Science.gov

Sample records for occupational heavy lifting

  1. Prosthetic Hand Lifts Heavy Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, James R.; Norton, William; Belcher, Jewell G.; Vest, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    Prosthetic hand designed to enable amputee to lift diverse heavy objects like rocks and logs. Has simple serrated end effector with no moving parts. Prosthesis held on forearm by system of flexible straps. Features include ruggedness, simplicity, and relatively low cost.

  2. Heavy-lift airship dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. B.; Ringland, R. F.; Jex, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    The basic aerodynamic and dynamic properties of an example heavy-lift airship (HLA) configuration are analyzed using a nonlinear, multibody, 6-degrees-of-freedom digital simulation. The slung-payload model is described, and a preliminary analysis of the coupled vehicle-payload dynamics is presented. Trim calculations show the importance of control mixing selection and suggest performance deficiencies in crosswind stationkeeping for the unloaded example HLA. Numerically linearized dynamics of the unloaded vehicle exhibit a divergent yaw mode and an oscillatory pitch mode whose stability characteristic is sensitive to flight speed. An analysis of the vehicle-payload dynamics shows significant coupling of the payload dynamics with those of the basic HLA. It is shown that significant improvement in the vehicle's dynamic behavior can be achieved with the incorporation of a simple flight controller having proportional, rate, and integral-error feedbacks.

  3. Heavy Lift & Propulsion Technology (HL&PT)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Cris Guidi delivers a presentation from the Heavy Lift & Propulsion Technology (HL&PT) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of ...

  4. NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Watts, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation examined in depth several rotorcraft configurations for large civil transport, designed to meet the technology goals of the NASA Vehicle Systems Program. The investigation identified the Large Civil Tiltrotor as the configuration with the best potential to meet the technology goals. The design presented was economically competitive, with the potential for substantial impact on the air transportation system. The keys to achieving a competitive aircraft were low drag airframe and low disk loading rotors; structural weight reduction, for both airframe and rotors; drive system weight reduction; improved engine efficiency; low maintenance design; and manufacturing cost comparable to fixed-wing aircraft. Risk reduction plans were developed to provide the strategic direction to support a heavy-lift rotorcraft development. The following high risk areas were identified for heavy lift rotorcraft: high torque, light weight drive system; high performance, structurally efficient rotor/wing system; low noise aircraft; and super-integrated vehicle management system.

  5. Heavy lifting at work and risk of retinal detachment: a population-based register study in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Curti, Stefania; Coggon, David; Hannerz, Harald; Mattioli, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) and frequent heavy lifting in a Danish working population through national register data. Methods A dynamic cohort of all men aged 20–59 years in Denmark was followed through the Danish Occupational Hospitalisation Register from 1995 to 2010 for diagnosed RRD. Occupational categories were classified according to their potential for heavy lifting in 4 main groups: heavy lifters, manual workers unlikely to be heavy lifters, other manual workers and non-manual workers unlikely to be heavy lifters. The age-standardised rate of diagnosed RRD for heavy lifting occupations was compared with that experienced by the other 3 occupational categories. Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs were estimated through a Poisson regression model adjusted for calendar period and age group. Results The highest age-standardised rate of diagnosed RRD was recorded among non-manual workers performing occupational activities unlikely to be associated with heavy lifting (18.0 cases per 100 000 person-years). The RR for workers in jobs expected to entail a high frequency of heavy lifting compared with manual workers whose occupation was unlikely to be associated with heavy lifting was 0.91 (95% CI 0.73 to 1.14), while in comparison with other manual workers, it was 0.93 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.11). The RR compared with non-manual workers in occupations unlikely to entail heavy lifting was 0.51 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.60). Conclusions These findings do not support an association of occupational heavy lifting with diagnosed RRD. The epidemiological evidence for this association is still inconclusive. Future studies should use a more specific measure of exposure to resolve the outstanding uncertainties. PMID:26561504

  6. Current Status of NASA's Heavy Lift Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies since the Apollo Program of the 1960s have highlighted the benefits of - and the need for - a national heavy lift launch capability to support human exploration, science, national security, and commercial development of space. NASA's most recent and most refined effort to develop that heavy lift capability is the Ares V. Ares V is a key element of NASA's Constellation Program. It s overall goal s part of approved national space policy is to retire the Space Shuttle and develop its successor, complete the International Space Station, and resume human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), beginning with exploration of the Moon as a step to other destinations in the Solar System. Ares V s first role is that of cargo vehicle to carry a lunar lander into Earth orbit, rendezvous with astronauts launched on the smaller Ares I crew launch vehicle, and perform the trans lunar injection (TLI) mission to send the mated crew and lander vehicles to the Moon. The design reference missions (DRMs) envisioned for it also include direct lunar cargo flights and a human Mars mission. Although NASA's priority from the start of the Constellation Program to the present has been development of the Ares I and Orion crew vehicle to replace the retiring Shuttle fleet, the Ares team has made significant progress in understanding the performance, design trades, technology needs, mission scenarios, ground and flight operations, cost, and other factors associated with heavy lift development. The current reference configuration was selected during the Lunar Capabilities Concept Review (LCCR) in fall 2008. That design has served since then as a point of departure for further refinements and trades among five participating NASA field centers. Ares V development to date has benefited from progress on the Ares I due to commonality between the vehicles. The Ares I first stage completed a successful firing of a 5-segment solid rocket motor. The Ares I-X launch Numerous studies

  7. Heavy Lift Launch Capability with a New Hydrocarbon Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center was tasked to define the thrust requirement of a new liquid oxygen rich staged combustion cycle hydrocarbon engine that could be utilized in a launch vehicle to meet NASA s future heavy lift needs. Launch vehicle concepts were sized using this engine for different heavy lift payload classes. Engine out capabilities for one of the heavy lift configurations were also analyzed for increased reliability that may be desired for high value payloads or crewed missions. The applicability for this engine in vehicle concepts to meet military and commercial class payloads comparable to current ELV capability was also evaluated.

  8. Civil markets for buoyant heavy-lift vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettam, P. J.; Hansen, D.; Ardema, M. D.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide civil markets for heavy lift airships were investigated. Substantial potential market demand was identified for payloads of from 13 to 800 tons. The largest markets appear to be in applications to relieve port congestion, construction of power generating plants, and, most notably, logging. Because of significant uncertainties both in vehicle and market characteristics, further analysis will be necessary to verify the identified market potential of heavy lift airship concepts.

  9. Heavy Lift Launch Capability with a New Hydrocarbon Engine (NHE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Holt, James B.; Philips, Alan D.; Garcia, Jessica A.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has analyzed over 2000 Ares V and other heavy lift concepts in the last 3 years. These concepts were analyzed for Lunar Exploration Missions, heavy lift capability to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) as well as exploratory missions to other near earth objects in our solar system. With the pending retirement of the Shuttle fleet, our nation will be without a civil heavy lift launch capability, so the future development of a new heavy lift capability is imperative for the exploration and large science missions our Agency has been tasked to deliver. The majority of the heavy lift concepts analyzed by ACO during the last 3 years have been based on liquid oxygen / liquid hydrogen (LOX/LH2) core stage and solids booster stage propulsion technologies (Ares V / Shuttle Derived and their variants). These concepts were driven by the decisions made from the results of the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which in turn, led to the Ares V launch vehicle that has been baselined in the Constellation Program. Now that the decision has been made at the Agency level to cancel Constellation, other propulsion options such as liquid hydrocarbon fuels are back in the exploration trade space. NASA is still planning exploration missions with the eventual destination of Mars and a new heavy lift launch vehicle is still required and will serve as the centerpiece of our nation s next exploration architecture s infrastructure. With an extensive launch vehicle database already developed on LOX/LH2 based heavy lift launch vehicles, ACO initiated a study to look at using a new high thrust (> 1.0 Mlb vacuum thrust) hydrocarbon engine as the primary main stage propulsion in such a launch vehicle.

  10. Weight and cost estimating relationships for heavy lift airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Weight and cost estimating relationships, including additional parameters that influence the cost and performance of heavy-lift airships (HLA), are discussed. Inputs to a closed loop computer program, consisting of useful load, forward speed, lift module positive or negative thrust, and rotors and propellers, are examined. Detail is given to the HLA cost and weight program (HLACW), which computes component weights, vehicle size, buoyancy lift, rotor and propellar thrust, and engine horse power. This program solves the problem of interrelating the different aerostat, rotors, engines and propeller sizes. Six sets of 'default parameters' are left for the operator to change during each computer run enabling slight data manipulation without altering the program.

  11. Designs and Technology Requirements for Civil Heavy Lift Rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yamauchi, Gloria K.; Watts, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems Investigation examined in depth several rotorcraft configurations for large civil transport, designed to meet the technology goals of the NASA Vehicle Systems Program. The investigation identified the Large Civil Tiltrotor as the configuration with the best potential to meet the technology goals. The design presented was economically competitive, with the potential for substantial impact on the air transportation system. The keys to achieving a competitive aircraft were low drag airframe and low disk loading rotors; structural weight reduction, for both airframe and rotors; drive system weight reduction; improved engine efficiency; low maintenance design; and manufacturing cost comparable to fixed-wing aircraft. Risk reduction plans were developed to provide the strategic direction to support a heavy-lift rotorcraft development. The following high risk areas were identified for heavy lift rotorcraft: high torque, light weight drive system; high performance, structurally efficient rotor/wing system; low noise aircraft; and super-integrated vehicle management system.

  12. Large Scale Composite Manufacturing for Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stavana, Jacob; Cohen, Leslie J.; Houseal, Keth; Pelham, Larry; Lort, Richard; Zimmerman, Thomas; Sutter, James; Western, Mike; Harper, Robert; Stuart, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Risk reduction for the large scale composite manufacturing is an important goal to produce light weight components for heavy lift launch vehicles. NASA and an industry team successfully employed a building block approach using low-cost Automated Tape Layup (ATL) of autoclave and Out-of-Autoclave (OoA) prepregs. Several large, curved sandwich panels were fabricated at HITCO Carbon Composites. The aluminum honeycomb core sandwich panels are segments of a 1/16th arc from a 10 meter cylindrical barrel. Lessons learned highlight the manufacturing challenges required to produce light weight composite structures such as fairings for heavy lift launch vehicles.

  13. CH-53K Heavy Lift Replacement Helicopter (CH-53K)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-390 CH-53K Heavy Lift Replacement Helicopter (CH-53K) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget...Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY

  14. An economic comparison of three heavy lift airborne systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, B. H.

    1975-01-01

    Current state of art trends indicate that a 50-ton payload helicopter could be built by the end of the decade. However, alternative aircraft that employ LTA principles are shown to be more economically attractive, both in terms of investment and operating costs for the ultra-heavy lift role. Costing methodology follows rationale developed by airframe manufacturers, and includes learning curve factors.

  15. Current developments lighter than air systems. [heavy lift airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1981-01-01

    Lighter than air aircraft (LTA) developments and research in the United States and other countries are reviewed. The emphasis in the U.S. is on VTOL airships capable of heavy lift, and on long endurance types for coastal maritime patrol. Design concepts include hybrids which combine heavier than air and LTA components and characteristics. Research programs are concentrated on aerodynamics, flight dynamics, and control of hybrid types.

  16. Heavy-Lift for a New Paradigm in Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Bruce; Burkey, Martin

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing an unprecedented heavy-lift capability to enable human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). This capability could also significantly enhance numerous other missions of scientific, national security, and commercial importance. That capability is currently configured as the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. This capability will eclipse the capability the United States lost with the retirement of the Saturn V. It is capable of launching roughly 53 percent more payload mass to trans lunar injection (TLI) and 30 percent more payload mass to LEO than its Apollo Program predecessor. Ares V is a major element of NASA's Constellation Program, which also includes the Ares I crew launch vehicle (CLV), Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV), and a lunar lander for crew and cargo. As currently configured, Ares V will be capable of launching 413,800 pounds (187.7 mT) to LEO, 138,500 pounds (63 mT) direct to the Moon or 156,700 pounds (71.1 mT) in its dual-launch architecture role with Ares I. Its 33-foot (10 m) shroud provides unprecedented payload volume. Assessment of astronomy and planetary science payload requirements since spring 2008 has indicated that a Saturn V-class heavy-lift vehicle has the potential to support a range of payloads and missions. This vehicle configuration enables some missions previously considered difficult or impossible and enhances many others. Collaborative design/architecture inputs, exchanges, and analyses have already begun between scientists and payload developers. This early dialogue between NASA engineers and payload designers allows both communities to shape their designs and operational concepts to be mutually supportive to the extent possible with the least financial impact. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities of a heavy-lift vehicle to launch payloads with increased mass and/or volume and reduce technical and cost risk in both design and operations.

  17. Heavy Lift Vehicle (HLV) Avionics Flight Computing Architecture Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, Robert F.; Chen, Yuan; Morgan, Dwayne R.; Butler, A. Marc; Sdhuh, Joseph M.; Petelle, Jennifer K.; Gwaltney, David A.; Coe, Lisa D.; Koelbl, Terry G.; Nguyen, Hai D.

    2011-01-01

    A NASA multi-Center study team was assembled from LaRC, MSFC, KSC, JSC and WFF to examine potential flight computing architectures for a Heavy Lift Vehicle (HLV) to better understand avionics drivers. The study examined Design Reference Missions (DRMs) and vehicle requirements that could impact the vehicles avionics. The study considered multiple self-checking and voting architectural variants and examined reliability, fault-tolerance, mass, power, and redundancy management impacts. Furthermore, a goal of the study was to develop the skills and tools needed to rapidly assess additional architectures should requirements or assumptions change.

  18. Heavy Lift for National Security: The Ares V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Phil

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Ares Projects Office is developing the launch vehicles to move the United States and humanity beyond low earth orbit. Ares I is a crewed vehicle, and Ares V is a heavy lift vehicle being designed to launch cargo into LEO and transfer cargo and crews to the Moon. This is a snapshot of development and capabilities. Ares V is early in the requirements formulation stage of development pending the outcome of the Review of U.S. Human Space Flight Plans Committee and White House action. The Ares V vehicle will be considered a national asset, creating unmatched opportunities for human exploration, science, national security, and space business.

  19. Ares V: Progress Toward a Heavy Lift Capability for the Heavy Lift Capability for the Moon and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Phil

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Ares Projects are developing the launch vehicles to move the United States and humanity beyond low earth orbit. Ares 1 is a crewed vehicle, and Ares V is a heavy-lift vehicle being designed to send crews and cargo to the Moon. The Ares V design is evolving and maturing toward an authority-to-proceed milestone in 2011. The Ares V vehicle will be considered a national asset, opening new worlds and creating unmatched opportunities for human exploration, science, national security, and space business.

  20. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles for 1995 and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toelle, R. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    A Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) designed to deliver 300,000 lb to a 540 n mi circular polar orbit may be required to meet national needs for 1995 and beyond. The vehicle described herein can accommodate payload envelopes up to 50 ft diameter by 200 ft in length. Design requirements include reusability for the more expensive components such as avionics and propulsion systems, rapid launch turnaround time, minimum hardware inventory, stage and component flexibility and commonality, and low operational costs. All ascent propulsion systems utilize liquid propellants, and overall launch vehicle stack height is minimized while maintaining a reasonable vehicle diameter. The ascent propulsion systems are based on the development of a new liquid oxygen/hydrocarbon booster engine and liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen upper stage engine derived from today's SSME technology. Wherever possible, propulsion and avionics systems are contained in reusable propulsion/avionics modules that are recovered after each launch.

  1. Study of Civil Markets for Heavy-Lift Airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettam, P. J.; Hansen, D.; Chabot, C.; Byrne, R.

    1978-01-01

    The civil markets for heavy lift airships (HLAs) were defined by first identifying areas of most likely application. The operational suitability of HLAs for the applications identified were then assessed. The operating economics of HLAs were established and the market size for HLA services estimated by comparing HLA operating and economic characteristics with those of competing modes. The sensitivities of the market size to HLA characteristics were evaluated and the number and sizes of the vehicles required to service the more promising markets were defined. Important characteristics for future HLAs are discussed that were derived from the study of each application, including operational requirements, features enhancing profitability, military compatibility, improved design requirements, approach to entry into service, and institutional implications for design and operation.

  2. Clinical guidelines for occupational lifting in pregnancy: evidence summary and provisional recommendations

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Leslie A.; Waters, Thomas R.; Napolitano, Peter G.; Goddard, Donald E.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Nielsen, Peter; Hudock, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Empirically based lifting criteria established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to reduce the risk of overexertion injuries in the general US working population were evaluated for application to pregnant workers. This report proposes criteria to guide decisions by medical providers about permissible weights for lifting tasks performed at work over the course of an uncomplicated pregnancy. Our evaluation included an extensive review of the literature linking occupational lifting to maternal and fetal health. Although it has been 29 years since the American Medical Association’s Council on Scientific Affairs published its report on the Effects of Pregnancy on Work Performance, these guidelines continue to influence clinical decisions and workplace policies. Provisional clinical guidelines derived from the NIOSH lifting criteria that account for recent evidence for maternal and fetal health are presented and aim to improve the standard of care for pregnant workers. PMID:23467051

  3. Ground and Range Operations for a Heavy-Lift Vehicle: Preliminary Thoughts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabelo, Luis; Zhu, Yanshen; Compton, Jeppie; Bardina, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the ground and range operations for a Shuttle derived Heavy-Lift Vehicle being launched from the Kennedy Space Center on the Eastern range. Comparisons will be made between the Shuttle and a heavy lift configuration (SLS-ETF MPCV April 2011) by contrasting their subsystems. The analysis will also describe a simulation configuration with the potential to be utilized for heavy lift vehicle processing/range simulation modeling and the development of decision-making systems utilized by the range. In addition, a simple simulation model is used to provide the required critical thinking foundations for this preliminary analysis.

  4. United States commitment to heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabris, Edward A.

    Observers of the United States' space program will note progress toward the development of a new launch system capable of supporting the nation's future space missions. The process of defining mission requirements, developing technically and politically acceptable solutions, making policy decisions, and developing budget support in a democratic society is protracted, but eventually yields decisions that represent the public interest. The consensus developing within the United States on a new launch capability including heavy-lift is embodied in the Joint NASA/DoD National Launch System. This launch vehicle concept has emerged after more than five years of studies by NASA, the DoD and every major industrial aerospace contractor in the U.S. In July 1991, Vice President Quayle, in his capacity as Chairman of the National Space Council stated the Nation's commitment to support of the NLS. This paper reviews progress to date, and the involvement of the four major constituencies; the Executive Branch operating through the National Space Council, the Legislative Branch, the various elements of the DoD, and NASA. The evolution of launch system "requirements", along with the form, content and rationale for the various decisions that have been made will be described and discussed.

  5. Feasibility study of modern airships, phase 2. Volume 1: Heavy lift airship vehicle. Book 1: Overall study results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A Heavy Lift Airship combining buoyant lift derived from a conventional helium-filled non-rigid airship hull with propulsive lift derived from conventional helicopter rotors was investigated. The buoyant lift essentially offsets the empty weight of the vehicle; thus the rotor thrust is available for useful load and to maneuver and control the vehicle. Such a vehicle is capable of providing a quantum increase in current vertical lifting capability. Certain critical deficiencies of past airships are significantly minimized or eliminated.

  6. Engine-Out Capabilities Assessment of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Jon; Baggett, Keithe; Thrasher, Chad; Bellamy, K. Scott; Feldman, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Engine-out (EO) is a condition that might occur during flight due to the failure of one or more engines. Protection against this occurrence can be called engine-out capability (EOC) whereupon significantly improved loss of mission may occur, in addition to reduction in performance and increased cost. A standardized engine-out capability has not been studied exhaustively as it pertains to space launch systems. This work presents results for a specific vehicle design with specific engines, but also uniquely provides an approach to realizing the necessity of EOC for any launch vehicle system design. A derived top-level approach to engine-out philosophy for a heavy lift launch vehicle is given herein, based on an historical assessment of launch vehicle capabilities. The methodology itself is not intended to present a best path forward, but instead provides three parameters for assessment of a particular vehicle. Of the several parameters affected by this EOC, the three parameters of interest in this research are reliability (Loss of Mission (LOM) and Loss of Crew (LOC)), vehicle performance, and cost. The intent of this effort is to provide insight into the impacts of EO capability on these parameters. The effects of EOC on reliability, performance and cost are detailed, including how these important launch vehicle metrics can be combined to assess what could be considered overall launch vehicle affordability. In support of achieving the first critical milestone (Mission Concept Review) in the development of the Space Launch System (SLS), a team assessed two-stage, large-diameter vehicles that utilized liquid oxygen (LOX)-RP propellants in the First Stage and LOX/LH2 propellant in the Upper Stage. With multiple large thrust-class engines employed on the stages, engine-out capability could be a significant driver to mission success. It was determined that LOM results improve by a factor of five when assuming EOC for both Core Stage (CS) (first stage) and Upper Stage (US

  7. Impact of Airfoils on Aerodynamic Optimization of Heavy Lift Rotorcraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Modeling Capability with a Conceptual Rotorcraft Sizing Code,” American Helicopter Society Vertical Lift Aircraft Design Conference, San Francisco...American Helicopter Society International, Inc. All rights reserved. Introduction A new generation of very large, fast rotorcraft is being studied to...Ref. 4). Other codes, including NASTRAN and HeliFoil, were used for subsystem analyses. Reference 1 discusses the integration of the various

  8. Aeromechanical stability analysis of a multirotor vehicle model representing a hybrid heavy lift airship (HHLA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatesan, C.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1984-01-01

    Hybrid Heavy Lift Airship (HHLA) is a proposed candidate vehicle aimed at providing heavy lift capability at low cost. This vehicle consists of a buoyant envelope attached to a supporting structure to which four rotor systems, taken from existing helicopters are attached. Nonlinear equations of motion capable of modelling the dynamics of this coupled multi-rotor/support frame/vehicle system have been developed. Using these equations of motion the aeroelastic and aeromechanical stability analysis is performed aimed at identifying potential instabilities which could occur for this type of vehicle. The coupling between various blade, supporting structure and rigid body modes is identified. Furthermore, the effects of changes in buoyancy ratio (Buoyant lift/total weight) on the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle are studied. The dynamic effects found are of considerable importance for the design of such vehicles. The analytical model developed is also useful for studying the aeromechanical stability of single rotor and tandem rotor coupled rotor/fuselage systems.

  9. Lumbar spine loads during the lifting of extremely heavy weights.

    PubMed

    Cholewicki, J; McGill, S M; Norman, R W

    1991-10-01

    The reaction moments at the knee, hip, and L4/L5 joints, and the compressive and shearing forces on L4/L5 are documented in powerlifters competing in a national powerlifting championship. Analyses were made of 13 female and 44 male competitors. The joint moments and forces were estimated from a linked segment model (WATBAK) that incorporated functional low back extensor musculature with a moment arm of 6 cm and a line action that was oriented 5 degrees posteriorly to the L4/L5 compression axis. This oblique orientation of the extensor muscles reduced the anterior shearing load on the vertebral motion unit. Average compressive loads on L4/L5 were estimated up to 17,192 N while the highest average L4/L5 and hip moments were 988 and 1047 N.m, respectively. The sumo deadlift style resulted in a 10% reduction in the joint moment and 8% reduction in the load shear force at the L4/L5 level when compared with the conventional lifting style. Formulation of linear regression equations to predict the load lifted using reaction joint moments yielded substantial unexplained variability, though significant relationships were found. This analysis suggested that there is large variability in the pattern of loading joints among national class powerlifters.

  10. Two-axis hydraulic joint for high speed, heavy lift robotic operations

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, M.R.; Robinett, R.D.; Phelan, J.R.; VanZuiden, D.M.

    1994-04-01

    A hydraulically driven universal joint was developed for a heavy lift, high speed nuclear waste remediation application. Each axis is driven by a simple hydraulic cylinder controlled by a jet pipe servovalve. Servovalve behavior is controlled by a force feedback control system, which damps the hydraulic resonance. A prototype single joint robot was built and tested. A two joint robot is under construction.

  11. The effects of atmospheric turbulence on a quadrotor heavy lift airship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. B.; Jex, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    The response of a quadrotor heavy lift airship to atmospheric turbulence is evaluated using a four-point input model. Results show interaction between gust inputs and the characteristic modes of the vehicle's response. Example loop closures demonstrate tradeoffs between response regulation and structural loads. Vehicle responses to a tuned discrete wave front compare favorably with the linear results and illustrate characteristic HLA motion.

  12. AORN Ergonomic Tool 6: lifting and carrying supplies and equipment in the perioperative setting.

    PubMed

    Waters, Thomas; Baptiste, Andrea; Short, Manon; Plante-Mallon, Lori; Nelson, Audrey

    2011-08-01

    Perioperative team members often are required to lift and carry heavy supplies and equipment into and around the OR; this includes lifting equipment such as hand tables, fluoroscopy boards, stirrups, Wilson frames, irrigation containers for lithotripsy, and heavy instrument pans. Lifting heavy objects creates considerable risk for musculoskeletal injuries to the back and shoulders. AORN Ergonomic Tool 6: Lifting and Carrying Supplies and Equipment in the Perioperative Setting can help caregivers evaluate lifting and carrying tasks and take measures to protect themselves from injury. Caregivers can use the revised National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health lifting equation to assess whether a specific lifting task can be performed safely.

  13. Performance of Advanced Heavy-Lift, High-Speed Rotorcraft Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne; Yeo, Hyeonsoo; Acree, C. W., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of rotorcraft designed for heavy-lift and high-speed cruise is examined. Configurations considered include the tiltrotor, the compound helicopter, and the lift-offset rotor. Design conditions are hover and 250-350 knot cruise, at 5k/ISA+20oC (civil) or 4k/95oF (military); with cruise conditions at 4000 or 30,000 ft. The performance was calculated using the comprehensive analysis CAMRAD II, emphasizing rotor optimization and performance, including wing-rotor interference. Aircraft performance was calculated using estimates of the aircraft drag and auxiliary propulsion efficiency. The performance metric is total power, in terms of equivalent aircraft lift-to-drag ratio L/D = WV/P for cruise, and figure of merit for hover.

  14. A test manager's perspective of a test concept for a heavy lift vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pargeon, John I., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The developmment of a test concept is a significant part of the advanced planning activities accomplished for the Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT&E) of new systems. A test concept is generally viewed as a description, including rationale, of the test structure, evaluation methodology and management approach required to plan and conduct the IOT&E of a program such as a new heavy lift launch vehicle system. The test concept as presented in this paper is made up of an operations area, a test area, an evaluation area, and a management area. The description presented here is written from the perspective of one test manager, and represents his views of a possible framework of a test concept using examples for a potential IOT&E of a heavy lift launch vehicle.

  15. Use of Heavy Lift Ship as a Maintenance and Repair Vessel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    of storage for MAR equipment and supplies • Provision of all required over the side services o Electrical power o High/low pressure air o Distilled...for Navy ships [15]. Training for this program includes the following capabilities: • Air compressor repair • Air conditioning and refrigeration...and an air conditioner [9]. Each unit can be supplied either by excess power from the heavy lift ship or by additional 30 kW generators. An internal

  16. Heavy-lift launch vehicle options for future space exploration initiatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.; Harris, Ronald J.

    1990-01-01

    A review of present heavy-lift launch vehicles (HLLV) capable of placing heavy payloads in earth orbit is presented and the basis for an emerging consensus that an HLLV will be required in the near future is discussed. Some of the factors for the policies governing the roles and requirements for these vehicles in the future, such as cost, technology development, and lead time to first use are addressed. Potential Space Station Freedom application is discussed as well as application to the proposed initiatives for human exploration of Mars and the moon.

  17. Heavy-lift launch vehicle options for future space exploration initiatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branscome, Darrell R.; Harris, Ronald J.

    1990-10-01

    A review of present heavy-lift launch vehicles (HLLV) capable of placing heavy payloads in earth orbit is presented and the basis for an emerging consensus that an HLLV will be required in the near future is discussed. Some of the factors for the policies governing the roles and requirements for these vehicles in the future, such as cost, technology development, and lead time to first use are addressed. Potential Space Station Freedom application is discussed as well as application to the proposed initiatives for human exploration of Mars and the moon.

  18. Lunar Lander Offloading Operations Using a Heavy-Lift Lunar Surface Manipulator System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; Doggett, William R.; Chrone, Jonathan; Angster, Scott; Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; Haddad, Michael E.; Helton, David A.; Caldwell, Darrell L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using a heavy-lift variant of the Lunar Surface Manipulator System (LSMS-H) to lift and handle a 12 metric ton payload. Design challenges and requirements particular to handling heavy cargo were examined. Differences between the previously developed first-generation LSMS and the heavy-lift version are highlighted. An in-depth evaluation of the tip-over risk during LSMS-H operations has been conducted using the Synergistic Engineering Environment and potential methods to mitigate that risk are identified. The study investigated three specific offloading scenarios pertinent to current Lunar Campaign studies. The first involved offloading a large element, such as a habitat or logistics module, onto a mobility chassis with a lander-mounted LSMS-H and offloading that payload from the chassis onto the lunar surface with a surface-mounted LSMS-H. The second scenario involved offloading small pressurized rovers with a lander-mounted LSMS-H. The third scenario involved offloading cargo from a third-party lander, such as the proposed ESA cargo lander, with a chassis-mounted LSMS-H. In all cases, the analyses show that the LSMS-H can perform the required operations safely. However, Chariot-mounted operations require the addition of stabilizing outriggers, and when operating from the Lunar surface, LSMS-H functionality is enhanced by adding a simple ground anchoring system.

  19. Heavy Loads and Lifting are Risk Factors for Musculoskeletal Injuries in Deployed Female Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Roy, Tanja C; Piva, Sara R; Christiansen, Bryan C; Lesher, Jonathan D; Doyle, Peter M; Waring, Rachel M; Irrgang, James J; Moore, Charity G; Brininger, Teresa L; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate physical, occupational, and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries (MSI) in deployed female soldiers. Before deployment, participants completed performance testing and surveys and after deployment an additional survey detailing occupational demands and MSI. Data analyzed found 57/160 (36%) suffered 78 MSI. In unadjusted analyses, these factors increased the relative risk (RR, 95% confidence interval) of injury: wearing an average load >10% body weight (BW) (RR = 2.00, 1.31-4.57), wearing an average load >1 hour (RR = 2.44, 1.30-4.57), heaviest load worn >15% BW (RR = 5.83, 1.51-22.50), wearing a backpack (RR = 1.82, 1.23-2.80), wearing body armor >1 hour (RR = 1.62, 1.002-2.62), lifting objects weighing above 22.68 kg (RR = 1.96, 1.08-3.57), lifting objects one to two times (RR = 1.73, 1.002-2.97), carrying objects >7.62 m (RR = 2.01, 1.19-3.42), and Y Balance composite score <95.23 (RR = 1.71, 1.13-2.60). The best logistic regression model predicting MSI was average load as % BW (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04, 1.01-1.07), heaviest load as % BW (OR = 1.03, 1.01-1.05), average repetitions lifting objects (OR = 1.07, 1.01-1.14), and sit-ups (OR = 0.93, 0.93-0.99). Results indicate that risk of MSI in deployed female soldiers increased with heavier equipment worn and more repetitious lifting, although more performing more sit-ups on the fitness test before deployment reduced the risk.

  20. Perceived heaviness in the context of Newton's Second Law: Combined effects of muscle activity and lifting kinematics.

    PubMed

    Waddell, Morgan L; Fine, Justin M; Likens, Aaron D; Amazeen, Eric L; Amazeen, Polemnia G

    2016-03-01

    Researchers generally agree that perceived heaviness is based on the actions associated with unsupported holding. Psychophysical research has supported this idea, as has psychophysiological research connecting muscle activity to the perceptions of heaviness and effort. However, the role of muscle activity in the context of the resulting motions has not been investigated. In the present study, perceptions of heaviness were recorded along with the electromyogram (EMG) of the lifting muscle and peak acceleration of the lift. Consistent with predictions derived from Newton's Second Law of motion (Force=Mass × Acceleration), normal and illusory perceptions of heaviness were a function of the ratio of muscle activity to lifting acceleration. These results identify a psychophysiological mechanism for heaviness perception based on the forces and motions associated with unsupported holding.

  1. Ares V: Designing the Heavy Lift Capability to Explore the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.; McArthur, Craig

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Exploration requires a safe, efficient, reliable, and versatile launch vehicle capable ofplacing large payloads into Earth orbit for transfer to the Moon and destinations beyond. The Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) will provide this heavy lift capability. The Ares V launch concept is shown. When it stands on the launch pad at Kennedy Space Center late in the next decade, the Ares V stack will be almost 360 feet fall. As currently envisioned, it will lift 136 metric tons (300,000 pounds) to a 30-by-160 nautical mile orbit at 28.5-degrees inclination, or 55 metric tons (120,000 pounds) to trans-lunar injection. This paper will cover the latest developments in the Ares V project in 2007 and discuss future activities.

  2. Exploration Launch Projects RS-68B Engine Requirements for NASA's Heavy Lift Ares V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.; McArthur, J. Craig; Lacey, Matt

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Vision for Exploration requires a safe, efficient, reliable, and versatile launch vehicle capable of placing large payloads into Earth orbit for transfer to the Moon and destinations beyond. The Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) will provide this heavy lift capability. The Ares V launch concept is shown in Fig. 1. When it stands on the launch pad at Kennedy Space Center late in the next decade, the Ares V stack will be almost 360 feet tall. As currently envisioned, it will lift 133,000 to 144,000 pounds to trans-lunar injection, depending on the length of loiter time on Earth orbit. This presentation will provide an overview of the Constellation architecture, the Ares launch vehicles, and, specifically, the latest developments in the RS-68B engine for the Ares V.

  3. Generic multi-body formulation of heavy lift airship equations of motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringland, R. F.; Tischler, M. B.; Ashkenas, I. L.; Jex, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the formulation of a comprehensive set of equations which describe the dynamic behavior of a generic heavy lift airship (HLA). They are being used in a digital computer simulation to investigate the response dynamics and flying qualities of HLAs operating with various payloads in a variety of operational environments. A key feature is the separate treatment of each component body making up the HLA. This allows the analyst to vary the configuration (e.g., number of lift-propulsion units, presence or absence of slung payload, etc.) without rewriting the equations. It further provides measures of key structural and control loads acting on the HLA and eases the task of modeling wind disturbances.

  4. Definition of avionics concepts for a heavy lift cargo vehicle, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A cost effective, multiuser simulation, test, and demonstration facility to support the development of avionics systems for future space vehicles is defined. The technology needs and requirements of future Heavy Lift Cargo Vehicles (HLCVs) are analyzed and serve as the basis for sizing of the avionics facility although the lab is not limited in use to support of HLCVs. Volume 2 is the technical volume and provides the results of the vehicle avionics trade studies, the avionics lab objectives, the lab's functional requirements and design, physical facility considerations, and a summary cost estimate.

  5. Foundation for Heavy Lift - Early Developments in the Ares V Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McArthur, J. Craig; Pannell, Bill; Lacey, Matt

    2007-01-01

    The Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) is NASA's primary vessel for safe, reliable delivery of the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) and other resources into Earth orbit, as articulated in the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. The Ares V launch concept is shown. The foundation for this heavy-lift companion to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is taking shape within NASA and with its government and industry partners. This paper will address accomplishments in the Ares V Launch Vehicle during 2006 and 2007 and offer a preview of future activities.

  6. Foundation for Heavy Lift: Early Developments in the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.; McArthur, J. Craig

    2007-01-01

    The Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) is NASA's primary vessel for safe, reliable delivery of the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) and other resources into Earth orbit, as articulated in the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration.' The Ares V launch concept is shown. The foundation for this heavy-lift companion to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is taking shape within NASA and with its government and industry partners. This paper will address accomplishments in the Ares V Launch Vehicle during 2006 and 2007 and offer a preview of future activities.

  7. Definition of avionics concepts for a heavy lift cargo vehicle. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A cost effective, multiuser simulation, test, and demonstration facility to support the development of avionics systems for future space vehicles is examined. The technology needs and requirements of future Heavy Lift Cargo Vehicles (HLCVs) are analyzed and serve as the basis for sizing of the avionics facility, although the lab is not limited in use to support of HLCVs. Volume 1 provides a summary of the vehicle avionics trade studies, the avionics lab objectives, a summary of the lab's functional requirements and design, physical facility considerations, and cost estimates.

  8. Advanced transportation system studies. Technical area 2: Heavy lift launch vehicle development. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Sections 10 to 13 of the Advanced Transportation System Studies final report are included in this volume. Section 10 contains a copy of an executive summary that was prepared by Lockheed Space Operations Company (LSOC) to document their support to the TA-2 contract during the first-year period of performance of the contract, May 1992 through May 1993. LSOC participated on the TA-2 contract as part of the concurrent engineering launch system definition team, and provided outstanding heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) ground operations requirements and concept assessments for Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) through an intercompany work transfer as well as providing specific HLLV ground operations assessments at the direction of NASA KSC through KSC funding that was routed to the TA-2 contract. Section 11 contains a copy of a vehicle-independent, launch system health management requirements assessment. The purpose of the assessment was to define both health management requirements and the associated interfaces between a generic advanced transportation system launch vehicle and all related elements of the entire transportation system, including the ground segment. Section 12 presents the major TA-2 presentations provided to summarize the significant results and conclusions that were developed over the course of the contract. Finally, Section 13 presents the design and assessment report on the first lunar outpost heavy lift launch vehicle.

  9. A Near-Term, High-Confidence Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, William J.; Talay, Theodore A.

    2009-01-01

    The use of well understood, legacy elements of the Space Shuttle system could yield a near-term, high-confidence Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle that offers significant performance, reliability, schedule, risk, cost, and work force transition benefits. A side-mount Shuttle-Derived Vehicle (SDV) concept has been defined that has major improvements over previous Shuttle-C concepts. This SDV is shown to carry crew plus large logistics payloads to the ISS, support an operationally efficient and cost effective program of lunar exploration, and offer the potential to support commercial launch operations. This paper provides the latest data and estimates on the configurations, performance, concept of operations, reliability and safety, development schedule, risks, costs, and work force transition opportunities for this optimized side-mount SDV concept. The results presented in this paper have been based on established models and fully validated analysis tools used by the Space Shuttle Program, and are consistent with similar analysis tools commonly used throughout the aerospace industry. While these results serve as a factual basis for comparisons with other launch system architectures, no such comparisons are presented in this paper. The authors welcome comparisons between this optimized SDV and other Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle concepts.

  10. NASA's Space Launch System: A Heavy-Lift Platform for Entirely New Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) will contribute a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). The SLS Program, managed at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, will develop the heavy-lift vehicle that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Orion will carry crews to space, provide emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel, and provide safe reentry from deep-space return velocities. Supporting Orion s first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS ultimately offers a flexible platform for both human and scientific exploration. The SLS plan leverages legacy infrastructure and hardware in NASA s inventory, as well as continues with advanced technologies now in development, to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability in 2017, evolving to a 130-t capability, using a block upgrade approach. This paper will give an overview of the SLS design and management approach against a backdrop of the missions it will support. It will detail the plan to deliver the initial SLS capability to the launch pad in the near term, as well as summarize the innovative approaches the SLS team is applying to deliver a safe, affordable, and sustainable long-range capability for entirely new missions-opening a new realm of knowledge and a world of possibilities for multiple partners. Design reference missions that the SLS is being planned to support include Mars, Jupiter, Lagrange Points, and near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), among others. The Agency is developing its mission manifest in parallel with the development of a heavy-lift flagship that will dramatically increase total lift and volume capacity beyond current launch vehicle options, reduce trip times, and provide a robust platform for conducting new missions

  11. NASA's Space Launch System: A Heavy-Lift Platform for Entirely New Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) will contribute a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond low-Earth orbit. The SLS Program, managed at NASA s Marshall Space Fight Center, will develop the heavy-lift vehicle that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions. Orion will carry crews to space, provide emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel, and provide safe reentry from deep-space return velocities. Supporting Orion s first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS ultimately offers a flexible platform for both human and scientific exploration. The SLS plan leverages legacy infrastructure and hardware in NASA s inventory, as well as continues with advanced propulsion technologies now in development, to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability in 2017, evolving to a 130-t capability after 2021, using a block upgrade approach. This paper will give an overview of the SLS design and management approach against a backdrop of the missions it will support. It will detail the plan to deliver the initial SLS capability to the launch pad in the near term, as well as summarize the innovative approaches the SLS team is applying to deliver a safe, affordable, and sustainable long-range capability for entirely new missions opening a new realm of knowledge and a world of possibilities for multiple partners. Design reference missions that the SLS is being planned to support include asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars, among others. The Agency is developing its mission manifest in parallel with the development of a heavy-lift flagship that will dramatically increase total lift and volume capacity beyond current launch vehicle options, reduce trip times, and provide a robust platform for conducting new missions destined to rewrite textbooks with the

  12. Next Generation Heavy-Lift Launch Vehicle: Large Diameter, Hydrocarbon-Fueled Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holliday, Jon; Monk, Timothy; Adams, Charles; Campbell, Ricky

    2012-01-01

    With the passage of the 2010 NASA Authorization Act, NASA was directed to begin the development of the Space Launch System (SLS) as a follow-on to the Space Shuttle Program. The SLS is envisioned as a heavy lift launch vehicle that will provide the foundation for future large-scale, beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. Supporting the Mission Concept Review (MCR) milestone, several teams were formed to conduct an initial Requirements Analysis Cycle (RAC). These teams identified several vehicle concept candidates capable of meeting the preliminary system requirements. One such team, dubbed RAC Team 2, was tasked with identifying launch vehicles that are based on large stage diameters (up to the Saturn V S-IC and S-II stage diameters of 33 ft) and utilize high-thrust liquid oxygen (LOX)/RP engines as a First Stage propulsion system. While the trade space for this class of LOX/RP vehicles is relatively large, recent NASA activities (namely the Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Study in late 2009 and the Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology Study of 2010) examined specific families within this trade space. Although the findings from these studies were incorporated in the Team 2 activity, additional branches of the trade space were examined and alternative approaches to vehicle development were considered. Furthermore, Team 2 set out to define a highly functional, flexible, and cost-effective launch vehicle concept. Utilizing this approach, a versatile two-stage launch vehicle concept was chosen as a preferred option. The preferred vehicle option has the capability to fly in several different configurations (e.g. engine arrangements) that gives this concept an inherent operational flexibility which allows the vehicle to meet a wide range of performance requirements without the need for costly block upgrades. Even still, this concept preserves the option for evolvability should the need arise in future mission scenarios. The foundation of this conceptual design is a focus on low

  13. Final design report of a personnel launch system and a family of heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tupa, James; Merritt, Debbie; Riha, David; Burton, Lee; Kubinski, Russell; Drake, Kerry; Mann, Darrin; Turner, Ken

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to design both a Personnel Launch System (PLS) and a family of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (FHLLVs) that provide low cost and efficient operation in missions not suited for the Shuttle. The PLS vehicle is designed primarily for space station crew rotation and emergency crew return. The final design of the PLS vehicle and its interior is given. The mission of the FHLLVs is to place large, massive payloads into Earth orbit with payload flexibility being considered foremost in the design. The final design of three launch vehicles was found to yield a payload capacity range from 20 to 200 mt. These designs include the use of multistaged, high thrust liquid engines mounted on the core stages of the rocket.

  14. Heavy-lift vehicle-launched Space Station method and apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Donald C. (Inventor); Delafuente, Horacio M. (Inventor); Berka, Reginald B. (Inventor); Rickman, Steven L. (Inventor); Castro, Edgar O. (Inventor); Nagy, Kornel (Inventor); Wesselski, Clarence J. (Inventor); Pelischek, Timothy E. (Inventor); Schliesing, John A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for a single heavy-lift launch to place a complete, operational space station on-orbit. A payload including the space station takes the place of a shuttle orbiter using the launch vehicle of the shuttle orbiter. The payload includes a forward shroud, a core module, a propulsion module, and a transition module between the core module and the propulsion module. The essential subsystems are preintegrated and verified on Earth. The core module provides means for attaching international modules with minimum impact to the overall design. The space station includes six control moment gyros for selectably operating in either LVLH (local-vertical local-horizontal) or SI (solar inertial) flight modes.

