Science.gov

Sample records for occupational formaldehyde exposure

  1. The Australian Work Exposures Study: Prevalence of Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Timothy R; Carey, Renee N; Peters, Susan; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to produce a population-based estimate of the prevalence of work-related exposure to formaldehyde, to identify the main circumstances of exposure and to describe the use of workplace control measures designed to decrease those exposures. The analysis used data from the Australian Workplace Exposures Study, a nationwide telephone survey, which investigated the current prevalence and exposure circumstances of work-related exposure to 38 known or suspected carcinogens, including formaldehyde, among Australian workers aged 18-65 years. Using the web-based tool OccIDEAS, semi-quantitative information was collected about exposures in the current job held by the respondent. Questions were addressed primarily at tasks undertaken rather than about self-reported exposures. Of the 4993 included respondents, 124 (2.5%) were identified as probably being exposed to formaldehyde in the course of their work [extrapolated to 2.6% of the Australian working population-265 000 (95% confidence interval 221 000-316 000) workers]. Most (87.1%) were male. About half worked in technical and trades occupations. In terms of industry, about half worked in the construction industry. The main circumstances of exposure were working with particle board or plywood typically through carpentry work, building maintenance, or sanding prior to painting; with the more common of other exposures circumstances being firefighters involved in fighting fires, fire overhaul, and clean-up or back-burning; and health workers using formaldehyde when sterilizing equipment or in a pathology laboratory setting. The use of control measures was inconsistent. Workers are exposed to formaldehyde in many different occupational circumstances. Information on the exposure circumstances can be used to support decisions on appropriate priorities for intervention and control of occupational exposure to formaldehyde, and estimates of burden of cancer arising from occupational exposure to formaldehyde

  2. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde and alterations in lymphocyte subsets

    PubMed Central

    Hosgood, H. Dean; Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Vermeulen, Roel; Hao, Zhenyue; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Ge, Yichen; Hua, Ming; Ji, Zhiying; Li, Senhua; Xiong, Jun; Reiss, Boris; Liu, Songwang; Xin, Kerry X.; Azuma, Mariko; Xie, Yuxuan; Freeman, Laura Beane; Ruan, Xiaolin; Guo, Weihong; Galvan, Noe; Blair, Aaron; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Smith, Martyn T.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Background Formaldehyde is used in many occupational settings, most notably in manufacturing, health care, and embalming. Formaldehyde has been classified as a human carcinogen, but its mechanism of action remains uncertain. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study of 43 formaldehyde exposed-workers and 51 unexposed age and sex-matched controls in Guangdong, China to study formaldehyde’s early biologic effects. To follow-up our previous report that the total lymphocyte count was decreased in formaldehyde-exposed workers compared to controls, we evaluated each major lymphocyte subset (i.e., CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and B cells) and T cell lymphocyte subset (CD4+ naïve and memory T cells, CD8+ naïve and memory T cells, and regulatory T cells). Linear regression of each subset was used to test for differences between exposed workers and controls, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Total NK cell and T cell counts were about 24% (p=0.037) and 16% (p=0.0042) lower, respectively, among exposed workers. Among certain T cell subsets, decreased counts among exposed workers were observed for CD8+ T cells (p=0.026), CD8+ effector memory T cells (p=0.018), and regulatory T cells (CD4+FoxP3+: p=0.04; CD25+FoxP3+: p=0.008). Conclusions Formaldehyde exposed-workers experienced decreased counts of NK cells, regulatory T cells, and CD8+ effector memory T cells; however, due to the small sample size these findings need to be confirmed in larger studies. PMID:22767408

  3. Occupational asthma due to formaldehyde.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, P S; Harries, M G; Lam, W K; O'Brien, I M; Patchett, P A

    1985-01-01

    Bronchial provocation studies on 15 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde are described. The results show that formaldehyde exposure can cause asthmatic reactions, and suggest that these are sometimes due to hypersensitivity and sometimes to a direct irritant effect. Three workers had classical occupational asthma caused by formaldehyde fumes, which was likely to be due to hypersensitivity, with late asthmatic reactions following formaldehyde exposure. Six workers developed immediate asthmatic reactions, which were likely to be due to a direct irritant effect as the reactions were shorter in duration than those seen after soluble allergen exposure and were closely related to histamine reactivity. The breathing zone concentrations of formaldehyde required to elicit these irritant reactions (mean 4.8 mg/m3) were higher than those encountered in buildings recently insulated with urea formaldehyde foam, but within levels sometimes found in industry. Images PMID:4023975

  4. Evaluation of possible health risk associated with occupational exposure to formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargova, Maria; Janota, Stanislav; Karelova, Jarmila; Barancokova, Maria; Sulcova, Margita

    1993-03-01

    Widespread us of formaldehyde in a variety of applications is known to result in appreciable exposure of workers and large segments of the general population. Because of possible genotoxic and immunotoxic effects, we investigated the health condition of people occupationally exposed to formaldehyde in a plant in which woodsplinter materials are manufactured. The concentration of formaldehyde in the workplace was greater than the average and peak concentrations of formaldehyde in Czechoslovakia (0.5 mg/m3 and 1 mg/m3 respectively). Selected parameters of genotoxicity (cytogenetic analysis, nucleolus test) and immunotoxocity (serum immunoglobulin G, A, M; complement C3, C4; alpha-1-anti-trypsine, alpha-2 macroglobulin, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, prealbumin, orosomucoid levels) were determined. The results of the evaluation of mitotic indices and the blastogen transformation point to an effect of the exposure to formaldehyde on r-RNA synthesis inhibition and lymphocyte maturation decrease. The frequency of aberrant cells in the peripheral blood lymphocytes was increased in both, exposed and control group and was above 1.2 - 2% of aberrant cells observed in the normal population in Czechoslovakia. There was no significant differences in the values of natural immunity and specific humoral immunity. Significant differences were observed in the values of mitogen-induced proliferation of lymphocytes between the exposed and the matching and background control groups. These changes are considered to be sensitive indicators of the potential effects on the integrity of a more important immunologic function.

  5. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysian Chinese: occupational exposures to particles, formaldehyde and heat.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, R W; Imrey, P B; Lye, M S; Armstrong, M J; Yu, M C; Sani, S

    2000-12-01

    During 1990-1992, 282 Chinese residents of Selangor and the Federal Territory, Malaysia with histologically confirmed nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were interviewed about occupational history, diet, alcohol consumption, and tobacco use, as were an equal number of Malaysian Chinese population controls, pair-matched to cases by age and sex. Exposures to 20 kinds of workplace substances, solar and industrial heat, and cigarette smoke, were analysed by univariate and multivariate methods. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma was associated with occupational exposures to construction, metal and wood dusts; motor fuel and oil; paints and varnishes; certain other chemicals; industrial heat; solar heat from outdoor occupations; certain smokes; cigarette smoking; and childhood exposure to parental smoking. After adjustment for risk from diet and cigarette smoke, only wood dust (OR = 2.36; 95% CI : 1.33- 4.19), and industrial heat (OR = 2.21; 95% CI : 1.12-4.33) remained clearly associated. Wood dust remained statistically significant after further adjustment for social class. No significant crude or adjusted association was found between NPC and formaldehyde (adjusted OR = 0.71; 95% CI : 0.34-1.43). This study supports previous findings that some occupational inhalants are risk factors for NPC. The statistical effect of wood dust remained substantial after adjustment for diet, cigarette smoke, and social class. Intense industrial heat emerged as a previously unreported risk factor, statistically significant even after adjustment for diet and cigarette smoke. No association was found between NPC and formaldehyde.

  6. Statistical modelling of formaldehyde occupational exposure levels in French industries, 1986-2003.

    PubMed

    Lavoué, Jérôme; Vincent, Raymond; Gérin, Michel

    2006-04-01

    Occupational exposure databanks (OEDBs) have been cited as sources of exposure data for exposure surveillance and exposure assessment in epidemiology. In 2003, an extract was made from COLCHIC, the French national OEDB, of all concentrations of formaldehyde. The data were analysed with extended linear mixed-effects models in order to identify influent variables and elaborate a multi-sector picture of formaldehyde exposures. Respectively, 1401 and 1448 personal and area concentrations were available for the analysis. The fixed effects of the personal and area models explained, respectively, 57 and 53% of the total variance. Personal concentrations were related to the sampling duration (short-term higher than TWA levels), decreased with the year of sampling (-9% per year) and were higher when local exhaust ventilation was present. Personal levels taken during planned visits and for occupational illness notification purpose were consistently lower than those taken during ventilation modification programmes or because the hygienist suspected the presence of significant risk or exposure. Area concentrations were related to the sampling duration (short-term higher than TWA levels), and decreased with the year of sampling (-7% per year) and when the measurement sampling flow increased. Significant within-facility (correlation coefficient 0.4-0.5) and within-sampling campaign correlation (correlation coefficient 0.8) was found for both area and personal data. The industry/task classification appeared to have the greatest influence on exposure variability while the sample duration and the sampling flow were significant in some cases. Estimates made from the models for year 2002 showed elevated formaldehyde exposure in the fields of anatomopathological and biological analyses, operation of gluing machinery in the wood industry, operation and monitoring of mixers in the pharmaceutical industry, and garages and warehouses in urban transit authorities.

  7. Formaldehyde Exposures in a University Anatomy Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Kyle William

    Air sampling studies were conducted within a university anatomical laboratory during the embalmment of a cadaver in order to determine if dangerous concentrations of formaldehyde existed. Three air sampling studies were conducted in the anatomical laboratory on three separate days that a cadaver was being embalmed. Samples were collected and analyzed using the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Sampling and Analytical Methods: Method 52. Each air sampling study sampled for short term exposure limit (STEL) and time weighted mean (TWA) breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations as well as area TWA formaldehyde concentrations. A personal aldehyde monitor was also used in each air sampling study to sample for breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations. Measured TWA mean exposures to formaldehyde ranged from 0.15--1.3 parts per million (ppm), STEL formaldehyde exposures ranged from 0.019--0.64 ppm, and eight-hour TWAs ranged from 0.03 to 3.6 ppm. All 8-hour TWA formaldehyde concentrations sampled in the anatomy laboratory during an embalmment were less than the permissible exposure limit (PEL) required by OSHA.

  8. Formaldehyde exposures from tobacco smoke: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Godish, T

    1989-01-01

    Reports of formaldehyde levels in mainstream, sidestream, and environmental tobacco smoke from nine studies are reviewed. Considerable disparity exists between formaldehyde production rates determined from mainstream-sidestream studies and those reporting levels in environmental tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke does not appear to increase vapor-phase formaldehyde levels significantly in indoor environments, but formaldehyde exposure in mainstream smoke may pose a risk of upper respiratory system cancer and increase the risk of cancer in smokers. PMID:2665532

  9. Protect Against Exposure on Formaldehyde

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Formaldehyde is an important chemical used widely by industry to manufacture building materials and numerous household products. It is also a by-product of combustion and certain other natural processes.

  10. Exposure to formaldehyde: effects on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Alexandersson, R; Hedenstierna, G; Kolmodin-Hedman, B

    1982-01-01

    Forty-seven subjects exposed to formaldehyde (mean air concentration 0.45 mg/m3) and 20 unexposed subjects, all of whom were employed at a carpentry shop, were studied with regard to symptoms and pulmonary function. Symptoms involving eyes and throat as well as chest oppression were significantly more common in the exposed subjects than in the unexposed controls. Spirometry and single breath nitrogen washout were normal Monday morning before exposure to formaldehyde. A reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec by an average of 0.2 L (P = .002), percent forced expiratory volume by 2% (P = .04), maximum midexpiratory flow by 0.3 L/sec (P = .04) and an increase in closing volume in percentage of vital capacity by 3.4% (P - .002) were seen after a day of work and exposure to formaldehyde, suggesting bronchoconstriction. Smokers and nonsmokers displayed similar changes in spirometry and nitrogen washout.

  11. Indoor exposure to formaldehyde and relation to asthma ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Formaldehyde exposure is associated with asthma-like symptoms in occupational settings, but does exposure at lower concentrations in residential settings contribute to the current high burden of this respiratory disease? We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of asthma and lung function in humans, focusing on effects from long-term exposures. Our literature search through August 2013 identified 20 studies of asthma or asthma symptoms and 11 studies of lung function in PubMed and Web of Science meeting our inclusion criteria. For the asthma analysis, significant heterogeneity was present in the entire set of studies (p 0.051 mg/m3) and high occupational (> 0.1 mg/m3). Risk ratios (95% confidence interval) for these three categories, respectively, were 0.99 (0.93, 1.06), 1.5 (1.04, 2.1) and 6.3 (3.8, 10.6). The studies of lung function reported results as percent of predicted accounting for gender, age and height. These were occupational exposures with time-weighted formaldehyde concentrations of 0.1 – 1.5 mg/m3, primarily involving woodworking or chemical production. Overall, mean differences in lung function (95% confidence interval) between exposed and referent groups were -4.48 percent (-6.88, -2.09) for forced expiratory volume 1 second (FEV1), -4.08 percent (-6.33, -1.82) for forced vital capacity (FVC) and -7.29 percent (-11.

  12. Health Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Formaldehyde and Benzene in Newly Remodeled Buildings, Beijing

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lihui; Mo, Jinhan; Sundell, Jan; Fan, Zhihua; Zhang, Yinping

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess health risks associated with inhalation exposure to formaldehyde and benzene mainly emitted from building and decoration materials in newly remodeled indoor spaces in Beijing. Methods We tested the formaldehyde and benzene concentrations in indoor air of 410 dwellings and 451 offices remodeled within the past year, in which the occupants had health concerns about indoor air quality. To assess non-carcinogenic health risks, we compared the data to the health guidelines in China and USA, respectively. To assess carcinogenic health risks, we first modeled indoor personal exposure to formaldehyde and benzene using the concentration data, and then estimated the associated cancer risks by multiplying the indoor personal exposure by the Inhalation Unit Risk values (IURs) provided by the U.S. EPA Integrated Risk Information System (U.S. EPA IRIS) and the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA), respectively. Results (1) The indoor formaldehyde concentrations of 85% dwellings and 67% offices were above the acute Reference Exposure Level (REL) recommended by the OEHHA and the concentrations of all tested buildings were above the chronic REL recommended by the OEHHA; (2) The indoor benzene concentrations of 12% dwellings and 32% offices exceeded the reference concentration (RfC) recommended by the U.S. EPA IRIS; (3) The median cancer risks from indoor exposure to formaldehyde and benzene were 1,150 and 106 per million (based on U.S. EPA IRIS IURs), 531 and 394 per million (based on OEHHA IURs). Conclusions In the tested buildings, formaldehyde exposure may pose acute and chronic non-carcinogenic health risks to the occupants, whereas benzene exposure may pose chronic non-carcinogenic risks to the occupants. Exposure to both compounds is associated with significant carcinogenic risks. Improvement in ventilation, establishment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission labeling systems for decorating and refurbishing materials

  13. Chronic respiratory effects of indoor formaldehyde exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D.

    The relation of chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to formaldehyde (HCHO) in homes was studied in a sample of 298 children (6-15 years of age) and 613 adults. HCHO measurements were made with passive samplers two one-week periods. Data on chronic cough and phlegm, wheeze, attacks of breathlessness, and doctor diagnoses of chronic bronchitis and asthma were collected with self-completed questionnaires. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) were obtained during the evenings and mornings for up to 14 consecutive days for each individual. Significantly greater prevalence rates of asthma and chronic bronchitis were found in children from houses with HCHOmore » levels 60-120 ppb than in those less exposed, especially in children also exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. In children, levels of PEFR linearly decreased with HCHO exposure, with estimated decrease due to 60 ppb of HCHO equivalent to 22% of PEFR level in nonexposed children.« less

  14. Formaldehyde

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on formaldehyde and the regulation of formaldehyde emissions from composite wood products under the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products Act in the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).

  15. Formaldehyde exposure affects growth and metabolism of common bean

    SciTech Connect

    Mutters, R.G.; Madore, M.; Bytnerowicz, A.

    Recent state and federal directives have slated a substantial increase in the use of methanol as an alternative to gasoline in both fleet and private vehicles in the coming decade. The incomplete combustion of methanol produces formaldehyde vapor, and catalytic converter technology that completely oxidizes formaldehyde has yet to be developed. The approach of this study was to use a range of methanol concentrations encompassing levels currently found or that may occur in the future in the ambient air of some heavily polluted areas to test the potential phytotoxicity of formaldehyde. The study had the following objectives: (1) design andmore » build a formaldehyde vapor generator with sufficient capacity for long-term plant fumigations; (2) determine growth response of common bean to formaldehyde; (3) evaluate physiological and biochemical changes of bean plants associated with formaldehyde exposures. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  16. Exposure to formaldehyde in health care: an evaluation of the white blood count differential.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Rosati, Maria Valeria; De Sio, Simone; Casale, Teodorico; Caciari, Tiziana; Samperi, Ilaria; Sacco, Carmina; Fortunato, Bruna Rita; Pimpinella, Benedetta; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study is to estimate if the occupational exposure to formaldehyde can cause alterations of leukocytes plasma values in health care workers employed in a big hospital compared to a control group. We studied employees in operating rooms and laboratories of Pathological Anatomy, Molecular Biology, Molecular Neurobiology, Parasitology and Experimental Oncology (exposed to formaldehyde) and employees of the Department of Internal Medicine (not exposed). The sample studied was composed of 86 workers exposed to formaldehyde and 86 workers not exposed. All subjects underwent a clinical-anamnaestic examination and for all subjects were measured the following values: total white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils). Statistical analysis of data was based on calculation of the mean, standard deviation and the distribution into classes according to the nature of each variable. Differences were considered significant when p was < 0.05. The mean and the distribution of values of the white blood cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were significantly higher in male subjects exposed to formaldehyde compared to not-exposed. Not significant differences were found in female subjects exposed compared to not exposed. The results underline the importance of a careful risk assessment of workers exposed to formaldehyde and the use of appropriate preventive measures. The health care trained and informed about the risks he is exposed to should observe good standards of behavior and, where it is not possible to use alternative materials, the indoor concentrations of formaldehyde should never exceed occupational limit values.

  17. Chronic respiratory effects of indoor formaldehyde exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D.

    The relation of chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to formaldehyde (HCHO) in homes was studied in a sample of 298 children (6-15 years of age) and 613 adults. HCHO measurements were made with passive samplers during two 1-week periods. Data on chronic cough and phlegm, wheeze, attacks of breathlessness, and doctor diagnoses of chronic bronchitis and asthma were collected with self-completed questionnaires. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) were obtained during the evenings and mornings for up to 14 consecutive days for each individual. Significantly greater prevalence rates of asthma and chronic bronchitis were found in children from houses withmore » HCHO levels 60-120 ppb than in those less exposed, especially in children also exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. In children, levels of PEFR decreased linearly with HCHO exposure, with the estimated decrease due to 60 ppb of HCHO equivalent to 22% of PEFR level in nonexposed children. The effects in asthmatic children exposed to HCHO below 50 ppb were greater than in healthy ones. The effects in adults were less evident: decrements in PEFR due to HCHO over 40 ppb were seen only in the morning, and mainly in smokers.« less

  18. Formaldehyde

    Cancer.gov

    Learn about formaldehyde, which can raise your risk of myeloid leukemia and rare cancers of or near the nasal cavity. Formaldehyde is used in pressed-wood building materials, fungicides, germicides, disinfectants, and certain preservatives. Other sources include tobacco smoke and car emissions.

  19. Formaldehyde and LeukemiA: Epidemiology, Potential Mechanisms and Implications for Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formaldehyde is widely used in the United States and other countries. Occupational and environmental exposures to formaldehyde may be associated with an increased risk of leukemia in exposed individuals. However, risk assessment of formaldehyde and leukemia has been challenging ...

  20. Formaldehyde

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formaldehyde ; CASRN 50 - 00 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  1. Formaldehyde exposure in U.S. industries from OSHA air sampling data.

    PubMed

    Lavoue, Jerome; Vincent, Raymond; Gerin, Michel

    2008-09-01

    National occupational exposure databanks have been cited as sources of exposure data for exposure surveillance and exposure assessment for occupational epidemiology. Formaldehyde exposure data recorded in the U.S Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) between 1979 and 2001 were collected to elaborate a multi-industry retrospective picture of formaldehyde exposures and to identify exposure determinants. Due to the database design, only detected personal measurement results (n = 5228) were analyzed with linear mixed-effect models, which explained 29% of the total variance. Short-term measurement results were higher than time-weighted average (TWA) data and decreased 18% per year until 1987 (TWA data 5% per year) and 5% per year (TWA data 4% per year) after that. Exposure varied across industries with maximal estimated TWA geometric means (GM) for 2001 in the reconstituted wood products, structural wood members, and wood dimension and flooring industries (GM = 0.20 mg/m(3). Highest short-term GMs estimated for 2001 were in the funeral service and crematory and reconstituted wood products industries (GM = 0.35 mg/m(3). Exposure levels in IMIS were marginally higher during nonprogrammed inspections compared with programmed inspections. An increasing exterior temperature tended to cause a decrease in exposure levels for cold temperatures (-5% per 5 degrees C for T < 15 degrees C) but caused an increase in exposure levels for warm temperatures (+15% per 5 degrees C for T >15 degrees C). Concentrations measured during the same inspection were correlated and varied differently across industries and sample type (TWA, short term). Sensitivity analyses using TOBIT regression suggested that the average bias caused by excluding non-detects is approximately 30%, being potentially higher for short-term data if many non-detects were actually short-term measurements. Although limited by availability of relevant exposure determinants and potential selection biases in IMIS

  2. Occupational Chemical Exposures Among Cosmetologists

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Victoria M.; Powers, Martha; Liu, Jianghong

    2014-01-01

    More research is needed to understand possible occupational reproductive risks for cosmetologists, specifically hairdressers and nail technicians, two occupations that often share workspace and exposure to hair dyes and nail polish. Cosmetologists are predominantly females of reproductive age; thus, they may be at higher risk for the effects of exposure to reproductive toxins. The purpose of this article is to inform nurses and public health professionals about occupational exposures for cosmetologists and discuss interventions to reduce the risks of reproductive disorders among susceptible worker populations. PMID:24328919

  3. Formaldehyde exposure impairs the function and differentiation of NK cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Lee, Hwa-Youn; Lee, Eun-Hee; Lee, Ki-Mo; Park, Min; Ji, Kon-Young; Jang, Ji-Hun; Jeong, Yun-Hwa; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Yoon, Il-Joo; Kim, Su-Man; Jeong, Moon-Jin; Kim, Kwang Dong; Kang, Hyung-Sik

    2013-11-25

    We investigated the cytotoxic effects of formaldehyde (FA) on lymphocytes. FA-exposed mice showed a profound reduction not only in the number of natural killer (NK) cells but also in the expression of NK cell-specific receptors, but these mice did not exhibit decreases in the numbers of T or B lymphocytes. FA exposure also induced decreases in NK cytolytic activity and in the expression of NK cell-associated genes, such as IFN-γ, perforin and CD122. To determine the effect of FA on tumorigenicity, C57BL/6 mice were subcutaneously injected with B16F10 melanoma cells after FA exposure. The mass of the B16F10 tumor and the concentration of extravascular polymorphonuclear leukocytes were greater than those in unexposed tumor-bearing control mice. The number and cytolytic activity of NK cells were also reduced in B16F10 tumor-bearing mice exposed to FA. To determine how FA reduces the NK cell number, NK precursor (pNK) cells were treated with FA, and the differentiation status of the NK cells was analyzed. NK cell differentiation was impaired by FA treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings indicate that FA exposure may promote tumor progression by impairing NK cell function and differentiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Preliminary study: Formaldehyde exposure in laboratories of Sharjah university in UAE

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Hafiz Omer

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Laboratory technicians, students, and instructors are at high risk, because they deal with chemicals including formaldehyde. Thus, this preliminary study was conducted to measure the concentration of formaldehyde in the laboratories of the University of Sharjah in UAE. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two air samples were collected and analyzed for formaldehyde using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method 3500. In this method, formaldehyde reacts with chromotropic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid to form a colored solution. The absorbance of the colored solution is read in spectrophotometer at wavelength 580 nm and is proportional to the quantity of the formaldehyde in the solution. Results: For the anatomy laboratory and in the presence of the covered cadaver, the mean concentration of formaldehyde was found to be 0.100 ppm with a range of 0.095–0.105 ppm. Whereas for the other laboratories, the highest mean concentration of formaldehyde was 0.024 ppm in the general microbiology laboratory and the lowest mean concentration of formaldehyde was 0.001 ppm in the environmental health laboratory. The 8-hour (time-weighted average) concentration of formaldehyde was found to be ranging between 0.0003 ppm in environmental health laboratory and 0.026 ppm in the anatomy laboratory. Conclusions: The highest level of concentration of formaldehyde in the presence of the covered cadaver in anatomy laboratory exceeded the recommended ceiling standard established by USA-NIOSH which is 0.1 ppm, but below the ceiling standard established by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists which is 0.3 ppm. Thus, it is recommended that formaldehyde levels should be measured periodically specially during the dissection in the anatomy laboratory, and local exhaust ventilation system should be installed and personal protective equipment such as safety glass and gloves should be available and be used to prevent direct skin or eye

  5. Exposure to low doses of formaldehyde during pregnancy suppresses the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Maiellaro, Marília; Correa-Costa, Matheus; Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz

    Formaldehyde (FA) is an environmental and occupational pollutant, and its toxic effects on the immune system have been shown. Nevertheless, no data are available regarding the programming mechanisms after FA exposure and its repercussions for the immune systems of offspring. In this study, our objective was to investigate the effects of low-dose exposure of FA on pregnant rats and its repercussion for the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned in 3 groups: P (rats exposed to FA (0.75 ppm, 1 h/day, 5 days/week, for 21 days)), C (rats exposed to vehicle of FA (distillatedmore » water)) and B (rats non-manipulated). After 30 days of age, the offspring was sensitised with ovalbumin (OVA)-alum and challenged with aerosolized OVA (1%, 15 min, 3 days). After 24 h the OVA challenge the parameters were evaluated. Our data showed that low-dose exposure to FA during pregnancy induced low birth weight and suppressed the development of allergic lung inflammation and tracheal hyperresponsiveness in offspring by mechanisms mediated by reduced anaphylactic antibodies synthesis, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion. Elevated levels of IL-10 were found. Any systemic alteration was detected in the exposed pregnant rats, although oxidative stress in the uterine environment was evident at the moment of the delivery based on elevated COX-1 expression and reduced cNOS and SOD-2 in the uterus. Therefore, we show the putative programming mechanisms induced by FA on the immune system for the first time and the mechanisms involved may be related to oxidative stress in the foetal microenvironment. - Highlights: • Formaldehyde exposure does not cause lung inflammation in pregnant rats. • Formaldehyde exposure suppresses allergic lung inflammation in the offspring. • Formaldehyde exposure induces oxidative stress in uterine environment.« less

  6. Exposure to Stress: Occupational Hazards in Hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    EXPOSURE TO STRESS Occupational Hazards in Hospitals DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Exposure to Stress Occupational Hazards in Hospitals DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND ...

  7. Malondialdehyde-Deoxyguanosine Adduct Formation in Workers of Pathology Wards. The Role of Air Formaldehyde Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Romanazzi, Valeria; Munnia, Armelle; Piro, Sara; Allione, Alessandra; Ricceri, Fulvio; Guarrera, Simonetta; Pignata, Cristina; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wang, Poguang; Giese, Roger W.; Peluso, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Background Formaldehyde is a ubiquitous pollutant to which humans are exposed. Pathologists can experience high formaldehyde exposure levels. Formaldehyde – among other properties – induce oxidative stress and free radicals, which react with DNA and lipids, leading to oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation, respectively. We measured the levels of air-formaldehyde exposure in a group of Italian pathologists and controls. We analyzed the effect of formaldehyde exposure on leukocyte malondialdehyde-deoxyguanosine adducts (M1-dG), a biomarker of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. We studied the relationship between air-formaldehyde and M1-dG adducts. Methods Air-formaldehyde levels were measured by personal air samplers. M1-dG adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabelling assay. Results Reduction rooms pathologists were significantly exposed to air-formaldehyde in respect to controls and to the pathologists working in other laboratory areas (p<0.001). A significant difference for M1-dG adducts between exposed pathologists and controls was found (p=0.045). The effect becomes stronger when the evaluation of air-formaldehyde exposure was based on personal samplers (p=0.018). Increased M1dG adduct levels were only found in individuals exposed to air-formaldehyde concentrations higher than 66 μg/m3. When the exposed workers and controls were subgrouped according to smoking, M1-dG tended to increase in all the subjects but a significant association between M1-dG and air-formaldehyde was only found in not smokers (p= 0.009). Air formaldehyde played a role positive but not significant (r = 0.355, p = 0.075, Pearson correlation) in the formation of M1-dG, only in not smokers. Conclusions Working in the reduction rooms and to be exposed to air-formaldehyde concentrations higher than 66 μg/m3 is associated with increased levels of M1-dG adducts. PMID:20707408

  8. DOE 2011 occupational radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protectionmore » of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. The occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site over the past five years.« less

  9. Regulation of Chromatin Assembly and Cell Transformation by Formaldehyde Exposure in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Danqi; Fang, Lei; Mei, Shenglin; Li, Hongjie; Xu, Xia; Des Marais, Thomas L.; Lu, Kun; Liu, X. Shirley

    2017-01-01

    Background: Formaldehyde (FA) is an environmental and occupational chemical carcinogen. Recent studies have shown that exogenous FA causes only a modest increase in DNA adduct formation compared with the amount of adducts formed by endogenous FA, raising the possibility that epigenetic mechanisms may contribute to FA-mediated carcinogenicity. Objectives: We investigated the effects of FA exposure on histone modifications and chromatin assembly. We also examined the role of defective chromatin assembly in FA-mediated transcription and cell transformation. Methods: Cellular fractionation and Western blot analysis were used to measure the levels of histone modifications in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells and human nasal RPMI2650 cells in the presence of FA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digest assays were performed to examine the changes in chromatin assembly and accessibility after FA exposure. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to examine transcriptional dysregulation. Finally, anchorage-independent cell growth ability was tested by soft agar assay following FA exposure. Results: Exposure to FA dramatically decreased the acetylation of the N-terminal tails of cytosolic histones. These modifications are important for histone nuclear import and subsequent chromatin assembly. Histone proteins were depleted in both the chromatin fraction and at most of the genomic loci tested following FA exposure, suggesting that FA compromises chromatin assembly. Moreover, FA increased chromatin accessibility and altered the expression of hundreds of cancer-related genes. Knockdown of the histone H3.3 gene (an H3 variant), which mimics inhibition of chromatin assembly, facilitated FA-mediated anchorage-independent cell growth. Conclusions: We propose that the inhibition of chromatin assembly represents a novel mechanism of cell transformation induced by the environmental and occupational

  10. Exposure of farm laborers and dairy cattle to formaldehyde from footbath use at a dairy farm in New York State.

    PubMed

    Doane, M; Sarenbo, S

    2014-07-15

    Formalin footbaths are commonly used in the dairy industry to prevent cattle hoof diseases. Although formalin is a well-documented disinfectant, it is also a carcinogen and irritant. The aim of this study was to estimate the exposure of farm workers and dairy cattle to formaldehyde from footbaths located in a milking facility and a heifer facility at a dairy farm in western New York, USA. The dairy farm included approximately 3900 dairy cattle including young stock; of these, 1670 cows were milked three times per day in a 60-stall carousel milking parlor, and approximately 800 heifers were located at the heifer facility where footbaths with formalin were in use. The formaldehyde concentration of the air was measured using a Formaldemeter™ htV approximately 50cm above the 3% formalin footbaths in the milking (one footbath location) and heifer (three footbath locations) facilities on three consecutive days. The measured formaldehyde concentrations varied between 0.00 and 2.28ppm, falling within the safety guidelines established by the Occupation Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of the United States. Significant differences were found in the formaldehyde concentrations at the different footbath locations in the heifer facility, potentially due to the varying levels of ventilation at each location. Changes in the ambient temperature during the 3-day sampling period did not significantly affect the concentrations. We believe that the substantial ventilation at both the heifer and milking facilities ensured that the formaldehyde concentrations did not exceed OSHA guidelines, thus permitting the safe use of formalin footbaths in this farm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Occupational Surveillance for Spaceflight Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarver, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of longterm occupational health surveillance of astronauts after exposure to the possible hazards of spaceflight. Because there is not much information about long term effects of spaceflight on human health, it is important to identify some of the possible results of exposure to the many possible factors that can influence longterm health impacts. This surveillance also allows for NASA to meet the obligation to care for the astronauts for their lifetime.

  12. Identifying an indoor air exposure limit for formaldehyde considering both irritation and cancer hazards

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a well-studied chemical and effects from inhalation exposures have been extensively characterized in numerous controlled studies with human volunteers, including asthmatics and other sensitive individuals, which provide a rich database on exposure concentrations that can reliably produce the symptoms of sensory irritation. Although individuals can differ in their sensitivity to odor and eye irritation, the majority of authoritative reviews of the formaldehyde literature have concluded that an air concentration of 0.3 ppm will provide protection from eye irritation for virtually everyone. A weight of evidence-based formaldehyde exposure limit of 0.1 ppm (100 ppb) is recommended as an indoor air level for all individuals for odor detection and sensory irritation. It has recently been suggested by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the National Toxicology Program (NTP), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) that formaldehyde is causally associated with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) and leukemia. This has led US EPA to conclude that irritation is not the most sensitive toxic endpoint and that carcinogenicity should dictate how to establish exposure limits for formaldehyde. In this review, a number of lines of reasoning and substantial scientific evidence are described and discussed, which leads to a conclusion that neither point of contact nor systemic effects of any type, including NPC or leukemia, are causally associated with exposure to formaldehyde. This conclusion supports the view that the equivocal epidemiology studies that suggest otherwise are almost certainly flawed by identified or yet to be unidentified confounding variables. Thus, this assessment concludes that a formaldehyde indoor air limit of 0.1 ppm should protect even particularly susceptible individuals from both irritation effects and any potential cancer hazard. PMID:21635194

  13. Antibody production in rats after long-term exposure to formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Holmstroem, M.R.; Rynnel-Dagoeoe, B.Wi.; Wilhelmsson, B.

    1989-09-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were vaccinated with pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens and tetanus toxoid to evaluate the immunologic effects of long-term formaldehyde exposure. The antibody response to vaccination was measured 3 to 4 weeks later by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An IgG response to pneumococcal polysaccharides and to tetanus toxoid was found in both the formaldehyde-exposed group and a control group of rats not exposed to formaldehyde. The IgM response to tetanus toxoid was significant in both groups but neither group showed a significant IgM response to pneumococcal polysaccharides. There were thus no signs of impaired B-cell function in rats exposed to a highmore » concentration (12.6 ppm) of formaldehyde for nearly 2 years.« less

  14. Effects of a single inhalative exposure to formaldehyde on the open field behavior of mice.

    PubMed

    Malek, Fathi A; Möritz, Klaus-Uwe; Fanghänel, Jochen

    2004-02-01

    The effects of formaldehyde on the explorative behavior and locomotor activity of mice after a single inhalative exposure were examined in an open field. Adult male mice were exposed to approximately 1.1 ppm, 2.3 ppm, or 5.2 ppm formaldehyde vapour for 2 hours and the open field test was carried out two hours after the end of exposure (trial 1) and repeated 24 hours thereafter (trial 2). The following behavioral parameters were quantitatively examined: numbers of crossed floor squares (inner, peripheral, total), sniffing, grooming, rearing, climbing, and incidence of fecal boli. The results of the first trial revealed that the motion activity was significantly reduced in all exposed groups. In the 1.1 ppm group, the frequency of rearing was reduced and that of floor sniffing increased. The exposure to the two higher formaldehyde concentrations caused a significant decrease in total numbers of floor squares crossed by the subjects, air sniffing, and rearing. The open field test on the next day (trial 2) showed that the frequencies of floor sniffing, grooming, and rearing in all formaldehyde groups were significantly altered. In the 2.5 ppm group, an increased incidence of fecal boli was observed. From the results obtained, we conclude that the exposure of male mice to formaldehyde vapour affects their locomotor and explorative activity in the open field, and that some open field parameters are still altered in the exposed animals even after 24 hours.

  15. [Integrated use of data bases to map manufacturing processes involving exposure to carcinogens in the Piedmont Region: the example of formaldehyde].

    PubMed

    Falcone, U; Gilardi, Luisella; Pasqualini, O; Santoro, S; Coffano, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to carcinogens is still widespread in working environments. For the purpose of defining priority of interventions, it is necessary to estimate the number and the geographic distribution of workers potentially exposed to carcinogens. It could therefore be useful to test the use of tools and information sources already available in order to map the distribution of exposure to carcinogens. Formaldehyde is suggested as an example of an occupational carcinogen in this study. The study aimed at verifying and investigating the potential of 3 integrated databases: MATline, CAREX, and company databases resulting from occupational accident and disease claims (INAIL), in order to estimate the number of workers exposed to formaldehyde and map their distribution in the Piedmont Region. The list of manufacturing processes involving exposure to formaldehyde was sorted by MIATline; for each process the number of firms and employees were obtained from the INAIL archives. By applying the prevalence of exposed workers obtained with CAREX, an estimate of exposure for each process was determined. A map of the distribution of employees associated with a specific process was produced using ArcView GIS software. It was estimated that more than 13,000 employees are exposed to formaldehyde in the Piedmont Region. The manufacture of furniture was identified as the process with the highest number of workers exposed to formaldehyde (3,130),followed by metal workers (2,301 exposed) and synthetic resin processing (1,391 exposed). The results obtained from the integrated use of databases provide a basis for defining priority of preventive interventions required in the industrial processes involving exposure to carcinogens in the Piedmont Region.

  16. Occupational solvent exposure and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Sabbath, E.L.; Glymour, M.M.; Berr, C.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Zins, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Chronic occupational solvent exposure is associated with long-term cognitive deficits. Cognitive reserve may protect solvent-exposed workers from cognitive impairment. We tested whether the association between chronic solvent exposure and cognition varied by educational attainment, a proxy for cognitive reserve. Methods: Data were drawn from a prospective cohort of French national gas and electricity (GAZEL) employees (n = 4,134). Lifetime exposure to 4 solvent types (chlorinated solvents, petroleum solvents, benzene, and nonbenzene aromatic solvents) was assessed using a validated job-exposure matrix. Education was dichotomized at less than secondary school or below. Cognitive impairment was defined as scoring below the 25th percentile on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test at mean age 59 (SD 2.8; 88% of participants were retired at testing). Log-binomial regression was used to model risk ratios (RRs) for poor cognition as predicted by solvent exposure, stratified by education and adjusted for sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results: Solvent exposure rates were higher among less-educated patients. Within this group, there was a dose-response relationship between lifetime exposure to each solvent type and RR for poor cognition (e.g., for high exposure to benzene, RR = 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.09–1.41), with significant linear trends (p < 0.05) in 3 out of 4 solvent types. Recency of solvent exposure also predicted worse cognition among less-educated patients. Among those with secondary education or higher, there was no significant or near-significant relationship between any quantification of solvent exposure and cognition. Conclusions: Solvent exposure is associated with poor cognition only among less-educated individuals. Higher cognitive reserve in the more-educated group may explain this finding. PMID:22641403

  17. Community interest and feasibility of using a novel smartphone-based formaldehyde exposure detection technology.

    PubMed

    Castner, Jessica; Gehrke, Gretchen E; Shapiro, Nicholas; Dannemiller, Karen C

    2018-01-11

    This study is the first community engagement phase of a project to develop a residential formaldehyde detection system. The objectives were to conduct a feasibility assessment for device use, and identify factors associated with concerns about environmental exposure and community interest in this device. A cross-sectional, internet-based survey employing community-based participatory research principles was utilized. 147 individuals participated from a focused Waycross, Georgia (58.5%) and broader national sample (41.5%). Variables included acceptable cost and number of testing samples, interest in conducting tests, levels of concern over pollutants, health status, housing, and demographics. The majority of participants desired a system with fewer than 10 samples at ≤$15.00 per sample. Statistically significant higher levels of concern over air quality, formaldehyde exposure, and interest in testing formaldehyde were observed for those with overall worse health status and living in the Waycross, Georgia geographic region. Significant differences in formaldehyde testing interest were observed by health status (OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.12-0.81 for home testing) and geographic location (OR = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.22-8.14 for home and OR = 4.06, 95% CI = 1.48-11.12 for ambient testing) in multivariate models. Geographic location and poorer general health status were associated with concerns over and interest in formaldehyde testing. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Occupational exposure to glycol ethers: implications for occupational health nurses.

    PubMed

    Snow, J E

    1994-09-01

    1. Evaluation of workplace exposure to reproductive hazards is difficult and is often confounded by occupational exposure to multiple agents and exposure to non-occupational factors. 2. A growing body of evidence from animal and human study data supports a causal association between occupational exposure to certain glycol ethers and adverse reproductive outcomes. 3. Occupational health nurses providing services to employees exposed to glycol ethers should remain knowledgeable about the results of epidemiologic studies and current trends in the regulation of glycol ethers in industry. 4. Occupational health nurses are in a key position to reduce exposure to reproductive hazards by monitoring trends in group data and by implementing training and education programs to employees exposed to reproductive hazards.

  19. Occupational dermatoses from exposure to epoxy resin compounds in a ski factory.

    PubMed

    Jolanki, R; Tarvainen, K; Tatar, T; Estlander, T; Henriks-Eckerman, M L; Mustakallio, K K; Kanerva, L

    1996-06-01

    Of 22 workers in a ski factory, occupational allergic contact dermatitis was found in 8. 6 were sensitive to epoxy resin compounds, i.e., epoxy resins, hardeners or diluents, 1 to cobalt in glass-fiber reinforcements, and 1 to formaldehyde in a urea-formaldehyde glue and a lacquer. 4 workers had irritant contact dermatitis from epoxy resin compounds, lacquers, sanding dust, or glass-fiber dust. 3 had contact allergy from a new sensitizer, diethyleneglycol diglycidyl ether, in a reactive diluent. Immediate transfer of workers sensitized to epoxy resin from epoxy exposure prevents aggravation of their dermatitis and broadening of the sensitization to epoxy hardeners, diluents and other compounds.

  20. Water exposure--challenging differences between occupations.

    PubMed

    Meding, Birgitta; Anveden Berglind, Ingegärd; Alderling, Magnus; Lindahl, Gunborg; Wrangsjö, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have compared water exposure between different occupations in the general population. To investigate and compare the extent of occupational water exposure, with a focus on service, healthcare and production occupations previously classified as involving a high risk for hand eczema. In two public health surveys (2006 and 2010), a validated question regarding occupational water exposure was answered by 18 342 and 15,736 gainfully employed individuals, respectively. Exposure for ≥ 0.5 h/day was reported by 17.5% and 16.3% (p = 0.020) for the respective years, and exposure for > 2 h/day by 7.8% and 7.7% (p = 0.73). Exposure in women was almost twice as high as in men for both years (p ≤ 0.001) and exposure levels (p < 0.001). Exposure for > 2 h/day was more common in high-risk occupations in service and healthcare than in non-high-risk occupations [prevalence proportion ratios of 16.7 (95%CI: 14.0-20.0) and 8.3 (95%CI: 6.9-9.9), respectively]. Exposure was highest in service occupations, where 44.6% reported exposure for > 2 h/day in 2010, and kitchen work, cleaning and hairdressing dominated. In healthcare, the corresponding figure was 22.0%. Challenging differences in water exposure between occupational groups were found, and extensive water exposure was reported in a number of occupations previously classified as involving a high risk for hand eczema. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Risk of laryngeal cancer by occupational chemical exposure in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Elci, Omur Cinar; Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Blair, Aaron; Dosemeci, Mustafa

    2003-10-01

    Laryngeal cancer is the second most common cancer among men in Turkey. In this hospital based case-control study, we evaluated laryngeal cancer risks from occupational chemical exposures. We analyzed 940 laryngeal cancer cases and 1519 controls. Occupational history, tobacco, and alcohol use and demographic information were obtained by a questionnaire. The job and industries were classified by special seven-digit codes. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on a developed exposure matrix for chemicals, including diesel exhaust, gasoline exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), formaldehyde, and solvents. An excess of laryngeal cancer occurred with diesel exhaust (OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.3-1.9), gasoline exhaust (OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.3-2.0), and PAHs (OR=1.3, 95% CI=1.1-1.6). There was a dose-response relationship for these substances with supraglottic cancers (P<0.000). The PAH association only occurred among those who also had exposure to diesel exhaust.

  2. [Nanosilver--Occupational exposure limits].

    PubMed

    Świdwińska-Gajewska, Anna Maria; Czerczak, Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    Historically, nanosilver has been known as colloidal silver composed of particles with a size below 100 nm. Silver nanoparticles are used in many technologies, creating a wide range of products. Due to antibacterial properties nanosilver is used, among others, in medical devices (wound dressings), textiles (sport clothes, socks), plastics and building materials (paints). Colloidal silver is considered by many as an ideal agent in the fight against pathogenic microorganisms, unlike antibiotics, without side effects. However, in light of toxicological research, nanosilver is not inert to the body. The inhalation of silver nanoparticles have an adverse effect mainly on the liver and lung of rats. The oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species is responsible for the toxicity of nanoparticles, contributing to cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. The activity of the readily oxidized nanosilver surface underlies the molecular mechanism of toxicity. This leads to the release of silver ions, a known harmful agent. Occupational exposure to silver nanoparticles may occur in the process of its manufacture, formulation and also usage during spraying, in particular. In Poland, as well as in other countries of the world, there is no separate hygiene standards applicable to nanomaterials. The present study attempts to estimate the value of MAC-TWA (maximum admissible concentration--the time-weighted average) for silver--a nano-objects fraction, which amounted to 0.01 mg/m3. The authors are of the opinion that the current value of the MAC-TWA for silver metallic--inhalable fraction (0.05 mg/m3) does not provide sufficient protection against the harmful effects of silver in the form of nano-objects. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  3. Occupational exposure of aldehydes resulting from the storage of wood pellets.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Arifur; Rossner, Alan; Hopke, Philip K

    2017-06-01

    An exposure assessment was conducted to investigate the potential for harmful concentrations of airborne short chain aldehydes emitted from recently stored wood pellets. Wood pellets can emit a number of airborne aldehydes include acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, valeraldehyde, and hexanal. Exposure limits have been set for these compounds since they can result in significant irritation of the upper respiratory system at elevated concentrations. Formaldehyde is a recognized human carcinogen and acetaldehyde is an animal carcinogen. Thus, air sampling was performed in a wood pellet warehouse at a pellet mill, two residential homes with bulk wood pellet storage bins, and in controlled laboratory experiments to evaluate the risk to occupants. Using NIOSH method 2539, sampling was conducted in five locations in the warehouse from April-June 2016 when it contained varying quantities of bagged pellets as well as two homes with ten ton bulk storage bins. The aldehyde concentrations were found to increase with the amount of stored pellets. Airborne concentrations of formaldehyde were as high as 0.45 ppm in the warehouse exceeding the NIOSH REL-C, and ACGIH TLV-C occupational exposure limits (OELs). The concentrations of aldehydes measured in the residential bins were also elevated indicating emissions may raise indoor air quality concerns for occupants. While individual exposures are of concern the combined irritant effect of all the aldehydes is a further raise the concerns for building occupants. To minimize exposure and the risk of adverse health effects to a building's occupants in storage areas with large quantities of pellets, adequate ventilation must be designed into storage areas.

  4. Exposure to potential occupational asthmogens: prevalence data from the National Occupational Exposure Survey.

    PubMed

    de la Hoz, R E; Young, R O; Pedersen, D H

    1997-02-01

    Few data are available about the prevalence of occupational exposures to agents which can cause occupational asthma or aggravate preexisting asthma (asthmogens). Using potential occupational exposure data from the National Occupational Exposure Survey (NOES) of 1980-1983, we investigated the number of asthmogen exposures, asthmogen-exposure(s) per production worker, and unprotected occupational asthmogen exposures in different industries and occupations. Data for the entire United States were used to generate estimates of occupational exposure at two selected state and local levels. It was estimated that 7,864,000 workers in the surveyed industries were potentially exposed to one or more occupational asthmogen(s) in the United States. The average number of observed potential exposures per asthmogen-exposed worker was 4.4, and varied from 11.9, in the Water Transportation industry, to 1.2 in Local and Suburban transportation. The largest number of observed potential exposures was recorded in the Apparel and Other Finished Products (garment) industry. This work and further analyses using this approach are expected to contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology of occupational asthma, and to serve as a guide to target future occupational asthma surveillance efforts.

  5. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  6. Occupational exposure associated with reproductive dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil

    2004-01-01

    Evidence suggestive of harmful effects of occupational exposure on the reproductive system and related outcomes has gradually accumulated in recent decades, and is further compounded by persistent environmental endocrine disruptive chemicals. These chemicals have been found to interfere with the function of the endocrine system, which is responsible for growth, sexual development and many other essential physiological functions. A number of occupations are being reported to be associated with reproductive dysfunction in males as well as in females. Generally, occupations involving the manufacture/or application of some of the persistent chemicals that are not easily degradable as well as bio-accumulative chemicals, occupations involving intensive exposure to heat and radiation, occupations involving the use of toxic solvents as well as toxic fumes are reported to be associated with reproductive dysfunction. Occupational exposure of males to various persistent chemicals have been reported to have male mediated adverse reproductive outcomes in the form of abortion, reduction in fertility etc. with inconclusive or limited evidence. Nevertheless, there is a need for more well designed studies in order to implicate any individual chemical having such effects as in most occupations workers are exposed to raw, intermediate and finished products and there are also several confounding factors associated with lifestyles responsible for reproductive dysfunction. There is an urgent need to look at indiscriminate use of persistent chemicals especially pesticides and persistent organic pollutants (POP's) as these chemicals enter the food chain also and could be potential for exposure during the critical period of development. It is also necessary to impart information, and to educate about the safe use of these chemicals, as a very sensitive reproduction issue is involved with exposure to these chemicals. Occupational exposures often are higher than environmental exposures, so

  7. Formaldehyde gas exposure increases inflammation in an in vitro model of dry eye.

    PubMed

    Vitoux, Michael-Adrien; Kessal, Karima; Baudouin, Christophe; Melik Parsadaniantz, Stéphane; Achard, Sophie; Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise

    2018-05-31

    Dry eye (DE) is a multifactorial ocular surface disease whose incidence continues to rise. Various environmental stresses such as low air humidity and pollution are known to be involved in epithelial alterations inducing ocular discomfort. However, no experimental study assessing the combined effects of dry air and polluted atmospheres has been conducted so far. Formaldehyde (FA) is a ubiquitous pollutant present in the living spaces where humans spend most of their time. Using an in vitro DE model, we evaluated the cytotoxic and inflammatory responses of a conjunctival cell line exposed at the air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions to various controlled atmospheres combining low humidity (LH), airflow (AF) and formaldehyde gas (FG). Conjunctiva-derived cells grown onto transwell inserts were directly exposed to LH conditions without AF, with AF or with FG flow at 100 or 1200 µg/m3 for 15-30 min. Cell viability assays revealed an increase in cell death after a 15-min exposure to FG at 100 or 1200 µg/m3, whatever the recovery period. After a 1-h recovery period, an increase in IL-6 and CXCL8/IL-8 gene expression was observed with the 15-min exposure at 100 µg/m3 FG and with 30 min of exposure at 1200 µg/m3 FG. After 24 h of recovery, we also noted increased secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine MIF with 100 µg/m3 FG exposure and CXCL8/IL-8 at 1200 µg/m3, for both exposure periods. Together, these findings suggest that the exposure to FG at environmental levels aggravates cell death and inflammation observed in dry air conditions. This in vitro model of DE seems to be a relevant tool to study and explain the inflammatory responses observed in dry eye patients when exposed to combined environmental disturbances such as low humidity, airflow, and the presence of airborne pollutants.

  8. Paternal occupational exposures and childhood cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Feychting, M; Plato, N; Nise, G; Ahlbom, A

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the study described here was to test the hypothesis that paternal occupational exposure near conception increases the risk of cancer in the offspring. We conducted a cohort study based on a population of 235,635 children born shortly after two different censuses in Sweden. The children were followed from birth to 14 years, and cases of cancer were identified in the Swedish Cancer Registry. Occupational hygienists assessed the probability of exposure to different agents in each combination of the father's industry and occupation as reported in the censuses. We also analyzed individual job titles. We compared the cancer incidence among children of exposed fathers to that among children of unexposed fathers using Cox proportional hazards modeling. The main findings were an increased risk of nervous system tumors related to paternal occupational exposure to pesticides [relative risk (RR) = 2.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.27-4.39] and work as a painter (RR = 3.65; 95% CI, 1.71-7.80), and an increased risk of leukemia related to wood work by fathers (RR = 2.18; 95% CI, 1.26-3.78). We found no associations between childhood leukemia and paternal exposure to pesticides or paint. Our results support previous findings of an increased risk of childhood brain tumors and leukemia associated with certain paternal occupational exposures. Some findings in previous studies were not confirmed in this study. PMID:11266332

  9. Occupational exposure and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a multifactorial disease and the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women. Traditional risk factors for breast cancer include reproductive status, genetic mutations, family history and lifestyle. However, increasing evidence has identified an association between breast cancer and occupational factors, including environmental stimuli. Epidemiological and experimental studies demonstrated that ionizing and non-ionizing radiation exposure, night-shift work, pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals are defined environmental factors for breast cancer, particularly at young ages. However, the mechanisms by which occupational factors can promote breast cancer initiation and progression remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the evaluation of occupational factors for breast cancer, particularly in the workplace, also remains to be explained. The present review summarizes the occupational risk factors and the associated mechanisms involved in breast cancer development, in order to highlight new environmental exposures that could be correlated to breast cancer and to provide new insights for breast cancer prevention in the occupational settings. Furthermore, this review suggests that there is a requirement to include, through multidisciplinary approaches, different occupational exposure risks among those associated with breast cancer development. Finally, the design of new epigenetic biomarkers may be useful to identify the workers that are more susceptible to develop breast cancer. PMID:26998264

  10. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde exposure mitigation in US residences: In-home measurements of ventilation control and source control

    SciTech Connect

    Hult, Erin L.; Willem, Henry; Price, Phillip N.

    2014-10-01

    Measurements were taken in new US residences to assess the extent to which ventilation and source control can mitigate formaldehyde exposure. Increasing ventilation consistently lowered indoor formaldehyde concentrations. However, at a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h -1, increasing ventilation was up to 60% less effective than would be predicted if the emission rate were constant. This is consistent with formaldehyde emission rates decreasing as air concentrations increase, as observed in chamber studies. In contrast, measurements suggest acetaldehyde emission was independent of ventilation rate. To evaluate the effectiveness of source control, formaldehyde concentrations were measured in Leadership in Energymore » and Environmental Design (LEED) certified/Indoor airPLUS homes constructed with materials certified to have low emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOC). At a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h -1, and adjusting for home age, temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde concentrations in homes built with low-VOC materials were 42% lower on average than in reference new homes with conventional building materials. Without adjustment, concentrations were 27% lower in the low-VOC homes. The mean and standard deviation of formaldehyde concentration were 33 μg m-3 and 22 μg m -3 for low-VOC homes and 45 μg m -3 and 30 μg m -3 for conventional.« less

  11. Psychiatric epidemiologic study of occupational lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, D.K.; Ryan, C.; Bromet, E.J.

    1986-02-01

    The association of occupational lead exposure with neuropsychiatric functioning was evaluated using data collected in 1982 in eastern Pennsylvania from 288 lead-exposed workers and 181 nonexposed subjects. Both current and cumulative exposure indices were used. After controlling for age, education, and income, few meaningful differences between exposed and control workers were found on either neuropsychologic or psychosocial variables. Dose-response analyses indicated that among lead-exposed workers, cumulative and current exposure were unrelated to neuropsychologic performance. The only meaningful associations occurred between exposure and level of conflict in interpersonal relationships. The results thus give evidence against hypotheses suggesting adverse neuropsychologic effects.

  12. Occupational exposure in dentistry and miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Ylöstalo, Pekka; Sallmén, Markku; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Nurminen, Tuula; Forss, Helena; Taskinen, Helena

    2007-02-01

    Information on the reproductive effects of chemical exposures in dental work is sparse or inconsistent. To investigate whether dental workers exposed to acrylate compounds, mercury amalgam, solvents or disinfectants are at an increased risk of miscarriage. The study was conducted among women dental workers and a comparison group of workers occupationally unexposed to dental restorative materials. Information on pregnancies was obtained from national registers and outpatient units of hospitals. Data on occupational exposure were obtained using postal questionnaires. The final study population included 222 cases of miscarriage and 498 controls (births). An occupational hygienist assessed exposure to acrylate compounds, disinfectants and solvents. Exposure to other agents was assessed on the basis of the questionnaire data. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. The ORs adjusted for confounding factors were increased for moderate-exposure and high-exposure categories of mercury amalgam (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0 to 4.1 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.6 to 2.5, respectively). The risk was slightly increased for the highest-exposure category of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.7 to 2.6) and polymethylmethacrylate dust (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.8 to 2.4). A slightly increased risk was also detected for likely exposure to organic solvents (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.8 to 2.3) and disinfectants (OR 1.5, 95% CI 0.9 to 2.7). No strong association or consistent dose-response relationship was observed between exposure to chemical agents in dental work and the risk of miscarriage. A slightly increased risk was found for exposure to mercury amalgam, some acrylate compounds, solvents and disinfectants. These findings indicate that the possibility of a weak association between exposure to these agents and an increased risk of miscarriage cannot be excluded.

  13. Determination of formaldehyde levels in 100 furniture workshops in Ankara.

    PubMed

    Vaizoğlu, Songül Acar; Aycan, Sefer; Akin, Levent; Koçdor, Pelin; Pamukçu, Gül; Muhsinoğlu, Orkun; Ozer, Feyza; Evci, E Didem; Güler, Cağatay

    2005-10-01

    One of the airborne pollutants in wood products industry is formaldehyde, which may pose some health effects. Therefore this study is conducted to determine formaldehyde levels in 100 furniture-manufacturing workshops in Ankara and also to determine the symptoms, which may be related with formaldehyde exposure among the workers. Indoor formaldehyde levels ranged from 0.02 ppm to 2.22 ppm with a mean of 0.6 +/- 0.3 ppm. Outdoor formaldehyde levels also ranged from 0.0 ppm to 0.08 ppm with a mean of 0.03 +/- 0.03 ppm. Formaldehyde levels were higher in workplaces located at basement than in workplaces located at or above ground level (p < 0.01). An association was found between indoor formaldehyde levels and the types of fuel used (p < 0.05). The levels were higher in workplaces where only sawdust was used for heating, than in workplaces where wood, coal, and sawdust are used (p = 0.02). An association was found between runny nose and indoor formaldehyde levels (p = 0.03). Formaldehyde levels were lower in workplaces where employees had no symptoms than in those where employees had 4 or more symptoms (p = 0.02). Of 229 employees 57 subjects (24.9%) work under the formaldehyde levels of 0.75 ppm and above. Thus, approximately one fourth of the employees in workplaces are working in environments with formaldehyde levels exceeding those permitted by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The employees working in small-scale furniture workshops are at risk of formaldehyde exposure. Measures, such as improved ventilation, have to be taken in these workplaces, in order to decrease the formaldehyde levels.

  14. MINIMIZING OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO PESTICIDES: PERSONNEL MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This communication is presented with two objectives in mind. The first objective is to provide an introduction to personnel monitoring of occupational exposure to pesticides for those who are not familiar with this field of investigation. The second objective is to stimulate disc...

  15. Parental Occupational Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCanlies, Erin C.; Fekedulegn, Desta; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Sanderson, Wayne T.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2012-01-01

    Both self-report and industrial hygienist (IH) assessed parental occupational information were used in this pilot study in which 174 families (93 children with ASD and 81 unaffected children) enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment study participated. IH results indicated exposures to lacquer, varnish, and xylene…

  16. Human occupational and nonoccupational exposure to fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Esmen, N A; Erdal, S

    1990-01-01

    Human exposure to fibers in occupational and nonoccupational environments has been a health concern for nearly a century. In this review, selected results from the literature are presented to highlight the availability, limitations, and interpretive difficulties associated with the past and current human fiber exposure data sets. In the traditionally defined asbestos fibers, large amounts of the data available suffer from the diversity of sample collection and analysis methods. Two simple generalizations suggest that occupational exposures are several orders of magnitude higher than that of environmental exposures; and currently extant data and the current routine measurement practices present significant difficulties in the consistent interpretation of the data with respect to health effects. The data on the human exposures to man-made vitreous fibers are much more complete than the data on asbestos exposure, while exposure data on other man-made fibrous materials are lacking. The human exposure data to many minerals which, at times, exist in fibrous habit, are very scanty, and in view of the biological activity of some of these fibers, this lack may be of significant concern. PMID:2272324

  17. Formaldehyde and co-exposure with benzene induce compensation of bone marrow and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in BALB/c mice during post-exposure period

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Chenxi

    Formaldehyde (FA) is a human leukemogen. Since there is a latency period between initial FA exposure and the development of leukemia, the subsequent impact of FA on hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs) in post-exposure stage is crucial for a deep understanding of FA-induced hematotoxicity. BALB/c mice were exposed to 3 mg/m{sup 3} FA for 2 weeks, mimicking occupational exposure, and were monitored for another 7 days post-exposure. Meanwhile, we included benzene (BZ) as a positive control, separately and together with FA because co-exposure occurs frequently. After 7-day recovery, colonies of progenitors for CFU-GM and BFU-E, and nucleated bone marrowmore » cells in FA-exposed mice were comparable to controls, although they were significantly reduced during exposure. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in CFU-GM and BFU-E from FA-exposed mice were higher than controls, although the increase in 8-OHdG was not significant. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) level in the FA group was lower than controls, but the expression level for the receptor was not upregulated. It suggests that HSCs/HPCs in FA-exposed mice respond to a small amount of GM-CSF and proliferate rapidly, which may cause a possible risk of expansion of abnormal stem/progenitor cell clones. FA co-exposure with BZ was more potent for promoting CFU-GM formation and inducing ROS in BFU-E and 8-OHdG in CFU-GM during the post-exposure period. The compensation of myeloid progenitors with elevated ROS and 8-OHdG may lead to a risk of transforming normal HSCs/HPCs to leukemic stem/progenitor cells. Thus, co-exposure may pose a greater leukemia risk. - Highlights: • Nucleated bone marrow cell count recovered after 7 days post-FA and/or BZ exposure. • CFU-GM showed an increase in colonies and 8-OHdG after 7 days post-FA + BZ exposure. • Levels of ROS in CFU-GM and BFU-E were increased by FA or FA + BZ during recovery.

