release of silver ions, a known harmful agent. Occupational exposure to silver nanoparticles may occur in the process of its manufacture, formulation and also usage during spraying, in particular. In Poland, as well as in other countries of the world, there is no separate hygiene standards applicable to nanomaterials. The present study attempts to estimate the value of MAC-TWA (maximum admissible concentration--the time-weighted average) for silver--a nano-objects fraction, which amounted to 0.01 mg/m3. The authors are of the opinion that the current value of the MAC-TWA for silver metallic--inhalable fraction (0.05 mg/m3) does not provide sufficient protection against the harmful effects of silver in the form of nano-objects.

  13. Trichloroethylene: environmental and occupational exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Campos-Outcalt, D. )

    1992-08-01

    Trichloroethylene is used in paint strippers, rug cleaners, spot removers, typewriter correction fluid and industrial cleaners. It is a common environmental contaminant, detected in over one-third of hazardous waste sites and in 10 percent of groundwater sources. Acute workplace exposure above acceptable levels can cause neurologic, respiratory and hepatic problems. The health effects of prolonged occupational and environmental low-level exposure are probably minimal, but whether such exposure poses a risk remains controversial. Although trichloroethylene has been shown to cause cancer in some animals, it has not been proven to be a human carcinogen. Trichloroethylene has been involved in several well-publicized cases of contamination of community water supplies, and family physicians are likely to receive questions about this chemical.22 references.

  14. Occupational exposure in Portugal in 1999.

    PubMed

    Alves, J G; Martins, M B; Amaral, E M

    2001-01-01

    This study reports the occupational radiation doses for external exposure received in 1999 by the radiation workers monitored by the Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (DPRSN) in Portugal. Occupational exposures arise from conventional industry, research laboratories, the health or medical sector, and mining. There are no nuclear power plants in the country. There are two dosimetry systems running simultaneously at DPRSN, one based on film dosimetry and the other on thermoluminescence dosimetry (TLD). In 1999, 8400 persons were monitored, 3100 with film and 5300 with TLD and the data presented in this report were obtained by using both technologies. The annual mean effective doses received from external radiation in the different fields of activity and the distribution of the annual effective dose by dose intervals are presented. The collective annual dose by field of activity is estimated and the contribution to the total annual collective dose is determined.

  15. Occupational Exposure to HIV: Advice for Health Care Workers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Occupational Health Occupational Exposure to HIV: Advice for Health Care Workers Occupational Exposure to HIV: Advice for Health Care Workers Occupational HealthPrevention and WellnessStaying Healthy Share Occupational ...

  16. 63 FR 5905 - Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-02-05

    ... Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule... to tuberculosis and is announcing the dates and locations of the informal public hearings to be held...-5986. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: OSHA's proposed standard on Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis...

  17. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Blair, A.; Hines, C.J.; Thomas, K.W.; Alavanja, M.C.R.; Beane Freeman, L.E.; Hoppin, J.A.; Kamel, F.; Lynch, C.F.; Lubin, J.H.; Silverman, D.T.; Whelan, E.; Zahm, S. H.; Sandler, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the contribution of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes to the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used for occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. We draw upon our experience using this design to study agricultural workers to identify conditions that might foster use of prospective cohorts to study other occupational settings. Prospective cohort studies are perceived by many as the strongest epidemiologic design. It allows updating of information on exposure and other factors, collection of biologic samples before disease diagnosis for biomarker studies, assessment of effect modification by genes, lifestyle, and other occupational exposures, and evaluation of a wide range of health outcomes. Increased use of prospective cohorts would be beneficial in identifying hazardous exposures in the workplace. Occupational epidemiologists should seek opportunities to initiate prospective cohorts to investigate high priority, occupational exposures. PMID:25603935

  18. [Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: occupational exposure limits].

    PubMed

    Swidwińska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is produced in Poland as a high production volume chemical (HPVC). It is used mainly as a pigment for paints and coatings, plastics, paper, and also as additives to food and pharmaceuticals. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are increasingly applied in cosmetics, textiles and plastics as the ultraviolet light blocker. This contributes to a growing occupational exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles. Nanoparticles are potentially responsible for the most adverse effects of titanium dioxide. Due to the absence of separate fraction of nanoobjects and appropriate measurement methods the maximum admissible concentrations (MAC) for particles < 100 nm and nano-TiO2 cannot be established. In the world there are 2 proposals of occupational exposure levels for titanium dioxide nanoparticles: 0.3 mg/m3, proposed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), and 0.6 mg/m3, proposed by experts of the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO). The authors of this article, based on the available data and existing methods for hygiene standards binding in Poland, concluded that the MAC value of 0.3 mg/m3 for nanoparticles TiO2 in the workplace air can be accepted.

  19. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2005 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Offi ce of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information for all monitored individuals associated with the DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past 5 years.

  20. 62 FR 65388 - Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-12-12

    ... Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor ACTION: Proposed rule... tuberculosis (62 FR 54160). An informal public hearing was scheduled for Washington, D.C., and deadlines were... a new standard for occupational exposure to tuberculosis on October 17, 1997 (62 FR 54160)....

  1. 67 FR 3465 - Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-01-24

    ... Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Limited re-opening of the rulemaking record for Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis (TB). SUMMARY: The Agency is re... Sciences/ Institute of Medicine (NAS/IOM) report, ``Tuberculosis in the Workplace'' and the comments by...

  2. 64 FR 32447 - Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-06-17

    ... Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice... standard to regulate occupational exposure to tuberculosis (TB). Public hearings on the proposal were held... Tuberculosis'' (Ex. 179-3); ``Laboratory Performance Evaluation of N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators,...

  3. Selected topics related to occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Leikin, J B; Davis, A; Klodd, D A; Thunder, T; Kelafant, G A; Paquette, D L; Rothe, M J; Rubin, R

    2000-04-01

    The auditory and nonauditory effects of noise can be quite profound, affecting approximately 15 to 20 million Americans. As with most occupational toxins, recognition and careful assessment of noise exposure are the foundation on which preventive measures and treatment are based. Dosimeters can measure noise exposure over specific time periods. Pure tone air conduction audiometric monitoring should be performed on an annual basis in workers at risk for significant noise exposure. Occupational infectious disease involves far more than hepatitis and tuberculosis. Periodic fever, dermatologic manifestations and other symptoms peculiar to a specific disease may be important clues to an occupationally related exposure. Whereas strict attention to hand washing and isolation are cornerstones of prevention, use of protective gear is mandated in certain situations. Zoonotic disease, agriculture exposure, water transmission, and biologic contaminants in buildings can be important but subtle exposures sources. Recognition of these infections often depends on the alertness of the primary care giver.

  4. Occupational radiodermatitis from Ir192 exposure.

    PubMed

    Condé-Salazar, L; Guimaraens, D; Romero, L V

    1986-10-01

    3 cases of occupational radiodermatitis from Ir192 exposure in personnel handling a gamma ray projector in industrial radiography are presented. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically. The nature and use of the industrial machines are described.

  5. Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Intelligence Bulletin 65: Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... composed of engineered nanoparticles, such as metal oxides, nanotubes, nanowires, quantum dots, and carbon fullerenes (buckyballs), among ...

  6. Occupational pesticide exposures and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-11-28

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting.

  7. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  8. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2001-12-31

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  9. Occupational exposures and the risk of COPD: dusty trades revisited

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Paul D.; Iribarren, Carlos; Trupin, Laura; Earnest, Gillian; Katz, Patricia P.; Balmes, John; Sidney, Stephen; Eisner, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Background The contribution of occupational exposures to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and, in particular, their potential interaction with cigarette smoking remains underappreciated. Methods We used data from the FLOW study of 1,202 subjects with COPD (of which 742 had disease classified as Stage II or above by Global Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] criteria) and 302 referent subjects matched by age, sex, and race, recruited from a large managed care organization. Occupational exposures were assessed using two methods: self-reported exposure to vapors, gas, dust, or fumes on the longest held job (VGDF) and a job exposure matrix (JEM) for probability of exposure based on occupation. Multivariate analysis was used to control for age, sex, race, and smoking history. The odds ratio (OR) and the adjusted population attributable fraction (PAF) associated with occupational exposure were calculated. Results VGDF exposure was associated with an increased risk of COPD (OR 2.11; 95% CI 1.59-2.82) and a PAF of 31% (95% CI 22-39%). The risk associated with high probability of workplace exposure by JEM was similar (OR 2.27; 95% CI 1.46-3.52), although the PAF was lower (13%; 95% CI 8 to 18%). These estimates were not substantively different when the analysis was limited to COPD GOLD Stage II or above. Joint exposure to both smoking and occupational factors markedly increased the risk of COPD (OR 14.1; 95% CI 9.33-21.2). Conclusions Workplace exposures are strongly associated with an increased risk of COPD. On a population level, prevention of both smoking and occupational exposures, and especially both together, is needed to prevent the global burden of disease. PMID:18678700

  10. Investigation of occupational asthma: Do clinicians fail to identify relevant occupational exposures?

    PubMed Central

    de Olim, Carlo; Bégin, Denis; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Cartier, André; Gérin, Michel; Lemière, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Specific inhalation challenges (SIC) enable the identification of the agent responsible of occupational asthma (OA). A clinician may fail to identify a specific agent in the workplace, which may potentially lead to a misdiagnosis. The expert assessment method performed by an occupational hygienist has been used to evaluate occupational exposures in epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVE: The broad aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of an expert assessment performed by an occupational hygienist to the diagnosis of OA. The specific aim was to compare work-place exposures identified by an occupational hygienist and by chest physicians in subjects with positive SICs and subjects with asthma, but with a negative SIC. METHODS: SICs were performed in 120 cases: 67 were positive and 53 were negative. A clinician assessed occupational exposures to sensitizers during a routine clinical evaluation preceding the performance of the SIC. An expert assessment of occupational exposures was performed by an occupational hygienist blind to the result of the SIC. RESULTS: The occupational hygienist identified the causal agent in 96.7% of the 61 cases of positive SIC. In 33 (62.3%) cases of negative SICs, the occupational hygienist identified ≥1 sensitizing agent(s) that had not been identified by the clinician. CONCLUSION: The hygienist identified the causal agent in almost all subjects with OA. In contrast, the clinician failed to identify potential exposures to sensitizers in >60% of the negative SIC subjects, which may have resulted in some subjects being misdiagnosed as not having OA. PMID:26422401

  11. Occupational exposure and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Kvåle, G; Bjelke, E; Heuch, I

    1986-02-15

    The importance of occupation held longest as a risk factor for lung cancer was examined in a prospective study in Norway of 11,995 men, among whom 125 cases occurred in a follow-up from 1966 through 1978. Based on information about occupation held longest, the respondents were classified into 3 groups according to suspected exposure to respiratory carcinogens at the workplace. After stratification for age, place of residence and cigarette smoking, we found a highly significant relative risk of 2.6 for those judged to have experienced definite exposure versus the group with no workplace exposure. The apparent risk-enhancing effect of occupational exposure was observed for all histologic subtypes. Stratification including a socioeconomic factor score led to a moderate reduction in the relative risk estimate. High risk estimates still obtained, however, for a limited number of occupations, the highest for workers in the mining and quarrying industries. Although the interpretation of the observed effect associated with a crude index of occupational exposure may be difficult, our results suggest that between 13 and 27% of the lung cancer cases observed among Norwegian men in the relevant time period can be attributed to harmful work-place exposure.

  12. DOE occupational radiation exposure 2007 report

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2007-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Corporate Safety Analysis (HS-30) within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE.* The annual DOEOccupational Radiation Exposure 2007 Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with DOE Part 835 dose limits and ALARA process requirements. In addition the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the effects of radiation. This report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.

  13. Parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, L M; Hicks, A M; Peters, J M; London, S

    1991-01-01

    We reviewed the literature in order to summarize the present knowledge on the association between parental occupational exposures to chemicals and the risk of childhood malignancy. The 32 studies pertaining to this topic were evaluated by considering various study qualities such as sample size, specificity of outcome, confounding, exposure specificity, and control selection. When evaluating the findings from any epidemiologic study, the potential sources of bias have to be considered. The selection of subjects, misclassification of exposure or outcome, and confounding from extraneous factors can contribute to a biased estimate of effect. Studies done to minimize these potential biases will be more valid, and these studies should be given the most weight when parental occupational exposures are evaluated as risk factors for childhood malignancy. We conclude that the preponderance of evidence supports the hypothesis that occupational exposure of parents to chemicals increases the risk of childhood malignancy. The parental occupational exposures implicated in childhood malignancy risk are exposure to chemicals including paints, petroleum products, solvents (especially chlorinated hydrocarbons) and pesticides, and exposure to metals. The available data do not allow the identification of specific etiologic agents within these categories of compounds. Future epidemiologic and toxicologic studies should be designed to pursue these leads.

  14. Parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood cancer: A review

    SciTech Connect

    O'Leary, L.M.; Hicks, A.M.; Peters, J.M.; London, S. )

    1991-01-01

    The authors reviewed the literature in order to summarize the present knowledge on the association between parental occupational exposures to chemicals and the risk of childhood malignancy. The 32 studies pertaining to this topic were evaluated by considering various study qualities such as sample size, specificity of outcome, confounding, exposure specificity, and control selection. When evaluating the findings from any epidemiologic study, the potential sources of bias have to be considered. The selection of subjects, misclassification of exposure or outcome, and confounding from extraneous factors can contribute to a biased estimate of effect. Studies done to minimize these potential biases will be more valid, and these studies should be given the most weight when parental occupational exposures are evaluated as risk factors for childhood malignancy. We conclude that the preponderance of evidence supports the hypothesis that occupational exposure of parents to chemicals increases the risk of childhood malignancy. The parental occupational exposures implicated in childhood malignancy risk are exposure to chemicals including paints, petroleum products, solvents (especially chlorinated hydrocarbons) and pesticides, and exposure to metals. The available data do not allow the identification of specific etiologic agents within these categories of compounds. Future epidemiologic and toxicologic studies should be designed to pursue these leads. 49 references.

  15. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fenga, Concettina

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer.

  16. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer. PMID:26998264

  17. Occupational Exposures of Home Healthcare Workers.

    PubMed

    Agbonifo, Noma; Hittle, Beverly; Suarez, Rassull; Davis, Kermit

    2017-03-01

    Population demographics in the United States are rapidly changing with increased dependence on home healthcare (HHC) by an aging population, patients suffering from chronic diseases, and inability to perform activities of daily living. Despite the occupational injury rates for HHC workers (HHCW) being higher than the national average, an understanding of the occupational safety and health experiences and exposures of HHCW is limited. The purpose of this study was to understand the health and safety risk factors for HHCW. One-on-one interviews were conducted with HHCW to elicit frequency of daily occupational exposures to hazards and risk factors during visits to patients' homes. Approximately 67% of the study population was over 40 years old and mostly obese, potentially increasing risk for injury. HHCW routinely perform physical tasks with increased risk for occupational musculoskeletal injuries. Exposures to drug residue from dispensing oral medications and anticancer medications and exposure to potentially infectious agents and cleaning chemicals used for infection prevention were reported. The majority of HHCW were also exposed to secondhand smoke and occasionally experienced violence. Developing and implementing intervention strategies that address engineering controls, establish employee safety-related policies, provide training and retraining, promote a healthy lifestyle among HHCW, and providing suitable personal protective equipment may help to decrease occupational injury rates.

  18. Psychiatric epidemiologic study of occupational lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, D.K.; Ryan, C.; Bromet, E.J.; Connell, M.M.

    1986-02-01

    The association of occupational lead exposure with neuropsychiatric functioning was evaluated using data collected in 1982 in eastern Pennsylvania from 288 lead-exposed workers and 181 nonexposed subjects. Both current and cumulative exposure indices were used. After controlling for age, education, and income, few meaningful differences between exposed and control workers were found on either neuropsychologic or psychosocial variables. Dose-response analyses indicated that among lead-exposed workers, cumulative and current exposure were unrelated to neuropsychologic performance. The only meaningful associations occurred between exposure and level of conflict in interpersonal relationships. The results thus give evidence against hypotheses suggesting adverse neuropsychologic effects.

  19. Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCanlies, Erin C.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2012-01-01

    Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene…

  20. Occupational lead exposure and blood pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, D K; Hodgson, M J; Bromet, E J; Dew, M A; Connell, M M

    1987-01-01

    Recent community studies have suggested that low level lead exposure is significantly associated with blood pressure in the general population. This finding is inconsistent with the results of recent occupational studies of lead exposed workers, although the occupational studies contained serious methodological weaknesses. The present study examined the relation between occupational lead exposure and diastolic and systolic blood pressure in randomly selected samples of 270 exposed and 158 non-exposed workers. Four exposure indicators were examined: employment at a lead battery plant nu a control plant, current blood lead value, current zinc protoporphyrin value, and time weighted average blood lead value. After controlling for other known risk factors such as age, education, income, cigarette usage, alcohol consumption, and exercise, the associations between exposure and blood pressure were small and non-significant. In the absence of a biologically feasible hypothesis regarding the mechanism by which low level lead exposure would influence blood pressure the present findings challenge the validity of the general population association. PMID:3689706

  1. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Mamane, Ali; Baldi, Isabelle; Tessier, Jean-François; Raherison, Chantal; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three) and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two) were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  2. Occupational mercury exposure and male reproductive health

    SciTech Connect

    Alcser, K.H.; Brix, K.A.; Fine, L.J.; Kallenbach, L.R.; Wolfe, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study was designed to investigate the relationship of male occupational exposure to elemental mercury and several reproductive outcomes. All subjects worked at least 4 months between 1953 and 1966 at a plant that used elemental mercury; 247 white male employees who had the highest exposures were compared to 255 matched nonexposed employees. Individual exposure to mercury was estimated from urinary mercury measurement records. Information on reproductive history and potential confounding variables was obtained through personal interview with each of the employees and with a subset of their wives. No associations were demonstrated between mercury exposure and decreased fertility or increased rates of major malformations or serious childhood illnesses. After controlling for previous miscarriage history, mercury exposure was not a significant risk factor for miscarriage. Because of this study's potential problems with long-term recall, further studies of the effect of mercury on pregnancy outcome are warranted in other populations.

  3. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO EXTERNAL RADIATION IN SWITZERLAND.

    PubMed

    Mayer, S; Baechler, S; Damet, J; Elmiger, R; Frei, D; Giannini, S; Leupin, A; Sarott, F; Schuh, R

    2016-09-01

    Individual monitoring for both external and internal exposures is well regulated in Switzerland. The article gives an overview on the occupational exposure to external radiation of workers based on the data collected in the Swiss national dose registry (NDR) in 2013. The NDR records the monthly doses of radiation workers since the introduction of ICRP 60 recommendations and is manifested in the Swiss ordinance since 1994. Annual dose limits for effective dose are typically exceeded once a year in Switzerland, mostly in medicine. The NDR is a useful optimisation tool to identify and characterise areas with the highest exposures. While exceeded dose limits were often related to accidental acute exposure in the past, they are now more related to continuous exposure during normal work, especially in medicine.

  4. Effects of occupational lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y L; Lu, P K; Chen, Z Q; Liang, Y X; Lu, Q M; Pan, Z Q; Shao, M

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-three workers in a battery factory, 52 solderers in a television factory, and 50 embroidery workers (a reference group) were studied. The average air lead levels of the three workplaces were 0.578 mg/m3, 0.002 mg/m3, and 0.001 mg/m3, respectively. Adverse effects in terms of clinical manifestations and biochemical criteria were evident among the battery factory workers. A significant dose-response relationship existed between the toxic effects and the air lead levels. The solderers showed no apparent abnormalities in comparison with the embroidery workers. The early clinical manifestations were dysfunction of the central nervous system, indigestion, arthralgia, and myalgia in the extremities. A positive association was observed between the prevalence of fatigue, mild abdominal pain, and arthralgia and the blood lead (PbB), urinary lead (PbU), and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels. The symptomatic threshold values of PbB, PbU, and ZPP were 30 micrograms/dl (1.5 mumol/l), 0.045 mg/l (0.2 mumol/l), and 40 micrograms/dl (0.7 mumol/l), respectively. The PbB, PbU, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and ZPP levels and the blood aminolevulinic dehydratase ratio could be used as indicators of lead exposure, although ZPP is preferred for a preventive monitoring program. The motor and sensory conduction velocities of the median nerve were slower in the exposed groups than in the reference group. No effects on behavioral function were observed among the solderers.

  5. Occupational Exposure to Beryllium. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2017-01-09

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is amending its existing standards for occupational exposure to beryllium and beryllium compounds. OSHA has determined that employees exposed to beryllium at the previous permissible exposure limits face a significant risk of material impairment to their health. The evidence in the record for this rulemaking indicates that workers exposed to beryllium are at increased risk of developing chronic beryllium disease and lung cancer. This final rule establishes new permissible exposure limits of 0.2 micrograms of beryllium per cubic meter of air (0.2 [mu]g/m\\3\\) as an 8-hour time-weighted average and 2.0 [mu]g/m\\3\\ as a short-term exposure limit determined over a sampling period of 15 minutes. It also includes other provisions to protect employees, such as requirements for exposure assessment, methods for controlling exposure, respiratory protection, personal protective clothing and equipment, housekeeping, medical surveillance, hazard communication, and recordkeeping. OSHA is issuing three separate standards--for general industry, for shipyards, and for construction--in order to tailor requirements to the circumstances found in these sectors.

  6. DOE occupational radiation exposure 1996 report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its radiological operations to ensure the health and safety of all DOE employees including contractors and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures and releases to levels that are ``As Low As Reasonably Achievable`` (ALARA). The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1996 provides summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE and precursor agency sites, and energy research. Collective exposure at DOE has declined by 80% over the past decade due to a cessation in opportunities for exposure during the transition in DOE mission from weapons production to cleanup, deactivation and decommissioning, and changes in reporting requirements and dose calculation methodology. In 1996, the collective dose decreased by 10% from the 1995 value due to decreased doses at five of the seven highest-dose DOE sites. For 1996, these sites attributed the reduction in collective dose to the completion of several decontamination and decommissioning projects, reduced spent fuel storage activities, and effective ALARA practices. This report is intended to be a valuable tool for managers in their management of radiological safety programs and commitment of resources.

  7. Soft tissue sarcoma and occupational exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Wingren, G.; Fredrikson, M.; Brage, H.N.; Nordenskjoeld, B.A.; Axelson, O. )

    1990-08-15

    The associations between soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and occupational exposures were studied in a case-referent study in the southeast of Sweden. Exposure information was obtained through mailed questionnaires to 96 cases, 450 randomly selected population referents, and 200 cancer referents. Odds ratios (OR), were calculated for various occupational groups, and particularly, for occupations with potential exposure to chlorinated phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. In the analyses based on population referents, increased risks for soft tissue sarcoma were seen for especially gardeners (OR = 4.1), but also railroad workers (OR = 3.1); construction workers with exposure to impregnating agents (OR = 2.3), asbestos (OR = 1.8), or pressure impregnating agents (OR = 1.7); and unspecified chemical workers with potential exposure to phenoxy herbicides and/or chlorophenols (OR = 1.6). A similar pattern appeared when cancer referents were used although the numerical values of the odds ratios became different. A grouping of jobs resulted in Mantel-Haensel OR from 1.5 to 1.9 for farmers and forestry workers, dependent on referents used and even more increased OR for railroad workers and unspecified chemical workers with potential exposure to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. The results of the study confirm rather than refute that phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols could be of etiologic importance for STS; the high risk for gardeners, although based on a small number of individuals, was unexpected and remains unclear. Also, since other cancers were used as referents, no definite problems of recall bias should obtain in this material. None of the exposed groups had a higher proportion of smokers than the unexposed group.

  8. Neurotoxic effects of occupational exposure to organotins

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.D.; Emmett, E.A.; Steiner, J.; Tureen, R.

    1981-08-01

    The authors gave 22 chemical workers neurological, psychiatric, and neuropsychological examinations and placed them in one of two groups according to their degree of exposure to trimethyltin chloride spillage during January 1978. Other chemicals to which they had been exposed were dimethyltin dichloride and methyl chloride. Specific and nonspecific symptoms of intoxication of the CNS showed a significantly greater frequency in the highly exposed group, including cycles of depression and destructive rage, each lasting a few hours. These observations should alert diagnosticians to this type of occupational exposure.

  9. [Occupational exposure to chromium(VI) compounds].

    PubMed

    Skowroń, Jolanta; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the effect of chromium(VI) (Cr(VI)) on human health under conditions of acute and chronic exposure in the workplace. Chromium(VI) compounds as carcinogens and/or mutagens pose a direct danger to people exposed to them. If carcinogens cannot be eliminated from the work and living environments, their exposure should be reduced to a minimum. In the European Union the proposed binding occupational exposure limit value (BOELV) for chromium(VI) of 0.025 mg/m³ is still associated with high cancer risk. Based on the Scientific Commitee of Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) document chromium(VI) concentrations at 0.025 mg/m³ increases the risk of lung cancer in 2-14 cases per 1000 exposed workers. Exposure to chromium(VI) compounds expressed in Cr(VI) of 0.01 mg Cr(VI)/m3; is responsible for the increased number of lung cancer cases in 1-6 per 1000 people employed in this condition for the whole period of professional activity.

  10. Monitoring occupational exposure to cancer chemotherapy drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, E. S.; Connor, T. H.

    1996-01-01

    Reports of the health effects of handling cytotoxic drugs and compliance with guidelines for handling these agents are briefly reviewed, and studies using analytical and biological methods of detecting exposure are evaluated. There is little conclusive evidence of detrimental health effects from occupational exposure to cytotoxic drugs. Work practices have improved since the issuance of guidelines for handling these drugs, but compliance with the recommended practices is still inadequate. Of 64 reports published since 1979 on studies of workers' exposure to these drugs, 53 involved studies of changes in cellular or molecular endpoints (biological markers) and 12 described chemical analyses of drugs or their metabolites in urine (2 involved both, and 2 reported the same study). The primary biological markers used were urine mutagenicity, sister chromatid exchange, and chromosomal aberrations; other studies involved formation of micronuclei and measurements of urinary thioethers. The studies had small sample sizes, and the methods were qualitative, nonspecific, subject to many confounders, and possibly not sensitive enough to detect most occupational exposures. Since none of the currently available biological and analytical methods is sufficiently reliable or reproducible for routine monitoring of exposure in the workplace, further studies using these methods are not recommended; efforts should focus instead on wide-spread implementation of improved practices for handling cytotoxic drugs.

  11. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to tetrahydrofuran.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, C N; Chia, S E; Phoon, W H; Tan, K T

    1991-01-01

    Occupational exposure to tetrahydrofuran (THF) was studied by analysis of environmental air, blood, alveolar air, and urine from 58 workers in a video tape manufacturing plant. Head space gas chromatography (GC) with an FID detector was used for determination of THF concentration in alveolar air, urine, and blood. Environmental exposure to THF was measured by personal sampling with a carbon felt passive dosimeter. When the end of shift urinary THF concentrations were compared with environmental time weighted average (TWA) values, urinary THF concentration corrected for specific gravity correlated well with THF concentration in air (r = 0.88), and uncorrected urinary THF concentration gave a similar result (r = 0.86). Correction for creatinine in urine weakened the correlation (r = 0.56). For exposure at the TWA concentration of 200 ppm the extrapolated concentration of THF was 33 mumol/l in blood and 111.9 mumol/l (61 mumol/g creatinine) or 109 mumol/l at a specific gravity of 1.018 in urine. The correlation between exposure to THF and its concentration in exhaled breath and blood was low (r = 0.61 and 0.68 respectively). Laboratory methodological considerations together with the good correlation between urinary THF concentration and the environmental concentration suggest that THF concentration in urine is a useful biological indicator of occupational exposure to THF. PMID:1911404

  12. Implications for occupational exposure to particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Utell, Mark J; Beckett, William S

    2006-01-01

    The demonstrated effects of lower levels of ambient particles on cardiovascular and respiratory system morbidity and mortality were initially surprising in light of current concepts of occupational particle exposure and acute and chronic cardiopulmonary effects. Specifically, the exposure levels, as defined by the weight of the particles per liter of breathing air, at which recognized disease occurs under workplace conditions are considerably higher than the observed levels of ambient particles associated with serious adverse health effects. The possible reasons for this difference have not been adequately addressed. To further address this question, a re-examination of workplace exposure-response relationships is needed, which may include emphasis on measuring exposures to fine and ultrafine particles rather than to total particle mass concentration alone.

  13. Regulation of occupational exposures in China.

    PubMed

    Wong, Otto

    2003-10-01

    The recent passage of the Occupational Diseases Prevention and Control Act of 2002 (ODPCAct) in China and the new occupational exposure limits signify the Chinese government's commitment to improve the environment of the workplace and to eradicate preventable occupational diseases. The effectiveness of the ODPCAct, however, will depend on not only implementation and enforcement but also education and communication. For large industrial facilities, implementation of the new regulations can be enforced with periodic monitoring and inspections. The difficulty will come from small makeshift or crudely converted workshops in villages and small towns in rural areas. The challenge will be to reach out to these small workshop owners and workers, i.e., to communicate and inform them about the newly promulgated regulations, the business owners' legal responsibility and liability, and the workers' right to a safe workplace. Attention and resources should be focused on educating both shop owners and workers about the hazards of the chemicals that they use, basic requirements for a safe workplace, preventive measures, and controls to reduce exposures.

  14. Occupational exposures in California wildland fire fighting.

    PubMed

    Materna, B L; Jones, J R; Sutton, P M; Rothman, N; Harrison, R J

    1992-01-01

    Industrial hygiene measurement of exposures to wildland fire fighters was conducted in northern California during three consecutive fire seasons (1986-1989) in conjunction with three separate health effects studies. Chemicals that were monitored included carbon monoxide, total and respirable particulates, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), crystalline silica, aldehydes, and benzene. Measurements were taken at both wildland fires and prescribed (planned) burns. A variety of collection methods were employed--colorimetric detector tubes and a CO monitor were used for direct-reading area measurements; colorimetric diffusion tubes, filter cassettes, sorbent tubes, and passive vapor monitors were used for determining personal time-weighted average exposures. A new screening method (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Method 2539) was used to identify the presence of specific aldehydes. Results show that wildland fire fighters may at times be exposed to concentrations of carbon monoxide, total or respirable particulates, or silica at levels near or higher than recommended occupational exposure limits, although group means were generally well below the limits. Time-weighted average formaldehyde levels, measured in a few instances above 0.37 mg/m3 (0.3 ppm), indicate a potential for formaldehyde-induced eye or respiratory irritation under these conditions. Certain characteristics of the work such as high altitude, temperature, and breathing rate; extended work shifts; and additional off-shift exposures suggest that adjustment of 8-hr exposure limits may be necessary to provide adequate protection. In part, because of the rigors of performing industrial hygiene measurements under fire fighting conditions, data are limited and could not be considered representative of the full range of exposures fire fighters may encounter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Potential Health Effects Associated with Dermal Exposure to Occupational Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual’s health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical–skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health. PMID:25574139

  16. DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security

    2009-10-01

    A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

  17. Occupational noise exposure in the printing industry.

    PubMed

    McMahon, K J; McManus, P E

    1988-01-01

    The noise exposures of 274 printing production workers in 34 establishments in the New York city area were monitored. Results showed that 43% were exposed to 8-hr time-weighted average (TWA) noise exposures of 85 dBA or greater and that 14% were exposed to 8-hr TWAs of 90 dBA or greater. Within the press department, web press workers were exposed to significantly greater mean 8-hr TWAs than sheetfed press workers. In general, a greater percentage of the workers in the bindery departments were exposed to potentially harmful noise than workers in the press departments. Results of this study indicate that many workers in the printing industry may be at risk of occupational hearing loss. Further research is needed to determine the extent of hearing impairment in this group of workers.

  18. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor... § 1926.52 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be... levels of the table. (c) If the variations in noise level involve maxima at intervals of 1 second or...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor... § 1926.52 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be... levels of the table. (c) If the variations in noise level involve maxima at intervals of 1 second or...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor... § 1926.52 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be... levels of the table. (c) If the variations in noise level involve maxima at intervals of 1 second or...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor... § 1926.52 Occupational noise exposure. (a) Protection against the effects of noise exposure shall be... levels of the table. (c) If the variations in noise level involve maxima at intervals of 1 second or...

  2. Occupant radon exposure in houses with basements

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, E.M.; Fuoss, S.

    1995-12-31

    This study compares basement and main-level radon exposure based on bi-level week-long radon measurements, occupancy and activity data collected in normal use during heating and non-heating seasons in a geographically-stratified random sample of about 600 Minnesota homes, in response to critiques of radon measurement protocol. Basement radon (RN1) (M=4.5, SD=4.5) and main level (Rn2)(M=2.9, SD=3.4) correlation was 0.8 (p=.00), including seasonal variation. In a 101-house subsample where Rn1 >=4.0 pCi/L and Rn2 <=3.9 pCi/L, maximum household exposure in basements was 1162 pCiHrs (M=120, Sd=207), main-level 2486 pCiHrs (M-434, SD=421). In same households, persons with most basement-time maxed 100 hrs (M=13,SD=23), persons with most main-level time maxed 160 hrs (M=79, SD=39). Basement activities show two patterns, (1) member used it for personal domain, e.g. sleeping, and (2) household used it for general activities, e.g. TV or children`s play. Basement occupancy justifies measurement of radon in the lowest livable housing level.

  3. DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Podonsky, Glenn S.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The

  4. Medical graduates' knowledge of bloodborne viruses and occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Nicole; Vujovic, Olga; Dendle, Claire; McMenamin, Christine

    2014-02-01

    A survey of medical graduates commencing employment as junior doctors was performed to investigate knowledge of bloodborne viruses and occupational exposure management, coupled with their experience of occupational exposures. There was a mismatch between general knowledge (excellent) and knowledge of postexposure management (poor), and graduates had commonly experienced an occupational exposure and not reported it. The knowledge deficit regarding postexposure management and history of poor practice (ie, nonreporting) following an exposure implies that the transition period from student to junior doctor may be associated with increased occupational health and safety risk.

  5. Estimating occupational beryllium exposure from compliance monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Michele P; Burstyn, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Occupational exposure to beryllium is widespread and is a health risk. The objectives of this study were to develop plausible models to estimate occupational airborne beryllium exposure. Compliance monitoring data were obtained from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration for 12,148 personal measurements of beryllium exposure from 1979 to 2005. Industry codes were maintained as reported or collapsed based on the number of measurements per cell of a job-exposure matrix (JEM). Probability of exposure was predicted based on year, industry, job, and sampling duration. In these models, probability of exposure decreased over time, was highest in full-shift personal samples, and varied with industry and job. The probability of exposure was calculated using 6 JEMs, each providing similar rankings of the likelihood of non-negligible exposure to beryllium. These statistical models, with expert appraisal, are suitable for the assessment of the probability of elevated occupational exposure to beryllium.

  6. Parental occupational exposure and spontaneous abortions in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Lindbohm, M.L.; Hemminki, K.; Kyyroenen, P.

    1984-09-01

    Spontaneous abortions were analyzed by the occupational exposure of women and their husbands, with data from the Finnish hospital discharge register and the national census. The occupations were grouped according to presumed exposure into seven categories: exposure to solvent; automobile exhaust fumes; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; other chemicals; metals; textile dust; and animal microorganisms. The relative risks of spontaneous abortion were estimated with logistic regression analysis to adjust for potentially confounding factors. The broad exposure categories appeared, at most, to be weak risk factors of spontaneous abortion, because the relative risks of abortion were not significantly increased in any of the parental exposure groups. The analysis of detailed occupational categories showed some female and male occupations with an increased risk. The observations of increased risk related to laboratory work supported earlier findings. The high number of textile occupations with increased risk is also worth noting, and further investigations are necessary to confirm whether this is due to occupational hazards or other factors.

  7. [Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to sevoflurane].

    PubMed

    Imbriani, M; Zadra, P; Negri, S; Alessio, A; Maestri, L; Ghittori, S

    2001-01-01

    Sevoflurane has been used in the last few years in brief surgical operations, either alone or in combination with nitrous oxide. Occupationally exposed groups include anesthesiologists, surgeons and operating room nurses. In 1977 the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended that occupational exposure to halogenated anesthetic agents (halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane), when used as the sole anesthetic, should be controlled so that no worker would be exposed to time-weighted average concentrations greater than 2 ppm during anesthetic administration. When halogenated anesthetics are associated with nitrous oxide, NIOSH recommends that the limit value should not exceed 0.5 ppm. We think these recommendations can be extended to sevoflurane. Metabolism of sevoflurane is catalyzed by cytochrome P-450; this involves oxidation of the fluoromethyl side chain of the molecule, followed by glucuronidation. Two urinary metabolites of sevoflurane have been identified: inorganic fluoride (which, however, is not specific) and a non-volatile compound that yields hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) when digested with the enzyme beta-glucuronidase. In order to investigate the role of urinary HFIP as an indicator of occupational exposure to sevoflurane (CI, ppm), CI was measured in 145 members of 18 operating room staffs. The measurements of the time-weighted average of CI in the breathing zone were made by means of diffusive personal samplers. Each sampler was exposed during the whole working period. Sevoflurane was desorbed with CS2 from charcoal and the concentrations were measured on a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a mass selective detector (MSD). The GC was equipped with a 25 meter cross-linked phenylmethylsilicon column (internal diameter 0.2 mm). GC conditions were as follows: injector column temperature = 200 degrees C; column temperature = 30 degrees C; carrier gas = helium; injection technique of samples = splitless. The analytical

  8. 78 FR 56273 - Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ...The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) proposes to amend its existing standards for occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica. The basis for issuance of this proposal is a preliminary determination by the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health that employees exposed to respirable crystalline silica face a significant risk to their health......

  9. Vehicle occupant exposure to carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Koushki, P A; al-Dhowalia, K H; Niaizi, S A

    1992-12-01

    This paper focuses on the auto commuting micro-environment and presents typical carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations to which auto commuters in central Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were exposed. Two test vehicles traveling over four main arterial roadways were monitored for inside and outside CO levels during eighty peak and off-peak hours extending over an eight-month period. The relative importance of several variables which explained the variability in CO concentrations inside autos was also assessed. It was found that during peak hours auto commuters were exposed to mean CO levels that ranged from 30 to 40 ppm over trips that typically took between 25 to 40 minutes. The mean ratio of inside to outside CO levels was 0.84. Results of variance component analyses indicated that the most important variables affecting CO concentrations inside autos were, in addition to the smoking of vehicle occupants, traffic volume, vehicle speed, period of day and wind velocity. An increase in traffic volume from 1,000 to 5,000 vehicles per hour (vph) increased mean CO level exposure by 71 percent. An increase in vehicle speed from 14 to 55 km/h reduced mean CO exposure by 36 percent. The number of traffic interruptions had a moderate effect on mean concentrations of CO inside vehicles.

  10. Electric and magnetic field exposure, chemical exposure, and leukemia risk in electrical'' occupations

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.D.; Sobel, E.; London, S.J.; Thomas, D.C.; Garabrant, D.H.; Pearce, N.; Peters, J.M. . Dept. of Preventive Medicine)

    1992-12-01

    This project was conducted to address what are the extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric field exposures of workers in electrical'' occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in non-electrical'' occupations and what are the chemical and physical exposures in the electrical'' occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in non-electrical'' occupations Two subsidiary issues were does characterization and quantification of ELF magnetic field exposure in the electrical'' occupations provide data to support a dose response relationship between leukemia risk and electric or magnetic field exposure and do dffferences in chemical exposure between the occupations help explain the previously observed leukemia risk associated with these electrical'' occupations Data were collected in 3 regions in which electrical workers had been reported to have an excess of leukemia - New Zealand, Los Angeles and Seattle Measurements of magnetic fields were made on 493 electrical workers and 163 non-electrical workers.

  11. Electric and magnetic field exposure, chemical exposure, and leukemia risk in ``electrical`` occupations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, J.D.; Sobel, E.; London, S.J.; Thomas, D.C.; Garabrant, D.H.; Pearce, N.; Peters, J.M.

    1992-12-01

    This project was conducted to address what are the extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric field exposures of workers in ``electrical`` occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in ``non-electrical`` occupations? and what are the chemical and physical exposures in the ``electrical`` occupations and do they exceed exposures encountered in ``non-electrical`` occupations? Two subsidiary issues were does characterization and quantification of ELF magnetic field exposure in the ``electrical`` occupations provide data to support a dose response relationship between leukemia risk and electric or magnetic field exposure? and do dffferences in chemical exposure between the occupations help explain the previously observed leukemia risk associated with these ``electrical`` occupations? Data were collected in 3 regions in which electrical workers had been reported to have an excess of leukemia - New Zealand, Los Angeles and Seattle Measurements of magnetic fields were made on 493 electrical workers and 163 non-electrical workers.

  12. [Contribution of occupational medicine to social medicine].

    PubMed

    Geraut, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Occupational medicine has always been part of social medicine, but focuses on the part of the population in paid employment. Investigations of occupational diseases have identified several toxic chemicals that can affect other sectors of society: examples include cancers due to sawdust, asbestos, benzene, as well as carcinogens, mutagens and reproductive toxins. Better knowledge of the risks posed by epoxy resins, cements, formaldehyde, lead, toluene and other chemical agents has helped to understand certain diseases in the population. Knowledge of musculoskeletal disorders due to repetitive work has been of help in other areas; gradual resumption of appropriate activity seems to be the best basic treatment. Studies of mental overload and its consequences in the workplace (suicide, depression, etc.) have implications for human relations in society as a whole. Multidisciplinary networking helps to regularly take stock of findings in occupational medicine that may be applicable to social medicine.

  13. Parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Colt, J S; Blair, A

    1998-01-01

    Occupational exposures of parents might be related to cancer in their offspring. Forty-eight published studies on this topic have reported relative risks for over 1000 specific occupation/cancer combinations. Virtually all of the studies employed the case-control design. Occupations and exposures of fathers were investigated much more frequently than those of the mother. Information about parental occupations was derived through interviews or from birth certificates and other administrative records. Specific exposures were typically estimated by industrial hygienists or were self-reported. The studies have several limitations related to the quality of the exposure assessment, small numbers of exposed cases, multiple comparisons, and possible bias toward the reporting of positive results. Despite these limitations, they provide evidence that certain parental exposures may be harmful to children and deserve further study. The strongest evidence is for childhood leukemia and paternal exposure to solvents, paints, and employment in motor vehicle-related occupations; and childhood nervous system cancers and paternal exposure to paints. To more clearly evaluate the importance of these and other exposures in future investigations, we need improvements in four areas: a) more careful attention must be paid to maternal exposures; b) studies should employ more sophisticated exposure assessment techniques; c) careful attention must be paid to the postulated mechanism, timing, and route of exposure; and d) if postnatal exposures are evaluated, studies should provide evidence that the exposure is actually transferred from the workplace to the child's environment. PMID:9646055

  14. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment—Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, T. J.; Dotson, G. S.; Williams, P. R.D.; Maier, A.; Gadagbui, B.; Pandalai, S. P.; Lamba, A.; Hearl, F.; Mumtaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational. PMID:26583907

  15. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment--Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T J; Dotson, G S; Williams, P R D; Maier, A; Gadagbui, B; Pandalai, S P; Lamba, A; Hearl, F; Mumtaz, M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational.

  16. CAREX Canada: an enhanced model for assessing occupational carcinogen exposure

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Cheryl E; Ge, Calvin B; Hall, Amy L; Davies, Hugh W; Demers, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the numbers of workers exposed to known and suspected occupational carcinogens in Canada, building on the methods of CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) projects in the European Union (EU). Methods CAREX Canada consists of estimates of the prevalence and level of exposure to occupational carcinogens. CAREX Canada includes occupational agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as known, probable or possible human carcinogens that were present and feasible to assess in Canadian workplaces. A Canadian Workplace Exposure Database was established to identify the potential for exposure in particular industries and occupations, and to create exposure level estimates among priority agents, where possible. CAREX EU data were reviewed for relevance to the Canadian context and the proportion of workers likely to be exposed by industry and occupation in Canada was assigned using expert assessment and agreement by a minimum of two occupational hygienists. These proportions were used to generate prevalence estimates by linkage with the Census of Population for 2006, and these estimates are available by industry, occupation, sex and province. Results CAREX Canada estimated the number of workers exposed to 44 known, probable and suspected carcinogens. Estimates of levels of exposure were further developed for 18 priority agents. Common exposures included night shift work (1.9 million exposed), solar ultraviolet radiation exposure (1.5 million exposed) and diesel engine exhaust (781 000 exposed). Conclusions A substantial proportion of Canadian workers are exposed to known and suspected carcinogens at work. PMID:24969047

  17. [Occupational exposure to nanoparticles. Assessment of workplace exposure].

    PubMed

    Bujak-Pietrek, Stella

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is currently one of the most popular branch of science. It is a technology that enables designing, manufacturing and application of materials and structures of very small dimensions, and its products are applied in almost every field of life. Nanoparticles are the structures having one or more dimensions of the order of 100 nm or less. They are used in precise mechanics, electronics, optics, medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics and many other spheres. Due to their very small size, nanostructures have completely different and specific properties, unknown for the bulk of materials. Fast-growing nanotechnology provides a wide spectrum of applications, but it also brings about new and unknown danger to human health. Nanotechnology is the branch that has developed rather recently, and much information about health risk and its influence on the environment is beyond our knowledge. Nanoparticles, released in many technological processes, as well as manufactured nanoparticles can induce occupational hazards to workers. The lack of regulations and standards, compulsory in the manufacture and use ofnanoparticles is a fundamental problem faced in the evaluation of exposure. Another problem is the choice of proper measurement equipment for surveying of very small particles - their number, mass and surface area in the workpost air. In this article, the possibility and scope of exposure assessment is discussed and a brief specification of available instrumentation for counting and assessing the parameters essential for classifying the exposure to nanoparticles is presented.

  18. Exposure Estimation and Interpretation of Occupational Risk: Enhanced Information for the Occupational Risk Manager

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Martha; McKernan, Lauralynn; Maier, Andrew; Jayjock, Michael; Schaeffer, Val; Brosseau, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental goal of this article is to describe, define, and analyze the components of the risk characterization process for occupational exposures. Current methods are described for the probabilistic characterization of exposure, including newer techniques that have increasing applications for assessing data from occupational exposure scenarios. In addition, since the probability of health effects reflects variability in the exposure estimate as well as the dose-response curve—the integrated considerations of variability surrounding both components of the risk characterization provide greater information to the occupational hygienist. Probabilistic tools provide a more informed view of exposure as compared to use of discrete point estimates for these inputs to the risk characterization process. Active use of such tools for exposure and risk assessment will lead to a scientifically supported worker health protection program. Understanding the bases for an occupational risk assessment, focusing on important sources of variability and uncertainty enables characterizing occupational risk in terms of a probability, rather than a binary decision of acceptable risk or unacceptable risk. A critical review of existing methods highlights several conclusions: (1) exposure estimates and the dose-response are impacted by both variability and uncertainty and a well-developed risk characterization reflects and communicates this consideration; (2) occupational risk is probabilistic in nature and most accurately considered as a distribution, not a point estimate; and (3) occupational hygienists have a variety of tools available to incorporate concepts of risk characterization into occupational health and practice. PMID:26302336

  19. Bloodborne viruses and occupational exposure in the dental setting.

    PubMed

    Webber, L M

    2000-09-01

    Occupational hazards in dentistry are most commonly associated with physical, chemical and biological agents. Bloodborne viruses, notably hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), pose a risk for occupational exposure among oral health care workers in South Africa. Although post-exposure prophylaxis can be prescribed after exposure to either or both these viruses, universal precautions and strategies must be implemented in order to protect the oral health care professional.

  20. 78 FR 78962 - Criteria for a Recommended Standard; Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...; Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments; Draft Criteria Document Availability AGENCY: National... Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and Hot Environments for public comment. To view the... draft document, ``Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Heat and...

  1. Hepatocellular carcinoma and the risk of occupational exposure

    PubMed Central

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Loreto, Carla; Malaguarnera, Michele; Ardiri, Annalisa; Proiti, Maria; Rigano, Giuseppe; Frazzetto, Evelise; Ruggeri, Maria Irene; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Bertino, Nicoletta; Malaguarnera, Mariano; Catania, Vito Emanuele; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Toro, Adriana; Bertino, Emanuele; Mangano, Dario; Bertino, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. The main risk factors for HCC are alcoholism, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, cirrhosis, aflatoxin, hemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease and hemophilia. Occupational exposure to chemicals is another risk factor for HCC. Often the relationship between occupational risk and HCC is unclear and the reports are fragmented and inconsistent. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge regarding the association of infective and non-infective occupational risk exposure and HCC in order to encourage further research and draw attention to this global occupational public health problem. PMID:27168870

  2. Toxic hepatitis in occupational exposure to solvents

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Cataudella, Emanuela; Giordano, Maria; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Chisari, Giuseppe; Malaguarnera, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    The liver is the main organ responsible for the metabolism of drugs and toxic chemicals, and so is the primary target organ for many organic solvents. Work activities with hepatotoxins exposures are numerous and, moreover, organic solvents are used in various industrial processes. Organic solvents used in different industrial processes may be associated with hepatotoxicity. Several factors contribute to liver toxicity; among these are: species differences, nutritional condition, genetic factors, interaction with medications in use, alcohol abuse and interaction, and age. This review addresses the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. The main pathogenic mechanisms responsible for functional and organic damage caused by solvents are: inflammation, dysfunction of cytochrome P450, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. The health impact of exposure to solvents in the workplace remains an interesting and worrying question for professional health work. PMID:22719183

  3. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Davanipour, Z.; Sobel, E.; Bowman, J.D.; Qian, Z.; Will, A.D.

    1997-03-01

    In an hypothesis-generating case-control study of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, lifetime occupational histories were obtained. The patients (n = 28) were clinic based. The occupational exposure of interest in this report is electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This is the first and so far the only exposure analyzed in this study. Occupational exposure up to 2 years prior to estimated disease symptom onset was used for construction of exposure indices for cases. Controls (n = 32) were blood and nonblood relatives of cases. Occupational exposure for controls was through the same age as exposure for the corresponding cases. Twenty (71%) cases and 28 (88%) controls had at least 20 years of work experience covering the exposure period. The occupational history and task data were used to classify blindly each occupation for each subject as having high, medium/high, medium, medium/low, or low EMF exposure, based primarily on data from an earlier and unrelated study designed to obtain occupational EMF exposure information on workers in ``electrical`` and ``nonelectrical`` jobs. By using the length of time each subject spent in each occupation through the exposure period, two indices of exposure were constructed: total occupational exposure (E{sub 1}) and average occupational exposure (E{sub 2}). For cases and controls with at least 20 years of work experience, the odds ratio (OR) for exposure at the 75th percentile of the E{sub 1} case exposure data relative to minimum exposure was 7.5 (P < 0.02; 95% CI, 1.4--38.1) and the corresponding OR for E{sub 2} was 5.5 (P < 0.02; 95% CI, 1.3--22.5). For all cases and controls, the ORs were 2.5 (P < 0.1; 95% CI, 0.9--8.1) for E{sub 1} and 2.3 (P = 0.12; 95% CI, 0.8--6.6) for E{sub 2}. This study should be considered an hypothesis-generating study. Larger studies, using incident cases and improved exposure assessment, should be undertaken.

  4. Occupational exposure to dusts and risk of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Karami, S; Boffetta, P; Stewart, P S; Brennan, P; Zaridze, D; Matveev, V; Janout, V; Kollarova, H; Bencko, V; Navratilova, M; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Mates, D; Gromiec, J; Slamova, A; Chow, W-H; Rothman, N; Moore, L E

    2011-01-01

    Background: Occupational exposures to dusts have generally been examined in relation to cancers of the respiratory system and have rarely been examined in relation to other cancers, such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Although previous epidemiological studies, though few, have shown certain dusts, such as asbestos, to increase renal cancer risk, the potential for other occupational dust exposures to cause kidney damage and/or cancer may exist. We investigated whether asbestos, as well as 20 other occupational dust exposures, were associated with RCC risk in a large European, multi-center, hospital-based renal case–control study. Methods: General occupational histories and job-specific questionnaires were reviewed by occupational hygienists for subject-specific information. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) between RCC risk and exposures were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Among participants ever exposed to dusts, significant associations were observed for glass fibres (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1–3.9), mineral wool fibres (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2–5.1), and brick dust (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0–2.4). Significant trends were also observed with exposure duration and cumulative exposure. No association between RCC risk and asbestos exposure was observed. Conclusion: Results suggest that increased RCC risk may be associated with occupational exposure to specific types of dusts. Additional studies are needed to replicate and extend findings. PMID:21540858

  5. Occupational Radiation Exposure During Endovascular Aortic Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Sailer, Anna M.; Schurink, Geert Willem H.; Bol, Martine E. Haan, Michiel W. de Zwam, Willem H. van Wildberger, Joachim E. Jeukens, Cécile R. L. P. N.

    2015-08-15

    PurposeThe aim of the study was to evaluate the radiation exposure to operating room personnel and to assess determinants for high personal doses during endovascular aortic repair.Materials and MethodsOccupational radiation exposure was prospectively evaluated during 22 infra-renal aortic repair procedures (EVAR), 11 thoracic aortic repair procedures (TEVAR), and 11 fenestrated or branched aortic repair procedures (FEVAR). Real-time over-lead dosimeters attached to the left breast pocket measured personal doses for the first operators (FO) and second operators (SO), radiology technicians (RT), scrub nurses (SN), anesthesiologists (AN), and non-sterile nurses (NSN). Besides protective apron and thyroid collar, no additional radiation shielding was used. Procedural dose area product (DAP), iodinated contrast volume, fluoroscopy time, patient’s body weight, and C-arm angulation were documented.ResultsAverage procedural FO dose was significantly higher during FEVAR (0.34 ± 0.28 mSv) compared to EVAR (0.11 ± 0.21 mSv) and TEVAR (0.06 ± 0.05 mSv; p = 0.003). Average personnel doses were 0.17 ± 0.21 mSv (FO), 0.042 ± 0.045 mSv (SO), 0.019 ± 0.042 mSv (RT), 0.017 ± 0.031 mSv (SN), 0.006 ± 0.007 mSv (AN), and 0.004 ± 0.009 mSv (NSN). SO and AN doses were strongly correlated with FO dose (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between FO dose and procedural DAP (R = 0.69, p < 0.001), iodinated contrast volume (R = 0.67, p < 0.001) and left-anterior C-arm projections >60° (p = 0.02), and a weak correlation with fluoroscopy time (R = 0.40, p = 0.049).ConclusionAverage FO dose was a factor four higher than SO dose. Predictors for high personal doses are procedural DAP, iodinated contrast volume, and left-anterior C-arm projections greater than 60°.

  6. DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

  7. Occupational exposure to solvents and hairy cell leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Clavel, J.; Mandereau, L.; Conso, F.; Limasset, J. C.; Pourmir, I.; Flandrin, G.; Hemon, D.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The role of occupational exposures in hairy cell leukaemia was investigated through a multicentre, hospital based, case-control study. This paper analyses the role of exposure to solvents other than benzene in hairy cell leukaemia. METHODS: The study included 226 male cases and 425 matched controls, exposure to solvents was evaluated by expert case by case review of the detailed data on occupational exposures generated by specific interviews. Also, exposure to solvents was evaluated with an independently constructed job exposure matrix (JEM). RESULTS: No association was found between hairy cell leukaemia and previous employment in a job exposed to solvents (odds ratio (OR) 0.9 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.6 to 1.3). ORs for the main occupational tasks exposed to solvents were around 1 and did not increase with the frequency or the duration of the tasks. No specific type of paint or glue was found to be significantly associated with hairy cell leukaemia. No association was found with exposure to solvents, taken as a whole, with either expert assessments or the JEM. No association was found with aromatic, chlorinated, or oxygenated subgroups of solvents. The ORs did not increase with the average intensity of exposure assessed by the experts, with the frequency of use, or with the duration of exposure. Finally, no association was found with non-occupational exposure to solvents. CONCLUSIONS: The study did not show any association between exposure to solvents and hairy cell leukaemia.   PMID:9536165

  8. DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

    2011-11-11

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

  9. 67 FR 9934 - Occupational Exposure to Tuberculosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2002-03-05

    ... Tuberculosis AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Extension of comment... ``Tuberculosis in the Workplace'' and to request comments on these documents. OSHA is extending the deadline...

  10. [Occupational risk related to optical radiation exposure in construction workers].