  15. Structure and properties of polyethylene films used in heavy lift balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khoury, F.; Crissman, J. M.; Fanconi, B. M.; Wagner, H. L.; Botz, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The following features of five polyethylene films used by NASA in the construction of heavy lift balloons have been examined: molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, branching, melting behavior, density, surface texture, birefringence, orientation of crystalline regions, unlaxial deformation in the machine and transverse directions, and the effect of sample geometry and strain rate on deformation behavior. The goal of this exploratory study was to determine whether there are significant differences in any of the above mentioned features, or combination of features between the films. The acquisition of such information is a first step towards determining whether there are any specific correlations between film characteristics and the incidence of catastrophic failure of balloons during ascent through the troposphere. This exploratory study has resulted in the identification of similarities and differences between various features of the films.

  16. The Business Case for Spiral Development in Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Rebecca A.; Christensen, David L.; Keith, Edward L.

    2005-01-01

    Performance capabilities of a specific combination of the Space Shuttle external tank and various liquid engines in an in-line configuration, two-stage core vehicle with multiple redesigned solid rocket motor strap-ons are reexamined. This concept proposes using existing assets, hardware, and capabilities that are already crew-rated, flight certified, being manufactured under existing contracts, have a long history of component and system ground testing, and have been flown for over 20 yr. This paper goes beyond describing potential performance capabilities of specific components to discuss the overall system feasibility-from end to end, start to finish-describing the inherent cost advantages of the Spiral Development concept, which builds on existing capabilities and assets, as opposed to starting up a "fresh sheet" heavy-lift launch vehicle program from scratch.

  17. Ramjet/scramjet plus rocket propulsion for a heavy-lift Space Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, Edward

    1993-10-01

    The possibility of using hydrogen-fueled ramjet/scramjet engines for improving the performance and reducing the operating cost of a second-generation Space Shuttle is examined. For a heavy-lift capability, a two-stage system would be necessary. This could consist of a central Trans Atmospheric Vehicle (TAV) with a hypersonic booster attached to each side. A wheeled ground-based launcher could make the takeoff of such a system possible. By using data from the NASP project and the present Space Shuttle, it is shown that a TAV, which is about 20 percent longer than a Boeing 747, could take a payload of about 200,000 pounds to an earth orbit.

  18. Simulation of Heavy Lift Airship dynamics over large ranges of incidence and speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. B.; Jex, H. R.; Ringland, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    A nonlinear, multibody, six-degrees-of-freedom digital simulation has been developed to study generic Heavy Lift Airship (HLA) dynamics and control. The basic aerodynamic functions developed to model the hull, tail, and rotor loads continuously over all incidence ranges are reviewed and applied to a Quadrotor HLA with a low fineness ratio hull and a small vee-tail. Trim calculations for a test vehicle suggest control power deficiencies in crosswind stationkeeping for the unloaded vehicle. Gust responses show the importance of correctly calculating loads due to accelerated relative motion of air and hull. Numerically linearized dynamics for the test vehicle show the existence of a divergent yaw mode, and an oscillatory pitch mode whose stability characteristics are sensitive to flight speed. A considerable improvement in the vehicle's stability and response results from a simple multi-axis closed-loop control system operating on the rotors and propeller blades.

  19. [The occupational risks and pathologies due to the manual lifting of patients in Italian legislation].

    PubMed

    Ricci, M G; Battevi, N

    1999-01-01

    Current Italian legislation establishes all necessary details of intervention procedures aimed at elimination or substantial reduction of risk due to manual lifting of patients. Chapter V of Law No 626/94, which was a thoroughly innovative step in the field of safety, hygiene and prevention at the workplace, in 3 articles and one annex incorporated Community Directive 269/90 into Italian legislation. The model to approach manual load handling, whose definition can in all respects be transferred to health facilities where load means patients who are not self-sufficient in movement, sets out a precise strategy of actions. The first action is automation of the "production process", which is inapplicable in the health care sector; the second action is to provide "aids", which is perfectly applicable to the health care sector. A further action foreseen by the regulations that should be taken into consideration in addressing the problem of manual patient handling from the point of view of prevention is found in the Law (Presidential Decree) of 14/1/97 concerning criteria of accreditation of health facilities, which also refers to the regulations contained in Law 626/94. As regards the insurance coverage of acute or chronic impairment due to manual handling of loads/patients, these aspects are still not contemplated in any regulations. This contradiction became even more evident with the introduction of Law No 626/94 where in Chapter V reference is made to "dorsal-lumbar lesions". Although these lesions are recognized legally in the acute form (accidents), there are also degenerative diseases with chronic development, and the latter are not given any protection apart from the theoretical recognition contained in the Constitutional Court Sentence 179/88. It is to be hoped that the review process of the list of compensable occupational diseases will address this problem, too, so that it can be solved as soon as possible.

  20. A New Heavy-Lift Capability for Space Exploration: NASA's Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.; McArthur, J. Craig

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing new launch systems and preparing to retire the Space Shuttle by 2010, as directed in the United States (U.S.) Vision for Space Exploration. The Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Ares V heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) systems will build upon proven, reliable hardware derived from the Apollo-Saturn and Space Shuttle programs to deliver safe, reliable, affordable space transportation solutions. This approach leverages existing aerospace talent and a unique infrastructure, as well as legacy knowledge gained from nearly 50 years' experience developing space hardware. Early next decade, the Ares I will launch the new Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to the International Space Station (ISS) or to low-Earth orbit for trips to the Moon and, ultimately, Mars. Late next decade, the Ares V's Earth Departure Stage will carry larger payloads such as the lunar lander into orbit, and the Crew Exploration Vehicle will dock with it for missions to the Moon, where astronauts will explore new territories and conduct science and technology experiments. Both Ares I and Ares V are being designed to support longer future trips to Mars. The Exploration Launch Projects Office is designing, developing, testing, and evaluating both launch vehicle systems in partnership with other NASA Centers, Government agencies, and industry contractors. This paper provides top-level information regarding the genesis and evolution of the baseline configuration for the Ares V heavy-lift system. It also discusses riskbased, management strategies, such as building on powerful hardware and promoting common features between the Ares I and Ares V systems to reduce technical, schedule, and cost risks, as well as development and operations costs. Finally, it summarizes several notable accomplishments since October 2005, when the Exploration Launch Projects effort officially kicked off, and looks ahead at work planned for 2007

  1. ESC-B: The Cryogenic Upper Stage for Europe's Heavy Lift Launcher Ariane 5ECB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhls, A.

    2002-01-01

    -A. Juhls, Astrium GmbH -M. Lepelletier, Snecma Moteurs -JM. Bahu, CNES -C. Poincheval, CNES. In the year 1998 the European ministerial council decided to initiate the Ariane 5 Plus programme in order to upgrade the European heavy lift launcher Ariane 5. The market was changing more rapidly than predicted showing steadily growing satellite mass and the demand for flexible missions while strong competitors were intensifying their preparations to enter the commercial business. The answer was to improve the Ariane 5 launcher by modifying the cryogenic first (or lower ?) stage and the solid boosters and by introducing two cryogenic upper stages in two steps: In order to cope with the short term need of a significant growth of GTO lift capacity up to 10 t the first denoted ESC-A shall enter commercial service in 2002. Four years later a more powerful second version shall take over enabling a GTO performance of 12 t and providing versatile mission capability. The paper will focus on this new cryogenic upper stage denoted ESC-B giving first a general description of main characteristics and constituents. The article will highlight different challenging aspects of the ESC-B development: Ambitious economical conditions regarding both limited development budgets and the strong need to reduce production cost require improved working methods and an adjustment of the conventional development logic, in particular regarding new verification methods. Furthermore Europe is now facing the complex combination of versatile mission capability together with a powerful cryogenic upper stage. The paper will present the approach to define reasonable mission scenarios in order to cover customer demands while avoiding too stringent system requirements. Along with VINCI, Europe's first expander cycle type engine featuring an extendable nozzle dedicated subsystems will be described which allow 4 re-ignitions and 6 hours of ballistic flight. The paper concludes with the summary of the

  2. A New Heavy-Lift Capability for Space Exploration: NASA's Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing new launch systems in preparation for the retirement of the Space Shuttle by 2010, as directed in the United States (U.S.) Vision for Space Exploration. The Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and the Ares V heavy-lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) systems will build upon proven, reliable hardware derived from the Apollo Saturn (1961 to 1975) and Space Shuttle (1972 to 2010) programs to deliver safe, reliable, affordable space transportation solutions. This approach leverages existing aerospace talent and a unique infrastructure, as well as the vast amount of legacy knowledge gained from almost a half-century of hard-won experience in the space enterprise. Beginning early next decade, the Ares I will launch the new Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) to the International Space Station (ISS) or to low-Earth orbit for trips to the Moon and, ultimately, Mars. Late next decade, the Ares V's Earth Departure Stage will carry larger payloads such as the lunar lander into orbit, and the Crew Exploration Vehicle will dock with it for missions to the Moon, where astronauts will explore new territories and conduct science and technology experiments. Both the Ares I and Ares V systems are being designed to support longer future trips to Mars. The Exploration Launch Projects Office, located at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, is designing, developing, testing, and evaluating both launch vehicle systems in partnership with other NASA Centers, Government agencies, and industry contractors. This paper provides top-level information regarding the genesis and evolution of the baseline configuration for the Ares V heavy-lift system. It also touches on risk-based management strategies, such as building on powerful hardware and promoting common features between the Ares I and Ares V systems to reduce technical, schedule, and cost risks, as well as development and operations costs. Finally, it gives a summary of several

  3. Spacely's rockets: Personnel launch system/family of heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    During 1990, numerous questions were raised regarding the ability of the current shuttle orbiter to provide reliable, on demand support of the planned space station. Besides being plagued by reliability problems, the shuttle lacks the ability to launch some of the heavy payloads required for future space exploration, and is too expensive to operate as a mere passenger ferry to orbit. Therefore, additional launch systems are required to complement the shuttle in a more robust and capable Space Transportation System. In December 1990, the Report of the Advisory Committee on the Future of the U.S. Space Program, advised NASA of the risks of becoming too dependent on the space shuttle as an all-purpose vehicle. Furthermore, the committee felt that reducing the number of shuttle missions would prolong the life of the existing fleet. In their suggestions, the board members strongly advocated the establishment of a fleet of unmanned, heavy lift launch vehicles (HLLV's) to support the space station and other payload-intensive enterprises. Another committee recommendation was that a space station crew rotation/rescue vehicle be developed as an alternative to the shuttle, or as a contingency if the shuttle is not available. The committee emphasized that this vehicle be designed for use as a personnel carrier, not a cargo carrier. This recommendation was made to avoid building another version of the existing shuttle, which is not ideally suited as a passenger vehicle only. The objective of this project was to design both a Personnel Launch System (PLS) and a family of HLLV's that provide low cost and efficient operation in missions not suited for the shuttle.

  4. Update on the Ares V to Support Heavy Lift for U.S. Space Exploration Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.; Creech, Steve

    2008-01-01

    When NASA's Ares V cargo launch vehicle begins flying late next decade, its capabilities will significantly exceed the 1960s-era Saturn V. It will send more crew and cargo to more places on the lunar surface than Apollo and provide ongoing support to a permanent lunar outpost that will open the Moon to greater exploration, science and adventure than ever before. Moreover, it will restore the United States heavy-lift capability, which can support human and robotic exploration for decades to come. Ares V remains in a pre-design analysis cycle stage pending a planned Authority to Proceed (ATP) in late 2010. Ares V benefits from the decision to draw from heritage hardware and its commonality with the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which completed its preliminary design review (PDR) in September 2008. Most of the work on Ares V to date has been focused on refining the vehicle design through a variety of internal studies. This paper will provide background information on the Ares V evolution, emphasizing the vehicle configuration as it exists today.

  5. Navier-Stokes Simulation of a Heavy Lift Slowed-Rotor Compound Helicopter Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Brian G.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Bartram, Scott M.; Hallissy, Jim B.; Harris, Jerome; Noonan, Kevin W.; Wong, Oliver D.; Jones, Henry E.; Malovrh, Brendon D.; reis, Deane G.; Mace, W. Derry

    2009-01-01

    Time accurate numerical simulations were performed using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow solver OVERFLOW for a heavy lift, slowed-rotor, compound helicopter configuration, tested at the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. The primary purpose of these simulations is to provide support for the development of a large field of view Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) flow measurement technique supported by the Subsonic Rotary Wing (SRW) project under the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics program. These simulations provide a better understanding of the rotor and body wake flows and helped to define PIV measurement locations as well as requirements for validation of flow solver codes. The large field PIV system can measure the three-dimensional velocity flow field in a 0.914m by 1.83m plane. PIV measurements were performed upstream and downstream of the vertical tail section and are compared to simulation results. The simulations are also used to better understand the tunnel wall and body/rotor support effects by comparing simulations with and without tunnel floor/ceiling walls and supports. Comparisons are also made to the experimental force and moment data for the body and rotor.

  6. Advanced Transportation System Studies Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development Contract. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The sections in this report include: Single Stage to Orbit (SSTO) Design Ground-rules; Operations Issues and Lessons Learned; Vertical-Takeoff/Landing Versus Vertical-Takeoff/Horizontal-Landing; SSTO Design Results; SSTO Simulation Results; SSTO Assessment Results; SSTO Sizing Tool User's Guide; SSto Turnaround Assessment Report; Ground Operations Assessment First Year Executive Summary; Health Management System Definition Study; Major TA-2 Presentations; First Lunar Outpost Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Design and Assessment; and the section, Russian Propulsion Technology Assessment Reports.

  7. Advanced grid-stiffened composite shells for applications in heavy-lift helicopter rotor blade spars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan Nampy, Sreenivas

    Modern rotor blades are constructed using composite materials to exploit their superior structural performance compared to metals. Helicopter rotor blade spars are conventionally designed as monocoque structures. Blades of the proposed Heavy Lift Helicopter are envisioned to be as heavy as 800 lbs when designed using the monocoque spar design. A new and innovative design is proposed to replace the conventional spar designs with light weight grid-stiffened composite shell. Composite stiffened shells have been known to provide excellent strength to weight ratio and damage tolerance with an excellent potential to reduce weight. Conventional stringer--rib stiffened construction is not suitable for rotor blade spars since they are limited in generating high torsion stiffness that is required for aeroelastic stability of the rotor. As a result, off-axis (helical) stiffeners must be provided. This is a new design space where innovative modeling techniques are needed. The structural behavior of grid-stiffened structures under axial, bending, and torsion loads, typically experienced by rotor blades need to be accurately predicted. The overall objective of the present research is to develop and integrate the necessary design analysis tools to conduct a feasibility study in employing grid-stiffened shells for heavy-lift rotor blade spars. Upon evaluating the limitations in state-of-the-art analytical models in predicting the axial, bending, and torsion stiffness coefficients of grid and grid-stiffened structures, a new analytical model was developed. The new analytical model based on the smeared stiffness approach was developed employing the stiffness matrices of the constituent members of the grid structure such as an arch, helical, or straight beam representing circumferential, helical, and longitudinal stiffeners. This analysis has the capability to model various stiffening configurations such as angle-grid, ortho-grid, and general-grid. Analyses were performed using an

  8. One Engine Inoperative (OEI) and Autorotation For Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Federal Aviation Administration will certainly require the Heavy Lift Rotorcraft to be operated under Category A performance and operations requirements. Because of the weight, no operation will be allowed except Category A according to FAA Part 29.1(c). This means that any where along the flight path, the aircraft must be able to land safely following an engine failure or continue flight. A repeatable flight profile must be developed and executed to ensure that the aircraft can be safely landed or flown away depending on its location on the flight profile. This means that there will be no Height-Velocity testing required as is currently required for Part 29 Category B. Since all the configurations shown to date are different than existing rotorcraft, each type would have to develop their individual requirements under existing special conditions FAA Part 21.17(b). This means the FAA will take the opportunity to negotiate additional requirements or change requirements to ensure safety. For example, since the tiltrotor did not fit normal rotorcraft category, new rules were negotiated between the applicant and the FAA. As a result of this negotiation, performance requirements for Category A were increased. The rules were written in terms of guaranteed performance instead of Category A requirements. Detailed discussion will follow later. The proposed tiltrotor would likely follow along with the current tiltrotor rules with the possibility of increase Category A performance requirements. Compounding with addition of wing and auxiliary thrust to both the tandem and coaxial rotor would result in new special condition aircraft. To my knowledge, no compound tandem or compound coaxial rotor has ever been certified by FAA.

  9. Ultra-heavy vertical lift system: The Heli-Stat. [helicopter - airship combination for materials handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piasecki, F. N.

    1975-01-01

    A hybrid VTOL airship which is combined with helicopters is evaluated. The static lift of the airship supports approximately the full empty weight of the entire assembly. The helicopter rotors furnish the lift to support the payload as well as the propulsion and control about all axes. Thus existing helicopters, with no new technology required, can be made to lift payloads of ten times the capacity of each one alone, and considerably more than that of any airship built so far. A vehicle is described which has a 75-ton payload, based on four existing CH-53D helicopters and an airship of 3,600,000 cu. ft. The method of interconnection is described along with discussion of control, instrumentation, drive system and critical design conditions. The vertical lift and positioning capabilities of this vehicle far exceed any other means available today, yet can be built with a minimum of risk, development cost and time.

  10. Effects of back support on intra-abdominal pressure and lumbar kinetics during heavy lifting.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, M L; McCoy, R W; Redondo, D R; Shall, L M

    1995-09-01

    Lumbosacral supports (LSSs) have been used to minimize the risk of lower back injuries. Theoretically, an LSS will raise intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and reduce loads in the lower back region. This investigation compared three different LSSs with an unsupported condition. Nine males lifted a weighted box four times, once per condition, at 90% of their one-repetition maximum. Conditions were compared in terms of effects on IAP and its relieving force on L5-S1 kinetics. A multivariate analysis of covariance revealed no statistically significant differences among the three LSSs and the nonsupport conditions on the aforementioned dependent variables. This suggests that there is no difference among LSSs in terms of their biomechanical effects on the lower back region and that the use of any LSS does not necessarily afford more protection than a proper lift without one.

  11. Performance and Design Investigation of Heavy Lift Tiltrotor with Aerodynamic Interference Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeo, Yyeonsoo; Johnson, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    The aerodynamic interference effects on tiltrotor performance in cruise are investigated using comprehensive calculations, to better understand the physics and to quantify the effects on the aircraft design. Performance calculations were conducted for 146,600-lb conventional and quad tiltrotors, which are to cruise at 300 knots at 4000 ft/95 deg F condition. A parametric study was conducted to understand the effects of design parameters on the performance of the aircraft. Aerodynamic interference improves the aircraft lift-to-drag ratio of the baseline conventional tiltrotor. However, interference degrades the aircraft performance of the baseline quad tiltrotor, due mostly to the unfavorable effects from the front wing to the rear wing. A reduction of rotor tip speed increased the aircraft lift-to-drag ratio the most among the design parameters investigated.

  12. Lift truck safety review

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    This report presents safety information about powered industrial trucks. The basic lift truck, the counterbalanced sit down rider truck, is the primary focus of the report. Lift truck engineering is briefly described, then a hazard analysis is performed on the lift truck. Case histories and accident statistics are also given. Rules and regulations about lift trucks, such as the US Occupational Safety an Health Administration laws and the Underwriter`s Laboratories standards, are discussed. Safety issues with lift trucks are reviewed, and lift truck safety and reliability are discussed. Some quantitative reliability values are given.

  13. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2(TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 1; Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurry, J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 1, provides a summary description of the technical activities that were performed over the entire contract duration, covering three distinct launch vehicle definition activities: heavy-lift (300,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles for the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), medium-lift (50,000-80,000 pounds injected mass to low Earth orbit) launch vehicles, and single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicles (25,000 pounds injected mass to a Space Station orbit).

  14. Shuttle-C heavy-lift vehicle of the 90's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eudy, Robert G.

    An unmanned cargo version of the Shuttle is being defined with the objective of achieving early high-lift capability. This vehicle, Shuttle-C, is a low-cost evolution of the current Space shuttle that may be flying 100,000-170,000-pound payloads by late 1994. The only new element of the Shuttle-C will be a cylindrical payload carrier with a 15-foot diameter, 82-foot long payload bay. The discussion covers the advantages of Shuttle-C, Shuttle-C design, the main propulsion system, the power system and auxiliary power units, a typical mission, and candidate payloads.

  15. Scaling laws for testing of high lift airfoils under heavy rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilanin, A. J.

    1985-01-01

    The results of studies regarding the effect of rainfall about aircraft are briefly reviewed. It is found that performance penalties on airfoils have been identified in subscale tests. For this reason, it is of great importance that scaling laws be dveloped to aid in the extrapolation of these data to fullscale. The present investigation represents an attempt to develop scaling laws for testing subscale airfoils under heavy rain conditions. Attention is given to rain statistics, airfoil operation in heavy rain, scaling laws, thermodynamics of condensation and/or evaporation, rainfall and airfoil scaling, aspects of splash back, film thickness, rivulets, and flap slot blockage. It is concluded that the extrapolation of airfoil performance data taken at subscale under simulated heavy rain conditions to fullscale must be undertaken with caution.

  16. Preliminary Design of a Tip-Jet-Driven Heavy Lift Helicopter Incorporating Circulation Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    terms of efficiency, the XCH-62 would probably have represented the pinnacle of shaft-drive helicopter development; to build significantly larger...carry heavy loads on fixed-length cables, with the hoists serving a reefing function - the actual load would be carried by the cable only (for example

  17. Variable Lifting Index (VLI)

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an adaptation of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting Index (VLI). Background: There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. Method: In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift Index (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift Index (CLI) equation is used with lifting index (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. Results: The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. Conclusions: The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. Application: The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. PMID:26646300

  18. [Occupational neurotoxicology due to heavy metals-especially manganese poisoning].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Naohide

    2007-06-01

    The most hazardous manganese exposures occur in mining and smelting of ore. Recently, the poisoning has been frequently reported to be associated with welding. In occupational exposure, manganese is absorbed mainly by inhalation. Manganese preferentially accumulates in tissues rich in mitochondria. It also penetrates the blood brain barrior and accumulate in the basal ganglia, especially the globus pallidus, but also the striatum. Manganese poisoning is clinically characterized by the central nervous system involvement including psychiatric symptomes, extrapyramidal signs, and less frequently other neurological manifestations, Psychiatric symptomes are well described in the manganese miners and incrude sleep disturbance, disorientation, emotional lability, compulsive acts, hallucinations, illusions, and delusions. The main characteristic manifestations usually begin shortly after the appearance of these psychiatric symptomes. The latter neurological signs are progressive bradykinesia, dystonia, and disturbance of gait. Bradykinesia is one of the most important findings. There is a remarkable slowing of both active and passive movements of the extremities. Micrographia is frequently observed and a characteristic finding. The patients may show some symmetrical tremor, which usually not so marked. The dystonic posture of the limbs is often accompanied by painfull cramps. This attitudal hypertonia has a tenndency to decrease or disappear in the supine position and to increase in orthostation. Cog-wheel rigidity is also elisited on the passive movement of all extremities. Gait disturbance is also characteristic in this poisoning. In the severe cases, cook gait has been reported. The patient uses small steps, but has a tendency to elevate the heels and to rotate them outward. He progress without pressing on the flat of his feet, but only upon the metatarsophalangeal articulations, mainly of the fourth and fifth toes. Increased signal in T1-weighted image in the basal

  19. Occupational lifting tasks as a risk factor in low back pain: a case-control study in a Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Prado-Leon, Lilia R; Celis, Alfredo; Avila-Chaurand, Rosalio

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify and assess whether lifting tasks in the workplace are a risk factor in lumbar spondyloarthrosis etiology. A case-control study was performed with 231 workers, 18-55 years old, insured by the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS, according to its designation in Spanish). A multivariate analysis using conditional logistical regression showed that lifting tasks, combined with driving tasks, are associated with this illness (OR = 7.3; 95% CI 1.7-31.4). The daily frequency of lifting as it interacts with work as a driver resulted in a greater risk (OR = 10.4; 95% CI 2.0-52.5). The load weight, daily task-hours and cumulative time showed a dose-response relationship. The attributable risk for lifting tasks was 0.83, suggesting that 83% of lumbar spondyloarthrosis development could be prevented if risk factors were eliminated by ergonomic redesign of the task.

  20. Advanced Transportation System Studies Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development Contract. Volume 2; Technical Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Studies (ATSS) Technical Area 2 (TA-2) Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Development contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. This document is Volume 2 of the final report for the contract. It provides documentation of selected technical results from various TA-2 analysis activities, including a detailed narrative description of the SSTO concept assessment results, a user's guide for the associated SSTO sizing tools, an SSTO turnaround assessment report, an executive summary of the ground operations assessments performed during the first year of the contract, a configuration-independent vehicle health management system requirements report, a copy of all major TA-2 contract presentations, a copy of the FLO launch vehicle final report, and references to Pratt & Whitney's TA-2 sponsored final reports regarding the identification of Russian main propulsion technologies.

  1. Advanced transportation system studies technical area 2 (TA-2): Heavy lift launch vehicle development. volume 3; Program Cost estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCurry, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the TA-2 contract was to provide advanced launch vehicle concept definition and analysis to assist NASA in the identification of future launch vehicle requirements. Contracted analysis activities included vehicle sizing and performance analysis, subsystem concept definition, propulsion subsystem definition (foreign and domestic), ground operations and facilities analysis, and life cycle cost estimation. The basic period of performance of the TA-2 contract was from May 1992 through May 1993. No-cost extensions were exercised on the contract from June 1993 through July 1995. This document is part of the final report for the TA-2 contract. The final report consists of three volumes: Volume 1 is the Executive Summary, Volume 2 is Technical Results, and Volume 3 is Program Cost Estimates. The document-at-hand, Volume 3, provides a work breakdown structure dictionary, user's guide for the parametric life cycle cost estimation tool, and final report developed by ECON, Inc., under subcontract to Lockheed Martin on TA-2 for the analysis of heavy lift launch vehicle concepts.

  2. Aeroelastic effects in multi-rotor vehicles with application to a hybrid heavy lift system. Part 1: Formulation of equations of motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkatesan, C.; Friedman, P.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents a set of governing coupled differential equations for a model of a hybrid aircraft. The model consists of multiple rotor systems connected by an elastic interconnecting structure, with options to add any combination of or all of the following components; i.e., thrusters, a buoyant hull, and an underslung weight. The dynamic equations are written for the individual blade with hub motions, for the rigid body motions of the whole model, and also for the flexible modes of the interconnecting structure. One of the purposes of this study is to serve as the basis of a numerical study aimed at determining the aeroelastic stability and structural response characteristics of a Hybrid Heavy Lift Airship (HHLA). It is also expected that the formulation may be applicable to analyzing stability and responses of dual rotor helicopters such as a Heavy Lift Helicopter (HLH). Futhermore, the model is capable of representing coupled rotor/body aeromechanical problems of single rotor helicopters.

  3. A logistics and potential hazard study of propellant systems for a Saturn 5 derived heavy lift (three-stage core) launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, E. Dow

    1992-01-01

    The Bush Administration has directed NASA to prepare for a return to the Moon and on to Mars - the Space Exploration Initiative. To meet this directive, powerful rocket boosters will be required in order to lift payloads that may reach the half-million pound range into low earth orbit. In this report an analysis is presented on logistics and potential hazards of the propellant systems envisioned for future Saturn 5 derived heavy lift launch vehicles. In discussing propellant logistics, particular attention has been given to possible problems associated with procurement, transportation, and storage of RP-1, HL2, and LOX, the heavy lift launch vehicle propellants. Current LOX producing facilities will need to be expanded and propellant storage and some support facilities will require relocation if current Launch Pads 39A and/or 39B are to be used for future heavy noise-abatement measures. Included in the report is a discussion of suggested additional studies, primarily economic and environmental, which should be undertaken in support of the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative.

  4. A comparative study and application of continuously variable transmission to a single main rotor heavy lift helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameer, Sameer

    Rotorcraft transmission design is limited by empirical weight trends that are proportional to the power/torque raised to the two-thirds coupled with the relative inexperience industry has with the employment of variable speed transmission to heavy lift helicopters of the order of 100,000 lbs gross weight and 30,000 installed horsepower. The advanced rotorcraft transmission program objectives are to reduce transmission weight by at least 25%, reduce sound pressure levels by at least 10 dB, have a 5000 hr mean time between removal, and also incorporate the use of split torque technology in rotorcraft drivetrains of the future. The major obstacle that challenges rotorcraft drivetrain design is the selection, design, and optimization of a variable speed transmission in the goal of achieving a 50% reduction in rotor speed and its ability to handle high torque with light weight gears, as opposed to using a two-speed transmission which has inherent structural problems and is highly unreliable due to the embodiment of the traction type transmission, complex clutch and brake system. This thesis selects a nontraction pericyclic continuously variable transmission (P-CVT) as the best approach for a single main rotor heavy lift helicopter. The objective is to target and overcome the above mentioned obstacle for drivetrain design. Overcoming this obstacle provides advancement in the state of the art of drivetrain design over existing planetary and split torque transmissions currently used in helicopters. The goal of the optimization process was to decrease weight, decrease noise, increase efficiency, and increase safety and reliability. The objective function utilized the minimization of the weight and the major constraint is the tooth bending stress of the facegears. The most important parameters of the optimization process are weight, maintainability, and reliability which are cross-functionally related to each other, and these parameters are related to the torques and

  5. Occupational Exposure to Mineral Turpentine and Heavy Fuels: A Possible Risk Factor for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Helou, Rafik; Jaecker, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between solvents and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been the subject of several studies. Yet, only few studies have examined the various solvents separately, and the controls have rarely been monitored long enough. For these reasons and others, we believe that further studies are required. Objectives The objective of this study was to identify solvents associated with the clinicoradiological diagnostic of AD or mixed-type dementia (MD). Methods A retrospective case-control study was performed in 156 patients followed up at the Memory Diagnostic Center of Bertinot Juel Hospital (France). The inclusion criteria were known occupation(s), a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score ≥10 at the first visit, a neuropsychological evaluation performed and a diagnosis established in our Memory Diagnostic Center. The diagnostics were crossed with 9 solvents belonging to two classes of solvents. Exposure was evaluated using French national job-exposure matrices. Results Certain petroleum-based solvents and fuels (i.e. mineral turpentine, diesel fuel, fuel oil and kerosene) were associated with a diagnosis of AD or MD. This association was still significant after adjustment for age, sex and education (adjusted OR: 6.5; 95% CI: 2-20). Conclusion Occupational exposure to mineral turpentine and heavy fuels may be a risk factor for AD and MD. PMID:25028582

  6. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 5: Transportation and operations analysis. [heavy lift launch and orbit transfer vehicles for orbital assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of transportation systems to support the operations required for the orbital assembly of a 5-gigawatt satellite is discussed as well as the construction of a ground receiving antenna (rectenna). Topics covered include heavy lift launch vehicle configurations for Earth-to LEO transport; the use of chemical, nuclear, and electric orbit transfer vehicles for LEO to GEO operations; personnel transport systems; ground operations; end-to-end analysis of the construction, operation, and maintenance of the satellite and rectenna; propellant production and storage; and payload packaging.

  7. Heavy smoking rate trends and related factors in Korean occupational groups: analysis of KNHANES 2007–2012 data

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bo-Guen; Pang, Do-Dam; Park, Young-Jun; Lee, Jong-In; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Jang, Tae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study was designed to investigate the smoking and heavy smoking trends and identify possible related factors among Korean male workers from 2007 to 2012 by occupational groups. Methods The data were derived from the fourth (2007–2009) and fifth (2010–2012) waves of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Occupational groups were categorised into three groups, which were non-manual, manual and service and sales groups. Age-adjusted prevalence rates of smoking and heavy smoking (>20 cigarettes/day) in men aged 25–64 years were calculated. Factors associated with heavy smoking were investigated using logistic regression analyses. Results Smoking rate in manual workers decreased gradually over time (p for trend <0.0001). Smoking rate was higher in manual than non-manual workers, but the difference reduced over time (p for trend <0.0001). Heavy smoking rate decreased from 2007 to 2012 (p for trend <0.0001). Heavy smoking rate was higher in manual than non-manual workers; however, this difference increased over time. Stress, depressive mood and long working hours (≥60 h/week) were associated with heavy smoking. Conclusions Antismoking policy should focus on current and heavy smokers. Workplace antismoking programmes should consider working hours and stress, especially in manual workers. PMID:26563212

  8. Does that look heavy to you? Perceived weight judgment in lifting actions in younger and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Maguinness, Corrina; Setti, Annalisa; Roudaia, Eugenie; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-01-01

    When interpreting other people's movements or actions, observers may not only rely on the visual cues available in the observed movement, but they may also be able to “put themselves in the other person's shoes” by engaging brain systems involved in both “mentalizing” and motor simulation. The ageing process brings changes in both perceptual and motor abilities, yet little is known about how these changes may affect the ability to accurately interpret other people's actions. Here we investigated the effect of ageing on the ability to discriminate the weight of objects based on the movements of actors lifting these objects. Stimuli consisted of videos of an actor lifting a small box weighing 0.05–0.9 kg or a large box weighting 3–18 kg. In a four-alternative forced-choice task, younger and older participants reported the perceived weight of the box in each video. Overall, older participants were less sensitive than younger participants in discriminating the perceived weight of lifted boxes, an effect that was especially pronounced in the small box condition. Weight discrimination performance was better for the large box compared to the small box in both groups, due to greater saliency of the visual cues in this condition. These results suggest that older adults may require more salient visual cues to interpret the actions of others accurately. We discuss the potential contribution of age-related changes in visual and motor function on the observed effects and suggest that older adults' decline in the sensitivity to subtle visual cues may lead to greater reliance on visual analysis of the observed scene and its semantic context. PMID:24324423

  9. Large Spun Formed Friction-Stir Welded Tank Domes for Liquid Propellant Tanks Made from AA2195: A Technology Demonstration for the Next Generation of Heavy Lift Launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stachulla, M.; Pernpeinter, R.; Brewster J.; Curreri, P.; Hoffman, E.

    2010-01-01

    Improving structural efficiency while reducing manufacturing costs are key objectives when making future heavy-lift launchers more performing and cost efficient. The main enabling technologies are the application of advanced high performance materials as well as cost effective manufacture processes. This paper presents the status and main results of a joint industrial research & development effort to demonstrate TRL 6 of a novel manufacturing process for large liquid propellant tanks for launcher applications. Using high strength aluminium-lithium alloy combined with the spin forming manufacturing technique, this development aims at thinner wall thickness and weight savings up to 25% as well as a significant reduction in manufacturing effort. In this program, the concave spin forming process is used to manufacture tank domes from a single flat plate. Applied to aluminium alloy, this process allows reaching the highest possible material strength status T8, eliminating numerous welding steps which are typically necessary to assemble tank domes from 3D-curved panels. To minimize raw material costs for large diameter tank domes for launchers, the dome blank has been composed from standard plates welded together prior to spin forming by friction stir welding. After welding, the dome blank is contoured in order to meet the required wall thickness distribution. For achieving a material state of T8, also in the welding seams, the applied spin forming process allows the required cold stretching of the 3D-curved dome, with a subsequent ageing in a furnace. This combined manufacturing process has been demonstrated up to TRL 6 for tank domes with a 5.4 m diameter. In this paper, the manufacturing process as well as test results are presented. Plans are shown how this process could be applied to future heavy-lift launch vehicles developments, also for larger dome diameters.

  10. Advanced underwater lift device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flanagan, David T.; Hopkins, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Flexible underwater lift devices ('lift bags') are used in underwater operations to provide buoyancy to submerged objects. Commercially available designs are heavy, bulky, and awkward to handle, and thus are limited in size and useful lifting capacity. An underwater lift device having less than 20 percent of the bulk and less than 10 percent of the weight of commercially available models was developed. The design features a dual membrane envelope, a nearly homogeneous envelope membrane stress distribution, and a minimum surface-to-volume ratio. A proof-of-concept model of 50 kg capacity was built and tested. Originally designed to provide buoyancy to mock-ups submerged in NASA's weightlessness simulators, the device may have application to water-landed spacecraft which must deploy flotation upon impact, and where launch weight and volume penalties are significant. The device may also be useful for the automated recovery of ocean floor probes or in marine salvage applications.

  11. A survey of occupational health hazards among 7,610 female workers in China's electronics industry.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wenlan; Lao, Xiang Qian; Pang, Shulan; Zhou, Jianjiao; Zhou, Anshou; Zou, Jianfang; Mei, Liangying; Yu, Ignatius Tak-sun

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the occupational hazards among Chinese female workers in the electronics industry, the authors systematically sampled a total of 8,300 female workers at random across 4 provinces in a variety of electronics factories. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect information on occupational hazards and the occurrence of occupation-related diseases. The results show that 4,283 female workers (51.9%) were exposed to 1 or more occupational hazards. The most common chemical hazard was organic solvent, and the second most common was heavy metals. The ergonomic hazards included repetitive movements, poor standing posture, and the lifting of heavy goods. More than 60% of the female workers self-reported occupation-related diseases. These results showed that occupational health hazards were common in the electronics industry in China and that they caused serious occupation-related health problems for the female workers therein.

  12. The relationship between maximal lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift in strength-based soldiering tasks.

    PubMed

    Savage, Robert J; Best, Stuart A; Carstairs, Greg L; Ham, Daniel J

    2012-07-01

    Psychophysical assessments, such as the maximum acceptable lift, have been used to establish worker capability and set safe load limits for manual handling tasks in occupational settings. However, in military settings, in which task demand is set and capable workers must be selected, subjective measurements are inadequate, and maximal capacity testing must be used to assess lifting capability. The aim of this study was to establish and compare the relationship between maximal lifting capacity and a self-determined tolerable lifting limit, maximum acceptable lift, across a range of military-relevant lifting tasks. Seventy male soldiers (age 23.7 ± 6.1 years) from the Australian Army performed 7 strength-based lifting tasks to determine their maximum lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift. Comparisons were performed to identify maximum acceptable lift relative to maximum lifting capacity for each individual task. Linear regression was used to identify the relationship across all tasks when the data were pooled. Strong correlations existed between all 7 lifting tasks (rrange = 0.87-0.96, p < 0.05). No differences were found in maximum acceptable lift relative to maximum lifting capacity across all tasks (p = 0.46). When data were pooled, maximum acceptable lift was equal to 84 ± 8% of the maximum lifting capacity. This study is the first to illustrate the strong and consistent relationship between maximum lifting capacity and maximum acceptable lift for multiple single lifting tasks. The relationship developed between these indices may be used to help assess self-selected manual handling capability through occupationally relevant maximal performance tests.

  13. Forehead lift

    MedlinePlus

    ... both sides even. If you have already had plastic surgery to lift your upper eyelids, a forehead ... Managing the cosmetic patient. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013: ...

  14. Buttock Lift

    MedlinePlus

    ... after surgery using a needle and syringe. Poor wound healing. Sometimes areas along the incision line heal poorly ... might be given antibiotics if there is a wound healing problem. Scarring. Incision scars from a buttock lift ...

  15. Contractile properties of motor units and expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in rat fast-type muscle after volitional weight-lifting training.

    PubMed

    Łochyński, Dawid; Kaczmarek, Dominik; Mrówczyński, Włodzimierz; Warchoł, Wojciech; Majerczak, Joanna; Karasiński, Janusz; Korostyński, Michał; Zoladz, Jerzy A; Celichowski, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Dynamic resistance training increases the force and speed of muscle contraction, but little is known about modifications to the contractile properties of the main physiological types of motor units (MUs) that contribute to these muscle adaptations. Although the contractile profile of MU muscle fibers is tightly coupled to myosin heavy chain (MyHC) protein expression, it is not well understood if MyHC transition is a prerequisite for modifications to the contractile characteristics of MUs. In this study, we examined MU contractile properties, the mRNA expression of MyHC, parvalbumin, and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump isoforms, as well as the MyHC protein content after 5 wk of volitional progressive weight-lifting training in the medial gastrocnemius muscle in rats. The training had no effect on MyHC profiling or Ca(2+)-handling protein gene expression. Maximum force increased in slow (by 49%) and fast (by 21%) MUs. Within fast MUs, the maximum force increased in most fatigue-resistant and intermediate but not most fatigable MUs. Twitch contraction time was shortened in slow and fast fatigue-resistant MUs. Twitch half-relaxation was shortened in fast most fatigue-resistant and intermediate MUs. The force-frequency curve shifted rightward in fast fatigue-resistant MUs. Fast fatigable MUs fatigued less within the initial 15 s while fast fatigue-resistant units increased the ability to potentiate the force within the first minute of the standard fatigue test. In conclusion, at the early stage of resistance training, modifications to the contractile characteristics of MUs appear in the absence of MyHC transition and the upregulation of Ca(2+)-handling genes.

  16. Buckling of a Longitudinally Jointed Curved Composite Panel Arc Segment for Next Generation of Composite Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles: Verification Testing Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrokh, Babak; Segal, Kenneth N.; Akkerman, Michael; Glenn, Ronald L.; Rodini, Benjamin T.; Fan, Wei-Ming; Kellas, Sortiris; Pineda, Evan J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an all-bonded out-of-autoclave (OoA) curved longitudinal composite joint concept, intended for use in the next generation of composite heavy lift launch vehicles, was evaluated and verified through finite element (FE) analysis, fabrication, testing, and post-test inspection. The joint was used to connect two curved, segmented, honeycomb sandwich panels representative of a Space Launch System (SLS) fairing design. The overall size of the resultant panel was 1.37 m by 0.74 m (54 in by 29 in), of which the joint comprised a 10.2 cm (4 in) wide longitudinal strip at the center. NASTRAN and ABAQUS were used to perform linear and non-linear analyses of the buckling and strength performance of the jointed panel. Geometric non-uniformities (i.e., surface contour imperfections) were measured and incorporated into the FE model and analysis. In addition, a sensitivity study of the specimens end condition showed that bonding face-sheet doublers to the panel's end, coupled with some stress relief features at corner-edges, can significantly reduce the stress concentrations near the load application points. Ultimately, the jointed panel was subjected to a compressive load. Load application was interrupted at the onset of buckling (at 356 kN 80 kips). A post-test non-destructive evaluation (NDE) showed that, as designed, buckling occurred without introducing any damage into the panel or the joint. The jointed panel was further capable of tolerating an impact damage to the same buckling load with no evidence of damage propagation. The OoA cured all-composite joint shows promise as a low mass factory joint for segmented barrels.

  17. Heavy Lift Army Landing Craft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Effect Ship SS Sea State SWATH Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull SWBS Ship Work Breakdown Structure T-Craft Transformable Craft 1...Appendix E. 15 SWBS Group Weight (mt) 100 Hull Structures 307 200 Propulsion Plant 383 300 Electrical Plant 10 400 Command and Control 1...performance, a comprehensive SWBS breakdown, an area/volume summary, and design drawings. 18. The team will be encouraged to produce a technical paper from

  18. Help with a Heavy Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    As one of the 30 community college presidents taking part in the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Pathways Project, El Paso Community College (EPCC) President William Serrata is learning from coaches and national experts at each of six Pathways Institutes run by AACC. He also has a key state-level resource that allows him to…

  19. Non-occupational exposure to heavy metals of the residents of an industrial area and biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Vimercati, Luigi; Baldassarre, Antonio; Gatti, Maria F; Gagliardi, Tommaso; Serinelli, Maria; De Maria, Luigi; Caputi, Antonio; Dirodi, Angelica A; Galise, Ida; Cuccaro, Francesco; Assennato, Giorgio

    2016-12-01

    In areas at high environmental risk, a major issue is the assessment of the exposure of the general population to industrial pollutants. To date, few studies have investigated exposure to heavy metals in a population residing in a high risk environmental area. The aim of this study is to evaluate the exposure to heavy metals in the industrial area of Taranto, Southern Italy, through biological monitoring techniques. We measured the levels of inorganic arsenic and methylated metabolites, lead, cadmium, chromium, and manganese in the urine samples of 279 subjects residing in Taranto and neighboring areas. After obtaining informed consent from each participant, qualified health staff administered a standardized structured questionnaire investigating lifestyle habits and assessing any confounding factors. The biological monitoring data showed high urinary concentrations of nearly all of the heavy metals investigated. These findings could be related to the presence of industrial plants and is sufficient to warrant the expectation that local and national institutions should be required to adopt preventive measures to reduce the environmental exposure of the general population to heavy metals.