  18. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides With Occupational Sun Exposure Increases the Risk for Cutaneous Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Cristina; Mastroeni, Simona; Segatto M, Marjorie; Hohmann, Clarissa; Miligi, Lucia; Bakos, Lucio; Bonamigo, Renan

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the association between occupational exposure to pesticides and cutaneous melanoma, controlling for all possible confounders. A pooled analysis of two case-control studies was conducted in two different geographic areas (Italy and Brazil). Detailed pesticides exposure histories were obtained. Ever use of any pesticide was associated with a high risk of cutaneous melanoma (odds ratio 2.58; 95% confidence interval 1.18-5.65) in particular exposure to herbicides (glyphosate) and fungicides (mancozeb, maneb), after controlling for confounding factors. When subjects were exposed to both pesticides and occupational sun exposure, the risk increased even more (odds ratio 4.68; 95% confidence interval 1.29-17.0). The study suggests an augmented risk of cutaneous melanoma among subjects with exposure to pesticides, in particular among those exposed to occupational sun exposure.

  19. Visits to physicians before and after exposure to urea formaldehyde foam insulation.

    PubMed Central

    L'Abbé, K A; Hoey, J R; Hanley, J; Wacholder, S; Nantel, A

    1988-01-01

    The average number of visits to a physician made by a sample of 351 residents of homes insulated with urea formaldehyde foam insulation in Montreal in the one year period before exposure was 5.25, and in the year following 5.62, an increase of 7 per cent (odds ratio 1.07, 95% CI = 1.00, 1.15). The increase in visits in the post insulation year was limited to subjects who had the product installed in the winter (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.18,1.85), and was not seen for study subjects who insulated their homes during other seasons of the year. PMID:3177730

  20. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Mamane, Ali; Baldi, Isabelle; Tessier, Jean-François; Raherison, Chantal; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three) and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two) were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  1. Chemical exposures in recently renovated low-income housing: Influence of building materials and occupant activities.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Robin E; Udesky, Julia O; Colton, Meryl D; McCauley, Martha; Camann, David E; Yau, Alice Y; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Rudel, Ruthann A

    2017-12-01

    Health disparities in low-income communities may be linked to residential exposures to chemicals infiltrating from the outdoors and characteristics of and sources in the home. Indoor sources comprise those introduced by the occupant as well as releases from building materials. To examine the impact of renovation on indoor pollutants levels and to classify chemicals by predominant indoor sources, we collected indoor air and surface wipes from newly renovated "green" low-income housing units in Boston before and after occupancy. We targeted nearly 100 semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including phthalates, flame retardants, fragrance chemicals, pesticides, antimicrobials, petroleum chemicals, chlorinated solvents, and formaldehyde, as well as particulate matter. All homes had indoor air concentrations that exceeded available risk-based screening levels for at least one chemical. We categorized chemicals as primarily influenced by the occupant or as having building-related sources. While building-related chemicals observed in this study may be specific to the particular housing development, occupant-related findings might be generalizable to similar communities. Among 58 detected chemicals, we distinguished 25 as primarily occupant-related, including fragrance chemicals 6-acetyl-1,1,2,4,4,7-hexamethyltetralin (AHTN) and 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyran (HHCB). The pre- to post-occupancy patterns of the remaining chemicals suggested important contributions from building materials for some, including dibutyl phthalate and xylene, whereas others, such as diethyl phthalate and formaldehyde, appeared to have both building and occupant sources. Chemical classification by source informs multi-level exposure reduction strategies in low-income housing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Occupational exposure assessment of highway toll station workers to vehicle engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Belloc-Santaliestra, Miriam; van der Haar, Rudolf; Molinero-Ruiz, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Toll station workers are occupationally exposed to vehicle engine exhaust, a complex mixture of different chemical substances, including carcinogenic compounds. Therefore, a study was carried out on attendants of two highway toll stations to describe their occupational exposure to vehicle engine exhaust, based on a worst-case scenario approach. Personal sampling was conducted during the day shift for all attendants, testing for three groups of chemical substances: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes (formaldehyde and acrolein). Concentrations of total PAH, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and formaldehyde content varied between 97.60-336.08 ng/m3, 5.01-40.52 μg/m3, and 0.06-19.13 μg/m3, respectively. No clear relationships could be established between exposure levels and the number of vehicles. Furthermore, no differences were found between truck versus car lanes, or inside versus outside the tollbooth. Not all the detected VOCs were related to vehicle exhaust; some were consistent with the use of cleaning products. The measured concentrations were far below the established occupational exposure limits, but tended to be higher than values reported for outdoor urban environments. There are very few international studies assessing occupational exposures among toll station workers, and this is the first such study to be conducted in Spain. The results suggest that further, more detailed studies are necessary to characterize exposure properly, and ones which include other airborne pollutants, such as ultrafine particles. The comparison of the results to other similar studies was difficult, since no data related to some important exposure determinants have been provided. Therefore, it is recommended that these determinants be considered in future studies.

  3. Effects of occupational lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y L; Lu, P K; Chen, Z Q; Liang, Y X; Lu, Q M; Pan, Z Q; Shao, M

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-three workers in a battery factory, 52 solderers in a television factory, and 50 embroidery workers (a reference group) were studied. The average air lead levels of the three workplaces were 0.578 mg/m3, 0.002 mg/m3, and 0.001 mg/m3, respectively. Adverse effects in terms of clinical manifestations and biochemical criteria were evident among the battery factory workers. A significant dose-response relationship existed between the toxic effects and the air lead levels. The solderers showed no apparent abnormalities in comparison with the embroidery workers. The early clinical manifestations were dysfunction of the central nervous system, indigestion, arthralgia, and myalgia in the extremities. A positive association was observed between the prevalence of fatigue, mild abdominal pain, and arthralgia and the blood lead (PbB), urinary lead (PbU), and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels. The symptomatic threshold values of PbB, PbU, and ZPP were 30 micrograms/dl (1.5 mumol/l), 0.045 mg/l (0.2 mumol/l), and 40 micrograms/dl (0.7 mumol/l), respectively. The PbB, PbU, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and ZPP levels and the blood aminolevulinic dehydratase ratio could be used as indicators of lead exposure, although ZPP is preferred for a preventive monitoring program. The motor and sensory conduction velocities of the median nerve were slower in the exposed groups than in the reference group. No effects on behavioral function were observed among the solderers.

  4. Estimating occupational exposure to carcinogens in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Labrèche, France; Duguay, Patrice; Ostiguy, Claude; Boucher, Alexandre; Roberge, Brigitte; Peters, Cheryl E; Demers, Paul A

    2013-09-01

    We estimated the extent of exposure to occupational carcinogens in Quebec, Canada, to help raise awareness of occupational cancers. Proportions of workers exposed to 21 recognized and 17 probable carcinogens (according to Quebec occupational health regulation and the International Agency for Research on Cancer [IARC] classification) were extracted from various sources: workplace monitoring data, research projects, a population survey, radiation protection data, exposure estimates from the Carcinogen Exposure Canada (CAREX Canada) Project database, and published exposure data. These proportions were applied to Quebec labor force data. Among the 38 studied, carcinogens with the largest proportions of exposed workers were solar radiation (6.6% of workers), night shift work/rotating shift work including nights (6.0%), diesel exhaust fumes (4.4%), wood dust (2.9%) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (2.0%). More than 15 carcinogens were identified in several industrial sectors, and up to 100,000 young workers are employed in these sectors. Although crude, estimates obtained with different data sources allow identification of research and intervention priorities for cancer in Quebec. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Occupational exposure and ovarian cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Le, Nhu D; Leung, Andy; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Gallagher, Richard P; Swenerton, Kenneth D; Demers, Paul A; Cook, Linda S

    2014-07-01

    Relatively little work has been done concerning occupational risk factors in ovarian cancer. Although studies conducted in occupational settings have reported positive associations, their usefulness is generally limited by the lack of information on important confounders. In a population-based case-control study, we assessed risk for developing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) associated with occupational exposure while accounting for important confounders. Participants were identified through provincial population-based registries. Lifetime occupational history and information on potential confounding factors were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression and the likelihood ratio test were used to assess EOC risk with each occupation (or industry), relative to all other occupations (or industries), adjusting for potential confounders including body mass index, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy, parity, age at first childbirth, age at menarche, age at menopause, family history of breast and ovarian cancer in mother and sister(s), tubal ligation, partial oophorectomy, and hysterectomy. Occupations and industries were coded according to the Canadian Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) and Standard Industrial Classification (SIC). Significant excess risk was observed for several groups of teaching occupations, including SOC 27, teaching and related (adjusted OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.15-2.81) and SOC 279, other teaching and related (adjusted OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.35-8.49). Significant excess was also seen for a four-digit occupational group SOC 4131, bookkeepers and accounting clerks (adjusted OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.30-6.80). Industrial sub-groups showing significant excess risk included SIC 65, other retail stores (adjusted OR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.16-4.38); SIC 85, educational service (adjusted OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.00-2.13); and SIC 863, non-institutional health services (adjusted OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.13-6.52). Our study found

  6. Occupational Exposure to Beryllium. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2017-01-09

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is amending its existing standards for occupational exposure to beryllium and beryllium compounds. OSHA has determined that employees exposed to beryllium at the previous permissible exposure limits face a significant risk of material impairment to their health. The evidence in the record for this rulemaking indicates that workers exposed to beryllium are at increased risk of developing chronic beryllium disease and lung cancer. This final rule establishes new permissible exposure limits of 0.2 micrograms of beryllium per cubic meter of air (0.2 [mu]g/m\\3\\) as an 8-hour time-weighted average and 2.0 [mu]g/m\\3\\ as a short-term exposure limit determined over a sampling period of 15 minutes. It also includes other provisions to protect employees, such as requirements for exposure assessment, methods for controlling exposure, respiratory protection, personal protective clothing and equipment, housekeeping, medical surveillance, hazard communication, and recordkeeping. OSHA is issuing three separate standards--for general industry, for shipyards, and for construction--in order to tailor requirements to the circumstances found in these sectors.

  7. Monitoring occupational exposure to cancer chemotherapy drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, E. S.; Connor, T. H.

    1996-01-01

    Reports of the health effects of handling cytotoxic drugs and compliance with guidelines for handling these agents are briefly reviewed, and studies using analytical and biological methods of detecting exposure are evaluated. There is little conclusive evidence of detrimental health effects from occupational exposure to cytotoxic drugs. Work practices have improved since the issuance of guidelines for handling these drugs, but compliance with the recommended practices is still inadequate. Of 64 reports published since 1979 on studies of workers' exposure to these drugs, 53 involved studies of changes in cellular or molecular endpoints (biological markers) and 12 described chemical analyses of drugs or their metabolites in urine (2 involved both, and 2 reported the same study). The primary biological markers used were urine mutagenicity, sister chromatid exchange, and chromosomal aberrations; other studies involved formation of micronuclei and measurements of urinary thioethers. The studies had small sample sizes, and the methods were qualitative, nonspecific, subject to many confounders, and possibly not sensitive enough to detect most occupational exposures. Since none of the currently available biological and analytical methods is sufficiently reliable or reproducible for routine monitoring of exposure in the workplace, further studies using these methods are not recommended; efforts should focus instead on wide-spread implementation of improved practices for handling cytotoxic drugs.

  8. Bladder cancer and occupational exposure to leather.

    PubMed Central

    Marrett, L D; Hartge, P; Meigs, J W

    1986-01-01

    A large case-control study of bladder cancer (2982 cases; 5782 controls) included information about occupational exposure to leather. Occupational histories of exposed white study subjects were reviewed and 150 were determined to have had "true" on the job exposure to leather. The odds ratio estimate (OR) of bladder cancer associated with such exposure in white subjects (n = 8063) was 1.4 (95% confidence limits = 1.0, 1.9) after adjustment for sex, age, and cigarette smoking. The risk was highest in those first employed in a leather job before 1945, although no dose-response relation with duration of leather employment was found. Subjects employed in "dusty" leather jobs had a slightly higher risk than those with other types of leather jobs. Our results are consistent with reports of an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with exposure to leather. Although the agents responsible have not been identified, our findings of an increased risk associated with exposure in the earlier years of this century and in dusty jobs suggest that leather dusts may be important. PMID:3947575

  9. Formaldehyde Exposure and Lower Respiratory Infections in Infants: Findings from the PARIS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Roda, Célina; Kousignian, Isabelle; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal; Dassonville, Claire; Nicolis, Ioannis; Just, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    Background: Certain chemical pollutants can exacerbate lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs), a common childhood ailment. Although formaldehyde (FA) is one of the most common air pollutants found in indoor environments, its impact on infant health is uncertain. Objective: Our aim was to determine the impact of FA exposure on the LRI incidence during the first year of life of infants from the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) birth cohort. Methods: FA was measured in a random sample of 196 infants’ dwellings, and exposure to this pollutant was estimated for 2,940 infants using predictive models based on measurements and data about potential determinants of FA levels. Health data were collected from parents by regular self-administered questionnaires. We used multivariate logistic regressions to estimate associations between FA exposure and the occurrence of LRI and wheezy LRI (wLRI), adjusting for potential confounders/risk factors. Results: During the first year of life, 45.8% of infants had at least one LRI, and LRI occurred simultaneously with wheezing in 48.7% of cases. The FA predictive models correctly classified 70% of dwellings as having high or low exposure, and we estimated that 43.3% of infants were exposed throughout the first year to levels of FA > 19.5 µg/m3. FA exposure was significantly associated with LRI and wLRI before and after adjustment for known LRI risk factors/confounders. For an interquartile increase in FA levels (12.4 μg/m3), we estimated a 32% [95% confidence interval (CI): 11, 55] and 41% (95% CI: 14, 74) increase in the incidence of LRI and wLRI, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that infants exposed to FA at an early age have an increased incidence of LRI. PMID:21810553

  10. Formaldehyde exposure and lower respiratory infections in infants: findings from the PARIS cohort study.

    PubMed

    Roda, Célina; Kousignian, Isabelle; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal; Dassonville, Claire; Nicolis, Ioannis; Just, Jocelyne; Momas, Isabelle

    2011-11-01

    Certain chemical pollutants can exacerbate lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs), a common childhood ailment. Although formaldehyde (FA) is one of the most common air pollutants found in indoor environments, its impact on infant health is uncertain. Our aim was to determine the impact of FA exposure on the LRI incidence during the first year of life of infants from the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) birth cohort. FA was measured in a random sample of 196 infants' dwellings, and exposure to this pollutant was estimated for 2,940 infants using predictive models based on measurements and data about potential determinants of FA levels. Health data were collected from parents by regular self-administered questionnaires. We used multivariate logistic regressions to estimate associations between FA exposure and the occurrence of LRI and wheezy LRI (wLRI), adjusting for potential confounders/risk factors. During the first year of life, 45.8% of infants had at least one LRI, and LRI occurred simultaneously with wheezing in 48.7% of cases. The FA predictive models correctly classified 70% of dwellings as having high or low exposure, and we estimated that 43.3% of infants were exposed throughout the first year to levels of FA > 19.5 µg/m3. FA exposure was significantly associated with LRI and wLRI before and after adjustment for known LRI risk factors/confounders. For an interquartile increase in FA levels (12.4 μg/m3), we estimated a 32% [95% confidence interval (CI): 11, 55] and 41% (95% CI: 14, 74) increase in the incidence of LRI and wLRI, respectively. The findings of this study suggest that infants exposed to FA at an early age have an increased incidence of LRI.

  11. Undeclared Formaldehyde Levels in Patient Consumer Products: Formaldehyde Test Kit Utility.

    PubMed

    Ham, Jason E; Siegel, Paul; Maibach, Howard

    2018-05-03

    Formaldehyde allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) may be due to products with free formaldehyde or formaldehyde-releasing agents, however, assessment of formaldehyde levels in such products is infrequently conducted. The present study quantifies total releasable formaldehyde from "in-use" products associated with formaldehyde ACD and tests the utility of commercially available formaldehyde spot test kits. Personal care products from 2 patients with ACD to formaldehyde were initially screened at the clinic for formaldehyde using a formaldehyde spot test kit. Formaldehyde positive products were sent to the laboratory for confirmation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In addition, 4 formaldehyde spot test kits were evaluated for potential utility in a clinical setting. Nine of the 10 formaldehyde spot test kit positive products obtained from formaldehyde allergic patients had formaldehyde with total releasable formaldehyde levels ranging from 5.4 to 269.4 µg/g. Of these, only 2 shampoos tested listed a formaldehyde-releasing agent in the ingredients or product literature. Subsequently, commercially available formaldehyde spot test kits were evaluated in the laboratory for ability to identify formaldehyde in personal care products. Chemical based formaldehyde spot test were more reliable than the enzymatic based test in identifying product releasable formaldehyde content. It is concluded that product labeled ingredient lists and available information are often inadequate to confirm the potential for formaldehyde exposure and chemical based spot test kits may have utility for identification of potential formaldehyde exposure from personal care products.

  12. Vitamin E Reversed Apoptosis of Cardiomyocytes Induced by Exposure to High Dose Formaldehyde During Mice Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dongyuan; Jiang, Zhirong; Gong, Bing; Dou, Yue; Song, Mingxuan; Song, Xiaoxia; Tian, Yu

    2017-10-21

    In this study, we investigated the protection effect of Vitamin E (Vit E) on formaldehyde (FA) exposure during pregnancy induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, and used an HL-1 cell line to confirmed the findings in vivo.Pregnant mice received different doses of FA (0.5 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg, 0.1 μg Vit E, or 1.5 mg/kg + 0.1 μg Vit E). TUNEL staining was used to reveal the apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, and SOD, MDA, GSH, Livin, and Caspase-3 in cardiomyocytes were detected by ELISA, RT-PCR, and Western blot. For in vitro study, HL-1 cells were treated with vehicle, 5 μmol/L FA, 25 μmol/L FA, 50 μmol/L FA, 10 mg/L Vit. E, and 50 μmol/L FA+ 10 mg/L Vit E, respectively. CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry were used to evaluate cell vitality and apoptosis. A high dose of FA exposure led to cytotoxicity in both pregnant mice and offspring, as TUNEL staining revealed a significant apoptosis of cardiomyocytes, and the alternation in SOD, GSH, MDA, Livin, and Caspase-3 was found in cardiomyocytes. 0.1 μg Vit. E could reverse high doses of FA exposure induced apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in both pregnant mice and offspring. The in vitro study revealed that FA exposure induced a decrease of cell viability and increased cell apoptosis, as well as oxidative stress in HL-1 cells with alternation in SOD, GSH, MDA, Livin, and Caspase-3.This study revealed a high dose of FA induced oxidative stress and apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in both pregnant mice and offspring, and Vit E supplement during pregnancy reversed the systemic and myocardial toxicity of FA.

  13. Occupational lead exposure aboard a tall ship.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, P J; Straub, W E

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate occupational exposures to lead in shipfitters cutting and riveting lead-painted iron plates aboard an iron-hulled sailing vessel, we conducted an environmental and medical survey. Lead exposures in seven personal (breathing zone) air samples ranged from 108 to 500 micrograms/m3 (mean 257 micrograms/m3); all were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard of 50 micrograms/m3. In two short-term air samples obtained while exhaust ventilation was temporarily disconnected, mean lead exposure rose to 547 micrograms/m3. Blood lead levels in ten shipfitters ranged from 25 to 53 micrograms/dl (mean, 37.8 micrograms/dl); levels in three of these workers exceeded the upper normal limit of 40 micrograms/dl. Blood lead levels in shipfitters were significantly higher than in other shipyard workers (mean 10.0 micrograms/dl; p less than 0.001). Smoking shipfitters (mean, 47 micrograms/dl) had significantly higher lead levels than nonsmokers (mean, 32 micrograms/dl; p = 0.03). Lead levels in shipfitters who wore respirators were not lower than in those who wore no protective gear (p = 0.68). Four shipfitters had erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) concentrations above the adult upper normal limit of 50 micrograms/dl. A close correlation was found between blood lead and EP levels (r = 0.70). Prevalence of lead-related symptoms was no higher in shipfitters than in other workers. No cases of symptomatic lead poisoning were noted. These data indicate that serious occupational exposure to lead can occur in a relatively small boatyard.

  14. Assessing occupational exposure to sea lamprey pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Diana M; Beaucham, Catherine C; Kurtz, Kristine; Musolin, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sea lampreys are parasitic fish found in lakes of the United States and Canada. Sea lamprey is controlled through manual application of the pesticides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and BayluscideTM into streams and tributaries. 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol may cause irritation and central nervous system depression and Bayluscide may cause irritation, dermatitis, blisters, cracking, edema, and allergic skin reactions. Objectives: To assess occupational exposures to sea lamprey pesticides. Methods: We developed a wipe method for evaluating surface and skin contamination with these pesticides. This method was field tested at a biological field station and at a pesticide river application. We also evaluated exposures using control banding tools. Results: We verified TFM surface contamination at the biological station. At the river application, we found surfaces and worker’s skin contaminated with pesticides. Conclusion: We recommended minimizing exposures by implementing engineering controls and improved use of personal protective equipment. PMID:25730600

  15. Assessing occupational exposure to sea lamprey pesticides.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Diana M; Beaucham, Catherine C; Kurtz, Kristine; Musolin, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Sea lampreys are parasitic fish found in lakes of the United States and Canada. Sea lamprey is controlled through manual application of the pesticides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and Bayluscide(TM) into streams and tributaries. 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol may cause irritation and central nervous system depression and Bayluscide may cause irritation, dermatitis, blisters, cracking, edema, and allergic skin reactions. To assess occupational exposures to sea lamprey pesticides. We developed a wipe method for evaluating surface and skin contamination with these pesticides. This method was field tested at a biological field station and at a pesticide river application. We also evaluated exposures using control banding tools. We verified TFM surface contamination at the biological station. At the river application, we found surfaces and worker's skin contaminated with pesticides. We recommended minimizing exposures by implementing engineering controls and improved use of personal protective equipment.

  16. Cystathionine metabolic enzymes play a role in the inflammation resolution of human keratinocytes in response to sub-cytotoxic formaldehyde exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eunyoung

    Low-level formaldehyde exposure is inevitable in industrialized countries. Although daily-life formaldehyde exposure level is practically impossible to induce cell death, most of mechanistic studies related to formaldehyde toxicity have been performed in cytotoxic concentrations enough to trigger cell death mechanism. Currently, toxicological mechanisms underlying the sub-cytotoxic exposure to formaldehyde are not clearly elucidated in skin cells. In this study, the genome-scale transcriptional analysis in normal human keratinocytes (NHKs) was performed to investigate cutaneous biological pathways associated with daily life formaldehyde exposure. We selected the 175 upregulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 116 downregulated DEGs in NHKs treated with 200 μMmore » formaldehyde. In the Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of the 175 upregulated DEGs, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR) was identified as the most significant GO biological process in the formaldeyde-treated NHKs. Interestingly, the sub-cytotoxic formaldehyde affected NHKs to upregulate two enzymes important in the cellular transsulfuration pathway, cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH) and cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS). In the temporal expression analysis, the upregulation of the pro-inflammatory DEGs such as MMP1 and PTGS2 was detected earlier than that of CTH, CBS and other ER UPR genes. The metabolites of CTH and CBS, L-cystathionine and L-cysteine, attenuated the formaldehyde-induced upregulation of pro-inflammatory DEGs, MMP1, PTGS2, and CXCL8, suggesting that CTH and CBS play a role in the negative feedback regulation of formaldehyde-induced pro-inflammatory responses in NHKs. In this regard, the sub-cytotoxic formaldehyde-induced CBS and CTH may regulate inflammation fate decision to resolution by suppressing the early pro-inflammatory response. - Highlights: • Sub-cytotoxic formaldehyde upregulates ER UPR-associated genes in NHKs. • Formaldehyde

  17. Australian work exposures studies: occupational exposure to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jomichen, Jasmine; El-Zaemey, Sonia; Heyworth, Jane S; Carey, Renee N; Darcey, Ellie; Reid, Alison; Glass, Deborah C; Driscoll, Tim; Peters, Susan; Abramson, Michael; Fritschi, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in some occupational settings. Some pesticides have been classified as carcinogens; however, data on the number of workers exposed to pesticides are not available in Australia. The main aim of this study was to estimate the current prevalence of pesticide exposure in Australian workplaces. The analysis used data from the Australian Work Exposures Study, a series of nationwide telephone surveys which investigated work-related prevalence and exposure to carcinogens and asthmagens, including pesticides, among current Australian workers. Information about the respondents' current job and various demographic factors was collected in a telephone interview using the web-based tool OccIDEAS. Workers were considered exposed to pesticides if they reported applying or mixing pesticides in their current job. Of the 10 371 respondents, 410 (4%) respondents were assessed as being exposed to pesticides in the workplace, with exposure being more likely among males, individuals born in Australia, individuals with lower education level and those residing in regional or remote areas. Glyphosate was the most common active ingredient used by workers. This is the first study to describe the prevalence of occupational pesticide exposure in Australia and one of the few recent studies internationally. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Occupational exposures and pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ojajarvi, I; Partanen, T.; Ahlbom, A.; Boffetta, P.; Hakulinen, T.; Jourenkova, N.; Kauppinen, T.; Kogevinas, M.; Porta, M.; Vainio, H.; Weiderpass, E.; Wesseling, C.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Consolidation of epidemiological data on pancreatic cancer and worksite exposures.
METHODS—Publications during 1969-98 were surveyed. Studies without verified exposures were excluded. Meta-analyses were conducted on data from 92 studies covering 161 populations, with results for 23 agents or groups of agents. With a standard format, five epidemiologists extracted risk estimates and variables of the structure and quality of each study. The extracted data were centrally checked. Random meta-models were applied.
RESULTS—Based on 20 populations, exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon (CHC) solvents and related compounds was associated with a meta-risk ratio (MRR) of 1.4 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0 to 1.8). Nickel and nickel compounds were considered in four populations (1.9; 1.2 to 3.2). Excesses were found also for chromium and chromium compounds (1.4; 0.9 to 2.3), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (1.5; 0.9 to 2.5), organochlorine insecticides (1.5; 0.6 to 3.7), silica dust (1.4; 0.9 to 2.0), and aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon solvents (1.3; 0.8 to 2.8). Evidence on pancreatic carcinogenicity was weak or non-positive for the following agents: acrylonitrile (1.1; 0.0 to 6.2); arsenic (1.0; 0.6 to 1.5); asbestos (1.1; 0.9 to 1.5); diesel engine exhaust (1.0; 0.9 to 1.3); electromagnetic fields (1.1; 0.8 to 1.4); formaldehyde (0.8; 0.5 to 1.0); flour dust (1.1; 0.3 to 3.2); cadmium and cadmium compounds (0.7; 0.4 to 1.4); gasoline (1.0; 0.8 to 1.2); herbicides (1.0; 0.8 to 1.3); iron and iron compounds (1.3; 0.7 to 2.5); lead and lead compounds (1.1; 0.8 to 1.5); man-made vitreous fibres (1.0; 0.6 to 1.6); oil mist (0.9; 0.8 to 1.0); and wood dust (1.1; 0.9 to 2.5). The occupational aetiological fraction of pancreatic cancer was estimated at 12%. In a subpopulation exposed to CHC solvents and related compounds, it was 29%; to chromium and chromium compounds, 23%; to nickel and nickel compounds, 47%; to

  19. Occupational exposure and laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer risk in central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Shangina, O.; Brennan, P.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.

    2006-08-15

    A multicenter case-control study was conducted during 1999-2002 in four European countries (Poland, Romania, Russia, and Slovakia) to evaluate the role of occupational exposures in risk of laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer. Male cancer cases (34 hypopharyngeal, 316 laryngeal) with full data on occupational history and nonoccupational factors were compared with 728 hospital controls for occupational exposure to 73 suspected carcinogens. Occupational history was evaluated by industrial hygienists blinded to case/control status. Elevated risks for over exposure to coal dust were found for both hypopharyngeal (odds ratio (OR) = 4.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 14.89) and laryngeal (OR = 1.81, 95% CI:more » 0.94, 3.47) cancer, with clear dose-response patterns. Inclusion of a 20-year lag in the analysis strengthened these associations. Hypopharyngeal cancer risk was also significantly associated with exposure to mild steel dust (OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.39, 6.64) and iron compounds and fumes (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.29, 5.84), without clear dose-response relations. Laryngeal cancer was significantly associated with exposure to hard-alloys dust (OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.57) and chlorinated solvents (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.61), without dose-response relations. A possible link between high formaldehyde exposure and laryngeal cancer was suggested. These data indicate that occupational exposure to coal dust may play a role in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Other possible relations need further evaluation.« less

  20. Consumer inhalation exposure to formaldehyde from the use of personal care products/cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Marc-André; Meuling, Wim J A; Engel, Roel; Coroama, Manuela C; Renner, Gerald; Pape, Wolfgang; Nohynek, Gerhard J

    2012-06-01

    We measured consumer exposure to formaldehyde (FA) from personal care products (PCP) containing FA-releasing preservatives. Six study subjects applied facial moisturiser, foundation, shower gel, shampoo, deodorant, hair conditioner, hair styling gel or body lotion at the 90th percentile amount of EU PCP consumer use. FA air concentrations were measured in the empty room, in the presence of study subjects prior to PCP use, and for one hour (breathing zone, area monitoring) after PCP use. The mean FA air concentration in the empty bathroom was 1.32 ± 0.67 μg/m³, in the presence of subjects it was 2.33 ± 0.86 μg/m³). Except for body lotion and hair conditioner (6.2 ± 0.1.9 or 4.5 ± 0.1.5 μg/m³, respectively), mean 1-h FA air concentrations after PCP use were similar to background. Peak FA air concentrations, ranging from baseline values (2.2 μg/m³; shower gel) to 11.5 μg/m³ (body lotion), occurred during 0-5 to 5-10 min after PCP use. Despite of exaggerated exposure conditions, FA air levels were a fraction of those considered to be safe (120 μg/m³), occurring in indoor air (22-124 μg/m³) or expired human breath (1.4-87 μg/m³). Overall, our data yielded evidence that inhalation of FA from the use of PCP containing FA-releasers poses no risk to human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental and Occupational Exposures in Immigrant Health

    PubMed Central

    Eamranond, Pracha P.; Hu, Howard

    2008-01-01

    Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation’s health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status. PMID:21572847

  2. Occupant radon exposure in houses with basements

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, E.M.; Fuoss, S.

    1995-12-31

    This study compares basement and main-level radon exposure based on bi-level week-long radon measurements, occupancy and activity data collected in normal use during heating and non-heating seasons in a geographically-stratified random sample of about 600 Minnesota homes, in response to critiques of radon measurement protocol. Basement radon (RN1) (M=4.5, SD=4.5) and main level (Rn2)(M=2.9, SD=3.4) correlation was 0.8 (p=.00), including seasonal variation. In a 101-house subsample where Rn1 >=4.0 pCi/L and Rn2 <=3.9 pCi/L, maximum household exposure in basements was 1162 pCiHrs (M=120, Sd=207), main-level 2486 pCiHrs (M-434, SD=421). In same households, persons with most basement-time maxed 100 hrs (M=13,SD=23),more » persons with most main-level time maxed 160 hrs (M=79, SD=39). Basement activities show two patterns, (1) member used it for personal domain, e.g. sleeping, and (2) household used it for general activities, e.g. TV or children`s play. Basement occupancy justifies measurement of radon in the lowest livable housing level.« less

  3. Environmental and occupational exposures in immigrant health.

    PubMed

    Eamranond, Pracha P; Hu, Howard

    2008-09-23

    Immigrants comprise vulnerable populations that are frequently exposed to a multitude of environmental and occupational hazards. The historical context behind state and federal legislation has helped to foster an environment that is particularly hostile toward caring for immigrant health. Current hazards include toxic exposures, air and noise pollution, motor vehicle accidents, crowded living and work environments with inadequate ventilation, poor sanitation, mechanical injury, among many others. Immigrants lack the appropriate training, materials, health care access, and other resources to reduce their exposure to preventable environmental and occupational health risks. This dilemma is exacerbated by current anti-immigrant sentiments, miscommunication between native and immigrant populations, and legislation denying immigrants access to publicly funded medical care. Given that current health policy has failed to address immigrant health appropriately and political impetus is lacking, efforts should also focus on alternative solutions, including organized labor. Labor unions that serve to educate workers, survey work environments, and defend worker rights will greatly alleviate and prevent the burden of disease incurred by immigrants. The nation's health will benefit from improved regulation of living and workplace environments to improve the health of immigrants, regardless of legal status.

  4. Occupational noise exposure during endourologic procedures.

    PubMed

    Soucy, Frédéric; Ko, Raymond; Denstedt, John D; Razvi, Hassan

    2008-08-01

    Long-term noise exposure in the workplace is a known cause of hearing loss. There has been limited study on the potential harm related to shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) or intracorporeal devices on patients and operating room personnel. We used a digital sound meter to measure decibel levels in the operating room during several endourologic procedures. The decibel levels were recorded during SWL (Storz SLX-F2), percutaneous nephrolithotomy using single- and dual-probe ultrasonic lithotripters (Olympus LUS-2, CyberWand), and during ureteroscopy using the Versa Pulse Holmium:YAG laser. Findings were compared with the U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Health and Safety Administration and Canadian Centre for Occupational Health recommendations on permissible noise levels in the workplace. The background sound level in the operating room prior to endourologic procedures ranged between 58 and 60 dB. In the SWL control room, 5 m from the source, the mean sound level was 68 dB (range 64-75) during treatment. The mean corresponding decibel level recorded at the patient's head during SWL was 77 dB (range 73-83). Noises produced by intracorporeal lithotripters were recorded at the surgeon's head, 2 m from the source. Measurements of the CyberWand (dual-probe) device revealed a higher mean decibel reading of 93 dB (range 85-102). Noise levels recorded for the Olympus LUS-2 (single-probe) ultrasound and the holmium laser were 65 dB (62 -68) and 60 dB (58-62), respectively. Although we noted that patients and urologists maybe exposed to significant noise levels during endourologic procedures, the duration of exposure is short. This risk appears to be minimal, based on current occupational guidelines, for most operating personnel.

  5. COPD and occupational exposures: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Weinmann, Sheila; Vollmer, William M; Breen, Victor; Heumann, Michael; Hnizdo, Eva; Villnave, Jacqueline; Doney, Brent; Graziani, Monica; McBurnie, Mary Ann; Buist, A Sonia

    2008-05-01

    Evidence demonstrates that occupational exposures are causally linked with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This case-control study evaluated the association between occupational exposures and prevalent COPD based on lifetime occupational history. Cases (n = 388) aged 45 years and older with COPD were compared with controls (n = 356), frequency matched on age, sex, and cigarette smoking history. Odds ratios for exposure to each of eight occupational hazard categories and three composite measures of exposure were computed using logistic regression. RESULTSOccupational exposures most strongly associated with COPD were diesel exhaust, irritant gases and vapors, mineral dust, and metal dust. The composite measures describing aggregate exposure to gases, vapors, solvents, or sensitizers (GVSS) and aggregate exposure to dust, GVSS, or diesel exhaust were also associated with COPD. In the small group of never-smokers, a similar pattern was evident. These population-based findings add to the literature linking occupational exposures to COPD.

  6. Retrospective Assessment of Occupational Exposures for the GENEVA Study of ALS among Military Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Woskie, Susan R.; Gore, Rebecca; Sandler, Dale P.; Schmidt, Silke; Kamel, Freya

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This paper describes the retrospective exposure assessment conducted to assess occupational exposures for the Genes and Environmental Exposures in Veterans (GENEVA) study, a case–control study investigating the joint contribution of genetics and environmental exposures to the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) among military veterans. Methods: Occupational histories for 1597 study participants collected as part of the GENEVA study were the basis for this retrospective exposure assessment. The data set included 15528 jobs held from 1924 to 2010, representing 4539 unique industry and occupation (I&O) combinations. Three industrial hygiene experts were recruited to independently rate occupational exposures to specific agents previously associated with an increased risk of ALS. Utilizing information on industry, job title, tasks performed, and materials used for each job held, raters assigned exposures associated with each I&O for the ‘current time’ defined as the period after 1995 (post-1995). The exposure assessment targeted agents identified as potential occupational risk factors for ALS. Experts rated semi-quantitatively exposure intensity in five exposure categories (0–4) for Group A agents (lead, formaldehyde, hydrocarbon solvents, and chlorinated solvents) and qualitatively as yes/no (1/0) exposed for Group B agents (mercury, selenium, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyls, electromagnetic field, pesticides, and viral agents). Confidence scores (0–3) were reported for every I&O rated based on raters’ experience with that industry and/or job. Each I&O was assigned an average exposure score of the raters and an alternative exposure rating was developed for each I&O by excluding low confidence (<2) scores before averaging. Exposure reconstruction for jobs held pre-1995 was done by comparing exposure data extracted from the OSHA Chemical Exposure and Health Database (CEHD) during pre-1995 and post-1995. For agents with limited

  7. Preconception Brief: Occupational/Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Gehle, Kim

    2006-01-01

    In the last decade, more than half of U.S. children were born to working mothers and 65% of working men and women were of reproductive age. In 2004 more than 28 million women age 18–44 were employed full time. This implies the need for clinicians to possess an awareness about the impact of work on the health of their patients and their future offspring. Most chemicals in the workplace have not been evaluated for reproductive toxicity, and where exposure limits do exist, they were generally not designed to mitigate reproductive risk. Therefore, many toxicants with unambiguous reproductive and developmental effects are still in regular commercial or therapeutic use and thus present exposure potential to workers. Examples of these include heavy metals, (lead, cadmium), organic solvents (glycol ethers, percholoroethylene), pesticides and herbicides (ethylene dibromide) and sterilants, anesthetic gases and anti-cancer drugs used in healthcare. Surprisingly, many of these reproductive toxicants are well represented in traditional employment sectors of women, such as healthcare and cosmetology. Environmental exposures also figure prominently in evaluating a woman’s health risk and that to a pregnancy. Food and water quality and pesticide and solvent usage are increasingly topics raised by women and men contemplating pregnancy. The microenvironment of a woman, such as her choices of hobbies and leisure time activities also come into play. Caregivers must be aware of their patients’ potential environmental and workplace exposures and weigh any risk of exposure in the context of the time-dependent window of reproductive susceptibility. This will allow informed decision-making about the need for changes in behavior, diet, hobbies or the need for added protections on the job or alternative duty assignment. Examples of such environmental and occupational history elements will be presented together with counseling strategies for the clinician. PMID:16897370

  8. Occupational tellurium exposure and garlic odour.

    PubMed

    Berriault, C J; Lightfoot, N E

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have considered garlic odour as a socially important outcome of occupational tellurium (Te) exposure or concurrent exposures, and most known guidelines focus on other signs and symptoms (e.g. weight loss and somnolence). This study considers workers exposed to tellurium and selenium (Se) at an Ontario, Canada silver refinery. To establish the relation of urinary tellurium concentrations to reporting garlic odour, while considering other work-related factors such as concurrent urinary selenium concentrations. Historical surveillance records of urinary analyses for tellurium and selenium concentrations (μmol Te or Se/mol creatinine in urine) and symptom self-reports were used. Records were available from December 1986 to June 2002. Logistic regression models were fitted using age at sampling, tellurium and selenium urine concentration and duration of employment. Individual main effects were age adjusted and the final model was fitted for tellurium and selenium urine concentration and duration of employment. Urinary tellurium concentration was significantly associated with garlic odour reporting (odds ratio = 1.74, 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.97, P < 0.05). Furthermore, the likelihood of reporting garlic odour rose as workers reached urinary tellurium concentrations >1 μmol/mol creatinine. Tellurium urinary concentrations of <1 μmol/mol creatinine appear to limit, but not eliminate, the likelihood of reporting garlic odour. Future studies should consider the effect of concurrent selenium exposure as well as other workplace factors and hygiene.

  9. [Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to sevoflurane].

    PubMed

    Imbriani, M; Zadra, P; Negri, S; Alessio, A; Maestri, L; Ghittori, S

    2001-01-01

    Sevoflurane has been used in the last few years in brief surgical operations, either alone or in combination with nitrous oxide. Occupationally exposed groups include anesthesiologists, surgeons and operating room nurses. In 1977 the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended that occupational exposure to halogenated anesthetic agents (halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane), when used as the sole anesthetic, should be controlled so that no worker would be exposed to time-weighted average concentrations greater than 2 ppm during anesthetic administration. When halogenated anesthetics are associated with nitrous oxide, NIOSH recommends that the limit value should not exceed 0.5 ppm. We think these recommendations can be extended to sevoflurane. Metabolism of sevoflurane is catalyzed by cytochrome P-450; this involves oxidation of the fluoromethyl side chain of the molecule, followed by glucuronidation. Two urinary metabolites of sevoflurane have been identified: inorganic fluoride (which, however, is not specific) and a non-volatile compound that yields hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) when digested with the enzyme beta-glucuronidase. In order to investigate the role of urinary HFIP as an indicator of occupational exposure to sevoflurane (CI, ppm), CI was measured in 145 members of 18 operating room staffs. The measurements of the time-weighted average of CI in the breathing zone were made by means of diffusive personal samplers. Each sampler was exposed during the whole working period. Sevoflurane was desorbed with CS2 from charcoal and the concentrations were measured on a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a mass selective detector (MSD). The GC was equipped with a 25 meter cross-linked phenylmethylsilicon column (internal diameter 0.2 mm). GC conditions were as follows: injector column temperature = 200 degrees C; column temperature = 30 degrees C; carrier gas = helium; injection technique of samples = splitless. The analytical

  10. Occupational noise exposure and hearing levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ambasankaran, M.; Brahmachari, D.; Chadda, V.K.

    1981-07-01

    A study was made at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center to measure the hearing levels of persons working in a noise environment. Two different workplaces, central air-conditioning plant and glass blowing shops, where a number of persons were exposed to noise levels exceeding 85 dB(A) were chosen. The occupational exposure to noise was determined using a sound level meter, an octave band filter and a personal noise dose meter. The hearing levels of persons exposed to these high levels of noise and a control group not exposed to occupational noise were measured by means of a pure-tone audiometer in amore » specially-built booth. These persons, aged between 20 to 60 years, were divided into four age groups for the study. The low ambient noise levels in the booth were measured using correlation technique since such low signals cannot be detected by an ordinary sound level meter. The audiometric findings and the results of the noise level survey are discussed in this paper.« less

  11. [Tetrabromobisphenol A - Toxicity, environmental and occupational exposures].

    PubMed

    Jarosiewicz, Monika; Bukowska, Bożena

    2017-02-28

    Brominated flame retardants (BFR), including tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) represents 25% of the global market of flame retardants. Among them, TBBPA is used on the largest scale (approx. 60%) because of its firebreak properties and widespread occurrence in every day products such as furniture, upholstery, adhesives and electronic equipment. A broad application of TBBPA can contribute to environmental pollution. Tetrabromobisphenol A has been determined in soil, water, river sediments and the atmosphere. Tetrabromobisphenol A is characterized by a high value of coefficient n-octanol/water (log P = 4.5), low acidity, and it may exist in undissociated or dissociated form. Due to the high hydrophobicity, TBBPA may accumulate in living organisms, including humans at different food chain levels. The occurrence of TBBPA in humans, e.g., in blood, fat tissue and mother milk, has been reported. Tetrabromobisphenol A is classified as hazard statements (H) H400/H410, which means that it is toxic to aquatic biota, causing long-term changes in these organisms. Up to now, only a few studies have been conducted to assess potential toxicity of high doses of TBBPA to mammals. Although many people are occupationally exposed to TBBPA during production or processing of this substance in their workplaces, there are only a few studies that have assessed the real hazard associated with TBPPA exposure. The aim of the study was to discuss the latest literature (mainly from the years 2010-2016) referring to the presence of TBBPA in the environment and its effects to living organisms. Data concerning occupational exposure to TBBPA were also presented. Med Pr 2017;68(1):121-134. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  12. 29 CFR 1926.52 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupational noise exposure. 1926.52 Section 1926.52 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls...

  13. Vehicle occupant exposure to carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Koushki, P A; al-Dhowalia, K H; Niaizi, S A

    1992-12-01

    This paper focuses on the auto commuting micro-environment and presents typical carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations to which auto commuters in central Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were exposed. Two test vehicles traveling over four main arterial roadways were monitored for inside and outside CO levels during eighty peak and off-peak hours extending over an eight-month period. The relative importance of several variables which explained the variability in CO concentrations inside autos was also assessed. It was found that during peak hours auto commuters were exposed to mean CO levels that ranged from 30 to 40 ppm over trips that typically took between 25 to 40 minutes. The mean ratio of inside to outside CO levels was 0.84. Results of variance component analyses indicated that the most important variables affecting CO concentrations inside autos were, in addition to the smoking of vehicle occupants, traffic volume, vehicle speed, period of day and wind velocity. An increase in traffic volume from 1,000 to 5,000 vehicles per hour (vph) increased mean CO level exposure by 71 percent. An increase in vehicle speed from 14 to 55 km/h reduced mean CO exposure by 36 percent. The number of traffic interruptions had a moderate effect on mean concentrations of CO inside vehicles.

  14. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Blair, A.; Hines, C.J.; Thomas, K.W.; Alavanja, M.C.R.; Beane Freeman, L.E.; Hoppin, J.A.; Kamel, F.; Lynch, C.F.; Lubin, J.H.; Silverman, D.T.; Whelan, E.; Zahm, S. H.; Sandler, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the contribution of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes to the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used for occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. We draw upon our experience using this design to study agricultural workers to identify conditions that might foster use of prospective cohorts to study other occupational settings. Prospective cohort studies are perceived by many as the strongest epidemiologic design. It allows updating of information on exposure and other factors, collection of biologic samples before disease diagnosis for biomarker studies, assessment of effect modification by genes, lifestyle, and other occupational exposures, and evaluation of a wide range of health outcomes. Increased use of prospective cohorts would be beneficial in identifying hazardous exposures in the workplace. Occupational epidemiologists should seek opportunities to initiate prospective cohorts to investigate high priority, occupational exposures. PMID:25603935

  15. Parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Colt, J S; Blair, A

    1998-01-01

    Occupational exposures of parents might be related to cancer in their offspring. Forty-eight published studies on this topic have reported relative risks for over 1000 specific occupation/cancer combinations. Virtually all of the studies employed the case-control design. Occupations and exposures of fathers were investigated much more frequently than those of the mother. Information about parental occupations was derived through interviews or from birth certificates and other administrative records. Specific exposures were typically estimated by industrial hygienists or were self-reported. The studies have several limitations related to the quality of the exposure assessment, small numbers of exposed cases, multiple comparisons, and possible bias toward the reporting of positive results. Despite these limitations, they provide evidence that certain parental exposures may be harmful to children and deserve further study. The strongest evidence is for childhood leukemia and paternal exposure to solvents, paints, and employment in motor vehicle-related occupations; and childhood nervous system cancers and paternal exposure to paints. To more clearly evaluate the importance of these and other exposures in future investigations, we need improvements in four areas: a) more careful attention must be paid to maternal exposures; b) studies should employ more sophisticated exposure assessment techniques; c) careful attention must be paid to the postulated mechanism, timing, and route of exposure; and d) if postnatal exposures are evaluated, studies should provide evidence that the exposure is actually transferred from the workplace to the child's environment. PMID:9646055

  16. [Occupational exposure to nanoparticles. Assessment of workplace exposure].

    PubMed

    Bujak-Pietrek, Stella

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is currently one of the most popular branch of science. It is a technology that enables designing, manufacturing and application of materials and structures of very small dimensions, and its products are applied in almost every field of life. Nanoparticles are the structures having one or more dimensions of the order of 100 nm or less. They are used in precise mechanics, electronics, optics, medicine, pharmacy, cosmetics and many other spheres. Due to their very small size, nanostructures have completely different and specific properties, unknown for the bulk of materials. Fast-growing nanotechnology provides a wide spectrum of applications, but it also brings about new and unknown danger to human health. Nanotechnology is the branch that has developed rather recently, and much information about health risk and its influence on the environment is beyond our knowledge. Nanoparticles, released in many technological processes, as well as manufactured nanoparticles can induce occupational hazards to workers. The lack of regulations and standards, compulsory in the manufacture and use ofnanoparticles is a fundamental problem faced in the evaluation of exposure. Another problem is the choice of proper measurement equipment for surveying of very small particles - their number, mass and surface area in the workpost air. In this article, the possibility and scope of exposure assessment is discussed and a brief specification of available instrumentation for counting and assessing the parameters essential for classifying the exposure to nanoparticles is presented.

  17. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment—Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, T. J.; Dotson, G. S.; Williams, P. R.D.; Maier, A.; Gadagbui, B.; Pandalai, S. P.; Lamba, A.; Hearl, F.; Mumtaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational. PMID:26583907

  18. Aggregate Exposure and Cumulative Risk Assessment--Integrating Occupational and Non-occupational Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T J; Dotson, G S; Williams, P R D; Maier, A; Gadagbui, B; Pandalai, S P; Lamba, A; Hearl, F; Mumtaz, M

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure limits have traditionally focused on preventing morbidity and mortality arising from inhalation exposures to individual chemical stressors in the workplace. While central to occupational risk assessment, occupational exposure limits have limited application as a refined disease prevention tool because they do not account for all of the complexities of the work and non-occupational environments and are based on varying health endpoints. To be of greater utility, occupational exposure limits and other risk management tools could integrate broader consideration of risks from multiple exposure pathways and routes (aggregate risk) as well as the combined risk from exposure to both chemical and non-chemical stressors, within and beyond the workplace, including the possibility that such exposures may cause interactions or modify the toxic effects observed (cumulative risk). Although still at a rudimentary stage in many cases, a variety of methods and tools have been developed or are being used in allied risk assessment fields to incorporate such considerations in the risk assessment process. These approaches, which are collectively referred to as cumulative risk assessment, have potential to be adapted or modified for occupational scenarios and provide a tangible path forward for occupational risk assessment. Accounting for complex exposures in the workplace and the broader risks faced by the individual also requires a more complete consideration of the composite effects of occupational and non-occupational risk factors to fully assess and manage worker health problems. Barriers to integrating these different factors remain, but new and ongoing community-based and worker health-related initiatives may provide mechanisms for identifying and integrating risk from aggregate exposures and cumulative risks from all relevant sources, be they occupational or non-occupational.

  19. Optical Detection of Formaldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patty, Kira D.; Gregory, Don A.

    2008-01-01

    The potential for buildup .of formaldehyde in closed space environments poses a direct health hazard to personnel. The National Aeronautic Space Agency (NASA) has established a maximum permitted concentration of 0.04 ppm for 7 to 180 days for all space craft. Early detection is critical to ensure that formaldehyde levels do not accumulate. above these limits. New sensor technologies are needed to enable real time,in situ detection in a compact and reusable form factor. Addressing this need,research into the use of reactive fluorescent dyes which reversibly bind to formaldehyde (liquid or gas) has been conducted to support the development of a formaldehyde.sensor. In the presence of formaldehyde the dyes' characteristic fluorescence peaks shift providing the basis for an optical detection. Dye responses to formaldehyde exposure were characterized; demonstrating the optical detection of formaldehyde in under 10 seconds and down to concentrations of 0.5 ppm. To .incorporate the dye .in.an optical sensor device requires. a means of containing and manipulating the dye. Multiple form factors using two dissimilar sbstrates were considered to determine a suitable configuration. A prototype sensor was demonstrated and considerations for a field able sensor were presented. This research provides a necessary first step toward the development of a compact, reusable; real time optical formaldehyde sensor suitable for use in the U.S. space program,

  20. CAREX Canada: an enhanced model for assessing occupational carcinogen exposure

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Cheryl E; Ge, Calvin B; Hall, Amy L; Davies, Hugh W; Demers, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the numbers of workers exposed to known and suspected occupational carcinogens in Canada, building on the methods of CARcinogen EXposure (CAREX) projects in the European Union (EU). Methods CAREX Canada consists of estimates of the prevalence and level of exposure to occupational carcinogens. CAREX Canada includes occupational agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as known, probable or possible human carcinogens that were present and feasible to assess in Canadian workplaces. A Canadian Workplace Exposure Database was established to identify the potential for exposure in particular industries and occupations, and to create exposure level estimates among priority agents, where possible. CAREX EU data were reviewed for relevance to the Canadian context and the proportion of workers likely to be exposed by industry and occupation in Canada was assigned using expert assessment and agreement by a minimum of two occupational hygienists. These proportions were used to generate prevalence estimates by linkage with the Census of Population for 2006, and these estimates are available by industry, occupation, sex and province. Results CAREX Canada estimated the number of workers exposed to 44 known, probable and suspected carcinogens. Estimates of levels of exposure were further developed for 18 priority agents. Common exposures included night shift work (1.9 million exposed), solar ultraviolet radiation exposure (1.5 million exposed) and diesel engine exhaust (781 000 exposed). Conclusions A substantial proportion of Canadian workers are exposed to known and suspected carcinogens at work. PMID:24969047

  1. Exposure Estimation and Interpretation of Occupational Risk: Enhanced Information for the Occupational Risk Manager

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Martha; McKernan, Lauralynn; Maier, Andrew; Jayjock, Michael; Schaeffer, Val; Brosseau, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The fundamental goal of this article is to describe, define, and analyze the components of the risk characterization process for occupational exposures. Current methods are described for the probabilistic characterization of exposure, including newer techniques that have increasing applications for assessing data from occupational exposure scenarios. In addition, since the probability of health effects reflects variability in the exposure estimate as well as the dose-response curve—the integrated considerations of variability surrounding both components of the risk characterization provide greater information to the occupational hygienist. Probabilistic tools provide a more informed view of exposure as compared to use of discrete point estimates for these inputs to the risk characterization process. Active use of such tools for exposure and risk assessment will lead to a scientifically supported worker health protection program. Understanding the bases for an occupational risk assessment, focusing on important sources of variability and uncertainty enables characterizing occupational risk in terms of a probability, rather than a binary decision of acceptable risk or unacceptable risk. A critical review of existing methods highlights several conclusions: (1) exposure estimates and the dose-response are impacted by both variability and uncertainty and a well-developed risk characterization reflects and communicates this consideration; (2) occupational risk is probabilistic in nature and most accurately considered as a distribution, not a point estimate; and (3) occupational hygienists have a variety of tools available to incorporate concepts of risk characterization into occupational health and practice. PMID:26302336

  2. Hepatocellular carcinoma and the risk of occupational exposure

    PubMed Central

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Loreto, Carla; Malaguarnera, Michele; Ardiri, Annalisa; Proiti, Maria; Rigano, Giuseppe; Frazzetto, Evelise; Ruggeri, Maria Irene; Malaguarnera, Giulia; Bertino, Nicoletta; Malaguarnera, Mariano; Catania, Vito Emanuele; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Toro, Adriana; Bertino, Emanuele; Mangano, Dario; Bertino, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer. The main risk factors for HCC are alcoholism, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, obesity, type 2 diabetes, cirrhosis, aflatoxin, hemochromatosis, Wilson’s disease and hemophilia. Occupational exposure to chemicals is another risk factor for HCC. Often the relationship between occupational risk and HCC is unclear and the reports are fragmented and inconsistent. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge regarding the association of infective and non-infective occupational risk exposure and HCC in order to encourage further research and draw attention to this global occupational public health problem. PMID:27168870

  3. 'Real-world' compensatory behaviour with low nicotine concentration e-liquid: subjective effects and nicotine, acrolein and formaldehyde exposure.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Lynne; Cox, Sharon; Goniewicz, Maciej; McRobbie, Hayden; Kimber, Catherine; Doig, Mira; Kośmider, Leon

    2018-06-07

    To compare the effects of i) high versus low nicotine concentration e-liquid, ii) fixed versus adjustable power and iii) the interaction between the two on: a) vaping behaviour, b) subjective effects, c) nicotine intake, and d) exposure to acrolein and formaldehyde in e-cigarette users vaping in their everyday setting. Counterbalanced, repeated measures with four conditions: i) low nicotine (6 mg/mL)/fixed power; ii) low nicotine/adjustable power; iii) high nicotine (18 mg/mL)/fixed power; iv) high nicotine/adjustable power. London and the South East, England. Twenty experienced e-cigarette users (recruited between September 2016 and February 2017) vaped ad libitum using an eVic Supreme™ with a 'Nautilus Aspire' tank over four weeks (one week per condition). Puffing patterns (daily puff number [PN], puff duration [PD], inter-puff interval [IPI]), mL of e-liquid consumed, changes to power (where permitted), and subjective effects (urge to vape, nicotine withdrawal symptoms) were measured in each condition. Nicotine intake was measured via salivary cotinine. 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA), a metabolite of the toxicant acrolein, and formate, a metabolite of the carcinogen formaldehyde, were measured in urine. There was a significant nicotine concentration x power interaction for PD (p<0.01). PD was longer with low nicotine/fixed power compared with i) high nicotine/fixed power (p< 0.001 and ii) low nicotine/adjustable power (p< 0.01). PN and liquid consumed were higher in the low versus high nicotine condition (main effect of nicotine, p<0.05). Urge to vape and withdrawal symptoms were lower, and nicotine intake was higher, in the high nicotine condition (main effects of nicotine: p<0.01). Whilst acrolein levels did not differ, there was a significant nicotine x power interaction for formaldehyde (p<0.05). Use of a lower nicotine concentration e-liquid may be associated with compensatory behaviour (e.g., higher number and duration of puffs) and increases

  4. Occupational exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Legal issues in workers' compensation.

    PubMed

    Evenson, W

    1999-08-01

    Occupational exposure to TB remains a significant threat in select high risk occupations despite 5 years of declining disease incidence rates in the United States. TB kills more people on a global scale than any other infectious disease. One third of the global population is currently infected with TB. Workers' compensation insurance may be inadequate to cover lost wages and medical bills in cases of occupational exposure to TB if the source patient is unknown. There is a need to reform state laws for workers' compensation so TB infections in high risk employees are presumed to be work related unless a community exposure to the disease is identified.

  5. [Toxic nephropathy secondary to occupational exposure to metallic mercury].

    PubMed

    Voitzuk, Ana; Greco, Vanina; Caputo, Daniel; Alvarez, Estela

    2014-01-01

    Toxic nephrophaties secondary to occupational exposure to metals have been widely studied, including membranous nephropathy by mercury, which is rare. Occupational poisoning by mercury is frequent, neurological symptoms are the main form of clinical presentation. Secondary renal involvement in chronic exposure to metallic mercury can cause glomerular disease by deposit of immune-complexes. Membranous glomerulopathy and minimal change disease are the most frequently reported forms. Here we describe the case of a patient with occupational exposure to metallic mercury, where nephrotic syndrome due to membranous glomerulonephritis responded favorably to both chelation and immunosuppressive therapy.

  6. Health and safety implications of occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Stebounova, Larissa V; Morgan, Hallie; Grassian, Vicki H; Brenner, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The rapid growth and commercialization of nanotechnology are currently outpacing health and safety recommendations for engineered nanomaterials. As the production and use of nanomaterials increase, so does the possibility that there will be exposure of workers and the public to these materials. This review provides a summary of current research and regulatory efforts related to occupational exposure and medical surveillance for the nanotechnology workforce, focusing on the most prevalent industrial nanomaterials currently moving through the research, development, and manufacturing pipelines. Their applications and usage precedes a discussion of occupational health and safety efforts, including exposure assessment, occupational health surveillance, and regulatory considerations for these nanomaterials. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Occupational exposure to dusts and risk of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Karami, S; Boffetta, P; Stewart, P S; Brennan, P; Zaridze, D; Matveev, V; Janout, V; Kollarova, H; Bencko, V; Navratilova, M; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Mates, D; Gromiec, J; Slamova, A; Chow, W-H; Rothman, N; Moore, L E

    2011-01-01

    Background: Occupational exposures to dusts have generally been examined in relation to cancers of the respiratory system and have rarely been examined in relation to other cancers, such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Although previous epidemiological studies, though few, have shown certain dusts, such as asbestos, to increase renal cancer risk, the potential for other occupational dust exposures to cause kidney damage and/or cancer may exist. We investigated whether asbestos, as well as 20 other occupational dust exposures, were associated with RCC risk in a large European, multi-center, hospital-based renal case–control study. Methods: General occupational histories and job-specific questionnaires were reviewed by occupational hygienists for subject-specific information. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) between RCC risk and exposures were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Among participants ever exposed to dusts, significant associations were observed for glass fibres (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1–3.9), mineral wool fibres (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2–5.1), and brick dust (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0–2.4). Significant trends were also observed with exposure duration and cumulative exposure. No association between RCC risk and asbestos exposure was observed. Conclusion: Results suggest that increased RCC risk may be associated with occupational exposure to specific types of dusts. Additional studies are needed to replicate and extend findings. PMID:21540858

  8. Indoor Air in Beauty Salons and Occupational Health Exposure of Cosmetologists to Chemical Substances

    PubMed Central

    Tsigonia, Alexandra; Lagoudi, Argyro; Chandrinou, Stavroula; Linos, Athena; Evlogias, Nikos; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.

    2010-01-01

    The indoor environment in four beauty salons located in Athens (Greece) was examined in order to investigate the occupational health exposure of cosmetologists to various chemical products typically used in their work. Chemical substances chosen for investigation were volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, ozone and carbon dioxide. Total VOCs levels measured showed significant variation (100–1,450 μg m−3) depending on the products used and the number of treatments carried out, as well as ventilation. The main VOCs found in the salons were aromatics (toluene, xylene), esters and ketones (ethyl acetate, acetone, etc.) which are used as solvents in various beauty products; terpenes (pinene, limonene, camphor, menthenol) which have a particular odor and others like camphor which have specific properties. Ozone concentrations measured in all salons were quite low (0.1 and 13.3 μg m−3) and formaldehyde concentrations detected were lower than the detection limit of the method in all salons (<0.05 ppm). Carbon dioxide levels ranged between 402 and 1,268 ppm, depending on the number of people present in the salons during measurements and ventilation. Cosmetologists may be exposed to high concentrations of a mixture of volatile organic compounds although these levels could be decreased significantly by following certain practices such as good ventilation of the areas, closing the packages of the beauty products when not in use and finally selecting safer beauty products without strong odor. PMID:20195448

  9. Brain tumors in children and occupational exposure of parents.

    PubMed

    Peters, F M; Preston-Martin, S; Yu, M C

    1981-07-10

    Ninety-two cases of brain tumor in children less than 10 years old were compared with 92 matched controls for parental occupational history. Cases were more likely than controls to show material occupations involving chemical exposure, paternal occupations involving solvents, and employment of father in the aircraft industry. These three factors were not affected by adjustment for the potential confounding variables examined in this study.