    PubMed

    Gobba, F; Modenese, A

    2012-01-01

    Optical Radiation is a relevant occupational risk in construction workers, mainly as a consequence of the exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) component of solar radiation (SR). Available data show that UV occupational limits are frequently exceeded in these workers, resulting in an increased occupational risk of various acute and chronic effects, mainly to skin and to the eye. One of the foremost is the carcinogenic effect: SR is indeed included in Group 1 IARC (carcinogenic to humans). UV exposure is related to an increase of the incidence of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). The incidence of these tumors, especially CMM, is constantly increasing in Caucasians in the last 50 years. As a conclusion, an adequate evaluation of the occupational risk related to SR, and adequate preventive measures are essential in construction workers. The role of occupational physicians in prevention is fundamental.

  11. Occupational Risks and Exposures Among Wildlife Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Garland-Lewis, Gemina; Whittier, Christopher; Murray, Suzan; Trufan, Sally; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2017-03-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic in origin, with wildlife a frequent source of zoonotic disease events. Although individuals with extensive wildlife contact may be at the greatest risk of contracting novel infectious agents, the occupational risk of those working closely with wildlife has not been well studied. This study assessed the occupational exposures among wildlife health professionals working in multiple countries worldwide. An occupational risk survey of past and present exposures was developed and administered online in a confidential manner to wildlife workers recruited through an ongoing international wildlife pathogen surveillance project. Surveys were completed by 71 participants in 14 countries. Significant lifetime exposures reported included bites from bats and rodents and touching dead animals. Completion of training in occupational safety was reported by 75% of respondents. While gloves were used for most tasks, use of N95 respirators and other personal protective equipment varied by task. Eighty percent of workers reported rabies vaccination. Some respondents indicated interest in enhanced occupational health services targeting their unique needs. Wildlife workers represent an occupational population at risk of zoonotic infection and injury. Enhanced occupational health services targeting wildlife workers could reduce the risk and sequelae of zoonotic exposure and infection.

  12. [Occupational and environmental exposures and relations with pulmonary health].

    PubMed

    Komus, Nuray; Albayrak, Sinem; Ellidokuz, Hulya; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet

    2008-01-01

    The effects of living conditions and occupational and environmental exposures on pulmonary health are well known. Turkey, as a developing country, has a high risk of occupational and environmental exposure, and knowledge on the issue is limited. To prove the general living conditions of the inpatients in our clinic, and to study relation of pulmonary diseases with respiratory exposures. Detailed history of occupational and environmental exposure of the subjects who were followed as inpatients has been examined, and the relation with their diseases has been evaluated. Lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pneumonia were the most common reasons for hospitalization. Respiratory disease was observed 1.93 times more in males. The risk of lung cancer was 6.36 times higher in smokers, 4.28 times more in ex-smokers, and 2.19 times more in subjects living in downtown. And the risk of respiratory disease was 2.12 times in the dwellers of concrete buildings, and 1.70 times in subjects utilizing one of the risky heating equipment. When the disease distribution was examined in accordance with the occupational groups, civil servants, farmers, teachers, and petty officers were more prone to lung cancer, whereas, workers, housewives, and merchants were inclined to other diseases. Environmental and occupational exposure becomes frequent and complicated because of the current socioeconomic conditions. While exposure to tobacco smoke becomes the most important threat, exposures resulting from the common environment or job ambients should also be taken into consideration.

  13. Historical Context and Recent Advances in Exposure-Response Estimation for Deriving Occupational Exposure Limits

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, M.W.; Park, R. M.; Bailer, A. J.; Whittaker, C.

    2015-01-01

    Virtually no occupational exposure standards specify the level of risk for the prescribed exposure, and most occupational exposure limits are not based on quantitative risk assessment (QRA) at all. Wider use of QRA could improve understanding of occupational risks while increasing focus on identifying exposure concentrations conferring acceptably low levels of risk to workers. Exposure-response modeling between a defined hazard and the biological response of interest is necessary to provide a quantitative foundation for risk-based occupational exposure limits; and there has been considerable work devoted to establishing reliable methods quantifying the exposure-response relationship including methods of extrapolation below the observed responses. We review several exposure-response modeling methods available for QRA, and demonstrate their utility with simulated data sets. PMID:26252067

  14. Occupational exposures in rare cancers: A critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Charbotel, B; Fervers, B; Droz, J P

    2014-05-01

    The contribution of occupational exposures to rare cancers, which represent 22% of all cancers diagnosed annually in Europe, remains insufficiently considered. We conducted a comprehensive review of occupational risk factors in 67 rare cancers (annual incidence <6/100,000). An examination of relevant articles in PubMed (1960-2012) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) monographs revealed that 26 cancer sites, such as mesothelioma, nasal, larynx, liver, ovarian cancer, bone sarcoma, and hematopoietic malignancies were consistently linked to occupational factors. Main exposures included asbestos, wood dust, metals/metalloids, formaldehyde, benzene, vinyl chloride, and radiation. There was inconsistent evidence regarding 22 rare malignancies. We did not identify relevant data for 19 rare cancers. Despite limitations of published evidence, our review provides useful information that can facilitate the identification of work-related factors that contribute to rare cancers. International collaborations, development of improved exposure assessment methods, and molecular approaches can improve future studies.

  15. Occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Esswein, Eric J; Breitenstein, Michael; Snawder, John; Kiefer, Max; Sieber, W Karl

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a previously uncharacterized occupational health hazard: work crew exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing involves high pressure injection of large volumes of water and sand, and smaller quantities of well treatment chemicals, into a gas or oil well to fracture shale or other rock formations, allowing more efficient recovery of hydrocarbons from a petroleum-bearing reservoir. Crystalline silica ("frac sand") is commonly used as a proppant to hold open cracks and fissures created by hydraulic pressure. Each stage of the process requires hundreds of thousands of pounds of quartz-containing sand; millions of pounds may be needed for all zones of a well. Mechanical handling of frac sand creates respirable crystalline silica dust, a potential exposure hazard for workers. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health collected 111 personal breathing zone samples at 11 sites in five states to evaluate worker exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. At each of the 11 sites, full-shift samples exceeded occupational health criteria (e.g., the Occupational Safety and Health Administration calculated permissible exposure limit, the NIOSH recommended exposure limit, or the ACGIH threshold limit value), in some cases, by 10 or more times the occupational health criteria. Based on these evaluations, an occupational health hazard was determined to exist for workplace exposures to crystalline silica. Seven points of dust generation were identified, including sand handling machinery and dust generated from the work site itself. Recommendations to control exposures include product substitution (when feasible), engineering controls or modifications to sand handling machinery, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment. To our knowledge, this represents the first systematic study of work crew exposures to crystalline silica during

  16. 41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Occupational noise exposure. 50-204.10 Section 50-204.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in...

  17. 41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Occupational noise exposure. 50-204.10 Section 50-204.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in...

  18. 41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 50-204.10 Section 50-204.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in...

  19. 41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Occupational noise exposure. 50-204.10 Section 50-204.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in...

  20. 41 CFR 50-204.10 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 50-204.10 Section 50-204.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... against the effects of noise exposure shall be provided when the sound levels exceed those shown in...

  1. Exploring lifetime occupational exposure and SLE flare: a patient-focussed pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Squance, Marline L; Guest, Maya; Reeves, Glenn; Attia, John; Bridgman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Environmental effectors, such as ultraviolet radiation exposure, infection and stress, have been established as having a role in exacerbating lupus symptoms. However, unpredictable patterns of flare events still remain a mystery. Occupational effectors have also been suggested as having a contributing role; however, they are not widely researched. In this paper we report a pilot study designed to generate focus areas for future research regarding occupational exposures and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods The study explored potential links between exposures and the occurrence of patient-reported flare events in 80 Australian women with SLE (American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria classified). Specifically, the study assessed the hypothesis that occupational exposure is associated with significant changes in the likelihood of lupus flares. Lifetime employment history was analysed with the Finnish Job Exposure Matrix (FINJEM), 40 different semiquantified exposure class estimates for a wide number of occupations based on probability of exposure (p≥5%=exposed) were analysed with the construction of negative binomial regression models to test relationships between occupational agents and flare days. A backward stepwise elimination was used to generate a parsimonious model. Results Significant associations were noted for exposure classes of manual handling burden, (p=0.02, incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.01), Iron (p=0.00, IRR 1.37), wood dust (p=0.00, IRR 3.34) and asbestos (p=0.03, IRR 2.48). Conclusion Exposure assessment results indicated that occupations, such as nursing, with a high manual handling burden, posed increased risk to patients with SLE, however, the greatest risk was associated with wood dust and iron exposure with teachers and specialist labourers. PMID:25379190

  2. [Occupational exposure and lung cancer in smokers].

    PubMed

    Mahuad, R; Pezotto, S; Poletto, L

    1994-06-01

    High male lung cancer incidence and mortality in Rosario city, Argentina, have been found in previous studies. A project was undertaken for the purpose of evaluating the life-time occupational history as well as the duration and intensity of cigarette smoking as determinants of histologic cell types in 211 male patients with primary lung cancer. Their histologic cell types were: squamous 39%, adenocarcinoma 29%, small cell 18%, and others and not specified 14%. An association was found between histologic cell types and occupations (p < 0.0001), adenocarcinoma being more prevalent in office personnel, teachers, accountants, lawyers, and squamous in the other, supposedly dirtier working environments, mainly in those men who had begun to work in farming and later transferred to mechanics and metallurgy. These latter ones were diagnosed at a younger age than those in other occupations, with a significant difference for squamous and small cell. No differences in the smoking intensity were found between the occupational groups. The mean age these patients began to smoke at was 15 years for those with squamous and small cell, and 17 years for those with adenocarcinoma (p < 0.001). An interesting finding was the difference at their mean-age at diagnosis, 58 years for smokers and 68 for ex-smokers (p < 0.0001). Studies are needed to elucidate the interplay of risk factors in the etiology of histologic subtypes of lung cancer.

  3. Neurotoxicity in Preclinical Models of Occupational Exposure to Organophosphorus Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Voorhees, Jaymie R.; Rohlman, Diane S.; Lein, Pamela J.; Pieper, Andrew A.

    2017-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OPs) compounds are widely used as insecticides, plasticizers, and fuel additives. These compounds potently inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme that inactivates acetylcholine at neuronal synapses, and acute exposure to high OP levels can cause cholinergic crisis in humans and animals. Evidence further suggests that repeated exposure to lower OP levels insufficient to cause cholinergic crisis, frequently encountered in the occupational setting, also pose serious risks to people. For example, multiple epidemiological studies have identified associations between occupational OP exposure and neurodegenerative disease, psychiatric illness, and sensorimotor deficits. Rigorous scientific investigation of the basic science mechanisms underlying these epidemiological findings requires valid preclinical models in which tightly-regulated exposure paradigms can be correlated with neurotoxicity. Here, we review the experimental models of occupational OP exposure currently used in the field. We found that animal studies simulating occupational OP exposures do indeed show evidence of neurotoxicity, and that utilization of these models is helping illuminate the mechanisms underlying OP-induced neurological sequelae. Still, further work is necessary to evaluate exposure levels, protection methods, and treatment strategies, which taken together could serve to modify guidelines for improving workplace conditions globally. PMID:28149268

  4. Neurotoxicity in Preclinical Models of Occupational Exposure to Organophosphorus Compounds.

    PubMed

    Voorhees, Jaymie R; Rohlman, Diane S; Lein, Pamela J; Pieper, Andrew A

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OPs) compounds are widely used as insecticides, plasticizers, and fuel additives. These compounds potently inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme that inactivates acetylcholine at neuronal synapses, and acute exposure to high OP levels can cause cholinergic crisis in humans and animals. Evidence further suggests that repeated exposure to lower OP levels insufficient to cause cholinergic crisis, frequently encountered in the occupational setting, also pose serious risks to people. For example, multiple epidemiological studies have identified associations between occupational OP exposure and neurodegenerative disease, psychiatric illness, and sensorimotor deficits. Rigorous scientific investigation of the basic science mechanisms underlying these epidemiological findings requires valid preclinical models in which tightly-regulated exposure paradigms can be correlated with neurotoxicity. Here, we review the experimental models of occupational OP exposure currently used in the field. We found that animal studies simulating occupational OP exposures do indeed show evidence of neurotoxicity, and that utilization of these models is helping illuminate the mechanisms underlying OP-induced neurological sequelae. Still, further work is necessary to evaluate exposure levels, protection methods, and treatment strategies, which taken together could serve to modify guidelines for improving workplace conditions globally.

  5. DOE Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure_2011 pamphlet

    SciTech Connect

    ORAU

    2012-08-08

    This pamphlet focusses on two HSS activities that help ensure radiation exposures are accurately assessed and recorded, namely: 1) the quality and accuracy of occupational radiation exposure monitoring, and 2) the recording, reporting, analysis, and dissemination of the monitoring results. It is intended to provide a short summary of two specific HSS programs that aid in the oversight of radiation protection activities at DOE. The Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) is in place to ensure that radiation exposure monitoring at all DOE sites is precise and accurate, and conforms to national and international performance and quality assurance standards. The DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems (REMS) program provides for the collection, analysis, and dissemination of occupational radiation exposure information. The annual REMS report is a valuable tool for managing radiological safety programs and for developing policies to protect individuals from occupational exposure to radiation. In tandem, these programs provide DOE management and workers an assurance that occupational radiation exposures are accurately measured, analyzed, and reported.

  6. Occupational exposure to carcinogens: Benzene, pesticides and fibers

    PubMed Central

    Falzone, Luca; Marconi, Andrea; Loreto, Carla; Franco, Sabrina; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Libra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the occupational exposure to contaminants and carcinogens leads to the development of cancer in exposed workers. In the 18th century, Percivall Pott was the first to hypothesize that chronic exposure to dust in the London chimney sweeps was associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. Subsequently a growing body of evidence indicated that other physical factors were also responsible for oncogenic mutations. Over the past decades, many carcinogens have been found in the occupational environment and their presence is often associated with an increased incidence of cancer. Occupational exposure involves several factors and the association between carcinogens, occupational exposure and cancer is still unclear. Only a fraction of factors is recognized as occupational carcinogens and for each factor, there is an increased risk of cancer development associated with a specific work activity. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the majority of carcinogens are classified as ‘probable’ and ‘possible’ human carcinogens, while, direct evidence of carcinogenicity is provided in epidemiological and experimental studies. In the present review, exposures to benzene, pesticides and mineral fibers are discussed as the most important cancer risk factors during work activities. PMID:27748850

  7. Occupational Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 in a Portuguese Poultry Slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Susana; Veiga, Luísa; Almeida, Ana; dos Santos, Mateus; Carolino, Elisabete; Viegas, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a secondary metabolite produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and is the most potent hepatocarcinogen known in mammals and has been classified by the International Agency of Research on Cancer as Group 1 carcinogen. Although dietary exposure to AFB1 has been extensively documented, there are still few studies dedicated to the problem of occupational exposure. Considering recent findings regarding AFB1 occupational exposure in poultry production, it was considered relevant to clarify if there is also exposure in poultry slaughterhouses. Occupational exposure assessment to AFB1 was done with a biomarker of internal dose that measures AFB1 in the serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty workers from a slaughterhouse were enrolled in this study. A control group (n = 30) was also considered in order to know AFB1 background levels for Portuguese population. Fourteen workers (47.0%) showed detectable levels of AFB1 with values from 1.06 to 4.03ng ml(-1), with a mean value of 1.73ng ml(-1). No AFB1 was detected in serum of individuals used as controls. Despite uncertainties regarding the exposure route that is contributing more to exposure (inhalation or dermal) is possible to state that exposure to AFB1 is occurring in the slaughterhouse studied. It seems that reducing AFB1 contamination in poultry production can have a positive result in this occupational setting.

  8. Hairy cell leukaemia and occupational exposure to benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Clavel, J; Conso, F; Limasset, J C; Mandereau, L; Roche, P; Flandrin, G; Hémon, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The role of occupational exposures in hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) was investigated through a multicentre, hospital based, case-control study. This paper analyses the role of exposure to benzene in HCL. METHODS: A population of 226 male cases of HCL and 425 matched controls were included in the study. Benzene exposure was evaluated by expert review of the detailed data on occupational exposures generated by case-control interviews. RESULTS: No association was found between HCL and employment in a job exposed to benzene (odds ratio (OR) 0.9 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.6-1.3)). The sample included 125 subjects, 34 cases (15%), and 91 controls (21%) who had been exposed to benzene, as individually assessed by the experts, for at least one hour a month during one of their jobs. Benzene exposure was not associated with a risk of HCL (OR 0.8 (0.5-1.2)). No trend towards an increase in OR was detected for increasing exposures, the percentage of work time involving exposure to > 1 ppm, or the duration of exposure. No findings suggested a particular risk period, when the OR associated with the time since first or last exposure, or since the end of exposure, were examined. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, with the low exposures prevalent in the sample, the study did not show any association between benzene exposure and HCL. PMID:8983464

  9. Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, N.; Zack, M.; Caldwell, G.G.; Fernbach, D.J.; Falletta, J.M.

    1984-04-15

    To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affeOR). its his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries with potential ionizing radiation exposure. Bone cancer and Wilms' tumor occurred more frequently among children of fathers in all industries with moderate potential ionizing radiation exposure. Children with cancer more often had fathers who were aircraft mechanics (odds ratio (OR)) . infinity, one-sided 95% lower limit . 1.5; P . 0.04). Although four of these six were military aircraft mechanics, only children whose fathers had military jobs with potential ionizing radiation exposure had an increased cancer risk (OR . 2.73; P . 0.01). Four cancer types occurred more often among children of fathers in specific radiation-related occupations: rhabdomyosarcoma among children whose fathers were petroleum industry foremen; retinoblastoma among children whose fathers were radio and television repairmen; central nervous system cancers and other lymphatic cancers among children of Air Force fathers. Because numbers of case fathers are small and confidence limits are broad, the associations identified by this study need to be confirmed in other studies. Better identification and gradation of occupational exposure to radiation would increase the sensitivity to detect associations.

  10. Positive and negative changes following occupational death exposure.

    PubMed

    Linley, P Alex; Joseph, Stephen

    2005-12-01

    Professionals who work in situations that expose them to death have long been of interest to traumatic stress research. However, the positive changes that these professionals may also experience have not been the subject of empirical scrutiny. This study examined occupational death exposure, death attitudes, subjective appraisals, intrusions, avoidance, social support, and positive and negative affect, and their associations with positive and negative psychological changes in funeral directors. Multivariate hierarchical regression analyses revealed that positive changes were significantly and independently predicted by an approach acceptance death attitude and social support; negative changes were significantly and independently predicted by fear of death, intrusions and avoidance, and occupational death exposure. The discussion focuses on how these findings extend the literature dealing with occupational death exposure, together with a consideration of limitations of the study that inform directions for future research.

  11. The origins of fear of occupational exposure in the clinical dental setting.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W; Nadershahi, Nader A; Chi, Howard

    2007-02-01

    Although there is a growing literature on the incidence of occurrence and reporting of occupational exposures in clinics in dental schools, the contributing factors to fear of such injuries and their dynamic evolution over time remain unstudied. It is hypothesized that fear of occupational exposures is a function of estimated likelihood of such events and their perceived importance. Individual personality factors and situational circumstances are also thought to play a role, although it is believed that these factors recede in importance as students gain direct knowledge through clinical experience. Path analysis methods are applied to longitudinal survey data in a single dental school to confirm these hypotheses.

  12. Occupational exposure to metalworking fluid mist and sump fluid contaminants.

    PubMed

    Simpson, A T; Stear, M; Groves, J A; Piney, M; Bradley, S D; Stagg, S; Crook, B

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes the analytical and occupational hygiene findings from a recent survey of occupational exposure to metalworking fluids (MWFs) in the engineering industry. The aim of the survey was to link MWF mist exposure measurements with particular engineering processes and controls, and utilize the data obtained to develop exposure standards. At the same time the opportunity was taken to assess fluid management and control, including bacterial and fines contamination in the machine sumps. In general, occupational exposure to mineral oil MWF mist was controlled to <3 mg/m(3) (8 h time-weighted average) and to <1 mg/m(3) for water-mix MWF mist (in terms of the concentrate). These exposure values do not necessarily represent best practice, but are believed to be achievable and representative of industry as a whole. Gravimetric analysis of the total inhalable particulate was found to be a good predictor of mineral oil MWF mist but not for water-mix MWF mist. Grinding and drilling operations produced higher exposures than turning and milling for water-mix fluids. There were insufficient data to compare machining operations for mineral oil MWFs. On the whole, fluid management was found to be poor, with most sites failing to meet industry good practice or Health & Safety Executive (HSE) standards. Some of the operating procedures utilized were deficient or unsatisfactory. Poor standards of fluid management were found at all sizes of company. High levels of bacteria, endotoxin and fines were found in sumps, and control of other factors, such as water-mix fluid concentration, was often poor. Mineral oils had higher levels of fines than water-mix fluids (medians of 395 and 18 mg/l, respectively), and grinding produced high levels of fines in both types of MWF. Many water-mix sumps contained bacterial levels of >1 x 10(6) CFU/ml, and endotoxin levels of >100 000 EU/ml were not uncommon. The median values were 109 000 CFU/ml and 8039 EU/ml, respectively. Mists could

  13. Assessing occupational exposure to chemicals in an international epidemiological study of brain tumours.

    PubMed

    van Tongeren, Martie; Kincl, Laurel; Richardson, Lesley; Benke, Geza; Figuerola, Jordi; Kauppinen, Timo; Lakhani, Ramzan; Lavoué, Jérôme; McLean, Dave; Plato, Nils; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2013-06-01

    The INTEROCC project is a multi-centre case-control study investigating the risk of developing brain cancer due to occupational chemical and electromagnetic field exposures. To estimate chemical exposures, the Finnish Job Exposure Matrix (FINJEM) was modified to improve its performance in the INTEROCC study and to address some of its limitations, resulting in the development of the INTEROCC JEM. An international team of occupational hygienists developed a crosswalk between the Finnish occupational codes used in FINJEM and the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1968 (ISCO68). For ISCO68 codes linked to multiple Finnish codes, weighted means of the exposure estimates were calculated. Similarly, multiple ISCO68 codes linked to a single Finnish code with evidence of heterogeneous exposure were refined. One of the key time periods in FINJEM (1960-1984) was split into two periods (1960-1974 and 1975-1984). Benzene exposure estimates in early periods were modified upwards. The internal consistency of hydrocarbon exposures and exposures to engine exhaust fumes was improved. Finally, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and benzo(a)pyrene was modified to include the contribution from second-hand smoke. The crosswalk ensured that the FINJEM exposure estimates could be applied to the INTEROCC study subjects. The modifications generally resulted in an increased prevalence of exposure to chemical agents. This increased prevalence of exposure was not restricted to the lowest categories of cumulative exposure, but was seen across all levels for some agents. Although this work has produced a JEM with important improvements compared to FINJEM, further improvements are possible with the expansion of agents and additional external data.

  14. Assessing Occupational Exposure to Chemicals in an International Epidemiological Study of Brain Tumours

    PubMed Central

    van Tongeren, Martie

    2013-01-01

    The INTEROCC project is a multi-centre case–control study investigating the risk of developing brain cancer due to occupational chemical and electromagnetic field exposures. To estimate chemical exposures, the Finnish Job Exposure Matrix (FINJEM) was modified to improve its performance in the INTEROCC study and to address some of its limitations, resulting in the development of the INTEROCC JEM. An international team of occupational hygienists developed a crosswalk between the Finnish occupational codes used in FINJEM and the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1968 (ISCO68). For ISCO68 codes linked to multiple Finnish codes, weighted means of the exposure estimates were calculated. Similarly, multiple ISCO68 codes linked to a single Finnish code with evidence of heterogeneous exposure were refined. One of the key time periods in FINJEM (1960–1984) was split into two periods (1960–1974 and 1975–1984). Benzene exposure estimates in early periods were modified upwards. The internal consistency of hydrocarbon exposures and exposures to engine exhaust fumes was improved. Finally, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and benzo(a)pyrene was modified to include the contribution from second-hand smoke. The crosswalk ensured that the FINJEM exposure estimates could be applied to the INTEROCC study subjects. The modifications generally resulted in an increased prevalence of exposure to chemical agents. This increased prevalence of exposure was not restricted to the lowest categories of cumulative exposure, but was seen across all levels for some agents. Although this work has produced a JEM with important improvements compared to FINJEM, further improvements are possible with the expansion of agents and additional external data. PMID:23467593

  15. Occupational blood exposures in dentistry: a decade in review.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, J L; Gooch, B F; Lockwood, S A

    1997-10-01

    This review summarizes data from self-reported and observational studies describing the nature, frequency, and circumstances of occupational blood exposures among US dental workers between 1986 and 1995. These studies suggest that, among US dentists, percutaneous injuries have declined steadily over the 10-year period. Data also suggest that, in 1995, most dental workers (dentists, hygienists assistants, and oral surgeons) experienced approximately three injuries per year. Work practices (eg, using an instrument instead of fingers to retract tissue), safer instrumentation or design (eg, self-sheathing needles, changes in dental-unit design), and continued worker education may reduce occupational blood exposures in dentistry further.

  16. Occupational Skin Hazards From Ultraviolet (UV) Exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, F.; Wolbarsht, M. L.

    1981-11-01

    The various types of UV effects on the skin are classified according to the part of the spectrum and their beneficial or deleterious nature. Some hazardous ultraviolet sources used in industrial processes are described, and examples of photoallergy, phototoxicity, and photosensitization resulting from UV exposures are given. The incidence of skin cancer as a function of geographical location and exposure to sunlight is discussed in relation to natural and artificial exposures to long and short wavelength UV, especially in connection with tanning booths. The conclusion is reached that there is enough ultraviolet in a normal environment to propose a hazard, and additional ultraviolet exposure from industrial or consumer sources is not necessary, and should be eliminated wherever possible.

  17. Occupational Skin Hazards From Ultraviolet (UV) Exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, F.; Wolbarsht, M. L.

    1980-10-01

    The various types of UV effects on the skin are classified according to the part of the spectrum and their beneficial or deleterious nature. Some hazardous ultraviolet sources used in industrial processes are described, and examples of photoallergy, phototoxicity, and photosensitization resulting from UV exposures are given. The incidence of skin cancer as a function of geographical location and exposure to sunlight is discussed in relation to natural and artificial exposures to long and short wavelength UV, especially in connection with tanning booths. The conclusion is reached that there is enough ultraviolet in a normal environment to propose a hazard, and additional ultraviolet exposure from industrial or consumer sources is not necessary, and should be eliminated wherever possible.

  18. Occupational PAH Exposures during Prescribed Pile Burns

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, M. S.; Anthony, T. R.; Littau, S. R.; Herckes, P.; Nelson, X.; Poplin, G. S.; Burgess, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and PAH exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal PAH exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 PAHs analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase PAHs were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 PAHs analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 μg m−3. The total PAH/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 ± 0.15) than ignition (0.55 ± 0.04 μg mg−1). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, PAH exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a PAH metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements. PMID:18515848

  19. Occupational lead exposure in Los Angeles County: an occupational risk surveillance strategy.

    PubMed

    Papanek, P J; Ward, C E; Gilbert, K M; Frangos, S A

    1992-01-01

    To better understand occupational lead exposures in Los Angeles County, we undertook a questionnaire survey of lead-using industrial facilities not previously identified by county health department staff. Previously our staff had identified 112 lead-using companies with approximately 2,000 lead-exposed workers countywide. For this survey, we developed a database of 1,353 possible lead-using industrial facilities from several sources, including community "right-to-know" databases, air pollution or sewer permit records, or other environmental databases. A questionnaire interview was completed with 1,001 (81%) of these companies, yielding 178 previously unidentified facilities employing 7,734 workers with potentially significant occupational lead exposures. Compliance with the OSHA lead standard was often poor in these facilities, particularly for workplaces with 20 or fewer employees. Devoting more public health resources to targeted identification of such industrial facilities and to educational outreach would likely help control occupational lead exposure.

  20. Occupational exposures during the World Trade Center disaster response.

    PubMed

    Wallingford, K M; Snyder, E M

    2001-06-01

    Upon the request of the New York City Department of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) monitored occupational exposures among emergency response workers during the rescue and recovery activities at the World Trade Center disaster site from September 18 through 4 October 2001. During this period, over 1,200 bulk and air samples were collected to estimate or characterize workers' occupational exposures. Samples were collected and analyzed for asbestos, carbon monoxide (CO), chlorodifluoromethane (Freon 22), diesel exhaust, hydrogen sulfide, inorganic acids, mercury and other metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, respirable particulate not otherwise regulated (PNOR), respirable crystalline silica, total PNOR, and volatile organic compounds. Exposures to most of these potential hazards did not exceed NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limits or Occupational Safety and Health Administration Permissible Exposure Limits. However, one torch cutter was overexposed to cadmium and another worker (and possibly three others) was overexposed to CO. The elevated cadmium and CO levels were the result of workers using oxy-acetylene cutting torches and gasoline-powered cutting saws. Recommendations were made to ensure adequate ventilation and worker understanding when using these tools and, where possible, to substitute rechargeable, battery-powered cutting saws for gasoline-powered ones. Toxicology

  1. An investigation of occupational metal exposure in thermal spraying processes.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, J K; Wilson, H K; White, M A

    1997-06-20

    A cross-sectional study of 34 workers engaged in thermal spraying at six worksites was undertaken in order to determine levels of exposure to and uptake of metals during different metal spraying activities. Levels of exposure to cobalt, chromium and nickel were highest in plasma sprayers and, on occasions exceeded UK Occupational Exposure Limits. Exposure to metals during detonation gun and electric arc spraying was better controlled and levels remained below the relevant Occupational Exposure Limits throughout the study period. Urinary levels of cobalt and nickel mirrored the airborne concentrations and the highest urine concentrations were again found in plasma sprayers. Urinary chromium levels were highest in electric arc sprayers, which may also reflect an increased body burden in this group due to a longer history of exposure. The findings clearly indicate that exposure to and uptake of metals may exceed UK Occupational Limits or Standards when spraying is performed manually or semi-automatically and where control relies on local exhaust ventilation (LEV) and personal respiratory protective equipment (RPE).

  2. Measured Occupational Solar UVR Exposures of Lifeguards in Pool Settings

    PubMed Central

    Gies, Peter; Glanz, Karen; O’Riordan, David; Elliott, Tom; Nehl, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to measure ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposures of lifeguards in pool settings and evaluate their personal UVR protective practices. Methods Lifeguards (n = 168) wore UVR sensitive polysulfone (PS) film badges in wrist bracelets on 2 days and completed a survey and diary covering sun protection use. Analyses were used to describe sun exposure and sun protection practices, to compare UVR exposure across locations, and to compare findings with recommended threshold limits for occupational exposure. Results The measured UVR exposures varied with location, ranging from high median UVR exposures of 6.2 standard erythemal doses (SEDs) to the lowest median of 1.7 SEDs. More than 74% of the lifeguards’ PS badges showed UVR above recommended threshold limits for occupational exposure. Thirty-nine percent received more than four times the limit and 65% of cases were sufficient to induce sunburn. The most common protective behaviors were wearing sunglasses and using sunscreen, but sun protection was often inadequate. Conclusions At-risk individuals were exposed to high levels of UVR in excess of occupational limits and though appropriate types of sun protection were used, it was not used consistently and more than 50% of lifeguards reported being sunburnt at least twice during the previous year. PMID:19572325

  3. Risks from occupational and dietary exposure to mevinphos.

    PubMed

    Cochran, R C; Formoli, T A; Silva, M H; Kellner, T P; Lewis, C M; Pfeifer, K F

    1996-01-01

    Mevinphos (trade name, Phosdrin), a category 1 organophosphorus insecticide, has been used mainly as a cleanup pesticide for vegetable crops. A risk assessment for occupational and dietary exposure to mevinphos was initiated because of the high acute toxicity of the compound. Repetitive dosing with mevinphos did not cause any discernible histopathological effects in mice or rats, nor was it oncogenic in either species. The principal toxic effects of mevinphos, both short- and long term, were due to inhibition of cholinesterase activity. Consequently, potential adverse effects from short-term exposures were the primary concern. A human no-observed-effect level (0.025 mg/kg) for cholinergic signs was used as the regulatory basis for calculating margins of safety (MOSs) for potential acute dietary and short-term occupational exposures. Estimates of exposure to mixer/loaders, pilots, and flaggers associated with aerial application of mevinphos were based on passive dosimetry. Because no acceptable exposure studies for work tasks associated with ground application of mevinphos were available, surrogate data based on ground application of oxydemeton-methyl were used. Exposure estimates for field workers and harvesters relied on measured dislodgeable foliar residues of mevinphos and transfer factors generated from studies of other active ingredients. MOSs for mean acute occupational exposure of mixer/loader/applicators associated with ground application and of harvesters working in fruit trees were less than the value conventionally recommended to protect people from the toxic effects of mevinphos. MOSs for the 95th percentile of short-term worker exposure for all mixer/loader work categories associated with mevinphos application were also inadequate. Calculated MOSs for potential acute dietary exposure to measured residue levels of mevinphos were adequate for the various population subgroups. However, 25 of the USEPA tolerances for mevinphos on agricultural commodities

  4. Modelling of occupational exposure to inhalable nickel compounds.

    PubMed

    Kendzia, Benjamin; Pesch, Beate; Koppisch, Dorothea; Van Gelder, Rainer; Pitzke, Katrin; Zschiesche, Wolfgang; Behrens, Thomas; Weiss, Tobias; Siemiatycki, Jack; Lavoué, Jerome; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Stamm, Roger; Brüning, Thomas

    2017-01-18

    The aim of this study was to estimate average occupational exposure to inhalable nickel (Ni) using the German exposure database MEGA. This database contains 8052 personal measurements of Ni collected between 1990 and 2009 in adjunct with information on the measurement and workplace conditions. The median of all Ni concentrations was 9 μg/m(3) and the 95th percentile was 460 μg/m(3). We predicted geometric means (GMs) for welders and other occupations centered to 1999. Exposure to Ni in welders is strongly influenced by the welding process applied and the Ni content of the used welding materials. Welding with consumable electrodes of high Ni content (>30%) was associated with 10-fold higher concentrations compared with those with a low content (<5%). The highest exposure levels (GMs ≥20 μg/m(3)) were observed in gas metal and shielded metal arc welders using welding materials with high Ni content, in metal sprayers, grinders and forging-press operators, and in the manufacture of batteries and accumulators. The exposure profiles are useful for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies as well as in industrial hygiene. Therefore, we recommend to collect additional exposure-specific information in addition to the job title in community-based studies when estimating the health risks of Ni exposure.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 18 January 2017; doi:10.1038/jes.2016.80.

  5. Assessing the reproductive health of men with occupational exposures

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Steven M; Marlow, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    The earliest report linking environmental (occupational) exposure to adverse human male reproductive effects dates back to1775 when an English physician, Percival Pott, reported a high incidence of scrotal cancer in chimney sweeps. This observation led to safety regulations in the form of bathing requirements for these workers. The fact that male-mediated reproductive harm in humans may be a result of toxicant exposures did not become firmly established until relatively recently, when Lancranjan studied lead-exposed workers in Romania in 1975, and later in 1977, when Whorton examined the effects of dibromochloropropane (DBCP) on male workers in California. Since these discoveries, several additional human reproductive toxicants have been identified through the convergence of laboratory and observational findings. Many research gaps remain, as the pool of potential human exposures with undetermined effects on male reproduction is vast. This review provides an overview of methods used to study the effects of exposures on male reproduction and their reproductive health, with a primary emphasis on the implementation and interpretation of human studies. Emphasis will be on occupational exposures, although much of the information is also useful in assessing environmental studies, occupational exposures are usually much higher and better defined. PMID:24369130

  6. Occupational exposure to DDT among mosquito control sprayers

    SciTech Connect

    Nhachi, C.F.B.; Kasilo, O.J. )

    1990-08-01

    DDT, a broad action insecticide whose use is restricted or banned in most industrialized countries is still often used for vector control in many tropical and developing countries. Despite the fact that DDT is accumulative and persistant in the ecosystem use of such substitutes as malathion or propoxur is not popular because these increases costs by 3.4 to 8.5 fold. As such DDT is economically attractive to poorer countries. As far as can be ascertained no systemic poisoning has resulted from occupational exposure to DDT. Due to the large particle size, the amount of DDT inhaled by workers is far less than the amount reaching exposed portions of skin. As such occupational exposure is mainly dermal or tropical. Occupational exposure to DDT studies have been done before. The present study is an analysis of some characteristics, (i.e. age, body size, relationship between plasma vitamin A and DDE levels, and smoking habits), of occupational exposure to DDT among spraymen in a Zimbabwe population.

  7. Disorders Induced by Direct Occupational Exposure to Noise: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Domingo-Pueyo, Andrea; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2016-01-01

    Background: To review the available scientific literature about the effects on health by occupational exposure to noise. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the retrieved scientific literature from the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), ISI-Web of Knowledge (Institute for Scientific Information), Cochrane Library Plus, SCOPUS, and SciELO (collection of scientific journals) was conducted. The following terms were used as descriptors and were searched in free text: “Noise, Occupational,” “Occupational Exposure,” and “Occupational Disease.” The following limits were considered: “Humans,” “Adult (more than 18 years),” and “Comparative Studies.” Results: A total of 281 references were retrieved, and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 25 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 19 studies provided information about hearing disturbance, four on cardiovascular disorders, one regarding respiratory alteration, and one on other disorders. Conclusions: It can be interpreted that the exposure to noise causes alterations in humans with different relevant outcomes, and therefore appropriate security measures in the work environment must be employed to minimize such an exposure and thereby to reduce the number of associated disorders. PMID:27762251

  8. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  9. Occupational exposures and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): comparison of a COPD-specific job exposure matrix and expert-evaluated occupational exposures

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Laura; Doney, Brent; Weinmann, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare the occupational exposure levels assigned by our National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-specific job exposure matrix (NIOSH COPD JEM) and by expert evaluation of detailed occupational information for various jobs held by members of an integrated health plan in the Northwest USA. Methods We analysed data from a prior study examining COPD and occupational exposures. Jobs were assigned exposure levels using 2 methods: (1) the COPD JEM and (2) expert evaluation. Agreement (Cohen’s κ coefficients), sensitivity and specificity were calculated to compare exposure levels assigned by the 2 methods for 8 exposure categories. Results κ indicated slight to moderate agreement (0.19–0.51) between the 2 methods and was highest for organic dust and overall exposure. Sensitivity of the matrix ranged from 33.9% to 68.5% and was highest for sensitisers, diesel exhaust and overall exposure. Specificity ranged from 74.7% to 97.1% and was highest for fumes, organic dust and mineral dust. Conclusions This COPD JEM was compared with exposures assigned by experts and offers a generalisable approach to assigning occupational exposure. PMID:27777373

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and occupational exposure to silica.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to high levels of silica has long been known to cause silicosis This paper evaluates the evidence for an increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in occupations and industries in which exposure to crystalline silica is the primary exposure, with a focus on the magnitude of risks and levels of exposure causing disabling health effects. The literature suggests consistently elevated risks of developing COPD associated with silica exposure in several occupations, including the construction industry; tunneling; cement industry; brick manufacturing; pottery and ceramic work; silica sand, granite and diatomaceous earth industries; gold mining; and iron and steel founding, with risk estimates being high in some, even after taking into account the effect of confounders like smoking. Average dust levels vary from about 0.5 mg.m3 to over 10 mg.m3 and average silica levels from 0.04 to over 5 mg.m3, often well above occupational standards. Factors influencing the variation from industry to industry in risks associated with exposure to silica-containing dusts include (a) the presence of other minerals in the dust, particularly when associated with clay minerals; (b) the size of the particles and percentage of quartz; (c) the physicochemical characteristics, such as whether the dust is freshly fractured. Longitudinal studies suggest that loss of lung function occurs with exposure to silica dust at concentrations of between 0.1 and 0.2 mg.m3, and that the effect of cumulative silica dust exposure on airflow obstruction is independent of silicosis. Nevertheless, a disabling loss of lung function in the absence of silicosis would not occur until between 30 and 40 years exposure.

  11. Unacceptable "occupational" exposure to toxic agents among children in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Harari, R; Forastiere, F; Axelson, O

    1997-09-01

    To document the problem of child labor as a health issue, we report here three case-studies in Ecuador: exposure to mercury among gold washers, exposure to organophosphates and carbamates in the fruit-growing industry, and exposure to solvents among shoe cleaners. We measured the relevant biological indicators of exposure (mercury in urine, urinary levels of phenols, and acetylcholine esterase in erythrocytes) among selected samples of 10 children for each working place. In all the case studies, the values of the biological indicators showed elevated exposure to well-known toxicants, which are now rare in developed countries, even among adult workers. The findings meld with a previously reported case study of intoxication from inorganic lead among children employed in the manufacture of roof tiles in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to properly evaluate and control the potential health effects due to exposure to toxic substances among children employed in different occupations in several parts of the world.

  12. Genetic Variability in ABCB1, Occupational Pesticide Exposure, and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Shilpa; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Paul, Kimberly C; Liew, Zeyan; Cockburn, Myles; Bronstein, Jeff M; Ritz, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies suggested that variants in the ABCB1 gene encoding P-glycoprotein, a xenobiotic transporter, may increase susceptibility to pesticide exposures linked to Parkinson’s Disease (PD) risk. Objectives To investigate the joint impact of two ABCB1 polymorphisms and pesticide exposures on PD risk. Methods In a population-based case control study, we genotyped ABCB1 gene variants at rs1045642 (c.3435C/T) and rs2032582 (c.2677G/T/A) and assessed occupational exposures to organochlorine (OC) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticides based on self-reported occupational use and record-based ambient workplace exposures for 282 PD cases and 514 controls of European ancestry. We identified active ingredients in self-reported occupational use pesticides from a California database and estimated ambient workplace exposures between 1974 and 1999 employing a geographic information system together with records for state pesticide and land use. With unconditional logistic regression, we estimated marginal and joint contributions for occupational pesticide exposures and ABCB1 variants in PD. Results For occupationally exposed carriers of homozygous ABCB1 variant genotypes, we estimated odds ratios of 1.89 [95% confidence interval (CI): (0.87, 4.07)] to 3.71 [95% CI: (1.96, 7.02)], with the highest odds ratios estimated for occupationally exposed carriers of homozygous ABCB1 variant genotypes at both SNPs; but we found no multiplicative scale interactions. Conclusions This study lends support to a previous report that commonly used pesticides, specifically OCs and OPs, and variant ABCB1 genotypes at two polymorphic sites jointly increase risk of PD. PMID:26457621

  13. Breast cancer risk after occupational solvent exposure: the influence of timing and setting.

    PubMed

    Ekenga, Christine C; Parks, Christine G; D'Aloisio, Aimee A; DeRoo, Lisa A; Sandler, Dale P

    2014-06-01

    Organic solvents are ubiquitous in occupational settings where they may contribute to risks for carcinogenesis. However, there is limited information on organic solvents as human breast carcinogens. We examined the relationship between occupational exposure to solvents and breast cancer in a prospective study of 47,661 women with an occupational history in the Sister Study cohort. Occupational solvent exposure was categorized using self-reported job-specific solvent use collected at baseline. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were used to assess breast cancer risk, adjusting for established breast cancer risk factors. A total of 1,798 women were diagnosed with breast cancer during follow-up, including 1,255 invasive cases. Overall the risk of invasive breast cancer was not associated with lifetime exposure to solvents [HR, 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88-1.24]. Parous women who worked with solvents before their first full-term birth had an increased risk of estrogen receptor-positive invasive breast cancer compared with women who never worked with solvents (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.03-1.86). A significantly elevated risk for estrogen receptor-positive invasive breast cancer was associated with solvent exposure among clinical laboratory technologists and technicians (HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.07-3.73). Occupational exposure to solvents before first birth, a critical period of breast tissue differentiation, may result in increased vulnerability for breast cancer. Our findings suggest a need for future studies in this area to focus on exposure time windows and solvent types in different occupational settings.

  14. The proportion of cancer attributable to occupational exposures

    PubMed Central

    Purdue, Mark P.; Hutchings, Sally J.; Rushton, Lesley; Silverman, Debra T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To review the literature on the estimation of the population attributable fraction (PAF) of cancer due to occupational exposures and to describe challenges in the estimation of this metric. To help illustrate the inherent challenges, we also estimate PAFs for selected cancers diagnosed in the United States in 2010 attributable to work as a painter (causally associated with bladder and lung cancer) and shiftwork (possibly associated with breast cancer). Methods We reviewed and summarized previous reports providing quantitative estimates of PAF for total cancer due to occupational exposures. We calculated PAF estimates for painters and shiftwork using methodology from a detailed investigation of the occupational cancer burden in Great Britain, with adaptations made for the U.S. population. Results The estimated occupation-attributable fraction for total cancer generally ranged between 2% and 8% (men, 3-14%; women, 1-2%) based on previous reports. We calculated that employment as a painter accounted for a very small proportion of cancers of the bladder and lung diagnosed in the United States in 2010, with PAFs of 0.5% for each site. In contrast, our calculations suggest that the potential impact of shiftwork on breast cancer (if causal) could be substantial, with a PAF of 5.7%, translating to 11,777 attributable breast cancers. Conclusions Continued efforts to estimate the occupational cancer burden will be important as scientific evidence and economic trends evolve. Such projects should consider the challenges involved in PAF estimation, which we summarize in this report. PMID:25487971

  15. Occupational and recreational noise exposure from indoor arena hockey games.

    PubMed

    Cranston, Cory J; Brazile, William J; Sandfort, Delvin R; Gotshall, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Occupational and recreational noise exposures were evaluated at two sporting arenas hosting collegiate hockey games (Venue 1) and semi-professional hockey (Venue 2). A total of 54 personal noise dosimetry samples were taken over the course of seven home hockey games: 15 workers and 9 fans at Venue 1, and 19 workers and 11 fans at Venue 2. None of the sampled workers were overexposed to noise based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration criteria. However, 40% and 57% of workers at Venue 1 and 33% and 91% of fans at Venue 2 were overexposed based on ACGIH noise exposure criteria. Noise exposures for fans were significantly different between venues, but worker noise exposures between venues were not significantly different. In addition, extensive area noise monitoring was conducted at each venue to further characterize the stadium noise on a location-by-location basis. Mean equivalent sound pressure levels ranged from 81 to 96 dBA at Venue 1 and from 85 to 97 dBA at Venue 2. Mean noise peak levels ranged from 105 to 124 dBA at Venue 1, and from 110 to 117 dBA at Venue 2. These data reflect the potential for overexposure at indoor hockey events and are useful in characterizing occupational noise exposure of indoor arena support staff and may also provide a foundation for future noise control research in indoor sports arenas.

  16. Occupational exposures among fathers of children with Wilms tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, J.R.; Sinks, T.H. Jr.

    1984-06-01

    An occupation-and-exposure linkage system was utilized to perform an epidemiologic case-control study of paternal occupation and Wilms tumor in offspring. The first part of the study was designed to test the hypothesis that paternal lead (Pb) exposure is a risk factor for Wilms tumor in offspring. The second part of the study was an exploratory analysis that sought to generate possible etiologic hypotheses about other paternal exposures in the workplace in relation to Wilms tumor. Calculation of odds ratios indicated that there was no statistical difference in the frequency of occupational exposure to Pb, Pb alkyls, and Pb salts for fathers of children with Wilms' tumor and fathers of controls, a finding that contrasts sharply with the results of the one previously reported study in this area. In the exploratory phase of the study, case fathers were found more likely to have been exposed to boron, while control fathers were found more likely to have encountered insecticides, acetylene, o-chlorobenzylidene, oil orange ss, and diethylene glycol; the differences were statistically significant. Troublesome methodologic problems, including exposure misclassification, sample size, and multiple comparisons, are discussed.

  17. Occupational exposures and practices in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    As the first generation of commercial nuclear power comes to a close, it is timely to consider the status of occupational exposure in the power generation industry, that is, the collective occupational radiation doses received by workers in nuclear power plants. The picture is surprising. One might have thought that as newer, larger, and more modern plants came on line, there would be a significant decrease in exposure per unit of electricity generated. There is some indication that this is now happening. One might also have thought that the United States, being a leader in the development of nuclear power, and in the knowledge, experience and technology of nuclear radiation protection, would have the greatest success in controlling exposure. This expectation has not been fulfilled. 32 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Will the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Proposed Standards for Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica Reduce Workplace Risk?

    PubMed

    Dudley, Susan E; Morriss, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is developing regulations to amend existing standards for occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica by establishing a new permissible exposure limit as well as a series of ancillary provisions for controlling exposure. This article briefly reviews OSHA's proposed regulatory approach and the statutory authority on which it is based. It then evaluates OSHA's preliminary determination of significant risk and its analysis of the risk reduction achievable by its proposed controls. It recognizes that OSHA faces multiple challenges in devising a regulatory approach that reduces exposures and health risks and meets its statutory goal. However, the greatest challenge to reducing risks associated with silica exposure is not the lack of incentives (for either employers or employees) but rather lack of information, particularly information on the relative toxicity of different forms of silica. The article finds that OSHA's proposed rule would contribute little in the way of new information, particularly since it is largely based on information that is at least a decade old--a significant deficiency, given the rapidly changing conditions observed over the last 45 years. The article concludes with recommendations for alternative approaches that would be more likely to generate information needed to improve worker health outcomes.

  19. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed Central

    Parks, C G; Conrad, K; Cooper, G S

    1999-01-01

    Occupational exposure to silica dust has been examined as a possible risk factor with respect to several systemic autoimmune diseases, including scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and some of the small vessel vasculitidies with renal involvement (e.g., Wegener granulomatosis). Crystalline silica, or quartz, is an abundant mineral found in sand, rock, and soil. High-level exposure to respirable silica dust can cause chronic inflammation and fibrosis in the lung and other organs. Studies of specific occupational groups with high-level silica exposure (e.g., miners) have shown increased rates of autoimmune diseases compared to the expected rates in the general population. However, some clinic- and population-based studies have not demonstrated an association between silica exposure and risk of autoimmune diseases. This lack of effect may be due to the limited statistical power of these studies to examine this association or because the lower- or moderate-level exposures that may be more common in the general population were not considered. Experimental studies demonstrate that silica can act as an adjuvant to nonspecifically enhance the immune response. This is one mechanism by which silica might be involved in the development of autoimmune diseases. Given that several different autoimmune diseases may be associated with silica dust exposure, silica dust may act to promote or accelerate disease development, requiring some other factor to break immune tolerance or initiate autoimmunity. The specific manifestation of this effect may depend on underlying differences in genetic susceptibility or other environmental exposures. PMID:10970168

  20. Advanced REACH Tool: A Bayesian Model for Occupational Exposure Assessment

    PubMed Central

    McNally, Kevin; Warren, Nicholas; Fransman, Wouter; Entink, Rinke Klein; Schinkel, Jody; van Tongeren, Martie; Cherrie, John W.; Kromhout, Hans; Schneider, Thomas; Tielemans, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sources of information within a Bayesian statistical framework. The information is obtained from expert knowledge expressed in a calibrated mechanistic model of exposure assessment, data on inter- and intra-individual variability in exposures from the literature, and context-specific exposure measurements. The ART provides central estimates and credible intervals for different percentiles of the exposure distribution, for full-shift and long-term average exposures. The ART can produce exposure estimates in the absence of measurements, but the precision of the estimates improves as more data become available. The methodology presented in this paper is able to utilize partially analogous data, a novel approach designed to make efficient use of a sparsely populated measurement database although some additional research is still required before practical implementation. The methodology is demonstrated using two worked examples: an exposure to copper pyrithione in the spraying of antifouling paints and an exposure to ethyl acetate in shoe repair. PMID:24665110

  1. Hearing loss in the elderly: History of occupational noise exposure

    PubMed Central

    Meneses-Barriviera, Caroline Luiz; Melo, Juliana Jandre; Marchiori, Luciana Lozza de Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Noise exposure is one of the most common health risk factors, and workers are exposed to sound pressure levels capable of producing hearing loss. Aim: To assess the prevalence of hearing loss in the elderly and its possible association with a history of occupational noise exposure and with sex. Methods: A prospective study in subjects aged over 60 years. The subjects underwent anamnesis and audiological assessment. The Mann–Whitney test and multiple logistic regression, with 95% confidence interval and p < 0.05, were used for statistical analysis. Results: There were 498 subjects from both sexes, and the median age was 69 years. From the comparison between men and women, we obtained the medium hearing I (500, 1000, and 2000 Hz p = 0.8318) and the mean hearing II (3000, 4000, and 6000 Hz; p < 0.0001). Comparing the thresholds of individuals with and without a history of occupational noise exposure, we obtained the medium hearing I (p = 0.9542) and the mean hearing II (p = 0.0007). Conclusion: There was a statistically significant association between hearing loss at high frequencies and the risk factors being male and occupational noise exposure. PMID:25992010

  2. Simultaneous occupational exposure to FM and UHF transmitters.

    PubMed

    Valič, Blaž; Kos, Bor; Gajšek, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposure caused by large broadcasting transmitters exceeds current reference levels. As it is common for different radio and TV transmitters to share the location, we analysed combined exposure on a 40-m high mast. The frequency modulation (FM) transmitter, located between the 10th and 30th metre, had the power of 25 kW, whereas an ultra-high frequency (UHF) transmitter of 5 kW occupied the top 8 m of the mast. Measured and calculated values of the electric field strength exceeded the reference levels up to 10 times; however, the results for the specific absorption rate (SAR) values show that the reference levels are very conservative for FM exposure, i.e., basic restrictions are not exceeded even when the reference levels are exceeded 10 times. However, for UHF exposure the reference levels are not conservative; they give a good prediction of real exposure.

  3. Exploring the Usefulness of Occupational Exposure Registries for Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Genesove, Leon; Moore, Kris; Del Bianco, Ann; Kramer, Desre

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The ongoing presence of asbestos in products used across workplaces in Canada reinforces the importance of occupational exposure surveillance. This study evaluates the usefulness of the Ontario Asbestos Workers Registry. Methods: The study includes 30,829 workers aged 15 to 80 years. Researchers reported on the data quality and analyzed the proportions of workers exposed by industry, and standardized rates by geographic areas and over time. Results: The incidence of exposure started to decrease around 1990; but about 2000 workers were still exposed annually until 2006. Results showed large geographical disparities. Unexpectedly, workers from industries other than construction reported exposure. Conclusions: The Ontario Asbestos Workers Registry is a useful but challenging source of information for the surveillance of asbestos exposure in Ontario. The registry could benefit from well-defined surveillance objectives, a clear exposure definition, systematic enforcement, regular data analyses, and results dissemination. PMID:25162835

  4. Occupational exposure of workers to 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed Central

    Fajen, J M; Roberts, D R; Ungers, L J; Krishnan, E R

    1990-01-01

    Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted an extent-of-exposure study of the 1,3-butadiene monomer, polymer, and end-user industries to determine the size of the exposed workforce, evaluate control technologies and personal protective equipment programs, and assess occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. A new analytical method was developed for 1,3-butadiene that increased the sensitivity and selectivity of the previous NIOSH method. The new method is sensitive to 0.2 microgram per 1,3-butadiene sample. Walk-through surveys were conducted in 11 monomer, 17 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. In-depth industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at 4 monomer, 5 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. Airborne exposure concentrations of 1,3-butadiene were determined using personal sampling for each job category. A total of 692 full shift and short-term personnel and 259 area air samples were examined for the presence of 1,3-butadiene. Sample results indicated that all worker exposures were well below the current OSHA PEL of 1000 ppm. Exposures ranged from less than 0.006 ppm to 374 ppm. The average exposure for all samples was less than 2 ppm. The present American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value for 1,3-butadiene is 10 ppm. To reduce the potential for occupational exposure, it is recommended that quality control sampling be conducted using a closed loop system. Also all process pumps should be retrofitted with dual mechanical seals, magnetic gauges should be used in loading and unloading rail cars, and engineering controls should be designed for safely voiding quality control cylinders. PMID:2401251

  5. Occupational exposure of workers to 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed

    Fajen, J M; Roberts, D R; Ungers, L J; Krishnan, E R

    1990-06-01

    Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted an extent-of-exposure study of the 1,3-butadiene monomer, polymer, and end-user industries to determine the size of the exposed workforce, evaluate control technologies and personal protective equipment programs, and assess occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene. A new analytical method was developed for 1,3-butadiene that increased the sensitivity and selectivity of the previous NIOSH method. The new method is sensitive to 0.2 microgram per 1,3-butadiene sample. Walk-through surveys were conducted in 11 monomer, 17 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. In-depth industrial hygiene surveys were conducted at 4 monomer, 5 polymer, and 2 end-user plants. Airborne exposure concentrations of 1,3-butadiene were determined using personal sampling for each job category. A total of 692 full shift and short-term personnel and 259 area air samples were examined for the presence of 1,3-butadiene. Sample results indicated that all worker exposures were well below the current OSHA PEL of 1000 ppm. Exposures ranged from less than 0.006 ppm to 374 ppm. The average exposure for all samples was less than 2 ppm. The present American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value for 1,3-butadiene is 10 ppm. To reduce the potential for occupational exposure, it is recommended that quality control sampling be conducted using a closed loop system. Also all process pumps should be retrofitted with dual mechanical seals, magnetic gauges should be used in loading and unloading rail cars, and engineering controls should be designed for safely voiding quality control cylinders.