  20. An assessment of dermal exposure to heavy fuel oil (HFO) in occupational settings.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Yvette; Van Tongeren, Martie; Urbanus, Jan; Cherrie, John W

    2011-04-01

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) components are a group of heavy petroleum streams produced in oil refineries from crude oil. Due to its physicochemical properties, the dermal route is an important route of exposure. However, no information on dermal exposure levels for HFO has previously been published. A method for measuring dermal HFO levels was developed using wipe sampling and measuring phenanthrene and naphthalene as markers of HFO exposure. Measurement surveys were carried out in four different types of facilities: oil refineries, distribution terminals, energy providers, and an engine building and repair company. Dermal wipe samples were collected from different anatomical regions: neck, hands, and forearms. The frequency of tasks with potential for dermal HFO exposure was generally low at these facilities, with the exception of the distribution terminals and the engine building and repair site. The geometric mean (GM) dermal load on the hands was ∼0.1 μg cm(-2) for both left and right hand and 0.013 and 0.019 μg cm(-2) for the left and right forearm, respectively. With one exception, all results from the neck samples were below the limit of detection. The highest dermal loads for the hands and forearms were found in the engine building and repair facility (hands: GM = 1.6 μg cm(-2); forearms: GM = 0.41 μg cm(-2)). The tasks with the highest dermal loads were the maintenance (hands: GM = 1.7 μg cm(-2)) and cleaning tasks (hands: GM = 0.24 μg cm(-2)). Actual dermal loads were low when compared with workplace dermal exposure measurements reported by other researchers for similar scenarios with other substances. This may be explained by high compliance of gloves use by workers during HFO handling tasks and likely avoidance of contact with HFO due to its high viscosity and the requirement to keep HFO at elevated temperatures during storage, transport, and use.

  1. Modeling lift operations with SASmacr Simulation Studio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Leow Soo

    2016-10-01

    Lifts or elevators are an essential part of multistorey buildings which provide vertical transportation for its occupants. In large and high-rise apartment buildings, its occupants are permanent, while in buildings, like hospitals or office blocks, the occupants are temporary or users of the buildings. They come in to work or to visit, and thus, the population of such buildings are much higher than those in residential apartments. It is common these days that large office blocks or hospitals have at least 8 to 10 lifts serving its population. In order to optimize the level of service performance, different transportation schemes are devised to control the lift operations. For example, one lift may be assigned to solely service the even floors and another solely for the odd floors, etc. In this paper, a basic lift system is modelled using SAS Simulation Studio to study the effect of factors such as the number of floors, capacity of the lift car, arrival rate and exit rate of passengers at each floor, peak and off peak periods on the system performance. The simulation is applied to a real lift operation in Sunway College's North Building to validate the model.

  2. Training for lifting; an unresolved ergonomic issue?

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, A W; Gormley, J T

    1998-10-01

    The paper describes a nine year project on lifting training which included nine trans-Australia consensus conferences attended by more than 900 health professionals. Major outcomes were: (1) The essence of lifting work is the need for the performer to cope with variability in task, environment, and self, and the essence of lifting skill is therefore adaptability; (2) the semi-squat approach provides the safest and most effective basis for lifting training; (3) for lifting training to be effective, the basic principles of skill learning must be systematically applied, with adaptability as a specific goal; (4) physical work capacity (aerobic power, strength, endurance, joint mobility) is a decisive ingredient of safe and effective lifting and, in addition to skill learning, should be incorporated in the training of people engaging regularly in heavy manual work; (5) if effective compliance with recommended skilled behaviour is to be achieved, then training must apply the principles and methods appropriate to adult learning and behaviour modification.

  3. A shadowgraph study of the National Launch System's 1 1/2 stage vehicle configuration and Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle configuration. [Using the Marshall Space Flight Center's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokora, Darlene C.; Springer, Anthony M.

    1994-01-01

    A shadowgraph study of the National Launch System's (NLS's) 1 1/2 stage and heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) configurations is presented. Shadowgraphs are shown for the range of Mach numbers from Mach 0.6 to 5.0 at various angles-of-attack and roll angles. Since the 1 1/2 stage configuration is generally symmetric, no shadowgraphs of any roll angle are shown for this configuration. The major flow field phenomena over the NLS 1 1/2 stage and HLLV configurations are shown in the shadowgraphs. These shadowgraphs are used in the aerothermodynamic analysis of the external flow conditions the launch vehicle would encounter during the ascent stage of flight. The shadowgraphs presented in this study were obtained from configurations tested in the Marshall Space Flight Center's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel during 1992.

  4. Total facelift: forehead lift, midface lift, and neck lift.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Man

    2015-03-01

    Patients with thick skin mainly exhibit the aging processes of sagging, whereas patients with thin skin develop wrinkles or volume loss. Asian skin is usually thicker than that of Westerners; and thus, the sagging of skin due to aging, rather than wrinkling, is the chief problem to be addressed in Asians. Asian skin is also relatively large in area and thick, implying that the weight of tissue to be lifted is considerably heavier. These factors account for the difficulties in performing a facelift in Asians. Facelifts can be divided into forehead lift, midface lift, and lower face lift. These can be performed individually or with 2-3 procedures combined.

  5. Total Facelift: Forehead Lift, Midface Lift, and Neck Lift

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Patients with thick skin mainly exhibit the aging processes of sagging, whereas patients with thin skin develop wrinkles or volume loss. Asian skin is usually thicker than that of Westerners; and thus, the sagging of skin due to aging, rather than wrinkling, is the chief problem to be addressed in Asians. Asian skin is also relatively large in area and thick, implying that the weight of tissue to be lifted is considerably heavier. These factors account for the difficulties in performing a facelift in Asians. Facelifts can be divided into forehead lift, midface lift, and lower face lift. These can be performed individually or with 2-3 procedures combined. PMID:25798381

  6. The effect of asymmetry on psychophysical lifting capacity for three lifting types.

    PubMed

    Han, B; Stobbe, T J; Hobbs, G R

    2005-03-15

    The effect of asymmetry on a person's lifting capacity was investigated using the psychophysical approach. Ten male college students lifted a box from pallet height (15 cm) to conveyor height (75 cm) at a frequency of one and five lifts/min. Three types of asymmetric lifting tasks (step-turn, middle twist and twist) were studied using 90 and 180 degrees task angles. Lifting capacity reductions for middle twist and twist at a 90 degrees asymmetric angle were about one-half of the 30% reduction that would be calculated by the 1991 National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) lifting equation. The lifting capacity reduction for step-turn at 180 degrees was 14.9%, although that reduction cannot be calculated in the NIOSH equation. The middle twist lifting capacity was greatest among the three types at a 90 degrees task angle. The reductions for the middle twist and step-turn were not proportional to the task angle. This is contrary to the proportional reduction in the NIOSH lifting equation. Heart rate did not increase with an increase in task angle. Based on the results of this research, a different approach to assigning the asymmetric multiplier is proposed. This approach includes a task angle (as opposed to asymmetric angle) of up to 180 degrees.

  7. High gantry for lifting and handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, J. J., Jr.; Tereniak, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    Standard gantry has been inexpensively modified with standard pipes to allow lifting of heavy loads to distances between 14 and 30 ft. Addition of air mounts permits extensive and sensitive equipment to be moved smoothly and safely over smooth or moderately rough surfaces. Unit has been tested at 6000 pounds without yielding.

  8. High lift selected concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    The benefits to high lift system maximum life and, alternatively, to high lift system complexity, of applying analytic design and analysis techniques to the design of high lift sections for flight conditions were determined and two high lift sections were designed to flight conditions. The influence of the high lift section on the sizing and economics of a specific energy efficient transport (EET) was clarified using a computerized sizing technique and an existing advanced airplane design data base. The impact of the best design resulting from the design applications studies on EET sizing and economics were evaluated. Flap technology trade studies, climb and descent studies, and augmented stability studies are included along with a description of the baseline high lift system geometry, a calculation of lift and pitching moment when separation is present, and an inverse boundary layer technique for pressure distribution synthesis and optimization.

  9. Sensorimotor Memory Biases Weight Perception During Object Lifting

    PubMed Central

    van Polanen, Vonne; Davare, Marco

    2015-01-01

    When lifting an object, the brain uses visual cues and an internal object representation to predict its weight and scale fingertip forces accordingly. Once available, tactile information is rapidly integrated to update the weight prediction and refine the internal object representation. If visual cues cannot be used to predict weight, force planning relies on implicit knowledge acquired from recent lifting experience, termed sensorimotor memory. Here, we investigated whether perception of weight is similarly biased according to previous lifting experience and how this is related to force scaling. Participants grasped and lifted series of light or heavy objects in a semi-randomized order and estimated their weights. As expected, we found that forces were scaled based on previous lifts (sensorimotor memory) and these effects increased depending on the length of recent lifting experience. Importantly, perceptual weight estimates were also influenced by the preceding lift, resulting in lower estimations after a heavy lift compared to a light one. In addition, weight estimations were negatively correlated with the magnitude of planned force parameters. This perceptual bias was only found if the current lift was light, but not heavy since the magnitude of sensorimotor memory effects had, according to Weber’s law, relatively less impact on heavy compared to light objects. A control experiment tested the importance of active lifting in mediating these perceptual changes and showed that when weights are passively applied on the hand, no effect of previous sensory experience is found on perception. These results highlight how fast learning of novel object lifting dynamics can shape weight perception and demonstrate a tight link between action planning and perception control. If predictive force scaling and actual object weight do not match, the online motor corrections, rapidly implemented to downscale forces, will also downscale weight estimation in a proportional manner

  10. Assessment of environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals in Taranto and other provinces of Southern Italy by means of scalp hair analysis.

    PubMed

    Buononato, Elena Viola; De Luca, Daniela; Galeandro, Innocenzo Cataldo; Congedo, Maria Luisa; Cavone, Domenica; Intranuovo, Graziana; Guastadisegno, Chiara Monica; Corrado, Vincenzo; Ferri, Giovanni Maria

    2016-06-01

    The monitoring of heavy metals in industrialized areas to study their association with different occupational and environmental factors is carried out in different ways. In this study, scalp hair analysis was used for the assessment of exposure to these metals in the industrial city of Taranto, characterized by a severe environmental pollution. The highest median values were observed for aluminum, barium, cadmium, lead, mercury, and uranium. Moreover, in the industrial area of Taranto, high levels of barium, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, and silver were observed in comparison with other Apulia areas. The risk odds ratios (ORs) for observing values above the 50th percentile were elevated for mercury and fish consumption, uranium and milk consumption, lead and female sex, and aluminum and mineral water consumption. No significant increased risk was observed for occupational activities. In a dendrogram of a cluster analysis, three clusters were observed for the different areas of Taranto (Borgo, San Vito, and Statte). A scree plot and score variables plot underline the presence of two principal components: the first regarding antimony, lead, tin, aluminum and silver; the second regarding mercury and uranium. The observed clusters (Borgo, San Vito, and Statte) showed that lead, antimony, tin, aluminum, and silver were the main component. The highest values above the 50th percentile of these minerals, especially lead, were observed in the Borgo area. The observed metal concentration in the Borgo area is compatible with the presence in Taranto of a military dockyard and a reported increase of lung cancer risk among residents of that area.

  11. Effects of box size, frequency of lifting, and height of lift on maximum acceptable weight of lift and heart rate for male university students in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abadi, Ali Salehi Sahl; Mazlomi, Adel; Saraji, Gebraeil Nasl; Zeraati, Hojjat; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Jafari, Amir Homayoun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In spite of the widespread use of automation in industry, manual material handling (MMH) is still performed in many occupational settings. The emphasis on ergonomics in MMH tasks is due to the potential risks of workplace accidents and injuries. This study aimed to assess the effect of box size, frequency of lift, and height of lift on maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) on the heart rates of male university students in Iran. Methods This experimental study was conducted in 2015 with 15 male students recruited from Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Each participant performed 18 different lifting tasks that involved three lifting frequencies (1lift/min, 4.3 lifts/min and 6.67 lifts/min), three lifting heights (floor to knuckle, knuckle to shoulder, and shoulder to arm reach), and two box sizes. Each set of experiments was conducted during the 20 min work period using the free-style lifting technique. The working heart rates (WHR) were recorded for the entire duration. In this study, we used SPSS version 18 software and descriptive statistical methods, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the t-test for data analysis. Results The results of the ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.02). Tukey’s post hoc test indicated that there was a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0. 01). There was a significant difference between the mean heart rates in terms of frequencies of lifts (p = 0.006), and Tukey’s post hoc test indicated a significant difference between the frequencies of 1 lift/minute and 6.67 lifts/minute (p = 0.004). But, there was no significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of lifting heights (p > 0.05). The results of the t-test showed that there was a significant difference between the mean of MAWL and the mean heart rate in terms of the sizes of the two boxes (p

  12. Feasibility study of modern airships, phase 1. Volume 2: Parametric analysis (task 3). [lift, weight (mass)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Various types of lighter-than-air vehicles from fully buoyant to semibuoyant hybrids were examined. Geometries were optimized for gross lifting capabilities for ellipsoidal airships, modified delta planform lifting bodies, and a short-haul, heavy-lift vehicle concept. It is indicated that: (1) neutrally buoyant airships employing a conservative update of materials and propulsion technology provide significant improvements in productivity; (2) propulsive lift for VTOL and aerodynamic lift for cruise significantly improve the productivity of low to medium gross weight ellipsoidal airships; and (3) the short-haul, heavy-lift vehicle, consisting of a simple combination of an ellipsoidal airship hull and existing helicopter componentry, provides significant potential for low-cost, near-term applications for ultra-heavy lift missions.

  13. Catwalk grate lifting tool

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, L.W.

    1992-08-11

    A device is described for lifting catwalk grates comprising an elongated bent member with a handle at one end and a pair of notched braces and a hook at the opposite end that act in conjunction with each other to lock onto the grate and give mechanical advantage in lifting the grate. 10 figs.

  14. Catwalk grate lifting tool

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, Larry W.

    1992-01-01

    A device for lifting catwalk grates comprising an elongated bent member with a handle at one end and a pair of notched braces and a hook at the opposite end that act in conjunction with each other to lock onto the grate and give mechanical advantage in lifting the grate.

  15. High lift aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, John; Schneider, Steve; Campbell, Bryan; Bucci, Greg; Boone, Rod; Torgerson, Shad; Erausquin, Rick; Knauer, Chad

    1994-01-01

    The current program is aimed at providing a physical picture of the flow physics and quantitative turbulence data of the interaction of a high Reynolds number wake with a flap element. The impact of high lift on aircraft performance is studied for a 150 passenger transport aircraft with the goal of designing optimum high lift systems with minimum complexity.

  16. Portable Lifting Seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Portable lifting machine assists user in rising from seated position to standing position, or in sitting down. Small and light enough to be carried like briefcase. Used on variety of chairs and benches. Upholstered aluminum box houses mechanism of lifting seat. Springs on outer shaft-and-arm subassembly counterbalance part of user's weight to assist motor.

  17. Understanding Wing Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, J.; Soares, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional explanation of aerodynamic lift based on Bernoulli's equation is one of the most common mistakes in presentations to school students and is found in children's science books. The fallacies in this explanation together with an alternative explanation for aerofoil lift have already been presented in an excellent article by Babinsky…

  18. Portable seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A portable seat lift that can help individuals either (1) lower themselves to a sitting position or (2) raise themselves to a standing position is presented. The portable seat lift consists of a seat mounted on a base with two levers, which are powered by a drive unit.

  19. Samus Counter Lifting Fixture

    SciTech Connect

    Stredde, H.; /Fermilab

    1998-05-27

    A lifting fixture has been designed to handle the Samus counters. These counters are being removed from the D-zero area and will be transported off site for further use at another facility. This fixture is designed specifically for this particular application and will be transferred along with the counters. The future use of these counters may entail installation at a facility without access to a crane and therefore a lift fixture suitable for both crane and/or fork lift usage has been created The counters weigh approximately 3000 lbs. and have threaded rods extended through the counter at the top comers for lifting. When these counters were first handled/installed these rods were used in conjunction with appropriate slings and handled by crane. The rods are secured with nuts tightened against the face of the counter. The rod thread is M16 x 2({approx}.625-inch dia.) and extends 2-inch (on average) from the face of the counter. It is this cantilevered rod that the lift fixture engages with 'C' style plates at the four top comers. The strongback portion of the lift fixture is a steel rectangular tube 8-inch (vertical) x 4-inch x .25-inch wall, 130-inch long. 1.5-inch square bars are welded perpendicular to the long axis of the rectangular tube at the appropriate lift points and the 'C' plates are fastened to these bars with 3/4-10 high strength bolts -grade 8. Two short channel sections are positioned-welded-to the bottom of the rectangular tube on 40 feet centers, which are used as locators for fork lift tines. On the top are lifting eyes for sling/crane usage and are rated at 3500 lbs. safe working load each - vertical lift only.

  20. Affordable Heavy Lift Capability: 2000-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This custom bibliography from the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Program lists a sampling of records found in the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. The scope of this topic includes technologies to allow robust, affordable access of cargo, particularly to low-Earth orbit. This area of focus is one of the enabling technologies as defined by NASA s Report of the President s Commission on Implementation of United States Space Exploration Policy, published in June 2004.

  1. Ares V: Progress Toward Unprecedented Heavy Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Ares V represents the vehicle that will again make possible human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Ares V is part of NASA s Constellation Program architecture developed to support the International Space Station (ISS), establish a permanent human presence on the Moon, and explore it to an extent far greater than was possible with the Apollo Program. Ares V will carry the lunar lander to orbit where it will join the Orion crew spacecraft, launched by the smaller Ares I launch vehicle. Then the Ares V upper stage will send the Orion and lander to the Moon. Ares V is also intended to launch automated cargo landers to the Moon. The Ares vehicles are designed to employ the proven technologies and experience from the Space Shuttle, Delta IV, and earlier U.S. programs, as well as sharing common components where feasible. The Ares V is in an early stage of concept development. However, commonality allows it to benefit from development work already under way on the Ares I, including the first stage booster, and upper stage, J-2X upper stage engine. This paper will discuss progress to date on the Ares V and its potential for freeing payload designers from current mass and volume constraints. Progress includes development progress on Ares I elements that will be shared by the two launch vehicles. The Ares I first stage recently completed a successful test firing of Development Motor 1 (DM-1). The J-2X engine is proceeding with manufacturing of components for the first development engines that will be used for testing. Several component-level tests have been completed or are under way that will help verify designs and confirm solutions to design challenges. The Ares V Earth departure stage will benefit from the Ares I upper stage development, including design, manufacturing, and materials testing. NASA is also working with government and industry to collect data on flights and testing of the operational RS-68 engine and potential upgrades. The Ares V team continues to evaluate technical options, vehicle configurations, and operations concepts for the Ares V. The team recently completed a Fall Face-to-Face meeting that served as a stepping-stone to the Systems Requirements Review (SRR). This four-day meeting served as an information exchange for the various teams at several NASA field centers and supporting contractors.

  2. Heavy Lift Helicopter - Prototype Technical Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    KNOTS ATTITUDE Spec Test Req’t Result 1 BSDGW 12 60 LEVEL 3 PT 58,350 65,500 2 DAGW 8 60 LEVEL 3 PT 61,000 58,700 3 BSDGW 12 0 LEVEL 3 PT 58,350...LANDING LIMIT VERT. LOAD NO. FPS KNOTS ATTITUDE spec. test reQ’t result -r 1 BSDGW 12 60 LEVEL 3 -Pt 38,400 59,500 2 DAGW 8 60 LEVEL 3 -Pt 52,800 42,750 3 ...with engine shut down at 160 0.6 0.6 0.6 knots 3 . Normal operation at inter- mediate power S.L. static, -0.1 -0.1 -1.4 std. day The PIDS

  3. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  4. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  5. Wind tower service lift

    DOEpatents

    Oliphant, David; Quilter, Jared; Andersen, Todd; Conroy, Thomas

    2011-09-13

    An apparatus used for maintaining a wind tower structure wherein the wind tower structure may have a plurality of legs and may be configured to support a wind turbine above the ground in a better position to interface with winds. The lift structure may be configured for carrying objects and have a guide system and drive system for mechanically communicating with a primary cable, rail or other first elongate member attached to the wind tower structure. The drive system and guide system may transmit forces that move the lift relative to the cable and thereby relative to the wind tower structure. A control interface may be included for controlling the amount and direction of the power into the guide system and drive system thereby causing the guide system and drive system to move the lift relative to said first elongate member such that said lift moves relative to said wind tower structure.

  6. Circulation control technology applied to propulsive high lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, R. J.; Nichols, J. H., Jr.; Harris, M. J.; Eppel, J. C.; Shovlin, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Technology developed for the Circulation Control Wing high-lift system has been extended to augment lift by entraining and redirecting engine thrust. Ejecting a thin jet sheet tangentially over a small curved deflecting surface adjacent to the slipstream of a turbofan engine causes the slipstream to flow around that deflecting surface. The angle of deflection is controlled pneumatically by varying the momentum of the thin jet sheet. The downward momentum of the slipstream enhances wing lift. This concept of pneumatically deflecting the slipstream has been applied to an upper surface blowing high-lift system and to a thrust deflecting system. The capability of the pneumatic upper surface blowing system was demonstrated in a series of investigations using a wind tunnel model and the NASA Quiet Short-haul Research Aircraft (QSRA). Full-scale thrust deflections greater than 90 deg were achieved. This mechanically simple system can provide increased maneuverability, heavy lift or overload capability, or short takeoff and landing performance.

  7. Occupational Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  8. A Lighter-Than-Air System Enhanced with Kinetic Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2002-01-01

    A hybrid airship system is proposed in which the buoyant lift is enhanced with kinetic lift. The airship would consist of twin hulls in which the buoyant gas is contained. The twin hulls would be connected in parallel by a wing having an airfoil contour. In forward flight, the wing would provide kinetic lift that would add to the buoyant lift. The added lift would permit a greater payload/altitude combination than that which could be supported by the buoyant lift alone. The buoyant lift is a function of the volume of gas and the flight altitude. The kinetic lift is a function of the airfoil section, wing area, and the speed and altitude of flight. Accordingly there are a number of factors that can be manipulated to arrive at a particular design. Particular designs could vary from small, lightweight systems to very large, heavy-load systems. It will be the purpose of this paper to examine the sensitivity of such a design to the several variables. In addition, possible uses made achievable by such a hybrid system will be suggested.

  9. 49 CFR 37.165 - Lift and securement use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DISABILITIES (ADA) Provision of Service § 37.165 Lift and securement use. (a) This section applies to public... transported in the entity's vehicles or other conveyances. (1) With respect to wheelchair/occupant... secure wheelchairs as provided in that Part. (2) For other vehicles transporting individuals who...

  10. JWST Lifting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolleson, William

    2012-01-01

    A document describes designing, building, testing, and certifying a customized crane (Lifting Device LD) with a strong back (cradle) to facilitate the installation of long wall panels and short door panels for the GHe phase of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The LD controls are variable-frequency drive controls designed to be adjustable for very slow and very-short-distance movements throughout the installation. The LD has a lift beam with an electric actuator attached at the end. The actuator attaches to a rectangular strong back (cradle) for lifting the long wall panels and short door panels from a lower angle into the vertical position inside the chamber, and then rotating around the chamber for installation onto the existing ceiling and floor. The LD rotates 360 (in very small increments) in both clockwise and counterclockwise directions. Eight lifting pads are on the top ring with 2-in. (.5-cm) eye holes spaced evenly around the ring to allow for the device to be suspended by three crane hoists from the top of the chamber. The LD is operated by remote controls that allow for a single, slow mode for booming the load in and out, with slow and very slow modes for rotating the load.

  11. Forehead lift - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Indications URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100020.htm Forehead lift - series—Indications To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 3 Go to slide 2 ...

  12. Breast lift (mastopexy) - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... Incisions URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100188.htm Breast lift (mastopexy) - series—Incisions To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 3 Go to slide 2 ...

  13. Hydraulic lifting device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrell, Kyle (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A piston and cylinder assembly is disclosed which is constructed of polyvinyl chloride that uses local water pressure to perform small lifting tasks. The chamber is either pressurized to extend the piston or depressurized to retract the piston. The present invention is best utilized for raising and lowering toilet seats.

  14. Lifting as You Climb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Debra R.

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses leadership themes and answers leadership questions presented to "Exchange" by the Panel members who attended the "Exchange" Panel of 300 Reception in Dallas, Texas, last November. There is an old proverb that encourages people to lift as they climb: "While you climb a mountain, you must not forget others along the way." With…

  15. Future Directions in Tactical Vertical Lift

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-29

    UH -60A/L UH -60M (Divest) UH - 60L Hunter Warrior Shadow Raven FY 2025 and Beyond ATTACK/ RECON UH -60M/HH-60M 2025 Timeframe • AH64...Transport Assault Heavy Lift Mine CM SOF Ultraheavy Lift SERVICE ARMY USMC ARMY USMC USN USCG USAF ARMY USMC USN AH-1W UH -1Y CH/MH-47 D/F/G MH-53E OH-58D...KW) MH/AH-6J UH -72A CH-53K MV-22B CV-22B CVLSP* Mine CM CSAR CH-53E AH-1Z MH-60S MH-60R UH -60M MH-60T * Not Program of

  16. Lifting speed preferences and their effects on the maximal lifting capacity

    PubMed Central

    LIN, Chiuhsiang Joe; CHENG, Chih-Feng

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate how lifting capacity and subjective preferences are affected by different lifting speeds. The maximum lifting capacity of lift was determined with three independent variables, lifting speed, lifting technique, and lifting height. Questionnaires were evaluated after the experiment by the participants for the lifting speed preferences. This study found that the lifting speed was a significant factor in the lifting capacity (p<0.001); and the lifting height (p<0.001) and the interaction of lifting speed and lifting height (p=0.005) affected the lifting capacity significantly. The maximal lifting capacity was achieved around the optimal speed that was neither too fast nor too slow. Moreover, the participants’ preferred lifting speeds were consistently close to the optimal lifting speed. The results showed that the common lifting practice guideline to lift slowly might make the worker unable to generate a large lifting capacity. PMID:27383532

  17. Lifting speed preferences and their effects on the maximal lifting capacity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Cheng, Chih-Feng

    2017-02-07

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate how lifting capacity and subjective preferences are affected by different lifting speeds. The maximum lifting capacity of lift was determined with three independent variables, lifting speed, lifting technique, and lifting height. Questionnaires were evaluated after the experiment by the participants for the lifting speed preferences. This study found that the lifting speed was a significant factor in the lifting capacity (p<0.001); and the lifting height (p<0.001) and the interaction of lifting speed and lifting height (p=0.005) affected the lifting capacity significantly. The maximal lifting capacity was achieved around the optimal speed that was neither too fast nor too slow. Moreover, the participants' preferred lifting speeds were consistently close to the optimal lifting speed. The results showed that the common lifting practice guideline to lift slowly might make the worker unable to generate a large lifting capacity.

  18. Helicopter Toy and Lift Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakerin, Said

    2013-01-01

    A $1 plastic helicopter toy (called a Wacky Whirler) can be used to demonstrate lift. Students can make basic measurements of the toy, use reasonable assumptions and, with the lift formula, estimate the lift, and verify that it is sufficient to overcome the toy's weight. (Contains 1 figure.)

  19. Effects of the European Community directive on lifting and handling practice.

    PubMed

    Docker, S M

    1993-07-01

    The new legislation on lifting and handling requires the application of ergonomic principles to manual handling operations. A written assessment is required for all unavoidable manual handling operations which involve the risk of injury to employees. Employers are now expected to provide equipment to enable staff to avoid lifting heavy loads.

  20. High lift wake investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, J. P.; Schneider, S. P.; Hoffenberg, R.

    1996-01-01

    The behavior of wakes in adverse pressure gradients is critical to the performance of high-lift systems for transport aircraft. Wake deceleration is known to lead to sudden thickening and the onset of reversed flow; this 'wake bursting' phenomenon can occur while surface flows remain attached. Although known to be important for high-lift systems, few studies of such decelerated wakes exist. In this study, the wake of a flat plate has been subjected to an adverse pressure gradient in a two-dimensional diffuser, whose panels were forced to remain attached by use of slot blowing. Pitot probe surveys, L.D.V. measurements, and flow visualization have been used to investigate the physics of this decelerated wake, through the onset of reversed flow.

  1. Lifting liquid from boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, T.E.

    1983-05-17

    A device for lifting liquid from boreholes comprises a pump which is located downhole in the region of a production formation and which consists of a fluid-actuated, double-action piston. The pump is connected by fluid pressure lines to a source of fluid pressure disposed above ground and a switching valve is connected to provide fluid pressure to alternate sides of the piston to effect reciprocation thereof.

  2. Enhanced Rescue Lift Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2007-01-01

    The evolving and ever-increasing demands of emergency response and disaster relief support provided by rotorcraft dictate, among other things, the development of enhanced rescue lift capability for these platforms. This preliminary analysis is first-order in nature but provides considerable insight into some of the challenges inherent in trying to effect rescue using a unique form of robotic rescue device deployed and operated from rotary-wing aerial platforms.

  3. Powered-lift aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Franklin, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Powered lift aircraft have the ability to vary the magnitude and direction of the force produced by the propulsion system so as to control the overall lift and streamwise force components of the aircraft, with the objective of enabling the aircraft to operate from minimum sized terminal sites. Power lift technology has contributed to the development of the jet lift Harrier and to the forth coming operational V-22 Tilt Rotor and the C-17 military transport. This technology will soon be expanded to include supersonic fighters with short takeoff and vertical landing capability, and will continue to be used for the development of short- and vertical-takeoff and landing transport. An overview of this field of aeronautical technology is provided for several types of powered lift aircraft. It focuses on the description of various powered lift concepts and their operational capability. Aspects of aerodynamics and flight controls pertinent to powered lift are also discussed.

  4. Catalytic Generation of Lift Gases for Balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubrin, Robert; Berggren, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A lift-gas cracker (LGC) is an apparatus that generates a low-molecular-weight gas (mostly hydrogen with smaller amounts of carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide) at low gauge pressure by methanol reforming. LGCs are undergoing development for use as sources of buoyant gases for filling zero-gauge-pressure meteorological and scientific balloons in remote locations where heavy, high-pressure helium cylinders are not readily available. LGCs could also be used aboard large, zero-gauge-pressure, stratospheric research balloons to extend the duration of flight.

  5. Detail of lift wire rope attachment to lift span at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of lift wire rope attachment to lift span at southeast corner. Note rope-adjustment turnbuckle with strap keepers to prevent its rotation, which could pull the bridge out of alignment. A single rope and light-gauge attachment at each corner were adequate for lifting the span because most of its weight was balanced by the two counterweights. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  6. Occupational Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... working with laboratory animals or with powdered natural rubber latex gloves have developed occupational asthma. Occupational asthma ... spray painting, insulation installation and in manufacturing plastics, rubber and foam. These chemicals can cause occupational asthma ...

  7. Kaizen: ergonomics approach to occupational health and safety.

    PubMed

    Kumashiro, Masaharu

    2011-12-01

    Kaizen (work improvement) is the forte of Japanese industry. Kaizen activities were born in the early 20th century under the name efficiency research. These activities were the beginning of industrial engineering (IE). Later on people began to rethink the single-minded devotion to improving productivity. Then the job re-design concept was developed. The main target of kaizen in the area of occupational health and safety in Japanese manufacturing is the improvement of inadequate working posture followed by the improvement of work for transporting and lifting heavy objects. Unfortunately, the kaizen activities undertaken by most Japanese companies are still focused on improving productivity and quality. The know-how for promoting kaizen activities that integrate the three aspects of IE, occupational health, and ergonomics is not being accumulated, however. In particular, the IE techniques should be incorporated into kaizen activities aimed at occupational safety and health, and the quantitative assessment of workload is required. In addition, it is important for on-the-job kaizen training in the ERGOMA Approach for production supervisors, who are the main advocates of IE kaizen.

  8. 76 FR 40935 - Vertical Tandem Lifts in Marine Terminals; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Vertical Tandem Lifts in Marine Terminals; Extension of the... collection requirements contained in the Standard on Vertical Tandem Lifts (VTLs) in Marine Terminals (29 CFR... ] development and implementation of a written plan for transporting vertically coupled containers in a...

  9. Occupational asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Asthma - occupational exposure; Irritant-induced reactive airways disease Images Spirometry Respiratory system References Lemiere C, Vandenplas O. Occupational allergy and asthma. In: Adkinson NF Jr., Bochner ...

  10. Framelet lifting in image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Da-Yong; Feng, Tie-Yong

    2010-08-01

    To obtain appropriate framelets in image processing, we often need to lift existing framelets. For this purpose the paper presents some methods which allow us to modify existing framelets or filters to construct new ones. The relationships of matrices and their eigenvalues which be used in lifting schemes show that the frame bounds of the lifted wavelet frames are optimal. Moreover, the examples given in Section 4 indicate that the lifted framelets can play the roles of some operators such as the weighted average operator, the Sobel operator and the Laplacian operator, which operators are often used in edge detection and motion estimation applications.

  11. Effects of range and mode on lifting capability and lifting time.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of 3 lifting ranges and 3 lifting modes on maximum lifting capability and total lifting time. The results demonstrated that the maximum lifting capability for FK (from floor to knuckle height) was greater than that for KS (from knuckle height to shoulder height) or FS (from floor to shoulder height). Additionally, asymmetric lifting with initial trunk rotation decreased maximum lifting capability compared with symmetric lifting or asymmetric lifting with final trunk rotation. The difference in total lifting time between KS and FS was not significant, while FK increased total lifting time by ~20% compared with FS even though the travel distance was 50% shorter.

  12. Pneumatic Spoiler Controls Airfoil Lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, D.; Krauss, T.

    1991-01-01

    Air ejection from leading edge of airfoil used for controlled decrease of lift. Pneumatic-spoiler principle developed for equalizing lift on helicopter rotor blades. Also used to enhance aerodynamic control of short-fuselage or rudderless aircraft such as "flying-wing" airplanes. Leading-edge injection increases maneuverability of such high-performance fixed-wing aircraft as fighters.

  13. Project LIFT: Year 1 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Michael; Piccinino, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Research for Action (RFA) is currently in the second year of a five-year external evaluation of the Project Leadership and Investment for Transformation (LIFT) Initiative in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School District (CMS). Project LIFT is a public-private partnership between CMS and the local philanthropic and business communities in Charlotte,…

  14. Project LIFT: Year Two Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Michael; Piccinino, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Research for Action (RFA) has completed its second year of a five-year external evaluation of the Project Leadership and Investment for Transformation (LIFT) Initiative in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School District (CMS). Project LIFT is a public-private partnership between CMS and the local philanthropic and business communities in Charlotte,…

  15. Lift enhancing tabs for airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A tab deployable from the trailing edge of a main airfoil element forces flow onto a following airfoil element, such as a flap, to keep the flow attached and thus enhance lift. For aircraft wings with high lift systems that include leading edge slats, the slats may also be provided with tabs to turn the flow onto the following main element.

  16. What is a safe lift?

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Kathy

    2013-09-01

    In a perfect world, a "safe" lift would be 51 pounds if the object is within 7 inches from the front of the body, if it is at waist height, if it is directly in front of the person, if there is a handle on the object, and if the load inside the box/bucket doesn't shift once lifted. If the load to be lifted does not meet all of these criteria, then it is an unsafe lift, and modifications must be made. Modifications would include lightening the load, getting help, or using a mechanical lifting device. There is always a way to turn an unsafe lift into a safer lift. An excellent resource for anyone interested in eliminating some of the hazards associated with lifting is the "Easy Ergonomics" publication from Cal/OSHA. This booklet offers practical advice on how to improve the workplace using engineering and administrative controls, problem-solving strategies and solutions, and a vast amount of ergonomics information and resources. "Easy Ergonomics" can be obtained by calling Cal/OSHA's education and training unit in Sacramento at 800-963-9424. A free copy can be obtained via www.dir.ca.gov/dosh/puborder.asp.

  17. Shape memory alloy resetable spring lift for pedestrian protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Brian M.; Brei, Diann E.; Luntz, Jonathan E.; Strom, Kenneth; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy

    2008-03-01

    Pedestrian protection has become an increasingly important aspect of automotive safety with new regulations taking effect around the world. Because it is increasingly difficult to meet these new regulations with traditional passive approaches, active lifts are being explored that increase the "crush zone" between the hood and rigid under-hood components as a means of mitigating the consequences of an impact with a non-occupant. Active lifts, however, are technically challenging because of the simultaneously high forces, stroke and quick timing resulting in most of the current devices being single use. This paper introduces the SMArt (Shape Memory Alloy ReseTable) Spring Lift, an automatically resetable and fully reusable device, which couples conventional standard compression springs to store the energy required for a hood lift, with Shape Memory Alloys actuators to achieve both an ultra high speed release of the spring and automatic reset of the system for multiple uses. Each of the four SMArt Device subsystems, lift, release, lower and reset/dissipate, are individually described. Two identical complete prototypes were fabricated and mounted at the rear corners of the hood, incorporated within a full-scale vehicle testbed at the SMARTT (Smart Material Advanced Research and Technology Transfer) lab at University of Michigan. Full operational cycle testing of a stationary vehicle in a laboratory setting confirms the ultrafast latch release, controlled lift profile, gravity lower to reposition the hood, and spring recompression via the ratchet engine successfully rearming the device for repeat cycles. While this is only a laboratory demonstration and extensive testing and development would be required for transition to a fielded product, this study does indicate that the SMArt Lift has promise as an alternative approach to pedestrian protection.

  18. Summary of Lift and Lift/Cruise Fan Powered Lift Concept Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Woodrow L.

    1993-01-01

    A summary is presented of some of the lift and lift/cruise fan technology including fan performance, fan stall, ground effects, ingestion and thrust loss, design tradeoffs and integration, control effectiveness and several other areas related to vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft conceptual design. The various subjects addressed, while not necessarily pertinent to specific short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) supersonic designs being considered, are of interest to the general field of lift and lift/cruise fan aircraft designs and may be of importance in the future. The various wind tunnel and static tests reviewed are: (1) the Doak VZ-4 ducted fan, (2) the 0.57 scale model of the Bell X-22 ducted fan aircraft, (3) the Avrocar, (4) the General Electric lift/cruise fan, (5) the vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) lift engine configurations related to ingestion and consequent thrust loss, (6) the XV-5 and other fan-in-wing stall consideration, (7) hybrid configurations such as lift fan and lift/cruise fan or engines, and (8) the various conceptual design studies by air-frame contractors. Other design integration problems related to small and large V/STOL transport aircraft are summarized including lessons learned during more recent conceptual design studies related to a small executive V/STOL transport aircraft.

  19. SHOULDER DISORDERS AND OCCUPATION

    PubMed Central

    Linaker, CH; Walker-Bone, K

    2016-01-01

    Shoulder pain is very common and causes substantial morbidity. Standardised classification systems based upon presumed patho-anatomical origins have proved poorly reproducible and hampered epidemiological research. Despite this, there is evidence that exposure to combinations of physical workplace strains such as overhead working, heavy lifting and forceful work as well as working in an awkward posture increase the risk of shoulder disorders. Psychosocial risk factors are also associated. There is currently little evidence to suggest that either primary prevention or treatment strategies in the workplace are very effective and more research is required, particularly around the cost-effectiveness of different strategies. PMID:26612238

  20. Lifting strength in two-person teamwork.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.

  1. Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Fleet Deployment Projects Final Technical Report May 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Klingler, James J

    2014-05-06

    The overall objectives of this project were to evaluate the performance, operability and safety of fork lift trucks powered by fuel cells in large distribution centers. This was accomplished by replacing the batteries in over 350 lift trucks with fuel cells at five distribution centers operated by GENCO. The annual cost savings of lift trucks powered by fuel cell power units was between $2,400 and $5,300 per truck compared to battery powered lift trucks, excluding DOE contributions. The greatest savings were in fueling labor costs where a fuel cell powered lift truck could be fueled in a few minutes per day compared to over an hour for battery powered lift trucks which required removal and replacement of batteries. Lift truck operators where generally very satisfied with the performance of the fuel cell power units, primarily because there was no reduction in power over the duration of a shift as experienced with battery powered lift trucks. The operators also appreciated the fast and easy fueling compared to the effort and potential risk of injury associated with switching heavy batteries in and out of lift trucks. There were no safety issues with the fueling or operation of the fuel cells. Although maintenance costs for the fuel cells were higher than for batteries, these costs are expected to decrease significantly in the next generation of fuel cells, making them even more cost effective.

  2. Squat, stoop, or semi-squat: a comparative experiment on lifting technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenglun; Wu, Lei; Sun, Jingzhi; He, Lihua; Wang, Sheng; Yang, Lei

    2012-08-01

    There are actually no sufficient data for lifting technique assessment. A laboratory study was undertaken to determine the effect of 3 regular lifting techniques on erector muscle activation, cardiovascular strain and subjective response. Thirty student volunteers participated in the study, and were required to lift a weight with different techniques. Stoop-, squat-, semi-squat-lifting resulted in 3, 2 and 1 time of the highest percentage of the maximum voluntary electrical activation (MVE%) respectively. In the same order, the lowest median frequency (MF) existed 1, 1 and 2 times. Muscle fatigue was 4 times in squat, 36 in semi-squat and 43 in stoop lifting. Heart rate was the highest in squat and lowest in stoop respectively, with a middle level in semi-squat lifting. It may be recommended to adopt mainly the semi-squat technique for daily lifting works. For heavy lifting, it should use the squat technique. Stoop lifting may also be used alternatively but for light things.

  3. Null lifts and projective dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, Marco

    2015-11-15

    We describe natural Hamiltonian systems using projective geometry. The null lift procedure endows the tangent bundle with a projective structure where the null Hamiltonian is identified with a projective conic and induces a Weyl geometry. Projective transformations generate a set of known and new dualities between Hamiltonian systems, as for example the phenomenon of coupling-constant metamorphosis. We conclude outlining how this construction can be extended to the quantum case for Eisenhart–Duval lifts.

  4. Vortex Lift Augmentation by Suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, A. H.; Jackson, L. R.; Huffman, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    Lift performance is improved on a 60 degrees swept Gothic wing. Vortex lift at moderate to high angles of attack on highly swept wings used to improve takeoff performance and maneuverability. New design proposed in which suction of propulsion system augments vortex. Turbofan placed at down stream end of leading-edge vortex system induces vortex to flow into inlet which delays onset of vortex breakdown.

  5. Occupational Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    When choosing a career, jobseekers often want to know which occupations offer the best prospects. Generally, occupations that have rapid job growth, many new jobs, or many job openings--and good wages--promise better opportunities. This paper shows how employment in particular occupations is projected to change from 2010 to 2020. It presents…

  6. Occupational Consciousness.

    PubMed

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L

    2015-10-02

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country's ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives - notably work by Biko and Fanon - and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term 'consciousness' in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation.

  7. Occupational Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country’s ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives – notably work by Biko and Fanon – and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term ‘consciousness’ in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation. PMID:26549984

  8. Normalized lift: an energy interpretation of the lift coefficient simplifies comparisons of the lifting ability of rotating and flapping surfaces.

    PubMed

    Burgers, Phillip; Alexander, David E

    2012-01-01

    For a century, researchers have used the standard lift coefficient C(L) to evaluate the lift, L, generated by fixed wings over an area S against dynamic pressure, ½ρv(2), where v is the effective velocity of the wing. Because the lift coefficient was developed initially for fixed wings in steady flow, its application to other lifting systems requires either simplifying assumptions or complex adjustments as is the case for flapping wings and rotating cylinders.This paper interprets the standard lift coefficient of a fixed wing slightly differently, as the work exerted by the wing on the surrounding flow field (L/ρ·S), compared against the total kinetic energy required for generating said lift, ½v(2). This reinterpreted coefficient, the normalized lift, is derived from the work-energy theorem and compares the lifting capabilities of dissimilar lift systems on a similar energy footing. The normalized lift is the same as the standard lift coefficient for fixed wings, but differs for wings with more complex motions; it also accounts for such complex motions explicitly and without complex modifications or adjustments. We compare the normalized lift with the previously-reported values of lift coefficient for a rotating cylinder in Magnus effect, a bat during hovering and forward flight, and a hovering dipteran.The maximum standard lift coefficient for a fixed wing without flaps in steady flow is around 1.5, yet for a rotating cylinder it may exceed 9.0, a value that implies that a rotating cylinder generates nearly 6 times the maximum lift of a wing. The maximum normalized lift for a rotating cylinder is 1.5. We suggest that the normalized lift can be used to evaluate propellers, rotors, flapping wings of animals and micro air vehicles, and underwater thrust-generating fins in the same way the lift coefficient is currently used to evaluate fixed wings.

  9. Normalized Lift: An Energy Interpretation of the Lift Coefficient Simplifies Comparisons of the Lifting Ability of Rotating and Flapping Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Burgers, Phillip; Alexander, David E.