  10. Occupational Radiation Exposure During Endovascular Aortic Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Sailer, Anna M., E-mail: anni.sailer@mumc.nl; Schurink, Geert Willem H., E-mail: gwh.schurink@mumc.nl; Bol, Martine E., E-mail: m.bol@maastrichtuniversity.nl

    PurposeThe aim of the study was to evaluate the radiation exposure to operating room personnel and to assess determinants for high personal doses during endovascular aortic repair.Materials and MethodsOccupational radiation exposure was prospectively evaluated during 22 infra-renal aortic repair procedures (EVAR), 11 thoracic aortic repair procedures (TEVAR), and 11 fenestrated or branched aortic repair procedures (FEVAR). Real-time over-lead dosimeters attached to the left breast pocket measured personal doses for the first operators (FO) and second operators (SO), radiology technicians (RT), scrub nurses (SN), anesthesiologists (AN), and non-sterile nurses (NSN). Besides protective apron and thyroid collar, no additional radiation shielding wasmore » used. Procedural dose area product (DAP), iodinated contrast volume, fluoroscopy time, patient’s body weight, and C-arm angulation were documented.ResultsAverage procedural FO dose was significantly higher during FEVAR (0.34 ± 0.28 mSv) compared to EVAR (0.11 ± 0.21 mSv) and TEVAR (0.06 ± 0.05 mSv; p = 0.003). Average personnel doses were 0.17 ± 0.21 mSv (FO), 0.042 ± 0.045 mSv (SO), 0.019 ± 0.042 mSv (RT), 0.017 ± 0.031 mSv (SN), 0.006 ± 0.007 mSv (AN), and 0.004 ± 0.009 mSv (NSN). SO and AN doses were strongly correlated with FO dose (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between FO dose and procedural DAP (R = 0.69, p < 0.001), iodinated contrast volume (R = 0.67, p < 0.001) and left-anterior C-arm projections >60° (p = 0.02), and a weak correlation with fluoroscopy time (R = 0.40, p = 0.049).ConclusionAverage FO dose was a factor four higher than SO dose. Predictors for high personal doses are procedural DAP, iodinated contrast volume, and left-anterior C-arm projections greater than 60°.« less

  11. Maternal occupational cadmium exposure and nonsyndromic orofacial clefts.

    PubMed

    Suhl, Jonathan; Romitti, Paul A; Cao, Yanyan; Rocheleau, Carissa M; Burns, Trudy L; Conway, Kristin; Rajaraman, Preetha; Agopian, A J; Stewart, Patricia

    2018-04-17

    Cigarette smoking is a well-studied risk factor for orofacial clefts (OFCs). Little is known about which constituents in cigarette smoke contribute to this teratogenicity in humans. One constituent, cadmium, has been associated with OFCs in animal studies; in humans, the role of maternal cadmium exposure on OFCs, independent of cigarette smoke, is unclear. In particular, the relation between maternal occupational cadmium exposure and OFCs is largely unexplored. Using data from a large, population-based case-control study, we compared expert rater assessed maternal occupational cadmium exposure from self-reported occupational histories during the period 1 month before through 3 months after conception between OFC cases (n = 1,185) and unaffected controls (n = 2,832). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals for any (yes/no) and cumulative (no, low, high exposure) occupational cadmium exposures and all OFCs, cleft lip ± cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate (CP). Overall, 45 mothers (cases = 13, controls = 32) were rated as having occupational cadmium exposure. Comparing all OFCs to controls, we observed inverse, nonsignificant aORs for any or low exposure, and positive, nonsignificant aORs for high exposure. Where data were available, aORs for CL/P and CP tended to parallel those for all OFCs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to specifically examine maternal occupational cadmium exposure and OFCs, using expert rater exposure assessment. The small numbers of exposed mothers observed, however, led to imprecise estimates. Continued research using more detailed occupational exposure assessment and increased sample sizes is recommended. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Occupational exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in wood dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, C. K.; Schüpfer, P.; Boiteux, P.

    2009-02-01

    Sino-nasal cancer (SNC) represents approximately 3% of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology (ORL) cancers. Adenocarcinoma SNC is an acknowledged occupational disease affecting certain specialized workers such as joiners and cabinetmakers. The high proportion of woodworkers contracting a SNC, subjected to an estimated risk 50 to 100 times higher than that affecting the general population, has suggested various study paths to possible causes such as tannin in hardwood, formaldehyde in plywood and benzo(a)pyrene produced by wood when overheated by cutting tools. It is acknowledged that tannin does not cause cancer to workers exposed to tea dust. Apart from being an irritant, formaldehyde is also classified as carcinogenic. The path involving carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by overheated wood is attractive. In this study, we measured the particle size and PAHs content in dust emitted by the processing of wood in an experimental chamber, and in field situation. Quantification of 16 PAHs is carried out by capillary GC-ion trap Mass Spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The materials tested are rough fir tree, oak, impregnated polyurethane (PU) oak. The wood dust contains carcinogenic PAHs at the level of μg.g-1 or ppm. During sanding operations, the PU varnish-impregnated wood produces 100 times more PAHs in dust than the unfinished wood.

  13. Personal formaldehyde exposure level in the gross anatomy dissecting room at College of Medicine King Saud University Riyadh.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Muhammad Saeed

    2011-03-01

    This study was conducted to correlate the personal formaldehyde (FA) exposure levels of instructors and students with the indoor FA concentrations in gross anatomy laboratory at King Saud University. The personal FA levels of instructors and students are higher than the indoor FA concentration in the gross anatomy laboratory. The gross anatomy laboratory at college of medicine, King Saud University Riyadh, was observed for indoor FA concentration and the personal exposure levels of instructors and the medical students during the 4th, 10th and 14th weeks of the dissection sessions. All air samples were collected by the diffusive sampling device and analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The personal exposure level of FA was higher than the indoor concentration, and the personal exposure levels of instructors were higher than that of the students. The concentration of FA was also higher in the center of the room than the corners and near the doors. Both the indoor FA concentrations and personal FA exposure levels are higher near the dissecting table than at locations away from it during the gross anatomy laboratory sessions. Thus, the instructors and students are exposed to the higher concentration of FA than the general population.

  14. Cardiovascular conditions, hearing difficulty, and occupational noise exposure within US industries and occupations.

    PubMed

    Kerns, Ellen; Masterson, Elizabeth A; Themann, Christa L; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of occupational noise exposure, hearing difficulty and cardiovascular conditions within US industries and occupations, and to examine any associations of these outcomes with occupational noise exposure. National Health Interview Survey data from 2014 were examined. Weighted prevalence and adjusted prevalence ratios of self-reported hearing difficulty, hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and coronary heart disease or stroke were estimated by level of occupational noise exposure, industry, and occupation. Twenty-five percent of current workers had a history of occupational noise exposure (14% exposed in the last year), 12% had hearing difficulty, 24% had hypertension, 28% had elevated cholesterol; 58%, 14%, and 9% of these cases can be attributed to occupational noise exposure, respectively. Hypertension, elevated cholesterol, and hearing difficulty are more prevalent among noise-exposed workers. Reducing workplace noise levels is critical. Workplace-based health and wellness programs should also be considered. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Occupational exposures among nurses and risk of spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Christina C; Rocheleau, Carissa M; Whelan, Elizabeth A; Lividoti Hibert, Eileen N; Grajewski, Barbara; Spiegelman, Donna; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2012-04-01

    We investigated self-reported occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs, anesthetic gases, antiviral drugs, sterilizing agents (disinfectants), and X-rays and the risk of spontaneous abortion in US nurses. Pregnancy outcome and occupational exposures were collected retrospectively from 8461 participants of the Nurses' Health Study II. Of these, 7482 were eligible for analysis using logistic regression. Participants reported 6707 live births, and 775 (10%) spontaneous abortions (<20 weeks). After adjusting for age, parity, shift work, and hours worked, antineoplastic drug exposure was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of spontaneous abortion, particularly with early spontaneous abortion before the 12th week, and 3.5-fold increased risk among nulliparous women. Exposure to sterilizing agents was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of late spontaneous abortion (12-20 weeks), but not with early spontaneous abortion. This study suggests that certain occupational exposures common to nurses are related to risks of spontaneous abortion. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  16. [Occupational risk related to optical radiation exposure in construction workers].

    PubMed

    Gobba, F; Modenese, A

    2012-01-01

    Optical Radiation is a relevant occupational risk in construction workers, mainly as a consequence of the exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) component of solar radiation (SR). Available data show that UV occupational limits are frequently exceeded in these workers, resulting in an increased occupational risk of various acute and chronic effects, mainly to skin and to the eye. One of the foremost is the carcinogenic effect: SR is indeed included in Group 1 IARC (carcinogenic to humans). UV exposure is related to an increase of the incidence of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). The incidence of these tumors, especially CMM, is constantly increasing in Caucasians in the last 50 years. As a conclusion, an adequate evaluation of the occupational risk related to SR, and adequate preventive measures are essential in construction workers. The role of occupational physicians in prevention is fundamental.

  17. Occupational Risks and Exposures Among Wildlife Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Garland-Lewis, Gemina; Whittier, Christopher; Murray, Suzan; Trufan, Sally; Rabinowitz, Peter M

    2017-03-01

    Most emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic in origin, with wildlife a frequent source of zoonotic disease events. Although individuals with extensive wildlife contact may be at the greatest risk of contracting novel infectious agents, the occupational risk of those working closely with wildlife has not been well studied. This study assessed the occupational exposures among wildlife health professionals working in multiple countries worldwide. An occupational risk survey of past and present exposures was developed and administered online in a confidential manner to wildlife workers recruited through an ongoing international wildlife pathogen surveillance project. Surveys were completed by 71 participants in 14 countries. Significant lifetime exposures reported included bites from bats and rodents and touching dead animals. Completion of training in occupational safety was reported by 75% of respondents. While gloves were used for most tasks, use of N95 respirators and other personal protective equipment varied by task. Eighty percent of workers reported rabies vaccination. Some respondents indicated interest in enhanced occupational health services targeting their unique needs. Wildlife workers represent an occupational population at risk of zoonotic infection and injury. Enhanced occupational health services targeting wildlife workers could reduce the risk and sequelae of zoonotic exposure and infection.

  18. Six years after the NRC review of EPA's Draft IRIS Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde: Regulatory implications of new science in evaluating formaldehyde leukemogenicity.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Kenneth A; Gentry, P Robinan; Dell, Linda D; Rodricks, Joseph V; Boffetta, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    Shortly after the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) determined that formaldehyde causes leukemia, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its Draft IRIS Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde ("Draft IRIS Assessment"), also concluding that formaldehyde causes leukemia. Peer review of the Draft IRIS Assessment by a National Academy of Science committee noted that "causal determinations are not supported by the narrative provided in the draft" (NRC 2011). They offered recommendations for improving the Draft IRIS assessment and identified several important research gaps. Over the six years since the NRC peer review, significant new science has been published. We identify and summarize key recommendations made by NRC and map them to this new science, including extended analysis of epidemiological studies, updates of earlier occupational cohort studies, toxicological experiments using a sensitive mouse strain, mechanistic studies examining the role of exogenous versus endogenous formaldehyde in bone marrow, and several critical reviews. With few exceptions, new findings are consistently negative, and integration of all available evidence challenges the earlier conclusions that formaldehyde causes leukemia. Given formaldehyde's commercial importance, environmental ubiquity and endogenous production, accurate hazard classification and risk evaluation of whether exposure to formaldehyde from occupational, residential and consumer products causes leukemia are critical. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of combined exposure to formaldehyde and benzene on immune cells in the blood and spleen in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Wen, Huaxiao; Yuan, Langyue; Wei, Chenxi; Zhao, Yun; Qian, Yan; Ma, Ping; Ding, Shumao; Yang, Xu; Wang, Xianliang

    2016-07-01

    Formaldehyde and benzene are the two major indoor air pollutants due to their prevalence and toxicity. This study aimed to explore the toxic effect on the spleen and relevant immune responses of Balb/c mice caused by exposure to a combination of formaldehyde and benzene. Balb/c mice were divided randomly into five groups (n=9/group): blank control group (Ctrl); solvent ([corn] Oil) control; formaldehyde only (FA, 3mg/m(3)); benzene only (BZ, 150mg/kg BW); and, formaldehyde+benzene group (FA+BZ). Exposures were performed for 8h/day, 5 day/week, for 2 weeks. Tail blood was collected after the final exposure; 24-h later, the mice were euthanized to permit assessment of a variety of immune endpoints. The endpoints' three areas were: (1) in living mice, body weight and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses; (2) in blood, immune cell counts and serum antibody levels (serum hemagglutination); and, (3) in spleen samples, reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), caspase-3 (cell apoptosis) levels and lymphocyte proliferation. In this study we fund (1) BZ and FA+BZ exposure can lead to the reduction in the number of some immune cells in peripheral blood; (2) Formaldehyde has certain synergistic effects on benzene-induced cytotoxicity in peripheral blood, (3) FA, BZ and FA+BZ exposure can lead to ROS and GSH depletion in spleen cells, and spleen cell apoptosis (caspase-3 increased) may be one of the downstream events, decreased splenic lymphocyte proliferation; and (4) the FA+BZ combined exposure can lead to the decreased body weight, serum antibody level (by serum hemagglutination assay). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Occupational Sunlight Exposure and Risk of Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Stewart, Patricia; Rothman, Nathaniel; Hunting, Katherine L.; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Berndt, Sonja I.; Brennan, Paul; Chow, Wong-Ho; Moore, Lee E.; Zaridze, David; Mukeria, Anush; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helena; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Navritalova, Marie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mates, Dana; Gromiec, Jan P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent findings indicate that vitamin D obtained from ultraviolet (UV) exposure may reduce the risk of a number of different cancers. Vitamin D is metabolized to its active form within the kidney, the major organ for vitamin D metabolism and activity. Since both the incidence of renal cell cancer and prevalence of vitamin D deficiency have increased over the past few decades, this study sought to explore whether occupational UV exposure was associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk. Methods A hospital-based case-control study of 1,097 RCC cases and 1,476 controls was conducted in four Central and Eastern European countries. Demographic and occupational information was collected to examine the association between occupational UV exposure and RCC risk. Results A significant (24%-38%) reduction in RCC risk was observed with increasing occupational UV exposure among male participants. No association between UV exposure and RCC risk was observed among female participants. When analyses were stratified by latitude as another estimate of sunlight intensity, a stronger (71%-73%) reduction in RCC risk was observed between UV exposure and cancer risk among males residing at the highest latitudes. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that among males there is an inverse association between occupational UV exposure and renal cancer risk. Replication studies are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:20213683

  1. Investigation of occupational asthma: Do clinicians fail to identify relevant occupational exposures?

    PubMed Central

    de Olim, Carlo; Bégin, Denis; Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Cartier, André; Gérin, Michel; Lemière, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Specific inhalation challenges (SIC) enable the identification of the agent responsible of occupational asthma (OA). A clinician may fail to identify a specific agent in the workplace, which may potentially lead to a misdiagnosis. The expert assessment method performed by an occupational hygienist has been used to evaluate occupational exposures in epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVE: The broad aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of an expert assessment performed by an occupational hygienist to the diagnosis of OA. The specific aim was to compare work-place exposures identified by an occupational hygienist and by chest physicians in subjects with positive SICs and subjects with asthma, but with a negative SIC. METHODS: SICs were performed in 120 cases: 67 were positive and 53 were negative. A clinician assessed occupational exposures to sensitizers during a routine clinical evaluation preceding the performance of the SIC. An expert assessment of occupational exposures was performed by an occupational hygienist blind to the result of the SIC. RESULTS: The occupational hygienist identified the causal agent in 96.7% of the 61 cases of positive SIC. In 33 (62.3%) cases of negative SICs, the occupational hygienist identified ≥1 sensitizing agent(s) that had not been identified by the clinician. CONCLUSION: The hygienist identified the causal agent in almost all subjects with OA. In contrast, the clinician failed to identify potential exposures to sensitizers in >60% of the negative SIC subjects, which may have resulted in some subjects being misdiagnosed as not having OA. PMID:26422401

  2. Is exposure to formaldehyde in air causally associated with leukemia?—A hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rhomberg, Lorenz R; Bailey, Lisa A; Goodman, Julie E; Hamade, Ali K; Mayfield, David

    2011-01-01

    Recent scientific debate has focused on the potential for inhaled formaldehyde to cause lymphohematopoietic cancers, particularly leukemias, in humans. The concern stems from certain epidemiology studies reporting an association, although particulars of endpoints and dosimetry are inconsistent across studies and several other studies show no such effects. Animal studies generally report neither hematotoxicity nor leukemia associated with formaldehyde inhalation, and hematotoxicity studies in humans are inconsistent. Formaldehyde's reactivity has been thought to preclude systemic exposure following inhalation, and its apparent inability to reach and affect the target tissues attacked by known leukemogens has, heretofore, led to skepticism regarding its potential to cause human lymphohematopoietic cancers. Recently, however, potential modes of action for formaldehyde leukemogenesis have been hypothesized, and it has been suggested that formaldehyde be identified as a known human leukemogen. In this article, we apply our hypothesis-based weight-of-evidence (HBWoE) approach to evaluate the large body of evidence regarding formaldehyde and leukemogenesis, attending to how human, animal, and mode-of-action results inform one another. We trace the logic of inference within and across all studies, and articulate how one could account for the suite of available observations under the various proposed hypotheses. Upon comparison of alternative proposals regarding what causal processes may have led to the array of observations as we see them, we conclude that the case fora causal association is weak and strains biological plausibility. Instead, apparent association between formaldehyde inhalation and leukemia in some human studies is better interpreted as due to chance or confounding. PMID:21635189

  3. Epidemiologic evidence for asthma and exposure to air toxics: linkages between occupational, indoor, and community air pollution research.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, Ralph J

    2002-01-01

    Outdoor ambient air pollutant exposures in communities are relevant to the acute exacerbation and possibly the onset of asthma. However, the complexity of pollutant mixtures and etiologic heterogeneity of asthma has made it difficult to identify causal components in those mixtures. Occupational exposures associated with asthma may yield clues to causal components in ambient air pollution because such exposures are often identifiable as single-chemical agents (e.g., metal compounds). However, translating occupational to community exposure-response relationships is limited. Of the air toxics found to cause occupational asthma, only formaldehyde has been frequently investigated in epidemiologic studies of allergic respiratory responses to indoor air, where general consistency can be shown despite lower ambient exposures. The specific volatile organic compounds (VOCs) identified in association with occupational asthma are generally not the same as those in studies showing respiratory effects of VOC mixtures on nonoccupational adult and pediatric asthma. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposures linked to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) have proinflammatory effects on airways, but there is insufficient supporting evidence from the occupational literature of effects of DEPs on asthma or lung function. In contrast, nonoccupational epidemiologic studies have frequently shown associations between allergic responses or asthma with exposures to ambient air pollutant mixtures with PAH components, including black smoke, high home or school traffic density (particularly truck traffic), and environmental tobacco smoke. Other particle-phase and gaseous co-pollutants are likely causal in these associations as well. Epidemiologic research on the relationship of both asthma onset and exacerbation to air pollution is needed to disentangle effects of air toxics from monitored criteria air pollutants such as particle mass

  4. Occupational exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Esswein, Eric J; Breitenstein, Michael; Snawder, John; Kiefer, Max; Sieber, W Karl

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a previously uncharacterized occupational health hazard: work crew exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulic fracturing involves high pressure injection of large volumes of water and sand, and smaller quantities of well treatment chemicals, into a gas or oil well to fracture shale or other rock formations, allowing more efficient recovery of hydrocarbons from a petroleum-bearing reservoir. Crystalline silica ("frac sand") is commonly used as a proppant to hold open cracks and fissures created by hydraulic pressure. Each stage of the process requires hundreds of thousands of pounds of quartz-containing sand; millions of pounds may be needed for all zones of a well. Mechanical handling of frac sand creates respirable crystalline silica dust, a potential exposure hazard for workers. Researchers at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health collected 111 personal breathing zone samples at 11 sites in five states to evaluate worker exposures to respirable crystalline silica during hydraulic fracturing. At each of the 11 sites, full-shift samples exceeded occupational health criteria (e.g., the Occupational Safety and Health Administration calculated permissible exposure limit, the NIOSH recommended exposure limit, or the ACGIH threshold limit value), in some cases, by 10 or more times the occupational health criteria. Based on these evaluations, an occupational health hazard was determined to exist for workplace exposures to crystalline silica. Seven points of dust generation were identified, including sand handling machinery and dust generated from the work site itself. Recommendations to control exposures include product substitution (when feasible), engineering controls or modifications to sand handling machinery, administrative controls, and use of personal protective equipment. To our knowledge, this represents the first systematic study of work crew exposures to crystalline silica during

  5. Exposure-response relationships of occupational inhalative allergens.

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Chen, Z; Liebers, V

    1998-05-01

    Only a few threshold limit values exist at present for allergens in the workplace known to cause bronchial asthma. This contrasts with the great number of occupational asthma cases observed in industrialized countries. Recently published studies provide clear evidence for exposure intensity response relationships of occupational allergens of plant, microbiological, animal or man-made origin. If allergen exposure levels fall short of determined limit values, they are not associated with an increased risk of occupational asthma. Corresponding data are available for wheat flour (1-2.4 mg/m3), fungal alpha-amylase (0.25 ng/m3), natural rubber latex (0.6 ng/m3), western red cedar (0.4 mg/m3) and rat allergens (0.7 microg/m3). It is suggested to stipulate legally binding threshold limit values (TLV/TWA) on this basis in order to induce more effective primary preventive measures. If no reliable data on the health risk of an occupational airborne noxa exist, the lowest reasonably practicable exposure level has to be achieved. Appropriate secondary preventive measures have to be initiated in all workplaces contaminated with airborne allergens. Verified exposure-response relationships provide the basis for risk assessment and for targeted interventions to reduce the incidence of occupational asthma also in consideration of cost benefit aspects. 'Occupational asthma is a disease characterized by variable airflow limitation and/or airway hyperresponsiveness due to causes in a working environment. These causes can give rise to asthma through immunological or non-immunological mechanisms. Up to 15% of all asthma cases are of occupational origin or have at least a significant causal occupational factor. According to the New Zealand part of the European Respiratory Health Survey, an increased risk of asthma prevalence was found for several occupations such as laboratory technicians, food producers, chemical workers, plastic and rubber workers. The Spain part of this study

  6. [Cardiovascular risk, occupation and exposure to occupational carcinogens in a group of workers in Salamanca].

    PubMed

    González-Sánchez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Identify the cardiovascular risk factors in a group of workers in the province of Salamanca, protected by external prevention services, as regards exposure to occupational carcinogens, by sector of activity and gender. An observational descriptive epidemiological study was conducted. The sample selection was by stratified random sampling in each entity. The variables collected by questionnaire were, sociodemographic characteristics, exposure to occupational carcinogens, and cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes), using the clinical-work histories as a source of information. Statistically significant differences were observed in cardiovascular risk according to the exposure to occupational carcinogens (p <0.001), primarily among workers in the industry sector. A total of 32% of the workers in the province of Salamanca was exposed to some occupational carcinogen. Women were more exposed in the service sector and men in the agriculture and livestock sector. Nearly one third of the workers belonging to the external prevention services of the province of Salamanca, were exposed to some kind of occupational carcinogens. The most frequent being biological risks, solvent products, and silica, which were above the national mean of exposure. It is important to consider the exposure to occupational carcinogens in the implementation of interventions in the prevention of cardiovascular risk in the work place. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. [Hygiene and legal aspects of occupational exposure assessment to cytostatics].

    PubMed

    Kupczewska-Dobecka, Małgorzata; Pałaszewska-Tkacz, Anna; Czerczak, Sławomir; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The employers responsibilities for the assessment of occupational exposure to cytostatics in the workplace were analyzed in the light of existing legal regulations. Cytostatics may pose a threat to health and life of workers taking care of patients treated oncologically, i.e., pharmacists, physicians, nurses and other personnel. The significant scale of occupational exposure to cytostatics in Poland is confirmed by the data collected in the Central Register of Data on Exposure to Carcinogenic or Mutagenic Substances, Mixtures, Agents or Technological Processes, maintained by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, Poland. The issue of occupational risk assessment of exposure to cytostatics gives raise to numerous concerns. Polish regulations concerning health protection of employees occupationally exposed to cytostatics are not unequivocal, as they are derived from different areas of the law, especially those applying to hazard classification, labeling and preparation of safety data sheets for cytostatics. There are neither binding occupational exposure limits legally set for active compounds of antineoplastic drugs nor methods for monitoring of these substances concentrations in a worker's breathing zone and biological material. This prevents the employer to carry out the correct assessment of occupational exposure, the results of which are the basis for preparing the proper preventive strategy. In this article the consequences of amendments to the European chemical legislation for employers responsible for adequate protection of health and life of employees exposed to cytostatics, were discussed, as well as some legal changes aimed at a better health and life protection of workers exposed to cytostatics in a workplace were proposed. Med Pr 2018;69(1):77-92. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. Neurotoxicity in Preclinical Models of Occupational Exposure to Organophosphorus Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Voorhees, Jaymie R.; Rohlman, Diane S.; Lein, Pamela J.; Pieper, Andrew A.

    2017-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OPs) compounds are widely used as insecticides, plasticizers, and fuel additives. These compounds potently inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme that inactivates acetylcholine at neuronal synapses, and acute exposure to high OP levels can cause cholinergic crisis in humans and animals. Evidence further suggests that repeated exposure to lower OP levels insufficient to cause cholinergic crisis, frequently encountered in the occupational setting, also pose serious risks to people. For example, multiple epidemiological studies have identified associations between occupational OP exposure and neurodegenerative disease, psychiatric illness, and sensorimotor deficits. Rigorous scientific investigation of the basic science mechanisms underlying these epidemiological findings requires valid preclinical models in which tightly-regulated exposure paradigms can be correlated with neurotoxicity. Here, we review the experimental models of occupational OP exposure currently used in the field. We found that animal studies simulating occupational OP exposures do indeed show evidence of neurotoxicity, and that utilization of these models is helping illuminate the mechanisms underlying OP-induced neurological sequelae. Still, further work is necessary to evaluate exposure levels, protection methods, and treatment strategies, which taken together could serve to modify guidelines for improving workplace conditions globally. PMID:28149268

  9. Neurotoxicity in Preclinical Models of Occupational Exposure to Organophosphorus Compounds.

    PubMed

    Voorhees, Jaymie R; Rohlman, Diane S; Lein, Pamela J; Pieper, Andrew A

    2016-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OPs) compounds are widely used as insecticides, plasticizers, and fuel additives. These compounds potently inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the enzyme that inactivates acetylcholine at neuronal synapses, and acute exposure to high OP levels can cause cholinergic crisis in humans and animals. Evidence further suggests that repeated exposure to lower OP levels insufficient to cause cholinergic crisis, frequently encountered in the occupational setting, also pose serious risks to people. For example, multiple epidemiological studies have identified associations between occupational OP exposure and neurodegenerative disease, psychiatric illness, and sensorimotor deficits. Rigorous scientific investigation of the basic science mechanisms underlying these epidemiological findings requires valid preclinical models in which tightly-regulated exposure paradigms can be correlated with neurotoxicity. Here, we review the experimental models of occupational OP exposure currently used in the field. We found that animal studies simulating occupational OP exposures do indeed show evidence of neurotoxicity, and that utilization of these models is helping illuminate the mechanisms underlying OP-induced neurological sequelae. Still, further work is necessary to evaluate exposure levels, protection methods, and treatment strategies, which taken together could serve to modify guidelines for improving workplace conditions globally.

  10. Occupational exposure to organic solvents and sleep-disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Ulfberg, J; Carter, N; Talbäck, M; Edling, C

    1997-01-01

    To investigate whether people with occupational exposure to organic solvents have a higher prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) than the general population and to examine the relationship between snoring and exposure to organic solvents. Consecutive patients, aged 30-64 years, referred during a 3-year period to the sleep laboratory at Avesta Hospital, Sweden, because of suspected OSAS made up the patient groups. Following admission, patients underwent a simplified sleep apnea investigation and were divided into two groups, OSAS (n = 320) and snorers (n = 443). A random sample of 296 men and 289 women aged 30-64 years obtained from a register of all country residents maintained by the county tax authority served as referents (controls). Both patients and referents responded to two questionnaires, including questions about occupation, exposure to organic solvents, and other chemical and physical agents. Men with OSAS or snoring and women with snoring had more often been occupationally exposed to organic solvents than the referents, showing an almost twofold increase in risk for those exposed during whole workdays. For men, the risk of OSAS or snoring increased with increasing exposure. The result indicates that occupational exposure to organic solvents might cause sleep apnea. A new observation is that even snoring could be caused by exposure to organic solvents. It is important to elucidate whether exposure to organic solvents is a cause of OSAS, because such a finding may have important implications for prevention and treatment of sleep disturbances.

  11. Occupational exposure to carcinogens: Benzene, pesticides and fibers

    PubMed Central

    Falzone, Luca; Marconi, Andrea; Loreto, Carla; Franco, Sabrina; Spandidos, Demetrios A.; Libra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the occupational exposure to contaminants and carcinogens leads to the development of cancer in exposed workers. In the 18th century, Percivall Pott was the first to hypothesize that chronic exposure to dust in the London chimney sweeps was associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. Subsequently a growing body of evidence indicated that other physical factors were also responsible for oncogenic mutations. Over the past decades, many carcinogens have been found in the occupational environment and their presence is often associated with an increased incidence of cancer. Occupational exposure involves several factors and the association between carcinogens, occupational exposure and cancer is still unclear. Only a fraction of factors is recognized as occupational carcinogens and for each factor, there is an increased risk of cancer development associated with a specific work activity. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the majority of carcinogens are classified as ‘probable’ and ‘possible’ human carcinogens, while, direct evidence of carcinogenicity is provided in epidemiological and experimental studies. In the present review, exposures to benzene, pesticides and mineral fibers are discussed as the most important cancer risk factors during work activities. PMID:27748850

  12. Occupational exposure to carcinogens: Benzene, pesticides and fibers (Review).

    PubMed

    Falzone, Luca; Marconi, Andrea; Loreto, Carla; Franco, Sabrina; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Libra, Massimo

    2016-11-01

    It is well known that the occupational exposure to contaminants and carcinogens leads to the development of cancer in exposed workers. In the 18th century, Percivall Pott was the first to hypothesize that chronic exposure to dust in the London chimney sweeps was associated with an increased risk of developing cancer. Subsequently a growing body of evidence indicated that other physical factors were also responsible for oncogenic mutations. Over the past decades, many carcinogens have been found in the occupational environment and their presence is often associated with an increased incidence of cancer. Occupational exposure involves several factors and the association between carcinogens, occupational exposure and cancer is still unclear. Only a fraction of factors is recognized as occupational carcinogens and for each factor, there is an increased risk of cancer development associated with a specific work activity. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the majority of carcinogens are classified as 'probable' and 'possible' human carcinogens, while, direct evidence of carcinogenicity is provided in epidemiological and experimental studies. In the present review, exposures to benzene, pesticides and mineral fibers are discussed as the most important cancer risk factors during work activities.

  13. Formaldehyde exposure in gross anatomy laboratory of Suranaree University of Technology: a comparison of area and personal sampling.

    PubMed

    Saowakon, Naruwan; Ngernsoungnern, Piyada; Watcharavitoon, Pornpun; Ngernsoungnern, Apichart; Kosanlavit, Rachain

    2015-12-01

    Cadavers are usually preserved by embalming solution which is composed of formaldehyde (FA), phenol, and glycerol. Therefore, medical students and instructors have a higher risk of exposure to FA inhalation from cadavers during dissection. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the FA exposure in indoor air and breathing zone of medical students and instructors during dissection classes in order to investigate the relationship between them. The indoor air and personal air samples in breathing zone were collected three times during anatomy dissection classes (in January, August, and October of 2014) with sorbent tubes, which were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The air cleaner machines were determined by weight measurement. Pulmonary function tests and irritation effects were also investigated. The mean of FA concentrations ranged from 0.117 to 0.415 ppm in the indoor air and from 0.126 to 1.176 ppm in the breathing zone of students and instructors. All the personal exposure data obtained exceeded the threshold limit of NIOSH and WHO agencies. The air cleaner machines were not significant difference. The pulmonary function of instructors showed a decrease during attention of classes and statistically significant decreasing in the instructors more than those of the students. Clinical symptoms that were observed in nose and eyes were irritations with general fatigue. We suggested that the modified exhaust ventilation and a locally ventilated dissection work table were considered for reducing FA levels in the gross anatomy dissection room.

  14. Effect of an ozone-generating air-purifying device on reducing concentrations of formaldehyde in air

    SciTech Connect

    Esswein, E.J.; Boeniger, M.F.

    1994-02-01

    Formaldehyde, an air contaminant found in many indoor air investigations, poses distinct occupational exposure hazards in certain job categories (e.g., mortuary science) but is also of concern when found or suspected in office buildings and homes. A variety of air-purifying devices (APDs) are currently available or marketed for application to reduce or remove concentrations of a variety of indoor air pollutants through the use of ozone as a chemical oxidant. An investigation was conducted to determine if concentrations of formaldehyde similar to those found in industrial hygiene evaluations of funeral homes could be reduced with the use of an ozone-generatingmore » APD. An ozone-generating APD was placed in an exposure chamber and formaldehyde-containing embalming solution was allowed to evaporate naturally, creating peak and mean chamber concentrations of 2.5 and 1.3 ppm, respectively. Continuous-reading instruments were used to sample for formaldehyde and ozone. Active sampling methods were also used to sample simultaneously for formaldehyde and a possible reactant product, formic acid. Triplicate measurements were made in each of three evaluations: formaldehyde alone, ozone alone, and formaldehyde and ozone combined. Concentrations of formaldehyde were virtually identical with and without 0.5 ppm ozone. No reduction in formaldehyde concentration was found during a 90-minute evaluation using ozone at this concentration with peak and average concentrations of approximately 2.5 and 1.3 ppm formaldehyde, respectively. The results of this investigation suggest that the use of ozone is ineffective in reducing concentrations of formaldehyde. Because ozone has demonstrated health hazards, and is a regulated air contaminant in both the occupational and ambient environment, the use of ozone as an air purification agent in indoor air does not seem warranted. 25 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  15. Acute hexogen poisoning after occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Testud, F; Glanclaude, J M; Descotes, J

    1996-01-01

    Hexogen (cyclonite, RDX) nitrate explosive is an infrequent cause of poisoning. A 42-year-old man with no prior history of epilepsy experienced grand mal seizures after sieving fine hexogen (RDX) powder for four hours in an ammunition plant. Physical examination was normal on arrival at the emergency room but recurrent seizures occurred six hour after admission. EEG, CT scan and MRI were normal and the patient recovered uneventfully. The available toxicological data on this rare occupational poisoning are reviewed.

  16. Occupational PAH exposures during prescribed pile burns.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M S; Anthony, T R; Littau, S R; Herckes, P; Nelson, X; Poplin, G S; Burgess, J L

    2008-08-01

    Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and PAH exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal PAH exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 PAHs analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase PAHs were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 PAHs analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 microg m(-3). The total PAH/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 +/- 0.15) than ignition (0.55 +/- 0.04 microg mg(-1)). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, PAH exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a PAH metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements.

  17. Occupational Ocular UV Exposure in Civilian Aircrew.

    PubMed

    Chorley, Adrian C; Baczynska, Katarzyna A; Benwell, Martin J; Evans, Bruce J W; Higlett, Michael P; Khazova, Marina; O'Hagan, John B

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) increases with altitude; however, there are a number of other factors which may influence ocular exposure during flight. The aim of this study was to assess ocular UVR exposure of pilots in airline and off-shore helicopter operations on different aircraft types and to compare with exposure in a typical office environment. In-flight data were captured on equipment including a CCD array spectroradiometer on five return sector European airline flights and one transatlantic flight from London Gatwick in addition to four helicopter flights from Aberdeen Dyce airport. Further data were collected in an office environment from three workstations during summer and winter months. A wide variation in ocular UVA dose was found during flights. The main factor influencing exposure was the UVR transmission of the windshield, which fell into two distinct profile types. In an aircraft with good UVA blocking properties, ocular exposure was found to be equivalent to office exposure and did not exceed international guideline limits regardless of external conditions or flight time. Most aircraft assessed had poor UVA blocking windshields which resulted in an ocular exposure to the unprotected eye in excess of international guideline limits (up to between 4.5 to 6.5 times greater during one flight). No significant UVB dose was found. Pilots should be warned of the potential high UVA exposure during flight and advised on the use of sunglasses. A windshield labeling system would allow the pilot to tailor their eye protection practices to that particular aircraft.

  18. Occupational heat exposure among municipal workers.

    PubMed

    Uejio, Christopher K; Morano, Laurel Harduar; Jung, Jihoon; Kintziger, Kristina; Jagger, Meredith; Chalmers, Juanita; Holmes, Tisha

    2018-06-05

    Outdoor workers face elevated and prolonged heat exposures and have limited access to air-conditioned spaces. This study's overarching research aim is to increase knowledge of municipal worker heat exposure and adaptation practices. The study's sub-objectives are: (1) quantifying exposure misclassification from estimating personal heat exposure from the official weather station; (2) surveying worker's knowledge and practices to adapt to extreme heat; and (3) relating heat exposure and adaptation practices to self-reported thermal comfort. Participants wore a personal heat exposure sensor over 7 days from June 1st to July 3rd, 2015 in Tallahassee, Florida US. Next, participants confirmed the days that they wore the sensor and reported their daily thermal comfort and heat adaptations. Finally, participants completed an extreme heat knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey. Some participants (37%) experienced hotter and more humid conditions (heat index > 2) than the weather station. The most common heat adaptations were staying hydrated (85%), wearing a hat (46%), and seeking shade (40%). During work hours, higher temperatures increased the odds (odds ratio: 1.21, 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.41, p = 0.016) of a participant feeling too hot. Shifting work duty indoors made workers to feel more comfortable (odds ratio: 0.28, 95% confidence interval: 0.11-0.70, p = 0.005). In hot and humid climates, everyday, heat exposures continuously challenge the health of outdoor workers.

  19. Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents.

    PubMed

    Hicks, N; Zack, M; Caldwell, G G; Fernbach, D J; Falletta, J M

    1984-04-15

    To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affects his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries with potential ionizing radiation exposure. Bone cancer and Wilms' tumor occurred more frequently among children of fathers in all industries with moderate potential ionizing radiation exposure. Children with cancer more often had fathers who were aircraft mechanics (odds ratio (OR) = infinity, one-sided 95% lower limit = 1.5; P = 0.04). Although four of these six were military aircraft mechanics, only children whose fathers had military jobs with potential ionizing radiation exposure had an increased cancer risk (OR = 2.73; P = 0.01). Four cancer types occurred more often among children of fathers in specific radiation-related occupations: rhabdomyosarcoma among children whose fathers were petroleum industry foremen; retinoblastoma among children whose fathers were radio and television repairmen; central nervous system cancers and other lymphatic cancers among children of Air Force fathers. Because numbers of case fathers are small and confidence limits are broad, the associations identified by this study need to be confirmed in other studies. Better identification and gradation of occupational exposure to radiation would increase the sensitivity to detect associations.

  20. National guidelines on management of occupational exposure to HIV.

    PubMed

    Rewari, B B; Negi, Shivi

    2009-05-01

    During patient care, the healthcare personnel are at risk of infection of blood-borne pathogens (HIV, HBV, HCV) which is referred to as occupational exposure. Exposure to blood, semen, vaginal secretions, CSF, synovial, pleural, peritoneal, pericardial fluid, amniotic fluid and other body fluids contaminated with visible blood can lead to infection. Steps which are to be followed after occupational exposure are: (1) Step I : First aid following the exposure. (2) Step 2: Establish eligibility for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). (3) Step 3: Counselling for PEP. (4) Step 4: Prescribe PEP. (5) HIV chemoprophylaxis. (6) Step 6: Follow-up of an exposed person. In order to get timely prophylactic therapy, PEP drugs should be kept available round-the-clock in at least three locations, casualty, ICU and labour room. Every hospital should have a written protocol and SOP for handling occupational exposure. NACO is in the process of launching a national HIV PEP Registry for capturing the cases of occupational exposure to HIV more effectively.

  1. Impact of climate change on occupational exposure to solar radiation.

    PubMed

    Grandi, Carlo; Borra, Massimo; Militello, Andrea; Polichetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Occupational exposure to solar radiation may induce both acute and long-term effects on skin and eyes. Personal exposure is very difficult to assess accurately, as it depends on environmental, organisational and individual factors. The ongoing climate change interacting with stratospheric ozone dynamics may affect occupational exposure to solar radiation. In addition, tropospheric levels of environmental pollutants interacting with solar radiation may be altered by climate dynamics, so introducing another variable affecting the overall exposure to solar radiation. Given the uncertainties regarding the direction of changes in exposure to solar radiation due to climate change, compliance of outdoor workers with protective measures and a proper health surveillance are crucial. At the same time, education and training, along with the promotion of healthier lifestyles, are of paramount importance.

  2. Climate change: the potential impact on occupational exposure to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Maria Pia; Cabella, Renato; Gherardi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the possible influence of global climate change (GCC) on exposure to plant protection products (PPP) in the workplace. The paper has evaluated the main potential relationships between GCC and occupational exposure to pesticides, by highlighting how global warming might affect their future use and by reviewing its possible consequence on workers' exposure. Global warming, influencing the spatial and temporal distribution and proliferation of weeds, the impact of already present insect pests and pathogens and the introduction of new infesting species, could cause a changed use of pesticides in terms of higher amounts, doses and types of products applied, so influencing the human exposure to them during agricultural activities. GCC, in particular heat waves, may also potentially have impact on workers' susceptibility to pesticides absorption. Prevention policies of health in the workplace must be ready to address new risks from occupational exposure to pesticide, presumably different from current risks, since an increased use may be expected.

  3. Designing exposure registries for improved tracking of occupational exposure and disease.

    PubMed

    Arrandale, Victoria H; Bornstein, Stephen; King, Andrew; Takaro, Timothy K; Demers, Paul A

    2016-06-27

    Registries are one strategy for collecting information on occupational exposure and disease in populations. Recently leaders in the Canadian occupational health and safety community have shown an interest in the use of occupational exposure registries. The primary goal of this study was to review a series of Canadian exposure registries to identify their strengths and weaknesses as a tool for tracking occupational exposure and disease in Canada. A secondary goal was to identify the features of an exposure registry needed to specifically contribute to prevention, including the identification of new exposure-disease relationships. A documentary review of five exposure registries from Canada was completed. Strengths and limitations of the registries were compared and key considerations for designing new registries were identified. The goals and structure of the exposure registries varied considerably. Most of the reviewed registries had voluntary registration, which presents challenges for the use of the data for either surveillance or epidemiology. It is recommended that eight key issues be addressed when planning new registries: clear registry goal(s), a definition of exposure, data to be collected (and how it will be used), whether enrolment will be mandatory, as well as ethical, privacy and logistical considerations. When well constructed, an exposure registry can be a valuable tool for surveillance, epidemiology and ultimately the prevention of occupational disease. However, exposure registries also have a number of actual and potential limitations that need to be considered.

  4. Occupational Skin Hazards From Ultraviolet (UV) Exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, F.; Wolbarsht, M. L.

    1980-10-01

    The various types of UV effects on the skin are classified according to the part of the spectrum and their beneficial or deleterious nature. Some hazardous ultraviolet sources used in industrial processes are described, and examples of photoallergy, phototoxicity, and photosensitization resulting from UV exposures are given. The incidence of skin cancer as a function of geographical location and exposure to sunlight is discussed in relation to natural and artificial exposures to long and short wavelength UV, especially in connection with tanning booths. The conclusion is reached that there is enough ultraviolet in a normal environment to propose a hazard, and additional ultraviolet exposure from industrial or consumer sources is not necessary, and should be eliminated wherever possible.

  5. Occupational Skin Hazards From Ultraviolet (UV) Exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, F.; Wolbarsht, M. L.

    1981-11-01

    The various types of UV effects on the skin are classified according to the part of the spectrum and their beneficial or deleterious nature. Some hazardous ultraviolet sources used in industrial processes are described, and examples of photoallergy, phototoxicity, and photosensitization resulting from UV exposures are given. The incidence of skin cancer as a function of geographical location and exposure to sunlight is discussed in relation to natural and artificial exposures to long and short wavelength UV, especially in connection with tanning booths. The conclusion is reached that there is enough ultraviolet in a normal environment to propose a hazard, and additional ultraviolet exposure from industrial or consumer sources is not necessary, and should be eliminated wherever possible.

  6. Developing regulations for occupational exposures to health hazards in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Mohd Nizam, J

    2006-11-01

    In Malaysia exposures in the workplace are regulated under the Factories and Machinery Act (FMA), 1967 and also under the more comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) enacted in 1994. With OSHA 1994 the philosophy of legislating safety and health in the workplace changed from one that was very prescriptive and containing detailed technical provisions under FMA, 1967 to one that is more flexible and encourages self-regulation under OSHA 1994. OSHA 1994 is supported by regulations, codes of practices and guidelines to further clarify the provisions in the Act. Under the FMA 1967 emphasis was on safety while with OSHA 1994 there has been equal emphasis on addressing health hazards in the workplace. Regulations for occupational exposures are developed by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health with tripartite and stakeholder consultation. When developing these regulations International Labor Organization Conventions, laws of other countries and occupational exposure standards adopted internationally are reviewed. The government also conducts surveys to collect information on both exposures and health effects in workplaces to have better understanding on specific occupational health problems. Effective law enforcement is crucial in ensuring compliance to safety and health law. The challenge at the moment is to ensure all employers and employees, particularly those in the small and medium enterprises, understand and comply with the provisions stipulated in the legislation.

  7. Occupational PAH Exposures during Prescribed Pile Burns

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, M. S.; Anthony, T. R.; Littau, S. R.; Herckes, P.; Nelson, X.; Poplin, G. S.; Burgess, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Wildland firefighters are exposed to particulate matter and gases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many of which are known carcinogens. Our objective was to evaluate the extent of firefighter exposure to particulate and PAHs during prescribed pile burns of mainly ponderosa pine slash and determine whether these exposures were correlated with changes in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP), a PAH metabolite. Personal and area sampling for particulate and PAH exposures were conducted on the White Mountain Apache Tribe reservation, working with 21 Bureau of Indian Affairs/Fort Apache Agency wildland firefighters during the fall of 2006. Urine samples were collected pre- and post-exposure and pulmonary function was measured. Personal PAH exposures were detectable for only 3 of 16 PAHs analyzed: naphthalene, phenanthrene, and fluorene, all of which were identified only in vapor-phase samples. Condensed-phase PAHs were detected in PM2.5 area samples (20 of 21 PAHs analyzed were detected, all but naphthalene) at concentrations below 1 μg m−3. The total PAH/PM2.5 mass fractions were roughly a factor of two higher during smoldering (1.06 ± 0.15) than ignition (0.55 ± 0.04 μg mg−1). There were no significant changes in urinary 1-HP or pulmonary function following exposure to pile burning. In summary, PAH exposures were low in pile burns, and urinary testing for a PAH metabolite failed to show a significant difference between baseline and post-exposure measurements. PMID:18515848

  8. Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (NOSQ-2002): a new tool for surveying occupational skin diseases and exposure.

    PubMed

    Susitaival, P; Flyvholm, M-A; Meding, B; Kanerva, L; Lindberg, M; Svensson, A; Olafsson, J H

    2003-08-01

    Occupational skin diseases are among the most frequent work-related diseases in industrialized countries. Good occupational skin disease statistics exist in few countries. Questionnaire studies are needed to get more data on the epidemiology of occupational skin diseases. The Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire Group has developed a new questionnaire tool - Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire (NOSQ-2002) - for surveys on work-related skin disease and exposures to environmental factors. The 2 NOSQ-2002 questionnaires have been compiled by using existing questionnaires and experience. NOSQ-2002/SHORT is a ready-to-use 4-page questionnaire for screening and monitoring occupational skin diseases, e.g. in a population or workplace. All the questions in the short questionnaire (NOSQ-2002/SHORT) are included in the long version, NOSQ-2002/LONG, which contains a pool of questions to be chosen according to research needs and tailored to specific populations. The NOSQ-2002 report includes, in addition to the questionnaires, a comprehensive manual for researchers on planning and conducting a questionnaire survey on hand eczema and relevant exposures. NOSQ-2002 questionnaires have been compiled in English and translated into Danish, Swedish, Finnish and Icelandic. The use of NOSQ-2002 will benefit research on occupational skin diseases by providing more standardized data, which can be compared between studies and countries.

  9. Wood-related occupations, wood dust exposure, and sinonasal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hayes, R B; Gerin, M; Raatgever, J W; de Bruyn, A

    1986-10-01

    A case-control study was conducted to examine the relations between type of woodworking and the extent of wood dust exposure to the risks for specific histologic types of sinonasal cancer. In cooperation with the major treatment centers in the Netherlands, 116 male patients newly diagnosed between 1978 and 1981 with primary malignancies of epithelial origin of this site were identified for study. Living controls were selected from the municipal registries, and deceased controls were selected from the national death registry. Interviews were completed for 91 (78%) cases and 195 (75%) controls. Job histories were coded by industry and occupation. An index of exposure was developed to classify the extent of occupational exposure to wood dust. When necessary, adjustment was made for age and usual cigarette use. The risk for nasal adenocarcinoma was elevated by industry for the wood and paper industry (odds ratio (OR) = 11.9) and by occupation for those employed in furniture and cabinet making (OR = 139.8), in factory joinery and carpentry work (OR = 16.3), and in association with high-level wood dust exposure (OR = 26.3). Other types of nasal cancer were not found to be associated with wood-related industries or occupations. A moderate excess in risk for squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.5) was associated with low-level wood dust exposure; however, no dose-response relation was evident. The association between wood dust and adenocarcinoma was strongest for those employed in wood dust-related occupations between 1930 and 1941. The risk of adenocarcinoma did not appear to decrease for at least 15 years after termination of exposure to wood dust. No cases of nasal adenocarcinoma were observed in men whose first exposure to wood dust occurred after 1941.

  10. Diesel Engine Exhaust: Basis for Occupational Exposure Limit Value.

    PubMed

    Taxell, Piia; Santonen, Tiina

    2017-08-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in transport and power supply, making occupational exposure to diesel exhaust common. Both human and animal studies associate exposure to diesel exhaust with inflammatory lung effects, cardiovascular effects, and an increased risk of lung cancer. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated diesel exhaust as carcinogenic to humans. Yet national or regional limit values for controlling occupational exposure to diesel exhaust are rare. In recent decades, stricter emission regulations have led to diesel technologies evolving significantly, resulting in changes in exhaust emissions and composition. These changes are also expected to influence the health effects of diesel exhaust. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on the health effects of diesel exhaust and the influence of new diesel technologies on the health risk. It discusses the relevant exposure indicators and perspectives for setting occupational exposure limit values for diesel exhaust, and outlines directions for future research. The review is based on a collaborative evaluation report by the Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and the Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Biomonitoring of styrene occupational exposures: Biomarkers and determinants.

    PubMed

    Persoons, Renaud; Richard, Justine; Herve, Claire; Montlevier, Sarah; Marques, Marie; Maitre, Anne

    2018-06-22

    High styrene exposures are still experienced in various occupational settings, requesting regular exposure assessments. The aims of this study were to study occupational exposures in various industrial sectors and to determine factors influencing styrene urinary metabolites levels. Biomonitoring was conducted in 141 workers from fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) manufacture, thermoplastic polymers production, vehicle repair shops and cured-in-place pipe lining (CIPP). Urinary styrene (StyU) as well as Mandelic (MA) / Phenyglyoxylic Acids (PGA) were quantified at the beginning and at the end of week, and multivariate linear regression models were used. StyU levels revealed very low, rarely exceeding 3 µg.L -1 . Highest concentrations of MA + PGA were observed in FRP sector, with levels reaching up to 1100 mg.g -1 of creatinine. Factors influencing end-of-week MA + PGA concentrations were levels at the beginning of week, open molding processes, proximity to the emission source, respiratory protection, styrene content in raw materials. Elevated levels were also observed during CIPP process, whereas thermoplastic injection and vehicle repair shop workers exhibited much lower exposures. Intervention on process (decreasing styrene proportion, using closed molding), protective equipment (local exhaust ventilation, respiratory protection) and individual practices (stringent safety rules) are expected to decrease occupational exposures. Urinary MA + PGA remain the most appropriate biomarkers for occupational biomonitoring. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Measured occupational solar UVR exposures of lifeguards in pool settings.

    PubMed

    Gies, Peter; Glanz, Karen; O'Riordan, David; Elliott, Tom; Nehl, Eric

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to measure ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposures of lifeguards in pool settings and evaluate their personal UVR protective practices. Lifeguards (n = 168) wore UVR sensitive polysulfone (PS) film badges in wrist bracelets on 2 days and completed a survey and diary covering sun protection use. Analyses were used to describe sun exposure and sun protection practices, to compare UVR exposure across locations, and to compare findings with recommended threshold limits for occupational exposure. The measured UVR exposures varied with location, ranging from high median UVR exposures of 6.2 standard erythemal doses (SEDs) to the lowest median of 1.7 SEDs. More than 74% of the lifeguards' PS badges showed UVR above recommended threshold limits for occupational exposure. Thirty-nine percent received more than four times the limit and 65% of cases were sufficient to induce sunburn. The most common protective behaviors were wearing sunglasses and using sunscreen, but sun protection was often inadequate. At-risk individuals were exposed to high levels of UVR in excess of occupational limits and though appropriate types of sun protection were used, it was not used consistently and more than 50% of lifeguards reported being sunburnt at least twice during the previous year.

  13. Measured Occupational Solar UVR Exposures of Lifeguards in Pool Settings

    PubMed Central

    Gies, Peter; Glanz, Karen; O’Riordan, David; Elliott, Tom; Nehl, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to measure ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposures of lifeguards in pool settings and evaluate their personal UVR protective practices. Methods Lifeguards (n = 168) wore UVR sensitive polysulfone (PS) film badges in wrist bracelets on 2 days and completed a survey and diary covering sun protection use. Analyses were used to describe sun exposure and sun protection practices, to compare UVR exposure across locations, and to compare findings with recommended threshold limits for occupational exposure. Results The measured UVR exposures varied with location, ranging from high median UVR exposures of 6.2 standard erythemal doses (SEDs) to the lowest median of 1.7 SEDs. More than 74% of the lifeguards’ PS badges showed UVR above recommended threshold limits for occupational exposure. Thirty-nine percent received more than four times the limit and 65% of cases were sufficient to induce sunburn. The most common protective behaviors were wearing sunglasses and using sunscreen, but sun protection was often inadequate. Conclusions At-risk individuals were exposed to high levels of UVR in excess of occupational limits and though appropriate types of sun protection were used, it was not used consistently and more than 50% of lifeguards reported being sunburnt at least twice during the previous year. PMID:19572325

  14. SPERM COUNT, MORPHOLOGY AND FLUORESCENT BODY FREQUENCY IN AUTOPSY SERVICE WORKERS EXPOSED TO FORMALDEHYDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of a battery of genetic monitoring tests to detect occupational formaldehyde exposure in a population of a hospital autopsy service workers was investigated. Eleven exposed individuals and 11 matched controls were evaluated for sperm count, abnormal sperm morphology a...

  15. Dupuytren's contracture and occupational exposure to hand-transmitted vibration

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Keith T; D'Angelo, Stefania; Syddall, Holly; Griffin, Michael J; Cooper, Cyrus; Coggon, David

    2014-01-01

    Aims The relation between Dupuytren's contracture and occupational exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV) has frequently been debated. We explored associations in a representative national sample of workers with well-characterised exposure to HTV. Methods We mailed a questionnaire to 21 201 subjects aged 16–64 years, selected at random from the age-sex registers of 34 general practices in Great Britain and to 993 subjects chosen randomly from military pay records, asking about occupational exposure to 39 sources of HTV and about fixed flexion contracture of the little or ring finger. Analysis was restricted to men at work in the previous week. Estimates were made of average daily vibration dose (A(8) root mean squared velocity (rms)) over that week. Associations with Dupuytren's contracture were estimated by Poisson regression, for lifetime exposure to HTV and for exposures in the past week >A(8) of 2.8 ms−2 rms. Estimates of relative risk (prevalence ratio (PR)) were adjusted for age, smoking status, social class and certain manual activities at work. Results In all 4969 eligible male respondents supplied full information on the study variables. These included 72 men with Dupuytren's contracture, 2287 with occupational exposure to HTV and 409 with A(8)>2.8 ms−2 in the past week. PRs for occupational exposure to HTV were elevated 1.5-fold. For men with an A(8)>2.8 ms−2 in the past week, the adjusted PR was 2.85 (95% CI 1.37 to 5.97). Conclusions Our findings suggest that risk of Dupuytren's contracture is more than doubled in men with high levels of weekly exposure to HTV. PMID:24449599

  16. Occupational exposure to HIV: a conflict situation for health workers.

    PubMed

    Kumakech, E; Achora, S; Berggren, V; Bajunirwe, F

    2011-12-01

    To determine the frequency of occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the circumstances and predisposing factors, the high-risk groups, the extent to which exposures are reported and the post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) utilized by health-care workers (HCWs) and students in a Ugandan hospital. Occupational exposure to HIV is a low but potential risk of HIV infection to health workers. Self-administered questionnaire was given to 224 participants (including 98 HCWs and 126 students) in Mbarara Hospital, Uganda. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 15.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). Of the 224 participants surveyed, 19.2% reported having sustained injection needle stick injuries in the previous year, of which 4.46% occurred with HIV-infected blood. Other reported injuries were cannula needle stick injury (0.89%), suture needle stick injuries (3.13%), scalpel cut injuries (0.45%) and muco-cutaneous contamination (10.27%). The most affected groups were nurses-midwives for scalpel injuries and students for stick injuries. The predisposing factors reported included lack of protective devices and recapping of needles. Exposures were under-reported. Uptake of PEP was also low. Occupational exposure to HIV presents a conflict situation for HCWs. It remains a frequent occurrence particularly among student nurses-midwives, despite being avoidable. Its prophylactic treatment is hampered by poor reporting and investigation of exposures, and poor access to PEP. Strict adherence to universal precaution and proper handling of occupational exposure to HIV should be encouraged. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  17. Bleeding problems associated with occupational exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Kolstad, Henrik A; Steesby, Erik

    2002-09-01

    Sporadic reports have occurred on adverse health effects due to occupational exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides. We report a case of coagulation derangement in a pest-control officer and present the results of a survey of his colleagues. A 48-year-old man worked as a part-time pest-control officer applying rodenticides 3 h a week using gloves, but no mask, and without washing his hands between applications. He developed a symptomatic coagulation disturbance, probably caused by absorption of the poisons during work. No signs of coagulopathy were found in the patient's colleagues ( n=16), although basic hygiene measures were not always taken. Occupational exposure to anticoagulants should be considered in cases of unexplained bleeding. We recommend that measures be taken to minimize the risk of occupational intoxication.

  18. Environmental and occupational exposure to resorcinol in Finland.

    PubMed

    Porras, Simo P; Hartonen, Minna; Ylinen, Katriina; Tornaeus, Jarkko; Tuomi, Tapani; Santonen, Tiina

    2018-03-27

    Resorcinol is a suspected endocrine disruptor that affects thyroid function by inhibiting thyroxin peroxidase. It may also have an impact on iodine uptake. Resorcinol has various uses; for example in the manufacture of rubber products and in wood adhesives, flame retardants, UV stabilizers, and dyes. It is also used in personal care products such as hair colorants, anti-acne preparations, and peels. The aim of this study was to assess both environmental background exposure and occupational exposure to resorcinol in Finland. We investigated occupational exposure in hairdresser work and in the manufacture of tyres, adhesive resins and glue-laminated timber by biomonitoring total resorcinol concentration in urine samples. The biomonitoring results were compared to the urinary levels of occupationally non-exposed volunteers, and to the biomonitoring equivalent (BE), which we estimated on the basis of the EFSA's acceptable daily intake (ADI) value for resorcinol. Almost all the urine samples (99%) of the non-occupationally exposed volunteers contained measurable amounts of resorcinol. The urinary resorcinol data were rather scattered, and the resorcinol concentrations among women (GM 84 μg/l, 95th percentile 2072 μg/l) were clearly higher than the respective concentrations among men (GM 35 μg/l, 95th percentile 587 μg/l). The reason for this difference remains unclear. Although the two highest results exceeded the BE of 4 mg/l calculated on the basis of the EFSA's ADI, the 95th percentile of the occupationally non-exposed volunteers' results remained well below the BE among both males and females. According to the results, hairdressers' exposure to resorcinol was at the same level as that of the reference population of occupationally non-exposed volunteers. All hairdresser's values remained below the BE for resorcinol. The urinary resorcinol levels of the industrial workers were also at the same level as those of the reference population. We observed

  19. [The influence of occupational lead exposure on transmural repolarization dispersion].

    PubMed

    Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek; Chlebda, Ewa; Mazurek, Walentyna

    2005-02-01

    The parts of QT interval: time from Q wave to the peak of T wave (QTp) representing the de- and repolarization of subepicardial layer and the time from the peak of T wave to its end (QTp-e) building the transmural dispersion of repolarization enable more exact assessment of repolarization period of the heart muscle. Occupational exposure to lead influences the electrophysiologic properties of the heart. The aim of our study was to assess the QTp and QTp-e interval in workers occupationally exposed to lead. The study was carried out in 22 copper smelters aged 41.8 +/- 8.7 years, occupationally exposed to lead. The control group consisted of 14 healthy men. In all studied subjects blood lead concentration (Pb) and the concentration of free protoporphyrins in erytrocytes were assessed. 24-hour ECG holter monitoring was done to study rhythm disturbances and the duration in lead CM5 of QT interval, QTp interval, RR interval preceding the assessed QT interval (pRR) during sleep, rest during the awake state and moderate daily activity. The QTp-e interval is the difference between the duration of QT and QTp interval. The duration of QTp and QTp-e in occupationally exposed workers and healthy persons did not differ significantly. These parameters were significantly lower in both groups during moderately physical activity comparing to the values during sleep. The QTp-e/ QTp ratio in occupationally exposed workers during night hours was significantly lower than during daily activity what was not the case in control persons. Occupational exposure to lead do not change significantly the transmural dispersion of repolarization. Occupational exposure to lead diminishes the QTp-e/QTp ratio during the night.