  6. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia A

    2009-07-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO(2) measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% others). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites in which heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction (EC: 27-658 microg/m(3)). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas in which smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC<50 microg/m(3)). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source, such as drivers and train crew, or outside, such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 microg/m(3)). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population

  7. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Background Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Methods Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. Results In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO2 measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles, and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% other). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites where heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction, (EC: 27-658 μg/m3). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above ground (semi-)enclosed areas where smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC< 50 μg/m3). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source such as drivers and train crew, or outside such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 μg/m3). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Conclusions Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above ground (semi-)enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population

  8. Identifying occupational and nonoccupational exposure to mercury in dental personnel.

    PubMed

    Shirkhanloo, Hamid; Fallah Mehrjerdi, Mohammad Ali; Hassani, Hamid

    2017-03-04

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occupational and nonoccupational exposure to mercury (Hg) vapor in dental personnel by examining the relationships between blood mercury, urine mercury, and their ratio with air mercury. The method was performed on 50 occupational exposed and 50 unexposed controls (25 men and 25 women). The mercury concentrations in air and human biological samples were determined based on the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method and standard method (SM) by a new mode of liquid-phase microextraction, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations in urine (μg Hg(0)/g creatinine) and blood were significantly higher than control group, respectively (19.41 ± 5.18 vs 2.15 ± 0.07 μg/g and 16.40 ± 4.97 vs 2.50 ± 0.02 μg/L) (p <.001). The relationships between mercury concentration in blood/urine ratio (r = .380) with dental office air are new indicators for assessing occupational exposure in dental personnel.

  9. Chemical exposure and occupational symptoms among Portuguese hairdressers.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Ana; Madureira, Joana; Neves, Paula; Carvalhais, Carlos; Laffon, Blanca; Teixeira, João P

    2011-01-01

    Hairdressing is predominantly a female activity, in which several chemicals are handled, some of which are known to be allergenic and potentially carcinogenic. Several epidemiological studies showed an association between occupational exposure to chemicals in hairdressing salons and skin and respiratory-tract conditions. The aim of this study were to characterize the occupational exposure to total volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH₃) in 50 Portuguese hairdressers' salons and to analyze the prevalence of respiratory and skin symptoms in 134 hairdressing professionals. Data indicated that internal sources of total VOC are mainly due to indoor sources, with average concentrations (1.4 mg/m³) above the Portuguese reference levels (0.6 mg/m³). Of the hairdressers' salons studied, 4% had a mean NH₃ concentration higher than Portuguese (20 ppm) and American Conference of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) (25 ppm) reference levels. Hand dermatitis was the occupational symptom most reported by hairdressers (50%), followed by eye irritation (43%). The results of this study suggest that hairdressers' occupational activities are linked with higher risk of developing hand and wrist/arm dermatitis and symptoms in the upper respiratory tract. The proper use of disposable gloves, hands, wrists, and arms skin monitoring, and the frequent use of moisturizers in the workplace are effective measures to prevent the occurrence of dermatitis in these professionals. Displacement ventilation and/or local exhaust with adequate air exchange rate are recommended particularly in technical areas where hairdressing chemicals are mixed.

  10. Occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens and management of exposure incidents in Nigerian dental schools.

    PubMed

    Sofola, Oyinkansola O; Folayan, Morenike O; Denloye, Obafunke O; Okeigbemen, Sunny A

    2007-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the frequency of occupational exposures to bloodborne pathogens amongst Nigerian clinical dental students, their HBV vaccination status, and reporting practices. A cross-sectional study of all clinical dental students in the four Nigerian dental schools was carried out by means of an anonymous self-administered questionnaire that asked questions on demography, number and type of exposure, management of the exposures, personal protection against cross infection, and the reporting of such exposures. One hundred and fifty-three students responded (response rate of 84.5 percent). Only thirty-three (37.9 percent) were fully vaccinated against HBV. Ninety (58.8 percent) of the students have had at least one occupational exposure. There was no significantly associated difference between sex, age, location of school, and exposure. Most of the exposures (44.4 percent) occurred in association with manual tooth cleaning. There was inadequate protection of the eyes. None of the exposures were formally reported. It is the responsibility of training institutions to ensure the safety of the students by mandatory HBV vaccination prior to exposure and adequate training in work safety. Written policies and procedures should be developed and made easily accessible to all workers to facilitate prompt reporting and management of all occupational exposures.

  11. The Risk of Occupational Injury Increased According to Severity of Noise Exposure After Controlling for Occupational Environment Status in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Won, Jong-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between noise exposure and risk of occupational injury. Materials and Methods: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used for the current study. Self-report questionnaires were used to investigate occupational injury and exposure to noise, chemicals, and machines and equipments. Results: In separate analyses for occupation and occupational hazard, the proportion of occupational injuries increased according to severity of noise exposure (all P < 0.05). Compared to the non-exposure group, the respective odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for occupational injury was 1.39 (1.07–1.80) and 1.67 (1.13–2.46) in the mild and severe noise exposure groups, after controlling for age, gender, sleep hours, work schedule (shift work), and exposure status to hazardous chemicals and hazardous machines and equipments. Conclusions: The current study highlights the association between noise exposure and risk of occupational injury. Furthermore, risk of occupational injury increased according to severity of noise exposure. PMID:27991467

  12. Exposure to flour dust in the occupational environment

    PubMed Central

    Stobnicka, Agata; Górny, Rafał L.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to flour dust can be found in the food industry and animal feed production. It may result in various adverse health outcomes from conjunctivitis to baker's asthma. In this paper, flour dust exposure in the above-mentioned occupational environments is characterized and its health effects are discussed. A peer-reviewed literature search was carried out and all available published materials were included if they provided information on the above-mentioned elements. The hitherto conducted studies show that different components of flour dust like enzymes, proteins and baker's additives can cause both non-allergic and allergic reactions among exposed workers. Moreover, the problem of exposure to cereal allergens present in flour dust can also be a concern for bakers’ family members. Appreciating the importance of all these issues, the exposure assessment methods, hygienic standards and preventive measures are also addressed in this paper. PMID:26414680

  13. Occupational and environmental human lead exposure in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Paoliello, M.M.B. . E-mail: monibas@sercomtel.com.br; De Capitani, E.M.

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review of data on assessment of exposure and adverse effects due to environmental and occupational lead exposure in Brazil. Epidemiological investigations on children lead exposure around industrial and mining areas have shown that lead contamination is an actual source of concern. Lead in gasoline has been phasing out since the 1980s, and it is now completely discontinued. The last lead mining and lead refining plant was closed in 1995, leaving residual environmental lead contamination which has recently been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, there are hundreds of small battery recycling plants and secondary smelting facilities all over the country, which produce focal urban areas of lead contamination. Current regulatory limits for workplace lead exposure have shown to be inadequate as safety limits according to a few studies carried out lately.

  14. Exposure to flour dust in the occupational environment.

    PubMed

    Stobnicka, Agata; Górny, Rafał L

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to flour dust can be found in the food industry and animal feed production. It may result in various adverse health outcomes from conjunctivitis to baker's asthma. In this paper, flour dust exposure in the above-mentioned occupational environments is characterized and its health effects are discussed. A peer-reviewed literature search was carried out and all available published materials were included if they provided information on the above-mentioned elements. The hitherto conducted studies show that different components of flour dust like enzymes, proteins and baker's additives can cause both non-allergic and allergic reactions among exposed workers. Moreover, the problem of exposure to cereal allergens present in flour dust can also be a concern for bakers' family members. Appreciating the importance of all these issues, the exposure assessment methods, hygienic standards and preventive measures are also addressed in this paper.

  15. Cytogenetic damage and occupational exposure. 1. Exposure to stone dust

    SciTech Connect

    Sobti, R.C.; Bhardwaj, D.K. )

    1991-10-01

    Cytogenetic investigations were carried out on 50 workers exposed to stone dust in a stone crusher industry and on 25 control subjects never exposed to such dust. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in exposed individuals was significantly higher than that in controls. The cytogenetic indices demonstrated a clear dependence on the working environment. The effect of smoking and/or alcoholic habits coupled with exposure to stone dust has also been investigated. The results indicate that the mutagenic risk in the working environment is probably associated with silica dust in the area.

  16. Occupational exposure and risk of central nervous system demyelination.

    PubMed

    Valery, P C; Lucas, R M; Williams, D B; Pender, M P; Chapman, C; Coulthard, A; Dear, K; Dwyer, T; Kilpatrick, T J; McMichael, A J; van der Mei, I; Taylor, B V; Ponsonby, A-L

    2013-05-01

    Inconsistent evidence exists regarding the association between work-related factors and risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). We examined the association between occupational exposures and risk of a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination (FCD), which is strongly associated with progression to MS, in a matched case-control study of 276 FCD cases and 538 controls conducted in Australia (2003-2006). Using a personal residence and work calendar, information on occupational history and exposure to chemicals and animals was collected through face-to-face interviews. Few case-control differences were noted. Fewer cases had worked as professionals (≥6 years) than controls (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.37, 0.96). After further adjustment for number of children, cases were more likely to have ever been exposed to livestock than controls (AOR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.29). Among women, there was an increase in FCD risk associated with 10 or more years of exposure to livestock (AOR = 2.78, 95% CI: 1.22, 6.33) or 6 or more years of farming (AOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.25; also adjusted for number of children). Similar findings were not evident among men. Thus, farming and exposure to livestock may be important factors in the development of FCD among women, with this finding further revealed after the confounding effect of parity or number of children is considered.

  17. Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction from Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Magari, Shannon; Christiani, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposures have been associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and cardiovascular events. This study investigated the association between a biological marker of PAHs exposure, assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and heart rate variability (HRV) in an occupational cohort of boilermakers. Methods Continuous 24-hour monitoring of the ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and pre and post shift urinary 1-OHP were repeated over extended periods of the work week. Mixed effects models were fit for the 5-minute standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) in relation to urinary 1-OHP levels pre and post workshift on the day they wore the monitor, controlling for potential confounders. Results We found a significant decrease in 5-min SDNN during work of −13.6% (95% confidence interval, −17.2% to −9.8%) for every standard deviation (0.53 microgram/gram [μg/g] creatinine) increase in the next-morning pre-shift 1-OHP levels. The magnitude of reduction in 5-min SDNN were largest during the late night period after work and increased with every standard deviation (0.46 μg/g creatinine) increase in post-shift 1-OHP levels. Conclusion This is the first report providing evidence that occupational exposure to PAHs is associated with altered cardiac autonomic function. Acute exposure to PAHs may be an important predictor of cardiovascular disease risk in the work environment. PMID:21172795

  18. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad; Rahman, N. A. H. Abd.

    2016-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H₀) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304).

  19. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    SciTech Connect

    Sarowi, S. Muhd Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad; Rahman, N. A. H. Abd.

    2016-01-22

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H{sub 0}) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304)

  20. Occupational exposure to lead: effects on renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, C.D.; Hanenson, I.B.; Lerner, S.; Hammond, P.B.; Pesce, A.J.; Pollak, V.E.

    1980-10-01

    Although nephrotoxicity is common following exposure to lead, the dose-response relationship in adults with occupational exposure is not well understood because information is lacking on early nephrotoxic effects. By the time serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels are elevated, renal damage may be advanced and not fully reversible. Detailed investigations of renal glomerular and tubular function were performed in six adults with occupational exposure to lead. In all patients, the serum creatinine and urea nitrogen concentrations were within the normal range. GFR was decreased in all but two. Glucose reabsorptive capacity (TmG) was decreased in all, and this decrease was disproportionately greater than expected from the reduced GFR in all but one. Normal values for renal plasma flow (RFP) were observed in four of the six, and for rho-aminohippurate (PAH) secretory capacity (TmPAh) in all but one. Bicarbonate reabsorptive capacity (TmHCO3) and urinary excretion of beta2-microglobulin were normal in all. Routine clinical laboratory tests are insensitive for the detection of early renal effects of heavy metal exposure. Measurements of renal tubular reabsorptive capacity for glucose appears to be a sensitive method for the early detection of renal effect of lead.

  1. Exposure-response relationships between occupational exposures and chronic respiratory illness: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Christiani, D C; Dockery, D W; Wang, L

    1992-08-01

    Data from a random sample of 3,606 adults 40 to 69 yr of age residing in Beijing, China, were analyzed to investigate the association of reported occupational exposures to dusts and gases/fumes with the prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms and level of pulmonary function. The prevalence of occupational dust exposure was 32%, and gas or fume exposure, 19%. After we adjusted for age, sex, area of residence, smoking status, coal stove heating, and education, an increased prevalence of chronic phlegm and breathlessness was significantly related to both types of exposures. Chronic cough was significantly related only to dust exposure, and persistent wheeze only to fume exposure. The global estimates of the relative odds of the four symptoms were 1.30 (95% CI [confidence interval] 1.09 to 1.48) and 1.27 (95% CI 1.09 to 1.48), respectively, for dusts and for gases/fumes. These two occupational exposures are associated with chronic respiratory symptoms independent of smoking, gender, and each other. There was an increasing prevalence of each symptom with increasing dust and fume exposure, represented by the index of cumulative exposure duration and exposure intensity. Linear trends for increased prevalence of chronic bronchitis and breathlessness were significant for both exposures, while the linear trend for wheeze was only significant for gases/fumes. Among subjects who did not report using coal stove heating, dust exposure was a significant predictor for FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEF25-75, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). There was also a significant decrease for FEV1 and FVC with increase of gas/fume exposure levels. Both current and former smokers appeared to be more susceptible to the effect of dusts than the never smokers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Historical occupational isocyanate exposure levels in two Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Hon, Chun-Yip; Peters, Cheryl E; Jardine, Katherine J; Arrandale, Victoria H

    2017-01-01

    Isocyanates such as toluene 2, 4-diisocyanate (TDI), methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI), and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) are known sensitizers and exposure to these chemicals can result in isocyanate-induced asthma-the leading cause of occupational asthma. A newly created exposure database was available containing occupational isocyanate measurements spanning 1981-1996 from Ontario and British Columbia (BC)-two of the largest provinces in Canada. The aim was to describe the historical measurements relative to exposure thresholds, ascertain differences in the data between provinces, and identify time trends. Descriptive statistics of the observations were summarized and stratified by isocyanate species and province. Chi-square tests and Student's t-test were performed to determine differences between provinces. To investigate time trends in the odds of a measurement exceeding the limit of detection (LOD) and time-weighted average (TWA), mixed effects logistic regression models were constructed. In total, 6,984 isocyanate measurements were analyzed, the majority of which were below the LOD (79%). Overall, 8.3% of samples were in excess of the 2014 TLV-TWA of 0.005 ppm. Comparing the two provinces, the proportion of samples exceeding the LOD and TLV-TWA was greater in BC for all isocyanate species. Differences in time trends were also observed between provinces-the odds of a sample exceeding the TLV-TWA decreased over time in the case of MDI (Ontario only), TDI (both Ontario and BC), and other isocyanates (BC only). Our finding that a majority of the exposure measurements was below the LOD is similar to that reported by others. Differences between provinces may be due the fact that isocyanates are classified as a designated substance in Ontario and must adhere to specific exposure control regulations. Limitations of the database, such as finite number of variables and measurements available until 1996 only, presents challenges for more in-depth analysis and

  3. Neuropsychological function in retired workers with previous long-term occupational exposure to solvents

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, W. E.; Claypoole, K. H.; Checkoway, H.; Smith-Weller, T.; Dager, S. R.; Townes, B. D.; Rosenstock, L.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It is plausible that neurodegenerative processes of aging might have a contributing role in the development of chronic effects of exposure to organic solvents. This study evaluated the risk for neuropsychological deficits among retired workers, relative to their histories of exposure to occupational solvents. METHODS: This cross sectional study evaluated retired male workers, 62-74 years of age, including 89 people with previous long-term occupational exposure to solvents (67 retired painters and 22 retired aerospace manufacturing workers), and 126 retired carpenters with relatively minimal previous exposure to solvents. Subjects completed a standardised neuropsychological evaluation and psychiatric interview, structured interviews for histories of occupational exposure and alcohol consumption, and questionnaires assessing neurological and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: By comparison with the carpenters, the painters on average reported greater cumulative alcohol consumption and had lower scores on the WAIS-R vocabulary subtest, usually presumed to reflect premorbid intellectual functioning. These findings, however, were not sufficient to account for the other study findings. Controlling for age, education, vocabulary score, and alcohol use, the painters had lower mean scores on test measures of motor, memory, and reasoning ability; and a subgroup of aerospace workers with moderate to high cumulative exposure to solvents (n = 8) had lower mean scores on measures of visuomotor speed, and motor, attention, memory, and reasoning ability. Subjects were more likely to have an increased number of relatively abnormal test scores (three or more outlier scores on 17 test measures) among both the painter group (odds ratio (OR), 3.1; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5 to 6.2) and the subgroup of aerospace workers with higher cumulative exposure (OR 5.6; 95% CI 1.0 to 38). The painters, but not the aerospace workers, reported significantly more neurological and

  4. Awareness and understanding of occupational exposure limits in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Linda

    2013-04-01

    The efficiency of a risk management tool, such as occupational exposure limits (OELs), partly depends on the responsible parties' awareness and understanding of it. The aim of this study was to measure the awareness and understanding of OELs at Swedish workplaces and to collect opinions on their use and function. Through a web-based questionnaire targeting workers that are exposed to air pollutants or chemicals, and persons working with occupational health and safety or in management at workplaces where workers are exposed to air pollutants or chemicals 1017 responses were collected. The results show that awareness and understanding of Swedish OELs is low among workers, as well as managers and occupational health and safety employees. Statistically significant, but small, differences were found depending on the size of the company and the position in the company. Based on the results, it is recommended that authorities and the social partners target this lack of awareness and understanding regarding OELs. Also, other tools to ascertain a safe working environment with regards to chemicals exposure might be useful for Swedish workplaces.

  5. Federal government regulation of occupational skin exposure in the USA.

    PubMed

    Boeniger, Mark F; Ahlers, Heinz W

    2003-06-01

    There are at least 14 federal regulations and three agencies that are involved in the regulation of occupational skin exposures in the USA. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the reporting of health effects information on chemicals, and such information is used to assess the risks of human and environmental exposure. The health effects information and any resulting risk assessments are generally available to the public. A fair amount of this information relates to skin irritation, sensitization, and dermal absorption. The EPA can require the submission of new data necessary for it to carry out its risk assessments, and has the authority to ban hazardous chemicals for certain uses. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the correct labeling of cosmetics and requires safety and efficacy data on new products that are claimed to have preventive or health benefits. Commercial distribution of topical skin-care and protection products, therefore, can be potentially scrutinized by the FDA, which can control the use of hazardous chemicals in such products. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has the most direct contact with workplaces through its field inspection compliance activity, which is directed at the reduction of workplace injuries and illnesses. Our analysis suggests that although considerable amounts of health effects information is generated and available, such information may not always be adequately conveyed to the end users of chemical products. In addition, the most effective and practical means of preventing exposure is often not apparent or generally known. Current regulations may have created a reliance on use of chemical protective equipment that may not always be the best approach to protecting workers. Lack of performance criteria that are measurable has hampered industry from objectively assessing skin exposures. This lack of performance criteria or guidance has also hindered the implementation of

  6. Cross-border contributions to obesity research and interventions: a review of Canadian and American occupational therapy contributions.

    PubMed

    Forhan, Mary; Gill, Simone

    2013-04-01

    This paper identifies the contributions of Canadian and American occupational therapists to the empirical discourse on obesity. This scoping study includes an independent review of the published literature followed by a series of meetings during which key themes and contributions were categorized. The Person, Environment, Occupation, and Performance Model (Baum & Christiansen, 2005) was used to organize the themes reported in the literature. Although occupational therapists contribute to knowledge about body systems and functions as well as activity limitations and participation restrictions for persons with obesity, the majority of work has a focus on the environment and the person, with limited attention to occupation. Occupational therapy practitioners and researchers are contributing in areas valued in obesity research and practice but can do more to promote consideration of the interaction of personal, environmental, and occupational factors which may cause obesity or contribute to the participation in everyday living for persons with obesity.

  7. Evaluation of an artificial intelligence program for estimating occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Karen L; Phillips, Margaret L; Esmen, Nurtan A; Hall, Thomas A

    2005-03-01

    Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure (EASE) is an artificial intelligence program developed by UK's Health and Safety Executive to assess exposure. EASE computes estimated airborne concentrations based on a substance's vapor pressure and the types of controls in the work area. Though EASE is intended only to make broad predictions of exposure from occupational environments, some occupational hygienists might attempt to use EASE for individual exposure characterizations. This study investigated whether EASE would accurately predict actual sampling results from a chemical manufacturing process. Personal breathing zone time-weighted average (TWA) monitoring data for two volatile organic chemicals--a common solvent (toluene) and a specialty monomer (chloroprene)--present in this manufacturing process were compared to EASE-generated estimates. EASE-estimated concentrations for specific tasks were weighted by task durations reported in the monitoring record to yield TWA estimates from EASE that could be directly compared to the measured TWA data. Two hundred and six chloroprene and toluene full-shift personal samples were selected from eight areas of this manufacturing process. The Spearman correlation between EASE TWA estimates and measured TWA values was 0.55 for chloroprene and 0.44 for toluene, indicating moderate predictive values for both compounds. For toluene, the interquartile range of EASE estimates at least partially overlapped the interquartile range of the measured data distributions in all process areas. The interquartile range of EASE estimates for chloroprene fell above the interquartile range of the measured data distributions in one process area, partially overlapped the third quartile of the measured data in five process areas and fell within the interquartile range in two process areas. EASE is not a substitute for actual exposure monitoring. However, EASE can be used in conditions that cannot otherwise be sampled and in preliminary

  8. 75 FR 80819 - Draft Current Intelligence Bulletin “Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... ``Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes and Nanofibers'' AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety... to evaluate the scientific data on carbon nanotubes and to issue its findings on the potential health risks. A draft Current Intelligence Bulletin entitled ``Occupational Exposure to Carbon Nanotubes...

  9. Occupational exposure due to naturally occurring radionuclide material in granite quarry industry.

    PubMed

    Ademola, J A

    2012-02-01

    The potential occupational exposure in granite quarry industry due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been investigated. The activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy method. The annual effective dose of workers through different exposure pathways was determined by model calculations. The total annual effective dose varied from 21.48 to 33.69 μSv y(-1). Inhalation dose contributes the highest to the total effective dose. The results obtained were much lower than the intervention exemption levels (1.0 mSv y(-1)) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 82.

  10. Job exposure matrix (JEM)-derived estimates of lifetime occupational pesticide exposure and the risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Liew, Zeyan; Wang, Anthony; Bronstein, Jeff; Ritz, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Studies that report an association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and occupational pesticide exposure often use self-reported exposure and none adjust for concomitant ambient pesticide exposure. For a population-based case-control study of PD conducted in California's heavily agricultural region, the authors developed a comprehensive job exposure matrix (JEM) to assess occupational exposure to pesticides. Relying on 357 incident cases and 750 population controls enrolled between 2001 and 2011, the authors estimated more than a 2-fold risk increase for PD among men classified as highly occupationally exposed. The authors also observed an exposure-response pattern and farming tasks with direct and intense pesticide exposures such as spraying and handling of pesticides resulted in greater risks than indirect bystander exposures. Results did not change after adjustment for ambient pesticide exposure. The authors provide further evidence that occupational pesticide exposure increases the risk of PD.

  11. Concordance of occupational and environmental exposure information elicited from patients with Alzheimer's disease and surrogate respondents

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, J.P.; Turpie, I.; Haines, T.; Muir, G.; Farnworth, H.; Cruttenden, K.; Julian, J.; Verma, D.; Hillers, T.

    1989-01-01

    Identification of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease through the use of well designed case-control studies has been described as a research priority. Increasing recognition of the neurotoxic potential of many industrial chemicals such as organic solvents raises the question of the occupational and environmental contribution to the etiology of this high-priority health problem. The intention of this study was to develop and evaluate a methodology that could be used in a large scale case-control study of the occupational and environmental risk factors for dementia or a population-based surveillance system for neurotoxic disorders. The specific objectives of this study were to investigate: (1) the reliability of exposure-eliciting, interviewer-administered questionnaires given to patients with Alzheimer's disease (SDAT); (2) the reliability of exposure-eliciting interviewer-administered questionnaires given to the family of patients with SDAT and the agreement with the responses of the patient or surrogate respondents; (3) the reliability and agreement of responses of age- and sex-matched control patients and their families selected from geriatric care institutions and the community, with respect to the same exposure-eliciting and interviewer-administered questionnaire; and (4) the reliability of agent-based exposure ascertainment by a single, trained rater. The results of the study demonstrate that occupational and environmental histories from which exposure information can be derived is most reliably elicited from job descriptions of cases and control subjects rather than job titles alone or detailed probes for potential neurotoxic exposures. This will necessitate the use of standardized interviewer-administered instruments to derive this information in case-control studies of Alzheimer's disease or population-based surveillance systems for occupational and environmental neurotoxicity.

  12. High-resolution metabolomics of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Douglas I; Uppal, Karan; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Smith, Martyn; Hu, Wei; Purdue, Mark P; Tang, Xiaojiang; Reiss, Boris; Kim, Sungkyoon; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Pennell, Kurt D; Jones, Dean P; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) has been linked to adverse health outcomes including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and kidney and liver cancer; however, TCE’s mode of action for development of these diseases in humans is not well understood. Methods: Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of plasma obtained from 80 TCE-exposed workers [full shift exposure range of 0.4 to 230 parts-per-million of air (ppma)] and 95 matched controls were completed by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. Biological response to TCE exposure was determined using a metabolome-wide association study (MWAS) framework, with metabolic changes and plasma TCE metabolites evaluated by dose-response and pathway enrichment. Biological perturbations were then linked to immunological, renal and exposure molecular markers measured in the same population. Results: Metabolic features associated with TCE exposure included known TCE metabolites, unidentifiable chlorinated compounds and endogenous metabolites. Exposure resulted in a systemic response in endogenous metabolism, including disruption in purine catabolism and decreases in sulphur amino acid and bile acid biosynthesis pathways. Metabolite associations with TCE exposure included uric acid (β = 0.13, P-value = 3.6 × 10−5), glutamine (β = 0.08, P-value = 0.0013), cystine (β = 0.75, P-value = 0.0022), methylthioadenosine (β = −1.6, P-value = 0.0043), taurine (β = −2.4, P-value = 0.0011) and chenodeoxycholic acid (β = −1.3, P-value = 0.0039), which are consistent with known toxic effects of TCE, including immunosuppression, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Correlation with additional exposure markers and physiological endpoints supported known disease associations. Conclusions: High-resolution metabolomics correlates measured occupational exposure to internal dose and metabolic response, providing insight into molecular mechanisms of exposure

  13. [Occupational radiation exposures during maintenance activities at nuclear power plants].

    PubMed

    Imahori, A

    1987-11-01

    Occupational exposures at nuclear power plants occur mostly during maintenance activities rather than during routine reactor operation. In this paper, statistical summaries of occupational exposures during routine maintenance activities for the years 1982-84 at nuclear power plants in Japan are presented, including comparison of the exposure levels by reactor type and by plant age. Average annual collective doses per reactor for BWRs and PWRs are 7.30 man-Sv and 2.84 man-Sv, respectively, and 78% and 89% of annual doses are incurred during maintenance activities. Average annual outage days of BWRs and PWRs for routine maintenance are 102 d and 97 d. Annual collective doses per reactor, most of which occur during maintenance activities, usually increase with plant age. Higher collective doses are observed for routine maintenance performed on older reactors as compared to newer reactors, especially in BWRs. Collective doses accrued during respective routine maintenance activities have a significant correlation with duration of maintenance and number of workers involved in maintenance.

  14. Management of occupational bloodborne exposure in a dental teaching environment.

    PubMed

    Machado-Carvalhais, Helenaura P; Martins, Túlio César P M; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia; Magela-Machado, Daniela; Paiva, Saul M; Pordeus, Isabela A

    2007-10-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to investigate the prevalence of reporting occupational accidents regarding exposure to biological material among undergraduate students of dentistry at an institution of higher education and to estimate risk factors associated with underreporting. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire, which had an 86.4 percent rate of return. The sample was made up of 286 undergraduate dental students enrolled in the clinical component of the curriculum, corresponding to the final six semesters of study. The average age of the subjects was 22.4 years. Descriptive, bivariate, simple logistic regression and multiple logistic regression (Stepwise Forward Procedure) analyses were performed, with the significance level set at p< or =0.05. Of the total 167 individuals who had been exposed to biological material, 120 (71.9 percent) failed to report the accidents. The variables that were statistically associated with the nonreporting of occupational accidents were nonexposure to blood (OR=4.0; CI 95%: 1.7-10.0) and the fact that the students considered the exposure to be minor or of low risk (OR=8.8; CI 95%: 3.5-23.0) or considered the protocol adopted by the institution to be inadequate (OR=5.2; CI 95%: 1.2-17.1). The development of a procedure review policy is recommended with the aim of establishing continuous vigilance and encouraging the reporting of bloodborne exposure.

  15. Reduction of Endogenous Melatonin Accelerates Cognitive Decline in Mice in a Simulated Occupational Formaldehyde Exposure Environment

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Yufei; Duan, Chunli; Li, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Yun; Cao, Fenghua; Shang, Shuai; Ding, Shumao; Yue, Xiangpei; Gao, Ge; Yang, Hui; Shen, Luxi; Feng, Xueyan; Jia, Jianping; Tong, Zhiqian; Yang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Individuals afflicted with occupational formaldehyde (FA) exposure often suffer from abnormal behaviors such as aggression, depression, anxiety, sleep disorders, and in particular, cognitive impairments. Coincidentally, clinical patients with melatonin (MT) deficiency also complain of cognitive problems associated with the above mental disorders. Whether and how FA affects endogenous MT metabolism and induces cognitive decline need to be elucidated. To mimic occupational FA exposure environment, 16 healthy adult male mice were exposed to gaseous FA (3 mg/m3) for 7 consecutive days. Results showed that FA exposure impaired spatial memory associated with hippocampal neuronal death. Biochemical analysis revealed that FA exposure elicited an intensive oxidative stress by reducing systemic glutathione levels, in particular, decreasing brain MT concentrations. Inversely, intraperitoneal injection of MT markedly attenuated FA-induced hippocampal neuronal death, restored brain MT levels, and reversed memory decline. At tissue levels, injection of FA into the hippocampus distinctly reduced brain MT concentrations. Furthermore, at cellular and molecular levels, we found that FA directly inactivated MT in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that MT supplementation contributes to the rescue of cognitive decline, and may alleviate mental disorders in the occupational FA-exposed human populations. PMID:26938543

  16. The OSHA hazardous chemical occupational exposure standard for laboratories.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, D A

    1991-01-01

    OSHA's chemical occupational exposure standard for laboratories is an outgrowth of the previously issued Hazard Communication Standard. The standard relieves laboratories from complying with general industry standards but does require compliance with specific laboratory guidelines. The heart of the standard is the creation of a Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP). The CHP addresses major issues such as safety equipment and procedures, work practices, training, the designation of a chemical hygiene officer, and the provision of medical consultation and examination for affected employees. This new standard, in full effect as of January 31, 1991, presents yet another regulatory challenge to laboratory managers but also ensures a safer environment for laboratory workers.

  17. Occupational exposure limits for nanomaterials: state of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, P. A.; Murashov, V.; Zumwalde, R.; Kuempel, E. D.; Geraci, C. L.

    2010-08-01

    Assessing the need for and effectiveness of controlling airborne exposures to engineered nanomaterials in the workplace is difficult in the absence of occupational exposure limits (OELs). At present, there are practically no OELs specific to nanomaterials that have been adopted or promulgated by authoritative standards and guidance organizations. The vast heterogeneity of nanomaterials limits the number of specific OELs that are likely to be developed in the near future, but OELs could be developed more expeditiously for nanomaterials by applying dose-response data generated from animal studies for specific nanoparticles across categories of nanomaterials with similar properties and modes of action. This article reviews the history, context, and approaches for developing OELs for particles in general and nanoparticles in particular. Examples of approaches for developing OELs for titanium dioxide and carbon nanotubes are presented and interim OELs from various organizations for some nanomaterials are discussed. When adequate dose-response data are available in animals or humans, quantitative risk assessment methods can provide estimates of adverse health risk of nanomaterials in workers and, in conjunction with workplace exposure and control data, provide a basis for determining appropriate exposure limits. In the absence of adequate quantitative data, qualitative approaches to hazard assessment, exposure control, and safe work practices are prudent measures to reduce hazards in workers.

  18. Occupational exposure to airborne lead in Brazilian police officers.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ernesto Díaz; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima H; Santos, Gerson Vechio Dos; Canesso, Claudemir

    2014-07-01

    Shooting with lead-containing ammunition in indoor firing ranges is a known source of lead exposure in adults. Police officers may be at risk of lead intoxication when regular training shooting exercises are yearly mandatory to law enforcement officers. Effects on health must be documented, even when low-level elemental (inorganic) lead exposure is detected. Forty police officers (nineteen cadets and twenty-one instructors) responded to a questionnaire about health, shooting habits, and potential lead exposure before a training curse. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for blood lead level (BLL) before and after a three days training curse. The mean BLL for the instructors' group was 5.5 μg/dL ± 0.6. The mean BLL for the cadets' group before the training was 3.3 μg/dL ± 0.15 and after the training the main BLL was 18.2 μg/d L± 1.5. Samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). All the participants in the training curse had significantly increased BLL (mean increment about 15 μg/dL) after the three days indoor shooting season. In conclusion, occupational lead exposure in indoor firing ranges is a source of lead exposure in Brazilian police officers, and appears to be a health risk, especially when heavy weapons with lead-containing ammunition are used in indoor environments during the firing training seasons.

  19. Effective biological dose from occupational exposure during nanoparticle synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demou, Evangelia; Tran, Lang; Housiadas, Christos

    2009-02-01

    Nanomaterial and nanotechnology safety require the characterization of occupational exposure levels for completing a risk assessment. However, equally important is the estimation of the effective internal dose via lung deposition, transport and clearance mechanisms. An integrated source-to-biological dose assessment study is presented using real monitoring data collected during nanoparticle synthesis. Experimental monitoring data of airborne exposure levels during nanoparticle synthesis of CaSO4 and BiPO4 nanoparticles in a research laboratory is coupled with a human lung transport and deposition model, which solves in an Eulerian framework the general dynamic equation for polydisperse aerosols using particle specific physical-chemical properties. Subsequently, the lung deposition model is coupled with a mathematical particle clearance model providing the effective biological dose as well as the time course of the biological dose build-up after exposure. The results for the example of BiPO4 demonstrate that even short exposures throughout the day can lead to particle doses of 1.10·E+08#/(kg-bw·8h-shift), with the majority accumulating in the pulmonary region. Clearance of particles is slow and is not completed within a working shift following a 1 hour exposure. It mostly occurs via macrophage activity in the alveolar region, with small amounts transported to the interstitium and less to the lymph nodes.

  20. The Relationship between Occupational Metal Exposure and Arterial Compliance

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jason Y.Y.; Fang, Shona C.; Grashow, Rachel; Fan, Tianteng; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cumulative occupational exposure to various metals and arterial compliance in welders. Methods The observational follow-up study consisted of 25 subjects. Levels of nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn), and arsenic (As) from toenails were assessed using mass spectrometry. Arterial compliance as reflected by augmentation index (AIx) was measured using SphygmoCor Px Pulse Wave Analysis System. Linear regression models were used to assess the associations. Results For every 1 unit increase in log-transformed toenail Ni, there was a statistically significant 5.68 (95%CI: 1.38, 9.98, p=0.01) unit increase in AIx. No significant associations were found between AIx and Pb, Cd, Mn, and As. Conclusions Cumulative Ni exposure is associated with increased arterial stiffness in welders and may increase risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:25738948

  1. Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kobal, Alfred Bogomir Prezelj, Marija; Horvat, Milena; Krsnik, Mladen; Gibicar, Darija; Osredkar, Josko

    2008-05-15

    Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the interaction of inorganic mercury (Hg) and glutathione. However, human studies are limited. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of remote long-term intermittent occupational elemental Hg vapour (Hg{sup o}) exposure on erythrocyte glutathione levels and some antioxidative enzyme activities in ex-mercury miners in the period after exposure. The study included 49 ex-mercury miners divided into subgroups of 28 still active, Hg{sup o}-not-exposed miners and 21 elderly retired miners, and 41 controls, age-matched to the miners subgroup. The control workers were taken from 'mercury-free works'. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulphide glutathione (GSSG) concentrations in haemolysed erythrocytes were determined by capillary electrophoresis, while total glutathione (total GSH) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were calculated from the determined values. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in erythrocytes were measured using commercially available reagent kits, while urine Hg (U-Hg) concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS). No correlation of present U-Hg levels, GSH, GSSG, and antioxidative enzymes with remote occupational biological exposure indices were found. The mean CAT activity in miners and retired miners was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the controls. No differences in mean GPx activity among the three groups were found, whereas the mean GR activity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in miners than in retired miners. The mean concentrations of GSH (mmol/g Hb) in miners (13.03{+-}3.71) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control group (11.68{+-}2.66). No differences in mean total GSH, GSSG levels, and GSH/GSSG ratio between miners and controls were found. A positive correlation between GSSG and present U-Hg excretion (r=0.41, p=0.001) in the whole group of ex-mercury miners was observed. The

  2. Parental occupational lead exposure and lead concentration of newborn cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Shy, W.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Yang, K.H.; Hwang, Y.H.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of parental occupational lead exposure on the lead levels of newborn cord blood in the Taipei area. From September 1984 to June 1985, 5,000 pregnant women voluntarily participated in the study at the Taipei Municipal Maternal and Child Hospital. Each woman was interviewed regarding her and her husband's occupational exposures; 2,948 successfully delivered healthy newborns, and cord blood samples were obtained using Terumo Venoject, and 242 samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using an Instrumentation Laboratory 251 instrument. Nine cord blood samples were from newborns with both parents exposed, 26 samples had maternal exposure only, 105 samples had paternal exposure only, and 102 were nonexposed. The results showed that the average lead level of cord blood with both parents exposed was 8.9 +/- 2.9 micrograms%, maternal exposure 9.0 +/- 3.8 micrograms%, paternal exposure 8.3 +/- 3.4 micrograms%, and 6.9 +/- 3.2 micrograms% in the nonexposed group. There were significant differences between the nonexposed and the maternal exposure groups, and also between the nonexposed and paternal exposure groups. All 26 maternal exposures were from lead soldering operations. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after control of father's exposure status, newborn cord blood lead level increased 0.27 micrograms% for each hour the mother spent on lead soldering during a normal working day, thus suggesting that soldering during pregnancy may be hazardous to newborns. Paternal contribution to the cord blood lead levels seemed to be through either working at home with the pregnant mother also at home or bringing work clothes home for laundering.

  3. Paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and neuroblastoma in offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, J.R. 3d.; Hundley, V.D. )

    1990-06-01

    Investigators in Texas have reported an association between paternal employment in jobs linked with exposure to electromagnetic fields and risk of neuroblastoma in offspring. In an attempt to replicate this finding, the authors conducted a case-control study in Ohio. A total of 101 incident cases of neuroblastoma were identified through the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital Tumor Registry. All cases were born sometime during the period 1942-1967. From a statewide roster of birth certificates, four controls were selected for each case, with individual matching on the case's year of birth, race, and sex, and the mother's county of residence at the time of the (index) child's birth. Multiple definitions were employed to infer the potential for paternal occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields from the industry/occupation statements on the birth certificates. Case-control comparisons revealed adjusted odds ratios ranging in magnitude from 0.5 to 1.9. For two of the exposure definitions employed--both of which are similar to one used by the Texas investigators--the corresponding odds ratios were modestly elevated (odds ratios = 1.6 and 1.9). Notably, the magnitude of these odds ratios is not inconsistent with the Texas findings, where the exposure definition referred to yielded an odds ratio of 2.1. Because the point estimates in this study are imprecise, and because the biologic plausibility of the association is uncertain, the results reported here must be interpreted cautiously. However, the apparent consistency between two independent studies suggests that future evaluation of the association is warranted.

  4. Benzyl alcohol as a marker of occupational exposure to toluene.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Toshio; Yamauchi, Tsuneyuki; Miyama, Yuriko; Sakurai, Haruhiko; Ukai, Hirohiko; Takada, Shiro; Ohashi, Fumiko; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Benzyl alcohol (BeOH) is a urinary metabolite of toluene, which has been seldom evaluated for biological monitoring of exposure to this popular solvent. The present study was initiated to develop a practical method for determination of BeOH in urine and to examine if this metabolite can be applied as a marker of occupational exposure to toluene. A practical gas-liquid chromatographic method was successfully developed in the present study with sensitivity low enough for the application (the limit of detection; 5 microg BeOH /l urine with CV=2.7%). Linearity was confirmed up to 10 mg BeOH/l, the highest concentration tested, and the reproducibility was also satisfactory with a coefficient of variation of 2.7% (n=10). A tentative application of the method in a small scale study with 45 male workers [exposed to toluene up to 130 ppm as an 8-h time-weighted average (8-h TWA)] showed that BeOH in the end-of-shift urine samples was proportional to the intensity of exposure to toluene. The calculated regression equation was Y=50+1.7X (r=0.80, p<0.01), where X was toluene in air (in ppm as 8-h TWA) and Y was BeOH in urine (in microg/l of end-of-shift urine). The levels of BeOH in the urine of the non-exposed was about 50 microg/l, and ingestion of benzoate as a preservative in soft drinks did not affect the BeOH level in urine. The findings as a whole suggest that BeOH is a promising candidate for biological monitoring of occupational exposure to toluene.

  5. Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2012-07-07

    The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

  6. Carbofuran occupational dermal toxicity, exposure and risk assessment†

    PubMed Central

    Gammon, Derek W; Liu, Zhiwei; Becker, John M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Carbofuran is a carbamate insecticide that inhibits AChE. Although toxic by ingestion in mammals, it has low dermal toxicity, with relatively few confirmed worker illnesses. This risk assessment describes its time of onset, time to peak effect and time to recovery in rats using brain AChE inhibition in acute and 21 day dermal studies; in vitro rat/human relative dermal absorption for granular (5G) and liquid (4F) formulations; occupational exposure estimates using the Pesticide Handlers' Exposure Database and Agricultural Handlers' Exposure Database (PHED/AHED). RESULTS The point of departure for acute risk calculation (BMDL10) was 6.7 mg kg−1 day−1 for brain AChE inhibition after 6 h exposure. In a 21 day study, the BMDL10 was 6.8 mg kg−1 day−1, indicating reversibility. At 75 mg kg−1 day−1, time of onset was ≤30 min and time to peak effect was 6–12 h. Rat skin had ca tenfold greater dermal absorption of carbofuran (Furadan® 5G or 4F) than human skin. Exposure estimates for 5G in rice and 4F in ten crops had adequate margins of exposure (>100). CONCLUSION Rat dermal carbofuran toxicity was assessed in terms of dose and time-related inhibition of AChE. Comparative dermal absorption in rats was greater than in humans. Worker exposure estimates indicated acceptable risk for granular and liquid formulations of carbofuran. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry PMID:21834090

  7. Practices of Health Care Personnel Regarding Occupational Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sabharwal, Ekadashi Rajni; Srivastava, Dhirendra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With advancing health care sciences, the prevalence of Accidental Exposure to Patient’s Blood (AEBP) amongst Health Care Personnel (HCP) is bound to increase. The only means of preventing such accidental exposure is safe working practices. It is the responsibility of the teachers to inculcate these practices amongst their students. Aim To evaluate the knowledge, practice and attitude regarding Post Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) and Hepatitis-B Virus (HBV) immunization amongst faculty and undergraduate students and to assess the frequency of these occupational exposure with the objective of inculcating safe working practices in the teaching curriculum. Materials and Methods The present study is a descriptive analytical cross-sectional study done from May 2012 to August 2012 in a newly established ESIC dental college at Rohini, Delhi. A 36-item survey questionnaire was distributed to 50 faculty and 115 dental undergraduate students. The survey included questions on demographic details of the respondents, the prevalence of AEBP, the knowledge regarding PEP and HBV immunization and the status of the respondents. The data was analysed using SPSS 12.0 software using various statistical tests such as frequency analysis, Chi-square test and others. Results The mean age of the study group was 23.3±6.3 years. The prevalence of such accidental exposure was high being 49.7% in our study group. More than half of these respondents did not report the injury. The knowledge regarding the transmissibility of blood borne pathogens and the post exposure prophylaxis was suboptimal amongst the students and even teachers. Almost 20% of the study group was not immunized for HBV. Conclusion Managing AEBP in HCP is a challenging issue. They are highly prevalent, largely underreported and poorly managed because of the unawareness regarding the hospital’s protocols for reporting and PEP as is seen in the present study. Besides the administrative measures, orientation and

  8. A survey of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids in physiotherapists in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    von Guttenberg, Yvonne; Spickett, Jeff

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this pilot project was to investigate the occurrence of occupational exposure to blood and body fluids in registered physiotherapists in Western Australia. Surveys were sent to physiotherapists with questions regarding personal background, exposure characteristics, and contributing factors included. Descriptive statistical methods were used to identify the area of practice posing the highest risk of exposure to physiotherapists. The authors found that 56.1% of surveyed physiotherapists recorded one or more exposures within the past 5 years. Work in hospitals was found to carry the highest rate of exposure for the physiotherapy profession. Other areas of practice, including community work, private practice, nursing homes/hostels, and work at sporting events carry comparable but lower risks of exposure. In private practice, 50% of exposures were associated with acupuncture. In nursing homes, 60% of exposures were brought on by exposure to contaminated materials, whereas in the community setting most exposures (64%) were attributed to unpredictable/uncontrollable situations. At sporting events, 90% of all exposures were associated with already existing sources of blood and body fluids (wounds). Within the hospital setting, the 3 dominant immediate causes reported were unpredictable situations (33.3%), existing sources (28.4%), and procedural causes (22.2%). The use of personal protective equipment for prevention of exposure is investigated and discussed. Data collected for this survey were not enough to draw conclusive assumptions regarding hazard management. A repeat of this study on a larger scale may provide physiotherapists with the tools and knowledge to minimize the likelihood of exposure and harm arising from exposure.

  9. Occupational exposures to uranium: processes, hazards, and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Stoetzel, G.A.; Fisher, D.R.; McCormack, W.D.; Hoenes, G.R.; Marks, S.; Moore, R.H.; Quilici, D.G.; Breitenstein, B.D.

    1981-04-01

    The United States Uranium Registry (USUR) was formed in 1978 to investigate potential hazards from occupational exposure to uranium and to assess the need for special health-related studies of uranium workers. This report provides a summary of Registry work done to date. The history of the uranium industry is outlined first, and the current commercial uranium industry (mining, milling, conversion, enrichment, and fuel fabrication) is described. This description includes information on basic processes and areas of greatest potential radiological exposure. In addition, inactive commercial facilities and other uranium operations are discussed. Regulation of the commercial production industry for uranium fuel is reported, including the historic development of regulations and the current regulatory agencies and procedures for each phase of the industry. A review of radiological health practices in the industry - facility monitoring, exposure control, exposure evaluation, and record-keeping - is presented. A discussion of the nonradiological hazards of the industry is provided, and the final section describes the tissue program developed as part of the Registry.

  10. Strategies for setting occupational exposure limits for particles.

    PubMed Central

    Greim, H A; Ziegler-Skylakakis, K

    1997-01-01

    To set occupational exposure limits (OELs) for aerosol particles, dusts, or chemicals, one has to evaluate whether mechanistic considerations permit identification of a no observed effect level (NOEL). In the case of carcinogenic effects, this can be assumed if no genotoxicity is involved, and exposure is considered safe if it does not exceed the NOEL. If tumor induction is associated with genotoxicity, any exposure is considered to be of risk, although a NOEL may be identified in the animal or human exposure studies. This must also be assumed when no information on the carcinogenic mechanism, including genotoxicity, is available. Aerosol particles, especially fibrous dusts, which include man-made mineral fiber(s) (MMMF), present a challenge for toxicological evaluation. Many MMMF that have been investigated have induced tumors in animals and genotoxicity in vitro. Since these effects have been associated with long-thin fiber geometry and high durability in vivo, all fibers meeting such criteria are considered carcinogenic unless the opposite has been demonstrated. This approach is practicable. Investigations on fiber tumorigenicity/genotoxicity should include information on dose response, pathobiochemistry, particle clearance, and persistence of the material in the target organ. Such information will introduce quantitative aspects into the qualitative approach that has so far been used to classify fibrous dusts as carcinogens. The rationales for classifying the potential carcinogenicity of MMMF and for setting OELs used by the different European committees and regulatory agencies are described. PMID:9400750

  11. An evaluation of several methods for assessing the effects of occupational exposure to radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1983-03-01

    Several methods for the analysis of occupational radiation exposure data, including procedures based on Cox's proportional hazards model, are presented and evaluated. Issues of interest include the contribution of an external control, the effective handling of highly skewed exposure data, and the potential for detecting effects in populations occupationally exposed to radiation. Expressions for evaluating the power of various procedures are derived and applied to data from the Hanford population in order to determine power curves for detecting leukemia effects, with both additive and multiplicative linear models being used. It is found that the introduction of an external control can increase power, although not when an overall adjustment factor must be estimated from the data or when death rates for the study population are substantially lower than those for the control population. It is also found that very little power is lost if exposures are grouped. Finally, the power calculations indicate, as expected, that in analyses of occupationally exposed populations, such as the Hanford workers, there is very little chance of detecting radiation effects at the levels of our current estimates. However, power is reasonably good for detecting effects that are 10 to 15 times larger.

  12. Occupational exposure to carcinogens in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, T.; Toikkanen, J.; Pedersen, D.; Young, R.; Ahrens, W.; Boffetta, P.; Hansen, J.; Kromhout, H.; Blasco, J. M.; Mirabelli, D.; de la Orden-River..., V.; Pannett, B.; Plato, N.; Savela, A.; Vincent, R.; Kogevinas, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To construct a computer assisted information system for the estimation of the numbers of workers exposed to established and suspected human carcinogens in the member states of the European Union (EU).
METHODS—A database called CAREX (carcinogen exposure) was designed to provide selected exposure data and documented estimates of the number of workers exposed to carcinogens by country, carcinogen, and industry. CAREX includes data on agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (all agents in groups 1 and 2A as of February 1995, and selected agents in group 2B) and on ionising radiation, displayed across the 55 industrial classes. The 1990-3 occupational exposure was estimated in two phases. Firstly, estimates were generated by the CAREX system on the basis of national labour force data and exposure prevalence estimates from two reference countries (Finland and the United States) which had the most comprehensive data available on exposures to these agents. For selected countries, these estimates were then refined by national experts in view of the perceived exposure patterns in their own countries compared with those of the reference countries.
RESULTS—About 32 million workers (23% of those employed) in the EU were exposed to agents covered by CAREX. At least 22 million workers were exposed to IARC group 1 carcinogens. The exposed workers had altogether 42 million exposures (1.3 mean exposures for each exposed worker). The most common exposures were solar radiation (9.1 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), environmental tobacco smoke (7.5 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), crystalline silica (3.2 million exposed), diesel exhaust (3.0 million), radon (2.7 million), and wood dust (2.6 million).
CONCLUSION—These preliminary estimates indicate that in the early 1990s, a substantial proportion of workers in the EU were exposed to carcinogens

  13. Virus occupational exposure in solid waste processing facilities.

    PubMed

    Carducci, Annalaura; Federigi, Ileana; Verani, Marco

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that workers involved in the management of solid waste are at risk of exposure to bioaerosol, which is generally studied in relation to bacteria, fungi, and endotoxins. However, to date, there have been no reports on the incidence of work-related infectious diseases. To determine if occupational exposure to viruses occurs upon exposure to waste-related activities, monitoring was carried out in a landfill, a waste recycling plant, an incineration plant, and a waste collection vehicles. Air and surfaces were sampled and analyzed for torque teno virus (TTV), human adenovirus (HAdV), norovirus, rotavirus, and enterovirus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Positivity was confirmed by sequencing and quantification with real-time PCR; infectivity was also tested for culturable viruses. Samples were analyzed in parallel for mean total bacterial and fungi counts in both the summer and winter. In total, 30% (12/40) of air and 13.5% (5/37) of surface samples collected in plants were positive for HAdV and TTV. Among the eight HAdV-positive samples, six (75%), revealed in landfill and recycling plant air and in incinerator and waste vehicles surfaces, were able to replicate in cell culture and were subsequently confirmed as infective. The frequency of detection of virus-positive samples was similar in both seasons, but with evident differences in the type of virus detected: TTV and HAdV were more frequently detected in the summer and winter, respectively. The area of highest viral contamination was the paper selection landfill. Fungi and bacterial contamination did not correlate with viral presence or concentration. In conclusion, we evidence that working with solid and liquid waste can lead to infectious viruses, included in Group 2 of the European Directive 90/679/CEE pathogens list; thus, further investigation on the sources and routes of contamination is needed in order to assess the occupational risk.

  14. Occupational exposure to dial painters and assemblers of radioluminous timepieces.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R E; Shuman, F G; Moghissi, A A; Blackburn, J A; Bailey, E D

    1983-05-01

    An evaluation of available personnel monitoring data and radium body burden records of dial painters handling an annual average of 1.5 Ci of radium indicates that they received an average of about 2 rem/person whole body exposure, 3 rem to the lungs from radon inhalation and 0.2 rad to the bone from radium body burdens. Among groups of similar workers handling tritium in Texas plants, the highest occupational exposures were about 160 mrem annually per person received by refinishers of tritium dial timepieces and back-lit watch assemblers. Based upon scenarios of exposures to 147Pm, repairers of timepieces containing 147Pm receive about 4.4 X 10(-4) mrem/person/yr whole body dose equivalent. The amounts that they process are in the microcurie range. Although the trend is away from the use of radium as a luminizing activator, there are indications that it is still used in timepieces even as tritium and 147Pm are increasingly being used for this purpose.

  15. Electromagnetic field occupational exposure: non-thermal vs. thermal effects.

    PubMed

    Israel, M; Zaryabova, V; Ivanova, M

    2013-06-01

    There are a variety of definitions for "non-thermal effects" included in different international standards. They start by the simple description that they are "effects of electromagnetic energy on a body that are not heat-related effects", passing through the very general definition related to low-level effects: "biological effects ascribed to exposure to low-level electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields, i.e. at or below the corresponding dosimetric reference levels in the frequency range covered in this standard (0 Hz-300 GHz)", and going to the concrete definition of "the stimulation of muscles, nerves, or sensory organs, vertigo or phosfenes". Here, we discuss what kind of effect does the non-thermal one has on human body and give data of measurements in different occupations with low-frequency sources of electromagnetic field such as electric power distribution systems, transformers, MRI systems and : video display units (VDUs), whereas thermal effects should not be expected. In some of these workplaces, values above the exposure limits could be found, nevertheless that they are in the term "non-thermal effects" on human body. Examples are workplaces in MRI, also in some power plants. Here, we will not comment on non-thermal effects as a result of RF or microwave exposure because there are not proven evidence about the existance of such effects and mechanisms for them are not clear.

  16. Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, François; Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Silvente, Eric; Grosjean, Jérome

    2014-07-01

    The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities by field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4 mg/m(3), 15.4 μg/m(3), 14.0 μg/m(3), 247.6 μg/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1mg/m(3), 9.0 μg/m(3), 9.0 μg/m(3), 219.2 μg/m(3), respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees' skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures.