    2012-01-01

    For a century, researchers have used the standard lift coefficient CL to evaluate the lift, L, generated by fixed wings over an area S against dynamic pressure, ½ρv2, where v is the effective velocity of the wing. Because the lift coefficient was developed initially for fixed wings in steady flow, its application to other lifting systems requires either simplifying assumptions or complex adjustments as is the case for flapping wings and rotating cylinders. This paper interprets the standard lift coefficient of a fixed wing slightly differently, as the work exerted by the wing on the surrounding flow field (L/ρ·S), compared against the total kinetic energy required for generating said lift, ½v2. This reinterpreted coefficient, the normalized lift, is derived from the work-energy theorem and compares the lifting capabilities of dissimilar lift systems on a similar energy footing. The normalized lift is the same as the standard lift coefficient for fixed wings, but differs for wings with more complex motions; it also accounts for such complex motions explicitly and without complex modifications or adjustments. We compare the normalized lift with the previously-reported values of lift coefficient for a rotating cylinder in Magnus effect, a bat during hovering and forward flight, and a hovering dipteran. The maximum standard lift coefficient for a fixed wing without flaps in steady flow is around 1.5, yet for a rotating cylinder it may exceed 9.0, a value that implies that a rotating cylinder generates nearly 6 times the maximum lift of a wing. The maximum normalized lift for a rotating cylinder is 1.5. We suggest that the normalized lift can be used to evaluate propellers, rotors, flapping wings of animals and micro air vehicles, and underwater thrust-generating fins in the same way the lift coefficient is currently used to evaluate fixed wings. PMID:22629326

  10. Mist lift analysis summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The mist flow open-cycle OTEC concept proposed by S.L. Ridgway has much promise, but the fluid mechanics of the mist flow are not well understood. The creation of the mist and the possibility of droplet growth leading to rainout (when the vapor can no longer support the mist) are particularly troublesome. This report summarizes preliminary results of a numerical analysis initiated at SERI in FY79 to study the mist-lift process. The analysis emphasizes the mass transfer and fluid mechanics of the steady-state mist flow and is based on one-dimensional models of the mist flow developed for SERI by Graham Wallis. One of Wallis's models describes a mist composed of a single size of drops and another considers several drop sizes. The latter model, further developed at SERI, considers a changing spectrum of discrete drop sizes and incorporates the mathematics describing collisions and growth of the droplets by coalescence. The analysis results show that under conditions leading to maximum lift in the single-drop-size model, the multigroup model predicts significantly reduced lift because of the growth of droplets by coalescence. The predicted lift height is sensitive to variations in the mass flow rate and inlet pressure. Inclusion of a coasting section, in which the drops would rise ballistically without change in temperature, may lead to increased lift within the existing range of operation.

  11. Serrated-Planform Lifting-Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Brian E. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A novel set of serrated-planform lifting surfaces produce unexpectedly high lift coefficients at moderate to high angles-of-attack. Each serration, or tooth, is designed to shed a vortex. The interaction of the vortices greatly enhances the lifting capability over an extremely large operating range. Variations of the invention use serrated-planform lifting surfaces in planes different than that of a primary lifting surface. In an alternate embodiment, the individual teeth are controllably retractable and deployable to provide for active control of the vortex system and hence lift coefficient. Differential lift on multiple serrated-planform lifting surfaces provides a means for vehicle control. The important aerodynamic advantages of the serrated-planform lifting surfaces are not limited to aircraft applications but can be used to establish desirable performance characteristics for missiles, land vehicles, and/or watercraft.

  12. 29 CFR 1926.705 - Requirements for lift-slab construction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for lift-slab construction operations. 1926.705 Section 1926.705 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Concrete...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.705 - Requirements for lift-slab construction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for lift-slab construction operations. 1926.705 Section 1926.705 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Concrete...

  14. 29 CFR 1926.705 - Requirements for lift-slab construction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for lift-slab construction operations. 1926.705 Section 1926.705 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Concrete...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.705 - Requirements for lift-slab construction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for lift-slab construction operations. 1926.705 Section 1926.705 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Concrete...

  16. 29 CFR 1926.705 - Requirements for lift-slab construction operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for lift-slab construction operations. 1926.705 Section 1926.705 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Concrete...

  17. Endoscopic brow lifts uber alles.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhupendra C K

    2006-12-01

    Innumerable approaches to the ptotic brow and forehead have been described in the past. Over the last twenty-five years, we have used all these techniques in cosmetic and reconstructive patients. We have used the endoscopic brow lift technique since 1995. While no one technique is applicable to all patients, the endoscopic brow lift, with appropriate modifications for individual patients, can be used effectively for most patients with brow ptosis. We present the nuances of this technique and show several different fixation methods we have found useful.

  18. Unsteady Lift Generation for MAVs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-22

    canonical pitch - up , pitch -down wing maneuver, in 39th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference, AIAA 2009-3687, San Antonio, TX, 22-25 June 2009. [7] C. P. Ellington...unsteady lift generation on three-dimensional flapping wings in the MAV flight regime and, if a leading edge vortex develops at MAV-like Reynolds numbers... wing rotates in a propeller-like motion through a wing stroke angle up to 90 degrees. Unsteady lift and drag force data was acquired throughout the

  19. Maximal aerobic capacity for repetitive lifting: comparison with three standard exercise testing modes.

    PubMed

    Sharp, M A; Harman, E; Vogel, J A; Knapik, J J; Legg, S J

    1988-01-01

    A multi-stage, repetitive lifting maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) test was developed to be used as an occupational research tool which would parallel standard ergometric VO2max testing procedures. The repetitive lifting VO2max test was administered to 18 men using an automatic repetitive lifting device. An intraclass reliability coefficient of 0.91 was obtained with data from repeated tests on seven subjects. Repetitive lifting VO2max test responses were compared to those for treadmill, cycle ergometer and arm crank ergometer. The mean +/- SD repetitive lifting VO2max of 3.20 +/- 0.42 l.min-1 was significantly (p less than 0.01) less than treadmill VO2max (delta = 0.92 l.min-1) and cycle ergometer VO2max (delta = 0.43 l.min-1) and significantly greater than arm crank ergometer VO2max (delta = 0.63 l.min-1). The correlation between repetitive lifting oxygen uptake and power output was r = 0.65. VO2max correlated highly among exercise modes, but maximum power output did not. The efficiency of repetitive lifting exercise was significantly greater than that for arm cranking and less than that for leg cycling. The repetitive lifting VO2max test has an important advantage over treadmill or cycle ergometer tests in the determination of relative repetitive lifting intensities. The individual curves of VO2 vs. power output established during the multi-stage lifting VO2max test can be used to accurately select work loads required to elicit given percentages of maximal oxygen uptake.

  20. Powered-Lift Aerodynamics and Acoustics. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Powered lift technology is reviewed. Topics covered include: (1) high lift aerodynamics; (2) high speed and cruise aerodynamics; (3) acoustics; (4) propulsion aerodynamics and acoustics; (5) aerodynamic and acoustic loads; and (6) full-scale and flight research.

  1. Use of lift gas in an FCC reactor riser

    SciTech Connect

    Hammershaimb, H. U.; Lomas, D. A.

    1984-10-30

    A process for converting normally liquid hydrocarbons with an active fluid catalytic cracking catalyst which comprises: passing an upflowing suspension of hot regenerated active fluid catalytic cracking catalyst in a lift gas comprising hydrocarbons including not more than 10 mole % C/sub 3/ and heavier hydrocarbons through a lower portion of a vertically orientated riser conversion zone at a velocity of from about 1.8 to less than 12.2 meters per second, and for a residence time from about 0.5 to about 15 seconds, the ratio of catalyst to hydrocarbon in said lift gas being greater than 80; and introducing the normally liquid hydrocarbons into the upflowing suspension at a locus in the riser conversion zone downstream of the lower portion to form a catalyst-hydrocarbon mixture wherein the temperature and residence time are sufficient to effect the desired conversion. The process is particularly useful for the treatment of a heavy residual feedstock.

  2. 46 CFR 64.43 - Lifting fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifting fittings. 64.43 Section 64.43 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.43 Lifting fittings. Each MPT must have attached lifting fittings so that the tank remains horizontal and stable while being moved....

  3. Vertical Lift - Not Just For Terrestrial Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A

    2000-01-01

    Autonomous vertical lift vehicles hold considerable potential for supporting planetary science and exploration missions. This paper discusses several technical aspects of vertical lift planetary aerial vehicles in general, and specifically addresses technical challenges and work to date examining notional vertical lift vehicles for Mars, Titan, and Venus exploration.

  4. Protect Your Back: Guidelines for Safer Lifting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantu, Carolyn O.

    2002-01-01

    Examines back injury in teachers and child care providers; includes statistics, common causes of back pain (improper alignment, improper posture, improper lifting, and carrying), and types of back pain (acute and chronic). Focuses on preventing back injury, body mechanics for lifting and carrying, and proper lifting and carrying of children. (SD)

  5. Project LIFT: Year Three Student Outcomes Memo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Michael; Kim, Dae Y.; Long, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Research for Action (RFA) was commissioned to evaluate changes in student outcomes during the first three years of the Project Leadership and Investment for Transformation (LIFT). This report focuses on two questions: (1) how do LIFT students' behavioral and academic performance compare to those of a matched set of non-LIFT comparison students?;…

  6. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  7. An Alternative Maxillary Sinus Lift Technique – Sinu Lift System

    PubMed Central

    T, Parthasaradhi; B, Shivakumar; Kumar, T.S.S.; P, Suganya

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Maxillary sinus augmentation surgical techniques have evolved greatly allowing successful placement of dental implants in the atrophic posterior maxillary region. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes and postoperative morbidity of sinus floor elevation procedures performed using the minimally invasive surgical technique the Sinu lift system. Materials and Methods: Sinus lift procedure was done using the sinu lift system by a transcrestal approach and bone augmentation was done on ten systemically healthy patients using β- tricalcium phosphate and platelet rich plasma mix. The study was evaluated upto six months period with bone related parameters being assessed at base line using CT scan, OPG and after six months the results were analysed using SPSS Version 18.0 software (p < 0.01 (0.005). Wilcoxson signed rank sum test was used to correlate between preoperative and postoperative measurements. Implant placements were done at the desired area of sinus augmentation with a two year follow up. (Nobel Biocare, Nobel Biocare Holding AG, Zürich-Flughafen, Switzerland) Results: The augmented sites had a significant increase in the bone parameters at the desired grafted region. The mean gain in bone height as observed in CT Scan had revealed increased measurements from 5.80mm±0.98 to 10.20mm±1.68 at the sixth month evaluation. This was statistically significant (0.005). Clinically, no complications were observed during or after the surgical procedure. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the Sinu lift system with a controlled working action resulted in high procedural success and this procedure may be an alternative to the currently used surgical methods. PMID:25954702

  8. Occupational Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Grammer, Leslie C

    2016-05-01

    Occupational rhinitis (OR) involves nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, and/or sneezing resulting from workplace exposures. OR can have a significant negative effect on quality of life and productivity. OR can be divided into allergic or nonallergic subgroups based on the underlying pathogenesis. Certain occupational exposures place employees at greater risk for developing disease. Primary treatment is avoidance of implicated exposures. Antihistamines, saline rinses, and nasal steroids may be useful. OR can coexist with occupational asthma, and rhinitis symptoms have been reported to precede those of the lower respiratory tract. OR is has both medical and socioeconomic implications.

  9. Serrated trailing edges for improving lift and drag characteristics of lifting surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vijgen, Paul M. H. W. (Inventor); Howard, Floyd G. (Inventor); Bushnell, Dennis M. (Inventor); Holmes, Bruce J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An improvement in the lift and drag characteristics of a lifting surface is achieved by attaching a serrated panel to the trailing edge of the lifting surface. The serrations may have a saw-tooth configuration, with a 60 degree included angle between adjacent serrations. The serrations may vary in shape and size over the span-wise length of the lifting surface, and may be positioned at fixed or adjustable deflections relative to the chord of the lifting surface.

  10. Occupational Health

    MedlinePlus

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  11. Quiet powered-lift propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Latest results of programs exploring new propulsion technology for powered-lift aircraft systems are presented. Topics discussed include results from the 'quiet clean short-haul experimental engine' program and progress reports on the 'quiet short-haul research aircraft' and 'tilt-rotor research aircraft' programs. In addition to these NASA programs, the Air Force AMST YC 14 and YC 15 programs were reviewed.

  12. Aerodynamics of Supersonic Lifting Bodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    verso of front cover. 19 Y WOROS (Continue on rt.’,;erso side i recessary and identily by block number) Theoretical Aerodynamics Lifting Bodies Wind ...waverider solution, developed from the supersonic wedge flow solution, is then i Fused to fashion vertLcal stabilizer-likh control surfaces. Wind ...served as Project Engineers ror thE wind tunnel work. Important contributions were also made bv: Mr. iis±ung Miin; Lee, -M. Beom-Soo Kim, Mtr. Martin Weeks

  13. Lift enhancement by bats' dynamically changing wingspan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shizhao; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei; Liu, Tianshu

    2015-01-01

    This paper elucidates the aerodynamic role of the dynamically changing wingspan in bat flight. Based on direct numerical simulations of the flow over a slow-flying bat, it is found that the dynamically changing wingspan can significantly enhance the lift. Further, an analysis of flow structures and lift decomposition reveal that the elevated vortex lift associated with the leading-edge vortices intensified by the dynamically changing wingspan considerably contributed to enhancement of the time-averaged lift. The nonlinear interaction between the dynamically changing wing and the vortical structures plays an important role in the lift enhancement of a flying bat in addition to the geometrical effect of changing the lifting-surface area in a flapping cycle. In addition, the dynamically changing wingspan leads to the higher efficiency in terms of generating lift for a given amount of the mechanical energy consumed in flight. PMID:26701882

  14. Generalised Eisenhart lift of the Toda chain

    SciTech Connect

    Cariglia, Marco; Gibbons, Gary

    2014-02-15

    The Toda chain of nearest neighbour interacting particles on a line can be described both in terms of geodesic motion on a manifold with one extra dimension, the Eisenhart lift, or in terms of geodesic motion in a symmetric space with several extra dimensions. We examine the relationship between these two realisations and discover that the symmetric space is a generalised, multi-particle Eisenhart lift of the original problem that reduces to the standard Eisenhart lift. Such generalised Eisenhart lift acts as an inverse Kaluza-Klein reduction, promoting coupling constants to momenta in higher dimension. In particular, isometries of the generalised lift metric correspond to energy preserving transformations that mix coordinates and coupling constants. A by-product of the analysis is that the lift of the Toda Lax pair can be used to construct higher rank Killing tensors for both the standard and generalised lift metrics.

  15. [Occupational asthma].

    PubMed

    Rico-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Cambray-Gutiérrez, Julio César; Vega-Robledo, Gloria Bertha

    2015-01-01

    The occupational asthma is the most common form of lung disease caused by factors that are attributed to a specific working environment in industrialized countries. It causes variable limitation of airflow and/or hyper-responsiveness of the airway due to contact with specific agents present in an atmosphere of work and not to stimuli found out of this place. It is recognized more and more frequently, and many agents are capable of causing occupational asthma by different pathophysiological mechanisms. More than 400 agents causing occupational asthma are known and every year new triggers are detected. Numerous factors contribute to the pathogenesis of occupational asthma induced chemically, including immunological, non-immunological mechanisms of epithelial damage, airway remodeling, oxidative stress, neurogenic inflammation as well as genetic factors. The most important risk factors for occupational asthma include: atopy, smoking and genetic factors. The diagnosis is based on the clinical history, skin tests, immunological tests and functional studies. The fundamental treatment is removing the worker from exposure as soon as possible. The advance in the knowledge of the pathogenesis of occupational asthma will importantly influence in the prevention and the management of this disease.

  16. Allometry of hummingbird lifting performance.

    PubMed

    Altshuler, D L; Dudley, R; Heredia, S M; McGuire, J A

    2010-03-01

    Vertical lifting performance in 67 hummingbird species was studied across a 4000 m elevational gradient. We used the technique of asymptotic load-lifting to elicit maximum sustained muscle power output during loaded hovering flight. Our analysis incorporated direct measurements of maximum sustained load and simultaneous wingbeat kinematics, together with aerodynamic estimates of mass-specific mechanical power output, all within a robust phylogenetic framework for the Trochilidae. We evaluated key statistical factors relevant to estimating slopes for allometric relationships by performing analyses with and without phylogenetic information, and incorporating species-specific measurement error. We further examined allometric relationships at different elevations because this gradient represents a natural experiment for studying physical challenges to animal flight mechanics. Maximum lifting capacity (i.e. vertical force production) declined with elevation, but was either isometric or negatively allometric with respect to both body and muscle mass, depending on elevational occurrence of the corresponding taxa. Maximum relative muscle power output exhibited a negative allometry with respect to muscle mass, supporting theoretical predictions from muscle mechanics.

  17. [Operative applications of occupational therapy].

    PubMed

    Saade, A

    2010-01-01

    Occupational therapy is the branch of rehabilitation whose main aim is to achieve maximum possible autonomy of the disabled person and the most complete integration into society, family and work. In subjects with motor disabilities following an occupational injury, the re-education programme includes a series of interventions aimed at progressive recovery of the ability to carry out work tasks compatible with the residual motor capacity of the worker. This article presents some examples related to the different stages making up the specific re-education programme: from the initial stages (with more purely kinesiotherapeutic techniques) directed at recovering movements and muscle strength, to the intermediate and final stages (more typically ergotherapeutic) directed first at the recovery of basic functions (clasping, pulling, pushing, lifting, lowering, carrying, etc.) and then, finally, retraining of work movements, with the introduction of compensatory methods and/or use of auxiliaries, when necessary.

  18. Assessment of Navy Heavy-Lift Aircraft Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    600’ With the conventional hybrid abeam each other rotor spacing is less than 10 feet 200’ 100’ 50’150’ 150’150’ 130’ 53E80’ 80 ’ 80 ’ 80 ’ 80 ’ 80 ’ 80 ’ 80 ... 80 ’ 80 ’ 80 ’ 80 ’ 80 ’ 80 ’ 80 ’ This slide is the same representation of the MPF(F) shown before. The slide contrasts the CH-53X and a large

  19. Development of computational methods for heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Ryan, James S.

    1993-01-01

    The research effort has been focused on the development of an advanced flow solver for complex viscous turbulent flows with shock waves. The three-dimensional Euler and full/thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flows are solved on structured hexahedral grids. The Baldwin-Lomax algebraic turbulence model is used for closure. The space discretization is based on a cell-centered finite-volume method augmented by a variety of numerical dissipation models with optional total variation diminishing limiters. The governing equations are integrated in time by an implicit method based on lower-upper factorization and symmetric Gauss-Seidel relaxation. The algorithm is vectorized on diagonal planes of sweep using two-dimensional indices in three dimensions. A new computer program named CENS3D has been developed for viscous turbulent flows with discontinuities. Details of the code are described in Appendix A and Appendix B. With the developments of the numerical algorithm and dissipation model, the simulation of three-dimensional viscous compressible flows has become more efficient and accurate. The results of the research are expected to yield a direct impact on the design process of future liquid fueled launch systems.

  20. Ground cloud related weather modification effects. [heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J.

    1980-01-01

    The principal concerns about inadvertent weather modification by the solar power satellite system rocket effluents are discussed, namely the possibility that the ground cloud might temporarily modify local weather and the cumulative effects of nearly 500 launches per year. These issues are discussed through the consideration of (1) the possible alteration of the microphysical processes of clouds in the general area due to rocket effluents and debris and cooling water entrained during the launch and (2) the direct dynamical and thermodynamical responses to the inputs of thermal energy and moisture from the rocket exhaust for given ambient meteorological conditions. The huge amount of thermal energy contained in the exhaust of the proposed launch vehicle would in some situations induce a saturated, wet convective cloud or enhance an existing convective activity. Nevertheless, the effects would be limited to the general area of the launch site. The observed long lasting high concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei produced during and after a rocket launch may appreciably affect the frequency of occurrence and persistence of fogs and haze. In view of the high mission frequency proposed for the vehicle launches, a potential exists for a cumulative effect.

  1. CH-53K Heavy Lift Replacement Helicopter (CH-53K)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    BA - Budget Authority/Budget Activity BY - Base Year DAMIR - Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD...APUC None CH-53K December 2013 SAR April 16, 2014 17:02:21 UNCLASSIFIED 7 Schedule Milestones SAR Baseline Dev Est Current APB...2018 FEB 2018 IOT &E (OPEVAL) Complete JUN 2015 SEP 2018 MAR 2019 SEP 2018 IOC SEP 2015 JAN 2019 JUL 2019 JUL 2019 (Ch-1) FRP Decision Review DEC 2015

  2. Modeling and Simulation Tools for Heavy Lift Airships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstetler, Ron; Chachad, Girish; Hardy, Gordon; Blanken, Matthew; Melton, John

    2016-01-01

    For conventional fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft a variety of modeling and simulation tools have been developed to provide designers the means to thoroughly investigate proposed designs and operational concepts. However, lighter-than-air (LTA) airships, hybrid air vehicles, and aerostats have some important aspects that are different from heavier-than-air (HTA) vehicles. In order to account for these differences, modifications are required to the standard design tools to fully characterize the LTA vehicle design and performance parameters.. To address these LTA design and operational factors, LTA development organizations have created unique proprietary modeling tools, often at their own expense. An expansion of this limited LTA tool set could be accomplished by leveraging existing modeling and simulation capabilities available in the National laboratories and public research centers. Development of an expanded set of publicly available LTA modeling and simulation tools for LTA developers would mitigate the reliance on proprietary LTA design tools in use today. A set of well researched, open source, high fidelity LTA design modeling and simulation tools would advance LTA vehicle development and also provide the analytical basis for accurate LTA operational cost assessments. This paper will present the modeling and analysis tool capabilities required for LTA vehicle design, analysis of operations, and full life-cycle support. A survey of the tools currently available will be assessed to identify the gaps between their capabilities and the LTA industry's needs. Options for development of new modeling and analysis capabilities to supplement contemporary tools will also be presented.

  3. Hybrid Aircraft for Heavy Lift / High Speed Strategic Mobility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    flight characteristics of these vehicles, buoyancy control systems to ensure that the onload/offload of vast amounts of cargo does not adversely affect...flight characteristics, avionics and flight control systems , and, for certain classes of HA, the large-scale manufacture of lightweight, high-strength...that were described and amply supported with engineering details.12 In 2002, the Joint Staff funded a Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) study

  4. A Survey of Commercially Available Expendable Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    46 D. TYPICAL MISSION PROFILE .. .. .. ....... 48 E . COST........... . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 V . ARIANE........................52 A...63 D. TYPICAL MISSION PROFILE..............65 V E. COST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 VI. LONG MARCH...Dynamic Pressure 01:U8 SOaP lIgnW~ P , -*1 - CW4101:W4 Stage 0Jeusn ’fibtora v POION eSeraios(Fwd) 0429 St 2 Ina kade04:30 Stage I Somuaeon ManD"ncPut

  5. Impact of Aerodynamics and Structures Technology on Heavy Lift Tiltrotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Rotor performance and aeroelastic stability are presented for a 124,000-lb Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) design. It was designed to carry 120 passengers for 1200 nm, with performance of 350 knots at 30,000 ft altitude. Design features include a low-mounted wing and hingeless rotors, with a very low cruise tip speed of 350 ft/sec. The rotor and wing design processes are described, including rotor optimization methods and wing/rotor aeroelastic stability analyses. New rotor airfoils were designed specifically for the LCTR; the resulting performance improvements are compared to current technology airfoils. Twist, taper and precone optimization are presented, along with the effects of blade flexibility on performance. A new wing airfoil was designed and a composite structure was developed to meet the wing load requirements for certification. Predictions of aeroelastic stability are presented for the optimized rotor and wing, along with summaries of the effects of rotor design parameters on stability.

  6. Administrator's Statement on New Heavy-Lift Rocket

    NASA Video Gallery

    The next chapter of America’s space exploration story is being written, right here, right now. We’ve selected the design for a new space exploration system that will take humans far beyond E...

  7. Remaking Teacher Evaluation: A Heavy Lift for State Education Policymakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The "Race to the Top" competitive grant program initiated a wave of teacher evaluation reform, which scholars and policymakers have long identified as critical to improving teacher quality and student performance. State boards of education (SBEs) and state education agencies (SEAs) took different approaches to these reforms, and as a…

  8. Occupational Neurotoxic Diseases in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chi-Hung; Huang, Chu-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Occupational neurotoxic diseases have become increasingly common in Taiwan due to industrialization. Over the past 40 years, Taiwan has transformed from an agricultural society to an industrial society. The most common neurotoxic diseases also changed from organophosphate poisoning to heavy metal intoxication, and then to organic solvent and semiconductor agent poisoning. The nervous system is particularly vulnerable to toxic agents because of its high metabolic rate. Neurological manifestations may be transient or permanent, and may range from cognitive dysfunction, cerebellar ataxia, Parkinsonism, sensorimotor neuropathy and autonomic dysfunction to neuromuscular junction disorders. This study attempts to provide a review of the major outbreaks of occupational neurotoxins from 1968 to 2012. A total of 16 occupational neurotoxins, including organophosphates, toxic gases, heavy metals, organic solvents, and other toxic chemicals, were reviewed. Peer-reviewed articles related to the electrophysiology, neuroimaging, treatment and long-term follow up of these neurotoxic diseases were also obtained. The heavy metals involved consisted of lead, manganese, organic tin, mercury, arsenic, and thallium. The organic solvents included n-hexane, toluene, mixed solvents and carbon disulfide. Toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide were also included, along with toxic chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, tetramethylammonium hydroxide, organophosphates, and dimethylamine borane. In addition we attempted to correlate these events to the timeline of industrial development in Taiwan. By researching this topic, the hope is that it may help other developing countries to improve industrial hygiene and promote occupational safety and health care during the process of industrialization. PMID:23251841

  9. Effects of Injector Conditions on the Flame Lift-Off Length of DI Diesel Sprays

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Siebers; B. S. Higgins

    2000-07-01

    The effects of injection pressure and orifice diameter on the lift-off length of a direct-injection (DI) diesel spray (defined as the farthest upstream location of high temperature combustion) were investigated using a natural light emission imaging technique. The lift-off length experiments were conducted in a constant-volume combustion vessel under quiescent, heavy-duty DI diesel engine conditions using a Phillips research grade No.2 diesel fuel. The results show that natural light emission at 310 nm provides an excellent marker of the lift-off length. At this location, natural light emission at 310 nm is dominated by OH chemiluminescence generated by high-temperature combustion chemistry. Lift-off lengths determined from images of natural light emission at 310 nm show that as either injection pressure (i.e., injection velocity) or orifice diameter increase, the lift-off length increases. The observed lift-off length increase was linearly dependent on injection velocity, the same dependency as previously noted for gas jets. The lift-off length increase with increasing orifice diameter, however, is different than the independence of lift-off length on orifice diameter noted for gas jets An important overall observation was made by considering the lift-off length data in conjunction with data from recent investigations of liquid-phase fuel penetration and spray development. The combined data suggests that a systematic evolution of the relationship and interaction between various processes in a DI diesel spray has been occurring over time, as injection pressures have been increased and orifice diameters reduced as part of efforts to meet emissions regulations. The trends observed may eventually help explain effects of parameters such as injection pressure and orifice diameter on emissions.

  10. Automation of Workplace Lifting Hazard Assessment for Musculoskeletal Injury Prevention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Existing methods for practically evaluating musculoskeletal exposures such as posture and repetition in workplace settings have limitations. We aimed to automate the estimation of parameters in the revised United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation, a standard manual observational tool used to evaluate back injury risk related to lifting in workplace settings, using depth camera (Microsoft Kinect) and skeleton algorithm technology. Methods A large dataset (approximately 22,000 frames, derived from six subjects) of simultaneous lifting and other motions recorded in a laboratory setting using the Kinect (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States) and a standard optical motion capture system (Qualysis, Qualysis Motion Capture Systems, Qualysis AB, Sweden) was assembled. Error-correction regression models were developed to improve the accuracy of NIOSH lifting equation parameters estimated from the Kinect skeleton. Kinect-Qualysis errors were modelled using gradient boosted regression trees with a Huber loss function. Models were trained on data from all but one subject and tested on the excluded subject. Finally, models were tested on three lifting trials performed by subjects not involved in the generation of the model-building dataset. Results Error-correction appears to produce estimates for NIOSH lifting equation parameters that are more accurate than those derived from the Microsoft Kinect algorithm alone. Our error-correction models substantially decreased the variance of parameter errors. In general, the Kinect underestimated parameters, and modelling reduced this bias, particularly for more biased estimates. Use of the raw Kinect skeleton model tended to result in falsely high safe recommended weight limits of loads, whereas error-corrected models gave more conservative, protective estimates. Conclusions Our results suggest that it may be possible to produce reasonable estimates of

  11. New and expected developments in artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.; Winkler, H.W.

    1994-12-31

    Artificial lift is a broad subject. This paper discusses some of the new developments in the major areas of artificial lift. These are (1) beam lift, (2) electrical submersible pumping, (3) gas lift, (4) hydraulic pumping and (5) miscellaneous topics. The beam lift discussion concerns a new rod material, downhole measurements for rod loading, unit design and some miscellaneous topics. The ESP (Electrical Submersible Pump) section includes a discussion on solids handling, downhole sensor technology, new motor temperature limitations, motor efficiency, and other topics. The gas lift discussion includes mention of coiled tubing with gas lift valves internal, a surface controlled gas lift valve concept, and gas lift valve testing and modeling. Hydraulic pumping is used in many locations with deep pay and fairly small production rates. New hydraulic developments include a wider availability of power fluid pumps other than positive displacement pumps, and small jet pumps specifically designed for de-watering gas wells. Some miscellaneous developments include an insertable PC (progressing cavity) pump and improved plunger lift algorithms and equipment.

  12. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  13. Maximum isoinertial lifting capabilities for different lifting ranges and container dimensions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2005-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of lifting range and container dimension on human maximum isoinertial lifting capability in the sagittal plane. Ten young and experienced lifters were tested for their maximum isoinertial lifting capabilities for 12 different lifting conditions (three lifting ranges x four container dimensions). The results showed that lifting range and container dimension significantly affected human maximum isoinertial lifting capability. The order for the highest to lowest lifting capability for the three lifting ranges was FK (from floor to knuckle height, 0-74 cm), FS (from floor to shoulder height, 0-141 cm) and KS (from knuckle height to shoulder height, 74-141 cm) regardless of the container dimension, and for the four container dimensions was 50 x 35 x 15 cm(3), 70 x 35 x 15 cm(3), 50 x 50 x 15 cm(3) and 70 x 50 x 15 cm(3) regardless of the lifting range. The mean(SD) maximum isoinertial lifting capability ranged from 29.3(3.3) kg for the combination of KS range and 70 x 50 x 15 cm(3) container to 53.2(5.7)kg for the combination of FK range and 50 x 35 x 15 cm(3) container. The results of this study can help our knowledge of human maximum isoinertial lifting capability and designing the upper limit of lifting weight.

  14. Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high-speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

  15. Influence of Lift Offset on Rotorcraft Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The influence of lift offset on the performance of several rotorcraft configurations is explored. A lift-offset rotor, or advancing blade concept, is a hingeless rotor that can attain good efficiency at high speed, by operating with more lift on the advancing side than on the retreating side of the rotor disk. The calculated performance capability of modern-technology coaxial rotors utilizing a lift offset is examined, including rotor performance optimized for hover and high-speed cruise. The ideal induced power loss of coaxial rotors in hover and twin rotors in forward flight is presented. The aerodynamic modeling requirements for performance calculations are evaluated, including wake and drag models for the high speed flight condition. The influence of configuration on the performance of rotorcraft with lift-offset rotors is explored, considering tandem and side-by-side rotorcraft as well as wing-rotor lift share.

  16. Lift generation by the avian tail.

    PubMed

    Maybury, W J; Rayner, J M; Couldrick, L B

    2001-07-22

    Variation with tail spread of the lift generated by a bird tail was measured on mounted, frozen European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) in a wind tunnel at a typical air speed and body and tail angle of attack in order to test predictions of existing aerodynamic theories modelling tail lift. Measured lift at all but the lowest tail spread angles was significantly lower than the predictions of slender wing, leading edge vortex and lifting line models of lift production. Instead, the tail lift coefficient based on tail area was independent of tail spread, tail aspect ratio and maximum tail span. Theoretical models do not predict bird tail lift reliably and, when applied to tail morphology, may underestimate the aerodynamic optimum tail feather length. Flow visualization experiments reveal that an isolated tail generates leading edge vortices as expected for a low-aspect ratio delta wing, but that in the intact bird body-tail interactions are critical in determining tail aerodynamics: lifting vortices shed from the body interact with the tail and degrade tail lift compared with that of an isolated tail.

  17. The lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the highlights and results of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in October 1992. The objective of the workshop was a thorough review of the lessons learned from past research on lift fans, and lift-fan aircraft, models, designs, and components. The scope included conceptual design studies, wind tunnel investigations, propulsion systems components, piloted simulation, flight of aircraft such as the SV-5A and SV-5B and a recent lift-fan aircraft development project. The report includes a brief summary of five technical presentations that addressed the subject The Lift-Fan Aircraft: Lessons Learned.

  18. Aerodynamic lift effect on satellite orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Cleland, J. G.; Devries, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    Numerical quadrature is employed to obtain orbit perturbation results from the general perturbation equations. Both aerodynamic lift and drag forces are included in the analysis of the satellite orbit. An exponential atmosphere with and without atmospheric rotation is used. A comparison is made of the perturbations which are caused by atmospheric rotation with those caused by satellite aerodynamic effects. Results indicate that aerodynamic lift effects on the semi-major axis and orbit inclination can be of the same order as the effects of atmosphere rotation depending upon the orientation of the lift vector. The results reveal the importance of including aerodynamic lift effects in orbit perturbation analysis.

  19. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    SciTech Connect

    Moulden, Steve

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  20. Occupational cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Guidotti, T.L.; Goldsmith, D.F.

    1986-09-01

    When cancer is possibly related to occupation, the family physician's task is to put the matter in perspective by educating the patient and carefully documenting the appearance of the tumor and the patient's work history. Occasionally, physicians are the first to recognize new associations between chemicals and cancer and can help to bring hazards under control.

  1. Occupational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, William R.

    Although fiscal support for occupational programs in California Community Colleges is provided primarily by state and local district taxes, about ten percent of the total support is provided through federal sources. Federal regulations under the Vocational Education Act (VEA) require the recipients of federal funds to provide consultative,…

  2. Prevention of disabling back injuries in nurses by the use of mechanical patient lift systems.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Hudson, Mary Anne; Britt, L D; Long, William B

    2004-01-01

    Occupational back pain in nurses (OBPN) constitutes a major source of morbidity in the health care environment. According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), occupational back injury is the second leading occupational injury in the United States. Among health care personnel, nurses have the highest rate of back pain, with an annual prevalence of 40-50% and a lifetime prevalence of 35-80%. The American Nursing Association believes that manual patient handling is unsafe and is directly responsible for musculoskeletal disorders encountered in nurses. It has been well documented that patient handling can be done safely with the use of assistive equipment and devices that eliminate these hazards to nurses that invite serious back injuries. The benefit of assistive patient handling equipment is characterized by the simultaneous reduction of the risk of musculoskeletal injury to the nursing staff and improvement in the quality of care for patient populations. To understand the cause of disabling injuries in health care workers, several factors must be considered, including the following: (1) anatomy/physiology of the back, (2) risk factors, (3) medical legal implications, and (4) prevention. Among nurses, back, neck, and shoulder injuries are commonly noted as the most prevalent and debilitating. While mostly associated with dependant patient care, the risk for musculoskeletal injury secondary to manual patient handling crosses all specialty areas of nursing. The skeletal defects of an abnormal back make the back more susceptible to occupational injury, even under normal stress conditions. Workers compensation guidelines for occupational back injury differ in public and private health care sectors from state to state. Nursing personnel should be reminded that the development of back pain following occupational activities in the hospital should be reported immediately to the Occupational Health Department. A nurse's failure to report OBPN

  3. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of...

  4. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span lights. The vertical lift span of every vertical lift bridge shall be lighted so that the center of the navigable channel under the span will be marked by a range of two green lights when the vertical lift...

  5. Middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity in elite power athletes during maximal weight-lifting.

    PubMed

    Dickerman, R D; McConathy, W J; Smith, G H; East, J W; Rudder, L

    2000-06-01

    Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) has been shown to significantly increase during dynamic exercise (running) secondary to increases in cardiac output. Static exercise (weight-lifting) induces supraphysiological arterial pressures up to 450/380 mmHg, and thus may alter CBFV. Catastrophic brain injuries such as stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, retinal hemorrhage and retinal detachment have been associated with weight-lifting. A recent study has shown that intra-ocular pressure (IOP), which is an indirect measure of intracranial pressure, elevates to pathophysiologic levels during weight-lifting. Recent CBFV studies instituting Valsalva have demonstrated decreases in CBFV from 21%-52%. To date, no studies have examined CBFV during maximal weight-lifting to elucidate the cerebrovascular responses to extreme pressure alterations. We recruited nine elite power athletes, including a multi-world record holder in powerlifting, for a transcranial Doppler study of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity at rest and during maximal weight-lifting. All subjects' resting blood flow velocities were within normal ranges (mean 64.4 +/- 9.5 cm sec2). Blood flow velocities were significantly (p < 0.0001) decreased in all subjects during maximal lifting (mean 48.4 +/- 10.1 cm sec2). Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant inverse linear relationship in the net change of blood velocities from rest to maximal lift for each subject (r = 0.8585, p < 0.001). This study demonstrates that blood flow velocities are significantly decreased during heavy resistance training. The drop in CBFV during weight-lifting was significantly less than previous Valsalva studies, which likely reveals the cardiovascular, baroreflex, and cerebrovascular system adaptations occurring in these elite power athletes.

  6. Interaction of Physical Exposures and Occupational Factors on Sickness Absence in Automotive Industry Workers

    PubMed Central

    Valirad, Fateme; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Mircheraghi, Seyed Farzin; Mohammadi, Saber

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Increased sickness absence in recent years has been a trouble making issue in industrial society. Identify the causes of sickness absence and its influencing factors, is an important step to control and reduce its associated complications and costs. The aim of this study was to evaluate main factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. Procedure: In 2012, a cross-sectional study on 758 employees of a car accessories producing company was applied and relevant information about the number of days and episodes of sickness absence, Disease resulting in absence from work, personal features, occupational factors and physical exposures were collected. To determine risk factors associated with sickness absence, Logistic regression analysis was used. Results: The most common diseases leading to sickness absence in order of frequency were Respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, gastrointestinal diseases and injuries at work. Musculoskeletal disorders increased the danger of long term absence by 4/33 times. Blue collar and shift works were the most important occupational factors associated with the incidence of sickness absence. The main physical factors that affect incidence of sickness absence were frequent bending-twisting and heavy lifting. Conclusion: Identifying controllable factors of sickness absence and trying to prevent and modify them such as compliance of ergonomic principals to decrease physical can be effective in reducing sickness absence. PMID:26153180

  7. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  8. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish...

  9. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish...

  10. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish...

  11. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish...

  12. 49 CFR 37.203 - Lift maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lift maintenance. 37.203 Section 37.203 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Over-the-Road Buses (OTRBs) § 37.203 Lift maintenance. (a) The entity shall establish...

  13. Training Guidelines: Fork Lift Truck Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    This manual of operative training guidelines for fork lift truck driving has been developed by the Ceramics, Glass and Mineral Products Industry Training Board (Great Britain) in consultation with a number of firms which manufacture fork lift trucks or which already have training--programs for their use. The purpose of the guidelines is to assist…

  14. What's new in artificial lift

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, J.F.; Winker, H.W.

    1989-05-01

    New developments might be expected to decline as oil, and thus equipment and service, prices decrease. However, there is no indication that this is occurring. In fact, several new and innovative developments are covered in this article. Of the more unique are a new geometry pumping unit and a hydraulic powered sucker and rod system. Other items described in this article include: New pump-off controller; Automatic balancing for air balanced pumping units; New rod couplings; New pump plunger; Sucker rod pulsation dampener; Stripper type BOP; Rod coupling tool; ESP cable protectors; New ESP motor; VSD communications interface; ESP gas separator; Portable hydraulic production test unit; Casing gas lift plunger; Production shut-of valve; Ceramic material for pump parts; Pressure transmitter; and New versatile packer.

  15. Lip Lifting: Unveiling Dental Beauty.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Kyle; Caligiuri, Matthew; Schlichting, Luís Henrique; Bazos, Panaghiotis K; Magne, Michel

    2017-01-01

    The focus for the achievement of complete success in the esthetic zone has traditionally been on addressing deficiencies of intraoral hard and soft tissue. Often, these deficiencies are accompanied by esthetic concerns regarding the lips that are routinely neglected by the dental team. A predictable plastic surgery technique - the lip lift - has been used for decades to enhance lip esthetics by shortening the senile upper lip to achieve a more youthful appearance. Over the years, this technique has been refined and used in many different ways, allowing its routine incorporation into full facial esthetic planning. Through restoration of the upper lip to its optimal position, the artistry of the dentist and dental technician can truly be appreciated in the rejuvenated smile. By the introduction of this minimally invasive surgical technique to the dental community, patients stand to benefit from a comprehensive orofacial approach to anterior dental esthetic planning.

  16. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Grzybowski, S.

    1976-01-01

    Occupational asthma is probably much more common than is generally realized. Though many causes have been described, undoubtedly many more are yet to be recognized. One of the diagnostic difficulties lies in the fact that in most forms of this disease a late asthmatic reaction occurs in the evening rather than at work. The pathogenetic mechanisms differ in various forms of occupational asthma. In some, an immunologic mechanism is likely; in others, a "pharmacologic" action of the offending agent is implicated. Asthma due to inhalation of dusts of western red cedar, isocyanates, detergent enzymes and textiles is considered in detail. Periodic examination of workers at risk is of value for early diagnosis and prevention of irrversible airway obstruction. PMID:766943

  17. Industrial hygiene of selected heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, J.L.

    1993-08-01

    The industrial hygiene of heavy metals consists of recognition, evaluation, and control of exposures in the occupational environment. Several of these metals have been in use since ancient times. Reports of health effects and poisonings from overexposures also have a long history. This report discusses the industrial hygiene of the heavy metals, lead, cadmium, mercury, and manganese.

  18. View of West end of central lift span truss web ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of West end of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing web brace of lift girder superstructure, looking west - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  19. An experimental study of the lift, drag and static longitudinal stability for a three lifting surface configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostowari, C.; Naik, D.

    1986-01-01

    The experimental procedure and aerodynamic force and moment measurements for wind tunnel testing of the three lifting surface configuration (TLC) are described. The influence of nonelliptical lift distributions on lift, drag, and static longitudinal stability are examined; graphs of the lift coefficient versus angle of attack, the pitching moment coefficient, drag coefficient, and lift to drag ratio versus lift coefficient are provided. The TLC data are compared with the conventional tail-aft configuration and the canard-wing configuration; it is concluded that the TLC has better lift and high-lift drag characteristics, lift to drag ratio, and zero-lift moments than the other two configurations. The effects of variations in forward and tail wind incidence angles, gap, stagger, and forward wind span on the drag, lift, longitudinal stability, and zero-lift moments of the configuration are studied.

  20. Wingless Flight: The Lifting Body Story

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. Dale; Lister, Darlene (Editor); Huntley, J. D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Wingless Flight tells the story of the most unusual flying machines ever flown, the lifting bodies. It is my story about my friends and colleagues who committed a significant part of their lives in the 1960s and 1970s to prove that the concept was a viable one for use in spacecraft of the future. This story, filled with drama and adventure, is about the twelve-year period from 1963 to 1975 in which eight different lifting-body configurations flew. It is appropriate for me to write the story, since I was the engineer who first presented the idea of flight-testing the concept to others at the NASA Flight Research Center. Over those twelve years, I experienced the story as it unfolded day by day at that remote NASA facility northeast of los Angeles in the bleak Mojave Desert. Benefits from this effort immediately influenced the design and operational concepts of the winged NASA Shuttle Orbiter. However, the full benefits would not be realized until the 1990s when new spacecraft such as the X-33 and X-38 would fully employ the lifting-body concept. A lifting body is basically a wingless vehicle that flies due to the lift generated by the shape of its fuselage. Although both a lifting reentry vehicle and a ballistic capsule had been considered as options during the early stages of NASA's space program, NASA initially opted to go with the capsule. A number of individuals were not content to close the book on the lifting-body concept. Researchers including Alfred Eggers at the NASA Ames Research Center conducted early wind-tunnel experiments, finding that half of a rounded nose-cone shape that was flat on top and rounded on the bottom could generate a lift-to-drag ratio of about 1.5 to 1. Eggers' preliminary design sketch later resembled the basic M2 lifting-body design. At the NASA Langley Research Center, other researchers toyed with their own lifting-body shapes. Meanwhile, some of us aircraft-oriented researchers at the, NASA Flight Research Center at Edwards Air

  1. Secondary lift for magnetically levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, Richard K.

    1976-01-01

    A high-speed terrestrial vehicle that is magnetically levitated by means of magnets which are used to induce eddy currents in a continuous electrically conductive nonferromagnetic track to produce magnetic images that repel the inducing magnet to provide primary lift for the vehicle. The magnets are arranged so that adjacent ones have their fields in opposite directions and the magnets are spaced apart a distance that provides a secondary lift between each magnet and the adjacent magnet's image, the secondary lift being maximized by optimal spacing of the magnets.