  20. Toxic hepatitis in occupational exposure to solvents

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Cataudella, Emanuela; Giordano, Maria; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Chisari, Giuseppe; Malaguarnera, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    The liver is the main organ responsible for the metabolism of drugs and toxic chemicals, and so is the primary target organ for many organic solvents. Work activities with hepatotoxins exposures are numerous and, moreover, organic solvents are used in various industrial processes. Organic solvents used in different industrial processes may be associated with hepatotoxicity. Several factors contribute to liver toxicity; among these are: species differences, nutritional condition, genetic factors, interaction with medications in use, alcohol abuse and interaction, and age. This review addresses the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. The main pathogenic mechanisms responsible for functional and organic damage caused by solvents are: inflammation, dysfunction of cytochrome P450, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. The health impact of exposure to solvents in the workplace remains an interesting and worrying question for professional health work. PMID:22719183

  1. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields from medical sources

    PubMed Central

    STAM, Rianne; YAMAGUCHI-SEKINO, Sachiko

    2017-01-01

    High exposures to electromagnetic fields (EMF) can occur near certain medical devices in the hospital environment. A systematic assessment of medical occupational EMF exposure could help to clarify where more attention to occupational safety may be needed. This paper seeks to identify sources of high exposure for hospital workers and compare the published exposure data to occupational limits in the European Union. A systematic search for peer-reviewed publications was conducted via PubMed and Scopus databases. Relevant grey literature was collected via a web search. For each publication, the highest measured magnetic flux density or internal electric field strength per device and main frequency component was extracted. For low frequency fields, high action levels may be exceeded for magnetic stimulation, MRI gradient fields and movement in MRI static fields. For radiofrequency fields, the action levels may be exceeded near devices for diathermy, electrosurgery and hyperthermia and in the radiofrequency field inside MRI scanners. The exposure limit values for internal electric field may be exceeded for MRI and magnetic stimulation. For MRI and magnetic stimulation, practical measures can limit worker exposure. For diathermy, electrosurgery and hyperthermia, additional calculations are necessary to determine if SAR limits may be exceeded in some scenarios. PMID:29109357

  2. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  3. Disorders Induced by Direct Occupational Exposure to Noise: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Domingo-Pueyo, Andrea; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina

    2016-01-01

    Background: To review the available scientific literature about the effects on health by occupational exposure to noise. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of the retrieved scientific literature from the databases MEDLINE (via PubMed), ISI-Web of Knowledge (Institute for Scientific Information), Cochrane Library Plus, SCOPUS, and SciELO (collection of scientific journals) was conducted. The following terms were used as descriptors and were searched in free text: “Noise, Occupational,” “Occupational Exposure,” and “Occupational Disease.” The following limits were considered: “Humans,” “Adult (more than 18 years),” and “Comparative Studies.” Results: A total of 281 references were retrieved, and after applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 25 articles were selected. Of these selected articles, 19 studies provided information about hearing disturbance, four on cardiovascular disorders, one regarding respiratory alteration, and one on other disorders. Conclusions: It can be interpreted that the exposure to noise causes alterations in humans with different relevant outcomes, and therefore appropriate security measures in the work environment must be employed to minimize such an exposure and thereby to reduce the number of associated disorders. PMID:27762251

  4. Occupational exposures and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): comparison of a COPD-specific job exposure matrix and expert-evaluated occupational exposures

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Laura; Doney, Brent; Weinmann, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare the occupational exposure levels assigned by our National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-specific job exposure matrix (NIOSH COPD JEM) and by expert evaluation of detailed occupational information for various jobs held by members of an integrated health plan in the Northwest USA. Methods We analysed data from a prior study examining COPD and occupational exposures. Jobs were assigned exposure levels using 2 methods: (1) the COPD JEM and (2) expert evaluation. Agreement (Cohen’s κ coefficients), sensitivity and specificity were calculated to compare exposure levels assigned by the 2 methods for 8 exposure categories. Results κ indicated slight to moderate agreement (0.19–0.51) between the 2 methods and was highest for organic dust and overall exposure. Sensitivity of the matrix ranged from 33.9% to 68.5% and was highest for sensitisers, diesel exhaust and overall exposure. Specificity ranged from 74.7% to 97.1% and was highest for fumes, organic dust and mineral dust. Conclusions This COPD JEM was compared with exposures assigned by experts and offers a generalisable approach to assigning occupational exposure. PMID:27777373

  5. Occupational exposures and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): comparison of a COPD-specific job exposure matrix and expert-evaluated occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Laura; Doney, Brent; Weinmann, Sheila

    2017-03-01

    To compare the occupational exposure levels assigned by our National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-specific job exposure matrix (NIOSH COPD JEM) and by expert evaluation of detailed occupational information for various jobs held by members of an integrated health plan in the Northwest USA. We analysed data from a prior study examining COPD and occupational exposures. Jobs were assigned exposure levels using 2 methods: (1) the COPD JEM and (2) expert evaluation. Agreement (Cohen's κ coefficients), sensitivity and specificity were calculated to compare exposure levels assigned by the 2 methods for 8 exposure categories. κ indicated slight to moderate agreement (0.19-0.51) between the 2 methods and was highest for organic dust and overall exposure. Sensitivity of the matrix ranged from 33.9% to 68.5% and was highest for sensitisers, diesel exhaust and overall exposure. Specificity ranged from 74.7% to 97.1% and was highest for fumes, organic dust and mineral dust. This COPD JEM was compared with exposures assigned by experts and offers a generalisable approach to assigning occupational exposure. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Occupational and environmental exposures and cancers in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Dana; Boffetta, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been a decline in cancers attributable to environmental and occupational carcinogens of asbestos, arsenic, and indoor and outdoor air pollution in high-income countries. For low- to middle-income countries (LMICs), however, these exposures are likely to increase as industrialization expands and populations grow. The aim of this study was to review the evidence on the cancer risks and burdens of selected environmental and occupational exposures in less-developed economies. A causal association has been established between asbestos exposure and mesothelioma and lung cancer. For arsenic exposure, there is strong evidence of bladder, skin, lung, liver, and kidney cancer effects. Women are at the highest risk for lung cancer due to indoor air pollution exposure; however, the carcinogenic effect on the risk for cancer in children has not been studied in these countries. Cancer risks associated with ambient air pollution remain the least studied in LMICs, although reported exposures are higher than World Health Organization, European, and US standards. Although some associations between lung cancer and ambient air pollutants have been reported, studies in LMICs are weak or subject to exposure misclassification. For pulmonary cancers, tobacco smoking and respiratory diseases have a positive synergistic effect on cancer risks. A precise quantification of the burden of human cancer attributable to environmental and occupational exposures in LMICs is uncertain. Although the prevalence of carcinogenic exposures has been reported to be high in many such countries, the effects of the exposures have not been studied due to varying country-specific limitations, some of which include lack of resources and government support. Copyright © 2014 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Preliminary Assessment of the Benefits of Reducing Formaldehyde Exposures (1984)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The report reviews a variety of regulatory responses that EPA might consider in developing regulatory strategies for controlling human exposures under the Toxic Substance Control Act and previewed issues that may arise in a regulatory impact analysis.

  8. Residual formaldehyde after low-temperature steam and formaldehyde sterilization

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, G. L.; Johnston, H. P.; Turkington, V. E.

    1968-01-01

    The levels of formaldehyde remaining in various articles have been estimated immediately after a low-temperature steam and formaldehyde sterilizing process and after various periods of aeration. These levels have been compared with the levels of ethylene oxide remaining after exposure to an ethylene oxide sterilizing process. In rubber and polythene and a plastic, formaldehyde levels are low and slowly fall even further. Ethylene oxide levels are relatively much higher even after seven days' aeration. It is not considered that the residual levels of formaldehyde in rubber, polythene, and a plastic should constitute a danger. Residual levels of formaldehyde in fabrics and paper are higher but this may be of value by giving a self-disinfecting action on storage. PMID:5717551

  9. Modelling of occupational exposure to inhalable nickel compounds.

    PubMed

    Kendzia, Benjamin; Pesch, Beate; Koppisch, Dorothea; Van Gelder, Rainer; Pitzke, Katrin; Zschiesche, Wolfgang; Behrens, Thomas; Weiss, Tobias; Siemiatycki, Jack; Lavoué, Jerome; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Stamm, Roger; Brüning, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate average occupational exposure to inhalable nickel (Ni) using the German exposure database MEGA. This database contains 8052 personal measurements of Ni collected between 1990 and 2009 in adjunct with information on the measurement and workplace conditions. The median of all Ni concentrations was 9 μg/m 3 and the 95th percentile was 460 μg/m 3 . We predicted geometric means (GMs) for welders and other occupations centered to 1999. Exposure to Ni in welders is strongly influenced by the welding process applied and the Ni content of the used welding materials. Welding with consumable electrodes of high Ni content (>30%) was associated with 10-fold higher concentrations compared with those with a low content (<5%). The highest exposure levels (GMs ≥20 μg/m 3 ) were observed in gas metal and shielded metal arc welders using welding materials with high Ni content, in metal sprayers, grinders and forging-press operators, and in the manufacture of batteries and accumulators. The exposure profiles are useful for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies as well as in industrial hygiene. Therefore, we recommend to collect additional exposure-specific information in addition to the job title in community-based studies when estimating the health risks of Ni exposure.

  10. Occupational exposures and mammographic density in Spanish women.

    PubMed

    Lope, Virginia; García-Pérez, Javier; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pedraza-Flechas, Ana María; Alguacil, Juan; González-Galarzo, Mª Carmen; Alba, Miguel Angel; van der Haar, Rudolf; Cortés-Barragán, Rosa Ana; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Moreo, Pilar; Santamariña, Carmen; Ederra, María; Vidal, Carmen; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Llobet, Rafael; Pollán, Marina

    2018-02-01

    The association between occupational exposures and mammographic density (MD), a marker of breast cancer risk, has not been previously explored. Our objective was to investigate the influence of occupational exposure to chemical, physical and microbiological agents on MD in adult women. This is a population-based cross-sectional study based on 1476 female workers aged 45-65 years from seven Spanish breast cancer screening programmes. Occupational history was surveyed by trained staff. Exposure to occupational agents was assessed using the Spanish job-exposure matrix MatEmESp. Percentage of MD was measured by two radiologists using a semiautomatic computer tool. The association was estimated using mixed log-linear regression models adjusting for age, education, body mass index, menopausal status, parity, smoking, alcohol intake, type of mammography, family history of breast cancer and hormonal therapy use, and including screening centre and professional reader as random effects terms. Although no association was found with most of the agents, women occupationally exposed to perchloroethylene (e β =1.51; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.19), ionising radiation (e β =1.23; 95% CI 0.99 to 1.52) and mould spores (e β =1.44; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.04) tended to have higher MD. The percentage of density increased 12% for every 5 years exposure to perchloroethylene or mould spores, 11% for every 5 years exposure to aliphatic/alicyclic hydrocarbon solvents and 3% for each 5 years exposure to ionising radiation. Exposure to perchloroethylene, ionising radiation, mould spores or aliphatic/alicyclic hydrocarbon solvents in occupational settings could be associated with higher MD. Further studies are needed to clarify the accuracy and the reasons for these findings. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Unacceptable "occupational" exposure to toxic agents among children in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Harari, R; Forastiere, F; Axelson, O

    1997-09-01

    To document the problem of child labor as a health issue, we report here three case-studies in Ecuador: exposure to mercury among gold washers, exposure to organophosphates and carbamates in the fruit-growing industry, and exposure to solvents among shoe cleaners. We measured the relevant biological indicators of exposure (mercury in urine, urinary levels of phenols, and acetylcholine esterase in erythrocytes) among selected samples of 10 children for each working place. In all the case studies, the values of the biological indicators showed elevated exposure to well-known toxicants, which are now rare in developed countries, even among adult workers. The findings meld with a previously reported case study of intoxication from inorganic lead among children employed in the manufacture of roof tiles in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to properly evaluate and control the potential health effects due to exposure to toxic substances among children employed in different occupations in several parts of the world.

  12. Occupational exposure of petroleum depot workers to BTEX compounds.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh Azari, M; Naghavi Konjin, Z; Zayeri, F; Salehpour, S; Seyedi, M D

    2012-01-01

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) are the most important toxic volatile compounds in the air and could be easily absorbed through the respiratory tract. In recent years, the risk of exposure to BTEX compounds, especially benzene as a carcinogen, has been considered in petroleum depot stations. To assess the occupational exposure of petroleum depot workers in Iran to BTEX compounds. After completing a questionnaire and assessing occupational exposure to BTEX compounds, 78 (46 exposed and 32 non-exposed) depot workers were randomly selected to participate in this study. Air sampling and analysis of BTEX was conducted according to the NIOSH method No. 1501. Analysis of urinary hippuric acid, as an indicator of toluene exposure, was carried out according to NIOSH method No. 8300. Personal monitoring of the high exposure group to BTEX compounds was repeated to verify the results obtained in the first phase of the monitoring. Among the 9 operating groups studied, occupational exposure to benzene and toluene was higher in quality control and gasoline loading operators-the median exposure ranged from 0.16 to 1.63 ppm for benzene and 0.2 to 2.72 ppm for toluene. Median exposure of other group members to BTEX compounds was below the detection limit of analytical method (0.07, 0.06, 0.05, and 0.05 ppm, respectively). The level of toluene exposure measured showed correlation with neither post-shift urinary hippuric acid (Spearman's rho = 0.128, p = 0.982) nor with the difference between post- and pre-shift urinary hippuric acid (Spearman's rho = 0.089, p = 0.847) in depot operational workers. Gasoline loading operators are exposed to a relatively high level of benzene.

  13. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and occupational exposure to silica.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to high levels of silica has long been known to cause silicosis This paper evaluates the evidence for an increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in occupations and industries in which exposure to crystalline silica is the primary exposure, with a focus on the magnitude of risks and levels of exposure causing disabling health effects. The literature suggests consistently elevated risks of developing COPD associated with silica exposure in several occupations, including the construction industry; tunneling; cement industry; brick manufacturing; pottery and ceramic work; silica sand, granite and diatomaceous earth industries; gold mining; and iron and steel founding, with risk estimates being high in some, even after taking into account the effect of confounders like smoking. Average dust levels vary from about 0.5 mg.m3 to over 10 mg.m3 and average silica levels from 0.04 to over 5 mg.m3, often well above occupational standards. Factors influencing the variation from industry to industry in risks associated with exposure to silica-containing dusts include (a) the presence of other minerals in the dust, particularly when associated with clay minerals; (b) the size of the particles and percentage of quartz; (c) the physicochemical characteristics, such as whether the dust is freshly fractured. Longitudinal studies suggest that loss of lung function occurs with exposure to silica dust at concentrations of between 0.1 and 0.2 mg.m3, and that the effect of cumulative silica dust exposure on airflow obstruction is independent of silicosis. Nevertheless, a disabling loss of lung function in the absence of silicosis would not occur until between 30 and 40 years exposure.

  14. Occupational exposure influences on gender differences in respiratory health.

    PubMed

    Dimich-Ward, Helen; Beking, Kris; DyBuncio, Anne; Chan-Yeung, Moira; Du, Weiwei; Karlen, Barbara; Camp, Pat G; Kennedy, Susan M

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate gender differences in the respiratory health of workers exposed to organic and inorganic dusts. Meta-analysis techniques incorporating logistic regression were applied to a combined file of 12 occupational health studies. Meta-analysis of data on 1,367 women and 4,240 men showed that women had higher odds of shortness of breath whether exposed to inorganic dust or having no occupational exposure, with an overall odds ratio (OR) of 2.07 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.57-2.73) adjusted for smoking status, age, body mass index (BMI), ethnic status, atopy, and job duration. Inorganic dust exposure was associated with the highest odds of asthma (adjusted OR = 8.38, 95% CI = 1.72-40.89) for women compared to men, but no differences were found for unexposed workers. With organic dust exposure, men had elevated odds for occasional wheeze and worse lung function compared to women. Within the limitations of this analysis, gender differences in respiratory health, as suggested by population-based studies, were confirmed in our analysis of occupational health studies, with the general type of exposure, organic or inorganic, generally determining the extent of differences. The higher risks for women compared to men for shortness of breath were robust regardless of work exposure category, with the highest odds ratios found for asthma.

  15. Occupational exposures among nurses and risk of spontaneous abortion

    PubMed Central

    LAWSON, Christina C; ROCHELEAU, Carissa M.; WHELAN, Elizabeth A; LIVIDOTI HIBERT, Eileen N.; GRAJEWSKI, Barbara; SPIEGELMAN, Donna; RICH-EDWARDS, Janet W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated self-reported occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs, anesthetic gases, antiviral drugs, sterilizing agents (disinfectants), and X-rays and the risk of spontaneous abortion in U.S. nurses. Study Design Pregnancy outcome and occupational exposures were collected retrospectively from 8,461 participants of the Nurses’ Health Study II. Of these, 7,482 were eligible for analysis using logistic regression. Results Participants reported 6,707 live births, and 775 (10%) spontaneous abortions (<20 weeks). After adjusting for age, parity, shift work, and hours worked, antineoplastic drug exposure was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of spontaneous abortion, particularly with early spontaneous abortion before the 12th week, and 3.5-fold increased risk among nulliparous women. Exposure to sterilizing agents was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of late spontaneous abortion (12–20 weeks), but not with early spontaneous abortion. Conclusion This study suggests that certain occupational exposures common to nurses are related to risks of spontaneous abortion. PMID:22304790

  16. Occupational dental erosion from exposure to acids: a review.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, Annette; Attin, Thomas

    2007-05-01

    Dental erosion is characterized as a disorder with a multifactorial aetiology including environmental acid exposure. The purpose of this article was to summarize and discuss the available information concerning occupational dental erosion. Information from original scientific papers, case reports and reviews with additional case reports listed in PubMed, Medline or EMBASE [search term: (dental OR enamel OR dentin) AND (erosion OR tooth wear) AND (occupational OR worker)] were included in the review. References from the identified publications were manually searched to identify additional relevant articles. The systematic search resulted in 59 papers, of which 42 were suitable for the present review. Seventeen papers demonstrated evidence that battery, galvanizing and associated workers exposed to sulphuric or hydrochloric acid were at higher risk of dental erosion. For other industrial workers, wine tasters and competitive swimmers, only a few clinical studies exist and these do not allow the drawing of definitive conclusions. Occupational acid exposure might increase the risk of dental erosion. Evidence for occupational dental erosion is limited to battery and galvanizing workers, while data for other occupational groups need to be confirmed by further studies.

  17. The Australian Work Exposures Study: Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Timothy R; Carey, Renee N; Peters, Susan; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to produce a population-based estimate of the prevalence of work-related exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), to identify the main circumstances of exposure and to describe the use of workplace control measures designed to decrease those exposures. The analysis used data from the Australian Workplace Exposures Study, a nationwide telephone survey which investigated the current prevalence and exposure circumstances of work-related exposure to 38 known or suspected carcinogens, including PAHs, among Australian workers aged 18-65 years. Using the web-based tool OccIDEAS, semi-quantitative information was collected about exposures in the current job held by the respondent. Questions were addressed primarily at tasks undertaken rather than about self-reported exposures. Of the 4,993 included respondents, 297 (5.9%) were identified as probably being exposed to PAHs in their current job [extrapolated to 6.7% of the Australian working population-677 000 (95% confidence interval 605 000-757 000) workers]. Most (81%) were male; about one-third were farmers and about one-quarter worked in technical and trades occupations. In the agriculture industry about half the workers were probably exposed to PAHs. The main exposure circumstances were exposure to smoke through burning, fighting fires or through maintaining mowers or other equipment; cleaning up ash after a fire; health workers exposed to diathermy smoke; cooking; and welding surfaces with a coating. Where information on control measures was available, their use was inconsistent. Workers are exposed to PAHs in many different occupational circumstances. Information on the exposure circumstances can be used to support decisions on appropriate priorities for intervention and control of occupational exposure to PAHs, and estimates of burden of cancer arising from occupational exposure to PAHs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British

  18. Occupational exposure to carbon black in its manufacture.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, K; Trethowan, W N; Harrington, J M; Calvert, I A; Glass, D C

    1992-10-01

    Carbon black is manufactured by the vapour phase pyrolysis of heavy aromatic hydrocarbon feedstocks. Its manufacture is worldwide and the majority of its production is for use in the rubber industry especially tyre manufacture. Its carbonaceous nature has led many to investigate the occurrence of exposure-related medical conditions. To quantify any such relationships, it is necessary to assess exposure accurately. As part of such an epidemiological investigation survey involving the measurement both of respirable and of total inhalable carbon black was undertaken in 18 plants in seven European countries between mid-1987 and mid-1989. A total of 1298 respirable samples (SIMPEDS cyclone) and 1317 total inhalable samples (IOM head) were taken and deemed of sufficient quality for inclusion in the study. The distributions of the time-weighted average values were assessed and found to be best described by a log-normal distribution, and so exposure is characterized by geometric means and standard deviations. The data are presented in terms of 13 separate job titles for both dust fractions and shows a wide variation between job titles, with the highest mean exposure experienced by the site cleaners, and 30% of the samples taken from the warehouse packers being in excess of the relevant countries' occupational exposure limits for total inhalable dust. The quality and extent of this data allows both for comparison with exposure standards and for generation of occupational exposure indices, which will be presented in another paper (Gardiner et al., in preparation).

  19. Development of an occupational airborne chemical exposure matrix

    PubMed Central

    Kurmi, O. P.; Chambers, H.; Lam, K. B. H.; Fishwick, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Population-based studies of the occupational contribution to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease generally rely on self-reported exposures to vapours, gases, dusts and fumes (VGDF), which are susceptible to misclassification. Aims To develop an airborne chemical job exposure matrix (ACE JEM) for use with the UK Standard Occupational Classification (SOC 2000) system. Methods We developed the ACE JEM in stages: (i) agreement of definitions, (ii) a binary assignation of exposed/not exposed to VGDF, fibres or mists (VGDFFiM), for each of the individual 353 SOC codes and (iii) assignation of levels of exposure (L; low, medium and high) and (iv) the proportion of workers (P) likely to be exposed in each code. We then expanded the estimated exposures to include biological dusts, mineral dusts, metals, diesel fumes and asthmagens. Results We assigned 186 (53%) of all SOC codes as exposed to at least one category of VGDFFiM, with 23% assigned as having medium or high exposure. We assigned over 68% of all codes as not being exposed to fibres, gases or mists. The most common exposure was to dusts (22% of codes with >50% exposed); 12% of codes were assigned exposure to fibres. We assigned higher percentages of the codes as exposed to diesel fumes (14%) compared with metals (8%). Conclusions We developed an expert-derived JEM, using a strict set of a priori defined rules. The ACE JEM could also be applied to studies to assess risks of diseases where the main route of occupational exposure is via inhalation. PMID:27067914

  20. Development of an occupational airborne chemical exposure matrix.

    PubMed

    Sadhra, S S; Kurmi, O P; Chambers, H; Lam, K B H; Fishwick, D

    2016-07-01

    Population-based studies of the occupational contribution to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease generally rely on self-reported exposures to vapours, gases, dusts and fumes (VGDF), which are susceptible to misclassification. To develop an airborne chemical job exposure matrix (ACE JEM) for use with the UK Standard Occupational Classification (SOC 2000) system. We developed the ACE JEM in stages: (i) agreement of definitions, (ii) a binary assignation of exposed/not exposed to VGDF, fibres or mists (VGDFFiM), for each of the individual 353 SOC codes and (iii) assignation of levels of exposure (L; low, medium and high) and (iv) the proportion of workers (P) likely to be exposed in each code. We then expanded the estimated exposures to include biological dusts, mineral dusts, metals, diesel fumes and asthmagens. We assigned 186 (53%) of all SOC codes as exposed to at least one category of VGDFFiM, with 23% assigned as having medium or high exposure. We assigned over 68% of all codes as not being exposed to fibres, gases or mists. The most common exposure was to dusts (22% of codes with >50% exposed); 12% of codes were assigned exposure to fibres. We assigned higher percentages of the codes as exposed to diesel fumes (14%) compared with metals (8%). We developed an expert-derived JEM, using a strict set of a priori defined rules. The ACE JEM could also be applied to studies to assess risks of diseases where the main route of occupational exposure is via inhalation. © Crown copyright 2016.

  1. Isocyanate exposure and occupational asthma: a case-referent study

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, S; Bugler, J; Clark, R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the quantitative relation between exposure to isocyanates and occupational asthma, and to explore the role of atopy and smoking in occurrence of the disease.
METHOD—A case-referent study was undertaken of cases from two manufacturing companies (A and B) from which referents without disease could be selected and reliable exposure measurements were available. In company A, 27 cases mainly attributed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) were matched to 51 referents on work area, start and duration of employment, sex, and age. Exposures were estimated from existing measurements by job category. In company B there were seven cases attributed to 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) in two areas of the plant; 12 non-cases from the same areas were used as referents. Personal exposure measurements were available for all cases and 11 referents.
RESULTS—No difference in peak exposures between cases and referents was found in either plant; but in both, time weighted average (TWA) exposures at the time of onset of asthma were higher for cases. In A, the mean TWA exposure for cases was 1.5 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.2 to 1.8) ppb compared with 1.2 (1.0 to 1.4) ppb for referents. From a matched analysis, the odds ratio (OR) associated with 8 hour TWA exposure to isocyanates greater than 1.125 ppb (the median concentration for the referent group) was 3.2 (95% CI 0.96 to 10.6; p=0.06). Occupational asthma was associated with a pre-employment history of atopic illness (OR 3.5, p=0.04) and, less strongly, with smoking (OR 2.1, p=0.14). In B, small numbers limited analysis, but three of seven cases had at least one TWA exposure measurement greater than 5 ppb compared with one of 11 referents (OR 7.5, p=0.09).
CONCLUSION—Asthma can occur at low concentrations of isocyanates, but even at low concentrations, the higher the exposure the greater the risk. By contrast with other studies, smoking and atopy seemed to increase the odds

  2. 76 FR 25376 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... describes: Standard operating procedures for using hazardous chemicals; hazard-control techniques; equipment...] Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of Management... collection requirements specified in the Standard on Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in...

  3. [Occupational exposure to wood dust and nasal sinus cancer].

    PubMed

    Fontana, L; Liétin, B; Catilina, P; Devif, C; Féneon, B; Martin, F; Mom, T; Gilain, L

    2008-04-01

    To determine the clinical, histological, epidemiological and occupational data related to exposure to wood dust in a series of 100 nasal sinus malignant tumors. We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study of cases diagnosed between 1st January 1981 and 31 December 2000, in the Auvergne region of France. Individual, medical, and occupational data were collected from a questionnaire completed by the patient (or the patient's family in case of death) and from the medical documents available. Forty-six cases (46 men), with an average age of 63+/-9.2 years [range, 43-82], had been exposed to occupational wood dust before the diagnosis. Fifty-four cases (30 men, 24 women), with an average age of 64.3+/-8.7 years [range, 40-96], had never been exposed. The average annual incidence increased, either for the total population or for the two subgroups distinguished on the basis of occupational exposure to wood dust. The majority of the patients presented different functional symptoms at the time of the diagnosis. For the 46 patients exposed to wood dust, the tumors were primarily ethmoid adenocarcinomas (92%). For the 54 non-exposed patients, the tumors observed were mainly epidermoid carcinomas (57%), then adenocarcinomas (15%). On the 46 patients exposed to wood dust, 85% were carpenters or cabinetmakers. For the majority of the patients, wood dust exposure started before the age of 20 (average age: 17+/-4.5) and the longest exposure began before 1981. The exposure time to wood dust before diagnosis was in the majority of cases greater than 20 years (mean exposure time: 37 years+/-11.4). Only 15% were exposed at the time of the diagnosis (mean time between the end of the exposure to the diagnosis was 11 years+/-2.8). Of the 54 non-exposed patients, no professional risk factor was evidenced. Epidemiologic data, such as the increasing incidence, and clinical and professional data, such as the occupational exposure to wood dust, were in agreement with the French and

  4. Occupational exposures associated with severe exacerbation of asthma.

    PubMed

    Henneberger, P K; Liang, X; Lillienberg, L; Dahlman-Höglund, A; Torén, K; Andersson, E

    2015-02-01

    The exacerbation of asthma by workplace conditions is common, but little is known about which agents pose a risk. We used data from an existing survey of adults with asthma to identify occupational exposures associated with severe exacerbation of asthma. Questionnaires were completed by 557 working adults with asthma. Severe exacerbation of asthma in the past 12 months was defined as asthma-related hospitalization, or reports of both unplanned asthma care and treatment with a short course of oral corticosteroids. Occupational exposures for the same time period were assessed using an asthma-specific job exposure matrix. We modeled severe exacerbation to yield prevalence ratios (PRs) for exposures while controlling for potential confounders. A total of 164 participants (29%) were positive for severe exacerbation, and 227 (40.8%) were assessed as being exposed to asthma agents at work. Elevated PRs were observed for several specific agents, notably the irritant subcategories of environmental tobacco smoke (PR 1.84, 95%CI 1.34-2.51) among all participants, inorganic dusts (PR 2.53, 95%CI 1.37-4.67) among men, and the low molecular weight subcategory of other highly reactive agents (PR 1.97, 95%CI 1.08-3.60) among women. Among working adults with asthma, severe exacerbation was associated with several occupational agents.

  5. Potential Health Effects Associated with Dermal Exposure to Occupational Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual’s health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical–skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health. PMID:25574139

  6. Potential health effects associated with dermal exposure to occupational chemicals.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of workers in the United States, spanning a variety of occupational industries and sectors, who are potentially exposed to chemicals that can be absorbed through the skin. Occupational skin exposures can result in numerous diseases that can adversely affect an individual's health and capacity to perform at work. In general, there are three types of chemical-skin interactions of concern: direct skin effects, immune-mediated skin effects, and systemic effects. While hundreds of chemicals (metals, epoxy and acrylic resins, rubber additives, and chemical intermediates) present in virtually every industry have been identified to cause direct and immune-mediated effects such as contact dermatitis or urticaria, less is known about the number and types of chemicals contributing to systemic effects. In an attempt to raise awareness, skin notation assignments communicate the potential for dermal absorption; however, there is a need for standardization among agencies to communicate an accurate description of occupational hazards. Studies have suggested that exposure to complex mixtures, excessive hand washing, use of hand sanitizers, high frequency of wet work, and environmental or other factors may enhance penetration and stimulate other biological responses altering the outcomes of dermal chemical exposure. Understanding the hazards of dermal exposure is essential for the proper implementation of protective measures to ensure worker safety and health.

  7. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia A

    2009-07-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO(2) measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% others). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites in which heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction (EC: 27-658 microg/m(3)). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas in which smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC<50 microg/m(3)). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source, such as drivers and train crew, or outside, such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 microg/m(3)). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population

  8. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Background Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Methods Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. Results In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO2 measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles, and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% other). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites where heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction, (EC: 27-658 μg/m3). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above ground (semi-)enclosed areas where smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC< 50 μg/m3). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source such as drivers and train crew, or outside such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 μg/m3). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Conclusions Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above ground (semi-)enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population

  9. Occupational exposure to carcinogens in Australian road transport workers.

    PubMed

    Si, Si; Carey, Renee; Reid, Alison; Peters, Susan; Glass, Deborah D; Driscoll, Timothy; Darcey, Ellie; Fritschi, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Road transport workers (RTWs) are at high risk of exposure to several occupational carcinogens. However, there are gaps in knowledge regarding the extent and the circumstances of exposure. As a sub-study of the Australian Work Exposures Study, this study investigated the prevalence of occupational exposure in Australian RTWs. A random sample of Australian working population was invited to a telephone interview regarding their current jobs. An automated expert-assessment procedure was applied to self-reported job-related tasks using a web-based application. 162 RTWs were included in this study. RTWs were exposed to diesel exhaust (97%), solar ultraviolet radiation (78%), environmental tobacco smoke (55%), benzene (29%), silica (15%), and asbestos (10%) at work. Besides driving on roads, vehicle maintenance-related tasks were the major source of carcinogen exposures among RTWs. Most RTWs are exposed to at least one carcinogen at work. We have identified tasks where the use of control measures could potentially reduce exposures. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Occupational exposure to beryllium in French enterprises: a survey of airborne exposure and surface levels.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Raymond; Catani, Jacques; Créau, Yvon; Frocaut, Anne-Marie; Good, Andrée; Goutet, Pierre; Hou, Alain; Leray, Fabrice; André-Lesage, Marie-Ange; Soyez, Alain

    2009-06-01

    An assessment survey of occupational exposure to beryllium (Be) was conducted in France between late 2004 and the end of 2006. Exposure estimates were based on the analytical results of samples collected from workplace air and from work surfaces in 95 facilities belonging to 37 sectors of activity. The results of this study indicated airborne Be concentrations in excess of the occupational exposure limit value of 2 microg m(-3) recommended in France. Metallurgy and electronic component manufacturing represented the activities and occupations where workers had the highest arithmetic mean exposures to Be. Surface contamination levels were also high and frequently exceeded thresholds recommended by different bodies. These results should prompt the development of prevention programmes that include Be substitution, process control and surface decontamination, in conjunction with suitable medical surveillance.

  11. Identifying occupational and nonoccupational exposure to mercury in dental personnel.

    PubMed

    Shirkhanloo, Hamid; Fallah Mehrjerdi, Mohammad Ali; Hassani, Hamid

    2017-03-04

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occupational and nonoccupational exposure to mercury (Hg) vapor in dental personnel by examining the relationships between blood mercury, urine mercury, and their ratio with air mercury. The method was performed on 50 occupational exposed and 50 unexposed controls (25 men and 25 women). The mercury concentrations in air and human biological samples were determined based on the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) method and standard method (SM) by a new mode of liquid-phase microextraction, respectively. The mean mercury concentrations in urine (μg Hg 0 /g creatinine) and blood were significantly higher than control group, respectively (19.41 ± 5.18 vs 2.15 ± 0.07 μg/g and 16.40 ± 4.97 vs 2.50 ± 0.02 μg/L) (p <.001). The relationships between mercury concentration in blood/urine ratio (r = .380) with dental office air are new indicators for assessing occupational exposure in dental personnel.

  12. Association Between Kidney Cancer and Occupational Exposure to Trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Buhagen, Morten; Grønskag, Anna; Ragde, Siri Fenstad; Hilt, Bjørn

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the association between occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) and kidney cancer, as this correlation has been questioned. The incidence of cancers was studied in a dynamic cohort of 997 male workers who for many years had been occupationally exposed to TCE. During a 50-year observation period, 13 cases of kidney cancer were observed (7.5 expected) with a standardized incidence ratio of 1.7 and a 95% confidence interval of 1.0 to 3.0. Four other cases, not included in the SIR analysis, were also observed. Long-term TCE exposure was positively confirmed for 14 of the 17 incident cases. There is reason to assume that the remaining cases also had been exposed to TCE. The present study supports the view that TCE is a kidney carcinogen.

  13. Personality Traits in Miners with Past Occupational Elemental Mercury Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Grum, Darja Kobal; Kobal, Alfred B.; Arnerič, Niko; Horvat, Milena; Ženko, Bernard; Džeroski, Sašo; Osredkar, Joško

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the impact of long-term occupational exposure to elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) on the personality traits of ex-mercury miners. Study groups included 53 ex-miners previously exposed to Hg0 and 53 age-matched controls. Miners and controls completed the self-reporting Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Emotional States Questionnaire. The relationship between the indices of past occupational exposure and the observed personality traits was evaluated using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and on a subgroup level by machine learning methods (regression trees). The ex-mercury miners were intermittently exposed to Hg0 for a period of 7–31 years. The means of exposure-cycle urine mercury (U-Hg) concentrations ranged from 20 to 120 μg/L. The results obtained indicate that ex-miners tend to be more introverted and sincere, more depressive, more rigid in expressing their emotions and are likely to have more negative self-concepts than controls, but no correlations were found with the indices of past occupational exposure. Despite certain limitations, results obtained by the regression tree suggest that higher alcohol consumption per se and long-term intermittent, moderate exposure to Hg0 (exposure cycle mean U-Hg concentrations > 38.7 < 53.5 μg/L) in interaction with alcohol remain a plausible explanation for the depression associated with negative self-concept found in subgroups of ex-mercury miners. This could be one of the reason for the higher risk of suicide among miners of the Idrija Mercury Mine in the last 45 years. PMID:16451870

  14. Report of the Federal Panel on Formaldehyde.

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The Federal Panel on Formaldehyde concluded that definitive experiments exist which demonstrate the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of formaldehyde under laboratory conditions. Formaldehyde induces both gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations in a variety of test systems. Inhalation of formaldehyde causes cancer of the nose in rats. The concentrations of formaldehyde in inhaled air that caused nasal cancer in Fisher 344 rats are within the same order of magnitude as those to which humans may be exposed. The data presently available do not permit a direct assessment of the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde to man. Epidemiologic studies on exposed human populations are in progress and may further clarify the situation. Other experimental and human studies on toxic effects such as teratogenicity and reproductive disorders are as yet inadequate for a health risk assessment. The CIIT 24 month study on animal carcinogenicity has not yet been completely evaluated. Additional data are expected on the effects of prolonged exposure to lower doses of formaldehyde and on the possible carcinogenicity of formaldehyde in the mouse. The panel recommends that, for a comprehensive health risk assessment, further experiments be conducted on the effects of other modes of exposure (ingestion and skin penetration), the effects in humans, and on the pharmacokinetics of formaldehyde in man and animals and the possible role for formaldehyde in reproductive and chronic respiratory disorders. It is the conclusion of the panel that formaldehyde should be presumed to pose a carcinogenic risk to humans. PMID:6977445

  15. [Occupational exposure investigation and protective measures in a tertiary infectious disease hospital].

    PubMed

    Ding, H M; Zhou, X P; Huang, J Z

    2018-02-20

    Objective: To investigate the cause of occupational exposure among 136 nurses in a tertiary infectious disease hospital, and puts forward the prevention strategy. Methods: A total of 136 nurses exposed to occupational exposure between 2014 and 2016 were included in the study. Analysis was conducted from the years of work of nurses, exposure routes, and the pathogens. Results: The nurses suffer from the highest risk of occupational exposures (73.91%) .Nurses working for less than 5 years and interns are most likely to suffer occupational exposure (45.59% and 35.29% respectively) . Occupational exposure was mainly caused by needle injuries, in which infusion was the main route of occupational exposure (36.76%) . The improper treatment of needle pulling after infusion is the main link of needle puncture (36.76%) . Occupational exposure pathogens were mainly HBV (63.24%) . Conclusion: Nursing staff is the high-risk group of occupational exposure. Irregular operation, lack of awareness of protection, improper disposal after the needle withdrawal and poor safety assessment of the operating environment are the main causes of occupational exposure. It is suggested to strengthen the training of occupational safety and protection, enhance clinical nurses occupational safety protection consciousness, standardize medical operation, so as to prevent the occurrence of occupational exposure.

  16. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica at Alberta work sites.

    PubMed

    Radnoff, Diane; Todor, Maria S; Beach, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Although crystalline silica has been recognized as a health hazard for many years, it is still encountered in many work environments. Numerous studies have revealed an association between exposure to respirable crystalline silica and the development of silicosis and other lung diseases including lung cancer. Alberta Jobs, Skills, Training and Labour conducted a project to evaluate exposure to crystalline silica at a total of 40 work sites across 13 industries. Total airborne respirable dust and respirable crystalline silica concentrations were quite variable, but there was a potential to exceed the Alberta Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) of 0.025 mg/m(3) for respirable crystalline silica at many of the work sites evaluated. The industries with the highest potentials for overexposure occurred in sand and mineral processing (GM 0.090 mg/m(3)), followed by new commercial building construction (GM 0.055 mg/m(3)), aggregate mining and crushing (GM 0.048 mg/m(3)), abrasive blasting (GM 0.027 mg/m(3)), and demolition (GM 0.027 mg/m(3)). For worker occupations, geometric mean exposure ranged from 0.105 mg/m(3) (brick layer/mason/concrete cutting) to 0.008 mg/m(3) (dispatcher/shipping, administration). Potential for GM exposure exceeding the OEL was identified in a number of occupations where it was not expected, such as electricians, carpenters and painters. These exposures were generally related to the specific task the worker was doing, or arose from incidental exposure from other activities at the work site. The results indicate that where there is a potential for activities producing airborne respirable crystalline silica, it is critical that the employer include all worker occupations at the work site in their hazard assessment. There appears to be a relationship between airborne total respirable dust concentration and total respirable dust concentrations, but further study is require to fully characterize this relationship. If this relationship holds true

  17. The development and regulation of occupational exposure limits in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tan Kia; Siang, Lee Hock; Koh, David

    2006-11-01

    Singapore is an island republic in South East Asia with a workforce of about 2.1 million including 0.7 million employed in the manufacturing industry. Singapore's industry is diversified and the main growth sectors include microelectronics, chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, and biomedical sectors. Exposure to chemical hazards is one of the main occupational health problems in the manufacturing sectors. The main roles of government in the protection of workers against safety and health hazards are to set standards and provide a proper infrastructure for industry to self-regulate. The occupation safety and health laws must provide adequate protection of workforce but must not disadvantage local industry in this globally competitive economy. To ensure a level playing field, Singapore's occupational exposure standards are benchmarked against those established in the developed countries. These standards are reviewed regularly to ensure they are realistic and relevant in tandem with worldwide trends. Industry and stakeholders are consulted before any new standards are introduced. In enforcing the laws relating to exposure standards, legal and administrative procedures are followed to ensure fairness and to prevent abuse.

  18. Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-03-25

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is amending its existing standards for occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica. OSHA has determined that employees exposed to respirable crystalline silica at the previous permissible exposure limits face a significant risk of material impairment to their health. The evidence in the record for this rulemaking indicates that workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica are at increased risk of developing silicosis and other non-malignant respiratory diseases, lung cancer, and kidney disease. This final rule establishes a new permissible exposure limit of 50 micrograms of respirable crystalline silica per cubic meter of air (50 [mu]g/m\\3\\) as an 8-hour time-weighted average in all industries covered by the rule. It also includes other provisions to protect employees, such as requirements for exposure assessment, methods for controlling exposure, respiratory protection, medical surveillance, hazard communication, and recordkeeping. OSHA is issuing two separate standards--one for general industry and maritime, and the other for construction--in order to tailor requirements to the circumstances found in these sectors.

  19. Exposure to flour dust in the occupational environment

    PubMed Central

    Stobnicka, Agata; Górny, Rafał L.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to flour dust can be found in the food industry and animal feed production. It may result in various adverse health outcomes from conjunctivitis to baker's asthma. In this paper, flour dust exposure in the above-mentioned occupational environments is characterized and its health effects are discussed. A peer-reviewed literature search was carried out and all available published materials were included if they provided information on the above-mentioned elements. The hitherto conducted studies show that different components of flour dust like enzymes, proteins and baker's additives can cause both non-allergic and allergic reactions among exposed workers. Moreover, the problem of exposure to cereal allergens present in flour dust can also be a concern for bakers’ family members. Appreciating the importance of all these issues, the exposure assessment methods, hygienic standards and preventive measures are also addressed in this paper. PMID:26414680

  20. The Risk of Occupational Injury Increased According to Severity of Noise Exposure After Controlling for Occupational Environment Status in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Won, Jong-Uk

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between noise exposure and risk of occupational injury. Materials and Methods: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used for the current study. Self-report questionnaires were used to investigate occupational injury and exposure to noise, chemicals, and machines and equipments. Results: In separate analyses for occupation and occupational hazard, the proportion of occupational injuries increased according to severity of noise exposure (all P < 0.05). Compared to the non-exposure group, the respective odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for occupational injury was 1.39 (1.07–1.80) and 1.67 (1.13–2.46) in the mild and severe noise exposure groups, after controlling for age, gender, sleep hours, work schedule (shift work), and exposure status to hazardous chemicals and hazardous machines and equipments. Conclusions: The current study highlights the association between noise exposure and risk of occupational injury. Furthermore, risk of occupational injury increased according to severity of noise exposure. PMID:27991467

  1. The risk of occupational injury increased according to severity of noise exposure after controlling for occupational environment status in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Won, Jong-Uk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between noise exposure and risk of occupational injury. Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used for the current study. Self-report questionnaires were used to investigate occupational injury and exposure to noise, chemicals, and machines and equipments. In separate analyses for occupation and occupational hazard, the proportion of occupational injuries increased according to severity of noise exposure (all P < 0.05). Compared to the non-exposure group, the respective odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for occupational injury was 1.39 (1.07-1.80) and 1.67 (1.13-2.46) in the mild and severe noise exposure groups, after controlling for age, gender, sleep hours, work schedule (shift work), and exposure status to hazardous chemicals and hazardous machines and equipments. The current study highlights the association between noise exposure and risk of occupational injury. Furthermore, risk of occupational injury increased according to severity of noise exposure.

  2. INTEROCC case–control study: lack of association between glioma tumors and occupational exposure to selected combustion products, dusts and other chemical agents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim was to investigate possible associations between glioma (an aggressive type of brain cancer) and occupational exposure to selected agents: combustion products (diesel and gasoline exhaust emissions, benzo(a)pyrene), dusts (animal dust, asbestos, crystalline silica, wood dust) and some other chemical agents (formaldehyde, oil mist, sulphur dioxide). Methods The INTEROCC study included cases diagnosed with glioma during 2000–2004 in sub-regions of seven countries. Population controls, selected from various sampling frames in different centers, were frequency or individually matched to cases by sex, age and center. Face-to-face interviews with the subject or a proxy respondent were conducted by trained interviewers. Detailed information was collected on socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics, medical history and work history. Occupational exposure to the 10 selected agents was assessed by a job exposure matrix (JEM) which provides estimates of the probability and level of exposure for different occupations. Using a 25% probability of exposure in a given occupation in the JEM as the threshold for considering a worker exposed, the lifetime prevalence of exposure varied from about 1% to about 15% for the different agents. Associations between glioma and each of the 10 agents were estimated by conditional logistic regression, and using three separate exposure indices: i) ever vs. never; ii) lifetime cumulative exposure; iii) total duration of exposure. Results The study sample consisted of 1,800 glioma cases and 5,160 controls. Most odds ratio estimates were close to the null value. None of the ten agents displayed a significantly increased odds ratio nor any indication of dose–response relationships with cumulative exposure or with duration of exposure. Conclusion Thus, there was no evidence that these exposures influence risk of glioma. PMID:23587105

  3. INTEROCC case-control study: lack of association between glioma tumors and occupational exposure to selected combustion products, dusts and other chemical agents.

    PubMed

    Lacourt, Aude; Cardis, Elisabeth; Pintos, Javier; Richardson, Lesley; Kincl, Laurel; Benke, Geza; Fleming, Sarah; Hours, Martine; Krewski, Daniel; McLean, Dave; Parent, Marie-Elise; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schlaefer, Klaus; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Lavoue, Jerome; van Tongeren, Martie; Siemiatycki, Jack

    2013-04-12

    The aim was to investigate possible associations between glioma (an aggressive type of brain cancer) and occupational exposure to selected agents: combustion products (diesel and gasoline exhaust emissions, benzo(a)pyrene), dusts (animal dust, asbestos, crystalline silica, wood dust) and some other chemical agents (formaldehyde, oil mist, sulphur dioxide). The INTEROCC study included cases diagnosed with glioma during 2000-2004 in sub-regions of seven countries. Population controls, selected from various sampling frames in different centers, were frequency or individually matched to cases by sex, age and center. Face-to-face interviews with the subject or a proxy respondent were conducted by trained interviewers. Detailed information was collected on socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics, medical history and work history. Occupational exposure to the 10 selected agents was assessed by a job exposure matrix (JEM) which provides estimates of the probability and level of exposure for different occupations. Using a 25% probability of exposure in a given occupation in the JEM as the threshold for considering a worker exposed, the lifetime prevalence of exposure varied from about 1% to about 15% for the different agents. Associations between glioma and each of the 10 agents were estimated by conditional logistic regression, and using three separate exposure indices: i) ever vs. never; ii) lifetime cumulative exposure; iii) total duration of exposure. The study sample consisted of 1,800 glioma cases and 5,160 controls. Most odds ratio estimates were close to the null value. None of the ten agents displayed a significantly increased odds ratio nor any indication of dose-response relationships with cumulative exposure or with duration of exposure. Thus, there was no evidence that these exposures influence risk of glioma.

  4. Modeling potential occupational inhalation exposures and associated risks of toxic organics from chemical storage tanks used in hydraulic fracturing using AERMOD.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan; Carter, Kimberly E

    2017-05-01

    Various toxic chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids may influence the inherent health risks associated with these operations. This study investigated the possible occupational inhalation exposures and potential risks related to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from chemical storage tanks and flowback pits used in hydraulic fracturing. Potential risks were evaluated based on radial distances between 5 m and 180 m from the wells for 23 contaminants with known inhalation reference concentration (RfC) or inhalation unit risks (IUR). Results show that chemicals used in 12.4% of the wells posed a potential acute non-cancer risks for exposure and 0.11% of the wells with may provide chronic non-cancer risks for exposure. Chemicals used in 7.5% of the wells were associated with potential acute cancer risks for exposure. Those chemicals used in 5.8% of the wells may be linked to chronic cancer risks for exposure. While eight organic compounds were associated with acute non-cancer risks for exposure (>1), methanol the major compound in the chemical storage tanks (1.00-45.49) in 7,282 hydraulic fracturing wells. Wells with chemicals additives containing formaldehyde exhibited both acute and chronic cancer risks for exposure with IUR greater than 10 -6 , suggesting formaldehyde was the dominant contributor to both types of risks for exposure in hydraulic fracturing. This study also found that due to other existing on-site emission sources of VOCs and the geographically compounded air concentrations from other surrounding wells, chemical emissions data from storage tanks and flowback pits used in this study were lower than reported concentrations from field measurements where higher occupational inhalation risks for exposure may be expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vinyl chloride: an assessment of the risk of occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Purchase, I F; Stafford, J; Paddle, G M

    1987-02-01

    There is little doubt that exposure to high levels of VCM as a consequence of occupation can result in an increased incidence of ASL. A review of 20 epidemiological studies involving about 45,000 workers occupationally exposed to VCM showed that neoplasms of the liver showed an increase in incidence in the majority of studies. For brain cancer the association between exposure to VCM and an increased incidence was less clear because of the lower relative risk. Neoplasms of the respiratory tract, digestive system, lymphatic and haemopoietic system, buccal cavity, and pharynx, cardiovascular system and colon/stomach were reported to show an increased incidence in one or more studies, but to show no increase, or in some cases a decrease, in incidence in other studies. In view of the increased incidence of breast neoplasms in rodents exposed to VCM, the studies of Chaizze et al. (1980), who did not confirm these findings in humans, are of importance. The register of ASL cases now contains records of 99 persons with confirmed ASL and occupational exposure to VCM. The average latent period between first exposure to VCM and death from ASL is 21.9 years. The majority of cases occurred in autoclave workers, who are recognized as having been exposed to extremely high levels. Although precise estimates of exposure are not available for the periods of most interest, the pattern of cases roughly suggests that extremely high exposures were necessary for the induction of ASL. For example, ASL cases tended to occur in larger numbers in some plants than in others, a finding that can be explained most easily by differences in exposure patterns. There is an extensive series of animal studies on the carcinogenicity of VCM. Some of these precede the epidemiological studies confirming the association between VCM exposure and ASL in man. ASL and neoplasms of a number of other organs have been induced in laboratory rodents by VCM. Estimation of the exposure levels likely to cause a

  6. Childhood leukemia and parents' occupational and home exposures.

    PubMed

    Lowengart, R A; Peters, J M; Cicioni, C; Buckley, J; Bernstein, L; Preston-Martin, S; Rappaport, E

    1987-07-01

    A case-control study of children of ages 10 years and under in Los Angeles County was conducted to investigate the causes of leukemia. The mothers and fathers of acute leukemia cases and their individually matched controls were interviewed regarding specific occupational and home exposures as well as other potential risk factors associated with leukemia. Analysis of the information from the 123 matched pairs showed an increased risk of leukemia for children whose fathers had occupational exposure after the birth of the child to chlorinated solvents [odds ratio (OR) = 3.5, P = .01], spray paint (OR = 2.0, P = .02), dyes or pigments (OR = 4.5, P = .03), methyl ethyl ketone (CAS: 78-93-3; OR = 3.0, P = .05), and cutting oil (OR = 1.7, P = .05) or whose fathers were exposed during the mother's pregnancy with the child to spray paint (OR = 2.2, P = .03). For all of these, the risk associated with frequent use was greater than for infrequent use. There was an increased risk of leukemia for the child if the father worked in industries manufacturing transportation equipment (mostly aircraft) (OR = 2.5, P = .03) or machinery (OR = 3.0, P = .02). An increased risk was found for children whose parents used pesticides in the home (OR = 3.8, P = .004) or garden (OR = 6.5, P = .007) or who burned incense in the home (OR = 2.7, P = .007). The risk was greater for frequent use. Risk of leukemia was related to mothers' employment in personal service industries (OR = 2.7, P = .04) but not to specified occupational exposures. Risk related to fathers' exposure to chlorinated solvents, employment in the transportation equipment-manufacturing industry, and parents' exposure to household or garden pesticides and incense remains statistically significant after adjusting for the other significant findings.

  7. Environmental and occupational exposures as a cause of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Wijesekara, G U S; Fernando, D M S; Wijerathna, S; Bandara, N

    2015-06-01

    To determine the association between environmental and occupational exposures, semen parameters and lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) levels in seminal plasma of men investigated for infertility. Data were collected from 300 men investigated for infertility using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Seminal fluid analysis and classification was done according to WHO guidelines. Positive exposure was defined as environmental or occupational exposure to agro or industrial chemicals, heavy metals and living in areas within 50 m of potential sources of pollution for three months or more. Seminal plasma lead and cadmium levels were estimated by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry after digestion with nitric acid. The means of sperm parameters, Pb and Cd concentrations between exposed and non exposed groups were compared using t-test. Mean age was 34.8 (95% CI 34.2-35.4) years BMI was 24.3 (95% CI 23.8-24.7) kg/m2 and duration of the infertility was 45.7 (41.7-49.6) months. In this study, 54.6% were exposed to toxins through environmental or occupational sources. All sperm parameters were lower in the exposed group when compared to the non exposed. Lead and cadmium were detected in 38.3% and 23% of men respectively. The distance from the source of possible environmental or occupational exposure was negatively correlated to seminal plasma Pb (r=0.06, p>0.05) and Cd (r=0.26, p<0.05) concentrations. In the exposed, mean lead concentration was 17.7 (95% CI 15.0-20.4) μg/dl and 13.5 (95% CI 11.2-15.7) μg/dl in non exposed and cadmium concentration in exposed was 1.2 (95% CI 1.1-1.4) μg/dl and 1.1 (0.9-1.3) μg/dl in non-exposed. Environmental and occupational exposures were associated with reduced sperm count motility, viability, normal forms and detectable levels of lead and cadmium in seminal plasma.

  8. Occupational exposure to cleaning products and asthma in hospital workers.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Orianne; Donnay, Carole; Heederik, Dick J J; Héry, Michel; Choudat, Dominique; Kauffmann, Francine; Le Moual, Nicole

    2012-12-01

    Cleaning products may cause work-related asthma, but information regarding the specific exposures involved is scarce. We aimed to determine the associations between asthma and occupational exposure to cleaning agents in hospital workers. Analyses were conducted in 179 (136 women) hospital workers and a reference population of 545 subjects (18-79 years) from the French case-control and familial Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (2003-2007). Exposures to cleaning agents were estimated using three methods: self-report, expert assessment and an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix (JEM). Associations between cleaning products and current asthma were evaluated by logistic regressions, stratified by sex and adjusted for age and smoking status. According to expert assessment, 55% of male and 81% of female hospital workers were exposed to cleaning/disinfecting tasks weekly (p<0.001). No association was observed between cleaning/disinfecting tasks and current asthma in men or in women whatever the assessment method used. In women, exposure to decalcifiers (expert assessment) was associated with current asthma (OR (95% CI):2.38 (1.06 to 5.33)). In hospital workers classified as exposed according to both the expert assessment and the JEM, additional associations were observed for exposure to ammonia (3.05 (1.19 to 7.82)) and to sprays with moderate/high intensity (2.87 (1.02 to 8.11)). Female hospital workers are often exposed to numerous cleaning products, some of which were markedly associated with current asthma. Low numbers prevented a meaningful analysis in men. Objective and more accurate estimates of occupational exposure to cleaning products are needed to better understand the adverse effects of cleaning products.

  9. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer, Including Occupational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Meo, Margrethe; Vainio, Harri

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge on the etiology of breast cancer has advanced substantially in recent years, and several etiological factors are now firmly established. However, very few new discoveries have been made in relation to occupational risk factors. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has evaluated over 900 different exposures or agents to-date to determine whether they are carcinogenic to humans. These evaluations are published as a series of Monographs (www.iarc.fr). For breast cancer the following substances have been classified as "carcinogenic to humans" (Group 1): alcoholic beverages, exposure to diethylstilbestrol, estrogen-progestogen contraceptives, estrogen-progestogen hormone replacement therapy and exposure to X-radiation and gamma-radiation (in special populations such as atomic bomb survivors, medical patients, and in-utero exposure). Ethylene oxide is also classified as a Group 1 carcinogen, although the evidence for carcinogenicity in epidemiologic studies, and specifically for the human breast, is limited. The classification "probably carcinogenic to humans" (Group 2A) includes estrogen hormone replacement therapy, tobacco smoking, and shift work involving circadian disruption, including work as a flight attendant. If the association between shift work and breast cancer, the most common female cancer, is confirmed, shift work could become the leading cause of occupational cancer in women. PMID:22953181

  10. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    SciTech Connect

    Sarowi, S. Muhd, E-mail: suzie@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia includingmore » the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H{sub 0}) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304)« less

  11. Occupational exposure assessment: Practices in Malaysian nuclear agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarowi, S. Muhd; Ramli, S. A.; Kontol, K. Mohamad; Rahman, N. A. H. Abd.

    2016-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) is the leading agency in introducing and promoting the application of nuclear science technology in Malaysia. The agency provides major nuclear facilities purposely for research and commercialisation such as reactor, irradiation plants and radioisotope production laboratory. When dealing with ionizing radiation, there is an obligatory requirement to monitor and assess the radiation exposure to the workers. The personal dose of radiation workers were monitored monthly by assessing their Thermoluminescence Dosimeter (TLD) dose reading. This paper will discuss the current practice in managing, assessing, record keeping and reporting of the occupational exposure in Nuclear Malaysia including the Health Physic Group roles and challenges. The statistics on occupational radiation exposure of monitored workers working in different fields in Nuclear Malaysia from 2011 - 2013 will also be presented. The results show that the null hypothesis (H₀) was accepted which the means of every populations are all equal or not differ significantly. This hypothesis states that the dose exposure received by the radiation workers in Nuclear Malaysia is similar and there were no significant changes from 2011 to 2013. The radiation monitoring programme correlate with the requirement of our national law, the Atomic Energy Licensing Act 1984 (Act 304).

  12. Rare occupational cause of nasal septum perforation: Nickel exposure.

    PubMed

    Bolek, Ertugrul Cagri; Erden, Abdulsamet; Kulekci, Cagri; Kalyoncu, Umut; Karadag, Omer

    2017-10-06

    Many etiologies are held accountable for nasal septum perforations. Topical nasal drug usage, previous surgeries, trauma, nose picking, squamous cell carcinoma, some rheumatological disorders such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener granulomatosis), some infectious diseases such as syphilis and leprosy are among the causes of the perforations. Occupational heavy metal exposures by inhalation rarely may also cause nasal septum perforation. Here, we present a 29-year-old patient without any known diseases, who is a worker at a metallic coating and nickel-plating factory, referred for investigation of his nasal cartilage septum perforation from an otorhinolaryngology clinic. The patient questioning, physical examination and laboratory assessment about rheumatic and infectious diseases were negative. There was a metallic smell in the breath during the physical examination. The analysis showed serum nickel level at 31 μg/l and urine nickel at 18 μg/l (84.11 μg/g creatinine). Other possible serum and urine heavy metal levels were within normal ranges. Nickel exposure is usually together with other heavy metals (chromium or cadmium), it is rarely alone. Nickel ingested by inhalation usually leads to respiratory problems such as reduced olfactory acuity, ulcers, septum perforation or tumors of the nasal sinuses. This case demonstrates the importance of occupational anamnesis and awareness of diagnosis. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(6):963-967. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  13. Airborne occupational exposures and risk of oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, C; Plato, N; Johansson, A L V; Nyrén, O; Lagergren, J

    2006-01-01

    Background The reasons for the increasing incidence of and strong male predominance in patients with oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma remain unclear. The authors hypothesised that airborne occupational exposures in male dominated industries might contribute. Methods In a nationwide Swedish population based case control study, 189 and 262 cases of oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma respectively, 167 cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and 820 frequency matched controls underwent personal interviews. Based on each study participant's lifetime occupational history the authors assessed cumulative airborne occupational exposure for 10 agents, analysed individually and combined, by a deterministic additive model including probability, frequency, and intensity. Furthermore, occupations and industries of longest duration were analysed. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders. Results Tendencies of positive associations were found between high exposure to pesticides and risk of oesophageal (OR 2.3 (95% CI 0.9 to 5.7)) and cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.0 to 4.6)). Among workers highly exposed to particular agents, a tendency of an increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma was found. There was a twofold increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma among concrete and construction workers (OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 4.2)) and a nearly fourfold increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma among workers within the motor vehicle industry (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 10.4)). An increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.2 to 12.5)), and a tendency of an increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.8 (95% CI 0.9 to 8.5)), were identified among hotel and restaurant workers. Conclusions Specific airborne occupational exposures do not seem to be of major importance in the aetiology of oesophageal or

  14. Airborne occupational exposures and risk of oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jansson, C; Plato, N; Johansson, A L V; Nyrén, O; Lagergren, J

    2006-02-01

    The reasons for the increasing incidence of and strong male predominance in patients with oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma remain unclear. The authors hypothesised that airborne occupational exposures in male dominated industries might contribute. In a nationwide Swedish population based case control study, 189 and 262 cases of oesophageal and cardia adenocarcinoma respectively, 167 cases of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and 820 frequency matched controls underwent personal interviews. Based on each study participant's lifetime occupational history the authors assessed cumulative airborne occupational exposure for 10 agents, analysed individually and combined, by a deterministic additive model including probability, frequency, and intensity. Furthermore, occupations and industries of longest duration were analysed. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders. Tendencies of positive associations were found between high exposure to pesticides and risk of oesophageal (OR 2.3 (95% CI 0.9 to 5.7)) and cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.1 (95% CI 1.0 to 4.6)). Among workers highly exposed to particular agents, a tendency of an increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma was found. There was a twofold increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma among concrete and construction workers (OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.1 to 4.2)) and a nearly fourfold increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma among workers within the motor vehicle industry (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 10.4)). An increased risk of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OR 3.9 (95% CI 1.2 to 12.5)), and a tendency of an increased risk of cardia adenocarcinoma (OR 2.8 (95% CI 0.9 to 8.5)), were identified among hotel and restaurant workers. Specific airborne occupational exposures do not seem to be of major importance in the aetiology of oesophageal or cardia adenocarcinoma and are unlikely to

  15. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in the Polish Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Sobiech, Jaromir; Kieliszek, Jarosław; Puta, Robert; Bartczak, Dagmara; Stankiewicz, Wanda

    2017-06-19

    Standard devices used by military personnel that may pose electromagnetic hazard include: radars, missile systems, radio navigation systems and radio transceivers. The aim of this study has been to evaluate the exposure of military personnel to electromagnetic fields. Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields was analyzed in the work environment of personnel of 204 devices divided into 5 groups (surface-to-air missile system radars, aircraft and helicopters, communication devices, surveillance and height finder radars, airport radars and radio navigation systems). Measurements were carried out at indicators, device terminals, radio panels, above vehicle seats, in vehicle hatches, by cabinets containing high power vacuum tubes and other transmitter components, by transmission lines, connectors, etc. Portable radios emit the electric field strength between 20-80 V/m close to a human head. The manpack radio operator's exposure is 60-120 V/m. Inside vehicles with high frequency/very high frequency (HF/VHF) band radios, the electric field strength is between 7-30 V/m and inside the radar cabin it ranges between 9-20 V/m. Most of the personnel on ships are not exposed to the electromagnetic field from their own radar systems but rather by accidental exposure from the radar systems of other ships. Operators of surface-to-air missile systems are exposed to the electric field strength between 7-15 V/m and the personnel of non-directional radio beacons - 100-150 V/m. In 57% of military devices Polish soldiers work in the occupational protection zones. In 35% of cases, soldiers work in intermediate and hazardous zones and in 22% - only in the intermediate zone. In 43% of devices, military personnel are not exposed to electromagnetic field. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):565-577. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  16. Evaluation of an artificial intelligence program for estimating occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Karen L; Phillips, Margaret L; Esmen, Nurtan A; Hall, Thomas A

    2005-03-01

    Estimation and Assessment of Substance Exposure (EASE) is an artificial intelligence program developed by UK's Health and Safety Executive to assess exposure. EASE computes estimated airborne concentrations based on a substance's vapor pressure and the types of controls in the work area. Though EASE is intended only to make broad predictions of exposure from occupational environments, some occupational hygienists might attempt to use EASE for individual exposure characterizations. This study investigated whether EASE would accurately predict actual sampling results from a chemical manufacturing process. Personal breathing zone time-weighted average (TWA) monitoring data for two volatile organic chemicals--a common solvent (toluene) and a specialty monomer (chloroprene)--present in this manufacturing process were compared to EASE-generated estimates. EASE-estimated concentrations for specific tasks were weighted by task durations reported in the monitoring record to yield TWA estimates from EASE that could be directly compared to the measured TWA data. Two hundred and six chloroprene and toluene full-shift personal samples were selected from eight areas of this manufacturing process. The Spearman correlation between EASE TWA estimates and measured TWA values was 0.55 for chloroprene and 0.44 for toluene, indicating moderate predictive values for both compounds. For toluene, the interquartile range of EASE estimates at least partially overlapped the interquartile range of the measured data distributions in all process areas. The interquartile range of EASE estimates for chloroprene fell above the interquartile range of the measured data distributions in one process area, partially overlapped the third quartile of the measured data in five process areas and fell within the interquartile range in two process areas. EASE is not a substitute for actual exposure monitoring. However, EASE can be used in conditions that cannot otherwise be sampled and in preliminary

  17. Occupational exposure of electrical utility linemen to pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Thind, K S; Karmali, S; House, R A

    1991-12-01

    Occupational exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) for a crew of electrical utility linemen was monitored over a 6-month period by using total PCP in urine per gram of creatinine as a biological monitoring parameter. Urine samples were collected from three groups: A, B, and control, at a 4-week frequency during 1989. Group A was required to use new gloves after each 4-week work period; Group B changed gloves on a need basis as per normal operating procedure. The control group consisted of members of the administrative office staff who were not occupationally exposed. The used gloves returned by Group A were monitored for contamination. On the basis of analysis of the collected data the following conclusions were noted. (1) The linemen experienced a seasonal exposure pattern with exposures peaking in July and August. This seasonal effect was also observed with glove contamination data. (2) The glove contamination levels were significantly associated with urine PCP concentrations when both these variables were expressed as geometric means for the individuals in Group A. Inclusion of work experience as an additional variable enhances this association. Less experienced linemen tended to perform more activities with higher current exposure and had higher urine and glove PCP measurements and higher correlations between these variables than more experienced linemen. (3) Over the study period, the difference in long-term exposures of Group A and Group B linemen was not statistically significant. (4) The long-term individual exposures, calculated as the geometric mean of each individual's sequential sample readings, were all below the biological monitoring guideline value of 1000 micrograms PCP/g creatinine.