  17. Health effects of non-occupational exposure to oil extraction.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan-Gordo, Cristina; Orta-Martínez, Martí; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-04-26

    Oil extraction may cause extensive environmental impact that can affect health of populations living in surrounding areas. Large populations are potentially exposed to oil extraction related contamination through residence in areas where oil extraction is conducted, especially in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Health effects among people residentially exposed to upstream oil industry contaminants have been poorly studied. Health effects of exposure to oil related contamination have been mainly studied among cleanup workers after oil spills from tankers or offshore platforms.In this paper we aim to identify the type and extension of residential exposures related to oil extraction activities and to comment on the few health studies available. We estimated that 638 million persons in LMICs inhabit rural areas close to conventional oil reservoirs. It is relevant to specifically study people residentially exposed to upstream oil industry for the following reasons: First, persons are exposed during long periods of time to oil related contamination. Second, routes of exposure differ between workers and people living close to oil fields, who can be exposed by ingestion of contaminated waters/foods and by dermal contact with contaminated water and/or land during daily activities (e.g. bathing, agricultural activities, etc.). Third, individuals potentially more susceptible to the effect of oil related contamination and not normally occupationally exposed, such as infants, children, pregnant women, elderly or people with previous health conditions, are also exposed.There are few papers studying the potential health effects of residential exposure to oil related contamination, and most of them share important limitations. There is a need for more research through the conduct of methodologically robust studies in exposed populations worldwide. Despite the difficulties in the conduct of studies in remote areas, novel approaches, such as measurement of individual

  18. Occupational exposures to styrene in Denmark 1955-88.

    PubMed

    Jensen, A A; Breum, N O; Bacher, J; Lynge, E

    1990-01-01

    An assessment of the occupational exposure to styrene and associated chemicals in Denmark was carried out by retrieving all measurements from the archives of the Danish National Institute of Occupational Health. A total of 2,528 air samples containing styrene had been collected from 256 workplaces during the years 1955-88 and analyzed by the chemical laboratory at the Institute. The mean for all samples was 265 mg/m3. The concentration decreased from 714 mg/m3 in the early period (1955-70) to 172 mg/m3 in the late period (1981-88). Spraying and unspecified lay-up and production of boats, carriages, and stationary containers were associated with the highest concentration. A total of 34 chemicals were measured. The most frequent co-contaminant to styrene was acetone, which was measured in 2,263 samples with a mean concentration of 131 mg/m3. Dichloromethane was measured in 208 samples with a mean concentration of 51 mg/m3, xylene in 148 samples with a mean concentration of 49 mg/m3, and toluene in 116 samples with a mean concentration of 113 mg/m3. The study was undertaken to analyze historical styrene concentrations in air to aid in the selection of industrial cohorts to be included in epidemiologic studies.

  19. Paternal occupational exposures and the risk of Down syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Olshan, A F; Baird, P A; Teschke, K

    1989-01-01

    An exploratory case-control study of paternal occupation as a risk factor for Down syndrome was conducted. With the use of the British Columbia Health Surveillance Registry, 1,008 cases of live-born Down syndrome were identified for the period 1952-73. Two controls were matched to each case by using the birth files of British Columbia. Paternal occupation was obtained from the birth notice. Elevated maternal age-adjusted relative risks of Down syndrome were found for fathers employed as janitors (odds ratio [OR] = 3.26; 95% confidence interval [C.I.] = 1.02-10.44); mechanics (OR = 3.27; C.I. = 1.57-6.80); farm managers/workers (OR = 2.03; C.I. = 1.25-3.03); material-moving equipment operators (OR = 1.88; C.I. = 0.93-3.82); food processors (OR = 1.79; C.I. = 0.96-3.31); sheet-metal workers, iron workers, and other metalworkers (OR = 1.57; C.I. = 0.92-2.69); and sawmill workers (OR = 1.43; C.I. = 0.90-2.66). This large study provides new leads for further evaluation of the role of paternal exposures in the etiology of Down syndrome. PMID:2523192

  20. {sup 125}I Measurements for Occupational Exposure Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, L.; Pinhao, N. R.

    2008-08-14

    Whenever there is a risk of occupational exposure to dispersible radioactive material, it is necessary to have a monitoring program to assess the effective dose arising from the intake of radionuclides by workers. In this paper we present our experience in bioassay measurements of {sup 125}I in urine samples of workers using high resolution gamma spectrometry. For a 24-hour excretion period, we found activity values of the order of one Bq and estimated the committed effective doses to be less than one {mu}Sv. Although very small, these values led to a re-evaluation and improvement of the laboratory safety conditions. We discuss the calibration procedure followed for the activity measurements, the estimation of the uncertainty in the excreted activity, the calculation of detection and quantification limits and estimation of performance indicators. Aspects regarding the spectral analysis, true coincidence summing and matrix effects are also considered.

  1. Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma by exposure to Lathyrus sativus flour.

    PubMed

    Antón Gironés, M; de la Hoz Caballer, B; Muñoz Martín, T; Cuevas Agustín, M; Sánchez-Cano, M

    2005-01-01

    We report the case of a 42-year-old non-smoking man, who had worked as a carpenter for 6 years and who reported a history of rhinorrhea, paroxysmal sneezing, nasocular pruritus, lacrimation, wheezing and dyspnea attacks while preparing a mixture to seal the junctures between wooden panels. Allergy study consisted of skin prick testing (SPT) to inhalants, foods and Lathyrus sativus flour (LSF) extract, specific bronchial provocation test with LSF extract, cytological analysis of sputum, specific IgE antibodies against LSF, and histamine releasing test with dilutions (1:5, 1:25, 1:125, 1:625) of LSF. The results demonstrated occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma due to LSF exposure. We provide a review of published reports to date.

  2. Occupational Radiation Exposure Analysis of US ITER DCLL TBM

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, Brad J; Cadwallader, Lee C; Dagher, Mohamad

    2007-08-01

    This report documents an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis that was performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for anticipated maintenance activities for this TBM concept and its ancillary systems. The QADMOD code was used to model the PbLi cooling loop of this TBM concept by specifying gamma ray source terms that simulated radioactive material within the piping, valves, heat exchanger, permeator, pump, drain tank, and cold trap of this cooling system. Estimates of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and the time required to perform these tasks where developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This report details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.

  3. [Occupational exposure to wood dust. Health effects and exposure limit values].

    PubMed

    Carton, M; Goldberg, M; Luce, D

    2002-04-01

    This article presents a review of the health effects of occupational exposure to wood dusts and of the data that could be used for setting occupational exposure limits for this nuisance. The causal role of wood dust in the onset of sinonasal cancers is solidly established by numerous epidemiological studies, and the magnitude of the risk is particularly high for adenocarcinoma induced by exposure to hardwood dust. However, no current data allows to rule out the carcinogenic role of softwood dusts and, in the view of protecting the health of the workers, it does not seem relevant to distinguish these two types of wood. Various impairments of the lung function have been frequently associated with exposure to both 'allergenic' and 'non-allergenic' wood dusts and may occur at very low concentrations. According to the SUMER 94 and CAREX studies, about 200 000 workers are currently exposed to wood dusts in France (about 1% of the working population between 1990 and 1994). When taking into account full professional careers, the percentage of workers having been occupationally exposed can be estimated to be about 15% for men and 5% for women. Measurements performed in France between 1987 and 2000 show that exposure levels are high, about 50% of the samplings being over 1mg/m(3) (actual TWA in France). Although the studies present limits, particularly for the quantitative assessment of individual exposure levels, it seems that nonmalignant effects are susceptible to arise at the level of 1mg/m(3); a limit value of 0.5mg/m(3) would credibly allow to protect exposed workers from most of the risks of nonmalignant pulmonary effects. However, it is impossible to assure that this value will avoid the induction of sinonasal cancer, even if this level is certainly lower than the levels to which the cases of sinonasal cancers published in the literature were exposed.

  4. Interpretation of Urinary and Blood Benzene biomarkers of Exposure for Non-Occupationally Exposed Individuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-occupational exposure to benzene occurs primarily through inhalation ofair impacted by motor vehicle exhaust, fuel sources, and cigarette smoke. This study relates published measurements ofbenzene biomarkers to air exposure concentrations. Benzene has three reliable biomar...

  5. Radon levels in Romanian caves: an occupational exposure survey.

    PubMed

    Cucoş Dinu, Alexandra; Călugăr, Monica I; Burghele, Bety D; Dumitru, Oana A; Cosma, Constantin; Onac, Bogdan P

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive radon survey has been carried out in seven caves located in the western half of Romania's most significant karst regions. Touristic and non-touristic caves were investigated with the aim to provide a reliable distribution of their radon levels and evaluate the occupational exposure and associated effective doses. Radon gas concentrations were measured with long-term diffusion-type detectors during two consecutive seasons (warm and cold). All investigated caves exceed the European Union reference level of radon gas at workplaces (300 Bq/m(3)). The radon concentration in these caves ranges between 53 and 2866 Bq/m(3), reflecting particular cave topography, season-related cave ventilation, and complex tectonic and geological settings surrounding each location. Relatively homogeneous high radon levels occur in all investigated touristic caves and in Tăuşoare and Vântului along their main galleries. Except for Muierii, in all the other caves radon levels are higher during the warm season, compared to the cold one. This suggests that natural cave ventilation largely controls the underground accumulation of radon. The results reported here reveal that the occupational exposure in Urşilor, Vadu Crişului, Tăuşoare, Vântului, and Muierii caves needs to be carefully monitored. The effective doses to workers vary between an average of 0.25 and 4.39 mSv/year depending on the measuring season. The highest values were recorded in show caves, ranging from 1.15 to 6.15 mSv/year, well above the European recommended limit, thus posing a potential health hazard upon cave guides, cavers, and scientists.

  6. Occupational phthalate exposure and health outcomes among hairdressing apprentices.

    PubMed

    Kolena, B; Petrovičová, I; Šidlovská, M; Pilka, T; Neuschlová, M; Valentová, I; Rybanský, L'; Trnovec, T

    2016-11-16

    We studied occupational exposure to phthalates from first-morning-void urine sample of hairdressing apprentices by HPLC-MS/MS analyses and association with health status. Metabolites of mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP) were detected in all urine samples, followed by metabolites mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) and mono(2-etylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) occurring in 97.06% and 86.76% of samples, respectively. Positive associations for females were observed between MnBP and fat-free mass index (FFMI) and age; negative associations were found between MEHP, MEOHP, MEHHP, sum of MEHP, MEHHP, MEOHP and vital capacity and also between MEHP and forced vital capacity (FVC of predicted value (PV)). Lengths of exposure were associated to MnBP, MEHHP, and MEP. We also documented positive associations between anthropometry (body mass index, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), FFMI, fat mass index) and pulmonary function FVC% of PV for females and negative associations between WHtR, waist-to-hip ratio, FFMI and ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) to FVC (FEV1/FVC). We assume that factors of occupational environment of hairdressing apprentices are affected by phthalates and resulted in negative outcomes in breathing mechanism and influence of body composition. Adipose tissue could play role as confounding factor in urine excretion of phthalates because of their lipid solubility and accumulation.

  7. Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids: new postexposure prophylaxis recommendations. United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Cuny, E; Carpenter, W M

    1998-04-01

    Dental health care professionals continue to suffer exposure incidents from instruments contaminated with blood and/or body fluids from patients. Each of these cases requires that a rigid protocol be followed for their evaluation. New information regarding the risk factors for HIV-seroconversion following an exposure incident have been identified. Recent data has demonstrated that a 79 percent reduction in disease transmission may be possible with a new combination drug therapy. The anti-retroviral drugs included in this new regimen are now standard in the management of occupational exposure to HIV. Several factors set dentistry apart from other health care occupations, and these differences appear to have an effect on the risks associated with occupational exposures. This article explores these risk factors and the new recommendations for postexposure care.

  8. Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, François Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Clerc, Frédéric; Chollot, Alain; Silvente, Eric; Grosjean, Jérome

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the five fluorescent lamp recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are mercury vapors and dust containing lead and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels were correlated with steps and processes. • All the stages and processes are concerned by worrying levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities by field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4 mg/m{sup 3}, 15.4 μg/m{sup 3}, 14.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 247.6 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1 mg/m{sup 3}, 9.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 9.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 219.2 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees’ skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures.

  9. Development of occupational exposure limits for the Hanford tank farms.

    PubMed

    Still, Kenneth R; Gardner, Donald E; Snyder, Robert; Anderson, Thomas J; Honeyman, James O; Timchalk, Charles

    2010-04-01

    Production of plutonium for the United States' nuclear weapons program from the 1940s to the 1980s generated 53 million gallons of radioactive chemical waste, which is stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State. Recent attempts to begin the retrieval and treatment of these wastes require moving the waste to more modern tanks and result in potential exposure of the workers to unfamiliar odors emanating from headspace in the tanks. Given the unknown risks involved, workers were placed on supplied air respiratory protection. CH2MHILL, the managers of the Hanford site tank farms, asked an Independent Toxicology Panel (ITP) to assist them in issues relating to an industrial hygiene and risk assessment problem. The ITP was called upon to help determine the risk of exposure to vapors from the tanks, and in general develop a strategy for solution of the problem. This paper presents the methods used to determine the chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) and the resultant development of screening values and Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for these COPCs. A total of 1826 chemicals were inventoried and evaluated. Over 1500 chemicals were identified in the waste tanks headspaces and more than 600 of these were assigned screening values; 72 of these compounds were recommended for AOEL development. Included in this list of 72 were 57 COPCs identified by the ITP and of these 47 were subsequently assigned AOELs. An exhaustive exposure assessment strategy was developed by the CH2MHILL industrial hygiene department to evaluate these COPCs.

  10. Occupational cocaine exposure of crime laboratory personnel preparing training aids for a military working dog program.

    PubMed

    Gehlhausen, Jay M; Klette, Kevin L; Stout, Peter R; Given, JoAnn

    2003-10-01

    The potential for passive cocaine exposure was evaluated in crime laboratory employees preparing training aids for a military working dog program (MWD). The primary goal of the study was to elucidate the routes of exposure and implement procedural changes that would minimize this risk. Several work environments and laboratory procedures were examined by monitoring personal breathing zones (PBZ), ambient airborne cocaine levels in the laboratory spaces, and urinary levels of the primary cocaine metabolite, benzoylecgonine. The study was performed initially using current laboratory procedures to establish a baseline and to identify potential sources of exposure. A subsequent study was performed to determine the effectiveness of the follow-up procedure in reducing exposure. As a result of the changes, the 8-h time weighted averages (TWAs) were 40 to 80% lower in the follow-up study as compared to the baseline assessment. Dermal absorption and PBZ inhalation of cocaine during manufacture were likely the most significant source of cocaine exposure. Ambient airborne cocaine may have also contributed to the total exposure, but for most observations, the concentrations were significantly less than those determined from PBZ monitoring. The maximum ambient cocaine concentration was 0.0144 mg/m(3) compared to a maximum of 0.4004 mg/m(3) observed during PBZ monitoring. Occupational exposure decreased in the follow-up study because of the proper use of personal protective equipment and improvements in engineering controls.

  11. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  12. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  13. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  14. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. Link to an... execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear criticality: Preservation of...

  15. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and...

  16. Styrene use and occupational exposure in the plastics industry.

    PubMed

    Tossavainen, A

    1978-01-01

    The commercial production of styrene was started in the 1930s. Currently 7 million tons of styrene a year is made worldwide by the catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene or by a process in which styrene is produced as a coproduct with propylene oxide. An estimated 62% of the styrene monomer is consumed in the manufacture of polystyrene, 12% in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resins, 17% in styrene-butadiene rubber and latex, 7% in unsaturated polyester resins, and 2% in other applications. Occupational exposure to styrene occurs in monomer production and polymerization plants, during the fabrication of plastic products from monomeric or partly prepolymerized styrene, and during the transportation and handling of liquid styrene. Due to unreacted residual monomer or thermal degradation of the polymer, low concentrations of styrene can be detected during the use of plastic products. The most extensive and intensive exposure occurs in the reinforced plastics industry, in which over 200,000 workers are exposed to a styrene concentration typically ranging from 20 to 300 ppm.

  17. Indoor air quality and occupational exposures at a bus terminal.

    PubMed

    El-Fadel, Mutasem; El-Hougeiri, Nisrine

    2003-07-01

    This article presents an assessment of indoor air quality at a bus terminal. For this purpose, field surveys were conducted, and air samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of selected indoor air quality indicators. Mathematical modeling was performed to simulate bus emission rates, occupational exposure, and ventilation requirements to maintain acceptable indoor air quality. A sensitivity analysis based on literature-derived emission rates estimates was conducted to evaluate the effect of seasonal temperature changes within the terminal. Control measures to improve indoor air quality at the terminal are also outlined. While carbon monoxide concentrations were below the corresponding American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) standards under normal operating conditions, they exceeded the 8-hr recommended average standard at peak hours and the World Health Organization (WHO) standard at all times. Total suspended particulates levels, on the other hand, were above the 24-hr American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers' (ASHRAE) standard. Carbon monoxide emission rates that were estimated using the transient mass balance model correlated relatively well with those reported in the literature. Modeling results showed that the natural ventilation rate should be at least doubled for acceptable indoor air quality. While pollutant exposure levels depended on the individual activity patterns and the pollutant concentration, pollutant emissions rates within the terminal were affected mostly by the temperature with a 20-25 percent variation in carbon monoxide levels due to changes in seasonal temperatures.

  18. Setting evidence-based occupational exposure limits for manganese.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Ruth; Ashdown, Lini; McGough, Doreen; Huici-Montagud, Alicia; Levy, Leonard

    2017-01-01

    In 2004, a review by the Institute of Environment and Health (IEH) made recommendations on occupational exposure limits (OELs) for manganese and its inorganic compounds for inhalable and respirable fractions respectively. These OELs were based on a detailed comprehensive evaluation of all the scientific data available at that time. Since then, more published studies have become available and a number of occupational standard-setting committees (EU SCOEL, US ACGIH-TLV, and German MAK) have proposed OEL's for manganese and its inorganic compounds that are somewhat lower that those proposed in the 2004 review. Based on current understanding, the key toxicological and human health issues that are likely to influence a health-based recommendation relate to: neurotoxicology; reproductive and developmental toxicology; and mutagenicity/carcinogenicity. Of these, it is generally considered that neurotoxicity presents the most sensitive endpoint. As such, many of the studies that have been reported since the IEH review have sought to use those neurofunctional tests that appear to be particularly sensitive at identifying the subtle neurological changes thought to associate with manganese toxicity. These recent studies have, however, continued to be limited to a significant extent by reliance on cross-sectional designs and also by use of unreliable exposure estimation methods. Consequently the strength of the potential association between manganese exposure and these subtle subclinical cognitive or neuromotor changes is still poorly characterised and the relevance of these minor differences in terms of either their clinical or quality of life consequences remains unknown. Based upon the overall evidence, it is concluded that the 8-h time weighted averages (TWA) for respirable (0.05mg/m(3) as Mn) and inhalable (0.2mg/m(3) as Mn) fractions as recommended by the SCOEL in 2011 are the most methodologically-sound, as they are based on the best available studies, most suited to the

  19. A case-control study of occupational sunlight exposure and renal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Karami, Sara; Colt, Joanne S; Stewart, Patricia A; Schwartz, Kendra; Davis, Faith G; Ruterbusch, Julie J; Chow, Wong-Ho; Wacholder, Sholom; Graubard, Barry I; Purdue, Mark P; Moore, Lee E

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological evidence of a relationship between vitamin D and kidney cancer risk has been inconsistent despite experimental data indicating that vitamin D and its metabolites may inhibit carcinogenesis. Previously we reported an inverse association between renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk and occupational ultraviolet (UV) exposure among European men. In this study, we examined the association between occupational UV exposure and RCC risk among US residents and investigated whether this association varied by race and sex. Lifetime occupational data for 1,217 RCC cases and 1,235 controls in a population-based case-control study, conducted from 2002 to 2007, were assessed for occupational UV exposure. We evaluated exposure metrics in quartiles based on control exposure levels and calculated associations between RCC risk and occupational UV exposure using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for sex, race, body mass index, smoking, hypertension, center, education, family history of cancer and dietary vitamin D intake. A general pattern of decreasing RCC risk with increasing UV exposure was observed. Cases had significantly lower cumulative occupational UV exposure than controls (fourth quartile vs. first: odds ratio = 0.74 [95% confidence interval = 0.56-0.99], p-trend = 0.03). Similar results were observed for other UV exposure metrics. The association with occupational UV exposure was stronger for women than for men, but did not differ by race. Our findings suggest an inverse association between occupational UV exposure and RCC, particularly among women. Given the sex finding discrepancies in this study versus our previous study, additional research is need to clarify whether the protective effects of occupational UV exposure and RCC risk are real.

  20. Incidence of cancer in persons with occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Guénel, P; Raskmark, P; Andersen, J B; Lynge, E

    1993-01-01

    Several studies suggest that work in electrical occupations is associated with an increased risk of cancer, mainly leukaemia and brain tumours. These studies may, however, not be representative if there is a publication bias where mainly positive results are reported. To study an unselected population the incidence of cancer was followed up over a 17 year period (1970-87) in a cohort of 2.8 million Danes aged 20-64 years in 1970. Each person was classified by his or her industry and occupation in 1970. Before tabulation of the data on incidence of cancer, each industry-occupation group was coded for potential exposure to magnetic fields above the threshold 0.3 microT. Some 154,000 men were considered intermittently exposed and 18,000 continuously exposed. The numbers for women were 79,000 and 4000 respectively. Intermittent exposure was not associated with an increased risk of leukaemia, brain tumours, or melanoma. Men with continuous exposure, however, had an excess risk of leukaemia (observed (obs) 39, expected (exp) 23.80, obs/exp 1.64, 95% CI 1.20-2.24) with equal contributions from acute and other leukaemias. These men had no excess risk of brain tumours or melanoma. A risk for breast cancer was suggested in exposed men but not in women. The risk for leukaemia in continuously exposed men was mainly in electricians in installation works and iron foundry workers. Besides electromagnetic fields other exposures should be considered as possible aetiological agents. PMID:8398864

  1. Use of job-exposure matrices to estimate occupational exposure to pesticides: A review.

    PubMed

    Carles, Camille; Bouvier, Ghislaine; Lebailly, Pierre; Baldi, Isabelle

    2017-03-01

    The health effects of pesticides have been extensively studied in epidemiology, mainly in agricultural populations. However, pesticide exposure assessment remains a key methodological issue for epidemiological studies. Besides self-reported information, expert assessment or metrology, job-exposure matrices still appear to be an interesting tool. We reviewed all existing matrices assessing occupational exposure to pesticides in epidemiological studies and described the exposure parameters they included. We identified two types of matrices, (i) generic ones that are generally used in case-control studies and document broad categories of pesticides in a large range of jobs, and (ii) specific matrices, developed for use in agricultural cohorts, that generally provide exposure metrics at the active ingredient level. The various applications of these matrices in epidemiological studies have proven that they are valuable tools to assess pesticide exposure. Specific matrices are particularly promising for use in agricultural cohorts. However, results obtained with matrices have rarely been compared with those obtained with other tools. In addition, the external validity of the given estimates has not been adequately discussed. Yet, matrices would help in reducing misclassification and in quantifying cumulated exposures, to improve knowledge about the chronic health effects of pesticides.

  2. The contribution of occupational factors to social inequalities in health: findings from the national French SUMER survey.

    PubMed

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; Chastang, Jean-François; David, Simone; Kelleher, Cecily

    2008-12-01

    Social inequalities in health have long been demonstrated, but the understanding of these inequalities remains unclear. Work and its related occupational factors may contribute to these inequalities. The objective of this study was to study the contribution of work factors using an integrated approach (including all types of exposures) to social inequalities in three health outcomes: poor self-reported health, long sickness absence, and work injury. Respondents were 14,241 men and 10,245 women drawn from a survey of the national French working population (response rate: 96.5%). Work factors included job characteristics, and occupational exposures of the physical, ergonomic, biological, chemical, and psychosocial work environment. All work factors were measured through expert evaluation by occupational physicians, except psychosocial work factors, which were self-reported. Strong social gradients were found for all work factors, except for psychological demands, workplace bullying, and aggression from the public. Marked social gradients were also observed for the health outcomes studied, blue collar workers being more likely to report poor self-reported health, long sickness absence, and work injury. The social differences in health were reduced strongly after adjustment for work factors (psychological demands excluded) by 24-58% according to sex and health outcomes. The strongest impacts were found for decision latitude, ergonomic, physical, and chemical exposures, as well as for work schedules. A detailed analysis allowed us to identify more precisely the contributing occupational factors. It suggests that concerted prevention of occupational risk factors would be useful not only to improve health at work, but also to reduce social inequalities in health.

  3. The management of occupational exposures to blood and saliva in dental practice.

    PubMed

    Palmer, G D; Fleming, G J

    2000-09-01

    Accidental injuries when handling sharp or rotating instruments can allow inoculation of a dental team member by the patient's blood or saliva. The risk of transmission of HIV from occupational exposure among dental workers is low and to date no occupational exposure has resulted in HIV transmission. However, hepatitis B and C have a high morbidity and mortality and are more infectious than HIV. This paper demonstrates how occupational exposures to blood and saliva could be managed in general dental practice and outlines the legal responsibilities of a dentist in the management of these exposures.

  4. Diesel exhaust, solvents, and other occupational exposures as risk factors for wheeze among farmers.

    PubMed

    Hoppin, Jane A; Umbach, David M; London, Stephanie J; Alavanja, Michael C R; Sandler, Dale P

    2004-06-15

    Farmers engage in activities that result in exposure to diesel exhaust, solvents, welding fumes, and other respiratory irritants. Using the Agricultural Health Study, a cohort of pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina, we evaluated the odds of wheeze associated with nonpesticide occupational exposures. We used logistic regression models controlling for age, state, smoking, and history of asthma or atopy to evaluate odds of wheeze in the past year among the 20898 farmers who provided complete information on all covariates. Driving diesel tractors was associated with elevated odds of wheeze (odds ratio = 1.31; 95% confidence interval = 1.13, 1.52); the odds ratio for driving gasoline tractors was 1.11 (95% confidence interval = 1.02, 1.21). A duration-response relationship was observed for driving diesel tractors but not for driving gasoline tractors. Activities involving solvent exposure, including painting and use of solvents for cleaning, were associated with an increased odds of wheeze in a duration-dependent fashion. The highest odds of wheeze for farm activities were for daily painting (odds ratio = 1.82; 95% confidence interval = 0.89, 3.73), an indication of daily solvent exposure. These results add to the growing body of evidence of adverse respiratory effects of diesel exposure on the lung and suggest exposure to solvents may contribute as well.

  5. Quantifying the mediating effects of smoking and occupational exposures in the relation between education and lung cancer: the ICARE study.

    PubMed

    Menvielle, Gwenn; Franck, Jeanna-Eve; Radoï, Loredana; Sanchez, Marie; Févotte, Joëlle; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Stücker, Isabelle; Luce, Danièle

    2016-12-01

    Smoking only partly explains the higher lung cancer incidence observed among socially deprived people. Occupational exposures may account for part of these inequalities, but this issue has been little investigated. We investigated the extent to which smoking and occupational exposures to asbestos, silica and diesel motor exhaust mediated the association between education and lung cancer incidence in men. We analyzed data from a large French population-based case-control study (1976 lung cancers, 2648 controls). Detailed information on lifelong tobacco consumption and occupational exposures to various carcinogens was collected. We conducted inverse probability-weighted marginal structural models. A strong association was observed between education and lung cancer. The indirect effect through smoking varied by educational level, with the strongest indirect effect observed for those with the lowest education (OR = 1.34 (1.14-1.57)). The indirect effect through occupational exposures was substantial among men with primary (OR = 1.22 (1.15-1.30) for asbestos and silica) or vocational secondary education (OR = 1.18 (1.12-1.25)). The contribution of smoking to educational differences in lung cancer incidence ranged from 22 % (10-34) for men with primary education to 31 % (-3 to 84) for men with a high school degree. The contribution of occupational exposures to asbestos and silica ranged from 15 % (10-20) for men with a high school degree to 20 % (13-28) for men with vocational secondary education. Our results highlight the urgent need for public health policies that aim at decreasing exposure to carcinogens at work, in addition to tobacco control policies, if we want to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in the cancer field.

  6. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Apostoli, P.; Bartoli, D.; Alessio, L.; Buchet, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to assess reliable biological indicators for monitoring the occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs), taking into account the possible confounding role of arsenicals present in food and of the element present in drinking water. METHODS: 51 Glass workers exposed to As trioxide were monitored by measuring dust in the breathing zone, with personal air samplers. Urine samples at the end of work shift were analysed for biological monitoring. A control group of 39 subjects not exposed to As, and eight volunteers who drank water containing about 45 micrograms/l iAs for a week were also considered. Plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of total As in air and urine samples, whereas the urinary As species (trivalent, As3; pentavalent, As5; monomethyl arsonic acid, MMA; dimethyl arsinic acid, DMA; arsenobetaine, AsB) were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) RESULTS: Environmental concentrations of As in air varied widely (mean 84 micrograms/m3, SD 61, median 40) and also the sum of urinary iAs MMA and DMA, varied among the groups of exposed subjects (mean 106 micrograms/l, SD 84, median 65). AsB was the most excreted species (34% of total As) followed by DMA (28%), MMA (26%), and As3 + As5 (12%). In the volunteers who drank As in the water the excretion of MMA and DMA increased (from a median of 0.5 to 5 micrograms/day for MMA and from 4 to 13 micrograms/day for DMA). The best correlations between As in air and its urinary species were found for total iAs and As3 + As5. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid the effect of As from sources other than occupation on urinary species of the element, in particular on DMA, it is proposed that urinary As3 + As5 may an indicator for monitoring the exposure to iAs. For concentrations of 10 micrograms/m3 the current environmental limit for iAs, the limit for urinary As3 + As5 was calculated to be around 5 micrograms/l, even if the wide

  7. Occupational exposure to mercury in dentistry and dentist mortality.

    PubMed

    McComb, D

    1997-05-01

    In response to public concern, Health Canada recently conducted a review of amalgam safety and released a position statement entitled The Safety of Dental Amalgam. Essentially, the department has concluded that the levels of mercury absorbed by the body due to the release of mercury vapor from amalgam restorations, while detectable, do not approach those recognized to cause illness. It has therefore confirmed that amalgam restorations can be used safely in most patients, with some notable caveats. Despite Health Canada's position statement in support of amalgam, patient doubts about amalgam safety remain, including the tenuous hypothesized link between amalgam restorations and specific diseases. This article reviews the available studies of dentist mortality to identify possible links between mercury exposure and negative health effects. A lack of evidence to suggest a detrimental health outcome in dentists who are occupationally exposed to higher levels of mercury than their patients, and are known to have higher levels of mercury in their blood, provides an important reassurance concerning the safety of amalgam. The reviewed data indicates that the 10 leading causes of death in the United States and Canada are the same for both dentist and non dentist population groups, and that the percentage of deaths by the same cause are remarkably similar. By 1975, the year of the most recent U.S. study, the average age at death for white male dentists was about three years higher than for all adult white males. Although suicide standard mortality rates are known to be higher for dentists, suicide deaths have also been shown to be a factor in many other occupations, particularly those where there is easy access to drugs. Although updated actuarial data for dentist mortality are needed, the available data indicate no reduction in the life expectancy of practising dentists, nor any specific or disproportionate rates of disease associated with high mercury exposure. In fact

  8. Industry's perception and use of occupational exposure limits.

    PubMed

    Topping, M D; Williams, C R; Devine, J M

    1998-08-01

    Market research was carried out to determine industry's perception of occupational exposure limits (OELs) and the extent to which they influence the selection of measures to control exposure. Telephone interviews were carried out with 1000 randomly selected users of chemicals, 400 from establishments with some use of chemicals and 600 from establishments with chemicals in daily use. 150 interviews were also carried out with Trade Union Health and Safety Representatives. The interviews covered basic information on chemicals used, sources of information, risk reduction measures used and understanding of COSHH and OELs. Most respondents came from firms with 10 employees or less (75%, all user group; 57%, heavy user group), closely reflecting the profile of British industry. In contrast, most (77%) Trade Union Health and Safety Representatives came from firms with at least 100 employees. Respondents in the all user group were drawn from across the whole range of industrial activity, whereas the heavy users were concentrated in manufacturing. The results showed that in making decisions on what control measures to use most users rely heavily on information from suppliers and personal experience and rather less on information from sources such as Trade Associations and HSE. Most respondents reported that steps were taken to protect employees. The use of personal protective equipment featured highly, followed by process controls. Little consideration was given to the possibility of substitution. Awareness of COSHH was limited with 65% of the all user group and 53% of the heavy user group being unaware of any legal requirements for establishments which manufacture or work with chemicals. Awareness of OELs was similarly limited with 19% of the all user group and 32% of the heavy user group having any real understanding. The results from Trade Union Representatives showed that overall they are somewhat better informed than chemical users in the small firms surveyed.

  9. Occupational exposures worldwide and revision of international standards for protection.

    PubMed

    Czarwinski, R; Crick, M J

    2011-03-01

    United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has become the world authority on the levels and effects of ionising radiation. Since 1975, UNSCEAR has evaluated inter alia the level of occupational exposure worldwide. Based on revised questionnaires, more detailed information is now available. The results of the last evaluation (1995-2002) will be shown in the paper. Lessons learned from the responses by UN Member States will be given, as well as an outline of plans for data collection in future cycles. The requirements for protection against exposure to ionising radiation of workers, the public and patients are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), published in 1996. As a result of a review of the BSS in 2006, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) started a process for the revision of these standards in 2007. International organisations including the joint sponsoring organisations of the BSS-IAEA, FAO, ILO, OECD/NEA, PAHO and WHO--as well as potential new joint sponsoring organisations of the revised BSS--the European Commission and UNEP-were involved from the beginning in the revision process. The paper also provides a summary of the status of the Draft Revised BSS and describes the new format. The paper focuses, in particular, on requirements for the protection of workers as well as recordkeeping requirements, which provide the legal basis for the collection of specific data; these data are of the type that can be used by UNSCEAR.

  10. Evaluation of quantification methods of occupational endotoxin exposure.

    PubMed

    Liebers, V; Raulf-Heimsoth, M; Linsel, G; Goldscheid, N; Düser, M; Stubel, H; Brüning, Th

    2007-11-01

    Endotoxin has been identified as important component of organic-dust exposure and is suspected as main cause of work-related adverse health effects in dusty areas. Although the determination of endotoxin levels by using the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay is internationally accepted, reliability and variation of values measured with this test remain a point of discussion. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine the influence of different parameters on endotoxin activity measured in airborne samples. This study thus analyzed: (a) dust filter extraction procedures, (b) storage of samples, (c) usage of different commercially available LAL assays, and (d) results of the whole blood assay (WBA) compared to the LAL test. Using a parallel sampler, 120 filters were loaded with dust at 4 different occupational settings and extracted in 2 labs using a standardized protocol. Parameters like Tween in the extraction medium, extraction volume, centrifugation speed, and material of tubes used for extraction were tested. The LAL test and the WBA were able to determine the differences in dust load of filters obtained from the settings investigated. In addition, results varied significantly with modifications in extraction procedures. Using Tween for filter extraction mainly influenced the resulting endotoxin activity. In addition, LAL test differences according to manufacturer of LAL test, extraction volume, and whether the samples are freshly processed or frozen also resulted in significant variations in the endotoxin levels. In conclusion, a reliable assessment of exposure to endotoxin activity is only possible if standard operation procedures (SOPs) for sampling and determination are established.

  11. Occupational exposure to zeranol, an animal growth promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Aw, T C; Smith, A B; Stephenson, R L; Glueck, C J

    1989-01-01

    Zeranol (3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12-Decahydro-7,14,16-trihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2 - benzoxacyclotetradecin-1-one) is a synthetic oestrogenic agent used as an animal growth promoter. The effects of occupational exposure to zeranol in 11 exposed workers from a pelletising plant and 14 nonexposed subjects were assessed. A questionnaire showed that more breast symptoms were reported by male and female plant workers compared with non-exposed subjects, although the difference was not statistically significant. Clinical assessment showed no cases of gynaecomastia in all the male participants. Blood samples analysed by high performance liquid chromatography for zeranol, its precursor zearalenone, and its main metabolites did not show any of these compounds above the laboratory limit of detection. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin, and oestradiol showed no striking differences between the exposed and the non-exposed subjects. Total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL cholesterol) levels did not significantly differ between the two groups but mean high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) levels were higher in the exposed group; this could be due to relatively high HDL cholesterol in two women exposed to zeranol or relatively low HDL cholesterol in three non-exposed men. PMID:2751933

  12. Occupational Therapy Contributions in Early Intervention: Implications for Personnel Preparation and Interprofessional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhlenhaupt, Mary; Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Schefkind, Sandra; Chandler, Barbara; Harvison, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapy provides a unique contribution in early intervention programs for families and their children from birth to 3 years old who are at risk for, or who have, identified disabilities. This article describes occupational therapy's distinct value and presents the profession's perspective on services to enhance families' caregiving…

  13. Do Social Influences Contribute to Occupational Differences in Quitting Smoking and Attitudes Toward Quitting?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Glorian; Emmons, Karen; Stoddard, Anne M.; Linnan, Laura; Avrunin, Jill

    2002-01-01

    Examined occupational differences in social influences supporting smoking cessation and their relationships to intentions and self-efficacy to quit and to quitting. Data collected from smokers at 44 worksites indicated that differing social environments contributed to differences by occupational category in smoking prevalence and smoking…

  14. Exposure-response analysis of risk of respiratory disease associated with occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Stayner, L; Smith, R; Bailer, J; Gilbert, S; Steenland, K; Dement, J; Brown, D; Lemen, R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate alternative models and estimate risk of mortality from lung cancer and asbestosis after occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos. METHODS: Data were used from a recent update of a cohort mortality study of workers in a South Carolina textile factory. Alternative exposure-response models were evaluated with Poisson regression. A model designed to evaluate evidence of a threshold response was also fitted. Lifetime risks of lung cancer and asbestosis were estimated with an actuarial approach that accounts for competing causes of death. RESULTS: A highly significant exposure-response relation was found for both lung cancer and asbestosis. The exposure-response relation for lung cancer seemed to be linear on a multiplicative scale, which is consistent with previous analyses of lung cancer and exposure to asbestos. In contrast, the exposure-response relation for asbestosis seemed to be nonlinear on a multiplicative scale in this analysis. There was no significant evidence for a threshold in models of either the lung cancer or asbestosis. The excess lifetime risk for white men exposed for 45 years at the recently revised OSHA standard of 0.1 fibre/ml was predicted to be about 5/1000 for lung cancer, and 2/1000 for asbestosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the findings from previous investigations of a strong exposure-response relation between exposure to chrysotile asbestos and mortality from lung cancer, and asbestosis. The risk estimates for lung cancer derived from this analysis are higher than those derived from other populations exposed to chrysotile asbestos. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. PMID:9423577

  15. Occupational exposures in two industrial plants devoted to the production of ammonium phosphate fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Bolívar, J P; García-Tenorio, R; Mosqueda, F; Gázquez, M J; López-Coto, I; Adame, J A; Vaca, F

    2013-03-01

    In order to fill a gap in the open literature, occupational exposures and activity concentrations have been assessed in two NORM industrial plants, located in the south-west of Spain, devoted to the production of mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP) fertilisers. The annual effective doses received by the workers from these plants are clearly below 1 mSv yr(-1) and the contribution due to external radiation is similar to that due to inhalation. The contribution to the maximum effective doses due to inhalation of particulate matter has been estimated to be about 0.12 mSv yr(-1), while the (222)Rn concentrations inside the plants are of no concern. Consequently, no additional actions or radiological protection measures need to be taken to decrease the natural radiation received by the workers in these facilities.

  16. Occupational exposures and reproductive health: 2003 Teratology Society Meeting Symposium summary.

    PubMed

    Grajewski, Barbara; Coble, Joseph B; Frazier, Linda M; McDiarmid, Melissa A

    2005-04-01

    Assuring reproductive health in the workplace challenges researchers, occupational safety and health practitioners, and clinicians. Most chemicals in the workplace have not been evaluated for reproductive toxicity. Although occupational exposure limits are established to protect 'nearly all' workers, there is little research that characterizes reproductive hazards. For researchers, improvements in epidemiologic design and exposure assessment methods are needed to conduct adequate reproductive studies. Occupational safety and health programs' qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the workplace for reproductive hazards may differ from standardized approaches used for other occupational hazards in that estimates of exposure intensity must be considered in the context of the time-dependent windows of reproductive susceptibility. Clinicians and counselors should place the risk estimate into context by emphasizing the limitations of the available knowledge and the qualitative nature of the exposure estimates, as well as what is known about other non-occupational risk factors for adverse outcomes. This will allow informed decision-making about the need for added protections or alternative duty assignment when a hazard cannot be eliminated. These policies should preserve a worker's income, benefits, and seniority. Applying hazard control technologies and hazard communication training can minimize a worker's risk. Chemical reproductive hazard training is required for workers by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Hazard Communication Standard. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has formed a National Occupational Research Agenda Team to promote communication and partnering among reproductive toxicologists, clinicians and epidemiologists, to improve reproductive hazard exposure assessment and management, and to encourage needed research.

  17. New biomarkers of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Albrecht; Spickenheuer, Anne; Straif, Kurt; Rihs, Hans-Peter; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Scherenberg, Michael; Dettbarn, Gerhard; Angerer, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Michael; Brüning, Thomas; Jacob, Jürgen; Pesch, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are metabolized in a complex manner. Although biological activity is associated with diol-epoxide formation, phenolic metabolites have predominantly been used in human biomonitoring. In this study monohydroxylated and new metabolites were characterized as biomarkers for occupational PAH exposure. In 97 male workers, personal exposure to 16 airborne PAH compounds was measured during shift. In postshift urine, 1-hydroxypyrene and 1,6- and 1,8-dihydroxypyrene (1-OHP, DiOHP) were determined as metabolites of pyrene (P), and the sum of 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 9-hydroxyphenanthrenes (OHPHE), and PHE-dihydrodiols (PHED) as metabolites of phenanthrene (PHE). The referent group comprised 21 nonsmoking construction workers. Median (interquartile range) shift concentrations of airborne P and PHE were 1.46 (0.62-4.05 microg/m(3)) and 10.9 (3.69-23.77 microg/m(3)), respectively. The corresponding parameters were 3.86 (2.08-7.44) microg/g creatinine (crn) for 1-OHP, 0.66 (0.17-1.65) microg/g crn for DiOHP, 11.44 (5.21-34.76) microg/g crn for OHPHE, and 12.28 (3.3-97.76) microg/g crn for PHED in PAH-exposed workers. The median levels of 1-OHP and OHPHE were 0.09 (0.08-0.17 microg/m(3)) and 0.59 (0.45-1.39 microg/m(3)), respectively, in the referents. PHE correlated significantly with OHPHE and PHED, and P with 1-OHP but not with DiOHP. Under a doubling of PHE, OHPHE increased by a factor of 1.56 and PHED by 1.57. With a doubling of P, 1-OHP rose by 1.31 and DiOHP by 1.27. P is predominantly metabolized into 1-OHP, whereas PHE is metabolized equally into OHPHE and PHED. Thus metabolites of PHE were found as reliable biomarkers for PAH exposure.

  18. Renal cancer risk and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and plastics

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Stewart, Patricia A.; Zaridze, David; Matveev, Vsevolod; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helena; Bencko, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mates, Dana; Gromiec, Jan P.; Sobotka, Roman; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rothman, Nathaniel; Moore, Lee E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and certain plastic monomers increased renal cell carcinomas (RCC) risk. Methods Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate RCC risk in relation to exposure. Results No association between RCC risk and having ever been occupationally exposed to any polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or plastics was observed. Duration of exposure and average exposure also showed no association with risk. Suggestive positive associations between RCC risk and cumulative exposure to styrene (P-trend = 0.02) and acrylonitrile (P-trend = 0.06) were found. Cumulative exposure to petroleum/gasoline engine emissions was inversely associated with risk (P-trend = 0.02). Conclusions Results indicate a possible association between occupational styrene and acrylonitrile exposure and RCC risk. Additional studies are needed to replicate findings, as this is the first time these associations have been reported and they may be due to chance. PMID:21270648

  19. The relationship between exposure to dementia-related aggressive behavior and occupational stress among Japanese care workers.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Hiromi; Harvath, Theresa A

    2015-04-01

    Aggressive behaviors (ABs) related to dementia in older adults have been associated with increased occupational stress among care workers (CWs) in the United States and other Western countries, and they may contribute to staff turnover. However, few studies related to this issue have been conducted in Japan. The current cross-sectional study examined (a) the relationship between CW frequency of exposure to dementia-related ABs and CW occupational stress (i.e., job burnout, job satisfaction, and intention to resign), and (b) mediator effects between frequency of exposure to dementia-related ABs and CW occupational stress. A total of 137 CWs in dementia special care units from 10 nursing homes in Japan were recruited as study participants. Major findings indicate that the relationship between exposure to ABs and work outcomes was fully mediated by the appraisal of stress. Findings from this study may be used to develop culturally relevant training and educational interventions targeted at reducing ABs in individuals with dementia and occupational stress from exposure to ABs among CWs.

  20. Risk of hypospadias in relation to maternal occupational exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Vrijheid, M; Armstrong, B; Dolk, H; van Tongeren, M; Botting, B

    2003-01-01

    Background: Reported rises in the prevalence of hypospadias and other abnormalities of the male reproductive system may be a result of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals. Aims: To analyse the relation between risk of hypospadias and maternal occupation, particularly with regard to exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Methods: Data (1980–96) from the National Congenital Anomaly System (NCAS) were used to analyse the proportion of all congenital anomaly cases (n = 35 962) which were notified with hypospadias (n = 3471) by occupational codes (348 individual job titles) and by categories of exposure to potential EDCs from a job exposure matrix. Results: Five individual occupations (of 348) showed nominally statistically significant excesses, none of which had possible or probable exposure to potential EDCs. Odds ratios for "possible" or "probable" compared to "unlikely" exposure to potential EDCs did not show statistically significant increases in any of the EDC categories after adjustment for social class of the mother and father, nor was there evidence of an upward trend in risk with likelihood of exposure. In the 1992–96 time period odds ratios were increased for hairdressers (the largest group exposed to potential EDCs) and for probable exposure to phthalates (of which hairdressers form the largest group) before social class adjustment. Conclusions: There was little evidence for a relation between risk of hypospadias and maternal occupation or occupational exposure to potential EDCs, but as the exposure classification was necessarily crude, these findings should be interpreted with caution. PMID:12883014

  1. Sensory irritation as a basis for setting occupational exposure limits.

    PubMed

    Brüning, Thomas; Bartsch, Rüdiger; Bolt, Hermann Maximillian; Desel, Herbert; Drexler, Hans; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Hartwig, Andrea; Jäckh, Rudolf; Leibold, Edgar; Pallapies, Dirk; Rettenmeier, Albert W; Schlüter, Gerhard; Stropp, Gisela; Sucker, Kirsten; Triebig, Gerhard; Westphal, Götz; van Thriel, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    There is a need of guidance on how local irritancy data should be incorporated into risk assessment procedures, particularly with respect to the derivation of occupational exposure limits (OELs). Therefore, a board of experts from German committees in charge of the derivation of OELs discussed the major challenges of this particular end point for regulatory toxicology. As a result, this overview deals with the question of integrating results of local toxicity at the eyes and the upper respiratory tract (URT). Part 1 describes the morphology and physiology of the relevant target sites, i.e., the outer eye, nasal cavity, and larynx/pharynx in humans. Special emphasis is placed on sensory innervation, species differences between humans and rodents, and possible effects of obnoxious odor in humans. Based on this physiological basis, Part 2 describes a conceptual model for the causation of adverse health effects at these targets that is composed of two pathways. The first, "sensory irritation" pathway is initiated by the interaction of local irritants with receptors of the nervous system (e.g., trigeminal nerve endings) and a downstream cascade of reflexes and defense mechanisms (e.g., eyeblinks, coughing). While the first stages of this pathway are thought to be completely reversible, high or prolonged exposure can lead to neurogenic inflammation and subsequently tissue damage. The second, "tissue irritation" pathway starts with the interaction of the local irritant with the epithelial cell layers of the eyes and the URT. Adaptive changes are the first response on that pathway followed by inflammation and irreversible damages. Regardless of these initial steps, at high concentrations and prolonged exposures, the two pathways converge to the adverse effect of morphologically and biochemically ascertainable changes. Experimental exposure studies with human volunteers provide the empirical basis for effects along the sensory irritation pathway and thus, "sensory

  2. Biological Monitoring of Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at an Electric Steel Foundry in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Campo, Laura; Hanchi, Mariem; Olgiati, Luca; Polledri, Elisa; Consonni, Dario; Zrafi, Ines; Saidane-Mosbahi, Dalila; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    Occupational exposures during iron and steel founding have been classified as carcinogenic to humans, and the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this industrial setting may contribute to cancer risk. The occupational exposure to PAHs was assessed in 93 male workers at an electric steel foundry in Tunisia by biomonitoring, with the aims of characterizing the excretion profile and investigating the influence of job title and personal characteristics on the biomarkers. Sixteen 2-6 ring unmetabolized PAHs (U-PAHs) and eight hydroxylated PAH metabolites (OHPAHs) were analyzed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Among U-PAHs, urinary naphthalene (U-NAP) was the most abundant compound (median level: 643ng l(-1)), followed by phenanthrene (U-PHE, 18.5ng l(-1)). Urinary benzo[a]pyrene (U-BaP) level was <0.30ng l(-1) Among OHPAHs, 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-OHNAP) was the most abundant metabolite (2.27 µg l(-1)). Median 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPYR) was 0.52 µg l(-1) Significant correlations among urinary biomarkers were observed, with Pearson's r ranging from 0.177 to 0.626. 1-OHPYR was correlated to benzo[a]pyrene, but not to five- and six-rings PAHs. A multiple linear regression model showed that job title was a significant determinant for almost all U-PAHs. In particular, employees in the steel smelter workshop had higher levels of high-boiling U-PAHs and lower levels of low-boiling U-PAHs than those of workers with other job titles. Among OHPAHs, this model was significant only for naphthols and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-OHPHE). Smoking status was a significant predictor for almost all biomarkers. Among all analytes, U-PHE and 1-OHPHE were the less affected by tobacco smoke, and they were significantly correlated with both low- and high-molecular-weight compounds, and their levels were related to job titles, so they could be proposed as suitable

  3. Occupational dermal exposure to nanoparticles and nano-enabled products: Part 2, exploration of exposure processes and methods of assessment.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Derk H; Spaan, Suzanne; Roff, Martin; Sleeuwenhoek, Anne; Tuinman, Ilse; Goede, Henk; van Duuren-Stuurman, Birgit; Filon, Francesca Larese; Bello, Dhimiter; Cherrie, John W

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decade, the primary focus of nanotoxicology and nanoenvironmental health and safety efforts has been largely on inhalation exposure to engineered nanomaterials, at the production stage, and much less on considering risks along the life cycle of nano-enabled products. Dermal exposure to nanomaterials and its health impact has been studied to a much lesser extent, and mostly in the context of intentional exposure to nano-enabled products such as in nanomedicine, cosmetics and personal care products. How concerning is dermal exposure to such nanoparticles in the context of occupational exposures? When and how should we measure it? In the first of a series of two papers (Larese Filon et al., 2016), we focused our attention on identifying conditions or situations, i.e. a combination of nanoparticle physico-chemical properties, skin barrier integrity, and occupations with high prevalence of skin disease, which deserve further investigation. This second paper focuses on the broad question of dermal exposure assessment to nanoparticles and attempts to give an overview of the mechanisms of occupational dermal exposure to nanoparticles and nano-enabled products and explores feasibility and adequacy of various methods of quantifying dermal exposure to NOAA. We provide here a conceptual framework for screening, prioritization, and assessment of dermal exposure to NOAA in occupational settings, and integrate it into a proposed framework for risk assessment.

  4. Navy Occupational Health Information Management System (NOHIMS). Environmental Exposure Module. Users’ Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-16

    NIOSH: National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. o NOHIMS: Naval Occupational Health Information Management System o OSHA... Management System (NOHIMS) Environmental Exposure fEE) Module User’s Manual 7. Authar(s) Mitre Corporation 9. Performing Organization...P i ^ 5037? 101 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 1. REPORT NO. DOD/SW/MT-8 8/017L 4. Title and Subtitle Navy Occupational Health Information

  5. Base Level Guide for the Occupational Exposure to Isocyanates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    methylaminomethyl) anthracene (MAMA) for the vapor phase of isocyanates. The required flow rate is 1 L/min with a maximum volume of 15 liters. This... anthracene MDI methylene diphenyl diisocyanate OE Occupation and Environmental Health Department OSHA Occupational Safety and Health

  6. 29 CFR 1915.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 1915.1450 Section 1915.1450 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... chemicals in laboratories. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section...

  7. 29 CFR 1915.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 1915.1450 Section 1915.1450 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... chemicals in laboratories. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section...

  8. Occupational and environmental exposure correlates of adverse live-birth outcomes among 1032 US Navy women.

    PubMed

    Hourani, L; Hilton, S

    2000-12-01

    The integration of women into non-traditional military occupations raises questions concerning the impact of such jobs on women's reproductive health. This study examines the extent to which US Navy women in their reproductive years report exposures to potential occupational and environmental hazards, and the degree to which such exposures are associated with self-reported adverse live-birth outcomes. Data from a survey of pregnant Navy women provided both maternal and paternal exposure information on more than 1000 active-duty women. Self-reported exposures to heavy metals, pesticides, petroleum products, and other chemicals were associated with adverse live-birth outcomes at the bivariate level. Only a father's exposure to pesticides at work predicted an adverse live-birth outcome (preterm delivery) in multivariate models. Maternal occupational exposures may exert their influence through maternal health and/or pregnancy complications and may act as mediators of health-reproductive outcome relationships.

  9. USE OF PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS TO ASSESS OCCUPATIONAL AND RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary biomarker measurements were analyzed using a dynamic pharmacokinetic model. The dynamic model provided the structure to link spot urine samples with corresponding exposure and absorbed dose. Data from both occupational and residential studies were analyzed. In the Agri...

  10. Airborne isocyanate exposures in the collision repair industry and a comparison to occupational exposure limits.

    PubMed

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Whittaker, Stephen G; Ceballos, Diana M; Weiland, Elisa C; Flack, Sheila L; Fent, Kenneth W; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Trelles Gaines, Linda G; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2012-01-01

    Isocyanate exposure was evaluated in 33 spray painters from 25 Washington State autobody shops. Personal breathing zone samples (n = 228) were analyzed for isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer, IPDI polyisocyanate, and three polyisocyanate forms of HDI. The objective was to describe exposures to isocyanates while spray painting, compare them with short-term exposure limits (STELs), and describe the isocyanate composition in the samples. The composition of polyisocyanates (IPDI and HDI) in the samples varied greatly, with maximum amounts ranging from up to 58% for HDI biuret to 96% for HDI isocyanurate. There was a significant inverse relationship between the percentage composition of HDI isocyanurate to IPDI and to HDI uretdione. Two 15-min STELs were compared: (1) Oregon's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OR-OSHA) STEL of 1000 μg/m(3) for HDI polyisocyanate, and (2) the United Kingdom's Health and Safety Executive (UK-HSE) STEL of 70 μg NCO/m(3) for all isocyanates. Eighty percent of samples containing HDI polyisocyanate exceeded the OR-OSHA STEL while 98% of samples exceeded the UK-HSE STEL. The majority of painters (67%) wore half-face air-purifying respirators while spray painting. Using the OR-OSHA and the UK-HSE STELs as benchmarks, 21% and 67% of painters, respectively, had at least one exposure that exceeded the respirator's OSHA-assigned protection factor. A critical review of the STELs revealed the following limitations: (1) the OR-OSHA STEL does not include all polyisocyanates, and (2) the UK-HSE STEL is derived from monomeric isocyanates, whereas the species present in typical spray coatings are polyisocyanates. In conclusion, the variable mixtures of isocyanates used by autobody painters suggest that an occupational exposure limit is required that includes all polyisocyanates. Despite the limitations of the STELs, we determined that a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 25 or

  11. Airborne Isocyanate Exposures in the Collision Repair Industry and a Comparison to Occupational Exposure Limits

    PubMed Central

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Whittaker, Stephen G.; Ceballos, Diana M.; Weiland, Elisa C.; Flack, Sheila L.; Fent, Kenneth W.; Thomasen, Jennifer M.; Gaines, Linda G. Trelles; Nylander-French, Leena A.