  2. Experimental determination of baseball spin and lift.

    PubMed

    Alaways, L W; Hubbard, M

    2001-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new method for the determination of lift on spinning baseballs. Inertial trajectories of (a) ball surface markers during the first metre of flight and (b) the centre of mass trajectory near home-plate were measured in a pitch using high-speed video. A theoretical model was developed, incorporating aerodynamic Magnus-Robins lift, drag and cross forces, which predicts the centre of mass and marker trajectories. Parameters including initial conditions and aerodynamic coefficients were estimated iteratively by minimizing the error between predicted and measured trajectories. We compare the resulting lift coefficients and spin parameter values with those of previous studies. Lift on four-seam pitches can be as much as three times that of two-seam pitches, although this disparity is reduced for spin parameters greater than 0.4.

  3. Oscillatory Counter-Centrifugation: Effects of History and Lift Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadim, Ali

    2014-11-01

    This work is co-authored with my doctoral student Shujing Xu and is dedicated to the memory of my doctoral advisor Howard Brenner who enjoyed thought experiments related to rotating systems. Oscillatory Counter-Centrifugation refers to our theoretical discovery that within a liquid-filled container that rotates in an oscillatory manner about a fixed axis as a rigid body, a suspended particle can be made to migrate on average in the direction opposite to that of ordinary centrifugation. That is, a heavy (or light) particle can move toward (or away from) the rotation axis, when the frequency of oscillations is high enough. In this work we analyze the effects of the Basset history force and the Saffman lift force on particle trajectories and find that the counter-centrifugation phenomenon persists even when these forces are active.

  4. Integrated lift/drag controller for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olcott, J. W.; Seckel, E.; Ellis, D. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A system for altering the lift/drag characteristics of powered aircraft to provide a safe means of glide path control includes a control device integrated for coordination action with the aircraft throttle. Such lift/drag alteration devices as spoilers, dive brakes, and the like are actuated by manual operation of a single lever coupled with the throttle for integrating, blending or coordinating power control. Improper operation of the controller is inhibited by safety mechanisms.

  5. Liftings and stresses for planar periodic frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Borcea, Ciprian; Streinu, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    We formulate and prove a periodic analog of Maxwell’s theorem relating stressed planar frameworks and their liftings to polyhedral surfaces with spherical topology. We use our lifting theorem to prove deformation and rigidity-theoretic properties for planar periodic pseudo-triangulations, generalizing features known for their finite counterparts. These properties are then applied to questions originating in mathematical crystallography and materials science, concerning planar periodic auxetic structures and ultrarigid periodic frameworks. PMID:26973370

  6. Liftings and stresses for planar periodic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Borcea, Ciprian; Streinu, Ileana

    2015-06-01

    We formulate and prove a periodic analog of Maxwell's theorem relating stressed planar frameworks and their liftings to polyhedral surfaces with spherical topology. We use our lifting theorem to prove deformation and rigidity-theoretic properties for planar periodic pseudo-triangulations, generalizing features known for their finite counterparts. These properties are then applied to questions originating in mathematical crystallography and materials science, concerning planar periodic auxetic structures and ultrarigid periodic frameworks.

  7. Novice Lifters Exhibit A More Kyphotic Lifting Posture Than Experienced Lifters In Straight-Leg Lifting

    PubMed Central

    Riley, A.E.; Craig, T.D.; Sharma, N.K.; Billinger, S.A.; Wilson, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    As torso flexion and repetitive lifting are known risk factors for low back pain and injury, it is important to investigate lifting techniques that might reduce injury during repetitive lifting. By normalizing lumbar posture to a subject’s range of motion (ROM), as a function of torso flexion, this research examined when subjects approached their range of motion limits during dynamic lifting tasks. For this study, it was hypothesized that experienced lifters would maintain a more neutral lumbar angle relative to their range of motion, while novice lifters would approach the limits of their lumbar ROM during the extension phase of a straight-leg lift. The results show a statistically significant difference in lifting patterns for these two groups supporting this hypothesis. The novice group maintained a much more kyphotic lumbar angle for both the flexion (74% of the lumbar angle ROM) and extension phases (86% of the lumbar angle ROM) of the lifting cycle, while the experienced group retained a more neutral curvature throughout the entire lifting cycle (37% of lumbar angle ROM in flexion and 48% of lumbar angle ROM in extension). By approaching the limits of their range of motion, the novice lifters could be at greater risk of injury by placing greater loads on the supporting soft tissues of the spine. Future research should examine whether training subjects to assume more neutral postures during lifting could indeed lower injury risks. PMID:26077846

  8. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ON THIS TOPIC Who's Who in the Hospital Speech-Language Therapy Managing Home Health Care Physical Therapy Caring for a Seriously Ill Child Word! Occupational Therapist Word! Occupational Therapy Wheelchairs Going to an Occupational ...

  9. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Newman Taylor, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    Occupational asthma is important both as a potentially curable and preventable cause of asthma and as a model of adult onset asthma. It is induced by sensitization to a specific agent inhaled at work; for many of its causes, including inhaled proteins and the low molecular weight chemicals acid anhydrides and reactive dyes, it is probably IgE dependent. The risk of developing specific IgE and associated asthma is markedly increased in cigarette smokers, probably as a consequence of non-specific damage to the respiratory mucosa. Asthma caused by several agents, which include some of its most frequent causes, isocyanates, colophony and plicatic acid (Western Red Cedar) persists in some 50% of cases for years, and possibly indefinitely, after avoidance of exposure. The development of chronic symptomatic asthma seems particularly to occur in those with longer duration of symptomatic exposure. PMID:3074282

  10. Occupational asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yeung, M

    1995-01-01

    Many toxic compounds found in air emissions may induce bronchoconstriction. In the workplace, workers are exposed to these compounds, often in much higher concentrations. Some of these compounds act as sensitizers. Of these, some compounds induce asthma by producing specific IgE antibodies to the compound or its protein conjugate, while others induce asthma through yet unidentified immunologic mechanisms. Some compounds, when inhaled in high concentrations, act as irritants and produce bronchoconstriction probably by inducing acute airway inflammation. The latter condition is called Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome (RADS) or irritant-induced asthma. Occupational asthma is an excellent model to study the pathogenesis and the natural history of adult onset asthma because the responsible agent can be identified, complete avoidance is possible, and exposure can be measured or estimated. PMID:8549481

  11. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (b) Special preparation for the top lift test. (1) Metal, rigid plastic, and composite IBC design... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Testing of IBCs § 178.812 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for...

  12. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Large Packagings, from the side. (b) Special preparation for the top lift test. (1) Metal and rigid... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section 178.975... Testing of Large Packagings § 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted...

  13. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the side. (b)...

  14. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section 178.975... Packagings § 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all of Large Packagings design types to be lifted from the top or, for flexible Large Packagings,...

  15. 49 CFR 178.812 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... preparation for the top lift test. (1) Metal, rigid plastic, and composite IBC design types must be loaded to... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.812 Section 178.812... Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all...

  16. 49 CFR 178.811 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Bottom lift test. (a) General. The bottom lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC.... (c) Test method. All IBC design types must be raised and lowered twice by a lift truck with the forks... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bottom lift test. 178.811 Section...

  17. 49 CFR 178.975 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Packagings § 178.975 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of... distributed. (c) Test method. (1) A Large Packaging must be lifted in the manner for which it is designed... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.975 Section...

  18. 49 CFR 178.811 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... evenly distributed. (c) Test method. All IBC design types must be raised and lowered twice by a lift... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bottom lift test. 178.811 Section 178.811... Testing of IBCs § 178.811 Bottom lift test. (a) General. The bottom lift test must be conducted for...

  19. 49 CFR 178.811 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Bottom lift test. (a) General. The bottom lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC.... (c) Test method. All IBC design types must be raised and lowered twice by a lift truck with the forks... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bottom lift test. 178.811 Section...

  20. The Selection of a Van Lift or a Scooter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, John H.

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter issue describes 3-wheeled scooters and van lifts that can assist a person with a disability to drive independently or have access to transportation. The section on van lifts compares hydraulic lifts and electric lifts, lists manufacturers, and offers an "assessment quiz" outlining factors to consider in selecting a van…

  1. Image processing occupancy sensor

    DOEpatents

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2016-09-27

    A system and method of detecting occupants in a building automation system environment using image based occupancy detection and position determinations. In one example, the system includes an image processing occupancy sensor that detects the number and position of occupants within a space that has controllable building elements such as lighting and ventilation diffusers. Based on the position and location of the occupants, the system can finely control the elements to optimize conditions for the occupants, optimize energy usage, among other advantages.

  2. Development of the Occupational Physical Assessment Test (OPAT) for Combat Arms Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    valid, safe, and legally defensible physical performance battery to predict a Soldier’s ability to serve in each MOS. Data from 877 complete datasets...were used in the development of three courses of action for gender neutral Occupational Physical Aptitude Tests (OPATs): Test Battery 1: medicine ball...put, squat lift, beep test, standing long jump, arm ergometer; Test Battery 2: medicine ball put, squat lift, beep test, standing long jump; Test

  3. Development of the Occupational Physical Assessment Test (OPAT) for Combat Arms Soldiers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    were used in the development of three courses of action for gender neutral Occupational Physical Aptitude Tests (OPATs): Test Battery 1: medicine ball...valid, safe, and legally defensible physical performance battery to predict a Soldier’s ability to serve in each MOS. Data from 877 complete datasets...put, squat lift, beep test, standing long jump, arm ergometer; Test Battery 2: medicine ball put, squat lift, beep test, standing long jump; Test

  4. Lifting teams in health care facilities: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Haiduven, Donna

    2003-05-01

    1. Manual lifting and transfer activities are job tasks frequently associated with back injuries in nursing personnel. One approach with potential to decrease these injuries is the lifting team. 2. In program evaluations completed to date, there have been numerous benefits and several limitations attributed to use of lifting teams in health care facilities. 3. Benefits of lifting teams include reductions in lost time workdays, restricted workdays, workers' compensation claims, and injuries to lifting team members; satisfaction of patients, staff, and lifting team members; and capacity of the lifting team to absorb the majority of high risk lifts and transfers on shifts in which they operate. 4. Lifting teams may not be appropriate for all settings, require infrastructure and lifting team equipment to support their use, and require careful consideration related to staffing. However, when their use is appropriate, efforts to overcome their limitations can be accomplished with careful evaluation of outcome measures and indicators.

  5. [Phlebopathies and occupation].

    PubMed

    Sancini, A; Tomei, G; Schifano, M P; Nardone, N; Andreozzi, G; Scimitto, L; Fiaschetti, M; De Sio, S; Scala, B; Capozzella, A; Suppi, A; Cetica, C; Tomei, F; Ciarrocca, M

    2012-01-01

    Chronic venous disorder is a public health problem that affects the western industrialized countries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the etiology and prevalence of venous disease of the lower limb in workers, and to identify some risk factors using a detailed and systematic analysis of the literature from 1964 to 2011. There is an important relationship between standing position at work and venous disease. The prolonged orthostatic position of the body implies: venostasis, high pressure and risks of blood clots and thrombosis; in standing workers there is an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with oxidation of the components of cell membranes, endothelial damage and increase in vascular permeability. Other risk factors were investigated: sitting during work time, weight lifting-moving and exposure to heat sources, the data suggest that this risk factors are less important than orthostatic body position. Age, sex and familiarity are relevant as the extra-occupational risk factors. For a more accurate study of the role of the prolonged orthostatic position on the development of venous disease in the lover limb all authors should define exactly the population, the role and the length of standing time at work. They should also set a universal language to define the correct standing position (ie. within 1 m2 or steps) and time (ie. one hour or 50%-70% of work time). Attention should be given to prevention, to use early therapeutic measures in view of mortality as a consequence of venous disease, of the high social costs related to the loss of working days, of medical care and of residual disability.

  6. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CONDITIONS AND HEALTH OF EMPLOYEES OF THE "SIBERIAN LIFT CO., LTD."].

    PubMed

    Rodkin, V P; Usatov, A N

    2015-01-01

    There was carried out a hygienic assessment of the working conditions and health of employees of the "Siberian Lift Co., Ltd.". When studying occupational factors on workplaces intensity, the temperature radiation, natural and artificial lighting, and also the content of chemicals they were revealed to fail to answer to the hygienic specifications. It is established that in 82% of employees the class of working conditions was detected as admissible (2) and in 18%--harmful (3.1 and 3.2). Results of the performed periodic medical examination of employees of the "Siberian Lift Co., Ltd.". It is testified that 6.14% out of them are persistently unfit of the work with harmful and (or) dangerous substances and occupational factors also. 4.68% of employees demand an additional examination. 11,70% of workers need for out-patient examination and treatment. Sanatorium treatment is required for 1 (0.29%) the person. 4,68% of employees of the "Siberian Lift Co., Ltd." need dispensary supervision. There are suggested measures for the improvement of working conditions and health of the employees.

  7. Lift mechanics of downhill skiing and snowboarding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qianhong; Igci, Yesim; Andreopoulos, Yiannis

    2005-11-01

    A simplified mathematical model is derived to describe the lift mechanics of downhill skiing and snowboarding, where the lift contributions due to both the transiently trapped air and the compressed snow crystals are determined for the first time. Using Shimizu's empirical relation to predict the local variation in snow permeability, we employ force and moment analysis to predict the angle of attack of the planing surface, the penetration depth at the leading edge and the shift in the center of pressure for two typical snow types, fresh and wind-packed snow. We present numerical solutions for snowboarding and asymptotic analytic solutions for skiing for the case where there are no edging or turning maneuvers, which shows that approximately 50% of the total lift force is generated by the trapped air in the case of wind-packed snow for snowboarding and 40% for skiing. For highly permeable fresh powder snow the lift contribution from the pore air pressure drops to < 20%. This new theory is an extension of the series of studies on lift generation in highly compressible porous media.

  8. Design of a portable powered seat lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    People suffering from degenerative hip or knee joints find sitting and rising from a seated position very difficult. These people can rely on large stationary chairs at home, but must ask others for assistance when rising from any other chair. An orthopedic surgeon identified to the MSFC Technology Utilization Office the need for development of a portable device that could perform a similar function to the stationary lift chairs. The MSFC Structural Development Branch answered the Technology Utilization Office's request for design of a portable powered seat lift. The device is a seat cushion that opens under power, lifting the user to near-standing positions. The largest challenge was developing a mechanism to provide a stable lift over the large range of motion needed, and fold flat enough to be comfortable to sit on. CAD 3-D modeling was used to generate complete drawings for the prototype, and a full-scale working model of the Seat lift was made based on the drawings. The working model is of low strength, but proves the function of the mechanism and the concept.

  9. Lifting device for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Krieger, F.

    1984-07-17

    A lifting device for lifting and transporting nuclear fuel elements. This device comprises a mast-like support on the lower end of which automatically operated and locked gripping pawls are provided. The support has a considerable height and may be referred to as lifting mast. The gripping pawls and their operating mechanism are referred to as gripping-head. The gripping-head and the lifting mast are telescopically movable relative to each other. To this end guide rods and compression springs are interposed between the lower end of the lifting mast and the gripping-head. The gripping-head comprises two concentric annular members which are relatively movable or rotatable about their common geometrical axis. One of the annular members supports the gripping pawls are T-shaped. One of their transverse ends is adapted to engage the fuel rods, and the other of their transverse ends is adapted to engage curved grooves in the other annular member. The rotary motion of one annular member relative to the other gripping pawls. In their limit positions the two annular members are blocked by a safety lever engaging slits or slots.

  10. Noise impact of advanced high lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmer, Kevin R.; Joshi, Mahendra C.

    1995-01-01

    The impact of advanced high lift systems on aircraft size, performance, direct operating cost and noise were evaluated for short-to-medium and medium-to-long range aircraft with high bypass ratio and very high bypass ratio engines. The benefit of advanced high lift systems in reducing noise was found to be less than 1 effective-perceived-noise decibel level (EPNdB) when the aircraft were sized to minimize takeoff gross weight. These aircraft did, however, have smaller wings and lower engine thrusts for the same mission than aircraft with conventional high lift systems. When the advanced high lift system was implemented without reducing wing size and simultaneously using lower flap angles that provide higher L/D at approach a cumulative noise reduction of as much as 4 EPNdB was obtained. Comparison of aircraft configurations that have similar approach speeds showed cumulative noise reduction of 2.6 EPNdB that is purely the result of incorporating advanced high lift system in the aircraft design.

  11. Occupational Therapy Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of occupational therapy assistant, lists technical competencies and competency builders for 16 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general as well as those specific to the occupation of occupational therapy assistant. The…

  12. Occupant Protection Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Genie; Somers, Jeff; Granderson, Brad; Gernhardt, Mike; Currie, Nancy; Lawrence, Chuck

    2010-01-01

    Topics include occupant protection overview with a focus on crew protection during dynamic phases of flight; occupant protection collaboration; modeling occupant protection; occupant protection considerations; project approach encompassing analysis tools, injury criteria, and testing program development; injury criteria update methodology, unique effects of pressure suits and other factors; and a summary.

  13. Health Occupations Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Lynn H.

    A survey was conducted to determine the need for health occupations personnel in the Moraine Valley Community College district, specifically to: (1) describe present employment for selected health occupations; (2) project health occupation employment to 1974; (3) identify the supply of applicants for the selected occupations; and (4) identify…

  14. Occupations of Indonesian Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmier, Leslie

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of 1978 occupational patterns of college graduates in Indonesia considers occupation type, government employment, pay level, degree, discipline, relevance of education to employment, and concentration of academic majors in certain occupations. No occupation was the preserve of any one subject. (MSE)

  15. Design of a Versatile, Teleoperable, Towable Lifting Machine with Robotic Capabilities for Use in Nasa's Lunar Base Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Elizabeth; Ogle, James; Schoppe, Dean

    1989-01-01

    The lifting machine will assist in lifting cargo off of landers sent to the Moon and in the construction of a lunar base. Three possible designs were considered for the overall configuration of the lifting machine: the variable angle crane, the tower crane, and the gantry crane. Alternate designs were developed for the major components of the lifting machine. A teleoperable, variable angle crane was chosen as its final design. The design consists of a telescoping boom mounted to a chassis that is supported by two conical wheels for towing and four outriggers for stability. Attached to the end of the boom is a seven degree of freedom robot arm for light, dexterous, lifting operations. A cable and hook suspends from the end of the boom for heavy, gross, lifting operations. Approximate structural sizes were determined for the lifter and its components. However, further analysis is needed to determine the optimum design dimensions. The design team also constructed a model of the design which demonstrates its features and operating principals.

  16. TMI-2 reactor vessel plenum final lift

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D C

    1986-01-01

    Removal of the plenum assembly from the TMI-2 reactor vessel was necessary to gain access to the core region for defueling. The plenum was lifted from the reactor vessel by the polar crane using three specially designed pendant assemblies. It was then transferred in air to the flooded deep end of the refueling canal and lowered onto a storage stand where it will remain throughout the defueling effort. The lift and transfer were successfully accomplished on May 15, 1985 in just under three hours by a lift team located in a shielded area within the reactor building. The success of the program is attributed to extensive mockup and training activities plus thorough preparations to address potential problems. 54 refs.

  17. Unsteady lifting-line theory with applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, A. R.; Widnall, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    Unsteady lifting-line theory is developed for a flexible unswept wing of large aspect ratio oscillating at low frequency in inviscid incompressible flow. The theory is formulated in terms of the acceleration potential and treated by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The wing displacements are prescribed and the pressure field, airloads, and unsteady induced downwash are obtained in closed form. Sample numerical calculations are presented. The present work identifies and resolves errors in the unsteady lifting-line theory of James and points out a limitation in that of Van Holten. Comparison of the results of Reissner's approximate unsteady lifting-surface theory with those of the present work shows favorable agreement. The present work thus provides some formal justification for Reissner's ad hoc theory. For engineering purposes, the region of applicability of the theory in the reduced frequency-aspect ratio domain is identified approximately and found to cover most cases of practical interest.

  18. Coriolis effects enhance lift on revolving wings.

    PubMed

    Jardin, T; David, L

    2015-03-01

    At high angles of attack, an aircraft wing stalls. This dreaded event is characterized by the development of a leading edge vortex on the upper surface of the wing, followed by its shedding which causes a drastic drop in the aerodynamic lift. At similar angles of attack, the leading edge vortex on an insect wing or an autorotating seed membrane remains robustly attached, ensuring high sustained lift. What are the mechanisms responsible for both leading edge vortex attachment and high lift generation on revolving wings? We review the three main hypotheses that attempt to explain this specificity and, using direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations, we show that the latter originates in Coriolis effects.

  19. Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, John Eric; Carré, Matt J.

    2010-07-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.

  20. The evaluation of team lifting on physical work demands and workload in ironworkers.

    PubMed

    van der Molen, Henk F; Visser, Steven; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Faber, Gert; Hoozemans, Marco J M; van Dieën, Jaap H; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2012-01-01

    Lifting and carrying heavy loads occur frequently among ironworkers and result in high prevalence and incidence rates of low back complaints, injuries and work-disability. From a health perspective, little information is available on the effect of team lifting on work demands and workload. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of team lifting of maximally 50 kg by two ironworkers (T50) with team lifting of maximally 100 kg by four ironworkers (T100). This study combined a field and laboratory study with the following outcome measures: duration and frequency of tasks and activities, energetic workload, perceived discomfort and maximal compression forces (Fc peak) on the low back. The physical work demands and workload of an individual iron worker during manual handling of rebar materials of 100 kg with four workers did not differ from the manual handling of rebar materials of 50 kg with two workers, with the exception of low back discomfort and Fc peak. The biomechanical workload of the low back exceeded for both T50 and T100 the NIOSH threshold limit of 3400N. Therefore, mechanical transport or other effective design solutions should be considered to reduce the biomechanical workload of the low back and the accompanying health risks among iron workers.

  1. The lift-fan powered-lift aircraft concept: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1993-01-01

    This is one of a series of reports on the lessons learned from past research related to lift-fan aircraft concepts. An extensive review is presented of the many lift-fan aircraft design studies conducted by both government and industry over the past 45 years. Mission applications and design integration including discussions on manifolding hot gas generators, hot gas dusting, and energy transfer control are addressed. Past lift-fan evaluations of the Avrocar are discussed. Lessons learned from these past efforts are identified.

  2. Compound Channels, Transition Expectations, and Liftings

    SciTech Connect

    Accardi, L.; Ohya, M.

    1999-01-15

    In Section 1 we introduce the notion of lifting as a generalization of the notion of compound state introduced in [21] and [22] and we show that this notion allows a unified approach to the problems of quantum measurement and of signal transmission through quantum channels. The dual of a linear lifting is a transition expectation in the sense of [3] and we characterize those transition expectations which arise from compound states in the sense of [22]. In Section 2 we characterize those liftings whose range is contained in the closed convex hull of product states and we prove that the corresponding quantum Markov chains [2] are uniquely determined by a classical generalization of both the quantum random walks of [4] and the locally diagonalizable states considered in [3]. In Section 4, as a first application of the above results, we prove that the attenuation (beam splitting) process for optical communication treated in [21] can be described in a simpler and more general way in terms of liftings and of transition expectations. The error probabilty of information transmission in the attenuation process is rederived from our new description. We also obtain some new results concerning the explicit computation of error probabilities in the squeezing case.

  3. Effects of Mach Number on Maximum Lift

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-01-01

    raAruaKJ tablo, grapho Haeh nunber effect on r»\\irirmr> lift is datomlncd for unsuopt end onopt-back Dingo . Suopt-back ulngo oboa tho oarx> early tip...ulngo. &7opt-toack uingo ahan tho anm early tip stalling tondancioa at high opoede ae they do at leu opoede. For unsnopt Dingo tho Cj p^ of

  4. The Monoplane as a Lifting Vortex Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blenk, Hermann

    1947-01-01

    In Prandtl's airfoil theory the monoplane was replaced by a single lifting vortex line and yielded fairly practical results. However, the theory remained restricted to the straight wing. Yawed wings and those curved in flight direction could not be computed with this first approximation; for these the chordwise lift distribution must be taken into consideration. For the two-dimensional problem the transition from the lifting line to the lifting surface has been explained by Birnbaum. In the present report the transition to the three-dimensional problem is undertaken. The first fundamental problem involves the prediction of flow, profile, and drag for prescribed circulation distribution on the straight rectangular wing, the yawed wing for lateral boundaries parallel to the direction of flight, the swept-back wing, and the rectangular wing in slipping, with the necessary series developments for carrying through the calculations, the practical range of convergence of which does not comprise the wing tips or the break point of the swept-back wing. The second problem concerns the calculation of the circulation distribution with given profile for a slipping rectangular monoplane with flat profile and aspect ratio 6, and a rectangular wing with cambered profile and variable aspect ratio-the latter serving as check of the so-called conversion formulas of the airfoil theory.

  5. O.H. Module Vacuum Lifting Fixture

    SciTech Connect

    McGivern, Paul; /Fermilab

    1987-12-31

    In order to move the 800 lb. copper plates that make up the O.H. modules a vacuum lifting device has been made that will lift the plates safely. The purpose of this report is to provide documentation for the structural integrity of the system and to make sure that it passes all of the safety requirements that have been established for a system of this nature. The vacuum system is composed of a PIAB model M125 vacuum pump that has the pumping capacity of 27 in. Hg. This pump will produce vacuum for three 8 1/2 in. diameter suction cups or pads. A pressure gauge is fixed on the unit to allow the operator to continually monitor the pressure during all lifts. An additional safety feature is a mechanical vacuum monitoring device that is set to emit a shrill tone if the system vacuum falls below 24 in. Hg. A 'bleed' valve fixed on the unit will be used to let the system go to atmospheric pressure once the lift is complete. A 3 psi. check valve and a vacuum reserve of 384 in. is used to insure that the device will not just drop the object if the pump fails. A schematic for the pumping system is given in Figure 1.

  6. Measuring Lift with the Wright Airfoils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heavers, Richard M.; Soleymanloo, Arianne

    2011-01-01

    In this laboratory or demonstration exercise, we mount a small airfoil with its long axis vertical at one end of a nearly frictionless rotating platform. Air from a leaf blower produces a sidewise lift force L on the airfoil and a drag force D in the direction of the air flow (Fig. 1). The rotating platform is kept in equilibrium by adding weights…

  7. NASA HL-20 PLS Lifting Body (Mockup)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NASA HL-20 PLS Lifting Body (Mockup): The HL-20 came into use at Langley in October 1990 and is a full-scale non-flying mockup. This mockup was used for engineering studies of maintainability of the vehicle, as testing crew positions, pilot visibility and other human factors considerations.

  8. Occupational health in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed Central

    Christiani, D C

    1984-01-01

    China's drive to modernize its economy will produce new occupational health problems even as it resolves earlier ones. Well aware of this, Chinese occupational health experts are intensifying efforts to improve workers' health and establish a modern occupational health program. Occupational lung disease, occupational cancer, heavy metal poisoning, industrial chemical poisoning, and physical factor-induced diseases (noise and heat) have all been targeted for expanded research which will serve as a basis for standard setting. Hazard control efforts include engineering controls, particularly in new construction, limited use of personal protective equipment, and expansion of environmental and medical monitoring. Worker education and professional activities have been expanded. International exchanges have been initiated and will prove occupational health a promising area of scientific cooperation. PMID:6228153

  9. Occupational Hearing Loss in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed. PMID:21258593

  10. Occupational hearing loss in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-12-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed.

  11. View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw River Bridge truss No. 2, looking northwest. Showing rope connectors and deflector sheaves. - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  12. View of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing support girders for life house, looking east - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  13. 39. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING AT 210' 9' LIFT SPAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. DETAIL AERIAL VIEW LOOKING AT 210' 9' LIFT SPAN TOWER SHEAVES SHOWING 1 SET WITH AND 1 SET WITHOUT SHEAVE HOODS - Central Railroad of New Jersey, Newark Bay Lift Bridge, Spanning Newark Bay, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  14. Lift estimation of Half-Rotating Wing in hovering flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. Y.; Dong, Y. P.; Qiu, Z. Z.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Shan, J. H.

    2016-11-01

    Half-Rotating Wing (HRW) is a new kind of flapping wing system with rotating flapping instead of oscillating flapping. Estimating approach of hovering lift which generated in hovering flight was important theoretical foundation to design aircraft using HRW. The working principle of HRW based on Half-Rotating Mechanism (HRM) was firstly introduced in this paper. Generating process of lift by HRW was also given. The calculating models of two lift mechanisms for HRW, including Lift of Flow Around Wing (LFAW) and Lift of Flow Dragging Wing (LFDW), were respectively established. The lift estimating model of HRW was further deduced, by which hovering lift for HRW with different angular velocity could be calculated. Case study using XFLOW software simulation indicates that the above estimating method was effective and feasible to predict roughly the hovering lift for a new HRW system.

  15. Neuromuscular trunk activation patterns in back pain patients during one-handed lifting

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Juliane; Engel, Tilman; Kopinski, Stephan; Mayer, Frank; Mueller, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    AIM To analyze neuromuscular activity patterns of the trunk in healthy controls (H) and back pain patients (BPP) during one-handed lifting of light to heavy loads. METHODS After assessment of back pain (graded chronic pain scale according to von Korff) all subjects (n = 43) performed a warm-up (treadmill walking). Next, subjects were instructed to lift 3 × a 20 kg weight placed in front of them (with both hand) onto a table (height: 0.75 m). Subsequently, all subjects lifted with one hand (left-side, 3 repetitions) a weight of 1 kg (light), 10 kg (middle) and 20 kg (heavy) in random order from the ground up onto the table left of them. Trunk muscle activity was assessed with a 12-lead EMG (6 ventral/6 dorsal muscles; 4000 Hz). EMG-RMS (%) was averaged over the 3 repetitions and analyzed for the whole one-handed lifting cycle, then normalized to RMS of the two-handed lifting. Additionally, the mean (normalized) EMG-RMS of four trunk areas [right/left ventral area (VR/VL); right/left dorsal area (DR/DL)] was calculated. Data were analyzed descriptively (mean ± SD) followed by student’s t-test comparing H and BPP (α = 0.05). With respect to the unequal distribution of subjects in H and BPP, a matched-group analysis was conducted. Seven healthy controls were gender- and age-matched (group Hmatched) to the 7 BPP. In addition, task failure was calculated and compared between H/Hmatched vs BPP using χ2. RESULTS Seven subjects (3m/4f; 32 ± 7 years; 171 ± 7 cm; 65 ± 11 kg) were assigned to BPP (pain grade ≥ 2) and 36 (13m/23f; 28 ± 8 years; 174 ± 10 cm; 71 ± 12 kg) to H (pain grade ≤ 1). H and BPP did not differ significantly in anthropometrics (P > 0.05). All subjects were able to lift the light and middle loads, but 57% of BPP and 22% of H were not able to lift the heavy load (all women). χ2 analysis revealed statistically significant differences in task failure between H vs BPP (P = 0.03). EMG-RMS ranged from 33% ± 10%/30% ± 9% (DL, 1 kg) to 356%

  16. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Occupational Therapy Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended to serve as a guide for work force preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in jobs in occupational therapy. Agency partners involved in this project include: the Illinois State board of Education, Illinois Community College…

  17. Occupational Clusters. Occupational Investigation Guide. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    This occupational investigation guide contains learning activities for instruction in fifteen occupational clusters: (1) agribusiness and natural resources, (2) business and office, (3) communications and media, (4) construction, (5) consumer and homemaking, (6) environment, (7) fine arts and humanities, (8) health, (9) hospitality and recreation,…

  18. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Predictors of Military Task Performance: Maximal Lift Capacity.

    PubMed

    Hydren, Jay R; Borges, Alexander S; Sharp, Marilyn A

    2017-04-01

    Hydren, JR, Borges, AS, and Sharp, MA. Systematic review and meta-analysis of predictors of military task performance: maximal lift capacity. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1142-1164, 2017-Physical performance tests (e.g., physical employment tests, return-to-duty tests) are commonly used to predict occupational task performance to assess the ability of individuals to do a job. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify predictive tests that correlate well with maximal lifting capacity in military personnel. Three databases were searched and experts in the field were contacted, resulting in the identification of 9 reports confined to military personnel that presented correlations between predictor tests and job tasks that measured maximal lift capacity. These 9 studies used 9 variations of a maximal lift capacity test, which were pooled to evaluate comparisons. The predictive tests were categorized into 10 fitness domains, which in ranked order were as follows: body mass and composition, absolute aerobic capacity, dynamic strength, power, isometric strength, strength-endurance, speed, isokinetic strength, flexibility, and age. Limitations of these data include a restricted age range (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 20-35; no correlations to maximal lift capacity) and the limited number of comparisons available within the cited studies. Weighted mean correlations ((Equation is included in full-text article.)) and 95% CI were calculated for each test. Lean body mass (kg) was the strongest overall predictor ((Equation is included in full-text article.); 95% CI, 0.697-0.966). Tests of dynamic strength had stronger correlations than strength endurance ((Equation is included in full-text article.), 95% CI, 0.69-0.89 vs. (Equation is included in full-text article.), 95% CI, 0.21-0.61). The following 6 domains of physical performance predictive tests had pooled correlations of 0.40 or greater for combined-sex samples: dynamic strength, power, isometric strength

  19. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an electrically powered device either fixed or mobile, used to lift and transport patients in the horizontal or...

  20. 21 CFR 880.5500 - AC-powered patient lift.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false AC-powered patient lift. 880.5500 Section 880.5500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.5500 AC-powered patient lift. (a) Identification. An AC-powered lift is an...

  1. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... below the outermost edge of the bridge span structure so as to be visible from an approaching vessel... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span...

  2. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... below the outermost edge of the bridge span structure so as to be visible from an approaching vessel... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span...

  3. 33 CFR 118.85 - Lights on vertical lift bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... below the outermost edge of the bridge span structure so as to be visible from an approaching vessel... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights on vertical lift bridges... BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.85 Lights on vertical lift bridges. (a) Lift span...

  4. 14 CFR 29.551 - Auxiliary lifting surfaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Auxiliary lifting surfaces. 29.551 Section 29.551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT....551 Auxiliary lifting surfaces. Each auxiliary lifting surface must be designed to withstand— (a)...

  5. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... gross mass, the load being evenly distributed. (c) Test method. All Large Packaging design types must be... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bottom lift test. 178.970 Section 178.970... Packagings § 178.970 Bottom lift test. (a) General. The bottom lift test must be conducted for...

  6. 49 CFR 178.1050 - Top lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Containers § 178.1050 Top lift test. (a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification... permissible gross mass, the load being evenly distributed. (c) Test method. (1) A Flexible Bulk Container must... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Top lift test. 178.1050 Section...

  7. Screening charged impurities and lifting the orbital degeneracy in graphene by populating Landau levels.

    PubMed

    Luican-Mayer, Adina; Kharitonov, Maxim; Li, Guohong; Lu, Chih-Pin; Skachko, Ivan; Gonçalves, Alem-Mar B; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Andrei, Eva Y

    2014-01-24

    We report the observation of an isolated charged impurity in graphene and present direct evidence of the close connection between the screening properties of a 2D electron system and the influence of the impurity on its electronic environment. Using scanning tunneling microscopy and Landau level spectroscopy, we demonstrate that in the presence of a magnetic field the strength of the impurity can be tuned by controlling the occupation of Landau-level states with a gate voltage. At low occupation the impurity is screened, becoming essentially invisible. Screening diminishes as states are filled until, for fully occupied Landau levels, the unscreened impurity significantly perturbs the spectrum in its vicinity. In this regime we report the first observation of Landau-level splitting into discrete states due to lifting the orbital degeneracy.

  8. Predictive equations to estimate spinal loads in symmetric lifting tasks.

    PubMed

    Arjmand, N; Plamondon, A; Shirazi-Adl, A; Larivière, C; Parnianpour, M

    2011-01-04

    Response surface methodology is used to establish robust and user-friendly predictive equations that relate responses of a complex detailed trunk finite element biomechanical model to its input variables during sagittal symmetric static lifting activities. Four input variables (thorax flexion angle, lumbar/pelvis ratio, load magnitude, and load position) and four model responses (L4-L5 and L5-S1 disc compression and anterior-posterior shear forces) are considered. Full factorial design of experiments accounting for all combinations of input levels is employed. Quadratic predictive equations for the spinal loads at the L4-S1 disc mid-heights are obtained by regression analysis with adequate goodness-of-fit (R(2)>98%, p<0.05, and low root-mean-squared-error values compared with the range of predicted spine loads). Results indicate that intradiscal pressure values at the L4-L5 disc estimated based on the predictive equations are in close agreement with available in vivo data measured under similar loadings and postures. Combinations of input (posture and loading) variable levels that yield spine loads beyond the tolerance compression limit of 3400 N are identified using contour plots. Ergonomists and bioengineers, faced with the dilemma of using either complex but more accurate models on one hand or less accurate but simple models on the other hand, have thereby easy-to-use predictive equations that quantifies spinal loads and risk of injury under different occupational tasks of interest.

  9. Health Occupations Cluster Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Intended to assist the vocational teacher in designing and implementing a cluster program in health occupations, this guide suggests ideas for teaching the specific knowledge and skills that qualify students for entry-level employment in the health occupations field. The knowledge and skills are applicable to 12 occupations: dental assistant;…

  10. Agricultural Occupations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Floyd J.; Henderson, Billie

    This agricultural occupations handbook was developed from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) and the U.S. Departments of Health, Education, and Welfare, and Labor publication, Vocational Education and Occupations. It includes the U.S. Office of Education coding for the instructional area of agriculture and the cluster coding for the…

  11. Manual on Occupational Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Graham D.

    This manual on occupational analysis, developed in Australia, is organized in three sections. The first section provides a framework for occupational analysis (OA) and a discussion of possible outputs from an OA from each of three phases: (1) determining the nature and scope of the occupational area; (2) developing a competencies list; and (3)…

  12. Health Occupations Curriculum. Skills for Nursing Assistant. Volume 3, Unit 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    Part of a health occupations program, this instructional unit contains 13 learning modules for use in training nursing assistants. Covered in the modules are (1) making beds, bathing patients, and measuring intake and output; (2) body mechanics, moving and lifting patients, range of motion exercises, and caring for patients in casts or traction;…

  13. Heavy Flavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, B.; Soni, A.

    This is a summary report of the working group on Heavy Flavors. Discussions at the workshop were centered on B physics and on the signals for heavy quarks and leptons at the SSC. The Working Group Members were: V. Barger, H.-U. Bengtsson, C. Buchanan, I. Bigi, M. Block, B. Cox, N. Glover, J. Hewett, W.Y. Keung, B. Margolis, T. Rizzo, M. Suzuki, A. Soni, D. Stork, and S. Willenbrock.

  14. 75 FR 33320 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Lift Unit for an Overhead Patient Lift...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... notice that it had issued a final determination concerning the country of origin of a lift unit for an... Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) concerning the country of origin of a lift unit for an overhead... determination concerning the country of origin of the lift unit which may be offered to the U.S....

  15. An Evidence-Based Multidisciplinary Practice Guideline to Reduce the Workload due to Lifting for Preventing Work-Related Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We developed an evidence-based practice guideline to support occupational safety and health (OSH) professionals in assessing the risk due to lifting and in selecting effective preventive measures for low back pain (LBP) in the Netherlands. The guideline was developed at the request of the Dutch government by a project team of experts and OSH professionals in lifting and work-related LBP. The recommendations for risk assessment were based on the quality of instruments to assess the risk on LBP due to lifting. Recommendations for interventions were based on a systematic review of the effects of worker- and work directed interventions to reduce back load due to lifting. The quality of the evidence was rated as strong (A), moderate (B), limited (C) or based on consensus (D). Finally, eight experts and twenty-four OSH professionals commented on and evaluated the content and the feasibility of the preliminary guideline. For risk assessment we recommend loads heavier than 25 kg always to be considered a risk for LBP while loads less than 3 kg do not pose a risk. For loads between 3–25 kg, risk assessment shall be performed using the Manual handling Assessment Charts (MAC)-Tool or National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation. Effective work oriented interventions are patient lifting devices (Level A) and lifting devices for goods (Level C), optimizing working height (Level A) and reducing load mass (Level C). Ineffective work oriented preventive measures are regulations to ban lifting without proper alternatives (Level D). We do not recommend worker-oriented interventions but consider personal lift assist devices as promising (Level C). Ineffective worker-oriented preventive measures are training in lifting technique (Level A), use of back-belts (Level A) and pre-employment medical examinations (Level A). This multidisciplinary evidence-based practice guideline gives clear criteria whether an employee is at risk for LBP while lifting and

  16. LIFT Tenant Is Off and Running

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Gynelle C.

    2001-01-01

    Lewis Incubator for Technology (LIFT) tenant, Analiza Inc., graduated from the incubator July 2000. Analiza develops technology and products for the early diagnosis of diseases, quality control of bio-pharmaceutical therapeutics, and other applications involving protein analyses. Technology links with NASA from existing and planned work are in areas of microfluidics and laser light scattering. Since their entry in LIFT in May, 1997, Analiza has: Received a $750,000 grant from the National Institutes of Health. Collaborated with a Nobel Prize winner on drug design. Collaborated with Bristol-Myers Squibb on the characterization of biological therapeutics. Added a Ph.D. senior scientist and several technicians. Received significant interest from major pharmaceutical companies about collaborating and acquiring Analiza technology.

  17. Particle Lifting Processes in Dust Devils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neakrase, L. D. V.; Balme, M. R.; Esposito, F.; Kelling, T.; Klose, M.; Kok, J. F.; Marticorena, B.; Merrison, J.; Patel, M.; Wurm, G.

    2016-11-01

    Particle lifting in dust devils on both Earth and Mars has been studied from many different perspectives, including how dust devils could influence the dust cycles of both planets. Here we review our current understanding of particle entrainment by dust devils by examining results from field observations on Earth and Mars, laboratory experiments (at terrestrial ambient and Mars-analog conditions), and analytical modeling. By combining insights obtained from these three methodologies, we provide a detailed overview on interactions between particle lifting processes due to mechanical, thermal, electrodynamical and pressure effects, and how these processes apply to dust devils on Earth and Mars. Experiments and observations have shown dust devils to be effective lifters of dust given the proper conditions on Earth and Mars. However, dust devil studies have yet to determine the individual roles of each of the component processes acting at any given time in dust devils.

  18. Closed, nonendoscopic, small-incision forehead lift.

    PubMed

    Marten, Timothy J

    2008-07-01

    As endoscopic techniques made inroads into surgery, one of the first procedures they were adapted to by plastic surgeons was the forehead lift. The "closed" forehead lift procedure has since achieved wide acceptance and exists as a viable alternative to open procedures for many patients. Experience has shown, however, that it is not necessary to use an endoscope to mobilize and release the forehead and modify the corrugator supercilii muscles in "closed" procedures if the anatomy is understood, the operation is appropriately planned, and the corrugator muscles are modified using a transpalpebral approach. In addition, transpalpebral corrugator myectomy, when used in conjunction with closed mobilization and resuspension of the forehead, provides not only a scheme for the performance of closed foreheadplasty without the need for an endoscope, but a method by which medial brow elevation can be minimized or avoided. This may, indeed, be one the procedure's most important advantages over the endoscopic technique.