  18. Occupational Hazard Exposures and Depressive Symptoms of Pregnant Workers.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Sherri S; Lee, Chien-Nan; Wu, Ying-Hsuan; Tu, Nai-Chi; Guo, Yue-Leon; Chen, Pau-Chung; Chen, Chi-Hsien

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of exposure to occupational hazards and depressive mood with associated underlying risk factors among pregnant workers. Women at 12 weeks of gestation (n = 172) were recruited during regular prenatal screening. Data were obtained via questionnaires that explored job details and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The most commonly encountered hazard was prolonged standing. The majority of women reported that the workplace provided no information on the safety or rights of pregnant women, but those exposed to at least four hazards had more access to such services (P < 0.05). Thirteen percent may have suffered from depressive symptomatology. Higher-level work-related burnout, lower job control, and reduced workplace support were significantly associated with possible antenatal depressive symptoms. Pregnant workers are exposed to substantial levels of occupational hazards and may experience depressive symptoms; thus, their work conditions require monitoring and improvement.

  19. High-resolution metabolomics of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Douglas I; Uppal, Karan; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Smith, Martyn; Hu, Wei; Purdue, Mark P; Tang, Xiaojiang; Reiss, Boris; Kim, Sungkyoon; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Pennell, Kurt D; Jones, Dean P; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) has been linked to adverse health outcomes including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and kidney and liver cancer; however, TCE’s mode of action for development of these diseases in humans is not well understood. Methods: Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of plasma obtained from 80 TCE-exposed workers [full shift exposure range of 0.4 to 230 parts-per-million of air (ppma)] and 95 matched controls were completed by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. Biological response to TCE exposure was determined using a metabolome-wide association study (MWAS) framework, with metabolic changes and plasma TCE metabolites evaluated by dose-response and pathway enrichment. Biological perturbations were then linked to immunological, renal and exposure molecular markers measured in the same population. Results: Metabolic features associated with TCE exposure included known TCE metabolites, unidentifiable chlorinated compounds and endogenous metabolites. Exposure resulted in a systemic response in endogenous metabolism, including disruption in purine catabolism and decreases in sulphur amino acid and bile acid biosynthesis pathways. Metabolite associations with TCE exposure included uric acid (β = 0.13, P-value = 3.6 × 10−5), glutamine (β = 0.08, P-value = 0.0013), cystine (β = 0.75, P-value = 0.0022), methylthioadenosine (β = −1.6, P-value = 0.0043), taurine (β = −2.4, P-value = 0.0011) and chenodeoxycholic acid (β = −1.3, P-value = 0.0039), which are consistent with known toxic effects of TCE, including immunosuppression, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Correlation with additional exposure markers and physiological endpoints supported known disease associations. Conclusions: High-resolution metabolomics correlates measured occupational exposure to internal dose and metabolic response, providing insight into molecular mechanisms of exposure

  20. High-resolution metabolomics of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Walker, Douglas I; Uppal, Karan; Zhang, Luoping; Vermeulen, Roel; Smith, Martyn; Hu, Wei; Purdue, Mark P; Tang, Xiaojiang; Reiss, Boris; Kim, Sungkyoon; Li, Laiyu; Huang, Hanlin; Pennell, Kurt D; Jones, Dean P; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) has been linked to adverse health outcomes including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and kidney and liver cancer; however, TCE's mode of action for development of these diseases in humans is not well understood. Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of plasma obtained from 80 TCE-exposed workers [full shift exposure range of 0.4 to 230 parts-per-million of air (ppm a )] and 95 matched controls were completed by ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. Biological response to TCE exposure was determined using a metabolome-wide association study (MWAS) framework, with metabolic changes and plasma TCE metabolites evaluated by dose-response and pathway enrichment. Biological perturbations were then linked to immunological, renal and exposure molecular markers measured in the same population. Metabolic features associated with TCE exposure included known TCE metabolites, unidentifiable chlorinated compounds and endogenous metabolites. Exposure resulted in a systemic response in endogenous metabolism, including disruption in purine catabolism and decreases in sulphur amino acid and bile acid biosynthesis pathways. Metabolite associations with TCE exposure included uric acid (β = 0.13, P-value = 3.6 × 10 -5 ), glutamine (β = 0.08, P-value = 0.0013), cystine (β = 0.75, P-value = 0.0022), methylthioadenosine (β = -1.6, P-value = 0.0043), taurine (β = -2.4, P-value = 0.0011) and chenodeoxycholic acid (β = -1.3, P-value = 0.0039), which are consistent with known toxic effects of TCE, including immunosuppression, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Correlation with additional exposure markers and physiological endpoints supported known disease associations. High-resolution metabolomics correlates measured occupational exposure to internal dose and metabolic response, providing insight into molecular mechanisms of exposure-related disease aetiology. © The Author 2016; all rights

  1. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE OF NMR SPECTROMETRISTS TO STATIC AND RADIOFREQUENCY FIELDS.

    PubMed

    Berlana, Tania; Úbeda, Alejandro

    2017-12-01

    Occupational exposure to static and radiofrequency fields emitted by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers was assessed through systematic field metering during operation of 19 devices in nine research centers. Whereas no measurable levels of radiofrequency radiation were registered outside the spectrometers, significant exposure to static field was detected, with maximum values recorded at the user's hand (B = 683.00 mT) and head-thorax (B = 135.70 mT) during spectrometer manipulation. All values were well below the exposure limits set by the European standard for workers protection against the effects of acute field exposure only. As for potential effects of chronic exposure, waiting for more complete knowledge, adoption of technical and operational strategies for exposure minimizing is advisable. In this respect, the data revealed that compared with standard magnetic shielding, ultrashield technology allows a 20-65-fold reduction of the field strength received by the operator. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Ototoxic effects of occupational exposure to styrene and co-exposure to styrene and noise.

    PubMed

    Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola; Zamyslowska-Szmytke, Ewa; Szymczak, Wieslaw; Kotylo, Piotr; Fiszer, Marta; Wesolowski, Wiktor; Pawlaczyk-Luszczynska, Malgorzata

    2003-01-01

    Ototoxicity of styrene and the synergistic action of styrene and noise have been shown in rats. The respective data in humans are scarce and equivocal. This study evaluated the effects of occupational exposure to styrene and combined exposures to styrene and noise on hearing. The study group, comprised of 290-yacht yard and plastic factory workers, was exposed to a mixture of organic solvents, having styrene as its main compound. The reference group, totaling 223 subjects, included (1) white-collar workers, exposed neither to solvents nor noise and (2) metal factory workers, exposed exclusively to noise. All subjects were assessed by means of a detailed questionnaire and underwent otorhinolaryngological and audiometric examinations. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed almost a 4-fold (or 3.9; 95% CI = 2.4-6.2) increase in the odds of developing hearing loss related to styrene exposure. The factors adjusted for were: age, gender, current occupational exposure to noise, and exposure to noise in the past. In cases of the combined exposures to styrene and noise, the odds ratios were two to three times higher than the respective values for styrene-only and noise-only exposed subjects. The mean hearing thresholds--adjusted for age, gender, and exposure to noise--were significantly higher in the solvent-exposed group than in the unexposed reference group at all frequencies tested. A positive linear relationship existed between an averaged working life exposure to styrene concentration and a hearing threshold at the frequencies of 6 and 8 kHz. This study provides the epidemiological evidence that occupational exposure to styrene is related to an increased risk of hearing loss. Combined exposures to noise and styrene seem to be more ototoxic than exposure to noise alone.

  3. [Occupational differences in exposure to hazardous work conditions].

    PubMed

    Marinacci, Chiara; d'Errico, A; Cardano, M; Perini, F; Costa, G

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have been aimed at describing organizational and psychosocial conditions of the Italian workforce by occupational group, and they have been mainly conducted within specific occupations. The present study aimed at identifying specific groups of occupations which have unfavourable profiles from the point of view of exposure to specific organizational factors and psychosocial risks, and to physical, chemical and ergonomic risks, and analyzing their distribution by worker age. The analysis was conducted on a sample of 4,195 workers in the Piedmont Region who were members of the CGIL Trade Union (Italian General Confederation of Labour), who answered a self-administered questionnaire in 2000, aimed at assessing chemical, physical, and ergonomic risks, accidents, and psychosocial factors connected with work organization and work tasks. Psychosocial risks were assessed via three scales aimed at measuring the degree of control, psychophysical demands, and worker satisfaction. The proportion of workers exposed to the above mentioned risks was analysed according to occupational group. This group was then compared with all other groups taken together, according to prevalence of high strain condition (combination of high demand and low control) and HSUR condition (High Strain Unfairly Rewarded; combination of high strain and low satisfaction). Among males aged 25-44 years, restricted to the occupation groups with more than ten workers in high strain condition, significantly higher proportions of stress were observed in leather workers and shoemakers, paper factory workers, rubber workers, crane and bridge crane operators, plastic workers, painters, transport drivers and carpenters. For many of these groups, excesses were confirmed for the HSUR condition. Among subjects aged over 44 years, a higher risk for high strain was confirmed in rubber workers, transport drivers and carpenters. In addition, machine tool operators, assembly line and mechanical workers in this

  4. [Occupational exposure to hand-transmitted vibration in Poland].

    PubMed

    Harazin, Barbara; Zieliński, Grzegorz

    2004-01-01

    Occupational exposure to hand transmitted vibration may cause disorders in upper extremities known as hand-arm vibration syndrome. Therefore it is essential to know the sources of vibration, occupational groups exposed to vibration and the number of exposed workers. The aim of the study was to estimate the number of men and women exposed to hand-transmitted vibration in Poland. The completed questionnaires were obtained from 265 (80%) sanitary inspection stations. They included questions on: the name of workplaces, the name and the type of vibration sources, workers' gender, the number of workers exposed to vibration, indicating the extent of exposure measured against the three threshold limit values (< 0.5 TLV; 0.5 < TLV < 1 and > 1 TLV), and the number of workers exposed to hand-transmitted vibration not documented by measurements in a particular workplaces, indicating one of the three possible kinds of exposure (occasional, periodical and constant). The questionnaire data were based on measurements and analyses performed in 1997-2000. The results of the study showed that vibrating tools used by grinders, fitters, locksmiths, rammers, road workers, carpenters and smiths proved to be the most frequent sources of hand-transmitted vibration. It was revealed that 78.6% of operators of these tools were exposed to vibration exceeding 1 TLV. The study also indicated that 17,000 workers, including 1700 women, were exposed to vibration exceeding the threshold limit values.

  5. Occupational exposure to HDI: progress and challenges in biomarker analysis.

    PubMed

    Flack, Sheila L; Ball, Louise M; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2010-10-01

    1,6-Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) is extensively used in the automotive repair industry and is a commonly reported cause of occupational asthma in industrialized populations. However, the exact pathological mechanism remains uncertain. Characterization and quantification of biomarkers resulting from HDI exposure can fill important knowledge gaps between exposure, susceptibility, and the rise of immunological reactions and sensitization leading to asthma. Here, we discuss existing challenges in HDI biomarker analysis including the quantification of N-acetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (monoacetyl-HDA) and N,N'-diacetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (diacetyl-HDA) in urine samples based on previously established methods for HDA analysis. In addition, we describe the optimization of reaction conditions for the synthesis of monoacetyl-HDA and diacetyl-HDA, and utilize these standards for the quantification of these metabolites in the urine of three occupationally exposed workers. Diacetyl-HDA was present in untreated urine at 0.015-0.060 μg/l. Using base hydrolysis, the concentration range of monoacetyl-HDA in urine was 0.19-2.2 μg/l, 60-fold higher than in the untreated samples on average. HDA was detected only in one sample after base hydrolysis (0.026 μg/l). In contrast, acid hydrolysis yielded HDA concentrations ranging from 0.36 to 10.1 μg/l in these three samples. These findings demonstrate HDI metabolism via N-acetylation metabolic pathway and protein adduct formation resulting from occupational exposure to HDI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Occupational Exposure to Chromium of Assembly Workers in Aviation Industries.

    PubMed

    Genovese, G; Castiglia, L; Pieri, M; Novi, C; d'Angelo, R; Sannolo, N; Lamberti, M; Miraglia, N

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft are constructed by modules that are covered by a "primer" layer, which can often contain hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)], known carcinogen to humans. While the occupational exposure to Cr(VI) during aircraft painting is ascertained, the exposure assessment of assembly workers (assemblers) requires investigations. Three biological monitoring campaigns (BM-I,II,III) were performed in an aviation industry, on homogeneous groups of assemblers (N = 43) and controls (N = 23), by measuring chromium concentrations in end-shift urine collected at the end of the working week and the chromium concentration difference between end- and before-shift urines. BM-I was conducted on full-time workers, BM-II was performed on workers after a 3-4 day absence from work, BM-III on workers using ecoprimers with lower Cr(VI) content. Samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy and mean values were compared by T-test. Even if Cr concentrations measured during BM-I were lower than Biological Exposure Indices by ACGIH, statistically significant differences were found between urinary Cr concentrations of workers and controls. Despite 3-4 days of absence from work, urinary chromium concentrations measured during BM-II were still higher than references from nonoccupationally exposed populations. In the BM-III campaign, the obtained preliminary results suggested the efficacy of using ecoprimers. The healthcare of workers exposed to carcinogenic agents follows the principle of limiting the exposure to "the minimum technically possible". The obtained results evidence that assemblers of aviation industries, whose task does not involve the direct use of primers containing Cr(VI), show an albeit slight occupational exposure to Cr(VI), that must be carefully taken into consideration in planning suitable prevention measures during risk assessment and management processes.

  7. Male fertility following occupational exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT).

    PubMed

    Campagna, Marcello; Satta, Giannina; Fadda, Domenica; Pili, Sergio; Cocco, Pierluigi

    2015-04-01

    The inconsistent epidemiological results of the endocrine disrupting effects of DDT fuel a harsh debate on its global ban. We tested the hypothesis that occupational exposure to dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) causes impairment in male fertility in a cohort of DDT exposed workers, in Sardinia, Italy. We accessed official records on date of marriage and date of birth of the first child to estimate time to pregnancy (TTP) in the spouses of 1223 workers employed in a 1946-1950 anti-malarial campaign. The TTP calculation was censored at the 13th month after date of marriage. We used a modified Cox's proportional hazard model to calculate the fecundability ratio (FR) by job, by cumulative exposure to DDT, and by time window in relation to the anti-malarial operations, adjusting by paternal age at marriage. Among the spouses of DDT applicators, fecundability did not vary during DDT use (FR=1.22, 95% CI 0.84-1.77) nor in the following decade (FR=1.01, 95% CI 0.67-1.50) with reference to the prior years. A significant increase occurred among the unexposed and the less exposed sub-cohorts, which generated a non-significantly reduced FR among the DDT applicator sub-cohort with reference to the unexposed following exposure. We did not find evidence of an impairment in male fertility following heavy occupational exposure to DDT. However, although fecundability was highest among the spouses of the DDT applicators in the years prior to the anti-malarial campaign, we cannot exclude that DDT exposure prevented an increase parallel to that observed among the unexposed and the less exposed sub-cohorts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The OSHA hazardous chemical occupational exposure standard for laboratories.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, D A

    1991-01-01

    OSHA's chemical occupational exposure standard for laboratories is an outgrowth of the previously issued Hazard Communication Standard. The standard relieves laboratories from complying with general industry standards but does require compliance with specific laboratory guidelines. The heart of the standard is the creation of a Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP). The CHP addresses major issues such as safety equipment and procedures, work practices, training, the designation of a chemical hygiene officer, and the provision of medical consultation and examination for affected employees. This new standard, in full effect as of January 31, 1991, presents yet another regulatory challenge to laboratory managers but also ensures a safer environment for laboratory workers.

  9. Development of a Job-Exposure Matrix (AsbJEM) to Estimate Occupational Exposure to Asbestos in Australia.

    PubMed

    van Oyen, Svein C; Peters, Susan; Alfonso, Helman; Fritschi, Lin; de Klerk, Nicholas H; Reid, Alison; Franklin, Peter; Gordon, Len; Benke, Geza; Musk, Arthur W

    2015-07-01

    Occupational exposure data on asbestos are limited and poorly integrated in Australia so that estimates of disease risk and attribution of disease causation are usually calculated from data that are not specific for local conditions. To develop a job-exposure matrix (AsbJEM) to estimate occupational asbestos exposure levels in Australia, making optimal use of the available exposure data. A dossier of all available exposure data in Australia and information on industry practices and controls was provided to an expert panel consisting of three local industrial hygienists with thorough knowledge of local and international work practices. The expert panel estimated asbestos exposures for combinations of occupation, industry, and time period. Intensity and frequency grades were estimated to enable the calculation of annual exposure levels for each occupation-industry combination for each time period. Two indicators of asbestos exposure intensity (mode and peak) were used to account for different patterns of exposure between occupations. Additionally, the probable type of asbestos fibre was determined for each situation. Asbestos exposures were estimated for 537 combinations of 224 occupations and 60 industries for four time periods (1943-1966; 1967-1986; 1987-2003; ≥2004). Workers in the asbestos manufacturing, shipyard, and insulation industries were estimated to have had the highest average exposures. Up until 1986, 46 occupation-industry combinations were estimated to have had exposures exceeding the current Australian exposure standard of 0.1 f ml(-1). Over 90% of exposed occupations were considered to have had exposure to a mixture of asbestos varieties including crocidolite. The AsbJEM provides empirically based quantified estimates of asbestos exposure levels for Australian jobs since 1943. This exposure assessment application will contribute to improved understanding and prediction of asbestos-related diseases and attribution of disease causation. © The

  10. Effective biological dose from occupational exposure during nanoparticle synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demou, Evangelia; Tran, Lang; Housiadas, Christos

    2009-02-01

    Nanomaterial and nanotechnology safety require the characterization of occupational exposure levels for completing a risk assessment. However, equally important is the estimation of the effective internal dose via lung deposition, transport and clearance mechanisms. An integrated source-to-biological dose assessment study is presented using real monitoring data collected during nanoparticle synthesis. Experimental monitoring data of airborne exposure levels during nanoparticle synthesis of CaSO4 and BiPO4 nanoparticles in a research laboratory is coupled with a human lung transport and deposition model, which solves in an Eulerian framework the general dynamic equation for polydisperse aerosols using particle specific physical-chemical properties. Subsequently, the lung deposition model is coupled with a mathematical particle clearance model providing the effective biological dose as well as the time course of the biological dose build-up after exposure. The results for the example of BiPO4 demonstrate that even short exposures throughout the day can lead to particle doses of 1.10·E+08#/(kg-bw·8h-shift), with the majority accumulating in the pulmonary region. Clearance of particles is slow and is not completed within a working shift following a 1 hour exposure. It mostly occurs via macrophage activity in the alveolar region, with small amounts transported to the interstitium and less to the lymph nodes.

  11. Occupational exposure to noise and hypertension in pilots.

    PubMed

    Tomei, Francesco; De Sio, Simone; Tomao, Enrico; Anzelmo, Vincenza; Baccolo, Tiziana Paola; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Cherubini, Emilia; Valentini, Valentina; Capozzella, Assunta; Rosati, Maria Valeria

    2005-04-01

    The role of occupational exposure to noise as a hypertension risk factor has not been established sufficiently. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether chronic exposure to different levels of noise in two groups of pilots, operating with two types of aircraft, could be a risk for hypertension, what relevance the parameters (intensity, duration and type) of exposure can have and, lastly, whether there are any links between hearing impairment and hypertension. After excluding pilots with confounding factors, a study was made of 77 male pilots of turboprop planes (group A) and 224 male pilots of jet aircraft (group B), matched by age and working life. Blood pressure (supine and standing positions) and heart rate were measured. Electrocardiogram, stress tests on a cycle ergometer, sound-level measurement and audiometric tests were also done. Pilots of group A were exposed to Leq of 93 dBA while pilots of group B were exposed to the Leq of 79 dBA. Significant results in group A compared to group B were found between heart rate, blood pressure, drop in blood pressure, parameters (intensity, duration and type) of exposure to noise and between hearing damage and hypertension. The findings suggest that chronic exposure to noise is a risk factor for blood hypertension in pilots exposed to high noise levels, and that the drop in blood pressure may be a sign of more sensitive effect of noise on blood pressure, according to other studies in literature.

  12. Occupational exposure limits for nanomaterials: state of the art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, P. A.; Murashov, V.; Zumwalde, R.; Kuempel, E. D.; Geraci, C. L.

    2010-08-01

    Assessing the need for and effectiveness of controlling airborne exposures to engineered nanomaterials in the workplace is difficult in the absence of occupational exposure limits (OELs). At present, there are practically no OELs specific to nanomaterials that have been adopted or promulgated by authoritative standards and guidance organizations. The vast heterogeneity of nanomaterials limits the number of specific OELs that are likely to be developed in the near future, but OELs could be developed more expeditiously for nanomaterials by applying dose-response data generated from animal studies for specific nanoparticles across categories of nanomaterials with similar properties and modes of action. This article reviews the history, context, and approaches for developing OELs for particles in general and nanoparticles in particular. Examples of approaches for developing OELs for titanium dioxide and carbon nanotubes are presented and interim OELs from various organizations for some nanomaterials are discussed. When adequate dose-response data are available in animals or humans, quantitative risk assessment methods can provide estimates of adverse health risk of nanomaterials in workers and, in conjunction with workplace exposure and control data, provide a basis for determining appropriate exposure limits. In the absence of adequate quantitative data, qualitative approaches to hazard assessment, exposure control, and safe work practices are prudent measures to reduce hazards in workers.

  13. Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kobal, Alfred Bogomir; Prezelj, Marija; Horvat, Milena

    2008-05-15

    Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the interaction of inorganic mercury (Hg) and glutathione. However, human studies are limited. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of remote long-term intermittent occupational elemental Hg vapour (Hg{sup o}) exposure on erythrocyte glutathione levels and some antioxidative enzyme activities in ex-mercury miners in the period after exposure. The study included 49 ex-mercury miners divided into subgroups of 28 still active, Hg{sup o}-not-exposed miners and 21 elderly retired miners, and 41 controls, age-matched to the miners subgroup. The control workers were taken from 'mercury-free works'. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidizedmore » disulphide glutathione (GSSG) concentrations in haemolysed erythrocytes were determined by capillary electrophoresis, while total glutathione (total GSH) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were calculated from the determined values. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in erythrocytes were measured using commercially available reagent kits, while urine Hg (U-Hg) concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS). No correlation of present U-Hg levels, GSH, GSSG, and antioxidative enzymes with remote occupational biological exposure indices were found. The mean CAT activity in miners and retired miners was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the controls. No differences in mean GPx activity among the three groups were found, whereas the mean GR activity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in miners than in retired miners. The mean concentrations of GSH (mmol/g Hb) in miners (13.03{+-}3.71) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control group (11.68{+-}2.66). No differences in mean total GSH, GSSG levels, and GSH/GSSG ratio between miners and controls were found. A positive correlation between GSSG and present U-Hg excretion (r=0.41, p=0.001) in the whole group of ex-mercury miners was observed. The

  14. Occupational Exposure to Bioaerosols in Norwegian Crab Processing Plants.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Marte R; Kamath, Sandip D; Lopata, Andreas L; Madsen, Anne Mette; Eduard, Wijnand; Bang, Berit E; Aasmoe, Lisbeth

    2016-08-01

    Aerosolization of components when processing king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) and edible crab (Cancer pagurus) may cause occupational health problems when inhaled by workers. A cross-sectional study was carried out in three king crab plants and one edible crab plant. Personal exposure measurements were performed throughout work shifts. Air was collected for measurement of tropomyosin, total protein, endotoxin, trypsin, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase). T-tests and ANOVAs were used to compare the levels of exposure in the different plants and areas in the plants. Total protein and tropomyosin levels were highest in the edible crab plant, endotoxin levels were highest in king crab plants. King crab exposure levels were highest during raw processing. Tropomyosin levels were highest during raw king crab processing with geometric mean (GM) 9.6 versus 2.5ng m(-3) during cooked processing. Conversely, edible crab tropomyosin levels were highest during cooked processing with GM 45.4 versus 8.7ng m(-3) during raw processing. Endotoxin levels were higher in king crab plants than in the edible crab plant with GM = 6285.5 endotoxin units (EU) m(-3) versus 72 EU m(-3). In the edible crab plant, NAGase levels were highest during raw processing with GM = 853 pmol4-methylumbelliferone (MU) m(-3) versus 422 pmol4-MU m(-3) during cooked processing. Trypsin activity was found in both king crab and edible crab plants and levels were higher in raw than cooked processing. Differences in exposure levels between plants and worker groups (raw and cooked processing) were identified. Norwegian crab processing workers are exposed to airborne proteins, tropomyosin, endotoxins, trypsin, and NAGase in their breathing zone. Levels vary between worker groups and factories. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  15. Paternal occupational lead exposure and offspring risks for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sallmén, Markku; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Malaspina, Dolores; Opler, Mark G

    2016-10-01

    This register-based cohort study investigated whether paternal occupational exposure to inorganic lead was related to offspring risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD). Exposed men (n=11,863) were identified from blood lead measurements taken at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in 1973-1983. Data on mothers and their offspring born from 1972-1984 were obtained from the national Population Information System. Two population comparison offspring for each exposed offspring were matched on date of birth, sex and area (n=23,720). SSD cases were identified from The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Hazard ratios of SSD between exposed groups were analyzed using conditional proportional hazards regression, adjusted for parental history of psychoses, parental ages, language of offspring, father's employment, and father's self-employment. After 26-38years of follow up, there were no significant differences in the incidence of schizophrenia, either between the offspring of exposed (188/11,863; 1.6%) and unexposed fathers (347/23,720; 1.5%) or based on blood lead levels (adjusted hazard ratios (aHR): 0.97, CI 0.52-1.83, 1.25, CI 0.85-1.82, 0.90, CI 0.54-1.49, and 1.38, CI 0.65-2.92 for lead categories <0.5, 0.5-0.9, 1.0-1.4, and ≥1.5μmol/L, respectively, as compared to population comparison). Parental psychosis, paternal age and offspring language were associated with offspring risk. The findings suggest that paternal exposure to lead is not a risk factor for schizophrenia in offspring. However, the majority of exposed fathers had low-level exposure, and we cannot exclude the possibility of an effect for higher exposures to lead. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Occupational exposure to blood in multiple trauma care].

    PubMed

    Wicker, S; Wutzler, S; Schachtrupp, A; Zacharowski, K; Scheller, B

    2015-01-01

    Trauma care personnel are at risk of occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens. Little is known regarding compliance with standard precautions or occupational exposure to blood and body fluids among multiple trauma care personnel in Germany. Compliance rates of multiple trauma care personnel in applying standard precautions, knowledge about transmission risks of blood-borne pathogens, perceived risks of acquiring hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the personal attitude towards testing of the index patient for blood-borne pathogens after a needlestick injury were evaluated. In the context of an advanced multiple trauma training an anonymous questionnaire was administered to the participants. Almost half of the interviewees had sustained a needlestick injury within the last 12 months. Approximately three quarters of the participants were concerned about the risk of HIV and hepatitis. Trauma care personnel had insufficient knowledge of the risk of blood-borne pathogens, overestimated the risk of hepatitis C infection and underused standard precautionary measures. Although there was excellent compliance for using gloves, there was poor compliance in using double gloves (26.4 %), eye protectors (19.7 %) and face masks (15.8 %). The overwhelming majority of multiple trauma care personnel believed it is appropriate to test an index patient for blood-borne pathogens following a needlestick injury. The process of treatment in prehospital settings is less predictable than in other settings in which invasive procedures are performed. Periodic training and awareness programs for trauma care personnel are required to increase the knowledge of occupational infections and the compliance with standard precautions. The legal and ethical aspects of testing an index patient for blood-borne pathogens after a needlestick injury of a healthcare worker have to be clarified in Germany.

  17. A Literature Review - Problem Definition Studies on Selected Toxic Chemicals. Volume 6. Occupational Health and Safety and Environmental Aspects of Urea-Formaldehyde Resins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-01

    to the treated fabrics, the author suggested that -oen might have been sensitized to the feradehyde included in antiperspirant preparations uhich men...used in antiperspirants in this country. A study conducted in Den=-ark shouwed that during 1952-1960 the incidence of formaldehyde eczema due t treated...fabrics had been rising whereas that caused by antiperspirants had disappeared (34). In 1960, formaldehyde in treated fabrics was responsible for 50

  18. Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

  19. The Australian Work Exposures Study: prevalence of occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Peters, Susan; Carey, Renee N; Driscoll, Timothy R; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Reid, Alison; Fritschi, Lin

    2015-06-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in occupational settings. Diesel exhaust has been classified as a lung carcinogen, but data on number of workers exposed to different levels of diesel exhaust are not available in Australia. The aim of this study was to estimate the current prevalence of exposure to diesel engine exhaust in Australian workplaces. A cross-sectional survey of Australian males and females (18-65 years old) in current paid employment was undertaken. Information about the respondents' current job and various demographic factors was collected in a telephone interview using the web-based tool OccIDEAS. Semi-quantitative occupational exposure levels to diesel exhaust were assigned using programmed decision rules and numbers of workers exposed in Australia in 2011 were estimated. We defined substantial exposure as exposed at a medium or high level, for at least 5h per week. Substantial occupational exposure to diesel exhaust was experienced by 13.4% of the respondents in their current job. Exposure prevalence varied across states, ranging from 6.4% in the Australian Capital Territory to 17.0% in Western Australia. Exposures occurred mainly in the agricultural, mining, transport and construction industries, and among mechanics. Men (20.4%) were more often exposed than women (4.7%). Extrapolation to the total working population indicated that 13.8% (95% confidence interval 10.0-20.4) of the 2011 Australian workforce were estimated to be substantially exposed to diesel exhaust, and 1.8% of the workers were estimated to experience high levels of exposures in their current job. About 1.2 million Australian workers were estimated to have been exposed to diesel exhaust in their workplace in 2011. This is the first study to describe the prevalence of occupational diesel exhaust exposure in Australia and will enable estimation of the number of lung cancers attributable to diesel exhaust exposure in the workplace. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press

  20. 29 CFR 1910.95 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Occupational Health and Environmental Control § 1910.95 Occupational... three methods developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), which are...

  1. Occupational radiation exposure in nuclear medicine department in Kuwait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alnaaimi, M.; Alkhorayef, M.; Omar, M.; Abughaith, N.; Alduaij, M.; Salahudin, T.; Alkandri, F.; Sulieman, A.; Bradley, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    Ionizing radiation exposure is associated with eye lens opacities and cataracts. Radiation workers with heavy workloads and poor protection measures are at risk for vision impairment or cataracts if suitable protection measures are not implemented. The aim of this study was to measure and evaluate the occupational radiation exposure in a nuclear medicine (NM) department. The annual average effective doses (Hp[10] and Hp[0.07]) were measured using calibrated thermos-luminescent dosimeters (TLDs; MCP-N [LiF:Mg,Cu,P]). Five categories of staff (hot lab staff, PET physicians, NM physicians, technologists, and nurses) were included. The average annual eye dose (Hp[3]) for NM staff, based on measurements for a typical yearly workload of >7000 patients, was 4.5 mSv. The annual whole body radiation (Hp[10]) and skin doses (Hp[0.07]) were 4.0 and 120 mSv, respectively. The measured Hp(3), Hp(10), and Hp(0.07) doses for all NM staff categories were below the dose limits described in ICRP 2014 in light of the current practice. The results provide baseline data for staff exposure in NM in Kuwait. Radiation dose optimization measures are recommended to reduce NM staff exposure to its minimal value.

  2. Relationship of hemoglobin to occupational exposure to motor vehicle exhaust.

    PubMed

    Potula, V; Hu, H

    1996-01-01

    To study the relationship of hemoglobin to exposure to motor vehicle exhaust. Survey. Traffic police, bus drivers, and auto-shop workers (all exposed to auto exhaust in Madras, India) and unexposed office workers. We measured levels of blood lead (by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry), and hemoglobin. Information also was collected on age, employment duration, smoking status, alcohol ingestion, and diet type (vegetarian or nonvegetarian). Increasing exposure to motor vehicle exhaust, as reflected by job category, was significantly associated with lower levels of hemoglobin (p < 0.01). A final multivariate regression model was constructed that began with indicator variables for each job (with office workers as the reference category) and included age, duration of employment, blood lead level, alcohol ingestion, dietary type, and smoking status. After a backward-elimination procedure, employment duration as an auto-shop worker or bus driver remained as significant correlates of lower hemoglobin level and current smoking and long employment duration as significant correlates of higher hemoglobin level. Occupational exposure to automobile exhaust may be a risk factor for decreased hemoglobin level in Madras. This effect appears to be independent of blood lead level and may represent hematopoietic suppression incurred by benzene or accumulated lead burden (which is not well reflected by blood lead levels). Smoking probably increased hemoglobin level through the chronic effects of exposure to carbon monoxide. In this study, a long employment duration may have served as a proxy for better socioeconomic, and therefore, better nutritional status.

  3. The optimisation of occupational potential exposures - preliminary considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Crouail, P.; Guimaraes, L.

    1995-03-01

    One of the major innovation brought about the ICRP 60 recommendations and emphasized by the ICRP 64 publication, is the introduction of the concept of potential exposures into the system of radiological protection. Potential exposures are characterized by {open_quotes}probability of occurrence lesser than unity{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}radiological risks exceeding normal levels{close_quotes} where normal must be interpreted as not exceeding the planned routine exposures. It is then necessary to develop consensual methods to look for and choose the optimum scenarios (i.e. those for which probability of events and possible consequences have been reduced as low as reasonably achievable). Moreover, the boundaries formore » the unacceptable levels of risks for workers should be defined, as well as reasonable risk indicators. The aim of this paper is to discuss the actual changes in the field of occupational radiological protection, induced by the potential exposure concept with particular emphasize on the optimization of protection.« less

  4. Strategies for setting occupational exposure limits for particles.

    PubMed Central

    Greim, H A; Ziegler-Skylakakis, K

    1997-01-01

    To set occupational exposure limits (OELs) for aerosol particles, dusts, or chemicals, one has to evaluate whether mechanistic considerations permit identification of a no observed effect level (NOEL). In the case of carcinogenic effects, this can be assumed if no genotoxicity is involved, and exposure is considered safe if it does not exceed the NOEL. If tumor induction is associated with genotoxicity, any exposure is considered to be of risk, although a NOEL may be identified in the animal or human exposure studies. This must also be assumed when no information on the carcinogenic mechanism, including genotoxicity, is available. Aerosol particles, especially fibrous dusts, which include man-made mineral fiber(s) (MMMF), present a challenge for toxicological evaluation. Many MMMF that have been investigated have induced tumors in animals and genotoxicity in vitro. Since these effects have been associated with long-thin fiber geometry and high durability in vivo, all fibers meeting such criteria are considered carcinogenic unless the opposite has been demonstrated. This approach is practicable. Investigations on fiber tumorigenicity/genotoxicity should include information on dose response, pathobiochemistry, particle clearance, and persistence of the material in the target organ. Such information will introduce quantitative aspects into the qualitative approach that has so far been used to classify fibrous dusts as carcinogens. The rationales for classifying the potential carcinogenicity of MMMF and for setting OELs used by the different European committees and regulatory agencies are described. PMID:9400750

  5. Occupational exposure to carcinogens in the European Union

    PubMed Central

    Kauppinen, T.; Toikkanen, J.; Pedersen, D.; Young, R.; Ahrens, W.; Boffetta, P.; Hansen, J.; Kromhout, H.; Blasco, J. M.; Mirabelli, D.; de la Orden-River..., V.; Pannett, B.; Plato, N.; Savela, A.; Vincent, R.; Kogevinas, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To construct a computer assisted information system for the estimation of the numbers of workers exposed to established and suspected human carcinogens in the member states of the European Union (EU).
METHODS—A database called CAREX (carcinogen exposure) was designed to provide selected exposure data and documented estimates of the number of workers exposed to carcinogens by country, carcinogen, and industry. CAREX includes data on agents evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (all agents in groups 1 and 2A as of February 1995, and selected agents in group 2B) and on ionising radiation, displayed across the 55 industrial classes. The 1990-3 occupational exposure was estimated in two phases. Firstly, estimates were generated by the CAREX system on the basis of national labour force data and exposure prevalence estimates from two reference countries (Finland and the United States) which had the most comprehensive data available on exposures to these agents. For selected countries, these estimates were then refined by national experts in view of the perceived exposure patterns in their own countries compared with those of the reference countries.
RESULTS—About 32 million workers (23% of those employed) in the EU were exposed to agents covered by CAREX. At least 22 million workers were exposed to IARC group 1 carcinogens. The exposed workers had altogether 42 million exposures (1.3 mean exposures for each exposed worker). The most common exposures were solar radiation (9.1 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), environmental tobacco smoke (7.5 million workers exposed at least 75% of working time), crystalline silica (3.2 million exposed), diesel exhaust (3.0 million), radon (2.7 million), and wood dust (2.6 million).
CONCLUSION—These preliminary estimates indicate that in the early 1990s, a substantial proportion of workers in the EU were exposed to carcinogens

  6. Production of sugarcane bagasse-based activated carbon for formaldehyde gas removal from potted plants exposure chamber.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Elham F; El-Hashemy, Mohammed A; Abdel-Latif, Nasser M; Shetaya, Waleed H

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural wastes such as rice straw, sugar beet, and sugarcane bagasse have become a critical environmental issue due to growing agriculture demand. This study aimed to investigate the valorization possibility of sugarcane bagasse waste for activated carbon preparation. It also aimed to fully characterize the prepared activated carbon (BET surface area) via scanning electron microscope (SEM) and in terms of surface functional groups to give a basic understanding of its structure and to study the adsorption capacity of the sugarcane bagasse-based activated carbon using aqueous methylene blue (MB). The second main objective was to evaluate the performance of sugarcane bagasse-based activated carbon for indoor volatile organic compounds removal using the formaldehyde gas (HCHO) as reference model in two potted plants chambers. The first chamber was labeled the polluted chamber (containing formaldehyde gas without activated carbon) and the second was taken as the treated chamber (containing formaldehyde gas with activated carbon). The results indicated that the sugarcane bagasse-based activated carbon has a moderate BET surface area (557 m2/g) with total mesoporous volume and microporous volume of 0.310 and 0.273 cm3/g, respectively. The prepared activated carbon had remarkable adsorption capacity for MB. Formaldehyde removal rate was then found to be more than 67% in the treated chamber with the sugarcane bagasse-based activated carbon. The plants' responses for this application as dry weight, chlorophyll contents, and protein concentration were also investigated. Preparation of activated carbon from sugarcane bagasse (SCBAC) is a promising approach to produce cheap and efficient adsorbent for gas pollutants removal. It may be also a solution for the agricultural wastes problems in big cities, particularly in Egypt. MB adsorption tests suggest that the SCBAC have high adsorption capacity. Formaldehyde gas removal in the plant chambers indicates that the SCBAC have

  7. Effect of occupational silica exposure on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, Vicki Stover; Rosenman, Kenneth D; Reilly, Mary Jo; Rice, Carol H

    2002-08-01

    To assess the effect of occupational silica exposure on pulmonary function. Epidemiologic evaluation based on employee interview, plant walk-through, and information abstracted from company medical records, employment records, and industrial hygiene measurements. Drawn from 1,072 current and former hourly wage workers employed before January 1, 1986. Thirty-six individuals with radiographic evidence of parenchymal changes consistent with asbestosis or silicosis were excluded. In addition, eight individuals whose race was listed as other than white or black were excluded. Analysis of spirometry data (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC) only using the test results that met American Thoracic Society criteria for reproducibility and acceptability shows decreasing percent-predicted FVC and FEV1 and decreasing FEV1/FVC in relationship to increasing silica exposure among smokers. Logistic regression analyses of abnormal FVC and abnormal FEV1 values (where abnormal is defined as < 95% confidence limit for predicted using the Knudson prediction equations) show odds ratios of 1.49 and 1.68, respectively, for occurrence of abnormal result with 40 years of exposure at the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)-allowable level of 0.1 mg/m3. Longitudinal analyses of FVC and FEV1 measurements show a 1.6 mL/yr and 1.1 mL/yr, respectively, decline per milligram/cubic meter mean silica exposure (p = 0.011 and p = 0.001, respectively). All analyses were adjusted for weight, height, age, ethnicity, smoking status, and other silica exposures. Systematic problems leading to measurement error were possible, but would have been nondifferential in effect and not related to silica measurements. There is a consistent association between increased pulmonary function abnormalities and estimated measures of cumulative silica exposure within the current allowable OSHA regulatory level. Despite concerns about the quality control of the pulmonary function measurements use in these analyses, our

  8. Comparative occupational radiation exposure between fixed and mobile imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Daniel E; Miller, Claire P; Moorehead, Pamela A; Kim, Ann H; Baele, Henry R; Wong, Virginia L; Jordan, David W; Kashyap, Vikram S

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular intervention exposes surgical staff to scattered radiation, which varies according to procedure and imaging equipment. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in occupational exposure between procedures performed with fixed imaging (FI) in an endovascular suite compared with conventional mobile imaging (MI) in a standard operating room. A series of 116 endovascular cases were performed over a 4-month interval in a dedicated endovascular suite with FI and conventional operating room with MI. All cases were performed at a single institution and radiation dose was recorded using real-time dosimetry badges from Unfors RaySafe (Hopkinton, Mass). A dosimeter was mounted in each room to establish a radiation baseline. Staff dose was recorded using individual badges worn on the torso lead. Total mean air kerma (Kar; mGy, patient dose) and mean case dose (mSv, scattered radiation) were compared between rooms and across all staff positions for cases of varying complexity. Statistical analyses for all continuous variables were performed using t test and analysis of variance where appropriate. A total of 43 cases with MI and 73 cases with FI were performed by four vascular surgeons. Total mean Kar, and case dose were significantly higher with FI compared with MI. (mean ± standard error of the mean, 523 ± 49 mGy vs 98 ± 19 mGy; P < .00001; 0.77 ± 0.03 mSv vs 0.16 ± 0.08 mSv, P < .00001). Exposure for the primary surgeon and assistant was significantly higher with FI compared with MI. Mean exposure for all cases using either imaging modality, was significantly higher for the primary surgeon and assistant than for support staff (ie, nurse, radiology technologist) beyond 6 feet from the X-ray source, indicated according to one-way analysis of variance (MI: P < .00001; FI: P < .00001). Support staff exposure was negligible and did not differ between FI and MI. Room dose stratified according to case complexity (Kar) showed statistically significantly

  9. Woodstoves, formaldehyde, and respiratory disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tuthill, R.W.

    1984-12-01

    Telephone interviews were completed in Western Massachusetts in April 1983 for 399 households (91.5 percent) in a random sample of households with elementary school children. Woodstoves were used in 64.7 percent of the homes, but such use was not associated with acute respiratory illness. However, formaldehyde exposure was significantly related, with a risk ratio of 2.4 (95 percent confidence interval 1.7-3.4). New construction/remodeling and new upholstered furniture had additive effects. Neither woodstove use nor formaldehyde exposure were significantly associated with asthma, chronic bronchitis, or allergies.

  10. Virus occupational exposure in solid waste processing facilities.

    PubMed

    Carducci, Annalaura; Federigi, Ileana; Verani, Marco

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that workers involved in the management of solid waste are at risk of exposure to bioaerosol, which is generally studied in relation to bacteria, fungi, and endotoxins. However, to date, there have been no reports on the incidence of work-related infectious diseases. To determine if occupational exposure to viruses occurs upon exposure to waste-related activities, monitoring was carried out in a landfill, a waste recycling plant, an incineration plant, and a waste collection vehicles. Air and surfaces were sampled and analyzed for torque teno virus (TTV), human adenovirus (HAdV), norovirus, rotavirus, and enterovirus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Positivity was confirmed by sequencing and quantification with real-time PCR; infectivity was also tested for culturable viruses. Samples were analyzed in parallel for mean total bacterial and fungi counts in both the summer and winter. In total, 30% (12/40) of air and 13.5% (5/37) of surface samples collected in plants were positive for HAdV and TTV. Among the eight HAdV-positive samples, six (75%), revealed in landfill and recycling plant air and in incinerator and waste vehicles surfaces, were able to replicate in cell culture and were subsequently confirmed as infective. The frequency of detection of virus-positive samples was similar in both seasons, but with evident differences in the type of virus detected: TTV and HAdV were more frequently detected in the summer and winter, respectively. The area of highest viral contamination was the paper selection landfill. Fungi and bacterial contamination did not correlate with viral presence or concentration. In conclusion, we evidence that working with solid and liquid waste can lead to infectious viruses, included in Group 2 of the European Directive 90/679/CEE pathogens list; thus, further investigation on the sources and routes of contamination is needed in order to assess the occupational risk.

  11. Monitoring of formaldehyde in air

    SciTech Connect

    Balmat, J.L.; Meadows, G.W.

    1985-10-01

    Any one of several monitoring methods, depending on requirement and circumstance, can be used to measure employee exposure to formaldehyde. Ordinarily, monitoring at DuPont is performed by sampling with impingers containing 1% aqueous sodium bisulfite or with silica gel tubes. The collected formaldehyde is measured spectrophotometrically after reaction with chromotropic acid. Results from studies on a selected number of formaldehyde monitoring methods reveal that reliable methods are available for area and personnel monitoring over both short term and long term. Accurate results are obtained from short-term monitoring (15 min at 1 L/min) with impingers of formaldehyde concentrations as low asmore » 0.14 ppm. The current studies show that long-term monitoring (8 hr at 0.5 L/min) can be performed accurately at concentrations as low as 0.05 ppm. Accurate results also are obtained from short-term monitoring (15 min at 500 mL/min) with silica gel tubes of concentrations as low as 0.11 ppm formaldehyde. Passive monitors provide the most convenient means of obtaining 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) data. The Pro-Tek Formaldehyde Badge was demonstrated to reliably monitor formaldehyde concentrations varying from 0-0.5 ppm or 0-3 ppm. Investigation of the Lion Formaldemeter disclosed that instantaneous and accurate (+/- 5%) measurement of formaldehyde in air can be made over a concentration range of 0.3-5 ppm in the absence of other substances that are oxidizable in its fuel cell detector.« less

  12. Exposure to occupational therapy as a factor influencing recruitment to the profession.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Nicole

    2015-08-01

    This article provides insight into the impact that exposure to an occupational therapist, in personal capacity or via a professional interaction, has on the decision to enter an occupational therapy undergraduate programme. A quantitative survey was completed by 139 occupational therapy students. The survey tool focussed on the students' exposure to a range of allied health professions (e.g. occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychology) and investigated how exposure to occupational therapy had influenced their decision to enter the programme. The results indicated that over 70% of respondents had personal professional exposure to occupational therapy prior to making a career decision. Exposure most frequently involved occupational therapy intervention of a friend or family member. The majority of students who had professional exposure to occupational therapy (e.g. family, self, friend received occupational therapy) identified that it was the most influential factor in their career choice. Forty per cent of the occupational therapy students did not enter the programme straight from school and the influence of 'working with an occupational therapist' was noteworthy for mature aged students. Occupational therapists need to consider that every interaction they have with the community provides valuable information regarding the profession and gives insight into occupational therapy as a potential career path for other people. Additionally, the current research identifies there were differences in the impact, type and number of exposures for different student groups, and this potentially offers some insight into ways in which occupational therapy could target specific groups within the community to increase future diversity in the profession. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  13. Developing a Reference Material for Formaldehyde Emissions Testing; Final Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to formaldehyde has been shown to produce broad and potentially severe adverse human health effects. With ubiquitous formaldehyde sources in the indoor environment, formaldehyde concentrations in indoor air are usually higher than outdoors, ranging from 10 to 4000 μg/m3....

  14. Occupational exposure to airborne lead in Brazilian police officers.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ernesto Díaz; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima H; Santos, Gerson Vechio Dos; Canesso, Claudemir

    2014-07-01

    Shooting with lead-containing ammunition in indoor firing ranges is a known source of lead exposure in adults. Police officers may be at risk of lead intoxication when regular training shooting exercises are yearly mandatory to law enforcement officers. Effects on health must be documented, even when low-level elemental (inorganic) lead exposure is detected. Forty police officers (nineteen cadets and twenty-one instructors) responded to a questionnaire about health, shooting habits, and potential lead exposure before a training curse. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for blood lead level (BLL) before and after a three days training curse. The mean BLL for the instructors' group was 5.5 μg/dL ± 0.6. The mean BLL for the cadets' group before the training was 3.3 μg/dL ± 0.15 and after the training the main BLL was 18.2 μg/d L± 1.5. Samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). All the participants in the training curse had significantly increased BLL (mean increment about 15 μg/dL) after the three days indoor shooting season. In conclusion, occupational lead exposure in indoor firing ranges is a source of lead exposure in Brazilian police officers, and appears to be a health risk, especially when heavy weapons with lead-containing ammunition are used in indoor environments during the firing training seasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. The development and regulation of occupational exposure limits in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shih, Tung-Sheng; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Chen, Hong-I; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Chang, Ho-Yuan; Huang, Yi-Shiao; Liou, Saou-Hsing

    2006-11-01

    The occupational exposure limits (OELs) in Taiwan was promulgated in 1974 and has been revised five times since then. Many of the OELs were adopted from the most recent ACGIH TLVs and US OSHA PELs. A total of 483 chemicals were listed in the current Taiwan OELs Standard. The procedures of OELs development in Taiwan include the IOSH organized a recommended exposure limits (RELs) Committee to select the target chemicals and to recommend the RELs through literature review based on the health effects in the first stage, then, the CLA put policy needs, economical and technical feasibility into consideration and set up the final OELs at the second stage. A standard operation manual of RELs Committee has been developed. Based on our experience, several issues including the participation of representatives from a comprehensive spectrum, communication/education and training/enforcement, continuous collection of the local exposure data and health hazard information, use of health risk assessment, consideration of economic, and technical feasibility, as well as the globalization and information and experience sharing are critical in developing the appropriate OELs. Three examples including benzene, crystalline silica, and 2-methoxy ethanol are given to demonstrate the operation of system.

  16. The relationship between occupational sun exposure and non-melanoma skin cancer: clinical basics, epidemiology, occupational disease evaluation, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Fartasch, Manigé; Diepgen, Thomas Ludwig; Schmitt, Jochen; Drexler, Hans

    2012-10-01

    The cumulative effect of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is responsible for the worldwide increase in non-melanoma skin cancer, a category that includes squamous cell carcinoma and its precursors (the actinic keratoses) as well as basal-cell carcinoma. Non-melanoma skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in areas of the world with a light-skinned population. The occupational exposure to UV radiation is high in many outdoor occupations; recent studies suggest that persons working in such occupations are more likely to develop non-melanoma skin cancer. On the basis of a selective review of the literature, we present the current state of knowledge about occupational and non-occupational UV exposure and the findings of meta-analyses on the association of outdoor activity with non-melanoma skin cancer. We also give an overview of the current recommendations for prevention and for medicolegal assessment. Recent meta-analyses have consistently documented a significantly higher risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin among persons who work outdoors (odds ratio [OR] 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.40-2.22, p<0.001). There is also evidence for an elevated risk of basal-cell carcinoma (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.23-1.66, p = 0.0001), but the effect is of lesser magnitude and the study findings are not as uniform. The association of occupational exposure to solar UV radiation with squamous cell carcinoma, including actinic keratosis, has been conclusively demonstrated. It follows that, in Germany, suspected non-melanoma skin cancer in persons with high occupational exposure to UV radiation should be reported as an occupational disease under § 9, paragraph 2 of the Seventh Book of the German Social Code (Sozialgesetzbuch, SGB VII). Preventive measures are urgently needed for persons with high occupational exposure to UV radiation.

  17. In-depth survey report: Evaluation of a ventilation system to control formaldehyde exposures during embalming at Cincinnati College of Mortuary Science, Cincinnati, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Gressel, M.G.

    1990-12-01

    The goal of the study was to develop and evaluate local exhaust ventilation controls which will reduce the embalmer's exposure to formaldehyde (50000). The Cincinnati College of Mortuary Science had three tables set up for conducting embalmings. Two of the tables were in a large room which serves as a laboratory for the students. The third was located in an isolation room and was used primarily for suspected infectious cases. All the embalmings conducted for the study were conducted in the isolation room and all involved noninfectious bodies. The local exhaust ventilation system developed for the mortuary consisted of 6more » foot slot hoods on either side of the embalming table. Of the 32 personal samples taken, the formaldehyde concentration of five samples showed a concentration of 1 part per million. The author recommends that a local exhaust ventilation system similar to the design tested here be installed permanently in the isolation room and on the other tables in the main embalming laboratory.« less

  18. Respiratory Allergens from Furred Mammals: Environmental and Occupational Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Raulf, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Furry mammals kept as pets, farm and laboratory animals are important allergen sources. The prevalence of sensitization to furred mammals appears to be increasing worldwide. Several mammalian allergens from diverse species are well characterized with regard to their molecular structure and immunogenicity, and some are already available for component-resolved allergy diagnostics. The distribution of various mammalian allergens has been extensively studied during the past few decades. Animal allergens were found to be ubiquitous in the human environment, even in places where no animals reside, with concentrations differing considerably between locations and geographical regions. This review presents an overview of identified mammalian respiratory allergens classified according to protein families, and compiles the results of allergen exposure assessment studies conducted in different public and occupational environments. PMID:29056697

  19. Contact allergy to preservatives in patients with occupational contact dermatitis and exposure analysis of preservatives in registered chemical products for occupational use.

    PubMed

    Schwensen, Jakob Ferløv; Friis, Ulrik Fischer; Menné, Torkil; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate risk factors for sensitization to preservatives and to examine to which extent different preservatives are registered in chemical products for occupational use in Denmark. A retrospective epidemiological observational analysis of data from a university hospital was conducted. All patients had occupational contact dermatitis and were consecutively patch tested with 11 preservatives from the European baseline series and extended patch test series during a 5-year period: 2009-2013. Information regarding the same preservatives in chemical products for occupational use ('substances and materials') registered in the Danish Product Register Database (PROBAS) was obtained. The frequency of preservative contact allergy was 14.2% (n = 141) in 995 patients with occupational contact dermatitis. Patients with preservative contact allergy had significantly more frequently facial dermatitis (19.9 versus 13.1%) and age > 40 years (71.6 versus 45.8%) than patients without preservative contact allergy, whereas atopic dermatitis was less frequently observed (12.1 versus 19.8%). Preservative contact allergy was more frequent in painters with occupational contact dermatitis as compared to non-painters with occupational contact dermatitis (p < 0.001). This was mainly caused by contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone and contact allergy to formaldehyde. Analysis of the registered substances and materials in PROBAS revealed that preservatives occurred in several product categories, e.g., 'paints and varnishes', 'cleaning agents', 'cooling agents', and 'polishing agents'. Formaldehyde and isothiazolinones were extensively registered in PROBAS. The extensive use of formaldehyde and isothiazolinones in chemical products for occupational use may be problematic for the worker. Appropriate legislation, substitution, and employee education should be prioritized.

  20. Radon levels in Romanian caves: an occupational exposure survey.

    PubMed

    Cucoş Dinu, Alexandra; Călugăr, Monica I; Burghele, Bety D; Dumitru, Oana A; Cosma, Constantin; Onac, Bogdan P

    2017-10-01

    A comprehensive radon survey has been carried out in seven caves located in the western half of Romania's most significant karst regions. Touristic and non-touristic caves were investigated with the aim to provide a reliable distribution of their radon levels and evaluate the occupational exposure and associated effective doses. Radon gas concentrations were measured with long-term diffusion-type detectors during two consecutive seasons (warm and cold). All investigated caves exceed the European Union reference level of radon gas at workplaces (300 Bq/m 3 ). The radon concentration in these caves ranges between 53 and 2866 Bq/m 3 , reflecting particular cave topography, season-related cave ventilation, and complex tectonic and geological settings surrounding each location. Relatively homogeneous high radon levels occur in all investigated touristic caves and in Tăuşoare and Vântului along their main galleries. Except for Muierii, in all the other caves radon levels are higher during the warm season, compared to the cold one. This suggests that natural cave ventilation largely controls the underground accumulation of radon. The results reported here reveal that the occupational exposure in Urşilor, Vadu Crişului, Tăuşoare, Vântului, and Muierii caves needs to be carefully monitored. The effective doses to workers vary between an average of 0.25 and 4.39 mSv/year depending on the measuring season. The highest values were recorded in show caves, ranging from 1.15 to 6.15 mSv/year, well above the European recommended limit, thus posing a potential health hazard upon cave guides, cavers, and scientists.

  1. 29 CFR 1910.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 1910.1450 Section 1910.1450 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances §...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 1910.1450 Section 1910.1450 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances §...

  3. 29 CFR 1910.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 1910.1450 Section 1910.1450 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Toxic and Hazardous Substances §...

  4. At seeming safe concentrations, synergistic effects of PM2.5 and formaldehyde co-exposure induces Alzheimer-like changes in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xudong; Zhang, Yuchao; Luo, Chen; Kang, Jun; Li, Jinquan; Wang, Kun; Ma, Ping; Yang, Xu

    2017-11-17

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious, common, global disease, yet its etiology and pathogenesis are incompletely understood. Air pollution is a multi-pollutants co-exposure system, which may affect brain. The indoor environment is where exposure to both air particulate matter (<2.5 μm in diameter) (PM 2.5 ) and formaldehyde (FA) can occur simultaneously. Whether exposure to such a multi-pollutant (PM 2.5 plus FA) mixture contributes to the development of AD, and whether there is a difference between exposure to PM 2.5 or FA alone needs to be investigated. To determine the objective, C57BL/6J mice were exposed daily to PM 2.5 (0.193 mg/Kg/day), FA (0.155 mg/Kg/day) or multi-pullutants (0.193 mg/Kg/day PM 2.5 plus 0.155 mg/Kg/day FA) for one week. AD-like changes and upstream events were investigated after exposure. The results showed that exposure to PM 2.5 or FA alone in this study had little or no adverse effects on the mouse brain. However, some AD-like pathologies were detected after multi-pullutants co-exposure. This work suggested PM 2.5 plus FA co-exposure has more potential to induce AD-like pathologies than exposure alone. Oxidative stress and inflammation may be involved into the toxic mechanisms. Synergistic effects of co-exposure may induce the hygienic or safety standards of each pollutant not safe.

  5. Interpretation of Urinary and Blood Benzene biomarkers of Exposure for Non-Occupationally Exposed Individuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-occupational exposure to benzene occurs primarily through inhalation ofair impacted by motor vehicle exhaust, fuel sources, and cigarette smoke. This study relates published measurements ofbenzene biomarkers to air exposure concentrations. Benzene has three reliable biomar...