    2014-01-01

    Isocyanate exposure was evaluated in 33 spray painters from 25 Washington State autobody shops. Personal breathing zone samples (n = 228) were analyzed for isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer, IPDI polyisocyanate, and three polyisocyanate forms of HDI. The objective was to describe exposures to isocyanates while spray painting, compare them with short-term exposure limits (STELs), and describe the isocyanate composition in the samples. The composition of polyisocyanates (IPDI and HDI) in the samples varied greatly, with maximum amounts ranging from up to 58% for HDI biuret to 96% for HDI isocyanurate. There was a significant inverse relationship between the percentage composition of HDI isocyanurate to IPDI and to HDI uretdione. Two 15-min STELs were compared: (1) Oregon's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OR-OSHA) STEL of 1000 μg/m3 for HDI polyisocyanate, and (2) the United Kingdom's Health and Safety Executive (UK-HSE) STEL of 70 μg NCO/m3 for all isocyanates. Eighty percent of samples containing HDI polyisocyanate exceeded the OR-OSHA STEL while 98% of samples exceeded the UKHSE STEL. The majority of painters (67%) wore half-face air-purifying respirators while spray painting. Using the OROSHA and the UK-HSE STELs as benchmarks, 21% and 67% of painters, respectively, had at least one exposure that exceeded the respirator's OSHA-assigned protection factor. A critical review of the STELs revealed the following limitations: (1) the OR-OSHA STEL does not include all polyisocyanates, and (2) the UK-HSE STEL is derived from monomeric isocyanates, whereas the species present in typical spray coatings are polyisocyanates. In conclusion, the variable mixtures of isocyanates used by autobody painters suggest that an occupational exposure limit is required that includes all polyisocyanates. Despite the limitations of the STELs, we determined that a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 25 or

  12. Occupational sun exposure and risk of melanoma according to anatomical site.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Kylie; McGeechan, Kevin; Armstrong, Bruce K; Cust, Anne E

    2014-06-01

    Although sunburn and intermittent sun exposures are associated with increased melanoma risk, most studies have found null or inverse associations between occupational (more continuous pattern) sun exposure and melanoma risk. The association of melanoma with occupational sun exposure may differ according to anatomical site, with some studies finding a positive association with melanoma on the head and neck. We examined the association between occupational sun exposure (self-reported weekday sun exposure) and melanoma risk according to anatomical site, using data from two multicentre population-based case-control studies: the Australian Melanoma Family Study (588 cases, 472 controls) and the Genes, Environment and Melanoma study (GEM; 1079 cases, 2,181 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for potential confounders. Occupational sun exposure was not positively associated with melanoma risk overall or at different body sites in both studies. The GEM study found inverse associations between occupational sun exposure and melanoma on the head and neck [OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 0.56, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.36-0.86, ptrend 0.02], and between the proportion of total sun exposure occurring on weekdays and melanoma on the upper limbs (OR for highest vs. lowest quartile: 0.66, 95% CI 0.42-1.02, ptrend 0.03). Our results suggest that occupational sun exposure does not increase risk of melanoma, even of melanomas situated on the head and neck. This finding seemed not to be due to negative confounding of occupational sun exposure by weekend sun.

  13. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields of uninterruptible power supply industry workers.

    PubMed

    Teşneli, N Berna; Teşneli, Ahmet Y

    2014-12-01

    There is an increasing concern that exposure to extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) may cause or contribute to adverse health effects. To assess exposure to ELF EMFs, electric and magnetic field spot measurements were performed extensively at the workplace of a worldwide uninterruptible power supply (UPS) factory. The measurements were carried out in order to get the electric and magnetic field exposure results in real working situations in test areas, production lines and power substations. The electric and magnetic fields reached up to 992.0 V m(-1) and 215.6 μT in the test areas, respectively. The fields existed up to 26.7 V m(-1) and 7.6 μT in the production lines. The field levels in the vicinity of the power substations did not exceed 165.5 V m(-1) and 65 μT. The data presented are useful in determining the occupational exposure levels of UPS industry workers. The measurements are below the reference levels recommended by the guideline published in 2010 by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and action levels of the directive adopted in 2013 by European Parliament and Council.

  14. Experimental strategy for translational studies of organophosphorus pesticide neurotoxicity based on real-world occupational exposures to chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Lein, Pamela J; Bonner, Matthew R; Farahat, Fayssal M; Olson, James R; Rohlman, Diane S; Fenske, Richard A; Lattal, K Matthew; Lasarev, Michael R; Galvin, Kit; Farahat, Taghreed M; Anger, W Kent

    2012-08-01

    Translational research is needed to understand and predict the neurotoxic consequences associated with repeated occupational exposures to organophosphorus pesticides (OPs). In this report, we describe a research strategy for identifying biomarkers of OP neurotoxicity, and we characterize pesticide application workers in Egypt's Menoufia Governorate who serve as our anchor human population for developing a parallel animal model with similar exposures and behavioral deficits and for examining the influence of human polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) enzymes on OP metabolism and toxicity. This population has previously been shown to have high occupational exposures and to exhibit a broad range of neurobehavioral deficits. In addition to observational studies of work practices in the field, questionnaires on demographics, lifestyle and work practices were administered to 146 Egyptian pesticide application workers applying pesticides to the cotton crop. Survey results indicated that the application workforce uses standard operating procedures and standardized equipment provided by Egypt's Ministry of Agriculture, which provides a workforce with a stable work history. We also found that few workers report using personal protective equipment (PPE), which likely contributes to the relatively high exposures reported in these application workers. In summary, this population provides a unique opportunity for identifying biomarkers of OP-induced neurotoxicity associated with occupational exposure.

  15. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Table D-2). If the value of F e exceeds unity (1) the exposure exceeds permissible levels. (iii) A... value of F e does not exceed unity, the exposure is within permissible limits. (e) Exposure to...

  16. Occupation and occupational exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in male breast cancer: a case-control study in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, Sara; Cyr, Diane; Lynge, Elsebeth; Orsi, Laurent; Sabroe, Svend; Merletti, Franco; Gorini, Giuseppe; Morales-Suarez-Varela, Maria; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Baumgardt-Elms, Cornelia; Kaerlev, Linda; Eriksson, Mikael; Hardell, Lennart; Févotte, Joëlle; Guénel, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Male breast cancer is a rare disease of largely unknown etiology. Besides genetic or hormone-related risk factors, a large number of environmental chemicals are suspected to play a role in breast cancer. The identification of occupations or occupational exposures associated with an increased incidence of breast cancer in men may help to identify mammary carcinogens in the environment. Methods Occupational risk factors of male breast cancer were investigated in a multi-centre case-control study conducted in 8 European countries, including 104 cases and 1901 controls. Lifetime work history was obtained during in-person interviews. Occupational exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals (alkylphenolic compounds, phthalates, PCBs and dioxins) were assessed on a case-by-case basis from expert judgment. Results Male breast cancer incidence was more particularly increased in motor vehicle mechanics (OR=2.1, CI 1.0–4.4) with a dose-effect relationship with duration employment. It was also increased in paper makers and painters, and in workers in forestry and logging, health and social work, and manufacture of furniture. The odds ratio for exposure to alkylphenolic compounds above median was 3.8 (CI 1.5–9.5). This association persisted after adjustment for occupational exposures to other environmental estrogens. Conclusion These findings suggest that some environmental chemicals are possible mammary carcinogens. Gasoline, organic petroleum solvents or PAH can be suspected from the consistent elevated risk of male breast cancer observed in motor vehicle mechanics. Endocrine disruptors such as alkylphenolic compounds may play a role in breast cancer. PMID:20798010

  17. Occupational exposures to solvents and aluminium and estimated risk of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Graves, A. B.; Rosner, D.; Echeverria, D.; Mortimer, J. A.; Larson, E. B.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the role of occupational exposures to solvents and aluminium in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). An industrial hygienist rated exposure. METHODS: 89 subjects diagnosed with probable AD were matched by age, sex, and type of informant to 89 controls. Subjects were identified from a large health maintenance organisation in Seattle, WA. A complete occupational history was obtained from spouses of cases and controls as well as from controls themselves. After the interview an industrial hygienist, blinded to case-control status, rated exposures. RESULTS: Non-significant associations were found between AD and ever having been occupationally exposed to solvents (odds ratio (OR) 1.77, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.81 to 3.90) and aluminium (OR 1.46, 95% CI 0.62 to 3.42). Although an increasing risk was found with increasing number of years of exposure to solvents, there was an inverse association between exposure intensity and AD, and measures of cumulative exposure taking into account both intensity and duration of exposure were not significant. Analysis of the age at which half the cumulative exposure to solvents was achieved showed that an older age incurred a greater risk of AD than a younger age. However, the total amount of exposure carried no risk. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that lifetime occupational exposure to solvents and aluminium are not likely to be important risk factors for Alzheimer's disease.   PMID:9861186

  18. Occupational exposures and health outcomes among Latina hotel cleaners.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yu-Chin Jerrie; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Hatzudis, Kiki; Sönmez, Sevil

    2014-01-01

    The poor working conditions of Latina hotel cleaners render them particularly vulnerable to elevated occupational hazards that lead to adverse health outcomes. This article presents a comprehensive review of occupational risks (including physical, chemical, biological, and psychosocial risk factors) and health outcomes (including musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory diseases, dermatological diseases and allergies, and psychological disorders) for Latina hotel cleaners, within their unique sociocultural contexts. Preventive interventions for improving Latina hotel cleaners' work and health conditions are recommended.

  19. Occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline emissions and lung cancer in Canadian men.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Sahni, Vanita; Johnson, Kenneth C

    2011-07-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies diesel exhaust as a probable human carcinogen; this decision is based largely from lung cancer evidence. Gasoline exhaust is classified as a possible carcinogen. Epidemiological studies are needed that improve upon some of the limitations of previous research with respect to the characterization of exposure, and the control for the potential confounding influence of smoking and other occupational exposures. Our objective was to investigate associations between occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions and lung cancer. We used a case-control study design that involved men 40 years of age and older at the time of interview. Analyses are based on 1681 incident cases of lung cancer and 2,053 population controls. A self-reported questionnaire elicited a lifetime occupational history, including general tasks, and information on other potential risk factors. Occupational exposures to diesel and gasoline emissions, crystalline silica, and asbestos were assigned to each job held by study subjects by industrial hygienists who were blind to case-control status. Exposure metrics for diesel and gasoline emissions that were modeled included: ever exposure, cumulative exposure, and concentration of exposure. We found a dose-response relationship between cumulative occupational exposure to diesel engine emissions and lung cancer. This association was more pronounced for the squamous and large cell subtypes with adjusted odds ratios across the three increasing tertiles of cumulative lifetime exposure relative to those with no exposure of 0.99, 1.25, and 1.32 (p=0.04) for squamous cell carcinoma, and 1.06, 1.19, 1.68 (p=0.02) for large cell carcinoma. While the association with cumulative exposure to gasoline was weakly positive, it was not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that exposure to diesel engine emissions increases the risk of lung cancer particularly for squamous and large cell

  20. Occupational exposure to asbestos and man‐made vitreous fibres and risk of lung cancer: a multicentre case‐control study in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Carel, Rafael; Olsson, Ann C; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia‐Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabianova, Eleonora; Cassidy, Adrian; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Fevotte, Joelle; Fletcher, Tony; Mannetje, Andrea ‘t; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the contribution of occupational exposure to asbestos and man‐made vitreous fibres (MMVF) to lung cancer in high‐risk populations in Europe. Methods A multicentre case‐control study was conducted in six Central and Eastern European countries and the UK, during the period 1998–2002. Comprehensive occupational and sociodemographic information was collected from 2205 newly diagnosed male lung cancer cases and 2305 frequency matched controls. Odds ratios (OR) of lung cancer were calculated after adjusting for other relevant occupational exposures and tobacco smoking. Results The OR for asbestos exposure was 0.92 (95% CI 0.73 to 1.15) in Central and Eastern Europe and 1.85 (95% CI 1.07 to 3.21) in the UK. Similar ORs were found for exposure to amphibole asbestos. The OR for MMVF exposure was 1.23 (95% CI 0.88 to 1.71) with no evidence of heterogeneity by country. No synergistic effect either between asbestos and MMVF or between any of them and smoking was found. Conclusion In this large community‐based study occupational exposure to asbestos and MMVF does not appear to contribute to the lung cancer burden in men in Central and Eastern Europe. In contrast, in the UK the authors found an increased risk of lung cancer following exposure to asbestos. Differences in fibre type and circumstances of exposure may explain these results. PMID:17053017

  1. Risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia following parental occupational exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Reid, A; Glass, D C; Bailey, H D; Milne, E; de Klerk, N H; Downie, P; Fritschi, L

    2011-01-01

    Background: Earlier studies have reported moderate increases in the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) among children whose mothers have been occupationally exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields. Other studies examining parental occupational exposure to ELF and ALL have reported mixed results. Methods: In an Australian case–control study of ALL in children aged <15 years, parents were asked about tasks they undertook in each job. Exposure variables were created for any occupational exposure before the birth of the child, in jobs 2 years before birth, in jobs 1 year before birth and up to 1 year after birth. Results: In all, 379 case and 854 control mothers and 328 case and 748 control fathers completed an occupational history. Exposure to ELF in all time periods was similar in case and control mothers. There was no difference in exposure between case and control fathers. There was no association between maternal (odds ratio (OR)=0.96; 95% CI=0.74–1.25) or paternal (OR=0.78; 95% CI=0.56–1.09) exposure to ELF any time before the birth and risk of childhood ALL. Conclusion: We did not find an increased risk of ALL in offspring of parents with occupational exposure to ELF. PMID:21915123

  2. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and acute leukaemia: analysis of a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Willett, E; McKinney, P; Fear, N; Cartwright, R; Roman, E

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To investigate whether the risk of acute leukaemia among adults is associated with occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields. Methods: Probable occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields at higher than typical residential levels was investigated among 764 patients diagnosed with acute leukaemia during 1991–96 and 1510 sex and age matched controls. A job exposure matrix was applied to the self reported employment histories to determine whether or not a subject was exposed to electromagnetic fields. Risks were assessed using conditional logistic regression for a matched analysis. Results: Study subjects considered probably ever exposed to electromagnetic fields at work were not at increased risk of acute leukaemia compared to those considered never exposed. Generally, no associations were observed on stratification by sex, leukaemia subtype, number of years since exposure stopped, or occupation; there was no evidence of a dose-response effect using increasing number of years exposed. However, relative to women considered never exposed, a significant excess of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was observed among women probably exposed to electromagnetic fields at work that remained increased irrespective of time prior to diagnosis or job ever held. Conclusion: This large population based case-control study found little evidence to support an association between occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and acute leukaemia. While an excess of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia among women was observed, it is unlikely that occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields was responsible, given that increased risks remained during periods when exposure above background levels was improbable. PMID:12883018

  3. Occupational radiation exposure at nuclear power plants in Japan and the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Imahori, A.

    1983-01-01

    The annual statistical summaries of occupational exposures at nuclear power plants in Japan and the United States are compiled by reactor type for the years 1970 to 1980. The trends of occupational exposures at nuclear power plants in both countries are similar in many respects. Individual doses have been well controlled below the occupational dose limit (0.05 Sv/yr), but the collective doses (man-sieverts) have been increasing with plant age, especially in boiling-water reactors. Most of the occupational exposure at nuclear power plants is incurred during maintenance activities rather than routine operation; so the annual collective dose per unit of electric output is in inverse proportion to the annual plant capacity factor. An estimate of the cancer risk for the total number of workers exposed at commercial nuclear power plants in 1980 is fewer than ten hypothetical radiation-induced cancer deaths in the United States and fewer than three in Japan.

  4. Hexavalent chromium compounds in the workplace: assessing the extent and magnitude of occupational exposure in Italy.

    PubMed

    Scarselli, Alberto; Binazzi, Alessandra; Marzio, Davide Di; Marinaccio, Alessandro; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. This study evaluates the extent and magnitude of occupational exposures to Cr(VI) in Italy. Data were collected from exposure registries of companies compulsorily notified by the National Workers' Compensation Authority. Each measurement was characterized by economic activity sector, work force size, worker personal data, job description, year of measurement, and level of exposure. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out on the retrieved information. The number of workers potentially exposed was estimated for some industrial sectors. A mixed-effects model was adopted to evaluate the association between exposure variables and exposure concentrations. Over 8400 measurements of Cr(VI) exposures were selected from the database of registries for 1996-2009. Most exposures occurred in the manufacture of fabricated metal products (>50%), and the occupational group most frequently measured was metal finishing-, plating- and coating-machine operators (>52%). Measurements were associated with various Cr(VI) compounds, including chromium trioxide, potassium dichromate, sodium dichromate, strontium chromate, and zinc chromate. Cr(VI) exposure has decreased in more recent years, and the fixed-effects (Cr(VI) compound, activity sector, size and location of the facility, job category, and year of measurement of the final statistical model explained more than 70% of the variance in the observed exposure data. This study summarized data recorded in the Italian occupational exposure database and identified specific exposure patterns to Cr(VI). The mean level of exposure to Cr(VI) was 30.41 μg/m³, and 50,118 workers were estimated at exposure risk in the selected industrial sectors. Systematic recording of occupational exposures is a source of data that allows recognition of high risk situations and improvements in exposure assessment for epidemiologic studies.

  5. Evaluation of mutagenicity and other adverse effects of occupational exposure to sodium azide

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, K.A.; Babish, J.G.

    1982-12-01

    The ubiquitous use of sodium azide has resulted in widespread occupational exposure to it in both laboratory and industrial settings, despite a lack of knowledge of the risks which may be involved. Explosive, toxic, and mutagenic hazards have been shown at even low-dose exposures. These effects occur in many species, from cellular damage through pathology of whole systems, and human fatalities have been reported. The advantages to its availability for applicable uses precludes reaching a ''no exposure'' level, but efforts to decrease unnecessary exposure can reduce its risk; therefore a quantitative procedure for determining human exposure is necessary. However, for various reasons present methods for this type of evaluation of azide are unsatisfactory, and minimizing hazard is dependent upon good laboratory hygiene and motivated personnel. The increasing use of azide and proportionally increasing occupational and accidental exposure in the future warrants the undertaking of chronic exposure studies, which hopefully will result in more explicit guidelines for human protection.

  6. Occupational exposure and defects of the central nervous system in offspring: review.

    PubMed Central

    Roeleveld, N; Zielhuis, G A; Gabreëls, F

    1990-01-01

    A study of published work was carried out in a search for evidence of a causal role for parental occupational exposure in the origin of structural and functional defects of the central nervous system (CNS) in children. Studies that consider this topic are scarce and mostly refer to broad categories of exposures and effects. Non-occupational studies referring to environmental exposure of humans and studies on experimental animals were also reviewed. The studies on animals provided straightforward evidence about morphological and behavioural abnormalities resulting from some agents used occupationally. The studies on humans yielded a scala of defects that could be ascribed to exposure to high doses of various agents in the environment. Evidence for a causal role of occupational exposure has not been found, but a highly probable influence on the developing CNS is hypothesised for lead, methyl mercury, and ionising radiation. Parental occupational exposure to cadmium, organic solvents, anaesthetics, and pesticides may also play a part in causing defects of the CNS. Well designed future research is needed to test the above hypotheses. PMID:2207028

  7. A Systematic Review of Occupational Exposure to Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shona C.; Cassidy, Adrian; Christiani, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate air pollution is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however the link between occupational particulate exposures and adverse cardiovascular events is less clear. We conducted a systematic review, including meta-analysis where appropriate, of the epidemiologic association between occupational exposure to particulate matter and cardiovascular disease. Out of 697 articles meeting our initial criteria, 37 articles published from January 1990 to April 2009 (12 mortality; 5 morbidity; and 20 intermediate cardiovascular endpoints) were included. Results suggest a possible association between occupational particulate exposures and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality as well as non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and stronger evidence of associations with heart rate variability and systemic inflammation, potential intermediates between occupational PM exposure and IHD. In meta-analysis of mortality studies, a significant increase in IHD was observed (meta-IRR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06–1.26), however these data were limited by lack of adequate control for smoking and other potential confounders. Further research is needed to better clarify the magnitude of the potential risk of the development and aggravation of IHD associated with short and long-term occupational particulate exposures and to clarify the clinical significance of acute and chronic changes in intermediate cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:20617059

  8. Occupational exposures estimated by means of job exposure matrices in relation to lung function in the PAARC survey.

    PubMed Central

    Le Moual, N; Orlowski, E; Schenker, M B; Avignon, M; Brochard, P; Kauffmann, F

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The aim of this analysis of the French Cooperative PAARC (Pollution Atmosphérique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques) survey, was to test whether occupational exposures to dusts, gases, or chemical fumes or to specific hazards, estimated by job exposure matrices, were related to a decrease in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). METHODS--The most recent occupation was recorded in adults, aged 25-59, from non-manual worker households. Analysis was restricted to 10,046 subjects whose occupation was encountered at least 10 times in the study and who performed good FEV1 tracings. From occupational title, exposures to dusts, gases, and chemical fumes, and to specific hazards were classified in three categories (no, low, and high) with a British, a French, and an Italian job exposure matrix. Specific hazards were analysed for the British and French job exposure matrices for the same 42 specific dusts, gases, and chemical fumes. To limit spurious associations, a selection of seven hazard groups and 12 specific hazards was set before the start of the analysis. Based on the consistency of the relations according to sex and the British and French job exposure matrices, associations of age, height, city, and smoking adjusted FEV1 score with occupational exposures were classified as very likely, possible, or unlikely. RESULTS--For the three job exposure matrices and both sexes clear exposure-response relations between the level of exposure to dusts, gases, and chemical fumes, and a decrease in FEV1 were found. Associations with FEV1 were classified as very likely for known hazards such as organic dusts and textile dusts, and not previously recognised hazards such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and detergents, and as possible for solvents, waxes and polishes, and diesel fumes. Associations found for PAHs and solvents were confirmed by the Italian job exposure matrix. Associations remained significant in women, but not in men, after

  9. Occupational Electromagnetic Field Exposures Associated with Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Guangdi; Pan, Yifeng; Chen, Zexin; Jin, Wen; Sun, Chuan; Chen, Chunjing; Dong, Xuanjun; Chen, Kun; Xu, Zhengping; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phone and other machineries concerns half the world’s population and raises the problem of their impact on human health. The present study aims to explore the effects of electromagnetic field exposures on sleep quality and sleep duration among workers from electric power plant. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an electric power plant of Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 854 participants were included in the final analysis. The detailed information of participants was obtained by trained investigators using a structured questionnaire, which including socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle variables, sleep variables and electromagnetic exposures. Physical examination and venous blood collection were also carried out for every study subject. Results After grouping daily occupational electromagnetic exposure into three categories, subjects with long daily exposure time had a significantly higher risk of poor sleep quality in comparison to those with short daily exposure time. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.68 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.39) and 1.57 (95%CI: 1.10, 2.24) across tertiles. Additionally, among the subjects with long-term occupational exposure, the longer daily occupational exposure time apparently increased the risk of poor sleep quality (OR (95%CI): 2.12 (1.23∼3.66) in the second tertile; 1.83 (1.07∼3.15) in the third tertile). There was no significant association of long-term occupational exposure duration, monthly electric fee or years of mobile-phone use with sleep quality or sleep duration. Conclusions The findings showed that daily occupational EMF exposure was positively associated with poor sleep quality. It implies EMF exposure may damage human sleep quality rather than sleep duration. PMID:25340654

  10. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms: a population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms. 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or to fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared to unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  11. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms. A population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in 6 cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms; 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalences of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared with unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR = 1.53, 95% Cl = 1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory symptoms and disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  12. Occupational exposure to asbestos in the drywall taping process.

    PubMed

    Verma, D K; Middleton, C G

    1980-04-01

    Studies of airborne asbestos fiber concentrations associated with various operations of the drywall taping process have been undertaken in the province of Alberta, Canada. The results show that mixing, sanding and sweeping created high levels of airborne asbestos dust. The measured concentrations were frequently in excess of occupational health standards. Sanding in particular was assessed the most hazardous operation. The results are discussed in light of present and proposed Occupational Health Standards, and in terms of its implications for other workers, household contacts, and consumer's risk. Measures to reduce and control the health hazards associated with the process are described.

  13. Occupational Exposure to Ionizing Radiation for Crews of Suborbital Spacecraft: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Crewmembers, Ionizing Radiation, Galactic Cosmic Radiation, Solar Cosmic Radiation, Cancer Risk, Hereditary Risks, Radiation Exposure Limits Document is...higher altitudes. The dose to non-pregnant crewmembers could also have exceeded the recommended limit . A solar radiation alert system, developed by...Occupational Exposure to Ionizing Radiation for Crews of Suborbital Spacecraft : Questions & Answers Kyle Copeland Civil Aerospace Medical Institute

  14. Occupational exposures and changes in pulmonary function over 13 years among residents of Cracow.

    PubMed Central

    Krzyzanowski, M; Jedrychowski, W; Wysocki, M

    1988-01-01

    In a 13 year follow up study conducted among residents of Cracow the relation of annual rate of decline in FEV1 to occupational exposures was analysed. The study group consisted of 696 men and 983 women aged 19-60 at the start of the study in 1968. They were interviewed three times, in 1968, 1973, and 1981, and decline in FEV1 was estimated for each subject from spirometric measurements in 1968 and 1981. The interviews provided data on exposure at the workplace to dusts, variable temperature, and chemicals or irritating gases, which established duration and time of the exposure. The FEV1 mean level, height, and smoking habits were considered as confounders in the analysis. The study indicated that the most pronounced influence on decline in FEV1 was prolonged and continuing exposure to variable temperature. The effects of dusts, independent of exposure to variable temperature, were much smaller but analysis in occupational subgroups suggest that dust may be important in some, such as workers in the building materials and pottery industry. Relatively immediate effects of exposure to chemicals were detected independently of effects of other exposures. The estimated effects of occupational exposures were of a similar magnitude as those of tobacco smoking though related to much smaller groups. Both effects were additive in accelerating decline in lung function. These results, obtained in the general population and less biased by selection than studies performed in industrial settings, show the importance of occupational factors in the natural history of limitation of airflow. PMID:3203079

  15. Occupational exposure to organic solvents: a risk factor for pulmonary veno-occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Montani, David; Lau, Edmund M; Descatha, Alexis; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Andujar, Pascal; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Girerd, Barbara; Zendah, Inès; Le Pavec, Jerome; Seferian, Andrei; Perros, Frédéric; Dorfmüller, Peter; Fadel, Elie; Soubrier, Florent; Sitbon, Oliver; Simonneau, Gérald; Humbert, Marc

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare form of pulmonary hypertension characterised by predominant remodelling of pulmonary venules. Bi-allelic mutations in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α kinase 4 (EIF2AK4) gene were recently described as the major cause of heritable PVOD, but risk factors associated with PVOD remain poorly understood. Occupational exposures have been proposed as a potential risk factor for PVOD, but epidemiological studies are lacking.A case-control study was conducted in consecutive PVOD (cases, n=33) and pulmonary arterial hypertension patients (controls, n=65). Occupational exposure was evaluated via questionnaire interview with blinded assessments using an expert consensus approach and a job exposure matrix (JEM).Using the expert consensus approach, PVOD was significantly associated with occupational exposure to organic solvents (adjusted OR 12.8, 95% CI 2.7-60.8), with trichloroethylene being the main agent implicated (adjusted OR 8.2, 95% CI 1.4-49.4). JEM analysis independently confirmed the association between PVOD and trichloroethylene exposure. Absence of significant trichloroethylene exposure was associated with a younger age of disease (54.8±21.4 years, p=0.037) and a high prevalence of harbouring bi-allelic EIF2AK4 mutations (41.7% versus 0%, p=0.015).Occupational exposure to organic solvents may represent a novel risk factor for PVOD. Genetic background and environmental exposure appear to influence the phenotypic expression of the disease.

  16. Micronucleus assay as a biomarker of genotoxicity in the occupational exposure to agrochemicals in rural workers.

    PubMed

    Gentile, N; Mañas, F; Bosch, B; Peralta, L; Gorla, N; Aiassa, D

    2012-06-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the genotoxic effect of agrochemicals in rural workers occupationally exposed by the micronucleus assay in peripheral blood lymphocytes and to promote the development of health and environmental preventive and protective practices. A total of 30 blood samples from 20 individuals occupationally exposed to different agrochemicals and 10 unexposed persons, who formed the reference group, were analyzed. We found statistically significant differences (p < 0.0005, Student's t Test) in the frequency of micronuclei between the two groups (7.20 ± 1.55 and 15.15 ± 5.10 CBMN for reference and exposed groups respectively). The analysis of age showed a positive correlation (Pearson Correlation Test) with the frequency of micronuclei in exposed population (p < 0.05; r(2) = 0.47), in contrast with smoking habits and years of exposure. Micronucleus assay allows an early detection of populations at higher risk of having genetic damage, allowing us to implement strategies of intervention for the purpose of contributing to reduce that risk.

  17. Chromosome aberrations as a means to determine occupational exposure: an alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, C.A.

    1980-09-01

    The methodology developed to study chromosome aberrations in vitro, and the results gained in application of the method in in vivo studies of individuals receiving ionizing radiation, may provide a basis to more definitively assess occupational exposure in radiographers and radiation therapy technologists. The need for more definitive methods in measuring occupational exposure is given impetus by the fact that there is now a large group of individuals in whom a significant duration of occupational exposure may be measured. Further, increased knowledge of the effects of radiation has resulted in lower and lower levels of maximum permissible dose. And there is the undeniable, albeit relatively unproven, claim of radiation hazard in occupations not previously considered. As a group, technologists are now better organized and more aware of occupational hazards than in the past. It behooves us as professionals to act in our own behalf to improve the state of knowledge and methods of evaluation of occupational hazards that we have endured for several decades. There is no longer any more time to waste in the light of what we now know. In the author's opinion, the method described herein has the potential to determine occupational dose more accurately and definitively than has been possible heretofore and, therefore, should be tested as an alternative to present methods of personnel monitoring. History, rationale, and method are presented, and a protocol for a research study is described.

  18. Exposure Assessment Tools by Lifestages and Populations - Occupational Workers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  19. Workshop report: strategies for setting occupational exposure limits for engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Steven C; Butala, John H; Carter, Janet M; Elder, Alison; Gordon, Terry; Gray, George; Sayre, Philip G; Schulte, Paul A; Tsai, Candace S; West, Jay

    2014-04-01

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are important tools for managing worker exposures to chemicals; however, hazard data for many engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are insufficient for deriving OELs by traditional methods. Technical challenges and questions about how best to measure worker exposures to ENMs also pose barriers to implementing OELs. New varieties of ENMs are being developed and introduced into commerce at a rapid pace, further compounding the issue of OEL development for ENMs. A Workshop on Strategies for Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Engineered Nanomaterials, held in September 2012, provided an opportunity for occupational health experts from various stakeholder groups to discuss possible alternative approaches for setting OELs for ENMs and issues related to their implementation. This report summarizes the workshop proceedings and findings, identifies areas for additional research, and suggests potential avenues for further progress on this important topic.

  20. Occupational lung diseases: from old and novel exposures to effective preventive strategies.

    PubMed

    Cullinan, Paul; Muñoz, Xavier; Suojalehto, Hille; Agius, Raymond; Jindal, Surinder; Sigsgaard, Torben; Blomberg, Anders; Charpin, Denis; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Gulati, Mridu; Kim, Yangho; Frank, Arthur L; Akgün, Metin; Fishwick, David; de la Hoz, Rafael E; Moitra, Subhabrata

    2017-01-06

    Occupational exposure is an important, global cause of respiratory disease. Unlike many other non-communicable lung diseases, the proximal causes of many occupational lung diseases are well understood and they should be amenable to control with use of established and effective approaches. Therefore, the risks arising from exposure to silica and asbestos are well known, as are the means of their prevention. Although the incidence of occupational lung disease has decreased in many countries, in parts of the world undergoing rapid economic transition and population growth-often with large informal and unregulated workforces-occupational exposures continue to impose a heavy burden of disease. The incidence of interstitial and malignant lung diseases remains unacceptably high because control measures are not implemented or exposures arise in novel ways. With the advent of innovative technologies, new threats are continually introduced to the workplace (eg, indium compounds and vicinal diketones). In developed countries, work-related asthma is the commonest occupational lung disease of short latency. Although generic control measures to reduce the risk of developing or exacerbating asthma are well recognised, there is still uncertainty, for example, with regards to the management of workers who develop asthma but remain in the same job. In this Review, we provide recommendations for research, surveillance, and other action for reducing the burden of occupational lung diseases.

  1. Occupational exposure to metals and risk of meningioma: a multinational case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Chetrit, Angela; Turner, Michelle C; van Tongeren, Martie; Benke, Geza; Figuerola, Jordi; Fleming, Sarah; Hours, Martine; Kincl, Laurel; Krewski, Daniel; McLean, Dave; Parent, Marie-Elise; Richardson, Lesley; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Schlaefer, Klaus; Blettner, Maria; Schüz, Joachim; Siemiatycki, Jack; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine associations between occupational exposure to metals and meningioma risk in the international INTEROCC study. INTEROCC is a seven-country population-based case-control study including 1906 adult meningioma cases and 5565 population controls. Incident cases were recruited between 2000 and 2004. A detailed occupational history was completed and job titles were coded into standard international occupational classifications. Estimates of mean workday exposure to individual metals and to welding fumes were assigned based on a job-exposure-matrix. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Although more controls than cases were ever exposed to metals (14 vs. 11 %, respectively), cases had higher median cumulative exposure levels. The ORs for ever vs. never exposure to any metal and to individual metals were mostly greater than 1.0, with the strongest association for exposure to iron (OR 1.26, 95 % CI 1.0-1.58). In women, an increased OR of 1.70 (95 % CI 1.0-2.89) was seen for ever vs never exposure to iron (OR in men 1.19, 95 % CI 0.91-1.54), with positive trends in relation with both cumulative and duration of exposure. These results remained after consideration of other occupational metal or chemical co-exposures. In conclusion, an apparent positive association between occupational exposure to iron and meningioma risk was observed, particularly among women. Considering the fact that meningioma is a hormone dependent tumor, the hypothesis that an interaction between iron and estrogen metabolism may be a potential mechanism for a carcinogenic effect of iron should be further investigated.

  2. Effects of lifetime occupational pesticide exposure on postural control among farmworkers and non-farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Sunwook, Kim; Nussbaum, Maury A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Laurienti, Paul J.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Assess potential chronic effects of pesticide exposure on postural control, by examining postural balance of farmworkers and non-farmworkers diverse self-reported lifetime exposures. Methods Balance was assessed during quiet upright stance under four experimental conditions (2 visual × 2 cognitive difficulty). Results Significant differences in baseline balance performance (eyes open without cognitive task) between occupational groups were apparent in postural sway complexity. When adding a cognitive task to the eyes open condition, the influence of lifetime exposure on complexity ratios appeared different between occupational groups. Removing visual information revealed a negative association of lifetime exposure with complexity ratios. Conclusions Farmworkers and non-farmworkers may use different postural control strategies even when controlling for the level of lifetime pesticide exposure. Long-term exposure can affect somatosensory/vestibular sensory systems and the central processing of sensory information for postural control. PMID:26849257

  3. Environmental exposures: an underrecognized contribution to noncommunicable diseases.

    PubMed

    Norman, Rosana E; Carpenter, David O; Scott, James; Brune, Marie Noel; Sly, Peter D

    2013-01-01

    Previous attempts to determine the degree to which exposure to environmental factors contribute to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have been very conservative and have significantly underestimated the actual contribution of the environment for at least two reasons. Firstly, most previous reports have excluded the contribution of lifestyle behavioral risk factors, but these usually involve significant exposure to environmental chemicals that increase risk of disease. Secondly, early life exposure to chemical contaminants is now clearly associated with an elevated risk of several diseases later in life, but these connections are often difficult to discern. This is especially true for asthma and neurodevelopmental conditions, but there is also a major contribution to the development of obesity and chronic diseases. Most cancers are caused by environmental exposures in genetically susceptible individuals. In addition, new information shows significant associations between cardiovascular diseases and diabetes and exposure to environmental chemicals present in air, food, and water. These relationships likely reflect the combination of epigenetic effects and gene induction. Environmental factors contribute significantly more to NCDs than previous reports have suggested. Prevention needs to shift focus from individual responsibility to societal responsibility and an understanding that effective prevention of NCDs ultimately relies on improved environmental management to reduce exposure to modifiable risks.

  4. Occupational Exposures in the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry: State of the Science and Research Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Witter, Roxana Z.; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S.

    2015-01-01

    The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example. PMID:24634090

  5. Occupational exposures in the oil and gas extraction industry: State of the science and research recommendations.

    PubMed

    Witter, Roxana Z; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S

    2014-07-01

    The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example.

  6. Association of reversible alopecia with occupational topical exposure to common borax-containing solutions.

    PubMed

    Beckett, W S; Oskvig, R; Gaynor, M E; Goldgeier, M H

    2001-04-01

    Boron is widely used in industrial materials, most frequently as the salt borax. Systemic exposure (eg, ingestion) to boron in boric acid been associated with reversible toxic alopecia among other manifestations. There is scant clinical literature on alopecia caused by topical exposure to boron. We observed a series of 3 patients in 2 workplaces who suffered reversible alopecia from cutaneous boron exposure. The scalp alopecia was global in 1 patient and patchy in 2 patients. Alopecia was completely reversed by elimination or reduction of exposure to boron-containing materials in all 3 patients. We conclude that occupational topical exposure to boron in solutions may cause reversible alopecia.

  7. Validity of self reported occupational exposures to hand transmitted and whole body vibration

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, K.; Haward, B.; Griffin, M.; Bendall, H.; Coggon, D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the accuracy with which workers report their exposure to occupational sources of hand transmitted (HTV) and whole body vibration (WBV).
METHODS—179 Workers from various jobs involving exposure to HTV or WBV completed a self administered questionnaire about sources of occupational exposure to vibration in the past week. They were then observed at work over 1 hour, after which they completed a second questionnaire concerning their exposures during this observation period. The feasibility of reported sources of exposure during the past week was examined by questioning managers and by inspection of tools and machines in the workplace. The accuracy of reported sources and durations of exposure in the 1 hour period were assessed relative to what had been observed.
RESULTS—The feasibility of exposure in the previous week was confirmed for 97% of subjects who reported exposure to HTV, and for 93% of subjects who reported exposure to WBV. The individual sources of exposure reported were generally plausible, but occupational use of cars was substantially overreported, possibly because of confusion with their use in travel to and from work. The accuracy of exposures reported during the observation period was generally high, but some sources of HTV were confused—for example, nailing and stapling guns reported as riveting hammers, and hammer drills not distinguished from other sorts of drill. Workers overestimated their duration of exposure to HTV by a median factor of 2.5 (interquartile range (IQR) 1.6-5.9), but estimated durations of exposure were more accurate when the exposure was relatively continuous rather than for intermittent short periods. Reported durations of exposure to WBV were generally accurate (median ratio of reported to observed time 1.1, IQR 1.0-1.2).
CONCLUSIONS—Sources of recent occupational exposure to vibration seem to be reported with reasonable accuracy, but durations of exposure to HTV are systematically

  8. Throwing the baby out with the bath water? Occupational hygienists' views on the revised dutch system for occupational exposure limits.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Linda; Palmen, Nicole Gm

    2013-06-01

    In 2007, the Dutch Working Conditions Act was revised with the goal to decrease the regulatory burden, and to open up for company-specific solutions of establishing a safe and healthy work environment. One tool geared towards company-specific solutions is the compilation of the Arbocatalogs, which are company or sector-level collections of safe working methods and guidelines developed both by employers and employees. The revision also introduced a new occupational exposure limit (OEL) system in the Netherlands. This system encompasses two kinds of OELs: private and public. Private OELs are to be derived by the industry, while public OELs are issued by the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment. With this change, the majority of the previously set Dutch OELs were removed, as the substances in question now are falling under the private realm. The motivations, expectations, and practical impacts of these revisions have been investigated through interviews with stakeholder organizations and a questionnaire study targeted at occupational hygienists. The questionnaire results show that although the Arbocatalogs seem to be relatively well received, a majority of the Dutch occupational hygienists are still relatively negative to the changes. There is a fear that private OELs will be less scientifically robust than public OELs and that the lack of robustness will have a negative impact on the field of occupational hygiene as a whole.

  9. Recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and salivary cortisol level.

    PubMed

    Stokholm, Zara Ann; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Bonde, Jens Peter; Christensen, Kent Lodberg; Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Lund, Søren Peter; Vestergaard, Jesper Medom; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and occupational noise exposure have been related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypothetically mediated by stress-activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and cortisol level measured off work to assess a possible sustained HPA-axis effect. We included 501 industrial, finance, and service workers who were followed for 24h during work, leisure, and sleep. Ambient occupational noise exposure levels were recorded every 5s by personal dosimeters and we calculated the full-shift LAEq value and estimated duration and cumulative exposure based on their work histories since 1980. For 332 workers who kept a log-book on the use of hearing protection devices (HPD), we subtracted 10 dB from every noise recording obtained during HPD use and estimated the noise level at the ear. Salivary cortisol concentration was measured at 20.00 h, the following day at awakening, and 30 min after awakening on average 5, 14 and 14.5h after finishing work. The mean ambient noise exposure level was 79.9 dB(A) [range: 55.0-98.9] and the mean estimated level at the ear 77.7 dB(A) [range: 55.0-94.2]. In linear and mixed regression models that adjusted for age, sex, current smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, personal income, BMI, leisure-time noise exposure level, time since occupational noise exposure ceased, awakening time, and time of saliva sampling, we observed no statistically significant exposure response relation between recent, or long-term ambient occupational noise exposure level and any cortisol parameter off work. This was neither the case for recent noise level at the ear. To conclude, neither recent nor long-term occupational noise exposure levels were associated with increased cortisol level off work. Thus, our results do not indicate that a sustained activation of the HPA axis, as measured by cortisol, is involved in

  10. Occupational Exposure to Diagnostic Radiology in Workers without Training in Radiation Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaona, Enrique; Enríquez, Jesús G. Franco

    2004-09-01

    The physicians, technicians, nurses, and others involved in radiation areas constitute the largest group of workers occupationally exposed to man-made sources of radiation. Personnel radiation exposure must be monitored for safety and regulatory considerations, this assessment may need to be made over a period of one month or several months. The purpose of this study was to carry out an exploratory survey of occupational exposures associated with diagnostic radiology. The personnel dosimeters used in this study were thermoluminiscent dosimeters (TLDs). The reported number of monitored workers was 110 of different departments of radiology of the Mexican Republic without education in radiation safety, included general fluoscopic/radiographic imaging, computed tomography and mammography procedures. Physicians and X-ray technologist in diagnostic radiology receive an average annual effective dose of 2.9 mSv with range from 0.18 to 5.64 mSv. The average level of occupational exposures is generally similar to the global average level of natural radiation exposure. The annual global per capita effective dose due to natural radiation sources is 2.4 mSv (UNSCEAR 2000 Report). There is not significant difference between average occupational exposures and natural radiation exposure for p < 0.05.

  11. Proposed Occupational Exposure Limits for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Poet, Torka S.; Timchalk, Chuck

    2006-03-24

    A large number of volatile chemicals have been identified in the headspaces of tanks used to store mixed chemical and radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, and there is concern that vapor releases from the tanks may be hazardous to workers. Contractually established occupational exposure limits (OELs) established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) do not exist for all chemicals of interest. To address the need for worker exposure guidelines for those chemicals that lack OSHA or ACGIH OELs, a procedure for assigning Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for Hanford Site tank farm workers has been developed and applied to a selected group of 57 headspace chemicals.

  12. Regional maps of occupational heat exposure: past, present, and potential future

    PubMed Central

    Hyatt, Olivia M.; Lemke, Bruno; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2010-01-01

    Background An important feature of climate change is increasing human heat exposure in workplaces without cooling systems in tropical and subtropical countries. Detailed gridded heat exposure maps will provide essential information for public health authorities. Objectives To develop and test methods for calculating occupational heat exposures and present results in easily interpreted maps. Design Published formulas for a common occupational heat exposure index, the WBGT (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature), were used in combination with global gridded climate data to calculate heat exposure in 0.5° grid squares. Monthly averages of daily maximum temperatures, as indicators of typical temperatures during the hottest part of the day, and corresponding water vapour pressures produced estimates of monthly WBGT indoors (without cooling systems) or outdoors in the shade. Results The maps show the WBGT within four hot regions of the world during the three hottest months in 1975 and 2000: Australia, South Asia, Southern Africa, Central America, and southern US. Between 1975 and 2000 a WBGT increase of 0.5–1°C was common and the maps show clear decreases in some places. The time trends fit with the development of global climate change. The high WBGT values (particularly in South Asia) already cause excessive occupational heat exposures during the three hottest months. If continued climate change increases WBGT by 3°C, our maps identify areas where occupational heat stress in non-cooled workplaces will be extreme. Conclusions The mapping method provides a rapid visual impression of occupational heat exposures in large regions of the world. The local changes in WBGT between 1975 and 2000 fit with the global climate change trends. Future increases of WBGT may create extreme heat exposure situations in large areas of the world. PMID:21165172

  13. Maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and small for gestational age offspring

    PubMed Central

    Langlois, Peter H.; Hoyt, Adrienne T.; Desrosiers, Tania A.; Lupo, Philip J.; Lawson, Christina C.; Waters, Martha A.; Rocheleau, Carissa M.; Shaw, Gary M.; Romitti, Paul A.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Malik, Sadia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives While some of the highest maternal exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occur in the workplace, there is only one previous study of occupational PAH exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes. We sought to extend this literature using interview data combined with detailed exposure assessment. Methods Data for 1997–2002 were analysed from mothers of infants without major birth defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study in the USA. Maternal telephone interviews yielded information on jobs held in the month before conception through delivery. From 6252 eligible control mothers, 2803 completed the interview, had a job, met other selection criteria, and were included in the analysis. Two industrial hygienists independently assessed occupational exposure to PAHs from the interview and reviewed results with a third to reach consensus. Small for gestational age (SGA) was the only adverse pregnancy outcome with enough exposed cases to yield meaningful results. Logistic regression estimated crude and adjusted ORs. Results Of the 2803 mothers, 221 (7.9%) had infants who were SGA. Occupational PAH exposure was found for 17 (7.7%) of the mothers with SGA offspring and 102 (4.0%) of the remaining mothers. Almost half the jobs with exposure were related to food preparation and serving. After adjustment for maternal age, there was a significant association of occupational exposure with SGA (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.3 to 3.8). Conclusions Maternal occupational exposure to PAHs was found to be associated with increased risk of SGA offspring. PMID:24893704

  14. Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mona J. Bird; David L. MacIntosh; Phillip L. Williams

    2004-06-15

    Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001, in 5 representative power plants of a large southeastern power-generating company. From 4 of the 5 facilities, 392 air samples and 302 noise samples were collected with approximately 50 respirable coal dust, 32 arsenic, 15 asbestos, and 70 noise samples from each of the 4 plants. One of the previously surveyed facilities was also evaluated for heat stress, and 1 additional coal-fueled power plant was surveyed for a total of 20 personal heat stress samples. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. The data concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature.

  15. Dental students and bloodborne pathogens: occupational exposures, knowledge, and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Myers, Julie E; Myers, Ronnie; Wheat, Mary E; Yin, Michael T

    2012-04-01

    Dental professionals may be exposed to bloodborne pathogens in their work, and dental students may be a particularly vulnerable group. Fear of exposure has also been linked to discriminatory practices. A cross-sectional survey of dental students was conducted at one U.S. dental school to assess their knowledge about the transmission of bloodborne pathogens and management of exposures; the frequency of their bloodborne pathogen exposures (BBPEs); and associations among their prior exposure, knowledge, perception of knowledge, and attitudes toward practice. Overall, 220 students (72.1 percent) responded to the survey, and 215 (70.5 percent) answered questions about exposures. The prevalence of BBPE was 19.1 percent and was greater among clinical than preclinical students (p<0.01). Percutaneous injuries occurred in 87.5 percent of those exposed. All students (preclinical and clinical combined) answered more survey questions correctly about transmission of bloodborne pathogens (66.7 percent) than about post-exposure management (25.0 percent). Fewer than half reported adequate knowledge of transmission and management (47.5 percent and 37.3 percent, respectively). In this context, 8.2 percent of the respondents acknowledged an unwillingness to perform procedures on patients with HIV. Since knowledge gaps may lead to failure to report incidents and delays in appropriate exposure management and some negative attitudes towards treating individuals with HIV persist, these findings justify improving BBPE education at U.S. dental schools.

  16. Analysis of occupational asbestos exposure and lung cancer mortality using the g formula.

    PubMed

    Cole, Stephen R; Richardson, David B; Chu, Haitao; Naimi, Ashley I

    2013-05-01

    We employed the parametric G formula to analyze lung cancer mortality in a cohort of textile manufacturing workers who were occupationally exposed to asbestos in South Carolina. A total of 3,002 adults with a median age of 24 years at enrollment (58% male, 81% Caucasian) were followed for 117,471 person-years between 1940 and 2001, and 195 lung cancer deaths were observed. Chrysotile asbestos exposure was measured in fiber-years per milliliter of air, and annual occupational exposures were estimated on the basis of detailed work histories. Sixteen percent of person-years involved exposure to asbestos, with a median exposure of 3.30 fiber-years/mL among those exposed. Lung cancer mortality by age 90 years under the observed asbestos exposure was 9.44%. In comparison with observed asbestos exposure, if the facility had operated under the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration asbestos exposure standard of <0.1 fibers/mL, we estimate that the cohort would have experienced 24% less lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.94). A further reduction in asbestos exposure to a standard of <0.05 fibers/mL was estimated to have resulted in a minimal additional reduction in lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.92).

  17. Occupational exposures and uncontrolled adult-onset asthma in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II.

    PubMed

    Le Moual, Nicole; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Siroux, Valérie; Radon, Katja; Norback, Dan; Torén, Kjell; Olivieri, Mario; Urrutia, Isabel; Cazzoletti, Lucia; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Benke, Geza; Kromhout, Hans; Mirabelli, Maria C; Mehta, Amar J; Schlünssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Blanc, Paul D; Kogevinas, Manolis; Antó, Josep M; Zock, Jan-Paul

    2014-02-01

    Occupational exposure is a well-recognised modifiable risk factor for asthma, but the relationship between occupational exposure and asthma control has not been studied. We aimed to study this association among working-age adults from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Data were available for 7077 participants (mean age 43 years, 45% never-smokers, 5867 without asthma and 1210 with current asthma). Associations between occupational exposure to specific asthmagens and asthma control status (33% with uncontrolled asthma, based on the Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines) were evaluated using logistic and multinomial regressions, adjusted for age, sex and smoking status, with study areas included as a random effect. Statistically significant positive associations were observed between uncontrolled adult-onset asthma and both past 12-month and 10-year exposure to any occupational asthmagens (OR (95% CI) 1.6 (1.0-2.40) and 1.7 (1.2-2.5), respectively); high (1.7 (1.0-2.8) and 1.9 (1.3-2.9), respectively) and low (1.6 (1.0-2.7) and 1.8 (1.2-2.7), respectively) molecular weight agents; and cleaning agents (2.0 (1.1-3.6) and 2.3 (1.4-3.6), respectively), with stronger associations for long-term exposures. These associations were mainly explained by the exacerbation domain of asthma control and no associations were observed between asthmagens and partly controlled asthma. These findings suggest that occupational exposure to asthmagens is associated with uncontrolled adult-onset asthma. Occupational risk factors should be quickly identified to prevent uncontrolled asthma.

  18. Occupational exposures to noise resulting from the workplace use of personal media players at a manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Autenrieth, Daniel A; Sandfort, Delvin R; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of noise exposures from personal media player (PMP) use in the workplace to overall employee noise exposures at a Colorado manufacturing facility. A total of 24 workers' PMP and background noise exposures were measured. Twelve PMP users worked in high-background-noise exposure (HBNE) areas, and 12 worked in low-background-noise exposure (LBNE) areas. The self-selected PMP listening level of each worker was measured using an ear simulator, and the background noise of each employee workstation was measured using a sound level meter. Workers' self-reported PMP duration of use, PMP listening exposure levels, and background noise levels were used to estimate the daily occupational noise exposures. Measured background noise levels averaged 81 dBA for HBNE workers and 59 dBA for LBNE workers. Measured, free-field equivalent listening exposure levels were significantly greater for HBNE workers (85 dBA) compared with LBNE workers (75 dBA) (p = 0.0006). Estimated mean daily noise exposures for both groups were below the ACGIH threshold limit value for noise of 85 dBA8-hr time weighted average (TWA), specifically 84 dBA TWA for HBNE workers and 72 dBA TWA for LBNE workers. Three of 12 (25%) HBNE workers had estimated exposures greater than 85 dBA TWA when only background noise was considered, yet when PMP use was also considered, 6 of 12 (50%) had estimated exposures greater than 85 dBA TWA, suggesting that PMP use doubled the number of overexposed workers. None of the LBNE workers had estimated exposures greater than 85 dBA TWA. The contribution of PMP use to overall noise exposures was substantially less among HBNE workers than LBNE workers due to the disproportionate selection of noise-attenuating headsets among HBNE workers compared with LBNE workers. It is recommended that the facility management either restrict workplace PMP use among HBNE workers or require output-limiting technology to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing

  19. Species-specific Fungal DNA in Airborne Dust as Surrogate for Occupational Mycotoxin Exposure?

    PubMed Central

    Halstensen, Anne Straumfors

    2008-01-01

    Possible health risks associated with occupational inhalation of mycotoxin-containing dust remain largely unknown, partly because methods for mycotoxin detection are not sensitive enough for the small dust masses obtained by personal sampling, which is needed for inhalable exposure measurements. Specific and sensitive PCR detection of fungi with mycotoxin-producing potential seem to be a good surrogate for occupational exposure measurements that include all fungal structures independent of morphology and cultivability. Results should, however, be interpreted with caution due to variable correlations with mycotoxin concentrations. PMID:19330091

  20. Pesticide exposure and occupational safety training of indigenous farmworkers in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Samples, Julie; Bergstad, Elizabeth A; Ventura, Santiago; Sanchez, Valentin; Farquhar, Stephanie Ann; Shadbeh, Nargess

    2009-11-01

    This follow-up study assessed indigenous and Latino farmworkers' occupational health and safety needs and measured variables related to pesticide exposure and pesticide safety training among this population. Results yielded differences between indigenous workers and Latino workers related to language barriers, experiences of workplace discrimination, preferred modes of information dissemination, pesticide exposures, and sufficiency of pesticide training. Employing more people who speak indigenous languages as interpreters, community and organizational leaders, and health workers may remove some of the linguistic and cultural barriers to occupational safety training.

  1. Acute radiodermatitis from occupational exposure to iridium 192

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.; Rosen, T. )

    1989-12-01

    Industrial radiography using the man-made radioisotope iridium 192 is commonplace in the southern states. Despite established procedures and safeguards, accidental exposure may result in typical acute radiodermatitis. We have presented a clinical example of this phenomenon.9 references.

  2. Occupational Diesel Exposure, Duration of Employment, and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Picciotto, Sally; Costello, Sadie; Eisen, Ellen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: If less healthy workers terminate employment earlier, thus accumulating less exposure, yet remain at greater risk of the health outcome, estimated health effects of cumulative exposure will be biased downward. If exposure also affects termination of employment, then the bias cannot be addressed using conventional methods. We examined these conditions as a prelude to a reanalysis of lung cancer mortality in the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study. Methods: We applied an accelerated failure time model to assess the effect of exposures to respirable elemental carbon (a surrogate for diesel) on time to termination of employment among nonmetal miners who ever worked underground (n = 8,307). We then applied the parametric g-formula to assess how possible interventions setting respirable elemental carbon exposure limits would have changed lifetime risk of lung cancer, adjusting for time-varying employment status. Results: Median time to termination was 36% shorter (95% confidence interval = 33%, 39%), per interquartile range width increase in respirable elemental carbon exposure. Lung cancer risk decreased with more stringent interventions, with a risk ratio of 0.8 (95% confidence interval = 0.5, 1.1) comparing a limit of ≤25 µg/m3 respirable elemental carbon to no intervention. The fraction of cases attributable to diesel exposure was 27% in this population. Conclusions: The g-formula controlled for time-varying confounding by employment status, the signature of healthy worker survivor bias, which was also affected by diesel exposure. It also offers an alternative approach to risk assessment for estimating excess cumulative risk, and the impact of interventions based entirely on an observed population. PMID:26426944

  3. Retrospective assessment of occupational exposure to whole-body vibration for a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Harris, M Anne; Cripton, Peter A; Teschke, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Occupational whole-body vibration is often studied as a risk factor for conditions that may arise soon after exposure, but only rarely have studies examined associations with conditions arising long after occupational exposure has ceased. We aimed to develop a method of constructing previous occupational whole-body vibration exposure metrics from self-reported data collected for a case-control study of Parkinson's disease. A detailed job history and exposure interview was administered to 808 residents of British Columbia, Canada (403 people with Parkinson's disease and 405 healthy controls). Participants were prompted to report exposure to whole-body vibrating equipment. We limited the data to exposure reports deemed to be above background exposures and used the whole-body vibration literature (typically reporting on seated vector sum measurements) to assign intensity (acceleration) values to each type of equipment reported. We created four metrics of exposure (duration of exposure, most intense equipment exposure, and two dose metrics combining duration and intensity) and examined their distributions and correlations. We tested the role of age and gender in predicting whole-body vibration exposure. Thirty-six percent of participants had at least one previous occupational exposure to whole-body vibrating equipment. Because less than half of participants reported exposure, all continuous metrics exhibited positively skewed distributions, although the distribution of most intense equipment exposure was more symmetrically distributed among the exposed. The arithmetic mean of duration of exposure among those exposed was 14.0 (standard deviation, SD: 14.2) work years, while the geometric mean was 6.8 (geometric SD, GSD: 4.5). The intensity of the most intense equipment exposure (among the exposed) had an arithmetic mean of 0.9 (SD: 0.3) m·s(-2) and a geometric mean of 0.8 (GSD: 1.4). Male gender and older age were both associated with exposure, although the effect of

  4. Occupational exposure and laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer risk in central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Shangina, O.; Brennan, P.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Mates, D.; Fabianova, E.; Fletcher, T.; Mannetje, A.; Boffetta, P.; Zaridze, D.