  19. Lift and drag of cetacean flippers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Mark; Weber, Paul; Howle, Laurens; Fish, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Field observation and collection of biological samples has resulted in cetacean (whales, dolphins and porpoises) flipper geometry being known for most species. However, the hydrodynamic properties of cetacean flippers have not been rigorously tested and thus their performance characteristics are unknown. Here, conducting water tunnel testing using scale models of cetacean flippers derived via computed tomography (CT) scans, as well as computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations, we present a baseline work to determine the hydrodynamic characteristics of cetacean flippers. We found that flippers of similar planform shape had similar hydrodynamic performance characteristics. Furthermore, one group of flippers of planform shape similar to a modern swept wing was found to have lift coefficient versus angle of attack curves that were biphasic rather than linear in nature, which was caused by the onset of vortex-dominated lift. Drag coefficient versus angle of attack curves were found to be less dependant on planform shape.

  20. Clamp usable as jig and lifting clamp

    DOEpatents

    Tsuyama, Yoshizo

    1976-01-01

    There is provided a clamp which is well suited for use as a lifting clamp for lifting and moving materials of assembly in a shipyard, etc. and as a pulling jig in welding and other operations. The clamp comprises a clamp body including a shackle for engagement with a pulling device and a slot for receiving an article, and a pair of jaws provided on the leg portions of the clamp body on the opposite sides of the slot to grip the article in the slot, one of said jaws consisting of a screw rod and the other jaw consisting of a swivel jaw with a spherical surface, whereby when the article clamped in the slot by the pair of jaws tends to slide in any direction with respect to the clamp body, the article is more positively gripped by the pair of jaws.

  1. V/STOL gets a lift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Tom

    1991-01-01

    The concept of a supersonic STOVL that could offer enhanced mission capability, survivability, operational flexibility, and utility over conventional aircraft is presented. Emphasis is currently on design studies, CFD work, small- and large-scale wind tunnel tests, simulation activities, flight experiments, and ground environment experiments. Propulsion system technology centers about the adaptation of existing or off-the-shelf engines. Concepts under study include separate flow in hover, gas-driven lift fan, and shaft-driven lift fan. NASA is examining generic valve and ducting configurations with airflow at ambient temperature and at temperatures up to 1000 F to gather pressure loss and heat transfer data. Advanced civil rotorcraft technologies examined include high-efficiency/dual-mode components such as torque converters; lightweight, quiet transmissions; and variable geometry power turbines; along with dual-function or convertible engines.

  2. Static Thrust Analysis of the Lifting Airscrew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Montgomery; Hefner, Ralph A

    1937-01-01

    This report presents the results of a combined theoretical and experimental investigation conducted at the Georgia School of Technology on the static thrust of the lifting air screw of the type used in modern autogiros and helicopters. The theoretical part of this study is based on Glauert's analysis but certain modifications are made that further clarify and simplify the problem. Of these changes the elimination of the solidity as an independent parameter is the most important. The experimental data were obtained from tests on four rotor models of two, four, and five blades and, in general, agree quite well with the theoretical calculations. The theory indicates a method of evaluating scale effects on lifting air screws, and these corrections have been applied to the model results to derive general full-scale static thrust, torque, and figure-of-merit curves for constant-chord, constant-incidence rotors. Convenient charts are included that enable hovering flight performance to be calculated rapidly.

  3. Pipe lifting hook having clamp assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Codner, J.A.

    1984-06-12

    A pipe lifting hook is provided having a generally ''C'' shaped hook member having an elongated lower portion being insertable within the end of a joint of pipe and having an upper portion positionable above the pipe and provided with lifting connection means. The hook member is frictionally clamped to the pipe by grip shoe means that is movably supported by the upper portion of the hook member and is selectably movable from a released position out of contact with said pipe to a locked position in frictional locking engagement with the outer surface of the pipe. A ratchet mechanism couples said grip shoe means to the upper portion of the hook member and is manually positionable to lock said grip shoe means at said locked position or release said grip shoe means for movement toward said released position thereof.

  4. Eisenhart lift for higher derivative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galajinsky, Anton; Masterov, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    The Eisenhart lift provides an elegant geometric description of a dynamical system of second order in terms of null geodesics of the Brinkmann-type metric. In this work, we attempt to generalize the Eisenhart method so as to encompass higher derivative models. The analysis relies upon Ostrogradsky's Hamiltonian. A consistent geometric description seems feasible only for a particular class of potentials. The scheme is exemplified by the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator.

  5. HSCT high lift system aerodynamic requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John A.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of high lift system aerodynamic requirements are provided. Low speed aerodynamics has been identified as critical to the successful development of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The airplane must takeoff and land at a sufficient number of existing or projected airports to be economically viable. At the same time, community noise must be acceptable. Improvements in cruise drag, engine fuel consumption, and structural weight tend to decrease the wing size and thrust required of engines. Decreasing wing size increases the requirements for effective and efficient low speed characteristics. Current design concepts have already been compromised away from better cruise wings for low speed performance. Flap systems have been added to achieve better lift-to-drag ratios for climb and approach and for lower pitch attitudes for liftoff and touchdown. Research to achieve improvements in low speed aerodynamics needs to be focused on areas most likely to have the largest effect on the wing and engine sizing process. It would be desirable to provide enough lift to avoid sizing the airplane for field performance and to still meet the noise requirements. The airworthiness standards developed in 1971 will be the basis for performance requirements for an airplane that will not be critical to the airplane wing and engine size. The lift and drag levels that were required to meet the performance requirements of tentative airworthiness standards established in 1971 and that were important to community noise are identified. Research to improve the low speed aerodynamic characteristics of the HSCT needs to be focused in the areas of performance deficiency and where noise can be reduced. Otherwise, the wing planform, engine cycle, or other parameters for a superior cruising airplane would have to be changed.

  6. Lift production in the hovering hummingbird.

    PubMed

    Warrick, Douglas R; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R

    2009-11-07

    Aerodynamic theory and empirical observations of animals flying at similar Reynolds numbers (Re) predict that airflow over hummingbird wings will be dominated by a stable, attached leading edge vortex (LEV). In insects exhibiting similar kinematics, when the translational movement of the wing ceases (as at the end of the downstroke), the LEV is shed and lift production decreases until the energy of the LEV is re-captured in the subsequent half-cycle translation. We here show that while the hummingbird wing is strongly influenced by similar sharp-leading-edge aerodynamics, leading edge vorticity is inconsistent, varying from 0.7 to 26 per cent (mean 16%) of total lift production, is always generated within 3 mm of the dorsal surface of the wing, showing no retrograde (trailing to leading edge) flow, and does not increase from proximal to distal wing as would be expected with a conical vortex (class III LEV) described for hawkmoths. Further, the bound circulation is not shed as a vortex at the end of translation, but instead remains attached and persists after translation has ceased, augmented by the rotation (pronation, supination) of the wing that occurs between the wing-translation half-cycles. The result is a near-continuous lift production through wing turn-around, previously unknown in vertebrates, able to contribute to weight support as well as stability and control during hovering. Selection for a planform suited to creating this unique flow and nearly-uninterrupted lift production throughout the wingbeat cycle may help explain the relatively narrow hummingbird wing.

  7. Vertical Lift - Not Just For Terrestrial Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    Cassini space mission will reach Saturn’s orbit and release the Huygens probe (descending via parachute) into Titan’s atmosphere. The Huygens ...is outside the official mission scope). This accomplishment will likely come from future missions post- Cassini / Huygens . The use of vertical lift...from HST) With the arrival of the Cassini / Huygens spacecraft to Saturn and Titan in 2004 -- and the anticipated science and outreach bonanza from this

  8. Pressure Roller For Tape-Lift Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Eve

    1991-01-01

    Rolling device applies nearly constant, uniform pressure to surface. Simple tool exerts nearly constant pressure via compression of sheath by fixed amount. Pins hold wheels on cylinder and cylinder on tangs of handle. Cylinder and handle made of metal or plastic. Sheath press-fit or glued to cylinder. End pins attached to cylinder by adhesive or screw threads. Device intended for use in taking tape-lift samples of particulate contamination on surface.

  9. Psychophysically determined asymmetrical lifting capabilities for different frequencies and containers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2005-04-01

    Ten young male participants were tested their psychophysically determined 4-h maximum acceptable weight of lifting (MAWL) of 90-degree asymmetric lifting for three lifting frequencies (1 lift/min, 2 lifts/min, 4 lifts/min) and three lifting containers (50 x 35 x 15 cm, 70 x 35 x 15 cm, 50 x 50 x 15 cm). The results showed that the MAWL decreased with increasing frequency and container width or length dimension, while the interaction effect of frequency and container on MAWL was not significant. The MAWL ranged from 13.7 kg to 18 kg for the nine (3 frequencies x 3 containers) lifting conditions. When averaged across the levels of the other independent variable, the MAWL decreased by 7.4% and 16.1% for 2 lifts/min and 4 lifts/min as compared with the MAWL of 1 lift/min, respectively, and decreased by 1.6% and 9.4% for 70 x 35 x 15 cm and 50 x 50 x 15 cm as compared with the MAWL of 50 x 35 x 15 cm, respectively. Additionally, the discrepancies between the MAWL data and the recommended weight limits derived from the revised NIOSH equation were discussed.

  10. The effects of obesity on lifting performance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Mirka, Gary A; Hsiang, Simon M

    2008-01-01

    Obesity in the workforce is a growing problem worldwide. While the implications of this trend for biomechanical loading of the musculoskeletal system seem fairly straightforward, the evidence of a clear link between low back pain (LBP) and body mass index (BMI) (calculated as whole body mass in kilograms divided by the square of stature in meters) has not been shown in the epidemiology literature addressing this topic. The approach pursued in the current study was to evaluate the lifting kinematics and ground reaction forces of a group of 12 subjects -- six with a BMI of less than 25 kg/m(2) (normal weight) and six with a BMI of greater than 30 kg/m(2) (obese). These subjects performed a series of free dynamic lifting tasks with varied levels of load (10% and 25% of capacity) and symmetry (sagittally symmetric and 45 degrees asymmetric). The results showed that BMI had a significant effect (p<0.05) on trunk kinematics with the high BMI group exhibiting higher peak transverse plane (twisting) velocity (59% higher) and acceleration (57% higher), and exhibiting higher peak sagittal plane velocity (30% higher) and acceleration (51% higher). When normalized to body weight, there were no significant differences in the ground reaction forces between the two groups. This study provides quantitative data describing lifting task performance differences between people of differing BMI levels and may help to explain why there is no conclusive epidemiological evidence of a relationship between BMI and LBP.

  11. Dragonfly flight. III. Lift and power requirements.

    PubMed

    Wakeling, JM; Ellington, CP

    1997-02-01

    A mean lift coefficient quasi-steady analysis has been applied to the free flight of the dragonfly Sympetrum sanguineum and the damselfly Calopteryx splendens. The analysis accommodated the yaw and accelerations involved in free flight. For any given velocity or resultant aerodynamic force (thrust), the damselfly mean lift coefficient was higher than that for the dragonfly because of its clap and fling. For both species, the maximum mean lift coefficient L was higher than the steady CL,max. Both species aligned their strokes planes to be nearly normal to the thrust, a strategy that reduces the L required for flight and which is different from the previously published hovering and slow dragonfly flights with stroke planes steeply inclined to the horizontal. Owing to the relatively low costs of accelerating the wing, the aerodynamic power required for flight represents the mechanical power output from the muscles. The maximum muscle mass-specific power was estimated at 156 and 166 W kg-1 for S. sanguineum and C. splendens, respectively. Measurements of heat production immediately after flight resulted in mechanical efficiency estimates of 13 % and 9 % for S. sanguineum and C. splendens muscles, respectively.

  12. Lift and Drag Measurements of Superhydrophobic Hydrofoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, Samrat; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Rothstein, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    For several years, superhydrophobic surfaces which are chemically hydrophobic with micron or nanometer scale surface features have been considered for their ability to reduce drag and produce slip in microfluidic devices. More recently it has been demonstrated that superhydrophobic surfaces reduce friction coefficient in turbulent flows as well. In this talk, we will consider that modifying a hydrofoil's surface to make it superhydrophobic has on the resulting lift and drag measurements over a wide range of angles of attack. Experiments are conducted over the range of Reynolds numbers between 10,000lift coefficients along with changes to separation point at high angles of attack are observed when the hydrofoil is made superhydrophobic. The hydrofoils are coated Teflon that has been hot embossed with a 325grit stainless steel woven mesh to produce a regular pattern of microposts. In addition to fully superhydrophobic hydrofoils, selectively coated symmetrical hydrofoils will also be examined to study the effect that asymmetries in the surface properties can have on lift and drag. Partially funded by NSF CBET-1334962.

  13. Analysis of particulates on tape lift samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moision, Robert M.; Chaney, John A.; Panetta, Chris J.; Liu, De-Ling

    2014-09-01

    Particle counts on tape lift samples taken from a hardware surface exceeded threshold requirements in six successive tests despite repeated cleaning of the surface. Subsequent analysis of the particle size distributions of the failed tests revealed that the handling and processing of the tape lift samples may have played a role in the test failures. In order to explore plausible causes for the observed size distribution anomalies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were employed to perform chemical analysis on collected particulates. SEM/EDX identified Na and S containing particles on the hardware samples in a size range identified as being responsible for the test failures. ToF-SIMS was employed to further examine the Na and S containing particulates and identified the molecular signature of sodium alkylbenzene sulfonates, a common surfactant used in industrial detergent. The root cause investigation suggests that the tape lift test failures originated from detergent residue left behind on the glass slides used to mount and transport the tape following sampling and not from the hardware surface.

  14. SPA face lift: SMAS plication-anchoring.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2011-08-01

    A variation of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) plication called SPA face lift is here described. An axial line and then two medial and lateral parallel lines are penciled on the skin from the lateral canthus to the earlobe to show the future plication area. The undermining zone is delimited 1 cm beyond the medial line. In face- and neck-lifting, such marks extend vertically to the neck. Once the skin is undermined up to the delimiting marks, the three lines are penciled again on the fat layer, and a running lock suture is used for plication, with big superficial bites between the two distal lines. In fatty faces, a strip of fat is removed along the axial line to avoid bulging that can be seen through the skin. Because the undermining is limited, minor swelling occurs, and the postoperative recovery is shorter and faster. The same three lines can be marked in the contralateral side or can differ in cases of asymmetry. This report describes 244 face-lifts without any facial nerve problems. The author managed five hematoma cases in which surgery to the neck was performed. Three patients had to be touched up for insufficient skin tension. The SPA technique is consistent and easy to learn.

  15. Occupational rhinitis: an update.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Whitney W; Grammer, Leslie C

    2015-01-01

    Occupational rhinitis is characterized by nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, and/or sneezing that occur secondary to exposures in the workplace. This disease can be classified into allergic or nonallergic subgroups based upon the underlying disease pathogenesis as well as the type of causative agent. While the true prevalence of occupational rhinitis is unknown, there are certain professions and occupational exposures that place workers at a higher risk for developing the disease. Additionally, occupational rhinitis can be associated with occupational asthma and upper airway symptoms may precede those of the lower respiratory tract. Taken together, occupational rhinitis is an important disease for study given its medical as well as socioeconomic implications. This review will focus on the classification of occupational rhinitis as well the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment strategies.

  16. LiftingWiSe: A Lifting-Based Efficient Data Processing Technique in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Aboelela, Emad

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring thousands of objects which are deployed over large-hard-to-reach areas, is an important application of the wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Such an application requires disseminating a large amount of data within the WSN. This data includes, but is not limited to, the object's location and the environment conditions at that location. WSNs require efficient data processing and dissemination processes due to the limited storage, processing power, and energy available in the WSN nodes. The aim of this paper is to propose a data processing technique that can work under constrained storage, processing, and energy resource conditions. The proposed technique utilizes the lifting procedure in processing the disseminated data. Lifting is usually used in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) operations. The proposed technique is referred to as LiftingWiSe, which stands for Lifting-based efficient data processing technique for Wireless Sensor Networks. LiftingWiSe has been tested and compared to other relevant techniques from the literature. The test has been conducted via a simulation of the monitored field and the deployed wireless sensor network nodes. The simulation results have been analyzed and discussed. PMID:25116902

  17. Superficial shoulder muscle co-activations during lifting tasks: Influence of lifting height, weight and phase.

    PubMed

    Blache, Y; Dal Maso, F; Desmoulins, L; Plamondon, A; Begon, M

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the level of co-activation of the superficial shoulder muscles during lifting movement. Boxes containing three different loads (6, 12, and 18 kg) were lifted by fourteen subjects from the waist to shoulder or eye level. The 3D kinematics and electromyograms of the three deltoids, latissimus dorsi and pectoralis major were recorded. A musculoskeletal model was used to determine direction of the moment arm of these muscles. Finally an index of muscle co-activation named the muscle focus was used to evaluate the effects of lifting height, weight lifted and phase (pulling, lifting and dropping phases) on superficial shoulder muscle coactivation. The muscle focus was lower (more co-contraction) during the dropping phase compared to the two other phases (-13%, p<0.001). This was explained by greater muscle activations and by a change in the direction of the muscle moment arm as a function of glenohumeral joint position. Consequently, the function of the shoulder superficial muscles varied with respect to the glenohumeral joint position. To increase the superficial muscle coactivation during the dropping phase may be a solution to increase glenohumeral joint stiffness.

  18. Group Lifting Structures For Multirate Filter Banks, I: Uniqueness Of Lifting Factorizations

    SciTech Connect

    Brislawn, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies two-channel finite impulse response (FIR) perfect reconstruction filter banks. The connection between filter banks and wavelet transforms is well-known and will not be treated here. Figure 1 depicts the polyphase-with-advance representation of a filter bank [6]. A lifting factorization, is a factorization of polyphase matrices into upper and lower triangular lifting matrices. The existence of such decompositions via the Euclidean algorithm was shown for general FIR perfect reconstruction filter banks in [9] and was subsequently refined for linear phase filter banks in [10], [6]. These latter works were motivated by the ISO JPEG 2000 image coding standard [11], [12], [10], which specifies whole-sample symmetric (WS, or FIR type 1 linear phase) filter banks, as in Figure 2(a), in terms of half-sample symmetric (RS, or FIR type 2) lifting filters.

  19. Listing Occupational Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Siemiatycki, Jack; Richardson, Lesley; Straif, Kurt; Latreille, Benoit; Lakhani, Ramzan; Campbell, Sally; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Boffetta, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    The occupational environment has been a most fruitful one for investigating the etiology of human cancer. Many recognized human carcinogens are occupational carcinogens. There is a large volume of epidemiologic and experimental data concerning cancer risks in different work environments. It is important to synthesize this information for both scientific and public health purposes. Various organizations and individuals have published lists of occupational carcinogens. However, such lists have been limited by unclear criteria for which recognized carcinogens should be considered occupational carcinogens, and by inconsistent and incomplete information on the occupations and industries in which the carcinogenic substances may be found and on their target sites of cancer. Based largely on the evaluations published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, and augmented with additional information, the present article represents an attempt to summarize, in tabular form, current knowledge on occupational carcinogens, the occupations and industries in which they are found, and their target organs. We have considered 28 agents as definite occupational carcinogens, 27 agents as probable occupational carcinogens, and 113 agents as possible occupational carcinogens. These tables should be useful for regulatory or preventive purposes and for scientific purposes in research priority setting and in understanding carcinogenesis. PMID:15531427

  20. Improved Constraints to the Local Supermassive Black Hole Occupation Fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Gallo, Elena; Miller, Brendan P.

    2017-01-01

    The occupation fraction of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in local dwarf galaxies is thought to be related to the formation mechanism of the first black holes in the early Universe. Light black hole seeds, such as Pop III star remnants, are likely to result in a significantly higher occupation fraction compared to heavy seeds (~104 solar mass) arising from the global collapse of massive gas clouds. Chandra observations of nearby dwarf galaxies can push the detection threshold for SMBH activity down to the lowest observable Eddington ratios. This, folded with analytical prescriptions for the intrinsic occupation fraction across the mass spectrum, yields an observational constraints to the SMBH occupation fraction in the dwarf galaxy regime. Building on previous work by Miller et al. (2015), here we analyze a sample of ~240 early-type galaxies (D < 30 Mpc) with archival Chandra coverage, and report on our improved constraints to the local SMBH occupation fraction.

  1. Inference for occupancy and occupancy dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Bailey, Larissa L.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the estimation of occupancy as a state variable to assess the status of, and track changes in, species distributions when sampling with camera traps. Much of the recent interest in occupancy estimation and modeling originated from the models developed by MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2003), although similar methods were developed independently (Azuma et al. 1990; Bayley and Petersen 2001; Nichols and Karanth, 2002; Tyre et al. 2003), all of which deal with species occurrence information and imperfect detection. Less than a decade after these publications, the modeling and estimation of species occurrence and occupancy dynamics have increased significantly. Special features of scientific journals have explored innovative uses of detection–nondetection data with occupancy models (Vojta 2005), and an entire volume has synthesized the use and application of occupancy estimation methods (MacKenzie et al. 2006). Reviews of the topical concepts, philosophical considerations, and various sampling designs that can be used for occupancy estimation are now readily available for a range of audiences (MacKenzie and Royle 2005; MacKenzie et al. 2006; Bailey et al. 2007; Royle and Dorazio 2008; Conroy and Carroll 2009; Kendall and White 2009; Hines et al. 2010; Link and Barker 2010). As a result, it would be pointless here to recast all that these publications have so eloquently articulated, but that said, a review of any scientific topic requires sufficient context and relevant background information, especially when relatively new methodologies and techniques such as occupancy estimation and camera traps are involved. This is especially critical in a digital age where new information is published at warp speed, making it increasingly difficult to stay abreast of theoretical advances and research developments.

  2. Estimation of an Occupational Choice Model when Occupations Are Misclassified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an empirical occupational choice model that corrects for misclassification in occupational choices and measurement error in occupation-specific work experience. The model is used to estimate the extent of measurement error in occupation data and quantify the bias that results from ignoring measurement error in occupation codes…

  3. Liver cirrhosis deaths within occupations and industries in the California occupational mortality study.

    PubMed

    Leigh, J P; Jiang, W Y

    1993-06-01

    Mortality rates were drawn from the California Occupational Mortality Study (COMS) to analyze liver cirrhosis deaths within occupations and industries from 1979 to 1981. Age-adjusted Standardized Mortality Rates (SMRs) were made available by the State of California for separate analyses of women, men, blacks and whites. Rankings of occupations with narrow confidence intervals were strikingly similar for blacks and whites. Within occupations, the highest female SMRs were for waitresses, telephone operators, cosmetologists, dress makers, hospital orderlies, textile workers, and laborers. The lowest female SMRs were for skilled crafts workers and teachers. High male occupations included water transportation workers, bartenders, loggers, laborers, roofers, construction workers, farm workers, iron workers, and painters. Low male occupations included teachers, physicians and dentists, managers, factory supervisors, business sales workers, heavy equipment operators, and other professionals. High female industries included eating and drinking places, laundry/dry cleaning, nursing and personal care facilities, aerospace, beauty shops, and entertainment. Low female industries included wholesale trades and education. High male industries included water transportation, military, guard services, eating and drinking places, iron and steel mills, and railroads. Low male industries included research/engineering labs, education, and computer manufacturing. This study was descriptive. It remains unknown whether certain jobs cause excessive drinking and cirrhosis, or whether people who are prone to develop cirrhosis select certain jobs.

  4. Levitation of heavy particles against gravity in asymptotically downward flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angilella, Jean-Régis; Case, Daniel J.; Motter, Adilson E.

    2017-03-01

    In the fluid transport of particles, it is generally expected that heavy particles carried by a laminar fluid flow moving downward will also move downward. We establish a theory to show, however, that particles can be dynamically levitated and lifted by interacting vortices in such flows, thereby moving against gravity and the asymptotic direction of the flow, even when they are orders of magnitude denser than the fluid. The particle levitation is rigorously demonstrated for potential flows and supported by simulations for viscous flows. We suggest that this counterintuitive effect has potential implications for the air-transport of water droplets and the lifting of sediments in water.

  5. INFECTION AS OCCUPATIONAL RISK,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The percentage of the job-connected infectious diseases of the total number of occupational diseases has been subject to only minor fluctuations...since 1949. Of the occupational infections of medical personnel, tuberculosis and infectious hepatitis are the most important; among diseases that can be...importance in the recognition of an infectious disease as an occupational disease. The article discusses the sources of infection, the manner of

  6. Standard versus Abdominal Lifting and Compression CPR

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qing; Han, Shupeng; Zhang, Ziran; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yahua; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study compared outcomes of abdominal lifting and compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ALP-CPR) with standard CPR (STD-CPR). Materials and Methods. Patients with cardiac arrest seen from April to December 2014 were randomized to receive standard CPR or ALP-CPR performed with a novel abdominal lifting/compression device. The primary outcome was return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Results. Patients were randomized to receive ALP-CPR (n = 40) and STD-CPR (n = 43), and the groups had similar baseline characteristics. After CPR, 9 (22.5%) and 7 (16.3%) patients in the ALP-CPR and STD-CPR groups, respectively, obtained ROSC. At 60 minutes after ROSC, 7 (77.8%) and 2 (28.6%) patients, respectively, in the ALP-CPR and STD-CPR groups survived (P = 0.049). Patients in the ALP-CPR group had a significantly higher heart rate and lower mean arterial pressure (MAP) than those in the STD-CPR group (heart rate: 106.8 versus 79.0, P < 0.001; MAP: 60.0 versus 67.3 mm Hg, P = 0.003). The posttreatment PCO2 was significantly lower in ALP-CPR group than in STD-CPR group (52.33 versus 58.81, P = 0.009). PO2 was significantly increased after ALP-CPR (45.15 to 60.68, P < 0.001), but it was not changed after STD-CPR. PO2 after CPR was significantly higher in the ALP-CPR group (60.68 versus 44.47, P < 0.001). There were no differences between genders and for patients who are > 65 or ≤ 65 years of age. Conclusions. The abdominal lifting and compression cardiopulmonary resuscitation device used in this study is associated with a higher survival rate after ROSC than standard CPR. PMID:27882073

  7. About Occupational Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ethics Occupational Therapy Assistants Advocacy & Policy New Evaluation Codes Learn how to use the new OT CPT® Evaluation codes correctly . Congressional Affairs AOTPAC Federal Regulatory Affairs Health ...

  8. American Occupational Therapy Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ethics Occupational Therapy Assistants Advocacy & Policy New Evaluation Codes Learn how to use the new OT CPT® Evaluation codes correctly . Congressional Affairs AOTPAC Federal Regulatory Affairs Health ...

  9. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  10. Application of electrical submersible pumps in heavy crude oil in Boscan Field

    SciTech Connect

    Bortolin, L.L.

    1995-12-31

    During recent years optimization of artificial lift methods has been applied in the oil industry, in order to evaluate the effect on oil well production and to establish a company`s optimal investment policies. Higher costs on new artificial lifting equipment and facilities for new fields have created the necessity to review the latest available technology of different lifting methods and specially that related to electrical submersible pumps (ESP). Few studies in the area of heavy crude oil production optimization using ESP as a lifting method have been published. This paper discusses the results of an ESP pilot project performed in 24 wells in Boscan field, and analyzes the performance of the equipment and its application range. The ESP equipment was installed in completions at depths ranging from 7000 to 9000 feet, with a 10{degrees}API gravity crude and bottomhole temperature of 180{degrees}F. It was concluded that despite a reduction of the pump`s efficiency, the ESP equipment does qualify as a good alternative lifting method for heavy oil production. It is also possible to obtain higher production rates. The results obtained in this pilot project, confirm that submersible pumps are an alternative method for lifting heavy crude oil from relatively deep reservoirs.

  11. Theory of attached and lifted diffusion flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wichman, Indrek S.; Ramadan, Bassem

    1998-12-01

    Diffusion flame (DF) attachment and liftoff are examined, leading to (1) explanations of the origins of previous, successful empirical correlations; (2) the discovery of multiple lifting regimes. The latter includes a very slow flow regime, a slow-to-moderate flow regime, and a moderate-to-fast flow regime. Formulas for liftoff height (l̂g) and characteristic flame tip breadth (l̂r) are developed from a combination of the differential and integral form of the conservation equations. These formulas are compared with numerical solutions of the same equations.

  12. Circulation control lift generation experiment: Hardware development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panontin, T. L.

    1985-01-01

    A circulation control airfoil and its accompanying hardware were developed to allow the investigation of lift generation that is independent of airfoil angle of attack and relative flow velocity. The test equipment, designed for use in a water tunnel, includes the blown airfoil, the support systems for both flow visualization and airfoil load measurement, and the fluid control system, which utilizes hydraulic technology. The primary design tasks, the selected solutions, and the unforseen problems involved in the development of these individual components of hardware are described.

  13. Fixed Wordsize Implementation of Lifting Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karp, Tanja

    2006-12-01

    We present a reversible nonlinear discrete wavelet transform with predefined fixed wordsize based on lifting schemes. Restricting the dynamic range of the wavelet domain coefficients due to a fixed wordsize may result in overflow. We show how this overflow has to be handled in order to maintain reversibility of the transform. We also perform an analysis on how large a wordsize of the wavelet coefficients is needed to perform optimal lossless and lossy compressions of images. The scheme is advantageous to well-known integer-to-integer transforms since the wordsize of adders and multipliers can be predefined and does not increase steadily. This also results in significant gains in hardware implementations.

  14. Analysis of interacting dual lifting ejector systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lund, T. S.; Tavella, D. A.; Roberts, L.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical treatment is presented for a flowfield generated by a pair of interacting, two-dimensional parallel jets, representative of the two exhaust streams issuing from the thrust augmentor nozzles of dual lifting jet VTOL aircraft propulsion systems. Predictions of the analysis for the ratio of primary to secondary velocity are in close agreement with experimentally observed values, if the spreading rate parameter is allowed to assume a value greater than that which applies to a free jet. Theoretical results are combined with existing experimental data for unventilated jets, in order to arrive at an estimate of the thrust augmentation produced by a jet pair with an arbitrary degree of ventilation.

  15. Labyrinth seal testing for lift fan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobek, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    An abradable buffered labyrinth seal for the control of turbine gas path leakage in a tip-turbine driven lift fan was designed, tested, and analyzed. The seal configuration was not designed to operate in any specific location but was sized to be evaluated in an existing test rig. The final sealing diameter selected was 28 inches. Results of testing indicate that the flow equations predicted seal air flows consistent with measured values. Excellent sealing characteristics of the abradable coating on the stator land were demonstrated when a substantial seal penetration of .030 inch into the land surface was encountered without appreciable wear on the labyrinth knife edges.

  16. A submicrometer lifted diffused-layer MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inokawa, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Toshio; Kiuchi, Kazuhide

    1987-03-01

    A new lifted diffused-layer (LID) MOSFET has been devised and fabricated, where the major portions of the source/drain (S/D) diffused layers are placed on top of the field insulator to reduce S/D parasitic capacitances. The primary feature of this MOSFET is that the structure and processing are especially developed for submicrometer gate lengths. The fabricated LID MOSFET with a 0.5-micron gate length and a 10-nm gate oxide thickness showed good electrical characteristics, such as a maximum transconductance of 115 mS/mm and an inverter delay time of 59 ps/stage.

  17. Comparing the results of five lifting analysis tools.

    PubMed

    Russell, Steven J; Winnemuller, Lori; Camp, Janice E; Johnson, Peter W

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the results of the NIOSH, ACGIH TLV, Snook, 3DSSPP and WA L&I lifting assessment instruments when applied to a uniform task (lifting and lowering milk cases with capacities of 15 and 23l). To enable comparisons between the various lifting assessment instruments, the outputs of each method were converted to an exposure index similar to the NIOSH Lifting Index. All instruments showed higher exposures associated with lifting the 23l cases versus the 15l cases. The NIOSH, ACGIH TLV and Snook methods were similar in their results with respect to the pattern of exposure over various height levels and the differences in exposures associated with lifting 15 and 23l cases. However, the WA L&I and 3DSSPP predicted substantially lower exposures. The reasons for instrument differences are presented so that practitioners can better select the methods they need and interpret the results appropriately.

  18. Determining safe limits for significant task parameters during manual lifting.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ravindra Pratrap; Batish, Ajay; Singh, Tejinder Pal

    2014-04-01

    This experimental study investigated the effect of lifting task parameters (i.e., lifting weight, frequency, coupling, asymmetric angle, and vertical, horizontal, and travel distances) for various dynamic human lifting activities on the ground reaction forces of workers. Ten male workers loaded containers from different levels asymmetrically during experimental trials. The experimental design evolved using Taguchi's Fractional Factorial Experiments. Three factors (lifting weight, frequency, and vertical distance) were observed to be significant. The results showed that vertical reaction forces increase when workers lift weight from floor to shoulder height frequently. It was also observed that instantaneous loading rate increases with more weight, vertical distance, and frequency; a significant extra loading rate is required to change the lower level of load, frequency, and vertical distance to higher levels. Safe limits for significant factors were determined to result in optimal performance of the manual lifting task.

  19. Back injury prevention: a lift team success story.

    PubMed

    Hefti, Kelly S; Farnham, Richard J; Docken, Lisa; Bentaas, Ruth; Bossman, Sharon; Schaefer, Jill

    2003-06-01

    Work related back injuries among hospital personnel account for high volume, high cost workers' compensation claims. These injuries can be life altering experiences, affecting both the personal and professional lives of injured workers. Lifting must be viewed as a skill involving specialized training and mandated use of mechanical equipment, rather than as a random task performed by numerous health care providers. The use of a lift team specially trained in body mechanics, lifting techniques, and the use of mandated mechanical equipment can significantly affect injury data, financial outcomes, and employee satisfaction. The benefits of a lift team extend beyond the effect on injury and financial outcomes--they can be used for recruitment and retention strategies, and team members serve as mentors to others by demonstrating safe lifting techniques. Ultimately, a lift team helps protect a valuable resource--the health care worker.

  20. Bats dynamically change wingspan to enhance lift and efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shizhao; Zhang, Xing; He, Guowei; Liu, Tianshu; Turbulence Team

    2016-11-01

    Bats can dynamically change the wingspan by controlling the joints on the wings. This work focuses on the effect of dynamically changing wingspan on the lift and efficiency in slow-flying bats. The geometry and kinematics of the bat model is constructed based on the experimental measurements of Wolf et al.. The Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flows are solved numerically to investigate the 3D unsteady flows around the bat model. It is found that the dynamically changing wingspan can significantly enhance the lift and efficiency. The lift enhancement is contributed by both lifting surface area extended during the downstroke and the vortex force associated with the leading-edge vortices intensified by the dynamically changing wingspan. The nonlinear interaction between the dynamically changing wing and the vortex structures plays an important role in the lift enhancement of a slow-flying bat in addition to the geometrical effect of changing the lifting-surface area in a flapping cycle.

  1. Teacher's Guide to Occupational Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This guide is specifically designed to accompany materials developed for occupational orientation (particularly in Illinois) in the following five cluster areas: Applied biological and agricultural occupations; personal and public service occupations; health occupations; business, marketing, and management occupations; and industrial oriented…

  2. Welding. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP), which is one of a series of OCAPs developed to identify the skills that Ohio employers deem necessary to entering a given occupation/occupational area, lists the occupational, academic, and employability skills required of individuals entering the occupation of welder. The introduction explains…

  3. HSR High Lift Program and PCD2 Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemmerly, Guy T.; Coen, Peter; Meredith, Paul; Clark, Roger; Hahne, Dave; Smith, Brian

    1999-01-01

    The mission of High-Lift Technology is to develop technology allowing the design of practical high lift concepts for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) in order to: 1) operate safely and efficiently; and 2) reduce terminal control area and community noise. In fulfilling this mission, close and continuous coordination will be maintained with other High-Speed Research (HSR) technology elements in order to support optimization of the overall airplane (rather than just the high lift system).

  4. Occupation and Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Ward, Mary H.; Valle, Curt T. Della; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Numerous occupational and environmental exposures have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormones, but much less is known about their relationships with thyroid cancer. Here we review the epidemiology studies of occupations and occupational exposures and thyroid cancer incidence to provide insight into preventable risk factors for thyroid cancer. Methods The published literature was searched using the Web of Knowledge database for all articles through August 2013 that had in their text “occupation” “job” ”employment” or “work” and “thyroid cancer”. After excluding 10 mortality studies and 4 studies with less than 5 exposed incident cases, we summarized the findings of 30 articles that examined thyroid cancer incidence in relation to occupations or occupational exposure. The studies were grouped by exposure/occupation category, study design, and exposure assessment approach. Where available, gender stratified results are reported. Results The most studied (19 of 30 studies) and the most consistent associations were observed for radiation-exposed workers and health care occupations. Suggestive, but inconsistent, associations were observed in studies of pesticide-exposed workers and agricultural occupations. Findings for other exposures and occupation groups were largely null. The majority of studies had few exposed cases and assessed exposure based on occupation or industry category, self-report, or generic (population-based) job exposure matrices. Conclusion The suggestive, but inconsistent findings for many of the occupational exposures reviewed here indicate that more studies with larger numbers of cases and better exposure assessment are necessary, particularly for exposures known to disrupt thyroid homeostasis. PMID:24604144

  5. Lift mechanics of downhill skiing and snowboarding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q.; Igci, Y.; Andreopoulos, Y.; Xanthos, S.; Weinbaum, S.

    2004-11-01

    In a recent paper, Feng and Weinbaum (2000), hereafter referred to as F, developed a new type of lubrication theory for highly compressible porous media (e. g., snow) where one can generate lift forces that are several orders of magnitude greater than in classical lubrication theory. Herein we report the first measurements of the pore pressures generated on the time scale of skiing or snowboarding to verify the hypothesis in F. We then extend the F theory to long slender planing surfaces which lie outside the range of validity of the lubrication approximation and, include inertia effects. We derive a new simplified equation for downhill skiing or snowboarding which also describes both edging and turning maneuvers. For the case where there is no edging or turning, we obtain numerical solutions of this equation for snowboarding and analytical asymptotic solutions for skiing. The new experimental and theoretical approach presented herein and the previous F theory have laid the foundation for understanding the mechanism of lift generation in downhill skiing and snowboarding on fresh snow.

  6. Lifting Mechanism for the Mars Explorer Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melko, Joseph; Iskenderian, Theodore; Harrington, Brian; Voorhees, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    A report discusses the design of a rover lift mechanism (RLM) -- a major subsystem of each of the Mars Exploration Rover vehicles, which were landed on Mars in January 2004. The RLM had to satisfy requirements to (1) be foldable as part of an extremely dense packing arrangement and (2) be capable of unfolding itself in a complex, multistep process for disengaging the rover from its restraints in the lander, lifting the main body of the rover off its landing platform, and placing the rover wheels on the platform in preparation for driving the rover off the platform. There was also an overriding requirement to minimize the overall mass of the rover and lander. To satisfy the combination of these and other requirements, it was necessary to formulate an extremely complex design that integrated components and functions of the RLM with those of a rocker-bogie suspension system, the aspects of which have been described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. In this design, suspension components also serve as parts of a 4- bar linkage in the RLM.

  7. Lift-based paddling in diving grebe.

    PubMed

    Johansson, L C; Lindhe Norberg, U M

    2001-05-01

    To examine the hydrodynamic propulsion mechanism of a diving great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus), the three-dimensional kinematics was determined by digital analysis of sequential video images of dorsal and lateral views. During the acceleration phase of this foot-propelled bird, the feet move through an arc in a plane nearly normal to the bird's line of motion through the water, i.e. the toes move dorsally and medially but not caudally relative to the water. The kinematics of the grebe's lobed feet is different from that in anseriforms, whose feet move in a plane mostly parallel to the bird's line of progress through the water. Our results suggest that the foot-propelled locomotor mechanism of grebes is based primarily on a lift-producing leg and foot stroke, in contrast to the drag-based locomotion assumed previously. We suggest that the lift-based paddling of grebes considerably increases both maximum swimming speed and energetic efficiency over drag-based propulsion. Furthermore, the results implicate a new interpretation of the functional morphology of these birds, with the toes serving as a self-stabilizing multi-slotted hydrofoil during the power phase.

  8. Modification of integrated partial payload lifting assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groah, Melodie; Haddock, Michael; Woodworth, Warren

    1986-01-01

    The Integrated Partial Payload Lifting Assembly (IPPLA) is currently used to transport and load experimental payloads into the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle. It is unable to carry the astronaut/passenger tunnel without a structural modification. The purpose of this design is to create a removalbe modification that will allow the IPPLA to lift and carry the passenger tunnel. Modifications evaluated were full-length insert beams which would extend through the existing strongback arms. These beam proposals were eliminated because of high cost and weight. Other proposals evaluated were attachments of cantilever beams to the existing strongback areas. The cantilever proposals reduced cost and weight compared to the full-length modifications. A third method evaluated was to simply make modifications to one side of the IPPLA therefore reducing the materials of the cantilever proposals by 40 percent. The design of the modification selected was completed with two channel beams jointly welded to a centered steel plate. The extension arm modification is inserted into the existing strongback channel beams and bolted into place. Two extension arms are added to one side of the IPPLA to provide the extra length needed to accommodate the passenger tunnel. The center counterbalance will then be offset about 20 inches to center gravity and therefore maintain horizontal status. The extension arm modification was selected because of minimum cost, low weight, and minimal installation time.

  9. Method for calculating lift distributions for unswept wings with flaps or ailerons by use of nonlinear section lift data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivells, James C; Westrick, Gertrude C

    1952-01-01

    A method is presented which allows the use of nonlinear section lift data in the calculation of the spanwise lift distribution of unswept wings with flaps or ailerons. This method is based upon lifting line theory and is an extension to the method described in NACA rep. 865. The mathematical treatment of the discontinuity in absolute angle of attack at the end of the flap or aileron involves the use of a correction factor which accounts for the inability of a limited trigonometric series to represent adequately the spanwise lift distribution. A treatment of the apparent discontinuity in maximum section lift coefficient is also described. Simplified computing forms containing detailed examples are given for both symmetrical and asymmetrical lift distributions. A few comparisons of calculated characteristics with those obtained experimentally are also presented.

  10. OCCUPATION EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRIEST, JEANNE; MORSCH, WILLIAM C.

    THE OCCUPATIONAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS (OERA) SYSTEM IS A RESEARCH EFFORT DESIGNED TO DEVELOP A FEASIBLE METHOD OF PROJECTING VOCATIONAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS THAT WILL SATISFY LABOR MARKET NEEDS. THE OUTPUTS OF THE OERA WILL BE ANNUAL PROJECTIONS OF EMPLOYMENT DEMANDS IN OCCUPATIONS CLASSIFIED BY VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS. THESE…

  11. Testosterone and Occupational Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbs, James M., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Archival data on 4,462 military veterans linked higher levels of serum testosterone to lower-status occupations. A structural equation model was supported in which higher testosterone, mediated through lower intellectual ability, greater antisocial behavior, and lower education, leads away from white-collar occupations. Contains 49 references.…

  12. Leadership and Occupational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…

  13. Occupational asthma: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, L J; Balmes, J R

    2000-01-01

    Occupational asthma is the most common form of occupational lung disease in the developed world at the present time. In this review, the epidemiology, pathogenesis/mechanisms, clinical presentations, management, and prevention of occupational asthma are discussed. The population attributable risk of asthma due to occupational exposures is considerable. Current understanding of the mechanisms by which many agents cause occupational asthma is limited, especially for low-molecular-weight sensitizers and irritants. The diagnosis of occupational asthma is generally established on the basis of a suggestive history of a temporal association between exposure and the onset of symptoms and objective evidence that these symptoms are related to airflow limitation. Early diagnosis, elimination of exposure to the responsible agent, and early use of inhaled steroids may play important roles in the prevention of long-term persistence of asthma. Persistent occupational asthma is often associated with substantial disability and consequent impacts on income and quality of life. Prevention of new cases is the best approach to reducing the burden of asthma attributable to occupational exposures. Future research needs are identified. PMID:10931788

  14. Occupations, U. S. A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geneva Area City Schools, OH.

    The booklet divides job titles, selected from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, into 15 career clusters: agribusiness and natural resources, business and office education, communication and media, construction, consumer and home economics, fine arts and humanities, health occupations, hospitality and recreation, manufacturing, marine science,…

  15. Counselling for Occupational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwamuo, P. A.; Ugonna, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain the general attitude which senior secondary school students display towards counselling for occupational development while determining gender difference in students' attitude towards occupational information. It is also aimed at discovering whether these students seek vocational guidance in their choice of…

  16. Cabinetmaker. Occupational Analysis Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinien, Chris; Boutin, France

    This document contains the analysis of the occupation of cabinetmaker, or joiner, that is accepted by the Canadian Council of Directors as the national standard for the occupation. The front matter preceding the analysis includes exploration of the development of the analysis, structure of the analysis, validation method, scope of the cabinetmaker…

  17. Production of heavy oil with a hydraulic gas pump

    SciTech Connect

    Amani, M.