  6. Association of expired nitric oxide with occupational particulate exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jee Young; Wand, Matthew P; Hauser, Russ; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Herrick, Robert F; Christiani, David C

    2003-01-01

    Particulate air pollution has been associated with adverse respiratory health effects. This study assessed the utility of expired nitric oxide to detect acute airway responses to metal-containing fine particulates. Using a repeated-measures study design, we investigated the association between the fractional concentration of expired nitric oxide (F(E)NO) and exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic mass median diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 micro m (PM(2.5)) in boilermakers exposed to residual oil fly ash and metal fumes. Subjects were monitored for 5 days during boiler repair overhauls in 1999 (n = 20) or 2000 (n = 14). The Wilcoxon median baseline F(E)NO was 10.6 ppb [95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1, 12.7] in 1999 and 7.4 ppb (95% CI: 6.7, 8.0) in 2000. The Wilcoxon median PM(2.5) 8-hr time-weighted average was 0.56 mg/m(3) (95% CI: 0.37, 0.93) in 1999 and 0.86 mg/m(3) (95% CI: 0.65, 1.07) in 2000. F(E)NO levels during the work week were significantly lower than baseline F(E)NO in 1999 (p < 0.001). A significant inverse exposure-response relationship between log-transformed F(E)NO and the previous workday's PM(2.5) concentration was found in 1999, after adjusting for smoking status, age, and sampling year. With each 1 mg/m(3) incremental increase in PM(2.5) exposure, log F(E)NO decreased by 0.24 (95% CI: -0.38, -0.10) in 1999. The lack of an exposure-response relationship between PM(2.5) exposure and F(E)NO in 2000 could be attributable to exposure misclassification resulting from the use of respirators. In conclusion, occupational exposure to metal-containing fine particulates was associated with significant decreases in F(E)NO in a survey of workers with limited respirator usage. PMID:12727593

  7. Development of occupational exposure limits for the Hanford tank farms.

    PubMed

    Still, Kenneth R; Gardner, Donald E; Snyder, Robert; Anderson, Thomas J; Honeyman, James O; Timchalk, Charles

    2010-04-01

    Production of plutonium for the United States' nuclear weapons program from the 1940s to the 1980s generated 53 million gallons of radioactive chemical waste, which is stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington State. Recent attempts to begin the retrieval and treatment of these wastes require moving the waste to more modern tanks and result in potential exposure of the workers to unfamiliar odors emanating from headspace in the tanks. Given the unknown risks involved, workers were placed on supplied air respiratory protection. CH2MHILL, the managers of the Hanford site tank farms, asked an Independent Toxicology Panel (ITP) to assist them in issues relating to an industrial hygiene and risk assessment problem. The ITP was called upon to help determine the risk of exposure to vapors from the tanks, and in general develop a strategy for solution of the problem. This paper presents the methods used to determine the chemicals of potential concern (COPCs) and the resultant development of screening values and Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for these COPCs. A total of 1826 chemicals were inventoried and evaluated. Over 1500 chemicals were identified in the waste tanks headspaces and more than 600 of these were assigned screening values; 72 of these compounds were recommended for AOEL development. Included in this list of 72 were 57 COPCs identified by the ITP and of these 47 were subsequently assigned AOELs. An exhaustive exposure assessment strategy was developed by the CH2MHILL industrial hygiene department to evaluate these COPCs.

  8. Occupational exposure in the fluorescent lamp recycling sector in France

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, François, E-mail: francois.zimmermann@inrs.fr; Lecler, Marie-Thérèse; Clerc, Frédéric

    Highlights: • Chemical risks were assessed in the five fluorescent lamp recycling facilities. • The main hazardous agents are mercury vapors and dust containing lead and yttrium. • Exposure and pollutant levels were correlated with steps and processes. • All the stages and processes are concerned by worrying levels of pollutants. • We suggest recommendations to reduce chemical risk. - Abstract: The fluorescent lamp recycling sector is growing considerably in Europe due to increasingly strict regulations aimed at inciting the consumption of low energy light bulbs and their end-of-life management. Chemical risks were assessed in fluorescent lamp recycling facilities bymore » field measurement surveys in France, highlighting that occupational exposure and pollutant levels in the working environment were correlated with the main recycling steps and processes. The mean levels of worker exposure are 4.4 mg/m{sup 3}, 15.4 μg/m{sup 3}, 14.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 247.6 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The mean levels of airborne pollutants are 3.1 mg/m{sup 3}, 9.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 9.0 μg/m{sup 3}, 219.2 μg/m{sup 3}, respectively, for total inhalable dust, mercury, lead and yttrium. The ranges are very wide. Surface samples from employees’ skin and granulometric analysis were also carried out. The overview shows that all the stages and processes involved in lamp recycling are concerned by the risk of hazardous substances penetrating into the bodies of employees, although exposure of the latter varies depending on the processes and tasks they perform. The conclusion of this study strongly recommends the development of a new generation of processes in parallel with more information sharing and regulatory measures.« less

  9. Development of Occupational Exposure Limits for the Hanford Tank Farms

    SciTech Connect

    Still, Kenneth; Gardner, Donald; Snyder, Robert

    Production of plutonium for the United States’ nuclear weapons program from the 1940’s to the 1980’s generated 53 million gallons of radioactive chemical waste, which is storedin 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site in southeastern W 18 ashington State. Recent 19 attempts to begin the retrieval and treatment of these wastes require moving the waste to 20 more modern tanks results in potential exposure of the workers to unfamiliar odors 21 emanating from headspace in the tanks. Given the unknown risks involved, workers 22 were placed on supplied air respiratory protection. CH2M HILL, the managers of the 23 Hanfordmore » Site Tank Farms, asked an Independent Toxicology Panel (ITP) to assist them in issues relating to an Industrial Hygiene and risk assessment problem. The ITP was called upon to help determine the risk of exposure to vapors from the tanks, and in general develop a strategy for solution of the problem. This paper presents the methods used to determine the chemicals of potential concern (COPC) and the resultant development of screening values and Acceptable Occupational Exposure Limits (AOELs) for these COPCs. A total of 1,826 chemicals were inventoried and evaluated. Over 1,500 chemicals were identified in the waste tanks headspaces and more than 600 of these were assigned screening values; 72 of these compounds were recommended for AOEL development. Included in this list of 72 were 57 COPCs identified by the ITP and of these 47 were subsequently assigned AOELs. An exhaustive exposure assessment strategy was developed by the CH2M HILL industrial hygiene department to evaluate these COPCs.« less

  10. Lead exposure in US worksites: A literature review and development of an occupational lead exposure database from the published literature

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Locke, Sarah J.; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Purdue, Mark P.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retrospective exposure assessment of occupational lead exposure in population-based studies requires historical exposure information from many occupations and industries. Methods We reviewed published US exposure monitoring studies to identify lead exposure measurement data. We developed an occupational lead exposure database from the 175 identified papers containing 1,111 sets of lead concentration summary statistics (21% area air, 47% personal air, 32% blood). We also extracted ancillary exposure-related information, including job, industry, task/location, year collected, sampling strategy, control measures in place, and sampling and analytical methods. Results Measurements were published between 1940 and 2010 and represented 27 2-digit standardized industry classification codes. The majority of the measurements were related to lead-based paint work, joining or cutting metal using heat, primary and secondary metal manufacturing, and lead acid battery manufacturing. Conclusions This database can be used in future statistical analyses to characterize differences in lead exposure across time, jobs, and industries. PMID:25968240

  11. Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids: new postexposure prophylaxis recommendations. United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Cuny, E; Carpenter, W M

    1998-04-01

    Dental health care professionals continue to suffer exposure incidents from instruments contaminated with blood and/or body fluids from patients. Each of these cases requires that a rigid protocol be followed for their evaluation. New information regarding the risk factors for HIV-seroconversion following an exposure incident have been identified. Recent data has demonstrated that a 79 percent reduction in disease transmission may be possible with a new combination drug therapy. The anti-retroviral drugs included in this new regimen are now standard in the management of occupational exposure to HIV. Several factors set dentistry apart from other health care occupations, and these differences appear to have an effect on the risks associated with occupational exposures. This article explores these risk factors and the new recommendations for postexposure care.

  12. The economic burden of lung cancer and mesothelioma due to occupational and para-occupational asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Tompa, Emile; Kalcevich, Christina; McLeod, Chris; Lebeau, Martin; Song, Chaojie; McLeod, Kim; Kim, Joanne; Demers, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    To estimate the economic burden of lung cancer and mesothelioma due to occupational and para-occupational asbestos exposure in Canada. We estimate the lifetime cost of newly diagnosed lung cancer and mesothelioma cases associated with occupational and para-occupational asbestos exposure for calendar year 2011 based on the societal perspective. The key cost components considered are healthcare costs, productivity and output costs, and quality of life costs. There were 427 cases of newly diagnosed mesothelioma cases and 1904 lung cancer cases attributable to asbestos exposure in 2011 for a total of 2331 cases. Our estimate of the economic burden is $C831 million in direct and indirect costs for newly identified cases of mesothelioma and lung cancer and $C1.5 billion in quality of life costs based on a value of $C100 000 per quality-adjusted life year. This amounts to $C356 429 and $C652 369 per case, respectively. The economic burden of lung cancer and mesothelioma associated with occupational and para-occupational asbestos exposure is substantial. The estimate identified is for 2331 newly diagnosed, occupational and para-occupational exposure cases in 2011, so it is only a portion of the burden of existing cases in that year. Our findings provide important information for policy decision makers for priority setting, in particular the merits of banning the mining of asbestos and use of products containing asbestos in countries where they are still allowed and also the merits of asbestos removal in older buildings with asbestos insulation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. The economic burden of lung cancer and mesothelioma due to occupational and para-occupational asbestos exposure

    PubMed Central

    Tompa, Emile; Kalcevich, Christina; McLeod, Chris; Lebeau, Martin; Song, Chaojie; McLeod, Kim; Kim, Joanne; Demers, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the economic burden of lung cancer and mesothelioma due to occupational and para-occupational asbestos exposure in Canada. Methods We estimate the lifetime cost of newly diagnosed lung cancer and mesothelioma cases associated with occupational and para-occupational asbestos exposure for calendar year 2011 based on the societal perspective. The key cost components considered are healthcare costs, productivity and output costs, and quality of life costs. Results There were 427 cases of newly diagnosed mesothelioma cases and 1904 lung cancer cases attributable to asbestos exposure in 2011 for a total of 2331 cases. Our estimate of the economic burden is $C831 million in direct and indirect costs for newly identified cases of mesothelioma and lung cancer and $C1.5 billion in quality of life costs based on a value of $C100 000 per quality-adjusted life year. This amounts to $C356 429 and $C652 369 per case, respectively. Conclusions The economic burden of lung cancer and mesothelioma associated with occupational and para-occupational asbestos exposure is substantial. The estimate identified is for 2331 newly diagnosed, occupational and para-occupational exposure cases in 2011, so it is only a portion of the burden of existing cases in that year. Our findings provide important information for policy decision makers for priority setting, in particular the merits of banning the mining of asbestos and use of products containing asbestos in countries where they are still allowed and also the merits of asbestos removal in older buildings with asbestos insulation. PMID:28756416

  14. [Occupational exposure to airborne chemical substances in paintings conservators].

    PubMed

    Jezewska, Anna; Szewczyńska, Małgorzata; Woźnica, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the quantitative study of the airborne chemical substances detected in the conservator's work environment. The quantitative tests were carried out in 6 museum easel paintings conservation studios. The air test samples were taken at various stages of restoration works, such as cleaning, doubling, impregnation, varnishing, retouching, just to name a few. The chemical substances in the sampled air were measured by the GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detector) test method. The study results demonstrated that concentrations of airborne substances, e.g., toluene, 1,4-dioxane, turpentine and white spirit in the work environment of paintings conservators exceeded the values allowed by hygiene standards. It was found that exposure levels to the same chemical agents, released during similar activities, varied for different paintings conservation studios. It is likely that this discrepancy resulted from the indoor air exchange system for a given studio (e.g. type of ventilation and its efficiency), the size of the object under maintenance, and also from the methodology and protection used by individual employees. The levels of organic solvent vapors, present in the workplace air in the course of painting conservation, were found to be well above the occupational exposure limits, thus posing a threat to the worker's health.

  15. Occupational exposure to anaesthetic gases: a role for TIVA.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Michael G; Trinh, Theresa; Yao, Che-Lin

    2009-07-01

    Modern anaesthesia is still mostly administered by the inhalational route and there is increasing concern over its potential for pollution. One of the first gaseous anaesthetic agents was nitrous oxide and this is still widely used today despite being associated with adverse effects caused by depression of vitamin B(12) function and diminished reproductive health. The use of halothane is associated with hepatitis but the adverse effects of newer halogenated hydrocarbons are less well recognised. Chronic exposure may cause reduction in antioxidant activity in plasma and erythrocytes, inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis, depression of central neuro-respiratory activity, increased DNA breaks, effects on cerebral blood circulation and altered renal function. Inhalational anaesthetics also have adverse environmental effects, including ozone damage and greenhouse gas effects. Levels of inhalational anaesthetics in the ambient air of operating theatres and recovery rooms often exceed those stated in national guidelines. Anaesthetic procedures can be modified and air-conditioning and air scavenging systems should be used to minimise the risks from occupational exposure and threats to the environment. Such contamination could be avoided with the use of total intravenous anaesthesia.

  16. 76 FR 72216 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... by developing a written Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) that describes standard operating procedures for...] Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of Management... requirements specified in the Standard on Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories (29 CFR...

  17. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

  18. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

  19. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

  20. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. Link to an... execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear criticality: Preservation of Individual...

  1. 48 CFR 952.223-75 - Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... occupational radiation exposure records. 952.223-75 Section 952.223-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Clauses 952.223-75 Preservation of individual occupational radiation exposure records. As prescribed at..., and health into work planning and execution, or 952.223-72, Radiation protection and nuclear...

  2. Occupational Exposures to Ebola Virus in Ebola Treatment Center, Conakry, Guinea.

    PubMed

    Savini, Hélène; Janvier, Frédéric; Karkowski, Ludovic; Billhot, Magali; Aletti, Marc; Bordes, Julien; Koulibaly, Fassou; Cordier, Pierre-Yves; Cournac, Jean-Marie; Maugey, Nancy; Gagnon, Nicolas; Cotte, Jean; Cambon, Audrey; Mac Nab, Christine; Moroge, Sophie; Rousseau, Claire; Foissaud, Vincent; De Greslan, Thierry; Granier, Hervé; Cellarier, Gilles; Valade, Eric; Kraemer, Philippe; Alla, Philippe; Mérens, Audrey; Sagui, Emmanuel; Carmoi, Thierry; Rapp, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    We report 77 cases of occupational exposures for 57 healthcare workers at the Ebola Treatment Center in Conakry, Guinea, during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in 2014-2015. Despite the high incidence of 3.5 occupational exposures/healthcare worker/year, only 18% of workers were at high risk for transmission, and no infections occurred.

  3. Occupational Exposures to Ebola Virus in Ebola Treatment Center, Conakry, Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Janvier, Frédéric; Karkowski, Ludovic; Billhot, Magali; Aletti, Marc; Bordes, Julien; Koulibaly, Fassou; Cordier, Pierre-Yves; Cournac, Jean-Marie; Maugey, Nancy; Gagnon, Nicolas; Cotte, Jean; Cambon, Audrey; Mac Nab, Christine; Moroge, Sophie; Rousseau, Claire; Foissaud, Vincent; De Greslan, Thierry; Granier, Hervé; Cellarier, Gilles; Valade, Eric; Kraemer, Philippe; Alla, Philippe; Mérens, Audrey; Sagui, Emmanuel; Carmoi, Thierry; Rapp, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    We report 77 cases of occupational exposures for 57 healthcare workers at the Ebola Treatment Center in Conakry, Guinea, during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in 2014−2015. Despite the high incidence of 3.5 occupational exposures/healthcare worker/year, only 18% of workers were at high risk for transmission, and no infections occurred. PMID:28726614

  4. Occupational exposure to diisocyanates in polyurethane foam factory workers.

    PubMed

    Świerczyńska-Machura, Dominika; Brzeźnicki, Sławomir; Nowakowska-Świrta, Ewa; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta; Wittczak, Tomasz; Dudek, Wojciech; Bonczarowska, Marzena; Wesolowski, Wiktor; Czerczak, Sławomir; Pałczyński, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate health effects of occupational exposure to diisocyanates (DIC) among polyurethane foam products factory workers. Thirty workers had a physical examination, skin prick tests with common allergens, allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to diisocyanates and pulmonary function tests. Concentrations of selected isocyanates in the workplace air samples as well as concentration of their metabolites in the urine samples collected from the workers of the plant were determined. The most frequent work-related symptoms reported by the examined subjects were rhinitis and skin symptoms. Sensitization to at least 1 common allergen was noted in 26.7% of the subjects. Spirometry changes of bronchial obstruction of a mild degree was observed in 5 workers. The specific IgE antibodies to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI) were not detected in any of the patients' serum. Cellular profiles of the collected induced sputum (ISP) did not reveal any abnormalities. Air concentrations of TDI isomers ranged 0.2-58.9 μg/m3 and in 7 cases they exceeded the Combined Exposure Index (CEI) value for those compounds. Concentrations of TDI metabolites in post-shift urine samples were significantly higher than in the case of pre-shift urine samples and in 6 cases they exceeded the British Biological Monitoring Guidance Value (BMGV - 1 μmol amine/mol creatinine). We didn't find a correlation between urinary concentrations of TDI, concentrations in the air and concentrations of toluenediamine (TDA) in the post shift urine samples. Lack of such a correlation may be an effect of the respiratory protective equipment use. Determination of specific IgE in serum is not sensitive enough to serve as a biomarker. Estimation of concentrations of diisocyanate metabolites in urine samples and the presence of work-related allergic symptoms seem to be an adequate method for occupational exposure monitoring of DIC, which may

  5. A review of the cohorts with environmental and occupational mineral fiber exposure.

    PubMed

    Metintas, Selma; Ak, Guntulu; Metintas, Muzaffer

    2018-04-20

    The aim of the study was to examine factors associated with Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) incidence rate of the groups with occupational asbestos and environmental asbestos or erionite exposure in rural area. In this ecological study, a total of 21 cohort datasets (8 environmental and 13 occupational) were evaluated. Data were analyzed using a multiple linear regression analysis model. In environmental cohorts, the risk of MM incidence was higher in women and people exposed to erionite. In this cohort, the incidence rate of MM increased as the median exposure time increased, while the incidence decreased as the median cumulative exposure dose increased. In occupational cohorts, the incidence rate of MM was positively correlated with the median cumulative exposure dose. The risk of mesothelioma was lower in those exposed to tremolite than others. Environmental asbestos exposure is as important as occupational exposure to develop MM, and it has its own unique exposure features on the risk of MM.

  6. Impact of Daily Noise Exposure Monitoring on Occupational Noise Exposures in Manufacturing Workers

    PubMed Central

    McTague, Michael F.; Galusha, Deron; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Kirsche, Sharon R.; Slade, Martin D.; Cullen, Mark R.; Rabinowitz, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite the use of hearing protective devices (HPDs), noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) remains one of the most prevalent occupational conditions. A new technology allows for daily monitoring of noise exposures under HPDs. We report on an intervention employing the voluntary use of this technology in a worksite setting. Design Volunteers were fitted with a device allowing them to monitor noise exposure under their hearing protection on a daily basis. The trends in noise exposures for individuals who completed at least six months of the intervention were analyzed. Study Sample Recruitment occurred at three manufacturing facilities, with 127 workers enrolling and 66 workers actively using the device during their work shifts. Results Among volunteers downloading regularly, the percentage of daily exposures in excess of the OSHA action level (85dBA) decreased from 14% to 8%, while the percentage of daily exposures in excess of 90dBA decreased from 4% to less than 2%. Conclusion Initial results from this longitudinal study indicate that volunteers find daily noise exposure monitoring to be feasible, and that workers who monitor daily are able to reduce exposures. The results of subject adherence shed light on the challenges and possibilities of worksite interventions for health and safety. PMID:23373740

  7. Occupational Bloodborne Exposure Incident Survey & Management of Exposure Incidents in a Dental Teaching Environment

    PubMed Central

    Sedky, Nabila A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of occupational exposure incidents among undergraduate dental students and the factors associated with it in the educational dental clinics at Pharos University in Alexandria – Egypt, and to measure the commitment with applying infection control policy in the form of compliance with post-exposure management protocol and reporting exposure incidents. Materials and Methods An anonymous self-administered questionnaire consisting of thirteen multiple-choice questions was distributed among 350 undergraduate dental students in mid-senior and senior levels during lectures at the end of the second semester of 2011, with a response rate of 90.00%. Results About 62.00% of the senior students reported that exposures occurred outside the patient’s mouth. A high percentage of both the mid-senior and senior students (74.70% and 70.70%, respectively) reported that they were exposed to multiple sources of incidents. The vast majority of studied groups stated that they didn’t follow Infection Control Protocol after Incident Exposure. Conclusion The findings of this study confirm that dental students experience exposure incidents but are not likely to report them, thus it is important that the principles of infection control training and reporting of all exposure incidents continue to be emphasized throughout undergraduate dental education. PMID:24421746

  8. Use of job-exposure matrices to estimate occupational exposure to pesticides: A review.

    PubMed

    Carles, Camille; Bouvier, Ghislaine; Lebailly, Pierre; Baldi, Isabelle

    2017-03-01

    The health effects of pesticides have been extensively studied in epidemiology, mainly in agricultural populations. However, pesticide exposure assessment remains a key methodological issue for epidemiological studies. Besides self-reported information, expert assessment or metrology, job-exposure matrices still appear to be an interesting tool. We reviewed all existing matrices assessing occupational exposure to pesticides in epidemiological studies and described the exposure parameters they included. We identified two types of matrices, (i) generic ones that are generally used in case-control studies and document broad categories of pesticides in a large range of jobs, and (ii) specific matrices, developed for use in agricultural cohorts, that generally provide exposure metrics at the active ingredient level. The various applications of these matrices in epidemiological studies have proven that they are valuable tools to assess pesticide exposure. Specific matrices are particularly promising for use in agricultural cohorts. However, results obtained with matrices have rarely been compared with those obtained with other tools. In addition, the external validity of the given estimates has not been adequately discussed. Yet, matrices would help in reducing misclassification and in quantifying cumulated exposures, to improve knowledge about the chronic health effects of pesticides.

  9. Occupational exposure to pesticides and bladder cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Koutros, Stella; Silverman, Debra T; Alavanja, Michael Cr; Andreotti, Gabriella; Lerro, Catherine C; Heltshe, Sonya; Lynch, Charles F; Sandler, Dale P; Blair, Aaron; Beane Freeman, Laura E

    2016-06-01

    In the developed world, occupational exposures are a leading cause of bladder cancer. A few studies have suggested a link between pesticide exposures among agricultural populations and bladder cancer. We used data from the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study which includes 57 310 pesticide applicators with detailed information on pesticide use, to evaluate the association between pesticides and bladder cancer. We used Poisson regression to calculate rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to estimate the association between each of 65 pesticides and 321 incident bladder cancer cases which accrued over the course of follow-up (1993-2011), adjusting for lifestyle and demographic and non-pesticide farm-related exposures, including those previously linked to bladder cancer. We conducted additional analyses stratified by smoking status (never, former, current). We observed associations with bladder cancer risk for two imidazolinone herbicides, imazethapyr and imazaquin, which are aromatic amines. Ever use of imazaquin (RR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.26) was associated with increased risk whereas the excess risk among users of imazethapyr was evident among never smokers (RR in highest quartile vs non-exposed = 3.03, 95% CI: 1.46, 6.29, P-interaction = 0.005). We also observed increased risks overall and among never smokers for use of several chlorinated pesticides including chlorophenoxy herbicides and organochlorine insecticides. Several associations between specific pesticides and bladder cancer risk were observed, many of which were stronger among never smokers, suggesting that possible risk factors for bladder cancer may be more readily detectable in those unexposed to potent risk factors like tobacco smoke. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Occupational exposure to aluminum and its biomonitoring in perspective.

    PubMed

    Riihimäki, Vesa; Aitio, Antero

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to aluminum at work is widespread, and people are exposed to several species of aluminum, which differ markedly as to the kinetics and toxicity. Especially welding of aluminum is widely applied and continuously expanding. Inhalation of fine particles of sparsely soluble aluminum results in the retention of deposited particles in the lungs. From the lungs, aluminum is released to the blood and distributed to bones and the brain, and excreted to urine. Soluble aluminum compounds are not accumulated in the lungs. Neurotoxicity is the critical effect of exposure to sparsely soluble aluminum compounds. Studies on workers exposed to aluminum welding fumes have revealed disturbances of cognitive processes, memory and concentration, and changes in mood and EEG. Early pulmonary effects have been observed among aluminum powder-production workers using high-resolution computed tomography. The primary objective of aluminum biomonitoring (BM) is to help prevent the formation of aluminum burden in the lungs and thereby to prevent harmful accumulation of aluminum in target organs. BM of aluminum can be effectively used for this purpose in the production/use of aluminum powders, aluminum welding, as well as plasma cutting, grinding, polishing and thermal spraying of aluminum. BM of aluminum may also be similarly useful in the smelting of aluminum and probably in the production of corundum. BM can help identify exposed individuals and roughly quantitate transient exposure but cannot predict health effects in the production/use of soluble aluminum salts. For urinary aluminum (U-Al) we propose an action limit of 3 µmol/L, corrected to a relative density of 1.021, in a sample collected preshift after two days without occupational exposure, and without use of aluminum-containing drugs. This value corresponds roughly to 2.3 µmol/g creatinine. Compliance with this limit is expected to protect the worker against the critical effect of aluminum in exposure to sparsely soluble

  11. Quantitative olfactory disorders and occupational exposure to phenolic resins.

    PubMed

    Riccó, Matteo; Signorelli, Carlo; Pistelli, Enrico; Cattani, Silvia

    To investigate whether exposure to phenolic resins (PR) is associated with quantitative olfactory disorders (QOD), a cross-sectional study of self-reported olfactory impairment (SROI) was performed in occupationally exposed subjects. Sixty-six workers (45 males, 21 females) at the age (mean ± standard deviation) of 39.8±10.15 years old were divided into 3 exposure groups on the basis of biological exposure indices (BEI) for urinary phenols. It was asked whether the sense of smell has been normal or abnormal during the recent 2 months: the participants were eventually divided into self-reported normosmic, hyposmic, hyperosmic groups. Prevalence of the SROI was 45.5%, with 21 (31.8%) workers complaining about the hyposmia, 12 (18.2%) - anosmia and 9 (13.6%) - hyperosmia. In univariate analyses, female sex was associated with the SROI and the hyperosmia. Highly exposed workers showed the SROI more frequently (odds ratio (OR) = 4.714; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.077-20.626) than those not exposed (reference) or low exposed (OR = 1.333; 95% CI: 0.416-4.274). In multivariate analyses, female sex was the main risk factor for the SROI (adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 5.622; 95% CI: 1.525-20.722) and the hyperosmia (ORa = 25.143; 95% CI: 2.379-265.7) but a high exposure to phenol (ORa = 11.133; 95% CI: 1.060-116.9) was the main risk factor for the anosmia. This study has found slight evidence among the cross-section of chemical industry workers that the exposure to phenol may be associated with the SROI. On the other hand, self-reporting of the QOD may be biased by personal factors and further research with objective measurement is therefore required. Med Pr 2016;67(2):173-186. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  12. Occupational chemical exposures: a collaboration between the Georgia Poison Center and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration.

    PubMed

    Tustin, Aaron W; Jones, Alison; Lopez, Gaylord P; Ketcham, Glenn R; Hodgson, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    In the United States, regional poison centers frequently receive calls about toxic workplace exposures. Most poison centers do not share call details routinely with governmental regulatory agencies. Worker health and safety could be enhanced if regulators such as the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) had the ability to investigate these events and prevent similar incidents. With this goal in mind, the Georgia Poison Center (GPC) began referring occupational exposures to OSHA in July 2014. GPC began collecting additional employer details when handling occupational exposure calls. When workers granted permission, GPC forwarded call details to the OSHA Regional Office in Atlanta. These referrals enabled OSHA to initiate several investigations. We also analyzed all occupational exposures reported to GPC during the study period to characterize the events, detect violations of OSHA reporting requirements, and identify hazardous scenarios that could form the basis for future OSHA rulemaking or guidance. GPC was informed about 953 occupational exposures between 1 July, 2014 and 7 January, 2016. Workers were exposed to 217 unique substances, and 70.3% of victims received treatment in a healthcare facility. Hydrogen sulfide was responsible for the largest number of severe clinical effects. GPC obtained permission to refer 89 (9.3%) calls to OSHA. As a result of these referrals, OSHA conducted 39 investigations and cited 15 employers for "serious" violations. OSHA forwarded several other referrals to other regulatory agencies when OSHA did not have jurisdiction. At least one employer failed to comply with OSHA's new rule that mandates reporting of all work-related hospitalizations. This collaboration increased OSHA's awareness of dangerous job tasks including hydrofluoric acid exposure among auto detailers and carbon monoxide poisoning with indoor use of gasoline-powered tools. Collaboration with the GPC generated a useful source of referrals to OSHA. OSHA

  13. [Prevalence of exposure to occupational risks in pregnant Spanish workers (the INMA Project-Valencia)].

    PubMed

    González-Galarzo, M Carmen; García, Ana M; Estarlich, Marisa; García García, Francisco; Esplugues, Ana; Rodríguez, Paz; Rebagliato, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran

    2009-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of exposure to occupational risks among pregnant women and analyze its relationship with personal and occupational characteristics using information collected in the Childhood and Environment (Infancia y Medio Ambiente [INMA])-Valencia cohort study. The INMA-Valencia cohort study started in 2004 with 855 pregnant women living in Valencia, Spain. Data on sociodemographic variables (age, education and country of birth) and occupational conditions (activity, occupation, type of contract, working hours and self-reported occupational exposure to physical load and psychosocial, physical, chemical and biological risks) in women with paid employment during pregnancy (n=649) were collected through face-to-face interviews with a structured questionnaire in week 32 of pregnancy. The prevalences of reported exposure to physical and psychosocial load and to physical pollutants (including non-ionizing radiations) were 56%, 63% and 62%, respectively. The prevalence of reported exposure to chemicals (including cleaning products) and biological pollutants was 22% and 6%, respectively. In general, the characteristics most closely associated with exposure to occupational risks were younger age, non-Spanish nationality, lower education, having a temporary contract or being self-employed. This study is the first to quantify the prevalence of exposure to occupational risks during pregnancy in a Spanish population-based sample. According to the data observed, surveillance and control actions should be intensified in pregnant workers, as some of the observed occupational exposures have been consistently associated with detrimental reproductive and developmental effects.

  14. Physical occupational exposures and health expectancies in a French occupational cohort.

    PubMed

    Platts, Loretta G; Head, Jenny; Stenholm, Sari; Singh Chungkham, Holendro; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2017-03-01

    To examine the relationships of strenuous and hazardous working conditions and rotating shifts that involve night working with life expectancy in good perceived health and life expectancy without chronic disease. The sample contained male gas and electricity workers from the French GAZEL cohort (n=13 393). Six measures of physical working conditions were examined: Self-reports from 1989 and 1990 of ergonomic strain, physical danger, rotating shifts that involve night working and perceived physical strain; company records of workplace injuries and a job-exposure matrix of chemical exposures. Partial healthy life expectancies (age 50-75) relating to (1) self-rated health and (2) chronic health conditions, obtained from annual questionnaires (1989-2014) and company records, were estimated using multistate life tables. The analyses were adjusted for social class and occupational grade. Participants with physically strenuous jobs and who had experienced industrial injuries had shorter partial life expectancy. More physically demanding and dangerous work was associated with fewer years of life spent in good self-rated health and without chronic conditions, with the exception of shift work including nights, where the gradient was reversed. Strenuous and hazardous work may contribute to lost years of good health in later life, which has implications for individuals' quality of life as well as healthcare use and labour market participation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Physical occupational exposures and health expectancies in a French occupational cohort

    PubMed Central

    Head, Jenny; Stenholm, Sari; Singh Chungkham, Holendro; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationships of strenuous and hazardous working conditions and rotating shifts that involve night working with life expectancy in good perceived health and life expectancy without chronic disease. Methods The sample contained male gas and electricity workers from the French GAZEL cohort (n=13 393). Six measures of physical working conditions were examined: Self-reports from 1989 and 1990 of ergonomic strain, physical danger, rotating shifts that involve night working and perceived physical strain; company records of workplace injuries and a job-exposure matrix of chemical exposures. Partial healthy life expectancies (age 50–75) relating to (1) self-rated health and (2) chronic health conditions, obtained from annual questionnaires (1989–2014) and company records, were estimated using multistate life tables. The analyses were adjusted for social class and occupational grade. Results Participants with physically strenuous jobs and who had experienced industrial injuries had shorter partial life expectancy. More physically demanding and dangerous work was associated with fewer years of life spent in good self-rated health and without chronic conditions, with the exception of shift work including nights, where the gradient was reversed. Conclusions Strenuous and hazardous work may contribute to lost years of good health in later life, which has implications for individuals' quality of life as well as healthcare use and labour market participation. PMID:27655775

  16. Contributions of non-occupational activities to total noise exposure of construction workers.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, Richard; Seixas, Noah; Goldman, Bryan; Daniell, William

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes how exposures received during routine and episodic non-occupational activities contribute to total noise exposure in a group of occupationally exposed workers. Two-hundred and sixty-six construction apprentices enrolled in a longitudinal hearing loss study and completed questionnaires at 1 yr of follow-up to determine their episodic activities (e.g. concert attendance, power tool use, firearms exposure). Noise exposure levels for these episodic exposures were determined from the published literature. Routine activities were assessed using activity cards filled out over 530 subject-days, along with noise dosimetry measurements made over 124 subject-days of measurement. Equivalent Leq exposure levels were then calculated for specific activities. These activity-specific Leq values were combined into estimated individual annual Leq exposure levels for the 6760 nominal annual non-occupational hours in a year (LAeq6760h), which were then transformed into equivalent levels for a 2000 h exposure period (LA2000hn) for comparison with occupational noise exposure risk criteria. The mean non-occupational LAeq6760h exposure values for the cohort ranged from 56 to 87 dBA (equivalent LA2000hn 62-93 dBA). At the mid range of the routine and episodic activity exposure level distribution, the mean LAeq6760h was 73 dBA (LA2000hn 78 dBA). Nineteen percent of the LA2000hn non-occupational exposures exceeded 85 dBA, the generally recommended occupational limit for a 2000 h workyear, at the mid-range of exposure levels. Due to a lack of available data, firearms use could not be incorporated into the total noise exposure estimates. However, firearms users reported more exposure to other noisy non-occupational activities and had statistically significantly higher estimated exposure levels even without including their firearms exposure than did non-shooters. When compared with the high levels of occupational noise found in construction, non-occupational noise exposures

  17. 29 CFR 1910.95 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Occupational Health and Environmental Control § 1910.95 Occupational... engineering controls shall be utilized. If such controls fail to reduce sound levels within the levels of...) Monitoring shall be repeated whenever a change in production, process, equipment or controls increases noise...

  18. 29 CFR 1910.95 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Occupational Health and Environmental Control § 1910.95 Occupational... engineering controls shall be utilized. If such controls fail to reduce sound levels within the levels of...) Monitoring shall be repeated whenever a change in production, process, equipment or controls increases noise...

  19. 29 CFR 1910.95 - Occupational noise exposure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Occupational Health and Environmental Control § 1910.95 Occupational... engineering controls shall be utilized. If such controls fail to reduce sound levels within the levels of...) Monitoring shall be repeated whenever a change in production, process, equipment or controls increases noise...

  20. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Apostoli, P.; Bartoli, D.; Alessio, L.; Buchet, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to assess reliable biological indicators for monitoring the occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs), taking into account the possible confounding role of arsenicals present in food and of the element present in drinking water. METHODS: 51 Glass workers exposed to As trioxide were monitored by measuring dust in the breathing zone, with personal air samplers. Urine samples at the end of work shift were analysed for biological monitoring. A control group of 39 subjects not exposed to As, and eight volunteers who drank water containing about 45 micrograms/l iAs for a week were also considered. Plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of total As in air and urine samples, whereas the urinary As species (trivalent, As3; pentavalent, As5; monomethyl arsonic acid, MMA; dimethyl arsinic acid, DMA; arsenobetaine, AsB) were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) RESULTS: Environmental concentrations of As in air varied widely (mean 84 micrograms/m3, SD 61, median 40) and also the sum of urinary iAs MMA and DMA, varied among the groups of exposed subjects (mean 106 micrograms/l, SD 84, median 65). AsB was the most excreted species (34% of total As) followed by DMA (28%), MMA (26%), and As3 + As5 (12%). In the volunteers who drank As in the water the excretion of MMA and DMA increased (from a median of 0.5 to 5 micrograms/day for MMA and from 4 to 13 micrograms/day for DMA). The best correlations between As in air and its urinary species were found for total iAs and As3 + As5. CONCLUSIONS: To avoid the effect of As from sources other than occupation on urinary species of the element, in particular on DMA, it is proposed that urinary As3 + As5 may an indicator for monitoring the exposure to iAs. For concentrations of 10 micrograms/m3 the current environmental limit for iAs, the limit for urinary As3 + As5 was calculated to be around 5 micrograms/l, even if the wide

  1. Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic.

    PubMed

    Apostoli, P; Bartoli, D; Alessio, L; Buchet, J P

    1999-12-01

    This study was undertaken to assess reliable biological indicators for monitoring the occupational exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs), taking into account the possible confounding role of arsenicals present in food and of the element present in drinking water. 51 Glass workers exposed to As trioxide were monitored by measuring dust in the breathing zone, with personal air samplers. Urine samples at the end of work shift were analysed for biological monitoring. A control group of 39 subjects not exposed to As, and eight volunteers who drank water containing about 45 micrograms/l iAs for a week were also considered. Plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of total As in air and urine samples, whereas the urinary As species (trivalent, As3; pentavalent, As5; monomethyl arsonic acid, MMA; dimethyl arsinic acid, DMA; arsenobetaine, AsB) were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) RESULTS: Environmental concentrations of As in air varied widely (mean 84 micrograms/m3, SD 61, median 40) and also the sum of urinary iAs MMA and DMA, varied among the groups of exposed subjects (mean 106 micrograms/l, SD 84, median 65). AsB was the most excreted species (34% of total As) followed by DMA (28%), MMA (26%), and As3 + As5 (12%). In the volunteers who drank As in the water the excretion of MMA and DMA increased (from a median of 0.5 to 5 micrograms/day for MMA and from 4 to 13 micrograms/day for DMA). The best correlations between As in air and its urinary species were found for total iAs and As3 + As5. To avoid the effect of As from sources other than occupation on urinary species of the element, in particular on DMA, it is proposed that urinary As3 + As5 may an indicator for monitoring the exposure to iAs. For concentrations of 10 micrograms/m3 the current environmental limit for iAs, the limit for urinary As3 + As5 was calculated to be around 5 micrograms/l, even if the wide variation of values needs critical

  2. Maternal occupational exposure during pregnancy and the risk of spina bifida.

    PubMed Central

    Blatter, B M; Roeleveld, N; Zielhuis, G A; Gabreëls, F J; Verbeek, A L

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A case-control study was carried out to explore associations between spina bifida and occupational exposure of the mother. METHODS: The cases were children with spina bifida aperta born between 1980 and 1992 from nine hospitals in the Netherlands. The controls were children born healthy in the same period as the cases, from hospitals and from the general population. Data collection was carried out in two steps. Firstly, postal questionnaires were sent to all the parents of cases and controls to gather information on occupations and potential confounders. In the second phase of the study, information on specific exposures was collected by means of job and task specific personal interviews. Interviews were performed with 55 case mothers and 66 control mothers who had occupations with a potential for chemical or physical exposure. Those exposures were assumed to be negligible for--for example, teachers and secretaries, so personal interviews were not indicated for these women. Information was collected on specific tasks in the period just after conception, and on the associated use of chemical or physical agents, frequency of exposure, and use of protective equipment. RESULTS: The analyses of occupation showed an increased risk for women working in agricultural occupations (OR = 3.4, CI:1.3-9.0), and, although less distinct, for cleaning women (OR = 1.7, CI:0.9-3.4). Only a few women seemed to be occupationally exposed to chemical or physical agents. No differences in occurrence of specific exposures could be detected between cases and controls. Besides, no differences were seen in pesticide or disinfectant exposure among case and control mothers in agricultural occupations. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposures of the mother during pregnancy were infrequent and did not seem to play an important part in the aetiology of spina bifida in this study. The association found between spina bifida and maternal agricultural occupations could not be explained by the

  3. Developing Asbestos Job Exposure Matrix Using Occupation and Industry Specific Exposure Data (1984-2008) in Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sangjun; Kang, Dongmug; Park, Donguk; Lee, Hyunhee; Choi, Bongkyoo

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a general population job-exposure matrix (GPJEM) on asbestos to estimate occupational asbestos exposure levels in the Republic of Korea. Three Korean domestic quantitative exposure datasets collected from 1984 to 2008 were used to build the GPJEM. Exposure groups in collected data were reclassified based on the current Korean Standard Industrial Classification (9 th edition) and the Korean Standard Classification of Occupations code (6 th edition) that is in accordance to international standards. All of the exposure levels were expressed by weighted arithmetic mean (WAM) and minimum and maximum concentrations. Based on the established GPJEM, the 112 exposure groups could be reclassified into 86 industries and 74 occupations. In the 1980s, the highest exposure levels were estimated in "knitting and weaving machine operators" with a WAM concentration of 7.48 fibers/mL (f/mL); in the 1990s, "plastic products production machine operators" with 5.12 f/mL, and in the 2000s "detergents production machine operators" handling talc containing asbestos with 2.45 f/mL. Of the 112 exposure groups, 44 groups had higher WAM concentrations than the Korean occupational exposure limit of 0.1 f/mL. The newly constructed GPJEM which is generated from actual domestic quantitative exposure data could be useful in evaluating historical exposure levels to asbestos and could contribute to improved prediction of asbestos-related diseases among Koreans.

  4. Assessment of time to pregnancy and spontaneous abortion status following occupational exposure to organic solvents mixture.

    PubMed

    Attarchi, Mir Saeed; Ashouri, Monir; Labbafinejad, Yasser; Mohammadi, Saber

    2012-04-01

    Due to increasing usage of chemicals in various industries, occupational exposure of women with these materials is unavoidable. Nowadays, some studies indicate adverse effects of exposure to these chemicals, especially organic solvents on the reproductive system of females. This study aimed to assess the relationship between spontaneous abortion and occupational exposure to organic solvents mixture in pharmaceutical industry. This study was carried out in a pharmaceutical factory located in the suburb of Tehran in 2010. During the study, married women who were working in the factory laboratory units and had exposure to mixed organic solvents were compared with married women who were working in the packing units of the factory without occupational exposure to organic solvents in terms of spontaneous abortion frequency and duration of pregnancy using statistical methods. In this study, the frequency of spontaneous abortion in employees with and without exposure to organic solvents mixture was 10.7 and 2.9% respectively. This study showed that even after adjustment for confounding factors, there was a significant correlation between spontaneous abortion and occupational exposure to organic solvents mixture and this correlation increased with increasing levels of exposure to organic solvents. Also, a significant correlation was observed between occupational exposure to mixed organic solvents and waiting time to become pregnant (TTP). Furthermore, this study showed that even after adjustment for confounding variables, shift workers were significantly more affected by spontaneous abortion compared to daytime workers (P < 0.001). Also, in our study, synergistic effect between shift working and occupational exposure to organic solvents mixture on spontaneous abortion was seen. According to the results of this study, since there is probability of spontaneous abortion resulting from occupational exposure to various chemicals including organic solvents, recommendation to

  5. Assessment of occupational exposure to gaseous peracetic acid.

    PubMed

    Dugheri, Stefano; Bonari, Alessandro; Pompilio, Ilenia; Colpo, Marco; Montalti, Manfredi; Mucci, Nicola; Arcangeli, Giulio

    2018-02-07

    In order to assess short-term exposure to peracetic acid (PAA) in disinfection processes, the Authors compared 4 industrial hygiene monitoring methods to evaluate their proficiency in measuring airborne PAA concentrations. An active sampling by basic silica gel impregnated with methyl p-tolyl sulfoxide (MTSO), a passive solid phase micro-extraction technique using methyl p-tolyl sulfide (MTS) as on-fiber derivatization reagent, an electrochemical direct-reading PAA monitor, and a novel visual test strip PAA detector doped with 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonate were evaluated and tested over the range of 0.06-16 mg/m3, using dynamically generated PAA air concentrations. The linear regression analysis of linearity and accuracy showed that the 4 methods were suitable for PAA monitoring. Peracetic acid monitoring in several use applications showed that the PAA concentration (1.8 mg/m3) was immediately dangerous to life or health as proposed by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, and was frequently exceeded in wastewater treatment (up to 7.33 mg/m3), and sometimes during food and beverage processes and hospital high-level disinfection operations (up to 6.8 mg/m3). The methods were suitable for the quick assessment of acute exposure in PAA environmental monitoring and can assist in improving safety and air quality in the workplace where this disinfectant is used. These monitoring methods allowed the evaluation of changes to work out practices to reduce PAA vapor concentrations during the operations when workers are potentially overexposed to this strong antioxidant agent. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  6. [Monitoring of hematogenous occupational exposure in medical staff in infectious disease hospital].

    PubMed

    Xie, Manxia; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Yimei

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the status and risk factors for hematogenous occupational exposure in medical staff in an infectious disease hospital, and to provide a scientific basis for targeted preventive and control measures. The occupational exposure of 395 medical workers in our hospital was monitored from January 2012 to December 2014, among whom 79 individuals with occupational exposure were subjected to intervention and the risk factors for occupational exposure were analyzed. The high-risk group was mainly the nursing staff (69.6%). The incidence of hematogenous occupational exposure was high in medical personnel with a working age under 3 years, aged under 25 years, and at the infection ward, accounting for 63.3%, 72.1%, and 72.2%, respectively. Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, Treponema pallidum, and human immunodeficiency virus were the primary exposure sources. Sharp injury was the major way of injury (91.1%), with needle stick injury accounting for the highest proportion (86.1%). Injury occurred on the hand most frequently (91.1%). The high-risk links were improper disposal during or after pulling the needle, re-capturing the needle, and processing waste, accounting for 46.8%, 17.7%, and 12.7%, respectively. Seventy-nine professionals with occupational exposure were not infected. The main risk factor for hematogenous occupational exposure in medical staff in the infectious disease hospital is needle stick injury. Strengthening the occupational protection education in medical staff in infectious disease hospital, implementing protective measures, standardizing operating procedures in high-risk links, and enhancing the supervision mechanism can reduce the incidence of occupational exposure and infection after exposure.

  7. Occupational exposures to emissions from combustion of diesel and alternative fuels in underground mining--a simulated pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Eric A; Reed, Rustin J; Lee, Vivien S T; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2015-01-01

    Diesel fuel is commonly used for underground mining equipment, yet diesel engine exhaust is a known human carcinogen. Alternative fuels, including biodiesel, and a natural gas/diesel blend, offer the potential to reduce engine emissions and associated health effects. For this pilot study, exposure monitoring was performed in an underground mine during operation of a load-haul-dump vehicle. Use of low-sulfur diesel, 75% biodiesel/25% diesel blend (B75), and natural gas/diesel blend (GD) fuels were compared. Personal samples were collected for total and respirable diesel particulate matter (tDPM and rDPM, respectively) and total and respirable elemental and organic carbon (tEC, rEC, tOC, rOC, respectively), as well as carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, naphthalene, nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Compared to diesel, B75 use was associated with a 33% reduction in rDPM, reductions in rEC, tEC, and naphthalene, increased tDPM, tOC, and NO, and no change in rOC, CO, and NO2. Compared to diesel, GD was associated with a 66% reduction in rDPM and a reduction in all other exposures except CO. The alternative fuels tested both resulted in reduced rDPM, which is the basis for the current Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) occupational exposure standard. Although additional study is needed with a wider variety of equipment, use of alternative fuels have the promise of reducing exposures from vehicular exhaust in underground mining settings.

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde (Inhalation) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    UPDATE EPA is currently revising its Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of formaldehyde to address the 2011 NAS peer review recommendations. This assessment addresses both noncancer and cancer human health effects that are relevant to assessing the risks from chronic inhalation exposure to formaldehyde. To facilitate discussion of several scientific issues pertinent to the assessment, EPA convened a state-of-the-science workshop on April 30 and May 1, 2014. This workshop focused on the following three themes: Evidence pertaining to the influence of formaldehyde that is produced endogenously (by the body during normal biological processes) on the toxicity of inhaled formaldehyde, and implications for the health assessment; Mechanistic evidence relevant to formaldehyde inhalation exposure and lymphohematopoietic cancers (leukemia and lymphomas); and Epidemiological research examining the potential association between formaldehyde exposure and lymphohematopoietic cancers (leukemia and lymphomas). June 2010: EPA is conducting an independent expert peer review by the National Academy of Sciences and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Formaldehyde-Inhalation that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. This draft IRIS health assessment addresses both noncancer and cancer human health effects that may result from chronic inhal

  9. Formation of formaldehyde and peroxides by air oxidation of high purity polyoxyethylene surfactants.

    PubMed

    Bergh, M; Magnusson, K; Nilsson, J L; Karlberg, A T

    1998-07-01

    Ethoxylated alcohols are non-ionic surfactants. The majority are used in household cleaners, laundry products, toiletries and in industrial and institutional cleaners. In previous studies, an ethoxylated non-ionic surfactant of technical quality showed allergenic activity in guinea pig experiments. Chemical analysis revealed a content of formaldehyde, a well-known contact allergen, and peroxides in the surfactant. Most cases of occupational contact dermatitis are considered to be of irritant origin, caused by contact with water and surfactants, but if allergenic autoxidation products can be formed, allergic contact dermatitis cannot be excluded. The sensitizing potential of a chemically defined high purity ethoxylated alcohol was investigated and oxidation under various storage and handling conditions was studied for this and a homologous product. The pure surfactant showed no significant allergenic activity on predictive testing in guinea pigs. When ethoxylated alcohols were stored in the refrigerator, their deterioration was limited. At room temperature, their content of peroxides and formaldehyde increased with time. Levels of formaldehyde above those capable of causing positive patch test reactions were found. Since such surfactants have wide applications, resulting exposure to formaldehyde could be more frequent than is generally realized, contributing to persistence of dermatitis in individuals allergic to formaldehyde.

  10. Comparison of data used for setting occupational exposure limits.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Linda

    2010-01-01

    It has previously been shown that occupational exposure limits (OELs) for the same substance can vary significantly between different standard-setters. The work presented in this paper identifies the steps in the process towards establishing an OEL and how variations in those processes could account for these differences. This study selects for further scrutiny substances for which the level of OELs vary by a factor of 100, focussing on 45 documents concerning 14 substances from eight standard-setters. Several of the OELs studied were more than 20 years old and based on outdated knowledge. Furthermore, different standard-setters sometimes based their OELs on different sets of data, and data availability alone could not explain all differences in the selection of data sets used by standard-setters. While the interpretation of key studies did not differ significantly in standard-setters' documentations, the evaluations of the key studies' quality did. Also, differences concerning the critical effect coincided with differences in the level of OELs for half of the substances.

  11. [Exposure to metal compounds in occupational galvanic processes].

    PubMed

    Surgiewicz, Jolanta; Domański, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Occupational galvanic processes are provided in more than 600 small and medium enterprises in Poland. Workers who deal with galvanic coating are exposed to heavy metal compounds: tin, silver, copper and zinc. Some of them are carcinogenic, for example, hexavalent chromium compounds, nickel and cadmium compounds. Research covered several tens of workstations involved in chrome, nickel, zinc, tin, silver, copper and cadmium plating. Compounds of metals present in the air were determined: Cr, Ni, Cd, Sn, Ag--by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization (ET-AAS) and Zn--by atomic absorption spectrometry with flame atomization (F-AAS). The biggest metal concentrations--of silver and copper--were found at workstations of copper, brass, cadmium, nickel and chrome plating, conducted at the same time. Significant concentrations of copper were found at workstations of maintenance bathing and neutralizing of sewage. The concentrations of metals did not exceed Polish MAC values. MAC values were not exceeded for carcinogenic chromium(VI), nickel or cadmium, either. In galvanic processes there was no hazard related to single metals or their compounds, even carcinogenic ones. Combined exposure indicators for metals at each workstation did not exceed 1, either. However, if there are even small quantities of carcinogenic agents, health results should always be taken into consideration.

  12. Aberrant Production of Th1/Th2/Th17-Related Cytokines in Serum of C57BL/6 Mice after Short-Term Formaldehyde Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Haiyan; Tan, Kehong; Sun, Rongli; Yin, Lihong; Zhang, Juan; Pu, Yuepu

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that formaldehyde (FA) could cause immunotoxicity by changing the number of T lymphocytes and that cytokines play a pivotal role in the regulation of T lymphocytes. However, the previously used cytokine detection methods are difficult to use in the measurement of several cytokines in a small amount of sample for one test. Therefore, the cytometric bead array (CBA) technique was used. CBA showed better analytical efficiency and sensitivity than the previous methods. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the control (normal saline), low FA concentration (0.5 mg/kg), and high FA concentration (2 mg/kg) for 1 week or 1 month. The contents of cytokines, including Th1-related cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor), Th2-related cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10), and Th17-related cytokines (IL-17A), were measured by using the BD FACS Canto II Flow Cytometer and analyzed by FCAP ArrayTM Software. Th1/Th2/Th17-related cytokines showed a slightly decreasing trend after low FA exposure. Conversely, a significantly increasing trend was found after high FA exposure. Th1/Th2/Th17-related cytokines all serve important functions in the immune reactions in mice after FA exposure. PMID:25264680

  13. Occupational cancer in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    González, C A; Agudo, A

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of specific problems of occupational cancer in Spain is scarce. The environment of the workplace has improved over the last few years after a long period distinguished by bad working conditions, incomplete legislation, and insufficient safety measures and control. It has been estimated that 3,083,479 workers (25.4% of employees) were exposed to carcinogens. The most common occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents were solar radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, silica, and wood dust. The highest number of employees were exposed to silica crystalline (404,729), diesel engine exhaust (274,321), rubber products (99,804), benzene (89,932), ethylene dibromide (81,336), agents used in furniture and cabinet making (72,068), and formaldehyde (71,189). The percentage of total cancer deaths attributed to occupational exposure was 4% (6% in men, 0.9% in women). Compared with other European countries, the incidence of lung cancer and leukemia in Spain are one of the lowest, but it is rapidly increasing. The incidence of urinary bladder and larynx cancer, on the contrary, are one of the highest. Few studies on occupational cancer have been conducted in Spain. The main problems are the availability of death certificates and the quality of the information on occupation in mortality of statistics. It is necessary to improve methods of assessment of exposures using expert hygienists and biologic markers of exposure and diseases. Reduction of cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to known occupational carcinogens is still necessary. PMID:10350510

  14. A Case-Based Toxicology Module on Agricultural- and Mining-Related Occupational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To develop and assess a toxicology module to teach pharmacy students about farming- and mining-related occupational exposures in the context of an existing toxicology elective course. Design. A teaching unit that included lectures and case studies was developed to address the unique occupational exposures of patients working in agricultural and mining environments. Upon completion of this 4-hour (2 class periods) module, students were expected to recognize the clinical signs and symptoms associated with these occupational exposures and propose acceptable therapeutic plans. Assessment. After completing the module, students scored significantly higher on a patient case involving suicide resulting from pesticide consumption. Seventy-three percent of the students scored higher than 90% on a 33-item multiple-choice examination. Eighty-two percent of students were able to correctly read a product label to determine the type of pesticide involved in an occupational exposure. Conclusion. Pharmacy students who completed a module on occupation exposure demonstrated competence in distinguishing occupational exposures from each other and from exposure to prescription and nonprescription drugs. This module can be used to educate future pharmacists about occupational health issues, some of which may be more prevalent in a rural setting. PMID:23049108

  15. Occupational exposures are associated with worse morbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Laura M; Diette, Gregory B; Blanc, Paul D; Putcha, Nirupama; Eisner, Mark D; Kanner, Richard E; Belli, Andrew J; Christenson, Stephanie; Tashkin, Donald P; Han, MeiLan; Barr, R Graham; Hansel, Nadia N

    2015-03-01

    Links between occupational exposures and morbidity in individuals with established chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unclear. To determine the impact of occupational exposures on COPD morbidity. A job exposure matrix (JEM) determined occupational exposure likelihood based on longest job in current/former smokers (n = 1,075) recruited as part of the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcomes in COPD Study, of whom 721 had established COPD. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression models estimated the association of occupational exposure with COPD, and among those with established disease, the occupational exposure associations with 6-minute-walk distance (6MWD), the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (mMRC), the COPD Assessment Test (CAT), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), 12-item Short-Form Physical Component (SF-12), and COPD exacerbations requiring health care utilization, adjusting for demographics, current smoking status, and cumulative pack-years. An intermediate/high risk of occupational exposure by JEM was found in 38% of participants. In multivariate analysis, those with job exposures had higher odds of COPD (odds ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.97). Among those with COPD, job exposures were associated with shorter 6MWDs (-26.0 m; P = 0.006); worse scores for mMRC (0.23; P = 0.004), CAT (1.8; P = 0.003), SGRQ (4.5; P = 0.003), and SF-12 Physical (-3.3; P < 0.0001); and greater odds of exacerbation requiring health care utilization (odds ratio, 1.55; P = 0.03). Accounting for smoking, occupational exposure was associated with COPD risk and, for those with established disease, shorter walk distance, greater breathlessness, worse quality of life, and increased exacerbation risk. Clinicians should obtain occupational histories from patients with COPD because work-related exposures may influence disease burden.

  16. Dose — response relationship between noise exposure and the risk of occupational injury

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Hong, Jeong-Suk; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Won, Jong-Uk

    2015-01-01

    Many workers worldwide experience fatality and disability caused by occupational injuries. This study examined the relationship between noise exposure and occupational injuries at factories in Korea. A total of 1790 factories located in northern Gyeonggi Province, Korea was evaluated. The time-weighted average levels of dust and noise exposure were taken from Workplace Exposure Assessment data. Apart occupational injuries, sports events, traffic accidents, and other accidents occurring outside workplaces were excluded. The incidences of occupational injury in each factory were calculated by data from the Korea Workers’ Compensation and Welfare Services. Workplaces were classified according to the incidence of any occupational injuries (incident or nonincident workplaces, respectively). Workplace dust exposure was classified as <1 or ≥1 mg/m3, and noise exposure as <80, 80-89, or >90 dB. Workplaces with high noise exposure were significantly associated with being incident workplaces, whereas workplaces with high dust exposure were not. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) derived from a logistic regression model were 1.68 (1.27-2.24) and 3.42 (2.26-5.17) at 80-89 dB and ≥90 dB versus <80 dB. These associations remained significant when in a separate analysis according to high or low dust exposure level. Noise exposure increases the risk of occupational injury in the workplace. Furthermore, the risk of occupational injury increases with noise exposure level in a dose-response relationship. Therefore, strategies for reducing noise exposure level are required to decrease the risk of occupational injury. PMID:25599757

  17. New formaldehyde base disinfectants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, R.; Lindell, K. F.

    1973-01-01

    Preparations of formaldehyde in various organic liquids - ethylene glycol, glycerol, and propylene glycol - serve as effective disinfectants towards microbial vegetative cells and spores. This disinfection is a temperature-dependent process and is manifest when these formaldehyde base disinfectants are dissolved in water. The irritating vapors associated with formaldehyde disinfection are not present in either of these new formaldehyde base disinfectants or in aqueous solutions of them.

  18. Renal cancer risk and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and plastics

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Stewart, Patricia A.; Zaridze, David; Matveev, Vsevolod; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helena; Bencko, Vladimir; Navratilova, Marie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mates, Dana; Gromiec, Jan P.; Sobotka, Roman; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rothman, Nathaniel; Moore, Lee E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and certain plastic monomers increased renal cell carcinomas (RCC) risk. Methods Unconditional logistic regression was used to calculate RCC risk in relation to exposure. Results No association between RCC risk and having ever been occupationally exposed to any polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or plastics was observed. Duration of exposure and average exposure also showed no association with risk. Suggestive positive associations between RCC risk and cumulative exposure to styrene (P-trend = 0.02) and acrylonitrile (P-trend = 0.06) were found. Cumulative exposure to petroleum/gasoline engine emissions was inversely associated with risk (P-trend = 0.02). Conclusions Results indicate a possible association between occupational styrene and acrylonitrile exposure and RCC risk. Additional studies are needed to replicate findings, as this is the first time these associations have been reported and they may be due to chance. PMID:21270648

  19. [The National Registry of Occupational Exposures to Carcinogens (SIREP): information system and results].

    PubMed

    Scarselli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The recording of occupational exposure to carcinogens is a fundamental step in order to assess exposure risk factors in workplaces. The aim of this paper is to describe the characteristics of the Italian register of occupational exposures to carcinogen agents (SIREP). The core data collected in the system are: firm characteristics, worker demographics, and exposure information. Statistical descriptive analyses were performed by economic activity sector, carcinogen agent and geographic location. Currently, the information recorded regard: 12,300 firms, 130,000 workers, and 250,000 exposures. The SIREP database has been set up in order to assess, control and reduce the carcinogen risk at workplace.

  20. Occupational dermal exposure to nanoparticles and nano-enabled products: Part 2, exploration of exposure processes and methods of assessment.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Derk H; Spaan, Suzanne; Roff, Martin; Sleeuwenhoek, Anne; Tuinman, Ilse; Goede, Henk; van Duuren-Stuurman, Birgit; Filon, Francesca Larese; Bello, Dhimiter; Cherrie, John W

    2016-08-01

    Over the past decade, the primary focus of nanotoxicology and nanoenvironmental health and safety efforts has been largely on inhalation exposure to engineered nanomaterials, at the production stage, and much less on considering risks along the life cycle of nano-enabled products. Dermal exposure to nanomaterials and its health impact has been studied to a much lesser extent, and mostly in the context of intentional exposure to nano-enabled products such as in nanomedicine, cosmetics and personal care products. How concerning is dermal exposure to such nanoparticles in the context of occupational exposures? When and how should we measure it? In the first of a series of two papers (Larese Filon et al., 2016), we focused our attention on identifying conditions or situations, i.e. a combination of nanoparticle physico-chemical properties, skin barrier integrity, and occupations with high prevalence of skin disease, which deserve further investigation. This second paper focuses on the broad question of dermal exposure assessment to nanoparticles and attempts to give an overview of the mechanisms of occupational dermal exposure to nanoparticles and nano-enabled products and explores feasibility and adequacy of various methods of quantifying dermal exposure to NOAA. We provide here a conceptual framework for screening, prioritization, and assessment of dermal exposure to NOAA in occupational settings, and integrate it into a proposed framework for risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. [Occupational exposure to biological agents intentionally used in Polish enterprises].