    2006-08-15

    A multicenter case-control study was conducted during 1999-2002 in four European countries (Poland, Romania, Russia, and Slovakia) to evaluate the role of occupational exposures in risk of laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer. Male cancer cases (34 hypopharyngeal, 316 laryngeal) with full data on occupational history and nonoccupational factors were compared with 728 hospital controls for occupational exposure to 73 suspected carcinogens. Occupational history was evaluated by industrial hygienists blinded to case/control status. Elevated risks for over exposure to coal dust were found for both hypopharyngeal (odds ratio (OR) = 4.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 14.89) and laryngeal (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 0.94, 3.47) cancer, with clear dose-response patterns. Inclusion of a 20-year lag in the analysis strengthened these associations. Hypopharyngeal cancer risk was also significantly associated with exposure to mild steel dust (OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.39, 6.64) and iron compounds and fumes (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.29, 5.84), without clear dose-response relations. Laryngeal cancer was significantly associated with exposure to hard-alloys dust (OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.57) and chlorinated solvents (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.61), without dose-response relations. A possible link between high formaldehyde exposure and laryngeal cancer was suggested. These data indicate that occupational exposure to coal dust may play a role in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Other possible relations need further evaluation.

  5. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Katrina N.; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N.; Neitzel, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people’s livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman’s ρ 0.46, p < 0.001). A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01) even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage. PMID:26797626

  6. Occupational exposure to manganese, copper, lead, iron, mercury and zinc and the risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gorell, J M; Johnson, C C; Rybicki, B A; Peterson, E L; Kortsha, G X; Brown, G G; Richardson, R J

    1999-01-01

    A population-based case-control study was conducted in the Henry Ford Health System (HFHS) in metropolitan Detroit to assess occupational exposures to manganese, copper, lead, iron, mercury and zinc as risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD). Non-demented men and women 50 years of age who were receiving primary medical care at HFHS were recruited, and concurrently enrolled cases (n = 144) and controls (n = 464) were frequency-matched for sex, race and age (+/- 5 years). A risk factor questionnaire, administered by trained interviewers, inquired about every job held by each subject for 6 months from age 18 onward, including a detailed assessment of actual job tasks, tools and environment. An experienced industrial hygienist, blinded to subjects' case-control status, used these data to rate every job as exposed or not exposed to one or more of the metals of interest. Adjusting for sex, race, age and smoking status, 20 years of occupational exposure to any metal was not associated with PD. However, more than 20 years exposure to manganese (Odds Ratio [OR] = 10.61, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.06, 105.83) or copper (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.06,5.89) was associated with PD. Occupational exposure for > 20 years to combinations of lead-copper (OR = 5.24, 95% CI = 1.59, 17.21), lead-iron (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 1.07,7.50), and iron-copper (OR = 3.69, 95% CI = 1.40,9.71) was also associated with the disease. No association of occupational exposure to iron, mercury or zinc with PD was found. A lack of statistical power precluded analyses of metal combinations for those with a low prevalence of exposure (i.e., manganese, mercury and zinc). Our findings suggest that chronic occupational exposure to manganese or copper, individually, or to dual combinations of lead, iron and copper, is associated with PD.

  7. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers.

    PubMed

    Burns, Katrina N; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N; Neitzel, Richard L

    2016-01-19

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people's livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman's ρ 0.46, p < 0.001). A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01) even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  8. [Granulomatous lung lesions after occupational exposure to glass fibers].

    PubMed

    Klimczak, A; Langfort, R; Zych, J; Bestry, I; Rowińska-Zakrzewska, E

    2000-01-01

    39 years old man with granulomatous lesions in both lungs caused by occupational contact with glass fibers was described. He has been working as an bricklayer-plasterer for 18 years and was in contact with lime, cement, plaster, asbestos, dust of coal and wood and with glass fibers. For the last two years before admission in 1993 he has had frequent bronchial infections. On admission he was in good general condition, his spirometric examination and blood gases were within normal limits. On chest x-ray disseminated lesions were found. Those lesions were of the round shapes on chest CT. Many sputum cultures for tubercle bacilli were negative. ANA and ANCA were not found in the serum. ACE was within normal limits. No precipitins to environmental antigens were found. Cancer metastases were suspected and lung biopsy during videothoracoscopy was done. Many foreign body type granulomas were found throughout the specimen. The character of the lesions was not typical for tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, silicosis or asbestosis. There are some reports concerning the possibility of development of such lesions after the exposition to glass fibers. We suspect that case is an example of such pathology. His occupational exposition was stopped in 1993 and he was observed without treatment. During the 5 years of observation (up till 1998) he was in good health with stable chest x-ray picture and results of respiratory system function.

  9. Biological monitoring in occupational exposure to low levels of 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed

    Fustinoni, S; Perbellini, L; Soleo, L; Manno, M; Foà, V

    2004-04-01

    Exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD), a probable carcinogen to humans, was investigated in two groups of subjects working in a petrochemical plant where BD is produced and used to prepare polymers: 42 occupationally exposed workers and 43 internal non-occupationally exposed controls. BD personal exposure was very low but significantly different in the two groups (median airborne BD 1.5 and 0.4 microg/m(3) in exposed and controls, respectively). Similarly, BD in blood and urine, but not in exhaled air, was higher in the exposed workers than in controls (blood BD 3.7 ng/l versus <1.8 ng/l, urinary BD 2.4 ng/l versus <1.0 ng/l). These three biomarkers correlated significantly with personal exposure ( 0.283 < or = Pearson's r < or = 0.383) and between them (0.780 < or = r < or = 0.896). Excretion of urinary mercapturic acids N-acetyl-S-(3,4-hydroxybutyl)-l-cysteine (MI), N-acetyl-S-(1-hydroxymethyl-2-propenyl)-l-cysteine and N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxy-3-butenyl)-l-cysteine (MII), chromosomal aberrations (CA), and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in peripheral blood lymphocytes were not influenced by occupational exposure. Our results show that unmetabolised BD in biological fluids, and particularly urinary BD, represents the biomarker of choice for assessing occupational exposure to low airborne concentrations of BD.

  10. Occupational exposure to dioxins by thermal oxygen cutting, welding, and soldering of metals.

    PubMed

    Menzel, H M; Bolm-Audorff, U; Turcer, E; Bienfait, H G; Albracht, G; Walter, D; Emmel, C; Knecht, U; Päpke, O

    1998-04-01

    This paper focuses on one aspect of occupational dioxin exposure that is novel and unexpected. Exposures in excess of the German threshold limit value of 50 pg international toxicity equivalent (I-TEQ)/m3 are very frequent, unpredictable, and sometimes very high--up to 6612 pg I-TEQ/m3--during thermal oxygen cutting at scrap metal and demolition sites. The same procedure involving virgin steel in steel trade and mass production of steel objects gave no such evidence, even though no final conclusions can be drawn because of the low number of samples analyzed. Low dioxin exposures during inert gas electric arc welding confirm previous literature findings, whereas soldering and thermal oxygen cutting in the presence of polyvinyl chloride give rise to concern. The consequences of occupational dioxin exposure were studied by analysis of the dioxin-blood concentration, the body burden, of men performing thermal oxygen cutting at scrap metal reclamation and demolition sites, in steel trade and producing plants as well as for industrial welders and white-collar workers. The results concerning body burdens are in excellent agreement with the dioxin exposure as characterized by dioxin air concentration in the workplace. The significant positive correlation between duration and frequency of performing thermal oxygen cutting at metal reclamation and demolition sites expressed in job-years and dioxin body burden speaks for the occupational origin of the observed overload after long times. The results reported here lead to consequences for occupational health, which are discussed and require immediate attention.

  11. Occupational exposures and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Canadian case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Karunanayake, Chandima P; McDuffie, Helen H; Dosman, James A; Spinelli, John J; Pahwa, Punam

    2008-01-01

    Background The objective was to study the association between Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) and occupational exposures related to long held occupations among males in six provinces of Canada. Methods A population based case-control study was conducted from 1991 to 1994. Males with newly diagnosed NHL (ICD-10) were stratified by province of residence and age group. A total of 513 incident cases and 1506 population based controls were included in the analysis. Conditional logistic regression was conducted to fit statistical models. Results Based on conditional logistic regression modeling, the following factors independently increased the risk of NHL: farmer and machinist as long held occupations; constant exposure to diesel exhaust fumes; constant exposure to ionizing radiation (radium); and personal history of another cancer. Men who had worked for 20 years or more as farmer and machinist were the most likely to develop NHL. Conclusion An increased risk of developing NHL is associated with the following: long held occupations of faer and machinist; exposure to diesel fumes; and exposure to ionizing radiation (radium). The risk of NHL increased with the duration of employment as a farmer or machinist. PMID:18687133

  12. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Childhood Leukemia and Parental Occupational Pesticide Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wigle, Donald T.; Turner, Michelle C.; Krewski, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of childhood leukemia and parental occupational pesticide exposure. Data sources Searches of MEDLINE (1950–2009) and other electronic databases yielded 31 included studies. Data extraction Two authors independently abstracted data and assessed the quality of each study. Data synthesis Random effects models were used to obtain summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). There was no overall association between childhood leukemia and any paternal occupational pesticide exposure (OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.88–1.34); there were slightly elevated risks in subgroups of studies with low total-quality scores (OR = 1.39; 95% CI, 0.99–1.95), ill-defined exposure time windows (OR = 1.36; 95% CI, 1.00–1.85), and exposure information collected after offspring leukemia diagnosis (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.05–1.70). Childhood leukemia was associated with prenatal maternal occupational pesticide exposure (OR = 2.09; 95% CI, 1.51–2.88); this association was slightly stronger for studies with high exposure-measurement-quality scores (OR = 2.45; 95% CI, 1.68–3.58), higher confounder control scores (OR = 2.38; 95% CI, 1.56–3.62), and farm-related exposures (OR = 2.44; 95% CI, 1.53–3.89). Childhood leukemia risk was also elevated for prenatal maternal occupational exposure to insecticides (OR = 2.72; 95% CI, 1.47–5.04) and herbicides (OR = 3.62; 95% CI, 1.28–10.3). Conclusions Childhood leukemia was associated with prenatal maternal occupational pesticide exposure in analyses of all studies combined and in several subgroups. Associations with paternal occupational pesticide exposure were weaker and less consistent. Research needs include improved pesticide exposure indices, continued follow-up of existing cohorts, genetic susceptibility assessment, and basic research on childhood leukemia initiation and progression. PMID:20019898

  13. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles: occupational exposure assessment in the photocatalytic paving production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinazzè, Andrea; Cattaneo, Andrea; Limonta, Marina; Bollati, Valentina; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Cavallo, Domenico M.

    2016-06-01

    Limited data are available regarding occupational exposure assessment to nano-sized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2). The objective of this study is to assess the occupational exposure of workers engaged in the application of nano-TiO2 onto concrete building materials, by means of a multi-metric approach (mean diameter, number, mass and surface area concentrations). The measurement design consists of the combined use of (i) direct-reading instruments to evaluate the total particle number concentrations relative to the background concentration and the mean size-dependent characteristics of particles (mean diameter and surface area concentration) and to estimate the 8-h time-weighted average (8-h TWA) exposure to nano-TiO2 for workers involved in different working tasks; and (ii) filter-based air sampling, used for the determination of size-resolved particle mass concentrations. A further estimation was performed to obtain the mean 8-h TWA exposure values expressed as mass concentrations (µg nano-TiO2/m3). The multi-metric characterization of occupational exposure to nano-TiO2 was significantly different both for different work environments and for each work task. Generally, workers were exposed to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs; <100 nm) mean levels lower than the recommended reference values and proposed occupational exposure limits (40,000 particle/cm3; 300 µg/m3) and relevant exposures to peak concentration were not likely to be expected. The estimated 8-h TWA exposure showed differences between the unexposed and exposed subjects. For these last, further differences were defined between operators involved in different work tasks. This study provides information on nano-TiO2 number and mass concentration, size distribution, particles diameter and surface area concentrations, which were used to obtain work shift-averaged exposures.

  14. TREXMO: A Translation Tool to Support the Use of Regulatory Occupational Exposure Models.

    PubMed

    Savic, Nenad; Racordon, Dimitri; Buchs, Didier; Gasic, Bojan; Vernez, David

    2016-10-01

    Occupational exposure models vary significantly in their complexity, purpose, and the level of expertise required from the user. Different parameters in the same model may lead to different exposure estimates for the same exposure situation. This paper presents a tool developed to deal with this concern-TREXMO or TRanslation of EXposure MOdels. TREXMO integrates six commonly used occupational exposure models, namely, ART v.1.5, STOFFENMANAGER(®) v.5.1, ECETOC TRA v.3, MEASE v.1.02.01, EMKG-EXPO-TOOL, and EASE v.2.0. By enabling a semi-automatic translation between the parameters of these six models, TREXMO facilitates their simultaneous use. For a given exposure situation, defined by a set of parameters in one of the models, TREXMO provides the user with the most appropriate parameters to use in the other exposure models. Results showed that, once an exposure situation and parameters were set in ART, TREXMO reduced the number of possible outcomes in the other models by 1-4 orders of magnitude. The tool should manage to reduce the uncertain entry or selection of parameters in the six models, improve between-user reliability, and reduce the time required for running several models for a given exposure situation. In addition to these advantages, registrants of chemicals and authorities should benefit from more reliable exposure estimates for the risk characterization of dangerous chemicals under Regulation, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of CHemicals (REACH).

  15. Occupational Exposure to Indium of Indium Smelter Workers.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chun Guang; Wang, Huan Qiang; Song, Han Bo; Li, Zhi Hui; Li, Xiao Ping; Ye, Shao Se; Zhang, Fu Gang; Cui, Shi Wei; Yan, Hui Fang; Li, Tao

    2016-05-01

    Case reports of indium-related lung disease in workers have raised public concern to the human toxicity of indium (In) and its compounds. However, studies evaluating the exposure or health of workers in In smelting plants are rare. Therefore, in this study, we focused on four In smelting plants, with the main objective of characterizing In in smelter plants in China and discussing the potential exposure biomarkers of In exposure. We recruited 494 subjectsat four In smelting plants in China. Personal air samples, first morning urine and spot blood samples were collected. In concentrations in samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In concentrations in air samples did not exceed the permissible concentration-time weighed average, but the smelter workers had a higher internal exposure to In. Positive correlations were observed between the air In and urine In concentrations, and between the air In and blood In concentrations. This study provides basic data for the following In exposure and health risk assessment.

  16. An evaluation of compliance with occupational exposure limits for crystalline silica (quartz) in ten Georgia granite sheds.

    PubMed

    Wickman, Arthur R; Middendorf, Paul J

    2002-06-01

    Since the 1920s, industrial hygiene studies have documented granite shed workers' exposures to crystalline silica, and the data from these studies have contributed to a better understanding of the relationship between silica exposures and adverse health effects, such as silicosis. The majority of these studies were conducted in the Barre, Vermont, granite sheds. However, a second major granite processing region is located in Elberton, Georgia, where approximately 1800 workers are employed in 150 granite sheds and 45 quarries. The current study reports the exposures of 40 workers in 10 granite sheds in Elberton, Georgia. The arithmetic mean exposure to silica for all monitored employees was 0.052 mg/m3. Employees were classified into one of seven job task groups. The job task group with the greatest exposure was the top polish group, which had a mean exposure of 0.085 mg/m3. Among the top polish workers, the greatest percentage of exposures above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit (OSHA PEL) occurred among the workers who used dry grinders. Wet methods were effective in reducing these exposures to below the OSHA PEL. The mean exposure of Elberton granite shed workers was less than the OSHA PEL, but was not below the threshold limit value of the American Conference of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH TLV), which was lowered in the year 2000 to 0.05 mg/m3. The Elberton granite shed workers provide a valuable cohort for research on the effects of exposure to crystalline silica at levels between the ACGIH TLV and the OSHA PEL. They are a relatively permanent worker population, are concentrated geographically, and have a quantitatively documented exposure to crystalline silica over the past twenty years.

  17. Occupational exposure and 12-year spirometric changes among Paris area workers.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, F; Drouet, D; Lellouch, J; Brille, D

    1982-08-01

    A follow-up study over 12 years was conducted among 556 men aged 30 to 54 in 1960 and working at that time in factories around Paris (France). Various occupational exposures were recorded at the time of the 1960 survey after a technical study of each workplace. The annual rate of decline of FEV1 during 12 years was estimated for each subject from the measurements in 1960 and 1972. This rate (the FEV1 slope) was related independently of FEV1 level (which reflects the loss since the beginning of adult life) and of smoking habits to occupational exposure to dust, gases, and heat. FEV1 slope was significantly related to inhalation of mineral dust (even in the absence of silica) as well as to grain dust, and the slope was steeper with increased intensity of exposure to dust. Analysis of job changes showed that among heavily exposed subjects, those who changed jobs had a less steep slope than those who did not. Our results support the hypothesis of a causal role of exposure to dust in the development of chronic airflow obstruction and of a benefit when exposure to dust ceases. Exposure to dust, gas, and heat usually occurred together so data on gas and heat were analysed after taking account of exposure to dust. The influence of heat on FEV1 decline showed a clear trend. Results suggest that exposure to gases associated with exposure to dust or heat or both had a deleterious effect. After adjusting for age, smoking, and FEV1 level (ASLA) the following average slopes were obtained: 44 ml/a (for exposure to none or to only a slight amount of dust, or to gases alone), 51 ml/a (heat), 53 ml/a (noticeable dust), 55 ml/a (noticeable dust and heat), 60 ml/a (noticeable dust, heat, and high concentration of gases). Independently of the occupational exposures, ASLA FEV1 slopes among manual workers were related to skill, being 44 ml/a for skilled and 51 ml/a for unskilled men. Independently of social class and occupational exposures recorded, there were differences in FEV1 slopes

  18. Occupational exposure and 12-year spirometric changes among Paris area workers.

    PubMed Central

    Kauffmann, F; Drouet, D; Lellouch, J; Brille, D

    1982-01-01

    A follow-up study over 12 years was conducted among 556 men aged 30 to 54 in 1960 and working at that time in factories around Paris (France). Various occupational exposures were recorded at the time of the 1960 survey after a technical study of each workplace. The annual rate of decline of FEV1 during 12 years was estimated for each subject from the measurements in 1960 and 1972. This rate (the FEV1 slope) was related independently of FEV1 level (which reflects the loss since the beginning of adult life) and of smoking habits to occupational exposure to dust, gases, and heat. FEV1 slope was significantly related to inhalation of mineral dust (even in the absence of silica) as well as to grain dust, and the slope was steeper with increased intensity of exposure to dust. Analysis of job changes showed that among heavily exposed subjects, those who changed jobs had a less steep slope than those who did not. Our results support the hypothesis of a causal role of exposure to dust in the development of chronic airflow obstruction and of a benefit when exposure to dust ceases. Exposure to dust, gas, and heat usually occurred together so data on gas and heat were analysed after taking account of exposure to dust. The influence of heat on FEV1 decline showed a clear trend. Results suggest that exposure to gases associated with exposure to dust or heat or both had a deleterious effect. After adjusting for age, smoking, and FEV1 level (ASLA) the following average slopes were obtained: 44 ml/a (for exposure to none or to only a slight amount of dust, or to gases alone), 51 ml/a (heat), 53 ml/a (noticeable dust), 55 ml/a (noticeable dust and heat), 60 ml/a (noticeable dust, heat, and high concentration of gases). Independently of the occupational exposures, ASLA FEV1 slopes among manual workers were related to skill, being 44 ml/a for skilled and 51 ml/a for unskilled men. Independently of social class and occupational exposures recorded, there were differences in FEV1 slopes

  19. Occupational exposure to phthalates in relation to gender, consumer practices and body composition.

    PubMed

    Petrovičová, Ida; Kolena, Branislav; Šidlovská, Miroslava; Pilka, Tomáš; Wimmerová, Soňa; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2016-12-01

    The aim of our work was to find associations between urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and occupation, consumer practices and body composition. We divided our cohort (n = 129) into occupationally exposed subjects, community service workers (group A; n = 45) and workers from plastic industry (group B; n = 35) and group of general population (control group C, n = 49). To estimate levels of five phthalate metabolites, we used high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry analysis. We found in plastic industry workers compared to community service workers and subjects of the control group significantly higher urinary concentration mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono (2-etylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), sum di-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (DEHP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP). We identified by multivariate analysis of covariance inverse relationship between MEHP and body parameters as waist-to-height ratio, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, hip circumference and waist circumference among females, whereas in males, no significant association was found. Results of our study show, despite of variability in terms of occupational exposure to phthalates, that plastic manufactory represents a higher occupational risk in comparison with waste management. The differences in anthropometric parameters between the two occupationally exposed groups and the general population are suggesting a detrimental effect of occupational exposure on body weight homeostasis.

  20. Suicide and potential occupational exposure to pesticides, Colorado 1990-1999.

    PubMed

    Stallones, Lorann

    2006-01-01

    A number of occupational studies have reported high rates of suicide among selected occupations, including farmers. Limited work has focused on occupational exposures that may increase the risk of suicide. The purpose of this study is to describe suicide among individuals potentially exposed to pesticides through their occupation. Data from Colorado death certificate files for the period 1990-1999 were obtained. Eligible records were those individuals who were Colorado residents at the time of death who had an occupation listed on their death certificates. Cases had suicide listed as the primary cause of death on the death certificates. The comparison group included Colorado residents who died from any cause during the same period other than cancer, mental disorders and injuries. A total of 4,991 suicide deaths were included and a total of 107,692 other deaths served as the comparison group. Occupations considered pesticide exposed included: veterinarians; pest control occupations; farmers and farm workers; farm managers and supervisors; marine life cultivators; nursery workers; groundskeepers and gardeners; animal caretakers; graders, sorters and inspectors of agricultural products; and forestry workers, supervisors and loggers. All other occupational categories were coded as unexposed. Logistic regression was used to compare the groups, separately for males and females. After controlling for age, race, Hispanic ethnicity, years of education, and marital status, males who were in pesticide exposed occupations had higher odds of suicide (odds ratio 1.14; 95% confidence interval 0.97, 1.34) and females in pesticide exposed occupations also had higher odds of suicide (odds ratio 1.98; 95% confidence interval 1.01, 3.88).

  1. Post exposure prophylaxis following occupational exposure to HIV: a survey of health care workers in Mbeya, Tanzania, 2009-2010

    PubMed Central

    Mponela, Marcelina John; Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Abade, Ahmed; Kwesigabo, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Approximately, 1,000 HIV infections are transmitted annually to health care workers (HCWs) worldwide from occupational exposures. Tanzania HCWs experience one to nine needle stick injuries (NSIs) per year, yet the use of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is largely undocumented. We assessed factors influencing use of PEP among HCWs following occupational exposure to HIV. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mbeya Referral Hospital, Mbozi and Mbarali District Hospitals from December 2009 to January 2010 with a sample size of 360 HCWs. Participants were randomly selected from a list of eligible HCWs in Mbeya hospital and all eligible HCWs were enrolled in the two District Hospitals. Information regarding risk of exposure to body fluids and NSIs were collected using a questionnaire. Logistic regression was done to identify predictors for PEP use using Epi Info 3.5.1 at 95% confidence interval. Results Of 291 HCWs who participated in the study, 35.1% (102/291) were exposed to NSIs and body fluids, with NSIs accounting for 62.9% (64/102). Exposure was highest among medical attendants 38.8% (33/85). Out of exposed HCWs, (22.5% (23/102) used HIV PEP with females more likely to use PEP than males. Reporting of exposures (OR=21.1, CI: 3.85-115.62) and having PEP knowledge (OR =6.5, CI: 1.78-23.99) were significantly associated with using PEP. Conclusion Despite the observed rate of occupational exposure to HCWs in Tanzania, use of PEP is still low. Effective prevention from HIV infection at work places is required through proper training of HCWs on PEP with emphasis on timely reporting of exposures. PMID:26405468

  2. Dose-response modeling of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with biomarkers of exposure and effect.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Beate; Kappler, Martin; Straif, Kurt; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Preuss, Ralf; Rossbach, Bernd; Rihs, Hans-Peter; Weiss, Tobias; Rabstein, Sylvia; Pierl, Christiane; Scherenberg, Michael; Adams, Ansgar; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo; Angerer, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Michael; Seidel, Albrecht; Brüning, Thomas

    2007-09-01

    In regulatory toxicology, the dose-response relationship between occupational exposure and biomarkers is of importance in setting threshold values. We analyzed the relationships between occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and various biomarkers of internal exposure and DNA damage with data from 284 highly exposed male workers. Personal exposure to phenanthrene and other PAHs was measured during shift and correlated with the sum of 1-, 2+9-, 3-, and 4-hydroxyphenanthrenes in post-shift urine. PAHs and hydroxyphenanthrenes were associated with DNA damage assessed in WBC as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine/10(6) dGuo and strand breaks by Comet assay as Olive tail moment. Hydroxyphenanthrenes correlated with phenanthrene (Spearman r(s) = 0.70; P < 0.0001). No correlations could be found between strand breaks and exposure (r(s) = 0.01, P < 0.0001 for PAHs; r(s) = -0.03, P = 0.68 for hydroxyphenanthrenes). Correlations with 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine/10(6) dGuo were weakly negative (r(s) = -0.22, P = 0.004 for PAHs) or flat (r(s) = -0.08, P = 0.31 for hydroxyphenanthrenes). Linear splines were applied to assess the relationships between the log-transformed variables. All regression models were adjusted for smoking and type of industry. For hydroxyphenanthrenes, 51.7% of the variance could be explained by phenanthrene and other predictors. Up to 0.77 microg/m(3) phenanthrene, no association could be found with hydroxyphenanthrenes. Above that point, hydroxyphenanthrenes increased by a factor of 1.47 under a doubling of phenanthrene exposure (slope, 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.64). Hydroxyphenanthrenes may be recommended as biomarker of occupational PAH exposure, whereas biomarkers of DNA damage in blood did not show a dose-response relation to PAH exposure.

  3. Effects of occupational pesticide exposure on children applying pesticides.

    PubMed

    Abdel Rasoul, Gaafar M; Abou Salem, Mahmoud E; Mechael, Atef A; Hendy, Olfat M; Rohlman, Diane S; Ismail, Ahmed A

    2008-09-01

    Nearly 40% of the Egyptian workforce is employed in agriculture. The cotton industry relies on children and adolescents, who work seasonally, to apply pesticides to the cotton crops. Although previous research has examined adult pesticide exposures in this workforce in Egypt, no research has examined the health effects in adolescents. This study attempts to systematically replicate findings examining the impact of organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure in adults on Arabic speaking children working as applicators. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of pesticide exposure on children and adolescents spraying cotton fields. Male children currently applying pesticides between the ages of 9 and 15 (Younger, n=30) and 16 and 19 (Older, n=20) were recruited for the study. They completed a neurobehavioral test battery; personality inventory; work, health, and exposure questionnaires; and medical and neurological screening exams. Blood samples were collected to measure acetylcholinesterase. Children not working in agriculture, matched on age and education, served as controls. Both Younger and Older applicator groups, performed significantly worse than the controls on the majority of neurobehavioral tests controlling for age and years of education. The applicators reported significantly more neurological symptoms than the controls and had lower acetylcholinesterase activity. A dose-effect relationship demonstrated that increased years of exposure to organophosphate pesticides is associated with cognitive deficits. This is one of the several studies demonstrating that functional cognitive effects are positively correlated with increased years of exposure to OP pesticides, though primarily in adult populations, building confidence in the association. Since children around the world are exposed to OP pesticides, these studies suggest that the need to evaluate this potential problem is urgent.

  4. Effects of occupational exposure to organic solvents upon cognitive performance

    SciTech Connect

    Milanovic, L.; Spilich, G.; Vucinic, G.; Knezevic, S.; Ribaric, B.; Mubrin, Z. )

    1990-11-01

    Twenty-three individuals exposed to mixed organic solvents were compared with 23 nonexposed controls on a number of cognitive performance tasks. Solvent exposure resulted in a significantly poorer performance on the forward digit span test, copying of a complex figure, and on semantic memory tests which also measure individual's ability to integrate linguistic information into cohesive units. These tasks rely heavily upon short-term memory and its integrative operations in higher cognitive function. Acute exposure effect was also observed for the linguistic integrative task.

  5. Acute and chronic respiratory effects of occupational exposure to ammonia.

    PubMed

    Holness, D L; Purdham, J T; Nethercott, J R

    1989-12-01

    In a soda ash plant, 58 workers exposed to mean airborne ammonia levels of 9.2 +/- 1.4 ppm were compared with 31 control workers with a mean exposure of 0.3 +/- 0.1 ppm. There were no differences between the groups in the reporting of respiratory or cutaneous symptoms, sense of smell, baseline lung function, or change in lung function over a work shift at the beginning and end of a workweek. No relationships between level or length of ammonia exposure and lung function results were demonstrated.

  6. [Occupational exposure to chemicals in the manufacture of rubber tires].

    PubMed

    Szadkowska-Stańczyk, I; Wilczyńska, U; Sobala, W; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N

    2001-01-01

    The work environment of the rubber industry company, producing various types of tires, was assessed and the workers of the plant were included in a cohort study of mortality. Concentrations of twenty chemical substances at 137 workposts were measured by employees of the plant laboratory and the sanitary and epidemiological station in 1981-1996. The mean values and concentration ranges were determined by departments and workposts. The excess of threshold limit values was analyzed. The workposts with exposure to agents possibly carcinogenic to humans were identified. The analysis performed will render it possible to calculate doses of cumulative exposure to given compounds among workers covered by the epidemiological study.

  7. Occupational and environmental exposures as risk factors for systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Glinda S; Parks, Christine G

    2004-10-01

    Although genetic susceptibility plays a strong role in the etiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), recent research has provided new evidence of the potential influence of environmental factors in the risk for this disease. This paper describes epidemiologic and experimental research pertaining to occupational and environmental sources of exposure to respirable crystalline silica, solvents and pesticides, and two "lifestyle" factors (smoking and hair dye use). As has been seen with other systemic autoimmune diseases (eg, systemic sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis), a series of epidemiologic studies, using different designs in different settings, have demonstrated relatively strong and consistent associations between occupational silica exposure and SLE. The type and quality of exposure assessment is an important consideration in evaluating these studies. Recent experimental studies examined the effect of trichloroethylene exposure in MRL+/+ mice, but to date there have been few epidemiologic studies of solvents and SLE. There are numerous avenues with respect to environmental factors in SLE that need additional research.

  8. Carcinogenicity and other health effects of acrylonitrile with reference to occupational exposure limit.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, H

    2000-04-01

    The occupational exposure limit for acrylonitrile (AN) has been set by many organizations on the basis of its carcinogenicity. However, recent epidemiological studies do not afford evidence supporting the hypothesis that AN is carcinogenic to humans. Review of the 18 published cohort studies revealed that, although there is not adequate evidence in humans for carcinogenicity of AN, the possibility of a causal association between high exposure to AN and lung cancer in humans cannot be excluded. It was pointed out that carcinogenic potential of AN may be weak, if any, to humans, and the current occupational exposure limit (OEL) for AN of 2 ppm was evaluated as appropriate in view of AN exposure levels reported by epidemiological studies. Based also on review of the literature on health effects other than carcinogenicity, it was concluded that the current OEL for AN is a reasonable value and there is no need for a revision at present.

  9. Occupational exposure to natural UV radiation and premature skin ageing.

    PubMed

    Lastowiecka-Moras, Elżbieta; Bugajska, Joanna; Młynarczyk, Beata

    2014-01-01

    The skin is the part of the human body most vulnerable to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The spectrum of the negative effects of UV radiation on the skin ranges from acute erythema to carcinogenesis. Between these extreme conditions, there are other common skin lesions, e.g., photoageing. The aim of this study was to assess the skin for signs of photoageing in a group of 52 men occupationally exposed to natural UV radiation. There were 2 types of examinations: an examination of skin condition (moisture, elasticity, sebum, porosity, smoothness, discolourations and wrinkles) with a device for diagnosing the skin, and a dermatological examination. The results of both examinations revealed a higher percentage of skin characteristics typical for photoageing in outdoor workers compared to the general population.

  10. Occupational exposures of nuclear power plant workers in Finland.

    PubMed

    Alm-Lytz, K; Riihiluoma, V; Hyvönen, H

    2001-01-01

    In Finland, the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) maintains a central dose register where all occupational doses of radiation workers are recorded. The computerised register enables easy control of personal doses, including annual, 5 year and lifetime doses. The type of radiation work is also recorded in the dose register. Finland was one of the first countries in the world to introduce dose limits based on the recommendations of ICRP 60. In this article, the radiation dose data of the Finnish nuclear power plant workers are analysed. The majority of the radiation doses are received during the maintenance outages. The trend of the 5 year doses and their distribution are presented. Doses received during different work assignments were averaged over the years 1996-1999 and they are also discussed in this article.

  11. Silica-associated limited systemic sclerosis after occupational exposure to calcined diatomaceous earth.

    PubMed

    Moisan, Stéphanie; Rucay, Pierre; Ghali, Alaa; Penneau-Fontbonne, Dominique; Lavigne, Christian

    2010-10-01

    Silica-associated systemic sclerosis can occur in persons using calcined diatomaceous earth for filtration purpose. A limited systemic sclerosis was diagnosed in a 52-year-old male winegrower who had a combination of Raynaud's phenomenon, oesophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly and telangectasia. The anti-centromere antibodies titre was 1/5000. The patient was frequently exposed to high atmospheric concentrations of calcined diatomaceous earth when performing the filtration of wines. Calcined diatomaceous earth is almost pure crystalline silica under the cristobalite form. The diagnosis of silica-associated limited systemic sclerosis after exposure to calcined diatomaceous earth was made. The patient's disease met the medical, administrative and occupational criteria given in the occupational diseases list 22 bis of the agriculture Social Security scheme and thence was presumed to be occupational in origin, without need to be proved. The diagnosis of occupational disease had been recognized by the compensation system of the agricultural health insurance.

  12. Occupational health practice and exposure to nanoparticles: reconciling scientific evidence, ethical aspects, and legal requirements.

    PubMed

    Franco, Giuliano

    2011-01-01

    The paper aims at focusing the relationship between scientific evidence and ethical values' issues of occupational health practice according to the new Italian law 81/2008 stating that the occupational health physician (OHP) is required to act according to the Code of Ethics of the International Commission on Occupational Health. The code itself emphasizes that (i) the practice should be relevant, knowledge-based, sound, and appropriate to the occupational risks and (ii) the objectives and methods of health surveillance must be clearly defined. Because exposure to nanoparticles involves several uncertainties about health effects and may limit the effectiveness of workers' health surveillance, OHPs face a several ethical dilemmas, involving different stakeholders. The dilemmas arising from the practice should be dealt with according to the ethical principles of beneficence, autonomy, and justice in order to take a decision.

  13. Occupational exposures to new dry cleaning solvents: High-flashpoint hydrocarbons and butylal.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Diana M; Whittaker, Stephen G; Lee, Eun Gyung; Roberts, Jennifer; Streicher, Robert; Nourian, Fariba; Gong, Wei; Broadwater, Kendra

    2016-10-02

    The dry cleaning industry is moving away from using perchloroethylene. Occupational exposures to two alternative dry cleaning solvents, butylal and high-flashpoint hydrocarbons, have not been well characterized. We evaluated four dry cleaning shops that used these alternative solvents. The shops were staffed by Korean- and Cantonese-speaking owners, and Korean-, Cantonese-, and Spanish-speaking employees. Because most workers had limited English proficiency we used language services in our evaluations. In two shops we collected personal and area air samples for butylal. We also collected air samples for formaldehyde and butanol, potential hydrolysis products of butylal. Because there are no occupational exposure limits for butylal, we assessed employee health risks using control banding tools. In the remaining two shops we collected personal and area air samples for high-flashpoint hydrocarbon solvents. In all shops the highest personal airborne exposures occurred when workers loaded and unloaded the dry cleaning machines and pressed dry cleaned fabrics. The air concentrations of formaldehyde and butanol in the butylal shops were well below occupational exposure limits. Likewise, the air concentrations of high-flashpoint hydrocarbons were also well below occupational exposure limits. However, we saw potential skin exposures to these chemicals. We provided recommendations on appropriate work practices and the selection and use of personal protective equipment. These recommendations were consistent with those derived using control banding tools for butylal. However, there is insufficient toxicological and health information to determine the safety of butylal in occupational settings. Independent evaluation of the toxicological properties of these alternative dry cleaning solvents, especially butylal, is urgently needed.

  14. [Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium during aircraft painting].

    PubMed

    Gherardi, M; Gatto, M P; Gordiani, A; Paci, E; Proietto, A

    2007-01-01

    Hygienists are interested in hexavalent chromium due to its genotoxic and carcinogenic effect on humans. The use of products containing hexavalent chromium is decreasing in many industrial fields because of the substitution with less-toxic compounds. In the aeronautical industry, however, the chromate are added to primer paint as a corrosion inhibitor of aircrafts surfaces: so hexavalent chromium compounds are available in many primers with a composition ranging from 10% to 13%. The application of these primers by using electrostatic guns potentially exposes painting and coating workers at high concentrations of aerosols containing Cr(VI). The aim of the present study is the evaluation of professional exposure to hexavalent chromium during aircraft painting, by adopting both environmental personal sampling and biological monitoring. To valuate workers exposure levels the personal measurements results have been compared with the exposure limit values (TLV-TWA) and the urinary chromium contents with the biological exposure indices (IBE). Moreover the strategy of coupling environmental sampling with biological monitoring seems to be a useful instrument to measure the validity of the individual protection devices.

  15. Nurses' Occupational Trauma Exposure, Resilience, and Coping Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sherry Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Nursing education courses and professional development (PD) do not include coping and resilience training for registered nurses (RNs) who work in emergency departments (EDs). Exposure to traumatic events, death, and dying may lead to health issues, substance abuse, stress symptoms, nursing staff turnover, and compassion fatigue among ED RNs.…

  16. Sensory Perception: An Overlooked Target of Occupational Exposure to Metals

    PubMed Central

    Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2003-01-01

    The effect of exposure to industrial metals on sensory perception of workers has received only modest interest from the medical community to date. Nevertheless, some experimental and epidemiological data exist showing that industrial metals can affect vision, hearing and olfactory function, and a similar effect is also suggested for touch and taste. In this review the main industrial metals involved are discussed. An important limit in available knowledge is that, to date, the number of chemicals studied is relatively small. Another is that the large majority of the studies have evaluated the effect of a single chemical on a single sense. As an example, we know that mercury can impair hearing, smell, taste, touch and also vision, but we have scant idea if, in the same worker, a relation exists between impairments in different senses, or if impairments are independent. Moreover, workers are frequently exposed to different chemicals; a few available results suggest that a co-exposure may have no effect, or result in both an increase and a decrease of the effect, as observed for hearing loss, but this aspect certainly deserves much more study. As a conclusion, exposure to industrial metals can affect sensory perception, but knowledge of this effect is yet incomplete, and is largely inadequate especially for an estimation of “safe” thresholds of exposure. These data support the desirability of further good quality studies in this field. PMID:18365054

  17. Occupational Exposure to Asbestos; Criteria for a Recommended Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Occupational Safety and Health (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Recommended standards for control of exposure to asbestos dust in the workplace are set out from the following standpoints: environmental, medical, labeling, personal protective equipment and clothing, apprisal of employees, work practices, and monitoring and recordkeeping requirements. The goal is maintenance of a low level of concentration to…

  18. 29 CFR 1910.95 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... attenuation must be sufficient to reduce employee exposure to a TWA of 85 dB. Employers must select one of the... are properly fitted and worn. When using the NRR to assess hearing protector adequacy, one of the... ear protector. (iii) When using a sound level meter set to the A-weighting network: (A) Obtain...

  19. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO RADON IN DIFFERENT KINDS OF NON-URANIUM MINES.

    PubMed

    Fan, D; Zhuo, W; Zhang, Y

    2016-09-01

    For more accurate assessments of the occupational exposure to radon for miners, the individual monitoring was conducted by using an improved passive integrating (222)Rn monitor. A total of 120 miners in 3 different kinds of mines were monitored throughout a year. The results showed that the individual exposure to radon significantly varied with types of mines and work. Compared with the exposure to coal miners, the exposure to copper miners was much higher. Furthermore, it was found that the exposure might be overestimated if the environmental (222)Rn monitored by the passive integrating monitors was used for assessment. The results indicate that the individual monitoring of radon is necessary for an accurate assessment of radon exposure to miners, and radon exposure to non-uranium miners should also be assessed from the viewpoint of radiation protection.

  20. Perceptions of Workplace Heat Exposure and Controls among Occupational Hygienists and Relevant Specialists in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Jianjun; Hansen, Alana; Pisaniello, Dino; Bi, Peng

    2015-01-01

    With warmer weather projections, workplace heat exposure is presenting a growing challenge to workers’ health and safety. Occupational hygienists are the specialist group conducting measurements and providing advice on heat stress management to industry. In order to provide insights into hygienists perceptions on workplace heat exposure, current and future preparedness for extreme heat, and barriers to possible heat adaptation strategies, a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted during a national conference of the Australian Institute of Occupational Hygienists. Nearly 90% of the 180 respondents were at least moderately concerned about extreme heat and 19% were dissatisfied with current heat stress prevention measures. Barriers recognized by the participants were lack of awareness (68%), insufficient training (56%), unsatisfactory management commitment (52%), and low compliance with prevention policies (40%). The findings suggest a need to refine occupational heat management and prevention strategies. PMID:26287608

  1. Perceptions of Workplace Heat Exposure and Controls among Occupational Hygienists and Relevant Specialists in Australia.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jianjun; Hansen, Alana; Pisaniello, Dino; Bi, Peng

    2015-01-01

    With warmer weather projections, workplace heat exposure is presenting a growing challenge to workers' health and safety. Occupational hygienists are the specialist group conducting measurements and providing advice on heat stress management to industry. In order to provide insights into hygienists perceptions on workplace heat exposure, current and future preparedness for extreme heat, and barriers to possible heat adaptation strategies, a self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted during a national conference of the Australian Institute of Occupational Hygienists. Nearly 90% of the 180 respondents were at least moderately concerned about extreme heat and 19% were dissatisfied with current heat stress prevention measures. Barriers recognized by the participants were lack of awareness (68%), insufficient training (56%), unsatisfactory management commitment (52%), and low compliance with prevention policies (40%). The findings suggest a need to refine occupational heat management and prevention strategies.

  2. Occupational exposure to magnetic fields and electric shocks and risk of ALS: the Swiss National Cohort.

    PubMed

    Huss, Anke; Spoerri, Adrian; Egger, Matthias; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been associated with exposures in so-called 'electrical occupations'. It is unclear if this possible link may be explained by exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) or by electrical shocks. We evaluated ALS mortality in 2000-2008 and exposure to ELF-MF and electrical shocks in the Swiss National Cohort, using job exposure matrices for occupations at censuses 1990 and 2000. We compared 2.2 million workers with high or medium vs. low exposure to ELF-MF and electrical shocks using Cox proportional hazard models. Results showed that mortality from ALS was higher in people who had medium or high ELF-MF exposure in both censuses (HR 1.55 (95% CI 1.11-2.15)), but closer to unity for electrical shocks (HR 1.17 (95% CI 0.83-1.65)). When both exposures were included in the same model, the HR for ELF-MF changed little (HR 1.56), but the HR for electric shocks was attenuated to 0.97. In conclusion, there was an association between exposure to ELF-MF and mortality from ALS among workers with a higher likelihood of long-term exposure.

  3. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...

  4. Discrimination, Harassment, Abuse and Bullying in the Workplace: Contribution of Workplace Injustice to Occupational Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Okechukwu, Cassandra A.; Souza, Kerry; Davis, Kelly D.; de Castro, A. Butch

    2013-01-01

    This paper synthesizes research on the contribution of workplace injustices – discrimination, harassment, abuse and bullying – to occupational health disparities. A conceptual framework is presented to illustrate the pathways through which injustices at the interpersonal and institutional level lead to differential risk of vulnerable workers to adverse occupational health outcomes. Members of demographic minority groups are more likely to be victims of workplace injustice and suffer more adverse outcomes when exposed to workplace injustice compared to demographic majority groups. A growing body of research links workplace injustice to poor psychological and physical health, and a smaller body of evidence links workplace injustice to unhealthy behaviors. Although not as well studied, studies also show that workplace injustice can influence workers’ health through effects on workers’ family life and job-related outcomes. Lastly, this paper discusses methodological limitations in research linking injustices and occupational health disparities and makes recommendations to improve the state of research. PMID:23813664

  5. Non-occupational exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth in a general population.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Anne-Marie N; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2010-05-01

    Occupational exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy has been associated with reduced fetal growth. Though organic solvents in the form of paint fumes are also found in the home environment, no studies have investigated the effect of such exposure in a general population. We studied associations between residential exposure to paint fumes during pregnancy and fetal growth within the Danish National Birth Cohort which consecutively recruited pregnant women from 1996 to 2002 from all over Denmark. Around the 30th pregnancy week, 19,000 mothers were interviewed about use of paint in their residence during pregnancy. The mothers were also asked about smoking habits and alcohol consumption during pregnancy, pre-pregnancy weight, height, parity and occupation. Information on birth weight and gestational age was obtained from national registers. We found that 45% of the mothers had been exposed to paint fumes in their residence during pregnancy. We found a statistically significant inverse relationship between exposure to paint fumes and the risk of being small for gestational age. There were no statistically significant associations between exposure to paint fumes and birth weight and risk of preterm birth after adjustment for potential confounders. Our results suggest that there are no causal relationship between non-occupational exposure to paint fumes in the residence during pregnancy and fetal growth.

  6. Occupational exposure to mineral fibres: analysis of results stored on colchic database.

    PubMed

    Kauffer, Edmond; Vincent, Raymond

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to present fibre exposure data recorded on the COLCHIC database. This database consolidates all occupational exposure data collected in French companies by the Caisses Régionales d'Assurance Maladie (regional health insurance funds, CRAM) and the Institut National de Recherche et de Sécurité (national institute for research and safety, INRS). A total of 8029 concentration results, expressed in number of fibres measured by phase-contrast optical microscopy, are available for exposure to asbestos fibres, ceramic fibres and man-made mineral fibres other than ceramic fibres. Presentation of base data by activity branch, activity sector or workplace permits identification of situations, for which prevention efforts are most essential. Analysis of exposure levels during the 1986-2004 period show that these are broadly influenced by changes in the exposure limit values. Wearing of respiratory protection equipment by employees is also discussed. The data may be helpful to occupational physicians performing occupational screening of exposed workers and to epidemiologists seeking information for building job-exposures matrices. In this respect, a database (FIBREX) will be available on the INRS web site (www.inrs.fr) at the beginning of 2007. This database will provide a higher level of detail in activity and workplace description than that which was possible for practical reasons in this paper.

  7. Dermal Exposure Associated with Occupational End Use of Pesticides and the Role of Protective Measures

    PubMed Central

    MacFarlane, Ewan; Carey, Renee; Keegel, Tessa; El-Zaemay, Sonia; Fritschi, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational end users of pesticides may experience bodily absorption of the pesticide products they use, risking possible health effects. The purpose of this paper is to provide a guide for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers working in the field of agricultural health or other areas where occupational end use of pesticides and exposure issues are of interest. Methods This paper characterizes the health effects of pesticide exposure, jobs associated with pesticide use, pesticide-related tasks, absorption of pesticides through the skin, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) for reducing exposure. Conclusions Although international and national efforts to reduce pesticide exposure through regulatory means should continue, it is difficult in the agricultural sector to implement engineering or system controls. It is clear that use of PPE does reduce dermal pesticide exposure but compliance among the majority of occupationally exposed pesticide end users appears to be poor. More research is needed on higher-order controls to reduce pesticide exposure and to understand the reasons for poor compliance with PPE and identify effective training methods. PMID:24106643

  8. Occupational and Environmental Exposures Associated with Testicular Germ Cell Tumours: Systematic Review of Prenatal and Life-Long Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Béranger, Rémi; Le Cornet, Charlotte; Schüz, Joachim; Fervers, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    Background Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are the most common cancers in men aged between 15 and 44 years and the incidence has increased steeply over the past 30 years. The rapid increase in the incidence, the spatial variation and the evolution of incidence in migrants suggest that environmental risk factors play a role in TGCT aetiology. The purpose of our review is to summarise the current state of knowledge on occupational and environmental factors thought to be associated with TGCT. Methods A systematic literature search of PubMed. All selected articles were quality appraised by two independent researchers using the ‘Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale’. Results After exclusion of duplicate reports, 72 relevant articles were selected; 65 assessed exposure in adulthood, 7 assessed parental exposures and 2 assessed both. Associations with occupation was reported for agricultural workers, construction workers, firemen, policemen, military personnel, as well as workers in paper, plastic or metal industries. Electromagnetic fields, PCBs and pesticides were also suggested. However, results were inconsistent and studies showing positive associations tended to had lower quality ranking using the assessment scale (p=0.02). Discussion Current evidence does not allow concluding on existence of any clear association between TGCT and adulthood occupational or environmental exposure. The limitations of the studies may partly explain the inconsistencies observed. The lack of association with adulthood exposure is in line with current hypotheses supporting the prenatal origin of TGCT. Future research should focus on prenatal or early life exposure, as well as combined effect of prenatal and later life exposure. National and international collaborative studies should allow for more adequately powered epidemiological studies. More sophisticated methods for assessing exposure as well as evaluating gene–environment interactions will be necessary to establish

  9. Occupational COPD and job exposure matrices: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sadhra, Steven; Kurmi, Om P; Sadhra, Sandeep S; Lam, Kin Bong Hubert; Ayres, Jon G

    2017-01-01

    Background The association between occupational exposure and COPD reported previously has mostly been derived from studies relying on self-reported exposure to vapors, gases, dust, or fumes (VGDF), which could be subjective and prone to biases. The aim of this study was to assess the strength of association between exposure and COPD from studies that derived exposure by job exposure matrices (JEMs). Methods A systematic search of JEM-based occupational COPD studies published between 1980 and 2015 was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE, followed by meta-analysis. Meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model, with results presented as a pooled effect estimate with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The quality of study (risk of bias and confounding) was assessed by 13 RTI questionnaires. Heterogeneity between studies and its possible sources were assessed by Egger test and meta-regression, respectively. Results In all, 61 studies were identified and 29 were included in the meta-analysis. Based on JEM-based studies, there was 22% (pooled odds ratio =1.22; 95% CI 1.18–1.27) increased risk of COPD among those exposed to airborne pollutants arising from occupation. Comparatively, higher risk estimates were obtained for general populations JEMs (based on expert consensus) than workplace-based JEM were derived using measured exposure data (1.26; 1.20–1.33 vs 1.14; 1.10–1.19). Higher risk estimates were also obtained for self-reported exposure to VGDF than JEMs-based exposure to VGDF (1.91; 1.72–2.13 vs 1.10; 1.06–1.24). Dusts, particularly biological dusts (1.33; 1.17–1.51), had the highest risk estimates for COPD. Although the majority of occupational COPD studies focus on dusty environments, no difference in risk estimates was found for the common forms of occupational airborne pollutants. Conclusion Our findings highlight the need to interpret previous studies with caution as self-reported exposure to VGDF may have overestimated the risk of occupational

  10. The Scientific Basis of Uncertainty Factors Used in Setting Occupational Exposure Limits

    PubMed Central

    Dankovic, D. A.; Naumann, B. D.; Maier, A.; Dourson, M. L.; Levy, L. S.

    2015-01-01

    The uncertainty factor concept is integrated into health risk assessments for all aspects of public health practice, including by most organizations that derive occupational exposure limits. The use of uncertainty factors is predicated on the assumption that a sufficient reduction in exposure from those at the boundary for the onset of adverse effects will yield a safe exposure level for at least the great majority of the exposed population, including vulnerable subgroups. There are differences in the application of the uncertainty factor approach among groups that conduct occupational assessments; however, there are common areas of uncertainty which are considered by all or nearly all occupational exposure limit-setting organizations. Five key uncertainties that are often examined include interspecies variability in response when extrapolating from animal studies to humans, response variability in humans, uncertainty in estimating a no-effect level from a dose where effects were observed, extrapolation from shorter duration studies to a full life-time exposure, and other insufficiencies in the overall health effects database indicating that the most sensitive adverse effect may not have been evaluated. In addition, a modifying factor is used by some organizations to account for other remaining uncertainties—typically related to exposure scenarios or accounting for the interplay among the five areas noted above. Consideration of uncertainties in occupational exposure limit derivation is a systematic process whereby the factors applied are not arbitrary, although they are mathematically imprecise. As the scientific basis for uncertainty factor application has improved, default uncertainty factors are now used only in the absence of chemical-specific data, and the trend is to replace them with chemical-specific adjustment factors whenever possible. The increased application of scientific data in the development of uncertainty factors for individual chemicals also

  11. The Scientific Basis of Uncertainty Factors Used in Setting Occupational Exposure Limits.

    PubMed

    Dankovic, D A; Naumann, B D; Maier, A; Dourson, M L; Levy, L S

    2015-01-01

    The uncertainty factor concept is integrated into health risk assessments for all aspects of public health practice, including by most organizations that derive occupational exposure limits. The use of uncertainty factors is predicated on the assumption that a sufficient reduction in exposure from those at the boundary for the onset of adverse effects will yield a safe exposure level for at least the great majority of the exposed population, including vulnerable subgroups. There are differences in the application of the uncertainty factor approach among groups that conduct occupational assessments; however, there are common areas of uncertainty which are considered by all or nearly all occupational exposure limit-setting organizations. Five key uncertainties that are often examined include interspecies variability in response when extrapolating from animal studies to humans, response variability in humans, uncertainty in estimating a no-effect level from a dose where effects were observed, extrapolation from shorter duration studies to a full life-time exposure, and other insufficiencies in the overall health effects database indicating that the most sensitive adverse effect may not have been evaluated. In addition, a modifying factor is used by some organizations to account for other remaining uncertainties-typically related to exposure scenarios or accounting for the interplay among the five areas noted above. Consideration of uncertainties in occupational exposure limit derivation is a systematic process whereby the factors applied are not arbitrary, although they are mathematically imprecise. As the scientific basis for uncertainty factor application has improved, default uncertainty factors are now used only in the absence of chemical-specific data, and the trend is to replace them with chemical-specific adjustment factors whenever possible. The increased application of scientific data in the development of uncertainty factors for individual chemicals also has

  12. Impact of Occupational Exposure to Chemicals in Life Cycle Assessment: A Novel Characterization Model Based on Measured Concentrations and Labor Hours.

    PubMed

    Kijko, Gaël; Margni, Manuele; Partovi-Nia, Vahid; Doudrich, Greg; Jolliet, Olivier

    2015-07-21

    According to Lim et al., based on World Health Organization (WHO) data, hazardous chemicals in the workplace are responsible for over 370,000 premature deaths annually. Despite these high figures, life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) does not yet include a fully operational method to consider occupational impacts in its scope over the entire supply chain. This paper describes a novel approach to account for occupational exposure to chemicals by inhalation in LCA. It combines labor statistics and measured occupational concentrations of chemicals from the OSHA database to calculate operational LCIA characterization factors (i.e., intakes per hour worked and impact intensities for 19,069 organic chemical/sector combinations with confidence intervals across the entire U.S. manufacturing industry). For the seven chemicals that most contribute to the global impact, measured workplace concentrations range between 5 × 10(-4) and 3 × 10(3) mg/m(3). Carcinogenic impacts range over 4 orders of magnitude, from 1.3 × 10(-8) and up to 3.4 × 10(-4) DALY per blue-collar worker labor hour. The innovative approach set out in this paper assesses health impacts from occupational exposure to chemicals with population exposure to outdoor emissions, making it possible to integrate occupational exposure within LCIA. It broadens the LCIA scope to analyze hotspots and avoid impact shifting.