    1995-12-31

    The original designs of the Hydraulic Gas Pump were first presented in Society of Petroleum Engineers SPE paper 025422. This pump is still in the conceptual stage, but the technology to build it is available. This paper presents its theoretical applications for the production of heavy oil. An important advantage of the Hydraulic Gas Pump is its ability to pump liquids from deep wells. Rod pumps are limited when pumping viscous oil from deep wells because of problems with rod stress and rod fall. The Hydraulic Gas Pump can provide an alternative to rod pumps for lifting heavy oil from deep wells. Another advantage of the Hydraulic Gas Pump for the production of heavy oil is its ability to operate in gassy, sandy, and high temperature environments. Gas and steam do not affect its efficiency. This makes the pump useful for steam projects, fire-flood projects, or lifting heavy oil in gassy environments. The Hydraulic Gas Pump operates by a rotative gas compression system. This paper presents a discussion of its operation and its lift capacity.

  18. [Market oriented occupational medicine].

    PubMed

    Rurik, Imre; Cseh, Károly

    2012-09-09

    The history and the recent state of occupational medicine in Hungary, and its relation with governmental labor organizations are analyzed. In the past 20 years, large "socialist" factories were replaced by smaller companies employing fewer workers. They have been forced to establish contract with occupational health providers. Many of them offer primary care services, whereas family physicians having a board examination in occupational medicine are allowed to work in this field as well. The market of occupational medicine is less regulated, and ethical rules are not always considered. Undercutting prices is a common practice. The recent system could be improved by some regulations which should be respected. There is no reason to make rough changes establishing a new market for profit oriented insurance companies, and to allow employees and employers to work without specification neglecting international agreements. Occupational medicine should be supervised again by the health authorities instead of economists who have quite different, short-term priorities.

  19. Occupational Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim

    2010-01-01

    Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and magnitude of the problem, and may also result in a lack of development and implementation of occupational infection management. Through a review of national guidelines and documentations on prevention and control of occupational infection, a management strategy would promote adherence to worker safety regulations if it is explicit with regard to the agent and mode of infection in each of the high-risk groups. PMID:21258592

  20. Perspectives in Occupational Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, C. G. Toby; Maibach, Howard I.

    1982-01-01

    Because large surface areas of the skin are exposed directly to the environment, skin is an organ particularly vulnerable to occupationally induced disease. Statistics show that, excluding accidental injury, nearly half of all occupational illnesses occur in this organ; a fourth of all workers suffering from occupational skin disease lose an average of 10 to 12 workdays. The constant evolution of new industrial chemicals and methods of manufacture continue to bring new skin hazards and disease into the workplace. Occupational health physicians and practitioners, who usually have minimal training in dermatology, must diagnose and treat unfamiliar diseases in a setting of even less familiar, often overwhelming, technology. A thorough understanding of cutaneous defense mechanisms, clinical patterns of occupational skin disease and methods for establishing accurate diagnoses is essential. PMID:6219498

  1. Manual materials handling in mining: the effect of rod heights and foot positions when lifting "in-the-hole" drill rods.

    PubMed

    Plamondon, André; Delisle, Alain; Trimble, Karin; Desjardins, Pierre; Rickwood, Trevor

    2006-11-01

    There is a paucity of studies focusing on the lifting of rods or long awkward heavy objects. In-the-hole (ITH) drilling is a heavy repetitive mining task, which has been identified as having a relatively high incidence and severity rate of musculoskeletal injuries. The purpose of this study was to examine how the load experienced by ITH drill operators changed when lifting a vertical drilling rod (1.61m, 35kg) using two rod heights and four different foot positions. In addition, a symmetrical lift with a lifting index (LI) of 1.4 also served as a comparison to determine possible risk of low back injury. Eleven experienced ITH drill operators participated in the study. Each subject was required to lift a vertical drilling rod until the upper body was in an erect posture using four different foot positions (0 degrees =subject facing the rod, 45 degrees =subject oblique to the rod, 90 degrees =subject right side to the rod and freestyle). In addition, two rod height conditions were studied where the base of the vertical rod was supported either (1) at ground level (height of rod CG=0.83m) or (2) on a 20cm rack (height of rod CG=1.03m). Finally, each subject lifted a 21.5kg box in the sagittal plane, which corresponded to an LI of 1.4 in the NIOSH lifting equation. Reflective markers were placed on the subjects, and three video cameras and one force plate were used to record the forces and the motion of the subjects' segments. Two surface electrodes were applied on the right and the left erector spinae (ES) at the level of L3. Back loading was defined by the level of the peak moments, the mechanical work and erector spinae muscle activity (EMG). It was found that the vertical height of the rod had the most significant impact on back loading, while the effect of the initial foot positioning relative to the rod was limited by the technique adopted by the drillers. Moreover, it was found that some of the subjects used techniques less strenuous for the back than others

  2. High-Lift Systems on Commercial Subsonic Airliners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, Peter K. C.

    1996-01-01

    The early breed of slow commercial airliners did not require high-lift systems because their wing loadings were low and their speed ratios between cruise and low speed (takeoff and landing) were about 2:1. However, even in those days the benefit of high-lift devices was recognized. Simple trailing-edge flaps were in use, not so much to reduce landing speeds, but to provide better glide-slope control without sideslipping the airplane and to improve pilot vision over the nose by reducing attitude during low-speed flight. As commercial-airplane cruise speeds increased with the development of more powerful engines, wing loadings increased and a real need for high-lift devices emerged to keep takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits. The high-lift devices of that era were generally trailing-edge flaps. When jet engines matured sufficiently in military service and were introduced commercially, airplane speed capability had to be increased to best take advantage of jet engine characteristics. This speed increase was accomplished by introducing the wing sweep and by further increasing wing loading. Whereas increased wing loading called for higher lift coefficients at low speeds, wing sweep actually decreased wing lift at low speeds. Takeoff and landing speeds increased on early jet airplanes, and, as a consequence, runways worldwide had to be lengthened. There are economical limits to the length of runways; there are safety limits to takeoff and landing speeds; and there are speed limits for tires. So, in order to hold takeoff and landing speeds within reasonable limits, more powerful high-lift devices were required. Wing trailing-edge devices evolved from plain flaps to Fowler flaps with single, double, and even triple slots. Wing leading edges evolved from fixed leading edges to a simple Krueger flap, and from fixed, slotted leading edges to two- and three-position slats and variable-camber (VC) Krueger flaps. The complexity of high-lift systems probably

  3. Levator plate upward lift and levator muscle strength

    PubMed Central

    Rostaminia, Ghazaleh; Peck, Jennifer; Quiroz, Lieschen; Shobeiri, S. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of study was to compare digital palpation with the levator plate lift measured by endovaginal and transperineal dynamic ultrasound. Methods Dynamic transperineal and endovaginal ultrasound were performed as part of multicompartmental pelvic floor functional assessment. Patients were instructed to perform Kegels while a probe captured the video clip of the levator plate movement at rest and during contraction in 2D mid-sagittal posterior view. We measured the distance between the levator plate and the probe on endovaginal ultrasound as well as the distance between the levator plate and the gothic arch of the pubis in transperineal ultrasound. The change in diameter (lift) and a levator plate lift ratio (lift / rest) x 100) were calculated. Pelvic floor muscle strength was assessed by digital palpation and divided into functional and non-functional groups using the Modified Oxford Scale (MOS). Mean differences in levator plate upward lifts were compared by MOS score using student t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results 74 women were available for analysis. The mean age was 55 (SD±11.9). When measured by vaginal dynamic ultrasound, mean values of the lift and lift/rest ratio increased with increasing MOS score (ANOVA p=0.09 and p=0.04, respectively). When MOS scores were categorized to represent non-functional (MOS 0-1) and functional (MOS 2-5) muscle strength groups, the mean values of the lift (3.2 mm vs. 4.6 mm, p=0.03) and lift/rest ratio (13% vs 20%, p=0.01) were significantly higher in women with functional muscle strength. All patients with ≥ 30% lift detected by vaginal ultrasound had functional muscle strength. Conclusions Greater levator plate lift ratio detected by dynamic endovaginal ultrasound was associated with higher muscle strength as determined by MOS. This novel measurement can be incorporated into ultrasound evaluation of the levator ani function. PMID:26333568

  4. AFC-Enabled Simplified High-Lift System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Dickey, Eric D.; Sclafani, Anthony J.; Camacho, Peter; Gonzales, Antonio B.; Lawson, Edward L.; Mairs, Ron Y.; Shmilovich, Arvin

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this trade study report is to explore the potential of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for achieving lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift systems for transonic commercial transport aircraft. This assessment was conducted in four steps. First, based on the Common Research Model (CRM) outer mold line (OML) definition, two high-lift concepts were developed. One concept, representative of current production-type commercial transonic transports, features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. The other CRM-based design relies on drooped leading edges and simply hinged trailing edge flaps for high-lift generation. The relative high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations for steady flow. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. Conceptual design integration studies for the AFC-enhanced high-lift systems were conducted with a NASA Environmentally Responsible Aircraft (ERA) reference configuration, the so-called ERA-0003 concept. These design trades identify AFC performance targets that need to be met to produce economically feasible ERA-0003-like concepts with lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift designs that match the performance of conventional high-lift systems. Finally, technical challenges are identified associated with the application of AFC-enabled highlift systems to modern transonic commercial transports for future technology maturation efforts.

  5. Utilities plan fish lifts for Susquehanna River Dams

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Pennsylvania Power Light Co., Baltimore Gas Electric Co., and Metropolitan Edison Co. will install fish lifts at three dams on the Susquehanna River to aid the spawning of American shad. The utilities estimate the lifts will cost a total of $15 million. PP L will install two lifts at its 108-MW Holtwood Dam, according to the utility's Bob Domermuth, a project scientist. One will be located at the spillway and the second in the tailrace. The two lifts will cost approximately $8 million. At the 417-MW Safe Harbor Dam, which PP L and BG E jointly own, one lift costing $5 million to $6 million will be built on the west side of the powerhouse. Met Ed will install a lift at its 20-MW York Haven Dam, the farthest upstream, at a cost of $3 million. Lifts at Holtwood and Safe Harbor will be completed in time for the spring 1997 shad run; York Haven's passage is to be completed no later than the spring of the year 2000. In 1991, Philadelphia Electric Co. completed a lift at its 512-MW Conowingo Dam, the first dam shad encounter as they swim upstream from the ocean. The utilities agreed with state and federal fish and wildlife agencies to build the lifts, after a decade of studying shad population and rebuilding stocks. Although the agreement is only in draft form, the utilities have begun studying fish movement to determine the best lift designs. While American shad is the species targeted by the effort, the lifts will open the river to all species, Comermuth said. The utilities also are preparing a bid package soliciting design and construction proposals.

  6. Occupations: Military--Civilian Occupational Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armed Forces Vocational Testing Group, Universal City, TX.

    Information on enlisted military occupations is offered in the source book to arrive at a comprehensive statement of job tasks in the military service and their similarities to jobs in civilian life. Basic information about five areas of the U.S. military services (Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard) focuses on their military…

  7. The Occupations of Literacy: Occupational Therapy's Role

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frolek Clark, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Nationally, student proficiency in reading and writing is very low and requires ongoing focus from state and local agencies. With almost 25% of occupational therapists working in early intervention and school settings (AOTA, 2015), their role of facilitating literacy (e.g., reading, writing, speaking and listening) is critical. Occupational…

  8. Heavy metals in the cell nucleus - role in pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sas-Nowosielska, Hanna; Pawlas, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    People are exposed to heavy metals both in an occupational and natural environment. The most pronounced effects of heavy metals result from their interaction with cellular genetic material packed in form of chromatin. Heavy metals influence chromatin, mimicking and substituting natural microelements in various processes taking place in the cell, or interacting chemically with nuclear components: nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. This paper is a review of current knowledge on the effects of heavy metals on chromatin, exerted at the level of various nuclear components.

  9. UF{sub 6} cylinder lifting equipment enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Hortel, J.M.

    1991-12-31

    This paper presents numerous enhancements that have been made to the Portsmouth lifting equipment to ensure the safe handling of cylinders containing liquid uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). The basic approach has been to provide redundancy to all components of the lift path so that any one component failure would not cause the load to drop or cause any undesirable movement.

  10. 49 CFR 178.970 - Bottom lift test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conducted for the qualification of all Large Packagings design types designed to be lifted from the base. (b... permissible gross mass, the load being evenly distributed. (c) Test method. All Large Packaging design types... Large Packagings design types designed to be lifted from the base, there may be no permanent...

  11. View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of lifting girder and tower support superstructure on Tensaw River Bridge, looking north west. Showing rope connectors and welding cut from tower removal. - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  12. Successful implementation of ceiling-mounted lift systems.

    PubMed

    Weinel, Diana

    2008-01-01

    Rehabilitation nurses are well aware of the risks for musculoskeletal injuries related to patient handling tasks. Repetitive lifting, turning, and repositioning of patients with mobility limitations can take a toll on the nurse. This article chronicles integration of ceiling lift technology for patient-handling tasks into nursing practice on a spinal cord injury inpatient unit.

  13. 49 CFR 37.165 - Lift and securement use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lift and securement use. 37.165 Section 37.165 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Provision of Service § 37.165 Lift and securement use. (a) This section applies to...

  14. 49 CFR 37.165 - Lift and securement use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lift and securement use. 37.165 Section 37.165 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Provision of Service § 37.165 Lift and securement use. Link to an amendment published at...

  15. 49 CFR 37.165 - Lift and securement use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lift and securement use. 37.165 Section 37.165 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Provision of Service § 37.165 Lift and securement use. (a) This section applies to...

  16. Similarity of different lifting techniques in trunk muscular synergies.

    PubMed

    Mirakhorlo, Mojtaba; Azghani, Mahmood Reza

    2015-01-01

    Lifting is known to be a major reason for musculoskeletal injuries. In this way, lifting has a crucial effect on human musculoskeletal system and intensity of this impact depends slightly on the selection of techniques. Underlying mechanisms by which trunk muscles are executed during performing lifting are central to biomechanical study of lifting techniques. In the current study, the trunk muscular control mechanisms of lifting are investigated using the synergetic control analysis. Non-negative matrix factorization has been used to extract trunk muscles synergies from their activities - which are computed by a previously validated musculoskeletal model - during different lifting techniques aimed to investigate motor control strategies. Three lifting techniques are considered; stoop, squat and semi-squat. Three synergies account for variety among muscle activation of trunk muscles with related VAF (Variability Account For) of over 95%. Trunk muscle synergy weightings and related time-varying coefficients are calculated for each kind of lifting techniques considering three synergies. Paired correlation coefficients between muscle synergies are all greater than 0.91 (P < 0.05) suggesting that trunk muscle synergies are similar for examined techniques in spite of their kinematic diversity. This similarity can be a result of their common ultimate goal. The acquired results also elucidate the mechanisms of muscle activation patterns that can be exploited in future studies and ergonomic interventions.

  17. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699 Section 25.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position...

  18. Solid state lift for micrometering in a fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Milam, David M.; Carroll, Thomas S.; Lee, Chien-Chang; Miller, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    A fuel injector performs main fuel injection by raising fuel pressure in a nozzle chamber to lift a check valve member to a fully open position, and performs preinjection or microinjection by operating a solid state motor to lift the check valve member a much smaller distance.

  19. 34. ALTERNATE DESIGN USING BATTERED AND UNSHEATHED LIFT TOWERS, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. ALTERNATE DESIGN USING BATTERED AND UNSHEATHED LIFT TOWERS, WITH DEEPENED TRUSS ON LIFT SPAN. Pen-and-ink drawing by project architect Alfred Eichler, 1934. - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  20. Optimization of the lithographic performance for lift-off processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wenyan; Fillmore, Ward; Dempsey, Kevin J.

    1999-06-01

    Shipley MICROPOSIT LOL lift-off technology exploits a develop rate difference in a resist, LOL1000 bi-layer system to generate retrograde profiles. This is an enabling technology for 'additive' processing. Deposition follows lithography and the resist is then 'lifted off' to generate a patterned layer.

  1. Vortex lift research: Early contributions and some current challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhamus, E. C.

    1986-01-01

    The trend towards slender wing aircraft for supersonic cruise and the early chronology of research directed towards their vortex-lift characteristics are briefly reviewed. An overview of the development of vortex-lift theoretical methods is presented, and some current computational and experimental challenges related to the viscous flow aspects of this vortex flow are discussed.

  2. Atlantis is lifted from its transporter in the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- This closeup shows the workers, standing on lifts, who are checking the bolts on the apparatus holding the orbiter Atlantis. The orbiter will be rotated and lifted into high bay 1 where it will be stacked with its external tank and solid rocket boosters. Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled to launch on mission STS-104 in early July.

  3. 49 CFR 37.165 - Lift and securement use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lift and securement use. 37.165 Section 37.165 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Provision of Service § 37.165 Lift and securement use. (a) This section applies to...

  4. 14 CFR 25.699 - Lift and drag device indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lift and drag device indicator. 25.699 Section 25.699 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION....699 Lift and drag device indicator. (a) There must be means to indicate to the pilots the position...

  5. Burnout in occupational therapists.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J C; Dodson, S C

    1988-12-01

    Burnout is a job-related condition involving feelings of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson, 1981a) is the instrument most widely used to measure job-related stress in human service professions, such as occupational therapy. This study explored the application of the Maslach Burnout Inventory for use with occupational therapists. The subjects were 99 registered occupational therapists residing in the southeastern United States. Mean scores lower than the aggregate occupational norms provided by the test's authors on the Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization subscales supported the need to develop specific norms for occupational therapists. Results of this study indicate that use of the aggregate norms would underestimate the level of experienced burnout. Correlational analyses delineated significant relationships between age and Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization, education and Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization, years of work as an occupational therapist and Depersonalization and Personal Accomplishment, years in the present position and Personal Accomplishment (intensity only), hours of direct patient contact and Emotional Exhaustion (intensity only), and hours of direct patient contact and Depersonalization (frequency only). These correlates of burnout furnish clues for understanding the development of work-related stress in occupational therapists.

  6. Force-controlled lifting of molecular wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, N.; Wagner, C.; Weiss, C.; Temirov, R.; Tautz, F. S.

    2011-07-01

    Lifting a single molecular wire off the surface with a combined frequency-modulated atomic force and tunneling microscope it is possible to monitor the evolution of both the wire configuration and the contacts simultaneously with the transport conductance experiment. In particular, critical points where individual bonds to the surface are broken and instabilities where the wire is prone to change its contact configuration can be identified in the force gradient and dissipation responses of the junction. This additional mechanical information can be used to unambiguously determine the conductance of a true molecular wire, that is, of a molecule that is contacted via a pointlike “crocodile clip” to each of the electrodes but is otherwise free.

  7. Separation of blood cells using hydrodynamic lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geislinger, T. M.; Eggart, B.; Braunmüller, S.; Schmid, L.; Franke, T.

    2012-04-01

    Using size and deformability as intrinsic biomarkers, we separate red blood cells (RBCs) from other blood components based on a repulsive hydrodynamic cell-wall-interaction. We exploit this purely viscous lift effect at low Reynolds numbers to induce a lateral migration of soft objects perpendicular to the streamlines of the fluid, which closely follows theoretical prediction by Olla [J. Phys. II 7, 1533, (1997)]. We study the effects of flow rate and fluid viscosity on the separation efficiency and demonstrate the separation of RBCs, blood platelets, and solid microspheres from each other. The method can be used for continuous and label-free cell classification and sorting in on-chip blood analysis.

  8. Insulation Test Cryostat with Lift Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Dokos, Adam G. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A multi-purpose, cylindrical thermal insulation test apparatus is used for testing insulation materials and systems of materials using a liquid boil-off calorimeter system for absolute measurement of the effective thermal conductivity (k-value) and heat flux of a specimen material at a fixed environmental condition (cold-side temperature, warm-side temperature, vacuum pressure level, and residual gas composition). An inner vessel receives liquid with a normal boiling point below ambient temperature, such as liquid nitrogen, enclosed within a vacuum chamber. A cold mass assembly, including upper and lower guard chambers and middle test vessel, is suspended from a lid of the vacuum canister. Each of the three chambers is filled and vented through a single feedthrough. All fluid and instrumentation feedthroughs are mounted and suspended from a top domed lid allowing easy removal of the cold mass. A lift mechanism allows manipulation of the cold mass assembly and insulation test article.

  9. Transport properties of epitaxial lift off films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mena, R. A.; Schacham, S. E.; Young, P. G.; Haugland, E. J.; Alterovitz, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    Transport properties of epitaxially lifted-off (ELO) films were characterized using conductivity, Hall, and Shubnikov-de Haas measurements. A 10-15 percent increase in the 2D electron gas concentration was observed in these films as compared with adjacent conventional samples. We believe this result to be caused by a backgating effect produced by a charge build up at the interface of the ELO film and the quartz substrate. This increase results in a substantial decrease in the quantum lifetime in the ELO samples, by 17-30 percent, but without a degradation in carrier mobility. Under persistent photoconductivity, only one subband was populated in the conventional structure, while in the ELO films the population of the second subband was clearly visible. However, the increase of the second subband concentration with increasing excitation is substantially smaller than anticipated due to screening of the backgating effect.

  10. Vector lifting schemes for stereo image coding.

    PubMed

    Kaaniche, Mounir; Benazza-Benyahia, Amel; Pesquet-Popescu, Béatrice; Pesquet, Jean-Christophe

    2009-11-01

    Many research efforts have been devoted to the improvement of stereo image coding techniques for storage or transmission. In this paper, we are mainly interested in lossy-to-lossless coding schemes for stereo images allowing progressive reconstruction. The most commonly used approaches for stereo compression are based on disparity compensation techniques. The basic principle involved in this technique first consists of estimating the disparity map. Then, one image is considered as a reference and the other is predicted in order to generate a residual image. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, based on vector lifting schemes (VLS), which offers the advantage of generating two compact multiresolution representations of the left and the right views. We present two versions of this new scheme. A theoretical analysis of the performance of the considered VLS is also conducted. Experimental results indicate a significant improvement using the proposed structures compared with conventional methods.

  11. DWPF Air Lift Pump Life Cycle Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    IMRICH, KENNETH

    2004-03-15

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) air lift pump was successfully tested at Clemson for 72 days of operation. It provided sufficient flow to pump molten glass without excessive foaming. Slurry feeding also did not reveal any problems with cold cap stability. Metallurgically the Inconel 690 (690) portions of the pump were in excellent condition with no visual evidence of degradation even in high flow regions, i.e., air/melt interface and glass discharge regions. Spinel deposits, which completely covered the air passage on one side, were found at the inlet of each platinum/rhodium (Pt/Rh) nozzle. Although the deposits were extensive, they were porous and did not have an adverse effect on the operation of the pump. The technique used to secure the platinum/rhodium nozzles to the 690 housing appeared to be adequate with only minor oxidation of the 690 threads and glass in-leakage. Galvanic attack was observed where the nozzle formed a seal with the 690. Significant pitting of the 690 was observed around the entire seal. Intergranular cracking of the Pt/Rh alloy was extensive but the cause could not be determined. Testing would be required to evaluate the degradation. Data from the performance test and the metallurgical evaluation are being used to modify the design of the first DWPF production air lift pump. It will be fabricated entirely from 690 and use argon as the purge gas. It is intended to have a service life of 6 months. Recommendations for insertion, operation, and inspection of the pump are also included in this report. Performance data collected from the operation of the production pump will be used to further optimize the design. Laboratory exposure tests should also be performed to evaluate the galvanic effect between platinum/rhodium and 690.

  12. Occupational cancer in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiqun; Osman, John

    2012-01-01

    Although only a relatively small proportion of cancer is attributable to occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents, the estimated number of deaths due to occupational cancer is high when compared to other deaths due to work-related ill health and injury. However, risk from occupational exposure to carcinogens can be minimised through proportionate but effective risk management. The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is the regulator of workplace health and safety in Great Britain. As part of its aim to reduce ill health arising from failures to control properly exposure to hazards at work, HSE commissioned the research presented elsewhere in this supplement to enable it to identify priorities for preventing occupational cancer. The research has shown that occupational cancer remains a key health issue and that low-level exposure of a large number of workers to carcinogens is important. The finding that a small number of carcinogens have been responsible for the majority of the burden of occupational cancer provides key evidence in the development of priorities for significant reduction of occupational cancer. Although the research presented in this supplement reflects the consequences of past exposures to carcinogens, occupational cancer remains a problem. The potential for exposure to the agents considered in this research is still present in the workplace and the findings are relevant to prevention of future disease. In this article, the principle approaches for risk reduction are described. It provides supporting information on some of the initiatives already being undertaken, or those being put in place, to reduce occupational cancer in Great Britain. The need also for systematic collection of exposure information and the importance of raising awareness and changing behaviours are discussed. PMID:22710673

  13. Development and flight testing of the HL-10 lifting body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Painter, Weneth D.

    1993-01-01

    The Horizontal Lander 10 (HL-10) lifting body successfully completed 37 flights, achieved the highest Mach number and altitude of this class of vehicle, and contributed to the technology base used to develop the space shuttle and future generations of lifting bodies. Design, development, and flight testing of this low-speed, air-launched, rocket-powered, lifting body was part of an unprecedented effort by NASA and the Northrop Corporation. This paper describes the evolution of the HL-10 lifting body from theoretical design, through development, to selection as one of two low-speed flight vehicles chosen for fabrication and piloted flight testing. Interesting and unusual events which occurred during the program and flight tests, review of significant problems encountered during the first flight, and discussion of how these problems were solved are presented. In addition, impressions of the pilots who flew the HL-10 lifting body are given.

  14. Correlation of Puma airloads: Lifting-line and wake calculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.; Young, Colin; Gilbert, Neil; Toulmay, Francois; Johnson, Wayne; Riley, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    A cooperative program undertaken by organizations in the United States, England, France, and Australia has assessed the strengths and weaknesses of four lifting-line/wake methods and three CFD methods by comparing their predictions with the data obtained in flight trials of a research Puma. The Puma was tested in two configurations: a mixed bladed rotor with instrumented rectangular tip blades, and a configuration with four identical swept tip blades. The results are examined of the lifting-line predictions. The better lifting-line methods show good agreement with lift at the blade tip for the configuration with four swept tips; the moment is well predicted at 0.92 R, but deteriorates outboard. The predictions for the mixed bladed rotor configuration range from fair to good. The lift prediction is better for the swept tip blade than for the rectangular tip blade, but the reasons for this cannot be determined because of the unmodeled effects of the mixed bladed rotor.

  15. Refined AFC-Enabled High-Lift System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Shmilovich, Arvin; Lacy, Douglas S.; Dickey, Eric D.; Scalafani, Anthony J.; Sundaram, P.; Yadlin, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    A prior trade study established the effectiveness of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for reducing the mechanical complexities associated with a modern high-lift system without sacrificing aerodynamic performance at low-speed flight conditions representative of takeoff and landing. The current technical report expands on this prior work in two ways: (1) a refined conventional high-lift system based on the NASA Common Research Model (CRM) is presented that is more representative of modern commercial transport aircraft in terms of stall characteristics and maximum Lift/Drag (L/D) ratios at takeoff and landing-approach flight conditions; and (2) the design trade space for AFC-enabled high-lift systems is expanded to explore a wider range of options for improving their efficiency. The refined conventional high-lift CRM (HL-CRM) concept features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. For the current AFC-enhanced high lift system trade study, the refined conventional high-lift system is simplified by substituting simply-hinged trailing edge flaps for the slotted single-element flaps with Fowler motion. The high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. In parallel to the conventional high-lift concept development, parametric studies using CFD guided the development of an effective and efficient AFC-enabled simplified high-lift system. This included parametric trailing edge flap geometry studies addressing the effects of flap chord length and flap deflection. As for the AFC implementation, scaling effects (i.e., wind-tunnel versus full-scale flight conditions) are addressed

  16. Occupational health in Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Krstev, Srmena; Perunicic, Bogoljub; Vidakovic, Aleksandar

    2002-01-01

    Occupational health in Yugoslavia was once well organized in accordance with WHO declarations and ILO conventions and recommendations. Since the 1990s, the system has been disrupted by destruction of the former Yugoslavia, wars, refugees, changes in the economy, and NATO bombardment. Economic trends, main industries, and employment and unemployment conditions in Yugoslavia are presented. The organization of occupational health services, their tasks, and prevailing problems are discussed. Occupational diseases and relevant research and educational opportunities are described. The authors conclude by suggesting approaches to improving worker's health in the future.

  17. [Occupational asthma in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Endre, László

    2015-05-10

    Occupational asthma belongs to communicable diseases, which should be reported in Hungary. During a 24-year period between January 1990 and December 2013, 180 occupational asthma cases were reported in Hungary (52 cases between 1990 and 1995, 83 cases between 1996 and 2000, 40 cases between 2001 and 2006, and 5 cases between 2007 and 2013). These data are unusual, because according to the official report of the National Korányi Pulmonology Institute in Budapest, at least 14,000 new adult asthma cases were reported in every year between 2000 and 2012 in Hungary. Also, international data indicate that at least 2% of adult patients with asthma have occupational asthma and at least 50 out of 1 million employees develop occupational asthma in each year. In 2003, 631 new occupational asthma patients were reported in the United Kingdom, but only 7 cases in Hungary. Because it is unlikely that the occupational environment in Hungary is much better than anywhere else in the world, it seems that not all new occupational asthma cases are reported in Hungary. Of the 180 reported cases in Hungary, 55 were bakers or other workers in flour mills. There were 11 metal-workers, 10 health care assistants, 9 workers dealing with textiles (tailors, dressmakers, workers in textile industry) and 9 employees worked upon leather and animal fur. According to international data, the most unsafe profession is the animal keeper in scientific laboratories, but only 4 of them were reported as having occupational asthma during the studied 24 years in Hungary. Interestingly, 3 museologists with newly-diagnosed occupational asthma were reported in 2003, but not such cases occurred before or after that year. In this paper the Hungarian literature of occupational asthma is summarized, followed by a review on the classification, pathomechanism, clinical presentation, predisposing factors, diagnostics and therapeutic aspects of the disease. Epidemiological data of adult asthma in Hungary and data from

  18. In-Flight Subsonic Lift and Drag Characteristics Unique to Blunt-Based Lifting Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Wang, K. Charles; Iliff, Kenneth W.

    2007-01-01

    Lift and drag measurements have been analyzed for subsonic flight conditions for seven blunt-based reentry-type vehicles. Five of the vehicles are lifting bodies (M2-F1, M2-F2, HL-10, X-24A, and X-24B) and two are wing-body configurations (the X-15 and the Space Shuttle Enterprise). Base pressure measurements indicate that the base drag for full-scale vehicles is approximately three times greater than predicted by Hoerner's equation for three-dimensional bodies. Base drag and forebody drag combine to provide an optimal overall minimum drag (a drag "bucket") for a given configuration. The magnitude of this optimal drag, as well as the associated forebody drag, is dependent on the ratio of base area to vehicle wetted area. Counter-intuitively, the flight-determined optimal minimum drag does not occur at the point of minimum forebody drag, but at a higher forebody drag value. It was also found that the chosen definition for reference area for lift parameters should include the projection of planform area ahead of the wing trailing edge (i.e., forebody plus wing). Results are assembled collectively to provide a greater understanding of this class of vehicles than would occur by considering them individually.

  19. Numerical simulation of a powered-lift landing, tracking flow features using overset grids, and simulation of high lift devices on a fighter-lift-and-control wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chawla, Kalpana

    1993-01-01

    Attached as appendices to this report are documents describing work performed on the simulation of a landing powered-lift delta wing, the tracking of flow features using overset grids, and the simulation of flaps on the Wright Patterson Lab's fighter-lift-and-control (FLAC) wing. Numerical simulation of a powered-lift landing includes the computation of flow about a delta wing at four fixed heights as well as a simulated landing, in which the delta wing descends toward the ground. Comparison of computed and experimental lift coefficients indicates that the simulations capture the qualitative trends in lift-loss encountered by thrust-vectoring aircraft operating in ground effect. Power spectra of temporal variations of pressure indicate computed vortex shedding frequencies close to the jet exit are in the experimentally observed frequency range; the power spectra of pressure also provide insights into the mechanisms of lift oscillations. Also, a method for using overset grids to track dynamic flow features is described and the method is validated by tracking a moving shock and vortices shed behind a circular cylinder. Finally, Chimera gridding strategies were used to develop pressure coefficient contours for the FLAC wing for a Mach no. of 0.18 and Reynolds no. of 2.5 million.

  20. 75 FR 31803 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Lift Unit for an Overhead Patient Lift System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... in the final determination that Sweden is the country of origin of the lift unit for purposes of U.S..., the lift unit, assembled in Sweden from parts made in a non-TAA country and in Sweden, is substantially transformed in Sweden, such that Sweden is the country of origin of the finished article...

  1. Occupational Analysis and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shears, Arthur E.

    1985-01-01

    A form of occupational analysis called DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) and its advantages in course development and performance assessment are discussed and specific suggestions on conducting a DACUM session are provided. (CT)

  2. Effects of a Belt on Intra-Abdominal Pressure during Weight Lifting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    potentially injurious b compressive forces on spinal discs during lifting. To investigate the effects of a standard lifting belt on lAP and lifting mechanics...injurious compressive forces on spinal discs during lifting. To investigate the effects of a standard lifting belt on IAP and lifting ! mechanics...pressure has been estimated to reduce spinal disc compressive forces by up to 40% (6,9,12,14). High intra-abdominal pressures have been recorded during

  3. Occupancy in continuous habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Efford, Murray G.; Dawson, Deanna K.

    2012-01-01

    The probability that a site has at least one individual of a species ('occupancy') has come to be widely used as a state variable for animal population monitoring. The available statistical theory for estimation when detection is imperfect applies particularly to habitat patches or islands, although it is also used for arbitrary plots in continuous habitat. The probability that such a plot is occupied depends on plot size and home-range characteristics (size, shape and dispersion) as well as population density. Plot size is critical to the definition of occupancy as a state variable, but clear advice on plot size is missing from the literature on the design of occupancy studies. We describe models for the effects of varying plot size and home-range size on expected occupancy. Temporal, spatial, and species variation in average home-range size is to be expected, but information on home ranges is difficult to retrieve from species presence/absence data collected in occupancy studies. The effect of variable home-range size is negligible when plots are very large (>100 x area of home range), but large plots pose practical problems. At the other extreme, sampling of 'point' plots with cameras or other passive detectors allows the true 'proportion of area occupied' to be estimated. However, this measure equally reflects home-range size and density, and is of doubtful value for population monitoring or cross-species comparisons. Plot size is ill-defined and variable in occupancy studies that detect animals at unknown distances, the commonest example being unlimited-radius point counts of song birds. We also find that plot size is ill-defined in recent treatments of "multi-scale" occupancy; the respective scales are better interpreted as temporal (instantaneous and asymptotic) rather than spatial. Occupancy is an inadequate metric for population monitoring when it is confounded with home-range size or detection distance.

  4. "Homosexual occupations" in Mesoamerica?

    PubMed

    Murray, S O

    1991-01-01

    Data gathered among self-identified homosexual men in Guatemala City and Mexico City call into question the intrinsic connection between homosexuality and occupational choice posited by Whitam and Mathy (1986). Concentrations of homosexual men in some occupations can be explained as effects of discrimination and of the normal transmission through personal networks of information about job opportunities, and does not require recourse to any innate drive for homosexual men to be actors, hairdressers or interior decorators.

  5. Occupational cancer in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    González, C A; Agudo, A

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of specific problems of occupational cancer in Spain is scarce. The environment of the workplace has improved over the last few years after a long period distinguished by bad working conditions, incomplete legislation, and insufficient safety measures and control. It has been estimated that 3,083,479 workers (25.4% of employees) were exposed to carcinogens. The most common occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents were solar radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, silica, and wood dust. The highest number of employees were exposed to silica crystalline (404,729), diesel engine exhaust (274,321), rubber products (99,804), benzene (89,932), ethylene dibromide (81,336), agents used in furniture and cabinet making (72,068), and formaldehyde (71,189). The percentage of total cancer deaths attributed to occupational exposure was 4% (6% in men, 0.9% in women). Compared with other European countries, the incidence of lung cancer and leukemia in Spain are one of the lowest, but it is rapidly increasing. The incidence of urinary bladder and larynx cancer, on the contrary, are one of the highest. Few studies on occupational cancer have been conducted in Spain. The main problems are the availability of death certificates and the quality of the information on occupation in mortality of statistics. It is necessary to improve methods of assessment of exposures using expert hygienists and biologic markers of exposure and diseases. Reduction of cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to known occupational carcinogens is still necessary. PMID:10350510

  6. EMG Processing Based Measures of Fatigue Assessment during Manual Lifting

    PubMed Central

    Marhaban, M. H.; Abdullah, A. R.

    2017-01-01

    Manual lifting is one of the common practices used in the industries to transport or move objects to a desired place. Nowadays, even though mechanized equipment is widely available, manual lifting is still considered as an essential way to perform material handling task. Improper lifting strategies may contribute to musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), where overexertion contributes as the highest factor. To overcome this problem, electromyography (EMG) signal is used to monitor the workers' muscle condition and to find maximum lifting load, lifting height and number of repetitions that the workers are able to handle before experiencing fatigue to avoid overexertion. Past researchers have introduced several EMG processing techniques and different EMG features that represent fatigue indices in time, frequency, and time-frequency domain. The impact of EMG processing based measures in fatigue assessment during manual lifting are reviewed in this paper. It is believed that this paper will greatly benefit researchers who need a bird's eye view of the biosignal processing which are currently available, thus determining the best possible techniques for lifting applications. PMID:28303251

  7. Lifting kernel-based sprite codec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasu, Aravind R.; Panchanathan, Sethuraman

    2000-12-01

    The International Standards Organization (ISO) has proposed a family of standards for compression of image and video sequences, including the JPEG, MPEG-1 and MPEG-2. The latest MPEG-4 standard has many new dimensions to coding and manipulation of visual content. A video sequence usually contains a background object and many foreground objects. Portions of this background may not be visible in certain frames due to the occlusion of the foreground objects or camera motion. MPEG-4 introduces the novel concepts of Video Object Planes (VOPs) and Sprites. A VOP is a visual representation of real world objects with shapes that need not be rectangular. Sprite is a large image composed of pixels belonging to a video object visible throughout a video segment. Since a sprite contains all parts of the background that were at least visible once, it can be used for direct reconstruction of the background Video Object Plane (VOP). Sprite reconstruction is dependent on the mode in which it is transmitted. In the Static sprite mode, the entire sprite is decoded as an Intra VOP before decoding the individual VOPs. Since sprites consist of the information needed to display multiple frames of a video sequence, they are typically much larger than a single frame of video. Therefore a static sprite can be considered as a large static image. In this paper, a novel solution to address the problem of spatial scalability has been proposed, where the sprite is encoded in Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). A lifting kernel method of DWT implementation has been used for encoding and decoding sprites. Modifying the existing lifting scheme while maintaining it to be shape adaptive results in a reduced complexity. The proposed scheme has the advantages of (1) avoiding the need for any extensions to image or tile border pixels and is hence superior to the DCT based low latency scheme (used in the current MPEG-4 verification model), (2) mapping the in place computed wavelet coefficients into a zero

  8. Effect of floor slope on submaximal lifting capacity.

    PubMed

    Wickel, Eric E; Reiser, Raoul F

    2004-01-01

    In order to reduce injuries due to lifting a box from the floor, maximal acceptable weights of lift (MAWL) have been established for a level surface. However, an inclined surface condition may be encountered on a jobsite. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if facing up or down a sloped surface affects MAWL. After obtaining university-approved informed consent, 20 apparently healthy men (age = 22.4 +/- 1.4 yrs) and 20 women (age = 22.0 +/- 1.9 yrs) determined floor to knuckle height MAWL using the psychophysical approach. After a familiarization day, two data collection days were completed with the uphill and level (+20, +10 and 0 degree) or downhill and level (-20, -10 and 0 degree) lifting capacities determined. A cadence of four lifts/min was used after starting with an unknown load that participants adjusted after each lift. No differences (p > 0.05) in level MAWL were found on the downhill day compared to the uphill day. While the men lifted significantly more than the women in every condition (p < 0.001), no differences were found across the lifting conditions (p > 0.05). The men averaged a MAWL of 24.7 kg across the five conditions (average standard deviation (SD) = 7.4 kg), the women averaged 14.8 kg (average SD = 3.1 kg). While these findings would suggest no changes in lifting guidelines for a sloped surface within 20 degrees of level, other factors such as lifting technique and the stress placed on the low-back should be examined to assess risk of injury in these different conditions.

  9. Lift evaluation of a two-dimensional pitching flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, X.; Mohseni, K.

    2013-09-01

    Several previous experimental and theoretical studies have shown that a leading edge vortex (LEV) on an airfoil or wing can provide lift enhancement. In this paper, unsteady two-dimensional (2D) potential flow theory is employed to model the flow field of a pitching flat plate wing. A multi-vortices model is developed to model both the leading edge and trailing edge vortices (TEVs), which offers improved accuracy compared with using only single vortex at each separation location. The lift is obtained by integrating the unsteady Blasius equation. It is found that the motion of vortices contributes significantly to the overall aerodynamic force on the flat plate. A Kutta-like condition is used to determine the vortex intensity and location at the leading edge for large angle of attack cases; however, it is proposed to relax this condition for small angle of attack cases and apply a 2D shear layer model to calculate the circulation of the new added vortex. The results of the simulation are then compared with classical numerical, theoretical, and experimental data for canonical unsteady flat plat problems. Good agreement with these data is observed. Moreover, these results suggested that the leading edge vortex shedding for small angles of attack should be modeled differently than that for large angles of attack. Finally, the results of vortex motion vs. lift indicate that the slow convection of the LEV creates less negative lift while the rapid shedding of the TEV creates more positive lift. The difference between these two contributions of lift results in a total positive lift that lasts for about two chord-length travel of the plate. It is therefore concluded that the lift enhancement during the LEV "stabilization" above the wing is a combined effect of both the LEV and TEV motion. This also provides the insights for future active flow control of micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) that the formation and shedding process of LEVs and TEVs can be manipulated to provide lift

  10. Behavior of Heavy Particles in Turbulent Channel Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junghoon; Lee, Changhoon

    2010-11-01

    The motion of heavy particles in turbulent channel flow was investigated by using direct numerical simulation. We assumed that Stokes drag, Saffman lift and Magnus lift act on the motion of heavy spherical particles in turbulence. In this study, Stokes number is defined as the particle response time normalized by the wall units. The range of the Stokes number is 0.1˜50 and the diameter of a particle is 0.06˜0.3 in wall unit. Collision of particles with the wall is modelled by an elastic collision. Relevant velocity and acceleration statistics of heavy particles for the given range of Stokes number were investigated to interpret the particle accumulation near the wall. Particle accumulation at the wall is maximized when the Stokes number is around 15. And we found that Saffman lift force has a great effect on particle acceleration in the wall-normal direction near the wall. Detailed statistics including probability density function and autocorrelation of particle velocity and acceleration will be presented in the meeting.

  11. EA-6B high-lift wing modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waggoner, E. G.; Allison, D. O.

    1987-01-01

    NASA-Langley has accomplished the computational design and experimental verification of EA-6B aircraft wing modifications for improved high lift capability. The modifications are comparatively simple, and attempt to improve low speed high lift performance while maintaining high speed cruise efficiency. Several two- and three-dimensional low speed and transonic computational techniques were employed, together with extensive wind tunnel tests. The modified inboard and outboard edge slat/flap system sections yielded efficiency improvements that were verified by three-dimensional wind tunnel experiments to amount to an 11-percent wing-body lift coefficient enhancement at low speed.

  12. Hydrofoils: optimum lift-off speed for sailboats.

    PubMed

    Baker, R M

    1968-12-13

    For a hydrofoil sailboat there is a unique optimum lift-off speed. Before this speed is reached, if there are no parasitic vertical hydrofoil appendages, the submerged or partially submerged hydrofoils increase drag and degrade performance. As soon as this speed is reached and the hydrofoils are fully and promptly deployed, the performance of a hydrofoil-borne craft is significantly improved. At speeds exceeding optimum lift-off speed, partially submerged hydrofoils impair performance if there is no significant effect of loading on the hydrofoil lift-to-drag ratio.