    PubMed

    Kozajda, Anna; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the intentional use of biological agents for industrial, diagnostic and research purposes in Polish enterprises. The National Register of Biological Agents (Krajowy Rejestr Czynników Biologicznych - KRCB) is an online database that collects the data on the intentional use of biological agents at work in Poland. As of December 2013 there were 533 notifications in KRCB, mainly for diagnostic (73%), research (20%) and industrial purposes (7%). Mostly there were hospital diagnostic laboratories (37%), and other laboratories (35%), as well as higher education and research institutions (11%). In total, 4015 workers (91.7% of women, 8.3% of men) were exposed tobiological agents. Agents classified in risk group 2 were used in 518 enterprises, and in risk group 3 in 107 enterprises. Of those agents the following bacteria were the most frequently used: Escherichia coli except for non-pathogenic strains (455 enterprises and 3314 exposed workers); Staphylococcus aureus (445 and 3270); and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (406 and 2969, respectively). In 66 enterprises there were used biological agents recognized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as carcinogens. They are viruses: Epstein-Barr (7 enterprises, 181 exposed workers); hepatitis B (16 and 257); hepatitis C virus (15 and 243); human immunodefi- ciency virus (8 and 107); human papillomaviruses (2 and 4); parasites: Clonorchis viverrini (1 and 2 ); Clonorchos sinensis (1 and 2); Schistosoma haematobium (1 and 2) and bacteria Helicobacter pylori; (15 and 230, respectively). The National Register of Biological Agents at Work permits to evaluate the situation of occupational exposure to biological agents used intentionally in enterprises in Poland.

  2. Effects from environmental Mn exposures: a review of the evidence from non-occupational exposure studies.

    PubMed

    Hudnell, H K

    1999-01-01

    The risk posed to human health by environmental manganese exposure is unknown. Occupational-exposure outcomes may not extrapolate to environmental exposures due to the healthy worker effect and differences in dosage parameters which may affect the biological response. This paper attempts to combine the existing literature on non-occupational Mn exposures with results from our current study in SW Quebec on environmental Mn exposure (Mergler et al., this issue) within the framework of a biologically-based, dose-response (BBDR) model. BBDR MODEL: The basic BBDR model consists of seven stages relating exposure to health effects. The stages are: 1) sources, 2) applied dose, 3) absorbed dose, 4) target-site dose, 5) toxic event, 6) measurable change, and 7) health outcome. Several air monitoring programs, such as the PTEAM study (Riverside, CA, 1990, mean PM10 Mn outdoor-airborne 24 h average = 0.045 microgram/m3), provided data relevant to the estimation of Mn applied dose, but did not include measures of body burden. Data from the SW Quebec study showed a mean total-particulate airborne Mn concentration of 0.022 microgram/m3 with a range of 0.009 to 0.035 microgram/m3 across four sampling sites, whereas the EPA reference concentration (RfC) is 0.05 microgram/m3. EPA has considered tap water levels to be safe below 200 micrograms/l Mn, and mean Mn tap-water (MnW) level in the participants' homes was 6.38 +/- 11.95 micrograms/l with a range from 0.1 to 158.9 micrograms/l Mn. A previous study of MnW exposure in Greece reported Mn levels in areas with low, medium and high MnW ranging from 4 to 2,300 micrograms/l and a significant association with Mn in hair but not Mn in blood (MnB). The mean absorbed dose of the SW Quebec study participants, as indicated by MnB, was 7.5 +/- 2.3 micrograms/l with a range of 2.5 to 15.9 micrograms/l. Our study and others on environmental Mn exposure did not provide an estimate of target-site dose. However, a significant correlation (r = 0

  3. Contribution of formaldehyde to respiratory cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, N; Levine, R J; Albert, R E; Blair, A E; Griesemer, R A; Landrigan, P J; Stayner, L T; Swenberg, J A

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the available data on the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde from experimental and epidemiologic studies and makes recommendations for further research. Two definitive chronic inhalation bioassays on rodents have demonstrated that formaldehyde produces nasal cancer in rats and mice at 14 ppm and in rats at 6 ppm, which is within the domain of present permissible human exposure (8-hr time-weighted average of 3 ppm, a 5 ppm ceiling, and a 10 ppm short-term exposure limit). Biochemical and physiologic studies in rats have shown that inhaled formaldehyde can depress respiration, inhibit mucociliary clearance, stimulate cell proliferation, and crosslink DNA and protein in the nasal mucosa. No deaths from nasal cancer have been reported in epidemiologic studies of cohorts exposed to formaldehyde, but three case-control studies suggest the possibility of increased risk. Although excesses of lung cancer deaths have been observed in some studies at industrial plants with formaldehyde exposure, uncertainties in interpretation limit the evaluation of these findings. Excess cancers of the brain and of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues have been reported in certain studies of industrial groups and in most studies of formaldehyde-exposed professionals, but whether these excesses are related to formaldehyde exposure is not known. Several properties of formaldehyde pose unique problems for future research: the mechanisms responsible for its nonlinear response; its probable mechanism of carcinogenic action as a cross-linking agent; its formation in tissues as a normal metabolite; its possible action as a promoter and/or a cocarcinogen; and the importance of glutathione as a host defense at low exposure. PMID:3830109

  4. Risk of lymphatic or haematopoietic cancer mortality with occupational exposure to animals or the public

    PubMed Central

    Svec, M; Ward, M; Dosemeci, M; Checkoway, H; De Roos, A J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Occupational exposure to animals or the public could result in exposure to infectious agents, which may play a role in the aetiology of lymphohaematopoietic (LH) cancers. Aims: To conduct a population based, case-control study of death certificate data from 1984 to 1998 in 24 US states in order to evaluate the risk of mortality from LH neoplasms associated with occupational exposure to animals or the public. Methods: Cases were selected as those with an underlying cause of death of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL, n = 72 589), Hodgkin's disease (HD, n = 5479), multiple myeloma (n = 35 857), or leukaemia (n = 68 598); 912 615 controls were randomly selected from all remaining deaths, frequency matched on age, sex, race, and geographic region. Results: Occupational exposure to animals was associated with modest increased risks of mortality from all four LH cancers; these associations varied by region. Occupational exposure to the public was associated with only negligible increased risk with LH cancer outcomes. Occupations involving animal exposure were predominantly agricultural, and the risks associated with employment in the livestock industry exceeded the corresponding risks associated with the crop industry for all outcomes except HD. Conclusions: Increased risks of NHL, HD, multiple myeloma, and leukaemia were associated with occupations that involved animal exposure. Regional differences in risk imply that the risks may be associated with exposure to specific livestock or farming practices. However, these associations may be confounded by other farming related exposures, such as pesticides. Because the use of death certificates to classify occupation may result in misclassification during aetiologically relevant time periods, these hypotheses should be further explored in studies with detailed information on lifetime occupation. PMID:16169919

  5. Airborne isocyanate exposures in the collision repair industry and a comparison to occupational exposure limits.

    PubMed

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Whittaker, Stephen G; Ceballos, Diana M; Weiland, Elisa C; Flack, Sheila L; Fent, Kenneth W; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Trelles Gaines, Linda G; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2012-01-01

    Isocyanate exposure was evaluated in 33 spray painters from 25 Washington State autobody shops. Personal breathing zone samples (n = 228) were analyzed for isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer, IPDI polyisocyanate, and three polyisocyanate forms of HDI. The objective was to describe exposures to isocyanates while spray painting, compare them with short-term exposure limits (STELs), and describe the isocyanate composition in the samples. The composition of polyisocyanates (IPDI and HDI) in the samples varied greatly, with maximum amounts ranging from up to 58% for HDI biuret to 96% for HDI isocyanurate. There was a significant inverse relationship between the percentage composition of HDI isocyanurate to IPDI and to HDI uretdione. Two 15-min STELs were compared: (1) Oregon's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OR-OSHA) STEL of 1000 μg/m(3) for HDI polyisocyanate, and (2) the United Kingdom's Health and Safety Executive (UK-HSE) STEL of 70 μg NCO/m(3) for all isocyanates. Eighty percent of samples containing HDI polyisocyanate exceeded the OR-OSHA STEL while 98% of samples exceeded the UK-HSE STEL. The majority of painters (67%) wore half-face air-purifying respirators while spray painting. Using the OR-OSHA and the UK-HSE STELs as benchmarks, 21% and 67% of painters, respectively, had at least one exposure that exceeded the respirator's OSHA-assigned protection factor. A critical review of the STELs revealed the following limitations: (1) the OR-OSHA STEL does not include all polyisocyanates, and (2) the UK-HSE STEL is derived from monomeric isocyanates, whereas the species present in typical spray coatings are polyisocyanates. In conclusion, the variable mixtures of isocyanates used by autobody painters suggest that an occupational exposure limit is required that includes all polyisocyanates. Despite the limitations of the STELs, we determined that a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 25 or

  6. Airborne Isocyanate Exposures in the Collision Repair Industry and a Comparison to Occupational Exposure Limits

    PubMed Central

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Whittaker, Stephen G.; Ceballos, Diana M.; Weiland, Elisa C.; Flack, Sheila L.; Fent, Kenneth W.; Thomasen, Jennifer M.; Gaines, Linda G. Trelles; Nylander-French, Leena A.

    2014-01-01

    Isocyanate exposure was evaluated in 33 spray painters from 25 Washington State autobody shops. Personal breathing zone samples (n = 228) were analyzed for isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer, IPDI polyisocyanate, and three polyisocyanate forms of HDI. The objective was to describe exposures to isocyanates while spray painting, compare them with short-term exposure limits (STELs), and describe the isocyanate composition in the samples. The composition of polyisocyanates (IPDI and HDI) in the samples varied greatly, with maximum amounts ranging from up to 58% for HDI biuret to 96% for HDI isocyanurate. There was a significant inverse relationship between the percentage composition of HDI isocyanurate to IPDI and to HDI uretdione. Two 15-min STELs were compared: (1) Oregon's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OR-OSHA) STEL of 1000 μg/m3 for HDI polyisocyanate, and (2) the United Kingdom's Health and Safety Executive (UK-HSE) STEL of 70 μg NCO/m3 for all isocyanates. Eighty percent of samples containing HDI polyisocyanate exceeded the OR-OSHA STEL while 98% of samples exceeded the UKHSE STEL. The majority of painters (67%) wore half-face air-purifying respirators while spray painting. Using the OROSHA and the UK-HSE STELs as benchmarks, 21% and 67% of painters, respectively, had at least one exposure that exceeded the respirator's OSHA-assigned protection factor. A critical review of the STELs revealed the following limitations: (1) the OR-OSHA STEL does not include all polyisocyanates, and (2) the UK-HSE STEL is derived from monomeric isocyanates, whereas the species present in typical spray coatings are polyisocyanates. In conclusion, the variable mixtures of isocyanates used by autobody painters suggest that an occupational exposure limit is required that includes all polyisocyanates. Despite the limitations of the STELs, we determined that a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 25 or

  7. Occupational exposure to wood dust and risk of nasal and nasopharyngeal cancer: A case-control study among men in four nordic countries-With an emphasis on nasal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Siew, Sie Sie; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Sparén, Pär; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pukkala, Eero

    2017-12-15

    The current study aims to provide stronger evidence to aid in our understanding of the role of cumulative occupational exposure to (softwood-dominated) mixed wood dust in aetiology of nasal cancer. We included broad exposure occurred in a range of wood-processing occupation across varied industries in four Nordic countries. A population-based case-control study was conducted on all male cases with nasal adenocarcinoma (393 cases), other types of nasal cancer (2,446) and nasopharyngeal cancer (1,747) diagnosed in Finland, Sweden, Norway and Iceland between 1961 and 2005. For each case, five male controls, who were alive at the time of diagnosis of the case (index date), were randomly selected, matched by birth-year and country. Cumulative exposures (CE)s to wood dust and formaldehyde before the index date were quantified based on a job-exposure matrix linked to occupational titles derived from population censuses. Hazard ratios (HRs) for the CE of wood dust were estimated by conditional logistic regression, adjusted for CE to formaldehyde and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. There was an increasing risk of nasal adenocarcinoma related to wood dust exposure. The HR in the highest CE category of wood dust (≥ 28.82 mg/m 3 -years) was 16.5 (95% CI 5.05-54.1). Neither nonadenocarcinoma of the nose nor nasopharyngeal cancer could be linked to wood dust exposure. CE to softwood-dominated mixed wood dusts is strongly linked with elevated risk in nasal adenocarcinoma but not with other types of nasal or nasopharyngeal cancer. © 2017 UICC.

  8. Appraisal of levels and patterns of occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed

    Scarselli, Alberto; Corfiati, Marisa; Di Marzi, Davide; Iavicoli, Sergio

    2017-09-01

    Objectives 1,3-butadiene is classified as carcinogenic to human by inhalation and the association with leukemia has been observed in several epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate data about occupational exposure levels to 1,3-butadiene in the Italian working force. Methods Airborne concentrations of 1,3-butadiene were extracted from the Italian database on occupational exposure to carcinogens in the period 1996-2015. Descriptive statistics were calculated for exposure-related variables. An analysis through linear mixed model was performed to determine factors influencing the exposure level. The probability of exceeding the exposure limit was predicted using a mixed-effects logistic model. Concurrent exposures with other occupational carcinogens were investigated using the two-step cluster analysis. Results The total number of exposure measurements selected was 23 885, with an overall arithmetic mean of 0.12 mg/m3. The economic sector with the highest number of measurements was manufacturing of chemicals (18 744). The most predictive variables of the exposure level resulted to be the occupational group and its interaction with the measurement year. The highest likelihood of exceeding the exposure limit was found in the manufacture of coke and refined petroleum products. Concurrent exposures were frequently detected, mainly with benzene, acrylonitrile and ethylene dichloride, and three main clusters were identified. Conclusions Exposure to 1,3-butadiene occurs in a wide variety of activity sectors and occupational groups. The use of several statistical analysis methods applied to occupational exposure databases can help to identify exposure situations at high risk for workers' health and better target preventive interventions and research projects.

  9. Use of the Finnish Information System on Occupational Exposure (FINJEM) in epidemiologic, surveillance, and other applications.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Timo; Uuksulainen, Sanni; Saalo, Anja; Mäkinen, Ilpo; Pukkala, Eero

    2014-04-01

    This paper reviews the use of the Finnish Information System on Occupational Exposure (Finnish job-exposure matrix, FINJEM) in different applications in Finland and other countries. We describe and discuss studies on FINJEM and studies utilizing FINJEM in regard to the validity of exposure estimates, occupational epidemiology, hazard surveillance and prevention, the assessment of health risks and the burden of disease, the assessment of exposure trends and future hazards, and the construction of job-exposure matrices (JEMs) in countries other than Finland. FINJEM can be used as an exposure assessment tool in occupational epidemiology, particularly in large register-based studies. It also provides information for hazard surveillance at the national level. It is able to identify occupations with high average exposures to chemical agents and can therefore serve the priority setting of prevention. However, it has only limited use at the workplace level due to the variability of exposure between workplaces. The national estimates of exposure and their temporal trends may contribute to the assessment of both the recent and future burden of work-related health outcomes. FINJEM has also proved to be useful in the construction of other national JEMs, for example in the Nordic Occupational Cancer study in the Nordic countries. FINJEM is a quantitative JEM, which can serve many purposes and its comprehensive documentation also makes it potentially useful in countries other than Finland.

  10. Urea formaldehyde foam: a dangerous insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Keough, C.

    1980-12-01

    Insulating a home with urea formaldehyde foam can lead to severe health problems due to poisoning from formaldehyde gas. Respiratory problems, allergies, memory loss, and mental problems can result from exposure to foam insulation fumes. Research is now under way at the Chemical Industry Inst., Univ. of Washington, and other institutions to learn more about the health effects of formaldehyde foam and to develop possible remedies to these problems. Several states are either banning or controlling the use of this type of home insulation.

  11. Lifelong occupational exposures and hearing loss among elderly Latino Americans aged 65–75 years

    PubMed Central

    Hong, OiSaeng; Chin, Dal Lae; Kerr, Madeleine J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between occupational exposures and hearing among elderly Latino Americans. Design A descriptive, correlational design used for this secondary analysis with the data from the Sacramento Area Latino Study of Aging (SALSA). Study sample A total of 547 older adults were included. Results A majority of participants (58%) reported occupational exposures to loud noise and/or ototoxic chemicals. About 65% and over 90% showed hearing loss at low and high frequencies, respectively. Participants with occupational exposure to loud noise and/or ototoxic chemicals were, significantly, two times more likely to have hearing loss at high frequencies compared to those without exposure (OR = 2.29; 95% CI: 1.17 – 4.51, p = .016), after controlling for other risk factors of hearing loss such as age, gender, household income, current smoking, and diabetes. However, lifelong occupational exposure was not significantly associated with hearing loss at low frequencies (OR = 1.43; 95% CI: 0.94 – 2.18, p = .094). Conclusion Lifelong occupational exposure to loud noise and/or ototoxic chemicals was significantly associated with hearing loss among elderly Latino Americans. Healthy work life through protection from harmful auditory effects of occupational exposures to noise and chemicals will have a positive impact on better hearing in later life. PMID:25549170

  12. Air formaldehyde and solvent concentrations during surface coating with acid-curing lacquers and paints in the woodworking and furniture industry.

    PubMed

    Thorud, Syvert; Gjolstad, Merete; Ellingsen, Dag G; Molander, Paal

    2005-06-01

    An investigation of contemporary exposure to formaldehyde and organic solvents has been carried out during surface coating with acid-curing lacquers and paints in the Norwegian woodworking and furniture industry over a period of 3 years. The investigation covered 27 factories of different sizes and with different types of production, and totally 557 parallel formaldehyde and solvent samples were collected. The formaldehyde concentration (geometric mean) was 0.15 ppm (range 0.01-1.48 ppm) with about 10% of the samples exceeding the Norwegian occupational exposure limit of 0.5 ppm. The solvent concentration as additive effect (geometric mean) was 0.13 (range 0.0004-5.08) and about 5% of the samples exceeded the Norwegian occupational exposure limit. The most frequently occurring solvents from acid-curing lacquers were n-butyl acetate, ethanol, ethyl acetate and 1-butanol, which were found in 88-98% of the samples. Toluene, n-butyl acetate and 1-butanol were the only solvents with maximum concentrations exceeding their respective occupational exposure limits. Curtain painting machine operators were exposed to the highest concentrations of both formaldehyde (geometric mean 0.51 ppm, range 0.08-1.48 ppm) and organic solvents (additive effect, geometric mean 1.18, range 0.02-5.08). Other painting application work tasks such as automatic and manual spray-painting, manual painting and dip painting, showed on average considerably lower concentrations of both formaldehyde (geometric means 0.07-0.16 ppm) and organic solvents (additive effect, geometric mean 0.02-0.18). Non-painting work tasks also displayed moderate concentrations of formaldehyde (geometric means 0.11-0.17 ppm) and organic solvents (additive effect, geometric mean 0.04-0.07).

  13. 29 CFR 1915.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 1915.1450 Section 1915.1450 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... chemicals in laboratories. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.1450 - Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories. 1915.1450 Section 1915.1450 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... chemicals in laboratories. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are...

  15. Attributable fraction of work accidents related to occupational noise exposure in a Southeastern city of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Adriano; Cordeiro, Ricardo

    2007-07-01

    Noise is the most frequent type of occupational exposure and can lead to both auditory and extra-auditory dysfunction as well as increasing the risk of work accidents. The purpose of this study was to estimate the attributable fraction of work accidents related to occupational noise exposure in a medium-sized city in Southeast Brazil. In this hospital-based case-control study, including 600 cases and 822 controls, the odds ratio of work accidents (controlled for several covariables) was obtained classifying occupational noise exposure into four levels and determining the prevalence at each level. Based on these data, the calculated attributable fraction was 0.3041 (95%CI: 0.2341-0.3676), i.e., 30% of work accidents in the study area were statistically associated with occupational noise exposure. The authors discuss the causes of this association and the implications for the prevention of work accidents.

  16. An epidemiologic investigation of occupation, age, and exposure in general aviation accidents.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-04-01

    This study involved a census of 4,491 general aviation accident-involved airmen records for the year 1974 to obtain relevant occupation, age, exposure, and other epidemiologic profile information of a descriptive nature. Population comparison data fo...

  17. USE OF PHARMACOKINETIC MODELS TO ASSESS OCCUPATIONAL AND RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary biomarker measurements were analyzed using a dynamic pharmacokinetic model. The dynamic model provided the structure to link spot urine samples with corresponding exposure and absorbed dose. Data from both occupational and residential studies were analyzed. In the Agri...

  18. Reconstructing past occupational exposures: how reliable are women's reports of their partner's occupation?

    PubMed

    Tagiyeva, Nara; Semple, Sean; Devereux, Graham; Sherriff, Andrea; Henderson, John; Elias, Peter; Ayres, Jon G

    2011-06-01

    Most of the evidence on agreement between self- and proxy-reported occupational data comes from interview-based studies. The authors aimed to examine agreement between women's reports of their partner's occupation and their partner's own description using questionnaire-based data collected as a part of the prospective, population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Information on present occupation was self-reported by women's partners and proxy-reported by women through questionnaires administered at 8 and 21 months after the birth of a child. Job titles were coded to the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC2000) using software developed by the University of Warwick (Computer-Assisted Structured Coding Tool). The accuracy of proxy-report was expressed as percentage agreement and kappa coefficients for four-, three- and two-digit SOC2000 codes obtained in automatic and semiautomatic (manually improved) coding modes. Data from 6016 couples at 8 months and 5232 couples at 21 months postnatally were included in the analyses. The agreement between men's self-reported occupation and women's report of their partner's occupation in fully automatic coding mode at four-, three- and two-digit code level was 65%, 71% and 77% at 8 months and 68%, 73% and 76% at 21 months. The accuracy of agreement was slightly improved by semiautomatic coding of occupations: 73%/73%, 78%/77% and 83%/80% at 8/21 months respectively. While this suggests that women's description of their partners' occupation can be used as a valuable tool in epidemiological research where data from partners are not available, this study revealed no agreement between these young women and their partners at the two-digit level of SOC2000 coding in approximately one in five cases. Proxy reporting of occupation introduces a statistically significant degree of error in classification. The effects of occupational misclassification by proxy reporting in retrospective occupational epidemiological

  19. Dose-time-response association between occupational asbestos exposure and pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Lacourt, Aude; Lévêque, Emilie; Guichard, Elie; Gilg Soit Ilg, Anabelle; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Leffondré, Karen

    2017-09-01

    Early occupational exposure to asbestos has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of pleural mesothelioma (PM), which suggests that the timing of exposure might play a role in the dose-response relationship. However, none studies has evaluated the relative impact of increasing the annual intensity of occupational exposure to asbestos at each time of the whole exposure history. Yet such evaluation would allow the comparison of the risks of PM associated with different longitudinal profiles of occupational exposure to asbestos. Our objective was to estimate the time-dependent relative impact of asbestos exposure intensity over the whole occupational history and to compare the resulting estimated risks of PM associated with different profiles of exposure, using data from a large French case-control study. This study included 1196 male cases recruited in 1987-2006 and 2369 matched controls on birth year. Occupational exposure to asbestos was assessed using a job exposure matrix and represented in logistic regression models using a flexible weighted cumulative index of exposure. Due to much stronger weights of early doses of asbestos exposure, subjects who accumulated 20 fibres/mL over their entire job history with high doses during the first years and low doses thereafter were at higher risk of PM than those who accumulated most of the doses later (OR=2.37 (95% CI 2.01 to 2.87)). This study provides new insights on the dose-time-response relationship between occupational asbestos and PM and illustrates the importance of considering timing of exposure in its association with cancer risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Effect of occupational exposures on lung cancer susceptibility: a study of gene-environment interaction analysis.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Jyoti; Sartori, Samantha; Brennan, Paul; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Świątkowska, Beata; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabianova, Eleonora; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Gaborieau, Valerie; Stücker, Isabelle; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Boffetta, Paolo

    2015-03-01

    Occupational exposures are known risk factors for lung cancer. Role of genetically determined host factors in occupational exposure-related lung cancer is unclear. We used genome-wide association (GWA) data from a case-control study conducted in 6 European countries from 1998 to 2002 to identify gene-occupation interactions and related pathways for lung cancer risk. GWA analysis was performed for each exposure using logistic regression and interaction term for genotypes, and exposure was included in this model. Both SNP-based and gene-based interaction P values were calculated. Pathway analysis was performed using three complementary methods, and analyses were adjusted for multiple comparisons. We analyzed 312,605 SNPs and occupational exposure to 70 agents from 1,802 lung cancer cases and 1,725 cancer-free controls. Mean age of study participants was 60.1 ± 9.1 years and 75% were male. Largest number of significant associations (P ≤ 1 × 10(-5)) at SNP level was demonstrated for nickel, brick dust, concrete dust, and cement dust, and for brick dust and cement dust at the gene-level (P ≤ 1 × 10(-4)). Approximately 14 occupational exposures showed significant gene-occupation interactions with pathways related to response to environmental information processing via signal transduction (P < 0.001 and FDR < 0.05). Other pathways that showed significant enrichment were related to immune processes and xenobiotic metabolism. Our findings suggest that pathways related to signal transduction, immune process, and xenobiotic metabolism may be involved in occupational exposure-related lung carcinogenesis. Our study exemplifies an integrative approach using pathway-based analysis to demonstrate the role of genetic variants in occupational exposure-related lung cancer susceptibility. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(3); 570-9. ©2015 AACR. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Prevalence of tinnitus in elderly individuals with and without history of occupational noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Melo, Juliana Jandre; Meneses, Caroline Luiz; Marchiori, Luciana Lozza de Moraes

    2012-04-01

     The various metabolic and circulatory alterations that are related to noise exposure may cause the onset of several symptoms, including tinnitus.  The purpose of the study was to assess the prevalence of tinnitus complaints in elderly individuals with and without history of occupational noise exposure.  This prospective study was conducted in a sample population consisting of 502 individuals aged over 60 years, by anamnesis and audiological evaluation. The variables that were studied were the frequency of tinnitus and the history of occupational noise. Logistic regression was used to control for potential confusion or modifications caused by the effects of the other variables on the associations of interest.  Tinnitus was reported in 50% of the cases, with tinnitus reported in 40% of the elderly individuals with history of occupational noise exposure, and in 43% of controls (elderly individuals without history of occupational noise exposure). A high frequency of tinnitus was detected in the population under investigation, but there were no statistically significant associations between the presence of tinnitus and history of occupational noise exposure.  The results of this study may have occurred due to other factors such as the age of the individuals without history of occupational noise exposure.

  2. Mass, surface area and number metrics in diesel occupational exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Paulsen, Dwane; Watts, Winthrop; Kittelson, David

    2005-07-01

    While diesel aerosol exposure assessment has traditionally been based on the mass concentration metric, recent studies have suggested that particle number and surface area concentrations may be more health-relevant. In this study, we evaluated the exposures of three occupational groups-bus drivers, parking garage attendants, and bus mechanics-using the mass concentration of elemental carbon (EC) as well as surface area and number concentrations. These occupational groups are exposed to mixtures of diesel and gasoline exhaust on a regular basis in various ratios. The three groups had significantly different exposures to workshift TWA EC with the highest levels observed in the bus garage mechanics and the lowest levels in the parking ramp booth attendants. In terms of surface area, parking ramp attendants had significantly greater exposures than bus garage mechanics, who in turn had significantly greater exposures than bus drivers. In terms of number concentrations, the exposures of garage mechanics exceeded those of ramp booth attendants by a factor of 5-6. Depending on the exposure metric chosen, the three occupational groups had quite different exposure rankings. This illustrates the importance of the choice of exposure metric in epidemiological studies. If these three occupational groups were part of an epidemiological study, depending on the metric used, they may or may not be part of the same similarly exposed group (SEG). The exposure rankings (e.g., low, medium, or high) of the three groups also changes with the metric used. If the incorrect metric is used, significant misclassification errors may occur.

  3. Surveillance of occupational noise exposures using OSHA's Integrated Management Information System.

    PubMed

    Middendorf, Paul J

    2004-11-01

    Exposure to noise has long been known to cause hearing loss, and is an ubiquitous problem in workplaces. Occupational noise exposures for industries stored in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) can be used to identify temporal and industrial trends of noise exposure to anticipate changes in rates of hearing loss. The noise records in OSHA's IMIS database for 1979-1999 were extracted by major industry division and measurement criteria. The noise exposures were summarized by year, industry, and employment size. The majority of records are from Manufacturing and Services. Exposures in Manufacturing and Services have decreased during the period, except that PEL exposures measured by federal enforcement increased from 1995 to 1999. Noise exposures in manufacturing have been reduced since the late 1970s, except those documented by federal enforcement. Noise exposure data outside manufacturing is not well represented in IMIS. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Occupational exposures and health outcomes among Latina hotel cleaners.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yu-Chin Jerrie; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Hatzudis, Kiki; Sönmez, Sevil

    2014-01-01

    The poor working conditions of Latina hotel cleaners render them particularly vulnerable to elevated occupational hazards that lead to adverse health outcomes. This article presents a comprehensive review of occupational risks (including physical, chemical, biological, and psychosocial risk factors) and health outcomes (including musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory diseases, dermatological diseases and allergies, and psychological disorders) for Latina hotel cleaners, within their unique sociocultural contexts. Preventive interventions for improving Latina hotel cleaners' work and health conditions are recommended.

  5. 29 CFR 1926.1148 - Formaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1148 Formaldehyde. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to those set...

  6. Occupational exposure limits for carcinogens--variant approaches by different countries

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.A.

    1989-09-01

    The differences in treatment of occupational exposure limits for carcinogens by 24 countries is described along with a discussion of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLV) treatment, the similar treatment of the new Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard, and the treatment by provinces of Canada. The unique listing by the Federal Republic of Germany of so-called technical guiding concentrations of a group of carcinogens is discussed with the note that Austria used this same system. Publications on justification for establishing occupational exposure limits for certain carcinogens are discussed also.

  7. Occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline emissions and lung cancer in Canadian men.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Sahni, Vanita; Johnson, Kenneth C

    2011-07-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies diesel exhaust as a probable human carcinogen; this decision is based largely from lung cancer evidence. Gasoline exhaust is classified as a possible carcinogen. Epidemiological studies are needed that improve upon some of the limitations of previous research with respect to the characterization of exposure, and the control for the potential confounding influence of smoking and other occupational exposures. Our objective was to investigate associations between occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions and lung cancer. We used a case-control study design that involved men 40 years of age and older at the time of interview. Analyses are based on 1681 incident cases of lung cancer and 2,053 population controls. A self-reported questionnaire elicited a lifetime occupational history, including general tasks, and information on other potential risk factors. Occupational exposures to diesel and gasoline emissions, crystalline silica, and asbestos were assigned to each job held by study subjects by industrial hygienists who were blind to case-control status. Exposure metrics for diesel and gasoline emissions that were modeled included: ever exposure, cumulative exposure, and concentration of exposure. We found a dose-response relationship between cumulative occupational exposure to diesel engine emissions and lung cancer. This association was more pronounced for the squamous and large cell subtypes with adjusted odds ratios across the three increasing tertiles of cumulative lifetime exposure relative to those with no exposure of 0.99, 1.25, and 1.32 (p=0.04) for squamous cell carcinoma, and 1.06, 1.19, 1.68 (p=0.02) for large cell carcinoma. While the association with cumulative exposure to gasoline was weakly positive, it was not statistically significant. Our findings suggest that exposure to diesel engine emissions increases the risk of lung cancer particularly for squamous and large cell

  8. Cancer risk in nuclear workers occupationally exposed to uranium-emphasis on internal exposure.

    PubMed

    Canu, Irina Guseva; Ellis, Elizabeth Dupree; Tirmarche, Margot

    2008-01-01

    Workers involved in the nuclear fuel cycle have a potential for internal exposure to uranium. The present review of epidemiological studies of these workers aims to elucidate the relationship between occupational internal uranium exposure and cancer risk. Eighteen cohort and 5 nested case-control studies published since 1980 are reviewed. Workers occupationally exposed to uranium appear to be at increased risk of mortality from neoplasms of the lung, larynx, and lymphatic and haematopoietic tissue. Currently available evidence for a positive association between internal exposure to uranium and the risk of cancer is limited. The common weaknesses in reviewed studies include low statistical power and inaccurate assessment of internal exposure to uranium. Further investigations should focus on precise assessment of occupational exposure and address the issue of potential confounders.

  9. Contribution of job-exposure matrices for exposure assessment in occupational safety and health monitoring systems: application from the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network.

    PubMed

    Florentin, Arnaud; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Paris, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    To detect new hazards ("signals"), occupational health monitoring systems mostly rest on the description of exposures in the jobs held and on reports by medical doctors; these are subject to declarative bias. Our study aims to assess whether job-exposure matrices (JEMs) could be useful tools for signal detection by improving exposure reporting. Using the French national occupational disease surveillance and prevention network (RNV3P) data from 2001 to 2011, we explored the associations between disease and exposure prevalence for 3 well-known pathology/exposure couples and for one debatable couple. We compared the associations measured when using physicians' reports or applying the JEMs, respectively, for these selected diseases and across non-selected RNV3P population or for cases with musculoskeletal disorders, used as two reference groups; the ratio of exposure prevalences according to the two sources of information were computed for each disease category. Our population contained 58,188 subjects referred with pathologies related to work. Mean age at diagnosis was 45.8 years (95% CI 45.7; 45.9), and 57.2% were men. For experts, exposure ratios increase with knowledge on exposure causality. As expected, JEMs retrieved more exposed cases than experts (exposure ratios between 12 and 194), except for the couple silica/silicosis, but not for the MSD control group (ratio between 0.2 and 0.8). JEMs enhanced the number of exposures possibly linked with some conditions, compared to experts' assessment, relative to the whole database or to a reference group; they are less likely to suffer from declarative bias than reports by occupational health professionals.

  10. Derivation of an occupational exposure level for manganese in welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Lisa A; Kerper, Laura E; Goodman, Julie E

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of manganese (Mn) in occupational settings is known to lead to adverse neurological effects. Since Mn is an essential nutrient, there are mechanisms that maintain its homeostatic control in the body, and there is some level of Mn in air that does not perturb Mn homeostasis. However, the Mn exposure concentrations at which no adverse effects are expected in occupational settings vary considerably across regulatory agencies. We set out to derive a Mn Occupational Exposure Level (OEL) for welders based on a review of studies that evaluated Mn exposure concentrations from welding fumes and: (1) neurological effects in welders; (2) levels of Mn in the brains of welders (via pallidal index [PI] estimated from magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]); (3) other biomarkers of Mn exposure in welders (i.e., blood and urine); and (4) Mn brain concentrations, PI, and corresponding neurological effects in non-human primates. Our analysis suggests uncertainty in quantifying dose-response associations for Mn from many of the occupational welding studies. The few welding studies that adequately estimate exposure suggest a possible OEL of 100-140μg/m 3 for respirable Mn. This range is consistent with other epidemiology studies, studies of biomarkers of Mn exposure in welders, and with studies in non-human primates, though future studies could provide a stronger basis for deriving a Mn occupational guideline for welders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Estimated prevalence of exposure to occupational carcinogens in Australia (2011-2012).

    PubMed

    Carey, Renee N; Driscoll, Timothy R; Peters, Susan; Glass, Deborah C; Reid, Alison; Benke, Geza; Fritschi, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Although past studies of workplace exposures have contributed greatly to our understanding of carcinogens, significant knowledge gaps still exist with regard to the actual extent of exposure among current workers, with no routinely collected population-based data being available in most countries. This study, the Australian Work Exposures Study (AWES), aimed to investigate the current prevalence of occupational exposure to carcinogens. A random sample of men and women aged between 18 and 65, who were currently in paid employment, were invited to participate in a telephone interview collecting information about their current job and various demographic factors. Interviews were conducted using a web-based application (OccIDEAS). OccIDEAS uses the expert exposure method in which participants are asked about their job tasks and predefined algorithms are used to automatically assign exposures. Responses were obtained from 5023 eligible Australian residents, resulting in an overall response rate of 53%. 1879 respondents (37.6%) were assessed as being exposed to at least one occupational carcinogen in their current job. Extrapolation of these figures to the Australian working population suggested 3.6 million (40.3%) current workers could be exposed to carcinogens in their workplace. Exposure prevalence was highest among farmers, drivers, miners and transport workers, as well as men and those residing in regional areas. This study demonstrates a practical, web-based approach to collecting population information on occupational exposure to carcinogens and documents the high prevalence of current exposure to occupational carcinogens in the general population.

  12. Occupational exposure and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Alif, Sheikh M; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Bowatte, Gayan; Karahalios, Amalia; Benke, Geza; Dennekamp, Martine; Mehta, Amar J; Miedinger, David; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Matheson, Melanie C

    2016-08-01

    Due to contradictory literature we have performed a systematic review and meta-analyse of population-based studies that have used Job Exposure Matrices to assess occupational exposure and risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Two researchers independently searched databases for published articles using predefined inclusion criteria. Study quality was assessed, and results pooled for COPD and chronic bronchitis for exposure to biological dust, mineral dust, and gases/fumes using a fixed and random effect model. Five studies met predetermined inclusion criteria. The meta-analysis showed low exposure to mineral dust, and high exposure to gases/fumes were associated with an increased risk of COPD. We also found significantly increased the risk of chronic bronchitis for low and high exposure to biological dust and mineral dust. Expert commentary: The relationship between occupational exposure assessed by the JEM and the risk of COPD and chronic bronchitis shows significant association with occupational exposure. However, the heterogeneity of the meta-analyses suggests more wide population-based studies with older age groups and longitudinal phenotype assessment of COPD to clarify the role of occupational exposure to COPD risk.

  13. Exploring lifetime occupational exposure and SLE flare: a patient-focussed pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Squance, Marline L; Guest, Maya; Reeves, Glenn; Attia, John; Bridgman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Environmental effectors, such as ultraviolet radiation exposure, infection and stress, have been established as having a role in exacerbating lupus symptoms. However, unpredictable patterns of flare events still remain a mystery. Occupational effectors have also been suggested as having a contributing role; however, they are not widely researched. In this paper we report a pilot study designed to generate focus areas for future research regarding occupational exposures and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods The study explored potential links between exposures and the occurrence of patient-reported flare events in 80 Australian women with SLE (American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria classified). Specifically, the study assessed the hypothesis that occupational exposure is associated with significant changes in the likelihood of lupus flares. Lifetime employment history was analysed with the Finnish Job Exposure Matrix (FINJEM), 40 different semiquantified exposure class estimates for a wide number of occupations based on probability of exposure (p≥5%=exposed) were analysed with the construction of negative binomial regression models to test relationships between occupational agents and flare days. A backward stepwise elimination was used to generate a parsimonious model. Results Significant associations were noted for exposure classes of manual handling burden, (p=0.02, incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.01), Iron (p=0.00, IRR 1.37), wood dust (p=0.00, IRR 3.34) and asbestos (p=0.03, IRR 2.48). Conclusion Exposure assessment results indicated that occupations, such as nursing, with a high manual handling burden, posed increased risk to patients with SLE, however, the greatest risk was associated with wood dust and iron exposure with teachers and specialist labourers. PMID:25379190

  14. Occupational exposures and Parkinson's disease mortality in a prospective Dutch cohort.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Maartje; Koeman, Tom; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kromhout, Hans; Schouten, Leo J; Peters, Susan; Huss, Anke; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the association between six occupational exposures (ie, pesticides, solvents, metals, diesel motor emissions (DME), extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and electric shocks) and Parkinson's disease (PD) mortality in a large population-based prospective cohort study. The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer enrolled 58,279 men and 62,573 women aged 55-69 years in 1986. Participants were followed up for cause-specific mortality over 17.3 years, until December 2003, resulting in 402 male and 207 female PD deaths. Following a case-cohort design, a subcohort of 5,000 participants was randomly sampled from the complete cohort. Information on occupational history and potential confounders was collected at baseline. Job-exposure matrices were applied to assign occupational exposures. Associations with PD mortality were evaluated using Cox regression. Among men, elevated HRs were observed for exposure to pesticides (eg, ever high exposed, HR 1.27, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.88) and ever high exposed to ELF-MF (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.36). No association with exposure duration or trend in cumulative exposure was observed for any of the occupational exposures. Results among women were unstable due to small numbers of high-exposed women. Associations with PD mortality were observed for occupational exposure to pesticides and ELF-MF. However, the weight given to these findings is limited by the absence of a monotonic trend with either duration or cumulative exposure. No associations were found between PD mortality and occupational exposure to solvents, metals, DME or electric shocks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Effect of Occupational Exposure on A(H1N1)pdm09 Infection and Hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Jesús; Godoy, Pere; Soldevila, Núria; Castilla, Jesús; González-Candelas, Fernando; Mayoral, Jose M; Astray, Jenaro; García, Susana; Martín, Vicente; Tamames, Sonia; Delgado, Miguel; García, Ángela Domínguez

    2016-10-01

    To analyze relationships between occupational exposure and influenza infection and hospitalization during the 2009-2010 pandemic wave and the 2010-2011 influenza seasonal epidemic in Spain. Occupations were classified as high, medium, or low risk of influenza exposure. To assess the risk of infection, 588 outpatient cases of influenza confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) were compared with 588 outpatients without influenza symptoms. To assess the risk of hospitalization, 337 outpatient influenza cases were compared with 337 inpatient influenza cases. The high risk of occupational exposure group was composed only of health care workers. After adjustment for age, sex, vaccination status, and predictive variables of influenza infection, patients with a high risk of occupational exposure had an aOR of 2.14 (95%CI: 1.25-3.66) of being an outpatient influenza case and an aOR of 0.43 (95%CI: 0.20-0.95) of being an inpatient influenza case, compared with those with a low risk. A high risk of occupational exposure is a risk factor for influenza infection but not for hospitalization. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  16. Testicular cancer in young men and parental occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Kardaun, J W; Hayes, R B; Pottern, L M; Brown, L M; Hoover, R N

    1991-01-01

    To investigate whether parental occupation, especially during the 12 month period before birth, could be responsible for elevated rates of testicular cancer in young men, we used data from a case-control study of 223 cases and 212 controls conducted in the Washington, DC area. For all histologic types of testicular cancer combined, no significant associations were found for specific occupations, nor for the broad occupational categories of professional, other white collar, or blue collar workers. However, for cases with seminomas, excess risks were seen for those with parents employed in the following occupations: mothers in health-related occupations, O.R. = 4.6 (1.1-19.1), and fathers working in automobile service stations, O.R. = 4.0 (0.6-24.5), manufacturing industries, O.R. = 2.2 (1.0-4.2), and aircraft production and maintenance, O.R. = 5.3 (0.7-24.1). Although these findings for seminoma are intriguing, they do not explain the increase of testicular cancer in young men.

  17. Factsheet -- EPA’s Rule to Implement the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products Act

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This factsheet explains EPA's final rule to implement the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products Act and reduce exposure to formaldehyde vapors from certain wood products produced domestically or imported into the United States.

  18. Exposure assessment in different occupational groups at a hospital using Quick Exposure Check (QEC) - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Pernilla; Björklund, Martin; Wahlström, Jens

    2012-01-01

    In order to test the feasibility and sensitivity of the ergonomic exposure assessment tool Quick Exposure Check (QEC), a pilot-study was conducted. The aim was to test QEC in different occupational groups to compare the exposure in the most common work task with the exposure in the work task perceived as the most strenuous for the neck/shoulder region, and to test intra-observer reliability. One experienced ergonomist observed 23 workers. The mean observation time was 45 minutes, waiting time and time for complementary questions included. The exposure scores varied between the different occupational groups as well as between workers within the occupational groups. Eighteen workers rated their most common work task as also being the most strenuous for the neck/shoulder region. For the remaining five workers, the mean exposure score were higher both for the neck and shoulder/arm in the most common work task. Intra-observer reliability shows agreement in 86% of the exposure interactions in the neck and in 71% in the shoulder/arm. QEC seems to fulfill the expectations of being a quick, sensible and practical exposure assessment tool that covers physical risk factors in the neck, upper extremities and low back.

  19. Cumulative occupational shoulder exposures and surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome: a nationwide Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dalbøge, Annett; Frost, Poul; Andersen, Johan Hviid; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2014-11-01

    The primary aim was to examine exposure-response relationships between cumulative occupational shoulder exposures and surgery for subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS), and to compare sex-specific exposure-response relationships. The secondary aim was to examine the time window of relevant exposures. We conducted a nationwide register study of all persons born in Denmark (1933-1977), who had at least 5 years of full-time employment. In the follow-up period (2003-2008), we identified first-time events of surgery for SIS. Cumulative exposure estimates for a 10-year exposure time window with a 1-year lag time were obtained by linking occupational codes with a job exposure matrix. The exposure estimates were expressed as, for example, arm-elevation-years in accordance with the pack-year concept of tobacco consumption. We used a multivariable logistic regression technique equivalent to discrete survival analysis. The adjusted OR (ORadj) increased to a maximum of 2.1 for arm-elevation-years, repetition-years and force-years, and to 1.5 for hand-arm-vibration-years. Sex-specific exposure-response relationships were similar for men and women, when assessed using a relative risk scale. The ORadj increased gradually with the number of years contributing to the cumulative exposure estimates. The excess fraction was 24%. Cumulative occupational shoulder exposures carried an increase in risk of surgery for SIS with similar exposure-response curves for men and women. The risk of surgery for SIS increased gradually, when the period of exposure assessment was extended. In the general working population, a substantial fraction of all first-time operations for SIS could be related to occupational exposures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Exposure Assessment Tools by Lifestages and Populations - Occupational Workers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ExpoBox is a toolbox for exposure assessors. Its purpose is to provide a compendium of exposure assessment and risk characterization tools that will present comprehensive step-by-step guidance and links to relevant exposure assessment data bases

  1. Occupational exposure to asbestos in the drywall taping process.

    PubMed

    Verma, D K; Middleton, C G

    1980-04-01

    Studies of airborne asbestos fiber concentrations associated with various operations of the drywall taping process have been undertaken in the province of Alberta, Canada. The results show that mixing, sanding and sweeping created high levels of airborne asbestos dust. The measured concentrations were frequently in excess of occupational health standards. Sanding in particular was assessed the most hazardous operation. The results are discussed in light of present and proposed Occupational Health Standards, and in terms of its implications for other workers, household contacts, and consumer's risk. Measures to reduce and control the health hazards associated with the process are described.

  2. [Occupational hazards, DNA damage, and oxidative stress on exposure to waste anesthetic gases].

    PubMed

    Lucio, Lorena M C; Braz, Mariana G; do Nascimento Junior, Paulo; Braz, José Reinaldo C; Braz, Leandro G

    The waste anesthetic gases (WAGs) present in the ambient air of operating rooms (OR), are associated with various occupational hazards. This paper intends to discuss occupational exposure to WAGs and its impact on exposed professionals, with emphasis on genetic damage and oxidative stress. Despite the emergence of safer inhaled anesthetics, occupational exposure to WAGs remains a current concern. Factors related to anesthetic techniques and anesthesia workstations, in addition to the absence of a scavenging system in the OR, contribute to anesthetic pollution. In order to minimize the health risks of exposed professionals, several countries have recommended legislation with maximum exposure limits. However, developing countries still require measurement of WAGs and regulation for occupational exposure to WAGs. WAGs are capable of inducing damage to the genetic material, such as DNA damage assessed using the comet assay and increased frequency of micronucleus in professionals with long-term exposure. Oxidative stress is also associated with WAGs exposure, as it induces lipid peroxidation, oxidative damage in DNA, and impairment of the antioxidant defense system in exposed professionals. The occupational hazards related to WAGs including genotoxicity, mutagenicity and oxidative stress, stand as a public health issue and must be acknowledged by exposed personnel and responsible authorities, especially in developing countries. Thus, it is urgent to stablish maximum safe limits of concentration of WAGs in ORs and educational practices and protocols for exposed professionals. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. A Systematic Review of Occupational Exposure to Particulate Matter and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Shona C.; Cassidy, Adrian; Christiani, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate air pollution is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular disease; however the link between occupational particulate exposures and adverse cardiovascular events is less clear. We conducted a systematic review, including meta-analysis where appropriate, of the epidemiologic association between occupational exposure to particulate matter and cardiovascular disease. Out of 697 articles meeting our initial criteria, 37 articles published from January 1990 to April 2009 (12 mortality; 5 morbidity; and 20 intermediate cardiovascular endpoints) were included. Results suggest a possible association between occupational particulate exposures and ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality as well as non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), and stronger evidence of associations with heart rate variability and systemic inflammation, potential intermediates between occupational PM exposure and IHD. In meta-analysis of mortality studies, a significant increase in IHD was observed (meta-IRR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.06–1.26), however these data were limited by lack of adequate control for smoking and other potential confounders. Further research is needed to better clarify the magnitude of the potential risk of the development and aggravation of IHD associated with short and long-term occupational particulate exposures and to clarify the clinical significance of acute and chronic changes in intermediate cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:20617059

  4. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms: a population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms. 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or to fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposedmore » to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared to unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.« less

  5. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms. A population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.

    1987-08-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in 6 cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms; 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalences of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed tomore » dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared with unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR = 1.53, 95% Cl = 1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory symptoms and disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.« less

  6. Occupational Electromagnetic Field Exposures Associated with Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Guangdi; Pan, Yifeng; Chen, Zexin; Jin, Wen; Sun, Chuan; Chen, Chunjing; Dong, Xuanjun; Chen, Kun; Xu, Zhengping; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phone and other machineries concerns half the world’s population and raises the problem of their impact on human health. The present study aims to explore the effects of electromagnetic field exposures on sleep quality and sleep duration among workers from electric power plant. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an electric power plant of Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 854 participants were included in the final analysis. The detailed information of participants was obtained by trained investigators using a structured questionnaire, which including socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle variables, sleep variables and electromagnetic exposures. Physical examination and venous blood collection were also carried out for every study subject. Results After grouping daily occupational electromagnetic exposure into three categories, subjects with long daily exposure time had a significantly higher risk of poor sleep quality in comparison to those with short daily exposure time. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.68 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.39) and 1.57 (95%CI: 1.10, 2.24) across tertiles. Additionally, among the subjects with long-term occupational exposure, the longer daily occupational exposure time apparently increased the risk of poor sleep quality (OR (95%CI): 2.12 (1.23∼3.66) in the second tertile; 1.83 (1.07∼3.15) in the third tertile). There was no significant association of long-term occupational exposure duration, monthly electric fee or years of mobile-phone use with sleep quality or sleep duration. Conclusions The findings showed that daily occupational EMF exposure was positively associated with poor sleep quality. It implies EMF exposure may damage human sleep quality rather than sleep duration. PMID:25340654

  7. Skin sensitization quantitative risk assessment for occupational exposure of hairdressers to hair dye ingredients.

    PubMed

    Goebel, Carsten; Diepgen, Thomas L; Blömeke, Brunhilde; Gaspari, Anthony A; Schnuch, Axel; Fuchs, Anne; Schlotmann, Kordula; Krasteva, Maya; Kimber, Ian

    2018-06-01

    Occupational exposure of hairdressers to hair dyes has been associated with the development of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) involving the hands. p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) and toluene-2,5-diamine (PTD) have been implicated as important occupational contact allergens. To conduct a quantitative risk assessment for the induction of contact sensitization to hair dyes in hairdressers, available data from hand rinsing studies following typical occupational exposure conditions to PPD, PTD and resorcinol were assessed. By accounting for wet work, uneven exposure and inter-individual variability for professionals, daily hand exposure concentrations were derived. Secondly, daily hand exposure was compared with the sensitization induction potency of the individual hair dye defined as the No Expected Sensitization Induction Levels (NESIL). For PPD and PTD hairdresser hand exposure levels were 2.7 and 5.9 fold below the individual NESIL. In contrast, hand exposure to resorcinol was 50 fold below the NESIL. Correspondingly, the risk assessment for PPD and PTD indicates that contact sensitization may occur, when skin protection and skin care are not rigorously applied. We conclude that awareness of health risks associated with occupational exposure to hair dyes, and of the importance of adequate protective measures, should be emphasized more fully during hairdresser education and training. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Occupational exposure to solvents, metals and welding fumes and risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    van der Mark, Marianne; Vermeulen, Roel; Nijssen, Peter C G; Mulleners, Wim M; Sas, Antonetta M G; van Laar, Teus; Huss, Anke; Kromhout, Hans

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association between occupational exposure to solvents, metals and/or welding fumes and risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). Data of a hospital based case-control study including 444 PD patients and 876 age and sex matched controls was used. Occupational histories and lifestyle information of cases and controls were collected in a structured telephone interview. Exposures to aromatic solvents, chlorinated solvents and metals were estimated by linking the ALOHA+ job-exposure matrix to the occupational histories. Exposure to welding fumes was estimated using self-reported information on welding activities. No statistically significant associations with any of the studied metal and solvent exposures were found. However, for self-reported welding activities we observed non-statistically significant reduced risk estimates (third tertile cumulative exposure: OR = 0.51 (95% CI: 0.21-1.24)). The results of our study did not provide support for an increased chance on developing PD after occupational exposure to aromatic solvents, chlorinated solvents or exposure to metals. The results showed reduced risk estimates for welding, which is in line with previous research, but no clear explanation for these findings is available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Occupational exposures and changes in pulmonary function over 13 years among residents of Cracow.

    PubMed Central

    Krzyzanowski, M; Jedrychowski, W; Wysocki, M

    1988-01-01

    In a 13 year follow up study conducted among residents of Cracow the relation of annual rate of decline in FEV1 to occupational exposures was analysed. The study group consisted of 696 men and 983 women aged 19-60 at the start of the study in 1968. They were interviewed three times, in 1968, 1973, and 1981, and decline in FEV1 was estimated for each subject from spirometric measurements in 1968 and 1981. The interviews provided data on exposure at the workplace to dusts, variable temperature, and chemicals or irritating gases, which established duration and time of the exposure. The FEV1 mean level, height, and smoking habits were considered as confounders in the analysis. The study indicated that the most pronounced influence on decline in FEV1 was prolonged and continuing exposure to variable temperature. The effects of dusts, independent of exposure to variable temperature, were much smaller but analysis in occupational subgroups suggest that dust may be important in some, such as workers in the building materials and pottery industry. Relatively immediate effects of exposure to chemicals were detected independently of effects of other exposures. The estimated effects of occupational exposures were of a similar magnitude as those of tobacco smoking though related to much smaller groups. Both effects were additive in accelerating decline in lung function. These results, obtained in the general population and less biased by selection than studies performed in industrial settings, show the importance of occupational factors in the natural history of limitation of airflow. PMID:3203079

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde (Interagency ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On June 2, 2010, the Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. In the new IRIS process, introduced by the EPA Administrator, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices will be made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments and the interagency science consultation draft of the IRIS Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde and the charge to external peer reviewers are posted on this site. The draft Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde-Inhalation Assessment provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic inhalation exposure to formaldehyde.

  11. Working conditions and occupational risk exposure in employees driving for work.

    PubMed

    Fort, Emmanuel; Ndagire, Sheba; Gadegbeku, Blandine; Hours, Martine; Charbotel, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    An analysis of the occupational constraints and exposures to which employees facing road risk at work are subject was performed, with comparison versus non-exposed employees. Objective was to improve knowledge of the characteristics of workers exposed to road risk in France and of the concomitant occupational constraints. The descriptive study was based on data from the 2010 SUMER survey (Medical Monitoring of Occupational Risk Exposure: Surveillance Médicale des Expositions aux Risques professionnels), which included data not only on road risk exposure at work but also on a range of socio-occupational factors and working conditions. The main variable of interest was "driving (car, truck, bus, coach, etc.) on public thoroughfares" for work (during the last week of work). This was a dichotomous "Yes/No" variable, distinguishing employees who drove for work; it also comprised 4-step weekly exposure duration: <2h, 2-10h, 10-20h and ≥20h. 75% of the employees with driving exposure were male. Certain socio-occupational categories were found significantly more frequently: professional drivers (INSEE occupations and socio-occupational categories (PCS) 64), skilled workers (PCS 61), intermediate professions and teaching, health, civil service (functionaries) and assimilated (PCS 46) and company executives (PCS 36). Employees with driving exposure more often worked in small businesses or establishments. Constraints in terms of schedule and work-time were more frequent in employees with driving exposure. Constraints in terms of work rhythm were more frequent in non-exposed employees, with the exception of external demands requiring immediate response. On the Karasek's Job Demand-Control Model, employees with driving exposure less often had low decision latitude. Prevalence of job-strain was also lower, as was prevalence of "iso-strain" (combination of job-strain and social isolation). Employees with driving exposure were less often concerned by hostile behavior and, when

  12. Workshop report: strategies for setting occupational exposure limits for engineered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Steven C; Butala, John H; Carter, Janet M; Elder, Alison; Gordon, Terry; Gray, George; Sayre, Philip G; Schulte, Paul A; Tsai, Candace S; West, Jay

    2014-04-01

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) are important tools for managing worker exposures to chemicals; however, hazard data for many engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are insufficient for deriving OELs by traditional methods. Technical challenges and questions about how best to measure worker exposures to ENMs also pose barriers to implementing OELs. New varieties of ENMs are being developed and introduced into commerce at a rapid pace, further compounding the issue of OEL development for ENMs. A Workshop on Strategies for Setting Occupational Exposure Limits for Engineered Nanomaterials, held in September 2012, provided an opportunity for occupational health experts from various stakeholder groups to discuss possible alternative approaches for setting OELs for ENMs and issues related to their implementation. This report summarizes the workshop proceedings and findings, identifies areas for additional research, and suggests potential avenues for further progress on this important topic. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Will the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Proposed Standards for Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica Reduce Workplace Risk?

    PubMed

    Dudley, Susan E; Morriss, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is developing regulations to amend existing standards for occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica by establishing a new permissible exposure limit as well as a series of ancillary provisions for controlling exposure. This article briefly reviews OSHA's proposed regulatory approach and the statutory authority on which it is based. It then evaluates OSHA's preliminary determination of significant risk and its analysis of the risk reduction achievable by its proposed controls. It recognizes that OSHA faces multiple challenges in devising a regulatory approach that reduces exposures and health risks and meets its statutory goal. However, the greatest challenge to reducing risks associated with silica exposure is not the lack of incentives (for either employers or employees) but rather lack of information, particularly information on the relative toxicity of different forms of silica. The article finds that OSHA's proposed rule would contribute little in the way of new information, particularly since it is largely based on information that is at least a decade old--a significant deficiency, given the rapidly changing conditions observed over the last 45 years. The article concludes with recommendations for alternative approaches that would be more likely to generate information needed to improve worker health outcomes. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Assessing Occupational Exposure to Chemicals in an International Epidemiological Study of Brain Tumours

    PubMed Central

    van Tongeren, Martie

    2013-01-01

    The INTEROCC project is a multi-centre case–control study investigating the risk of developing brain cancer due to occupational chemical and electromagnetic field exposures. To estimate chemical exposures, the Finnish Job Exposure Matrix (FINJEM) was modified to improve its performance in the INTEROCC study and to address some of its limitations, resulting in the development of the INTEROCC JEM. An international team of occupational hygienists developed a crosswalk between the Finnish occupational codes used in FINJEM and the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1968 (ISCO68). For ISCO68 codes linked to multiple Finnish codes, weighted means of the exposure estimates were calculated. Similarly, multiple ISCO68 codes linked to a single Finnish code with evidence of heterogeneous exposure were refined. One of the key time periods in FINJEM (1960–1984) was split into two periods (1960–1974 and 1975–1984). Benzene exposure estimates in early periods were modified upwards. The internal consistency of hydrocarbon exposures and exposures to engine exhaust fumes was improved. Finally, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and benzo(a)pyrene was modified to include the contribution from second-hand smoke. The crosswalk ensured that the FINJEM exposure estimates could be applied to the INTEROCC study subjects. The modifications generally resulted in an increased prevalence of exposure to chemical agents. This increased prevalence of exposure was not restricted to the lowest categories of cumulative exposure, but was seen across all levels for some agents. Although this work has produced a JEM with important improvements compared to FINJEM, further improvements are possible with the expansion of agents and additional external data. PMID:23467593

  15. Occupational agriculture organic dust exposure and its relationship to asthma and airway inflammation in adults.

    PubMed

    Wunschel, Javen; Poole, Jill A

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have made advances into understanding the complex agriculture work exposure environment in influencing asthma in adults. The objective of this study is to review studies of occupational agricultural exposures including dust, animal, and pesticide exposures with asthma in adult populations. PubMed databases were searched for articles pertaining to farming, agriculture, asthma, occupational asthma, airway inflammation, respiratory disease, lung disease, pesticides, and organic dust. Studies chosen were published in or after 1999 that included adults and asthma and farming/agricultural work or agricultural exposures and airway inflammatory disease measurements. The data remain inconclusive. Several retrospective studies demonstrate agricultural work to be protective against asthma in adults, especially with increased farming exposure over time. In contrast, other studies find increased risk of asthma with farming exposures, especially for the non-atopic adult. Mechanistic and genetic studies have focused on defining the wide variety and abundance of microorganisms within these complex organic dusts that trigger several pattern recognition receptor pathways to modulate the hosts' response. Asthma risk depends on the interplay of genetic factors, gender, atopic predisposition, type of livestock, pesticide exposure, and magnitude and duration of exposure in the adult subject. Longer exposure to occupational farming is associated with decreased asthma risk. However, studies also suggest that agricultural work and multiple types of livestock are independent risk factors for developing asthma. Prospective and longitudinal studies focusing on genetic polymorphisms, objective assessments, and environmental sampling are needed to further delineate the influence of agriculture exposure in the adult worker.

  16. Can lung cancer risk among nickel refinery workers be explained by occupational exposures other than nickel?

    PubMed

    Grimsrud, Tom K; Berge, Steinar R; Haldorsen, Tor; Andersen, Aage

    2005-03-01

    Exposures in nickel refineries represent complex chemical mixtures, but only the effect of nickel has been evaluated quantitatively in epidemiologic studies of nickel workers. For a Norwegian refinery, time- and department-specific exposure estimates were developed for arsenic, sulfuric acid mists, and cobalt in air on the basis of personal measurements and chemical data on raw materials and process intermediates. Exposure to asbestos, as well as employment in high-risk occupations outside the refinery, were assessed. We conducted a case-control study nested in a cohort of refinery workers, with 213 cases (diagnosed 1952-1995) and 525 age-matched controls. We analyzed lung cancer risk, adjusted for smoking, by cumulative exposure and duration of work. There was a substantial association between cumulative exposure to water-soluble nickel and lung cancer risk. Weaker effects were suggested for exposure to arsenic at the refinery and for occupational exposures outside the refinery for 15 years or more. No detectable excess risk was found for refinery exposure to asbestos or sulfuric acid mists, and no dose-related increase in risk was seen from cobalt. Exposure to water-soluble nickel remained the most likely explanation for the excess lung cancer risk in the cohort. Other occupational exposures did not confound the strong dose-related effect of nickel to any appreciable degree.