  13. Environmental and occupational pesticide exposure and human sperm parameters: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Martenies, Sheena E; Perry, Melissa J

    2013-05-10

    Of continuing concern are the associations between environmental or occupational exposures to pesticides and semen quality parameters. Prior research has indicated that there may be associations between exposure to pesticides of a variety of classes and decreased sperm health. The intent of this review was to summarize the most recent evidence related to pesticide exposures and commonly used semen quality parameters, including concentration, motility and morphology. The recent literature was searched for studies published between January 2007 and August 2012 that focused on environmental or occupational pesticide exposures. Included in the review are 17 studies, 15 of which reported significant associations between exposure to pesticides and semen quality indicators. Two studies also investigated the roles genetic polymorphisms may play in the strength or directions of these associations. Specific pesticides targeted for study included dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and abamectin. Pyrethroids and organophosphates were analyzed as classes of pesticides rather than as individual compounds, primarily due to the limitations of exposure assessment techniques. Overall, a majority of the studies reported significant associations between pesticide exposure and sperm parameters. A decrease in sperm concentration was the most commonly reported finding among all of the pesticide classes investigated. Decreased motility was also associated with exposures to each of the pesticide classes, although these findings were less frequent across studies. An association between pesticide exposure and sperm morphology was less clear, with only two studies reporting an association. The evidence presented in this review continues to support the hypothesis that exposures to pesticides at environmentally or occupationally relevant levels may be associated with decreased sperm health. Future work in this area should focus on associations between specific

  14. Exposure apportionment: ranking food items by their contribution to dietary exposure.

    PubMed

    Moschandreas, D J; Karuchit, S; Berry, M R; O'Rourke, M K; Lo, D; Lebowitz, M D; Robertson, G

    2002-07-01

    This paper identifies and ranks food items by estimating their contribution to the dietary exposure of the US population and 19 subpopulation groups. Contributions to dietary exposures to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, benzene, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon are estimated using either the Dietary Exposure Potential Model (DEPM) approach, the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey Arizona (NHEXAS-AZ) approach or the combination of the two. The DEPM is a computer model that uses several national databases of food consumption and residue concentrations for estimating dietary. The DEPM approach ranks the contribution of food items to the total dietary exposure using two methods, the direct method that ranks contributions by population exposure magnitude and the weighted method that ranks by subpopulation exposure magnitude. The DEPM approach identifies highly exposed subpopulations and a relatively small number of food items contributing the most to dietary exposure. The NHEXAS-AZ approach uses the NHEXAS-AZ database containing food consumption data for each subject and chemical residues of a composite of food items consumed by each subject in 1 day during the sampling week. These data are then modeled to obtain estimates of dietary exposure to chemical residues. The third approach uses the NHEXAS-AZ consumption data with residue values from the national residue database. This approach also estimates percent contributions to exposure of each ranked food item for the Arizona population. Dietary exposures estimated using the three approaches are compared. The DEPM results indicate groups with highest dietary exposures include Nonnursing Infants, Children 1-6, Hispanic, Non-Hispanic White, Western, Northeast and Poverty 0-130%. The use of the Combined National Residue Database (CNRD) identifies 43 food items as primary contributors to total dietary exposure; they contribute a minimum of 68% of the total dietary exposure to each of the eight chemical residues

  15. Occupational noise exposure of nightclub bar employees in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Aoife C; Boyd, Sara M; Henehan, Gary T M; Chambers, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Due to the transposition of the EU Directive 2003/10/EC into Irish Law, the entertainment sector was obligated to comply with the requirements of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (General Application) Regulations 2007, Chapter 1 Part 5: Control of Noise at Work since February 2008. Compliance with the Noise Regulations was examined in 9 nightclubs in Ireland. The typical daily noise exposure of 19 bar employees was measured using 2 logging dosimeters and a Type 1 fixed position sound level meter. Physical site inspections identified nightclub noise control measures. Interviews and questionnaires were used to assess the managers and employees awareness of the noise legislation. The average bar employee daily noise exposure (L(EX, 8h)) was 92 dBA, almost 4 times more than the accepted legal limit. None of the venues examined were fully compliant with the requirements of the 2007 Noise Regulations, and awareness of this legislation was limited.

  16. Association between occupational exposure to benzene and chromosomal alterations in lymphocytes of Brazilian petrochemical workers removed from exposure.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Rozana Oliveira; de Almeida Melo, Neli; Rêgo, Marco Antônio Vasconcelos

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between chronic exposure to benzene and genotoxicity in the lymphocytes of workers removed from exposure. The study included 20 workers with hematological disorders who had previously worked in the petrochemical industry of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; 16 workers without occupational exposure to benzene served as the control group. Chromosomal analysis was performed on lymphocytes from peripheral blood, to assess chromosomal breaks and gaps and to identify aneuploidy. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the mean values between two groups, and Student's t test for comparison of two independent means. The frequency of gaps was statistically higher in and the exposed group than in the controls (2.13 ± 2.86 vs. 0.97 ± 1.27, p = 0.001). The frequency of chromosomal breaks was significantly higher among cases (0.21 ± 0.58) than among controls (0.12 ± 0.4) (p = 0.0002). An association was observed between chromosomal gaps and breaks and occupational exposure to benzene. Our study showed that even when removed from exposure for several years, workers still demonstrated genotoxic damage. Studies are still needed to clarify the long-term genotoxic potential of benzene after removal from exposure.

  17. Actual and Potential Radiation Exposures in Digital Radiology: Analysis of Cumulative Data, Implications to Worker Classification and Occupational Exposure Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kortesniemi, Mika; Siiskonen, Teemu; Kelaranta, Anna; Lappalainen, Kimmo

    2016-04-21

    Radiation worker categorization and exposure monitoring are principal functions of occupational radiation safety. The aim of this study was to use the actual occupational exposure data in a large university hospital to estimate the frequency and magnitude of potential exposures in radiology. The additional aim was to propose a revised categorization and exposure monitoring practice based on the potential exposures. The cumulative probability distribution was calculated from the normalized integral of the probability density function fitted to the exposure data. Conformity of the probabilistic model was checked against 16 years of national monitoring data. The estimated probabilities to exceed annual effective dose limits of 1 mSv, 6 mSv and 20 mSv were 1:1000, 1:20 000 and 1:200 000, respectively. Thus, it is very unlikely that the class A categorization limit of 6 mSv could be exceeded, even in interventional procedures, with modern equipment and appropriate working methods. Therefore, all workers in diagnostic and interventional radiology could be systematically categorized into class B. Furthermore, current personal monitoring practice could be replaced by use of active personal dosemeters that offer more effective and flexible means to optimize working methods.

  18. Occupational exposure to benzene in the shoe industry

    SciTech Connect

    Karacic, V.; Skender, L.; Prpic-Majic, D.

    1987-01-01

    In order to determine the possible actual exposure to benzene in the shoe industry from industrially used solvents, glues, and paints containing benzene as a nondeclared constituent, phenol in urine and benzene in blood, as indices of internal exposure to benzene, were measured in workers (N = 33). Since toluene, in contrast to benzene, is declared as a constituent in several glues, toluene in the blood of workers was also analysed. All analyses were performed using gas chromatography. Urine samples were collected on Monday morning (MI) before work and on Wednesday (WI) before and (WII) after work. Venous blood samples were taken on Wednesday only, 1/2 hour after work. There was no difference in the phenol concentrations of MI and WI, while the phenol concentration of WII was about twice as high as that in WI. In all blood samples, benzene was found, as well as toluene, which was about four times higher in comparison with benzene. A correlation (r = 0.465; p less than .01) was found between the difference in pre- and postshift phenol concentrations (WII-WI) in urine and the benzene concentrations in blood. The results presented show that a trace amount of benzene, which is often not declared as a constitutent in industrially used chemicals, could be a source of marked exposure to benzene. It can also be concluded that changes in phenol in urine (if preshift and postshift samples are taken) might be a sufficiently sensitive parameter to assess exposure to benzene even when other data concerning the presence of benzene in the working atmosphere are not available.

  19. Chemical markers of occupational exposure to teak wood dust.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Lee, Taekhee; Barbero, Ana; Harper, Martin

    2014-06-01

    A novel high-performance liquid chromatographic/ultraviolet method was developed to detect lapachol (LP) and deoxylapachol (DLP) in wood dust as chemical markers of teak wood (a suspected human carcinogen). The specificity of this analysis was determined by noting the absence of LP and DLP in 12 other specimens of different woods belonging to the angiosperm family. The consistency was examined by analyzing teak from three different sources, where the percentages (wt/wt) of the chemicals ranged from 0.006 to 0.261 for LP and from 0.038 to 0.497 for DLP, respectively. Although the LP and DLP components of teak varied according to source, a very high correlation coefficient (r (2) > 0.98 always) was found between the content of the two markers in the bulk specimens and in bulk dust derived from them. The method was then applied to teak dust collected on polyvinylchloride filters from aerosol in an exposure chamber in the range of mass loadings between 0.03 and 3.65 mg, which corresponds to a dust exposure between 0.124 and 8.703 mg m(-3) for a sampling time of 2h. A field test was also carried out in a small factory where teak was used. A good correlation was confirmed between LP and DLP versus the dust collected on the filter in both cases. LP and DLP can be markers to estimate the true quantities of teak dust inhaled in a workplace with mixed wood dust, provided the results are matched to the content of LP and DLP in the bulk wood. LP and DLP have also been proposed as the agents responsible for allergic reaction to teak dust. Therefore, it would be useful to evaluate the exposure to these two substances even without a relationship to teak dust exposure.

  20. [Health effects of occupational exposure among shoe workers. A review].

    PubMed

    Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena; Woźniak, Helena; Stroszejn-Mrowca, Grazyna

    2003-01-01

    World-wide epidemiological studies provide evidence that the employment in the shoe production and repair plants is associated with an enhanced risk for cancer (primarily nose and nasal sinuses). According to the majority of authors, it is induced by exposure to leather dust. It is also known that, leather dust particles contain numerous chemicals acquired during the process of leather tanning and finishing (chromium salts, vegetable dye extracts, mineral oils). Some of these compounds exert carcinogenic effect. This paper provides a review of the results of epidemiological studies on health effects of exposure to harmful factors present mainly at the footwear production and repair. These results reveal an enhanced risk for cancer of nose or nasal sinuses induced by leather dust, as well as neoplasms of hematopoietic and lymphatic systems, resulting from exposure to solvents (mostly benzene). Among non-neoplasms, diseases of the musculoskeletal system associated with ergonomic factors, contact dermatics, chronic pulmonary diseases and damage of peripheral nerves in solvent-exposed workers are diagnosed.

  1. Occupational Exposure to Organic Solvents during Bridge Painting

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hua; Fiedler, Nancy; Moore, Dirk F.; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from bridge painting was measured in New York City and New Jersey during the summer and fall seasons from 2005 to 2007. The effect of painting activities (paint coating layer, confinement setup, and application method) and meteorological conditions (temperature, humidity, and wind speed) on solvent exposure to aromatic, ketone, ester, and alkane compounds were individually evaluated. Mixed-effect models were used to examine the combination effects of these factors on the air concentration of total VOCs as the individual compound groups were not present in all samples. Air concentration associated with spraying was not affected by meteorological conditions since spraying was done in a confined space, thus reducing their impact on solvent air concentration. The mixed models for brushing and rolling samples included two fixed factors, i.e. application method and temperature, and one random factor, i.e. sampling day. An independent dataset (daily air samples) was used to validate the mixed model constructed for brushing and rolling samples. The regression line of the predicted values and actual measurements had a slope of 1.32 ± 0.15 for daily brushing and rolling samples, with almost all points being within the 95% confidence bands. The constructed model provides practical approaches for estimating the solvent exposure from brushing and rolling activities among construction painters. An adjusted mean air concentration derived from the activity-specific spray samples was the best estimate for that painting application. PMID:20354053

  2. Occupational exposure to cocaine involving crime lab personnel.

    PubMed

    Le, S D; Taylor, R W; Vidal, D; Lovas, J J; Ting, E

    1992-07-01

    The possibility of exposure to cocaine as a result of analyzing it or handling material contaminated by it has been a major concern of laboratory personnel. Several different work environments and simulated situations were examined to assess the likelihood of this type of exposure occurring. Urine specimens were collected and evaluated for cocaine and benzoylecgonine using the Syva ETS System (EMIT). Each specimen was analyzed for the two substances using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Urine specimens of laboratory-management personnel not working with drug samples showed no trace of cocaine or benzoylecgonine. A urinary benzoylecgonine level of 227 ng/mL was found in the specimen from one narcotics criminalist who was working on a routine case of 2 kilos of cocaine hydrochloride in the Narcotics Laboratory. A maximal urinary benzoylecgonine concentration of 1570 ng/mL was determined in the urine specimen from one narcotics criminalist who was sampling a case containing 50 kilos of cocaine hydrochloride over a period of 3 h. Decreasing the levels of airborne cocaine dust appears to minimize the amount of cocaine absorbed by the criminalists. Gloves, face masks, and goggles prove to be effective in minimizing exposure.

  3. Occupational asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Asthma - occupational exposure; Irritant-induced reactive airways disease Images Spirometry Respiratory system References Lemiere C, Vandenplas O. Occupational allergy and asthma. In: Adkinson NF Jr., Bochner ...

  4. Maternal periconceptional occupational exposure to pesticides and selected musculoskeletal birth defects

    PubMed Central

    Kielb, Christine; Lin, Shao; Herdt-Losavio, Michele; Bell, Erin; Chapman, Bonnie; Rocheleau, Carissa M.; Lawson, Christina; Waters, Martha; Stewart, Patricia; Olney, Richard S.; Romitti, Paul A.; Cao, Yanyan; Druschel, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    This population-based U.S. study investigated the association between major musculoskeletal malformations and periconceptional maternal occupational pesticide exposure for a wide range of occupations. We conducted a multi-site case–control analysis using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study among employed women with due dates from October 1, 1997 through December 31, 2002. Cases included 871 live-born, stillborn, or electively terminated fetuses with isolated craniosynostosis, gastroschisis, diaphragmatic hernia, or transverse limb deficiencies. Controls included 2857 live-born infants without major malformations. Using self-reported maternal occupational information, an industrial hygienist used a job-exposure matrix and expert opinion to evaluate the potential for exposure to insecticides, herbicides or fungicides for each job held during one month pre-conception through three months post-conception. Exposures analyzed included any exposure (yes/no) to pesticides, to insecticides only, to both insecticides and herbicides (I + H) and to insecticides, herbicides and fungicides (I + H + F). We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between exposures and defects, controlling for infant and maternal risk factors. Occupational exposure to I + H + F was associated with gastroschisis among infants of women aged 20 years or older (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16–3.05), but not for women under age 20 (aOR = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.20–1.16). We found no significant associations for the other defects. Additional research is needed to validate these findings in a separate population. PMID:23871272

  5. Maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and the secondary sex ratio: an occupational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Though commercial production of polychlorinated biphenyls was banned in the United States in 1977, exposure continues due to their environmental persistence. Several studies have examined the association between environmental polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and modulations of the secondary sex ratio, with conflicting results. Objective Our objective was to evaluate the association between maternal preconceptional occupational polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and the secondary sex ratio. Methods We examined primipara singleton births of 2595 women, who worked in three capacitor plants at least one year during the period polychlorinated biphenyls were used. Cumulative estimated maternal occupational polychlorinated biphenyl exposure at the time of the infant's conception was calculated from plant-specific job-exposure matrices. A logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between maternal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and male sex at birth (yes/no). Results Maternal body mass index at age 20, smoking status, and race did not vary between those occupationally exposed and those unexposed before the child's conception. Polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed mothers were, however, more likely to have used oral contraceptives and to have been older at the birth of their first child than non-occupationally exposed women. Among 1506 infants liveborn to polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed primiparous women, 49.8% were male; compared to 49.9% among those not exposed (n = 1089). Multivariate analyses controlling for mother's age and year of birth found no significant association between the odds of a male birth and mother's cumulative estimated polychlorinated biphenyl exposure to time of conception. Conclusions Based on these data, we find no evidence of altered sex ratio among children born to primiparous polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed female workers. PMID:21418576

  6. Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, C. K.; Schüpfer, P.; Boiteux, P.

    2009-02-01

    Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of μg.g-1 or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

  7. Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Chemical Allergens--Understanding the Challenges.

    PubMed

    Dotson, G S; Maier, A; Siegel, P D; Anderson, S E; Green, B J; Stefaniak, A B; Codispoti, C D; Kimber, I

    2015-01-01

    Chemical allergens represent a significant health burden in the workplace. Exposures to such chemicals can cause the onset of a diverse group of adverse health effects triggered by immune-mediated responses. Common responses associated with workplace exposures to low molecular weight (LMW) chemical allergens range from allergic contact dermatitis to life-threatening cases of asthma. Establishing occupational exposure limits (OELs) for chemical allergens presents numerous difficulties for occupational hygiene professionals. Few OELs have been developed for LMW allergens because of the unique biological mechanisms that govern the immune-mediated responses. The purpose of this article is to explore the primary challenges confronting the establishment of OELs for LMW allergens. Specific topics include: (1) understanding the biology of LMW chemical allergies as it applies to setting OELs; (2) selecting the appropriate immune-mediated response (i.e., sensitization versus elicitation); (3) characterizing the dose (concentration)-response relationship of immune-mediated responses; (4) determining the impact of temporal exposure patterns (i.e., cumulative versus acute exposures); and (5) understanding the role of individual susceptibility and exposure route. Additional information is presented on the importance of using alternative exposure recommendations and risk management practices, including medical surveillance, to aid in protecting workers from exposures to LMW allergens when OELs cannot be established.

  8. Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Chemical Allergens—Understanding the Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, G. S.; Maier, A.; Siegel, P. D.; Anderson, S. E.; Green, B. J.; Stefaniak, A. B.; Codispoti, C. D.; Kimber, I.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical allergens represent a significant health burden in the workplace. Exposures to such chemicals can cause the onset of a diverse group of adverse health effects triggered by immune-mediated responses. Common responses associated with workplace exposures to low molecular weight (LMW) chemical allergens range from allergic contact dermatitis to life-threatening cases of asthma. Establishing occupational exposure limits (OELs) for chemical allergens presents numerous difficulties for occupational hygiene professionals. Few OELs have been developed for LMW allergens because of the unique biological mechanisms that govern the immune-mediated responses. The purpose of this article is to explore the primary challenges confronting the establishment of OELs for LMW allergens. Specific topics include: (1) understanding the biology of LMW chemical allergies as it applies to setting OELs; (2) selecting the appropriate immune-mediated response (i.e., sensitization versus elicitation); (3) characterizing the dose (concentration)-response relationship of immune-mediated responses; (4) determining the impact of temporal exposure patterns (i.e., cumulative versus acute exposures); and (5) understanding the role of individual susceptibility and exposure route. Additional information is presented on the importance of using alternative exposure recommendations and risk management practices, including medical surveillance, to aid in protecting workers from exposures to LMW allergens when OELs cannot be established. PMID:26583909

  9. Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution and mortality due to ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Torén, Kjell; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Nilsson, Tohr; Järvholm, Bengt

    2007-01-01

    Objectives A growing number of epidemiological studies are showing that ambient exposure to particulate matter air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however, whether occupational exposure increases this risk is not clear. The aim of the present study was to examine whether occupational exposure to particulate air pollution increases the risk for ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Methods The study population was a cohort of 176 309 occupationally exposed Swedish male construction workers and 71 778 unexposed male construction workers. The definition of exposure to inorganic dust (asbestos, man‐made mineral fibres, dust from cement, concrete and quartz), wood dust, fumes (metal fumes, asphalt fumes and diesel exhaust) and gases and irritants (organic solvents and reactive chemicals) was based on a job‐exposure matrix with focus on exposure in the mid‐1970s. The cohort was followed from 1971 to 2002 with regard to mortality to ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Relative risks (RR) were obtained by the person‐years method and from Poisson regression models adjusting for baseline values of blood pressure, body mass index, age and smoking habits. Results Any occupational particulate air pollution was associated with an increased risk for ischemic heart disease (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.19), but there was no increased risk for cerebrovascular disease (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.07). There was an increased risk for ischaemic heart disease and exposure to inorganic dust (RR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12) and exposure to fumes (RR 1.05, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.10), especially diesel exhaust (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.24). There was no significantly increased risk for cerebrovascular disease and exposure to inorganic dust, fumes or wood dust. Conclusions Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution, especially diesel exhaust, among construction workers increases the risk for ischaemic heart disease. PMID

  10. Environmental and Occupational Lead Exposure Among Children in Cairo, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim; Badawy, Nashwa Mostafa; Manawill, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess childhood lead exposure in a representative sample of Cairo, and to investigate the possible risk factors and sources of exposure. This cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 through April 2015. The target population was children aged 6 to 18 years, recruited into 4 groups, garbage city, moderate-living standard area, urban and suburban schools, and workshops in the city of Cairo. Blood lead levels (BLLs) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were measured. Also, potential local environmental sources were assessed for hazardous lead contamination. Analysis on 400 participants has been carried out. A total of 113 children had BLLs in the range 10 to 20 μg/dL. Smoking fathers, housing conditions, playing outdoors, and exposure to lead in residential areas were significantly correlated with high BLLs. The mean values of hemoglobin were inversely correlated with BLLs. Children involved in pottery workshops had the highest BLLs and the lowest Hb values with a mean of (43.3 μg/dL and 8.6 g/dL, respectively). The mean value of environmental lead in workshop areas exceeded the recommended levels. Also, those values measured in dust and paint samples of garbage city were significantly high. Moreover, the mean lead levels in the soil samples were significantly higher in urban schools (P = 0.03) than the suburban ones. Childhood lead poisoning accounts for a substantial burden in Egypt, which could be preventable. Development of national prevention programs including universal screening program should be designed to reduce incidence of lead toxicity among children. PMID:26945415

  11. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde and alterations in lymphocyte subsets

    PubMed Central

    Hosgood, H. Dean; Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Vermeulen, Roel; Hao, Zhenyue; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Ge, Yichen; Hua, Ming; Ji, Zhiying; Li, Senhua; Xiong, Jun; Reiss, Boris; Liu, Songwang; Xin, Kerry X.; Azuma, Mariko; Xie, Yuxuan; Freeman, Laura Beane; Ruan, Xiaolin; Guo, Weihong; Galvan, Noe; Blair, Aaron; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Smith, Martyn T.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Background Formaldehyde is used in many occupational settings, most notably in manufacturing, health care, and embalming. Formaldehyde has been classified as a human carcinogen, but its mechanism of action remains uncertain. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study of 43 formaldehyde exposed-workers and 51 unexposed age and sex-matched controls in Guangdong, China to study formaldehyde’s early biologic effects. To follow-up our previous report that the total lymphocyte count was decreased in formaldehyde-exposed workers compared to controls, we evaluated each major lymphocyte subset (i.e., CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and B cells) and T cell lymphocyte subset (CD4+ naïve and memory T cells, CD8+ naïve and memory T cells, and regulatory T cells). Linear regression of each subset was used to test for differences between exposed workers and controls, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Total NK cell and T cell counts were about 24% (p=0.037) and 16% (p=0.0042) lower, respectively, among exposed workers. Among certain T cell subsets, decreased counts among exposed workers were observed for CD8+ T cells (p=0.026), CD8+ effector memory T cells (p=0.018), and regulatory T cells (CD4+FoxP3+: p=0.04; CD25+FoxP3+: p=0.008). Conclusions Formaldehyde exposed-workers experienced decreased counts of NK cells, regulatory T cells, and CD8+ effector memory T cells; however, due to the small sample size these findings need to be confirmed in larger studies. PMID:22767408

  12. Pleural mesothelioma: Case-report of uncommon occupational asbestos exposure in a small furniture industry.

    PubMed

    Oddone, Enrico; Imbriani, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma is no longer disputed, although it is not always easy to trace past occupational exposure. This report describes a case of uncommon asbestos exposure of a small furniture industry worker, who subsequently died of pleural malignant mesothelioma, to stress the crucial importance of a full reconstruction of the occupational history, both for legal and compensation purposes. Sarcomatoid pleural mesothelioma was diagnosed in a 70-year-old man, who was previously employed as a carpenter in a small furniture industry. He worked for about 6 years in the small factory, was exposed to asbestos during the assembly of the furniture inspired by classical architecture, in which asbestos cement tubes were used to reproduce classical columns. During this production process no specific work safety measures were applied, nor masks or local aspirators. No extra-professional exposure to asbestos was identified. This mesothelioma case was investigated by the Public Prosecutor's assignment that commissioned expert evidence on the legal accountability for the disease. Despite its uncommon expositive circumstance, the length of latency (about 30 years), the duration of exposure, the clinical and histochemical features are all consistent with literature evidence, accounting for the occupational origin of this malignancy.

  13. Sinonasal Cancer and Occupational Exposure in a Population-Based Registry

    PubMed Central

    Mensi, Carolina; Sieno, Claudia; Riboldi, Luciano; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

    2013-01-01

    We examined occupational exposures among subjects with sinonasal cancer (SNC) recorded in a population-based registry in the Lombardy Region, the most populated and industrialized Italian region. The registry collects complete clinical information and exposure to carcinogens regarding all SNC cases occurring in the population of the region. In the period 2008–2011, we recorded 210 SNC cases (137 men, 73 women). The most frequent occupational exposures were to wood (44 cases, 21.0%) and leather dust (29 cases, 13.8%), especially among men: 39 cases (28.5%) to wood and 23 cases (16.8%) to leather dust. Exposure to other agents was infrequent (<2%). Among 62 subjects with adenocarcinoma, 50% had been exposed to wood dust and 30.7% to leather dust. The proportions were around 10% in subjects with squamous cell carcinoma and about 20% for tumors with another histology. The age-standardized rates (×100,000 person-years) were 0.7 in men and 0.3 in women. Complete collection of cases and their occupational history through a specialized cancer registry is fundamental to accurately monitor SNC occurrence in a population and to uncover exposure to carcinogens in different industrial sectors, even those not considered as posing a high risk of SNC, and also in extraoccupational settings. PMID:24082884

  14. [Predictive models for the assessment of occupational exposure to chemicals: a new challenge for employers].

    PubMed

    Gromiec, Jan Piotr; Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata; Jankowska, Agnieszka; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2013-01-01

    Employers are obliged to carry out and document the risk associated with the use of chemical substances. The best but the most expensive method is to measure workplace concentrations of chemicals. At present no "measureless" method for risk assessment is available in Poland, but predictive models for such assessments have been developed in some countries. The purpose of this work is to review and evaluate the applicability of selected predictive methods for assessing occupational inhalation exposure and related risk to check the compliance with Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs), as well as the compliance with REACH obligations. Based on the literature data HSE COSHH Essentials, EASE, ECETOC TRA, Stoffenmanager, and EMKG-Expo-Tool were evaluated. The data on validation of predictive models were also examined. It seems that predictive models may be used as a useful method for Tier 1 assessment of occupational exposure by inhalation. Since the levels of exposure are frequently overestimated, they should be considered as "rational worst cases" for selection of proper control measures. Bearing in mind that the number of available exposure scenarios and PROC categories is limited, further validation by field surveys is highly recommended. Predictive models may serve as a good tool for preliminary risk assessment and selection of the most appropriate risk control measures in Polish small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) providing that they are available in the Polish language. This also requires an extensive training of their future users.

  15. Excessive occupational heat exposure: a significant ergonomic challenge and health risk for current and future workers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Occupational heat exposure threatens the health of a worker not only when heat illness occurs but also when a worker’s performance and work capacity is impaired. Occupational contexts that involve hot and humid climatic conditions, heavy physical workloads and/or protective clothing create a strenuous and potentially dangerous thermal load for a worker. There are recognized heat prevention strategies and international thermal ergonomic standards to protect the worker. However, such standards have been developed largely in temperate western settings, and their validity and relevance is questionable for some geographical, cultural and socioeconomic contexts where the risk of excessive heat exposure can be high. There is evidence from low- and middle-income tropical countries that excessive heat exposure remains a significant issue for occupational health. Workers in these countries are likely to be at high risk of excessive heat exposure as they are densely populated, have large informal work sectors and are expected to experience substantial increases in temperature due to global climate change. The aim of this paper is to discuss current and future ergonomic risks associated with working in the heat as well as potential methods for maintaining the health and productivity of workers, particularly those most vulnerable to excessive heat exposure. PMID:25057350

  16. The electromagnetic environment of Magnetic Resonance Imaging systems. Occupational exposure assessment reveals RF harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourzoulidis, G.; Karabetsos, E.; Skamnakis, N.; Kappas, C.; Theodorou, K.; Tsougos, I.; Maris, T. G.

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) systems played a crucial role in the postponement of the former occupational electromagnetic fields (EMF) European Directive (2004/40/EC) and in the formation of the latest exposure limits adopted in the new one (2013/35/EU). Moreover, the complex MRI environment will be finally excluded from the implementation of the new occupational limits, leading to an increased demand for Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) surveillance. The gradient function of MRI systems and the application of the RF excitation frequency result in low and high frequency exposures, respectively. This electromagnetic field exposure, in combination with the increased static magnetic field exposure, makes the MRI environment a unique case of combined EMF exposure. The electromagnetic field levels in close proximity of different MRI systems have been assessed at various frequencies. Quality Assurance (QA) & safety issues were also faced. Preliminary results show initial compliance with the forthcoming limits in each different frequency band, but also revealed peculiar RF harmonic components, of no safety concern, to the whole range detected (20-1000MHz). Further work is needed in order to clarify their origin and characteristics.

  17. Wet-work Exposure: A Main Risk Factor for Occupational Hand Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Behroozy, Ali; Keegel, Tessa G.

    2014-01-01

    Wet-work can be defined as activities where workers have to immerse their hands in liquids for >2 hours per shift, or wear waterproof (occlusive) gloves for a corresponding amount of time, or wash their hands >20 times per shift. This review considers the recent literature on wet-work exposure, and examines wet-work as a main risk factor for developing irritant contact dermatitis of the hands. The aim of this paper is to provide a detailed description of wet-work exposure among specific occupational groups who extensively deal with water and other liquids in their occupations. Furthermore, it highlights the extent and importance of the subsequent adverse health effects caused by exposure to wet-work. PMID:25516808

  18. Occupational Exposures and Chronic Kidney Disease: Possible associations with endotoxin and ultrafine particles

    PubMed Central

    Sponholtz, Todd R.; Sandler, Dale P.; Parks, Christine G.; Applebaum, Katie M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) carries a high public health burden yet there is limited research on occupational factors, which are examined in this retrospective case-control study. Methods Newly diagnosed cases of CKD (n=547) and controls (n=508) from North Carolina provided detailed work histories in telephone interviews. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results There was heterogeneity in the association of CKD and agricultural work, with crop production associated with increased risk and work with livestock associated with decreased risk. Work with cutting/cooling/lubricating oils was associated with a reduced risk. CKD risk was increased for working in dusty conditions. Conclusions CKD risk was reduced in subjects with occupational exposures previously reported to involve endotoxin exposure. Further, exposure to dusty conditions was consistently associated with increased risk of glomerulonephritis across industry, suggesting that research on CKD and ultrafine particulates is needed. PMID:26572099

  19. Interstitial lung disease more than 40 years after a 5 year occupational exposure to talc.

    PubMed

    Gysbrechts, C; Michiels, E; Verbeken, E; Verschakelen, J; Dinsdale, D; Nemery, B; Demedts, M

    1998-06-01

    A 62 yr old woman was initially diagnosed with sarcoidosis until a thoracoscopic biopsy revealed the presence of numerous birefringent particles in fibrotic areas of the centrilobular lung zones. These particles were examined by electron microscopy and X-ray spectrometry and characterized as impure talc. Further inquiry into her occupational history revealed that she had worked from the age of 14-18 yrs in a factory making rubber hoses, where she had had an intense exposure to talc. There was no evidence of silicosis or asbestosis, and other significant causes of interstitial lung disease were excluded. This case emphasizes the importance of a thorough occupational history, which may reveal a remote and forgotten exposure to a significant cause of interstitial lung disease. Although this presentation of talcosis is unusual, this case suggests that even a relatively short, but presumably intense exposure to talc more than 40 yrs previously may be a cause of progressive lung fibrosis.

  20. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields and the occurrence of brain tumors. An analysis of possible associations

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, R.S.; Dischinger, P.C.; Conde, J.; Farrell, K.P.

    1985-06-01

    To explore the association between occupation and the occurrence of brain tumor, an epidemiologic study was conducted using data from the death certificates of 951 adult white male Maryland residents who died of brain tumor during the period 1969 through 1982. Compared with the controls, men employed in electricity-related occupations, such as electrician, electric or electronic engineer, and utility company serviceman, were found to experience a significantly higher proportion of primary brain tumors. An increase in the odds ratio for brain tumor was found to be positively related to electromagnetic (EM) field exposure levels. Furthermore, the mean age at death was found to be significantly younger among cases in the presumed high EM-exposure group. These findings suggest that EM exposure may be associated with the pathogenesis of brain tumors, particularly in the promoting stage.

  1. [Occupational exposure to fungicides in floriculture in Ecuador].

    PubMed

    Colosio, C; Harari, R; Birindelli, S; Campo, L; Fustinoni, S; Harari, H; Somaruga, C; Tiramani, M; Visentin, S; Maroni, M

    2003-01-01

    Floriculture represents one of the major sources of income in the Ecuadorian Andean Region that can be carried out either in open fields as in greenhouses by using chemical compounds, growing hormones and xenobiotics. Among pesticides, ethylenbisdithiocarbamate (EBDTCs) fungicides represent the most extensively used. The aim of the study was the assessment of exposure to EBDTCs in Ecuadorian floricultural workers by the determination of the urinary excretion of the main metabolite of these compounds, ethylenethiourea (ETU). For this purpose, thirty-six floriculture workers and 7 unexposed healthy subjects were recruited for the study. Median level of ETU excretion in agricultural workers before the work shift was 3.2 micrograms/g creatinine, ranging from 0.4 to 34.5 micrograms/g creatinine. After pesticide application, urinary ETU increased to 6.2 micrograms/g creatinine (1.5-26.5) microgram/g creatinine. Urinary ETU resulted significantly higher in overall workers, taken as pre- and post-shift samples, when compared to controls (0.7, 0.4-2.1 micrograms/g creatinine, p < 0.01). According to jobs, applicators showed the highest levels of ETU excretion whereas growing, post-harvesting and maintenance workers showed similar levels of exposure. Higher level ETU excretion was observed in greenhouse compared to open field workers.

  2. A Formaldehyde Exposure Assessment Tool for Occupants of FEMA Temporary Housing Units

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Spears, Michael; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-10-01

    The report outlines the methodology used to develop a web-based tool to assess the formaldehyde exposure of the occupants of Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) temporary housing units (THUs) after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005. Linear regression models were built using available data to retrospectively estimate the indoor temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde emission factors and concentration, and hence the formaldehyde exposures. The interactive web-tool allows the user to define the inputs to the model to evaluate formaldehyde exposures for different scenarios.

  3. Surveillance of nasal and bladder cancer to locate sources of exposure to occupational carcinogens.

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, K; Morgan, M S; Checkoway, H; Franklin, G; Spinelli, J J; van Belle, G; Weiss, N S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To locate sources of occupational exposure to nasal and bladder carcinogens for surveillance follow up in British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: Incident cases of nasal cancer (n = 48), bladder cancer (n = 105), and population based controls (n = 159) matched for sex and age, were interviewed about their jobs, exposures, and smoking histories. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for 57 occupational groups with stratified exact methods to control for age, sex, and smoking. RESULTS: Occupational groups at increased risk of nasal cancer included: textile workers (six cases, OR 7.6); miners, drillers, and blasters (six cases, OR 3.5); welders (two cases, OR 3.5); pulp and paper workers (three cases, OR 3.1); and plumbers and pipefitters (two cases, OR 3.0). Nasal cancer ORs were not increased in occupations exposed to wood dust, possibly due to low exposures in local wood industries. Strongly increased risks of bladder cancer were found for sheet metal workers (four cases, OR 5.3), miners (19 cases, OR 4.5), gardeners (six cases, OR 3.7), and hairdressers (three cases, OR 3.2). Among occupations originally considered at risk, the following had increased risks of bladder cancer: painters (four cases, OR 2.8); laundry workers (five cases, OR 2.3); chemical and petroleum workers (15 cases, OR 1.8); machinists (eight cases, OR 1.6); and textile workers (three cases, OR 1.5). CONCLUSIONS: Occupational groups with increased risks and three or more cases with similar duties were selected for surveillance follow up. For nasal cancer, these included textile workers (five were garment makers) and pulp and paper workers (three performed maintenance tasks likely to entail stainless steel welding). For bladder cancer, these included miners (12 worked underground), machinists (five worked in traditional machining), hairdressers (three had applied hair dyes), and laundry workers (three were drycleaners). PMID:9245952

  4. Infectious disease risks associated with occupational exposure: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Haagsma, Juanita A; Tariq, Luqman; Heederik, Dick J; Havelaar, Arie H

    2012-02-01

    Employees in different types of work may be intentionally or accidentally exposed to biological agents. Improved risk assessment is needed to identify opportunities to prevent work-related infectious disease. The objective of the current study was to perform a systematic literature review of work-related infectious disease to assist in the identification of occupational infectious disease risks. A literature search of papers on work-related infectious disease published between 1999 and 2008 yielded 1239 papers of which 242 met the selection criteria and were included in the review. The results of the systematic literature review were arranged in a matrix of occupational groups and exposure pathways. Increased risk from infectious diseases appeared to be concentrated in specific professions. Healthcare workers, workers in contact with animals, laboratory workers and refuse workers seem to have the highest risk of infection by a variety of pathogens. However, pathogens reported to be associated with closely related professions were different, indicating qualitative under-reporting. Arranging the results of this systematic review on work-related infectious diseases in a matrix of occupational groups and exposure pathways allowed the reliable identification of exposure hazards for specific occupational groups beyond currently reported diseases.

  5. Risk Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica in Small Foundries in Pakdasht, Iran

    PubMed Central

    OMIDIANIDOST, Ali; GHASEMKHANI, Mehdi; KAKOOEI, Hossein; SHAHTAHERI, Seyed Jamaleddin; GHANBARI, Masud

    2016-01-01

    Background: The term crystallized silica refers to the crystallized form of Sio2 and quartz, the most frequency composition in the earth’s crust that can cause silicosis and lung cancer through occupational exposure and inhalation of its large quantities. Methods: Occupational exposure of workers in Pakdasht, Iran, in 2011 was investigated in four different casting processes in small foundries with less than 10 workers. Sampling respirable dust was collected on MCE filter, using HD cyclone at a flow rate of 2.2 lit/min. The filters were analyzed for dust using NIOSH Method 7601. Gravimetric and visible absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine amounts of inhalable dust and free silica, respectively. Risk assessment techniques were also used to predict silicosis and lung cancer. Results: Geometric means of occupational exposure to crystalline silica in 4 different casting processes were studied within the range of 0.009–0.04 mg/m3. Mortality rate due to silicosis was in the range of 1–13.7 per 1000 persons exposed. Risk of mortality due to lung cancer in exposed workers in small casting workshops in Pakdasht, Iran ranged 4–16 per 1000 persons exposed based on geometric mean and 45 years of exposure. According to risk assessment, mortality due to silicosis, cumulative exposure of 96% of population was at an acceptable level of 1/1000. Conclusion: Fifty percent of workers were exposed to crystalline silica dust in excess of Recommended Exposure Limit -NIOSH and Threshold Limit Value ACGIH (0.025 mg/m3). Several cases of silicosis and lung cancer are anticipated for this occupational group in near future. PMID:27057524

  6. Severe Cognitive Dysfunction and Occupational Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field Exposure among Elderly Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Davanipour, Zoreh; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Markides, Kyriakos S.; Sobel, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Aims This report is the first study of the possible relationship between extremely low frequency (50–60 Hz, ELF) magnetic field (MF) exposure and severe cognitive dysfunction. Earlier studies investigated the relationships between MF occupational exposure and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) or dementia. These studies had mixed results, depending upon whether the diagnosis of AD or dementia was performed by experts and upon the methodology used to classify MF exposure. Study Design Population-based case-control. Place and Duration of Study Neurology and Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, 2 years. Methodology The study population consisted of 3050 Mexican Americans, aged 65+, enrolled in Phase 1 of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (H-EPESE) study. Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) results, primary occupational history, and other data were collected. Severe cognitive dysfunction was defined as an MMSE score below 10. The MF exposure methodology developed and used in earlier studies was used. Results Univariate odds ratios (OR) were 3.4 (P< .03; 95% CI: 1.3–8.9) for high and 1.7 (P=.27; 95% CI: 0.7–4.1) for medium or high (M/H) MF occupations. In multivariate main effects models, the results were similar. When interaction terms were allowed in the models, the interactions between M/H or high occupational MF exposure and smoking history or age group were statistically significant, depending upon whether two (65–74, 75+) or three (65–74, 75–84, 85+) age groups were considered, respectively. When the analyses were limited to subjects aged 75+, the interactions between M/H or high MF occupations and a positive smoking history were statistically significant. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that working in an occupation with high or M/H MF exposure may increase the risk of severe cognitive dysfunction. Smoking and older age may increase the deleterious effect of MF

  7. Occupational Exposure to Benzene and Chromosomal Structural Aberrations in the Sperm of Chinese Men

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Francesco; Weldon, Rosana H.; Li, Guilan; Zhang, Luoping; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Schmid, Thomas E.; Xing, Caihong; Kurtovich, Elaine; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Benzene is an industrial chemical that causes blood disorders, including acute myeloid leukemia. We previously reported that occupational exposures near the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limit (8 hr) of 1 ppm was associated with sperm aneuploidy. Objective: We investigated whether occupational exposures near 1 ppm increase the incidence of sperm carrying structural chromosomal aberrations. Methods: We applied a sperm fluorescence in situ hybridization assay to measure frequencies of sperm carrying partial chromosomal duplications or deletions of 1cen or 1p36.3 or breaks within 1cen-1q12 among 30 benzene-exposed and 11 unexposed workers in Tianjin, China, as part of the China Benzene and Sperm Study (C-BASS). Exposed workers were categorized into low-, moderate-, and high-exposure groups based on urinary benzene (medians: 2.9, 11.0, and 110.6 µg/L, respectively). Median air benzene concentrations in the three exposure groups were 1.2, 3.7, and 8.4 ppm, respectively. Results: Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all structural aberrations combined were 1.42 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.83), 1.44 (95% CI: 1.12, 1.85), and 1.75 (95% CI: 1.36, 2.24) and for deletion of 1p36.3 alone were 4.31 (95% CI: 1.18, 15.78), 6.02 (95% CI: 1.69, 21.39), and 7.88 (95% CI: 2.21, 28.05) for men with low, moderate, and high exposure, respectively, compared with unexposed men. Chromosome breaks were significantly increased in the high-exposure group [IRR 1.49 (95% CI: 1.10, 2.02)]. Conclusions: Occupational exposures to benzene were associated with increased incidence of chromosomally defective sperm, raising concerns for worker infertility and spontaneous abortions as well as mental retardation and inherited defects in their children. Our sperm findings point to benzene as a possible risk factor for de novo 1p36 deletion syndrome. Because chromosomal aberrations in sperm can arise from defective stem

  8. Occupational exposure to talc containing asbestos. Morbidity, mortality, and environmental studies of miners and millers

    SciTech Connect

    Dement, J.M.; Zumwalde, R.D.; Gamble, J.F.; Fellner, W.; DeMeo, M.J.

    1980-02-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted studies of mortality and morbidity patterns and occupational exposures among talc miners and millers in upper New York. The mortality study was based on 398 white male workers who began employment between January 1, 1947 and December 31, 1959 and whose vital status was determined as of June 30, 1975. Observed cause specific mortality for the cohort as compared with that expected based on U.S. white male mortality rates indicated a significant increase in mortality due to bronchogenic cancer, nonmalignant respiratory disease (excluding influenza and pneumonia) and respiratory tuberculosis. The average latency period for bronchogenic cancer was 20 years.

  9. Liver disease associated with occupational exposure to the solvent dimethylformamide

    SciTech Connect

    Redlich, C.A.; Beckett, W.S.; Sparer, J.; Barwick, K.W.; Riely, C.A.; Miller, H.; Sigal, S.L.; Shalat, S.L.; Cullen, M.R.

    1988-05-01

    An attempt is made to characterize an outbreak of liver disease among workers in a fabric coating factory; and to determine the outbreak's cause and natural history and strategies for clinical recognition, treatment, and prevention. Fifty-eight of sixty-six workers participated in the study. All had standard liver function tests at least once. Forty-six workers completed a questionnaire; 27 had more extensive clinical evaluation for recognized liver abnormalities. A plant-wide outbreak of liver disease was recognized after a new employee presented with signs and symptoms of hepatitis. Evaluation of the worksite showed that dimethylformamide, a widely used industrial solvent and known hepatotoxin, was being used to coat fabric in poorly ventilated areas without appropriate skin protection. No other major hepatotoxic exposure was identified. Overall, 36 of 58 (62%) workers tested had elevations of either aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels. Enzyme abnormalities occurred almost exclusively in production workers (35 of 46 were abnormal), whereas only 1 of 12 nonproduction workers showed any elevations in enzyme levels (P less than 0.0001). Serologic tests excluded known infectious causes of hepatitis in all but 2 workers and changes characteristic of toxic liver injury were confirmed by histologic examinations of biopsy specimens from 4 workers. The ratio of AST to ALT levels was one or less in all but 1 worker. After modification of work practices and removal of workers most severely affected from exposure, improvement in liver enzyme abnormalities and symptoms in most patients were seen, although some patients showed persistent elevations of enzyme levels.

  10. Genetic and oxidative damage of peripheral blood lymphocytes in workers with occupational exposure to coal.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Paula; Kvitko, Kátia; da Silva, Fernanda R; Menezes, Ana Paula Simões; Porto, Carem; Sarmento, Merielen; Decker, Natália; Reyes, Juliana M; Allgayer, Mariangela da C; Furtado, Tatiane Chao; Salvador, Mirian; Branco, Catia; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-12-12

    Coal is an important fossil fuel used to generate energy. Coal dust is constituted primarily of hydrocarbons and metals. During coal extraction, large quantities of coal dust particles are emitted, contributing to environmental pollution. Coal miners are constantly exposed to coal dust and its derivatives. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential genotoxic effects of coal and oxidative stress in individuals from Candiota who were exposed to coal as part of their occupation. The comet assay and micronucleus (MN) test were used to assess these effects. This study involved 128 male participants of whom 71 reported work that included exposure to coal (exposed group) and 57 reported working at different jobs (unexposed group). The exposed group had a significantly increased damage index and damage frequency, as assessed using the comet assay, and increased MN and nucleoplasmic bridge frequencies, as assessed using the MN assay, compared with unexposed individuals. Significant and positive correlations between MN frequencies in the lymphocytes and buccal cells of control and exposed individuals were observed. The exposed individuals presented lower average levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase activity (CAT), while the mean superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) levels were higher in this group. The exposed group also had higher hematocrit levels. No correlation between DNA damage and inorganic elements, as identified using PIXE, was found; however, there was a correlation between the damage index and zinc. The evidence that exposure to coal and its derivatives presents a genetic hazard demonstrates the need for protective measures and educational programs for coal miners.

  11. Investigation of rare chronic lipoid pneumonia associated with occupational exposure to paraffin aerosol

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chenghong; Liu, Lihai; Du, Shiping; Mei, Jianhua; Huang, Ling; Chen, Min; Lei, Yongliang; Qian, Junwen; Luo, Jianyong; Zhang, Meibian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Occupational exposure to paraffin is an infrequent cause of lipoid pneumonia (LP) and related data are scare. We investigated the possible relationship between three rare cases of chronic LP and occupational exposure to paraffin aerosol in an iron foundry. Methods: The three cases of LP and their workplaces were investigated using data from field investigations, air monitoring, pulmonary radiological examinations, cell staining, and lung biopsies. Results: The patients had long-term occupational exposure to paraffin. X-ray diffraction testing revealed that the raw material from the workshop was paraffin crystal. The air concentrations of paraffin aerosol in workplaces were significantly higher than outdoor background levels. Small diffuse and miliary shadows with unclear edges were observed throughout the whole lungs via radiography. Computed tomography revealed diffuse punctate nodules and a high density of stripe-like shadows in both lungs (ground-glass opacity in a lower lobe, and a mass-like lesion and high translucent area near the bottom of the lung). Lipid-laden macrophages were found in the sputum and bronchial lavage. A broadened alveolar septum and local focal fibrosis were also discovered via lung biopsy. The inflammatory reaction in the lung tissues appeared to resolve over time. Conclusions: These three rare cases of chronic LP in workers during molding and repair processes were associated with occupational paraffin aerosol exposure. Therefore, primary prevention is essential for molding or repairing workers in the iron foundry, and a differential diagnosis of occupational chronic LP (vs. pneumoconiosis) should be considered when treating these workers. PMID:27488044

  12. Multicentric study on malignant pleural mesothelioma and non-occupational exposure to asbestos

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, C; Agudo, A; González, C A; Andrion, A; Calleja, A; Chellini, E; Dalmasso, P; Escolar, A; Hernandez, S; Ivaldi, C; Mirabelli, D; Ramirez, J; Turuguet, D; Usel, M; Terracini, B

    2000-01-01

    Insufficient evidence exists on the risk of pleural mesothelioma from non-occupational exposure to asbestos. A population-based case–control study was carried out in six areas from Italy, Spain and Switzerland. Information was collected for 215 new histologically confirmed cases and 448 controls. A panel of industrial hygienists assessed asbestos exposure separately for occupational, domestic and environmental sources. Classification of domestic and environmental exposure was based on a complete residential history, presence and use of asbestos at home, asbestos industrial activities in the surrounding area, and their distance from the dwelling. In 53 cases and 232 controls without evidence of occupational exposure to asbestos, moderate or high probability of domestic exposure was associated with an increased risk adjusted by age and sex: odds ratio (OR) 4.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8–13.1. This corresponds to three situations: cleaning asbestos-contaminated clothes, handling asbestos material and presence of asbestos material susceptible to damage. The estimated OR for high probability of environmental exposure (living within 2000 m of asbestos mines, asbestos cement plants, asbestos textiles, shipyards, or brakes factories) was 11.5 (95% CI 3.5–38.2). Living between 2000 and 5000 m from asbestos industries or within 500 m of industries using asbestos could also be associated with an increased risk. A dose–response pattern appeared with intensity of both sources of exposure. It is suggested that low-dose exposure to asbestos at home or in the general environment carries a measurable risk of malignant pleural mesothelioma. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10883677

  13. Occupational EMF exposure from radar at X and Ku frequency band and plasma catecholamine levels.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarika; Kapoor, Neeru

    2015-09-01

    Workers in certain occupations such as the military may be exposed to technical radiofrequency radiation exposure above current limits, which may pose a health risk. The present investigation intended to find the effect of chronic electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from radar on plasma catecholamines in the military workforce. In the study, 166 male personnel selected randomly were categorized into three groups: control (n = 68), exposure group-I (X-band, 8-12 GHz, n = 40), and exposure group-II (Ku-band, 12.5-18 GHz, n = 58). The three clusters were further divided into two groups according to their years of service (YOS) (up to 9 years and ≥10 years) to study the effect of years of radar exposure. Enzyme immunoassay was employed to assess catecholamine concentrations. EMF levels were recorded at different occupational distances from radar. Significant adrenaline diminution was registered in exposure group-II with no significant difference in exposure group-I when both groups were weighed against control. Nor-adrenaline and dopamine levels did not vary significantly in both exposure groups when compared to controls. Exposure in terms of YOS also did not yield any significant alteration in any of the catecholamines and in any of the exposure groups when compared with their respective control groups. The shift from baseline catecholamine values due to stress has immense significance for health and well-being. Their continual alteration may prove harmful in due course. Suitable follow-up studies are needed to further strengthen these preliminary observations and for now, exposures should be limited as much as possible with essential safeguards.

  14. Occupational Lead Exposure from Indoor Firing Ranges in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Yoon, Hye-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Military personnel often use ammunitions that contain lead. The present study aimed to identify the risks for lead exposure and lead poisoning among workers at indoor firing ranges. A special health examination, including blood lead level (BLL) testing, was performed for all 120 workers at the indoor firing ranges of the Republic of Korea’s Air Force, Navy, and Armed Forces Athletic Corps. The overall mean BLL was 11.3 ± 9.4 µg/dL (range: 2.0–64.0 µg/dL). The arithmetic mean of the BLL for professional shooters belong to Armed Forces Athletic Corps was 14.0 ± 8.3 µg/dL, while those of shooting range managers and shooting range supervisors were 13.8 ± 11.1 µg/dL and 6.4 ± 3.1 µg/dL, respectively. One individual had a BLL of 64 µg/dL, and ultimately completed chelation treatment (with CaNa2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) without any adverse effects. These findings indicate that indoor firing range workers are exposed to elevated levels of lead. Therefore, when constructing an indoor firing range, a specialist should be engaged to design and assess the ventilation system; and safety guidelines regarding ammunition and waste handling must be mandatory. Moreover, workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations. PMID:27051231

  15. Occupational and patient exposure in coronary angiography procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulieman, A.; Alzimami, K.; Gafar, R.; Babikir, E.; Alsafi, K.; Suliman, I. I.

    2014-11-01

    Cardiac catheterization is the gold standard in the diagnosis and management of coronary artery diseases. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the radiation dose of patients and staff during cardiology procedures. Staff was monitored using thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) chips for 86 procedures. The mean patient dose was 2813.6 μGy m2 and the mean fluoroscopic time was 4.8 min. The mean radiation doses for cardiologists were 0.9 mGy for the forehead, 0.92 mGy for the thyroid, 1.38 mGy for the chest, 1.28 mGy for the waist and 1.41 mGy for the hand. The mean radiation doses for assistants were 0.72 mGy for the chest, 0.82 mGy for the hand. High patient and staff exposure is due to lack of experience and protective equipment, exacerbated by a high workload. Interventional procedures remain operator dependent; therefore, continuous training is crucial.

  16. Review of respiratory morbidity from occupational exposure to oil mists.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, John A

    2003-11-01

    The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has recommended that the threshold limit value (TLV) for mineral oil mists be dramatically lowered, based on epidemiological evidence of respiratory health effects among machinists exposed to various metalworking fluid mists. A review of the literature regarding respiratory health effects from either metalworking or non-metalworking fluids suggest that machinists may have experienced slightly higher prevalence of common respiratory symptoms and mild and reversible cross-shift changes in some measures of pulmonary function. However, the inconsistency and potential for both random and systematic error in this body of literature argue against drawing definitive conclusions. There is also no substantive evidence that any of these effects led to permanent disease or impairment. The most likely causal agents for respiratory effects in these workers are microbial contaminants in water-based metalworking fluids, not straight mineral oils. This is consistent with the epidemic outbreaks of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, bronchitis, and asthma reported at some work sites using water-based metalworking fluids. This highlights the importance of frequent cleaning and fluid changes for metalworking fluid reservoirs, as part of a systematic approach to managing metalworking fluid aerosol exposures. A dramatic drop in the TLV for mineral oil mists would not resolve this problem.

  17. Occupational Lead Exposure from Indoor Firing Ranges in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Ju; Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Yoon, Hye-Sik; Moon, Jai-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Military personnel often use ammunitions that contain lead. The present study aimed to identify the risks for lead exposure and lead poisoning among workers at indoor firing ranges. A special health examination, including blood lead level (BLL) testing, was performed for all 120 workers at the indoor firing ranges of the Republic of Korea's Air Force, Navy, and Armed Forces Athletic Corps. The overall mean BLL was 11.3 ± 9.4 µg/dL (range: 2.0-64.0 µg/dL). The arithmetic mean of the BLL for professional shooters belong to Armed Forces Athletic Corps was 14.0 ± 8.3 µg/dL, while those of shooting range managers and shooting range supervisors were 13.8 ± 11.1 µg/dL and 6.4 ± 3.1 µg/dL, respectively. One individual had a BLL of 64 µg/dL, and ultimately completed chelation treatment (with CaNa2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) without any adverse effects. These findings indicate that indoor firing range workers are exposed to elevated levels of lead. Therefore, when constructing an indoor firing range, a specialist should be engaged to design and assess the ventilation system; and safety guidelines regarding ammunition and waste handling must be mandatory. Moreover, workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations.