  13. Two-dimensional unsteady lift problems in supersonic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaslet, Max A; Lomax, Harvard

    1949-01-01

    The variation of pressure distribution is calculated for a two-dimensional supersonic airfoil either experiencing a sudden angle-of-attack change or entering a sharp-edge gust. From these pressure distributions the indicial lift functions applicable to unsteady lift problems are determined for two cases. Results are presented which permit the determination of maximum increment in lift coefficient attained by an unrestrained airfoil during its flight through a gust. As an application of these results, the minimum altitude for safe flight through a specific gust is calculated for a particular supersonic wing of given strength and wing loading.

  14. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Clouds of exhaust fill Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  15. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Against a curtain of blue sky, the Space Shuttle Discovery spews clouds of exhaust as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on the 9-day mission STS-95. On board Discovery are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  16. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Clouds of exhaust seem to fill the marsh near Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  17. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Clouds of exhaust and blazing light fill Launch Pad 39B as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  18. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Framed by the foliage of the Canaveral National Sea Shore, Space Shuttle Discovery soars through bright blue skies as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National agency for Space Development (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  19. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery clears Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 as it lifts off on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  20. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Thousands of gallons of water released as part of the sound suppression system at the launch pad create clouds of steam and exhaust as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at 2:19 p.m. EST Oct. 29 on mission STS-95. Making his second voyage into space after 36 years is Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  1. Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off successfully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    As if sprung from the rolling exhaust clouds below, Space Shuttle Discovery shoots into the heavens over the blue Atlantic Ocean from Launch Pad 39B on mission STS-95. Lifting off at 2:19 p.m. EST, Discovery carries a crew of six, including Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, who is making his second voyage into space after 36 years. Other crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, (M.D., Ph.D.), with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency (ESA), and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Discovery is expected to return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7.

  2. Dignitaries Await Apollo 11 Lift Off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    From the right, NASA administrator, Dr. Thomas O. Paine talks with U.S. Vice President Spiro T. Agnew while awaiting the launch of Saturn V (AS-506) that carried the Apollo 11 spacecraft to the Moon for man's historic first landing on the lunar surface. At center is astronaut William Anders, a member of the first crew to orbit the moon during the Apollo 8 mission. At left is Lee B. James, director of Program Management at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) where the Saturn V was developed. The craft lifted off from launch pad 39 at Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC) on July 16, 1969. The moon bound crew included astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (M) pilot. The mission finalized with splashdown in the Pacific Ocean on July 24, 1969. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  3. Insulation Test Cryostat with Lift Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Dokos, Adam G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A multi-purpose, cylindrical thermal insulation test apparatus is used for testing insulation materials and systems of materials using a liquid boil-off calorimeter system for absolute measurement of the effective thermal conductivity (k-value) and heat flux of a specimen material at a fixed environmental condition (cold-side temperature, warm-side temperature, vacuum pressure level, and residual gas composition). The apparatus includes an inner vessel for receiving a liquid with a normal boiling point below ambient temperature, such as liquid nitrogen, enclosed within a vacuum chamber. A cold mass assembly, including the upper and lower guard chambers and a middle test vessel, is suspended from a lid of the vacuum canister. Each of the three chambers is filled and vented through a single feedthrough. All fluid and instrumentation feedthroughs are mounted and suspended from a top domed lid to allow easy removal of the cold mass. A lift mechanism allows manipulation of the cold mass assembly and insulation test article.

  4. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Lifts Off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    At 7:43 a.m. EDT an Atlas V launch vehicle, 19 stories tall, with a two-ton Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) on top, lifts off the pad on Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. All systems performed nominally for NASA's first launch of an Atlas V on an interplanetary mission. MRO established radio contact with controllers 61 minutes after launch and within four minutes of separation from the upper stage. Initial contact came through an antenna at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Uchinoura Space Center in southern Japan. Mars is 72 million miles from Earth today, but the spacecraft will travel more than four times that distance on its outbound-arc trajectory to intercept the red planet on March 10, 2006. The orbiter carries six scientific instruments for examining the surface, atmosphere and subsurface of Mars in unprecedented detail from low orbit. NASA expects to get several times more data about Mars from MRO than from all previous Martian missions combined. Researchers will use the instruments to learn more about the history and distribution of Mars' water. That information will improve understanding of planetary climate change and will help guide the quest to answer whether Mars ever supported life. The orbiter will also evaluate potential landing sites for future missions.

  5. Microfluidic particle sorting utilizing inertial lift force.

    PubMed

    Nieuwstadt, Harm A; Seda, Robinson; Li, David S; Fowlkes, J Brian; Bull, Joseph L

    2011-02-01

    A simple passive microfluidic device that continuously separates microparticles is presented. Its development is motivated by the need for specific size micro perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplets to be used for a novel gas embolotherapy method. The device consists of a rectangular channel in which inertial lift forces are utilized to separate particles in lateral distance. At the entrance of the channel, particles are introduced at the center by focusing the flow from a center channel with flow from two side channels. Downstream, large particles will occupy a lateral equilibrium position in shorter axial distance than small particles. At the exit of the channel, flow containing large particles is separated from flow containing small particles. It is shown that 10.2-μm diameter microspheres can be separated from 3.0-μm diameter microspheres with a separation efficiency of 69-78% and a throughput in the order of 2 ·10⁴ particles per minute. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations were done to calculate flow fields and verify theoretical particle trajectories. Theory underlying this research shows that higher separation efficiencies for very specific diameter cut-off are possible. This microfluidic channel design has a simple structure and can operate without external forces which makes it feasible for lab-on-a-chip (LOC) applications.

  6. Occupational health in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Koh, D; Jeyaratnam, J

    1998-07-01

    Singapore, a newly industrializing country in Southeast Asia, has a resident population of 3 million and a work force of 1.75 million. Most workers are employed in the manufacturing, services, and commerce sectors. Agricultural and mining activities are negligible. In 1996 the infant mortality rate was 3.8 per 1,000 live births and the life expectancy at birth was 77 years. In 1996 the total industrial accident rate was 2.7 per million man-hours worked and the severity rate was 353 industrial man-days lost per million man-hours worked. The shipbuilding and construction industries had the most frequent and most severe accidents. In the same year, 1,521 cases of occupational disease were notified to, and confirmed by, the Ministry of Labor. The majority of cases involved noise-induced hearing loss. There is substantial underreporting of cases. New cases that are expected to appear will be work-related illnesses such as musculoskeletal or psychosocial disorders. The principal occupational health legislation in Singapore is the Factories Act. Although it selectively targets workers at highest risk of developing occupational illness, its main limitation is the exclusion of nonfactory workers, who comprise 63% of the working population. Labor regulations are enforced by the Ministry of Labor. Workmen's compensation paid in 1995 amounted to S $46.6 million (U.S. $1=S $1.75). Education and training in occupational health is provided by employer federations, employee unions, and various government agencies. Occupational health is taught to medical students during their undergraduate training. Postgraduate-diploma and Masters programs in occupational medicine are also available. About 600 doctors in Singapore have some form of postgraduate training in occupational health. Health care for workers is offered either through the private sector or through government clinics and hospitals. Although Singapore has made great strides in protecting and promoting the health of its

  7. Relative Contribution of Lower Body Work as a Biomechanical Determinant of Spine Sparing Technique During Common Paramedic Lifting Tasks.

    PubMed

    Makhoul, Paul J; Sinden, Kathryn E; MacPhee, Renée S; Fischer, Steven L

    2017-04-01

    Paramedics represent a unique occupational group where the nature of their work, providing prehospital emergency care, makes workplace modifications to manage and control injury risks difficult. Therefore, the provision of workplace education and training to support safe lifting remains a viable and important approach. There is, however, a lack of evidence describing movement strategies that may be optimal for paramedic work. The purpose of this study was to determine if a strategy leveraging a greater contribution of work from the lower body relative to the torso was associated with lower biomechanical exposures on the spine. Twenty-five active duty paramedics performed 3 simulated lifting activities common to paramedic work. Ground reaction forces and whole body kinematics were recorded to calculate: peak spine moment and angle about the L4/L5 flexion-extension axis as indicators of biomechanical exposure; and, joint work, integrated from net joint power as a measure of technique inclusive of movement dynamics. Paramedics generating more work from the lower body, relative to the trunk, were more likely to experience lower peak L4/L5 spine moments and angles. These data can inform the development of workplace training and education on safe lifting that focuses on paramedics generating more work from the lower body.

  8. [The epidemiology of musculoskeletal changes due to biomechanical overload of the spine in the manual lifting of patients].

    PubMed

    Bordini, L; De Vito, G; Molteni, G; Boccardi, S

    1999-01-01

    The painful lumbosacral symptoms associated with manual lifting by nursing staff constitutes an increasingly important problem in Occupational Health. This category of workers is in fact particularly exposed to risk situations involving the lumbar region of the spine, due especially to the extreme variability of work on the shift, the nature of what is lifted and not always sufficient knowledge and proper performance of the movements. On the basis of a review of a series of studies made on this topic, it was possible to assess the incidence and prevalence of low back pain in selected populations and identify the postural risk to which nursing staff are exposed at work, stressing also the importance of a correct knowledge of manual lifting techniques, frequency and mode of performing them, and the psychological aspects (perception of the intensity of tasks and osteoarticular strain). It was also observed that the data on painful lumbosacral symptoms were underestimated due to the type of epidemiological investigations carried out (mostly cross-sectional) and that comparison of the data proposed was often difficult due to the different criteria of evaluation used to classify the painful symptoms and also to the various epidemiological parameters used (incidence, cumulative incidence, prevalence).

  9. Physiological, Biomechanical, and Medical Aspects of Lifting and Repetitive Lifting: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    Cardiorespiratory and metabolic studies demonstrate that VO 2’ HR, VE, and ratings of perceived exertion increase in a linear manner with increases in the...8217’ ,.""-"’.- ".’- "- .. ....-,-,.,.. .,.... *- - .- -, - - pressures the normal cardiovascular relationships expected from rhythmic exercise may not apply. In this study 18 male subjects (36.7 + 11 yrs...causal relationship between back injuries and lifting (3). Several survey studies have been conducted but suffer from a plethora of problems as

  10. [Somnology and occupational safety].

    PubMed

    Dorokhov, V B

    2013-01-01

    Somnology has saved up enough great volume of objective knowledge of negative effects of a lack of the sleep, the raised drowsiness and sleep pathologies for health of people and occupational safety to formulate this knowledge in the accessible form for a society and acceptance by the state of acts and the organizational actions preventing these negative effects. The necessity of the salvation of these problems has led to occurrence of a new area of occupational sleep medicine, which problem is the analysis of influence of physiological mechanisms ofa sleep and functioning circadian systems on efficiency of professional activity and health of people. For a designation of the various items causing infringements of professional work use the term fatique. It is believed that fatigue development is connected with three major factors: deficiency of a sleep - defined by duration of previous wakefulness and a sleep, time-of-day and at last, task-related factors. Within the limits of approaches developed the occupational sleep medicine had been formulated the Fatigue Risk Management System. In the Russian literature there is a lack of the information on influence of mechanisms of a sleep on occupational safety, therefore the review will be interesting to a wide range of the experts dealing with the analysis of the human factor, health and an occupational safety

  11. Population Health and Occupational Therapy.

    PubMed

    Braveman, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapy practitioners play an important role in improving the health of populations through the development of occupational therapy interventions at the population level and through advocacy to address occupational participation and the multiple determinants of health. This article defines and explores population health as a concept and describes the appropriateness of occupational therapy practice in population health. Support of population health practice as evidenced in the official documents of the American Occupational Therapy Association and the relevance of population health for occupational therapy as a profession are reviewed. Recommendations and directions for the future are included related to celebration of the achievements of occupational therapy practitioners in the area of population health, changes to the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and educational accreditation standards, and the importance of supporting, recognizing, rewarding, and valuing occupational therapy practitioners who assume roles in which direct care is not their primary function.

  12. Oyster shell conveyor used to lift shells from the dock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oyster shell conveyor used to lift shells from the dock into the receiving room housed in the 1965 concrete block addition. - J.C. Lore Oyster House, 14430 Solomons Island Road, Solomons, Calvert County, MD

  13. 15. OVERALL VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF LIFT GATE SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. OVERALL VIEW OF UPSTREAM FACE OF LIFT GATE SECTION WITH TAINTER GATE SECTION OF SPILLWAY TO THE LEFT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  14. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... automatic positioning or load limiting device, without further attention by the pilots. (b) Each lift and... response to the operation of the control and the characteristics of the automatic positioning or...

  15. 14 CFR 25.697 - Lift and drag devices, controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... automatic positioning or load limiting device, without further attention by the pilots. (b) Each lift and... response to the operation of the control and the characteristics of the automatic positioning or...

  16. Detail view of fourth level platform winch used to lift ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of fourth level platform winch used to lift platform segments away from the Shuttle assembly during testing. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  17. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF LIFTING GEAR ON MULE AND RACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF LIFTING GEAR ON MULE AND RACK ATTACHMENT BOOKS, LOOKING EAST - Nine Mile Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, State Highway 291 along Spokane River, Nine Mile Falls, Spokane County, WA

  18. Wind tunnel study of slot spoilers for direct lift control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrisani, D., II; Gentry, G. L., Jr.; Stickle, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in a 300-mph 7- by 10- foot tunnel to obtain data for a slot spoiler direct lift control system. Slot spoilers are believed to have advantages over flap-type direct lift control (DLC) systems because of the small amount of power required for actuation. These tests, run at a Reynolds number of 1,400,000 showed that up to 78 percent of the lift due to flap deflection could be spoiled by opening several spanwise slots within the flaps. For a given lift change the drag change was significantly less than that which would be obtained by a variable flap DLC system. A nozzle-shaped slot was the most effective of the slot shapes tested.

  19. Physiological effects of back belt wearing during asymmetric lifting.

    PubMed

    Bobick, T G; Belard, J L; Hsiao, H; Wassell, J T

    2001-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of wearing a back belt on subjects' heart rate, oxygen consumption, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and respiratory frequency during asymmetric repetitive lifting. Thirty subjects with materials-handling experience utilized three different belts (ten subjects per belt). Subjects completed six 30-min lifting sessions--three while wearing a belt and three without. Data analyses were conducted on the second, third, and fourth lifting periods. A 9.4 kg box, without handles, was lifted 3 times/min, starting at 10 cm above the floor, ending at 79 cm, with a 60 degree twist to the right. Data analysis indicates that belt-wearing did not have a significant effect on the overall mean values for heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and respiratory frequency. Belt-wearing had a significant effect on the overall mean oxygen consumption of the subjects.

  20. 58. AIR PRESSURIZATION TANK BEING LIFTED INTO PLACE ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. AIR PRESSURIZATION TANK BEING LIFTED INTO PLACE ON THE VAL BRIDGE STRUCTURE AT ISLIP CANYON, April 9, 1948. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. PRECAST CONCRETE WALL PANELS ARE LIFTED INTO PLACE ON MTR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PRECAST CONCRETE WALL PANELS ARE LIFTED INTO PLACE ON MTR STEEL FRAME STRUCTURE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1330. Unknown Photographer, 1/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  2. Energetics of oscillating lifting surfaces using integral conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, Ali R.; Widnall, Sheila E.

    1987-01-01

    The energetics of oscillating flexible lifting surfaces in two and three dimensions is calculated by the use of integral conservation laws in inviscid incompressible flow for general and harmonic transverse oscillations. Total thrust is calculated from the momentum theorem and energy loss rate due to vortex shedding in the wake from the principle of conservation of mechanical energy. Total power required to maintain the oscillations and hydrodynamic efficiency are also determined. In two dimensions, the results are obtained in closed form. In three dimensions, the distribution of vorticity on the lifting surface is also required as input to the calculations. Thus, unsteady lifting-surface theory must be used as well. The analysis is applicable to oscillating lifting surfaces of arbitrary planform, aspect ratio, and reduced frequency and does not require calculation of the leading-edge thrust.

  3. View northwest, wharf A, sheet steel bulkhead, steel lift tower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest, wharf A, sheet steel bulkhead, steel lift tower - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  4. Gearbox fault diagnosis using adaptive redundant Lifting Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongkai, Jiang; Zhengjia, He; Chendong, Duan; Peng, Chen

    2006-11-01

    Vibration signals acquired from a gearbox usually are complex, and it is difficult to detect the symptoms of an inherent fault in a gearbox. In this paper, an adaptive redundant lifting scheme for the fault diagnosis of gearboxes is developed. It adopts data-based optimisation algorithm to lock on to the dominant structure of the signal, and well reveal the transient components of the vibration signal in time domain. Both lifting scheme and adaptive redundant lifting scheme are applied to analyse the experimental signal from a gearbox with wear fault and the practical vibration signal from a large air compressor. The results confirm that adaptive redundant lifting scheme is quite effective in extracting impulse and modulation feature components from the complex background.

  5. Analysis of transonic flow about lifting wing-body configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnwell, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical solution was obtained for the perturbation velocity potential for transonic flow about lifting wing-body configurations with order-one span-length ratios and small reduced-span-length ratios and equivalent-thickness-length ratios. The analysis is performed with the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The angles of attack which are considered are small but are large enough to insure that the effects of lift in the region far from the configuration are either dominant or comparable with the effects of thickness. The modification to the equivalence rule which accounts for these lift effects is determined. An analysis of transonic flow about lifting wings with large aspect ratios is also presented.

  6. Efficient assessment of exposure to manual lifting using company data.

    PubMed

    van der Beek, Allard J; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Burdorf, Alex

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study, based on an extensive dataset on manual materials handling during scaffolding, was to explore whether routinely collected company data can be used to estimate exposure to manual lifting. The number of manual lifts of scaffold parts while constructing/dismantling scaffolds was well predicted by the number of scaffolders in the team and the type of worksite, in combination with company data of either the number of scaffold parts or the scaffold volume. The proportion of explained variance in the number of lifts ranged from 77% to 92%, depending on the variables in the model. Data on scaffold parts and scaffold volume can easily be obtained from the company's administration, since this is its usual paperwork supporting logistics and customer invoicing, respectively. We conclude that company data can be a promising source of information for ergonomic practitioners and researchers, to support assessment of manual lifting in scaffolding.

  7. 32. DETAIL OF CONCRETE TOWER AND SLIDE GATE LIFTING GEARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. DETAIL OF CONCRETE TOWER AND SLIDE GATE LIFTING GEARS ON HEADWORKS OF DEER FLAT LOW LINE CANAL ON LOWER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  8. 13. DETAIL OF CONCRETE TOWER AND SLIDE GATE LIFTING GEARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF CONCRETE TOWER AND SLIDE GATE LIFTING GEARS ON HEADWORKS OF DEER FLAT NAMPA CANAL ON UPPER EMBANKMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  9. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE CRANE USED TO LIFT DOMED LIDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE CRANE USED TO LIFT DOMED LIDS OF THE ALTITUDE CHAMBERS, FACING SOUTHWEST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Altitude Chambers, First Street, between Avenue D and Avenue E, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  10. 17. Photograph of Original Drawing of Direct Loading Lifting Car ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photograph of Original Drawing of Direct Loading Lifting Car Dumper, Drawing No. 64460, dated 9/30/20 (original in possession of CSX Transportation, Inc.) - Port Covington Terminal, Coal Pier No. 4, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  11. Lift-Off Processing and Superconducting Circuit Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana, C. M.; Megrant, A.; Dunsworth, A.; Chen, Zijun; Chiaro, B.; Barends, R.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Yu; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Mutus, J. Y.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, John M.

    2014-03-01

    As superconducting circuit coherence continues to increase, careful attention must be paid to device fabrication techniques. Substantial evidence points to dielectric loss from two-level state defects in thin amorphous interfacial regions as a limiting relaxation mechanism for superconducting qubits. Transmon qubits have traditionally been fabricated using lift-off aluminum deposited together with their Josephson junctions; however, improved coherence times have recently been found in transmons which use lift-off metal for only a small fraction of the qubit. To better understand this improvement and predict any remaining limits imposed by the incorporation of lift-off, we characterize the increased loss found in coplanar waveguide resonators formed with lift-off metal. We vary surface treatment such as oxygen ashing and ion milling, and study the effects of double-angle evaporation, e-beam resist residue, and surface roughness on resonator quality factors.

  12. Transonic wind-tunnel tests of a lifting parachute model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foughner, J. T., Jr.; Reed, J. F.; Wynne, E. C.

    1976-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests have been made in the Langley transonic dynamics tunnel on a 0.25-scale model of Sandia Laboratories' 3.96-meter (13-foot), slanted ribbon design, lifting parachute. The lifting parachute is the first stage of a proposed two-stage payload delivery system. The lifting parachute model was attached to a forebody representing the payload. The forebody was designed and installed in the test section in a manner which allowed rotational freedom about the pitch and yaw axes. Values of parachute axial force coefficient, rolling moment coefficient, and payload trim angles in pitch and yaw are presented through the transonic speed range. Data are presented for the parachute in both the reefed and full open conditions. Time history records of lifting parachute deployment and disreefing tests are included.

  13. 13. TURNING DEVICE SUSPENDED FROM, AND LIFTED BY THE OVERHEAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. TURNING DEVICE SUSPENDED FROM, AND LIFTED BY THE OVERHEAD CRANE SYSTEM EAST OF No. 1 PRESS. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Press Shop No. 1, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  14. 14. CLOSEUP OF TURNING DEVICE SUSPENDED FROM, AND LIFTED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CLOSE-UP OF TURNING DEVICE SUSPENDED FROM, AND LIFTED BY THE OVERHEAD CRANE SYSTEM EAST OF No. 1 PRESS. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Press Shop No. 1, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  15. 15. Perspective view of bascule and vertical lift spans, each ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Perspective view of bascule and vertical lift spans, each in open position, facing east - Sault Ste. Marie International Railroad Bridge, Spanning Soo Locks at St. Marys Falls Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  16. Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) System Concept Applications at Solar System Bodies With an Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Greg; Polidan, Ronald; Ross, Floyd; Sokol, Daniel; Warwick, Steve

    2015-11-01

    Northrop Grumman and L’Garde have continued the development of a hypersonic entry, semi-buoyant, maneuverable platform capable of performing long-duration (months to a year) in situ and remote measurements at any solar system body that possesses an atmosphere.The Lifting Entry & Atmospheric Flight (LEAF) family of vehicles achieves this capability by using a semi-buoyant, ultra-low ballistic coefficient vehicle whose lifting entry allows it to enter the atmosphere without an aeroshell. The mass savings realized by eliminating the heavy aeroshell allows significantly more payload to be accommodated by the platform for additional science collection and return.In this presentation, we discuss the application of the LEAF system at various solar system bodies: Venus, Titan, Mars, and Earth. We present the key differences in platform design as well as operational differences required by the various target environments. The Venus implementation includes propulsive capability to reach higher altitudes during the day and achieves full buoyancy in the mid-cloud layer of Venus’ atmosphere at night.Titan also offers an attractive operating environment, allowing LEAF designs that can target low or medium altitude operations, also with propulsive capabilities to roam within each altitude regime. The Mars version is a glider that descends gradually, allowing targeted delivery of payloads to the surface or high resolution surface imaging. Finally, an Earth version could remain in orbit in a stowed state until activated, allowing rapid response type deployments to any region of the globe.

  17. A current global view of environmental and occupational cancers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mihi

    2011-07-01

    This review is focused on current information of avoidable environmental pollution and occupational exposure as causes of cancer. Approximately 2% to 8% of all cancers are thought to be due to occupation. In addition, occupational and environmental cancers have their own characteristics, e.g., specific chemicals and cancers, multiple factors, multiple causation and interaction, or latency period. Concerning carcinogens, asbestos/silica/wood dust, soot/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [benzo(a) pyrene], heavy metals (arsenic, chromium, nickel), aromatic amines (4-aminobiphenyl, benzidine), organic solvents (benzene or vinyl chloride), radiation/radon, or indoor pollutants (formaldehyde, tobacco smoking) are mentioned with their specific cancers, e.g., lung, skin, and bladder cancers, mesothelioma or leukemia, and exposure routes, rubber or pigment manufacturing, textile, painting, insulation, mining, and so on. In addition, nanoparticles, electromagnetic waves, and climate changes are suspected as future carcinogenic sources. Moreover, the aspects of environmental and occupational cancers are quite different between developing and developed countries. The recent follow-up of occupational cancers in Nordic countries shows a good example for developed countries. On the other hand, newly industrializing countries face an increased burden of occupational and environmental cancers. Developing countries are particularly suffering from preventable cancers in mining, agriculture, or industries without proper implication of safety regulations. Therefore, industrialized countries are expected to educate and provide support for developing countries. In addition, citizens can encounter new environmental and occupational carcinogen nominators such as nanomaterials, electromagnetic wave, and climate exchanges. As their carcinogenicity or involvement in carcinogenesis is not clearly unknown, proper consideration for them should be taken into account. For these purposes, new

  18. Occupational Asthma in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-01-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is the leading occupational respiratory disease. Cases compensated as OA by the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL) (218 cases), cases reported by a surveillance system (286 cases), case reports by related scientific journals and cases confirmed by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI) over 15 yr from 1992 to 2006 were analyzed. Annual mean incidence rate was 1.6 by compensation and 3.5 by surveillance system, respectively. The trend appeared to increase according to the surveillance system. Incidence was very low compared with other countries. The most frequently reported causative agent was isocyanate followed by reactive dye in dyeing factories. Other chemicals, metals and dust were also found as causative agents. OA was underreported according to compensation and surveillance system data. In conclusion, a more effective surveillance system is needed to evaluate OA causes and distribution, and to effectively prevent newly developing OA. PMID:21258586

  19. CT gas lift captures last of field reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, T.B.; Miller, J.; Woodell, M.E.; Johnson, H.

    1996-06-01

    Texaco Exploration and Production Inc.`s (TEPI) Brookeland Field in Newton County, Texas, produces from 30, mostly dual-horizontal, wells in the Austin Chalk reservoir. The wells are typically drilled vertically and casing is set to the top of the Austin Chalk at about 10,000 ft. Building at 15{degree}/100 ft, 4,000-ft laterals are drilled to the northwest and southeast to intersect the natural fractures of the Austin Chalk. The horizontal sections of the wellbore are openhole completions that average 700 b/d of oil and 5 MMcfd of gas. Within 1 year of initial production, the wells require compression to sustain flow and conventional gas lift is used when the wells load up with fluid. Typically, when production declines to 200 Mcfd and 100 b/d of fluid, the gas lift injection point is at 8,000 ft and average gas lift usage is 500 Mcfd. Coiled tubing-conveyed artificial lift was suggested, but first other concerns had to be addressed. The long, horizontal lateral sections functioned as a natural gas and fluid separator, resulting in a distinct slug flow pattern. During a 24-hour period, slug flow caused the wells to produce 100% gas or 100% fluid. For cost reasons TEPI chose conventional, field-installed coiled tubing (CT) gas lift equipment over spoolable equipment. Texaco then formed a team alliance with McMurry-Macco Lift Systems and Dowell to evaluate and complete trial wells with coiled tubing gas lift equipment. This paper reviews the case history of the field, the design considerations of the coiled tubing gas lift, and the surface support equipment used.

  20. NASA safety standard for lifting devices and equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's minimum safety requirements are established for the design, testing, inspection, maintenance, certification, and use of overhead and gantry cranes (including top running monorail, underhung, and jib cranes), mobile cranes, derrick hoists, and special hoist supported personnel lifting devices (these do not include elevators, ground supported personnel lifts, or powered platforms). Minimum requirements are also addressed for the testing, inspection, and use of Hydra-sets, hooks, and slings. Safety standards are thoroughly detailed.

  1. NASA safety standard for lifting devices and equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-09-01

    NASA's minimum safety requirements are established for the design, testing, inspection, maintenance, certification, and use of overhead and gantry cranes (including top running monorail, underhung, and jib cranes), mobile cranes, derrick hoists, and special hoist supported personnel lifting devices (these do not include elevators, ground supported personnel lifts, or powered platforms). Minimum requirements are also addressed for the testing, inspection, and use of Hydra-sets, hooks, and slings. Safety standards are thoroughly detailed.

  2. Generalizing Lifted Tensor-Product Wavelets to Irregular Polygonal Domains

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram, M.; Duchaineau, M.A.; Hamann, B.; Joy, K.I.

    2002-04-11

    We present a new construction approach for symmetric lifted B-spline wavelets on irregular polygonal control meshes defining two-manifold topologies. Polygonal control meshes are recursively refined by stationary subdivision rules and converge to piecewise polynomial limit surfaces. At every subdivision level, our wavelet transforms provide an efficient way to add geometric details that are expanded from wavelet coefficients. Both wavelet decomposition and reconstruction operations are based on local lifting steps and have linear-time complexity.

  3. Lift augmentation via spanwise tip blowing - A numerical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    Numerical simulations of a low aspect ratio wing with and without a spanwise directed jet issuing from the wing tip have been performed. The results show that the tip vortex is displaced outward and upward by the blowing. This gives rise to a local lift augmentation mechanism, vortex lift caused by the vortex core being above the wing, and a global mechanism, the reduction of induced velocities due to greater apparent spin.

  4. Lift and Drag Performance of Odontocete Cetacean Flippers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Cooper et al., 2008). The cross-section of a typical flipper is similar to that of a modern engineered air/ hydrofoil (Fish, 2004; Miklosovic et al., 2004...to modern engineered hydrofoils , which have hydrodynamic properties such as lift coefficient, drag coefficient and associated efficiency. Field...study are differentiated by whether or not their lift curves are linear. An engineered hydrofoil with linear behavior in the non-stall region was also

  5. Moving base simulation of an ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, William W. Y.; Borchers, Paul F.; Franklin, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Using a generalized simulation model, a moving-base simulation of a lift-fan short takeoff/vertical landing fighter aircraft was conducted on the Vertical Motion Simulator at Ames Research Center. Objectives of the experiment were to (1) assess the effects of lift-fan propulsion system design features on aircraft control during transition and vertical flight including integration of lift fan/lift/cruise engine/aerodynamic controls and lift fan/lift/cruise engine dynamic response, (2) evaluate pilot-vehicle interface with the control system and head-up display including control modes for low-speed operational tasks and control mode/display integration, and (3) conduct operational evaluations of this configuration during takeoff, transition, and landing similar to those carried out previously by the Ames team for the mixed-flow, vectored thrust, and augmentor-ejector concepts. Based on results of the simulation, preliminary assessments of acceptable and borderline lift-fan and lift/cruise engine thrust response characteristics were obtained. Maximum pitch, roll, and yaw control power used during transition, hover, and vertical landing were documented. Control and display mode options were assessed for their compatibility with a range of land-based and shipboard operations from takeoff to cruise through transition back to hover and vertical landing. Flying qualities were established for candidate control modes and displays for instrument approaches and vertical landings aboard an LPH assault ship and DD-963 destroyer. Test pilot and engineer teams from the Naval Air Warfare Center, Boeing, Lockheed, McDonnell Douglas, and the British Defence Research Agency participated in the program.

  6. Atlantis is lifted from its transporter in the VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- In the Vehicle Assembly Building, the orbiter Atlantis is being lifted from a transporter after rolling over from Orbiter Processing Facility bay 3. The orbiter will be raised to a vertical position, rotated and lifted into high bay 1, and stacked with its external tank and solid rocket boosters. Space Shuttle Atlantis is scheduled to launch on mission STS-104 in early July.

  7. Noise of fan designed to reduce stator lift fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Woodward, R. P.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1977-01-01

    An existing fan stage was redesigned to reduce stator lift fluctuations and was acoustically tested at three nozzle sizes for reduced noise generation. The lift fluctuations on the stator were reduced by increasing the stator cord, adjusting incidence angles, and adjusting the rotor velocity diagrams. Broadband noise levels were signficantly reduced in the middle to high frequencies. Blade passage tone sound power was not lessened, but decreases in the harmonics were observed. Aerodynamic improvements in both performance and efficiency were obtained.

  8. Occupational lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Coultas, D.B.; Samet, J.M. )

    1992-06-01

    The overall importance of occupational agents as a cause of lung cancer has been a controversial subject since the 1970s. A federal report, released in the late 1970s, projected a surprisingly high burden of occupational lung cancer; for asbestos and four other agents, from 61,000 to 98,000 cases annually were attributed to these agents alone. Many estimates followed, some much more conservative. For example, Doll and Peto estimated that 15% of lung cancer in men and 5% in women could be attributed to occupational exposures. A number of population-based case-control studies also provide relevant estimates. In a recent literature review, Vineis and Simonato cited attributable risk estimates for occupation and lung cancer that ranged from 4% to 40%; for asbestos alone, the estimates ranged from 1% to 5%. These estimates would be expected to vary across locations and over time. Nevertheless, these recent estimates indicate that occupation remains an important cause of lung cancer. Approaches to Prevention. Prevention of lung cancer mortality among workers exposed to agents or industrial processes that cause lung cancer may involve several strategies, including eliminating or reducing exposures, smoking cessation, screening, and chemo-prevention. For example, changes in industrial processes that have eliminated or reduced exposures to chloromethyl ethers and nickel compounds have provided evidence of reduced risk of lung cancer following these changes. Although occupational exposures are important causes of lung cancer, cigarette smoking is the most important preventable cause of lung cancer. For adults, the work site offers an important location to target smoking cessation efforts. In fact, the work site may be the only place to reach many smokers.

  9. Profound Impacts of AN Arctic Face Lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghiem, Son

    Son Nghiem, son.v.nghiem@jpl.nasa.gov Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, United States The ice cover on the Arctic Ocean has undergone a face lift that removes much of the older and thicker perennial ice and replaces it with the younger and thinner seasonal ice. Although the sea ice cover is a thin skin compared to the depth of the Arctic Ocean, this face lift exerts profound change in the Arctic environment. Here, we present scatterometer remote sensing of Arctic sea ice change and its implication on chemical processes from the ice surface to the troposphere extending into the internal continental land. In the context of a half century change, the extent of perennial ice declines at rate of 0.5 million km2 per decade in the 1970s-1990s while there is no discernable trend in the 1950s-1960s. Abruptly, the rate of decrease has tripled to 1.5 million km2 per decade in the 2000s. A record was set in the reduction of Arctic perennial ice extent in winter 2008. By 1 March 2008, perennial ice extent was reduced by one million km2 compared to that at the same time in 2007. On 1 May 2009, perennial ice extent was reduced to 2.1 million km2 , which is a virtual tie to 2.2 million km2 of perennial ice extent on 1 May 2008 given the uncertainty of ±0.2 million km2 . Although the extent of perennial ice extent is similar, its distribution is quite different, with a significant perennial ice pack in the Beaufort Sea in 2008, and in contrast a large expanse of perennial ice along the Transpolar Drift Stream in 2009. The continuing drastic reduction of perennial ice significantly decreases the overall surface albedo, resulting in enhanced solar heat absorption in spring and summer, which further decreases the Arctic ice pack through the ice-albedo feedback mechanism and ice melt from the underside due to oceanic thermodynamic interactions. Satellite maps of sea ice class distribution show the closely conformation with patterns of

  10. Insulation-Testing Cryostat With Lifting Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James; Dokos, Adam; Scholtens, Brekke; Nagy, Zoltan; Augustynowicz, Stanislaw

    2010-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of an apparatus for testing thermal-insulation materials for cryogenic systems at temperatures and under vacuum or atmospheric conditions representative of those encountered in use. This apparatus, called "Cryostat-100," is based on the established cryogen-boil-off calorimeter method, according to which the amount of heat that passes through an insulation specimen to a cryogenic fluid in a container, and thus the effective thermal conductance of the specimen, is taken to be proportional to the amount of the cryogenic fluid that boils off from the container. The design of Cryostat-100 is based partly on, and incorporates improvements over, the design of a similar prior apparatus called "Cryostat-1" described in "Improved Methods of Testing Cryogenic Insulation Materials" (KSC-12107 & KSC- 12108), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 24, No. 12 (December 2000), page 46. The design of Cryostat-100 also incorporates the best features of two other similar prior apparatuses called "Cryostat-2" (also described in the cited prior article) and "Cryostat- 4." Notable among the improvements in Cryostat-100 is the addition of a lifting mechanism that enables safe, rapid, reliable insertion and removal of insulation specimens and facilitates maintenance operations that involve lifting. As in Cryostat-1, the cold mass is a vertical stainless-steel cylindrical vessel subdivided into a larger measurement vessel with smaller thermal-guard vessels at both ends. During operation, all three vessels are kept filled with liquid nitrogen near saturation at ambient pressure (temperature .77.4 K). The cold mass of Cryostat-100 has a length of 1 m and diameter of 168 mm. Each specimen has a corresponding nominal length and inner diameter and a nominal thickness of 25.4 mm. Specimens that are shorter and have thicknesses between 0 and 50 mm are also acceptable. Bulk-fill, foam, clam-shell, multilayer insulation, and layered materials can be tested over a very wide range

  11. Biomechanical simulation of manual lifting using spacetime optimization.

    PubMed

    Chang, C C; Brown, D R; Bloswick, D S; Hsiang, S M

    2001-04-01

    Previous optimization techniques for the prediction of lifting motion patterns often require a change in either the number of variables or the order of the mathematical functions used to express the angular displacement of selected joints in response to change in variant conditions. The resolution of predicted results can also be seriously constrained by the number of variables used. These restrictions may often limit the applicability of these methodologies. In this paper, we proposed a new methodology for generating the optimum motion patterns for para-sagittal lifting tasks. A detailed description of this methodology is introduced. An example of an analysis using this methodology is presented. The computer program generated lifting motion patterns with a reduction of the overall objective function values. The actual versus predicted lifting motion patterns are compared. Using this method, constraints can be added anywhere within the lifting cycle without the need of rewriting the whole program. These features provide for a more flexible and efficient prediction of the lifting motion.

  12. Maximum isometric lifting strengths of men in teamwork.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2004-01-01

    This study reexamined the additivity of maximum isometric teamwork lifting strength using experienced and height-matched young male participants. The maximum isometric lifting strength was measured for four exertion heights (45, 75, 105, and 140 cm) and four lifting styles (one-, two, three-, and four-person exertions). The results showed that actual teamwork strength could be greater or lower than the sum of individual strengths. If it was greater, the difference between the two could be either significant or nonsignificant, but if it was lower, there was no significant difference between the two. Actual teamwork strength ranged from 90.0% to 134.8% of the sum of individual strengths, indicating that experienced and height-matched participants could overcome the problem of lack of coordination in isometric teamwork lifting. The results also showed that some teamwork members, especially weaker members, might be forced to exert strengths higher than their maximum individual voluntary strengths in teamwork lifting. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, it is recommended that the weight of the handled load be controlled and lower than the sum of all members' strengths. Additionally, members with significantly different strength abilities should not be assigned to the same team. Actual or potential applications of this research include designing member assignments in teamwork lifting tasks.

  13. Ergonomic Assessment of Floor-based and Overhead Lifts

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas R.; Dick, Robert; Lowe, Brian; Werren, Dwight; Parsons, Kelley

    2015-01-01

    Manual full-body vertical lifts of patients have high risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders. Two primary types of battery-powered lift assist devices are available for these tasks: floor-based and overhead-mounted devices. Studies suggest that the operation of floor-based devices may require excessive pushing and pulling forces and that overhead-mounted devices are safer and require lower operating forces. This study evaluated required operating hand forces and resulting biomechanical spinal loading for overhead-mounted lifts versus floor-based lifts across various floor surfaces and patient weight conditions. We did not examine differences in how operators performed the tasks, but rather focused on differences in required operating forces and estimated biomechanical loads across various exposure conditions for a typical operator. Findings show that the floor-based lifts exceeded recommended exposure limits for pushing and pulling for many of the floor/weight conditions and that the overhead-mounted lifts did not. As expected, forces and spinal loads were greater for nonlinoleum floor surfaces compared with linoleum floors. Based on these findings, it is suggested that overhead-mounted devices be used whenever possible, particularly in instances where carpeted floors would be encountered. PMID:26550545

  14. High-lift calculations using Navier-Stokes methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Torbjoern

    Wing sections on an aircraft are designed for optimal cruise performance, whereas during the take-off and landing phase totally different lift-to-drag characteristics are needed. High lift and low drag is essential while taking off, on the other hand high lift and high drag is favorable when landing. The design and shaping of the high-lift system can have a major influence on the overall economy and safety of the aircraft. In a historical perspective experimental investigations have been the only way to gain any deeper knowledge of the performance of a given wing-flap configuration. Today, computational methods for high-lift systems based on the viscid-inviscid interaction approach with integral methods for boundary layers and wakes are quite common. Although fast solutions can be obtained with these methods it is highly desirable to have a numerical method that captures the flow physics in a more detailed and adequate way. The present wotk demonstrates that Navier-Stokes methods can be used with good results for simulating high-lift flow fields, but also points to the area where further research is needed.

  15. Classification of similar medical images in the lifting domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallee, Chad W.; Tashakkori, Rahman

    2002-03-01

    In this paper lifting is used for similarity analysis and classification of sets of similar medical images. The lifting scheme is an invertible wavelet transform that maps integers to integers. Lifting provides efficient in-place calculation of transfer coefficients and is widely used for analysis of similar image sets. Images of a similar set show high degrees of correlation with one another. The inter-set redundancy can be exploited for the purposes of prediction, compression, feature extraction, and classification. This research intends to show that there is a higher degree of correlation between images of a similar set in the lifting domain than in the pixel domain. Such a high correlation will result in more accurate classification and prediction of images in a similar set. Several lifting schemes from Calderbank-Daubechies-Fauveue's family were used in this research. The research shows that some of these lifting schemes decorrelates the images of similar sets more effectively than others. The research presents the statistical analysis of the data in scatter plots and regression models.

  16. Comparison of Infant Car Seat grip orientations and lift strategies.

    PubMed

    Clamann, Michael; Zhu, Biwen; Beaver, Leah; Taylor, Kinley; Kaber, David

    2012-07-01

    The rear-facing Infant Car Seat (ICS) is designed to meet federal requirements for transporting children less than 1 year old. Typical use includes transfer in and out of a vehicle, which is shown to be a difficult lift. Despite the frequency of this lift, manufacturers provide little guidance for users. Review of relevant literature suggested an ICS featuring an angled handle, promoting a neutral wrist posture, would increase grip stability and decrease lifting effort. Popular press suggested a foot-in-car stance for the ICS lift would do the same. An experiment was conducted in which wrist deviations from neutral posture were recorded along with lifting muscle activation levels (multiple flexor muscles and biceps brachii) and overall perceived exertion for straight versus a new bent handle design and conventional stance versus foot-in-car. Foot position was examined to test the recommendations in the popular press. Surprisingly, wrist deviation was not significantly affected by the new bent handle design (due to compensatory behavior with the straight handle) but was related to foot placement (p=0.04). Results revealed the bent handle to significantly reduce flexor activation compared with the straight handle (p=0.0003); however, the level of biceps activation increased. Biceps activation also significantly increased for foot-in-car stance (p=0.035) but not flexor activation. In general, the bent handle enabled the user to lift the ICS with a steadier grip and less effort.

  17. Allergy and Occupation

    PubMed Central

    Lees, R. E. M.

    1982-01-01

    The skin and the respiratory tract are susceptible to sensitization by a wide range of substances encountered in the occupational environment. The responses of these two anatomical sites are discussed with particular attention to late and dual asthmatic reactions, which may cause diagnostic problems for the unwary. There are few data on the incidence and prevalence of occupational allergic reactions, but some estimated frequencies are given. Tables list the major industrial skin and respiratory sensitizing agents. The importance of a detailed history is stressed, as is the role of the family physician in identifying and documenting agents capable of sensitizing exposed workers. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:21286199

  18. Occupational Sleep Medicine.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Philip; Drake, Christopher

    2016-03-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms significantly impact almost all aspects of human behavior and are therefore relevant to occupational sleep medicine, which is focused predominantly around workplace productivity, safety, and health. In this article, 5 main factors that influence occupational functioning are reviewed: (1) sleep deprivation, (2) disordered sleep, (3) circadian rhythms, (4) common medical illnesses that affect sleep and sleepiness, and (5) medications that affect sleep and sleepiness. Consequences of disturbed sleep and sleepiness are also reviewed, including cognitive, emotional, and psychomotor functioning and drowsy driving.

  19. 49 CFR 571.404 - Standard No. 404; Platform lift installations in motor vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... platform lifts used to assist persons with limited mobility in entering or leaving a vehicle. S2. Purpose..., Lift Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.2Lift-equipped motor vehicles, other than ones... Systems for Motor Vehicles (49 CFR 571.403). S4.1.3Platform lifts must be installed in the vehicle...

  20. 78 FR 79599 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Wing Lift Struts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ... 99-01-05 R1] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Wing Lift Struts... aircraft equipped with wing lift struts. The list of affected airplanes in the Applicability section is... wing lift struts for corrosion; repetitively inspecting the wing lift strut forks for cracks;...