  17. Occupational case-control studies: I. Collecting information on work histories and work-related exposures.

    PubMed

    Stewart, W F; Stewart, P A

    1994-09-01

    The strength and credibility of evidence from occupational case-control studies largely depend on the validity and precision with which the work history is reported and the exposure is assessed. We discuss the two steps which ultimately lead to an exposure decision. The first step involves the exchange between the respondent and an interviewer. The latter is usually naïve to occupations and workplace exposures and, as such, is limited to asking generic and open-ended questions about the workplace. Often, this type of information is too nonspecific to assess exposure. In the second step, an expert reviews the information reported on each occupation and decides on exposure status without contacting either the interviewer or respondent. Exposure assessment is not, therefore, integrated with data collection and, in fact, is usually not initiated until after all the interviews are completed. As such, the exposure expert does not have an opportunity to resolve questions before making the exposure decision. To improve the quality and specificity of data collected, we have developed over 40 sets of close-ended questions (branch questions) which are specific to defined occupations. These branch questions, incorporated into a computer-assisted telephone interview, are asked if selected occupations or their synonyms are reported. Second, to link the data collection process with the assessment process, we have developed a procedure called SCORE (Subject Corrected Occupational Report) which provides the industrial hygienist with a cost efficient method to ask questions directly of respondents. Shortly after each interview is completed, a computerized version of the work history is reviewed by the industrial hygienist who develops questions when more information is needed. Subsequently, respondents are mailed a form listing their reported work history along with the questions. After two mailings, 73% of participants in a pilot study returned the SCORE form.

  18. Pleural mesothelioma and occupational and non-occupational asbestos exposure: a case-control study with quantitative risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, Daniela; Mirabelli, Dario; Tunesi, Sara; Terracini, Benedetto; Magnani, Corrado

    2016-03-01

    Casale Monferrato (north west Italy) is an area with an exceptionally high incidence of mesothelioma caused by asbestos contamination at work and in the general environment from the asbestos-cement Eternit plant that was operational until 1986. The purpose of this study was to quantify the association between pleural malignant mesothelioma (PMM) and asbestos cumulative exposure using individual assessment of environmental and domestic exposure, as well as of occupational exposure. This population-based case-control study included cases of PMM diagnosed between January 2001 and June 2006 among residents in the Casale Monferrato Local Health Authority. Population controls were randomly sampled, matched by age and sex to cases. Cumulative exposure was estimated to account for the lifelong exposure history. Analyses were conducted using unconditional logistic regression models adjusting for gender, age at diagnosis and type of interview (direct or proxy respondents). 200 PMM cases of 223 eligible cases (89.7%) and 348 (63%) of 552 eligible controls accepted to be interviewed. ORs increased with cumulative exposure index (p<0.0001) from 4.4 (CI 95% 1.7 to 11.3) (<1 f/mL-years) to 62.1 (CI 95% 22.2 to 173.2) (≥10 f/mL-years). Among subjects never occupationally exposed, corresponding ORs were 3.8 (CI 95% 1.3 to 11.1) and 23.3 (CI 95% 2.9 to 186.9) (reference: background level of asbestos exposure). ORs of about 2, statistically significant, were observed for domestic exposure and for living in houses near buildings with large asbestos cement parts. Risk of PMM increased with cumulative asbestos exposure and also in analyses limited to subjects non-occupationally exposed. Our results also provide indication of risk associated with common sources of environmental exposure and are highly relevant for the evaluation of residual risk after the cessation of asbestos industrial use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  19. Occupational exposure to metals and risk of meningioma: a multinational case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Chetrit, Angela; Turner, Michelle C; van Tongeren, Martie; Benke, Geza; Figuerola, Jordi; Fleming, Sarah; Hours, Martine; Kincl, Laurel; Krewski, Daniel; McLean, Dave; Parent, Marie-Elise; Richardson, Lesley; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Schlaefer, Klaus; Blettner, Maria; Schüz, Joachim; Siemiatycki, Jack; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to examine associations between occupational exposure to metals and meningioma risk in the international INTEROCC study. INTEROCC is a seven-country population-based case-control study including 1906 adult meningioma cases and 5565 population controls. Incident cases were recruited between 2000 and 2004. A detailed occupational history was completed and job titles were coded into standard international occupational classifications. Estimates of mean workday exposure to individual metals and to welding fumes were assigned based on a job-exposure-matrix. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using conditional logistic regression. Although more controls than cases were ever exposed to metals (14 vs. 11 %, respectively), cases had higher median cumulative exposure levels. The ORs for ever vs. never exposure to any metal and to individual metals were mostly greater than 1.0, with the strongest association for exposure to iron (OR 1.26, 95 % CI 1.0-1.58). In women, an increased OR of 1.70 (95 % CI 1.0-2.89) was seen for ever vs never exposure to iron (OR in men 1.19, 95 % CI 0.91-1.54), with positive trends in relation with both cumulative and duration of exposure. These results remained after consideration of other occupational metal or chemical co-exposures. In conclusion, an apparent positive association between occupational exposure to iron and meningioma risk was observed, particularly among women. Considering the fact that meningioma is a hormone dependent tumor, the hypothesis that an interaction between iron and estrogen metabolism may be a potential mechanism for a carcinogenic effect of iron should be further investigated.

  20. Feasibility of a cohort study on health risks caused by occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in Germany. Methods A set of criteria was developed to evaluate the feasibility of such a cohort study. The criteria aimed at conditions of exposure and exposure assessment (level, duration, preferably on an individual basis), the possibility to assemble a cohort and the feasibility of ascertaining various disease endpoints. Results Twenty occupational settings with workers potentially exposed to RF-EMF and, in addition, a cohort of amateur radio operators were considered. Based on expert ratings, literature reviews and our set of predefined criteria, three of the cohorts were identified as promising for further evaluation: the personnel (technicians) of medium/short wave broadcasting stations, amateur radio operators, and workers on dielectric heat sealers. After further analyses, the cohort of workers on dielectric heat sealers seems not to be feasible due to the small number of exposed workers available and to the difficulty of assessing exposure (exposure depends heavily on the respective working process and mixture of exposures, e.g. plastic vapours), although exposure was highest in this occupational setting. The advantage of the cohort of amateur radio operators was the large number of persons it includes, while the advantage of the cohort of personnel working at broadcasting stations was the quality of retrospective exposure assessment. However, in the cohort of amateur radio operators the exposure assessment was limited, and the cohort of technicians was hampered by the small number of persons working in this profession. Conclusion The majority of occupational groups exposed to RF-EMF are not practicable for setting up an occupational cohort study due to the small numbers of exposed subjects or due to exposure levels being only marginally higher than those of the general

  1. Effects of Lifetime Occupational Pesticide Exposure on Postural Control Among Farmworkers and Non-Farmworkers.

    PubMed

    Sunwook, Kim; Nussbaum, Maury A; Quandt, Sara A; Laurienti, Paul J; Arcury, Thomas A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess potential chronic effects of pesticide exposure on postural control, by examining postural balance of farmworkers and non-farmworkers diverse self-reported lifetime exposures. Balance was assessed during quiet upright stance under four experimental conditions (2 visual × 2 cognitive difficulty). Significant differences in baseline balance performance (eyes open without cognitive task) between occupational groups were apparent in postural sway complexity. When adding a cognitive task to the eyes open condition, the influence of lifetime exposure on complexity ratios appeared different between occupational groups. Removing visual information revealed a negative association of lifetime exposure with complexity ratios. Farmworkers and non-farmworkers may use different postural control strategies even when controlling for the level of lifetime pesticide exposure. Long-term exposure can affect somatosensory/vestibular sensory systems and the central processing of sensory information for postural control.

  2. Effects of lifetime occupational pesticide exposure on postural control among farmworkers and non-farmworkers

    PubMed Central

    Sunwook, Kim; Nussbaum, Maury A.; Quandt, Sara A.; Laurienti, Paul J.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Assess potential chronic effects of pesticide exposure on postural control, by examining postural balance of farmworkers and non-farmworkers diverse self-reported lifetime exposures. Methods Balance was assessed during quiet upright stance under four experimental conditions (2 visual × 2 cognitive difficulty). Results Significant differences in baseline balance performance (eyes open without cognitive task) between occupational groups were apparent in postural sway complexity. When adding a cognitive task to the eyes open condition, the influence of lifetime exposure on complexity ratios appeared different between occupational groups. Removing visual information revealed a negative association of lifetime exposure with complexity ratios. Conclusions Farmworkers and non-farmworkers may use different postural control strategies even when controlling for the level of lifetime pesticide exposure. Long-term exposure can affect somatosensory/vestibular sensory systems and the central processing of sensory information for postural control. PMID:26849257

  3. Prevalence of occupational exposure to carcinogens among workers of Arabic, Chinese and Vietnamese ancestry in Australia.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Terry; Carey, Renee N; Glass, Deborah C; Peters, Susan; Fritschi, Lin; Reid, Alison

    2015-09-01

    Although job-related diseases result in more deaths per year than job-related injuries, most research concerning ethnic minority workers has concerned accidents and injuries rather than disease-causing exposures such as carcinogens. We conducted a telephone-based cross-sectional survey to estimate the prevalence of occupational exposure to carcinogens among a sample of ethnic minority workers in Australia, and compared their exposure prevalence to that of a sample of the general Australian-born working population ('Australian workers'). One-third of the ethnic minority workers were exposed to at least one carcinogen at work. The likelihood of exposure to carcinogens was not significantly different from that of Australian workers, although the likelihood of exposure to individual carcinogens varied by ethnicity. Knowing the prevalence of exposure to carcinogens in the workplace in different ethnic groups will allow better targeted and informed occupational health and safety measures to be implemented where necessary. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Occupational Exposures Are Associated with Worse Morbidity in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Laura M.; Diette, Gregory B.; Blanc, Paul D.; Putcha, Nirupama; Eisner, Mark D.; Kanner, Richard E.; Belli, Andrew J.; Christenson, Stephanie; Tashkin, Donald P.; Han, MeiLan; Barr, R. Graham

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Links between occupational exposures and morbidity in individuals with established chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) remain unclear. Objectives: To determine the impact of occupational exposures on COPD morbidity. Methods: A job exposure matrix (JEM) determined occupational exposure likelihood based on longest job in current/former smokers (n = 1,075) recruited as part of the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcomes in COPD Study, of whom 721 had established COPD. Bivariate and multivariate linear regression models estimated the association of occupational exposure with COPD, and among those with established disease, the occupational exposure associations with 6-minute-walk distance (6MWD), the Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (mMRC), the COPD Assessment Test (CAT), St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), 12-item Short-Form Physical Component (SF-12), and COPD exacerbations requiring health care utilization, adjusting for demographics, current smoking status, and cumulative pack-years. Measurements and Main Results: An intermediate/high risk of occupational exposure by JEM was found in 38% of participants. In multivariate analysis, those with job exposures had higher odds of COPD (odds ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.04–1.97). Among those with COPD, job exposures were associated with shorter 6MWDs (−26.0 m; P = 0.006); worse scores for mMRC (0.23; P = 0.004), CAT (1.8; P = 0.003), SGRQ (4.5; P = 0.003), and SF-12 Physical (−3.3; P < 0.0001); and greater odds of exacerbation requiring health care utilization (odds ratio, 1.55; P = 0.03). Conclusions: Accounting for smoking, occupational exposure was associated with COPD risk and, for those with established disease, shorter walk distance, greater breathlessness, worse quality of life, and increased exacerbation risk. Clinicians should obtain occupational histories from patients with COPD because work-related exposures may

  5. Chemical exposure in occupational settings and related health risks: a neglected area of research in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Atif; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Fatima, Noreen; Rashid, Audil

    2012-07-01

    In Pakistan a huge number of workers is routinely exposed to various types of chemical contaminants but there is a dearth of information as to the impact of these agents, due to a lack of a routine surveillance system and proper reporting. Prolonged and sometimes acute occupational exposures to varied organic chemicals may result in numerous health related problems. Studies from all over the world have shown adverse health outcomes of chemicals that are commonly used in various occupations. Such chemical exposures are not just confined to the workplace, but the residents surrounding industrial sites also face significant health risks due to indirect chemical exposure. Occupational exposure is a multidimensional risk factor that varies from one occupation to another, and is associated with health decline in workers. Common determinants of workplace hazards include improper, or lack of use of self-protective equipment, active and passive exposure to cigarette smoke as well as the socio-demographic and economic background of workers. There may be more than one cause of occupational stress and psychophysical disturbance among workers such as workload, lower salaries, and lack of social and medical facilities; indeed, their general health is poor. Therefore, in Pakistan, it is particularly important to focus on these issues and set rules and regulations to create occupational hazard awareness among workers, which will promote health safety at work places. If priorities are given to the correct use of self-protective equipment, adopting proper hygiene at the workplace and to avoid smoking, occupational exposures and consequent health risks may be minimized significantly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Occupational Exposure to Electric Shocks and Magnetic Fields and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Heidi; Kheifets, Leeka; Huss, Anke; Peters, Tracy L; Vermeulen, Roel; Ye, Weimin; Fang, Fang; Wiebert, Pernilla; Vergara, Ximena P; Feychting, Maria

    2015-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been consistently related to "electric occupations," but associations with magnetic field levels were generally weaker than those with electrical occupations. Exposure to electric shock has been suggested as a possible explanation. Furthermore, studies were generally based on mortality or prevalence of ALS, and studies often had limited statistical power. Using two electric shock and three magnetic field job-exposure matrices, we evaluated the relationship of occupational magnetic fields, electric shocks, electric occupations, and incident ALS in a large population-based nested case-control study in Sweden. Subanalyses, specified a priori, were performed for subjects by gender and by age (less than and more than 65 years). Overall, we did not observe any associations between occupational magnetic field or electric shock exposure and ALS. For individuals less than 65 years old, high electric shock exposure was associated with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.43). The corresponding result for the age group 65 years or older was OR = 0.92 (95% CI = 0.81, 1.05). Results were similar regardless which job exposure matrices, exposure definitions, or cutpoints were used. For electric occupations, ORs were close to unity, regardless of age. For welders, no association was observed overall, although for welders <65 years the OR was 1.52 (95% CI = 1.05, 2.21). In this very large population-based study based on incident ALS case subjects, we did not confirm previous observations of higher risk of ALS in electrical occupations, and provided only weak support for associations between electric shocks and ALS.

  7. Occupational exposure in the removal and disposal of asbestos-containing materials in Italy.

    PubMed

    Scarselli, Alberto; Corfiati, Marisa; Di Marzio, Davide

    2016-07-01

    A great variety of asbestos-containing materials are present in both residential and work settings because of the widespread use made in the past, and many occupational activities still entail the risk of asbestos exposure in Italy, more than 2 decades after the total national ban, mainly those involved in the removal and disposal of asbestos. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level and extent of asbestos exposure in Italy between the years 1996-2013 in the sector of asbestos abatement. Data were collected from firm registries of asbestos-exposed workers and descriptive statistics were calculated for exposure-related variables. Overall, 15,860 measurements of asbestos exposure were selected from the national database of registries, mostly referring to the construction sector (N = 11,353). Despite the mean exposure levels are low, the air concentration of asbestos fibers measured during these activities may overcome the action level established by the Italian legislation and, in a limited number of cases, can exceed even the occupational limit value. Among occupations at higher risk, there are also garbage collectors and insulation workers. Starting from the analysis of the Italian database of occupational exposure registries, this study outlines the current levels of asbestos exposure in abatement-related sectors, discussing their possible implications for public health policies and surveillance programs.

  8. Occupational exposure to magnetic fields and the risk of brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Coble, Joseph B.; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Stewart, Patricia A.; Blair, Aaron; Bowman, Joseph; Fine, Howard A.; Shapiro, William R.; Selker, Robert G.; Loeffler, Jay S.; Black, Peter M.; Linet, Martha S.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the association between occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (MFs) and the risk of glioma and meningioma. Occupational exposure to MF was assessed for 489 glioma cases, 197 meningioma cases, and 799 controls enrolled in a hospital-based case–control study. Lifetime occupational history questionnaires were administered to all subjects; for 24% of jobs, these were supplemented with job-specific questionnaires, or “job modules,” to obtain information on the use of electrically powered tools or equipment at work. Job-specific quantitative estimates for exposure to MF in milligauss were assigned using a previously published job exposure matrix (JEM) with modification based on the job modules. Jobs were categorized as ≤1.5 mG, >1.5 to <3.0 mG, and ≥3.0 mG. Four exposure metrics were evaluated: (1) maximum exposed job; (2) total years of exposure >1.5 mG; (3) cumulative lifetime exposure; and (4) average lifetime exposure. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression with adjustment for the age, gender, and hospital site. The job modules increased the number of jobs with exposure ≥3.0 mG from 4% to 7% relative to the JEM. No statistically significant elevation in ORs or trends in ORs across exposure categories was observed using four different exposure metrics for the three tumor types analyzed. Occupational exposure to MFs assessed using job modules was not associated with an increase in the risk for glioma, glioblastoma, or meningioma among the subjects evaluated in this study. PMID:19234232

  9. Effect of temperature and humidity on formaldehyde emissions in temporary housing units.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L; Russell, Marion L; Apte, Michael G

    2011-06-01

    The effect of temperature and humidity on formaldehyde emissions from samples collected from temporary housing units (THUs) was studied. The THUs were supplied by the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) to families that lost their homes in Louisiana and Mississippi during the Hurricane Katrina and Rita disasters. On the basis of a previous study, four of the composite wood surface materials that dominated contributions to indoor formaldehyde were selected to analyze the effects of temperature and humidity on the emission factors. Humidity equilibration experiments were carried out on two of the samples to determine how long the samples take to equilibrate with the surrounding environmental conditions. Small chamber experiments were then conducted to measure emission factors for the four surface materials at various temperature and humidity conditions. The samples were analyzed for formaldehyde via high-performance liquid chromatography. The experiments showed that increases in temperature or humidity contributed to an increase in emission factors. A linear regression model was built using the natural log of the percent relative humidity (RH) and inverse of temperature (in K) as independent variables and the natural log of emission factors as the dependent variable. The coefficients for the inverse of temperature and log RH with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all of the samples at the 95% confidence level. This study should assist in retrospectively estimating indoor formaldehyde exposure of occupants of THUs.

  10. Occupational exposure to chemicals and fetal growth: the Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    Snijder, Claudia A.; Roeleveld, Nel; te Velde, Egbert; Steegers, Eric A.P.; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Burdorf, Alex

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Developmental diseases, such as birth defects, growth restriction and preterm delivery, account for >25% of infant mortality and morbidity. Several studies have shown that exposure to chemicals during pregnancy is associated with adverse birth outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify whether occupational exposure to various chemicals might adversely influence intrauterine growth patterns and placental weight. METHODS Associations between maternal occupational exposure to various chemicals and fetal growth were studied in 4680 pregnant women participating in a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards in the Netherlands (2002–2006), the Generation R Study. Mothers who filled out a questionnaire during mid-pregnancy (response: 77% of enrolment) were included if they conducted paid employment during pregnancy and had a spontaneously conceived singleton live born pregnancy (n = 4680). A job exposure matrix was used, linking job titles to expert judgement on exposure to chemicals in the workplace. Fetal growth characteristics were repeatedly measured by ultrasound and were used in combination with measurements at birth. Placental weight was obtained from medical records and hospital registries. Linear regression models for repeated measurements were used to study the associations between maternal occupational exposure to chemicals and intrauterine growth. RESULTS We observed that maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates, alkylphenolic compounds and pesticides adversely influenced several domains of fetal growth (fetal weight, fetal head circumference and fetal length). We found a significant association between pesticide and phthalate exposure with a decreased placental weight. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that maternal occupational exposure to several chemicals is associated with impaired fetal growth during pregnancy and a decreased placental weight. Further studies are needed to

  11. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica and the risk of lung cancer in Canadian men.

    PubMed

    Kachuri, Linda; Villeneuve, Paul J; Parent, Marie-Élise; Johnson, Kenneth C; Harris, Shelley A

    2014-07-01

    Crystalline silica is a recognized carcinogen, but the association with lung cancer at lower levels of exposure has not been well characterized. This study investigated the relationship between occupational silica exposure and lung cancer and the combined effects of cigarette smoking and silica exposure on lung cancer risk. A population-based case-control study was conducted in eight Canadian provinces between 1994 and 1997. Self-reported questionnaires were used to obtain a lifetime occupational history and information on other risk factors. Occupational hygienists assigned silica exposures to each job based on concentration, frequency and reliability. Data from 1681 incident lung cancer cases and 2053 controls were analyzed using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Models included adjustments for cigarette smoking, lifetime residential second-hand smoke and occupational exposure to diesel and gasoline engine emissions. Relative to the unexposed, increasing duration of silica exposure at any concentration was associated with a significant trend in lung cancer risk (OR ≥ 30 years: 1.67, 1.21-2.24; ptrend  = 0.002). The highest tertile of cumulative silica exposure was associated with lung cancer (OR = 1.81, 1.34-2.42; ptrend  = 0.004) relative to the lowest. Men exposed to silica for ≥30 years with ≥40 cigarette pack-years had the highest risk relative to those unexposed with <10 pack-years (OR = 42.53, 23.54-76.83). The joint relationship with smoking was consistent with a multiplicative model. Our findings suggest that occupational exposure to silica is a risk factor for lung cancer, independently from active and passive smoking, as well as from exposure to other lung carcinogens. © 2013 UICC.

  12. 78 FR 56273 - Occupational Exposure to Respirable Crystalline Silica

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... (b) Definitions (c) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) (d) Exposure Assessment (e) Regulated Areas and...) Communication of Respirable Crystalline Silica Hazards to Employees (j) Recordkeeping (k) Dates XVII. References... Maryland) well recognized for its macroeconomic modeling--to run its LIFT (Long-term Interindustry...

  13. Burden of lung cancer attributable to occupational diesel engine exhaust exposure in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joanne; Peters, Cheryl E; Arrandale, Victoria H; Labrèche, France; Ge, Calvin B; McLeod, Christopher B; Song, Chaojie; Lavoué, Jérôme; Davies, Hugh W; Nicol, Anne-Marie; Pahwa, Manisha; Demers, Paul A

    2018-04-28

    To estimate the population attributable fraction (PAF) and number of incident and fatal lung cancers in Canada from occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust (DEE). DEE exposure prevalence and level estimates were used with Canadian Census and Labour Force Survey data to model the exposed population across the risk exposure period (REP, 1961-2001). Relative risks of lung cancer were calculated based on a meta-regression selected from the literature. PAFs were calculated using Levin's equation and applied to the 2011 lung cancer statistics obtained from the Canadian Cancer Registry. We estimated that 2.4% (95% CI 1.6% to 6.6%) of lung cancers in Canada are attributable to occupational DEE exposure, corresponding to approximately 560 (95% CI 380 to 1570) incident and 460 (95% CI 310 to 1270) fatal lung cancers in 2011. Overall, 1.6 million individuals alive in 2011 were occupationally exposed to DEE during the REP, 97% of whom were male. Occupations with the highest burden were underground miners, truck drivers and mechanics. Half of the attributable lung cancers occurred among workers with low exposure. This is the first study to quantify the burden of lung cancer attributable to occupational DEE exposure in Canada. Our results underscore a large potential for prevention, and a large public health impact from occupational exposure to low levels of DEE. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Evaluation of the patient with an exposure-related disease: the occupational and environmental history.

    PubMed

    Papali, Alfred; Hines, Stella E

    2015-03-01

    Although the process of taking an occupational and environmental history has remained largely the same, the context in which it is done has changed dramatically over recent years. This review examines the role of the occupational and environmental history in the context of the changing nature of medical practice and discusses methods for evaluating patients with contemporary exposure-related respiratory illnesses. Surveillance for occupational lung disease using mnemonic devices, screening questions and the use of structured questionnaires can significantly increase the likelihood and accuracy of detection. Electronic health records likewise can be adapted to include the most important elements of the occupational and environmental history. The emergence of new technologies and industries will lead to respiratory diseases in novel occupational and environmental contexts. Using the methods described herein can make detecting these diseases easier and less time-consuming.

  15. Occupational Exposures in the Oil and Gas Extraction Industry: State of the Science and Research Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Witter, Roxana Z.; Tenney, Liliana; Clark, Suzanne; Newman, Lee S.

    2015-01-01

    The oil and gas extraction industry is rapidly growing due to horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF). This growth has provided new jobs and economic stimulus. The industry occupational fatality rate is 2.5 times higher than the construction industry and 7 times higher than general industry; however injury rates are lower than the construction industry, suggesting injuries are not being reported. Some workers are exposed to crystalline silica at hazardous levels, above occupational health standards. Other hazards (particulate, benzene, noise, radiation) exist. In this article, we review occupational fatality and injury rate data; discuss research looking at root causes of fatal injuries and hazardous exposures; review interventions aimed at improving occupational health and safety; and discuss information gaps and areas of needed research. We also describe Wyoming efforts to improve occupational safety in this industry, as a case example. PMID:24634090

  16. Occupational radiation exposure experience: Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    The potential for significant uranium exposure in gaseous diffusion plants is very low. The potential for significant radiation exposure in uranium hexafluoride manufacturing is very real. Exposures can be controlled to low levels only through the cooperation and commitment of facility management and operating personnel. Exposure control can be adequately monitored by a combination of air analyses, urinalyses, and measurements of internal deposition as obtained by the IVRML. A program based on control of air-borne uranium exposure has maintained the internal dose of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant workman to less than one-half the RPG dose to the lung (15more » rem/year) and probably to less than one-fourth that dose. (auth)« less

  17. Profiles of Nature Exposure and Outdoor Activities Associated With Occupational Well-Being Among Employees

    PubMed Central

    Hyvönen, Katriina; Törnroos, Kaisa; Salonen, Kirsi; Korpela, Kalevi; Feldt, Taru; Kinnunen, Ulla

    2018-01-01

    This research addresses the profiles of nature exposure and outdoor activities in nature among Finnish employees (N = 783). The profiles were formed on the bases of nature exposure at work and the frequency and type of outdoor activities in nature engaged in during leisure time. The profiles were investigated in relation to work engagement and burnout. The latent profile analysis identified a five-class solution as the best model: High exposure (8%), Versatile exposure (22%), Unilateral exposure (38%), Average exposure (13%), and Low exposure (19%). An Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted for each well-being outcome in order to evaluate how the identified profiles related to occupational well-being. Participants with a High, Versatile, or Unilateral exposure profile reported significantly higher work engagement in the dimensions of vigor and dedication than did the participants with a Low exposure profile. The participants with the High exposure profile also reported lower burnout in the dimensions of cynicism and professional inadequacy than the participants with the Low exposure profile. Nature exposure during the workday and leisure time is an under researched but important aspect in promoting occupational well-being. PMID:29867699

  18. Occupational exposures to leaded and unleaded gasoline engine emissions and lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Xu, Mengting; Siemiatycki, Jack; Lavoué, Jérôme; Pasquet, Romain; Pintos, Javier; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Richardson, Lesley; Ho, Vikki

    2018-04-01

    To determine whether occupational exposure to gasoline engine emissions (GEE) increased the risk of lung cancer and more specifically whether leaded or unleaded GEE increased the risk. Two population-based case-control studies were conducted in Montreal, Canada. The first was conducted in the early 1980s and included many types of cancer including lung cancer. The second was conducted in the late 1990s and focused on lung cancer. Population controls were used in both studies. Altogether, there were 1595 cases and 1432 population controls. A comprehensive expert-based exposure assessment procedure was implemented and exposure was assessed for 294 agents, including unleaded GEE, leaded GEE and diesel engine emissions (DEE). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate ORs between various metrics of GEE exposure and lung cancer, adjusting for smoking, DEE and other potential confounders. About half of all controls were occupationally exposed to GEE. Irrespective of the metrics of exposure (any exposure, duration of exposure and cumulative exposure) and the type of lung cancer, and the covariates included in models, none of the point estimates of the ORs between occupational exposure to leaded or unleaded GEE and lung cancer were above 1.0. Pooling two studies, the OR for any exposure to leaded GEE was 0.82 (0.68-1.00). Our results do not support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to GEE increases the risk of lung cancer. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Melamine-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, R.W.

    1992-01-14

    Organic aerogels that are transparent and essentially colorless are prepared from the aqueous, sol-gel polymerization of melamine with formaldehyde. The melamine-formaldehyde (MF) aerogels have low densities, high surface areas, continuous porosity, ultrafine cell/pore sizes, and optical clarity. 3 figs.

  20. Melamine-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    Organic aerogels that are transparent and essentially colorless are prepa from the aqueous, sol-gel polymerization of melamine with formaldehyde. The melamine-formaldehyde (MF) aerogels have low densities, high surface areas, continuous porsity, ultrafine cell/pore sizes, and optical clarity.

  1. Formaldehyde in Our Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojanlatva, Ansa; Weeks, Charlie A.

    During the energy crisis of the early 1970s, there was a drive to conserve energy in every segment of society. Citizens were encouraged to insulate their homes and tighten them up to avoid loss of energy. One of the products to emerge from this crisis was urea formaldehyde foam insulation. (Urea formaldehyde is a well-known agent for preserving…

  2. Formaldehyde risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    We would like to comment on the paper by Crump et al. (2008), ‘Sensitivity analysis of biologically motivated model for formaldehyde-induced respiratory cancer in humans’. We are authors of the formaldehyde cancer risk assessment described in Conolly et al. (2003, 2004) that is t...

  3. Climate change and occupational allergies: an overview on biological pollution, exposure and prevention.

    PubMed

    D'Ovidio, Maria Concetta; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; D'Amato, Gennaro; Cecchi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Climate change, air pollution, temperature increase and other environmental variables are modifying air quality, contributing to the increase of prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases. Allergies are complex diseases characterized by multilevel interactions between individual susceptibility, response to immune modulation and environmental exposures to physical, chemical and biological agents. Occupational allergies introduce a further complexity to these relationships by adding occupational exposure to both the indoor and outdoor ones in the living environment. The aim of this paper is to overview climate-related allergy affecting environmental and occupational health, as literature data are scanty in this regard, and to suggest a management model of this risk based on a multidisciplinary approach, taking the case of biological pollution, with details on exposure and prevention. The management of climate-related occupational allergy should take into account preventive health strategies, environmental, public and occupational interventions, as well as to develop, implement, evaluate, and improve guidelines and standards protecting workers health under changing climatic conditions; new tools and strategies based on local conditions will have to be developed. Experimental studies and acquisition of environmental and personal data have to be matched to derive useful information for the scope of occupational health and safety.

  4. Recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and salivary cortisol level.

    PubMed

    Stokholm, Zara Ann; Hansen, Åse Marie; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard; Bonde, Jens Peter; Christensen, Kent Lodberg; Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Lund, Søren Peter; Vestergaard, Jesper Medom; Kolstad, Henrik Albert

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and occupational noise exposure have been related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypothetically mediated by stress-activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between recent and long-term occupational noise exposure and cortisol level measured off work to assess a possible sustained HPA-axis effect. We included 501 industrial, finance, and service workers who were followed for 24h during work, leisure, and sleep. Ambient occupational noise exposure levels were recorded every 5s by personal dosimeters and we calculated the full-shift LAEq value and estimated duration and cumulative exposure based on their work histories since 1980. For 332 workers who kept a log-book on the use of hearing protection devices (HPD), we subtracted 10 dB from every noise recording obtained during HPD use and estimated the noise level at the ear. Salivary cortisol concentration was measured at 20.00 h, the following day at awakening, and 30 min after awakening on average 5, 14 and 14.5h after finishing work. The mean ambient noise exposure level was 79.9 dB(A) [range: 55.0-98.9] and the mean estimated level at the ear 77.7 dB(A) [range: 55.0-94.2]. In linear and mixed regression models that adjusted for age, sex, current smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, personal income, BMI, leisure-time noise exposure level, time since occupational noise exposure ceased, awakening time, and time of saliva sampling, we observed no statistically significant exposure response relation between recent, or long-term ambient occupational noise exposure level and any cortisol parameter off work. This was neither the case for recent noise level at the ear. To conclude, neither recent nor long-term occupational noise exposure levels were associated with increased cortisol level off work. Thus, our results do not indicate that a sustained activation of the HPA axis, as measured by cortisol, is involved in

  5. [Occupational exposure to carcinogens: analysis of the application of the CAREX information system to Catalonia].

    PubMed

    de Grado Andrés, Adolfo; Molinero Ruiz, Emilia; van der Haar, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate occupational exposures to human carcinogens in Catalonia in 2009, taking as a reference the CAREX ESP 2007 information system, and to evaluate the suitability of extrapolating these data to Catalonia. The reference population is the number of people registered with the Social Security system in Catalonia in 2009. Carcinogens considered are those which the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified into groups 1 and 2A and are related to occupational exposures. The exposure prevalences from the CAREX ESP 2007, adapted to the Catalonian Industrial Classification (CCAE 09), were used. Technical survey reports from the Occupational Safety and Health Centers of the Catalonian local government, and related databases were consulted. The most frequent occupational exposures to human carcinogens were solar radiation, crystalline silica, diesel exhaust, radon and wood dust, although based mainly on data not considered adequate for extrapolation to Catalonia. Around 217 exposure situations for 25 carcinogens, not previously considered in CAREX ESP 2007, were identified. The estimated number of workers exposed to human carcinogens in Catalonia in 2009 based on the CAREX ESP 2007 system could differ from the real situation. Development of a CAREX CAT system that incorporates exposure data from Catalonia is recommended. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Seguretat i Medicina del Treball.

  6. Determination of crystalline silica in respirable dust upon occupational exposure for Egyptian workers

    PubMed Central

    MOHAMED, Sabrein H.; EL-ANSARY, Aida L.; EL-AZIZ, Eman M. Abd

    2017-01-01

    Crystalline free silica is considered as a lung carcinogen and the occupational exposure to its dust is a health hazard to workers employed in industries that involve ores of mineral dust. In Egypt, thousands of people work under conditions of silica dust exposure exceeding the occupational exposure limit, as a result the monitoring of this occupational exposure to crystalline silica dust is required by government legislation. The assessment of the later is a multi-phase process, depend on workplace measurements, quantitative analyses of samples, and comparison of results with the permissible limits. This study aims to investigate occupational exposure to crystalline silica dust at 22 factories in Egypt with different industrial activities like stone cutting, glass making, ceramic, and sand blasting. Dust samples were collected from work sites at the breathing zone using a personal sampling pump and a size-selective cyclone and analyzed using FTIR. The sampling period was 60–120 min. The results show that the exposure at each of the industrial sectors is very much higher than the current national and international limits, and that lead to a great risk of lung cancer and mortality to workers. PMID:29199263

  7. Occupational overpressure exposure of breachers and military personnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimori, G. H.; Reilly, L. A.; LaValle, C. R.; Olaghere Da Silva, U. B.

    2017-11-01

    Military and law enforcement personnel may be routinely and repetitively exposed to low-level blast (LLB) overpressure during training and in operations. This repeated exposure has been associated with symptoms similar to that reported for sports concussion. This study reports LLB exposure for various military and law enforcement sources in operational training environments. Peak overpressure and impulse data are presented from indoor breaching, outdoor breaching, shotgun door breaching, small arms discharge, and mortar and artillery fire missions. Data were collected using the Black Box Biometrics (B3) Blast Gauge sensors. In all cases, sensors were attached to the operators and, where possible, also statically mounted to walls or other fixed structures. Peak overpressures from below 1 psi (7 kPa) to over 12 psi (83 kPa) were recorded; all values reported are uncorrected for incidence angle to the blast exposure source. The results of these studies indicate that the current minimum safe distance calculations are often inaccurate for both indoor and outdoor breaching scenarios as true environmental exposure can consistently exceed the 4 psi (28 kPa) incident safe threshold prescribed by U.S. Army doctrine. While ballistic (shotgun) door breaching and small arms firing only expose the operator to low peak exposure levels, the sheer number of rounds fired during training may result in an excessive cumulative exposure. Mortar and artillery crew members received significantly different overpressure and impulse exposures based on their position (job) relative to the weapon. As both the artillery and mortar crews commonly fire hundreds of rounds during a single training session they are also likely to receive high cumulative exposures. These studies serve to provide the research community with estimates for typical operator exposure across a range of operational scenarios or in the discharge of various weapons systems.

  8. Are occupational, hobby, or lifestyle exposures associated with Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myeloid leukaemia?

    PubMed Central

    Bjork, J; Albin, M; Welinder, H; Tinnerberg, H; Mauritzson, N; Kauppinen, T; Stromberg, U; Johansson, B; Billstrom, R; Mikoczy, Z; Ahlgren, T; Nilsson, P; Mitelman, F; Hagmar, L

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate a broad range of occupational, hobby, and lifestyle exposures, suggested as risk factors for Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML).
METHODS—A case-control study, comprising 255 Ph+CML patients from southern Sweden and matched controls, was conducted. Individual data on work tasks, hobbies, and lifestyle exposures were obtained by telephone interviews. Occupational hygienists assessed occupational and hobby exposures for each subject individually. Also, occupational titles were obtained from national registries, and group level exposure—that is, the exposure proportion for each occupational title—was assessed with a job exposure matrix. The effects of 11 exposures using individual data and two exposures using group data (organic solvents and animal dust) were estimated.
RESULTS—For the individual data on organic solvents, an effect was found for moderate or high intensity of exposure (odds ratio (OR) 3.4, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.1 to 11) and for long duration (15-20 years) of exposure (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 to 4.0). By contrast, the group data showed no association (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.8; moderate or high intensity versus no exposure). For extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs), only individual data were available. An association with long occupational exposure to EMFs was found (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 4.5). However, no effect of EMF intensity was indicated. No significant effects of benzene, gasoline or diesel, or tobacco smoking were found. OR estimates below unity were suggested for personal use of hair dye and for agricultural exposures.
CONCLUSIONS—Associations between exposure to organic solvents and EMFs, and Ph+CML were indicated but were not entirely consistent.


Keywords: risk factors; epidemiology; case-control study PMID:11600728

  9. Factors associated with occupational exposure to biological material among nursing professionals.

    PubMed

    Negrinho, Nádia Bruna da Silva; Malaguti-Toffano, Silmara Elaine; Reis, Renata Karina; Pereira, Fernanda Maria Vieira; Gir, Elucir

    2017-01-01

    to identify factors associated with occupational exposure to biological material among nursing professionals. a cross-sectional study was conducted in a high complexity hospital of a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Nursing professionals were interviewed from March to November 2015. All ethical aspects were observed. among the 226 professionals interviewed, 17.3% suffered occupational exposure to potentially contaminated biological material, with 61.5% being percutaneous. Factors such as age (p=0.003), professional experience in nursing (p=0.015), and experience at the institution (p=0.032) were associated with the accidents with biological material. most accidents with biological material among nursing professionals were percutaneous. Age, professional experience, and experience at the institution were considered factors associated with occupational exposure.

  10. Deleterious Effects From Occupational Exposure to Ethylene Thiourea in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Mutic, Abby D; Baker, Brenda J; McCauley, Linda A

    2017-12-01

    Human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has become common as a result of widespread application of these chemicals to the food supply, environmental contamination, and occupational exposures (Caserta et al., 2011). However, relatively little is known about the effects of EDCs such as ethylene thiourea (ETU) in developing fetuses and the lasting implications of this disruption on human development from birth through adulthood. Of highest concern are chronic, low-dose exposures among industrial and agricultural workers. Current knowledge regarding the significance of endocrine thyroid signaling on normal human development raises serious concerns about the possible deleterious effects of EDCs in the developing fetus, children, and mature adults. Occupational health nurses are critical in identifying women and families at increased risk of ETU exposure and mitigating early exposures in pregnancy.

  11. Unusual formaldehyde-induced hypersensitivity in two schoolgirls

    SciTech Connect

    Gammage, R.B.; Hanna, W.T.; Painter, P.B.

    1990-01-01

    Two schoolgirls developed a syndrome resembling Henoch-Schonlein purpura while attending a recently opened school insulated with urea-formaldehyde foam (UFFI). Skin rashes and swellings were accompanied by bizarre, blue-green discoloration of the skin. Subsequent investigations by county, state and federal authorities, and low measured concentrations of formaldehyde, prompted initial conclusions that in-school formaldehyde exposures were not responsible for the girls' problems. Subsequent controlled exposures to UFFI and formaldehyde while in hospital elicited the whole cascade of symptoms. The chronology of the onset and amplification of systems make it probable that the formaldehyde exposures precipitating the girls' hypersensitivity, occurred in the school.more » 3 refs.« less

  12. Occupational Exposure to High Molecular Weight Allergens and Lymphoma Risk Among Italian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mirabelli, Maria C.; Zock, Jan-Paul; D'Errico, Angelo; Kogevinas, Manolis; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Miligi, Lucia; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Vineis, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Exposure to high molecular weight (HMW) allergens that provoke immune reactivity through an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated pathway has been associated with a decreased risk of B-cell lymphoma. The present analysis was conducted to assess the associations between occupational exposure to specific HMW allergens and the risk of B-cell, T-cell, and Hodgkin's lymphomas. Methods We analyzed data from 2290 incident lymphoma cases and 1771 population-based controls enrolled in a multi-center study of hematolymphopoietic malignancies conducted in Italy between 1991 and 1993. All cases were histologically or cytologically confirmed. Controls were frequency-matched to cases based on age, sex, and study center. An industrial hygienist evaluated HMW occupational exposure classifications after an asthma-specific job exposure matrix was applied to participants' job histories. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess associations between occupational exposures that occurred ≥10 years before the date of lymphoma diagnosis and B-cell, T-cell, and Hodgkin's lymphomas. Results Ten percent of cases and 11 percent of controls were occupationally exposed to HMW allergens. Exposed individuals had a decreased risk for all lymphomas combined (odds ratio (OR): 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63, 0.97), particularly for B-cell lymphomas (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.94). The decreased risks for all lymphomas were also observed when HMW allergen exposure was limited to animal and latex allergens. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to immunologically active HMW allergens is inversely associated with the risk for lymphoma. The effect of exposure to specific allergens warrants further assessment. PMID:19755650

  13. Occupational exposure in Parkinsonian disorders: A 43-year prospective cohort study in men

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Adina L.; Johansson, Anna L. V.; Nise, Gun; Gatz, Margaret; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Wirdefeldt, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Background Several occupations and occupational exposures have been investigated for associations with Parkinson’s disease. Common findings are increased risk associated with pesticide exposure and no association between Parkinson’s disease and welding. Methods We explored the association between a broad range of possible occupational risk factors and Parkinson’s disease as well as Parkinson’s disease plus other forms of parkinsonism (referred to as Parkinsonian disorders), using prospectively collected data in the population-based Swedish Twin Registry. A cohort of 14,169 Swedish men was followed for up to 43 years. We identified 234 Parkinsonian disorders cases including 204 Parkinson’s disease cases with complete data. We assessed exposure to 14 chemical and biological compounds through a job exposure matrix. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for age, smoking, and education were used to estimate the relative risk of disease associated with exposure. Results Exposure to inorganic dust was associated with increased risk of Parkinson’s disease and Parkinsonian disorders, HR 1.6 (95% CI 1.1–2.4) and 1.5 (1.0–2.2) respectively. There was no association between Parkinson’s disease or Parkinsonian disorders and occupational exposure to pesticides, welding smoke, metal dust, wood dust, animal handling, stone and concrete dust, chrome and nickel dust, quartz dust, organic dust, oil, asbestos, organic solvents and irritating gas. Conclusions Inorganic dust should be explored further as a potential risk factor for Parkinson’s disease. Occupational exposure to pesticides and twelve other compounds explored in this study may not be associated with risk of Parkinson’s disease in Swedish men. PMID:21733735

  14. Measurement of indoor formaldehyde concentrations with a passive sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Gillett, R.W.; Kreibich, H.; Ayers, G.P.

    2000-05-15

    An existing Ferm-type passive sampler technique has been further developed to measure concentrations of formaldehyde gas in indoor air. Formaldehyde forms a derivative after reaction with a filter coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH). The formaldehyde 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivative (formaldehyde-2,4-DNPH) is extracted from the filter, and the concentration is determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The technique has been validated against an active sampling method, and the agreement is close when the appropriate laminar boundary layer depth is applied to the passive measurement. For this technique an exposure period of 3 days is equivalent to a limit of detection of formaldehyde of 3.4 ppbvmore » and a limit of quantification of 7.6 ppbv. To test the performance of the passive samplers ambient formaldehyde measurements were carried out inside homes and in a range of workplace environments.« less

  15. Esophagus cancer and occupational exposure to asbestos: results from a meta-analysis of epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Li, B; Tang, S P; Wang, K Z

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between occupational asbestos exposure and esophagus cancer (EC) is not fully understood. We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association. We systematically searched databases of PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science for studies with quantitative estimates of asbestos exposure and EC mortality. Pooled standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Twenty cohort studies on EC and asbestos exposure were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, occupational exposure to asbestos was associated with an excess risk of EC (SMR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.13-1.38, P < 0.001), with little evidence of heterogeneity among studies (I(2) = 0.0%, P = 0.682). Being male, exposure to chrysotile or mixed asbestos, working at textile industry, long study follow-up (≥20 years), Asia, Europe and America cohorts with larger cohort size (>500), and high-exposure group all contribute to significantly higher SMR. Publication bias was not detected (Egger's test P-value = 0.374). This meta-analysis suggested that occupational asbestos exposure might be associated with an increased risk of EC in male. High-exposure level of asbestos could contribute to significantly higher risk of EC mortality. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  16. Ototoxic occupational exposures for a stock car racing team: II. chemical surveys.

    PubMed

    Gwin, Kristin K; Wallingford, Kenneth M; Morata, Thais C; Van Campen, Luann E; Dallaire, Jacques; Alvarez, Frank J

    2005-08-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a series of surveys to evaluate occupational exposure to noise and potentially ototoxic chemical agents among members of a professional stock car racing team. Exposure assessments included site visits to the team's race shop and a worst-case scenario racetrack. During site visits to the race team's shop, area samples were collected to measure exposures to potentially ototoxic chemicals, including, organic compounds (typical of solvents), metals, and carbon monoxide (CO). Exposures to these chemicals were all below their corresponding Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limits (PELs), NIOSH recommended exposure limits (RELs), and American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values (TLVs). During site visits to the racetrack, area and personal samples were collected for organic compounds, lead, and CO in and around the "pit" area where the cars undergo race preparation and service during the race. Exposures to organic compounds and lead were either nondetectable or too low to quantify. Twenty-five percent of the CO time-weighted average concentrations exceeded the OSHA PEL, NIOSH REL, and ACGIH TLV after being adjusted for a 10-hour workday. Peak CO measurements exceeded the NIOSH recommended ceiling limit of 200 ppm. Based on these data, exposures to potentially ototoxic chemicals are probably not high enough to produce an adverse effect greater than that produced by the high sound pressure levels alone. However, carbon monoxide levels occasionally exceeded all evaluation criteria at the racetrack.

  17. Analysis of occupational asbestos exposure and lung cancer mortality using the g formula.

    PubMed

    Cole, Stephen R; Richardson, David B; Chu, Haitao; Naimi, Ashley I

    2013-05-01

    We employed the parametric G formula to analyze lung cancer mortality in a cohort of textile manufacturing workers who were occupationally exposed to asbestos in South Carolina. A total of 3,002 adults with a median age of 24 years at enrollment (58% male, 81% Caucasian) were followed for 117,471 person-years between 1940 and 2001, and 195 lung cancer deaths were observed. Chrysotile asbestos exposure was measured in fiber-years per milliliter of air, and annual occupational exposures were estimated on the basis of detailed work histories. Sixteen percent of person-years involved exposure to asbestos, with a median exposure of 3.30 fiber-years/mL among those exposed. Lung cancer mortality by age 90 years under the observed asbestos exposure was 9.44%. In comparison with observed asbestos exposure, if the facility had operated under the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration asbestos exposure standard of <0.1 fibers/mL, we estimate that the cohort would have experienced 24% less lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.94). A further reduction in asbestos exposure to a standard of <0.05 fibers/mL was estimated to have resulted in a minimal additional reduction in lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.92).

  18. Occupational versus environmental and lifestyle exposures of children and adolescents in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Hermann M

    2002-02-28

    There is recent international concern about specific exposures of children and adolescents to toxicants. In general, the situation within the European Union appears as follows. (i) OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE: Due to regulatory measures, there are almost no toxicologically significant occupational exposure situations of children to chemical toxicants. This contrasts to the situation in developing countries. There is also strict regulation of occupational exposure of adolescents (aged under 18). In consequence, the number of potentially exposed adolescents has been minimised. (ii) ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE: Specific concern is directed towards exposures of infants, especially to neurotoxic heavy metals and carcinogens, and there is much regional differentiation of environmental exposures. (iii) FOOD: Recent research results are indicative of the general progress made in the field of food safety. (iv) INCIDENTAL ACUTE EXPOSURE: Besides drugs, household chemicals are a source of incidental acute intoxications in children. In Germany, there has been a particular focus on ingestion of lamp petroleum oils since 1989. (v) Paramount problems are associated with increasing consumption of tobacco (mean age of starting smoking in Germany: 13.6 years), alcohol (percentage of addicts at ages 12-24 in Germany 6%) and cannabis among adolescents, calling for new ways of risk communication. In general, it will be necessary to consider children of different ages as separate risk groups.

  19. Analysis of Occupational Asbestos Exposure and Lung Cancer Mortality Using the G Formula

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Stephen R.; Richardson, David B.; Chu, Haitao; Naimi, Ashley I.

    2013-01-01

    We employed the parametric G formula to analyze lung cancer mortality in a cohort of textile manufacturing workers who were occupationally exposed to asbestos in South Carolina. A total of 3,002 adults with a median age of 24 years at enrollment (58% male, 81% Caucasian) were followed for 117,471 person-years between 1940 and 2001, and 195 lung cancer deaths were observed. Chrysotile asbestos exposure was measured in fiber-years per milliliter of air, and annual occupational exposures were estimated on the basis of detailed work histories. Sixteen percent of person-years involved exposure to asbestos, with a median exposure of 3.30 fiber-years/mL among those exposed. Lung cancer mortality by age 90 years under the observed asbestos exposure was 9.44%. In comparison with observed asbestos exposure, if the facility had operated under the current Occupational Safety and Health Administration asbestos exposure standard of <0.1 fibers/mL, we estimate that the cohort would have experienced 24% less lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.94). A further reduction in asbestos exposure to a standard of <0.05 fibers/mL was estimated to have resulted in a minimal additional reduction in lung cancer mortality by age 90 years (mortality ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.92). PMID:23558355

  20. Occupational Exposure to HIV: Advice for Health Care Workers

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidney, and bone marrow function. Another option is post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). This treatment suppresses the HIV virus to prevent infection. If you still test positive, the treatment can help decrease the virus’ ...

  1. High-Resolution Computed Tomography and Pulmonary Function Findings of Occupational Arsenic Exposure in Workers.

    PubMed

    Ergün, Recai; Evcik, Ender; Ergün, Dilek; Ergan, Begüm; Özkan, Esin; Gündüz, Özge

    2017-05-05

    The number of studies where non-malignant pulmonary diseases are evaluated after occupational arsenic exposure is very few. To investigate the effects of occupational arsenic exposure on the lung by high-resolution computed tomography and pulmonary function tests. Retrospective cross-sectional study. In this study, 256 workers with suspected respiratory occupational arsenic exposure were included, with an average age of 32.9±7.8 years and an average of 3.5±2.7 working years. Hair and urinary arsenic levels were analysed. High-resolution computed tomography and pulmonary function tests were done. In workers with occupational arsenic exposure, high-resolution computed tomography showed 18.8% pulmonary involvement. In pulmonary involvement, pulmonary nodule was the most frequently seen lesion (64.5%). The other findings of pulmonary involvement were 18.8% diffuse interstitial lung disease, 12.5% bronchiectasis, and 27.1% bullae-emphysema. The mean age of patients with pulmonary involvement was higher and as they smoked more. The pulmonary involvement was 5.2 times higher in patients with skin lesions because of arsenic. Diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide was significantly lower in patients with pulmonary involvement. Besides lung cancer, chronic occupational inhalation of arsenic exposure may cause non-malignant pulmonary findings such as bronchiectasis, pulmonary nodules and diffuse interstitial lung disease. So, in order to detect pulmonary involvement in the early stages, workers who experience occupational arsenic exposure should be followed by diffusion test and high-resolution computed tomography.

  2. Genetic variability in ABCB1, occupational pesticide exposure, and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Shilpa; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Paul, Kimberly C; Liew, Zeyan; Cockburn, Myles; Bronstein, Jeff M; Ritz, Beate

    2015-11-01

    Studies suggested that variants in the ABCB1 gene encoding P-glycoprotein, a xenobiotic transporter, may increase susceptibility to pesticide exposures linked to Parkinson's Disease (PD) risk. To investigate the joint impact of two ABCB1 polymorphisms and pesticide exposures on PD risk. In a population-based case control study, we genotyped ABCB1 gene variants at rs1045642 (c.3435C/T) and rs2032582 (c.2677G/T/A) and assessed occupational exposures to organochlorine (OC) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticides based on self-reported occupational use and record-based ambient workplace exposures for 282 PD cases and 514 controls of European ancestry. We identified active ingredients in self-reported occupational use pesticides from a California database and estimated ambient workplace exposures between 1974 and 1999 employing a geographic information system together with records for state pesticide and land use. With unconditional logistic regression, we estimated marginal and joint contributions for occupational pesticide exposures and ABCB1 variants in PD. For occupationally exposed carriers of homozygous ABCB1 variant genotypes, we estimated odds ratios of 1.89 [95% confidence interval (CI): (0.87, 4.07)] to 3.71 [95% CI: (1.96, 7.02)], with the highest odds ratios estimated for occupationally exposed carriers of homozygous ABCB1 variant genotypes at both SNPs; but we found no multiplicative scale interactions. This study lends support to a previous report that commonly used pesticides, specifically OCs and OPs, and variant ABCB1 genotypes at two polymorphic sites jointly increase risk of PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Occupational Diesel Exposure, Duration of Employment, and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Picciotto, Sally; Costello, Sadie; Eisen, Ellen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: If less healthy workers terminate employment earlier, thus accumulating less exposure, yet remain at greater risk of the health outcome, estimated health effects of cumulative exposure will be biased downward. If exposure also affects termination of employment, then the bias cannot be addressed using conventional methods. We examined these conditions as a prelude to a reanalysis of lung cancer mortality in the Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study. Methods: We applied an accelerated failure time model to assess the effect of exposures to respirable elemental carbon (a surrogate for diesel) on time to termination of employment among nonmetal miners who ever worked underground (n = 8,307). We then applied the parametric g-formula to assess how possible interventions setting respirable elemental carbon exposure limits would have changed lifetime risk of lung cancer, adjusting for time-varying employment status. Results: Median time to termination was 36% shorter (95% confidence interval = 33%, 39%), per interquartile range width increase in respirable elemental carbon exposure. Lung cancer risk decreased with more stringent interventions, with a risk ratio of 0.8 (95% confidence interval = 0.5, 1.1) comparing a limit of ≤25 µg/m3 respirable elemental carbon to no intervention. The fraction of cases attributable to diesel exposure was 27% in this population. Conclusions: The g-formula controlled for time-varying confounding by employment status, the signature of healthy worker survivor bias, which was also affected by diesel exposure. It also offers an alternative approach to risk assessment for estimating excess cumulative risk, and the impact of interventions based entirely on an observed population. PMID:26426944

  4. Occupational Exposure of Veterinarians to Waste Anesthetic Gases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-07

    The two most frequently used anesthetic gases, methoxyflurane and halothane. were chosen to be studied.) Exposures during 38 surgeries were /"studied...use of anesthetic agent for small animals. The halothane concentrations were higher than the methoxyflurane concentrations because of the out of - ,&t...exposures by 2.7 fold for methoxyflurane and 43 fold for halothane. However, during back to back surgeries a gradual build-up of anesthetic gas was found

  5. Report on the Consensus Workshop on Formaldehyde.

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The Consensus Workshop on Formaldehyde consisted of bringing together scientists from academia, government, industry and public interest groups to address some important toxicological questions concerning the health effects of formaldehyde. The participants in the workshop, the Executive Panel which coordinated the meeting, and the questions posed, all were chosen through a broadly based nomination process in order to achieve as comprehensive a consensus as possible. The subcommittees considered the toxicological problems associated with formaldehyde in the areas of exposure, epidemiology, carcinogenicity/histology/genotoxicity, immunology/sensitization/irritation, structure activity/biochemistry/metabolism, reproduction/teratology, behavior/neurotoxicity/psychology and risk estimation. Some questions considered included the possible human carcinogenicity of formaldehyde, as well as other human health effects, and the interpretation of pathology induced by formaldehyde. These reports, plus introductory material on the procedures used in setting up the Consensus Workshop are presented here. Additionally, there is included a listing of the data base that was made available to the panel chairmen prior to the meeting and was readily accessible to the participants during their deliberations in the meeting. This data base, since it was computerized, was also capable of being searched for important terms. These materials were supplemented by information brought by the panelists. The workshop has defined the consensus concerning a number of major points in formaldehyde toxicology and has identified a number of major deficits in understanding which are important guides to future research. PMID:6525992

  6. Effects of occupational exposures and smoking on lung function in tile factory workers.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Maritta S; Sripaiboonkij, Penpatra; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2011-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relations of occupational exposures in tile industry to lung function and to evaluate potential interaction between smoking and tile dust exposure containing silica. A cross-sectional study of 232 workers (response rate 100%) in a tile factory and 76 office workers (response rate 73%) from four factories in Thailand was conducted in 2006-2007. Participants answered a questionnaire and performed spirometry. Factory workers had lower spirometric functions than office workers, especially those with high dust exposure. There was a dose-response relation between duration of dust exposure and FEV1 and FVC, the adjusted effect of ≥ 21 years of exposure on FEV1 being -240 ml (-100 to -380) and on FVC -300 ml (-140 to -460). The adverse effect of dust on lung function was larger in current smokers suggesting synergism between smoking and tile dust exposure. This study provides evidence that long-term exposure to dust in tile industry is related to lung function reduction. There was a suggestion of synergistic effect between dust exposure and smoking. Tile factories should consider measures to reduce dust exposure and arrange spirometry surveillance for workers with such exposure. Smoking cessation should be promoted to prevent harmful effects of occupational tile dust exposure.

  7. Update of an occupational asthma-specific job exposure matrix to assess exposure to 30 specific agents.

    PubMed

    Le Moual, Nicole; Zock, Jan-Paul; Dumas, Orianne; Lytras, Theodore; Andersson, Eva; Lillienberg, Linnéa; Schlünssen, Vivi; Benke, Geza; Kromhout, Hans

    2018-07-01

    We aimed to update an asthmagen job exposure matrix (JEM) developed in the late 1990s. Main reasons were: the number of suspected and recognised asthmagens has since tripled; understanding of the aetiological role of irritants in asthma and methodological insights in application of JEMs have emerged in the period. For each agent of the new occupational asthma-specific JEM (OAsJEM), a working group of three experts out of eight evaluated exposure for each International Standard Classification of Occupations, 1988 (ISCO-88) job code into three categories: 'high' (high probability of exposure and moderate-to-high intensity), 'medium' (low-to-moderate probability or low intensity) and 'unexposed'. Within a working group, experts evaluated exposures independently from each other. If expert assessments were inconsistent the final decision was taken by consensus. Specificity was favoured over sensitivity, that is, jobs were classified with high exposure only if the probability of exposure was high and the intensity moderate-to-high. In the final review, all experts checked assigned exposures and proposed/improved recommendations for expert re-evaluation after default application of the JEM. The OAsJEM covers exposures to 30 sensitisers/irritants, including 12 newly recognised, classified into seven broad groups. Initial agreement between the three experts was mostly fair to moderate (κ values 0.2-0.5). Out of 506 ISCO-88 codes, the majority was classified as unexposed (from 82.6% (organic solvents) to 99.8% (persulfates)) and a minority as 'high-exposed' (0.2% (persulfates) to 2.6% (organic solvents)). The OAsJEM developed to improve occupational exposure assessment may improve evaluations of associations with asthma in epidemiological studies and contribute to assessment of the burden of work-related asthma. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  8. Current employment status, occupational category, occupational hazard exposure, and job stress in relation to telomere length: The Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Landsbergis, Paul; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Seeman, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Objective Telomere length has been proposed as a biomarker of cell senescence, which is associated with a wide array of adverse health outcomes. While work is a major determinant of health, few studies have investigated the association of telomere length with various dimensions of occupation. Accelerated cellular aging could be a common pathway linking occupational exposure to several health outcomes. Methods Leukocyte telomere length was assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) in a community-based sample of 981 individuals (age: 45–84 years old). Questionnaires were used to collect information on current employment status, current or main occupation before retirement, and job strain. The O*NET (Occupational Resource Network) database was linked to the questionnaire data to create 5 exposure measures: physical activity on the job, physical hazard exposure, interpersonal stressors, job control, and job demands. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of occupational characteristics with telomere lengths after adjustment for age, sex, race, socioeconomic position, and several behavioral risk factors. Results There were no mean differences in telomere lengths across current employment status, occupational category, job strain categories or levels of most O*NET exposure measures. There was also no evidence that being in lower status occupational categories or being exposed to higher levels of adverse physical or psychosocial exposures accelerated the association between age and telomere shortening. Conclusions Cellular aging as reflected by shorter telomeres does not appear to be an important pathway linking occupation to various health outcomes. PMID:23686115

  9. Current employment status, occupational category, occupational hazard exposure and job stress in relation to telomere length: the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Landsbergis, Paul A; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Seeman, Teresa

    2013-08-01

    Telomere length has been proposed as a biomarker of cell senescence, which is associated with a wide array of adverse health outcomes. While work is a major determinant of health, few studies have investigated the association of telomere length with various dimensions of occupation. Accelerated cellular aging could be a common pathway linking occupational exposure to several health outcomes. Leukocyte telomere length was assessed using quantitative PCR in a community-based sample of 981 individuals (age: 45-84 years). Questionnaires were used to collect information on current employment status, current or main occupation before retirement and job strain. The Occupational Resource Network (O*NET) database was linked to the questionnaire data to create five exposure measures: physical activity on the job, physical hazard exposure, interpersonal stressors, job control and job demands. Linear regression was used to estimate associations of occupational characteristics with telomere lengths after adjustment for age, sex, race, socioeconomic position and several behavioural risk factors. There were no mean differences in telomere lengths across current employment status, occupational category, job strain categories or levels of most O*NET exposure measures. There was also no evidence that being in lower status occupational categories or being exposed to higher levels of adverse physical or psychosocial exposures accelerated the association between age and telomere shortening. Cellular aging as reflected by shorter telomeres does not appear to be an important pathway linking occupation to various health outcomes.

  10. Occupational exposure to chrome VI compounds in French companies: results of a national campaign to measure exposure (2010-2013).

    PubMed

    Vincent, Raymond; Gillet, Martine; Goutet, Pierre; Guichard, Christine; Hédouin-Langlet, Catherine; Frocaut, Anne Marie; Lambert, Pierre; Leray, Fabrice; Mardelle, Patricia; Dorotte, Michel; Rousset, Davy

    2015-01-01

    A campaign to measure exposure to hexavalent chromium compounds was carried out in France by the seven CARSA