  18. Occupational nitrosamine exposure. 1. Rubber and tire industry

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegelhalder, B.; Preussmann, R.

    1983-09-01

    To determine the role of N-nitrosamines in the known increased cancer risk of rubber workers, air concentrations of such carcinogens were measured by area sampling or personal monitoring in 19 factories. N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) were found regularly, the air concentrations varying between 0.1 and 380 micrograms/m/sup 3/ personal monitoring. The mean concentration was usually in the range of 1-10 micrograms/m/sup 3/. Several other nitrosamines could be detected in certain production branches. In retail shops and storage rooms of tires NDMA and NMOR were found. Most rubber chemicals based on amines are contaminated with N-nitrosamines, but this contamination cannot explain the air concentrations of nitrosamines found. The occurrence of nitrosamines mainly depends upon their formation during production of rubber and rubber products from used vulcanisation accelerators based on amines and the presence of nitrosating agents, such as diphenylnitrosamine (retarder A) and of nitrous gases, in products or production areas. Elimination of one or both precursors for nitrosamine formation resulted in significant reduction of aerial contamination of nitrosamines. The results are discussed in regard to the mechanisms of nitrosamine formation during rubber production, as basis for future epidemiological studies and their potential for exposure prevention.

  19. Occupational Exposure to Urban Air Pollution and Allergic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vimercati, Luigi; Gatti, Maria Franca; Baldassarre, Antonio; Nettis, Eustachio; Favia, Nicola; Palma, Marco; Martina, Gabriella Lucia Maria; Di Leo, Elisabetta; Musti, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased morbidity from cardiovascular diseases, lung cancer, respiratory and allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate allergic diseases in 111 traffic wardens compared to a control group of 101 administrative employees. All participating subjects underwent a physical examination, in which a complete medical history was taken and a dedicated allergological questionnaire administered. Spirometry, Specific IgE dosage (RAST) and skin prick tests (SPT) were done. Diagnostic investigations such as the nasal cytology, a specific nasal provocation test and rhinomanometry were also performed. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA version 11. The percentage of subjects with a diagnosis of allergy was higher in the exposed workers than in the controls. As regards the clinical tests, the positivity was higher for the group of exposed subjects. Among the exposed workers, those who worked on foot or motorcycle had a higher positivity in clinical trials compared to the traffic wardens who used the car. Our study showed a higher percentage of allergic subjects in the group of workers exposed to outdoor pollutants than in the controls. These results suggest that allergological tests should be included in the health surveillance protocols for workers exposed to outdoor pollutants. PMID:26501303

  20. Current practices for maintaining occupational exposures ALARA at low-level waste disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hadlock, D.E.; Herrington, W.N.; Hooker, C.D.; Murphy, D.W.; Gilchrist, R.L.

    1983-12-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide technical assistance in establishing operational guidelines, with respect to radiation control programs and methods of minimizing occupational radiation exposure, at Low-Level Waste (LLW) disposal sites. The PNL, through site visits, evaluated operations at LLW disposal sites to determine the adequacy of current practices in maintaining occupational exposures as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA). The data sought included the specifics of: ALARA programs, training programs, external exposure control, internal exposure control, respiratory protection, surveillance, radioactive waste management, facilities and equipment, and external dose analysis. The results of the study indicated the following: The Radiation Protection and ALARA programs at the three commercial LLW disposal sites were observed to be adequate in scope and content compared to similar programs at other types of nuclear facilities. However, it should be noted that there were many areas that could be improved upon to help ensure the health and safety of occupationally exposed individuals.

  1. Cost-efficient design of occupational exposure assessment strategies--a review.

    PubMed

    Rezagholi, Mahmoud; Mathiassen, Svend Erik

    2010-11-01

    When designing a strategy for collecting occupational exposure data, both economic and statistical performance criteria should be considered. However, very few studies have addressed the trade-off between the cost of obtaining data and the precision/accuracy of the exposure estimate as a research issue. To highlight the need of providing cost-efficient designs for assessing exposure variables in occupational research, the present review explains and critically evaluates the concepts and analytical tools used in available cost efficiency studies. Nine studies were identified through a systematic search using two algorithms in the databases PubMed and ScienceDirect. Two main approaches could be identified in these studies: 'comparisons' of the cost efficiency associated with different measurement designs and 'optimizations' of resource allocation on the basis of functions describing cost and statistical efficiency. In either case, the reviewed studies use simplified analytical tools and insufficient economic analyses. More research is needed to understand whether these drawbacks jeopardize the guidance on cost-efficient exposure assessment provided by the studies, as well as to support theoretical results by empirical data from occupational life.

  2. Occupational and environmental exposure to tribromophenol used for wood surface protection in sawmills.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Manuel; Becerra, José; Godoy, Juan; Barra, Ricardo

    2005-06-01

    This study analyses the occupational and environmental conditions of sawmills where the lumber is protected from microorganism action by dipping it in 2,4,6 tribromophenol (TBP). Three processes were evaluated: hydraulic immersion, chain conveyor system and manual immersion. The biggest occupational exposure to TBP was registered in manual and chain conveyor systems. The average values in the workers' urine for TBP were 6.9 and 5.7 mg/g creatinine, respectively. For environmental exposure, the highest value in well waters was 25.1 microg/L and in soil was 4,602 mg/kg. It could be established that the hydraulic immersion system presents less occupational TBP exposure. Nevertheless, the hydraulic system, as well as the other two anti-stain alternatives, requires the introduction of pollution prevention efforts. To reduce the environmental exposure to TBP, the lumber-dipping tank area, the forklift traffic areas, and the storage areas need to be waterproofed. It is also necessary to implement a TBP solution recovery system to eliminate dripping from the lumber once it is removed from the fungicide dipping tanks.

  3. Occupational exposure to Aspergillus and aflatoxins among food-grain workers in India

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Abida; Ali, Sana; Shahid, Mohd; Bhargava, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxins are a metabolite of Aspergillus molds and are widespread in the natural environment. Workers who handle food grains are at increased risk of exposure to aflatoxins and subsequently certain respiratory conditions. In India, more than half of the employed population is engaged in some type of agricultural work, yet little known about the respiratory problems as a result of exposure to aflatoxins among workers who handle food grains in India. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the risk of occupational exposure to aflatoxins in food-grain workers compared to workers who are not occupationally exposed to food grains. Methods: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum samples from 46 food-grain workers and 44 non-food-grain workers were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxins. Microscopy and culture of BAL samples were performed to detect Aspergillus species. Results: Aflatoxins were detected in 32.6% of the food-grain workers and 9.1% of non food grain workers (P<0.01). A significant difference was also found in BAL culture for Aspergillus (P<0.01) between the two groups. About 47.8% of the food-grain workers and 11.4% of non-food-grain workers had chronic respiratory symptoms. Conclusion: Occupational exposure to aflatoxins in food-grain workers was found to be associated with the increased presence of respiratory symptoms. PMID:25000106

  4. Occupational and public field exposure from communication, navigation, and radar systems used for air traffic control.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Wout; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Verloock, Leen; Martens, Luc

    2012-12-01

    Electromagnetic exposure (occupational and general public) to 14 types of air traffic control (ATC) systems is assessed. Measurement methods are proposed for in situ exposure assessment of these ATC systems. In total, 50 sites are investigated at 1,073 locations in the frequency range of 255 kHz to 24 GHz. For all installations, typical and maximal exposure values for workers and the general public are provided. Two of the 14 types of systems, Non-Directional Beacons (NDB) (up to 881.6 V m) and Doppler Very High Frequency (VHF) Omni-directional Range (DVOR) (up to 92.3 V m), exhibited levels requiring recommended minimum distances such that the ICNIRP reference levels are not exceeded. Cumulative exposure of all present radiofrequency (RF) sources is investigated, and it is concluded that the ATC source dominates the total exposure in its neighborhood.

  5. Biopersistence of nonfibrous mineral particles in the respiratory tracts of subjects following occupational exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Pairon, J C; Billon-Galland, M A; Iwatsubo, Y; Bernstein, M; Gaudichet, A; Bignon, J; Brochard, P

    1994-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy analysis (TEMA) was used to analyze the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of 262 subjects occupationally exposed (OE) to nonfibrous mineral particles (NFMP) and 42 controls not occupationally exposed to mineral dusts. OE subjects were divided into three groups according to the lapse of time since last exposure: < or = 1 year and < 10 years (E2), > or = 10 years (E3). The total BALF mineral particle concentration was significantly higher in OE patients than in controls and was closely related to the time lapse since last exposure to NFMP (median values for OE, 7.7 x 10(5) particles/ml; E1, 9 x 10(5) particles/ml; E2, 5 x 10(5) particles/ml; E3, 4.3 x 10(5) particles/ml; controls, 2 x 10(5) particles/ml). No statistical difference was observed for age and smoking habits between OE and control subjects. Concentrations of crystalline silica and metals (exogenous iron, aluminum, metallic alloys and other metals) were significantly higher in OE subjects than in controls, and even though these mineral concentrations decreased with increasing time since last occupational exposure, they still remained higher in the E3 group than in controls. Crystalline silica and metals were thus identified as biopersistent NFMP in the human lung using BALF ATEM method. This method is a useful tool in assessing occupational exposure to NFMP, even when a long period has elapsed since last exposure, and may be used in studying etiology of some respiratory diseases. PMID:7882949

  6. Quantitative assessment of lives lost due to delay in the regulation of occupational exposure to benzene

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, W.J.; Landrigan, P.J. )

    1989-07-01

    Benzene exposure can cause leukemia, aplastic anemia, and possibly lymphoma. In 1978, on the basis of strong but incomplete data then available on the risk of benzene-induced leukemia, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) reduced the permissible occupational exposure standard for benzene from 10 ppm to 1 ppm. Shortly thereafter, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals stayed this ruling, and in 1980, the Supreme Court overturned the regulation, citing insufficient evidence of benefit. Thus, from 1978 until the standard was again lowered to 1 ppm in 1987, American workers were exposed to benzene at levels in excess of 1 ppm. An estimated 9600 were exposed to levels between 1 and 10 ppm, and an additional 370 were exposed at levels above 10 ppm. To assess the risk resulting from this delay in regulation, we have conducted an epidemiologic risk analysis. We merged data on numbers of persons (238,000) exposed to benzene in seven occupational categories with dose-response data from three epidemiologic studies. The range of risk in these studies indicates that 44 to 152 excess leukemia deaths will ultimately result from exposure to benzene at 10 ppm over a working lifetime (45 years) and that lower or briefer exposures will result in proportionately fewer deaths. On this basis, we calculated that between 30 and 490 excess leukemia deaths will ultimately result from occupational exposures to benzene greater than 1 ppm that occurred between 1978 and 1987. Deaths from aplastic anemia and lymphoma will likely add to this toll. These data confirm the risk of regulatory delay. They suggest that the courts, in reviewing public health regulations, must beware of facile cost-benefit arguments and be willing to accept strong evidence of health risk even when such evidence is incomplete.

  7. Occupational exposure to dioxins by thermal oxygen cutting, welding, and soldering of metals.

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, H M; Bolm-Audorff, U; Turcer, E; Bienfait, H G; Albracht, G; Walter, D; Emmel, C; Knecht, U; Päpke, O

    1998-01-01

    This paper focuses on one aspect of occupational dioxin exposure that is novel and unexpected. Exposures in excess of the German threshold limit value of 50 pg international toxicity equivalent (I-TEQ)/m3 are very frequent, unpredictable, and sometimes very high--up to 6612 pg I-TEQ/m3--during thermal oxygen cutting at scrap metal and demolition sites. The same procedure involving virgin steel in steel trade and mass production of steel objects gave no such evidence, even though no final conclusions can be drawn because of the low number of samples analyzed. Low dioxin exposures during inert gas electric arc welding confirm previous literature findings, whereas soldering and thermal oxygen cutting in the presence of polyvinyl chloride give rise to concern. The consequences of occupational dioxin exposure were studied by analysis of the dioxin-blood concentration, the body burden, of men performing thermal oxygen cutting at scrap metal reclamation and demolition sites, in steel trade and producing plants as well as for industrial welders and white-collar workers. The results concerning body burdens are in excellent agreement with the dioxin exposure as characterized by dioxin air concentration in the workplace. The significant positive correlation between duration and frequency of performing thermal oxygen cutting at metal reclamation and demolition sites expressed in job-years and dioxin body burden speaks for the occupational origin of the observed overload after long times. The results reported here lead to consequences for occupational health, which are discussed and require immediate attention. Images Figure 1 PMID:9599722

  8. Occupational exposure to dust and lung disease among sheet metal workers.

    PubMed Central

    Hunting, K L; Welch, L S

    1993-01-01

    A previous large medical survey of active and retired sheet metal workers with 20 or more years in the trade indicated an unexpectedly high prevalence of obstructive pulmonary disease among both smokers and non-smokers. This study utilised interviews with a cross section of the previously surveyed group to explore occupational risk factors for lung disease. Four hundred and seven workers were selected from the previously surveyed group on the basis of their potential for exposure to fibreglass and asbestos. Selection was independent of health state, and excluded welders. A detailed history of occupational exposure was obtained by telephone interview for 333 of these workers. Exposure data were analysed in relation to previously collected data on chronic bronchitis, obstructive lung disease, and personal characteristics. Assessment of the effects of exposure to fibreglass as distinct from the effects of exposure to asbestos has been difficult in previous studies of construction workers. The experienced workers studied here have performed a diversity of jobs involving exposure to many different types of materials, and this enabled exposure to each dust to be evaluated separately. The risk of chronic bronchitis increased sharply by pack-years of cigarettes smoked; current smokers had a double risk compared with those who had never smoked or had stopped smoking. The occurrence of chronic bronchitis also increased with increasing duration of exposure to asbestos. Workers with a history of high intensity exposure to fibreglass had a more than doubled risk of chronic bronchitis. Obstructive lung disease, defined by results of pulmonary function tests at the medical survey, was also related to both smoking and occupational risk factors. Number of pack years smoked was the strongest predictor of obstructive lung disease. Duration of direct and indirect exposure to welding fume was also a positive predictor of obstructive lung disease. Duration of exposure to asbestos was

  9. The respiratory effects of occupational polypropylene flock exposure.

    PubMed

    Atis, S; Tutluoglu, B; Levent, E; Ozturk, C; Tunaci, A; Sahin, K; Saral, A; Oktay, I; Kanik, A; Nemery, B

    2005-01-01

    The present study evaluated the possible effects of exposure to polypropylene flock on respiratory health and serum cytokines in a cross-sectional study of workers from a plant in Turkey. A total of 50 polypropylene flocking workers were compared to a control group of 45 subjects. All subjects filled out a respiratory questionnaire and underwent a physical examination, a chest radiograph and pulmonary function testing, including single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DL,CO). Serum interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were measured. Additionally, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest was performed in 10 exposed workers with low DL,CO. Work-related respiratory symptoms were reported in 26% of the exposed subjects and in 13.3% of the controls. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of respiratory symptoms increased 3.6 fold in polypropylene flocking workers when compared to controls. Parameters of the study group, including per cent predicted: forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, forced mid-expiratory flow 25-75% and DL,CO, were significantly lower than in controls. Multivariate analyses showed that being a polypropylene flocking worker was a predictive factor for impairment of pulmonary function. Serum IL-8 and TNF-alpha levels were increased in the study group compared with the controls. HRCT revealed peribronchial thickening and diffuse ground glass attenuation in some subjects. The present study suggests the presence of subtle or the beginning of interstitial lung disease in these polypropylene flocking workers.

  10. Occupational exposure to airborne contaminants during offshore oil drilling.

    PubMed

    Kirkhus, Niels E; Thomassen, Yngvar; Ulvestad, Bente; Woldbæk, Torill; Ellingsen, Dag G

    2015-07-01

    The aim was to study exposure to airborne contaminants in oil drillers during ordinary work. Personal samples were collected among 65 drill floor workers on four stationary and six moveable rigs in the Norwegian offshore sector. Air concentrations of drilling mud were determined based on measurements of the non-volatile mud components Ca and Fe. The median air concentration of mud was 140 μg m(-3). Median air concentrations of oil mist (180 μg m(-3)), oil vapour (14 mg m(-3)) and organic carbon (46 μg m(-3)) were also measured. All contaminants were detected in all work areas (drill floor, shaker area, mud pits, pump room, other areas). The highest air concentrations were measured in the shaker area, but the differences in air concentrations between working areas were moderate. Oil mist and oil vapour concentrations were statistically higher on moveable rigs than on stationary rigs, but after adjusting for differences in mud temperature the differences between rig types were no longer of statistical significance. Statistically significant positive associations were found between mud temperature and the concentrations of oil mist (Spearman's R = 0.46) and oil vapour (0.39), and between viscosity of base oil and oil mist concentrations. Use of pressure washers was associated with higher air concentrations of mud. A series of 18 parallel stationary samples showed a high and statistically significant association between concentrations of organic carbon and oil mist (r = 0.98). This study shows that workers are exposed to airborne non-volatilized mud components. Air concentrations of volatile mud components like oil mist and oil vapour were low, but were present in all the studied working areas.

  11. Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields and brain tumour risks in the INTEROCC study

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Michelle C; Benke, Geza; Bowman, Joseph D; Figuerola, Jordi; Fleming, Sarah; Hours, Martine; Kincl, Laurel; Krewski, Daniel; McLean, Dave; Parent, Marie-Elise; Richardson, Lesley; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schlaefer, Klaus; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Schüz, Joachim; Siemiatycki, Jack; van Tongeren, Martie; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF) is a suspected risk factor for brain tumours, however the literature is inconsistent. Few studies have assessed whether ELF in different time windows of exposure may be associated with specific histologic types of brain tumours. This study examines the association between ELF and brain tumours in the large-scale INTEROCC study. Methods Cases of adult primary glioma and meningioma were recruited in seven countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Israel, New Zealand, United Kingdom) between 2000 and 2004. Estimates of mean workday ELF exposure based on a job exposure matrix assigned. Estimates of cumulative exposure, average exposure, maximum exposure, and exposure duration were calculated for the lifetime, and 1–4, 5–9, and 10+ years prior to the diagnosis/reference date. Results There were 3,761 included brain tumour cases (1,939 glioma, 1,822 meningioma) and 5,404 population controls. There was no association between lifetime cumulative ELF exposure and glioma or meningioma risk. However, there were positive associations between cumulative ELF 1–4 years prior to the diagnosis/reference date and glioma (odds ratio (OR) ≥ 90th percentile vs < 25th percentile = 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36–2.07, p < 0.0001 linear trend), and, somewhat weaker associations with meningioma (OR ≥ 90th percentile vs < 25th percentile = 1.23, 95% CI 0.97–1.57, p = 0.02 linear trend). Conclusions Results showed positive associations between ELF in the recent past and glioma. Impact Occupational ELF exposure may play a role in the later stages (promotion and progression) of brain tumourigenesis. PMID:24935666

  12. Reproductive effects of occupational DDT exposure among male malaria control workers.

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-García, Félix; Gallardo-Díaz, Esperanza; Cerón-Mireles, Prudencia; Loomis, Dana; Borja-Aburto, Victor H

    2004-01-01

    To assess potential effects of human DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane] exposure, we evaluated the reproductive history of 2,033 workers in the antimalaria campaign of Mexico. Data on occupational exposure to DDT and reproductive outcomes were gathered through a questionnaire, and workers provided information about 9,187 pregnancies. We estimated paternal exposure to DDT before each pregnancy using three approaches: a) a dichotomous indicator for pregnancies before and after exposure began, b) a qualitative index of four exposure categories, and c) an estimation of the DDT metabolite DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene] accumulated in fat. To assess associations, we used logistic regression models that accounted for correlated observations and adjusted for parents' age at each child's birth, exposure to other pesticides, exposure to chemical substances in other employment, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The odds ratio for birth defects comparing pregnancies after and before the first exposure was 3.77 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.19-9.52]. Compared with the lowest quartile of estimated DDE in fat, the ORs were 2.48 (95% CI, 0.75-8.11), 4.15 (95% CI, 1.38-12.46), and 3.76 (95% CI, 1.23-11.44) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4, equivalent to p,p -DDE in fat of 50, 82, and 298 microg/g fat, respectively. No significant association was found for spontaneous abortion or sex ratio. We found an increased risk of birth defects associated with high occupational exposure to DDT in this group of workers. The significance of this association at lower exposure levels found in the general population remains uncertain. PMID:15064158

  13. Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica Dust in the United States, 1988–2003

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Abdiaziz; Yebesi, Francis; Tingle, Rex

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this study were a) to summarize measurements of airborne (respirable) crystalline silica dust exposure levels among U.S. workers, b) to provide an update of the 1990 Stewart and Rice report on airborne silica exposure levels in high-risk industries and occupations with data for the time period 1988–2003, c) to estimate the number of workers potentially exposed to silica in industries that the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspected for high exposure levels, and d) to conduct time trend analyses on airborne silica dust exposure levels for time-weighted average (TWA) measurements. Compliance inspection data that were taken from the OSHA Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) for 1988–2003 (n = 7,209) were used to measure the airborne crystalline silica dust exposure levels among U.S. workers. A second-order autoregressive model was applied to assess the change in the mean silica exposure measurements over time. The overall geometric mean of silica exposure levels for 8-hr personal TWA samples collected during programmed inspections was 0.077 mg/m3, well above the applicable American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value of 0.05 mg/m3. Surgical appliances supplies industry [Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) 3842] had the lowest geometric mean silica exposure level of 0.017 mg/m3, compared with the highest level, 0.166 mg/m3, for the metal valves and pipe fitting industry (SIC 3494), for an 8-hr TWA measurement. Although a downward trend in the airborne silica exposure levels was observed during 1988–2003, the results showed that 3.6% of the sampled workers were exposed above the OSHA-calculated permissible exposure limit. PMID:15743711

  14. Indicator ability of biosubstances in monitoring the moderate occupational exposure to toxic metals.

    PubMed

    Grabeklis, Andrei R; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nechiporenko, Sergei P; Lakarova, Elena V

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the monitoring system, watching influence of toxic metals on human health in industrial plants, indicator properties of different biosubstances were compared. Four types of samples (whole blood, plasma, urine, and hair) from 263 workers of the "Khimprom" chemical plant (Novocheboksarsk, Russia) were subjected to multielement analysis by ICP-AES/ICP-MS. 19-25 chemical elements, including main toxic metals (Cd, Hg, Pb, etc.) were determined. The results were calculated with regard to workers' individual data on occupational exposure to chemical elements. Hair was found to be the most sensitive to toxic and conditionally toxic trace metals: Pb, Mn, Cr, Be, Ni, while occupational contact with macro elements (Na, P), trace metalloids (Si, B) and some other metals (Zn) was not reflected in hair. Whole blood relatively weakly indicated a moderate occupational level of metals except Pb and Mn, but effectively reflected deficiencies of essential elements: I, Cr, and shifts in K/Na ratio, which are likely to be secondary effects of harmful occupational factors. Blood plasma reflected only contact with Be, P; urine--only with Ni. In both whole blood and plasma the changes for the absolute majority of elements were similar. Thus, hair analysis is useful for monitoring the occupational exposure to toxic and conditionally toxic chemical elements, while a general estimation of occupational harmful influence on mineral metabolism requires simultaneous investigation of two biosubstances: hair and whole blood, or hair and blood plasma, with whole blood being more preferable. Analysis of urine is appropriate for monitoring particular chemical elements, e.g. nickel.

  15. Assessment of Occupational Noise Exposure among Groundskeepers in North Carolina Public Universities

    PubMed Central

    Balanay, Jo Anne G.; Kearney, Gregory D.; Mannarino, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Groundskeepers may have increased risk to noise-induced hearing loss due to the performance of excessively noisy tasks. This study assessed the exposure of groundskeepers to noise in multiple universities and determined the association between noise exposure and variables (ie, university, month, tool used). Personal noise exposures were monitored during the work shift using noise dosimetry. A sound level meter was used to measure the maximum sound pressure levels from groundskeeping equipment. The mean Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) time-weighted average (TWA) noise exposures were 83.0 ± 9.6 and 88.0 ± 6.7 dBA, respectively. About 52% of the OSHA TWAs and 77% of the NIOSH TWAs exceeded 85 dBA. Riding mower use was associated with high TWA noise exposures and with having OSHA TWAs exceeding 85 and 90 dBA. The maximum sound pressure levels of equipment and tools measured ranged from 76 to 109 dBA, 82% of which were >85 dBA. These findings support that groundskeepers have excessive noise exposures, which may be effectively reduced through careful scheduling of the use of noisy equipment/tools. PMID:27330303

  16. Occupational exposure to solid chemical agents in biomass-fired power plants and associated health effects.

    PubMed

    Jumpponen, M; Rönkkömäki, H; Pasanen, P; Laitinen, J

    2014-06-01

    Occupational exposure to aluminium, arsenic, lead, cadmium, and manganese can increase the risk of numerous neurophysiological changes in workers, and may lead to conditions resembling Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. However, although the health hazard aspect of these agents has been examined, biomass-fired power plant workers' exposure to them remains a neglected issue. The purpose of this study was to measure maintenance and ash removal workers' multiple exposures to inhalable dust, metals, and crystalline silica during their work tasks in biomass-fired power plants. Maintenance and ash removal workers were exposed to high inhalable dust concentrations inside biomass-fired boilers. The median air inhalable dust concentration in workers' breathing zones were 33 mg m(-3) and 120 mg m(-3) in ash removal and maintenance tasks, respectively. The median concentration of manganese (0.31 mg m(-3)) exceeded the occupational exposure limit in worker's breathing zone samples in maintenance tasks. The most evident exposure-associated health risk from multiple exposures to metals was that of cancer, followed by central nervous system disorders, lower respiratory tract irritation, and finally upper respiratory tract irritation. To avoid the above mentioned health effects, powered air respirators with ABEK+P3 cartridges and carbon monoxide gas detectors are recommended as the minimum requirement for these work tasks. A compressed air breathing apparatus is the best form of protection for the most demanding work phases inside boilers in biomass-fired power plants.

  17. Occupational exposures and asthma in 14,000 adults from the general population.

    PubMed

    Le Moual, Nicole; Kennedy, Susan M; Kauffmann, Francine

    2004-12-01

    The association of asthma with occupational exposures was studied in 14,151 adults, aged 25-59 years, from the general population of the 1975 French Pollution Atmospherique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques (PAARC) Survey. Associations of asthma with specific jobs, such as personal care workers, waiters, and stock clerks, were observed, with age-, sex-, and smoking-adjusted odds ratios between 1.5 and 1.7. Exposures to 18 asthmagenic agents (low and high molecular weight and mixed environment) were estimated by an asthma-specific job exposure matrix. Risks associated with asthma increased when subjects with imprecise estimates of exposure were excluded. Risks increased further with increasing specificity of the definition of asthma when considering jobs or specific agents, such as industrial cleaning agents, latex, flour, highly reactive chemicals, and textiles. For example, for industrial cleaning agents, odds ratios increased from 1.55 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 2.23) for "ever asthma," to 2.17 (95% CI: 1.41, 3.34) for asthma onset after age 14 years, to 2.35 (95% CI: 1.38, 4.00) for asthma onset after beginning current job, and to 2.51 (95% CI: 1.33, 4.75) for asthma with airflow limitation. Results underlined the importance of the specificity of exposure and asthma definitions and indicated a deleterious role of occupational exposure on asthma, especially for cleaning agents.

  18. Occupational exposures and asthma in 14,000 adults from the general population

    PubMed Central

    Le Moual, Nicole; Kennedy, Susan M.; Kauffmann, Francine

    2004-01-01

    The association of occupational exposures and asthma were studied in 14151 adults, aged 25–59 years, from the general population of the French PAARC (Pollution Atmospherique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques, 1975) Survey. Associations of asthma to specific jobs such as personal care workers, waiters, stock clerks were observed, with age, sex, smoking adjusted odds ratios between 1.5 and 1.7. Exposures to 18 asthmagenic agents (low, high molecular weight and mixed environment) were estimated by an asthma-specific job exposure matrix. Risks associated with asthma increased when excluding subjects with imprecise estimates of exposure. Risks further increased when increasing specificity of the definition of asthma considering jobs or specific agents such as industrial cleaning agents, latex, flour, highly reactive chemicals, and textiles. For example, for industrial cleaning agents, odds ratios increased from 1.55 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.23) for ever asthma, to 2.51 (95% CI: 1.33, 4.75) for asthma with airflow limitation, to 2.17 (95% CI: 1.41, 3.34) for asthma onset after age 14, and to 2.35 (95% CI: 1.38, 4.00) for asthma onset after beginning of current job. Results underlined the importance of the specificity of exposure and asthma definitions and indicated a deleterious role of occupational exposure on asthma, especially for cleaning agents. PMID:15561990

  19. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, hematotoxicity and leukemia-specific chromosome changes in cultured myeloid progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Ji, Zhiying; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Guo, Weihong; Liu, Songwang; Reiss, Boris; Laura Beane, Freeman; Ge, Yichen; Hubbard, Alan E.; Hua, Ming; Blair, Aaron; Galvan, Noe; Ruan, Xiaolin; Alter, Blanche P.; Xin, Kerry X.; Li, Senhua; Moore, Lee E.; Kim, Sungkyoon; Xie, Yuxuan; Hayes, Richard B.; Azuma, Mariko; Hauptmann, Michael; Xiong, Jun; Stewart, Patricia; Li, Laiyu; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Huang, Hanlin; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Smith, Martyn T.; Lan, Qing

    2010-01-01

    There are concerns about the health effects of formaldehyde exposure, including carcinogenicity, in light of elevated indoor air levels in new homes and occupational exposures experienced by workers in health care, embalming, manufacturing and other industries. Epidemiological studies suggest that formaldehyde exposure is associated with an increased risk of leukemia. However, the biological plausibility of these findings has been questioned because limited information is available on formaldehyde’s ability to disrupt hematopoietic function. Our objective was to determine if formaldehyde exposure disrupts hematopoietic function and produces leukemia-related chromosome changes in exposed humans. We examined the ability of formaldehyde to disrupt hematopoiesis in a study of 94 workers in China (43 exposed to formaldehyde and 51 frequency-matched controls) by measuring complete blood counts and peripheral stem/progenitor cell colony formation. Further, myeloid progenitor cells, the target for leukemogenesis, were cultured from the workers to quantify the level of leukemia-specific chromosome changes, including monosomy 7 and trisomy 8, in metaphase spreads of these cells. Among exposed workers, peripheral blood cell counts were significantly lowered in a manner consistent with toxic effects on the bone marrow and leukemia-specific chromosome changes were significantly elevated in myeloid blood progenitor cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde exposure can have an adverse impact on the hematopoietic system and that leukemia induction by formaldehyde is biologically plausible, which heightens concerns about its leukemogenic potential from occupational and environmental exposures. PMID:20056626

  20. [Environmental and biological monitoring of occupational exposure to perchloroethylene in dry cleaning shops].

    PubMed

    Gobba, F; Rosa, P; Ghittori, S; Imbriani, M; Ferrari, G; Cavalleri, A

    1997-01-01

    Occupational exposure to perchloroethylene (PCE) was studied in a total of 106 workers in 78 dry cleaning shops in the province of Pavia, Northern, Italy. Environmental monitoring was performed by personal passive sampling. The median time weighted average (TWA) level of PCE was 57 mg/m3, i.e., about 30% of the current Threshold Limit Value (TLV) proposed by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). However, in 12 workers exposure exceeded this limit. Biological monitoring was performed via measurement of urinary trichloroacetic acid (TCA), i.e. the exposure index currently used in Italy, and urinary excretion of unmodified perchloroethylene (PCE-U) in samples collected at the end of the half-shift. Median levels of TCA and PCE were 1.03 mg/l and 17.7 micrograms/l respectively. The correlation coefficient between environmental TWA concentrations of perchloroethylene and PCE-U was 0.755 (0.809 after logarithmic transformation), compared to 0.660 for TCA values. The subjects were then classified as "low exposed" and "heavily exposed" according to whether personal exposure was lower or higher than 57 mg/m3, the median TWA value of the whole group. PCE-U levels were significantly correlated to exposure in both subgroups whereas TCA was correlated only in the "heavily exposed subjects", but not in those with lower exposure. The results of the study show that in the majority of dry cleaning shops exposure to PCE was well below the current occupational limits. Nevertheless surveillance of dry cleaners is recommended as nearly 10% of the workers exceeded the environmental and biological limits. Urinary excretion of unmodified PCE appears to be a very reliable indicator for biological monitoring of PCE exposure in dry cleaning and is also significantly correlated to exposure at low levels. The estimated biological equivalent exposure level (BEEL) for PCE-U, corresponding to the current TLV-TWA proposed by the ACGIH, is 55 micrograms/l. Urinary

  1. Multidimensional analysis of the effect of occupational exposure to organic solvents on lung cancer risk: the ICARE study

    PubMed Central

    Mattei, Francesca; Liverani, Silvia; Guida, Florence; Matrat, Mireille; Cenée, Sylvie; Azizi, Lamiae; Menvielle, Gwenn; Sanchez, Marie; Pilorget, Corinne; Lapôtre-Ledoux, Bénédicte; Luce, Danièle; Richardson, Sylvia; Stücker, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between lung cancer and occupational exposure to organic solvents is discussed. Since different solvents are often used simultaneously, it is difficult to assess the role of individual substances. Objectives The present study is focused on an in-depth investigation of the potential association between lung cancer risk and occupational exposure to a large group of organic solvents, taking into account the well-known risk factors for lung cancer, tobacco smoking and occupational exposure to asbestos. Methods We analysed data from the Investigation of occupational and environmental causes of respiratory cancers (ICARE) study, a large French population-based case–control study, set up between 2001 and 2007. A total of 2276 male cases and 2780 male controls were interviewed, and long-life occupational history was collected. In order to overcome the analytical difficulties created by multiple correlated exposures, we carried out a novel type of analysis based on Bayesian profile regression. Results After analysis with conventional logistic regression methods, none of the 11 solvents examined were associated with lung cancer risk. Through a profile regression approach, we did not observe any significant association between solvent exposure and lung cancer. However, we identified clusters at high risk that are related to occupations known to be at risk of developing lung cancer, such as painters. Conclusions Organic solvents do not appear to be substantial contributors to the occupational risk of lung cancer for the occupations known to be at risk. PMID:26911986

  2. Development of a National Occupational Exposure Survey and Database associated with NIOSH hazard surveillance initiatives.

    PubMed

    Boiano, J M; Hull, R D

    2001-02-01

    NIOSH pioneered hazard surveillance in the workplace by designing and conducting the 1972 to 1974 National Occupational Hazard Survey (NOHS), the 1981 to 1983 National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES), and the 1984 to 1989 National Occupational Health Survey of Mining (NOHSM). The databases developed from these three on-site surveys represent unique resources for associating potential chemical, physical and biological agents with industries and occupational groups. The data have been a primary source of information for NIOSH, regulatory agencies, health professionals, researchers, and labor organizations in establishing priorities for prevention strategies that include medical and engineering interventions, development of occupational standards, and the identification of research needs. Recognizing that the data from these surveys are becoming dated, a multidisciplinary team comprising members from various NIOSH research divisions was established to develop a hazard surveillance strategy for the Institute, including options for a national hazard surveillance survey and database. The proposed new hazard survey builds on lessons learned from the previous surveys, seeks opportunities to incorporate existing data from other sources, expands the scope of industries and hazards, and takes advantage of advances in data gathering, processing and dissemination technology. This article presents current considerations and recommendations for a new hazard survey and database.

  3. Rules and recent trends for setting health-based occupational exposure limits for chemicals.

    PubMed

    Skowroń, Jolanta; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    The working environment is the special case of the non-natural environment created by man in which the increased production activity brings about the concentration of stimulators particularly aggressive to the human organism, such as chemical hazards, noise, vibration, extreme temperatures, and finally, intensified psychological and emotional stress. Depending on the nature and intensity, working environment factors have been classified into dangerous, harmful and annoying. The workers are more and more frequently exposed to dangerous chemicals in the working environment. The chemicals cause many diseases including, in the 1st place, respiratory insufficiency, inflammatory skin conditions, psychoneurological disorders and neoplastic diseases. Occupational exposure limit values (OELs), the main criteria for occupational exposure assessment, constitute an important factor for the safe use of chemicals in the working environment. In Poland, to date there are 524 chemical substances and 19 dusts for which maximum admissible concentrations (MAC) have been established.

  4. Occupational exposure to pesticides, reproductive hormone levels and sperm quality in young Brazilian men.

    PubMed

    Cremonese, Cleber; Piccoli, Camila; Pasqualotto, Fabio; Clapauch, Ruth; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Koifman, Sergio; Freire, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The association of occupational exposure to current-use pesticides with reproductive hormones, semen quality, and genital measures was investigated among young men in the South of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 99 rural and 36 urban men aged 18-23 years. Information on pesticide use was obtained through questionnaire. Serum and semen samples were analyzed for sex hormones and sperm parameters, respectively, and measurement of anogenital distance (AGD) and testis volume (TV) were performed. Associations were explored using multivariate linear regression. Rural men had poorer sperm morphology, higher sperm count, and lower LH levels relative to urban subjects. Lifetime use of pesticides, especially herbicides and fungicides, was associated with poorer morphology and reduced LH and prolactin, with evidence of a linear pattern. Maternal farming during pregnancy was associated with larger AGD and TV. Chronic occupational exposure to modern pesticides may affect reproductive outcomes in young men.

  5. Occupational exposure to asbestos and lung cancer in men: evidence from a population-based case-control study in eight Canadian provinces

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Asbestos is classified as a human carcinogen, and studies have consistently demonstrated that workplace exposure to it increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Few studies have evaluated risks in population-based settings where there is a greater variety in the types of occupations, and exposures. Methods This was a population based case–control study with 1,681 incident cases of lung cancer, and 2,053 controls recruited from 8 Canadian provinces between 1994 and 1997. Self-reported questionnaires were used to elicit a lifetime occupational history, including general tasks, and information for other risk factors. Occupational hygienists, who were blinded to case–control status, assigned asbestos exposures to each job on the basis of (i) concentration (low, medium, high), (ii) frequency (<5%, 5-30%, and >30% of the time in a normal work week), and (iii) reliability (possible, probable, definite). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Those occupationally exposed to (i) low, and (ii) medium or high concentrations of asbestos had ORs for lung cancer of 1.17 (95% CI=0.92 – 1.50) and 2.16 (95% CI=1.21-3.88), respectively, relative to those who were unexposed. Medium or high exposure to asbestos roughly doubled the risk for lung cancer across all three smoking pack-year categories. The joint relationship between smoking and asbestos was consistent with a multiplicative risk model. Conclusions Our findings provide further evidence that exposure to asbestos has contributed to an increased risk of lung cancer in Canadian workplaces, and suggests that nearly 3% of lung cancers among Canadian men are caused by occupational exposure to asbestos. PMID:23234401

  6. Occupational Noise Exposure among Toll Tellers at Toll Plaza in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Sharifah Nadya Syed; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md; Ya, Tuan Mohammad Yusoff Shah Tuan; Saidin, Hamidi

    2010-10-01

    Toll tellers working at toll plaza have potential of exposure to high noise from the vehicles especially for the peak level of sound emitted by the heavy vehicles. However, occupational exposures in this workplace have not been adequately characterized and identified. Occupational noise exposure among toll tellers at toll plaza was assessed using Sound Level Meter, Noise Dosimeter and through questionnaire survey. These data were combined to estimate the work shift exposure level and health impacts to the toll tellers by using statistical analysis. Noise Dosimeter microphone was located at the hearing zone of the toll teller which working inside the toll booth and full-period measurements were collected for each work shift. The measurements were taken at 20 toll booths from 6.00 am to 2.00 pm for 5 days. 71 respondents participated in the survey to identify the symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and other health related problems among toll tellers. Results of this study indicated that occupational noise exposure among toll tellers for Mean Continuous Equivalent Level, Leq was 79.2±1.4 dB(A), Mean Maximum Level, Lmax was 107.8±3.6 dB(A) and Mean Peak Level, Lpeak was 136.6±9.9 dB. The Peak Level reported statistically significantly at 140 dB, the level of TLV recommended by ACGIH. The research findings indicated that the primary risk exposure to toll tellers comes from noise that emitted from heavy vehicles. Most of the toll tellers show symptoms of noise induced hearing loss and annoyed by the sources of noise at the toll plaza.

  7. Occupational Exposure to Magnetic Fields and Breast Cancer Among Women Textile Workers in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenjin; Ray, Roberta M.; Thomas, David B.; Yost, Michael; Davis, Scott; Breslow, Norman; Gao, Dao Li; Fitzgibbons, E. Dawn; Camp, Janice E.; Wong, Eva; Wernli, Karen J.; Checkoway, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) is hypothesized to increase the risk of breast cancer by reducing production of melatonin by the pineal gland. A nested case-cohort study was conducted to investigate the association between occupational exposure to MFs and the risk of breast cancer within a cohort of 267,400 female textile workers in Shanghai, China. The study included 1,687 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed from 1989 to 2000 and 4,702 noncases selected from the cohort. Subjects’ complete work histories were linked to a job–exposure matrix developed specifically for the present study to estimate cumulative MF exposure. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards modeling that was adapted for the case-cohort design. Hazard ratios were estimated in relation to cumulative exposure during a woman's entire working years. No association was observed between cumulative exposure to MFs and overall risk of breast cancer. The hazard ratio for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of cumulative exposure was 1.03 (95% confidence interval: 0.87, 1.21). Similar null findings were observed when exposures were lagged and stratified by age at breast cancer diagnosis. The findings do not support the hypothesis that MF exposure increases the risk of breast cancer. PMID:24043439

  8. Occupational and environmental exposures and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus: silica, sunlight, solvents

    PubMed Central

    Wither, Joan; Bernatsky, Sasha; Claudio, Jaime O.; Clarke, Ann; Rioux, John D.; Fortin, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined occupational and non-occupational exposures in relation to risk of SLE in a case–control study conducted through the Canadian Network for Improved Outcomes in SLE (CaNIOS). Methods. SLE cases (n = 258) were recruited from 11 rheumatology centres across Canada. Controls (without SLE, n = 263) were randomly selected from phone number listings and matched to cases by age, sex and area of residence. Data were collected using a structured telephone interview. Results. An association was seen with outdoor work in the 12 months preceding diagnosis [odds ratio (OR) 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.8]; effect modification by sun reaction was suggested, with the strongest effect among people who reported reacting to midday sun with a blistering sunburn or a rash (OR 7.9; 95% CI 0.97, 64.7). Relatively strong but imprecise associations were seen with work as an artist working with paints, dyes or developing film (OR 3.9; 95% CI 1.3, 12.3) and work that included applying nail polish or nail applications (OR 10.2; 95% CI 1.3, 81.5). Patients were more likely than controls to report participation in pottery or ceramics work as a leisure activity, with an increased risk among individuals with a total frequency of at least 26 days (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1, 3.9). Analyses of potential respirable silica exposures suggested an exposure–response gradient (OR 1.0, 1.4. and 2.1 for zero, one and two or more sources of exposure, respectively; trend test P < 0.01). Conclusions. This study supports the role of specific occupational and non-occupational exposures in the development of SLE. PMID:20675707

  9. [Assessment of occupational skin exposure: proposal of a check-list].

    PubMed

    Maina, G; Larese Fillon, F; Sartorelli, P; Boario, G A; D'Agostin, F; Montomoli, L

    2003-01-01

    The dermal risk assessment requires simplified methodologies to understand the role played by the skin. The conceptual models proposed to this aim are founded on theoretical assumptions and experimental data, but their use in occupational settings shows many difficulties. For this end we have drawn up a check-list that includes six sessions and allows to obtain a preliminary dermal exposure evaluation subdivided on hazard bands.

  10. Occupational exposure to methyl methacrylate monomer induces generalised neuropathy in a dental technician.

    PubMed

    Sadoh, D R; Sharief, M K; Howard, R S

    1999-04-24

    A 36-year-old dental technician for 14 years developed paraesthesia and numbness in her legs. Neurophysiological studies revealed absent sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) from her lower limbs and normal upper limb SNAPs on presentation. Motor nerve studies were normal. Repeat studies 2 months after leaving her job showed some improvement in the lower limb SNAPs. It is suggested that her symptoms were caused by occupational exposure to methyl methacrylate monomer.

  11. Urinary KIM-1: a novel biomarker for evaluation of occupational exposure to lead

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rong; Xu, Yahong; Shen, Jie; Han, Lin; Chen, Xi; Feng, Xuefang; Kuang, Xingya

    2016-01-01

    Chronic occult lead poisoning often develops ensuing occupational lead exposure. Early diagnosis of lead poisoning is critical for timely discontinuation of lead exposure and for prognosis. This study explored the value of urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in diagnosing renal injury induced by lead at an early stage. We retrospectively analyzed 92 workers exposed to occupational lead and demonstrated a better correlation ship between blood lead levels and urine excretion of KIM-1 than other traditional renal injury biomarkers following creatinine adjustment. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of the ability of diverse biomarkers for predicting kidney injury in lead-exposed workers demonstrated that the order of predicting accuracy of the studied biomarkers is as follows: urinary KIM-1-to-creatinine ratio > urinary N-acetyl-β-(D)-glucosaminidase-to-creatinine ratio > urinary β2-microglobulin-to-creatinine ratio > urinary α1-microglobulin-to-creatinine ratio, with the Youden index being 16.59 ng/g, 14.01 U/g, 0.15 mg/g, and 4.63 mg/g, respectively. Collectively, our findings suggest that short-period occupational lead exposure may cause injury of renal tubules. Urinary excretion of KIM-1 correlates with blood lead levels better than other traditional renal injury biomarkers, including N-acetyl-β-(D)-glucosaminidase, α1-microglobulin, and β2-microglobulin. Longitudinal surveillance of urinary KIM-1 may aid for early diagnosis of renal tubular injury in workers with occupational lead exposure. PMID:27966578

  12. Occupational exposure to inhalable wood dust in the member states of the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Timo; Vincent, Raymond; Liukkonen, Tuula; Grzebyk, Michel; Kauppinen, Antti; Welling, Irma; Arezes, Pedro; Black, Nigel; Bochmann, Frank; Campelo, Filipe; Costa, Manuel; Elsigan, Gerhard; Goerens, Robert; Kikemenis, Anastasia; Kromhout, Hans; Miguel, Sérgio; Mirabelli, Dario; McEneany, Roisin; Pesch, Beate; Plato, Nils; Schlünssen, Vivi; Schulze, Johannes; Sonntag, Roland; Verougstraete, Violaine; De Vicente, Maria Angeles; Wolf, Joachim; Zimmermann, Marta; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Savolainen, Kai

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate occupational exposure to inhalable wood dust by country, industry, the level of exposure and type of wood dust in 25 member states of the European Union (EU-25) for the purposes of hazard control, exposure surveillance and assessment of health risks. National labour force statistics, a country questionnaire (in 15 member states, EU-15), a company survey (in Finland, France, Germany and Spain), exposure measurements (from Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and expert judgements were used to generate preliminary estimates of exposure to different types of wood dust. The estimates were generated according to industrial class (six wood industries, four other sectors) and level of exposure (five classes). These estimates were reviewed and finalized by national experts from 15 member states. Crude estimates were generated also for 10 new member states (EU-10). The basic data and final estimates were included in the WOODEX database. In 2000-2003, about 3.6 million workers (2.0% of the employed EU-25 population) were occupationally exposed to inhalable wood dust. Of those, construction employed 1.2 million exposed workers (33%), mostly construction carpenters. The numbers of exposed workers were 700,000 (20%) in the furniture industry, 300,000 (9%) in the manufacture of builders' carpentry, 200,000 (5%) in sawmilling, 150,000 (4%) in forestry and <100,000 in other wood industries. In addition, there were 700,000 exposed workers (20%) in miscellaneous industries employing carpenters, joiners and other woodworkers. The numbers of exposed workers varied by country ranging from <3,000 in Luxembourg and Malta to 700,000 in Germany. The highest exposure levels were estimated to occur in the construction sector and furniture industry. Due to limited exposure data there was considerable uncertainty in the estimates concerning construction woodworkers. About 560,000 workers (16% of the exposed) may be

  13. Strategy of the scientific committee on occupational exposure limits (SCOEL) in the derivation of occupational exposure limits for carcinogens and mutagens.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Hermann M; Huici-Montagud, Alicia

    2008-01-01

    Setting standards, such as occupational exposure limits (OELs) for carcinogenic substances must consider modes of action. At the European Union level, the scientific committee on occupational exposure limits (SCOEL) has discussed a number of chemical carcinogens and has issued recommendations. For some carcinogens, health-based OELs were recommended, while quantitative assessments of carcinogenic risks were performed for others. For purposes of setting limits this led to the consideration of the following groups of carcinogens. (A) Non-threshold genotoxic carcinogens; for low-dose assessment of risk, the linear non-threshold (LNT) model appears appropriate. For these chemicals, regulations (risk management) may be based on the ALARA principle ("as low as reasonably achievable"), technical feasibility, and other socio-political considerations. (B) Genotoxic carcinogens, for which the existence of a threshold cannot be sufficiently supported at present. In these cases, the LNT model may be used as a default assumption, based on the scientific uncertainty. (C) Genotoxic carcinogens with a practical threshold, as supported by studies on mechanisms and/or toxicokinetics; health-based exposure limits may be based on an established NOAEL (no observed adverse effect level). (D) Non-genotoxic carcinogens and non-DNA-reactive carcinogens; for these compounds a true ("perfect") threshold is associated with a clearly founded NOAEL. The mechanisms shown by tumour promoters, spindle poisons, topoisomerase II poisons and hormones are typical examples of this category. Health-based OELs are derived for carcinogens of groups C and D, while a risk assessment is carried out for carcinogens of groups A and B. Substantial progress is currently being made in the incorporation of new types of mechanistic data into these regulatory procedures.

  14. Occupational Safety and Health Administration--Access to employee exposure and medical records. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1980-05-23

    This final occupational safety and health standard, promulgated today as a revised 29 CFR 1910.20, provides for employee, designated representative, and OSHA access to employer-maintained exposure and medical records relevant to employees exposed to toxic substances and harmful physical agents. Access is also assured to employer analyses using exposure and medical records. The final standard requires long term preservation of these records, contains provisions concerning informing employees of their rights under the standard, and includes provisions protective of trade secret information.

  15. A Case of Superwarfarin Poisoning Due to Repetitive Occupational Dermal Rodenticide Exposure in a Worker

    PubMed Central

    Narlı Özdemir, Zehra; Şahin, Uğur; Merter, Mustafa; Gündüz, Mehmet; Ateşağaoğlu, Berna; Beksaç, Meral

    2016-01-01

    Superwarfarin poisoning is usually due to chronic occult small-dose exposures and can easily be misdiagnosed and may lead to serious complications. The diagnosis can be confirmed by a concordant history and analyses of blood and urine specimens with the liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique. Several months of continuous treatment with high doses of daily oral vitamin K, as well as other supportive measures, are warranted, especially when repeated laboratory measurements to help predict the treatment period are not available. In this paper, a case of superwarfarin poisoning due to chronic repetitive occupational dermal exposure to commercial rodenticides is presented. PMID:27093901

  16. Intra-oral formication induced by occupational exposure mimicking inhalation abuse.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Erin; Johnson, Cleverick

    2012-01-01

    Multiple cases of nail salon workers with occupational exposure to acetone, toluene, and acrylic monomers, namely methyl methacrylate and cyanoacrylates, presented separately to our clinic with similar complaints of factitious gingival stomatitis and formication--an abnormal sensation like ants crawling on or inside the skin. Recognizing oral manifestations resulting from possible toxic chemical exposure is not generally thought to be within the realm of most dental practices, yet to assure appropriate care, dentists must be vigilant and include thorough patient interviews in the diagnostic equation.

  17. Occupational Health Impacts Due to Exposure to Organic Chemicals over an Entire Product Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Kijko, Gaël; Jolliet, Olivier; Margni, Manuele

    2016-12-06

    This article presents an innovative approach to include occupational exposures to organic chemicals in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) by building on the characterization factors set out in Kijko et al. (2015) to calculate the potential impact of occupational exposure over the entire supply chain of product or service. Based on an economic input-output model and labor and economic data, the total impacts per dollar of production are provided for 430 commodity categories and range from 0.025 to 6.6 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per million dollar of final economic demand. The approach is applied on a case study assessing human health impacts over the life cycle of a piece of office furniture. It illustrates how to combine monitoring data collected at the manufacturing facility and averaged sector specific data to model the entire supply chain. This paper makes the inclusion of occupational exposure to chemicals fully compatible with the LCA framework by including the supply chain of a given production process and will help industries focus on the leading causes of human health impacts and prevent impact shifting.

  18. Validation of a self-administered questionnaire for assessing occupational and environmental exposures of pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Eskenazi, B.; Pearson, K.

    1988-11-01

    The present investigation sought to determine whether a self-administered questionnaire could be used to obtain occupational information from pregnant women attending the obstetrical clinics at the University of California, San Francisco from July to November 1986. The authors compared the accuracy of responses of 57 women on the self-administered questionnaire with those obtained on a detailed clinical interview by an occupational health professional. The self-administered questionnaire and the clinical interview included information on the woman's job title, the type of company she worked for, the level of physical activity, her exposures on the job and at home, and her partner's occupation. The authors also examined whether the validity of the self-administered questionnaire could be improved on review by an industrial hygienist. The questionnaire took less than 20 minutes to complete, with over 90% of the women answering three-quarters of it. It was substantially accurate in obtaining information on number of hours worked during pregnancy, type of shift worked, and stress level in the workplace; exposure to radiation, video display terminals, fumes, gases, and cigarette smoke in the workplace; and exposure to pesticides, paint, and cigarette smoke at home. On those variables for which the responses on the self-administered questionnaire were less accurate, review by the industrial hygienist improved the level of accuracy considerably. These findings suggest that a self-administered questionnaire can be used to obtain valid information from pregnant women attending a prenatal clinic.

  19. Occupational Exposure to Mineral Turpentine and Heavy Fuels: A Possible Risk Factor for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Helou, Rafik; Jaecker, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between solvents and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been the subject of several studies. Yet, only few studies have examined the various solvents separately, and the controls have rarely been monitored long enough. For these reasons and others, we believe that further studies are required. Objectives The objective of this study was to identify solvents associated with the clinicoradiological diagnostic of AD or mixed-type dementia (MD). Methods A retrospective case-control study was performed in 156 patients followed up at the Memory Diagnostic Center of Bertinot Juel Hospital (France). The inclusion criteria were known occupation(s), a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score ≥10 at the first visit, a neuropsychological evaluation performed and a diagnosis established in our Memory Diagnostic Center. The diagnostics were crossed with 9 solvents belonging to two classes of solvents. Exposure was evaluated using French national job-exposure matrices. Results Certain petroleum-based solvents and fuels (i.e. mineral turpentine, diesel fuel, fuel oil and kerosene) were associated with a diagnosis of AD or MD. This association was still significant after adjustment for age, sex and education (adjusted OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 2-20). Conclusion Occupational exposure to mineral turpentine and heavy fuels may be a risk factor for AD and MD. PMID:25028582

  20. Development of risk-based nanomaterial groups for occupational exposure control

    PubMed Central

    Kuempel, E. D.; Castranova, V.; Geraci, C. L.; Schulte, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Given the almost limitless variety of nanomaterials, it will be virtually impossible to assess the possible occupational health hazard of each nanomaterial individually. The development of science-based hazard and risk categories for nanomaterials is needed for decision-making about exposure control practices in the workplace. A possible strategy would be to select representative (benchmark) materials from various mode of action (MOA) classes, evaluate the hazard and develop risk estimates, and then apply a systematic comparison of new nanomaterials with the benchmark materials in the same MOA class. Poorly soluble particles are used here as an example to illustrate quantitative risk assessment methods for possible benchmark particles and occupational exposure control groups, given mode of action and relative toxicity. Linking such benchmark particles to specific exposure control bands would facilitate the translation of health hazard and quantitative risk information to the development of effective exposure control practices in the workplace. A key challenge is obtaining sufficient dose–response data, based on standard testing, to systematically evaluate the nanomaterials’ physical–chemical factors influencing their biological activity. Categorization processes involve both science-based analyses and default assumptions in the absence of substance-specific information. Utilizing data and information from related materials may facilitate initial determinations of exposure control systems for nanomaterials. PMID:26504427